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Sample records for ecotype indigenous chickens

  1. Microsatellite based genetic diversity study in indigenous chicken ecotypes of Karnataka

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    B. H. Rudresh

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Aim: The current study was the first of its kind taken upon indigenous ecotypes of the Karnataka in order to unravel the diversity details at 20 chicken microsatellite regions. Materials and Methods: 210 indigenous chicken belonging to six districts of Bangalore and Mysore division formed the target sample for the present study. The genomic deoxyribonucleic acid was isolated by phenol chloroform isoamyl alcohol method. A panel of 20 microsatellite regions, including 14 recommended by FAO and six identified from published scientific literature became the targeted chicken genomic region. 27-33 samples were successfully genotyped in each of the six ecotypes through simplex or multiplex polymerase chain reactions, polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis and silver staining for the selected microsatellite panel. Results: The chickens of Ramanagara and Chamrajnagara were most distant with a Nei’s genetic distance value of 0.22. The chickens of Bangalore rural and Mysore were least distant with a value of 0.056. The Ramanagara and Chamrajnagara pair had Nei’s genetic identity value of 0.802, which is least among all pairs of ecotypes. There were five main nodes from which the six ecotypes evolved on the basis 20 microsatellite markers used in this study. This study indicates that the four ecotypes Ramnagara, Bangalore Rural, Chickaballapura and Mysore are genetically identical due to their common ancestral evolution while, Mandya and Chamrajnagara ecotypes formed a relatively different cluster due to a separate common ancestral chicken population and less number of generations since drifting from bifurcation node. Conclusion: Twenty microsatellite markers based genetic diversity study on six indigenous ecotypes indicated lower genetic distances as well as lower FST values compared to the distinguished breeds reported. There were two main clusters, which differentiated into six ecotypes. They may differentiate into more distinct varieties if bred in

  2. Genetic and nutrition development of indigenous chicken in Africa

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Khobondo, J O; Muasya, T K; Miyumo, S

    2015-01-01

    This review gives insights into genetic and feeding regime development for indigenous chicken genetic resources. We highlight and combine confirming evidence of genetic diversity and variability using morphological and molecular techniques. We further discuss previous past and current genetic...... requirement for indigenous chicken and report nutritive contents of various local feedstuffs under various production systems. Various conservation strategies for sustainable utilization are hereby reviewed...

  3. Verification of specific selection SNPs between broiler and layer chicken in Chinese indigenous chicken breeds.

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    Lan, D; Hu, Y D; Zhu, Q; Li, D Y; Liu, Y P

    2015-01-01

    The direction of production for indigenous chicken breeds is currently unknown and this knowledge, combined with the development of chicken genome-wide association studies, led us to investigate differences in specific loci between broiler and layer chicken using bioinformatic methods. In addition, we analyzed the distribution of these seven identified loci in four Chinese indigenous chicken breeds, Caoke chicken, Jiuyuan chicken, Sichuan mountain chicken, and Tibetan chicken, using DNA direct sequencing methods, and analyzed the data using bioinformatic methods. Based on the results, we suggest that Caoke chicken could be developed for meat production, while Jiuyuan chicken could be developed for egg production. As Sichuan mountain chicken and Tibetan chicken exhibited large polymorphisms, these breeds could be improved by changing their living environment.

  4. Serological Screening for MHC (B)-Polymorphism in Indigenous Chickens

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Baelmans, R.; Parmentier, H.K.; Nieuwland, M.G.B.; Dorny, P.; Demey, F.

    2005-01-01

    As part of a series of studies to characterize innate and specific immune responses of indigenous chicken lines, birds from Bolivia and India were screened serologically for MHC class IV (BG) polymorphism by direct haemagglutination using haplotype-specific antisera (B2, B4, B12, B13, B14, B15, B19,

  5. Characterization of indigenous chicken production systems in Kenya.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okeno, Tobias O; Kahi, Alexander K; Peters, Kurt J

    2012-03-01

    Indigenous chicken (IC) and their production systems were characterized to understand how the whole system operates for purposes of identifying threats and opportunities for holistic improvement. A survey involving 594 households was conducted in six counties with the highest population of IC in Kenya using structured questionnaires. Data on IC farmers' management practices were collected and analysed and inbreeding levels calculated based on the effective population size. Indigenous chicken were ranked highest as a source of livestock income by households in medium- to high-potential agricultural areas, but trailed goats in arid and semi-arid areas. The production system practised was mainly low-input and small-scale free range, with mean flock size of 22.40 chickens per household. The mean effective population size was 16.02, translating to high levels of inbreeding (3.12%). Provision for food and cash income were the main reasons for raising IC, whilst high mortality due to diseases, poor nutrition, housing and marketing channels were the major constraints faced by farmers. Management strategies targeting improved healthcare, nutrition and housing require urgent mitigation measures, whilst rural access road network needs to be developed for ease of market accessibility. Sustainable genetic improvement programmes that account for farmers' multiple objectives, market requirements and the production circumstances should be developed for a full realization of IC productivity.

  6. Proteome Changes in Thai Indigenous Chicken Muscle during Growth Period

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    Tawatchai Teltathum, Supamit Mekchay

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Proteomic profiling of the pectoralis muscle of Thai indigenous chickens during growth period was analyzed using two-dimensional gel electrophoresis (2-DE and matrix assisted laser desorption ionization time of flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF/MS. A total of 259, 161, 120 and 107 protein spots were found to be expressed in the chicken pectoralis muscles at 0, 3, 6 and 18 weeks of age, respectively. From these expressed proteins, five distinct protein spots were significantly associated with chicken age. These protein spots were characterized and showed homology with phosphoglycerate mutase 1 (PGAM1, apolipoprotein A1 (APOA1, triosephosphate isomerase 1 (TPI1, heat shock protein 25 kDa (HSP25 and fatty acid binding protein 3 (FABP3. These five protein spots were categorized as follows: (i the expression levels of PGAM1 and TPI1 proteins were positively correlated with chicken aging (p<0.05, (ii the expression levels of APOA1 and FABP3 proteins were negatively correlated with chicken aging (p<0.05 and (iii the expression levels of the HSP25 protein were up- and down-regulated during growth period. Moreover, the mRNA expression levels of the FABP3 and HSP25 genes were significantly decreased in muscle during the growth period (p<0.05, whereas no significant changes of the PGAM1, TPI1 and APOA1 gene expression from the chicken muscle was observed. The identified proteins were classified as metabolic and stress proteins. This demonstrates a difference in energy metabolism and stress proteins between age groups and shows that proteomics is a useful tool to uncover the molecular basis of physiological differences in muscle during the growth period.

  7. A Comparative Study of Growth Performance and Feed Efficiency in Dominant Black Strain, Fulani Ecotype Chicken and Progeny from their Reciprocal Crosses

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    Sola-Ojo, F. E.

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available A study of the relative performance of a local chicken (Fulani Ecotype or FExFE, an exotic chicken (Dominant Black or DBxDB, and their reciprocal crosses (DBxFE and FExDB was undertaken. A total of three hundred and thirty (330 chickens comprising 100 DBxDB, 80 DBxFE, 80 FExDB and 70 FExFE were studied. All animals were raised from day old to 21 weeks age contemporaneously under identical housing, feeding and management procedures during which growth parameters were measured. Significant (p DBxFE 1346.80±3.05 > DBxDB 1314.40±3.61 over the 21 week experimental period. FExFE had significantly (p FExFE 67.50±0.02 over the same period. Low mortality (≤ 2% occurred across genotypes with FExFE having the least mortality. The results indicated that reciprocal crossing of pure local Fulani Ecotype with exotic Dominant Black strain produces chickens with indistinguishable Feed Efficiency from the highly improved Dominant Black, and superior to the pure Fulani. Cross breeding of the type reported here may therefore serve as a tool for improving efficiency of Fulani Ecotype local poultry whilst retaining elements of their valued characteristics which include meat value. Further studies will evaluate the hybrids (F1 of FE and DB for retention of desirable characteristics of local breeds.

  8. Influence of socioeconomic factors on production constraints faced by indigenous chicken producers in South Africa.

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    Mtileni, Bohani Joseph; Muchadeyi, Farai C; Maiwashe, Azwihangwisi; Chimonyo, Michael; Mapiye, Cletos; Dzama, Kennedy

    2013-01-01

    Individual interviews were conducted in 137 households using semi-structured questionnaires to determine the influence of socioeconomic factors on production constraints faced by indigenous chicken producers in the rural areas of South Africa. The major constraints to village chicken production were mortality (95 % of the households) followed by feed shortage (85 %) and low chicken sales (72 %). The logistic regression model showed that households that owned imported/crossbred chickens practiced extensive production system without housing structures and did not have vaccines were more likely to experience high levels of chicken mortality. Poor and youth-headed households with no supplements and vaccines had high probability of Newcastle disease. The probability of a household to experience chicken feed shortage was lower in households that owned indigenous chickens than those that owned imported/crossbred chickens (odds ratio, 11.68; 95 % confidence interval, 1.19-27.44). Youth-headed households that had small flocks and no access to veterinary services were not likely to sell chickens. It was concluded that gender, age, wealth status, production system, chicken flock size, type of chicken breed owned, accessibility of veterinary services, availability of supplements, vaccines and shelter influence village chicken farmer's production constraints such as feed availability, chicken mortality, prevalence of diseases and chicken sales.

  9. Analysis of genetic structure and relationship among nine indigenous Chinese chicken populations by the Structure program

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    H. F. Li; W. Han; Y. F. Zhu; J. T. Shu; X. Y. Zhang; K. W. Chen

    2009-08-01

    The multi-locus model-based clustering method Structure program was used to infer the genetic structure of nine indigenous Chinese chicken (Gallus gallus) populations based on 16 microsatellite markers. Twenty runs were carried out at each chosen value of predefined cluster numbers $(K)$ under admixture model. The Structure program properly inferred the presence of genetic structure with 0.999 probabilities. The genetic structure not only indicated that the nine kinds of chicken populations were defined actually by their locations, phenotypes or culture, but also reflected the underlying genetic variations. At $K = 2$, nine chicken populations were divided into two main clusters, one light-body type, including Chahua chicken (CHA), Tibet chicken (TIB), Xianju chicken (XIA), Gushi chicken (GUS) and Baier chicken (BAI); and the other heavy-body type, including Beijing You chicken (YOU), Xiaoshan chicken (XIA), Luyuan chicken (LUY) and Dagu chicken (DAG). GUS and DAG were divided into independent clusters respectively when equaled 4, 5, or 6. XIA and BIA chicken, XIA and LUY chicken, TIB and CHA chicken still clustered together when equaled 6, 7, and 8, respectively. These clustering results were consistent with the breeding directions of the nine chicken populations. The Structure program also identified migrants or admixed individuals. The admixed individuals were distributed in all the nine chicken populations, while migrants were only distributed in TIB, XIA and LUY populations. These results indicated that the clustering analysis using the Structure program might provide an accurate representation of the genetic relationship among the breeds.

  10. Evaluation of genetic diversity in Chinese indigenous chicken breeds using microsatellite markers

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    QU Lujiang; YANG Ning; LI Xianyao; XU Guifang; CHEN Kuanwei; YANG Hongjie; ZHANG Longchao; WU Guiqin; HOU Zhuocheng; XU Guiyun

    2006-01-01

    China is rich in chicken genetic resources, and many indigenous breeds can be found throughout the country. Due to poor productive ability, some of them are threatened by the commercial varieties from domestic and foreign breeding companies. In a large-scale investigation into the current status of Chinese poultry genetic resources, 78 indigenous chicken breeds were surveyed and their blood samples collected. The genomes of these chickens were screened using microsatellite analysis. A total of 2740 individuals were genotyped for 27 microsatellite markers on 13 chromosomes. The number of alleles of the 27 markers ranged from 6 to 51 per locus with a mean of 18.74. Heterozygosity (H) values of the 78 chicken breeds were all more than 0.5. The average H value (0.622) and polymorphism information content (PIC, 0.573) of these breeds suggested that the Chinese indigenous chickens possessed more genetic diversity than that reported in many other countries. The fixation coefficients of subpopulations within the total population (FST) for the 27 loci varied from 0.065 (LEI0166) to 0.209 (MCW0078), with a mean of 0.106. For all detected microsatellite loci, only one (LEI0194) deviated from Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium (HWE) across all the populations. As genetic drift or non-random mating can occur in small populations, breeds kept on conservation farms such as Langshan chicken generally had lower H values, while those kept on large populations within conservation regions possessed higher polymorphisms. The high genetic diversity in Chinese indigenous breeds is in agreement with great phenotypic variation of these breeds. Using Nei's genetic distance and the Neighbor-Joining method, the indigenous Chinese chickens were classified into six categories that were generally consistent with their geographic distributions. The molecular information of genetic diversity will play an important role in conservation, supervision, and utilization of the chicken resources.

  11. Management practices and challenges in smallholder indigenous chicken production in Western Kenya

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    Ochieng Justus

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available The potential benefit of indigenous chicken (Gallus domesticus production is still under-exploited in Kenya despite the efforts by different stakeholders to mainstream this production system as a pathway to rural development. The production system is often characterized by low input-low output productivity and low commercialization of the enterprise. This study which dwells on the current management practices and challenges faced by smallholder indigenous chicken farmers was conducted to gain insights into the underlying causes of production constraints. In Western Kenya women (76% dominate the indigenous chicken production system. The flock composition consists mainly of chicks, hens and pullets (80% which reflects their retention for production purposes. Less than half of the farmers access institutional support services such as extension, training, credit and veterinary services. In addition, indigenous chicken is largely reared in a low input-low output free-range system with only few farmers (24.2% adopting management interventions as disseminated by extension service. To improve production and attain increased productivity, policy should focus on repackaging extension messages that considers farmers economic situations and strengthens collective action initiatives. Accessing joint input purchase and collective marketing of chicken products may further assist the farmers to increase profit margins.

  12. Occurrence of Co-Infection of Helicobacter pullorum and Campylobacter spp. in Broiler and Village (Indigenous Chickens

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    Soe Soe Wai, A. A. Saleha*, Z. Zunita, L. Hassan and A. Jalila

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available The reports on prevalence of Helicobacter pullorum in broiler chickens are rather limited and lacking in village chickens. This study aimed to determine the occurrence of H. pullorum in broiler and village chickens in Selangor, Malaysia and to report the detection of co-infection of H. pullorum and Campylobacter spp. in these chickens. Village (indigenous chickens were sampled in five markets and broiler chickens from six farms in different localities. Cecal contents were aseptically obtained from the chickens and subjected to three cultural methods. The isolates were identified by biochemical tests and confirmed using a species-specific PCR assay. Helicobacter pullorum were isolated from 25% village chickens and 24.6% broiler chickens, with an overall occurrence of 24.7%. Eleven (50% of these positive chickens (nine in broiler and two in village chickens showed co-infection with Campylobacter spp.

  13. Comparative study of growth traits and haematological parameters of Anak and Nigerian heavy ecotype chickens fed with graded levels of mango seed kernel (Mangifera indica) meal.

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    Mbunwen, Ndofor-Foleng Harriet; Ngongeh, Lucas Atehmengo; Okolie, Peter Nzeribe; Okoli, Emeka Linus

    2015-08-01

    One hundred fifty Anak and 120 Nigerian heavy local ecotype (NHLE) chickens were used to study the effects of feeding graded levels of mango seed kernel meal (MKM) replacing maize diet on growth traits and haematological parameters. A 2 × 5 factorial arrangement was employed: two breeds and five diets. The birds were randomly allocated to five finisher diets formulated such that MKM replaced maize at 0, 10, 20, 30 and 40% (T1, T2, T3, T4 and T5) inclusion levels, respectively. The effect of breed and dietary treatments on growth performance and blood characteristics were determined. The results showed a significant (P  0.05) when the breeds and treatments were compared. It was concluded that inclusion of dietary MKM below 30% could replace maize in the diets of Anak and NHLE growing chickens without adverse effect on growth performance and blood constituents. This work suggests that genetic differences exist in growth traits of these breeds of chickens. This advantage could be useful in breed improvement programmes and better feeding managements of the NHLE and Anak chickens.

  14. The past, present and future genetic improvement of indigenous chicken of Kenya

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Khobondo, J O; Okeno, Tobias O; Lihare, G O;

    2014-01-01

    breeds with the local indigenous chicken. This scheme was complimented with farmer training on good management practices and vaccination for disease control. The scheme was partially successful with improved performance in the crossbreds that declined with subsequent generations. Failure of the programme...... on production traits, determined heritability estimate on growth. Current and ongoing research is focused on molecular characterization, selection for improved immune response, carcass quality, eggs production, growth and adaptation traits. The research is also concerned with conservation of these genetic...

  15. A survey of ectoparasites, cestodes and management of free-range indigenous chickens in rural Zimbabwe

    OpenAIRE

    S. Mukaratirwa; T. Hove

    2009-01-01

    A survey of ectoparasites, cestodes and husbandry aspects of indigenous free-range chickens was carried out in selected districts from the highveld and lowveld of rural Zimbabwe. The survey recorded infection with 4 species from the order Phthiraptera (lice), 1 species from the order Siphonaptera (fleas), 6 species from the order Acarina (ticks and mites) and 9 species of cestodes. Among the ectoparasites, the most prevalent was Menacanthus stramineus (87.7 %) followed by Echidinophaga gallin...

  16. Cushioning women against gender inequality through promoting indigenous chicken production in sub Saharan Africa

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    Never Assan

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Poultry sub sector is a privileged entry point for promoting gender equality. Gender inequalities in poultry and livestock activities are now more and more acknowledged by governments, scientists, and farmers in sub Saharan Africa. This is on the background that gender inequality has translated into loss of opportunities or potential gains on agricultural production and food security. This has been exacerbated by the fact that the progress in empowering women in agriculture and reducing gender inequality has been slow despite this realization. The paper presents an overview of the development of the indigenous chickens sector in sub Saharan Africa and its implication on addressing gender equality. The assumption is that despite the multitude of socio-economic constraints faced by women in agriculture they are capable of raising indigenous chickens for the welfare of their households, hence promoting indigenous chickens  can give women a chance to control more income, reducing gender inequality. Achieving gender equality and women’s empowerment is critical to the success of these development goals.

  17. Importance of Indigenous Breeds of Chicken for Rural Economy and Their Improvements for Higher Production Performance

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    Mahendra Kumar Padhi

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Indigenous/native breeds of chickens are playing an important role in rural economies in most of the developing and underdeveloped countries. They play a major role for the rural poor and marginalised section of the people with respect to their subsidiary income and also provide them with nutritious chicken egg and meat for their own consumption. Performance of native fowl can be improved by change in husbandry, feeding, and better health cover. However, genetic improvement may be made either through selection and crossbreeding or by utilisation of both selection and crossbreeding. Improvement through selection may be time consuming but the improvement will be permanent. Through crossbreeding improvement may be faster but research has to aim for the production of native-type birds with higher production potential. In the present review efforts have been made to present the importance of native fowl to rural economy and their improvement for higher production performance.

  18. A survey of ectoparasites, cestodes and management of free-range indigenous chickens in rural Zimbabwe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mukaratirwa, S; Hove, T

    2009-09-01

    A survey of ectoparasites, cestodes and husbandry aspects of indigenous free-range chickens was carried out in selected districts from the highveld and lowveld of rural Zimbabwe. The survey recorded infection with 4 species from the order Phthiraptera (lice), 1 species from the order Siphonaptera (fleas), 6 species from the order Acarina (ticks and mites) and 9 species of cestodes. Among the ectoparasites, the most prevalent was Menacanthus stramineus (87.7%) followed by Echidinophaga gallinacea (71.9%). Chickens in the Mazowe district had the highest number of ectoparasites species (10 of 11) followed by Goromonzi district (9 of 11) both these districts are situated in the highveld of Zimbabwe. The most prevalent cestode species was Raillietina tetragona (84.4%), followed by Raillietina echinobothrida (32.2%). Chickens in the Goromonzi district had the highest number of cestode species (7 of 9), followed by Mazowe district (one subgenus and 5 of 9). In all the districts sampled the main purpose of keeping free-range chickens was for meat for the household, with few households using the birds as a source of income. The majority of households kept their birds extensively with barely any appropriate housing, and supplementary feeding was only occasionally practised.

  19. A survey of ectoparasites, cestodes and management of free-range indigenous chickens in rural Zimbabwe

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    S. Mukaratirwa

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available A survey of ectoparasites, cestodes and husbandry aspects of indigenous free-range chickens was carried out in selected districts from the highveld and lowveld of rural Zimbabwe. The survey recorded infection with 4 species from the order Phthiraptera (lice, 1 species from the order Siphonaptera (fleas, 6 species from the order Acarina (ticks and mites and 9 species of cestodes. Among the ectoparasites, the most prevalent was Menacanthus stramineus (87.7 % followed by Echidinophaga gallinacea (71.9 %. Chickens in the Mazowe district had the highest number of ectoparasites species (10 of 11 followed by Goromonzi district (9 of 11 both these districts are situated in the highveld of Zimbabwe. The most prevalent cestode species was Raillietina tetragona (84.4 %, followed by Raillletina echinobothrida (32.2 %. Chickens in the Goromonzi district had the highest number of cestode species (7 of 9, followed by Mazowe district (one subgenus and 5 of 9. In all the districts sampled the main purpose of keeping free-range chickens was for meat for the household, with few households using the birds as a source of income. The majority of households kept their birds extensively with barely any appropriate housing, and supplementary feeding was only occasionally practised.

  20. Gastrointestinal helminths in indigenous and exotic chickens in Vietnam: association of the intensity of infection with the Major Histocompatibility Complex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schou, T W; Permin, A; Juul-Madsen, H R; Sørensen, P; Labouriau, R; Nguyên, T L H; Fink, M; Pham, S L

    2007-04-01

    This study compared the prevalence and intensity of infections of helminths in 2 chicken breeds in Vietnam, the indigenous Ri and the exotic Luong Phuong. Also, possible correlations with the Major Histocompatibility Complex (MHC) were tested. The most prevalent helminths were Ascaridia galli, Heterakis beramporia, Tetrameres mothedai, Capillaria obsignata, Raillietina echinobothrida and Raillietina tetragona. Differences in prevalence and intensity of infection were found between the 2 breeds. Comparing the 2 groups of adult birds, Ri chickens were observed to have higher prevalence and infection intensities of several species of helminths, as well as a higher mean number of helminth species. In contrast, A. galli and C. obsignata were shown to be more prevalent in Luong Phuong chickens. Furthermore, an age-dependent difference was indicated in the group of Ri chickens in which the prevalence and the intensity of infection was higher for the adult than the young chickens for most helminths. The most notable exception was the significantly lower prevalence and intensities of A. galli in the group of adult chickens. In contrast, the prevalence and intensity were very similar in both age groups of Luong Phuong chickens. Using a genetic marker located in the MHC, a statistically significant correlation between several MHC haplotypes and the infection intensity of different helminth species was inferred. This is the first report of an association of MHC haplotype with the intensity of parasite infections in chickens.

  1. In-vitro Quantitative Assay of Interferon Gamma in Serum of Nigerian Indigenous and Exotic Breeds of Chickens

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    Esan Oluwaseun and Oladele Omolade

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The Nigerian Indigenous breeds of Chicken (NIC have thrived in harsh tropical environment with little veterinary care and poor nutrition compared with the introduced exotic breeds which performs sub-optimally in the tropics. However, they receive little attention for commercial production in spite of low input required. A comparative assessment of cellular immune response of the indigenous and exotic breeds was carried out to provide scientific explanation for their hardy nature and justify production for economic purposes. Fifteen chickens from each of three indigenous breeds i.e. Frizzled- feathered, Naked-neck and Smooth-feathered, and 8 Isa Brown pullets were 10 weeks old and reared in separate cages. The chickens were stabilized and administered Newcastle Disease Vaccine (NDV, LaSota strain. At 14 and 16 weeks old, all breeds were administered NDV Komarov strain in Freund’s adjuvant and in PBS intramuscularly as sensitizing and challenge inoculants, respectively. They were bled for serum 5 days later and concentrations of Interferon-gamma (IFN-gamma were determined using competitive Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Results showed that the Frizzled-feathered chickens had the highest concentration of IFN-gamma (58±2.8 pg/ml which was significantly higher than 49±3.2 pg/ml and 44±2.5 pg/ml recorded for Smooth-feathered and Isa brown breeds respectively. Also, concentration in Naked-neck breed was 54±2.9 pg/ml, which was significantly higher than Isa Brown. Isa Brown had the significantly lowest concentration. It was concluded that the three NIC studied, have inherent capacity to mount higher levels of cellular immune response compared with the exotic Isa brown, when challenged.

  2. Husbandry and trade of indigenous chickens in Myanmar--results of a participatory rural appraisal in the Yangon and the Mandalay divisions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henning, J; Khin, A; Hla, T; Meers, J

    2006-01-01

    There is a variety of professions working with village chickens in developing countries, including farmers, veterinarians and chicken traders. People from all these occupations were involved in a participatory rural appraisal to investigate husbandry practices and trade of village chickens in Myanmar. Data were collected in two climatically different regions of the country, in the Yangon and in the Mandalay divisions. The breeding and training of fighting cocks was practised only in the Mandalay division, with well-trained birds sold for very high prices. Apart from this, chickens were raised in both regions mainly for small disposable income and were generally sold when money was needed, in particular during religious festivals. Chicken traders on bicycles, often called 'middle men', usually purchase birds from farmers in about 10 villages per day. Several 'middle men' supply birds to wealthier chicken merchants, who sell these birds at larger chicken markets. There is in general limited knowledge among farmers about the prevention of Newcastle disease via vaccination. Commercial indigenous chicken production is practised in Myanmar, but family poultry farming dominates indigenous chicken production in the country.

  3. Deeper insight into maternal genetic assessments and demographic history for Egyptian indigenous chicken populations using mtDNA analysis

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    Marwa A. Eltanany

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available This study principally sought to reveal the demographic expansion of Egyptian indigenous chickens (EIC using representative breeds: Sinai (North, Fayoumi (Middle and Dandarawi (South of Egypt as well as to deeply clarify their genetic diversity, possible matrilineal origin and dispersal routes. A total of 33 partial mitochondrial DNA sequences were generated from EIC and compared with a worldwide reference dataset of 1290 wild and domestic chicken sequences. Study populations had 12 polymorphic variable sites and 7 haplotypes. A lack of maternal substructure between EIC was detected (FST = 0.003. The unimodal mismatch distribution and negative values of Tajima’s D (−0.659 and Fu’s Fs (−0.157 indicated demographic expansion among EIC and pointed to Fayoumi as the oldest EIC population. Egyptian haplotypes were clustered phylogenetically into two divergent clades. Their phylogeography revealed an ancient single maternal lineage of Egyptian chickens likely derived from Indian-Subcontinent. Moreover, a recent maternal commercial heritage possibly originated in Yunnan-Province and/or surrounding areas was admixed restrictedly into Sinai. It is implied that Egypt was an entry point for Indian chicken into Africa and its further dispersal route to Europe. This study provides a clue supporting the previous assumption that urged utilizing consistent founder populations having closely related progenitors for synthetizing a stabilized homogenous crossbreed as a sustainable discipline in breeding program.

  4. High natural antibody titers of indigenous chickens are related with increased hazard in confinement

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wondmeneh, E.; Arendonk, van J.A.M.; Waaij, van der E.H.; Ducro, B.J.; Parmentier, H.K.

    2015-01-01

    Natural antibody (NAb) levels and survival rates were evaluated in 4 breeds of laying hens in Ethiopia: indigenous, improved indigenous, exotic layer, and crossbred. Titers of NAb isotypes IgG and IgM binding keyhole limpet hemocyanin (KLH) in serum were measured at 20, 26, 35, and 45 wk age. Repeat

  5. Hawks and Baby Chickens: Cultivating the Sources of Indigenous Science Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Easton, Peter B.

    2011-01-01

    In this response to Hewson and Ogunniyi's paper on indigenous knowledge (IK) and science teaching in South Africa, I seek to broaden the debate by setting the enterprise of integrating IK into science education in its cultural and socio-political context. I begin by exploring the multiple meanings of indigenous knowledge in Africa, next consider…

  6. MHC haplotype and susceptibility to experimental infections (Salmonella Enteritidis, Pasteurella multocida or Ascaridia galli) in a commercial and an indigenous chicken breed

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schou, Torben Wilde; Labouriau, R.; Permin, A.

    2010-01-01

    In three independent experimental infection studies, the susceptibility and course of infection of three pathogens considered of importance in most poultry production systems, Ascaridia galli, Salmonella Enteritidis and Pasteurella multocida was compared in two chicken breeds, the indigenous...

  7. [Identification of a new subgroup of avian leukosis virus isolated from Chinese indigenous chicken breeds].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xin; Zhao, Peng; Cui, Zhi-Zhong

    2012-11-01

    In order to clarify Avian leukosis virus (ALV) characteristics from Chinese native chicken breeds, three ALV JS11C1, JS11C2 and JS11C3 were isolated from Chinese native breed "luhua" by inoculation of DF1 cell culture and detection of p27 antigen. Using PCR amplification of env gene, the amplified gp85 genes were analyzed and compared to all six chicken ALV subgroups reported. The gp85 genes of these three viruses were 1 005bp in length and encoded 335 amino acids, and the gp37 genes were 609bp and encoded 203 amino acids. The homology of gp85 among these three isolated strains was 91.9%-97.0%. Comparing to 18 stains of subgroup A, B, C, D, E published in GenBank, the homology was only in the range of 77.7%-84.6%, significantly lower than the gp85 homology observed within the common chicken subgroups A (88.2%-98.5%), B (91.6%-98.8%), and E (97.9%-99.4%). The gp85 homology compared with subgroup J was only 34.2%-36.5%. These results suggested that three isolated strains from Chinese native breed "luhua" belong to a new subgroup different from all six known subgroups from Chickens, and thus designated as subgroup K.

  8. ADAPTATION OF INDIGENOUS INFECTIOUS BURSAL DISEASE VIRUS (IBDV) IN EMBRYONATED CHICKEN EGGS

    OpenAIRE

    A. N. Ahmad, I. Hussain, M. Siddique and M. S. Mahmood

    2005-01-01

    Infectious bursal disease virus was isolated from bursae of broilers suffering from Gumboro disease and was designated as field virus (FV). The virus was confirmed through agar gel precipitation test (AGPT) and counter current immunoelectrophoresis (CCIE). The virus was titrated by using reverse passive haemagglutination (RPHA) test and egg infective dose fifty (EID50). The FV was inoculated into 9-to 11-day-old embryonated chicken eggs through chorio-allantoic membrane (CAM). At each passage...

  9. Evaluation of an indigenous source of rock phosphate as a supplement for broiler chickens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tahir, M; Lughmani, A B; Pesti, G M

    2011-09-01

    This study investigated the effects of replacing dicalcium phosphate (DCP) with Hazara rock phosphate (HRP) on the growth performance of broiler chickens. The purpose was to determine the maximum level of F that could be well tolerated. The HRP (13.16% P and 2.98% F) was incorporated into a standard corn- and soybean meal-based diet by replacing 0, 25, 50, 75, and 100% of DCP based on P. Each treatment consisted of 5 replicate pens of 10 chicks each. The Ca and nonphytate P contents of all diets were maintained constant at 1.0 and 0.45%, respectively. Replacing 25% DCP with HRP significantly increased average BW gain. Substituting 100% HRP (562 mg of F/kg) decreased (P DCP:HRP) using a quadratic relationship: BW gain (g) = 1,128.6 + 2.6848 × HRP - 0.0368 × HRP(2). Increasing the level of HRP decreased feed intake: feed intake (g) = 1,987.4 + 2.775 × HRP - 0.0515 × HRP(2). The effect of HRP was not pronounced (significant at P DCP was replaced by HRP. Feed intake decreased by an average 3.77 g with each 1.0% increase in the levels of HRP beyond 27% HRP substitution. Replacing DCP with HRP up to 50% caused a significant increase in hot carcass weights. The Ca content of tibia was a quadratic function of HRP and was predicted to be highest at 56% HRP substitution. However, increasing HRP in the diet gradually decreased tibia P content (linear function). Serum Ca was increased by substituting HRP for DCP (linear effect). Increasing HRP in the diet decreased the P content of the serum and was predicted to be lowest (P DCP as P supplements. Using a multiple range test, it was concluded that between 25 and 50% DCP with HRP replacement (141 and 281 mg of F/kg, respectively) could be used safely without significantly decreasing the growth performance of broiler chickens.

  10. ADAPTATION OF INDIGENOUS INFECTIOUS BURSAL DISEASE VIRUS (IBDV IN EMBRYONATED CHICKEN EGGS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. N. Ahmad, I. Hussain, M. Siddique and M. S. Mahmood

    2005-04-01

    Full Text Available Infectious bursal disease virus was isolated from bursae of broilers suffering from Gumboro disease and was designated as field virus (FV. The virus was confirmed through agar gel precipitation test (AGPT and counter current immunoelectrophoresis (CCIE. The virus was titrated by using reverse passive haemagglutination (RPHA test and egg infective dose fifty (EID50. The FV was inoculated into 9-to 11-day-old embryonated chicken eggs through chorio-allantoic membrane (CAM. At each passage, the virus in the chorio-allantoic fluid (CAF and embryos was confirmed by AGPT and titrated by RPHA test. Geometric mean titer (GMT of the virus in CAF was 37 to 64 in 1-3rd passage, 111 to 239 in 4-7th passages. In 8 to 15th passages, virus titer remained from 294 to 588 and in 16-24th passages virus titer ranged from 675 to 2195. Similarly, virus titer in the embryos was 1024 to 512 in 1st -10th passages, while the virus titer in passages 11-24th ranged from 478 to 111. Embryos were monitored for lesions and mortality. Severe lesions were present on the CAM in 1st-7th passages, while moderate to mild haemorrhages were seen in 8th to 16th passages and in 17th _ 24th passages no lesions were observed.

  11. Evaluation of breeding objectives for purebred and crossbred selection schemes for adoption in indigenous chicken breeding programmes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okeno, T O; Kahi, A K; Peters, K J

    2013-01-01

    1. The aim of the study was to evaluate the genetic and economic breeding objectives for an indigenous chicken (IC) breeding programme in Kenya. 2. A closed three-tier nucleus breeding programme with three breeding objectives and two selection schemes was simulated. The breeding objectives included IC dual-purpose (ICD) for both eggs and meat, IC layer (ICL) for eggs and IC broiler (ICB) for meat production. 3. Pure line selection scheme (PLS) for development of IC pure breeds and crossbreeding scheme (CBS) for the production of hybrids were considered. Two-and three-way crossbreeding strategies were evaluated under CBS and the impact of nucleus size on genetic gains and profitability of the breeding programme were investigated. 4. Males were the main contributors to genetic gains. The highest genetic gains for egg number (2·71 eggs) and growth traits (1·74 g average daily gain and 57·96 g live weight at 16 weeks) were realised under PLS in ICL and ICB, respectively. 5. The genetic response for age at first egg was desirable in all the breeding objectives, while that for fertility and hatchability were only favourable under ICL and PLS in ICD. Faecal egg count and immune antibody response had low, but positive gains except under PLS where the later was unfavourable. ICB was the most profitable breeding objective, followed by ICD and ICL under all the selection schemes. 6. Although PLS was superior in genetic gains and profitability and recommended in breeding programmes targeting ICL and ICB, a three line CBS should be considered in development of a dual-purpose breed. 7. Increasing the nucleus size beyond 5% of the IC population was not attractive as it resulted in declining profitability of the breeding programme.

  12. Gross Morphological and Morphometric Studies on Digestive Tracts of Three Nigerian Indigenous Genotypes of Chicken with Special Reference to Sexual Dimorphism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhammad Abdullahi Mahmud

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Gross and morphometric studies were carried out on the Gastrointestinal Tracts (GIT of three Nigerian indigenous genotypes of chicken with special reference to sexual dimorphism. Eighteen adult chickens of the three genotypes (three male and three female per genotype, all above one year of age were bought from Mokwa local markets. They were quarantined for two weeks, stabilized for another weeks, live weights taken and then slaughtered using Halal method. After careful evisceration, GIT segments were examined grossly and then weights, lengths, thickness and width of the segments were obtained. The GIT of Normal feathered (No, Naked neck (Na and Frizzle feathered (F genotypes like in other breeds of chicken was found to consist of the crop, an expansion of the esophagus, located in the lower neck region, the glandular stomach (proventriculus, the muscular stomach (ventriculus, small intestines (duodenum, jejunum and ileum and large intestine (ceca and colorectum. The mean weights, lengths, thickness and widths of esophagus, proventriculus, ventriculus, small intestine and large intestine of the three genotypes studied were not significantly different from one another, except the weight of oesophagus and width of ventriculus. Also, no significant difference was found between male and female when the means of these parameters were compared irrespective of genotype involved. In conclusion, all the three genotypes have similar gross and morphometric patterns and in addition their ileum was the longest portion of the intestine in contrast to what was reported in other breeds of chicken in the literature.

  13. Estimates of effective population size and inbreeding in South African indigenous chicken populations: implications for the conservation of unique genetic resources.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mtileni, Bohani; Dzama, Kennedy; Nephawe, Khathutshelo; Rhode, Clint

    2016-06-01

    Conservation of locally adapted indigenous livestock breeds has become an important objective in sustainable animal breeding, as these breeds represent a unique genetic resource. Therefore, the Agricultural Research Council of South Africa initiated a conservation programme for four South African indigenous chicken breeds. The evaluation and monitoring of the genetic constitution of these conservation flocks is important for proper management of the conservation programme. Using molecular genetic analyses, the effective population sizes and relatedness of these conservation flocks were compared to village (field) chicken populations from which they were derived. Genetic diversity within and between these populations are further discussed within the context of population size. The conservation flocks for the respective breeds had relatively small effective population sizes (point estimate range 38.6-78.6) in comparison to the field populations (point estimate range 118.9-580.0). Furthermore, evidence supports a transient heterozygous excess, generally associated with the occurrence of a recent population bottleneck. Genetic diversity, as measured by the number of alleles, heterozygosity and information index, was also significantly reduced in the conservation flocks. The average relatedness amongst the conservation flocks was high, whilst it remained low for the field populations. There was also significant evidence for population differentiation between field and conservation populations. F st estimates for conservation flocks were moderate to high with a maximum reached between VD_C and VD_F (0.285). However, F st estimates for field population were excessively low between the NN_C and EC_F (0.007) and between EC_F and OV_F (0.009). The significant population differentiation of the conservation flocks from their geographically correlated field populations of origin is further supported by the analysis of molecular variance (AMOVA), with 10.51 % of genetic

  14. Effect of mixed spices in lemon glass marinade cuisine on changes in chemical physical and microbiological quality of ready-to-cook Thai indigenous chicken meat during chilled storage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wongwiwat, P.

    2007-11-01

    Full Text Available The effects of spices on chemical, physical and microbiological quality of ready-to-cook Thai indigenous chicken meat were investigated during storage at 4oC for 15 days. The spices used with marinade ingredient (soya sauce, oyster sauce, sugar and salt were lemon glass, black pepper, garlic, coriander root and mixed spices. Non-marinated chicken meat (control 1 and marinated only ingredients (control 2 were used as control treatments. The qualities of ready-to-cook chicken meat that were evaluated were shear force, % drip loss, surface color (L*, a*, b*, lipid oxidation (TBARS, myoglobin oxidation (% metmyoglobin and microbial growth. Effects of spices on shear force and % drip loss were not significantly different (P>0.05 but they efficiently reduced lipid oxidation and microbial growth of chicken meat. Mixed spices significantly reduced oxidation of lipid (P0.05. However, marinade at 12.5% (w/w showed high efficiency in inhibiting deterioration of ready-to-cook chicken meat.

  15. The effects of polymorphisms in IL-2, IFN-γ, TGF-β2, IgL, TLR-4, MD-2, and iNOS genes on resistance to Salmonella enteritidis in indigenous chickens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tohidi, Reza; Idris, Ismail Bin; Panandam, Jothi Malar; Bejo, Mohd Hair

    2012-12-01

    Salmonella Enteritidis is a major cause of food poisoning worldwide, and poultry products are the main source of S. Enteritidis contamination for humans. Among the numerous strategies for disease control, improving genetic resistance to S. Enteritidis has been the most effective approach. We investigated the association between S. Enteritidis burden in the caecum, spleen, and liver of young indigenous chickens and seven candidate genes, selected on the basis of their critical roles in immunological functions. The genes included those encoding interleukin 2 (IL-2), interferon-γ (IFN-γ), transforming growth factor β2 (TGF-β2), immunoglobulin light chain (IgL), toll-like receptor 4 (TLR-4), myeloid differentiation protein 2 (MD-2), and inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS). Two Malaysian indigenous chicken breeds were used as sustainable genetic sources of alleles that are resistant to salmonellosis. The polymerase chain reaction restriction fragment-length polymorphism technique was used to genotype the candidate genes. Three different genotypes were observed in all of the candidate genes, except for MD-2. All of the candidate genes showed the Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium for the two populations. The IL-2-MnlI polymorphism was associated with S. Enteritidis burden in the caecum and spleen. The TGF-β2-RsaI, TLR-4-Sau 96I, and iNOS-AluI polymorphisms were associated with the caecum S. Enteritidis load. The other candidate genes were not associated with S. Enteritidis load in any organ. The results indicate that the IL-2, TGF-β2, TLR-4, and iNOS genes are potential candidates for use in selection programmes for increasing genetic resistance against S. Enteritidis in Malaysian indigenous chickens.

  16. Ecotype Zones for Minnesota and Iowa Prairie Lands

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This document contains a map of local ecotype seed harvest zones for Iowa and Minnesota. A local ecotype zone is defined as a geographic area with generally similar...

  17. Genomic sequence analysis and biological characteristics of a rescued clone of avian leukosis virus strain JS11C1, isolated from indigenous chickens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cui, Ning; Su, Shuai; Chen, Zimeng; Zhao, Xiaomin; Cui, Zhizhong

    2014-11-01

    The strain JS11C1, a member of a putative new subgroup of avian leukosis virus (ALV) that is different from all six known subgroups from chickens based on Gp85 amino acid sequence comparison, was isolated from Chinese native chicken breeds in 2012. In order to further study the genome structure, biological characteristics, and the evolutionary relationship of the virus with others of known subgroups from infected chickens, we determined the complete genome sequence, constructed an infectious clone of ALV strain JS11C1, and performed comparative analysis using the whole genome sequence or elements with that of other ALVs available in GenBank. The results showed that the full-length sequence of the JS11C1 DNA provirus genome was 7707 bp, which is consistent with a genetic organization typical of a replication-competent type C retrovirus lacking viral oncogenes. The rescued infectious clone of JS11C1 showed similar growth rate and biological characteristics to its original virus. All the comparison analyses based on whole genomes support the opinion that the new isolates are relatively distantly related to any known subgroups of ALVs and might be classified as a new subgroup.

  18. Polymorphism and molecular phylogenetic analysis of MHC B -G locus in 9 indigenous chicken breeds%9个地方鸡种MHCB-G座位多态性及其分子系统进化分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    屠云洁; 苏一军; 王克华; 张学余; 李国辉; 殷建玫

    2012-01-01

    以我国9个地方鸡为研究对象,对其MHC B-G座位全基因序列进行测序,以揭示这9个地方鸡种MHC B -G基因的遗传多样性,并构建其系统进化树.结果表明,9个地方鸡种MHC B-G基因序列具有较高的遗传多样性,在9个地方鸡种中共存在666个突变位点,其中单一位点突变554个,简约信息112个,共缺失782 bp.核苷酸多样度(Pi)为0.03079±0.004 39,平均核昔酸差异(K)为182.639.9个地方鸡品种为9个单倍型,单倍型多样度为1.00±0.052.9个鸡种MHC B-G基因Kiumura双参数遗传距离范围为0.010~0.070,鹿苑鸡与新狼山鸡的遗传距离最小,为0.010;茶花鸡与东乡绿壳蛋鸡遗传距离最大,为0.070.根据9个鸡品种MHC B-G基因全序列构建的NJ树和ME树,茶花鸡单独聚为1类,其他8个品种被聚为2大类.Tajima's D值为-1.5546,且差异不显著(0.10>P>0.05),说明MHC B -G基因为负向选择,不遵循中性进化理论,MHC B -G基因多态性不是遗传漂变的结果,而是自然选择和人工选择的结果.%The MHC B - G locus in nine indigenous chicken breeds was sequenced to explore genetic diversity in these nine chicken breeds and to construct their phylogenetic tree. The study revealed that the genetic diversity of the MHC B - G locus in these breeds was relatively high, where there were 666 polymophic sites, among of which singleton variable sites were 554, parsimony informative sites were 112. Sites with alignment gaps or missing data were 782 bp. Nucleotide diversity ( P,) was 0. 030 79 ± 0. 004 39. Average number of nucleotide differences (K) was 182. 639. There was nine haplotypes in nine chicken breeds. The haplotype diversity was 1. 00 ±0. 052. Kimura 2 - parameter distance between nine chicken breeds was 0.010 -0.070, where the minimum was 0.010 between Luyuan and Newlangshan, while the maximum was 0.070 between Chahua and Dongxiang blue. Neighbor - Joining (NJ) tree and Minimum -Evolution (ME) tree based on MHC B - G DNA

  19. Physical, biochemical and genetic characterization of enterocin CE5-1 produced by Enterococcus faecium CE5-1 isolated from Thai indigenous chicken intestinal tract

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kraiyot Saelim

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Enterocin CE5-1 produced by Enterococcus faecium CE5-1 isolated from the chicken gastrointestinal tract was active in the wide range of pH 2-10 and temperature 30-100°C and sensitive to proteolytic enzymes and -amylase. It remained active after storage at -20°C for 2 months. Moreover, enterocin CE5-1 showed antibacterial activity against lactobacilli, bacilli, listeria, staphylococci and enterococci, especially antibiotic-resistant enterococci. In vitro study of enterocin CE5-1 decreased the population of Ent. faecalis VanB from 6.03 to 4.03 log CFU/ml. The lethal mode of action of enterocin CE5-1 appeared to be pore and filament formation in the cell wall. PCR sequencing analysis revealed the presence of two open reading frames (ORFs, containing enterocin CE5-1 (entCE5-1 and enterocin immunity (entI gene. Therefore, enterocin CE5-1 from Ent. faecium CE5-1 could possibly be used as an antimicrobial agent to control foodborne pathogen, spoilage bacteria and antibiotic-resistant enterococci in foods, feeds and the environments.

  20. Indigenous religions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Geertz, Armin W.

    2009-01-01

    Dette essay diskuterer en publikation af James L. Cox med titlen From Primitive to Indigenous (2007). Bogen analyserer forskellige forfatteres holdninger til studiet af indfødte kulturers religioner. Cox's analyser tages op i dette essay og de problematiseres i forhold til mit eget arbejde....

  1. Freeze tolerance differs between two ecotypes of Paspalum vaginatum (Poaceae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liliana Teresa Fabbri

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Morphological and physiological responses to freezing were evaluated in two ecotypes of the perennial turfgrass Paspalum vaginatum. Leaf extension rate, number of active meristems, leaf water potential and net photosynthesis were measured on plants of both a commercial cultivar, 'Sea Isle 2000', and a wild ecotype from the Flooding Pampa grasslands of Argentina. Plants were propagated by cloning, cultivated in pots, and examined during 18 consecutive days under two treatments: a non-frozen control treatment (15.5±7 ºC and a frozen treatment with two stages: Stage 1 with four hours of freezing stress for 10 nights (-5ºC, and Stage 2 with 12 hours of freezing stress for eight nights (five nights at -5ºC and three nights at -8ºC. After these treatments, plants were returned to the outside environment to evaluate shoot injury and post-freezing recovery. Leaf water potential, net photosynthesis and leaf extension rate were significantly higher in the wild ecotype than in the commercial cultivar. Meristem density was reduced after freezing in both ecotypes, but was more pronounced in the commercial cultivar (98.5% than in the wild ecotype (80%. Thus, the two ecotypes coming from different environments, exhibited different morphological and physiological responses to exposure to freezing temperatures.

  2. Parallel Evolution of Polydactyly Traits in Chinese and European Chickens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Zebin; Nie, Changsheng; Jia, Yaxiong; Jiang, Runshen; Xia, Haijian; Lv, Xueze; Chen, Yu; Li, Junying; Li, Xianyao; Ning, Zhonghua; Xu, Guiyun; Chen, Jilan; Yang, Ning; Qu, Lujiang

    2016-01-01

    Polydactyly is one of the most common hereditary congenital limb malformations in chickens and other vertebrates. The zone of polarizing activity regulatory sequence (ZRS) is critical for the development of polydactyly. The causative mutation of polydactyly in the Silkie chicken has been mapped to the ZRS; however, the causative mutations of other chicken breeds are yet to be established. To understand whether the same mutation decides the polydactyly phenotype in other chicken breeds, we detected the single-nucleotide polymorphism in 26 different chicken breeds, specifically, 24 Chinese indigenous breeds and 2 European breeds. The mutation was found to have fully penetrated chickens with polydactyly in China, indicating that it is causative for polydactyly in Chinese indigenous chickens. In comparison, the mutation showed no association with polydactyly in Houdan chickens, which originate from France, Europe. Based on the different morphology of polydactyly in Chinese and European breeds, we assumed that the trait might be attributable to different genetic foundations. Therefore, we subsequently performed genome-wide association analysis (GWAS) to locate the region associated with polydactyly. As a result, a ~0.39 Mb genomic region on GGA2p was identified. The region contains six candidate genes, with the causative mutation found in Chinese indigenous breeds also being located in this region. Our results demonstrate that polydactyly in chickens from China and Europe is caused by two independent mutation events that are closely located in the chicken genome.

  3. Genetic Characterization of Indigenous Rice Varieties in Eastern Himalayan Region of Northeast India

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Baharul Islam CHOUDHURY; Mohammed Latif KHAN; Selvadurai DAYANANDAN

    2014-01-01

    The eastern Himalayan region of Northeast (NE) India is home to a large number of indigenous rice varieties, which are traditionally classified as Oryza sativa subspecies indica, japonica or intermediate types. The classification based on traditional Cheng’s index is often inconclusive due to phenotypic plasticity of morphological characters, which are influenced by environmental conditions. We used molecular markers specific for indica and japonica subspecies to assess the degree of genetic relatedness of indigenous rice varieties in NE India. The results revealed that majority of upland (jum) and glutinous rice varieties, traditionally considered as japonica, were genetically close to the subspecies indica. All varieties of boro ecotype were found to be indica type, and only a few varieties cultivated in lowland and upland areas were japonica type. Some of the lowland varieties of the sali ecotype were intermediate between indica and japonica, and they showed a closer genetic affinity to O. rufipogon.

  4. The USDA Feed the Future Initiative for genetic improvement of African goats: an update on genomic resources and genetic characterization of indigenous breeds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Food production systems in Africa depend heavily on the use of locally adapted animals such as goats which are critical to small-scale farmers as they are easier to acquire, maintain, and act as scavengers in sparse pasture and marginal crop regions. Indigenous goat ecotypes have undergone generatio...

  5. Native Pig and Chicken Breed Database: NPCDB.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeong, Hyeon-Soo; Kim, Dae-Won; Chun, Se-Yoon; Sung, Samsun; Kim, Hyeon-Jeong; Cho, Seoae; Kim, Heebal; Oh, Sung-Jong

    2014-10-01

    Indigenous (native) breeds of livestock have higher disease resistance and adaptation to the environment due to high genetic diversity. Even though their extinction rate is accelerated due to the increase of commercial breeds, natural disaster, and civil war, there is a lack of well-established databases for the native breeds. Thus, we constructed the native pig and chicken breed database (NPCDB) which integrates available information on the breeds from around the world. It is a nonprofit public database aimed to provide information on the genetic resources of indigenous pig and chicken breeds for their conservation. The NPCDB (http://npcdb.snu.ac.kr/) provides the phenotypic information and population size of each breed as well as its specific habitat. In addition, it provides information on the distribution of genetic resources across the country. The database will contribute to understanding of the breed's characteristics such as disease resistance and adaptation to environmental changes as well as the conservation of indigenous genetic resources.

  6. Edaphic factors determining variation of two ecotypes of Leymus chinensis in North China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHOU Chan; YANG Yunfei

    2006-01-01

    To identify ecotypic variation of L. chinensis, the physiological characteristics and environmental factors were measured and assessed for grey-green and yellow-green ecotypes of L. chinensis grown in the salt-alkalized and aeolian sandy soils. Although both ecotypes presented a similar salt-alkaline tolerance under the experimental conditions, they differed in several aspects. The L. chinensis grown in the aeolian sandy soils had higher water potential and chlorophyll content and lower proline content in their leaves than those grown in the salt-alkalized habitat, and the grey-green ecotype of L. chinensis in both types of soils had higher water potential,chlorophyll and proline contents than the yellow-green ecotype. Besides, grey-green ecotypes had higher salt-alkaline tolerance than the yellow-green ecotype. The stepwise regression analysis showed that soil conductance and pH value were the main ecological factors affecting the physiology of L. chinensis. From the natural distribution of the two ecotypes, we considered that salt-alkaline in the soils is the leading factor in determining ecotypic variation of L. chinensis. The two ecotypes were first named grey-green and yellow-green ecotypes respectively.

  7. Switchgrass ecotypes alter microbial contribution to deep-soil C

    Science.gov (United States)

    Switchgrass (Panicum virgatum L.) is a C4, perennial grass that is being developed as a bioenergy crop for the United States. While aboveground biomass production is well documented for switchgrass ecotypes (lowland, upland), little is known about the impact of plant belowground productivity on mic...

  8. Circulation of four Anaplasma phagocytophilum ecotypes in Europe

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jahfari, Setareh; Coipan, E Claudia; Fonville, Manoj; van Leeuwen, Arieke Docters; Hengeveld, Paul; Heylen, Dieter; Heyman, Paul; van Maanen, Cees; Butler, Catherine M; Földvári, Gábor; Szekeres, Sándor; van Duijvendijk, Gilian; Tack, Wesley; Rijks, Jolianne M; van der Giessen, Joke; Takken, Willem; van Wieren, Sipke E; Takumi, Katsuhisa; Sprong, Hein

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Anaplasma phagocytophilum is the etiological agent of granulocytic anaplasmosis in humans and animals. Wild animals and ticks play key roles in the enzootic cycles of the pathogen. Potential ecotypes of A. phagocytophilum have been characterized genetically, but their host range, zoonoti

  9. Circulation of four Anaplasma phagocytophilum ecotypes in Europe

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jahfari, S.; Coipan, E.C.; Fonville, M.; Leeuwen, van A.D.; Hengeveld, P.; Heylen, D.; Heyman, P.; Maanen, van C.; Butler, C.M.; Foldvari, G.; Szekeres, S.; Duijvendijk, van L.A.G.; Tack, W.; Rijks, J.M.; Giessen, van der J.; Takken, W.; Wieren, van S.E.; Takumi, K.; Sprong, H.

    2014-01-01

    Background: Anaplasma phagocytophilum is the etiological agent of granulocytic anaplasmosis in humans and animals. Wild animals and ticks play key roles in the enzootic cycles of the pathogen. Potential ecotypes of A. phagocytophilum have been characterized genetically, but their host range, zoonoti

  10. Genomic evidence of adaptive evolution in emergent Vibrio parahaemolyticus ecotypes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jeffrey W. Turner

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The ubiquitous marine bacterium Vibrio parahaemolyticus is a leading cause of illness associated with seafood consumption. The emergence of two genetically distinct ecotypes (ST3 and ST36 has led to an alarming increase in the size and frequency of disease outbreaks. We conducted a genomic comparison of 30 V. parahaemolyticus genomes that represent a diverse collection of 15 genetically distinct ecotypes, including newly sequenced representatives of ST3 and ST36, isolated from both clinical and environmental sources. A multistep evolutionary analysis showed that genes associated with sensing and responding to environmental stimuli have evolved under positive selection, identifying examples of convergent evolution between ST3 and ST36. A comparison of predicted proteomes indicated that ST3 and ST36 ecotypes laterally acquired tens of novel genes associated with a variety of functions including dormancy, homeostasis and membrane transport. Genes identified in this study play an apparent role in environmental fitness and may confer cross protection against stressors encountered in the human host. Together, these results show the evolution of stress response is an important genetic mechanism correlated with the recent emergence of the ST3 and ST36 ecotypes.

  11. Switchgrass ecotypes alter microbial contribution to deep-soil C

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roosendaal, Damaris; Stewart, Catherine E.; Denef, Karolien; Follett, Ronald F.; Pruessner, Elizabeth; Comas, Louise H.; Varvel, Gary E.; Saathoff, Aaron; Palmer, Nathan; Sarath, Gautam; Jin, Virginia L.; Schmer, Marty; Soundararajan, Madhavan

    2016-05-01

    Switchgrass (Panicum virgatum L.) is a C4, perennial grass that is being developed as a bioenergy crop for the United States. While aboveground biomass production is well documented for switchgrass ecotypes (lowland, upland), little is known about the impact of plant belowground productivity on microbial communities down deep in the soil profiles. Microbial dynamics in deeper soils are likely to exert considerable control on ecosystem services, including C and nutrient cycles, due to their involvement in such processes as soil formation and ecosystem biogeochemistry. Differences in root biomass and rooting characteristics of switchgrass ecotypes could lead to distinct differences in belowground microbial biomass and microbial community composition. We quantified root abundance and root architecture and the associated microbial abundance, composition, and rhizodeposit C uptake for two switchgrass ecotypes using stable-isotope probing of microbial phospholipid fatty acids (PLFAs) after 13CO2 pulse-chase labeling. Kanlow, a lowland ecotype with thicker roots, had greater plant biomass above- and belowground (g m-2), greater root mass density (mg cm-3), and lower specific root length (m g-1) compared to Summer, an upland ecotype with finer root architecture. The relative abundance of bacterial biomarkers dominated microbial PLFA profiles for soils under both Kanlow and Summer (55.4 and 53.5 %, respectively; P = 0.0367), with differences attributable to a greater relative abundance of Gram-negative bacteria in soils under Kanlow (18.1 %) compared to soils under Summer (16.3 %; P = 0.0455). The two ecotypes also had distinctly different microbial communities process rhizodeposit C: greater relative atom % 13C excess in Gram-negative bacteria (44.1 ± 2.3 %) under the thicker roots of Kanlow and greater relative atom % 13C excess in saprotrophic fungi under the thinner roots of Summer (48.5 ± 2.2 %). For bioenergy production systems, variation between switchgrass

  12. Chicken Art

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bickett, Marianne

    2009-01-01

    In this article, the author describes how a visit from a flock of chickens provided inspiration for the children's chicken art. The gentle clucking of the hens, the rooster crowing, and the softness of the feathers all provided rich aural, tactile, visual, and emotional experiences. The experience affirms the importance and value of direct…

  13. Chicken Toast

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    1998-01-01

    Ingredients: 200 grams chicken breast; 50 grams sliced bread; 5 grams vegetable oil; one egg; minced ginger root and scallions; 25 grams Shredded radish; vinegar; sugar; salt and pepper to taste. Method: First chop the chicken and mix it with the vegetable oil, a beaten egg, ginger, scallions, Salt

  14. Genetic evidence from mitochondrial DNA corroborates the origin of Tibetan chickens

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Qing; Zhao, Xiaoling; Wang, Yan; Yin, Huadong; Hu, Yaodong; Liu, Aiping; Li, Diyan

    2017-01-01

    Chicken is the most common poultry species and is important to human societies. Tibetan chicken (Gallus gallus domesticus) is a breed endemic to China that is distributed mainly on the Qinghai-Tibet Plateau. However, its origin has not been well characterized. In the present study, we sequenced partial mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) control region of 239 and 283 samples from Tibetan and Sichuan indigenous chickens, respectively. Incorporating 1091 published sequences, we constructed the matrilineal genealogy of Tibetan chickens to further document their domestication history. We found that the genetic structure of the mtDNA haplotypes of Tibetan chickens are dominated by seven major haplogroups (A-G). In addition, phylogenetic and network analyses showed that Tibetan chickens are not distinguishable from the indigenous chickens in surrounding areas. Furthermore, some clades of Tibetan chickens may have originated from game fowls. In summary, our results collectively indicated that Tibetan chickens may have diverged from indigenous chickens in the adjacent regions and hybridized with various chickens. PMID:28241078

  15. Accumulation and tolerance of lead in two contrasting ecotypes of Dianthus carthusianorum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wójcik, Małgorzata; Tukiendorf, Anna

    2014-04-01

    Dianthus carthusianorum is one of the dominant plant species colonising the Zn-Pb waste deposits in Bolesław, Southern Poland. It differs in terms of morphology and genetics from ecotypes inhabiting non-metal-polluted areas. The response of waste-heap (metallicolous, M) and reference (nonmetallicolous, NM) ecotypes of D. carthusianorum to Pb in hydroponics was investigated and compared in this study. The plants of the M ecotype were more tolerant to Pb than these of the NM ecotype in spite of accumulation of higher concentrations of Pb. In both ecotypes, about 70-78% of Pb was retained in roots. In non Pb-treated plants, a higher glutathione (GSH) level was found in the M ecotype. After the Pb exposure, the GSH level decreased and was similar in both ecotypes. Lead treatment induced synthesis of phytochelatins (PCs) only in the plant roots, with significantly higher concentrations thereof detected in the NM ecotype. Malate and citrate concentrations were higher in the M ecotype; however, they did not change significantly upon any Pb treatment in either ecotype. The results indicated that neither PCs nor organic acids were responsible for the enhanced Pb tolerance of the waste-heap plants.

  16. Switchgrass Cultivar/Ecotype Selection and Management for Biofuels in the Upper Southeast USA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rocky Lemus

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Switchgrass (Panicum virgatum L., a perennial warm-season grass indigenous to the eastern USA, has potential as a biofuels feedstock. The objective of this study was to investigate the performance of upland and lowland switchgrass cultivars under different environments and management treatments. Four cultivars of switchgrass were evaluated from 2000 to 2001 under two management regimes in plots established in 1992 at eight locations in the upper southeastern USA. Two management treatments included 1 a single annual harvest (in late October to early November and a single application of 50 kg N/ha/yr and 2 two annual harvests (in midsummer and November and a split application of 100 kg N/ha/yr. Biomass yields averaged 15 Mg/ha/yr and ranged from 10 to 22 Mg/ha/yr across cultivars, managements, locations, and years. There was no yield advantage in taking two harvests of the lowland cultivars (Alamo and Kanlow. When harvested twice, upland cultivars (Cave-in-Rock and Shelter provided yields equivalent to the lowland ecotypes. Tiller density was 36% lower in stands cutting only once per year, but the stands appeared vigorous after nine years of such management. Lowland cultivars and a one-cutting management (after the tops have senesced using low rates of applied N (50 kg/ha are recommended.

  17. Indigenous Education in Mexico: Indigenous Students' Voices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Despagne, Colette

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this article is to investigate whether, despite a shift in political and educational discourses over the last decades that suggests that Indigenous cultures and languages are recognized, any real change has occurred in terms of Indigenous education in Mexico. It is possible that official bilingual intercultural education is still…

  18. Indigenous Storytelling in Namibia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rodil, Kasper; Winschiers-Theophilus, Heike

    2016-01-01

    to understand indigenous youths’ own conception of storytelling the paper presents empirical data from a study with indigenous Khoisan children in Namibia. This is followed by a discussion of an effort of digitizing indigenous intangible cultural heritage in relation to technologies’ embodied bias...

  19. WOOD ANATOMICAL STUDY AMONG THREE ECOTYPES OF Pinus merkusii IN SUMATRA AND THE POTENTIAL AS CLIMATE CHANGE INDICATOR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yulia Sandri

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Recently, climate change is the one of most important environmental issue. Climate variability can be recorded by tree growing through the growth ring. Growth ring formed by cambial activity were examined in wood anatomy. In Sumatra, there are three ecotypes Pinus merkusii, namely ecotypes Kerinci, Tapanuli, and Aceh which can be distinguished morphologically. This study aims to knowing the wood anatomical characteristics of the three ecotypes and determine the potential as climate indicator. This study was conducted in October 2014 until June 2015. Sample of Kerinci ecotype was collected in Kerinci Seblat National Park, Tapanuli ecotype in Dolok Sibualbuali Natural Reserve and Aceh ecotype in Gunung Leuser National Park on a height of 130 cm using increment borer and cut on the main stem 5×5 cm for anatomical sample. Results from this study indicate that ecotype Kerinci and Tapanuli showed earlywood and latewood boundary exposing the clear growth ring, whereas in Aceh ecotype unclear. Tapanuli ecotype have the thickest tracheid diameter than ecotype Kerinci and Aceh. Ecotypes of Kerinci, Tapanuli, and Aceh has homoceluler and uniseriate ray where Aceh ecotype have the longest ray. Furthermore, Kerinci and Tapanuli ecotype have potential as climate indicator eventhough showed negative correlation, that Tapanuli ecotype show the best result and recommended in dendrochronology study.

  20. A genomic island linked to ecotype divergence in Atlantic cod

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Jakob Hemmer; Eg Nielsen, Einar; Therkildsen, Nina O.;

    2013-01-01

    gene flow and large effective population sizes, properties which theoretically could restrict divergence in local genomic regions. We identify a genomic region of strong population differentiation, extending over approximately 20 cM, between pairs of migratory and stationary ecotypes examined at two......The genomic architecture underlying ecological divergence and ecological speciation with gene flow is still largely unknown for most organisms. One central question is whether divergence is genome‐wide or localized in ‘genomic mosaics’ during early stages when gene flow is still pronounced....... Empirical work has so far been limited, and the relative impacts of gene flow and natural selection on genomic patterns have not been fully explored. Here, we use ecotypes of Atlantic cod to investigate genomic patterns of diversity and population differentiation in a natural system characterized by high...

  1. Prairie Chicken

    Data.gov (United States)

    Kansas Data Access and Support Center — An outline of the general range occupied by greayter and lesser prairie chickens. The range was delineated by expert opinion, then varified by local wildlife...

  2. Accuracy and efficiency of algorithms for the demarcation of bacterial ecotypes from DNA sequence data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Francisco, Juan Carlos; Cohan, Frederick M; Krizanc, Danny

    2014-01-01

    Identification of closely related, ecologically distinct populations of bacteria would benefit microbiologists working in many fields including systematics, epidemiology and biotechnology. Several laboratories have recently developed algorithms aimed at demarcating such 'ecotypes'. We examine the ability of four of these algorithms to correctly identify ecotypes from sequence data. We tested the algorithms on synthetic sequences, with known history and habitat associations, generated under the stable ecotype model and on data from Bacillus strains isolated from Death Valley where previous work has confirmed the existence of multiple ecotypes. We found that one of the algorithms (ecotype simulation) performs significantly better than the others (AdaptML, GMYC, BAPS) in both instances. Unfortunately, it was also shown to be the least efficient of the four. While ecotype simulation is the most accurate, it is by a large margin the slowest of the algorithms tested. Attempts at improving its efficiency are underway.

  3. Delineating ecotypes of marine photosynthetic picoeukaryotes in the wild

    Science.gov (United States)

    Limardo, A. J.; Sudek, S.; Rii, Y. M.; Church, M. J.; Wei, C. L.; Armbrust, E. V.; Worden, A. Z.

    2015-12-01

    Extremely small eukaryotic green algae are abundant primary producers found in diverse marine habitats. Over the last decade several studies have revealed extensive diversity within the "pico-prasinophytes" (≤2 µm diameter) that was previously unrecognized due to a lack of distinguishing morphological features. Using whole genome and marker gene analyses, distinct species have since been recognized within the Micromonas and Ostreococcus genera. Relatively little is known about environmental factors driving distributions of these species, but for Ostreococcus, laboratory studies suggested that differentiation reflects high- and low-light adapted ecotypes. Subsequent field studies indicated that Ostreococcus Clade OI and Clade OII rarely co-occur but partition according to distinct habitats - representing 'mesotrophic' and 'oligotrophic' ecotypes, respectively. Unlike Micromonas and Ostreococcus, Bathycoccus was presumed to be a single cosmopolitan species because identical 18S rRNA gene sequences are observed in cultured isolates and in environmental surveys. However, analysis of a targeted metagenome from a Bathycoccus population in the tropical Atlantic led to the hypothesis that Bathycoccus also harbors distinct ecotypes. Here, we have developed qPCR assays to enumerate the two Bathycoccus types which can be discriminated based on the internal transcribed spacer (ITS). Statistical analysis of qPCR and environmental data from >200 North Pacific Ocean samples shows that the two Bathycoccus clades are only somewhat analogous to oligotrophic and mesotrophic Ostreococcus clades. The two Bathycoccus clades co-occurred more than twice as often as the Ostreococcus clades. Additionally, while Bathycoccus BII and oligotrophic Ostreococcus OII were found at warm temperatures up to 26°C, BII extended into colder waters than OII. Similarly, Bathycoccus BI extended into warmer waters than mesotrophic Ostreococcus OI. Currently, we are analyzing metatranscriptomes to

  4. Distribution and diversity of Prochlorococcus ecotypes in the Red Sea

    KAUST Repository

    Shibl, Ahmed A.

    2014-06-19

    Photosynthetic prokaryotes of the genus Prochlorococcus play a major role in global primary production in the world\\'s oligotrophic oceans. A recent study on pelagic bacterioplankton communities in the northern and central Red Sea indicated that the predominant cyanobacterial 16S rRNA gene sequence types were from Prochlorococcus cells belonging to a high-light-adapted ecotype (HL II). In this study, we analyzed microdiversity of Prochlorococcus sp. at multiple depths within and below the euphotic zone in the northern, central, and southern regions of the Red Sea, as well as in surface waters in the same locations, but in a different season. Prochlorococcus dominated the communities in clone libraries of the amplified 16S-23S rRNA internal transcribed spacer (ITS) region. Almost no differences were found between samples from coastal or open-water sites, but a high diversity of Prochlorococcus ecotypes was detected at 100-meter depth in the water column. In addition, an unusual dominance of HL II-related sequences was observed in deeper waters. Our results indicate that the Red Sea harbors diverse Prochlorococcus lineages, but no novel ecotypes, despite its unusual physicochemical properties. © 2014 Federation of European Microbiological Societies. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Indigenous Storytelling in Namibia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rodil, Kasper; Winschiers-Theophilus, Heike

    2016-01-01

    fairytales to outsiders with little relevance to the physical world, they are very functional and foundational for communities where storytelling is enacted. This paper debates concepts related to indigenous storytelling and its relevance to knowledge and learning for indigenous youths. In an attempt...... to understand indigenous youths’ own conception of storytelling the paper presents empirical data from a study with indigenous Khoisan children in Namibia. This is followed by a discussion of an effort of digitizing indigenous intangible cultural heritage in relation to technologies’ embodied bias...

  6. Physiological assessment of drought tolerance of two ecotypes of cumin (Cuminum cyminum L. under greenhouse conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Drought has adverse effects on plant growth and production. Plants respond to drought stress through biochemical and physiological processes. In the present study, physiological responses of two cumin (Cuminum cyminum L. ecotypes including Ravar and Gonbad, which belong to dry and sub-humid regions of Iran, respectively, were evaluated in a split-plot factorial experiment with three replications in controlled greenhouse conditions. Physiological traits such as relative water content, relative leaf water loss and electrolyte leakage were measured. Analysis of variance showed that there are considerable genetic variations for drought tolerance between the ecotypes. Drought stress decreased relative water content and relative leaf water loss rate, while electrolyte leakage was significantly increased in both ecotypes. Most of the significant changes were recorded in Gonbad ecotype. The Ravar ecotype demonstrated higher tolerance to drought stress, as compared to Gonbad ecotype, which can be due to compatibility of this genotype to water-deficit conditions. Therefore, this ecotype was recommended as a tolerant ecotype to drought stress. In conclusion, the investigated traits in this experiment were found to be valuable criteria in selection of drought-tolerant ecotypes at seedling stage under greenhouse conditions.

  7. Recurrent evolution of life history ecotypes in sockeye salmon: implications for conservation and future evolution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wood, Chris C; Bickham, John W; John Nelson, R; Foote, Chris J; Patton, John C

    2008-05-01

    We examine the evolutionary history and speculate about the evolutionary future of three basic life history ecotypes that contribute to the biocomplexity of sockeye salmon (Oncorhynchus nerka). The 'recurrent evolution' (RE) hypothesis claims that the sea/river ecotype is ancestral, a 'straying' form with poorly differentiated (meta)population structure, and that highly structured populations of lake-type sockeye and kokanee have evolved repeatedly in parallel adaptive radiations between recurrent glaciations of the Pleistocene Epoch. Basic premises of this hypothesis are consistent with new, independent evidence from recent surveys of genetic variation in mitochondrial and microsatellite DNA: (1) sockeye salmon are most closely related to pink (O. gorbuscha) and chum (O. keta) salmon with sea-type life histories; (2) the sockeye life history ecotypes exist as polyphyletic lineages within large drainages and geographic regions; (3) the sea/river ecotype exhibits less genetic differentiation among populations than the lake or kokanee ecotypes both within and among drainages; and (4) genetic diversity is typically higher in the sea/river ecotype than in the lake and kokanee ecotypes. Anthropogenic modification of estuarine habitat and intensive coastal fisheries have likely reduced and fragmented historic metapopulations of the sea/river ecotype, particularly in southern areas. In contrast, the kokanee ecotype appears to be favoured by marine fisheries and predicted changes in climate.

  8. The adaptive value of phenotypic plasticity in two ecotypes of a marine gastropod

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Butlin Roger K

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Few surveys have concentrated on studying the adaptive value of phenotypic plasticity within genetically-distinct conspecific ecotypes. Here, we conduct a test to assess the adaptive value that partial phenotypic plasticity may have for survival in the marine gastropod Littorina saxatilis. This species has evolved canalized ecotypes but, nevertheless, the ecotypes show some phenotypic plasticity for the traits under divergent selection between wave-exposed and high-predation habitats. Results We exposed juveniles of each ecotype to several environmental treatments under laboratory conditions in order to produce shape variation associated with plasticity. The two ecotypes from different treatments were then transplanted to the wave-exposed habitat and the survival rate was monitored. Ecotype explained the largest distinction in survival rate while treatment caused variation in survival rate within the ecotype released into its parental habitat which was correlated with plastic changes in shell shape. Snails that had experienced a treatment mimicking the environment of the transplantation location survived with the highest rate, while individuals from the contrary experimental treatment had lower survivorship. Conclusions We conclude that the partial plastic response shown in Littorina saxatilis has a significant impact on fitness, although this remains small compared to the overall adaptive difference between ecotypes.

  9. Indigenous Existentialism and the Body

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brendan Hokowhitu

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available This article begins a discussion on indigenous existentialism. The theme developed as a result of engagement at the intersection between Indigenous Studies and Cultural Studies, and the realisation that cultural concepts often canonised within Indigenous Studies departments, such as tradition and authenticity (when exclusive, detract from the conception of indigenous culture as part of the immediate material reality of indigenous lives. In turn, when indigenous culture is too often defined only in relation to an imagined authentic past, indigenous existentialism is inhibited because indigenous people lack a conscious awareness of cultural immediacy. There is nothing more immediate than the body and, thus, I began to theorise indigenous existentialism through an analyses of the indigenous body, its genealogy, and its immediacy. To help me process this theorisation I engage with current Cultural Studies debates surrounding the analyses of the body. I conclude that an indigenous existentialism will recognise that the power of the body is still unknown.

  10. Reproductive, morphological, and phytochemical responses of Arabidopsis thaliana ecotypes to enhanced UV-B radiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Trumbull, V.L.; McCloud, E.S.; Paige, K.N. (Univ. of Illinois, Urbana, IL (United States))

    1994-06-01

    Two ecotypes of Arabidopsis thaliana, collected from Libya and Norway, were grown in the greenhouse under. UV-B doses of 0 and 10.5 kJ m[sup [minus]2] UV-B[sub BE]. The high UV-B dose simulated midsummer ambient conditions over Libya and a 40% reduction in stratospheric ozone over Norway. The Libyan ectotype, which originated from latitudes where solar UV-B is high, showed no UV-B induced damage to plant growth. However the Norwegian ecotype, which originated from latitudes where solar UV-B is low, showed a significant reduction in plant height, inflorescence weight, and rosette weight in response to enhanced UV-B. Although fruit and seed number for both ecotypes were unaffected by enhanced UV-B radiation the germination success of the seeds harvested from the irradiated Norwegian plants were significantly reduced. The two ecotypes also differed with respect to their accumulation of kaempferol, a putative UV-B protective filter. The Libyan ecotype increased kaempferol concentration by 38% over the 0 kJ treatment whereas the Norwegian ecotype increased by only 15%. These data suggest that, for these ecotypes, variation in UV-B sensitivity may be explained by the differential induction of UV-absorbing leaf pigments.

  11. Genetic Diversity Analysis of Iranian Jujube Ecotypes (Ziziphus spp. Using RAPD Molecular Marker

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S Abbasi

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Jujube (Ziziphus jujuba Mill. is a valuable medicinal plant which is important in Iranian traditional medicines. Although the regional plants such as jujube play an important role in our economy, but they are forgotten in research and technology. Considering the economic and medicinal importance of jujube, the first step in breeding programs is determination of the genetic diversity among the individuals. 34 ecotypes of jujube, which have been collected from eight provinces of Iran, were used in this study. The genetic relationships of Iranian jujube ecotypes were analyzed using Random Amplified Polymorphic DNA (RAPD marker. Six out of 15 random decamer primers applied for RAPD analysis, showed an informative polymorphism. According to clustering analysis using UPGMA's methods, the ecotypes were classified into two major groups at the 0.81 level of genetic similarity. The highest value of similarity coefficient (0.92 was detected between Mazandaran and Golestan ecotypes and the most genetic diversity was observed in ecotypes of Khorasan-Jonoubi. The affinity of Khorasan-Jonoubi and Esfahan ecotypes indicated a possible common origin for the variation in these areas. Results indicated that RAPD analysis could be successfully used for the estimation of genetic diversity among Ziziphus ecotypes and it can be useful for further investigations.

  12. Shared and nonshared genomic divergence in parallel ecotypes of Littorina saxatilis at a local scale.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ravinet, Mark; Westram, Anja; Johannesson, Kerstin; Butlin, Roger; André, Carl; Panova, Marina

    2016-01-01

    Parallel speciation occurs when selection drives repeated, independent adaptive divergence that reduces gene flow between ecotypes. Classical examples show parallel speciation originating from shared genomic variation, but this does not seem to be the case in the rough periwinkle (Littorina saxatilis) that has evolved considerable phenotypic diversity across Europe, including several distinct ecotypes. Small 'wave' ecotype snails inhabit exposed rocks and experience strong wave action, while thick-shelled, 'crab' ecotype snails are larger and experience crab predation on less exposed shores. Crab and wave ecotypes appear to have arisen in parallel, and recent evidence suggests only marginal sharing of molecular variation linked to evolution of similar ecotypes in different parts of Europe. However, the extent of genomic sharing is expected to increase with gene flow and more recent common ancestry. To test this, we used de novo RAD-sequencing to quantify the extent of shared genomic divergence associated with phenotypic similarities amongst ecotype pairs on three close islands (<10 km distance) connected by weak gene flow (Nm ~ 0.03) and with recent common ancestry (<10 000 years). After accounting for technical issues, including a large proportion of null alleles due to a large effective population size, we found ~8-28% of positive outliers were shared between two islands and ~2-9% were shared amongst all three islands. This low level of sharing suggests that parallel phenotypic divergence in this system is not matched by shared genomic divergence despite a high probability of gene flow and standing genetic variation.

  13. Evaluation of Freezing Tolerance of Three Ajowan (Trachyspermum ammi (Linn. Sprague Ecotypes in Controlled Conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Z Boroumand Rezazadeh

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Ajowan is one of the endemic plants in Khorasan province, and there is a little information on its tolerance to cold stress. In order to study freezing tolerance of ajowan, an experiment was conducted in faculty of agriculture, Ferdowsi University of Mashhad, based on factorial-completely randomized design with three replications and three ecotypes of ajowan (Neishabour, Birjand and Torbat-e-Heidarieh were imposed on eight freezing temperatures (0 (control, -1.5, -3, -4.5, -6,-7.5, -9 and -10.5 °C. Plants were grown in natural environment till 4-5 leaf stage, then for freezing treatments transferred to thermo-gradient freezer. The cell membrane stability was evaluated by electrolyte leakage index (EL and temperature for killing 50% of samples according to the electrolyte leakage (LT50el was determined. Furthermore, survival percentage, leaf number and dry weight, temperature for killing 50% of samples according to survival (LT50su and reduced dry matter temperature 50 (RDMT50 were determined after three weeks recovery in the glasshouse. Response of ajowan ecotypes for electrolyte leakage was different and birjand ecotype had the lowest %EL, whereas the slope of %EL in mentioned ecotype was lower than two other ecotypes. However there were no significant differences among ajowan ecotypes on LT50su. Decreasing temperature to -7.5 °C reduced survival percentage of Neishabour and Torbat-e-Heidarieh ecotypes to lower than 20 percent, whiles in this temperature Birjand’s survival percentage was about 60 percent. It seems that Birjand ecotype with the lowest electrolyte leakage, the highest survival and dry matter and the lowest LT50su was more tolerant than two other ecotypes.

  14. The effect of Chinese tallow tree (Sapium sebiferum) ecotype on soil-plant system carbon and nitrogen processes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zou, Jianwen; Rogers, William E; DeWalt, Saara J; Siemann, Evan

    2006-11-01

    The EICA hypothesis predicts that shifts in allocation of invasive plants give rise to higher growth rates and lower herbivore defense levels in their introduced range than conspecifics in their native range. These changes in traits of invasive plants may also affect ecosystem processes. We conducted an outdoor pot experiment with Chinese tallow tree (Sapium sebiferum, Euphorbiaceae) seedlings from its native (Jiangsu, China, native ecotype) and introduced ranges (Texas, USA, invasive ecotype) to compare their relative performances in its native range and to examine ecotype effects on soil processes with and without fertilization. Consistent with predictions, plant (shoot and root) mass was significantly greater and leaf defoliation tended to be higher, while the root:shoot ratio was lower for the invasive ecotype relative to the native ecotype. Seasonal amounts of soil-plant system CO(2) and N(2)O emissions were higher for the invasive ecotype than for the native ecotype. Soil respiration rates and N(2)O emission increases from fertilization were also greater for the invasive ecotype than for the native ecotype, while shoot-specific respiration rates (g CO(2)-C g(-1) C day(-1)) did not differ between ecotypes. Further, soil inorganic N (ammonium and nitrate) was higher, but soil total N was lower for soils with the invasive ecotype than soils with the native ecotype. Compared with native ecotypes, therefore, invasive ecotypes may have developed a competition advantage in accelerating soil processes and promoting more nitrogen uptake through soil-plant direct interaction. The results of this study suggest that soil and ecosystem processes accelerated by variation in traits of invasive plants may have implications for their invasiveness.

  15. Genetic diversity and maternal origin of Bangladeshi chicken.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhuiyan, M S A; Chen, Shanyuan; Faruque, S; Bhuiyan, A K F H; Beja-Pereira, Albano

    2013-06-01

    Local domestic chicken populations are of paramount importance as a source of protein in developing countries. Bangladesh possesses a large number of native chicken populations which display a broad range of phenotypes well adapted to the extreme wet and hot environments of this region. This and the fact that wild jungle fowls (JFs) are still available in some regions of the country, it urges to study the present genetic diversity and relationships between Bangladeshi autochthonous chicken populations. Here, we report the results of the mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) sequence polymorphisms analyses to assess the genetic diversity and possible maternal origin of Bangladeshi indigenous chickens. A 648-bp fragment of mtDNA control region (D-loop) was analyzed in 96 samples from four different chicken populations and one red JF population. Sequence analysis revealed 39 variable sites that defined 25 haplotypes. Estimates of haplotype and nucleotide diversities ranged from 0.745 to 0.901 and from 0.011 to 0.016, respectively. The pairwise differences between populations ranged from 0.091 to 1.459 while most of the PhiST (ΦST) values were significant. Furthermore, AMOVA analysis revealed 89.16 % of the total genetic diversity was accounted for within population variation, indicating little genetic differentiation among the studied populations. The median network analysis from haplotypes of Bangladeshi chickens illustrated five distinct mitochondrial haplogroups (A, D, E, F and I). Individuals from all Bangladeshi chicken populations were represented in the major clades D and E; those maternal origins are presumed to be from Indian Subcontinent and Southeast Asian countries, more particularly from South China, Vietnam, Myanmar and Thailand. Further, phylogenetic analysis between indigenous chicken populations and sub-species of red JFs showed G. g. gallus and G. g. spadiceus shared with almost all haplogroups and had major influence than G. g. murghi in the origin of

  16. Phylogenomics of the killer whale indicates ecotype divergence in sympatry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moura, A E; Kenny, J G; Chaudhuri, R R; Hughes, M A; Reisinger, R R; de Bruyn, P J N; Dahlheim, M E; Hall, N; Hoelzel, A R

    2015-01-01

    For many highly mobile species, the marine environment presents few obvious barriers to gene flow. Even so, there is considerable diversity within and among species, referred to by some as the 'marine speciation paradox'. The recent and diverse radiation of delphinid cetaceans (dolphins) represents a good example of this. Delphinids are capable of extensive dispersion and yet many show fine-scale genetic differentiation among populations. Proposed mechanisms include the division and isolation of populations based on habitat dependence and resource specializations, and habitat release or changing dispersal corridors during glacial cycles. Here we use a phylogenomic approach to investigate the origin of differentiated sympatric populations of killer whales (Orcinus orca). Killer whales show strong specialization on prey choice in populations of stable matrifocal social groups (ecotypes), associated with genetic and phenotypic differentiation. Our data suggest evolution in sympatry among populations of resource specialists.

  17. My Chicken Adventure

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    DOROTHY; TECKLENBURG

    2006-01-01

    I am suffering from chicken envy. I'm determined to cook a chicken like the golden brown ones you buy in any Washington grocery store, those beautiful roasted chickens done on a revolving spit. Those chickens you take for granted because you can just waltz in at 6 p.m. and buy one for dinner.

  18. Chicken Breast Paste

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    1994-01-01

    Ingredients: 50 grams of chicken breast, 150 grams of egg white, ham, cucumber and water chestnuts, 50 grams of starch, 50 grams of oil, salt and MSG. Directions: 1. Chop up the chicken breast and water chestnuts. Mix with egg white and starch into chicken breast paste. 2. Heat the oil for a moment and then place chicken paste in pot.

  19. Phenotypic plasticity in response to the social environment: effects of density and sex ratio on mating behaviour following ecotype divergence.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kristina Karlsson

    Full Text Available The ability to express phenotypically plastic responses to environmental cues might be adaptive in changing environments. We studied phenotypic plasticity in mating behaviour as a response to population density and adult sex ratio in a freshwater isopod (Asellus aquaticus. A. aquaticus has recently diverged into two distinct ecotypes, inhabiting different lake habitats (reed Phragmites australis and stonewort Chara tomentosa, respectively. In field surveys, we found that these habitats differ markedly in isopod population densities and adult sex ratios. These spatially and temporally demographic differences are likely to affect mating behaviour. We performed behavioural experiments using animals from both the ancestral ecotype ("reed" isopods and from the novel ecotype ("stonewort" isopods population. We found that neither ecotype adjusted their behaviour in response to population density. However, the reed ecotype had a higher intrinsic mating propensity across densities. In contrast to the effects of density, we found ecotype differences in plasticity in response to sex ratio. The stonewort ecotype show pronounced phenotypic plasticity in mating propensity to adult sex ratio, whereas the reed ecotype showed a more canalised behaviour with respect to this demographic factor. We suggest that the lower overall mating propensity and the phenotypic plasticity in response to sex ratio have evolved in the novel stonewort ecotype following invasion of the novel habitat. Plasticity in mating behaviour may in turn have effects on the direction and intensity of sexual selection in the stonewort habitat, which may fuel further ecotype divergence.

  20. Demographic characteristics of circumpolar caribou populations: ecotypes, ecological constraints, releases, and population dynamics

    OpenAIRE

    Mallory, F.F.; T.L. Hillis

    1998-01-01

    Data on the status of caribou {Rangifer tarandus) herds throughout the circumpolar region during the last 20 years were obtained from the literature and personal communication with researchers. Information was analysed in relation to ecotype (insular, montane, barren-ground, and woodland/forest), population status (increasing, stable, decreasing), herd size, human impact, and temporal change in number. The data support the conclusions (1) that each ecotype is exposed to different ecological c...

  1. Identification and Selection for Salt Tolerance in Alfalfa (Medicago sativa L. Ecotypes via Physiological Traits

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hassan MONIRIFAR

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Salt stress is a serious environmental problem throughout the world which may be partially relieved by breeding cultivars that can tolerate salt stress. Plant breeding may provide a relatively cost effective short-term solution to the salinity problem by producing cultivars able to remain productive at low to moderate levels of salinity. Five alfalfa cultivars, �Seyah-Roud�, �Ahar-Hourand�, �Oskou�, �Malekan� and �Sefida-Khan� were assessed for salt tolerance at mature plant stage. A greenhouse screening system was used to evaluate individual alfalfa plants grown in perlit medium, and irrigated with water containing different amounts of NaCl. Three salt levels were achieved by adding 0, 100 and 200 mM NaCl to Hoagland nutrient solution, respectively. Forage yield, sodium and potassium contents and K/Na ratio was determined. Also, leaf samples were analyzed for proline and chlorophyll contents. The ecotypes Seyha-Roud and �Sefida-Khan� had comparatively less sodium contents than �Oskou�, �Ahar-Hourand� and �Malekan� ecotypes, also potassium content increased under saline condition. Forage yield of different alfalfa ecotypes was significantly influenced by the salinity. The ecotypes �Malekan�, Ahar- Hourand and �Oskou� were successful in maintaining forage yield under salinity stress. Sodium contents increased due to salinity in all alfalfa ecotypes however ecotypes �Ahar-Hourand� and �Malekan� maintained the highest leaf Na concentration. They showed higher content of K than other ecotypes but had lower K/Na ratio. It was concluded that, two ecotypes �Malekan� and �Ahar-Hourand� were better.

  2. Genetic diversity in South African Nguni cattle ecotypes based on microsatellite markers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanarana, Yandisiwe; Visser, Carina; Bosman, Lydia; Nephawe, Khathutshelo; Maiwashe, Azwihangwisi; van Marle-Köster, Este

    2016-02-01

    The Nguni cattle breed is a landrace breed adapted to different ecological regions of South Africa. A number of ecotypes are recognised based on phenotype within the breed, but it is not known if they are genetically distinct. In this study, molecular characterisation was performed on Makhathini (MAK), Pedi (PED), Shangaan (SHA) and Venda (VEN) Nguni cattle ecotypes. Two Nguni cattle populations, not kept as separate ecotypes, from the University of Fort Hare (UFH) and Agricultural Research Council Loskop South farm (LOS) were also included. Genotypic data was generated for 189 unrelated Nguni cattle selected based on pedigree records using 22 microsatellite markers. The expected heterozygosity values varied from 69 % (UFH) to 72 % (PED) with a mean number of alleles ranging from 6.0 to 6.9. The F ST estimate demonstrated that 4.8 % of the total genetic variation was due to the genetic differentiation between the populations and 92.2 % accounted for differences within the populations. The genetic distances and structure analysis revealed the closest relationship between MAK, PEDI and SHA ecotypes, followed by SHA and VEN. The UFH population clustered with the MAK ecotype, indicating that they are more genetically similar, while the LOS cattle grouped as a distinct cluster. Results suggest that the genetic differentiation between the PED and SHA ecotypes is low and can be regarded as one ecotype based on limited genetic differences. The results of this study can be applied as a point of reference for further genetic studies towards conservation of Nguni cattle ecotypes.

  3. Genetic and Ecotypic Differentiation in a Californian Plant Polyploid Complex (Grindelia, Asteraceae)

    OpenAIRE

    Abigail J Moore; Moore, William L.; Baldwin, Bruce G.

    2014-01-01

    Studies of ecotypic differentiation in the California Floristic Province have contributed greatly to plant evolutionary biology since the pioneering work of Clausen, Keck, and Hiesey. The extent of gene flow and genetic differentiation across interfertile ecotypes that span major habitats in the California Floristic Province is understudied, however, and is important for understanding the prospects for local adaptation to evolve or persist in the face of potential gene flow across populations...

  4. COMPARISON OF SLAUGHTER, CARCASS VALUES OF SUDAN GOAT ECOTYPES FED DIFFERENT LEVELS OF ENERGY/PROTEIN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.A. TAMEEM ELDAR

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available This experiment aimed to assess the slaughter and carcass values of different Sudan goat ecotypes (Nubian, Desert and Swiss Nubian fed different levels of energy/protein. Nine male goat kids (2-3 months and average weight 9.23 kg of either ecotypes were used in a 3x3x3 arrangement, fed three experimental diets A (control, B and C, with varying energy: protein 1:0.14, 1:0.16 and 1:0.18 respectively. The study showed that Nubian goats possessed heavier slaughter weight; empty body weight, warm and cold carcass weight than the Desert and Swiss Nubian goats in the ration B and C. Dressing percentage on both basis (slaughter weight and empty body weight of Nubian were higher for ration B and C. Warm carcass weights of all goat ecotypes increased directly with energy: protein ratio. Highest weight of leg, loin, rack and neck and shoulder were recorded by Nubian goats for ration B and C. It was concluded that, all ecotype kids respond well to increasing energy protein levels. According to the results obtained local goat ecotypes, mainly Nubian goats, responded well to improved nutrition, therefore results obtained can be applied for the local goat ecotypes studied to encourage goat meat consumption and exportation.

  5. Brood development of different carniolan bee ecotypes (Apis mellifera carnica Pollmann, 1879

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    Dragan Bubalo

    2002-09-01

    Full Text Available Brood development of different carniolan honeybee ecotypes (Apis mellifera carnica Pollmann, 1879 was carried out in condition of pannonian and alpine climate. The colonies on both experimental apiaries were divided in the three groups, each 12 queens, of alpine (Austria, subalpine (Slovenia and pannonian (Croatia ecotype. The experiment was designed to monitor development of brood, the total number of laid cells and colony strength. In particular part of the year, experimental ecotypes shown significant differences in area of unsealed and sealed brood in both climate. In the whole season there was not established significant difference between ecotypes regarding to development of drone brood. In pannonian climate, in comparison to alpine climate, the number of laid eggs was higher for all ecotypes. Pannonian ecotype did not recognize all food sources in the new environment, which could be seen in the lack of pollen in the colonies at the alpine climate during last two measuriments. The lack of pollen affected the weakening of the colonies laiter in the season.

  6. Replaying Evolution to Test the Cause of Extinction of One Ecotype in an Experimentally Evolved Population.

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    Caroline B Turner

    Full Text Available In a long-term evolution experiment with Escherichia coli, bacteria in one of twelve populations evolved the ability to consume citrate, a previously unexploited resource in a glucose-limited medium. This innovation led to the frequency-dependent coexistence of citrate-consuming (Cit+ and non-consuming (Cit- ecotypes, with Cit-bacteria persisting on the exogenously supplied glucose as well as other carbon molecules released by the Cit+ bacteria. After more than 10,000 generations of coexistence, however, the Cit-lineage went extinct; cells with the Cit-phenotype dropped to levels below detection, and the Cit-clade could not be detected by molecular assays based on its unique genotype. We hypothesized that this extinction was a deterministic outcome of evolutionary change within the population, specifically the appearance of a more-fit Cit+ ecotype that competitively excluded the Cit-ecotype. We tested this hypothesis by re-evolving the population from a frozen population sample taken within 500 generations of the extinction and from another sample taken several thousand generations earlier, in each case for 500 generations and with 20-fold replication. To our surprise, the Cit-type did not go extinct in any of these replays, and Cit-cells also persisted in a single replicate that was propagated for 2,500 generations. Even more unexpectedly, we showed that the Cit-ecotype could reinvade the Cit+ population after its extinction. Taken together, these results indicate that the extinction of the Cit-ecotype was not a deterministic outcome driven by competitive exclusion by the Cit+ ecotype. The extinction also cannot be explained by demographic stochasticity alone, as the population size of the Cit-ecotype should have been many thousands of cells even during the daily transfer events. Instead, we infer that the extinction must have been caused by a rare chance event in which some aspect of the experimental conditions was inadvertently perturbed.

  7. Comparison of seasonal habitat selection between threatened woodland caribou ecotypes in central British Columbia

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    Elena S. Jones

    2007-04-01

    Full Text Available Woodland caribou (Rangifer tarandus caribou in British Columbia have been classified into ecotypes based on differences in use of habitat in winter. Although recovery planning focuses on ecotypes, habitat use and selection varies within ecotypes. Our objectives were to compare habitat use and selection among previously identified woodland caribou herds at the transition zone between northern (Moberly, Quintette, and Kennedy herds and mountain (Parsnip herd ecotypes in central British Columbia. We developed selection models for each herd in spring, calving, summer/fall, early and late winter. Topographic models best predicted selection by most herds in most seasons, but importance of vegetation-cover was highlighted by disproportionate use of specific vegetation-cover types by all caribou herds (e.g., in early winter, 75% of Kennedy locations were in pine-leading stands, 84% of Parsnip locations were in fir and fir-leading stands, and 87 and 96% of locations were in alpine for the Moberly and Quintette herds, respectively. Using a combination of GPS and VHF radio-collar locations, we documented some spatial overlap among herds within the year, but use of vegetation-cover types and selection of elevations, aspects, and vegetation-cover types differed among herds and within ecotypes in all seasons. Habitat use and selection were most similar between the two northern-ecotype herds residing on the eastern side of the Rocky Mountains. This research indicates that habitat use and selection by caribou herds in all seasons is more variable than ecotype classifications suggest and demonstrates the value of undertaking herd-specific mapping of critical habitat for woodland caribou.

  8. Metabolic and biological profile of autochthonous Vitis vinifera L. ecotypes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Impei, Stefania; Gismondi, Angelo; Canuti, Lorena; Canini, Antonella

    2015-05-01

    Vitis vinifera L. is a plant species rich in phenolic compounds that are usually associated with the health benefits of wine and grape consumption in the diet. Anthocyanins, catechins, flavonol, phenolic acids and stilbenes are key molecular constituents of the Vitis berries, affecting the quality of grape products. The purpose of this work was to identify the metabolic profiles of 37 genetically certified V. vinifera Latial accessions. In particular, qualitative and quantitative analyses of specific secondary metabolites and total phenolic and tannin contents were performed by LC-MS and spectrophotometric analysis. In addition, since plant molecules are well-known for their free radical scavenging properties, the antioxidant effects of the sample extracts were evaluated through two different antiradical assays: DPPH and FRAP tests. Finally, a preliminary screening of the antiproliferative activity of each specimen on HCT-116 human colorectal cancer cells was conducted. All the results showed a great variety and amount of phenolic compounds in all accessions; moreover, we observed a significant correlation in the extracts between the metabolite concentration and bioactivity. Besides, some samples presented extraordinary biological effects, such as reduction of tumor cell growth not associated with cytotoxicity, supporting their use as possible future adjuvants for cancer therapy. In conclusion, the present research increased the scientific knowledge about Italian autochthonous vine ecotypes in order to valorize them and support their reintroduction in the local economic system.

  9. Indigenous Partner Violence, Indigenous Sentencing Courts, and Pathways to Desistance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marchetti, Elena; Daly, Kathleen

    2016-09-13

    Mainstream sentencing courts do little to change the behavior of partner violence offenders, let alone members of more socially marginal groups. Indigenous offenders face a court system that has little relevance to the complexity of their relations and lived experiences. Assisted by respected Elders and Community Representatives, Australian Indigenous sentencing courts seek to create a more meaningful sentencing process that has a deeper impact on Indigenous offenders' attitudes and, ultimately, their behavior. Drawing from interviews with 30 Indigenous offenders, we explore the ways in which the courts can motivate Indigenous partner violence offenders on pathways to desistence.

  10. Designing Indigenous Language Revitalization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hermes, Mary; Bang, Megan; Marin, Ananda

    2012-01-01

    Endangered Indigenous languages have received little attention within the American educational research community. However, within Native American communities, language revitalization is pushing education beyond former iterations of culturally relevant curriculum and has the potential to radically alter how we understand culture and language in…

  11. A molecular analysis of the patterns of genetic diversity in local chickens from western Algeria in comparison with commercial lines and wild jungle fowls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahammi, F Z; Gaouar, S B S; Laloë, D; Faugeras, R; Tabet-Aoul, N; Rognon, X; Tixier-Boichard, M; Saidi-Mehtar, N

    2016-02-01

    The objectives of this study were to characterize the genetic variability of village chickens from three agro-ecological regions of western Algeria: coastal (CT), inland plains (IP) and highlands (HL), to reveal any underlying population structure, and to evaluate potential genetic introgression from commercial lines into local populations. A set of 233 chickens was genotyped with a panel of 23 microsatellite markers. Geographical coordinates were individually recorded. Eight reference populations were included in the study to investigate potential gene flow: four highly selected commercial pure lines and four lines of French slow-growing chickens. Two populations of wild red jungle fowls were also genotyped to compare the range of diversity between domestic and wild fowls. A genetic diversity analysis was conducted both within and between populations. Multivariate redundancy analyses were performed to assess the relative influence of geographical location among Algerian ecotypes. The results showed a high genetic variability within the Algerian population, with 184 alleles and a mean number of 8.09 alleles per locus. The values of heterozygosity (He and Ho) ranged from 0.55 to 0.62 in Algerian ecotypes and were smaller than values found in Jungle fowl populations and higher than values found in commercial populations. Although the structuring analysis of genotypes did not reveal clear subpopulations within Algerian ecotypes, the supervised approach using geographical data showed a significant (p Algeria are characterized by a high genetic diversity and must be safeguarded as an important reservoir of genetic diversity.

  12. Evaluation of Fall Planting Dates of Cumin (Cuminum cyminum L. Ecotypes in Mashhad Conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Z Khorasani

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available In order to study the effects of fall planting dates on yield and yield components of six cumin (Cuminum cyminum L. ecotypes an experiment was arranged in a randomized complete block design as a split-plot with three replications during 2007-08 growing season at the Agricultural Research Station of Ferdowsi University of Mashhad. Three planting dates (18 Oct. (first, 8 Nov. (second and 29 Dec. (third and six cumin ecotypes (Torbat heydarieh, Khaf, Sabzevar, Ghaen, Ghoochan and RZ19 were allocated to main and sub plots, respectively. Results showed that the effects of planting dates, ecotypes and interaction effects of planting dates and cumin ecotypes were significant for yield components (winter survival percentage, number of umbel per plant, number of seeds per umbel and 1000-seed weight and seed yield and biological yield. There was a reduction on yield components (number of umbel per plant, number of seeds per umbel and 1000-seed weight, seed yield and biological yield due to delay planting date from 18 Oct. to 29 Dec. The highest winter survival percentage was achieved on the third planting date. The highest and lowest amount for all of the traits, were achieved in Ghaen and RZ19 ecotypes, respectively. According to the useful results and for the deployment of cumin fall planting in other locations of province, continuation of this study to recommended.

  13. Uptake, Distribution and Accumulation of Copper in Two Ecotypes of Elsholtzia

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    JIANG Li-Ying; YANG Xiao-E; YE Zheng-Qian; SHI Wei-Yong

    2003-01-01

    Two ecotypes of Elsholtzia, Elsholtzia splendens and E. Argyi, are dominant plants growing on Cu and Pb-Zn smelters, respectively. Samples of the two ecotypes and the corresponding soils from fields of a copper mining area and a Pb-Zn mining area of Zhejiang Province, China, were analyzed to investigate Cu or Zn tolerance of these two ecotypes. Effects of nine Cu levels (0, 5, 10, 20, 40, 80, 160, 240 and 320 mg Cu L-1 as CuSO4@SH20) on growth and uptake, translocation and accumulation of Cu in these two ecotypes were examined in a solution culture experiment. The experimental results showed that dry weights (DW) of shoots and roots were depressed, and growth of E. Splendens was less depressed tha n that of E. Argyi when treated with ≥ 5 mg Cu L-1. Concentrations of Cu in shoots of E. Splendens and E. Argyi exceeded 1 000 mg kg-1 DW at ≥ 40 mg Cu L-x. The maximum Cu accumulated in the shoots of Gu-treated E. Splendens and E. Argyi reached 101 and 142μg plant-1. Furthermore, analysis of plant samples from the fields showed that these two ecotypes can tolerant excess heavy metals and produced high dry matter, and E. Splendens can accumulate 11.7 mg Cu plant-1 grown on the Cu smelter. Therefore, E. Splendens and E. Argyi could be good plants for phytoremediation.

  14. Divergence is focused on few genomic regions early in speciation: incipient speciation of sunflower ecotypes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andrew, Rose L; Rieseberg, Loren H

    2013-09-01

    Early in speciation, as populations undergo the transition from local adaptation to incipient species, is when a number of transient, but potentially important, processes appear to be most easily detected. These include signatures of selective sweeps that can point to asymmetry in selection between habitats, divergence hitchhiking, and associations of adaptive genes with environments. In a genomic comparison of ecotypes of the prairie sunflower, Helianthus petiolaris, occurring at Great Sand Dunes National Park and Preserve (Colorado), we found that selective sweeps were mainly restricted to the dune ecotype and that there was variation across the genome in whether proximity to the nondune population constrained or promoted divergence. The major regions of divergence were few and large between ecotypes, in contrast with an interspecific comparison between H. petiolaris and a sympatric congener, Helianthus annuus. In general, the large regions of divergence observed in the ecotypic comparison swamped locus-specific associations with environmental variables. In both comparisons, regions of high divergence occurred in portions of the genetic map with high marker density, probably reflecting regions of low recombination. The difference in genomic distributions of highly divergent regions between ecotypic and interspecific comparisons highlights the value of studies spanning the spectrum of speciation in related taxa.

  15. STATUS OF BACKYARD CHICKEN REARED BY WOMEN IN CHITRAL, PAKISTAN

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    M. Farooq, M. K. Shakir1, M. A. Mian, S. Mussawar2, F. R. Durrani and A. Cheema3

    2004-04-01

    Full Text Available Information from 150 females was obtained during the year 1998-99 to investigate status of backyard chicken in Chitral. Estimated human population and number of backyard birds in Chitral were 0.295 and 0.747 million, respectively. Average household flock size was 23.14 ± 1.97 birds, representing 8.04 ± 1.23, 6.83 ± 1.13, 5.67 ± 0.85 and 2.60 ± 0.27 number of Saso, Desi (non-descript indigenous chicken, Rhode Island Red (RIR and Fayumi birds, respectively. Household flock size and per capita available birds were higher in double than in transitional crop zone. Training status of the farmers, vaccination schedule and crop production zone affected egg production and mortality in backyard chickens. Average mortality in a flock was 13.56 ± 1.38%, representing higher mortality (P<0.05 in Saso as compared to non-descript indigenous Desi chicken. Total annual number of eggs obtained by a household from backyard chicken was 2975.95 ± 71.22 eggs, representing 378.28 ± 17.45 and 128.61 ± 21.14 eggs per capita and per bird, respectively. Saso chicken (176.22 ± 21.23 eggs as compared to non-descript indigenous Desi chicken (58.83 ± 5.27 eggs produced higher number of eggs per bird. Average number of eggs used for hatching purpose and per capita eggs consumed was 56.34 ± 3.37 and 137.68 ± 23.61, respectively. Mixed rearing practice of exotic birds with Desi chicken resulted in non-broodiness problem that adversely affected hatching performance as reported by most of the farmers. Proper health coverage, provision of training in poultry production, higher flock size, introduction of exotic birds, avoiding haphazard breeding and reduction in mortality were suggested as key factors for better backyard chicken productivity in Chitral.

  16. Pb uptake, accumulation, subcellular distribution in a Pb-accumulating ecotype of Sedum alfredii (Hance)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    何冰; 杨肖娥; 倪吾钟; 魏幼璋; 叶海波

    2003-01-01

    Lead concentrations in roots, stems and leaves of accumulating and non-accumulating ecotypes of Sedum alfredii (Hance) were studied through a hydroponic experiment with different Pb concentrations sup-plied as Pb( NO3 )2 .Lead concentrations in leaves and stems of the accumulating ecotype were 4-9 times and 3-5 times those of the non-accumulating ecotype, and Pb-accumulated amounts in stems and leaves of theaccumulating ecotype were 4-9 times and 8-1l times higher than those of the non-accumulating ecotype,respectively. The results indicated that the accumulating ecotype had better ability to transport Pb from roots toshoots. The subeellular distributions of Pb in the root, stem and leaf tissues were studied using sucrose differ-ential centrifugation. Approximately 50% of Pb contents was found to be associated with the cell wall fractionin stems of the accumulating ecotype and the percentage increased to 80% both in roots and leaves, no matter when plants were grown with different levels of Pb. The results indicated that the distribution of Pb on cell walls of the accumulating ecotype could mainly account for the high tolerance to Pb.

  17. Comparative Genomics of cpn60-Defined Enterococcus hirae Ecotypes and Relationship of Gene Content Differences to Competitive Fitness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katyal, Isha; Chaban, Bonnie; Hill, Janet E

    2016-11-01

    Natural microbial communities undergo selection-driven succession with changes in environmental conditions and available nutrients. In a previous study of the pig faecal Enterococcus community, we demonstrated that cpn60 universal target (UT) sequences could resolve phenotypically and genotypically distinct ecotypes of Enterococcus spp. that emerged over time in the faecal microbiome of growing pigs. In this study, we characterized genomic diversity in the identified Enterococcus hirae ecotypes in order to define further the nature and degree of genome content differences between taxa resolved by cpn60 UT sequences. Genome sequences for six representative isolates (two from each of three ecotypes) were compared. Differences in phosphotransferase systems and amino acid metabolism pathways for glutamine, proline and selenocysteine were observed. Differences in the lac family phosphotransferase system corresponded to lactose utilization phenotypes of the isolates. Competitive fitness of the E. hirae ecotypes was evaluated by in vitro growth competition assays in pig faecal extract medium. Isolates from E. hirae-1 and E. hirae-2 ecotypes were able to out-compete isolates from the E. hirae-3 ecotype, consistent with the relatively low abundance of E. hirae-3 relative to E. hirae-1 and E. hirae-2 previously observed in the pig faecal microbiome, and with observed differences between the ecotypes in gene content related to biosynthetic capacity. Results of this study provide a genomic basis for the definition of ecotypes within E. hirae and confirm the utility of the cpn60 UT sequence for high-resolution profiling of complex microbial communities.

  18. Agronomic, metabolomic and lipidomic characterisation of Sicilian Origanum vulgare (L.) ecotypes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tuttolomondo, Teresa; Martinelli, Federico; Mariotti, Lorenzo; Leto, Claudio; Maggio, Antonella; La Bella, Salvatore

    2016-01-01

    Although Origanum vulgare (L.) has been deeply analysed at phytochemical level, poor knowledge is available regarding non-volatile compounds such as lipids. The aim of this work was to characterise five wild Sicilian Origanum ecotypes from an agronomic, metabolomic and lipidomic perspective. Serradifalco presented higher dry weight and inflorescences/plant than the others while Favara had a significantly higher number of branches per plant and more extensive flowered stratum. Metabolomic analysis, performed with LC-MS-TOF, allowed a preliminary characterisation of the non-volatile metabolome of the five oregano ecotypes Origanum vulgare ssp. hirtum. Twenty-five metabolites were identified belonging to organic acids, amino acids, lysophosphatidylcholines, carnithines, nucleic bases and lysophosphatidylethanolamines. Lipidomic analysis identified 115 polar plant membrane glycerolipid species. Thirteen of them were differentially present in the two chosen ecotypes. The role of these metabolites in plant physiology from a qualitative and pharmacological point of view was discussed.

  19. The molecular dimension of microbial species: 1. Ecological distinctions among, and homogeneity within, putative ecotypes of Synechococcus inhabiting the cyanobacterial mat of Mushroom Spring, Yellowstone National Park

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Becraft, Eric D.; Wood, Jason M.; Rusch, Douglas B.;

    2015-01-01

    and transcripts over a large number of habitat types in the Mushroom Spring microbial mat. Putative ecological species [putative ecotypes (PEs)], which were predicted by an evolutionary simulation based on the Stable Ecotype Model (Ecotype Simulation), exhibited distinct distributions relative to temperature...

  20. Indigenous microbiota and Leishmaniasis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lopes, M E M; Carneiro, M B H; Dos Santos, L M; Vieira, L Q

    2016-01-01

    Animals are colonized by their indigenous microbiota from the early days of life. The estimated number of associated bacterial cells in humans is around of 10(14) per individual, most of them in the gut. Several studies have investigated the microbiota-host relationship, and the use of germfree animals has been an important tool in these studies. These animals, when infected with a pathogen, have shown to be sometimes more resistant and other times more susceptible than conventional animals. Leishmaniasis is a worldwide public health problem and presents a spectrum of clinical manifestations. However, very few studies have addressed the role of the indigenous microbiota on the outcome of this disease. In this review, we will highlight and discuss the data available on the ways by which the microbiota can influence the outcome of the disease in murine experimental models of cutaneous infection with Leishmania.

  1. INDIGENISM AND EXCLUSION

    OpenAIRE

    José Angel Vera Noriega

    2006-01-01

    SUMMARYThe objective of the work is to carry out an analysis of the Western vision of the indigenous towns from the four types of exclusion of which Focault speaks (1978) when he talks about madness. The Social exclusion or work exclusion, family exclusion or emotional affective exclusion, the symbolic or linguistic exclusion and the playful or images exclusion. It is a reflection and transformation of ideas that allows coexisting worlds playing the power game in where the most important thin...

  2. Phytostabilization potential of two ecotypes of Vetiveria zizanioides in cadmium-contaminated soils: greenhouse and field experiments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phusantisampan, Theerawut; Meeinkuirt, Weeradej; Saengwilai, Patompong; Pichtel, John; Chaiyarat, Rattanawat

    2016-10-01

    Soil contamination by cadmium (Cd) poses a serious environmental and public health concern. Phytoremediation, i.e., the use of plants to remove contaminants from soil, has been proposed for treatment of Cd-contaminated ecosystems. In this study, we demonstrated the potential of Vetiveria zizanioides, commonly known as vetiver, to serve as an effective phytoremediation agent. Two ecotypes, i.e., India and Sri Lanka, were grown in greenhouse pots and in the field. Soils were amended with cow manure, pig manure, bat manure, and an organic fertilizer. Among all amendments, pig manure performed best in both greenhouse and field studies in terms of increasing total V. zizanioides biomass production in both ecotypes. In both greenhouse and in the field, tissue of the Sri Lanka ecotype had higher Cd concentrations than did the India ecotype. In the greenhouse, the presence of Cd did not affect total biomass production or root dry weight. The Sri Lanka ecotype had 2.7 times greater adventitious root numbers and 3.6 times greater Cd accumulation in roots than did the India ecotype. In the field study, the Sri Lanka ecotype offers potential as an excluder species, as it accumulated Cd primarily in roots, with translocation factor values 1 for all experiments except for the pig manure amendment. In addition, the highest Cd concentration in the Sri Lanka ecotype root (71.3 mg kg(-1)) was consistent with highest Cd uptake (10.4 mg plant(-1)) in the cow manure treatment. The India ecotype contained lower root Cd concentrations, and Cd accumulation was slightly higher in shoots compared to roots, with translocation factor (TF) values >1. The India ecotype was therefore not considered as an excluder in the Cd-contaminated soil. With the use of excluder species combined with application of organic amendments, soil contamination by Cd may be treated by alternative remediation methods such as phytostabilization.

  3. Indigenous Australian Education and Globalisation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brady, Wendy

    1997-09-01

    This article focuses on the impact of colonisation and its associated impact on Indigenous teaching and learning. Western European institutions have dominated Indigenous ways of knowing and in Australia this has led to barriers which restrict the participation of Aboriginal people in education systems. Globally Indigenous people are attempting to bring into the introduced educational systems culturally appropriate teaching and learning practices so that a more holistic approach to education can become the norm rather than the exception. The relationship between Indigenous knowledge and western European concepts of knowledge and knowing need to placed in a framework of mutual interaction so that not only do Indigenous people benefit, but so do non-Indigenous educators and students.

  4. The indigenous honey bees of Saudi Arabia (Hymenoptera, Apidae, Apis mellifera jemenitica Ruttner: Their natural history and role in beekeeping

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdulaziz Alqarni

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Apis mellifera jemenitica Ruttner (= yemenitica auctorum: vide Engel 1999 has been used in apiculture throughout the Arabian Peninsula since at least 2000 BC. Existing literature demonstrates that these populations are well adapted for the harsh extremes of the region. Populations of A. m. jemenitica native to Saudi Arabia are far more heat tolerant than the standard races often imported from Europe. Central Saudi Arabia has the highest summer temperatures for the Arabian Peninsula, and it is in this region where only A. m. jemenitica survives, while other subspecies fail to persist. The indigenous race of Saudi Arabia differs from other subspecies in the region in some morphological, biological, and behavioral characteristics. Further taxonomic investigation, as well as molecular studies, is needed in order to confirm whether the Saudi indigenous bee populations represent a race distinct from A. m. jemenitica, or merely an ecotype of this subspecies.

  5. The indigenous honey bees of Saudi Arabia (Hymenoptera, Apidae, Apis mellifera jemenitica Ruttner): Their natural history and role in beekeeping.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alqarni, Abdulaziz S; Hannan, Mohammed A; Owayss, Ayman A; Engel, Michael S

    2011-01-01

    Apis mellifera jemenitica Ruttner (= yemenitica auctorum: videEngel 1999) has been used in apiculture throughout the Arabian Peninsula since at least 2000 BC. Existing literature demonstrates that these populations are well adapted for the harsh extremes of the region. Populations of Apis mellifera jemenitica native to Saudi Arabia are far more heat tolerant than the standard races often imported from Europe. Central Saudi Arabia has the highest summer temperatures for the Arabian Peninsula, and it is in this region where only Apis mellifera jemenitica survives, while other subspecies fail to persist. The indigenous race of Saudi Arabia differs from other subspecies in the region in some morphological, biological, and behavioral characteristics. Further taxonomic investigation, as well as molecular studies, is needed in order to confirm whether the Saudi indigenous bee populations represent a race distinct from Apis mellifera jemenitica, or merely an ecotype of this subspecies.

  6. Cross-cultural and cross-ecotype production of a killer whale `excitement' call suggests universality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rehn, Nicola; Filatova, Olga A.; Durban, John W.; Foote, Andrew D.

    2011-01-01

    Facial and vocal expressions of emotion have been found in a number of social mammal species and are thought to have evolved to aid social communication. There has been much debate about whether such signals are culturally inherited or are truly biologically innate. Evidence for the innateness of such signals can come from cross-cultural studies. Previous studies have identified a vocalisation (the V4 or `excitement' call) associated with high arousal behaviours in a population of killer whales in British Columbia, Canada. In this study, we compared recordings from three different socially and reproductively isolated ecotypes of killer whales, including five vocal clans of one ecotype, each clan having discrete culturally transmitted vocal traditions. The V4 call was found in recordings of each ecotype and each vocal clan. Nine independent observers reproduced our classification of the V4 call from each population with high inter-observer agreement. Our results suggest the V4 call may be universal in Pacific killer whale populations and that transmission of this call is independent of cultural tradition or ecotype. We argue that such universality is more consistent with an innate vocalisation than one acquired through social learning and may be linked to its apparent function of motivational expression.

  7. Ecotypic differentiation in thermal traits in the tropical to warm-temperate green macrophyte Valonia utricularis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Eggert, A.; Burger, E.M.; Breeman, Arno

    2003-01-01

    Differentiation of thermal traits (i.e. growth, survival and reproduction) was studied in the green macrophyte Valonia utricularis (Roth) C. Agardh, which has a world-wide tropical to warm-temperate distribution. Ecotypic differentiation between northeast Atlantic/Mediterranean and Indo-west Pacific

  8. Population genomics of the killer whale indicates ecotype evolution in sympatry involving both selection and drift.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moura, Andre E; Kenny, John G; Chaudhuri, Roy; Hughes, Margaret A; J Welch, Andreanna; Reisinger, Ryan R; de Bruyn, P J Nico; Dahlheim, Marilyn E; Hall, Neil; Hoelzel, A Rus

    2014-11-01

    The evolution of diversity in the marine ecosystem is poorly understood, given the relatively high potential for connectivity, especially for highly mobile species such as whales and dolphins. The killer whale (Orcinus orca) has a worldwide distribution, and individual social groups travel over a wide geographic range. Even so, regional populations have been shown to be genetically differentiated, including among different foraging specialists (ecotypes) in sympatry. Given the strong matrifocal social structure of this species together with strong resource specializations, understanding the process of differentiation will require an understanding of the relative importance of both genetic drift and local adaptation. Here we provide a high-resolution analysis based on nuclear single-nucleotide polymorphic markers and inference about differentiation at both neutral loci and those potentially under selection. We find that all population comparisons, within or among foraging ecotypes, show significant differentiation, including populations in parapatry and sympatry. Loci putatively under selection show a different pattern of structure compared to neutral loci and are associated with gene ontology terms reflecting physiologically relevant functions (e.g. related to digestion). The pattern of differentiation for one ecotype in the North Pacific suggests local adaptation and shows some fixed differences among sympatric ecotypes. We suggest that differential habitat use and resource specializations have promoted sufficient isolation to allow differential evolution at neutral and functional loci, but that the process is recent and dependent on both selection and drift.

  9. Ecotypes as a concept for exploring responses to climate change in fish assemblage

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Engelhard, G.H.; Ellis, J.R.; Payne, M.R.; Hofstede, ter R.; Pinnegar, J.K.

    2011-01-01

    How do species-rich fish assemblages respond to climate change or to other anthropogenic or environmental drivers? To explore this, a categorization concept is presented whereby species are assigned with respect to six ecotype classifications, according to biogeography, horizontal and vertical habit

  10. Anger in Australian Indigenous and Non-Indigenous Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boman, Peter; Mergler, Amanda; Furlong, Michael; Caltabiano, Nerina

    2014-01-01

    This descriptive pilot study examined the cultural differences in the dimensions of self-reported anger in Indigenous and non-Indigenous (Caucasian) students aged 10-13 years in Far North Queensland, Australia. The Multidimensional School Anger Inventory-Revised (MSAI-R) (Boman, Curtis, Furlong, & Smith, 2006) was used to measure affective,…

  11. The Double Binds of Indigeneity and Indigenous Resistance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francis Ludlow

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available During the twentieth century, indigenous peoples have often embraced the category of indigenous while also having to face the ambiguities and limitations of this concept. Indigeneity, whether represented by indigenous people themselves or others, tends to face a “double bind”, as defined by Gregory Bateson, in which “no matter what a person does, he can’t win.” One exit strategy suggested by Bateson is meta-communication—communication about communication—in which new solutions emerge from a questioning of system-internal assumptions. We offer case studies from Ecuador, Peru and Alaska that chart some recent indigenous experiences and strategies for such scenarios.

  12. Phenotypic plasticity of sun and shade ecotypes of Stellaria longipes in response to light quality signaling, gibberellins and auxin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kurepin, Leonid V; Pharis, Richard P; Neil Emery, R J; Reid, David M; Chinnappa, C C

    2015-09-01

    Stellaria longipes plant communities (ecotypes) occur in several environmentally distinct habitats along the eastern slopes of southern Alberta's Rocky Mountains. One ecotype occurs in a prairie habitat at ∼1000 m elevation where Stellaria plants grow in an environment in which the light is filtered by taller neighbouring vegetation, i.e. sunlight with a low red to far-red (R/FR) ratio. This ecotype exhibits a high degree of phenotypic plasticity by increasing stem elongation in response to the low R/FR ratio light signal. Another Stellaria ecotype occurs nearby at ∼2400 m elevation in a much cooler alpine habitat, one where plants rarely experience low R/FR ratio shade light. Stem elongation of plants is largely regulated by gibberellins (GAs) and auxin, indole-3-acetic acid (IAA). Shoots of the prairie ecotype plants show increased IAA levels under low R/FR ratio light and they also increase their stem growth in response to applied IAA. The alpine ecotype plants show neither response. Plants from both ecotypes produce high levels of growth-active GA1 under low R/FR ratio light, though they differ appreciably in their catabolism of GA1. The alpine ecotype plants exhibit very high levels of GA8, the inactive product of GA1 metabolism, under both normal and low R/FR ratio light. Alpine origin plants may de-activate GA1 by conversion to GA8 via a constitutively high level of expression of the GA2ox gene, thereby maintaining their dwarf phenotype and exhibiting a reduced phenotypic plasticity in terms of shoot elongation. In contrast, prairie plants exhibit a high degree of phenotypic plasticity, using low R/FR ratio light-mediated changes in GA and IAA concentrations to increase shoot elongation, thereby accessing direct sunlight to optimize photosynthesis. There thus appear to be complex adaptation strategies for the two ecotypes, ones which involve modifications in the homeostasis of endogenous hormones.

  13. Photosynthetic pigments and stomatal conductance in ecotypes of copoazu (Theobroma grandi orum Willd. Ex. Spreng K. Schum..

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan Carlos Suárez-Salazar

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this work was to evaluate the variability of photosynthetic pigment content and daily stomatal conductance was evaluated in relation to environmental variables in Copoazú (Theobroma grandi orum ecotypes. The ecotypes used were part of the germoplasm bank of the University of the Amazon (Colombia. The study was carried out during the year 2015. Four leaves of the average stratum of four plants were collected for each ecotype, to extract and read at different levels of absorbance and determine the content of photosynthetic pigments. During the hours of 04:00 a.m. to 6:00 p.m., the stomatal conductance (gs was monitored for environmental variables (relative humidity, air temperature, radiation and vapor pressure de cit (VPD. An analysis of variance was made using the Tukey test, correlations and regressions were made between gs and environmental variables. The contents of chlorophyll a, b, total and carotenoids among ecotypes were different (P<0.0001, the ecotype UA-31 presented the highest values, contrasting with the ecotype UA-37. Concerning gs, the interaction ecotype*hour showed signi cant differences (P<0.0001 .The ecotypes that presented the highest values of gs were UA-67 and UA-039, (P<0.0001, radiation (-0.91, P<0.0001 and DPV (-0.94; P<0.0001 0.0001.The results suggest that ecotypes UA-039 and UA-31 were the most suitable in terms of gaseous exchange and content of photosynthetic pigments.

  14. Adaptive responses reveal contemporary and future ecotypes in a desert shrub.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richardson, Bryce A; Kitchen, Stanley G; Pendleton, Rosemary L; Pendleton, Burton K; Germino, Matthew J; Rehfeldt, Gerald E; Meyer, Susan E

    2014-03-01

    Interacting threats to ecosystem function, including climate change, wildfire, and invasive species necessitate native plant restoration in desert ecosystems. However, native plant restoration efforts often remain unguided by ecological genetic information. Given that many ecosystems are in flux from climate change, restoration plans need to account for both contemporary and future climates when choosing seed sources. In this study we analyze vegetative responses, including mortality, growth, and carbon isotope ratios in two blackbrush (Coleogyne ramosissima) common gardens that included 26 populations from a range-wide collection. This shrub occupies ecotones between the warm and cold deserts of Mojave and Colorado Plateau ecoregions in western North America. The variation observed in the vegetative responses of blackbrush populations was principally explained by grouping populations by ecoregions and by regression with site-specific climate variables. Aridity weighted by winter minimum temperatures best explained vegetative responses; Colorado Plateau sites were usually colder and drier than Mojave sites. The relationship between climate and vegetative response was mapped within the boundaries of the species-climate space projected for the contemporary climate and for the decade surrounding 2060. The mapped ecological genetic pattern showed that genetic variation could be classified into cool-adapted and warm-adapted ecotypes, with populations often separated by steep dines. These transitions are predicted to occur in both the Mojave Desert and Colorado Plateau ecoregions. While under contemporary conditions the warm-adapted ecotype occupies the majority of climate space, climate projections predict that the cool-adapted ecotype could prevail as the dominant ecotype as the climate space of blackbrush expands into higher elevations and latitudes. This study provides the framework for delineating climate change-responsive seed transfer guidelines, which are needed

  15. Indigenous Affairs = Asuntos Indigenas, 1998.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Indigenous Affairs, 1998

    1998-01-01

    This document contains the four 1998 English-language issues of Indigenous Affairs and the four corresponding issues in Spanish. These periodicals provide a resource on the history, current conditions, and struggles for self-determination and human rights of indigenous peoples around the world. The first issue is a theme issue on the indigenous…

  16. Indigenous Affairs = Asuntos Indigenas, 1996.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Indigenous Affairs, 1996

    1996-01-01

    This document contains the four 1996 English-language issues of Indigenous Affairs and the four corresponding issues in Spanish. These newsletters provide a resource on the history, current conditions, and struggles for self-determination and human rights of indigenous peoples around the world. Articles on the United States and Canada (1) discuss…

  17. Indigenous Affairs = Asuntos Indigenas, 1997.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Indigenous Affairs, 1997

    1997-01-01

    This document contains the three 1997 English-language issues of Indigenous Affairs and the three corresponding issues in Spanish. (The last two quarterly issues were combined.) These periodicals provide a resource on the history, current conditions, and struggles for self-determination and human rights of indigenous peoples around the world.…

  18. Indigenous education and heritage revitalization

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ke, Wen-Li

    2011-01-01

    The thesis (working title: 'Indigenous Education and Heritage Revitalization') focuses on the (possible) roles of tangible and intangible cultural heritage in the education of indigenous peoples in Taiwan, against the background of worldwide discussions and studies of the possibilities to create and

  19. Evaluation of Freeze Tolerance in Lancelot Plantain (Plantago lanceolata L. Ecotypes under Controlled Conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Janalizadeh

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Introduction Lancelot Plantain (Ribwort, narrow-leaf or English plantain is a deep-rooted, short-lived perennial herb from Plantaginaceae family which has been used for various medicinal purposes for centuries, especially in Europe and only more recently has been proposed as a forage plant. The leaf of plantain is highly palatable for grazing animals, providing mineral-rich forage. Recently two productive upright cultivars of plantain have been bred and introduced, Grasslands Lancelot and the more erect winter active Ceres Tonic. Plantain grows moderately in winter but its main growth periods beings in spring and autumn with opportunistic summer growth. Although it reveals suitable winter survival in natural conditions, but there is not a lot of information about cold tolerance of this plant. So it is important to recognize the freeze tolerance of narrow leaf plantain for successful planting and utilization in cold regions such as Mashhad in Khorasan Razavi Province (Northeast of Iran. Determining LT50 point or critical temperature for survival of plant is the most reliable and simple method for evaluating cold tolerance of plants. Another reliable method for freeze tolerance of plants is estimation of temperature at which 50 % of dry matter reduces (RDMT50. This experiment was carried out to evaluate freeze tolerance of five ecotypes of Lancelot plantain according to the LT50su and RDMT50 indices. Materials and Methods In order to evaluate freeze tolerance of Lancelot plantain, a factorial experiment based on completely randomized design with three replications was carried out under controlled conditions at college of agriculture, Ferdowsi University of Mashhad. Five ecotypes of Lancelot plantain (Bojnourd, Kalat, Mashhad, Ghayen and Birjand after three months growth and hardening in natural environment were transferred to a Thermo gradient freezer on January 20th, 2012 and exposed to eight freezing temperatures (Zero, -3, -6, -9, -12, -15, -18

  20. Indigenous Contributions to Sustainability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barnhardt, R.

    2010-12-01

    Throughout the course of the Fourth International Polar Year(s), indigenous peoples have assumed a prominent role as significant partners in the pursuit of a broader and deeper understanding of the multifaceted dimensions of the human role in the Arctic region. Most salient in this partnership has been the substantial underlying differences in perspective, some political, some ideological, but most fundamental and intractable are the differences in world views, between those of the relative newcomers to the area (i.e. the miners, loggers, oil field workers, commercial fishermen, tourists, and even the occasional scientist), and the Native people with roots in the land that go back millennia. But no longer can these differences be cast in simplistic either/or terms, implying some kind of inherent dichotomy between those who live off the land vs. those tied to the cash economy, or traditional vs. modern technologies, or anecdotal vs. scientific evidence. These lines have been blurred with the realities that indigenous cultures are not static, and western structures are no longer dominant. Instead, we now have a much more fluid and dynamic situation in which once competing views of the world are striving toward reconciliation through new structures and frameworks that foster co-existence rather than domination and exploitation.

  1. Protecting indigenous rights. Guatemala.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1996-01-01

    Guatemala's recent ratification of the International Labor Organization (ILO) Convention regarding indigenous and tribal peoples (1989, No. 169) represents a commitment to guarantee the rights of the country's majority Mayan population. Ratifying governments are obligated to respect the traditional values and land rights of tribal and indigenous peoples and to consult with them on any decisions affecting their economic or social development. Ratification of this Convention was a key element in an eight-part UN-sponsored negotiation aimed at ending the civil war in Guatemala. Efforts are underway to promote dialogue between organized civil society and government. Negotiations in May 1996, conducted with ILO assistance, resulted in a socioeconomic agreement under which Guatemala will increase social investment in education, undertake agrarian reform, and institute tripartite consultation on all major social and economic issues. However, two key issues in the peace negotiations--the role of the army in civil society and constitutional reform--remain unresolved. The final global peace accord is expected to be signed in September 1996. UN organizations are already working to mobilize international support for transforming these agreements into political and social realities for the Guatemalan people.

  2. Indigenization of urban mobility

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Zimo; Lian, Defu; Yuan, Nicholas Jing; Xie, Xing; Rui, Yong; Zhou, Tao

    2017-03-01

    The identification of urban mobility patterns is very important for predicting and controlling spatial events. In this study, we analyzed millions of geographical check-ins crawled from a leading Chinese location-based social networking service (Jiepang.com), which contains demographic information that facilitates group-specific studies. We determined the distinct mobility patterns of natives and non-natives in all five large cities that we considered. We used a mixed method to assign different algorithms to natives and non-natives, which greatly improved the accuracy of location prediction compared with the basic algorithms. We also propose so-called indigenization coefficients to quantify the extent to which an individual behaves like a native, which depends only on their check-in behavior, rather than requiring demographic information. Surprisingly, the hybrid algorithm weighted using the indigenization coefficients outperformed a mixed algorithm that used additional demographic information, suggesting the advantage of behavioral data in characterizing individual mobility compared with the demographic information. The present location prediction algorithms can find applications in urban planning, traffic forecasting, mobile recommendation, and so on.

  3. Transcriptomics Research in Chicken

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Yang, D.Y.; Gao, C.; Zhu, L.Q.; Tang, L.G.; Liu, J.; Nie, H.

    2012-01-01

    The chicken (Gallus gallus) is an important model organism in genetics, developmental biology, immunology and evolutionary research. Moreover, besides being an important model organism the chicken is also a very important agricultural species and an important source of food (eggs and meat). The avai

  4. Chicken's Genome Decoded

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2005-01-01

    @@ After completing the work on mapping chicken genome sequence and chicken genome variation in early March, 2004, two international research consortiums have made significant progress in reading the maps, shedding new light on the studies into the first bird as well as the first agricultural animal that has its genome sequenced and analyzed in the world.

  5. The chicken SLAM family.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Straub, Christian; Viertlboeck, Birgit C; Göbel, Thomas W

    2013-01-01

    The signaling lymphocytic activation molecule (SLAM) family of receptors is critically involved in the immune regulation of lymphocytes but has only been detected in mammals, with one member being present in Xenopus. Here, we describe the identification, cloning, and analysis of the chicken homologues to the mammalian SLAMF1 (CD150), SLAMF2 (CD48), and SLAMF4 (CD244, 2B4). Two additional chicken SLAM genes were identified and designated SLAMF3like and SLAM5like in order to stress that those two receptors have no clear mammalian counterpart but share some features with mammalian SLAMF3 and SLAMF5, respectively. Three of the chicken SLAM genes are located on chromosome 25, whereas two are currently not yet assigned. The mammalian and chicken receptors share a common structure with a V-like domain that lacks conserved cysteine residues and a C2-type Ig domain with four cysteines forming two disulfide bonds. Chicken SLAMF2, like its mammalian counterpart, lacks a transmembrane and cytoplasmic domain and thus represents a glycosyl-phosphatidyl-inositol-anchored protein. The cytoplasmic tails of SLAMF1 and SLAMF4 display two and four conserved immunoreceptor tyrosine-based switch motifs (ITSMs), respectively, whereas both chicken SLAMF3like and SLAMF5like have only a single ITSM. We have also identified the chicken homologues of the SLAM-associated protein family of adaptors (SAP), SAP and EAT-2. Chicken SAP shares about 70 % identity with mammalian SAP, and chicken EAT-2 is homologous to mouse EAT-2, whereas human EAT-2 is much shorter. The characterization of the chicken SLAM family of receptors and the SAP adaptors demonstrates the phylogenetic conservation of this family, in particular, its signaling capacities.

  6. Indigenous Educational Attainment in Canada

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Catherine E. Gordon

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available In this article, the educational attainment of Indigenous peoples of working age (25 to 64 years in Canada is examined. This diverse population has typically had lower educational levels than the general population in Canada. Results indicate that, while on the positive side there are a greater number of highly educated Indigenous peoples, there is also a continuing gap between Indigenous and non-Indigenous peoples. Data also indicate that the proportion with less than high school education declined, which corresponds with a rise of those with a PSE; the reverse was true in 1996. Despite these gains, however, the large and increasing absolute numbers of those without a high school education is alarming. There are intra-Indigenous differences: First Nations with Indian Status and the Inuit are not doing as well as non-Status and Métis peoples. Comparisons between the Indigenous and non-Indigenous populations reveal that the documented gap in post-secondary educational attainment is at best stagnant. Out of the data analysis, and based on the history of educational policy, we comment on the current reform proposed by the Government of Canada, announced in February of 2014, and propose several policy recommendations to move educational attainment forward.

  7. Indigenous Child Health in Brazil

    Science.gov (United States)

    del Pino Marchito, Sandra; Vitoy, Bernardino

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Improving the health status of indigenous children is a long-standing challenge. Several United Nations committees have identified the health of indigenous peoples as a human rights concern. Addressing the health of indigenous children cannot be separated from their social, cultural, and historic contexts, and any related health program must offer culturally appropriate services and a community perspective broad enough to address the needs of children and the local worlds in which they live. Evaluations of programs must, therefore, address process as well as impacts. This paper assesses interventions addressing indigenous children’s health in Brazil, ranging from those explicitly targeting indigenous children’s health, such as the targeted immunization program for indigenous peoples, as well as more generalized programs, including a focus upon indigenous children, such as the Integrated Management of Childhood Illness. The paper discusses the tensions and complexities of ethnically targeted health interventions as well as the conceptual and methodological challenge of measuring the processes employed and their impact. The lessons learned, especially the need for countries to more systematically collect data and evaluate impacts using ethnicity as an analytical category, are drawn out with respect to ensuring human rights for all within health sector responses.

  8. Indigenous innovation in China

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jin, Jun; Slepniov, Dmitrij

    2012-01-01

    In the past two decades, China has earned the reputation of ‘manufacturing power house’ of the world. Chinese companies in their vast numbers have been very successful in exploiting their access to low-cost labour and have established themselves as unbeatable high volume low-cost manufacturing...... a foothold in these markets and to tap into the advanced technologies and concepts originating from this developed context. Another category of Chinese companies includes those who seek to move from routine transactional tasks to more innovation-intensive concepts while remaining in China and relying......, this paper seeks to advance our understanding of indigenous innovation in China and to identify its major drivers and impediments....

  9. Haematological and serum biochemical responses of chickens to hydric stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chikumba, N; Swatson, H; Chimonyo, M

    2013-09-01

    Dehydration can be extremely damaging to the performance and welfare of indigenous chickens. The effect of water restriction on haematological and biochemical parameters was compared in Naked Neck (NNK) and Ovambo (OVB) chickens. A total of 54 8-week-old pullets each of NNK and OVB chickens with an initial average weight of 641 ± 10 g/bird were randomly assigned to three water intake treatments with three replications, each having six birds. The water restriction treatments were ad libitum, 70% and 40% of ad libitum intake. Nine experimental pens with a floor space of 3.3 m2 per strain were used. Feed was provided ad libitum. Packed cell volume (PCV), erythrocyte count (RBC), mean corpuscular volume (MCV) and total leucocyte count (WBC), and biochemical parameters (uric acid (UA)), creatinine (CREAT), total protein (TP), albumin (ALB), globulin (GLOB), triglyceride (TGA), total cholesterol (TC), high- (HDLC) and low- (LDLC) density lipoprotein cholesterol and activity of alanine transaminase (ALT), alkaline phosphatase (ALP) and aspartate transaminase (AST) were determined from blood collected after 60 days of water restriction. PCV was higher (P chickens offered water ad libitum, but similar in birds offered 70% and 40% of ad libitum. There were no differences in RBC and MCV values between strains, but MCV was higher in birds on 40% than 70% of ad libitum water intake, irrespective of strain. Naked neck chickens had higher (P chickens. The opposite was observed for UA. ALT activity indicated that liver function was not affected by water restriction. It was concluded that the two strains can withstand up to 40% of ad libitum water restriction, but NNK tolerated water stress better than OVB chickens.

  10. Indigenous Nations' Responses to Climate Change

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grossman, Zoltan

    2008-01-01

    On August 1st, 2007, Indigenous nations from within the United States, Canada, Australia, and Aotearoa (New Zealand) signed a treaty to found the United League of Indigenous Nations. The Treaty of Indigenous Nations offers a historic opportunity for sovereign Indigenous governments to build intertribal cooperation outside the framework of the…

  11. Cyber-Indigeneity: Urban Indigenous Identity on Facebook

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lumby, Bronwyn

    2010-01-01

    This paper addresses understandings and theorising of identity in cyberspace. In particular, it focuses on the construction, maintenance and performance of urban Indigenous identities on the contemporary internet social space, Facebook.

  12. Clustering of Subgingival Microbiota Reveals Microbial Disease Ecotypes Associated with Clinical Stages of Periodontitis in a Cross-Sectional Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boutin, Sébastien; Hagenfeld, Daniel; Zimmermann, Heiko; El Sayed, Nihad; Höpker, Tanja; Greiser, Halina K.; Becher, Heiko; Kim, Ti-Sun; Dalpke, Alexander H.

    2017-01-01

    Periodontitis is characterized by chronic inflammation associated with alteration of the oral microbiota. In contrast to previous microbiome studies focusing a priori on comparison between extreme phenotypes, our study analyzed a random sample of 85 people. The aim of this study was to link microbial differences to disease’s prevalence and severity. Using next generation sequencing of 16S rRNA amplicons and cluster analysis, we observed that the population can be divided into two major ecotypes: One mainly contained periodontal healthy/mild periodontitis individuals whereas the second ecotype showed a heterogeneous microbial distribution and clustered into three distinct sub-ecotypes. Those sub-ecotypes differed with respect to the frequency of diseased patients and displayed a gradual change in distinct subgingival microbiota that goes along with clinical disease symptoms. In ecotype 2, the subgroup with no clinical signs of disease was linked to an increase of F. nucleatum vincentii but also several other species, while only in “end-stage” dysbiosis classical red complex bacteria gained overweight. Therefore, the microbial disease ecotypes observed in our population can lead to an establishment of an early microbial risk profile for clinically healthy patients. PMID:28298910

  13. Characterization of starch from two ecotypes of andean achira roots (Canna edulis).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cisneros, Fausto H; Zevillanos, Roberto; Cisneros-Zevallos, Luis

    2009-08-26

    Starches from two ecotypes of achira roots (Canna edulis Ker-Gawler) were characterized and compared to commercial potato and corn starches. This included scanning electron microscopy (SEM) of starch granules and amylose content determination of starch. Starch solutions or gels were tested by rotational viscometry, Rapid Visco Analyzer (RVA), and texture analysis. Some starch samples were subjected to various treatments: pH reduction, autoclaving at high temperature, and high shear before testing by rotational viscometry. Achira starch showed some unusual properties, such as very large oblong granules (approximately 45-52 microm major axis and approximately 33-34 microm minor axis) and relatively high amylose content (approximately 33-39%). The San Gaban achira ecotype formed high-consistency gels upon cooling, both in RVA study (5% starch) and in texture analysis (8% starch), compared to other starch gels and also exhibited higher thermal resistance to viscosity breakdown.

  14. Ecotypes as a concept for exploring responses to climate change in fish assemblages

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Engelhard, George H.; Ellis, Jim R.; Payne, Mark;

    2011-01-01

    How do species-rich fish assemblages respond to climate change or to other anthropogenic or environmental drivers? To explore this, a categorization concept is presented whereby species are assigned with respect to six ecotype classifications, according to biogeography, horizontal and vertical...... habitat preference, trophic guild, trophic level, or body size. These classification schemes are termed ecotypology, and the system is applied to fish in the North Sea using International Bottom Trawl Survey data. Over the period 1977–2008, there were changes in the North Sea fish community that can...... or combinations of them. The post-1989 warm biological regime appears to have favoured pelagic species more than demersal species. These community-level patterns agree with the expected responses of ecotypes to climate change and also with anticipated vulnerability to fishing pressure....

  15. Ecotype dependent expression and alternative splicing of epithiospecifier protein (ESP) in Arabidopsis thaliana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kissen, R; Hyldbakk, E; Wang, C-W V; Sørmo, C G; Rossiter, J T; Bones, A M

    2012-03-01

    Epithiospecifier protein (ESP) is responsible for diverting glucosinolate hydrolysis from the generation of isothiocyanates to that of epithionitriles or nitriles, and thereby negatively affects the ability of the plant to defend itself against certain insects. Despite this important role of ESP, little is known about its expression in plant tissues and the regulation thereof. We therefore investigated ESP expression by qPCR and Western blot in different organs during the growth cycle of the two Arabidopsis thaliana ecotypes Col-0 and Mt-0. Besides the fact that ESP transcript and protein levels were revealed to be much higher in Mt-0 than in Col-0 in all cases, our qPCR results also indicated that ESP expression is regulated differently in the two A. thaliana ecotypes. No ESP protein was detected by Western blot in any organ or developmental stage for Col-0. During the assays an alternative splice variant of ESP was identified in Col-0, but not Mt-0, leading to a mis-spliced transcript which could explain the low expression levels of ESP in the former ecotype. Analysis of genomic sequences containing the ESP splice sites, of ESP protein level and ESP activity from seven A. thaliana ecotypes showed a positive correlation between the presence of a non-canonical 5' splice site for ESP and the absence of detectable ESP protein levels and ESP activity. When analysing the expression of both transcript variants in Col-0 after treatment with methyl jasmonate, a condition known to "induce ESP", it was indeed the alternative splice variant that was preferentially induced.

  16. Genetic and ecotypic differentiation in a Californian plant polyploid complex (Grindelia, Asteraceae.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abigail J Moore

    Full Text Available Studies of ecotypic differentiation in the California Floristic Province have contributed greatly to plant evolutionary biology since the pioneering work of Clausen, Keck, and Hiesey. The extent of gene flow and genetic differentiation across interfertile ecotypes that span major habitats in the California Floristic Province is understudied, however, and is important for understanding the prospects for local adaptation to evolve or persist in the face of potential gene flow across populations in different ecological settings. We used microsatellite data to examine local differentiation in one of these lineages, the Pacific Coast polyploid complex of the plant genus Grindelia (Asteraceae. We examined 439 individuals in 10 different populations. The plants grouped broadly into a coastal and an inland set of populations. The coastal group contained plants from salt marshes and coastal bluffs, as well as a population growing in a serpentine grassland close to the coast, while the inland group contained grassland plants. No evidence for hybridization was found at the single location where adjacent populations of the two groups were sampled. In addition to differentiation along ecotypic lines, there was also a strong signal of local differentiation, with the plants grouping strongly by population. The strength of local differentiation is consistent with the extensive morphological variation observed across populations and the history of taxonomic confusion in the group. The Pacific Clade of Grindelia and other young Californian plant groups warrant additional analysis of evolutionary divergence along the steep coast-to-inland climatic gradient, which has been associated with local adaptation and ecotype formation since the classic studies of Clausen, Keck, and Hiesey.

  17. Genetic and ecotypic differentiation in a Californian plant polyploid complex (Grindelia, Asteraceae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, Abigail J; Moore, William L; Baldwin, Bruce G

    2014-01-01

    Studies of ecotypic differentiation in the California Floristic Province have contributed greatly to plant evolutionary biology since the pioneering work of Clausen, Keck, and Hiesey. The extent of gene flow and genetic differentiation across interfertile ecotypes that span major habitats in the California Floristic Province is understudied, however, and is important for understanding the prospects for local adaptation to evolve or persist in the face of potential gene flow across populations in different ecological settings. We used microsatellite data to examine local differentiation in one of these lineages, the Pacific Coast polyploid complex of the plant genus Grindelia (Asteraceae). We examined 439 individuals in 10 different populations. The plants grouped broadly into a coastal and an inland set of populations. The coastal group contained plants from salt marshes and coastal bluffs, as well as a population growing in a serpentine grassland close to the coast, while the inland group contained grassland plants. No evidence for hybridization was found at the single location where adjacent populations of the two groups were sampled. In addition to differentiation along ecotypic lines, there was also a strong signal of local differentiation, with the plants grouping strongly by population. The strength of local differentiation is consistent with the extensive morphological variation observed across populations and the history of taxonomic confusion in the group. The Pacific Clade of Grindelia and other young Californian plant groups warrant additional analysis of evolutionary divergence along the steep coast-to-inland climatic gradient, which has been associated with local adaptation and ecotype formation since the classic studies of Clausen, Keck, and Hiesey.

  18. Genome-scale cold stress response regulatory networks in ten Arabidopsis thaliana ecotypes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Barah, Pankaj; Jayavelu, Naresh Doni; Rasmussen, Simon;

    2013-01-01

    ontology (GO) categories were identified to delineate natural variation of cold stress regulated differential gene expression in the model plant A. thaliana. The predicted regulatory network model was able to identify new ecotype specific transcription factors and their regulatory interactions, which might...... using Arabidopsis NimbleGen ATH6 microarrays. In total 6061 transcripts were significantly cold regulated (p expression pattern. By using sequence data...

  19. Effect of Seawater Stress on Physiological and Biochemical Responses of Five Jerusalem Artichoke Ecotypes

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LONG Xiao-Hua; CHI Jin-He; LIU Ling; LI Qing; LIU Zhao-Pu

    2009-01-01

    Three treatments consisting of 0%,15%,and 30% seawater were investigated to analyse the ecotypic variabilities among five populations of Jerusalem artichoke (Helianthus tuberosus) regarding their responses to seawater stress under a hydroponic culture system.Analyses were done 2,4,and 6 days after treatments.The 15% and 30% seawater treatments reduced the growth rates of roots and shoots of H.tuberosus populations.The activities of superoxide dismutase,peroxidase,and catalase majored in the leaves were stimulated under the seawater stress.The electrolyte leakage and malondialdehyde contents of the leaves were also stimulated owing to seawater stress.The contents of proline and solublesugars in the leaves increased significantly with increasing seawater concentrations.The concentrations of Na+,K+,and Cl-in the aerial parts and roots increased with an increase in the seawater concentration throughout the experimental period.There were ccotypic differences among the five populations of H.tuberosus as evidenced by the analyses of the above items in both aerial parts and roots under seawater treatment.The magnitude of the ecotypic variance components indicated that a substantial proportion of the total variation for these physiological and biochemical responses were owing to ecotype,indicating the possibility of improvement through hybridization and selection.

  20. Diversity of Ralstonia solanacearum in French Guiana expands knowledge of the "emerging ecotype".

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deberdt, P; Guyot, J; Coranson-Beaudu, R; Launay, J; Noreskal, M; Rivière, P; Vigné, F; Laplace, D; Lebreton, L; Wicker, E

    2014-06-01

    Although bacterial wilt remains a major plant disease throughout South America and the Caribbean, the diversity of prevalent Ralstonia solanacearum populations is largely unknown. The genetic and phenotypic diversity of R. solanacearum strains in French Guiana was assessed using diagnostic polymerase chain reactions and sequence-based (egl and mutS) genotyping on a 239-strain collection sampled on the families Solanaceae and Cucurbitaceae, revealing an unexpectedly high diversity. Strains were distributed within phylotypes I (46.9%), IIA (26.8%), and IIB (26.3%), with one new endoglucanase sequence type (egl ST) found within each group. Phylotype IIB strains consisted mostly (97%) of strains with the emerging ecotype (IIB/sequevar 4NPB). Host range of IIB/4NPB strains from French Guiana matched the original emerging reference strain from Martinique. They were virulent on cucumber; virulent and highly aggressive on tomato, including the resistant reference Hawaii 7996; and only controlled by eggplant SM6 and Surya accessions. The emerging ecotype IIB/4NPB is fully established in French Guiana in both cultivated fields and uncultivated forest, rendering the hypothesis of introduction via ornamental or banana cuttings unlikely. Thus, this ecotype may have originated from the Amazonian region and spread throughout the Caribbean region.

  1. Scaling-up permafrost thermal measurements in western Alaska using an ecotype approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cable, William L.; Romanovsky, Vladimir E.; Torre Jorgenson, M.

    2016-10-01

    Permafrost temperatures are increasing in Alaska due to climate change and in some cases permafrost is thawing and degrading. In areas where degradation has already occurred the effects can be dramatic, resulting in changing ecosystems, carbon release, and damage to infrastructure. However, in many areas we lack baseline data, such as subsurface temperatures, needed to assess future changes and potential risk areas. Besides climate, the physical properties of the vegetation cover and subsurface material have a major influence on the thermal state of permafrost. These properties are often directly related to the type of ecosystem overlaying permafrost. In this paper we demonstrate that classifying the landscape into general ecotypes is an effective way to scale up permafrost thermal data collected from field monitoring sites. Additionally, we find that within some ecotypes the absence of a moss layer is indicative of the absence of near-surface permafrost. As a proof of concept, we used the ground temperature data collected from the field sites to recode an ecotype land cover map into a map of mean annual ground temperature ranges at 1 m depth based on analysis and clustering of observed thermal regimes. The map should be useful for decision making with respect to land use and understanding how the landscape might change under future climate scenarios.

  2. Plant response to climate change varies with topography, interactions with neighbors, and ecotype.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liancourt, Pierre; Spence, Laura A; Song, Daniel S; Lkhagva, Ariuntsetseg; Sharkhuu, Anarmaa; Boldgiv, Bazartseren; Helliker, Brent R; Petraitis, Peter S; Casper, Brenda B

    2013-02-01

    Predicting the future of any given species represents an unprecedented challenge in light of the many environmental and biological factors that affect organismal performance and that also interact with drivers of global change. In a three-year experiment set in the Mongolian steppe, we examined the response of the common grass Festuca lenensis to manipulated temperature and water while controlling for topographic variation, plant-plant interactions, and ecotypic differentiation. Plant survival and growth responses to a warmer, drier climate varied within the landscape. Response to simulated increased precipitation occurred only in the absence of neighbors, demonstrating that plant-plant interactions can supersede the effects of climate change. F. lenensis also showed evidence of local adaptation in populations that were only 300 m apart. Individuals from the steep and dry upper slope showed a higher stress/drought tolerance, whereas those from the more productive lower slope showed a higher biomass production and a greater ability to cope with competition. Moreover, the response of this species to increased precipitation was ecotype specific, with water addition benefiting only the least stress-tolerant ecotype from the lower slope origin. This multifaceted approach illustrates the importance of placing climate change experiments within a realistic ecological and evolutionary framework. Existing sources of variation impacting plant performance may buffer or obscure climate change effects.

  3. Different utilization of alginate and other algal polysaccharides by marine Alteromonas macleodii ecotypes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neumann, Anna M; Balmonte, John P; Berger, Martine; Giebel, Helge-Ansgar; Arnosti, Carol; Voget, Sonja; Simon, Meinhard; Brinkhoff, Thorsten; Wietz, Matthias

    2015-10-01

    The marine bacterium Alteromonas macleodii is a copiotrophic r-strategist, but little is known about its potential to degrade polysaccharides. Here, we studied the degradation of alginate and other algal polysaccharides by A. macleodii strain 83-1 in comparison to other A. macleodii strains. Cell densities of strain 83-1 with alginate as sole carbon source were comparable to those with glucose, but the exponential phase was delayed. The genome of 83-1 was found to harbour an alginolytic system comprising five alginate lyases, whose expression was induced by alginate. The alginolytic system contains additional CAZymes, including two TonB-dependent receptors, and is part of a 24 kb genomic island unique to the A. macleodii 'surface clade' ecotype. In contrast, strains of the 'deep clade' ecotype contain only a single alginate lyase in a separate 7 kb island. This difference was reflected in an eightfold greater efficiency of surface clade strains to grow on alginate. Strain 83-1 furthermore hydrolysed laminarin, pullulan and xylan, and corresponding polysaccharide utilization loci were detected in the genome. Alteromonas macleodii alginate lyases were predominantly detected in Atlantic Ocean metagenomes. The demonstrated hydrolytic capacities are likely of ecological relevance and represent another level of adaptation among A. macleodii ecotypes.

  4. The molecular dimension of microbial species: 1. Ecological distinctions among, and homogeneity within, putative ecotypes of Synechococcus inhabiting the cyanobacterial mat of Mushroom Spring, Yellowstone National Park

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eric Daniel Becraft

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Based on the Stable Ecotype Model, evolution leads to the divergence of ecologically distinct populations (e.g., with different niches and/or behaviors of ecologically interchangeable membership. In this study, pyrosequencing was used to provide deep sequence coverage of Synechococcus psaA genes and transcripts over a large number of habitat types in the Mushroom Spring microbial mat. Putative ecological species (putative ecotypes, which were predicted by an evolutionary simulation based on the Stable Ecotype Model (Ecotype Simulation, exhibited distinct distributions relative to temperature-defined positions in the effluent channel and vertical position in the upper 1 mm-thick mat layer. Importantly, in most cases variants predicted to belong to the same putative ecotype formed unique clusters relative to temperature and depth in the mat in canonical correspondence analysis, supporting the hypothesis that while the putative ecotypes are ecologically distinct, the members of each ecotype are ecologically homogeneous. Putative ecotypes responded differently to experimental perturbations of temperature and light, but the genetic variation within each putative ecotype was maintained as the relative abundances of putative ecotypes changed, further indicating that each population responded as a set of ecologically interchangeable individuals. Compared to putative ecotypes that predominate deeper within the mat photic zone, the timing of transcript abundances for selected genes differed for putative ecotypes that predominate in microenvironments closer to upper surface of the mat with spatiotemporal differences in light and O2 concentration. All of these findings are consistent with the hypotheses that Synechococcus species in hot spring mats are sets of ecologically interchangeable individuals that are differently adapted, that these adaptations control their distributions, and that the resulting distributions constrain the activities of the species

  5. Eggcited about Chickens

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Carolyn; Brown, Paul

    2012-01-01

    In this article, the authors describe St Peter's Primary School's and Honiton Primary School's experiences of keeping chickens. The authors also describe the benefits they bring and the reactions of the children. (Contains 5 figures.)

  6. The Chicken Problem.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reeves, Charles A.

    2000-01-01

    Uses the chicken problem for sixth grade students to scratch the surface of systems of equations using intuitive approaches. Provides students responses to the problem and suggests similar problems for extensions. (ASK)

  7. Evaluating Ecotypes as a means of Scaling-up Permafrost Thermal Measurements in Western Alaska.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cable, William; Romanovsky, Vladimir

    2015-04-01

    In many regions, permafrost temperatures are increasing due to climate change and in some cases permafrost is thawing and degrading. In areas where degradation has already occurred the effects can be dramatic, resulting in changing ecosystems, carbon release, and damage to infrastructure. Yet in many areas we lack baseline data, such as subsurface temperatures, needed to assess future changes and potential risk areas. Besides climate, the physical properties of the vegetation cover and subsurface material have a major influence on the thermal state of permafrost. These properties are often directly related to the type of ecosystem overlaying permafrost. Thus, classifying the landscape into general ecotypes might be an effective way to scale up permafrost thermal data. To evaluate using ecotypes as a way of scaling-up permafrost thermal data within a region we selected an area in Western Alaska, the Selawik National Wildlife Refuge, which is on the boundary between continuous and discontinuous permafrost. This region was selected because previously an ecological land classification had been conducted and a very high-resolution ecotype map was generated. Using this information we selected 18 spatially distributed sites covering the most abundant ecotypes, where we are collecting low vertical resolution soil temperature data to a depth of 1.5 meters at most sites. At three additional core sites, we are collecting air temperature, snow depth, and high vertical resolution soil temperature to a depth of 3 meters. The sites were installed in the summers of 2011 and 2012; consequently, we have at least two years of data from all sites. Mean monthly and mean annual air temperature and snow depth for all three core sites are similar within the 2012-2014 period. Additionally, the average air temperature and snow depth from our three cores sites compares well with that of a nearby meteorological station for which long-term data is available. During the study period snow depth

  8. Indigenous health and socioeconomic status in India.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S V Subramanian

    2006-10-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Systematic evidence on the patterns of health deprivation among indigenous peoples remains scant in developing countries. We investigate the inequalities in mortality and substance use between indigenous and non-indigenous, and within indigenous, groups in India, with an aim to establishing the relative contribution of socioeconomic status in generating health inequalities. METHODS AND FINDINGS: Cross-sectional population-based data were obtained from the 1998-1999 Indian National Family Health Survey. Mortality, smoking, chewing tobacco use, and alcohol use were four separate binary outcomes in our analysis. Indigenous status in the context of India was operationalized through the Indian government category of scheduled tribes, or Adivasis, which refers to people living in tribal communities characterized by distinctive social, cultural, historical, and geographical circumstances.Indigenous groups experience excess mortality compared to non-indigenous groups, even after adjusting for economic standard of living (odds ratio 1.22; 95% confidence interval 1.13-1.30. They are also more likely to smoke and (especially drink alcohol, but the prevalence of chewing tobacco is not substantially different between indigenous and non-indigenous groups. There are substantial health variations within indigenous groups, such that indigenous peoples in the bottom quintile of the indigenous-peoples-specific standard of living index have an odds ratio for mortality of 1.61 (95% confidence interval 1.33-1.95 compared to indigenous peoples in the top fifth of the wealth distribution. Smoking, drinking alcohol, and chewing tobacco also show graded associations with socioeconomic status within indigenous groups. CONCLUSIONS: Socioeconomic status differentials substantially account for the health inequalities between indigenous and non-indigenous groups in India. However, a strong socioeconomic gradient in health is also evident within indigenous

  9. Pathogenicity of Shigella in chickens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Run; Yang, Xia; Chen, Lu; Chang, Hong-tao; Liu, Hong-ying; Zhao, Jun; Wang, Xin-wei; Wang, Chuan-qing

    2014-01-01

    Shigellosis in chickens was first reported in 2004. This study aimed to determine the pathogenicity of Shigella in chickens and the possibility of cross-infection between humans and chickens. The pathogenicity of Shigella in chickens was examined via infection of three-day-old SPF chickens with Shigella strain ZD02 isolated from a human patient. The virulence and invasiveness were examined by infection of the chicken intestines and primary chicken intestinal epithelial cells. The results showed Shigella can cause death via intraperitoneal injection in SPF chickens, but only induce depression via crop injection. Immunohistochemistry and transmission electron microscopy revealed the Shigella can invade the intestinal epithelia. Immunohistochemistry of the primary chicken intestinal epithelial cells infected with Shigella showed the bacteria were internalized into the epithelial cells. Electron microscopy also confirmed that Shigella invaded primary chicken intestinal epithelia and was encapsulated by phagosome-like membranes. Our data demonstrate that Shigella can invade primary chicken intestinal epithelial cells in vitro and chicken intestinal mucosa in vivo, resulting in pathogenicity and even death. The findings suggest Shigella isolated from human or chicken share similar pathogenicity as well as the possibility of human-poultry cross-infection, which is of public health significance.

  10. Parallel genetic divergence among coastal-marine ecotype pairs of European anchovy explained by differential introgression after secondary contact.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Le Moan, A; Gagnaire, P-A; Bonhomme, F

    2016-07-01

    Ecophenotypic differentiation among replicate ecotype pairs within a species complex is often attributed to independent outcomes of parallel divergence driven by adaptation to similar environmental contrasts. However, the extent to which parallel phenotypic and genetic divergence patterns have emerged independently is increasingly questioned by population genomic studies. Here, we document the extent of genetic differentiation within and among two geographic replicates of the coastal and marine ecotypes of the European anchovy (Engraulis encrasicolus) gathered from Atlantic and Mediterranean locations. Using a genome-wide data set of RAD-derived SNPs, we show that habitat type (marine vs. coastal) is the most important component of genetic differentiation among populations of anchovy. By analysing the joint allele frequency spectrum of each coastal-marine ecotype pair, we show that genomic divergence patterns between ecotypes can be explained by a postglacial secondary contact following a long period of allopatric isolation (c. 300 kyrs). We found strong support for a model including heterogeneous migration among loci, suggesting that secondary gene flow has eroded past differentiation at different rates across the genome. Markers experiencing reduced introgression exhibited strongly correlated differentiation levels among Atlantic and Mediterranean regions. These results support that partial reproductive isolation and parallel genetic differentiation among replicate pairs of anchovy ecotypes are largely due to a common divergence history prior to secondary contact. They moreover provide comprehensive insights into the origin of a surprisingly strong fine-scale genetic structuring in a high gene flow marine fish, which should improve stock management and conservation actions.

  11. Adult Learning, Transformative Education, and Indigenous Epistemology

    Science.gov (United States)

    McEachern, Diane

    2016-01-01

    This chapter describes an innovative program that weaves together adult learning, transformative education, and indigenous epistemology in order to prepare Alaskan rural indigenous social service providers to better serve their communities.

  12. Chicken from Farm to Table

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... No hormones are used in the raising of chickens. Antibiotics may be used to prevent disease and increase ... a "withdrawal" period is required from the time antibiotics are administered. ... not allowed on fresh chicken. However, if chicken is processed, additives such as ...

  13. The World Indigenous Research Alliance (WIRA): Mediating and Mobilizing Indigenous Peoples' Educational Knowledge and Aspirations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whitinui, Paul; McIvor, Onowa; Robertson, Boni; Morcom, Lindsay; Cashman, Kimo; Arbon, Veronica

    2015-01-01

    There is an Indigenous resurgence in education occurring globally. For more than a century Euro-western approaches have controlled the provision and quality of education to, and for Indigenous peoples. The World Indigenous Research Alliance (WIRA) established in 2012, is a grass-roots movement of Indigenous scholars passionate about making a…

  14. Indigenous Research on Chinese Management

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Li, Peter Ping; Leung, Kwok; Chen, Chao C.

    2012-01-01

    We attempt to provide a definition and a typology of indigenous research on Chinese management as well as outline the general methodological approaches for this type of research. We also present an integrative summary of the four articles included in this special issue and show how they illustrate...... our definition and typology of indigenous research on Chinese management, as well as the various methodological approaches we advocate. Further, we introduce a commentary on the four articles from the perspective of engaged scholarship, and also three additional articles included in this issue...

  15. Ecotype variability in growth and secondary metabolite profile in Moringa oleifera: impact of sulfur and water availability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Förster, Nadja; Ulrichs, Christian; Schreiner, Monika; Arndt, Nick; Schmidt, Reinhard; Mewis, Inga

    2015-03-25

    Moringa oleifera is widely cultivated in plantations in the tropics and subtropics. Previous cultivation studies with M. oleifera focused primarily only on leaf yield. In the present study, the content of potentially health-promoting secondary metabolites (glucosinolates, phenolic acids, and flavonoids) were also investigated. Six different ecotypes were grown under similar environmental conditions to identify phenotypic differences that can be traced back to the genotype. The ecotypes TOT4880 (origin USA) and TOT7267 (origin India) were identified as having the best growth performance and highest secondary metabolite production, making them an ideal health-promoting food crop. Furthermore, optimal cultivation conditions-exemplarily on sulfur fertilization and water availability-for achieving high leaf and secondary metabolite yields were investigated for M. oleifera. In general, plant biomass and height decreased under water deficiency compared to normal cultivation conditions, whereas the glucosinolate content increased. The effects depended to a great extent on the ecotype.

  16. More Like Ourselves: Indigenous Capitalism through Tourism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bunten, Alexis Celeste

    2010-01-01

    Through a comparison of Indigenous-owned cultural tourism businesses in southeastern Alaska and New Zealand as well as secondary data examining Indigenous tourism across the Pacific, this article introduces the concept of "Indigenous capitalism" as a distinct strategy to achieve ethical, culturally appropriate, and successful Indigenous…

  17. Indigenous Specializations: Dreams, Developments, Delivery and Vision

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richardson, Cathy; Thomas, Robina; Green, Jacquie; Ormiston, Todd

    2012-01-01

    This article documents the establishment of the Indigenous Specializations program in the School of Social Work at the University of Victoria. In the absence of funding for Indigenous programs, First Nations professors Robina Thomas and Jacquie Green developed the Indigenous Specializations program "off the side of their desk". This…

  18. Indigenous Affairs = Asuntos Indigenas, 1994-1995.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Indigenous Affairs, 1995

    1995-01-01

    This document consists of the eight issues of the IWGIA newsletter "Indigenous Affairs" published during 1994-95. Each issue is published in separate English and Spanish versions. The newsletter is published by the International Work Group for Indigenous Affairs (IWGIA), an organization that supports indigenous peoples in their efforts to gain…

  19. Ecotypic variability in the metabolic response of seeds to diurnal hydration-dehydration cycles and its relationship to seed vigor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bai, Bing; Sikron, Noga; Gendler, Tanya; Kazachkova, Yana; Barak, Simon; Grafi, Gideon; Khozin-Goldberg, Inna; Fait, Aaron

    2012-01-01

    Seeds in the seed bank experience diurnal cycles of imbibition followed by complete dehydration. These conditions pose a challenge to the regulation of germination. The effect of recurring hydration-dehydration (Hy-Dh) cycles were tested on seeds from four Arabidopsis thaliana accessions [Col-0, Cvi, C24 and Ler]. Diurnal Hy-Dh cycles had a detrimental effect on the germination rate and on the final percentage of germination in Col-0, Cvi and C24 ecotypes, but not in the Ler ecotype, which showed improved vigor following the treatments. Membrane permeability measured by ion conductivity was generally increased following each Hy-Dh cycle and was correlated with changes in the redox status represented by the GSSG/GSH (oxidized/reduced glutathione) ratio. Among the ecotypes, Col-0 seeds displayed the highest membrane permeability, whilst Ler was characterized by the greatest increase in electrical conductivity following Hy-Dh cycles. Following Dh 2 and Dh 3, the respiratory activity of Ler seeds significantly increased, in contrast to the other ecotypes, indicative of a dramatic shift in metabolism. These differences were associated with accession-specific content and patterns of change of (i) cell wall-related laminaribiose and mannose; (ii) fatty acid composition, specifically of the unsaturated oleic acid and α-linoleic acid; and (iii) asparagine, ornithine and the related polyamine putrescine. Furthermore, in the Ler ecotype the content of the tricarboxylic acid (TCA) cycle intermediates fumarate, succinate and malate increased in response to dehydration, in contrast to a decrease in the other three ecotypes. These findings provide a link between seed respiration, energy metabolism, fatty acid β-oxidation, nitrogen mobilization and membrane permeability and the improved germination of Ler seeds following Hy-Dh cycles.

  20. Pepper and Sesame Chicken

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    1994-01-01

    Ingredients: 250 grams of chicken breast, 50 grams of water chestnut, thick pieces of white bread or steamed bun. Supplementary Ingredients: Sesame, lard, MSG, salt, whites of three eggs, starch. Directions: Chop up the chicken breast into mash, cut the water chestnuts into small pieces and put them in a bowl. Mix in the supplementary ingredients. Spread the mixed mash onto the bread pieces and roll them in sesame. Heat 250 grams of oil. When hot, put in the pieces one by one. When the pieces turn

  1. Problems with the claim of ecotype and taxon status of the wolf in the Great Lakes region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cronin, Matthew A.; Mech, L. David

    2009-01-01

    Koblmuller et al. (2009) analysed molecular genetic data of the wolf in the Great Lakes (GL) region of the USA and concluded that the animal was a unique ecotype of grey wolf and that genetic data supported the population as a discrete wolf taxon. However, some of the literature that the researchers used to support their position actually did not, and additional confusion arises from indefinite use of terminology. Herein, we discuss the problems with designation of a wolf population as a taxon or ecotype without proper definition and assessment of criteria.

  2. Indigenous Affairs = Asuntos Indigenas, 2000.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Indigenous Affairs, 2000

    2000-01-01

    This document contains the four English-language issues of Indigenous Affairs published in 2000 and four corresponding issues in Spanish. The Spanish issues contain all or some of the articles contained in the English issues plus additional articles on Latin America. These periodicals provide a resource on the history, current conditions, and…

  3. Biculturalism among Indigenous College Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Colton D.

    2011-01-01

    "Indigenous" college students in both Canada and the United States have the lowest rates of obtaining postsecondary degrees, and their postsecondary dropout rates are higher than for any other minority (Freeman & Fox, 2005; Mendelson, 2004; Reddy, 1993). There has been very little research done to uncover possible reasons for such…

  4. Strategy for Developing Local Chicken

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sofjan Iskandar

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available Chicken industry in Indonesia offer jobs for people in the village areas . The balance in development industry of selected and local chicken has to be anticipated as there has been threat of reducing importation of grand parent stock of selected chicken due to global avian influenza . In the mean time, high appreciation to the local chicken has been shown by the existence of local chicken farms in the size of business scale . For local chicken business, the government has been built programs, projects, and infrastructures, although the programs and projects were dropped scattered in to several institutions, which were end up with less significant impact to the people. Therefore, it is the time that the government should put more efforts to integrate various sources . focusing in enhancing local chicken industry .

  5. Population genetic structure, linkage disequilibrium and effective population size of conserved and extensively raised village chicken populations of Southern Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Khulekhani Sedwell Khanyile

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Extensively raised village chickens are considered a valuable source of biodiversity, with genetic variability developed over thousands of years that ought to be characterised and utilized. Surveys that can reveal a population’s genetic structure and provide an insight into its demographic history will give valuable information to manage and conserve important indigenous animal genetic resources. This study reports population diversity and structure, linkage disequilibrium and effective population sizes of Southern African village chickens and conservation flocks from South Africa. DNA samples from 312 chickens from South African village and conservation flocks (n =146, Malawi (n =30 and Zimbabwe (n =136 were genotyped using the Illumina iSelect chicken SNP60K BeadChip. Population genetic structure analysis distinguished the four conservation flocks from the village chicken populations. Of the four flocks, the Ovambo clustered closer to the village chickens particularly those sampled from South Africa. Clustering of the village chickens followed a geographic gradient whereby South African chickens were closer to those from Zimbabwe than to chickens from Malawi. Different conservation flocks seemed to have maintained different components of the ancestral genomes with a higher proportion of village chicken diversity found in the Ovambo population. Overall population LD averaged over chromosomes ranged from 0.03 ± 0.07 to 0.58 ± 0.41 and averaged 0.15 ± 0.16. Higher LD, ranging from 0.29-0.36, was observed between SNP markers that were less than 10kb apart in the conservation flocks. LD in the conservation flocks steadily decreased to 0.15 (PK and 0.24 (VD at SNP marker interval of 500kb. Genomewide LD decay in the village chickens from Malawi, Zimbabwe and South Africa followed a similar trend as the conservation flocks although the mean LD values for the investigated SNP intervals were lower. The results suggest low effective population

  6. Specific learning processes and indigenous teacher training

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adir Casaro Nascimento

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Indigenous teacher formation and the issue of specific learning processes, as a right of the indigenous peoples derived from the 1988 Constitution, aim at the re-signification of pedagogical practices in specific socio-cultural contexts and at the visibility of indigenous education. Taking indigenous children as a reference, or rather, the agents that produce knowledge within the context of their particularities and territorialities, the essay points to the necessity of constructing new theoretical bases and a pedagogy that gives visibility to other local epistemic logics produced by “power coloniality”. They are different from the dominant Western logic in the process of training indigenous educators.

  7. Identification of Italian ecotypes of Juglans regia L. by molecular, morphological and biochemical markers

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    Pollegioni P

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Juglans regia L. is a multipurpose species important for quality wood and fruit production. In order to contrast the erosion and to properly conserve, manage and revaluate the genetic resources of Italian walnut, possible ecotypes, naturally adapted and still present in Italy have been researched. Leaves and fruits have been sampled in Campania region, localities of Montella, Cervinara, Fisciano, and in Abruzzo region, localities of Sulmona, Pescasseroli, Villetta Barrea, and Civitella Alfedena. The sites are located at different altitudes and climatic conditions. Materials have been collected on a total of 276 plants. Molecular, morphological and preliminary biochemical analyses have been carried out on this germplasm and on material belonging to 80 plants of 4 famous Italian walnut varieties (Bleggiana and Feltrina, North Italy; Sorrento and Malizia, Southern Italy, in order to have a comparison model. 134 ISSR, morphological and biochemical data have shown peculiar characters for Montella and Pescasseroli in comparison with the other accessions. Because of the peculiar environmental conditions of their locations, the effect of the temperature on the fruit development and fatty acid contents, it is possible to suppose that Montella and Pescasseroli are ecotypes which could be utilised as essential fat acid source and as material for afforestation of mountain zones.

  8. Establishment of an Indirect Genetic Transformation Method for Arabidopsis thaliana ecotype Bangladesh

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bulbul AHMED

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Arabidopsis thaliana is a small flowering plant belonging to the Brassicaceae family, which is adopted as a model plant for genetic research. Agrobacterium tumifaciensmediated transformation method for A. thaliana ecotype Bangladesh was established. Leaf discs of A. thaliana were incubated with A. tumefaciens strain LBA4404 containing chimeric nos. nptII. nos and intron-GUS genes. Following inoculation and co-cultivation, leaf discs were cultured on selection medium containing 50 mg/l kanamycin + 50 mg/l cefotaxime + 1.5 mg/l NAA and kanamycin resistant shoots were induced from the leaf discs after two weeks. Shoot regeneration was achieved after transferring the tissues onto fresh medium of the same combination. Finally, the shoots were rooted on MS medium containing 50 mg/l kanamycin. Incorporation and expression of the transgenes were confirmed by PCR analysis. Using this protocol, transgenic A. thaliana plants can be obtained and indicates that genomic transformation in higher plants is possible through insertion of desired gene. Although Agrobacterium mediated genetic transformation is established for A. thaliana, this study was the conducted to transform A. thaliana ecotype Bangladesh.

  9. Ecotype evolution in Glossina palpalis subspecies, major vectors of sleeping sickness.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thierry De Meeûs

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The role of environmental factors in driving adaptive trajectories of living organisms is still being debated. This is even more important to understand when dealing with important neglected diseases and their vectors. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: In this paper, we analysed genetic divergence, computed from seven microsatellite loci, of 614 tsetse flies (Glossina palpalis gambiensis and Glossina palpalis palpalis, major vectors of animal and human trypanosomes from 28 sites of West and Central Africa. We found that the two subspecies are so divergent that they deserve the species status. Controlling for geographic and time distances that separate these samples, which have a significant effect, we found that G. p. gambiensis from different landscapes (Niayes of Senegal, savannah and coastal environments were significantly genetically different and thus represent different ecotypes or subspecies. We also confirm that G. p. palpalis from Ivory Coast, Cameroon and DRC are strongly divergent. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: These results provide an opportunity to examine whether new tsetse fly ecotypes might display different behaviour, dispersal patterns, host preferences and vectorial capacities. This work also urges a revision of taxonomic status of Glossina palpalis subspecies and highlights again how fast ecological divergence can be, especially in host-parasite-vector systems.

  10. Evaluation of the defensive behavior of two honeybee ecotypes using a laboratory test

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andere Cecilia

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available Honeybee defensive behavior is a useful selection criterion, especially in areas with Africanized honeybees (Apis mellifera L. In all genetic improvement programs the selected characters must be measured with precision, and because of this we evaluated a metabolic method for testing honeybee defensive behavior in the laboratory for its usefulness in distinguishing between honeybee ecotypes and selecting honeybees based on their level of defensive responses. Ten honeybee colonies were used, five having been produced by feral queens from a subtropical region supposedly colonized by Africanized honeybees and five by queens from a temperate region apparently colonized by European honeybees. We evaluate honeybee defensive behavior using a metabolic test based on oxygen consumption after stimulation with an alarm pheromone, measuring the time to the first response, time to maximum oxygen consumption, duration of activity, oxygen consumption at first response, maximum oxygen consumption and total oxygen consumption, colonies being ranked according to the values obtained for each variable. Significant (p < 0.05 differences were detected between ecotypes for each variable but for all variables the highest rankings were obtained for colonies of subtropical origin, which had faster and more intense responses. All variables were highly associated (p < 0.05. Total oxygen consumption was the best indicator of metabolic activity for defensive behavior because it combined oxygen consumption and the length of the response. This laboratory method may be useful for evaluating the defensive behavior of honey bees in genetic programs designed to select less defensive bees.

  11. Study on Tibetan Chicken embryonic adaptability to chronic hypoxia by revealing differential gene expression in heart tissue

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2009-01-01

    Oxygen concentration is essential for appropriate metabolism.Hypoxia can exert a significant impact on physiological alteration of the cell and organism.Tibetan Chicken(Gallus gallus) is a Chinese indigenous breed inhabiting in Tibetan areas,which is also a chicken breed living at high altitude for the longest time in the world.It has developed an adaptive mechanism to hypoxia,which is demonstrated by that Tibetan Chicken has much higher hatchability than low-land chicken breeds in high-altitude areas of Tibet.In the present study,Tibetan Chicken fertilized full sib eggs were incubated up to Hamburger-Hamilton stage 43 under 13% and 21% oxygen concentration,respectively.Shouguang Chicken and Dwarf Recessive White Chicken were used as control groups.The hearts in all of the 3 chicken breeds under hypoxic and normoxic conditions were isolated and hybridized to Genechip Chicken Genome Array to study molecular mechanisms underlying the adaptation to high altitude of Tibetan Chicken.As a result,50 transcripts highly expressed in hypoxia are screened out.Among up-regulated genes,some are involved in the gene ontology(GO) such as cell growth,cell difference,muscle contraction and signal transduction.However,the expression levels of 21 transcripts are lower in hypoxia than those in normoxia.Some down-regulated genes take part in cell communication,ion transport,protein amino acid phosphorylation and signal transduction.Interestingly,gene enrichment analyses of these differential gene expressions are mainly associated with immune system response and ion channel activity in response to stimulus.Moreover,the transcriptional expression profiles analyzed by hierarchical clustering and CPP-SOM software in all of the 3 different chicken breeds revealed that Tibetan Chicken is much closely related to Shouguang Chicken rather than Dwarf Recessive White Chicken.In addition,12 transcripts of Tibetan Chicken breed-specific expressed genes were identified,which seem to result in a

  12. Study on Tibetan Chicken embryonic adaptability to chronic hypoxia by revealing differential gene expression in heart tissue

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI Mei; ZHAO ChunJiang

    2009-01-01

    Oxygen concentration is essential for appropriate metabolism. Hypoxia can exert a significant impact on physiological alteration of the cell and organism. Tibetan Chicken (Gallus gallus) is a Chinese in-digenous breed inhabiting in Tibetan areas, which is also a chicken breed living at high altitude for the longest time in the world. It has developed an adaptive mechanism to hypoxia, which is demonstrated by that Tibetan Chicken has much higher hatchability than low-land chicken breeds in high-altitude areas of Tibet. In the present study, Tibetan Chicken fertilized full sib eggs were incubated up to Ham-burger-Hamilton stage 43 under 13% and 21% oxygen concentration, respectively. Shouguang Chicken and Dwarf Recessive White Chicken were used as control groups. The hearts in all of the 3 chicken breeds under hypoxic and normoxic conditions were isolated and hybridized to GeneChip Chicken Genome Array to study molecular mechanisms underlying the adaptation to high altitude of Tibetan Chicken. As a result, 50 transcripts highly expressed in hypoxia are screened out. Among up-regulated genes, some are involved in the gone ontology (GO) such as cell growth, cell difference, muscle con-traction and signal transduction. However, the expression levels of 21 transcripts are lower in hypoxia than those in normoxia. Some down-regulated genes take part in cell communication, ion transport, protein amino acid phosphorylation and signal transduction. Interestingly, gene enrichment analyses of these differential gone expressions are mainly associated with immune system response and ion channel activity in response to stimulus. Moreover, the transcriptional expression profiles analyzed by hierarchical clustering and CPP-SOM software in all of the 3 different chicken breeds revealed that TI-betan Chicken is much closely related to Shouguang Chicken rather than Dwarf Recessive White Chicken. In addition, 12 transcripts of Tibetan Chicken breed-specific expressed genes were

  13. Three-Cup Chicken

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    1999-01-01

    Ingredents:500 grams chicken legs,100 grams(about one tea cup)rice wine,50 grams(a small tea cup)sesame oil,50grams refined soy sauce,25 grams white sugar,10grams oyster sauce,chopped scallions,ginger root,garlic,and some hot chili peppers

  14. Twin Flavor Chicken Wings

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    1999-01-01

    Ingredients:1000g chicken wings,about,100g Shredded rape-seedleaves,100g black sesame seeds,7g salt,5g sugar,3gMSG,10g cooking wine,5g cassia bark,1000g cookingoil(actual consumption only 100 grams),one egg,anoptional amount of scallion,ginger root,starch and

  15. 我国地方品种鸡分离到的一个禽白血病病毒新亚群的鉴定%Identification of a New Subgroup of Avian Leukosis Virus Isolated from Chinese Indigenous Chicken Breeds

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王鑫; 赵鹏; 崔治中

    2012-01-01

    为探明我国地方品种鸡群禽白血病病毒(Avian leukosis virus,ALV)的特点,通过接种DF-1细胞及细胞培养上清液p27抗原的检测,从芦花鸡中分离得到三株外源性ALV禽白血病病毒,分别是JS11C1、JS11C2和JS11C3,并对其进行亚群鉴定分析.用PCR方法扩增env基因测序,并与已知鸡源各亚群ALV的囊膜蛋白(gp85)作氨基酸同源性比较.这三株ALV的env基因的gp85大小为1 005bp,编码335个氨基酸;env基因的gp37大小为609bp,编码203个氨基酸.三个毒株之间gp85的同源性为91.9%~97.0%.与A、B、C、D和E五个经典亚群在GenBank中已发表的18个毒株的gp85的同源性仅在77.7%~84.6%间,显著低于鸡群中常见的A、B、E各亚群内的同源性范围(分别为88.2%~98.5%,91.6%~98.8%和97.9%~99.4%),而与J亚群参考株的同源性更是只有34.2%~36.5%.上述结果表明,芦花鸡分离到的三株病毒可能是不同于鸡源ALV已知6个亚群的一个新亚群,按国际上对ALV亚群分类的习惯,初步将其定名为K亚群.%In order to clarify Avian leukosis virus(ALV) characteristics from Chinese native chicken breeds, three ALV JS11C1, JS11C2 and JS11C3 were isolated from Chinese native breed "luhua" by inoculation of DF1 cell culture and detection of p27 antigen. Using PCR amplification of env gene, the amplified gp85 genes were analyzed and compared to all six chicken ALV subgroups reported. The gp85 genes of these three viruses were 1 005bp in length and encoded 335 amino acids, and the gp37 genes were 609bp and encoded 203 amino acids. The homology of gp85 among these three isolated strains was 91. 9%-97. 0%. Comparing to 18 stains of subgroup A, B, C, D, E published in GenBank, the homology was only in the range of 77. 7%-84. 6%, significantly lower than the gp85 homology observed within the common chicken subgroups A(88.2%-98. 5%), B (91. 6%-98. 8%), and E(97. 9%-99. 4%). The gp85 homology compared with subgroup J was

  16. Welfare of broiler chickens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Federico Sirri

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Broiler chickens have been selected for their rapid growth rate as well as for high carcass yields, with particular regard to the breast, and reared in intensive systems at high stocking density ranging from 30 to 40 kg live weight/m2. These conditions lead to a worsening of the welfare status of birds. In Europe a specific directive for the protection of broiler chickens has been recently approved whereas in Italy there is not yet any regulation. The EU directive lays down minimum rules for the protection of chickens kept for meat production and gives indications on management practices with particular focus on stocking density, light regimen and air quality, training and guidance for people dealing with chickens, as well as monitoring plans for holding and slaughterhouse. In this review the rearing factors influencing the welfare conditions of birds are described and detailed information on the effects of stocking density, light regimen, litter characteristic and air quality (ammonia, carbon dioxide, humidity, dust are provided. Moreover, the main health implications of poor welfare conditions of the birds, such as contact dermatitis, metabolic, skeletal and muscular disorders are considered. The behavioural repertoire, including scratching, dust bathing, ground pecking, wing flapping, locomotor activity, along with factors that might impair these aspects, are discussed. Lastly, farm animal welfare assessment through physiological and behavioural indicators is described with particular emphasis on the “Unitary Welfare Index,” a tool that considers a wide range of indicators, including productive traits, in order to audit and compare the welfare status of chickens kept in different farms.

  17. Quick divergence but slow convergence during ecotype formation in lake and stream stickleback pairs of variable age.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lucek, K; Sivasundar, A; Kristjánsson, B K; Skúlason, S; Seehausen, O

    2014-09-01

    When genetic constraints restrict phenotypic evolution, diversification can be predicted to evolve along so-called lines of least resistance. To address the importance of such constraints and their resolution, studies of parallel phenotypic divergence that differ in their age are valuable. Here, we investigate the parapatric evolution of six lake and stream threespine stickleback systems from Iceland and Switzerland, ranging in age from a few decades to several millennia. Using phenotypic data, we test for parallelism in ecotypic divergence between parapatric lake and stream populations and compare the observed patterns to an ancestral-like marine population. We find strong and consistent phenotypic divergence, both among lake and stream populations and between our freshwater populations and the marine population. Interestingly, ecotypic divergence in low-dimensional phenotype space (i.e. single traits) is rapid and seems to be often completed within 100 years. Yet, the dimensionality of ecotypic divergence was highest in our oldest systems and only there parallel evolution of unrelated ecotypes was strong enough to overwrite phylogenetic contingency. Moreover, the dimensionality of divergence in different systems varies between trait complexes, suggesting different constraints and evolutionary pathways to their resolution among freshwater systems.

  18. Disentangling the role of phenotypic plasticity and genetic divergence in contemporary ecotype formation during a biological invasion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lucek, Kay; Sivasundar, Arjun; Seehausen, Ole

    2014-09-01

    The occurrence of contemporary ecotype formation through adaptive divergence of populations within the range of an invasive species typically requires standing genetic variation but can be facilitated by phenotypic plasticity. The relative contributions of both of these to adaptive trait differentiation have rarely been simultaneously quantified in recently diverging vertebrate populations. Here we study a case of intraspecific divergence into distinct lake and stream ecotypes of threespine stickleback that evolved in the past 140 years within the invasive range in Switzerland. Using a controlled laboratory experiment with full-sib crosses and treatments mimicking a key feature of ecotypic niche divergence, we test if the phenotypic divergence that we observe in the wild results from phenotypic plasticity or divergent genetic predisposition. Our experimental groups show qualitatively similar phenotypic divergence as those observed among wild adults. The relative contribution of plasticity and divergent genetic predisposition differs among the traits studied, with traits related to the biomechanics of feeding showing a stronger genetic predisposition, whereas traits related to locomotion are mainly plastic. These results implicate that phenotypic plasticity and standing genetic variation interacted during contemporary ecotype formation in this case.

  19. Flower stalk segments of Arabidopsis thaliana ecotype Columbia lack the capacity to grow in response to exogenously applied auxin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soga, K; Wakabayashi, K; Hoson, T; Kamisaka, S

    2000-12-01

    Exogenously applied IAA stimulated cell elongation of segments excised from flower stalks of Arabidopsis thaliana ecotype Landsberg erecta (Ler) by increasing the cell wall extensibility, but it did not affect that of ecotype Columbia (Col). Treatment with a low pH buffer solution (pH 4.0) or fusicoccin (FC), a reagent activating H(+)-ATPases, significantly increased the cell wall extensibility and promoted elongation growth of flower stalk segments of both ecotypes, indicating that the flower stalk segments of Col possess the capacity to grow under acidic pH conditions. IAA promoted the proton excretion in segments of Ler but not of Col. On the other hand, FC increased the proton excretion in segments of Col as much as that of Ler. These results suggest that IAA activates the plasma membrane H(+)-ATPases in the segments of Ler but not those of Col, while FC activates them in both ecotypes. Flower stalks of Col may lack the mechanisms of activation by IAA of the plasma membrane H(+)-ATPases.

  20. Indigenous actinorhizal plants of Australia

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Nishath K Ganguli; Ivan R Kennedy

    2013-11-01

    Indigenous species of actinorhizal plants of Casuarinaceae, Elaeagnaceae and Rhamnaceae are found in specific regions of Australia. Most of these plants belong to Casuarinaceae, the dominant actinorhizal family in Australia. Many of them have significant environmental and economical value. The other two families with their indigenous actinorhizal plants have only a minor presence in Australia. Most Australian actinorhizal plants have their native range only in Australia, whereas two of these plants are also found indigenously elsewhere. The nitrogen-fixing ability of these plants varies between species. This ability needs to be investigated in some of these plants. Casuarinas form a distinctive but declining part of the Australian landscape. Their potential has rarely been applied in forestry in Australia despite their well-known uses, which are being judiciously exploited elsewhere. To remedy this oversight, a programme has been proposed for increasing and improving casuarinas that would aid in greening more regions of Australia, increasing the soil fertility and the area of wild life habitat (including endangered species). Whether these improved clones would be productive with local strains of Frankia or they need an external inoculum of Frankia should be determined and the influence of mycorrhizal fungi on these clones also should be investigated.

  1. Investigating the Effect of Phosphorus, Potassium and Weed Management on Forage and Seed Yield of Alfalfa Ecotypes (Medicago sativa L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali Reza Heidarian

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available In order to investigate fertilizing and weed management effects on forage and seed yield of alfalfa ecotypes, a field trial was conducted during 2008-2009 growing season at Khorasan Agricultural and Natural Resource Research Center, Mashhad-Iran. Alfalfa ecotypes including (Ghareghozlo, Hoakmabad, Malekkandi, Kozre, Faminin, Galebani, Rahnani, Shorkat, Chaleshtar, Ghareaghaj, Gharoghlogh, Ordobad, Sedighan, Silvana, Sahandava, Ghahavand, Mohajerankaraj and Mashhad were allocated to main plots; sub plots consisted of two levels of none fertilizing and fertilization treatments using simultaneous application of potassium sulphate and phosphate triple at rates of 150 and 350 K/ha, respectively and sub-sub plots were allocated to weeding and none weeding treatments based on a complete randomized block design in a splitsplit- plot scheme with three replicates. Results showed that the effect of ecotype on forage yield was not significant. Gharoghlogh and Silvana produced the highest (18270 kg/ha and the lowest (14630 kg/ha green forage yield, respectively at both cuttings (first and second cuts. The interaction of fertilization and weeding on forage yield was significant (p<0.01. On the other hand, with application of fertilizer, forage yield 11.74% was increased and it was enhanced 26.93% by manual weeding. Furthermore, results revealed that ecotype fertilizer interaction was significant (p<0.05 for weed dry weight. Ecotype weeding interaction was significant (p<0.05 for number of seed per pod and seed weight (p<0.01. In addition, fertilizer weeding interaction was significant (p<0.05 for number of seed per plant. Among the treatments, highest number of seed per plant was produced by fertilizer and weeding treatment (2734 and the lowest one was obtained by non-fertilizer and non-weeding treatment (559.5.

  2. Circle of Courage Infusion into the Alberta Indigenous Games 2011

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marchand, Dawn Marie

    2011-01-01

    Thousands of indigenous people from across North America came to the Enoch Cree Nation for the Alberta Indigenous Games, six days of sport, education, and cultural awakening. The vision of the Alberta Indigenous Games is to recognize the value and potential of Indigenous culture and the young people. Activities include sports, indigenous arts,…

  3. Riemerella Anatipestifer Infection in Chickens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. X. Li*, Y. Tang, J. Y. Gao, C. H. Huang1 and M. J. Ding

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Riemerella anatipestifer (RA is the causative agent of septicemic and exudative disease for a variety of bird species. Although RA had been isolated from chickens, whether can bring damages to them is not unrevealed yet. In this study, we report a flock of SanHuang chickens infected by RA with 15% morbidity and less than 8% mortality. The infection is further substantiated by case duplicate. The tested chickens demonstrate typical signs of pericarditis, air sacculitis and perihepatitis that are completely consistent with the field outbreak. The results suggest that RA is pathogenic to SanHuang chickens, which can then be theoretically and practicably incorporated into its infection spectrum.

  4. Responding to Indigenous Australian Sexual Assault

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Janya McCalman

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Indigenous Australians experience a high prevalence of sexual assault, yet a regional sexual assault service found few Indigenous Australians accessed their services. This prompted exploration of how its services might be improved. A resultant systematic search of the literature is reported in this article. Seven electronic databases and seven websites were systematically searched for peer reviewed and gray literature documenting responses to the sexual assault of Indigenous Australians. These publications were then classified by response type and study type. Twenty-three publications met the inclusion criteria. They included studies of legal justice, media, and community-based and mainstream service responses for Indigenous survivors and perpetrators. We located program descriptions, measurement, and descriptive research, but no intervention studies. There is currently insufficient evidence to confidently prescribe what works to effectively respond to Indigenous Australian sexual assault. The study revealed an urgent need for researchers, Indigenous communities, and services to work together to develop the evidence base.

  5. Indigenous knowledge of animal breeding and breeds

    OpenAIRE

    I. Kohler-Rollefson

    2004-01-01

    Indigenous knowledge of animal breeding (IK-AB) includes concepts and practices used to influence the genetic composition of herds. Indigenous selection is often based on preferences based on physical characteristics, vigor, social and economic insurance. This issue paper summarizes the value of indigenous knowledge and local breeds to achieve agricultural sustainability. Links to IK-AB information are also provided. Available in SANREM office, ES

  6. Pathogenicity of Genetically Similar, H5N1 Highly Pathogenic Avian Influenza Virus Strains in Chicken and the Differences in Sensitivity among Different Chicken Breeds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsuu, Aya; Kobayashi, Tomoko; Patchimasiri, Tuangthong; Shiina, Takashi; Suzuki, Shingo; Chaichoune, Kridsada; Ratanakorn, Parntep; Hiromoto, Yasuaki; Abe, Haruka; Parchariyanon, Sujira; Saito, Takehiko

    2016-01-01

    Differences in the pathogenicity of genetically closely related H5N1 highly pathogenic avian influenza viruses (HPAIVs) were evaluated in White Leghorn chickens. These viruses varied in the clinical symptoms they induced, including lethality, virus shedding, and replication in host tissues. A comparison of the host responses in the lung, brain, and spleen suggested that the differences in viral replication efficiency were related to the host cytokine response at the early phase of infection, especially variations in the proinflammatory cytokine IL-6. Based on these findings, we inoculated the virus that showed the mildest pathogenicity among the five tested, A/pigeon/Thailand/VSMU-7-NPT/2004, into four breeds of Thai indigenous chicken, Phadu-Hung-Dang (PHD), Chee, Dang, and Luang-Hung-Khao (LHK), to explore effects of genetic background on host response. Among these breeds, Chee, Dang, and LHK showed significantly longer survival times than White Leghorns. Virus shedding from dead Thai indigenous chickens was significantly lower than that from White Leghorns. Although polymorphisms were observed in the Mx and MHC class I genes, there was no significant association between the polymorphisms in these loci and resistance to HPAIV.

  7. Indigenous Law and Identity Politics in Mexico: Indigenous Men's and Women's Struggles for a Multicultural Nation

    OpenAIRE

    Hernández Castillo, Rosalva Aída

    2002-01-01

    The author approaches the debate on multiculturalism in Mexico emphasizing the tensions that exist among gendered perspectives on identity politics within the indigenous movement and also among Mexican intellectuals. It demonstrates how Indigenous women have played a very important role in confronting the uses of a discourse about indigenous women's rights as arguments against indigenous cultural rights and shows how they are not intrinsically opposed to each other. Their conception of multic...

  8. Taiwanese Indigenous Knowledge Categories and Their Distribution: A Survey of Indigenous Publications

    OpenAIRE

    Gu-Le-Le Lu; Mei-Mei Wu

    2015-01-01

    In recent years, indigenous knowledge has received significant attention in Taiwan. Yet, due to the lack of a clear definition and framework of indigenous knowledge, government ministries and social organizations at all levels face enormous challenges in legislation and policymaking concerning indigenous knowledge preservation, organization, and transmission. This research intends to analyze the scope of published indigenous knowledge contents in Taiwan. By taking a qualitative ap...

  9. Emerging Ideas for Innovation in Indigenous Education: A Research Synthesis of Indigenous Educative Roles in Mainstream and Flexi Schools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shay, Marnee

    2017-01-01

    The Indigenous education agenda in Australia remains focused on mainstream schooling contexts. Although overlooked in Indigenous education discourse, flexi schools appear to be engaging with disproportionately high numbers of Indigenous students and staff. The educative roles of Indigenous peoples in broader Indigenous education discourse are…

  10. THE INDIGENOUS GROUPS AND THE BRAZILIAN SWEETS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mártin César Tempass

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available In the books of Gilberto Freyre and Câmara Cascudo, that influencied so much the literature about brazilian alimentation, the participation of indigenous groups in the national sweets formation process is negligencied. However, is possible to find in book´s “interlineations” of these two authors valuables informations about indigenous contributions to this process. Starting from these two authors and based in the culinary system notion, this paper quests to situate the role of indigenous groups in the brazilian sweets formation and numbers the possibles causes to invisibility of sweets by indigenous at the culinary formation process.

  11. Plant Provocations: Botanical Indigeneity and (Decolonial Imaginations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Narendran Kumarakulasingam

    Full Text Available Abstract Abstract: This paper examines the possibilities and limitations of an emergent global discourse of indigeneity to offer an oppositional praxis in the face of the depredations of settler colonialism in post-apartheid South Africa. Self-conscious articulations of indigeneity, we argue, reveal the fraught relationship between increasingly hegemonic and narrow understandings of the indigenous and the carceral logic of apartheid. We examine this by focusing on the meanings and attachments forged through indigenous plants in two realms: the world of indigenous gardening practised by white suburban dwellers and that of subsistence farming undertaken by rural black women. This juxtaposition reveals that in contrast to the pervasive resurrection of colonial time that defines metropolitan indigenous gardening, the social relations of a subsistence cultivator challenge the confines of colonial temporality, revealing a creative mode of dissent structured around dreams, ancestral knowledge, and the commons. Our exploration of struggles around botanical indigeneity suggests that anticolonial modes of indigeneity do not necessarily inhere in recognisable forms and that studies of the indigenous need to proceed beyond those that bear familial resemblance to emergent global understandings.

  12. Differential control of seed primary dormancy in Arabidopsis ecotypes by the transcription factor SPATULA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vaistij, Fabián E; Gan, Yinbo; Penfield, Steven; Gilday, Alison D; Dave, Anuja; He, Zhesi; Josse, Eve-Marie; Choi, Giltsu; Halliday, Karen J; Graham, Ian A

    2013-06-25

    Freshly matured seeds exhibit primary dormancy, which prevents germination until environmental conditions are favorable. The establishment of dormancy occurs during seed development and involves both genetic and environmental factors that impact on the ratio of two antagonistic phytohormones: abscisic acid (ABA), which promotes dormancy, and gibberellic acid, which promotes germination. Although our understanding of dormancy breakage in mature seeds is well advanced, relatively little is known about the mechanisms involved in establishing dormancy during seed maturation. We previously showed that the SPATULA (SPT) transcription factor plays a key role in regulating seed germination. Here we investigate its role during seed development and find that, surprisingly, it has opposite roles in setting dormancy in Landsberg erecta and Columbia Arabidopsis ecotypes. We also find that SPT regulates expression of five transcription factor encoding genes: ABA-INSENSITIVE4 (ABI4) and ABI5, which mediate ABA signaling; REPRESSOR-OF-GA (RGA) and RGA-LIKE3 involved in gibberellic acid signaling; and MOTHER-OF-FT-AND-TFL1 (MFT) that we show here promotes Arabidopsis seed dormancy. Although ABI4, RGA, and MFT are repressed by SPT, ABI5 and RGL3 are induced. Furthermore, we show that RGA, MFT, and ABI5 are direct targets of SPT in vivo. We present a model in which SPT drives two antagonistic "dormancy-repressing" and "dormancy-promoting" routes that operate simultaneously in freshly matured seeds. Each of these routes has different impacts and this in turn explains the opposite effect of SPT on seed dormancy of the two ecotypes analyzed here.

  13. Salares versus coastal ecotypes of quinoa: Salinity responses in Chilean landraces from contrasting habitats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruiz, Karina B; Aloisi, Iris; Del Duca, Stefano; Canelo, Valentina; Torrigiani, Patrizia; Silva, Herman; Biondi, Stefania

    2016-04-01

    Quinoa (Chenopodium quinoa Willd.) is a highly salt-tolerant species subdivided into five ecotypes and exhibiting broad intra-specific differences in tolerance levels. In a greenhouse study, Chilean landraces belonging either to the salares (R49) or coastal lowlands (VI-1, Villarrica) ecotype with contrasting agro-ecological origins were investigated for their responses to high salinity. The effects of two levels of salinity, 100 (T1) and 300 (T2) mM NaCl, on plant growth and on some physiological parameters were measured. Leaf and root Na(+) accumulation differed among landraces. T2 reduced growth and seed yield in all landraces with maximum inhibition relative to controls in R49. Salinity negatively affected chlorophyll and total polyphenol content (TPC) in VI-1 and Villarrica but not R49. Germination on saline or control media of seeds harvested from plants treated or not with NaCl was sometimes different; the best performing landrace was R49 insofar as 45-65% of seeds germinated on 500 mM NaCl-containing medium. In all landraces, average seedling root length declined strongly with increasing NaCl concentration, but roots of R49 were significantly longer than those of VI-1 and Villarrica up to 300 mM NaCl. Salt caused increases in seed TPC relative to controls, but radical scavenging capacity was higher only in seeds from T2 plants of R49. Total SDS-extractable seed proteins were resolved into distinct bands (10-70 kDa) with some evident differences between landraces. Salt-induced changes in protein patterns were landrace-specific. The responses to salinity of the salares landrace are discussed in relation to its better adaptation to an extreme environment.

  14. Ecotype-specific improvement of nitrogen status in European grasses after drought combined with rewetting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arfin Khan, Mohammed A. S.; Kreyling, Juergen; Beierkuhnlein, Carl; Jentsch, Anke

    2016-11-01

    Drought stress and associated low soil moisture can decrease N status of forage plants by reducing nitrogen (N) uptake. Conversely, rainfall and associated favorable soil moisture can improve plant N status. Yet, it is unclear to which degree drought combined with rewetting can buffer negative effects of drought on N status of forage plants and their populations. Here, we compared shoot N status (N concentration, total N uptake and C/N ratio) of four temperate grass species. Particularly, we investigated ecotypes (populations) grown from seeds from four to six European provenances/species after a drought treatment combined with rewetting (10 day harvest delay) versus continuously watered conditions for control. The experimental combination of drought and rewetting significantly increased shoot N concentration (+96%), N uptake (+31%); and decreased C/N ratio (-46%), biomass production (-29%) and C concentration (-1.4%) compared to control. Shoot N status was found to be different between target grass species and also within their populations under drought combined with rewetting treatment. Presumably drought-adapted populations did not perform better than populations from moist sites indicating no evidence of local adaptation. The drought combined with rewetting event could buffer the negative effects of drought. Shoot N status of grasses after drought and rewetting even exceeded control plants. This surprising finding can potentially be explained by higher N uptake, lack of growth dilution effects or delayed plant maturation. Furthermore, within-species shoot N status responses to drought combined with rewetting event were ecotype-specific, hinting at diverse responses of different population. For rangeland management, we recommend that if a drought event occurs during the growing season, harvesting should be delayed beyond a following rain event.

  15. The Impact of Professional Development and Indigenous Education Officers on Australian Teachers' Indigenous Teaching and Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Craven, Rhonda G.; Yeung, Alexander Seeshing; Han, Feifei

    2014-01-01

    The study investigated the impact of professional development (PD) in Indigenous teaching on teachers' psychological and behavioural aspects, and Indigenous students' learning engagement. Adopting a multiple-indicator-multiple-indicator-cause model, frequency of PD was found to have positive paths to teachers' self-concept in Indigenous teaching…

  16. Motivation Matters: Profiling Indigenous and Non-Indigenous Students' Motivational Goals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Magson, Natasha R.; Craven, Rhonda G.; Nelson, Genevieve F.; Yeung, Alexander S.; Bodkin-Andrews, Gawaian H.; McInerney, Dennis M.

    2014-01-01

    This research explored gender and cross-cultural similarities and differences in the motivational profiles of Indigenous Papua New Guinean (PNG) and Indigenous and non-Indigenous Australians. Secondary students (N = 1,792) completed self-report motivational measures. Invariance testing demonstrated that the Inventory of School Motivation…

  17. Preparing to Be Allies: Narratives of Non-Indigenous Researchers Working in Indigenous Contexts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brophey, Alison; Raptis, Helen

    2016-01-01

    Insensitive research approaches have resulted in damaged relationships between non-Indigenous researchers and Indigenous communities, prompting scholars and funding agencies to call for more culturally compatible research methods. This paper addresses the qualities, skills and knowledge developed by six non-Indigenous researchers as they…

  18. The Nature of Indigenized Englishes: Interference--Creativity--Universals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Platt, John

    1989-01-01

    Examines the concept of indigenized Englishes and compares them with pidgins and creoles, focusing on attitudes about indigenized English, creative aspects of indigenized English, substratum influences, and universals. (Author/CB)

  19. Chicken Porridge with Sea Cucumber

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    1994-01-01

    Main ingredients: 50 grams of chicken breast, 200 grams of gray sea cucumbers Supplementary ingredients: 100 grams of water chestnut, the whites of four eggs, MSG, salt, wine, meat soup, starch, sugar, scallions, ginger, soy sauce Directions: Chop up the chicken breast and water chestnut into small

  20. Habitat Temperature and Precipitation of Arabidopsis thaliana Ecotypes Determine the Response of Foliar Vasculature, Photosynthesis, and Transpiration to Growth Temperature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adams, William W; Stewart, Jared J; Cohu, Christopher M; Muller, Onno; Demmig-Adams, Barbara

    2016-01-01

    Acclimatory adjustments of foliar vascular architecture, photosynthetic capacity, and transpiration rate in Arabidopsis thaliana ecotypes (Italian, Polish [Col-0], Swedish) were characterized in the context of habitat of origin. Temperatures of the habitat of origin decreased linearly with increasing habitat latitude, but habitat precipitation was greatest in Italy, lowest in Poland, and intermediate in Sweden. Plants of the three ecotypes raised under three different growth temperature regimes (low, moderate, and high) exhibited highest photosynthetic capacities, greatest leaf thickness, highest chlorophyll a/b ratio and levels of β-carotene, and greatest levels of wall ingrowths in phloem transfer cells, and, in the Col-0 and Swedish ecotypes, of phloem per minor vein in plants grown at the low temperature. In contrast, vein density and minor vein tracheary to sieve element ratio increased with increasing growth temperature - most strongly in Col-0 and least strongly in the Italian ecotype - and transpirational water loss correlated with vein density and number of tracheary elements per minor vein. Plotting of these vascular features as functions of climatic conditions in the habitat of origin suggested that temperatures during the evolutionary history of the ecotypes determined acclimatory responses of the foliar phloem and photosynthesis to temperature in this winter annual that upregulates photosynthesis in response to lower temperature, whereas the precipitation experienced during the evolutionary history of the ecotypes determined adjustment of foliar vein density, xylem, and transpiration to temperature. In particular, whereas photosynthetic capacity, leaf thickness, and foliar minor vein phloem features increased linearly with increasing latitude and decreasing temperature of the habitats of origin in response to experimental growth at low temperature, transpiration rate, foliar vein density, and minor vein tracheary element numbers and cross

  1. Habitat temperature and precipitation of Arabidopsis thaliana ecotypes determine the response of foliar vasculature, photosynthesis, and transpiration to growth temperature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    William Walter Adams III

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Acclimatory adjustments of foliar vascular architecture, photosynthetic capacity, and transpiration rate in Arabidopsis thaliana ecotypes (Italian, Polish [Col-0], Swedish were characterized in the context of habitat of origin. Temperatures of the habitat of origin decreased linearly with increasing habitat latitude, but habitat precipitation was greatest in Italy, lowest in Poland, and intermediate in Sweden. Plants of the three ecotypes raised under three different growth temperature regimes (low, moderate, and high exhibited highest photosynthetic capacities, greatest leaf thickness, highest chlorophyll a/b ratio and levels of β-carotene, and greatest levels of wall ingrowths in phloem transfer cells, and, in the Col-0 and Swedish ecotypes, of phloem per minor vein in plants grown at the low temperature. In contrast, vein density and minor vein tracheary to sieve element ratio increased with increasing growth temperature – most strongly in Col-0 and least strongly in the Italian ecotype – and transpirational water loss correlated with vein density and number of tracheary elements per minor vein. Plotting of these vascular features as functions of climatic conditions in the habitat of origin suggested that temperatures during the evolutionary history of the ecotypes determined acclimatory responses of the foliar phloem and photosynthesis to temperature in this winter annual that upregulates photosynthesis in response to lower temperature, whereas the precipitation experienced during the evolutionary history of the ecotypes determined adjustment of foliar vein density, xylem, and transpiration to temperature. In particular, whereas photosynthetic capacity, leaf thickness, and foliar minor vein phloem features increased linearly with increasing latitude and decreasing temperature of the habitats of origin in response to experimental growth at low temperature, transpiration rate, foliar vein density, and minor vein tracheary element numbers

  2. The evolving male: spinner dolphin (Stenella longirostris) ecotypes are divergent at Y chromosome but not mtDNA or autosomal markers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andrews, Kimberly R; Perrin, William F; Oremus, Marc; Karczmarski, Leszek; Bowen, Brian W; Puritz, Jonathan B; Toonen, Robert J

    2013-05-01

    The susceptibility of the Y chromosome to sexual selection may make this chromosome an important player in the formation of reproductive isolating barriers, and ultimately speciation. Here, we investigate the role of the Y chromosome in phenotypic divergence and reproductive isolation of spinner dolphin (Stenella longirostris) ecotypes. This species contains six known ecotypes (grouped into four subspecies) that exhibit striking differences in morphology, habitat and mating system, despite having adjacent or overlapping ranges and little genetic divergence at previously studied mtDNA and autosomal markers. We examined the phylogeographic structure for all six ecotypes across the species range (n = 261, 17 geographic locations) using DNA sequences from three Y chromosome markers, two maternally inherited mitochondrial (mtDNA) markers, and a biparentally inherited autosomal intron. mtDNA and autosomal analyses revealed low divergence (most Φ(ST) values <0.1) between ecotypes and geographic regions, concordant with previous studies. In contrast, Y intron analyses revealed fixed differences amongst the three most phenotypically divergent groups: S. l. longirostris vs. S. l. roseiventris vs. combined S. l. orientalis/S. l. centroamericana/Tres Marias ecotypes). Another ecotype (whitebelly), previously postulated to be a hybrid between the two phenotypically most divergent ecotypes, had Y haplotypes from both putative parent ecotypes, supporting a hybrid designation. Reduced introgression of the Y chromosome has previously been observed in other organisms ranging from insects to terrestrial mammals, and here we demonstrate this phenomenon in a marine mammal with high dispersal capabilities. These results indicate that reduced introgression of the Y chromosome occurs in a wide taxonomic range of organisms and support the growing body of evidence that rapid evolution of the Y chromosome is important in evolutionary diversification.

  3. Association between minor loading vein architecture and light- and CO2-saturated rates of photosynthetic oxygen evolution among Arabidopsis thaliana ecotypes from different latitudes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christopher M Cohu

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Through microscopic analysis of veins and assessment of light- and CO2-saturated rates of photosynthetic oxygen evolution, we investigated the relationship between minor loading vein anatomy and photosynthesis of mature leaves in three ecotypes of Arabidopsis thaliana grown under four different combinations of temperature and photon flux density (PFD. All three ecotypes exhibited greater numbers and cross-sectional area of phloem cells as well as higher photosynthesis rates in response to higher PFD and especially lower temperature. The Swedish ecotype exhibited the strongest response to these conditions, the Italian ecotype the weakest response, and the Col-0 ecotype exhibited an intermediate response. Among all three ecotypes, strong linear relationships were found between light- and CO2-saturated rates of photosynthetic oxygen evolution and the number and area of either sieve elements or of companion and phloem parenchyma cells in foliar minor loading veins, with the Swedish ecotype showing the highest number of cells in minor loading veins (and largest minor veins coupled with unprecedented high rates of photosynthesis. Linear, albeit less significant, relationships were also observed between number and cross-sectional area of tracheids per minor loading vein versus light- and CO2-saturated rates of photosynthetic oxygen evolution. We suggest that sugar distribution infrastructure in the phloem is co-regulated with other features that set the upper limit for photosynthesis. The apparent genetic differences among Arabidopsis ecotypes should allow for future identification of the gene(s involved in augmenting sugar-loading and -transporting phloem cells and maximal rates of photosynthesis.

  4. 7 CFR 65.120 - Chicken.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Chicken. 65.120 Section 65.120 Agriculture Regulations..., PORK, LAMB, CHICKEN, GOAT MEAT, PERISHABLE AGRICULTURAL COMMODITIES, MACADAMIA NUTS, PECANS, PEANUTS, AND GINSENG General Provisions Definitions § 65.120 Chicken. Chicken has the meaning given the term...

  5. 7 CFR 65.160 - Ground chicken.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Ground chicken. 65.160 Section 65.160 Agriculture... OF BEEF, PORK, LAMB, CHICKEN, GOAT MEAT, PERISHABLE AGRICULTURAL COMMODITIES, MACADAMIA NUTS, PECANS, PEANUTS, AND GINSENG General Provisions Definitions § 65.160 Ground chicken. Ground chicken...

  6. Gambling: A Poison Chalice for Indigenous Peoples'

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dyall, Lorna

    2010-01-01

    Indigenous populations are now being encouraged to be involved in the business of gambling as an operator or if not given that status, are actively encouraged to participate in gambling activities. Research both published and unpublished show that different indigenous populations often have a higher prevalence of problem and pathological gambling…

  7. Performance in Basic Mathematics of Indigenous Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sicat, Lolita V.; David, Ma. Elena D.

    2016-01-01

    This analytical study analyzed the performance in Basic Mathematics of the indigenous students, the Aeta students (Grade 6) of Sta. Juliana Elementary School, Capas, Tarlac, and the APC students of Malaybalay City, Bukidnon. Results were compared with regular students in rural, urban, private, and public schools to analyze indigenous students'…

  8. Including People with Disabilities: An Indigenous Perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bevan-Brown, Jill

    2013-01-01

    Being victims of racial prejudice, religious intolerance, poverty, disempowerment and language loss it could be expected that indigenous people would be supportive of the Inclusion Movement with its philosophy of valuing and acceptance of all people. This supposition is examined for Maori, the indigenous people of Aotearoa/New Zealand. In…

  9. Indigenous Students in the Tertiary Education Sector

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bandias, Susan; Fuller, Don; Larkin, Steven

    2014-01-01

    Important recent objectives of indigenous education policy in Australia have been aimed at redressing indigenous economic and social disadvantage through increasing student retention, progression and completion rates in both compulsory and post-compulsory education. The two sectors of the tertiary education system, vocational education and…

  10. Towards a critique of indigenous African religion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Johan Strijdom

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available In this article, it is argued that a postcolonial critique of the colonial study of religion should not preclude a critique of indigenous African religion itself. The latter may be developed from a human rights perspective and a critique of exclusionary views of indigeneity. The argument is illustrated by means of specific case studies.

  11. Science, Metaphoric Meaning, and Indigenous Knowledge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elliott, Frank

    2009-01-01

    Western cultural approaches to teaching science have excluded Indigenous knowledges and culturally favored many non-Aboriginal science students. By asking the question "What connections exist between Western science and Indigenous knowledge?" elements of epistemological (how do we determine what is real?) and ontological (what is real?)…

  12. Toward an Integrative Framework of Indigenous Research

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Li, Peter Ping

    2012-01-01

    It has long been recognized that indigenous research should be helpful, if not essential, for an adequate understanding of local phenomena. The indigenous approach is consistent with, but extends beyond, the repeated calls for contextualizing management and organization research. However......, the challenges of indigenous research are enormous. The purpose of this article is to shed light on these challenges by providing an integrative framework of indigenous research. In particular, I seek to explicate the existing conceptual confusions and flesh out the appropriate methodological procedures...... for indigenous research on Chinese management. To illustrate the framework, I show the value of yin-yang thinking by developing a cognitive frame, Yin-Yang Balance, to illustrate the unique and novel features of local perspective, including its application to case study method....

  13. Effects of Nano Fertilizer Application and Maternal Corm Weight on Flowering at Some Saffron (Crocus sativus L.) Ecotypes

    OpenAIRE

    AMIRNIA, Reza; Bayat, Mahdi; TAJBAKHSH, Mahdi

    2014-01-01

    To develop saffron planting in Urmia, West Azerbaijan, Iran, a split-split plot experiment based on CRBD was carried out in the Urmia University's research farm for two years . Nanofertilizers (Fe, P, K and nofertilizer (control)) as main plots, saffron ecotypes (Mashhad, Torbat-Heydarieh, Torbat-jam, Gonabad, Ghaen and Birjand) as subplots and maternal corm weight (6, 8, 10 and 12 g) as sub-sub plots were considered. Throughout the two years of the study, results showed significant differenc...

  14. Application of otolith shape analysis in identifying different ecotypes of Coilia ectenes in the Yangtze Basin, China

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Radhakrishnan, K.V.; Li, Y.; Jayalakshmy, K.V.; Liu, M.; Murphy, B.R.; Xie, S.

    the sampling areas. The classification success of the discriminant 154 analysis was checked using jackknifed cross-validation (SPSS Inc., 1999). To visualize 155 the shape differences between the groups, average otolith shapes were... 3.2. Shape visualization 190 191 The average shape of the otoliths showed distinct differences among the three 192 ecotypes (Fig. 4). There was a well-developed antirostrum for both the anadromous and 193 the land...

  15. Population genetic structure, linkage disequilibrium and effective population size of conserved and extensively raised village chicken populations of Southern Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khanyile, Khulekani S; Dzomba, Edgar F; Muchadeyi, Farai C

    2015-01-01

    Extensively raised village chickens are considered a valuable source of biodiversity, with genetic variability developed over thousands of years that ought to be characterized and utilized. Surveys that can reveal a population's genetic structure and provide an insight into its demographic history will give valuable information that can be used to manage and conserve important indigenous animal genetic resources. This study reports population diversity and structure, linkage disequilibrium and effective population sizes of Southern African village chickens and conservation flocks from South Africa. DNA samples from 312 chickens from South African village and conservation flocks (n = 146), Malawi (n = 30) and Zimbabwe (n = 136) were genotyped using the Illumina iSelect chicken SNP60K BeadChip. Population genetic structure analysis distinguished the four conservation flocks from the village chicken populations. Of the four flocks, the Ovambo clustered closer to the village chickens particularly those sampled from South Africa. Clustering of the village chickens followed a geographic gradient whereby South African chickens were closer to those from Zimbabwe than to chickens from Malawi. Different conservation flocks seemed to have maintained different components of the ancestral genomes with a higher proportion of village chicken diversity found in the Ovambo population. Overall population LD averaged over chromosomes ranged from 0.03 ± 0.07 to 0.58 ± 0.41 and averaged 0.15 ± 0.16. Higher LD, ranging from 0.29 to 0.36, was observed between SNP markers that were less than 10 kb apart in the conservation flocks. LD in the conservation flocks steadily decreased to 0.15 (PK) and 0.24 (VD) at SNP marker interval of 500 kb. Genomewide LD decay in the village chickens from Malawi, Zimbabwe and South Africa followed a similar trend as the conservation flocks although the mean LD values for the investigated SNP intervals were lower. The results suggest low effective

  16. A comparison of the functional traits of common reed (Phragmites australis) in northern China: aquatic vs. terrestrial ecotypes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Liping; Han, Wenxuan; Thevs, Niels; Jia, Xiuhong; Ji, Chengjun; Jin, Dongmei; He, Ping; Schmitt, Armin O; Cirella, Giuseppe Tommaso; Zerbe, Stefan

    2014-01-01

    Common reed (Phragmites australis (Cav.) Trin. ex Steud.) is distributed widely throughout the world with various ecotypes. This research compares the functional traits and biomass allocation patterns of two contrasting reed ecotypes. Twelve pairs of aquatic and terrestrial reed samples were collected in northern China. Significant differences in functional traits between the two reed ecotypes were observed, while biomass allocation patterns of reed organs did not differ significantly except for at the root. The dry matter content (DMC) in the whole of the reed plant, leaf, root, and rhizome was higher; while the specific leaf area (SLA) and specific root length (SRL) were lower in terrestrial versus aquatic reed. The biomass allocation in organs of the two forms of reed was isometric, only root in the terrestrial habitat increased faster with an increase in the whole plant biomass. It can be affirmed that aquatic and terrestrial reed that adapt to different environments generally has distinct leaf and root functional traits but isometric biomass allocation patterns. This suggests different resource acquisition strategies: (1) aquatic reed grows faster with high SLA and SRL and is more responsive to the environment, while (2) terrestrial reed with high DMC grows slower and is less responsive to the adverse environment (e.g. dry soil conditions).

  17. Northern ragweed ecotypes flower earlier and longer in response to elevated CO2: what are you sneezing at?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stinson, Kristina A; Albertine, Jennifer M; Hancock, Laura M S; Seidler, Tristram G; Rogers, Christine A

    2016-10-01

    Significant changes in plant phenology and flower production are predicted over the next century, but we know relatively little about geographic patterns of this response in many species, even those that potentially impact human wellbeing. We tested for variation in flowering responses of the allergenic plant, Ambrosia artemisiifolia (common ragweed). We grew plants originating from three latitudes in the Northeastern USA at experimental levels of CO2 (400, 600, and 800 µL L(-1)). We hypothesized that northern ecotypes adapted to shorter growing seasons would flower earlier than their southern counterparts, and thus disproportionately allocate carbon gains from CO2 to reproduction. As predicted, latitude of origin and carbon dioxide level significantly influenced the timing and magnitude of flowering. Reproductive onset occurred earlier with increasing latitude, with concurrent increases in the number of flowers produced. Elevated carbon dioxide resulted in earlier reproductive onset in all ecotypes, which was significantly more pronounced in the northern populations. We interpret our findings as evidence for ecotypic variation in ragweed flowering time, as well in responses to CO2. Thus, the ecological and human health implications of common ragweed's response to global change are likely to depend on latitude. We conclude that increased flower production, duration, and possibly pollen output, can be expected in Northeastern United States with rising levels of CO2. The effects are likely, however, to be most significant in northern parts of the region.

  18. A comparison of the functional traits of common reed (Phragmites australis in northern China: aquatic vs. terrestrial ecotypes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liping Li

    Full Text Available Common reed (Phragmites australis (Cav. Trin. ex Steud. is distributed widely throughout the world with various ecotypes. This research compares the functional traits and biomass allocation patterns of two contrasting reed ecotypes. Twelve pairs of aquatic and terrestrial reed samples were collected in northern China. Significant differences in functional traits between the two reed ecotypes were observed, while biomass allocation patterns of reed organs did not differ significantly except for at the root. The dry matter content (DMC in the whole of the reed plant, leaf, root, and rhizome was higher; while the specific leaf area (SLA and specific root length (SRL were lower in terrestrial versus aquatic reed. The biomass allocation in organs of the two forms of reed was isometric, only root in the terrestrial habitat increased faster with an increase in the whole plant biomass. It can be affirmed that aquatic and terrestrial reed that adapt to different environments generally has distinct leaf and root functional traits but isometric biomass allocation patterns. This suggests different resource acquisition strategies: (1 aquatic reed grows faster with high SLA and SRL and is more responsive to the environment, while (2 terrestrial reed with high DMC grows slower and is less responsive to the adverse environment (e.g. dry soil conditions.

  19. A study of fluctuating asymmetry in hybrids of dwarf and normal lake whitefish ecotypes (Coregonus clupeaformis) from different glacial races.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, G; Bernatchez, L

    1999-12-01

    Fish ecotypes found in north temperate lakes are increasingly used as model organisms to explore patterns and processes of population divergence that may ultimately cause speciation. Processes involved in their reproductive isolation are, however, still poorly understood. Recent experimental studies on whitefish ecotypes from different glacial races revealed that embryonic mortality of hybrids was 2.4-4.7 times higher than for parental forms. In this study, we compared fluctuating asymmetry (FA) in morphological traits of these same hybrid and pure crosses to test the hypothesis that genetic stress observed in hybrids at embryonic stages is also manifested at later developmental stages. Twelve morphological traits were used to measure asymmetry. Variable degrees of asymmetry were observed depending on traits and crosses, however there was no significant difference in FA among crosses. These results thus provided no evidence in support of the working hypothesis and indicated that genetic stress may differ among life stages. It is more likely that high hybrid embryonic mortality acts together with ecological factors at later stages to increase further the extent of reproductive isolation between sympatric whitefish ecotypes.

  20. Effects of cadmium on ultrastructure and antioxidative defense system in hyperaccumulator and non-hyperaccumulator ecotypes of Sedum alfredii Hance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jin Xiaofen [Ministry of Education Key Laboratory of Environmental Remediation and Ecosystem Health, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou 310029 (China); Zhejiang Provincial Key Lab of Subtropical Soil Science and Plant Nutrition, College of Environmental and Natural Resources Science, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou 310029 (China); Yang Xiaoe [Ministry of Education Key Laboratory of Environmental Remediation and Ecosystem Health, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou 310029 (China); Zhejiang Provincial Key Lab of Subtropical Soil Science and Plant Nutrition, College of Environmental and Natural Resources Science, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou 310029 (China)], E-mail: xyang@zju.edu.cn; Islam, Ejazul [Ministry of Education Key Laboratory of Environmental Remediation and Ecosystem Health, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou 310029 (China); Zhejiang Provincial Key Lab of Subtropical Soil Science and Plant Nutrition, College of Environmental and Natural Resources Science, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou 310029 (China); Nuclear Institute of Agriculture, Tandojam 48800, Hyderabad (Pakistan); Liu Dan [School of Tourism and Health, Zhejiang Forestry College, 311300 Lin' an (China); Mahmood, Qaisar [Ministry of Education Key Laboratory of Environmental Remediation and Ecosystem Health, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou 310029 (China); Zhejiang Provincial Key Lab of Subtropical Soil Science and Plant Nutrition, College of Environmental and Natural Resources Science, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou 310029 (China)

    2008-08-15

    Plant growth, ultrastructural and antioxidant adaptations and glutathione biosynthesis in Cd-hyperaccumulating ecotype Sedum alfredii Hance (HE) countering high Cd environment were investigated and compared with its non Cd-hyperaccumulating ecotype (NHE). Cadmium exposure resulted in significant ultrastructural changes in root meristem and leaf mesophyll cells of S. alfredii, but damage was more pronounced in NHE even when Cd concentrations were one-tenth of those applied to HE. Cadmium stress damaged chloroplasts causing imbalanced lamellae formation coupled with early leaf senescence. Histochemical results revealed that glutathione (GSH) biosynthesis inhibition led to overproduction of hydrogen peroxide (H{sub 2}O{sub 2}) and superoxide radical (O{sub 2}{center_dot}{sup -}) in HE but not in NHE. Differences were noted in both HE and NHE for catalase (CAT), guaiacol peroxidase (GPX), ascorbate peroxidase (APX) and glutathione reductase (GR) activities under various Cd stress levels. No relationship was found between antioxidative defense capacity including activities of superoxide dismutase (SOD), CAT, GPX, APX and GR as well as ascorbic acid (AsA) contents and Cd tolerance in the two ecotypes of S. alfredii. The GSH biosynthesis induction in root and shoot exposed to elevated Cd conditions may be involved in Cd tolerance and hyperaccumulation in HE of S. alfredii H.

  1. Chicken and Fish Maw Gruel

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2002-01-01

    Mince the chicken breast, add egg white and chicken broth, and cook until the mixture thickens.Slice the soaked fish maw, and cleanse in lukewarm water. Slice the cooked ham and then shred. Put green soya beans in a wok and scald. Rinse in cold water to retain the original color.Heat some lard in a wok, add spring onion sections, stir-fry until their fragrance exudes, and remove the onion. Add chicken broth, salt, the Shaoxing wine, spring onion and ginger mixture, and fish maw slices. Bring to the boil, turn down the heat

  2. Curriculum and the production of indigenous subjects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adir Casaro Nascimento

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available The policy on school education has always been explicit in its intentions to produce identities for indigenous peoples. The Federal Constitution of 1988 broke with the assimilationist/integrationist/colonizing proposal of curricula imposed on indigenous people and recognizes the ethnic identities of indigenous people inserted within the context of their cultural relations and the right to their customs, values, traditions, languages and knowledge. The use of the mother tongue and of learning processes has been orienting categories in the curricula of their schools. With culture as the focal point of discussion, this text is supported on testimonies by indigenous teachers from Terena, Guarani and Kaiowá tribes, subjects living the ambiguities and conflicts as well as their identities and the identities of those looking for schooling in different communities. Despite the difficulties that the indigenous school still faces, indigenous movements question homogenous and colonizing schooling models. This school is part of their lives and plays its social role of working with knowledge without excluding cultures as producers of sense and meaning, their knowledge that guarantees the difference in curriculum, area of struggle, and in the production of indigenous subjects.

  3. An Indigenously Developed Insecticidal Aerosol

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. N. Varma

    1969-10-01

    Full Text Available A total of 6 "Test" insecticidal aerosols (TA-I to VI indigenously produced were tested during the years 1966-67 as suitable replacements for imported aerosols.TA-I produced deep yellow staining and a yellowish spray mist. Its capacity was only 120 ml fluid. TA-III types II and III containing modified aerosol formulation with "Esso solvent 3245" and mineral turpentine oil (Burmah Shelland Freon 12 11 (all indigenouswere comparable to he "SRA" in insecticidial efficacy. The container was also manufactured in the country and it compared well with the "SRA" in construction, resistance against rough usage and mechanical function. They were both finally approved for introduction in the services as replacement for imported aerosols. TA-IV performed well in inscticidial assessment, but the aerosols formulation. TA-V and VI were similar to TA-III types II and III respectively.

  4. Revolutionizing Environmental Education through Indigenous Hip Hop Culture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gorlewski, Julie; Porfilio, Brad J.

    2012-01-01

    Based upon the life histories of six Indigenous hip hop artists of the Beat Nation artist collective, this essay captures how Indigenous hip hop has the potential to revolutionize environmental education. Hip hop provides Indigenous youth an emancipatory space to raise their opposition to neocolonial controls of Indigenous territories that…

  5. Indigenous Student Participation in Higher Education: Emergent Themes and Linkages

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aseron, Johnnie; Wilde, Simon; Miller, Adrian; Kelly, Stephen

    2013-01-01

    Educational processes directed at Indigenous peoples have long propagated a disparity between the educational successes of Indigenous and non-Indigenous students (May 1999), a contrast which can be acutely observed in Australia. It is not surprising, then, that the educational needs of Indigenous students have been poorly served, with the extant…

  6. Molecular characterization of chicken syndecan-2 proteoglycan

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chen, Ligong; Couchman, John R; Smith, Jacqueline

    2002-01-01

    A partial syndecan-2 sequence (147 bp) was obtained from chicken embryonic fibroblast poly(A)+ RNA by reverse transcription-PCR. This partial sequence was used to produce a 5'-end-labelled probe. A chicken liver cDNA library was screened with this probe, and overlapping clones were obtained......Da. Western blotting of chicken embryonic fibroblast cell lysates with species-specific monoclonal antibody mAb 8.1 showed that chicken syndecan-2 is substituted with heparan sulphate, and that the major form of chicken syndecan-2 isolated from chicken fibroblasts is consistent with the formation of SDS......-resistant dimers, which is common for syndecans. A 5'-end-labelled probe hybridized to two mRNA species in chicken embryonic fibroblasts, while Northern analysis with poly(A)+ RNAs from different tissues of chicken embryos showed wide and distinct distributions of chicken syndecan-2 during embryonic development...

  7. Doing Climate Science in Indigenous Communities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pandya, R. E.; Bennett, B.

    2009-12-01

    Historically, the goal of broadening participation in the geosciences has been expressed and approached from the viewpoint of the majority-dominated geoscience community. The need for more students who are American Indian, Native Hawaiian, or Alaska Native is expressed in terms of the need to diversify the research community, and strategies to engage more students are often posed around the question “what can we do to get more indigenous students interested in coming to our institutions to do geosciences?” This approach can lead to neglecting indigenous ways of knowing, inadvertently prioritizes western values over traditional ones, and doesn’t necessarily honor tribal community’s desire to hold on to their talented youth. Further, while this approach has resulted in some modest success, the overall participation in geoscience by students from indigenous backgrounds remains low. Many successful programs, however, have tried an alternate approach; they begin by approaching the geosciences from the viewpoint of indigenous communities. The questions they ask center around how geosciences can advance the priorities of indigenous communities, and their approaches focus on building capacity for the geosciences within indigenous communities. Most importantly, perhaps, these efforts originate in Tribal communities themselves, and invite the geoscience research community to partner in projects that are rooted in indigenous culture and values. Finally, these programs recognize that scientific expertise is only one among many skills indigenous peoples employ in their relation with their homelands. Climate change, like all things related to the landscape, is intimately connected to the core of indigenous cultures. Thus, emerging concerns about climate change provide a venue for developing new, indigenous-centered, approaches to the persistent problem of broadening participation in the geoscience. This presentation will highlight three indigenous-led efforts in to

  8. Diversity of thermal ecotypes and potential pathotypes of Bacillus thuringiensis soil isolates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swiecicka, Izabela; Bartoszewicz, Marek; Kasulyte-Creasey, Daiva; Drewnowska, Justyna M; Murawska, Emilia; Yernazarova, Aliya; Lukaszuk, Edyta; Mahillon, Jacques

    2013-08-01

    Ecological diversification of Bacillus thuringiensis soil isolates was examined to determine whether bacteria adapted to grow at low temperature and/or potentially pathogenic correspond to genetically distinct lineages. Altogether, nine phylogenetic lineages were found among bacilli originating from North-Eastern Poland (n = 24) and Lithuania (n = 25) using multi-locus sequence typing. This clustering was chiefly confirmed by pulsed-field gel electrophoresis. One third of the bacilli were found to be psychrotolerant, which strongly supports the hypothesis of the existence of thermal ecotypes among B. thuringiensis. PCR screening was also performed to detect potential enterotoxin genes and Bacillus anthracis pXO1- and pXO2-like replicons. The cytK-positive isolates (22%) were significantly associated with two phylogenetic lineages (potential CytK pathotypes), whereas there was no correlation between phylogenetic grouping and the presence of the potential tripartite enterotoxin pathotypes (86% of strains). A statistically significant association between phylogenetic lineages and ecologic properties was found with regard to the cry1-positive Lithuanian isolates, while the cry genes in Polish isolates and the pXO1- and pXO2 replicon-like elements showed scattered distribution across phylogenetic lineages. Our results support the hypothesis that B. thuringiensis comprises strains belonging to different phylogenetic lineages, which exhibit specific ecological properties.

  9. Induction of cell death by graphene in Arabidopsis thaliana (Columbia ecotype) T87 cell suspensions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Begum, Parvin, E-mail: parvinchy@ees.hokudai.ac.jp; Fugetsu, Bunshi

    2013-09-15

    Highlights: • This study was set up to explore potential influence of graphene on T87 cells. • Fragmented nuclei, membrane damage, mitochondrial dysfunction were observed. • ROS increased, ROS are key mediators in the cell death signaling pathway. • Translocation of graphene into cells and an endocytosis-like structure was observed. • Graphene entering into the cells by endocytosis. -- Abstract: The toxicity of graphene on suspensions of Arabidopsis thaliana (Columbia ecotype) T87 cells was investigated by examining the morphology, mitochondrial dysfunction, reactive oxygen species generation (ROS), and translocation of graphene as the toxicological endpoints. The cells were grown in Jouanneau and Péaud-Lenoel (JPL) media and exposed to graphene at concentrations 0–80 mg/L. Morphological changes were observed by scanning electron microscope and the adverse effects such as fragmented nuclei, membrane damage, mitochondrial dysfunction was observed with fluorescence microscopy by staining with Hoechst 33342/propidium iodide and succinate dehydrogenase (mitochondrial bioenergetic enzyme). Analysis of intracellular ROS by 2′,7′-dichlorofluorescein diacetate demonstrated that graphene induced a 3.3-fold increase in ROS, suggesting that ROS are key mediators in the cell death signaling pathway. Transmission electron microscopy verified the translocation of graphene into cells and an endocytosis-like structure was observed which suggested graphene entering into the cells by endocytosis. In conclusion, our results show that graphene induced cell death in T87 cells through mitochondrial damage mediated by ROS.

  10. Identification of ecotype-specific marker genes for categorization of beer-spoiling Lactobacillus brevis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Behr, Jürgen; Geissler, Andreas J; Preissler, Patrick; Ehrenreich, Armin; Angelov, Angel; Vogel, Rudi F

    2015-10-01

    The tolerance to hop compounds, which is mainly associated with inhibition of bacterial growth in beer, is a multi-factorial trait. Any approaches to predict the physiological differences between beer-spoiling and non-spoiling strains on the basis of a single marker gene are limited. We identified ecotype-specific genes related to the ability to grow in Pilsner beer via comparative genome sequencing. The genome sequences of four different strains of Lactobacillus brevis were compared, including newly established genomes of two highly hop tolerant beer isolates, one strain isolated from faeces and one published genome of a silage isolate. Gene fragments exclusively occurring in beer-spoiling strains as well as sequences only occurring in non-spoiling strains were identified. Comparative genomic arrays were established and hybridized with a set of L. brevis strains, which are characterized by their ability to spoil beer. As result, a set of 33 and 4 oligonucleotide probes could be established specifically detecting beer-spoilers and non-spoilers, respectively. The detection of more than one of these marker sequences according to a genetic barcode enables scoring of L. brevis for their beer-spoiling potential and can thus assist in risk evaluation in brewing industry.

  11. Rapid evolutionary divergence and ecotypic diversification of germination behavior in weedy rice populations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xia, Han-Bing; Xia, Hui; Ellstrand, Norman C; Yang, Chao; Lu, Bao-Rong

    2011-09-01

    Feral plants have evolved from well-studied crops, providing good systems for elucidation of how weediness evolves. As yet, they have been largely neglected for this purpose. The evolution of weediness can occur by simple back mutations in domestication genes (domestication in reverse). Whether the evolutionary steps to weediness always occur in reverse remains largely unknown. We examined seed germination behavior in recently evolved weedy rice (Oryza sativa f. spontanea) populations and their coexisting cultivars in eastern and north-eastern China to address whether 'dedomestication' is the simple reverse of domestication. We found that these weedy populations did not diverge from their progenitors by reverting to the pre-domestication trait of seed dormancy. Instead, they have evolved a novel mechanism to avoid growing in inappropriate environments via changes in critical temperature cues for seed germination. Furthermore, we found evidence for subsequent ecotypic divergence of these populations such that the critical temperature for germination correlates with the local habitat temperature at latitudinal gradients. The origins of problematic plant species, weeds and invasives, have already been studied in detail. These plants can thus be used as systems for studying rapid evolution. To determine whether and how that evolution is adaptive, experiments such as those described here can be performed.

  12. Investigation of the effect of phosphogypsum amendment on two Arabidopsis thaliana ecotype growth and development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ayadi, Amal; Chorriba, Amal; Fourati, Amine; Gargouri-Bouzid, Radhia

    2015-01-01

    The production of phosphoric acid from natural phosphate rock leads to an industrial waste called phosphogypsum (PG). About 5 tons of PG are generated per ton of phosphoric acid produced. This acidic waste (pH 2.2) is mostly disposed of by dumping into large stockpiles close to fertilizer production units, where they occupy large land areas that can cause serious environmental damages. Several attempts were made to test PG valorization via soil amendment because of its phosphate, sulphate and calcium content. The aim of the this study was to evaluate the potential use of PG as phosphate amendment in soil using two wild-type Arabidopsis thaliana ecotypes (Wassilewskija and Colombia) as model plants. Plants were grown in a greenhouse for 30 days, on substrates containing various PG concentrations (0%, 15%, 25%, 40% and 50%). The growth rate and physiological parameters (fresh weight, phosphate and chlorophyll content) were determined. The data revealed that 15% PG did not alter plant survival and leaf's dry weight, and the inorganic phosphate (Pi) uptake by plant seemed to be efficient. However, some alterations in Chlorophyll a/Chlorophyll b ratio were noticed. Higher PG concentrations (40 and 50% PG) exhibited an enhanced negative effect on plant growth, survival and Pi uptake. These inhibitory effects of the substrates may be related to the acidity of the medium in addition to its Cd content.

  13. Identifying Differences in Abiotic Stress Gene Networks between Lowland and Upland Ecotypes of Switchgrass (DE-SC0008338)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Childs, Kevin [Michigan State Univ., East Lansing, MI (United States); Buell, Robin [Michigan State Univ., East Lansing, MI (United States); Zhao, Bingyu [Virginia Polytechnic Inst. and State Univ. (Virginia Tech), Blacksburg, VA (United States); Zhang, Xunzhong [Virginia Polytechnic Inst. and State Univ. (Virginia Tech), Blacksburg, VA (United States)

    2016-11-10

    Switchgrass (Panicum virgatum) is a warm-season C4 grass that is a target lignocellulosic biofuel species for use in the United States due to its local adaption capabilities and high biomass accumulation. Two ecotypes of switchgrass have been described. Members of the lowland ecotype are taller, have narrower leaf blades and generate more biomass compared to individuals from the upland ecotype. Additionally, lowland plants are generally found in the southern United States while upland switchgrass is more typically present in the northern United States. These differences are important as it is envisioned that switchgrass for biofuel production will typically be grown on marginal lands in the northern United States to supplement and diversify farmers' traditional crop incomes. While lowland switchgrass is more productive, it has poor winter survivability in northern latitudes where upland switchgrass is expected to be grown for biofuel use. Abiotic stresses likely to be encountered by switchgrass include drought and salinity. Despite initially being described as preferring wetter environments, members of the lowland ecotype have been characterized as being more drought tolerant than plants of the upland ecotype. Nonetheless, direct trials have indicated that variation for drought tolerance exists in both ecotypes, but prior to this project, only a relatively small number of switchgrass lines had been tested for drought responses. Similarly, switchgrass cultivars have not been widely tested for salt tolerance, but a few studies have shown that even mild salt stress can inhibit growth. The effects of drought and salt stress on plant growth are complex. Both drought and salinity affect the osmotic potential of plant cells and negatively affect plant growth due to reduced water potential and reduced photosynthesis that results from lower stomatal conductance of CO2. Plants respond to drought and salt stress by activating genes that directly attempt to

  14. Not all semantics: similarities and differences in reminiscing function and content between Indigenous and non-Indigenous Australians.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nile, Emma; Van Bergen, Penny

    2015-01-01

    This study explored why and how Indigenous and non-Indigenous Australians remember the past. Indigenous Australians traditionally share a strong oral tradition in which customs, personal and cultural histories, and other narratives are passed across groups and between generations by word of mouth. Drawing on this tradition, in which inherent value is placed on sharing knowledge and maintaining connectedness with others, we hypothesised that Indigenous Australians would be more likely than non-Indigenous Australians to report reminiscing to fulfil social functions (but not self or directive functions). Furthermore, we hypothesised that Indigenous Australians would recall personal past experiences more elaborately than would non-Indigenous Australians. In Study 1, 33 Indigenous Australians and 76 non-Indigenous Australians completed Webster's Reminiscence Functions Scale. As predicted, Indigenous participants reported higher scores on subscales related to social functions than did non-Indigenous Australians: particularly "Teach/Inform" and "Intimacy Maintenance". They also scored higher on the "Identity" subscale. In Study 2, 15 Indigenous and 14 non-Indigenous Australians shared three memories from the distant and recent past. While Indigenous and non-Indigenous narratives did not differ in either emotion or elaboration, Indigenous Australians provided more memory context and detail by including a greater proportion of semantic memory content. Taken together, these findings suggest differences in both why and how Australians remember.

  15. Exporting by Migrants and Indigenous Entrepreneurs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ashourizadeh, Shayegheh; Schøtt, Thomas; Pişkinsüt Şengüler, Ece

    2016-01-01

    Migrants may become entrepreneurs in their host countries. They may utilize their dual embeddedness in both the home country and the host country, and also use transnational links to gain a competitive advantage in exporting compared to indigenous entrepreneurs. Migrant entrepreneurs’ advantage may...... around the world was surveyed in the Global Entrepreneurship Monitor, which reports on migration and exporting. Hierarchical linear modeling shows that migrant entrepreneurs export more than indigenous entrepreneurs, especially in the first generation, and especially among educated and male migrants...

  16. Comparative assessment on the prevalence of mutations in the Plasmodium falciparum drug-resistant genes in two different ecotypes of Odisha state, India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kar, Narayani Prasad; Chauhan, Kshipra; Nanda, Nutan; Kumar, Ashwani; Carlton, Jane M; Das, Aparup

    2016-07-01

    Considering malaria as a local and focal disease, epidemiological understanding of different ecotypes of malaria can help in devising novel control measures. One of the major hurdles in malaria control lies on the evolution and dispersal of the drug-resistant malaria parasite, Plasmodium falciparum. We herewith present data on genetic variation at the Single Nucleotide Polymorphism (SNP) level in four different genes of P. falciparum (Pfcrt, Pfmdr1, Pfdhfr, and Pfdhps) that confer resistance to different antimalarials in two different eco-epidemiological settings, i.e. Hilly-Forest (HF) and Riverine-Plain (RP), in a high malaria endemic district of Odisha state, India. Greater frequency of antimalarial resistance conferring SNPs and haplotypes was observed in all four genes in P. falciparum, and Pfdhps was the most variable gene among the four. No significant genetic differentiation could be observed in isolates from HF and RP ecotypes. Twelve novel, hitherto unreported nucleotide mutations could be observed in the Pfmdr1 and Pfdhps genes. While the Pfdhps gene presented highest haplotype diversity, the Pfcrt gene displayed the highest nucleotide diversity. When the data on all the four genes were complied, the isolates from HF ecotype were found to harbour higher average nucleotide diversity than those coming from RP ecotype. High and positive Tajima's D values were obtained for the Pfcrt and Pfdhfr genes in isolates from both the HF and RP ecotypes, with statistically significant deviation from neutrality in the RP ecotype. Different patterns of Linkage Disequilibrium (LD) among SNPs located in different drug-resistant genes were found in the isolates collected from HF and RP ecotypes. Whereas in the HF ecotype, SNPs in the Pfmdr1 and Pfdhfr were significantly associated, in the RP ecotype, SNPs located in Pfcrt were associated with Pfmdr1, Pfdhfr and Pfdhps. These findings provide a baseline understanding on how different micro eco-epidemiological settings

  17. Effect of dietary ascorbic acid supplementation level on productivity, mortality, and carcass characteristics of Venda chickens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malebane, Ingrid M; Ng'ambi, Jones Wilfred; Norris, David; Mbajiorgu, Christian

    2010-12-01

    Two experiments were carried out to determine the effect of dietary ascorbic acid supplementation levels on productivity, carcass characteristics, and mortality of indigenous Venda chickens. The first experiment determined the effect of dietary ascorbic acid supplementation levels on productivity and mortality rate of 175 unsexed Venda chickens between 1 and 6 weeks old. The second experiment determined the effect of dietary ascorbic acid supplementation levels on productivity, carcass characteristics, and mortality rate of 140 female Venda chickens between 8 and 13 weeks old. A completely randomized design was used in both experiments. Supplementation of grower diets with ascorbic acid ranged from 0 to 2,000 mg per kg DM feed in both experiments. Levels of ascorbic acid supplementation for optimum feed intake, feed conversion ratio, growth rate, live weight, and breast meat yield were determined using a quadratic equation. The optimal dietary ascorbic acid supplementation levels for feed conversion ratio, growth rate, and live weight of Venda chickens during the starter phase were 1,050, 1,301, and 1,500 mg/kg DM feed, while, at the grower phase, the optimal supplementation levels for feed conversion ratio, growth rate, live weight, and breast meat yield were 1,000, 1,250, 1,482, and 769 mg/kg DM feed, respectively. Results indicate that different levels of ascorbic acid supplementation optimized feed conversion ratio, growth rate, and live weight of Venda chickens at each growth phase. However, levels of ascorbic acid supplementation for optimum feed conversion ratio, growth rate, and live weight were higher than that for breast meat yield. These findings have implications on ration formulation for Venda chickens.

  18. Developing Responsive Indicators of Indigenous Community Health

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donatuto, Jamie; Campbell, Larry; Gregory, Robin

    2016-01-01

    How health is defined and assessed is a priority concern for Indigenous peoples due to considerable health risks faced from environmental impacts to homelands, and because what is “at risk” is often determined without their input or approval. Many health assessments by government agencies, industry, and researchers from outside the communities fail to include Indigenous definitions of health and omit basic methodological guidance on how to evaluate Indigenous health, thus compromising the quality and consistency of results. Native Coast Salish communities (Washington State, USA) developed and pilot-tested a set of Indigenous Health Indicators (IHI) that reflect non-physiological aspects of health (community connection, natural resources security, cultural use, education, self-determination, resilience) on a community scale, using constructed measures that allow for concerns and priorities to be clearly articulated without releasing proprietary knowledge. Based on initial results from pilot-tests of the IHI with the Swinomish Indian Tribal Community (Washington State, USA), we argue that incorporation of IHIs into health assessments will provide a more comprehensive understanding of Indigenous health concerns, and assist Indigenous peoples to control their own health evaluations. PMID:27618086

  19. Immunisation issues for Indigenous Australian children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Menzies, Robert; Andrews, Ross

    2014-10-01

    Vaccination has provided major benefits to the health of indigenous children in the face of continuing poorer socioeconomic conditions but several issues have been identified for improvement. While indigenous children are vaccinated at high rates for the standard schedule vaccines, vaccination is more commonly delayed. Coverage for 'targeted' vaccines is substantially lower, and data on coverage for indigenous adolescents is non-existent. Improved identification of indigenous clients by immunisation providers and the expansion of the childhood register are required. The progressive removal of early-acting Haemophilus influenzae type b vaccines from schedules for indigenous children because of an international shortage raises the risk of disease re-emergence and highlights the need for vigilant surveillance including carriage. The expanded use of existing vaccines (influenza) and early adoption of new vaccines (higher valency pneumococcal conjugates) are needed to maximise benefits, in particular the potential to impact on non-invasive disease such as otitis media and non-bacteraemic pneumonia that are so prevalent in indigenous children.

  20. Genetic differentiation and estimation of effective population size and migration rates in two sympatric ecotypes of the marine snail Littorina saxatilis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernández, J; Galindo, J; Fernández, B; Pérez-Figueroa, A; Caballero, A; Rolán-Alvarez, E

    2005-01-01

    On exposed rocky shores in Galicia (northwest Spain), a striking polymorphism exists between two ecotypes (RB and SU) of Littorina saxatilis that occupy different levels of the intertidal zone and exhibit an incomplete reproductive isolation. The setting has been suggested to represent ongoing sympatric speciation by ecological adaptation of the two ecotypes to their respective habitats. In this article we address whether or not the ecotypes have developed their own population structures in response to the rigors of their corresponding environments and life histories. We analyzed four to five allozymic loci from three surveys of the same sites, spanning a 14-year period. An experimental design including three localities with two transects per locality and three shore levels allowed studying temporal and spatial population structure and estimation of effective population sizes (N(e)), neighborhood sizes (N(n)), and migration rates (m). Genetic differentiation was significantly lower in RB populations (theta(ST) = 0.067) than in SU ones (theta(ST) = 0.124). Mean estimates of N(e), N(n), and m did not differ significantly between ecotypes, but local ecotype differences in migration between the two closest localities (larger migration rates in RB than in SU populations) could explain the pattern in population differentiation.

  1. FLUORESCENCE EMISSION SPECTRA OF MARINE AND BRACKISH-WATER ECOTYPES OF FUCUS VESICULOSUS AND FUCUS RADICANS (PHAEOPHYCEAE) REVEAL DIFFERENCES IN LIGHT-HARVESTING APPARATUS(1).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maria Gylle, Anna; Rantamäki, Susanne; Ekelund, Nils G A; Tyystjärvi, Esa

    2011-02-01

    The Bothnian Sea in the northerly part of the Baltic Sea is a geologically recent brackish-water environment, and rapid speciation is occurring in the algal community of the Bothnian Sea. We measured low-temperature fluorescence emission spectra from the Bothnian Sea and the Norwegian Sea ecotypes of Fucus vesiculosus L., a marine macroalga widespread in the Bothnian Sea. Powdered, frozen thallus was used to obtain undistorted emission spectra. The spectra were compared with spectra measured from the newly identified species Fucus radicans Bergström et L. Kautsky, which is a close relative of F. vesiculosus and endemic to the Bothnian Sea. The spectrum of variable fluorescence was used to identify fluorescence peaks originating in PSI and PSII in this chl c-containing alga. The spectra revealed much higher PSII emission, compared to PSI emission, in the Bothnian Sea ecotype of F. vesiculosus than in F. radicans or in the Norwegian Sea ecotype of F. vesiculosus. The results suggest that more light-harvesting chl a/c proteins serve PSII in the Bothnian Sea ecotype of F. vesiculosus than in the two other algal strains. Treatment of the Bothnian Sea ecotype of F. vesiculosus in high salinity (10, 20, and 35 practical salinity units) for 1 week did not lead to spectral changes, indicating that the measured features of the Bothnian Sea F. vesiculosus are stable and not simply a direct result of exposure to low salinity.

  2. Gut indigenous microbiota and epigenetics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Boris Arkadievich Shenderov

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available This review introduces and discusses data regarding fundamental and applied investigations in mammalian epigenomics and gut microbiota received over the last 10 years. Analysis of these data enabled the author first to come to the conclusion that the multiple low molecular weight substances of indigenous gut microbiota origin should be considered one of the main endogenous factors actively participating in epigenomic mechanisms that responsible for the mammalian genome reprogramming and post-translated modifications. Gut microecological imbalance coursed by various biogenic and abiogenic agents and factors can produce the different epigenetic abnormalities and the onset and progression of metabolic diseases associated. The author substantiates the necessity to create an international project ‘Human Gut Microbiota and Epigenomics’ that facilitates interdisciplinary collaborations among scientists and clinicians engaged in host microbial ecology, nutrition, metagenomics, epigenomics and metabolomics investigations as well as in diseases prevention and treatment. Some priority scientific and applied directions in the current omic technologies coupled with gnotobiological approaches are suggested that can open a new era in characterizing the role of the symbiotic microbiota small metabolic and signal molecules in the host epigenomics. Although discussed subject is only at an early stage its validation can open novel approaches in drug discovery studies.

  3. Sequencing and alignment of mitochondrial genomes of Tibetan chicken and two lowland chicken breeds

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    Tibetan chicken lives in high-altitude area and has adapted well to hypoxia genetically. Shouguang chicken and Silky chicken are both lowland chicken breeds. In the present study, the complete mito-chondrial genome sequences of the three chicken breeds were all sequenced. The results showed that the mitochondrial DNAs (mtDNAs) of Shouguang chicken and Silky chicken consist of 16784 bp and 16785 bp respectively, and Tibetan chicken mitochondrial genome varies from 16784 bp to 16786 bp. After sequence analysis, 120 mutations, including 4 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in tRNA genes, 9 SNPs and 1 insertion in rRNA genes, 38 SNPs and 1 deletion in D-LOOP, 66 SNPs in pro-tein-coding genes, were found. This work will provide clues for the future study on the association between mitochondrial genes and the adaptation to hypoxia.Tibetan chicken, lowland chicken, mitochondrial genome, hypoxia.

  4. Structure of the rare archaeal biosphere and seasonal dynamics of active ecotypes in surface coastal waters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hugoni, Mylène; Taib, Najwa; Debroas, Didier; Domaizon, Isabelle; Jouan Dufournel, Isabelle; Bronner, Gisèle; Salter, Ian; Agogué, Hélène; Mary, Isabelle; Galand, Pierre E

    2013-04-01

    Marine Archaea are important players among microbial plankton and significantly contribute to biogeochemical cycles, but details regarding their community structure and long-term seasonal activity and dynamics remain largely unexplored. In this study, we monitored the interannual archaeal community composition of abundant and rare biospheres in northwestern Mediterranean Sea surface waters by pyrosequencing 16S rDNA and rRNA. A detailed analysis of the rare biosphere structure showed that the rare archaeal community was composed of three distinct fractions. One contained the rare Archaea that became abundant at different times within the same ecosystem; these cells were typically not dormant, and we hypothesize that they represent a local seed bank that is specific and essential for ecosystem functioning through cycling seasonal environmental conditions. The second fraction contained cells that were uncommon in public databases and not active, consisting of aliens to the studied ecosystem and representing a nonlocal seed bank of potential colonizers. The third fraction contained Archaea that were always rare but actively growing; their affiliation and seasonal dynamics were similar to the abundant microbes and could not be considered a seed bank. We also showed that the major archaeal groups, Thaumarchaeota marine group I and Euryarchaeota group II.B in winter and Euryarchaeota group II.A in summer, contained different ecotypes with varying activities. Our findings suggest that archaeal diversity could be associated with distinct metabolisms or life strategies, and that the rare archaeal biosphere is composed of a complex assortment of organisms with distinct histories that affect their potential for growth.

  5. Backcasting the decline of a vulnerable Great Plains reproductive ecotype: identifying threats and conservation priorities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Worthington, Thomas A.; Brewer, Shannon K.; Grabowski, Timothy B.; Mueller, Julia

    2014-01-01

    Conservation efforts for threatened or endangered species are challenging because the multi-scale factors that relate to their decline or inhibit their recovery are often unknown. To further exacerbate matters, the perceptions associated with the mechanisms of species decline are often viewed myopically rather than across the entire species range. We used over 80 years of fish presence data collected from the Great Plains and associated ecoregions of the United States, to investigate the relative influence of changing environmental factors on the historic and current truncated distributions of the Arkansas River shiner Notropis girardi. Arkansas River shiner represent a threatened reproductive ecotype considered especially well adapted to the harsh environmental extremes of the Great Plains. Historic (n = 163 records) and current (n = 47 records) species distribution models were constructed using a vector-based approach in MaxEnt by splitting the available data at a time when Arkansas River shiner dramatically declined. Discharge and stream order were significant predictors in both models; however, the shape of the relationship between the predictors and species presence varied between time periods. Drift distance (river fragment length available for ichthyoplankton downstream drift before meeting a barrier) was a more important predictor in the current model and indicated river segments 375–780 km had the highest probability of species presence. Performance for the historic and current models was high (area under the curve; AUC > 0.95); however, forecasting and backcasting to alternative time periods suggested less predictive power. Our results identify fragments that could be considered refuges for endemic plains fish species and we highlight significant environmental factors (e.g., discharge) that could be manipulated to aid recovery.

  6. Is disaster “normal” for indigenous people? Indigenous knowledge and coping practices

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hilhorst, Dorothea; Baart, Judith; Haar, van der Gemma; Leeftink, Floor Maria

    2015-01-01

    Purpose – The purpose of this paper is to contribute to debates on the value of indigenous knowledge for disaster risk reduction. Recent international policy papers advocate the importance of indigenous knowledge and calls for its recognition. The paper aims to explore these issues in the everyda

  7. The Invisible Hand of Pedagogy in Australian Indigenous Studies and Indigenous Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rhea, Zane Ma; Russell, Lynette

    2012-01-01

    The Australian Learning and Teaching Council (ALTC)-funded project "Exploring Problem-Based Learning Pedagogy as Transformative Education in Indigenous Australian Studies" raised a number of issues that resonated with concerns we have had as professionals engaged in teaching and researching Australian Indigenous studies and Indigenous…

  8. Effects of elevated CO2 on biomass and fungi associated with two ecotypes of ragweed (Ambrosia artemisiifolia L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Runion, G Brett; Prior, Stephen A; Price, Andrew J; McElroy, J Scott; Torbert, H Allen

    2014-01-01

    Herbicide resistant weed populations have developed due to the repeated application of herbicides. Elevated concentrations of atmospheric CO2 can have positive effects on weed growth, but how rising CO2 might affect herbicide resistant weeds is not known. Ragweed (Ambrosia artemisiifolia L.) ecotypes known to be resistant or susceptible to glyphosate herbicide were exposed to either ambient or elevated (ambient +200 μ mol mol(-1)) concentrations of CO2 in open top chambers. Plants were harvested following 8 weeks of CO2 exposure; at this time, they had begun to exhibit disease symptoms including spots on leaves and stems. Elevated CO2 significantly increased top, root, and total plant biomass. Also, glyphosate resistant plants had significantly greater top, root, and total biomass than plants susceptible to the herbicide. There were no significant CO2 by ecotype interactions. Fungi from 13 genera were associated with ragweed, several of which can be either pathogens (i.e., Alternaria, Fusarium, Rhizoctonia), aiding the decline in health of the ragweed plants, or saprophytes existing on dead plant tissues. The common foliar disease powdery mildew was significantly higher on susceptible compared with resistant ragweed. Susceptible plants also showed an increased frequency of Rhizoctonia on leaves and Alternaria on stems; however, Fusarium occurred more frequently on resistant ragweed leaves. Fungi were not affected by CO2 concentration or its interaction with ecotype. This study reports the first information on the effects of elevated CO2 on growth of herbicide resistant weeds. This is also the first study examining the impact of herbicide resistance and elevated CO2 on fungi associated with weeds. What effects herbicide resistance might have on plant diseases and how rising atmospheric CO2 might impact these effects needs to be addressed, not only with important weeds but also with crops.

  9. The adaptive significance of differences of root morphology, anatomy and physiology from three ecotypes of reed (Phragmites communis Trin.)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YuBing Liu; XinRong Li; ZhiShan Zhang; XiaoJun Li; Jin Wang

    2016-01-01

    Reeds are widely distributed in drought and high salt conditions of northwestern China. Leaf epidermal micromorpholo-gy, anatomy, chloroplast ultrastructure and physio-chemical characteristics due to long-term adaptation in the natural habitats of common reed (Phragmites communis Trin.) contrasted considerably among three different ecotypes: dune reed (DR), Gobi salt reed (GSR) and swamp reed (SR). The main objective of the present study is to determine the adapting characteristics of morphology, anatomy and physiological responses of thin roots in DR, GSR and SR. The results show that root length density was higher in SR and few root hairs were observed in DR. Cross-section anatomical features show that each ecotype has an endodermis and exodermis, while cortex thickness and proportion of root cortical aerenchyma and stele in root structure varied among the three ecotypes. The stele and xylem share a larger area in DR compared to GSR and SR. GSR has a large proportion of the cortex with radialized distribution of aerenchyma cells spacing, and the cortex has a peripheral, mechanically stiff ring in the exodermis. SEM and TEM microscope images show that GSR has a scle-renchyma ring with high lignification in the exodermis. The physio-chemical parameters show that GSR had a higher level of stress tolerance than DR. These findings indicate that developed water-absorbing tissues were largely distributed in the root structure of DR, and a main framework with supporting function spacing with aerenchyma was dominant in GSR in the long term adaptation to their natural habitats, respectively.

  10. Effects of Elevated CO2 on Biomass and Fungi Associated with Two Ecotypes of Ragweed (Ambrosia artemisiifolia L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Brett Runion

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Herbicide resistant weed populations have developed due to the repeated application of herbicides. Elevated concentrations of atmospheric CO2 can have positive effects on weed growth, but how rising CO2 might affect herbicide resistant weeds is not known. Ragweed (Ambrosia artemisiifolia L. ecotypes known to be resistant or susceptible to glyphosate herbicide were exposed to either ambient or elevated (ambient + 200 µmol mol-1 concentrations of CO2 in open top chambers. Plants were harvested following 8 weeks of CO2 exposure; at this time, they had begun to exhibit disease symptoms including spots on leaves and stems. Elevated CO2 significantly increased top, root, and total plant biomass. Also, glyphosate resistant plants had significantly greater top, root, and total biomass than plants susceptible to the herbicide. There were no significant CO2 by ecotype interactions. Fungi from 13 genera were associated with ragweed, several of the which can be either pathogens (i.e., Alternaria, Fusarium, Rhizoctonia, aiding the decline in health of the ragweed plants, or saprophytes existing on dead plant tissues. The common foliar disease powdery mildew was significantly higher on susceptible compared with resistant ragweed. Susceptible plants also showed an increased frequency of Rhizoctonia on leaves and Alternaria on stems; however, Fusarium occurred more frequently on resistant ragweed leaves. Fungi were not affected by CO2 concentration or its interaction with ecotype. This study reports the first information on the effects of elevated CO2 on growth of herbicide resistant weeds. This is also the first study examining the impact of herbicide resistance and elevated CO2 on fungi associated with weeds. What effects herbicide resistance might have on plant diseases and how rising atmospheric CO2 might impact these effects needs to be addressed, not only with important weeds but also with crops.

  11. Nunukan Chicken: Genetic Characteristics, Phenotype and Utilization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tike Sartika

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available Nunukan chicken is a local chicken from East Kalimantan which spreads out in Tarakan and Nunukan Islands . The chicken has a specific buff color and Columbian type feather and also has very late feathering (VLF trait . The Nunukan cocks and hens have no wing and tail primary feather; the tail feathers are short and fragile . The VLF trait is known to have association with a K gene on the Z chromosome. The chicken is efficient in protein metabolism . Sulfur amino acids (cystine and methionine that needed for feather growth, could be utilized for meat and egg production . The egg production of Nunukan chicken was better than the Kampung chicken . The average of hen day, hen house and peak production of Nunukan chicken was 45 . 39.1 and 62%, respectively, while the Kampung chicken was 35 .9, 30 .9 and 48%, respectively . Based on genetic analysis, the external genotype characteristic of the Nunukan chicken is ii ce ss Idld pp. It means that the phenotype appearance of the Nunukan chicken was columbian and gold feathering type, yellow and white shank color and single comb type. This phenotype is similar to Merawang Chicken . The genetic introgression of the Nunukan chicken is affected by the Rhode Island Red with the genetic introgression value of 0.964 .

  12. The politics of indigeneity: Indigenous strategies for inclusion in climate change negotiations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Doolittle Amity

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Indigenous environmental activists have clearly articulated their views on global climate change policy. The content of these views was explored during the 10-day 2008 World Conservation Congress (WCC in Barcelona. Data were primarily collected through interviews and participant observation. In addition, policy statements and declarations made by indigenous environmental activists from 2000 to 2009 were analysed to place the perspectives of indigenous leaders and environmental activists in the context of their decade-long struggle to gain negotiating power at the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change. This study examines the rhetorical strategies indigenous leaders from around the world use to gain political recognition and legitimacy in climate change negotiations. Two core principles, relating to a particular representation of indigenous environmental knowledge are identified as fundamental rhetorical tools. These are a belief that the earth is a living being with rights and the conviction that it is the responsibility of indigenous peoples to protect the earth from over-exploitation. However, reference to indigenous environmental knowledge is not the only rhetorical mechanism used by indigenous leaders in the climate debates. When faced with specific United Nations policies to combat climate change that could have a profound impact on their land rights, some indigenous leaders adopt a more confrontational response. Fearing that new polices would reinforce historical trends of marginalisation, indigenous leaders seeking recognition in climate change debates speak less about their ecological knowledge and responsibility to the earth and more about their shared histories of political and economic marginalisation and land dispossession, experienced first through colonialism and more recently through globalisation.

  13. Feeding ecology of indigenous and non-indigenous fish species within the family Sphyraenidae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalogirou, S; Mittermayer, F; Pihl, L; Wennhage, H

    2012-06-01

    The feeding ecology of two common indigenous (Sphyraena viridensis and Sphyraena sphyraena) and one abundant non-indigenous sphyraenid species, Sphyraena chrysotaenia, of Indo-Pacific Ocean origin, was investigated in an area of the eastern Mediterranean Sea. The stomach contents of 738 individuals of varying size, collected during the period December 2008 to August 2009, were examined. The dietary analyses revealed that all three species were specialized piscivores with a diet consisting of >90% fish, both by number and mass. Concurrent sampling of the fish assemblage made it possible to calculate selectivity as well as diet breadth and overlap of these strict piscivores. Even though several prey species were found in the stomachs of the three predators examined, selectivity towards Atherina boyeri was highly significant. For all species examined, >70% of the diet by mass was made up by three indigenous species of commercial value: Spicara smaris, Boops boops and A. boyeri. Diet breadth and size of prey increased with increasing body size for all predators. With increased body size, the diet overlap between indigenous and non-indigenous species decreased. This could be attributed to increased diet breadth and the specific life-history characteristics of indigenous species developing into larger individuals. During winter, the condition factor of the non-indigenous species was significantly lower than that of the indigenous, indicating that winter conditions in the Mediterranean Sea may limit its further expansion north and westward. With this study, the gap in knowledge of the feeding preferences of the most abundant piscivorous species found in coastal areas of the study region is filled. Additionally, the results indicate that non-indigenous species familial affiliation to indigenous ones does not facilitate invasion success.

  14. Evaluation of Effect of Chemical and Organic Fertilizers on Growth Characteristics, Yield and Yield components of three Sesame Ecotypes (Sesamum indicum L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M Goldani

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Using organic fertilizers is cause increase soil fertility, improving crop growth and production. For this purpose a greenhouse experiment was carried out in factorial arrangement based on a completely randomized design with three replications during 2011 year. First factor included: three sesame ecotype (MSC3, MSC6, MSC7 and second factor was 6 fertilizer treatments that included: Incorporation manure and chemical fertilizer (216 g manure and 1 gram chemical fertilizer NPK, Chemical fertilizer (2 g NPK, Vermicompost (192 g, Manure ( 228 g, Compost Sulfur granules (192 g per vase and Control (without any manure or fertilizer. Results indicated that different manure treatments had significant effect on morphological and yield components traits, as the most number and length branch per plant was obtained from incorporation manure and chemical fertilizer treatment. Appling incorporation manure and chemical fertilizer treatment had the most biomass in MSC3 ecotype that in comparison of control treatment was increased almost 73 percent. Consuming incorporation manure and chemical fertilizer treatment in MSC3 ecotype was also obtained the most capsule per plant (21.2, number seed per capsule (54.4, 100-seed weight (0.257 g and seed per plant with (1.95 g. The least seed weight per plant with 0.450 g was observed in MSC7 ecotype from application of control treatment. Response of three sesame ecotype (MSC3, MSC6, MSC7 to applied vermin-compost manure was similar; as the amount of seed weight per plant was increased more than 1 g per plant in all these ecotypes and in others fertilizer treatments was not observed this trend. There was significant positive correlation between seed weight per plant and number of capsule per plant (r=0.83**, height (r=0.68** and biomass (r=0.51**. The results showed that incorporation manure and chemical fertilizer was improved on growth and yield characteristics of sesame plant.

  15. Pomological features, nutritional quality, polyphenol content analysis, and antioxidant properties of domesticated and 3 wild ecotype forms of raspberries (Rubus idaeus L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gülçin, Ilhami; Topal, Fevzi; Çakmakçı, Ramazan; Bilsel, Mine; Gören, Ahmet C; Erdogan, Ummugulsum

    2011-05-01

    The raspberry (Rubus idaeus L.) is an economically important berry crop that contains many phenolic compounds with potential health benefits. In this study, important pomological features, including nutrient content and antioxidant properties, of a domesticated and 3 wild (Yayla, Yavuzlar, and Yedigöl) raspberry fruits were evaluated. Also, the amount of total phenolics and flavonoids in lyophilized aqueous extracts of domesticated and wild ecotypes of raspberry fruits were calculated as gallic acid equivalents (GAEs) and quercetin equivalents (QE). The highest phenolic compounds were found in wild Yayla ecotype (26.66 ± 3.26 GAE/mg extract). Whilst, the highest flavonoids were determined in wild Yedigöl ecotype (6.09 ± 1.21 QA/mg extract). The antioxidant activity of lyophilized aqueous extracts of domesticated and wild ecotypes of raspberry fruits were investigated as trolox equivalents using different in vitro assays including DPPH(•), ABTS(•+), DMPD(•+), and O(•-)(2) radical scavenging activities, H(2)O(2) scavenging activity, ferric (Fe(3+)) and cupric ions (Cu(2+)) reducing abilities, ferrous ions (Fe(2+)) chelating activity. In addition, quantitative amounts of caffeic acid, ferulic acid, syringic acid, ellagic acid, quercetin, α-tocopherol, pyrogallol, p-hydroxybenzoic acid, vanillin, p-coumaric acid, gallic acid, and ascorbic acid in lyophilized aqueous extracts of domesticated and wild ecotypes of raspberry fruits were detected by high-performance liquid chromatography and tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS-MS). The results clearly show that p-coumaric acid is the main phenolic acid responsible for the antioxidant and radical scavenging activity of lyophilized aqueous extracts of domesticated and wild ecotypes of raspberry fruits.

  16. The brazilian indigenous planetary-observatory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Afonso, G. B.

    2003-08-01

    We have performed observations of the sky alongside with the Indians of all Brazilian regions that made it possible localize many indigenous constellations. Some of these constellations are the same as the other South American Indians and Australian aborigines constellations. The scientific community does not have much of this information, which may be lost in one or two generations. In this work, we present a planetary-observatory that we have made in the Park of Science Newton Freire-Maia of Paraná State, in order to popularize the astronomical knowledge of the Brazilian Indians. The planetary consists, essentially, of a sphere of six meters in diameter and a projection cylinder of indigenous constellations. In this planetary we can identify a lot of constellations that we have gotten from the Brazilian Indians; for instance, the four seasonal constellations: the Tapir (spring), the Old Man (summer), the Deer (autumn) and the Rhea (winter). A two-meter height wooden staff that is posted vertically on the horizontal ground similar to a Gnomon and stones aligned with the cardinal points and the soltices directions constitutes the observatory. A stone circle of ten meters in diameter surrounds the staff and the aligned stones. During the day we observe the Sun apparent motions and at night the indigenous constellations. Due to the great community interest in our work, we are designing an itinerant indigenous planetary-observatory to be used in other cities mainly by indigenous and primary schools teachers.

  17. Evolutionary conservation of alternative splicing in chicken

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katyal, S.; Gao, Z.; Liu, R.-Z.; Godbout, R.

    2013-01-01

    Alternative splicing represents a source of great diversity for regulating protein expression and function. It has been estimated that one-third to two-thirds of mammalian genes are alternatively spliced. With the sequencing of the chicken genome and analysis of transcripts expressed in chicken tissues, we are now in a position to address evolutionary conservation of alternative splicing events in chicken and mammals. Here, we compare chicken and mammalian transcript sequences of 41 alternatively-spliced genes and 50 frequently accessed genes. Our results support a high frequency of splicing events in chicken, similar to that observed in mammals. PMID:17675855

  18. Sequence and phylogenetic analysis of chicken anaemia virus obtained from backyard and commercial chickens in Nigeria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oluwayelu, D O; Todd, D; Olaleye, O D

    2008-12-01

    This work reports the first molecular analysis study of chicken anaemia virus (CAV) in backyard chickens in Africa using molecular cloning and sequence analysis to characterize CAV strains obtained from commercial chickens and Nigerian backyard chickens. Partial VP1 gene sequences were determined for three CAVs from commercial chickens and for six CAV variants present in samples from a backyard chicken. Multiple alignment analysis revealed that the 6% and 4% nucleotide diversity obtained respectively for the commercial and backyard chicken strains translated to only 2% amino acid diversity for each breed. Overall, the amino acid composition of Nigerian CAVs was found to be highly conserved. Since the partial VP1 gene sequence of two backyard chicken cloned CAV strains (NGR/CI-8 and NGR/CI-9) were almost identical and evolutionarily closely related to the commercial chicken strains NGR-1, and NGR-4 and NGR-5, respectively, we concluded that CAV infections had crossed the farm boundary.

  19. Re-vitalizing an indigenous language

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Annette Skovsted

    2014-01-01

    languages to match standards defined in nation-building and, thereby, enabled latent possibilities for indigenous populations to re-vitalize their languages in connection with the United Nations Year for Indigenous Peoples in 1993, and the first United Nations Decade for Indigenous Peoples, 1995......–2004. This article focuses on dictionaries of the languages of the Ainu populations in the borderlands between the nation-states Japan and Russia. The main argument is that the Ainu Cultural Promotion Act promulgated in 1997 had a significant impact on the production and purpose of Ainu dictionaries....... The dictionaries prior to 1997 functioned, predominantly, as records, which contributed to the increased visibility of Ainu populations inside and outside Japan in the immediate national interests of Japan, whereas the dictionaries published after 1997 are intended to enable the active use of Ainu language today...

  20. Out of the Pacific and back again: insights into the matrilineal history of Pacific killer whale ecotypes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrew D Foote

    Full Text Available Killer whales (Orcinus orca are the most widely distributed marine mammals and have radiated to occupy a range of ecological niches. Disparate sympatric types are found in the North Atlantic, Antarctic and North Pacific oceans, however, little is known about the underlying mechanisms driving divergence. Previous phylogeographic analysis using complete mitogenomes yielded a bifurcating tree of clades corresponding to described ecotypes. However, there was low support at two nodes at which two Pacific and two Atlantic clades diverged. Here we apply further phylogenetic and coalescent analyses to partitioned mitochondrial genome sequences to better resolve the pattern of past radiations in this species. Our phylogenetic reconstructions indicate that in the North Pacific, sympatry between the maternal lineages that make up each ecotype arises from secondary contact. Both the phylogenetic reconstructions and a clinal decrease in diversity suggest a North Pacific to North Atlantic founding event, and the later return of killer whales to the North Pacific. Therefore, ecological divergence could have occurred during the allopatric phase through drift or selection and/or may have either commenced or have been consolidated upon secondary contact due to resource competition. The estimated timing of bidirectional migration between the North Pacific and North Atlantic coincided with the previous inter-glacial when the leakage of fauna from the Indo-Pacific into the Atlantic via the Agulhas current was particularly vigorous.

  1. Identification of the essential oils composition from four ecotypes of Mentha longifolia (L. Huds. growing wild in Isfahan province, Iran

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    REZA ABEDI

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Mentha longifolia L., commonly known as wild mint, belongs to family Lamiaceae. The aim of this study was to identify the chemical composition of essential oil extracted from four ecotypes of Mentha longifolia L. grown wild (Shahreza, Chadegan, Isfahan, and Falavarjan in Isfahan province (Central Iran. The essential oil was extracted by a Clevenger approach and analyzed using GC/MS. In the aerial parts of the plant were identified 26, 30, 22 and 25 compounds for Shahreza, Chadegan, Isfahan and Falavarjan ecotypes, respectively. The major constituents of the essential oil from the aerial parts of M. longifolia in Shahreza province were piperitenone oxide (26.71%, 1,8-cineole (20.72%, α-pinene (14.28%, pulegone (7.81%, sabinene (7.06% and trans-caryophyllene (4.23%. The main compositions in Chadegan province were piperitenone oxide (29.13%, 1,8-cineole (28.84%, sabinene (9.05%, pulegone (8.97% and α-pinene (6.31%. The main compositions in Isfahan province were pulegone (44.75%, 1,8-cineole (13.82%, 2-cyclohexen-1-ol, 1-methyl (8.49%, isopulegone (8.07% and menthone (4.37%. In Falavarjan province the constituents were pulegone (33.39%, 1,8-cineole (29.79%, sabinene (11.23% and isopulegone (7.28%.

  2. Analysis of alcohol dependence in indigenous peoples in Northern Siberia.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michail Savchenko

    2015-06-01

    More severe course of alcoholism among indigenous population of North of Siberia leads to the destruction of traditional lifestyles and reduction of the indigenous population in the northern territories of the Russian Federation.

  3. The Amazonian Floodplains, an ecotype with challenging questions on volatile organic compound (VOC) emissions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kesselmeier, J.

    2012-12-01

    based on short-term experiments is risky being transferred to an ecotype which is governed under natural conditions by long term flooding. Furthermore, contrasting such experiments with usually young trees (saplings or a few years old) nothing is known about the emission behavior of adult trees under field conditions.

  4. Stable isotopes reveal ecotypic variation of water uptake patterns in Aleppo pine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferrio, Juan Pedro; Lucabaugh, Devon; Chambel, Regina; Voltas, Jordi

    2014-05-01

    Aleppo pine (Pinus halepensis Mill.) has a large natural distribution range that encompasses a multitude of thermal and moisture conditions found in the Mediterranean basin. We hypothesized that due to the recurrent incidences of drought stress and high temperatures that occur at varying degrees along its distribution range, populations of Aleppo pine have undergone ecotypic differentiation in soil water uptake patterns. This study analyzed stable isotopic compositions (δ18O and δ2H) of xylem water to identify adaptive divergence associated to the pattern of soil water consumption by roots of Aleppo pine populations originating from the Mediterranean region. The results from this study show that genetic diversity in the extraction pattern of soil water can be found among populations and ecological regions of Aleppo pine under common garden conditions. However, the ability to detect such differences depended on the period of the year examined. In particular, data collection in full summer (end of July) proved to be the most adequate in revealing genetic divergence among populations, while end of spring and, to a lesser extent, end of summer, were less successful for this purpose. Both water uptake patterns (as estimated by δ18O and δ2H) and above-ground growth, exhibited significant relationships with both climatic and geographical variables. This suggests that the underlying variation among populations can be explained by certain characteristics at origin. In addition, we used a bayesian mixing model (SIAR package for R) that incorporated isotopic signatures from xylem and soil water in order to determine the predominant soil layer of water source consumption at the aforementioned periods of the growing season, where water availably ranged from lowest to highest. This allowed us to gain some understanding of Aleppo pines' differential reaction to drought, at the intraspecific level, across the fluctuating conditions of the growing season by comparing the

  5. Conducting Indigenous Research in Western Knowledge Spaces: Aligning Theory and Methodology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Myra; Major, Jae

    2017-01-01

    Walking simultaneously in two worlds as an Indigenous researcher, navigating Indigenous and Western epistemologies/methodologies can have its challenges. Indigenous methodologies have become an important element of qualitative research and have been increasingly taken up by both Indigenous and non-Indigenous researchers. Indigenous methodologies…

  6. Dismantling the divide between indigenous and scientific knowledge

    OpenAIRE

    Agrawal, A

    1995-01-01

    Metadata only record In the past few years scholarly discussions have characterized indigenous knowledge as a significant resource for development. This article interrogates the concept of indigenous knowledge and the strategies its advocates present to promote development. The article suggests that both the concept of indigenous knowledge and its role in development, are problematic issues as currently conceptualized. To productively engage indigenous knowledge in development, we must go ...

  7. The use of indigenous knowledge in development: problems and challenges

    OpenAIRE

    Briggs, J.

    2005-01-01

    The use of indigenous knowledge has been seen by many as an alternative way of promoting development in poor rural communities in many parts of the world. By reviewing much of the recent work on indigenous knowledge, the paper suggests that a number of problems and tensions has resulted in indigenous knowledge not being as useful as hoped for or supposed. These include problems emanating from a focus on the (arte)factual; binary tensions between western science and indigenous knowledge system...

  8. Indigenous Participation in Intercultural Education: Learning from Mexico and Tanzania

    OpenAIRE

    Santos H. Alvarado Dzul; Francisco J. Rosado-May; Susanne Kissmann; Gemma Burford; Marie K. Harder

    2012-01-01

    Intercultural education seeks to create a forum for integrating Western scientific knowledge and indigenous knowledge to address local and global challenges such as biocultural diversity conservation, natural resource management, and social justice for indigenous peoples. Intercultural education is based on learning together with, rather than learning about or from, indigenous communities. In the best examples, problem-based learning dissolves the dichotomy between indigenous and nonindigenou...

  9. Chicken Soup for the Portfolio.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dwyer, Edward J.

    The popular "Chicken Soup for the Soul" series of books demonstrates the tremendous desire of people in all walks of life to tell their stories. A professor of reading/language arts methods for students in a program leading to teacher certification reads to his classes every day from a wide variety of materials, including stories from…

  10. Serotonin and Aggressiveness in Chickens

    Science.gov (United States)

    Serotonin (5-HT) regulates aggressive behavior in animals. This study examined if 5-HT regulation of aggressiveness is gene-dependent. Chickens from two divergently selected lines KGB and MBB (Kind Gentle Birds and Mean Bad Birds displaying low and high aggressiveness, respectively) and DXL (Dekalb ...

  11. The Chicken and Egg Project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alkon, Ivette

    2004-01-01

    This article describes a project on chickens and eggs undertaken by 5-year-old children in a bilingual school in Mexico City. It describes the three phases of the project and includes photographs and other documentation of the children's work.

  12. Visuospatial selective attention in chickens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sridharan, Devarajan; Ramamurthy, Deepa L; Schwarz, Jason S; Knudsen, Eric I

    2014-05-13

    Voluntary control of attention promotes intelligent, adaptive behaviors by enabling the selective processing of information that is most relevant for making decisions. Despite extensive research on attention in primates, the capacity for selective attention in nonprimate species has never been quantified. Here we demonstrate selective attention in chickens by applying protocols that have been used to characterize visual spatial attention in primates. Chickens were trained to localize and report the vertical position of a target in the presence of task-relevant distracters. A spatial cue, the location of which varied across individual trials, indicated the horizontal, but not vertical, position of the upcoming target. Spatial cueing improved localization performance: accuracy (d') increased and reaction times decreased in a space-specific manner. Distracters severely impaired perceptual performance, and this impairment was greatly reduced by spatial cueing. Signal detection analysis with an "indecision" model demonstrated that spatial cueing significantly increased choice certainty in localizing targets. By contrast, error-aversion certainty (certainty of not making an error) remained essentially constant across cueing protocols, target contrasts, and individuals. The results show that chickens shift spatial attention rapidly and dynamically, following principles of stimulus selection that closely parallel those documented in primates. The findings suggest that the mechanisms that control attention have been conserved through evolution, and establish chickens--a highly visual species that is easily trained and amenable to cutting-edge experimental technologies--as an attractive model for linking behavior to neural mechanisms of selective attention.

  13. Embryonic Development: Chicken and Zebrafish

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Veerle M. Darras

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Chicken and zebrafish are two model species regularly used to study the role of thyroid hormones in vertebrate development. Similar to mammals, chickens have one thyroid hormone receptor α (TRα and one TRβ gene, giving rise to three TR isoforms: TRα, TRβ2, and TRβ0, the latter with a very short amino-terminal domain. Zebrafish also have one TRβ gene, providing two TRβ1 variants. The zebrafish TRα gene has been duplicated, and at least three TRα isoforms are expressed: TRαA1-2 and TRαB are very similar, while TRαA1 has a longer carboxy-terminal ligand-binding domain. All these TR isoforms appear to be functional, ligand-binding receptors. As in other vertebrates, the different chicken and zebrafish TR isoforms have a divergent spatiotemporal expression pattern, suggesting that they also have distinct functions. Several isoforms are expressed from the very first stages of embryonic development and early chicken and zebrafish embryos respond to thyroid hormone treatment with changes in gene expression. Future studies in knockdown and mutant animals should allow us to link the different TR isoforms to specific processes in embryonic development.

  14. Representing Mayas: Indigenous Authorities and Citizenship Demands in Guatemala

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rasch, E.D.

    2011-01-01

    In this article, I analyze how indigenous authorities in Guatemala negotiate citizenship at the local level within the larger context of indigenous claim making in Latin America. I argue that the construction of citizenship at the local level is not only framed by models imposed on indigenous commun

  15. Reflecting Visions. New Perspectives on Adult Education for Indigenous Peoples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    King, Linda, Ed.

    This book contains 14 papers: "Indigenous Peoples and Adult Education: A Growing Challenge" (Rodolfo Stavenhagen); "Indigenous Peoples: Progress in the International Recognition of Human Rights and the Role of Education" (Julian Burger); "Adult Learning in the Context of Indigenous Societies" (Linda King); "Linguistic Rights and the Role of…

  16. The Work-Study Experience of Indigenous Undergraduates in Taiwan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Shan-Hua

    2014-01-01

    Due to the large number of universities in Taiwan and the increased availability of scholarships for disadvantaged students, the number of college students from indigenous families has been on the rise in recent years. However, many indigenous students still find it necessary to work part-time. In this study, indigenous students were interviewed…

  17. The Impact of Immigration on Bilingualism among Indigenous American Peoples

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahler, Janet Goldenstein

    2007-01-01

    Early federal government policies for American indigenous people alternated between extermination and assimilation. Imposing the colonists' and immigrants' language on indigenous people was important for achieving the latter. In the 1970-90's, federally funded grants for bilingual education for indigenous schools were offered to accommodate Native…

  18. Community-Based Indigenous Digital Storytelling with Elders and Youth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iseke, Judy; Moore, Sylvia

    2011-01-01

    Indigenous digital storytelling and research are as much about the process of community relationships as they are about the development of digital products and research outcomes. Indigenous researchers, digital storytelling producers, and academics work in different communities with research collaborators who are indigenous community members,…

  19. Indigenous Representation and Alternative Schooling: Prioritising an Epistemology of Relationality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keddie, Amanda

    2014-01-01

    This paper draws on a case study of a small alternative Indigenous school in Queensland, Australia. From the perspective of several of the school's Indigenous Elders, the paper foregrounds the significance of group differentiation at the school on the basis of Indigenous representation. However, it also considers how such…

  20. Indigenous Education 1991-2000: Documents, Outcomes and Governments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gunstone, Andrew

    2012-01-01

    There is often a disparity in Indigenous Affairs between many documents, such as policies, reports and legislation, and outcomes. This article explores this difference through analysing the policy area of Indigenous education during the period of 1991 to 2000. I examine three key documents relating to Indigenous education. These are the…

  1. Indigenous Digital Storytelling in Video: Witnessing with Alma Desjarlais

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iseke, Judy M.

    2011-01-01

    Indigenous digital storytelling in video is a way of witnessing the stories of Indigenous communities and Elders, including what has happened and is happening in the lives and work of Indigenous peoples. Witnessing includes acts of remembrance in which we look back to reinterpret and recreate our relationship to the past in order to understand the…

  2. Using indigenous knowledge to improve agricultural and natural resource management

    OpenAIRE

    DeWalt, B.

    1994-01-01

    Metadata only record More effective and creative interactions between indigenous and scientific knowledge systems is needed. This paper describes the strengths and weaknesses of both scientific and indigenous knowledge systems by drawing on examples. The author then draws on those examples to indicate in what situations we should look for guidance and ideas from indigenous knowledge systems.

  3. Indigenous Knowledge and Library Work in Sierra Leone

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kargbo, John Abdul

    2006-01-01

    Indigenous knowledge is vital information that is sadly diminishing at an alarming rate in Sierra Leone. There is, therefore, an urgent need to collect it before much of it is completely lost. This article explores the concept of indigenous knowledge and indigenous knowledge systems with a particular focus on Sierra Leone. Definitions and…

  4. Indigenous Representation and Alternative Schooling: Prioritising an Epistemology of Relationality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keddie, Amanda

    2014-01-01

    This paper draws on a case study of a small alternative Indigenous school in Queensland, Australia. From the perspective of several of the school's Indigenous Elders, the paper foregrounds the significance of group differentiation at the school on the basis of Indigenous representation. However, it also considers how such…

  5. Cushioning women against gender inequality through promoting indigenous chicken production in sub Saharan Africa

    OpenAIRE

    Never Assan

    2015-01-01

    Poultry sub sector is a privileged entry point for promoting gender equality. Gender inequalities in poultry and livestock activities are now more and more acknowledged by governments, scientists, and farmers in sub Saharan Africa. This is on the background that gender inequality has translated into loss of opportunities or potential gains on agricultural production and food security. This has been exacerbated by the fact that the progress in empowering women in agriculture and reducing gende...

  6. Comparison of the effects of human and chicken ghrelin on chicken ovarian hormone release.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sirotkin, Alexander V; Harrath, Abdel Halim; Grossmann, Roland

    2016-11-01

    The aim of the present experiments was to examine the species-specific and cell-specific effects of ghrelin on chicken ovarian hormone release. For this purpose, we compared the effects of chicken and human ghrelin on the release of estradiol (E), testosterone (T), progesterone (P) and arginine-vasotocin (AVT) by cultured fragments of chicken ovarian follicles and on the release of T and AVT by cultured ovarian granulosa cells. In cultured chicken ovarian fragments, both human and chicken ghrelin promoted E release. T output was stimulated by chicken ghrelin but not by human ghrelin. No effect of either human or chicken ghrelin on P release was observed. Human ghrelin promoted but chicken ghrelin suppressed AVT release by chicken ovarian fragments. In cultured ovarian granulosa cells, human ghrelin inhibited while chicken ghrelin stimulated T release. Both human and chicken ghrelin suppressed AVT output by chicken granulosa cells. These data confirm the involvement of ghrelin in the control of ovarian secretory activity and demonstrate that the effect of ghrelin is species-specific. The similarity of avian ghrelin on avian ovarian granulosa cells and ovarian fragments (containing both granulosa and theca cells) suggests that ghrelin can influence chicken ovarian hormones primarily by acting on granulosa cells.

  7. The molecular dimension of microbial species: 1. Ecological distinctions among, and homogeneity within, putative ecotypes of Synechococcus inhabiting the cyanobacterial mat of Mushroom Spring, Yellowstone National Park

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Becraft, Eric D.; Wood, Jason M.; Rusch, Douglas B.

    2015-01-01

    Based on the Stable Ecotype Model, evolution leads to the divergence of ecologically distinct populations (e.g., with different niches and/or behaviors) of ecologically interchangeable membership. In this study, pyrosequencing was used to provide deep sequence coverage of Synechococcus psaA genes...

  8. No effect of seed source on multiple aspects of ecosystem functioning during ecological restoration: cultivars compared to local ecotypes of dominant grasses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baer, Sara G; Gibson, David J; Gustafson, Danny J; Benscoter, Allison M; Reed, Lewis K; Campbell, Ryan E; Klopf, Ryan P; Willand, Jason E; Wodika, Ben R

    2014-01-01

    Genetic principles underlie recommendations to use local seed, but a paucity of information exists on the genetic distinction and ecological consequences of using different seed sources in restorations. We established a field experiment to test whether cultivars and local ecotypes of dominant prairie grasses were genetically distinct and differentially influenced ecosystem functioning. Whole plots were assigned to cultivar and local ecotype grass sources. Three subplots within each whole plot were seeded to unique pools of subordinate species. The cultivar of the increasingly dominant grass, Sorghastrum nutans, was genetically different than the local ecotype, but genetic diversity was similar between the two sources. There were no differences in aboveground net primary production, soil carbon accrual, and net nitrogen mineralization rate in soil between the grass sources. Comparable productivity of the grass sources among the species pools for four years shows functional equivalence in terms of biomass production. Subordinate species comprised over half the aboveground productivity, which may have diluted the potential for documented trait differences between the grass sources to influence ecosystem processes. Regionally developed cultivars may be a suitable alternative to local ecotypes for restoration in fragmented landscapes with limited gene flow between natural and restored prairie and negligible recruitment by seed. PMID:24567751

  9. PHYTOTOXICITY AND FIELD EFFICACY OF EXSEROHILUM LONGIROSTRA JC/MIN THE CONTROL OF BARNYARDGRASS ECOTYPES (ECHINOCHLOA CRUS-GALLI VAR. CRUS-GALLI(L. BEAUV

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    SUHAIMI NAPIS

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Five selected ecotypes of bamyardgrass (Echinochloa crus-galli var. crus-gatti from several rice growing areas in Malaysia and Indonesia were tested for their susceptibility to the potentia l bioherbicide (Exserohilum longirostratum. Bamyardgrass seedlings at the 2-3-lcaf stage were treated with 2.5xl07 conidia/ml from E. longirostratum at different application frequencies (single, double and triple. In addition, aqueous extract assays were ev aluated for the presence of a phytotoxic compound responsible for the virulence of the bioherbicide. Results of the study showed that disease severity significantly increased 20 days after treatment and resulted in mortality of the seedlin gs. Ecotypes from Perak and Lampung were most susceptible to the bioherbicide upon triple applications. Percentage dry weight reductions were 86.34 and 83.14%, respectively. Other ecotypes (Melaka, Banten and South Sulawesi were observed to have a relatively similar response. Moreover, aqueous extracts of E. longirostratum increased mortality up to 92.50% of bamyardgrass seedlings. These findings suggest that regular (double and triple applications of E. longirostratum at a concentration of 2.5xl07 conidia/ml significantly increased mortality among bamyardgrass ecotypes. Mortality of the seedlings was attributed to the presence of a secondary phytotoxic metabolite.

  10. Viral nucleoprotein localization and lesions of Newcastle disease in tissues of indigenous ducks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Njagi, Lucy Wanjiru; Mbuthia, Paul Gichohi; Nyaga, Phillip Njeru; Bebora, Lilly Caroline; Minga, Uswege M

    2012-04-01

    Localization of Newcastle disease viral nucleoprotein and pathological lesions was evaluated in tissues of 55 indigenous ducks (45 experimentally infected and 10 sentinel ones). In addition, ten Newcastle disease infected chickens were used to ensure that the virus inoculum administered to the ducks produced the disease in chickens, the susceptible hosts. Ducks were killed on day 1, 4, 8 and 14 post-infection. Post-mortem examination was done with six tissues (liver, spleen, lung, caecal tonsils, kidneys and brain) being collected from each bird. The tissues were preserved in 10% neutral formalin for 24 h. They were then transferred to 70% ethanol for histology and immunohistochemical staining. Airsacculitis, necrotic splenic foci, congested intestines, lymphoid depleted caecal tonsils and focal infiltrations by mononuclear cells were the main pathological lesions in infected ducks. Over 28.9% of the infected ducks had Newcastle disease viral nucleoprotein in macrophage-like large mononuclear cells in the caecal tonsils and kidney tubular epithelium. The viral antigens were located in the cytoplasm and nucleolus of the cells. The other organs had no detectable viral antigens. This study shows that the kidneys and caecal tonsils are the likely predilection sites for the virus in ducks. They thus need to be considered as diagnostic indicators for the viral carriage in ducks.

  11. Antimicrobial agents deriving from indigenous plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Avrelija, Cencic; Walter, Chingwaru

    2010-01-01

    Phytonutrients in many indigenous plants are receiving a lot of attention as they are important in antimicrobial and anticancer therapies. Tropical areas, especially India, South America and Africa, are the main sources of patentable plant products and have indigenous populations with well developed traditional medicinal knowledge. Phytochemicals, including carotenoids, phenolics, alkaloids, nitrogen-containing compounds, and organosulfur compounds, are receiving much attention as they impart important health benefits. This article gives an insight into some important phytochemicals, and analyses the ethical issues on property rights of plant products. Many patent applications have been lodged, and quite a number have been granted. Pharmaceutical industries are engaging in massive speculative bioprospecting on plant based phytochemicals and products, usually resulting in conflicts with indigenous populations. More focus is given here-in to Tylosema esculentum (marama) plant, found in drier parts of Southern Africa and known to contain high quantities of essential phytochemicals. Important phytochemicals in marama include fatty acid (mainly oleic acid, linoleic acid, linolenic acid, behenic acid), protein and phenolic acid components. The marama plant has high potential as a source of medical and cosmetic products. If conflicts surrounding property rights on plant based products are resolved, phytochemicals can be a good source of income for indigenous populations in areas where such plants are found.

  12. Desiderata: Towards Indigenous Models of Vocational Psychology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leong, Frederick T. L.; Pearce, Marina

    2011-01-01

    As a result of a relative lack of cross-cultural validity in most current (Western) psychological models, indigenous models of psychology have recently become a popular approach for understanding behaviour in specific cultures. Such models would be valuable to vocational psychology research with culturally diverse populations. Problems facing…

  13. Indigenous environmental values as human values

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Monica Gratani

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The claim that in natural resource management (NRM a change from anthropocentric values and ethics to eco-centric ones is necessary to achieve sustainability leads to the search for eco-centric models of relationship with the environment. Indigenous cultures can provide such models; hence, there is the need for multicultural societies to further include their values in NRM. In this article, we investigate the environmental values placed on a freshwater environment of the Wet Tropics by a community of indigenous Australians. We discuss their environmental values as human values, and so as beliefs that guide communities’ understanding of how the natural world should be viewed and treated by humans. This perspective represents a step forward in our understanding of indigenous environmental values, and a way to overcome the paradigm of indigenous values as valued biophysical attributes of the environment or processes happening in landscapes. Our results show that the participant community holds biospheric values. Restoring these values in the NRM of the Wet Tropics could contribute to sustainability and environmental justice in the area.

  14. Control of indigenous pathogenic bacteria in seafood

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Huss, Hans Henrik

    1997-01-01

    The pathogenic bacteria indigenous to the aquatic and general environment are listed. Their distribution in nature, prevalence in seafood and the possibilities for growth of these organisms in various types of products are outlined These data, combined with what is known regarding the epidemiology...

  15. Locally Situated Digital Representation of Indigenous Knowledge

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Winschiers-Theophilus, Heike; Jensen, Kasper Løvborg; Rodil, Kasper

    2012-01-01

    Digital re-presentation of indigenous knowledge remains an absurdity as long as we fail to deconstruct the prevalent design paradigm and techniques continuously re-framing technology within a western epistemology. This paper discusses key challenges in attempts of co-constructing a digital...

  16. Iron status markers in 224 indigenous Greenlanders

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Milman, N; Byg, K E; Mulvad, G

    2001-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To evaluate iron status in indigenous Greenlanders and its relationship to gender, age and intake of traditional Greenlandic foods. Methods: Serum ferritin, serum transferrin saturation and haemoglobin were evaluated in a population survey in 1993-1994 comprising 224 Greenlandic...

  17. Indigenous Australian art in intercultural contact zones

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eleonore Wildburger

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available This article comments on Indigenous Australian art from an intercultural perspective. The painting Bush Tomato Dreaming (1998, by the Anmatyerre artist Lucy Ngwarai Kunoth serves as model case for my argument that art expresses existential social knowledge. In consequence, I will argue that social theory and art theory together provide tools for intercultural understanding and competence.

  18. Handbook of Indigenous Foods Involving Alkaline Fermentation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sarkar, P.K.; Nout, M.J.R.

    2014-01-01

    This book details the basic approaches of alkaline fermentation, provides a brief history, and offers an overview of the subject. The book discusses the diversity of indigenous fermented foods involving an alkaline reaction, as well as the taxonomy, ecology, physiology, and genetics of predominant m

  19. Strangulation injury from indigenous rocking cradle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saha Abhijeet

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Indigenously made rocking cradle is frequently used in rural India. We report strangulation from an indigenously made rocking cradle in an 11-month-old female child. The unique mode of injury and its mechanism have been discussed. Strangulation is an important cause of homicidal and suicidal injury in adults but in children it is usually accidental leading to death due to asphyxia as a result of partial hanging. In western countries, it is the third most common cause of accidental childhood deaths, 17% of them being due to ropes and cords. It ranks fourth amongst the causes of unintentional injury in children less than 1 year of age following roadside accidents, drowning and burns. However, in India, strangulation injury is under reported although indigenous rocking cradles are very commonly used in rural India, and they are even more dangerous than the cribs and adult beds as there are no safety mechanisms therein. We report a case of accidental strangulation following suspension from an indigenously made rocking cradle. The unique mode of injury has prompted us to report this case.

  20. LIFE AND DEATH AMONGST INDIGENOUS PEOPLES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jane Felipe Beltrão

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Considering the frequent rights violations perpetrated against indigenous peoples, which affect people and territories, compromising their lives and even their right to mourn the dead, it is imperative to understand the care and concerns of the indigenous towards life and death. Thus, we propose to analyze ethnographic narratives about the Apinayé, Ka'apor, Tapirapé, Tembé, Tenetehara, Terena and Asurini, in order to discuss the caring of people, considering the context of funerary rituals. The texts analyzed are able to reveal: (1 the existence (or not of the practice; (2 the specific contexts in which the funeral rites are (or not practiced; and (3 the meanings that the practice gain in ethnically differentiated societies. The narratives of indigenous peoples are included in order to attempt to make the peoples that nowadays find themselves accused by both the media and (reportedly pro-life organizations “be heard”. Therefore, using the classical literature we study the heritage of ritual practices, which besides confering dignity to the dead, indicate that life is the greater good among indigenous peoples.

  1. Differential effects of two indigenous broilers exposed to cold stress and characters of follicle density and diameter

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xing Y. Chen

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available digenous chickens from various part of China, due to different feather characters, always performed differently when countered with cold stress. In this study, the effects of long term hypothermia on serum hormones (triiodothyronine, thyroxine and insulin and activity of plasma enzymes (Alanine aminotransferase, aspartate aminotransferase, gamma-glutamyltransferase, creatine kinase and lactic dehydrogenase were studied in two indigenous broiler breeds, Huainan partridge (H and Wenchang (W chickens. Chickens in 20°C±2°C were compared with those subjected to moderate (15°C±2°C and severe low temperature (10°C±2°C for one week. Long-term hypothermia elevated plasma insulin and reduced T4 in W, decelerated insulin and increased T4 in H, while T3 did not change in the two breeds. Plasma enzymes AST, LDH and CK decreased in the two breeds and ALT only decreased in W exposed to cold stress. A significantly decreased body weight gain of H and no variations in W at low temperature were observed. However, a trend of decreased weight gain in W was observed when bred under low temperature condition. Follicle density and diameter were compared in the two breeds with back density in H significantly higher than W and diameter from back of H significantly smaller than W, while much larger than the latter at latero-abdominal part. We investigated the pattern of serum biological change, follicle diameter and density under cold stress condition in two indigenous broiler breeds from different areas of China to provide informative guidance for broiler production and indications in breeding of cold resistant breed.

  2. Sequencing and alignment of mitochondrial genomes of Tibetan chicken and two lowland chicken breeds

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    Tibetan chicken lives in high-altitude area and has adapted well to hypoxia genetically. Shouguang chicken and Silky chicken are both lowland chicken breeds. In the present study, the complete mitochondrial genome sequences of the three chicken breeds were all sequenced. The results showed that the mitochondrial DNAs (mtDNAs) of Shouguang chicken and Silky chicken consist of 16784 bp and 16785 bp respectively, and Tibetan chicken mitochondrial genome varies from 16784 bp to 16786 bp. After sequence analysis, 120 mutations, including 4 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in tRNA genes, 9 SNPs and 1 insertion in rRNA genes, 38 SNPs and 1 deletion in D-LOOP, 66 SNPs in protein-coding genes, were found. This work will provide clues for the future study on the association between mitochondrial genes and the adaptation to hypoxia.

  3. Geographic distribution of isolated indigenous societies in Amazonia and the efficacy of indigenous territories.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dylan C Kesler

    Full Text Available The headwaters of the Amazon Basin harbor most of the world's last indigenous peoples who have limited contact with encroaching colonists. Knowledge of the geographic distribution of these isolated groups is essential to assist with the development of immediate protections for vulnerable indigenous settlements. We used remote sensing to document the locations of 28 isolated villages within the four Brazilian states of Acre, Amazonas, Roraima, and Rondônia. The sites were confirmed during previous over-flights and by image evidence of thatched-roof houses; they are estimated to host over 1,700 individuals. Locational data were used to train maximum entropy models that identified landscape and anthropogenic features associated with the occurrence of isolated indigenous villages, including elevation, proximity to streams of five different orders, proximity to roads and settlements, proximity to recent deforestation, and vegetation cover type. Isolated villages were identified at mid elevations, within 20 km of the tops of watersheds and at greater distances from existing roads and trails. We further used model results, combined with boundaries of the existing indigenous territory system that is designed to protect indigenous lands, to assess the efficacy of the existing protected area network for isolated peoples. Results indicate that existing indigenous territories encompass all of the villages we identified, and 50% of the areas with high predicted probabilities of isolated village occurrence. Our results are intended to help inform policies that can mitigate against future external threats to isolated peoples.

  4. Geographic distribution of isolated indigenous societies in Amazonia and the efficacy of indigenous territories.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kesler, Dylan C; Walker, Robert S

    2015-01-01

    The headwaters of the Amazon Basin harbor most of the world's last indigenous peoples who have limited contact with encroaching colonists. Knowledge of the geographic distribution of these isolated groups is essential to assist with the development of immediate protections for vulnerable indigenous settlements. We used remote sensing to document the locations of 28 isolated villages within the four Brazilian states of Acre, Amazonas, Roraima, and Rondônia. The sites were confirmed during previous over-flights and by image evidence of thatched-roof houses; they are estimated to host over 1,700 individuals. Locational data were used to train maximum entropy models that identified landscape and anthropogenic features associated with the occurrence of isolated indigenous villages, including elevation, proximity to streams of five different orders, proximity to roads and settlements, proximity to recent deforestation, and vegetation cover type. Isolated villages were identified at mid elevations, within 20 km of the tops of watersheds and at greater distances from existing roads and trails. We further used model results, combined with boundaries of the existing indigenous territory system that is designed to protect indigenous lands, to assess the efficacy of the existing protected area network for isolated peoples. Results indicate that existing indigenous territories encompass all of the villages we identified, and 50% of the areas with high predicted probabilities of isolated village occurrence. Our results are intended to help inform policies that can mitigate against future external threats to isolated peoples.

  5. Genomic Characterization of Recent Chicken Anemia Virus Isolates in China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chicken infectious anemiavirus (CIAV) causes diseases in young chickens, which include increased pathogenicity of secondary infectious agents, generalized lymphoid depletion, and immune-repression. In the present study, we have identified 22 CIAV strains isolated from several commercial chicken farm...

  6. Indigenous housing and health in the Canadian North

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Julia

    2016-01-01

    In this article, I explore the relationship between housing, home and health amongst Indigenous homeless people living in the Canadian North. In particular, I examine the ways in which Indigenous homemaking practices conflict with housing policy, and exacerbate individual pathways to homelessness....... I argue that integral components in northern Indigenous conceptualizations of home and, in turn, health are not only unrecognized in housing policy, but actively discouraged. The potential for homemaking to inform health and housing policy speaks to the relevance of cultural safety not only...... to Indigenous health services, but also to a comprehensive framing of Indigenous health....

  7. Chromosomal profile of indigenous pig (Sus scrofa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Guru Vishnu

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Aim: The objective of this study was to investigate the chromosomal profile of indigenous pigs by computing morphometric measurements. Materials and Methods: A cytogenetic study was carried out in 60 indigenous pigs to analyze the chromosomal profile by employing the short term peripheral blood lymphocyte culture technique. Results: The modal chromosome number (2n in indigenous pigs was found to be 38 and a fundamental number of 64 as in the exotic. First chromosome was the longest pair, and thirteenth pair was the second largest while Y-chromosome was the smallest in the karyotype of the pig. The mean relative length, arm ratio, centromeric indices and morphological indices of chromosomes varied from 1.99±0.01 to 11.23±0.09, 1.04±0.05 to 2.95±0.02, 0.51±0.14 to 0.75±0.09 and 2.08±0.07 to 8.08±0.15%, respectively in indigenous pigs. Sex had no significant effect (p>0.05 on all the morphometric measurements studied. Conclusion: The present study revealed that among autosomes first five pairs were sub metacentric, next two pairs were sub telocentric (6-7, subsequent five pairs were metacentric (8-12 and remaining six pairs were telocentric (13-18, while both allosomes were metacentric. The chromosomal number, morphology and various morphometric measurements of the chromosomes of the indigenous pigs were almost similar to those established breeds reported in the literature.

  8. The molecular dimension of microbial species: 1. Ecological distinctions among, and homogeneity within, putative ecotypes of Synechococcus inhabiting the cyanobacterial mat of Mushroom Spring, Yellowstone National Park.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Becraft, Eric D; Wood, Jason M; Rusch, Douglas B; Kühl, Michael; Jensen, Sheila I; Bryant, Donald A; Roberts, David W; Cohan, Frederick M; Ward, David M

    2015-01-01

    Based on the Stable Ecotype Model, evolution leads to the divergence of ecologically distinct populations (e.g., with different niches and/or behaviors) of ecologically interchangeable membership. In this study, pyrosequencing was used to provide deep sequence coverage of Synechococcus psaA genes and transcripts over a large number of habitat types in the Mushroom Spring microbial mat. Putative ecological species [putative ecotypes (PEs)], which were predicted by an evolutionary simulation based on the Stable Ecotype Model (Ecotype Simulation), exhibited distinct distributions relative to temperature-defined positions in the effluent channel and vertical position in the upper 1 mm-thick mat layer. Importantly, in most cases variants predicted to belong to the same PE formed unique clusters relative to temperature and depth in the mat in canonical correspondence analysis, supporting the hypothesis that while the PEs are ecologically distinct, the members of each ecotype are ecologically homogeneous. PEs responded differently to experimental perturbations of temperature and light, but the genetic variation within each PE was maintained as the relative abundances of PEs changed, further indicating that each population responded as a set of ecologically interchangeable individuals. Compared to PEs that predominate deeper within the mat photic zone, the timing of transcript abundances for selected genes differed for PEs that predominate in microenvironments closer to upper surface of the mat with spatiotemporal differences in light and O2 concentration. All of these findings are consistent with the hypotheses that Synechococcus species in hot spring mats are sets of ecologically interchangeable individuals that are differently adapted, that these adaptations control their distributions, and that the resulting distributions constrain the activities of the species in space and time.

  9. Lead Induced Changes in the Growth and Antioxidant Metabolism of the Lead Accumulating and Non-accumulating Ecotypes of Sedum alfredii

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Dan Liu; Ting-Qiang Li; Xiao-Fen Jin; Xiao-E Yang; Ejazul Islam; Qaisar Mahmood

    2008-01-01

    The phytotoxicity and antioxidative adaptations of lead (Pb) accumulating ecotype (AE) and non-accumulating ecotype (NAE) of Sedum alfredii Hance were investigated under different Pb treatments involving 0, 0.02 mmol/L Pb, 0.1 mmol/L Pb and 0.1 mmol/L Pb/0.1 mmol/L ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid (EDTA) for 6days. With the Increasing Pb level, the Pb concentration in the shoots of AE plants enhanced accordingly, and EDTA supply helped 51% of Pb translocation to shoots of AE compared with those treated with 0.1 mmol/L Pb alone. Moreover, the presence of EDTA alleviated Pb phytotoxicity through changes in plant biomass, root morphology and chlorophyll contents. Lead toxicity Induced hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) accumulation and lipid peroxidation in both ecotypes of S. alfredii. The activities of superoxide dismutase (SOD), guaiacol peroxidase (G-POD), ascorbate peroxidase, and dehydroascorbate reductase elevated in both leaves and roots of AE as well as in leaves of NAE with the increasing Pb levels, but SOD and G-POD declined in roots of NAE. Enhancement in glutathione reductase activity was only detected in roots of NAE while a depression in catalase activity was recorded in the leaves of NAE. A significant enhancement in glutathione and ascorbic acid (AsA) levels occurred In both ecotypes exposed to Pb and Pb/EDTA treatment compared with the control, however, the differences between these two treatments were insignificant. The dehydroascorbate (DHA) contents in roots of both ecotypes were 1.41 to 11.22-fold higher than those in leaves, whereas the ratios of AsA to DHA (1.38 to 6.84) in leaves altering more to the reduced AsA form were much higher than those in roots. These results suggested that antioxidative enzymes and antioxidants play an important role in counteracting Pb stress in S. alfredii.

  10. Indigenous knowledge and science in a globalized age

    Science.gov (United States)

    Regmi, Jagadish; Fleming, Michelle

    2012-06-01

    This forum explores and expands on Ben-Zvi Assaraf, Eshach, Orion, and Alamour's article titled "Cultural Differences and Students' Spontaneous Models of the Water Cycle: A Case Study of Jewish and Bedouin Children in Israel" by examining how indigenous knowledge is appropriated in science classrooms; how students from indigenous students' experiences are more complex than many non-indigenous students; and how science and globalization complicates the preservation of indigenous knowledge. In this forum we suggest that research on indigenous knowledge be examined through the lens of the locally situated contexts and the extent to which globalization hinders this kind of knowledge in the name of value neutral scientific knowledge. We finally suggest that research in indigenous communities has to be more intentional and respectful, and teachers need to rethink how useful and meaningful science learning can be for indigenous students.

  11. Indigenous homelessness: perspectives from Canada, Australia and New Zealand

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Being homeless in one’s homeland is a colonial legacy for many Indigenous people in settler societies. The construction of Commonwealth nation-states from colonial settler societies depended on the dispossession of Indigenous peoples from their lands. The legacy of that dispossession and related...... attempts at assimilation that disrupted Indigenous practices, languages, and cultures—including patterns of housing and land use—can be seen today in the disproportionate number of Indigenous people affected by homelessness in both rural and urban settings. Essays in this collection explore the meaning...... and scope of Indigenous homelessness in the Canada, Australia, and New Zealand. They argue that effective policy and support programs aimed at relieving Indigenous homelessness must be rooted in Indigenous conceptions of home, land, and kinship, and cannot ignore the context of systemic inequality...

  12. Using Modern Technologies to Capture and Share Indigenous Astronomical Knowledge

    CERN Document Server

    Nakata, N M; Warren, J; Byrne, A; Pagnucco, M; Harley, R; Venugopal, S; Thorpe, K; Neville, R; Bolt, R

    2014-01-01

    Indigenous Knowledge is important for Indigenous communities across the globe and for the advancement of our general scientific knowledge. In particular, Indigenous astronomical knowledge integrates many aspects of Indigenous Knowledge, including seasonal calendars, navigation, food economics, law, ceremony, and social structure. We aim to develop innovative ways of capturing, managing, and disseminating Indigenous astronomical knowledge for Indigenous communities and the general public for the future. Capturing, managing, and disseminating this knowledge in the digital environment poses a number of challenges, which we aim to address using a collaborative project involving experts in the higher education, library, and industry sectors. Using Microsoft's WorldWide Telescope and Rich Interactive Narratives technologies, we propose to develop software, media design, and archival management solutions to allow Indigenous communities to share their astronomical knowledge with the world on their terms and in a cult...

  13. REM: A Collaborative Framework for Building Indigenous Cultural Competence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Power, Tamara; Virdun, Claudia; Sherwood, Juanita; Parker, Nicola; Van Balen, Jane; Gray, Joanne; Jackson, Debra

    2016-09-01

    The well-documented health disparities between the Australian Indigenous and non-Indigenous population mandates a comprehensive response from health professionals. This article outlines the approach taken by one faculty of health in a large urban Australian university to enhance cultural competence in students from a variety of fields. Here we outline a collaborative and deeply respectful process of Indigenous and non-Indigenous university staff collectively developing a model that has framed the embedding of a common faculty Indigenous graduate attribute across the curriculum. Through collaborative committee processes, the development of the principles of "Respect; Engagement and sharing; Moving forward" (REM) has provided both a framework and way of "being and doing" our work. By drawing together the recurring principles and qualities that characterize Indigenous cultural competence the result will be students and staff learning and bringing into their lives and practice, important Indigenous cultural understanding.

  14. Enteric disease in broiler chickens following experimental infection with chicken parvovirus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Day-old broiler chickens were inoculated orally with the chicken parvovirus strain, chicken parvovirus-P1. In four independent experiments, characteristic clinical signs of enteric disease including watery, mustard color diarrhea and growth retardation were observed following infection. The virus wa...

  15. Changes in endogenous bioactive compounds of Korean native chicken meat at different ages and during cooking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jayasena, Dinesh D; Jung, Samooel; Bae, Young Sik; Kim, Sun Hyo; Lee, Soo Kee; Lee, Jun Heon; Jo, Cheorun

    2014-07-01

    This study aimed to examine the effect of bird age on the contents of endogenous bioactive compounds, including carnosine, anserine, creatine, betaine, and carnitine, in meat from a certified meat-type commercial Korean native chicken strain (KNC; Woorimatdag). Additionally, the effects of the meat type (breast or leg meat) and the state of the meat (raw or cooked) were examined. Cocks of KNC were raised under similar standard commercial conditions at a commercial chicken farm. At various ages (10, 11, 12, 13, and 14 wk), breast and leg meats from a total of 10 birds from each age group were obtained. Raw and cooked meat samples were then prepared separately and analyzed for bioactive compounds. The age of the KNC had a significant effect only on the betaine content. The breast meat of KNC had higher amounts of carnosine and anserine but had lower amounts of betaine and carnitine than the leg meat (P bioactive compounds during cooking (P bioactive compounds in KNC meat, which can be useful for selection and breeding programs, and also for popularizing indigenous chicken meat.

  16. CONTEMPORARY INDIGENOUS LITERATURE: FORMS AND CONTENTS IN THE POETRY AND PROSE OF THE II LITERARY PARTY OF INDIGENOUS POETICS.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Deborah Goldemberg

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available By analyzing the forms and contents of the presentations made by indigenous performers and writers at the I Literary Party of Indigenous Poetics, this article exposes the challenges faced by traditional genre theories in tackling indigenous narratives and analyses how this “crisis” contributes to widening hierarchical and Western biased conceptions. On a stage open to contemporary indigenous expression, as is the literary party, the concepts of performance and storytelling, with the social function of maintaining tradition, continuous learning and transformation, better define this indigenous expression.

  17. Different NaCl-Induced Calcium Signatures in the Arabidopsis thaliana Ecotypes Col-0 and C24

    KAUST Repository

    Schmöckel, Sandra M.

    2015-02-27

    A common feature of stress signalling pathways are alterations in the concentration of cytosolic free calcium ([Ca2+]cyt), which allow the specific and rapid transmission of stress signals through a plant after exposure to a stress, such as salinity. Here, we used an aequorin based bioluminescence assay to compare the NaCl-induced changes in [Ca2+]cyt of the Arabidopsis ecotypes Col-0 and C24. We show that C24 lacks the NaCl specific component of the [Ca2+]cyt signature compared to Col-0. This phenotypic variation could be exploited as a screening methodology for the identification of yet unknown components in the early stages of the salt signalling pathway.

  18. Different NaCl-induced calcium signatures in the Arabidopsis thaliana ecotypes Col-0 and C24.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmöckel, Sandra M; Garcia, Alexandre F; Berger, Bettina; Tester, Mark; Webb, Alex A R; Roy, Stuart J

    2015-01-01

    A common feature of stress signalling pathways are alterations in the concentration of cytosolic free calcium ([Ca2+]cyt), which allow the specific and rapid transmission of stress signals through a plant after exposure to a stress, such as salinity. Here, we used an aequorin based bioluminescence assay to compare the NaCl-induced changes in [Ca2+]cyt of the Arabidopsis ecotypes Col-0 and C24. We show that C24 lacks the NaCl specific component of the [Ca2+]cyt signature compared to Col-0. This phenotypic variation could be exploited as a screening methodology for the identification of yet unknown components in the early stages of the salt signalling pathway.

  19. Phosphorylation of chicken growth hormone

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aramburo, C.; Montiel, J.L. (Universidad Nacional Autonoma de Mexico (Mexico)); Donoghue, D.; Scanes, C.G. (Rutgers Univ., New Brunswick, NJ (USA)); Berghman, L.R. (Laboratory for Neuroendocrinology and Immunological Biotechnology, Louvain (Belgium))

    1990-01-01

    The possibility that chicken growth hormone (cGH) can be phosphorylated has been examined. Both native and biosynthetic cGH were phosphorylated by cAMP-dependent protein kinase (and {gamma}-{sup 32}P-ATP). The extent of phosphorylation was however less than that observed with ovine prolactin. Under the conditions employed, glycosylated cGH was not phosphorylated. Chicken anterior pituitary cells in primary culture were incubated in the presence of {sup 32}P-phosphate. Radioactive phosphate was incorporated in vitro into the fraction immunoprecipitable with antisera against cGH. Incorporation was increased with cell number and time of incubation. The presence of GH releasing factor (GRF) increased the release of {sup 32}P-phosphate labeled immunoprecipitable GH into the incubation media but not content of immunoprecipitable GH in the cells. The molecular weight of the phosphorylated immunoreactive cGH in the cells corresponded to cGH dimer.

  20. Imaging with the fluorogenic dye Basic Fuchsin reveals subcellular patterning and ecotype variation of lignification in Brachypodium distachyon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kapp, Nikki; Barnes, William J.; Richard, Tom L.; Anderson, Charles T.

    2015-01-01

    Lignin is a complex polyphenolic heteropolymer that is abundant in the secondary cell walls of plants and functions in growth and defence. It is also a major barrier to the deconstruction of plant biomass for bioenergy production, but the spatiotemporal details of how lignin is deposited in actively lignifying tissues and the precise relationships between wall lignification in different cell types and developmental events, such as flowering, are incompletely understood. Here, the lignin-detecting fluorogenic dye, Basic Fuchsin, was adapted to enable comparative fluorescence-based imaging of lignin in the basal internodes of three Brachypodium distachyon ecotypes that display divergent flowering times. It was found that the extent and intensity of Basic Fuchsin fluorescence increase over time in the Bd21-3 ecotype, that Basic Fuchsin staining is more widespread and intense in 4-week-old Bd21-3 and Adi-10 basal internodes than in Bd1-1 internodes, and that Basic Fuchsin staining reveals subcellular patterns of lignin in vascular and interfascicular fibre cell walls. Basic Fuchsin fluorescence did not correlate with lignin quantification by acetyl bromide analysis, indicating that whole-plant and subcellular lignin analyses provide distinct information about the extent and patterns of lignification in B. distachyon. Finally, it was found that flowering time correlated with a transient increase in total lignin, but did not correlate strongly with the patterning of stem lignification, suggesting that additional developmental pathways might regulate secondary wall formation in grasses. This study provides a new comparative tool for imaging lignin in plants and helps inform our views of how lignification proceeds in grasses. PMID:25922482

  1. A compatible interaction of Alternaria brassicicola with Arabidopsis thaliana ecotype DiG: evidence for a specific transcriptional signature

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    Gepstein Shimon

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The interaction of Arabidopsis with Alternaria brassicicola provides a model for disease caused by necrotrophs, but a drawback has been the lack of a compatible pathosystem. Infection of most ecotypes, including the widely-studied line Col-0, with this pathogen generally leads to a lesion that does not expand beyond the inoculated area. This study examines an ecotype, Dijon G (DiG, which is considered sensitive to A. brassicicola. Results We show that the interaction has the characteristics of a compatible one, with expanding rather than limited lesions. To ask whether DiG is merely more sensitive to the pathogen or, rather, interacts in distinct manner, we identified genes whose regulation differs between Col-0 and DiG challenged with A. brassicicola. Suppression subtractive hybridization was used to identify differentially expressed genes, and their expression was verified using semi-quantitative PCR. We also tested a set of known defense-related genes for differential regulation in the two plant-pathogen interactions. Several known pathogenesis-related (PR genes are up-regulated in both interactions. PR1, and a monooxygenase gene identified in this study, MO1, are preferentially up-regulated in the compatible interaction. In contrast, GLIP1, which encodes a secreted lipase, and DIOX1, a pathogen-response related dioxygenase, are preferentially up-regulated in the incompatible interaction. Conclusion The results show that DiG is not only more susceptible, but demonstrate that its interaction with A. brassicicola has a specific transcriptional signature.

  2. Chicken Porridge with Sea Cucumber

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    1994-01-01

    Chicken Porridge with Sea Cucumber is a dish created according to a well-known story about Jia Chang, who raised cocks during the Tang Dynasty. Cockfighting was popular among commonfolk during the Tang Dynasty. Emperor Xuanzong selected 5,000 cocks in Chang’an, and 500 children to feed them and train them to fight. Jia Chang was one of the children. Sent to the

  3. Indigenous, colonist, and government Impacts on Nicaragua's Bosawas Reserve.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stocks, Anthony; McMahan, Benjamin; Taber, Peter

    2007-12-01

    We studied the impacts of colonists, two groups of indigenous residents (Miskitu and Mayangna), and management by the Nicaraguan Ministry of Environment and Natural Resources (MARENA) on the forest of the Bosawas International Biosphere Reserve. Indigenous people and colonists subsist on the natural resources of the reserve, and MARENA is responsible for protecting the area from colonization and illicit exploitation. Using geostatistical procedures and Landsat images at three different time periods, we compared per capita deforestation and boundary stabilization in areas with colonists and areas with indigenous peoples. We also examined whether the Mayangna deforested less than the Miskitu and whether the Nicaraguan government has effectively defended the Bosawas boundary against the advance of the agricultural frontier. In addition, we analyzed the current distribution of land uses within the reserve and its contiguous indigenous areas with a supervised classification of current land cover. Indigenous demarcations protected the forest successfully, whereas the Bosawas boundary itself did not inhibit colonization and consequent deforestation. Indigenous farmers deforested significantly less per capita than colonists, and the two indigenous groups in Bosawas did not differ significantly in their effects on the forest. Our results show that indigenous common-property institutions and indigenous defense of homeland have been powerful factors in protecting the forests of Bosawas and that the difficult evolution of a nested cross-scale governance system in Bosawas-under pressure from indigenous peoples-is probably the key to the forest's survival thus far.

  4. Western and indigenous knowledges in intercultural bilingual education in Ecuador

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carmen Martinez Novo

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available This article analyzes the relationships between indigenous and Western forms of knowledge in intercultural bilingual education (EIB in Ecuador. The work shows that the tensions between both forms of knowledge reflect differences in the ways that indigenous leaders and communities understand the role of formal education. The article also argues that the allies of indigenous movements (religious groups, academics, NGOs, and others and indigenous communities have different educational aims. Whereas allies and indigenous leaders see EIB as a tool to preserve indigenous language and culture, indigenous parents and students seek access to western forms of knowledge such as Spanish literacy, English, and computers. Communities do not underestimate indigenous knowledges based on oral narratives and elder wisdom. However, the article argues that indigenous individuals do not think that the school system is the right place for the reproduction of this wisdom. These knowledges are typically shared outside of school premises in the domains of the family and community. The author gathered the data for this article with a group of indigenous researchers through a collaborative methodology. Thus, this study contributes with internal and critical points of view that complement those of other studies. 

  5. Globalisation And Local Indigenous Education In Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reinke, Leanne

    2004-11-01

    Globalisation is often viewed as a threat to cultural and linguistic diversity and therefore is a central concern of educational practices and policy. The present study challenges this common view by demonstrating that local communities can use global means to support and enhance their specific practices and policies. An historical exploration of education policy in Mexico reveals that there has been a continuing struggle by indigenous peoples to maintain locally relevant modes of teaching. Indigenous peoples have increasingly used technology to maintain their languages and local cultural practices. Such accentuation of the local in a global context is exemplified by the people of Chiapas: They live in subsistence-type communities, yet their recent education movements and appeals to international solidarity (such as in the Zapatista rebellion) have employed computer-aided technologies.

  6. Critical Indigenous Studies: From Difference to Density

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    Chris Andersen

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Proponents of the discipline of Native Studies (in its various guises have attempted to produce a methodologically and theoretically distinctive body of scholarship to justify its existence in the field of academia. Critiquing Duane Champagne’s recent article published in a flagship journal for North American Native Studies, I argue that while establishing Native Studies as a discipline has little or nothing to do with securing Native Studies departments on university campuses, a place nonetheless exists for these departments. Marrying Native Studies literature on the importance of producing tribally specific knowledge with Australian-based Whiteness Studies literature focusing on the utility of indigeneity for denaturalising white privilege, I argue that the discipline of Native Studies should justify itself departmentally by teaching about the complex forms of local indigeneity upon which white privilege is reproduced.

  7. Nuclear rocket using indigenous Martian fuel NIMF

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zubrin, Robert

    1991-01-01

    In the 1960's, Nuclear Thermal Rocket (NTR) engines were developed and ground tested capable of yielding isp of up to 900 s at thrusts up to 250 klb. Numerous trade studies have shown that such traditional hydrogen fueled NTR engines can reduce the inertial mass low earth orbit (IMLEO) of lunar missions by 35 percent and Mars missions by 50 to 65 percent. The same personnel and facilities used to revive the hydrogen NTR can also be used to develop NTR engines capable of using indigenous Martian volatiles as propellant. By putting this capacity of the NTR to work in a Mars descent/acent vehicle, the Nuclear rocket using Indigenous Martian Fuel (NIMF) can greatly reduce the IMLEO of a manned Mars mission, while giving the mission unlimited planetwide mobility.

  8. Are Supernovae Recorded in Indigenous Astronomical Traditions?

    CERN Document Server

    Hamacher, Duane W

    2014-01-01

    Novae and supernovae are rare astronomical events that would have had an influence on the sky-watching peoples who witnessed them. Although several bright novae/supernovae have been visible during recorded human history, there are many proposed but no confirmed accounts of supernovae in oral traditions or material culture. Criteria are established for confirming novae/supernovae in oral and material culture, and claims from around the world are discussed to determine if they meet these criteria. Australian Aboriginal traditions are explored for possible descriptions of novae/supernovae. Although representations of supernovae may exist in Indigenous traditions, and an account of a nova in Aboriginal traditions has been confirmed, there are currently no confirmed accounts of supernovae in Indigenous oral or material traditions.

  9. INDIGENOUS HOUSEHOLDS, REMITTANCES AND LIFE QUALITY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ignacio César Cruz Islas

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Mexican migration to other countries, primarily United States, is a phenomenon that has been studied from different approaches. It is an important flow of people who, for decades, has left Mexico in search of employment opportunities and higher income. This is due to the weakness of opportunities structure present in Mexico, predominantly in rural areas, as well as budget constraints that prevent households to improve their living conditions. Remittances from other countries, in turn, are an alternative for families to address the lack of employment opportunities and income in their homeland, as well as life-deficit conditions. To see how remittances impact on living conditions of indigenous population, in this paper we analyze living conditions of indigenous households.

  10. Flavour Chemistry of Chicken Meat: A Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jayasena, Dinesh D.; Ahn, Dong Uk; Nam, Ki Chang; Jo, Cheorun

    2013-01-01

    Flavour comprises mainly of taste and aroma and is involved in consumers’ meat-buying behavior and preferences. Chicken meat flavour is supposed to be affected by a number of ante- and post-mortem factors, including breed, diet, post-mortem ageing, method of cooking, etc. Additionally, chicken meat is more susceptible to quality deterioration mainly due to lipid oxidation with resulting off-flavours. Therefore, the intent of this paper is to highlight the mechanisms and chemical compounds responsible for chicken meat flavour and off-flavour development to help producers in producing the most flavourful and consistent product possible. Chicken meat flavour is thermally derived and the Maillard reaction, thermal degradation of lipids, and interaction between these 2 reactions are mainly responsible for the generation of flavour and aroma compounds. The reaction of cysteine and sugar can lead to characteristic meat flavour specially for chicken and pork. Volatile compounds including 2-methyl-3-furanthiol, 2-furfurylthiol, methionol, 2,4,5-trimethyl-thiazole, nonanol, 2-trans-nonenal, and other compounds have been identified as important for the flavour of chicken. However 2-methyl-3-furanthiol is considered as the most vital chemical compound for chicken flavour development. In addition, a large number of heterocyclic compounds are formed when higher temperature and low moisture conditions are used during certain cooking methods of chicken meat such as roasting, grilling, frying or pressure cooking compared to boiled chicken meat. Major volatile compounds responsible for fried chicken are 3,5-dimethyl-1,2,4-trithiolanes, 2,4,6-trimethylperhydro-1,3,5-dithiazines, 3,5-diisobutyl-1,2,4-trithiolane, 3-methyl-5-butyl-1,2,4-trithiolane, 3-methyl-5-pentyl-1,2,4-trithiolane, 2,4-decadienal and trans-4,5-epoxy-trans-2-decenal. Alkylpyrazines were reported in the flavours of fried chicken and roasted chicken but not in chicken broth. The main reason for flavour deterioration

  11. Tuberculosis in indigenous children in the Brazilian Amazon

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Caroline Gava

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: Assess the epidemiological aspects of tuberculosis in Brazilian indigenous children and actions to control it. METHODS: An epidemiological study was performed with 356 children from 0 to 14 years of age in Rondônia State, Amazon, Brazil, during the period 1997-2006. Cases of TB reported to the Notifiable Diseases Surveillance System were divided into indigenous and non-indigenous categories and analyzed according to sex, age group, place of residence, clinical form, diagnostic tests and treatment outcome. A descriptive analysis of cases and hypothesis test (χ² was carried out to verify if there were differences in the proportions of illness between the groups investigated. RESULTS: A total of 356 TB cases were identified (125 indigenous, 231 non-indigenous of which 51.4% of the cases were in males. In the indigenous group, 60.8% of the cases presented in children aged 0-4 years old. The incidence mean was much higher among indigenous; in 2001, 1,047.9 cases/100,000 inhabitants were reported in children aged < 5 years. Pulmonary TB was reported in more than 80% of the cases, and in both groups over 70% of the cases were cured. Cultures and histopathological exams were performed on only 10% of the patients. There were 3 cases of TB/HIV co-infection in the non-indigenous group and none in the indigenous group. The case detection rate was classified as insufficient or fair in more than 80% of the indigenous population notifications, revealing that most of the diagnoses were performed based on chest x-ray. CONCLUSIONS: The approach used in this study proved useful in demonstrating inequalities in health between indigenous and non-indigenous populations and was superior to the conventional analyses performed by the surveillance services, drawing attention to the need to improve childhood TB diagnosis among the indigenous population.

  12. Zoonotic chicken toxoplasmosis in some Egyptians governorates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barakat, Ashraf Mohamed; Salem, Lobna Mohamed Ali; El-Newishy, Adel M Abdel-Aziz; Shaapan, Raafat Mohamed; El-Mahllawy, Ehab Kotb

    2012-09-01

    Toxoplasmosis is one of the most common diseases prevalent in the world, caused by a coccidian parasite Toxoplasma gondii which infects humans, animals and birds. Poultry consider reliable human source of food in addition it is considered an intermediate host in transmission of the disease to humans. Trails of isolation of local T. gondii chicken strain through bioassay of the suspected infected chicken tissues in mice was carried out and the isolated strain was confirmed as being T. gondii using Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR). Seroprevalence of antibodies against T. gondii in chicken sera in six Egyptian governorates were conducted by enzyme linked immune-sorbent assay (ELISA) using the isolated chicken strain antigen. Moreover, comparison between the prevalence rates in different regions of the Egyptian governorates were been estimated. Isolation of local T. gondii chicken strain was accomplished from chicken tissues and confirmed by PCR technique. The total prevalence rate was 68.8% comprised of 59.5, 82.3, 67.1, 62.2, 75 and 50% in El Sharkia, El Gharbia, Kafr El sheikh, Cairo, Quena and Sohag governorates, respectively. The prevalence rates were higher among Free Range (FR) (69.5%) than commercial farm Chickens (C) (68.5%); while, the prevalence rate was less in Upper Egypt than Lower Egypt governorates and Cairo. This study is the first was used antigen from locally isolated T. gondii chicken strain for the diagnosis of chicken toxoplasmosis. The higher seroprevalence particularly in free range chickens (house-reared) refers to the public health importance of chickens as source of zoonotic toxoplasmosis to human.

  13. Education for indigenous childhood at the Indigenous Reservation Napalpí (Chaco, Argentina. 1911-1936

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Teresa Laura Artieda

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available On this article we approach the education for indigenous childhood at the Indigenous Reservation napalpí (Chaco, Argentina between 1911 and 1936, where the first plan of the national state for the confinement and discipline of the subjected natives, members of the Qom, moqoit, shinpi’ peoples, was implemented in a highly conflicting scenario of military campaigns of the national state for controlling the territorial and political indigenous domains of the territory, the expansion of capitalism and the progressive proletarian condition of those populations in the regional farms. We analyze the schooling project for the indigenous childhood in the Reservation, we present some notes on its development during the first three decades of the twentieth century and the conceptions on childhood and the educating forms attributed to the indigenous populations.this work is registered on the social history of education, it deepens previous inquiries of our authorship and it integrates anthropological and regional history researches. Our corpus of data is based in state’s legislations, civil servants reports and national organizations memoirs.

  14. Rheumatic fever in indigenous Australian children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parnaby, Matthew G; Carapetis, Jonathan R

    2010-09-01

    Rheumatic heart disease (RHD) caused by acute rheumatic fever (ARF) is a disease of poverty, poor hygiene and poor living standards. RHD remains one of the major causes of childhood cardiac disease in developing nations. Within developed nations, there has been a dramatic drop in the prevalence of RHD because of the improvement of living standards, access to health care and the widespread availability of penicillin-based drugs. Despite a dramatic reduction of RHD in Australia overall, it continues to be a major contributor to childhood and adult cardiac disease in Indigenous communities throughout northern and central Australia. Currently, Australia has among the highest recorded rates of ARF and RHD in the world. The most accurate epidemiological data in Australia come from the Northern Territory's RHD control programme. In the Northern Territory, 92% of people with RHD are Indigenous, of whom 85% live in remote communities and towns. The incidence of ARF is highest in 5-14-year-olds, ranging from 150 to 380 per 100,000. Prevalence rates of RHD since 2000 have steadily increased to almost 2% of the Indigenous population in the Northern Territory, 3.2% in those aged 35-44 years. Living in remote communities is a contributing factor to ARF/RHD as well as a major barrier for adequate follow-up and care. Impediments to ARF/RHD control include the paucity of specialist services, rapid turnover of health staff, lack of knowledge of ARF/RHD by health staff, patients and communities, and the high mobility of the Indigenous population. Fortunately, the recently announced National Rheumatic Fever Strategy, comprising recurrent funding to the Northern Territory, Queensland and Western Australia for control programmes, as well as the creation of a National Coordination Unit suggest that RHD control in Australia is now a tangible prospect. For the disease to be eradicated, Australia will have to address the underpinning determinants of poverty, social and living conditions.

  15. Innovative MIOR Process Utilizing Indigenous Reservoir Constituents

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hitzman, D.O.; Bailey, S.A.; Stepp, A.K.

    2003-02-11

    This research program was directed at improving the knowledge of reservoir ecology and developing practical microbial solutions for improving oil production. The goal was to identify indigenous microbial populations which can produce beneficial metabolic products and develop a methodology to stimulate those select microbes with inorganic nutrient amendments to increase oil recovery. This microbial technology has the capability of producing multiple oil releasing agents. The potential of the system will be illustrated and demonstrated by the example of biopolymer production on oil recovery.

  16. Innovative MIOR Process Utilizing Indigenous Reservoir Constituents

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hitzman, D.O.; Stepp, A.K.; Dennis, D.M.; Graumann, L.R.

    2003-02-11

    This research program was directed at improving the knowledge of reservoir ecology and developing practical microbial solutions for improving oil production. The goal was to identify indigenous microbial populations which can produce beneficial metabolic products and develop a methodology to stimulate those select microbes with inorganic nutrient amendments to increase oil recovery. This microbial technology has the capability of producing multiple oil-releasing agents.

  17. Argumentation and indigenous knowledge: socio-historical influences in contextualizing an argumentation model in South African schools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gallard Martínez, Alejandro J.

    2011-09-01

    This forum considers argumentation as a means of science teaching in South African schools, through the integration of indigenous knowledge (IK). It addresses issues raised in Mariana G. Hewson and Meshach B. Ogunniyi's paper entitled: Argumentation-teaching as a method to introduce indigenous knowledge into science classrooms: opportunities and challenges. As well as Peter Easton's: Hawks and baby chickens: cultivating the sources of indigenous science education; and, Femi S. Otulaja, Ann Cameron and Audrey Msimanga's: Rethinking argumentation-teaching strategies and indigenous knowledge in South African science classrooms. The first topic addressed is that implementation of argumentation in the science classroom becomes a complex endeavor when the tensions between students' IK, the educational infrastructure (allowance for teacher professional development, etc.) and local belief systems are made explicit. Secondly, western styles of debate become mitigating factors because they do not always adequately translate to South African culture. For example, in many instances it is more culturally acceptable in South Africa to build consensus than to be confrontational. Thirdly, the tension between what is "authentic science" and what is not becomes an influencing factor when a tension is created between IK and western science. Finally, I argue that the thrust of argumentation is to set students up as "scientist-students" who will be considered through a deficit model by judging their habitus and cultural capital. Explicitly, a "scientist-student" is a student who has "learned," modeled and thoroughly assimilated the habits of western scientists, evidently—and who will be judged by and held accountable for their demonstration of explicit related behaviors in the science classroom. I propose that science teaching, to include argumentation, should consist of "listening carefully" (radical listening) to students and valuing their language, culture, and learning as a model

  18. The emergence of obesity among indigenous Siberians.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Snodgrass, J Josh; Leonard, William R; Sorensen, Mark V; Tarskaia, Larissa A; Alekseev, Vasili P; Krivoshapkin, Vadim

    2006-01-01

    Once considered a disease of affluence and confined to industrialized nations, obesity is currently emerging as a major health concern in nearly every country in the world. Available data suggest that the prevalence rate of obesity has reached unprecedented levels in most developing countries, and is increasing at a rate that far outpaces that of developed nations. This increase in obesity has also been documented among North American circumpolar populations and is associated with lifestyle changes related to economic development. While obesity has not been well studied among indigenous Siberians, recent anthropological studies indicate that obesity and its associated comorbidities are important health problems.The present study examines recent adult body composition data from four indigenous Siberian populations (Evenki, Ket, Buriat, and Yakut) with two main objectives: 1) to determine the prevalence of overweight and obesity among these groups, and 2) to assess the influence of lifestyle and socioeconomic factors on the development of excess body fat. The results of this study indicate that obesity has emerged as an important health issue among indigenous Siberians, and especially for women, whose obesity rates are considerably higher than those of men (12% vs. 7%). The present study investigated the association between lifestyle and body composition among the Yakut, and documented substantial sex differences in lifestyle correlates of obesity. Yakut men with higher incomes and who owned more luxury consumer goods were more likely to have excess body fat while, among Yakut women, affluence was not strongly associated with overweight and obesity.

  19. Enteric parvovirus infections of chickens and turkeys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chicken and turkey parvoviruses are members of the Parvovirus family. Comparative sequence analysis of their genome structure revealed that they should form a new genus within the vertebrate Parvovirinae subfamily. The first chicken and turkey parvoviruses were identified by electron microscopy duri...

  20. Nano-nutrition of chicken embryos

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grodzik, Marta; Sawosz, Filip; Sawosz, Ewa

    2013-01-01

    factors of chicken embryo pectoral muscles. ND, Gln, and Gln/ND solutions (50 mg/L) were injected into fertilized broiler chicken eggs at the beginning of embryogenesis. Muscle tissue was dissected at day 20 of incubation and analysed for gene expression of FGF2, VEGF-A, and MyoD1. ND and especially Gln...

  1. Autoimmune hemolytic anemia secondary to chicken pox

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abraham M Ittyachen

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Autoimmune hemolytic anemia (AIHA is a rare complication of chicken pox. It is described mainly in children. Even in children it is a rare complication and the long-term prognosis remains to be elucidated. Herein we report an adult, a 23-year-old male who developed AIHA secondary to chicken pox.

  2. ISOLATION OF CHICKEN FOLLICULAR DENDRITIC CELLS

    Science.gov (United States)

    The aim of the present study was to isolate chicken follicular dendritic cells (FDC). A combination of methods involving panning, iodixanol density gradient centrifugation, and magnetic cell separation technology made it possible to obtain functional FDC from the cecal tonsils from chickens, which h...

  3. Early Vocabulary Development of Australian Indigenous Children: Identifying Strengths

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brad M. Farrant

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The current study sought to increase our understanding of the factors involved in the early vocabulary development of Australian Indigenous children. Data from the Longitudinal Study of Indigenous Children were available for 573 Indigenous children (291 boys who spoke English (M=37.0 months, SD=5.4 months, at wave 3. Data were also available for 86 children (51 boys who spoke an Indigenous language (M=37.1 months, SD=6.0 months, at wave 3. As hypothesised, higher levels of parent-child book reading and having more children’s books in the home were associated with better English vocabulary development. Oral storytelling in Indigenous language was a significant predictor of the size of children’s Indigenous vocabulary.

  4. Crash and rebound of indigenous populations in lowland South America

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamilton, Marcus J.; Walker, Robert S.; Kesler, Dylan C.

    2014-04-01

    Lowland South America has long been a battle-ground between European colonization and indigenous survival. Initial waves of European colonization brought disease epidemics, slavery, and violence that had catastrophic impacts on indigenous cultures. In this paper we focus on the demography of 238 surviving populations in Brazil. We use longitudinal censuses from all known indigenous Brazilian societies to quantify three demographic metrics: 1) effects of European contact on indigenous populations; 2) empirical estimates of minimum viable population sizes; and 3) estimates of post-contact population growth rates. We use this information to conduct population viability analysis (PVA). Our results show that all surviving populations suffered extensive mortality during, and shortly after, contact. However, most surviving populations exhibit positive growth rates within the first decade post-contact. Our findings paint a positive demographic outlook for these indigenous populations, though long-term survival remains subject to powerful externalities, including politics, economics, and the pervasive illegal exploitation of indigenous lands.

  5. Poor food and nutrient intake among Indigenous and non-Indigenous rural Australian children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gwynn Josephine D

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The purpose of this study was to describe the food and nutrient intake of a population of rural Australian children particularly Indigenous children. Participants were aged 10 to 12 years, and living in areas of relative socio-economic disadvantage on the north coast of New South Wales. Methods In this descriptive cross-sectional study 215 children with a mean age of 11.30 (SD 0.04 years (including 82 Indigenous children and 93 boys completed three 24-hour food recalls (including 1 weekend day, over an average of two weeks in the Australian summer of late 2005. Results A high proportion of children consumed less than the Australian Nutrient Reference Values for fibre (74-84% less than Adequate Intake (AI, calcium (54-86% less than Estimated Average Requirement (EAR, folate and magnesium (36% and 28% respectively less than EAR among girls, and the majority of children exceeded the upper limit for sodium (68-76% greater than Upper Limit (UL. Energy-dense nutrient-poor (EDNP food consumption contributed between 45% and 49% to energy. Hot chips, sugary drinks, high-fat processed meats, salty snacks and white bread were the highest contributors to key nutrients and sugary drinks were the greatest per capita contributor to daily food intake for all. Per capita intake differences were apparent by Indigenous status. Consumption of fruit and vegetables was low for all children. Indigenous boys had a higher intake of energy, macronutrients and sodium than non-Indigenous boys. Conclusions The nutrient intake and excessive EDNP food consumption levels of Australian rural children from disadvantaged areas are cause for concern regarding their future health and wellbeing, particularly for Indigenous boys. Targeted intervention strategies should address the high consumption of these foods.

  6. A Comparison between Australian Football League (AFL Injuries in Australian Indigenous versus Non-indigenous Players

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jessica Orchard

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available It has previously been shown that being of aboriginal descent is a risk factor for hamstring injuries in Australian football. The aim of this study was to review the Australian Football League (AFL injury database to determine whether there were any injuries where indigenous players had different relative risks to non-indigenous players. Analysis was conducted using data from the AFL injury database, which included data from 4,492 players over 21 years (1992–2012, covering 162,683 player-matches at AFL level, 91,098 matches at lower levels and 328,181 weeks (possible matches of exposure. Compared to non-indigenous players, indigenous players had a significantly higher risk of hamstring injuries (RR 1.52, 95% CI 1.32–1.73 and calf strains (RR 1.30, 95% CI 1.00–1.69. Conversely, indigenous players had a significantly lower risk of lumbar/thoracic spine injuries (RR 0.61, 95% CI 0.41–0.91, groin strains/osteitis pubis (RR 0.75, 95% CI 0.58–0.96 and Achilles tendon injuries (RR 0.32, 95% CI 0.12–0.86. The results for the above injuries were also significant in terms of games missed. There was no difference between overall risk of injury (RR 1.03, 95% CI 0.96–1.10 or missed games (RR 1.00, 95% CI 0.97–1.04. This suggests that indigenous AFL players have the same overall number of injuries and missed games, but a slightly different injury profile.

  7. AGROBUSINESS PERSPECTIVES IN THE INDIGENOUS DEVELOPMENT: CASE QUERETARO

    OpenAIRE

    Gerardo Gómez González, Elvia Xitlaly Gómez Calderón y Yuriena Gerenarda Gómez Calderón

    2008-01-01

    This document argueses about aspects of agribusiness in the indigenous development in the state of Queretaro, considers as an economic activity under taken in rural areas, principally related to the use of agricultural and forestry resources, with an efficient management of productive resources. The approaches outlined here are the result of a research, training and organization in which over half a year the representatives and indigenous leaders of the State Council of Indigenous People of t...

  8. Updating parameters of the chicken processing line model

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kurowicka, Dorota; Nauta, Maarten; Jozwiak, Katarzyna

    2010-01-01

    A mathematical model of chicken processing that quantitatively describes the transmission of Campylobacter on chicken carcasses from slaughter to chicken meat product has been developed in Nauta et al. (2005). This model was quantified with expert judgment. Recent availability of data allows...... of the chicken processing line model....

  9. The management of diabetes in indigenous Australians from primary care

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas Merlin C

    2007-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Indigenous Australians have high rates of diabetes and its complications. This study examines ethnic differences in the management of patients with type 2 diabetes in Australian primary care. Methods Diabetes management and outcomes in Indigenous patients enrolled in the NEFRON study (n = 144 was systematically compared with that in non-Indigenous patients presenting consecutively to the same practitioner (n = 449, and the NEFRON cohort as a whole (n = 3893. Results Indigenous Australians with diabetes had high rates of micro- and macrovascular disease. 60% of Indigenous patients had an abnormal albumin to creatinine ratio compared to 33% of non-Indigenous patients (p 1c ≥ 8.0%, observed in 55% of all Indigenous patients, despite the similar frequency use of oral antidiabetic agents and insulin. Smoking was also more common in Indigenous patients (38%vs 10%, p Conclusion Although seeing the same doctors and receiving the same medications, glycaemic and smoking cessation targets remain unfulfilled in Indigenous patients. This cross-sectional study confirms Aboriginal ethnicity as a powerful risk factor for microvascular and macrovascular disease, which practitioners should use to identify candidates for intensive multifactorial intervention.

  10. A community engaged dental curriculum: a rural Indigenous outplacement programme

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Menaka A. Abuzar

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Background. Indigenous people worldwide suffer from poor oral health as compared to non-Indigenous citizens. One of the approaches to bring about improvement in Indigenous oral health is to enhance the service provision by implementing oral health outplacement programmes. A case study of such a programme for dental students in Australia reports how an educational institution can successfully engage with an Indigenous oral health service to provide learning experiences to the students as well as deliver much needed services to the community. Design and Methods. The assessment of this ongoing outplacement programme over the period of 2008-14, based on students’ feedback, highlights some of the key beneficial outcomes. Students agreed that the Indigenous outplacement programme improved their understanding of Indigenous issues (mean ± SD: 4.10±0.8; 5 refers to strongly agree on 5-point scale and increased the possibility that they will practise in Indigenous health (3.66±1.0. They were pleased with the assistance received by clinical supervisors and clinic staff at the Indigenous dental clinic (4.28±0.8. Conclusions. This programme has demonstrated that structured student outplacements are valuable in building relations across cultures especially with Indigenous communities. It has also shown that university engagement with the public health sector can be beneficial to both institutions.

  11. Developmental plasticity of immune defence in two life-history ecotypes of the garter snake, Thamnophis elegans - a common-environment experiment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palacios, Maria G; Sparkman, Amanda M; Bronikowski, Anne M

    2011-03-01

    1. Ecoimmunological theory predicts a link between life-history and immune-defence strategies such that fast-living organisms should rely more on constitutive innate defences compared to slow-living organisms. An untested assumption of this hypothesis is that the variation in immune defence associated with variation in life history has a genetic basis. 2. Replicate populations of two life-history ecotypes of the garter snake Thamnophis elegans provide an ideal system in which to test this assumption. Free-ranging snakes of the fast-living ecotype, which reside in lakeshore habitats, show higher levels of three measures of constitutive innate immunity than those of the slow-living ecotype, which inhabit meadows around the lake. Although this pattern is consistent with the ecoimmunological pace-of-life hypothesis, environmental differences between the lakeshore and meadow habitats could also explain the observed differences in immune defence. 3. We performed a common-environment experiment to distinguish between these alternatives. Snakes born and raised in common-environment conditions reflected the immune phenotype of their native habitats when sampled at 4 months of age (i.e. fast-living lakeshore snakes showed higher levels of natural antibodies, complement activity and bactericidal competence than slow-living meadow snakes), but no longer showed differences when 19 months old. 4. This suggests that the differences in innate immunity observed between the two ecotypes have an important - and likely age-specific - environmental influence, with these immune components showing developmental plasticity. A genetic effect in early life may also be present, but further research is needed to confirm this possibility and therefore provide a more definitive test of the ecoimmunological pace-of-life hypothesis in this system.

  12. Evaluation of Effect of Chemical and Organic Fertilizers on Growth Characteristics, Yield and Yield components of three Sesame Ecotypes (Sesamum indicum L.)

    OpenAIRE

    M Goldani; Fazel Fazeli Kakhki

    2014-01-01

    Using organic fertilizers is cause increase soil fertility, improving crop growth and production. For this purpose a greenhouse experiment was carried out in factorial arrangement based on a completely randomized design with three replications during 2011 year. First factor included: three sesame ecotype (MSC3, MSC6, MSC7) and second factor was 6 fertilizer treatments that included: Incorporation manure and chemical fertilizer (216 g manure and 1 gram chemical fertilizer NPK), Chemical fertil...

  13. PHYTOTOXICITY AND FIELD EFFICACY OF EXSEROHILUM LONGIROSTRA JC/MIN THE CONTROL OF BARNYARDGRASS ECOTYPES (ECHINOCHLOA CRUS-GALLI VAR. CRUS-GALLI(L.) BEAUV)

    OpenAIRE

    SUHAIMI NAPIS; ARIFIN TASRIF; JUGAH KADIR; ABDUL SHUKOR JURAIMI; SOETIKNO SLAMET SASTROUTOMO

    2005-01-01

    Five selected ecotypes of bamyardgrass (Echinochloa crus-galli var. crus-gatti) from several rice growing areas in Malaysia and Indonesia were tested for their susceptibility to the potentia l bioherbicide (Exserohilum longirostratum). Bamyardgrass seedlings at the 2-3-lcaf stage were treated with 2.5xl07 conidia/ml from E. longirostratum at different application frequencies (single, double and triple). In addition, aqueous extract assays were ev aluated for the presence of a phytotoxic c...

  14. "Chickens Are a Lot Smarter than I Originally Thought": Changes in Student Attitudes to Chickens Following a Chicken Training Class.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hazel, Susan J; O'Dwyer, Lisel; Ryan, Terry

    2015-01-01

    A practical class using clicker training of chickens to apply knowledge of how animals learn and practice skills in animal training was added to an undergraduate course. Since attitudes to animals are related to their perceived intelligence, surveys of student attitudes were completed pre- and post- the practical class, to determine if (1) the practical class changed students' attitudes to chickens and their ability to experience affective states, and (2) any changes were related to previous contact with chickens, training experience or gender. In the post- versus pre-surveys, students agreed more that chickens are easy to teach tricks to, are intelligent, and have individual personalities and disagreed more that they are difficult to train and are slow learners. Following the class, they were more likely to believe chickens experience boredom, frustration and happiness. Females rated the intelligence and ability to experience affective states in chickens more highly than males, although there were shifts in attitude in both genders. This study demonstrated shifts in attitudes following a practical class teaching clicker training in chickens. Similar practical classes may provide an effective method of teaching animal training skills and promoting more positive attitudes to animals.

  15. RAPD-PCR and real-time PCR HRM based genetic variation evaluations of Urtica dioica parts, ecotypes and evaluations of morphotypes in Turkey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uzonur, Irem; Akdeniz, Gamze; Katmer, Zeynep; Ersoy, Seyda Karaman

    2013-01-01

    Urtica dioica is an ethnobotanically and medicinally important Complementary and Alternative Medicine (CAM) plant worldwide and in Turkey; 90 % of herbal CAM applications depend on it in Turkey. It has a wide range of habitats in nearly all continents. It is found in all three phytogeographical regions in Turkey (Euro-Siberian, Irano-Turanian, Mediterranean) with high adaptivity to heterogeneous geographies such as climate, soil types and altitudes. This fact in relation to the assessment of chemical constituents of the plant and combining with further genetic and morphological variation data can assist and enhance the works for the utility and reliability of CAM applications in effect and activity of this plant species. In this work we have made some preliminary experiments with novel approaches to reveal the ecotypes and genetic variation of mighty ecotypes of Urtica dioica from different phytogeographical regions of Turkey (Euro-Siberian and Mediterranean). The ecotypes have heterogeneity in both its parts (leaf, stem, root) as revealed by Random Amplified Polymorphic DNA-Polymerase Chain Reaction (RAPD-PCR) using random primers and High-resolution Melt (HRM) analysis using Urtica dioica specific primers and universal chloroplast DNA (cpDNA) primers and morphological traits such as phenolic contents and antioxidant capacities of plants' leaf infusions as used in medicinal applications in Turkey. This work will contribute a lot for the development of molecular markers to detect the genetic variation and heterogeneity of Urtica dioica to further relate with expected phenotypes that are most useful and relevant in CAM applications.

  16. Indigenizing Student-Centred Learning: A Western Approach in an Indigenous Educational Institution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kennedy, Chona Pineda

    2013-01-01

    This study investigated the alignment of the teaching and learning practices with a student-centred learning approach in an indigenous educational institution. The findings indicated that when a western concept is applied in the classroom, it is vital for it to be culturally relevant and appropriate to the cultural beliefs and values of the…

  17. The Need for Learning Arenas: Non-Indigenous Teachers Working in Indigenous School Contexts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parding, Karolina

    2013-01-01

    Work contexts shape conditions for work. Teachers working in Indigenous school contexts face conditions different from teachers working in mainstream schools. Challenging working conditions for these teachers result in high teacher turnover, making it even more difficult for already disadvantaged students to progress. From a social justice…

  18. Create a new vision for indigenous development

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chavez Alba, Rafael; Sanchez Arancibia, Oscar Armando [TRANSIERRA S.A., Santa Cruz (Bolivia)

    2009-07-01

    Transierra is a Bolivian company created in the year 2000 with the goal of transporting natural gas from the fields of San Alberto and San Antonio, in Tarija, to the Rio Grande Gas Compression Plant in Santa Cruz, for export to Brazil. Transierra has implemented a Social Action Plan, which allowed it to execute more than 800 community projects for the benefit of over 40 thousand families living in it's area of influence, with the presence of 146 indigenous communities, generally lagging behind in economic and productive life in the region and country. The Support Program to Guarani Development Plans (PA-PDG) is part of the Social Plan and is part of a long-term agreement signed between Transierra and indigenous organizations. The program has implemented more than one hundred projects for productive development, health, education, cultural revaluation, and strengthening organizational infrastructure, generating huge benefits in improving the living conditions of thousands of families of the Guarani people. This year a unique initiative was created with 4 Indigenous Captains and with the support of the International Finance Corporation (World Bank Group), including Business Plans to promote sustainable economic growth, created productive economic cycles involving improvements to the production and productivity to enter the commercial distribution of local and national markets. These four initiatives have meant a shift in the implementation and is helping to generate new dynamics in production, in addition to capturing significant resources from public and private investment, laying the groundwork for the improvement of the incomes and quality of life of its beneficiaries. (author)

  19. Soil indigenous knowledge in North Central Namibia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prudat, Brice; Bloemertz, Lena; Kuhn, Nikolaus J.

    2016-04-01

    Mapping and classifying soils is part of an important learning process to improve soil management practices, soil quality and increase productivity. In order to assess soil quality improvement related to an ongoing land reform in North-Central Namibia, the characteristics that determine soil quality in the local land use context were determined in this study. To do so, we collated the indigenous soil knowledge in North-Central Namibia where the Ovakwanyama cultivate pearl millet for centuries. Local soil groups are defined mostly based on their productivity potential, which varies depending on the rainfall pattern. The morphological criteria used by the farmers to differentiate the soil groups (colour, consistence) were supported by a conventional analysis of soil physical and chemical properties. Now, they can be used to develop a soil quality assessment toolbox adapted to the regional use. The characteristics of the tool box do not directly indicate soil quality, but refer to local soils groups. The quality of these groups is relatively homogenous at the local scale. Our results show that understanding of indigenous soil knowledge has great potential to improve soil quality assessment with regards to land use. The integration of this knowledge with the conventional soil analysis improves the local meaning of such a "scientific" assessment and thus facilitates dialog between farmers and agronomists, but also scientists working in different regions of the world, but in similar conditions. Overall, the integration of indigenous knowledge in international classification systems (e.g. WRB) as attempted in this study has thus a major potential to improve soil mapping in the local context.

  20. Effect of Replacing Beef Fat with Chicken Skin on Some Properties of Model System Chicken Emulsions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aslı Zungur

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Model system chicken emulsions were prepared by replacing 5, 10, 15 and 20 % beef fat with chicken skin. Moisture, protein, fat, ash and pH were determined in raw and heat processed emulsions. Emulsion samples were evaluated for cooking characteristics, TBA values and colour parameters (L*, a*, b*. Addition of chicken skin decreased fat content and increased moisture and protein content of emulsion samples. Chicken skin replacement significantly increased water holding capacity and cooking yield and decreased fluid release. Increasing chicken skin in formulation increased a* and b* values of emulsion samples. Therefore, adding of chicken skin instead of beef fat is useful in improving technological quality and producing low fat formulation.

  1. Oral DNA Vaccine in Chickens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seyed Davoud Jazayeri

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Attenuated Salmonella has been used as a carrier for DNA vaccine. However, in vitro and in vivo studies on the bacteria following transfection of plasmid DNA were poorly studied. In this paper, eukaryotic expression plasmids encoding avian influenza virus (AIV subtype H5N1 genes, pcDNA3.1/HA, NA, and NP, were transfected into an attenuated Salmonella enteric typhimurium SV4089. In vitro stability of the transfected plasmids into Salmonella were over 90% after 100 generations. The attenuated Salmonella were able to invade MCF-7 (1.2% and MCF-10A (0.5% human breast cancer cells. Newly hatched specific-pathogen-free (SPF chicks were inoculated once by oral gavage with 109 colony-forming unit (CFU of the attenuated Salmonella. No abnormal clinical signs or deaths were recorded after inoculation. Viable bacteria were detected 3 days after inoculation by plating from spleen, liver, and cecum. Fluorescent in situ hybridization (FISH and polymerase chain reaction (PCR were carried out for confirmation. Salmonella was not detected in blood cultures although serum antibody immune responses to Salmonella O antiserum group D1 factor 1, 9, and 12 antigens were observed in all the inoculated chickens after 7 days up to 35 days. Our results showed that live attenuated S. typhimurium SV4089 harboring pcDNA3.1/HA, NA, and NP may provide a unique alternative as a carrier for DNA oral vaccine in chickens.

  2. Innovative MIOR Process Utilizing Indigenous Reservoir Constituents

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hitzman, D.O.; Stepp, A.K.

    2003-02-11

    This research program was directed at improving the knowledge of reservoir ecology and developing practical microbial solutions for improving oil production. The goal was to identify indigenous microbial populations which can produce beneficial metabolic products and develop a methodology to stimulate those select microbes with inorganic nutrient amendments to increase oil recovery. This microbial technology has the capability of producing multiple oil-releasing agents. The potential of the system will be illustrated and demonstrated by the example of biopolymer production on oil recovery.

  3. Toxigenic penicillia spoiling frozen chicken nuggets

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wigmann, Evelin Francine; Saccomori, Fernanda; Bernardi, Angelica Olivier

    2015-01-01

    Frozen chicken nuggets are classified as pre-prepared frozen meals. These products are convenient to consumers as they are easy to prepare and allow for long storage by freezing. Over the years, spoilage of frozen food products caused by fungi has been a continual problem for the food industry...... of filamentous fungi involved in the spoilage of frozen chicken nuggets and determine their ability to produce mycotoxins under laboratorial conditions. A total of 7 samples of frozen chicken nuggets were analyzed by dilution plating in potato dextrose agar (PDA). These products had been returned by customers...

  4. The indigenous space and marginalized peoples in the United Nations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dahl, Jens

    For more than 20 years, Jens Dahl has observed and now analyzed how a relatively independent space, the Indigenous Space, has been constructed within the confines of the United Nations. In the UN, indigenous peoples have achieved more than any other group of people, minorities included. The book...

  5. Adult Education and Indigenous Peoples in Latin America

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmelkes, Sylvia

    2011-01-01

    This article describes the educational situation of indigenous peoples in Latin America, and in particular their scant participation in adult education activities. It analyses the historical, structural and institutional barriers to their greater involvement in adult education. The article proposes to look at indigenous demands on education as a…

  6. Alternative Education Engaging Indigenous Young People: Flexi Schooling in Queensland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shay, Marnee; Heck, Deborah

    2015-01-01

    This article will discuss some of the findings from a qualitative research project that explored the connections between alternative education and Indigenous learners. This study investigated how flexi school leaders reported they were supporting Indigenous young people to remain engaged in education. The results of the survey provide demographic…

  7. Indigenous Thought, Appropriation, and Non-Aboriginal People

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haig-Brown, Celia

    2010-01-01

    In this article, I explore the question, "What is the relationship between appropriation of Indigenous thought and what might be called "deep learning" based in years of education in Indigenous contexts." Beginning with an examination of meanings ascribed to cultural appropriation, I bring texts from Gee on secondary…

  8. Across the Colonial Divide: Conversations about Evaluation in Indigenous Contexts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cavino, Hayley Marama

    2013-01-01

    This essay engages questions of evaluator role and indigenous peoples participation in evaluation within colonial and decolonization contexts. Specifically, I critique the Western emphasis on cultural competence and contrast the utility of "mainstream" evaluation approaches alongside three indigenous inquiry models (Te Kotahitanga,…

  9. Extractive Industries and Indigenous Peoples: A Changing Dynamic?

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Faircheallaigh, Ciaran

    2013-01-01

    Indigenous peoples and other rural or remote populations often bear the social and environmental cost of extractive industries while obtaining little of the wealth they generate. Recent developments including national and international recognition of Indigenous rights, and the growth of "corporate social responsibility" initiatives among…

  10. Conversations on Indigenous Education, Progress, and Social Justice in Peru

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huaman, Elizabeth Alva Sumida

    2013-01-01

    This article attempts to contribute to our expanding definitions of Indigenous education within a globalized world. Additionally, the article critiques notions of progress modeled by powerful nation-states due to their histories based on the intended consequences of marginalizing Indigenous populations for the purposes of material gain. Last,…

  11. The Importance of Place in Indigenous Science Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sutherland, Dawn; Swayze, Natalie

    2012-01-01

    In this issue of Cultural Studies of Science Education, Mack and colleagues (Mack et al. "2011") seek to identify the necessary components of science education in Indigenous settings. Using a review of current research in informal science education in Indigenous settings, along with personal interviews with American educators engaged in…

  12. Experiencing and Writing Indigeneity, Rurality and Gender: Australian Reflections

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramzan, Bebe; Pini, Barbara; Bryant, Lia

    2009-01-01

    This paper has two interrelated aims. The first is to contribute to knowledge about rurality, gender and Indigeneity. This is undertaken by the first author, Bebe Ramzan, an Indigenous woman living in the Anangu Pitjantjatjara Yankunytjatjara (APY) Lands. Bebe shows similarities across rural and remote areas in Australia and details her knowledge…

  13. Maori University Graduates: Indigenous Participation in Higher Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Theodore, Reremoana; Tustin, Karen; Kiro, Cynthia; Gollop, Megan; Taumoepeau, Mele; Taylor, Nicola; Chee, Kaa-Sandra; Hunter, Jackie; Poulton, Richie

    2016-01-01

    Maori, the indigenous population of New Zealand, are gaining university qualifications in greater numbers. This article describes the history of Maori university graduates, their current situation and the implications for indigenous futures. Section one provides a brief overview of historical policies and practices that, similar to those used on…

  14. Factors Associated with Growth in Daily Smoking among Indigenous Adolescents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whitlock, Les B.; Sittner Hartshorn, Kelley J.; McQuillan, Julia; Crawford, Devan M.

    2012-01-01

    North American Indigenous adolescents smoke earlier, smoke more, and are more likely to become regular smokers as adults than youth from any other ethnic group, yet we know very little about their early smoking trajectories. We use multilevel growth modeling across five waves of data from Indigenous adolescents (aged 10-13 years at Wave 1) to…

  15. Illuminating the Lived Experiences of Research with Indigenous Communities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burnette, Catherine E.; Sanders, Sara; Butcher, Howard K.; Salois, Emily Matt

    2011-01-01

    The historical exploitation experienced by indigenous people in the United States has left a number of negative legacies, including distrust toward research. This distrust poses a barrier to progress made through culturally sensitive research. Given the complex history of research with indigenous groups, the purpose of this descriptive…

  16. Stories from the Sky: Astronomy in Indigenous Knowledge

    CERN Document Server

    Hamacher, Duane W

    2014-01-01

    Indigenous Australian practices, developed and honed over thousands of years, weave science with storytelling. In this Indigenous science series, we'll look at different aspects of First Australians' traditional life and uncover the knowledge behind them - starting today with astronomy.

  17. Manna in winter: indigenous Americans, huckleberries, and blueberries

    Science.gov (United States)

    More than 35 species of blueberries (Vaccinium L.) and huckleberries (Vaccinium and Gaylussacia Kunth.) are indigenous to North America. The indigenous North American peoples, wise in the ways of survival, recognized the quality of these edible fruits and revered these plants. Beyond food needs, the...

  18. Indigenous Employment and Enterprise Agreements in Australian Universities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Cath

    2014-01-01

    Considering the benefits that enterprise agreements (EAs) can bring to Indigenous employees, this paper considers the question of whether respectful cultural policies that are aligned with reconciliation and included in EAs can be achieved to Close the Gap on reducing Indigenous disadvantage. A document analysis of EAs at eight Australian…

  19. Can Yin-Yang Guide Chinese Indigenous Management Research?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Li, Xin

    2014-01-01

    and the promotion of Chinese indigenous management research in general. To that end, I present my opinion on the merits and drawbacks of Yin-Yang and posit that it may inspire but cannot guide Chinese indigenous management research because Chinese philosophy lacks a well-defined methodology and operationalizable...

  20. Closing the Gap: Using Graduate Attributes to Improve Indigenous Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, Peter J.; Atkinson, Bernadette

    2013-01-01

    Peter J. Anderson and Bernadette Atkinson teach Indigenous and Traditionally Education in a Global World as a fourth year unit in the Faculty of Education at Monash University, Clayton. This paper is a self reflective piece of work where they discuss the use of graduate attributes relating to Indigenous Education, put forward by the Australian…

  1. The Emerging Research on Indigenous Management in Asia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Li, Peter Ping; Sekiguchi, Tomoki; Zhou, Kevin

    2016-01-01

    Introduction to a Special Issue of the Asia Pacific Journal Management with the focus on the theme of indigenous management research in Asia.......Introduction to a Special Issue of the Asia Pacific Journal Management with the focus on the theme of indigenous management research in Asia....

  2. Effective Practices in Teaching Indigenous Students with Conductive Hearing Loss

    Science.gov (United States)

    Partington, Gary; Galloway, Ann

    2005-01-01

    Hearing impairment due to conductive hearing loss can have a devastating effect on children's language development, and consequently educational outcomes, especially for Indigenous students, for whom there may be the additional issue of being educated in their second or third language. With appropriate interventions, however, Indigenous students…

  3. Cultural Resiliency and the Rise of Indigenous Media

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Derek Moscato

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Valerie Alia’s book, The New Media Nation: Indigenous Peoples and Global Communication (New York: Berghahn Books, 2012, 270 pp., points the way to major communication breakthroughs for traditional communities around the world, in turn fostering a more democratic media discourse. From Canada to Japan, and Australia to Mexico, this ambitious and wide-reaching work examines a broad international movement that at once protects ancient languages and customs but also communicates to audiences across countries, oceans, and political boundaries. The publication is divided roughly into five sections: The emergence of a global vision for Indigenous communities scattered around the world; government policy obstacles and opportunities; lessons from Canada, where Indigenous media efforts have been particularly dynamic; the global surge in television, radio and other technological media advances; and finally the long-term prospects and aspirations for Indigenous media. By laying out such a comprehensive groundwork for the rise of global Indigenous media over a variety of formats, particularly over the past century, Alia shows how recent social media breakthroughs such as the highly successful #IdleNoMore movement—a sustained online protest by Canada’s First Nations peoples—have been in fact inevitable. The world’s Indigenous communities have leveraged media technologies to overcome geographic isolation, to foster new linkages with Indigenous populations globally, and ultimately to mitigate structural power imbalances exacerbated by non-Indigenous media and other institutions.

  4. Utilising PEARL to Teach Indigenous Art History: A Canadian Example

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robertson, Carmen

    2012-01-01

    This article explores the concepts advanced from the Australian Learning and Teaching Council (ALTC)-funded project, "Exploring Problem-Based Learning pedagogy as transformative education in Indigenous Australian Studies". As an Indigenous art historian teaching at a mainstream university in Canada, I am constantly reflecting on how to better…

  5. Indigenous Education and Grassroots Language Planning in the USA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCarty, Teresa L.; Watahomigie, Lucille J.

    1999-01-01

    Indigenous literacy affirms indigenous identity; connects native speakers to the culture and each other; and stimulates other, more diffuse forces for language maintenance. Collaborative, grassroots Native language programs in the United States, New Zealand, Hawaii, Canada, and Puerto Rico are described. Immersion and literacy programs include…

  6. Indigenous Youth and Bilingualism--Theory, Research, Praxis

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCarty, Teresa L.; Wyman, Leisy T.

    2009-01-01

    In this introduction, we situate the theme issue within a growing body of research on Indigenous youth language practices, communicative repertoires, and ideologies, articulating points of intersection in scholarship on Indigenous and immigrant youth bilingualism. Our geographic focus is North America. Ethnographic studies from the Far North to…

  7. The Importance of Place in Indigenous Science Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sutherland, Dawn; Swayze, Natalie

    2012-01-01

    In this issue of Cultural Studies of Science Education, Mack and colleagues (Mack et al. "2011") seek to identify the necessary components of science education in Indigenous settings. Using a review of current research in informal science education in Indigenous settings, along with personal interviews with American educators engaged in these…

  8. Methodological Metissage: An Interpretive Indigenous Approach to Environmental Education Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lowan-Trudeau, Greg

    2012-01-01

    This article discusses the development of a methodological metissage that combined Indigenous and interpretive traditions. This metissage was developed during a doctoral study conducted with Canadian environmental educators who incorporate Western and Indigenous knowledge and philosophy into their ecological identities and pedagogical praxis. It…

  9. Mobile Technologies for Preservation of Indigenous Knowledge in Rural Communities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Winschiers-Theophilus, Heike; Zaman, Tariq; Jensen, Kasper Løvborg

    2013-01-01

    In this paper we explore the opportunities of mobile technologies in three of our own development endeavors with rural communities, promoting the preservation of indigenous knowledge. We reflect upon and recognize the fact that the representation of indigenous knowledge will be transformed within...

  10. Cinders in Snow? Indigenous Teacher Identities in Formation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reid, Jo-Anne; Santoro, Ninetta

    2006-01-01

    The identity work engaged in by Indigenous teachers in school settings is highlighted in a study of Australian Indigenous teachers. The construction of identity in home and community relationships intersects with and can counteract the take up of a preferred identity in the workplace. In this paper we analyse data from interviews with Indigenous…

  11. Metabolic profiling of root exudates from two ecotypes of Sedum alfredii treated with Pb based on GC-MS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luo, Qing; Wang, Shiyu; Sun, Li-Na; Wang, Hui

    2017-01-01

    Phytoremediation is an effective method to remediate Pb-contaminated soils and root exudates play an important role in this process. Based on gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) and metabolomics method, this study focuses on the comparative metabolic profiling analysis of root exudates from the Pb-accumulating and non-accumulating ecotypes of Sedum alfredii treated with 0 and 50 μmol/L Pb. The results obtained show that plant type and Pb stress can significantly change the concentrations and species of root exudates, and fifteen compounds were identified and assumed to be potential biomarkers. Leaching experiments showed that l-alanine, l-proline and oxalic acid have a good effect to activate Pb in soil, glyceric acid and 2-hydroxyacetic acid have a general effect to activate Pb in soil. 4-Methylphenol and 2-methoxyphenol might be able to activate Pb in soil, glycerol and diethyleneglycol might be able to stabilize Pb in soil, but these activation effect and stabilization effect were all not obvious.

  12. Species Diversity, Abundance, and Host Preferences of Mosquitoes (Diptera: Culicidae) in Two Different Ecotypes of Madagascar With Recent RVFV Transmission.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jean Jose Nepomichene, Thiery Nirina; Elissa, Nohal; Cardinale, Eric; Boyer, Sebastien

    2015-09-01

    Mosquito diversity and abundance were examined in six Madagascan villages in either arid (Toliary II district) or humid (Mampikony district) ecotypes, each with a history of Rift Valley fever virus transmission. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention light traps without CO2 (LT) placed near ruminant parks and animal-baited net trap (NT) baited with either zebu or sheep/goat were used to sample mosquitoes, on two occasions between March 2011 and October 2011. Culex tritaeniorhynchus (Giles) was the most abundant species, followed by Culex antennatus (Becker) and Anopheles squamosus/cydippis (Theobald/de Meillon). These three species comprised more than half of all mosquitoes collected. The NT captured more mosquitoes in diversity and in abundance than the LT, and also caught more individuals of each species, except for An. squamosus/cydippis. Highest diversity and abundance were observed in the humid and warm district of Mampikony. No host preference was highlighted, except for Cx. tritaeniorhynchus presenting a blood preference for zebu baits. The description of species diversity, abundance, and host preference described herein can inform the development of control measures to reduce the risk of mosquito-borne diseases in Madagascar.

  13. Comparative proteomics reveals that a saxitoxin-producing and a nontoxic strain of Anabaena circinalis are two different ecotypes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    D'Agostino, Paul M; Song, Xiaomin; Neilan, Brett A; Moffitt, Michelle C

    2014-03-01

    In Australia, saxitoxin production is restricted to the cyanobacterial species Anabaena circinalis and is strain-dependent. We aimed to characterize a saxitoxin-producing and nontoxic strain of A. circinalis at the proteomic level using iTRAQ. Seven proteins putatively involved in saxitoxin biosynthesis were identified within our iTRAQ experiment for the first time. The proteomic profile of the toxic A. circinalis was significantly different from the nontoxic strain, indicating that each is likely to inhabit a unique ecological niche. Under control growth conditions, the saxitoxin-producing A. circinalis displayed a higher abundance of photosynthetic, carbon fixation and nitrogen metabolic proteins. Differential abundance of these proteins suggests a higher intracellular C:N ratio and a higher concentration of intracellular 2-oxoglutarate in our toxic strain compared with the nontoxic strain. This may be a novel site for posttranslational regulation because saxitoxin biosynthesis putatively requires a 2-oxoglutarate-dependent dioxygenase. The nontoxic A. circinalis was more abundant in proteins, indicating cellular stress. Overall, our study has provided the first insight into fundamental differences between a toxic and nontoxic strain of A. circinalis, indicating that they are distinct ecotypes.

  14. Otolith morphology and hearing abilities in cave- and surface-dwelling ecotypes of the Atlantic molly, Poecilia mexicana (Teleostei: Poeciliidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schulz-Mirbach, Tanja; Ladich, Friedrich; Riesch, Rüdiger; Plath, Martin

    2010-08-01

    Cave fish have rarely been investigated with regard to their inner ear morphology, hearing abilities, and acoustic communication. Based on a previous study that revealed morphological differences in the saccular otolith between a cave and two surface populations of Poecilia mexicana, we checked for additional differences in utricular and lagenar otoliths and tested whether different populations have similar hearing sensitivities. We found pronounced differences in the shape of all three otoliths. Otoliths of the saccule and lagena from cave fish differed from those of surface fish in the features of the face oriented towards the sensory epithelium. In addition, otoliths of the utricle and lagena were significantly heavier in cave fish. Auditory sensitivities were measured between 100 and 1500Hz, utilizing the auditory evoked potential recording technique. We found similar hearing abilities in cave and surface fish, with greatest sensitivity between 200 and 300Hz. An acoustic survey revealed that neither ecotype produced species-specific sounds. Our data indicate that cave dwelling altered the otolith morphology in Atlantic mollies, probably due to metabolic differences. Different otolith morphology, however, did not affect general auditory sensitivity or acoustic behavior.

  15. African Indigenous science in higher education in Uganda

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akena Adyanga, Francis

    This study examines African Indigenous Science (AIS) in higher education in Uganda. To achieve this, I use anticolonial theory and Indigenous knowledge discursive frameworks to situate the subjugation of Indigenous science from the education system within a colonial historical context. These theories allow for a critical examination of the intersection of power relations rooted in the politics of knowledge production, validation, and dissemination, and how this process has become a systemic and complex method of subjugating one knowledge system over the other. I also employ qualitative and autoethnographic research methodologies. Using a qualitative research method, I interviewed 10 students and 10 professors from two universities in Uganda. My research was guided by the following key questions: What is African Indigenous Science? What methodology would help us to indigenize science education in Uganda? How can we work with Indigenous knowledge and anticolonial theoretical discursive frameworks to understand and challenge the dominance of Eurocentric knowledge in mainstream education? My research findings revealed that AIS can be defined in multiple ways, in other words, there is no universal definition of AIS. However, there were some common elements that my participants talked about such as: (a) knowledge by Indigenous communities developed over a long period of time through a trial and error approach to respond to the social, economic and political challenges of their society. The science practices are generational and synergistic with other disciplines such as history, spirituality, sociology, anthropology, geography, and trade among others, (b) a cumulative practice of the use, interactions with and of biotic and abiotic organism in everyday life for the continued existence of a community in its' totality. The research findings also indicate that Indigenous science is largely lacking from Uganda's education curriculum because of the influence of colonial and

  16. Nutritional composition of minor indigenous fruits

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Shajib, Md. Tariqul Islam; Kawser, Mahbuba; Miah, Md. Nuruddin

    2013-01-01

    In line of the development of a food composition database for Bangladesh, 10 minor indigenous fruits were analysed for their nutrient composition comprising ascorbic acid, carotenoids and mineral values. Nutrient data obtained have been compared with published data reported in different literatur...... values of these minor fruits would make awareness among the people for their mass consumption for healthy life and to grow more minor fruit trees from extinction in order to maintain biodiversity.......In line of the development of a food composition database for Bangladesh, 10 minor indigenous fruits were analysed for their nutrient composition comprising ascorbic acid, carotenoids and mineral values. Nutrient data obtained have been compared with published data reported in different literatures...... in Antidesma velutinum. Potassium was the highest in Wood apple followed by in Moneky jack. It was noted that most of the minor fruits have much higher amount of ascorbic acid than the national fruit – Jack fruit ripe, the king fruit – Mango ripe of Bangladesh and exotic fruits – Apple and Grapes. The nutrient...

  17. Are Isolated Indigenous Populations Headed toward Extinction?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robert S Walker

    Full Text Available At least 50 indigenous groups spread across lowland South America remain isolated and have only intermittent and mostly hostile interactions with the outside world. Except in emergency situations, the current policy of governments in Brazil, Colombia, and Peru towards isolated tribes is a "leave them alone" strategy, in which isolated groups are left uncontacted. However, these no-contact policies are based on the assumption that isolated populations are healthy and capable of persisting in the face of mounting external threats, and that they can maintain population viability in the long-term. Here, we test this assumption by tracking the sizes and movements of cleared horticultural areas made by 8 isolated groups over the last 10-14 years. We used deforestation data derived from remote sensing Landsat satellite sensors to identify clearings, and those were then validated and assessed with high-resolution imagery. We found only a single example of a relatively large and growing population (c. 50 cleared ha and 400 people, whereas all of the other 7 groups exhibited much smaller villages and gardens with no sizable growth through time. These results indicated that the smaller groups are critically endangered, and it prompts an urgent re-thinking of policies toward isolated populations, including plans for well-organized contacts that may help save lives and rescue isolated indigenous populations from imminent extinction.

  18. Indigenous Students and the Learning of English

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shahrier Pawanchik

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Problem statement: The problem of students’ proficiency in English in the Malaysian primary schools is still debatable. Approach: Unless the problem of students’ proficiency is solved at the primary school level, it will fossilize and contribute toward students’ anxiety in the language at the secondary and tertiary levels. Results: This research study looked into English needs of the indigenous or ‘Orang Asli’ students in primary schools in the district of Rompin-Endau, Pahang. These indigenous students still lag in education and with the implementation of teaching of science and mathematics in English in primary schools, they will be burdened with language difficulties. The researchers identify that the students preferred learning skill is listening to the teachers’ explanation. And the task-based activity that can improve their proficiency is listening to songs and singing in English. Conclusion/Recommendations: Findings from this research could provide useful information for the curriculum developers at the Ministry of Education of Malaysia whether to revamp the present English curriculum or formulate a new curriculum to meet the English needs of the ‘Orang Asli’ students.

  19. Indigenous people (in (and the Paraguayan Independence

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    Ana María RIBEIRO GUTIÉRREZ

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available The independence of Paraguay, which started as a revolution against the power of Buenos Aires, the capital city of the viceroyalty of la Plata, did not produce any thoughts against native exploitation, and neither did it have relevant indigenous leaders or demands, although demographically speaking the indo-mestizo presence was higher than in the Banda Oriental. Paraguayan revolutionaries’ stance in relation to the indigenous population was conditioned in the first place by the strategic position of Jesuit Missions, and soon after by the policies applied by Dr. Gaspar de Francia, who after an early egalitarian impulse which favoured the gradual creation of a new unity, implemented integration and expulsion measures similar to those used during colonial times. The suppression in 1848 of the communal systems of the Guaraní people by Carlos Antonio López culminated a strategic integration within a «Paraguayan» identity. This decisive step in the shaping of the Paraguayan nation-state was completed by constructing Paraguay’s past as a Guaraní nation, thus establishing the starting point for all future Creole accounts of the nation.

  20. Indigenous Astronomies and Progress in Modern Astronomy

    CERN Document Server

    Ruggles, Clive

    2010-01-01

    From an anthropological point of view, the whole concept of a "path of progress" in astronomical discovery is anathema, since it implicitly downgrades other cultural perspectives, such as the many "indigenous cosmologies" that still exist in the modern world. By doing so, one risks provoking those who hold them and-as is most obvious in places such as Hawaii where the two "world-views" come into direct contact-reating avoidable resistance to that very progress. The problem is complicated by the existence of "fringe" and "new-age" views that are increasingly confused with, and even passed off as, indigenous perceptions. In a modern world where widespread public perceptions include many that are unscientific in the broadest sense of the term, I shall argue that there are actually a range of positive benefits for progress in scientific astronomy to be derived from the mutual awareness and comprehension of "genuine" cultural world-views whose goals-in common with those of modern science-are to make sense of the c...

  1. Indigenous healing practice: ayahuasca. Opening a discussion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prue, Robert; Voss, Richard W

    2014-01-01

    This essay frames an invitation to pastoral counselors and pastoral theologians to examine connections and perhaps interactions between themselves and traditional shamanic healers who use ayahuasca in their healing ceremonies. Indigenous people in South America have used ayahuasca for centuries, and the ritual has become common among the mestizo populations in urban areas of the Amazon, particularly as a curing ritual for drug addiction (Dobkin de Rios, 1970; Moir, 1998). Like peyote in the United States (Calabrese, 1997) ayahuasca use amongst the indigenous people of the Amazon is a form of cultural psychiatry. A review of the literature reveals very little commentary or discussion of shamanic practice in Pastoral Counseling (Pastoral Theology). The scant literature identifies an antithetical relationship at best. The current authors wonder about the possibility of to including shamanic practices in the context of pastoral counseling? This essay seeks to provide some basic information about the ritual use of ayahuasca and to offer a rationale for pastoral counselors to engage in a dialogue about its utility.

  2. Wholistic and Ethical: Social Inclusion with Indigenous Peoples

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kathleen E. Absolon

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available This paper begins with a poem and is inclusive of my voice as Anishinaabekwe (Ojibway woman and is authored from my spirit, heart, mind and body. The idea of social inclusion and Indigenous peoples leave more to the imagination and vision than what is the reality and actuality in Canada. This article begins with my location followed with skepticism and hope. Skepticism deals with the exclusion of Indigenous peoples since colonial contact and the subsequent challenges and impacts. Hope begins to affirm the possibilities, strengths and Indigenous knowledge that guides wholistic cultural frameworks and ethics of social inclusion. A wholistic cultural framework is presented; guided by seven sacred teachings and from each element thoughts for consideration are guided by Indigenous values and principles. From each element this paper presents a wholistic and ethical perspective in approaching social inclusion and Indigenous peoples.

  3. Using Modern Technologies to Capture and Share Indigenous Astronomical Knowledge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakata, Martin; Hamacher, Duane W.; Warren, John; Byrne, Alex; Pagnucco, Maurice; Harley, Ross; Venugopal, Srikumar; Thorpe, Kirsten; Neville, Richard; Bolt, Reuben

    2014-06-01

    Indigenous Knowledge is important for Indigenous communities across the globe and for the advancement of our general scientific knowledge. In particular, Indigenous astronomical knowledge integrates many aspects of Indigenous Knowledge, including seasonal calendars, navigation, food economics, law, ceremony, and social structure. Capturing, managing, and disseminating this knowledge in the digital environment poses a number of challenges, which we aim to address using a collaborative project emerging between experts in the higher education, library, archive and industry sectors. Using Microsoft's WorldWide Telescope and Rich Interactive Narratives technologies, we propose to develop software, media design, and archival management solutions to allow Indigenous communities to share their astronomical knowledge with the world on their terms and in a culturally sensitive manner.

  4. Adapting Western research methods to indigenous ways of knowing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simonds, Vanessa W; Christopher, Suzanne

    2013-12-01

    Indigenous communities have long experienced exploitation by researchers and increasingly require participatory and decolonizing research processes. We present a case study of an intervention research project to exemplify a clash between Western research methodologies and Indigenous methodologies and how we attempted reconciliation. We then provide implications for future research based on lessons learned from Native American community partners who voiced concern over methods of Western deductive qualitative analysis. Decolonizing research requires constant reflective attention and action, and there is an absence of published guidance for this process. Continued exploration is needed for implementing Indigenous methods alone or in conjunction with appropriate Western methods when conducting research in Indigenous communities. Currently, examples of Indigenous methods and theories are not widely available in academic texts or published articles, and are often not perceived as valid.

  5. Gendering Aboriginalism: A Performative Gaze on Indigenous Australian Women

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    Katelyn Barney

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available One of the most common Aboriginalist representations of Indigenous Australian people is, as Indigenous female performer Lou Bennett points out, ‘basically a man, out in the desert, black skin, flat nose with a lap-lap on, standing on one leg, resting against a spear’. Her comment raises many issues. In what ways are discourses of Aboriginalism gendered? How does Aboriginalism affect performance and specifically Aboriginal women performers? In exploring these questions, I examine Aboriginalist representations of Aboriginal women performers by white male scholars and the role of women anthropologists in the production of Aboriginalist discourse about Aboriginal women. Drawing on interviews with Indigenous women performers and musical examples of their songs, I explore the impact of Aboriginalism on non-Indigenous expectations of Indigenous Australian women performing in contemporary music contexts, the strategies performers use to work within and against these constructions and my own relationship to Aboriginalism.

  6. Gendering Aboriginalism : a performative gaze on indigenous Australian women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Barney, Katelyn

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available One of the most common Aboriginalist representations of Indigenous Australian people is, as Indigenous female performer Lou Bennett points out, ‘basically a man, out in the desert, black skin, flat nose with a lap-lap on, standing on one leg, resting against a spear’. Her comment raises many issues. In what ways are discourses of Aboriginalism gendered? How does Aboriginalism affect performance and specifically Aboriginal women performers? In exploring these questions, I examine Aboriginalist representations of Aboriginal women performers by white male scholars and the role of women anthropologists in the production of Aboriginalist discourse about Aboriginal women. Drawing on interviews with Indigenous women performers and musical examples of their songs, I explore the impact of Aboriginalism on non-Indigenous expectations of Indigenous Australian women performing in contemporary music contexts, the strategies performers use to work within and against these constructions and my own relationship to Aboriginalism.

  7. Heart failure among Indigenous Australians: a systematic review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Woods John A

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Cardiovascular diseases contribute substantially to the poor health and reduced life expectancy of Indigenous Australians. Heart failure is a common, disabling, progressive and costly complication of these disorders. The epidemiology of heart failure and the adequacy of relevant health service provision in Indigenous Australians are not well delineated. Methods A systematic search of the electronic databases PubMed, Embase, Web of Science, Cinahl Plus, Informit and Google Scholar was undertaken in April 2012 for peer-reviewed journal articles relevant to the topic of heart failure in Indigenous Australians. Additionally, a website search was done to identify other pertinent publications, particularly government reports. Results There was a paucity of relevant peer-reviewed research, and government reports dominated the results. Ten journal articles, 1 published conference abstract and 10 reports were eligible for inclusion. Indigenous Australians reportedly have higher morbidity and mortality from heart failure than their non-Indigenous counterparts (age-standardised prevalence ratio 1.7; age-standardised hospital separation ratio ≥3; crude per capita hospital expenditure ratio 1.58; age-adjusted mortality ratio >2. Despite the evident disproportionate burden of heart failure in Indigenous Australians, the accuracy of estimation from administrative data is limited by poor indigenous identification, inadequate case ascertainment and exclusion of younger subjects from mortality statistics. A recent journal article specifically documented a high prevalence of heart failure in Central Australian Aboriginal adults (5.3%, noting frequent undiagnosed disease. One study examined barriers to health service provision for Indigenous Australians in the context of heart failure. Conclusions Despite the shortcomings of available published data, it is clear that Indigenous Australians have an excess burden of heart failure. Emerging data

  8. "Until I Became a Professional, I Was Not, Consciously, Indigenous": One Intercultural Bilingual Educator's Trajectory in Indigenous Language Revitalization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hornberger, Nancy H.

    2014-01-01

    Drawing from long-term ethnographic research in the Andes, this paper examines one Quechua-speaking Indigenous bilingual educator's trajectory as she traversed (and traverses) from rural highland communities of southern Peru through development as teacher, teacher educator, researcher, and advocate for Indigenous identity and language…

  9. Principals as Literacy Leaders with Indigenous Communities (PALLIC) Building Relationships: One School's Quest to Raise Indigenous Learners' Literacy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riley, Tasha; Webster, Amanda

    2016-01-01

    In 2011 to 2012, 48 schools in the Northern Territory, South Australia and Queensland participated in the Principals as Literacy Leaders with Indigenous Communities (PALLIC) project. Central to this project was the establishment of positive working relationships between school principals and Indigenous community leaders in order to improve…

  10. Prairie chicken lek survey 2012 : performance report

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — Performance report for the 2012 spring prairie chicken lek surveys in Kansas state. This survey was initiated in 1963, and is preformed on established survey routes....

  11. Effects of chicken anemia virus and infectious bursal disease virus in commercial chickens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toro, H; van Santen, V L; Hoerr, F J; Breedlove, C

    2009-03-01

    The effects of chicken anemia virus (CAV) and infectious bursal disease virus (IBDV) coinfection in commercial layer-type and meat-type (broiler) chickens with specific maternal immunity were evaluated. In addition, the broiler progeny used had been vaccinated in ovo against IBDV. Layer chickens were inoculated intramuscularly on day 3 of age with CAV and orally on day 7 of age with an IBDV standard strain (APHIS). Broiler chickens were exposed to CAV and/or an IBDV variant strain (AL2) via the drinking water on days 3 and 14 of age. Following CAV and IBDV inoculation neither mortality nor overt clinical disease was observed in any layer or broiler group. In spite of maternal immunity against both IBDV and CAV, mean hematocrits of all layer groups inoculated with CAV (CAV, CAV + APHIS) were lower than uninfected chickens. IBDV APHIS alone or in combination with CAV did not affect the layer weight gain. However, on day 30 of age and concomitantly with maternal antibody decay, bursa lymphocyte depletion became evident in CAV + APHIS-infected layer chickens. These birds (CAV + APHIS) also seroconverted to IBDV on day 35 of age. CAV persisted at low levels in the layer chickens throughout the experimental period in CAV- and CAV+APHIS-infected chickens. Similarly, infected broiler chickens did not show changes in weight gain. Compared to CAV-infected or uninfected controls, CAV+AL2- and AL2-infected broiler chickens showed significant lymphocyte depletion in the bursa as assessed both by bursal indices and histomorphometry. Broilers also seroconverted to IBDV after day 30 of age confirming that bursal lymphocyte depletion was due to IBDV resuming replication. Thymus histomorphometry revealed significant lymphocyte depletion in all infected broiler groups at 30 days of age, but only in CAV+AL2-infected broiler chickens at 41 days of age, suggesting that IBDV infection delayed repopulation of the thymus.

  12. Production of Biodiesel from Chicken Frying Oil

    OpenAIRE

    Emaad T. Bakir; Abdelrahman B. Fadhil

    2011-01-01

    Chicken fried oil was converted into different biodiesels through single step transesterification and two step transesterification, namely acid-base and base–base catalyzed transesterification. Hydrochloric acid and potassium hydroxide with methanol were used for this purpose. The results showed that two step base catalyzed transesterification was better compared to other methods. It resulted in higher yield and better fuel properties. Transesterification of fried chicken oil was monitored by...

  13. Sequence and phylogenetic analysis of chicken anaemia virus obtained from backyard and commercial chickens in Nigeria : research communication

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D.O. Oluwayelu

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available This work reports the first molecular analysis study of chicken anaemia virus (CAV in backyard chickens in Africa using molecular cloning and sequence analysis to characterize CAV strains obtained from commercial chickens and Nigerian backyard chickens. Partial VP1 gene sequences were determined for three CAVs from commercial chickens and for six CAV variants present in samples from a backyard chicken. Multiple alignment analysis revealed that the 6 % and 4 % nucleotide diversity obtained respectively for the commercial and backyard chicken strains translated to only 2 % amino acid diversity for each breed. Overall, the amino acid composition of Nigerian CAVs was found to be highly conserved. Since the partial VP1 gene sequence of two backyard chicken cloned CAV strains (NGR/Cl-8 and NGR/Cl-9 were almost identical and evolutionarily closely related to the commercial chicken strains NGR-1, and NGR-4 and NGR-5, respectively, we concluded that CAV infections had crossed the farm boundary.

  14. Cold-acclimation limits low temperature induced photoinhibition by promoting a higher photochemical quantum yield and a more effective PSII restoration in darkness in the Antarctic rather than the Andean ecotype of Colobanthus quitensis Kunt Bartl (Cariophyllaceae

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    Bascuñán-Godoy Luisa

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Ecotypes of Colobanthus quitensis Kunt Bartl (Cariophyllaceae from Andes Mountains and Maritime Antarctic grow under contrasting photoinhibitory conditions, reaching differential cold tolerance upon cold acclimation. Photoinhibition depends on the extent of photodamage and recovery capability. We propose that cold acclimation increases resistance to low-temperature-induced photoinhibition, limiting photodamage and promoting recovery under cold. Therefore, the Antarctic ecotype (cold hardiest should be less photoinhibited and have better recovery from low-temperature-induced photoinhibition than the Andean ecotype. Both ecotypes were exposed to cold induced photoinhibitory treatment (PhT. Photoinhibition and recovery of photosystem II (PSII was followed by fluorescence, CO2 exchange, and immunoblotting analyses. Results The same reduction (25% in maximum PSII efficiency (Fv/Fm was observed in both cold-acclimated (CA and non-acclimated (NA plants under PhT. A full recovery was observed in CA plants of both ecotypes under dark conditions, but CA Antarctic plants recover faster than the Andean ecotype. Under PhT, CA plants maintain their quantum yield of PSII, while NA plants reduced it strongly (50% and 73% for Andean and Antarctic plants respectively. Cold acclimation induced the maintenance of PsaA and Cyt b6/f and reduced a 41% the excitation pressure in Antarctic plants, exhibiting the lowest level under PhT. xCold acclimation decreased significantly NPQs in both ecotypes, and reduced chlorophylls and D1 degradation in Andean plants under PhT. NA and CA plants were able to fully restore their normal photosynthesis, while CA Antarctic plants reached 50% higher photosynthetic rates after recovery, which was associated to electron fluxes maintenance under photoinhibitory conditions. Conclusions Cold acclimation has a greater importance on the recovery process than on limiting photodamage. Cold acclimation determined the

  15. Early Holocene chicken domestication in northern China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiang, Hai; Gao, Jianqiang; Yu, Baoquan; Zhou, Hui; Cai, Dawei; Zhang, Youwen; Chen, Xiaoyong; Wang, Xi; Hofreiter, Michael; Zhao, Xingbo

    2014-12-01

    Chickens represent by far the most important poultry species, yet the number, locations, and timings of their domestication have remained controversial for more than a century. Here we report ancient mitochondrial DNA sequences from the earliest archaeological chicken bones from China, dating back to ∼ 10,000 B.P. The results clearly show that all investigated bones, including the oldest from the Nanzhuangtou site, are derived from the genus Gallus, rather than any other related genus, such as Phasianus. Our analyses also suggest that northern China represents one region of the earliest chicken domestication, possibly dating as early as 10,000 y B.P. Similar to the evidence from pig domestication, our results suggest that these early domesticated chickens contributed to the gene pool of modern chicken populations. Moreover, our results support the idea that multiple members of the genus Gallus, specifically Gallus gallus and Gallus sonneratii contributed to the gene pool of the modern domestic chicken. Our results provide further support for the growing evidence of an early mixed agricultural complex in northern China.

  16. Dadirri: Using a Philosophical Approach to Research to Build Trust between a Non-Indigenous Researcher and Indigenous Participants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Megan Marie Stronach

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract: This article focuses on a philosophical approach employed in a PhD research project that set out to investigate sport career transition (SCT experiences of elite Indigenous Australian sportsmen. The research was necessary as little is known about the transition of this cohort to a life after sport, or their experiences of retirement. A key problem within the SCT paradigm is a presumption that an end to elite sport requires a process of adjustment that is common to all sportspeople—a rather narrow perspective that fails to acknowledge the situational complexity and socio-cultural diversity of elite athletes. With such a range of personal circumstances, it is reasonable to suppose that athletes from different cultural groups will have different individual SCT needs. The researcher is non-Indigenous and mature aged: she encountered a number of challenges in her efforts to understand Indigenous culture and its important sensitivities, and to build trust with the Indigenous male participants she interviewed. An Indigenous philosophy known as Dadirri, which emphasises deep and respectful listening, guided the development of the research design and methodology. Consistent with previous studies conducted by non-Indigenous researchers, an open-ended and conversational approach to interviewing Indigenous respondents was developed. The objective was for the voices of the athletes to be heard, allowing the collection of rich data based on the participants’ perspectives about SCT. An overview of the findings is presented, illustrating that Indigenous athletes experience SCT in complex and distinctive ways. The article provides a model for non-Indigenous researchers to conduct qualitative research with Indigenous people.

  17. Human papillomavirus prevalence among indigenous and non-indigenous Australian women prior to a national HPV vaccination program

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    Condon John R

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Indigenous women in Australia have a disproportionate burden of cervical cancer despite a national cervical screening program. Prior to introduction of a national human papilloma virus (HPV vaccination program, we determined HPV genotype prevalence by Indigenous status and residence in remote areas. Methods We recruited women aged 17 to 40 years presenting to community-based primary health services for routine Pap screening across Australia. A liquid-based cytology (LBC cervical specimen was tested for HPV DNA using the AMPLICOR HPV-DNA test and a PGMY09/11-based HPV consensus PCR; positive specimens were typed by reverse hybridization. We calculated age-adjusted prevalence by weighting to relevant population data, and determined predictors of HPV-DNA positivity by age, Indigenous status and area of residence using logistic regression. Results Of 2152 women (655 Indigenous, prevalence of the high-risk HPV genotypes was similar for Indigenous and non-Indigenous women (HPV 16 was 9.4% and 10.5%, respectively; HPV 18 was 4.1% and 3.8%, respectively, and did not differ by age group. In younger age groups, the prevalence of other genotypes also did not differ, but in those aged 31 to 40 years, HPV prevalence was higher for Indigenous women (35% versus 22.5%; P Conclusion Although we found no difference in the prevalence of HPV16/18 among Australian women by Indigenous status or, for Indigenous women, residence in remote regions, differences were found in the prevalence of risk factors and some other HPV genotypes. This reinforces the importance of cervical screening as a complement to vaccination for all women, and the value of baseline data on HPV genotype prevalence by Indigenous status and residence for the monitoring of vaccine impact.

  18. Effect of Vancomycin, Tylosin, and Chlortetracycline on Vancomycin-Resistant Enterococcus faecium Colonization of Broiler Chickens During Grow-Out.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hume, Michael E; Donskey, Curtis J

    2017-01-27

    Broiler chickens may serve as reservoirs for human colonization by vancomycin-resistant Enterococcus (VRE). We examined the effects of vancomycin and two commonly used antimicrobial feed additives on VRE colonization in broiler chickens during grow-out. Chicks received unsupplemented feed or feed containing vancomycin, chlortetracycline, or tylosin from day of hatch to grow-out at 6 weeks. At 3 days of age, chicks received by crop gavage 10(7) colony-forming units (CFUs) of a human or poultry VRE isolate. Cecal contents were monitored weekly for VRE, short-chain fatty acids (SCFAs), and bacterial denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE) profile methods. Vancomycin promoted persistent and high-level colonization with human- and poultry-derived VRE to grow-out in comparison with controls, while treatment with chlortetracycline and tylosin did not. Colonization by the poultry isolate in control, chlortetracycline, and tylosin groups persisted throughout the grow-out period with low concentrations present at 6 weeks, whereas the human isolate decreased to an undetectable level by week 6. Vancomycin resulted in significant reductions in cecal acetic acid and butyric acid in comparison with controls, but chlortetracycline and tylosin did not. DGGE profiles contained two main clusters with all vancomycin profiles in a smaller cluster and all other profiles in a larger cluster. These results demonstrate that vancomycin, but not chlortetracycline or tylosin, disrupted the indigenous microbiota and SCFA patterns of broiler chickens and promoted colonization by VRE.

  19. Effect of steam and lactic acid treatments on the survival of Salmonella Enteritidis and Campylobacter jejuni inoculated on chicken skin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chaine, Aline; Arnaud, Elodie; Kondjoyan, Alain; Collignan, Antoine; Sarter, Samira

    2013-04-01

    Campylobacteriosis and salmonellosis are the most frequently reported zoonotic infectious diseases. The present work evaluated the effectiveness of steam treatment at 100 °C for 8s, a 5% lactic acid treatment for 1 min and their combination for inactivating Salmonella Enteritidis and Campylobacter jejuni inoculated on chicken skin. The impact of each treatment on the total aerobic mesophilic bacteria and the effect of rinsing after contact with lactic acid were also evaluated. Residual bacteria were counted immediately after treatment or after seven days of storage at 4 °C. Results demonstrated the immediate efficiency of the steam and the combined treatments with reductions of approximately 6 and 5 log cfu/cm2 respectively for S. Enteritidis and C. jejuni. They also showed significant reductions (equal to or >3.2 log cfu/cm2) in the total aerobic mesophilic plate count. Lactic acid had a persistent effect on pathogen growth during storage which was significantly higher when the skin was not rinsed, reaching reductions of 3.8 log cfu/cm2 for both S. Enteritidis and C. jejuni. Only the combined treatments significantly reduced the recovery of the total aerobic mesophilic bacteria during storage. The significant reductions in both pathogens and total aerobic mesophilic bacteria on treated chicken skins are possible ways to improve the safety and shelf life of the product although high levels of indigenous non-pathogenic bacteria may be beneficial due to their protective effect against potential re-contamination of chicken skin.

  20. Indigenous youth participatory action research: re-visioning social justice for social work with indigenous youths.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnston-Goodstar, Katie

    2013-10-01

    The NASW Code of Ethics identifies social justice as one of six foundational values of the social work profession. Indigenous communities have long questioned the authenticity of this commitment and rightly so, given the historical activities of social work and social workers. Still, the commitment persists as an inspiration for an imperfect, yet determined, profession. This article presents a theoretical discussion of questions pertinent for social justice in social work practice in Native American communities: Whose definition of social justice should prevail in work with and in Indigenous communities? What can a revisioning of social justice mean to the development of Native communities and for Native youths in particular? What methods or processes of social work are most appropriate for this social justice work? This article presents a case for the practice of youth participatory action research as one method to work for social justice in Native communities.

  1. Microbiological Safety of Chicken Litter or Chicken Litter-Based Organic Fertilizers: A Review

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    Zhao Chen

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Chicken litter or chicken litter-based organic fertilizers are usually recycled into the soil to improve the structure and fertility of agricultural land. As an important source of nutrients for crop production, chicken litter may also contain a variety of human pathogens that can threaten humans who consume the contaminated food or water. Composting can inactivate pathogens while creating a soil amendment beneficial for application to arable agricultural land. Some foodborne pathogens may have the potential to survive for long periods of time in raw chicken litter or its composted products after land application, and a small population of pathogenic cells may even regrow to high levels when the conditions are favorable for growth. Thermal processing is a good choice for inactivating pathogens in chicken litter or chicken litter-based organic fertilizers prior to land application. However, some populations may become acclimatized to a hostile environment during build-up or composting and develop heat resistance through cross-protection during subsequent high temperature treatment. Therefore, this paper reviews currently available information on the microbiological safety of chicken litter or chicken litter-based organic fertilizers, and discusses about further research on developing novel and effective disinfection techniques, including physical, chemical, and biological treatments, as an alternative to current methods.

  2. Indigenous Identity at the Intersection of Medical Genetics Discourses- DNA and Indigeneity Symposium

    OpenAIRE

    Rosalina James

    2015-01-01

    Beginning in the early twenty-first century, the genomic age has seen academic interests expand beyond Indigenous global migrations to more medically-driven population genetic research. In this environment, scientific narratives tend to privilege race-based biological explanations for physical and mental health phenomena. Similarly, academic frameworks for individual and group identity are increasingly described through a lens of genetic-derived logic over the cultural, political, historical,...

  3. Modifiable Cardiovascular Disease Risk Factors among Indigenous Populations

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    Adam A. Lucero

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective. To identify modifiable cardio-metabolic and lifestyle risk factors among indigenous populations from Australia (Aboriginal Australians/Torres Strait Islanders, New Zealand (Māori, and the United States (American Indians and Alaska Natives that contribute to cardiovascular disease (CVD. Methods. National health surveys were identified where available. Electronic databases identified sources for filling missing data. The most relevant data were identified, organized, and synthesized. Results. Compared to their non-indigenous counterparts, indigenous populations exhibit lower life expectancies and a greater prevalence of CVD. All indigenous populations have higher rates of obesity and diabetes, hypertension is greater for Māori and Aboriginal Australians, and high cholesterol is greater only among American Indians/Alaska Natives. In turn, all indigenous groups exhibit higher rates of smoking and dangerous alcohol behaviour as well as consuming less fruits and vegetables. Aboriginal Australians and American Indians/Alaska Natives also exhibit greater rates of sedentary behaviour. Conclusion. Indigenous groups from Australia, New Zealand, and the United States have a lower life expectancy then their respective non-indigenous counterparts. A higher prevalence of CVD is a major driving force behind this discrepancy. A cluster of modifiable cardio-metabolic risk factors precede CVD, which, in turn, is linked to modifiable lifestyle risk factors.

  4. Ecosystems and indigenous well-being: An integrated framework

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    Kamaljit K. Sangha

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available In Australia, role of natural resources in Indigenous well-being is completely ignored to date which further leads to inappropriate and ineffective well-being policies. This research addresses the need to develop an appropriate indigenous well-being approach that incorporates indigenous values in relation to natural systems. It focuses on Indigenous people in Australia and examines the available well-being frameworks from global as well as from local (i.e. Australian and Indigenous, perspectives. It applies a holistic approach to assess the role of natural systems in indigenous well-being demonstrating how people’s social, economic and cultural worlds, and how people’s capabilities relate to their natural systems. It integrates various social, economic and ecological values through the application of Capability Approach and the Millennium Assessment Approach. The study proposes an integrated framework that focuses on people’s belongingness to nature i.e. people’s values and capabilities that link to well-being. It emphasises the importance of each connection that people may have with their country in terms of people’s capabilities. The proposed framework can contribute to improved and better-informed policies on indigenous well-being as well as on the use, value and management of natural systems.

  5. [Infant mortality in the indigenous population: backwardness and contrasts].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernandez Ham, P

    1993-01-01

    Some 6.4 million speakers of indigenous languages were enumerated in the 1990 Mexican census. The same census provided the basis for an indirect estimate of infant mortality using data on the numbers of live born and surviving children. Municipios with 40% or more of the population speaking an indigenous language were studied. The overall estimated infant mortality rate for indigenous municipios was 55.1/1000 live births, the equivalent of the Mexican infant mortality rate around 1982. Mexico's national infant mortality rate in 1990 was 34.8/1000. Great contrasts were found in indigenous infant mortality rates. Campeche, Quintana Roo, and Yucatan, the states of the Mayan region, had a low rate of 35.09/1000, very close to the national average. Infant mortality levels were relatively low in the indigenous populations of Hidalgo, the state of Mexico, and Michoacan, with rates of 44 to 48. Chiapas, Oaxaca, Puebla, Durango, Guerrero, and San Luis Potosi had rates of 55 to 65. The highest rates were in states with few indigenous municipios, including Chihuahua, Jalisco, and Nayarit. The Huichol of Jalisco had the highest rate at 100.01/1000. Infant mortality levels were found to be correlated in different degrees with socioeconomic indicators. The highest infant mortality rates were in the indigenous regions with the poorest socioeconomic conditions.

  6. Indigenous Knowledge and Public Education in Sub-Saharan Africa

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    Munyaradzi Mawere

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The discourse on indigenous knowledge has incited a debate of epic proportions across the world over the years. In Africa, especially in the sub-Saharan region, while the so-called indigenous communities have always found value in their own local forms of knowledge, the colonial administration and its associates viewed indigenous knowledge as unscientific, illogical, anti-development, and/or ungodly. The status and importance of indigenous knowledge has changed in the wake of the landmark 1997 Global Knowledge Conference in Toronto, which emphasised the urgent need to learn, preserve, and exchange indigenous knowledge. Yet, even with this burgeoning interest and surging call, little has been done, especially in sub-Saharan Africa, to guarantee the maximum exploitation of indigenous knowledge for the common good. In view of this realisation, this paper discusses how indigenous knowledge can and should both act as a tool for promoting the teaching/learning process in Africa’s public education and address the inexorably enigmatic amalgam of complex problems and cataclysms haunting the world.

  7. Innovative MIOR Process Utilizing Indigenous Reservoir Constituents

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    D. O. Hitzman; A. K. Stepp; D. M. Dennis; L. R. Graumann

    2003-03-31

    This research program is directed at improving the knowledge of reservoir ecology and developing practical microbial solutions for improving oil production. The goal is to identify indigenous microbial populations which can produce beneficial metabolic products and develop a methodology to stimulate those select microbes with nutrient amendments to increase oil recovery. This microbial technology has the capability of producing multiple oil-releasing agents. Experimental laboratory work is underway. Microbial cultures have been isolated from produced water samples. Comparative laboratory studies demonstrating in situ production of microbial products as oil recovery agents were conducted in sand packs with natural field waters with cultures and conditions representative of oil reservoirs. Field pilot studies are underway.

  8. Metagenomic Analysis of Chicken Gut Microbiota for Improving Metabolism and Health of Chickens - A Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Ki Young; Lee, Tae Kwon; Sul, Woo Jun

    2015-09-01

    Chicken is a major food source for humans, hence it is important to understand the mechanisms involved in nutrient absorption in chicken. In the gastrointestinal tract (GIT), the microbiota plays a central role in enhancing nutrient absorption and strengthening the immune system, thereby affecting both growth and health of chicken. There is little information on the diversity and functions of chicken GIT microbiota, its impact on the host, and the interactions between the microbiota and host. Here, we review the recent metagenomic strategies to analyze the chicken GIT microbiota composition and its functions related to improving metabolism and health. We summarize methodology of metagenomics in order to obtain bacterial taxonomy and functional inferences of the GIT microbiota and suggest a set of indicator genes for monitoring and manipulating the microbiota to promote host health in future.

  9. Renal biopsy findings among Indigenous Australians: a nationwide review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoy, Wendy E; Samuel, Terence; Mott, Susan A; Kincaid-Smith, Priscilla S; Fogo, Agnes B; Dowling, John P; Hughson, Michael D; Sinniah, Rajalingam; Pugsley, David J; Kirubakaran, Meshach G; Douglas-Denton, Rebecca N; Bertram, John F

    2012-12-01

    Australia's Indigenous people have high rates of chronic kidney disease and kidney failure. To define renal disease among these people, we reviewed 643 renal biopsies on Indigenous people across Australia, and compared them with 249 biopsies of non-Indigenous patients. The intent was to reach a consensus on pathological findings and terminology, quantify glomerular size, and establish and compare regional biopsy profiles. The relative population-adjusted biopsy frequencies were 16.9, 6.6, and 1, respectively, for Aboriginal people living remotely/very remotely, for Torres Strait Islander people, and for non-remote-living Aboriginal people. Indigenous people more often had heavy proteinuria and renal failure at biopsy. No single condition defined the Indigenous biopsies and, where biopsy rates were high, all common conditions were in absolute excess. Indigenous people were more often diabetic than non-Indigenous people, but diabetic changes were still present in fewer than half their biopsies. Their biopsies also had higher rates of segmental sclerosis, post-infectious glomerulonephritis, and mixed morphologies. Among the great excess of biopsies in remote/very remote Aborigines, females predominated, with younger age at biopsy and larger mean glomerular volumes. Glomerulomegaly characterized biopsies with mesangiopathic changes only, with IgA deposition, or with diabetic change, and with focal segmental glomerulosclerosis (FSGS). This review reveals great variations in biopsy rates and findings among Indigenous Australians, and findings refute the prevailing dogma that most indigenous renal disease is due to diabetes. Glomerulomegaly in remote/very remote Aboriginal people is probably due to nephron deficiency, in part related to low birth weight, and probably contributes to the increased susceptibility to kidney disease and the predisposition to FSGS.

  10. The Ri chicken breed and livelihoods in North Vietnam: characterization and prospects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pascal Leroy

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available For the last twenty years, the consumption of poultry meat has boomed in Vietnam as in the rest of the developing world. Capital-intensive production has grown rapidly to satisfy this demand. Based on a few numbers of genetically uniform strains, these systems threaten biodiversity. In Vietnam, both rural and urban households still keep indigenous chickens as part of a diversified livelihood portfolio. In line with the national in situ conservation strategy, this study approached the context of local poultry keeping in two rural and one suburban districts of Northern Vietnam. It aimed at understanding households’ willingness, constraints and opportunities for practice improvement, including breeds’ management. As the Ri chicken constitutes the large majority of backyard flocks, two particular objectives of this study are the morpho-biometric characterisation of phenotypic diversity among individuals classified as Ri by farmers and an assessment of their productive potential. Chicken was found to hold a different place in livelihoods of the three districts with consequences on the management of genetic resources. The most favourable conditions for improvement of the Ri breed was found in the rural district of Luong-Son, due to market integration. In the more remote district of Ky-Son, living standards were lower and much would be gained from Ri conservation. Ri breed was the most threatened in the suburban Gia-Lam district, where poultry was a minor side-activity, lacking incentive for genetic management. From motives and constraints, tracks about breeding goals are suggested. Further considerations about conservation, improvement, market integration and livelihoods are proposed.

  11. Spirituality: The Core of Healing and Social Justice from an Indigenous Perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baskin, Cyndy

    2016-01-01

    This chapter, based on the literature and interviews with both Indigenous and non-Indigenous participants, explores how land-based spirituality is at the core of Indigenous societies globally. In this chapter, an Indigenous philosophy carries a message that spirituality is not only about one's inward journey but is also about creating a better…

  12. Estimating the Social Rate of Return to Education for Indigenous Australians.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Junankar, P. N.; Liu, J.

    2003-01-01

    Compares estimates of the social rate of return to education of Indigenous Australians with those of non-Indigenous Australians. Finds that social rate of return is higher for Indigenous Australians than for non-Indigenous. Draws implications for public policy. (Contains 4 tables and 32 references.)(PKP)

  13. Academic Staff Perceptions of Factors Underlying Program Completion by Australian Indigenous Nursing Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    West, Roianne; Usher, Kim; Foster, Kim; Stewart, Lee

    2014-01-01

    An increase in the number of Indigenous health professionals is one way to help reduce the poor health outcomes of Australia's Indigenous people. However, while Indigenous students are enrolling in Australian tertiary undergraduate nursing courses in increasing numbers, their completion rates remain lower than non-Indigenous students and many…

  14. Potential Effectiveness of Specific Anti-Smoking Mass Media Advertisements among Australian Indigenous Smokers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stewart, Harold S.; Bowden, Jacqueline A.; Bayly, Megan C.; Sharplin, Greg R.; Durkin, Sarah J.; Miller, Caroline L.; Givans, Sharon E.; Warne, Charles D.; Wakefield, Melanie A.

    2011-01-01

    Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander Australians (Indigenous Australians) have more than twice the smoking prevalence of non-Indigenous Australians. Anti-smoking campaigns have demonstrated success in the general population but little is known about their impact among Indigenous people. A total of 143 Indigenous and a comparison group of 156…

  15. Counter-Colonial and Philosophical Claims: An Indigenous Observation of Western Philosophy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mika, Carl

    2015-01-01

    Providing an indigenous opinion on anything is a difficult task. To be sure, there is a multitude of possible indigenous responses to dominant Western philosophy. My aim in this paper is to assess dominant analytic Western philosophy in light of the general insistence of most indigenous authors that indigenous metaphysics is holistic, and to make…

  16. Ecotypic differentiation between urban and rural populations of the grasshopper Chorthippus brunneus relative to climate and habitat fragmentation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    San Martin Y Gomez, Gilles; Van Dyck, Hans

    2012-05-01

    Urbanization alters environmental conditions in multiple ways and offers an ecological or evolutionary challenge for organisms to cope with. Urban areas typically have a warmer climate and strongly fragmented herbaceous vegetation; the urban landscape matrix is often assumed to be hostile for many organisms. Here, we addressed the issue of evolutionary differentiation between urban and rural populations of an ectotherm insect, the grasshopper Chorthippus brunneus. We compared mobility-related morphology and climate-related life history traits measured on the first generation offspring of grasshoppers from urban and rural populations reared in a common garden laboratory experiment. We predicted (1) the urban phenotype to be more mobile (i.e., lower mass allocation to the abdomen, longer relative femur and wing lengths) than the rural phenotype; (2) the urban phenotype to be more warm adapted (e.g., higher female body mass); and (3) further evidence of local adaptation in the form of significant interaction effects between landscape of origin and breeding temperature. Both males and females of urban origin had significantly longer relative femur and wing lengths and lower mass allocation to the abdomen (i.e., higher investment in thorax and flight muscles) relative to individuals of rural origin. The results were overall significant but small (2-4%). Body mass and larval growth rate were much higher (+10%) in females of urban origin. For the life history traits, we did not find evidence for significant interaction effects between the landscape of origin and the two breeding temperatures. Our results point to ecotypic differentiation with urbanization for mobility-related morphology and climate-related life history traits. We argue that the warmer urban environment has an indirect effect through longer growth season rather than direct effects on the development.

  17. Effect of antibiotic, Lacto-lase and probiotic addition in chicken feed on protein and fat content of chicken meat

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azhar, Noor Amiza; Abdullah, Aminah

    2015-09-01

    This research was conducted to investigate the effect of chicken feed additives (antibiotic, Lacto-lase® and probiotic) on protein and fat content of chicken meat. Chicken fed with control diet (corn-soy based diet) served as a control. The treated diets were added with zinc bacitracin (antibiotic), different amount of Lacto-lase® (a mixture of probiotic and enzyme) and probiotic. Chicken were slaughtered at the age of 43-48 days. Each chicken was divided into thigh, breast, drumstick, drumette and wing. Protein content in chicken meat was determined by using macro-Kjeldahl method meanwhile Soxhlet method was used to analyse fat content. The result of the study showed that the protein content of chicken breast was significantly higher (p≤0.05) while thigh had the lowest protein content (p≤0.05). Antibiotic fed chicken was found to have the highest protein content among the treated chickens but there was no significant different with 2g/kg Lacto-lase® fed chicken (p>0.05). All thighs were significantly higher (p≤0.05) in fat content except for drumette of control chicken while breast contained the lowest fat content compared to other chicken parts studied. The control chicken meat contained significantly higher (p≤0.05) amount of fat compared to the other treated chickens. Chicken fed with 2g/kg Lacto-lase® had the lowest (p≤0.05) fat content. The result of this study indicated that the addition of Lacto-lase® as a replacement of antibiotic in chicken feed will not affect the content of protein and fat of chicken meat.

  18. Effect of Drought Stress on Leaf Water Status, Electrolyte Leakage, Photosynthesis Parameters and Chlorophyll Fluorescence of Two Kochia Ecotypes (Kochia scoparia Irrigated With Saline Water

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A Masoumi

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Rainfall deficiency and the development of salinity in Iran are the most important factors for using new salt and drought-resistant plants instead of conventional crops. Kochia species have recently attracted the attention of researchers as a forage and fodder crop in marginal lands worldwide due to its drought and salt tolerant characteristics. This field experiment was performed at the Salinity Research Station of Ferdowsi University of Mashhad, Iran, in a split plot based on randomized complete block design with three replications in 2008. Drought stress, including four levels (control, no irrigation in vegetative stage, no irrigation at reproductive stage and no irrigation at maturity stage for four weeks, and two Kochia ecotypes (Birjand and Borujerd were allocated as main and sub plots, respectively. Relative water content, electrolyte leakage, photosynthesis parameters and chlorophyll fluorescence were assayed every two week from late vegetative stage. Results showed that drought stress decreased significantly measured parameters in plants under stress, in all stages. Plants completely recovered after eliminating stress and rewatering and recovered plants did not show significant difference with control. Electrolyte leaking and chlorophyll fluorescence showed the lowest change among the measured parameters. It can emphasize that resistant to stress conditions in this plant and cell wall is not damaged at this level of stress situation. Birjand ecotype from the arid region, revealed a better response than Borujerd ecotype to drought stress. Probably it returns to initial adaptation of Birjand. In general this plant can recover after severe drought stress well. It is possible to introduce this plant as a new fodder in arid and saline conditions.

  19. MCU-Based Solar Powered Chicken Feeder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elenor M. Reyes

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Poultry is a great potential industry particularly in Batangas Province. The method of feeding chicken needs to be considered as chicken must be fed regularly to be more productive. The conventional method of feeding chicken is the need to continuously provide the food, be alert and conscious on the food remaining in cages and to feed the chickens in a correct period of time to avoid the decline of the production. Growers also find it difficult to manage their businesses effectively because they need to be around the cages every now and then to monitor the poultry. Timing and exactness are the key to provide a uniform time in feeding the chickens. This will benefit the owner of the business in terms of time and effort. Another advantage of this project is in terms of savings to the owner of the poultry business. This technology was designed to automatically feed chickens at a given period of time and to give alarm when the feeds are running out of supply. The power to be supplied to this prototype will be drawn from the sun by means of solar panels and will be stored in typical car battery. The feeds will be stored in a container and evenly distributed by using a conveyor to the feeding basin of the poultry. It will be more efficient than manual conventional way of feeding because less effort will be needed in feeding the chickens and less feeds will be wasted. In addition to that, the stored power can also be used for lighting purposes for the growers to save energy and energy bills.

  20. Probiotic and Acetic Acid Effect on Broiler Chickens Performance

    OpenAIRE

    Martin Král; Mária Angelovičová; Ľubica Mrázová; Jana Tkáčová; Martin Kliment

    2011-01-01

    Probiotics and organic acids are widely accepted as an alternative to in-feed antibiotics in poultry production. We carried the experiment with broiler chickens. In experiment we research effect of probiotic and acetic acids on the performance of broiler chickens. A total number of 200 one day old broiler chickens were distributed to two dietary groups. Broiler chickens in control group were fed with standard feed mixture and experimental group 1% vinegar contained 5% acetic acid used in drin...

  1. Clarifying Limbo: Disentangling Indigenous Autonomy from the Mexican Constitutional Order

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sprague Ian Flannigan

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available In contrast to U.S. Federal Indian law, which has classified indigenous tribes as “domestic dependent nations” since the early 19th century, Mexican law has only recently begun to define the political and territorial autonomy of indigenous groups. This paper contrasts the Mexican approach to this problem to that of the United States, first describing Mexico’s 2001’s constitutional reforms and their failure to clarify the nature of tribal sovereignty. It then analyzes recent court cases that protect tribal political and territorial autonomy by applying rights to consultation contained in the International Labor Organization’s Indigenous and Tribal People’s Convention 169 (“ILO 169” and the Mexican Constitution. It concludes by arguing that in spite of this effort by the courts, Mexican law still requires a comprehensive legislative or diplomatic resolution of the lack of clarity surrounding the political and territorial autonomy of its indigenous groups.

  2. [Forum: health and indigenous peoples in Brazil. Introduction].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Welch, James R

    2014-04-01

    This Forum on Health and Indigenous Peoples in Brazil explores contemporary challenges to indigenous health and health politics in Brazil. The short collection of articles that follow are based on presentations, originally given at the Indigenous Health Working Group panel at the 10th Brazilian Public Health Conference in Rio Grande do Sul State, by professors Carlos E. A. Coimbra Jr. (Escola Nacional de Saúde Pública, Fundação Oswaldo Cruz), Marina Denise Cardoso (Universidade Federal de São Carlos) and Eliana E. Diehl (Universidade Federal de Santa Catarina) with Marcos A. Pellegrini (Universidade Federal de Roraima). In this short Introduction, I introduce these contributions, taking as a point of reference a local example of healthcare inequity derived from a presentation at the same panel by Paulo F. Supretaprã, indigenous community leader from Etênhiritipá village, Mato Grosso State.

  3. New strategies by indigenous movements against extractivism in Chile

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ximena Cuadra Montoya

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available This article analyses the emergence of transnational activism in the context of collective action organised around socio-environmental conflicts in Chile’s indigenous areas. It details the main events in the process of indigenous mobilisation in the form of three emblematic cases carried out on an interna­tional scale, together with their implications for the national political arena. The author explains how, after the indigenous people’s demands were blocked at home, they then mobilised abroad, where they raised aware­ness over their situation and called for justice in the international courts. Finally, at the local level the paper identifies the inclusion of glo­bal frameworks related to the human rights to the indigenous peoples.

  4. Linking Indigenous Knowledge and Observed Climate Change Studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alexander, Chief Clarence; Bynum, Nora; Johnson, Liz; King, Ursula; Mustonen, Tero; Neofotis, Peter; Oettle, Noel; Rosenzweig, Cynthia; Sakakibara, Chie; Shadrin, Chief Vyacheslav; Vicarelli, Marta; Waterhouse, Jon; Weeks, Brian

    2010-01-01

    We present indigenous knowledge narratives and explore their connections to documented temperature and other climate changes and observed climate change impact studies. We then propose a framework for enhancing integration of these indigenous narratives of observed climate change with global assessments. Our aim is to contribute to the thoughtful and respectful integration of indigenous knowledge with scientific data and analysis, so that this rich body of knowledge can inform science, and so that indigenous and traditional peoples can use the tools and methods of science for the benefit of their communities if they choose to do so. Enhancing ways of understanding such connections are critical as the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change Fifth Assessment process gets underway.

  5. Indigenous Student Matriculation into Medical School: Policy and Progress

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kathy Sadler

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Access to health care remains suboptimal for Indigenous people in Canada. One contributing factor is the longstanding undersupply of Indigenous physicians. Despite awareness of this issue, underrepresentation in medical schools continues. In 2002, Schulich School of Medicine and Dentistry (SSMD policies were modified to enhance access for Indigenous students. This article describes our school’s continuing journey of policy and process revision, formative collaborations, early learner outcomes, and lessons learned towards this goal. In the first 10 years, SSMD matriculated 15 additional Indigenous students via this new stream. All candidates were successful in the undergraduate medical curriculum, licensing examinations, and residency match. The majority were attracted to primary care specialties, training programs affiliated with SSMD, and practices in southern Ontario. While the process and curriculum have revealed their potential, its capacity is not being maximized.

  6. Patagonian wines: the selection of an indigenous yeast starter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lopes, Christian A; Rodríguez, María E; Sangorrín, Marcela; Querol, Amparo; Caballero, Adriana C

    2007-08-01

    The use of selected yeasts for winemaking has clear advantages over the traditional spontaneous fermentation. The aim of this study was to select an indigenous Saccharomyces cerevisiae yeast isolate in order to develop a regional North Patagonian red wine starter culture. A two-step selection protocol developed according to physiological, technological and ecological criteria based on killer interactions was used. Following this methodology, S. cerevisiae isolate MMf9 was selected among 32 indigenous yeasts previously characterized as belonging to different strains according to molecular patterns and killer biotype. This isolate showed interesting technological and qualitative features including high fermentative power and low volatile acidity production, low foam and low sulphide production, as well as relevant ecological characteristics such as resistance to all indigenous and commercial S. cerevisiae killer strains assayed. Red wines with differential volatile profiles and interesting enological features were obtained at laboratory scale by using this selected indigenous strain.

  7. Price Transmission Analysis in Iran Chicken Market

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    Seyed Safdar Hosseini

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Over the past three decades vertical price transmissionanalysis has been the subject of considerable attention inapplied agricultural economics. It has been argued that theexistence of asymmetric price transmission generates rents formarketing and processing agents. Retail prices allegedly movefaster upwards than downwards in response to farm level pricemovements. This is an important issue for many agriculturalmarkets, including the Iranian chicken market. Chicken is animportant source of nutrition in Iranian society and many ruralhouseholds depend on this commodity market as a source of income.The purpose of this paper is to analyze the extent, if any,of asymmetric price transmission in Iran chicken market usingthe Houck, Error Correction and Threshold models. The analysisis based on weekly chicken price data at farm and retail levelsover the period October 2002 to March 2006. The results oftests on all three models show that price transmission in Iranianchicken market is long-run symmetric, but short-run asymmetric.Increases in the farm price transmit immediately to the retaillevel, while decreases in farm price transmit relatively moreslowly to the retail level. We conjecture the asymmetric pricetransmission in this market is the result of high inflation ratesthat lead the consumers to expect continual price increases anda different adjustment costs in the upwards direction comparedto the downwards direction for the marketing agents and a noncompetitiveslaughtering industry and that looking for ways tomake this sector of the chicken supply chain more competitivewill foster greater price transmission symmetry and lead towelfare gains for both consumers and agricultural producers.

  8. Chicken sperm transcriptome profiling by microarray analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, R P; Shafeeque, C M; Sharma, S K; Singh, R; Mohan, J; Sastry, K V H; Saxena, V K; Azeez, P A

    2016-03-01

    It has been confirmed that mammalian sperm contain thousands of functional RNAs, and some of them have vital roles in fertilization and early embryonic development. Therefore, we attempted to characterize transcriptome of the sperm of fertile chickens using microarray analysis. Spermatozoal RNA was pooled from 10 fertile males and used for RNA preparation. Prior to performing the microarray, RNA quality was assessed using a bioanalyzer, and gDNA and somatic cell RNA contamination was assessed by CD4 and PTPRC gene amplification. The chicken sperm transcriptome was cross-examined by analysing sperm and testes RNA on a 4 × 44K chicken array, and results were verified by RT-PCR. Microarray analysis identified 21,639 predominantly nuclear-encoded transcripts in chicken sperm. The majority (66.55%) of the sperm transcripts were shared with the testes, while surprisingly, 33.45% transcripts were detected (raw signal intensity greater than 50) only in the sperm and not in the testes. The greatest proportion of up-regulated transcripts were responsible for signal transduction (63.20%) followed by embryonic development (56.76%) and cell structure (56.25%). Of the 20 most abundant transcripts, 18 remain uncharacterized, whereas the least abundant genes were mostly associated with the ribosome. These findings lay a foundation for more detailed investigations on sperm RNAs in chickens to identify sperm-based biomarkers for fertility.

  9. Relationship between chicken cellular immunity and endotoxin levels in dust from chicken housing environments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roque, Katharine; Shin, Kyung-Min; Jo, Ji-Hoon; Kim, Hyoung-Ah; Heo, Yong

    2015-01-01

    Hazardous biochemical agents in animal husbandry indoor environments are known to promote the occurrence of various illnesses among workers and animals. The relationship between endotoxin levels in dust collected from chicken farms and various immunological markers was investigated. Peripheral blood was obtained from 20 broiler chickens and 20 laying hens from four different chicken farms in Korea. Concentrations of total or respirable dust in the inside the chicken farm buildings were measured using a polyvinyl chloride membrane filter and mini volume sampler. Endotoxin levels in the dust were determined by the Limulus Amebocyte Lysate Kinetic method. Interferon-γ production by peripheral blood mononuclear cells stimulated with concanavalin A was significantly lower in broilers or layers from the farms with higher endotoxin concentrations than the chickens from the farms with lower endotoxin levels. An opposite pattern was observed for plasma cortisol concentrations with higher cortisol levels found in chickens from the farms with higher endotoxin levels. When peripheral lymphocytes were examined, the percentage of CD3(-)Ia(+) B cells was lower in layers from farms with higher endotoxin levels than those from locations with lower endotoxin levels. Overall, these results suggest a probable negative association between dust endotoxin levels and cell-mediated immunity in chickens.

  10. Increased numbers of Australian Indigenous nurses would make a significant contribution to 'closing the gap' in Indigenous health: what is getting in the way?

    Science.gov (United States)

    West, Roianne; Usher, Kim; Foster, Kim

    2010-01-01

    The provision of a well trained and culturally safe health workforce is critical to the alleviation of health inequities for Australian Indigenous peoples. Educating and graduating significant numbers of Indigenous registered nurses is one way the 'Close the Gap' initiative succeeds. Indigenous nurses bring a set of unique skills, knowledge and understanding to health service delivery. Their contribution has the potential to enhance future outcomes for Indigenous people by improving access to health services, ensure services are culturally appropriate and respectful, and assist non-Indigenous nurses to deliver culturally appropriate care. This paper discusses the background to the current numbers of Indigenous undergraduate nursing students enrolled in and completing tertiary nursing courses, with a focus on Queensland nursing programs. A range of identified barriers impede Indigenous nursing students' successful completion of their studies. We propose recommendations for education, research and employment to help overcome these problems, and ensure greater Indigenous participation in the nursing workforce.

  11. Mediatisation, Marginalisation and Disruption in Australian Indigenous Affairs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kerry McCallum

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available This article considers how changing media practices of minority groups and political and media elites impact on democratic participation in national debates. Taking as its case study the state-sponsored campaign to formally recognise Indigenous people in the Australian constitution, the article examines the interrelationships between political media and Indigenous participatory media—both of which we argue are undergoing seismic transformation. Discussion of constitutional reform has tended to focus on debates occurring in forums of influence such as party politics and news media that privilege the voices of only a few high-profile Indigenous media ‘stars’. Debate has progressed on the assumption that constitutional change needs to be settled by political elites and then explained and ‘sold’ to Indigenous and non-Indigenous Australians. Our research on the mediatisation of policymaking has found that in an increasingly media-saturated environment, political leaders and their policy bureaucrats attend to a narrow range of highly publicised voices. But the rapidly changing media environment has disrupted the media-driven Recognise campaign. Vigorous public discussion is increasingly taking place outside the mainstream institutions of media and politics, while social media campaigns emerge in rapid response to government decisions. Drawing on a long tradition in citizens’ media scholarship we argue that the vibrant, diverse and growing Indigenous media sphere in Australia has increased the accessibility of Indigenous voices challenging the scope and substance of the recognition debate. The article concludes on a cautionary note by considering some tensions in the promise of the changing media for Indigenous participation in the national policy conversation.

  12. Comparative Gastric Morphometry of Muong Indigenous and Vietnamese Wild Pigs

    OpenAIRE

    Pham Hong Trang; Peck Toung Ooi; Abu Bakar Zakaria Zuki; Mustapha Mohamed Noordin

    2012-01-01

    It is hypothesized that despite sharing a similar habitat, the Muong indigenous and Vietnamese wild pigs may reveal different gastric morphology. Due to the protective nature of procuring these pigs, a total of 12 Muong indigenous pigs and nine Vietnamese wild pigs stomach collected post mortem were analysed for selected biometric parameters and histology. The result indicated that the stomach of the Vietnamese wild pig is broader with a bigger capacity and greater proportion of proper gastri...

  13. Is resilience relevant to smoking abstinence for Indigenous Australians?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsourtos, George; Ward, Paul R; Lawn, Sharon; Winefield, Anthony H; Hersh, Deborah; Coveney, John

    2015-03-01

    The prevalence rate of tobacco smoking remains high for Australian Indigenous people despite declining rates in other Australian populations. Given many Indigenous Australians continue to experience a range of social and economic structural problems, stress could be a significant contributing factor to preventing smoking abstinence. The reasons why some Indigenous people have remained resilient to stressful adverse conditions, and not rely on smoking to cope as a consequence, may provide important insights and lessons for health promotion policy and practice. In-depth interviews were employed to collect oral histories from 31 Indigenous adults who live in metropolitan Adelaide. Participants were recruited according to smoking status (non-smokers were compared with current smokers to gain a greater depth of understanding of how some participants have abstained from smoking). Perceived levels of stress were associated with encouraging smoking behaviour. Many participants reported having different stresses compared with non-Indigenous Australians, with some participants reporting having additional stressors such as constantly experiencing racism. Resilience often occurred when participants reported drawing upon internal psychological assets such as being motivated to quit and where external social support was available. These findings are discussed in relation to a recently developed psycho-social interactive model of resilience, and how this resilience model can be improved regarding the historical and cultural context of Indigenous Australians' experience of smoking.

  14. Parasitic diseases of remote Indigenous communities in Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holt, Deborah C; McCarthy, James S; Carapetis, Jonathan R

    2010-08-15

    Indigenous Australians suffer significant disadvantage in health outcomes and have a life expectancy well below that of non-Indigenous Australians. Mortality rates of Indigenous Australians are higher than that of Indigenous populations in developed countries elsewhere in the world. A number of parasitic diseases which are uncommon in the rest of the Australian population contribute to the high burden of disease in many remote Indigenous communities. High rates of infection with enteric parasites such as Strongyloides stercoralis, hookworm and Trichuris have been recorded and infection of the skin with the ecto-parasitic mite Sarcoptes scabiei is also a substantial problem. Secondary infection of scabies lesions, including with Staphylococcus aureus and group A Streptococcus, can produce serious sequelae such as rheumatic fever and post-streptococcal glomerulonephritis. Transmission of many parasites in many remote communities is facilitated by overcrowded living conditions and infrastructure problems which result in poor sanitation and hygiene. Improvements in environmental health conditions must accompany medical initiatives to achieve sustainable improvement in the health of Indigenous Australians.

  15. FRONTIER POSITION AND MEANING PRODUCTION IN THE INDIGENOUS MATHEMATICS EDUCATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luci dos Santos Bernardi

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents some results of a survey that aimed to follow a process of continuous formation of a group of Kaingang indigenous teachers who teach mathematics in Terra Indigena Xapecó in Ipuaçu, SC. This research sought promote reflection on the challenges of Indigenous Education in the construction of an educational process in mathematics education, specifically that the construction of this educational process, contemplating the traditional mathematics and mathematics education. Examined the issue of frontier position of the teacher indigenous dealing with diversity and cultural conflicts, background and foreground, and the construction of meanings of mathematics in mathematics indigenous education. For this, we seek the theorical support in Critical Mathematics Education and in Ethnomathematics. The research showed us that one of the ways to minimize the challenges confronted would be to soften the boundaries between indigenous and non indigenous people while strengthening the identity markers, a new logic to understand the meaning construction for elements of their culture.

  16. Socioeconomic status and self-reported asthma in Indigenous and non-Indigenous Australian adults aged 18-64 years: analysis of national survey data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cunningham Joan

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Asthma is more common among Indigenous than non-Indigenous Australian adults, but little is known about socioeconomic patterning of asthma within the Indigenous population, or whether it is similar to the non-Indigenous population. Methods I analysed weighted data on self-reported current diagnosed asthma and a range of socio-economic and demographic measures for 5,417 Indigenous and 15,432 non-Indigenous adults aged 18-64 years from two nationally representative surveys conducted in parallel by the Australian Bureau of Statistics in 2004-05. Results Current asthma prevalence was higher for Indigenous than non-Indigenous people in every age group. After adjusting for age and sex, main language and place of residence were significantly associated with asthma prevalence in both populations. Traditional SES variables such as education, income and employment status were significantly associated with asthma in the non-Indigenous but not the Indigenous population. For example, age-and sex-adjusted relative odds of asthma among those who did not complete Year 10 (versus those who did was 1.2 (95% confidence interval (CI 1.0-1.5 in the non-Indigenous population versus 1.0 (95% CI 0.8-1.3 in the Indigenous population. Conclusions The socioeconomic patterning of asthma among Indigenous Australians is much less pronounced than for other chronic diseases such as diabetes and kidney disease, and contrasts with asthma patterns in the non-Indigenous population. This may be due in part to the episodic nature of asthma, and the well-known challenges in diagnosing it, especially among people with limited health literacy and/or limited access to health care, both of which are more likely in the Indigenous population. It may also reflect the importance of exposures occurring across the socioeconomic spectrum among Indigenous Australians, such as racism, and discrimination, marginalization and dispossession, chronic stress and exposure to

  17. Indigenous Knowledge and Learning. Papers Presented in the Workshop on Indigenous Knowledge and Skills and the Ways They Are Acquired (Cha'am, Thailand, March 2-5, 1988).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chulalongkorn Univ., Bangkok (Thailand).

    This proceedings documents an international workshop that focused on the research linking indigenous knowledge and indigenous learning with rural intervention programs. Research into indigenous knowledge and indigenous learning could lead to an improvement in rural intervention programs by building upon the knowledge and skills indigenous to rural…

  18. The microbiome of the chicken gastrointestinal tract.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yeoman, Carl J; Chia, Nicholas; Jeraldo, Patricio; Sipos, Maksim; Goldenfeld, Nigel D; White, Bryan A

    2012-06-01

    The modern molecular biology movement was developed in the 1960s with the conglomeration of biology, chemistry, and physics. Today, molecular biology is an integral part of studies aimed at understanding the evolution and ecology of gastrointestinal microbial communities. Molecular techniques have led to significant gains in our understanding of the chicken gastrointestinal microbiome. New advances, primarily in DNA sequencing technologies, have equipped researchers with the ability to explore these communities at an unprecedented level. A reinvigorated movement in systems biology offers a renewed promise in obtaining a more complete understanding of chicken gastrointestinal microbiome dynamics and their contributions to increasing productivity, food value, security, and safety as well as reducing the public health impact of raising production animals. Here, we contextualize the contributions molecular biology has already made to our understanding of the chicken gastrointestinal microbiome and propose targeted research directions that could further exploit molecular technologies to improve the economy of the poultry industry.

  19. Explaining the Achievement Gap between Indigenous and Non-Indigenous Students: An Analysis of PISA 2009 Results for Australia and New Zealand

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Steve; Perry, Laura B.; McConney, Andrew

    2014-01-01

    This study investigates the relative roles of home and school variables in accounting for achievement gaps between Indigenous and non-Indigenous students in Australia and New Zealand. Using data from the Programme for International Student Assessment [PISA] 2009, our findings show that achievement gaps between Indigenous and non-Indigenous…

  20. Facilitating functional annotation of chicken microarray data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gresham Cathy R

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Modeling results from chicken microarray studies is challenging for researchers due to little functional annotation associated with these arrays. The Affymetrix GenChip chicken genome array, one of the biggest arrays that serve as a key research tool for the study of chicken functional genomics, is among the few arrays that link gene products to Gene Ontology (GO. However the GO annotation data presented by Affymetrix is incomplete, for example, they do not show references linked to manually annotated functions. In addition, there is no tool that facilitates microarray researchers to directly retrieve functional annotations for their datasets from the annotated arrays. This costs researchers amount of time in searching multiple GO databases for functional information. Results We have improved the breadth of functional annotations of the gene products associated with probesets on the Affymetrix chicken genome array by 45% and the quality of annotation by 14%. We have also identified the most significant diseases and disorders, different types of genes, and known drug targets represented on Affymetrix chicken genome array. To facilitate functional annotation of other arrays and microarray experimental datasets we developed an Array GO Mapper (AGOM tool to help researchers to quickly retrieve corresponding functional information for their dataset. Conclusion Results from this study will directly facilitate annotation of other chicken arrays and microarray experimental datasets. Researchers will be able to quickly model their microarray dataset into more reliable biological functional information by using AGOM tool. The disease, disorders, gene types and drug targets revealed in the study will allow researchers to learn more about how genes function in complex biological systems and may lead to new drug discovery and development of therapies. The GO annotation data generated will be available for public use via AgBase website and

  1. To grow or to seed: ecotypic variation in reproductive allocation and cone production by young female Aleppo pine (Pinus halepensis, Pinaceae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Climent, José; Prada, M Aránzazu; Calama, Rafael; Chambel, M Regina; de Ron, David Sánchez; Alía, Ricardo

    2008-07-01

    Age and size at the first reproduction and the reproductive allocation of plants are linked to different life history strategies. Aleppo pine only reproduces through seed, and, as such, early female reproduction confers high fitness in its infertile highly fire-prone habitats along the Mediterranean coast because life expectancy is short. We investigated the extent of ecotypic differentiation in female reproductive allocation and examined the relation between early female reproduction and vegetative growth. In a common-garden experiment, the threshold age and size at first female reproduction and female reproductive allocation at age seven differed significantly among Aleppo pine provenances of ecologically distinct origin. Significant correlations among reproductive features of the provenances and the ecological traits of origin were found using different analytical tools. In nonlinear models of cone counts vs. stem volume, medium-sized trees (not the largest trees) produced the highest cone yield, confirming that, at the individual level, early female reproduction is incompatible with fast vegetative growth. The contribution of founder effects and adaptation to contrasting fire regimes may be confounding factors. But considering all traits analyzed, the geographical patterns of resource allocation by Aleppo pine suggest ecotypic specialization for either resource-poor (favoring early reproduction) or resource-rich (favoring vegetative growth) habitats.

  2. Indigenous populations health protection: A Canadian perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Richardson Katya L

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The disproportionate effects of the 2009 H1N1 pandemic on many Canadian Aboriginal communities have drawn attention to the vulnerability of these communities in terms of health outcomes in the face of emerging and reemerging infectious diseases. Exploring the particular challenges facing these communities is essential to improving public health planning. In alignment with the objectives of the Pandemic Influenza Outbreak Research Modelling (Pan-InfORM team, a Canadian public health workshop was held at the Centre for Disease Modelling (CDM to: (i evaluate post-pandemic research findings; (ii identify existing gaps in knowledge that have yet to be addressed through ongoing research and collaborative activities; and (iii build upon existing partnerships within the research community to forge new collaborative links with Aboriginal health organizations. The workshop achieved its objectives in identifying main research findings and emerging information post pandemic, and highlighting key challenges that pose significant impediments to the health protection and promotion of Canadian Aboriginal populations. The health challenges faced by Canadian indigenous populations are unique and complex, and can only be addressed through active engagement with affected communities. The academic research community will need to develop a new interdisciplinary framework, building upon concepts from ‘Communities of Practice’, to ensure that the research priorities are identified and targeted, and the outcomes are translated into the context of community health to improve policy and practice.

  3. Nuclear thermal rockets using indigenous extraterrestrial propellants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zubrin, Robert M.

    1990-01-01

    A preliminary examination of a concept for a Mars and outer solar system exploratory vehicle is presented. Propulsion is provided by utilizing a nuclear thermal reactor to heat a propellant volatile indigenous to the destination world to form a high thrust rocket exhaust. Candidate propellants, whose performance, materials compatibility, and ease of acquisition are examined and include carbon dioxide, water, methane, nitrogen, carbon monoxide, and argon. Ballistics and winged supersonic configurations are discussed. It is shown that the use of this method of propulsion potentially offers high payoff to a manned Mars mission. This is accomplished by sharply reducing the initial mission mass required in low earth orbit, and by providing Mars explorers with greatly enhanced mobility in traveling about the planet through the use of a vehicle that can refuel itself each time it lands. Thus, the nuclear landing craft is utilized in combination with a hydrogen-fueled nuclear-thermal interplanetary launch. By utilizing such a system in the outer solar system, a low level aerial reconnaissance of Titan combined with a multiple sample return from nearly every satellite of Saturn can be accomplished in a single launch of a Titan 4 or the Space Transportation System (STS). Similarly a multiple sample return from Callisto, Ganymede, and Europa can also be accomplished in one launch of a Titan 4 or the STS.

  4. The challenges of maintaining indigenous ecological knowledge

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joe McCarter

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Increased interest in indigenous ecological knowledge (IEK has led to concern that it is vulnerable amidst social and ecological change. In response, multiple authors have recommended the establishment of programs for the maintenance and revitalization of IEK systems. However, few studies have analyzed the methods, opportunities, and challenges of these programs. This is a critical gap, as IEK maintenance is challenging and will require layered and evidence-based solutions. We seek to build a foundation for future approaches to IEK maintenance. First, we present a systematic literature review of IEK maintenance programs (n = 39 and discuss the opportunities and challenges inherent in five broad groups of published approaches. Second, we use two case studies from the Republic of Vanuatu to illustrate these challenges in more depth. The first case study takes a community-based approach, which has inherent strengths (e.g., localized organization. It has, however, faced practical (e.g., funding and epistemological (changing modes of knowledge transmission challenges. The second case study seeks to facilitate IEK transmission within the formal school system. Although this model has potential, it has faced significant challenges (e.g., lack of institutional linkages. We conclude that supporting and strengthening IEK is important but that serious attention is needed to account for the social, situated, and dynamic nature of IEK. In closing, we use the review and case studies to propose four principles that may guide adaptive and flexible approaches for the future maintenance of IEK systems.

  5. Beyond Earth: Weaving Science and Indigenous Culture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Young, Timothy; Guy, M.; Baker-Big Back, C.; Froelich, K.; Munski, L.; Johnson, T.

    2010-01-01

    Beyond Earth is an NSF planning grant designed to engage urban and rural families in science learning while piloting curriculum development and implementation that incorporates both Native and Western epistemologies. Physical, earth, and space science content is juxtaposed with indigenous culture, stories, language and epistemology in after-school programs and teacher training. Project partners include the Dakota Science Center, Fort Berthold Community College, and Sitting Bull College. The Native American tribes represented in this initiative illustrate partnerships between the Dakota, Lakota, Nakota, Hidatsa, Mandan, and Arikara. The primary project deliverables include a culturally responsive curriculum Beyond Earth Moon Module, teacher training workshops, a project website. The curriculum module introduces students to the moon's appearance, phases, and positions in the sky using the Night Sky Planetarium Experience Station to explore core concepts underlying moon phases and eclipses using the interactive Nature Experience Station before engaging in the culminating Mission Challenge in which they apply their knowledge to problem solving situations and projects. The website and developed explorations are presented.

  6. Virtual Machine Monitor Indigenous Memory Reclamation Technique

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhammad Shams Ul Haq

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Sandboxing is a mechanism to monitor and control the execution of malicious or untrusted program. Memory overhead incurred by sandbox solutions is one of bottleneck for sandboxing most of applications in a system. Memory reclamation techniques proposed for traditional full virtualization do not suit sandbox environment due to lack of full scale guest operating system in sandbox. In this paper, we propose memory reclamation technique for sandboxed applications. The proposed technique indigenously works in virtual machine monitor layer without installing any driver in VMX non root mode and without new communication channel with host kernel. Proposed Page reclamation algorithm is a simple modified form of Least recently used page reclamation and Working set page reclamation algorithms. For efficiently collecting working set of application, we use a hardware virtualization extension, page Modification logging introduced by Intel. We implemented proposed technique with one of open source sandboxes to show effectiveness of proposed memory reclamation method. Experimental results show that proposed technique successfully reclaim up to 11% memory from sandboxed applications with negligible CPU overheads

  7. INNOVATIVE MIOR PROCESS UTILIZING INDIGENOUS RESERVOIR CONSTITUENTS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    D.O. Hitzman; A.K. Stepp; D.M. Dennis; L.R. Graumann

    2003-09-01

    This research program was directed at improving the knowledge of reservoir ecology and developing practical microbial solutions and technologies for improving oil production. The goal was to identify and utilize indigenous microbial populations which can produce beneficial metabolic products and develop a methodology to stimulate those select microbes with nutrient amendments to increase oil recovery. This microbial technology has the capability of producing multiple oil-releasing agents. Experimental laboratory work in model sandpack cores was conducted using microbial cultures isolated from produced water samples. Comparative laboratory studies demonstrating in situ production of microbial products as oil recovery agents were conducted in sand packs with natural field waters using cultures and conditions representative of oil reservoirs. Increased oil recovery in multiple model sandpack systems was achieved and the technology and results were verified by successful field studies. Direct application of the research results has lead to the development of a feasible, practical, successful, and cost-effective technology which increases oil recovery. This technology is now being commercialized and applied in numerous field projects to increase oil recovery. Two field applications of the developed technology reported production increases of 21% and 24% in oil recovery.

  8. ESR dose assessment in irradiated chicken legs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bordi, F. [II Universita, Rome (Italy). Dipartimento di Medicina Interna; Fattibene, P.; Onori, S.; Pantaloni, M. [Istituto Superiore di Santia, Rome (Italy)]|[Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare, Rome (Italy). Sezione Sanita

    1994-05-01

    The electron spin resonance technique has received a wide consensus for dose assessment in irradiated chicken bone. Nevertheless, some practical problems are still open like the most suitable mathematical expression to be used for dose evaluation with the re-irradiation method. In the present paper the linear and exponential approximations were analyzed using 40 bone chicken samples and a reproducible readout procedure. The results suggested the use of the exponential dose-effect relationship and gave some indications on the procedure to be practically adopted. (author).

  9. Nano-nutrition of chicken embryos

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sawosz, Filip; Pineda, Lane Manalili; Hotowy, Anna

    2013-01-01

    It has been suggested that the quantity and quality of nutrients stored in the egg might not be optimal for the fast rate of chicken embryo development in modern broilers, and embryos could be supplemented with nutrients by in ovo injection. Recent experiments showed that in ovo feeding reduces...... broiler eggs was randomly divided into a Control group without injection and injected groups with hydrocolloids of Nano-Ag, ATP or a complex of Nano-Ag and ATP (Nano-Ag/ATP). The embryos were evaluated on day 20 of incubation. The results indicate that the application of ATP to chicken embryos increases...

  10. Cultural and socio-economic factors in health, health services and prevention for indigenous people

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    SHEIKH MASHHOOD AHMED

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Indigenous people across the world experience more health related problems as compared to the population at large. So, this review article is broadly an attempt to highlight the important factors for indigenous peoples’ health problems, and to recommend some suggestions to improve their health status. Standard database for instance, Pubmed, Medline, Google scholar, and Google book searches have been used to get the sources. Different key words, for example, indigenous people and health, socio-economic and cultural factors of indigenous health, history of indigenous peoples’ health, Australian indigenous peoples’ health, Latin American indigenous peoples’ health, Canadian indigenous peoples’ health, South Asian indigenous peoples’ health, African indigenous peoples’ health, and so on, have been used to find the articles and books. This review paper shows that along with commonplace factors, indigenous peoples’ health is affected by some distinctive factors such as indigeneity, colonialand post-colonial experience, rurality, lack of governments’ recognition etc., which nonindigenous people face to a much lesser degree. In addition, indigenous peoples around the world experience various health problems due to their varied socio-economic and cultural contexts. Finally, this paper recommends that the spiritual, physical, mental, emotional, cultural, economic, socio-cultural and environmental factors should be incorporated into the indigenous health agenda to improve their health status.

  11. Chlamydia Psittaci Strains from Broiler Chickens Induce Histopathological Lesions and Mortality in SPF Chickens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yin Lizi

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available A detailed study on histopathological lesions induced by two C. psittaci outer membrane protein A (ompA genotype B strains (10/423 and 10/525 and one genotype D strain (10/298 in experimentally infected (aerosol specific pathogen free (SPF chickens was performed. The strains were derived from Belgian and French commercially raised broilers with pneumonia. Both genotype B and D strains induced conjunctivitis, rhinitis, sinusitis, tracheitis, bronchitis, pneumonitis, airsacculitis, splenitis, hepatitis, nephritis, and enteritis in sequentially (days 2 to 34 post infection euthanized chickens. Inflammation of the ovaries was only observed in genotype D infected chickens. Overall, the genotype D strain caused more severe gross and histopathological lesions and mortality (54.5% early upon infection. The genotype D strain seemed to replicate faster as severity of the lesions increased more quickly. C. psittaci is a primary pathogen in chickens, and efficient monitoring and control of this emerging zoonotic pathogen is urgently needed.

  12. Chicken IL-17F: Identification and comparative expression analysis in Eimeria-Infected chickens

    Science.gov (United States)

    Interleukin-17F (IL-17F), belonging to the IL-17 family, is a proinflammatory cytokine and plays an important role in gut homeostasis. A full-length chicken IL-17F (chIL-17F) cDNA with a 510-bp coding region was first identified from ConA-activated splenic lymphocytes of chickens. The chIL-17F share...

  13. Growth hormone (GH)-releasing activity of chicken GH-releasing hormone (GHRH) in chickens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harvey, S; Gineste, C; Gaylinn, B D

    2014-08-01

    Two peptides with sequence similarities to growth hormone releasing hormone (GHRH) have been identified by analysis of the chicken genome. One of these peptides, chicken (c) GHRH-LP (like peptide) was previously found to poorly bind to chicken pituitary membranes or to cloned and expressed chicken GHRH receptors and had little, if any, growth hormone (GH)-releasing activity in vivo or in vitro. In contrast, a second more recently discovered peptide, cGHRH, does bind to cloned and expressed cGHRH receptors and increases cAMP activity in transfected cells. The possibility that this peptide may have in vivo GH-releasing activity was therefore assessed. The intravenous (i.v.) administration of cGHRH to immature chickens, at doses of 3-100 μg/kg, significantly increased circulating GH concentrations within 10 min of injection and the plasma GH levels remained elevated for at least 30 min after the injection of maximally effective doses. The plasma GH responses to cGHRH were comparable with those induced by human (h) or porcine (p) GHRH preparations and to that induced by thyrotropin releasing hormone (TRH). In marked contrast, the i.v. injection of cGHRH-LP had no significant effect on circulating GH concentrations in immature chicks. GH release was also increased from slaughterhouse chicken pituitary glands perifused for 5 min with cGHRH at doses of 0.1 μg/ml or 1.0 μg/ml, comparable with GH responses to hGHRH1-44. In contrast, the perifusion of chicken pituitary glands with cGHRH-LP had no significant effect on GH release. In summary, these results demonstrate that cGHRH has GH-releasing activity in chickens and support the possibility that it is the endogenous ligand of the cGHRH receptor.

  14. 'Culture' as HIV prevention: Indigenous youth speak up!

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ciann Wilson

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available This article explores the ways in which (a Indigenous youth involved in an HIV intervention took up and reclaimed their cultures as a project of defining ‘self’, and (b how Indigenous ‘culture’ can be used as a tool for resistance, HIV prevention and health promotion. Data were drawn from the Taking Action Project: Using arts-based approaches to develop Aboriginal youth leadership in HIV prevention. ‘By youth, for youth’ HIV education and awareness workshops were facilitated in six Indigenous communities across Canada, incorporating traditional and contemporary art forms to explore how youth perceived the links between structural inequality and HIV vulnerability. Over 100 youth participated, with 70 partaking in individual interviews to reflect on their experiences at the workshops. Interviews were audio-recorded, transcribed verbatim and analysed using NVivo software. Indigenous youth understood culture as a complex construct that included reconnecting to land, body, history, community and ceremony. For many youth, being Aboriginal and participating in cultural activities was seen as important for intergenerational healing, empowerment, health and combatting HIV. Youth spoke excitedly of their attempts to reclaim their languages and cultures despite barriers. They also understood art as a medium for self-expression and as an important site of cultural evolution. Our project demonstrates that the incorporation of culture within health strategies is important for effective HIV prevention amongst Indigenous youth. Reclaiming Indigenous cultures, languages and ceremonies may help to nurture future generations, diminish cycles of victimisation and combat hopelessness by reconnecting youth to stories of resistance and survival. Keywords: Indigenous youth, culture, HIV prevention, arts-based research

  15. Relationships between multidrug-resistant Salmonella enterica Serovar Schwarzengrund and both broiler chickens and retail chicken meats in Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asai, Tetsuo; Murakami, Koichi; Ozawa, Manao; Koike, Ryoji; Ishikawa, Hitoshi

    2009-05-01

    We examined 29 isolates of Salmonella enterica subspecies enterica serovar Schwarzengrund from broiler chickens (n=19) and retail chicken meats (n=10) in Japan for antimicrobial susceptibility and pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) profiling. All isolates exhibited resistance to both bicozamycin and sulfadimethoxine (minimum inhibitory concentration of both antimicrobial agents: >512 microg/ml). Nalidixic acid resistance was found in only one broiler chicken isolate. PFGE analysis showed that there were two genotypes among S. Schwarzengrund isolates. Isolates from 11 of 19 broiler chickens and from 6 of 10 retail chicken meats exhibited resistance to dihydrostreptomycin, kanamycin, oxytetracycline, bicozamycin, trimethoprim, and sulfadimethoxine, and had an identical PFGE pattern classified into a predominant genotype. Thus, our results indicate that genetically identical multidrug-resistant S. Schwarzengrund appeared to be disseminated among broiler chickens and retail chicken meats in Japan.

  16. The molecular dimension of microbial species: 3. Comparative genomics of Synechococcus strains with different light responses and in situ diel transcription patterns of associated ecotypes in the Mushroom Spring microbial mat

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Millie T. Olsen

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Genomes were obtained for three closely related strains of Synechococcus that are representative of putative ecotypes that predominate at different depths in the 1 mm-thick, upper-green layer in the 60°C mat of Mushroom Spring, Yellowstone National Park, and exhibit different light adaptation and acclimation responses. The genomes were compared to the published genome of a previously obtained, closely related strain from a neighboring spring, and differences in both gene content and orthologous gene alleles between high-light-adapted and low-light-adapted strains were identified. Evidence of genetic differences that relate to adaptation to light intensity and/or quality, CO2 uptake, nitrogen metabolism, organic carbon metabolism, and uptake of other nutrients were found between strains of the different putative ecotypes. In situ diel transcription patterns of genes, including genes unique to either low-light-adapted or high-light-adapted strains and different alleles of an orthologous photosystem gene, revealed that expression is fine-tuned to the different light environments experienced by ecotypes prevalent at various depths in the mat. This study suggests that strains of closely related putative ecotypes have different genomic adaptations that enable them to inhabit distinct ecological niches while living in close proximity within a microbial community.

  17. Responsive Reading: Caring for Chicken Little

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maderazo, Catherine

    2009-01-01

    Media images and news about current events have the potential to strike like acorns. In these moments, children, like Chicken Little, need caring adults who can help them understand what is happening. As early childhood educators, one must recognize and provide opportunities to guide children's social and emotional well-being in addition to…

  18. Alternative anticoccidial treatment of broiler chickens

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Elmusharaf, M.A.

    2007-01-01

    This thesis describes the effects of mannanoligosaccharides (MOS) and electromagnetic fields (EMF) in broiler chickens infected with Eimeria parasites. The question addressed was whether ingestion of MOS or exposure to EMF would counteract the coccidiosis-induced depression of growth performance and

  19. Zoonotic Public Health Hazards in Backyard Chickens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pohjola, L; Nykäsenoja, S; Kivistö, R; Soveri, T; Huovilainen, A; Hänninen, M L; Fredriksson-Ahomaa, M

    2016-08-01

    Backyard poultry has become increasingly popular in industrialized countries. In addition to keeping chickens for eggs and meat, owners often treat the birds as pets. However, several pathogenic enteric bacteria have the potential for zoonotic transmission from poultry to humans but very little is known about the occurrence of zoonotic pathogens in backyard flocks. The occurrence and the antimicrobial resistance of Salmonella enterica, Campylobacter spp., Listeria monocytogenes and enteropathogenic Yersinia spp. was studied in 51 voluntary backyard chicken farms in Finland during October 2012 and January 2013. Campylobacter isolates were further characterized by pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE), and the occurrence of ESBL/AmpC-producing E. coli was investigated. The findings from this study indicate that backyard chickens are a reservoir of Campylobacter jejuni strains and a potential source of C. jejuni infection for humans. Backyard chickens can also carry L. monocytogenes, although their role as a primary reservoir is questionable. Campylobacter coli, Yersinia pseudotuberculosis and Salmonella enterica were only found sporadically in the faecal and environmental samples of backyard poultry in Finland. No Yersinia enterocolitica carrying the virulence plasmid was isolated. All pathogens were highly susceptible to most of the antimicrobials studied. Only a few AmpC- and no ESBL-producing E. coli were found.

  20. Gene finding in the chicken genome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonarakis Stylianos E

    2005-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Despite the continuous production of genome sequence for a number of organisms, reliable, comprehensive, and cost effective gene prediction remains problematic. This is particularly true for genomes for which there is not a large collection of known gene sequences, such as the recently published chicken genome. We used the chicken sequence to test comparative and homology-based gene-finding methods followed by experimental validation as an effective genome annotation method. Results We performed experimental evaluation by RT-PCR of three different computational gene finders, Ensembl, SGP2 and TWINSCAN, applied to the chicken genome. A Venn diagram was computed and each component of it was evaluated. The results showed that de novo comparative methods can identify up to about 700 chicken genes with no previous evidence of expression, and can correctly extend about 40% of homology-based predictions at the 5' end. Conclusions De novo comparative gene prediction followed by experimental verification is effective at enhancing the annotation of the newly sequenced genomes provided by standard homology-based methods.

  1. The major histocompatibility complex in the chicken

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Guillemot, F; Kaufman, J F; Skjoedt, K

    1989-01-01

    The chicken B complex is the first non-mammalian MHC characterized at the molecular level. It differs from the human HLA and murine H-2 complexes in the small size of the class I (B-F) and class II (B-L) genes and their close proximity. This proximity accounts for the absence of recombination...

  2. Lymphoid cells in chicken intestinal epithelium

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bjerregaard, P

    1975-01-01

    The intraepithelial lymphoid cells of chicken small intestine were studied by light microscopy using 1 mu Epon sections, and by electron microscopy. Three cell types were found: small lymphocytes, large lymphoid cells, and granular cells. These cells correspond to the theliolymphocytes and globule...

  3. Characterization of chicken dendritic cell markers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Animal and Natural Resources Institute, ARS-USDA, Beltsville, MD, USA. New mouse monoclonal antibodies which detect CD80 and CD83 were developed to characterize chicken dendritic cells (DCs). The characteristics of these molecules have been studied in human, swine, ovine, feline, and canine but not ...

  4. Differential Effects of Temperature Extremes on Hospital Admission Rates for Respiratory Disease between Indigenous and Non-Indigenous Australians in the Northern Territory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Green, Donna; Bambrick, Hilary; Tait, Peter; Goldie, James; Schultz, Rosalie; Webb, Leanne; Alexander, Lisa; Pitman, Andrew

    2015-12-03

    The health gap between Indigenous and non-Indigenous Australians may be exacerbated by climate change if temperature extremes have disproportionate adverse effects on Indigenous people. To explore this issue, we analysed the effect of temperature extremes on hospital admissions for respiratory diseases, stratified by age, Indigenous status and sex, for people living in two different climates zones in the Northern Territory during the period 1993-2011. We examined admissions for both acute and chronic respiratory diagnoses, controlling for day of the week and seasonality variables. Our analysis showed that: (1) overall, Indigenous hospital admission rates far exceeded non-Indigenous admission rates for acute and chronic diagnoses, and Top End climate zone admission rates exceeded Central Australia climate zone admission rates; (2) extreme cold and hot temperatures were associated with inconsistent changes in admission rates for acute respiratory disease in Indigenous and non-Indigenous children and older adults; and (3) no response to cold or hot temperature extremes was found for chronic respiratory diagnoses. These findings support our two hypotheses, that extreme hot and cold temperatures have a different effect on hospitalisations for respiratory disease between Indigenous and non-Indigenous people, and that these health risks vary between the different climate zones. We did not, however, find that there were differing responses to temperature extremes in the two populations, suggesting that any increased vulnerability to climate change in the Indigenous population of the Northern Territory arises from an increased underlying risk to respiratory disease and an already greater existing health burden.

  5. 绿色生态型城市道路评价指标体系%Evaluation index system of green ecotype city road

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李满良; 郑晨; 王朝辉; 曾伟; 狄升贯

    2015-01-01

    In order to evaluate green ecotype city road scientifically and rationally,the concept of green ecotype city road was proposed,and the evaluation index system was set up from 5 aspects, namely,rationality of design,effect of road function,energy-conservation and emission-reduction effect,greening effect and environmental protection effect.5 first grade indexes,14 second grade indexes and 31 third grade indexes were elaborated, and their evaluation standards were determined.The evaluation method of green ecotype city road was established on the basis of Spearman rank correlation coefficient combination determining method and interval approximation method.The green ecotype road of China-Singapore Tianjin Ecotype City was evaluated by using the method and the index system.Evaluation result shows that for the road,21 third grade indexes are excellent and 10 third grade indexes are good.12 second grade indexes are excellent and 2 second grade indexes are good.2 first grade indexes,namely,rationality of design and environmental protection effect are good and the rest are excellent.The distance between the excellent evaluation grade and the evaluation index set of green ecotype city road is 3.82,and is smallest in the distances between the evaluation index set and the evaluation grades,which shows the green ecotype city road is excellent and the evaluation result is consistent with the reality.Therefore,the evaluation index system and the evaluation method are reasonable and reliable.34 tabs,21 refs.%为科学合理地评价绿色生态型城市道路,确立了绿色生态型城市道路概念,从设计合理性、道路功能效果、节能减排效果、绿化效果和环境保护效果五方面提出了绿色生态型城市道路评价指标体系,包括5个一级指标、14个二级指标与31个三级指标,并对各指标进行了阐述,确定了各指标的评价标准,提出了基于 Spearman 等级相关系数组合赋权方法与区间逼近方法

  6. The paradox of Indigenous resurgence at the end of empire

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    . Waziyatawin

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available In the twenty-first century, we are facing the unprecedented convergence of human-created crises. Climate chaos, fossil-fuel resource depletion, overpopulation, and the ongoing destruction of ecosystems threaten the very foundation of colonial empire, both creating emancipatory potential for Indigenous societies struggling against colonial subjugation and wreaking devastating havoc on the lands, waters, and ecosystems upon which our people must survive.  While the vulnerability and unsustainability of empire is clearly exposed, Indigenous people must wrestle with the continued cooptation of our people into civilization’s fallacies and destructive habits as well as the increasing threats to our homelands that jeopardize our capacity for a land-based existence. Thus, just when liberation may be within our grasp, the ecological destruction may be so complete that Indigenous lifeways may be impossible to practice. In this context there is a simultaneous and urgent need for both the restoration of sustainable Indigenous practices and a serious defense of Indigenous homelands.

  7. The impact of indigenous culture on female leadership in Pakistan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shafta Manzoor

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Digging into the experiences of thirty working women, this study examined the barriers imposed by indigenous culture of Pakistan impose on these women. The study followed a qualitative research approach with phenomenological theoretical framework. Fifteen females were interviewed from urban areas and fifteen from rural areas to draw a holistic picture of indigenous culture of Pakistan and its effect on career progress of females. From the data collected, seven categories were initially developed through open coding, followed by three clusters through axial coding and lastly the study created a theoretical framework through selective coding. Findings of the study indicated that indigenous culture strongly affects the career success of working women in Pakistan. The study concluded that indigenous culture of Pakistan puts taboos on females in the form of family behavior, expectations, and the structurally enforced inferior status of females which affects their leadership skills negatively and restricts their career growth. The study concluded that indigenous culture affects career progress of females in negative way and although efforts have been done to give women equal rights in Pakistan, these efforts will become more meaningful if general perception of society about women and their role starts to change which will require awareness programs and cooperation from academic institutions and policy makers.

  8. Indigenous Community Tree Inventory: Assessment of Data Quality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fauzi, M. F.; Idris, N. H.; Din, A. H. M.; Osman, M. J.; Idris, N. H.; Ishak, M. H. I.

    2016-09-01

    The citizen science program to supplement authoritative data in tree inventory has been well implemented in various countries. However, there is a lack of study that assesses correctness and accuracy of tree data supplied by citizens. This paper addresses the issue of tree data quality supplied by semi-literate indigenous group. The aim of this paper is to assess the correctness of attributes (tree species name, height and diameter at breast height) and the accuracy of tree horizontal positioning data supplied by indigenous people. The accuracy of the tree horizontal position recorded by GNSS-enable smart phone was found to have a RMSE value of ± 8m which is not suitable to accurately locate individual tree position in tropical rainforest such as the Royal Belum State Park. Consequently, the tree species names contributed by indigenous people were only 20 to 30 percent correct as compared with the reference data. However, the combination of indigenous respondents comprising of different ages, experience and knowledge working in a group influence less attribute error in data entry and increase the use of free text rather than audio methods. The indigenous community has a big potential to engage with scientific study due to their local knowledge with the research area, however intensive training must be given to empower their skills and several challenges need to be addressed.

  9. Cytochrome P450 genetic polymorphisms of Mexican indigenous populations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sosa-Macías, Martha; Llerena, Adrián

    2013-01-01

    This review focuses on the genetic polymorphisms of the cytochrome P450 (CYP) genes in Mexican indigenous populations, who are a part of the wide ethnic diversity of this country. These native groups have a particular historical trajectory that is different from the Mexican Mestizos. This variability may be reflected in the frequency distribution of polymorphisms in the CYP genes that encode enzymes involved in the metabolism of drugs and other xenobiotics. Therefore, these polymorphisms may affect drug efficacy and safety in indigenous populations in Mexico. The present study aimed to analyze the prevalence of CYP polymorphisms in indigenous Mexicans and to compare the results with studies in Mexican Mestizos. Because the extrapolation of pharmacogenetic data from Mestizos is not applicable to the majority of indigenous groups, pharmacogenetic studies directed at indigenous populations need to be developed. The Amerindians analyzed in this study showed a low phenotypic (CYP2D6) and genotypic (CYP2D6, CYP2C9) diversity, unlike Mexican Mestizos. The frequency of polymorphisms in the CYP1A1, CYP2C19, CYP2E1, and CYP3A4 genes was more similar among the Amerindians and Mexican Mestizos, with the exception of the CYP1A2 gene, whose *1F variant frequency in Mexican Amerindians was the highest described to date.

  10. Isolation, identification and characterization of regional indigenous Saccharomyces cerevisiae strains

    Science.gov (United States)

    Šuranská, Hana; Vránová, Dana; Omelková, Jiřina

    2016-01-01

    In the present work we isolated and identified various indigenous Saccharomyces cerevisiae strains and screened them for the selected oenological properties. These S. cerevisiae strains were isolated from berries and spontaneously fermented musts. The grape berries (Sauvignon blanc and Pinot noir) were grown under the integrated and organic mode of farming in the South Moravia (Czech Republic) wine region. Modern genotyping techniques such as PCR-fingerprinting and interdelta PCR typing were employed to differentiate among indigenous S. cerevisiae strains. This combination of the methods provides a rapid and relatively simple approach for identification of yeast of S. cerevisiae at strain level. In total, 120 isolates were identified and grouped by molecular approaches and 45 of the representative strains were tested for selected important oenological properties including ethanol, sulfur dioxide and osmotic stress tolerance, intensity of flocculation and desirable enzymatic activities. Their ability to produce and utilize acetic/malic acid was examined as well; in addition, H2S production as an undesirable property was screened. The oenological characteristics of indigenous isolates were compared to a commercially available S. cerevisiae BS6 strain, which is commonly used as the starter culture. Finally, some indigenous strains coming from organically treated grape berries were chosen for their promising oenological properties and these strains will be used as the starter culture, because application of a selected indigenous S. cerevisiae strain can enhance the regional character of the wines. PMID:26887243

  11. INDIGENOUS COMMUNITY TREE INVENTORY: ASSESSMENT OF DATA QUALITY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. F. Fauzi

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The citizen science program to supplement authoritative data in tree inventory has been well implemented in various countries. However, there is a lack of study that assesses correctness and accuracy of tree data supplied by citizens. This paper addresses the issue of tree data quality supplied by semi-literate indigenous group. The aim of this paper is to assess the correctness of attributes (tree species name, height and diameter at breast height and the accuracy of tree horizontal positioning data supplied by indigenous people. The accuracy of the tree horizontal position recorded by GNSS-enable smart phone was found to have a RMSE value of ± 8m which is not suitable to accurately locate individual tree position in tropical rainforest such as the Royal Belum State Park. Consequently, the tree species names contributed by indigenous people were only 20 to 30 percent correct as compared with the reference data. However, the combination of indigenous respondents comprising of different ages, experience and knowledge working in a group influence less attribute error in data entry and increase the use of free text rather than audio methods. The indigenous community has a big potential to engage with scientific study due to their local knowledge with the research area, however intensive training must be given to empower their skills and several challenges need to be addressed.

  12. Hospital Utilisation in Indigenous and Non-Indigenous Infants under 12 Months of Age in Western Australia, Prospective Population Based Data Linkage Study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kimberley McAuley

    Full Text Available Indigenous infants (infants aged under 12 months have the highest hospital admission and emergency department presentation risks in Australia. However, there have been no recent reports comparing hospital utilisation between Indigenous and non-Indigenous infants.Our primary objective was to use a large prospective population-based linked dataset to assess the risk of all-cause hospital admission and emergency department presentation in Indigenous compared to non-Indigenous infants in Western Australia (WA. Secondary objectives were to assess the effect of socio-economic status (Index of Relative Socio-Economic Disadvantage [IRSD] on hospital utilisation and to understand the causes of hospital utilisation.There were 3,382 (5.4% Indigenous and 59,583 (94.6% non-Indigenous live births in WA from 1 January 2010 to 31 December 2011. Indigenous infants had a greater risk of hospital admission (adjusted odds ratio [aOR] 1.90, 95% confidence interval [95% CI] 1.77-2.04, p = <0.001 and emergency department presentation (aOR 2.15, 95% CI 1.98-2.33, p = <0.001 compared to non-Indigenous infants. Fifty nine percent (59.0% of admissions in Indigenous children were classified as preventable compared to 31.2% of admissions in non-Indigenous infants (aOR 2.12, 95% CI 1.88-2.39. The risk of hospital admission in the most disadvantaged (IRSD 1 infants in the total cohort (35.7% was similar to the risk in the least disadvantaged (IRSD 5 infants (30.6% (aOR 1.04, 95% CI 0.96-1.13, p = 0.356.WA Indigenous infants have much higher hospital utilisation than non Indigenous infants. WA health services should prioritise Indigenous infants regardless of their socio economic status or where they live.

  13. Benthic non-indigenous species among indigenous species and their habitat preferences in Puck Bay (southern Baltic Sea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Urszula Janas

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available To date 11 non-indigenous benthic taxa have been reported in Puck Bay (southern Baltic Sea. Five of the 34 taxa forming the soft bottom communities are regarded as non-indigenous to this area. They are Marenzelleria spp., Mya arenaria, Potamopyrgus antipodarum, Gammarus tigrinus and Amphibalanus improvisus. Non-indigenous species comprised up to 33% of the total number of identified macrofaunal taxa (mean 17%. The average proportion of aliens was 6% (max 46% in the total abundance of macrofauna, and 10% (max 65% in the biomass. A significant positive relationship was found between the numbers of native taxa and non-indigenous species. The number of native taxa was significantly higher on a sea bed covered with vascular plants than on an unvegetated one, but no such relationship was found for their abundance. No significant differences were found in the number and abundance of non-indigenous species between sea beds devoid of vegetation and those covered with vascular plants, Chara spp. or mats of filamentous algae. G. tigrinus preferred a sea bed with vegetation, whereas Marenzelleria spp. decidedly preferred one without vegetation.

  14. Entrepreneurial characteristics of indigenous housing developers: the case of Malaysia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mastura JAAFAR

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Since the colonisation era, the immigrants from mainland China (and now their descendents dominate the Malaysian housing industry. Their high entrepreneurial ethics stimulated early venture in all economic sectors to become dominant in business. To increase the participation of indigenous entrepreneurs in economic activities, Malaysia has practiced its own version of the affirmative policy since the 1970s which is known as National Economic Policy (NEP. Unlike other economic sectors such as construction, manufacturing and agricultural, the government has not provided special assistance (other than those that are generic in nature for the indigenous populace to penetrate and thrive in housing development. As a consequence, their participation in this sector is conspicuous by their absence. A study was conducted to look into the involvement of indigenous housing developers in housing industry. Data was collected through postal questionnaires followed by face-to-face interviews. The discussion on the data analysis is presented together with interview findings.

  15. Generating Alternative Worlds: The Indigenous Protest Poetry of Romaine Moreton

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Danica Čerče

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Since the 1980s, indigenous authors have had a high profile in Australia and their writing has made a significant impact on the Australian public. Given that poetry has attracted more indigenous Australians than any other mode of creative expression, this genre, too, has provided an important impetus for their cultural and political expression. Discussing the verse of Romaine Moreton, and taking up George Levine’s view (2000 that works of art are able to produce critical disruptions and generate alternative worlds, the article aims to show that Moreton’s mesmerising reflections on origin, dispossession, dislocation and identity of Australian indigenous peoples encouraged national self-reflection and helped create a meaningful existence for the deprived and the dispossessed. It also touches upon some other topics explored in Moreton’s poetry and provides evidence of its universal relevance.

  16. X-Integrationism for Chinese Indigenous Management Research

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Li, Xin

    2015-01-01

    Regarding philosophical foundation of Chinese indigenous management research, Prof. Kwang Kuo Hwang of Taiwan University and Prof. Peter P. Li of Copenhagen Business School have contradictory judgments. Their opinions represent two opposite poles. This paper tries to offer a middle route between...... these two poles. The author does not fully agree with Hwang’s argument that Chinese indigenous management research must adopt Western philosophies of science, nor does he agree with Li’s philosophy of wisdom interpretation of Chinese traditional philosophy. By integrating multiple philosophical elements...... rooted in China and the West, such as, Chinese Yin Yang thinking, Daoism, Confucianism, Bohr’s complementarity principle, and Hegel’s dialectic logic, this paper tries to construct the daoliology, epistemology and methodology of Chinese indigenous management research....

  17. Bioleaching of chromium from tannery sludge by indigenous Acidithiobacillus thiooxidans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yuan-Shan; Pan, Zhi-Yan; Lang, Jian-Min; Xu, Jian-Miao; Zheng, Yu-Guo

    2007-08-17

    Chromium in tannery sludge will cause serious environmental problems and is toxic to organisms. The acidophilic sulfur-oxidizing Acidithiobacillus thiooxidans can leach heavy metals form urban and industrial wastes. This study examined the ability of an indigenous sulfur-oxidizing A. thiooxidans to leach chromium from tannery sludge. The results showed that the pH of sludge mixture inoculated with the indigenous A. thiooxidans decreased to around 2.0 after 4 days. After 6 days incubation in shaking flasks at 30 degrees C and 160 rpm, up to 99% of chromium was solubilized from tannery sludge. When treated in a 2-l bubble column bioreactor for 5 days at 30 degrees C and aeration of 0.5 vvm, 99.7% of chromium was leached from tannery sludge. The results demonstrated that chromium in tannery sludge can be efficiently leached by the indigenous A. thiooxidans.

  18. Keep the Beat Recipes - Chicken and Mushroom Fricassee | NIH MedlinePlus the Magazine

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... good for your heart and taste great, too. Chicken and Mushroom Fricassee Serves 4 Ingredients: 1 Tbsp ... onions, raw or frozen 3 Cup low-sodium chicken broth 1 lb skinless chicken legs or thighs ( ...

  19. Indigenous and tribal peoples' health (The Lancet-Lowitja Institute Global Collaboration)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Anderson, Ian; Robson, Bridget; Connolly, Michele

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND: International studies of the health of Indigenous and tribal peoples provide important public health insights. Reliable data are required for the development of policy and health services. Previous studies document poorer outcomes for Indigenous peoples compared with benchmark populat...

  20. Multimedia Technology and Indigenous Language Revitalization: Practical Educational Tools and Applications Used within Native Communities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galla, Candace Kaleimamoowahinekapu

    2010-01-01

    This dissertation reports findings from a study documenting the use of multimedia technology among Indigenous language communities to assist language learners, speakers, instructors, and institutions learn about multimedia technologies that have contributed to Indigenous language revitalization, education, documentation, preservation, and…