WorldWideScience

Sample records for economy integrating competitiveness

  1. The Resilient Economy: Integrating Competitiveness and Security

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Debbie van Opstal

    2009-01-07

    Globalization, technological complexity, interdependence, terrorism, climate and energy volatility, and pandemic potential are increasing the level of risk that societies and organizations now face. Risks also are increasingly interrelated; disruptions in one area can cascade in multiple directions. The ability to manage emerging risks, anticipate the interactions between different types of risk, and bounce back from disruption will be a competitive differentiator for companies and countries alike in the 21st century. What Policymakers Should Know The national objective is not just homeland protection, but economic resilience: the ability to mitigate and recover quickly from disruption. Businesses must root the case for investment in resilience strategies to manage a spectrum of risks, not just catastrophic ones. Making a business case for investment in defenses against low-probability events (even those with high impact) is difficult. However, making a business case for investments that assure business continuity and shareholder value is not a heavy lift. There are an infinite number of disruption scenarios, but only a finite number of outcomes. Leading organizations do not manage specific scenarios, rather they create the agility and flexibility to cope with turbulent situations. The investments and contingency plans these leading companies make to manage a spectrum of risk create a capability to respond to high-impact disasters as well. Government regulations tend to stovepipe different types of risk, which impedes companies abilities to manage risk in an integrated way. Policies to strengthen risk management capabilities would serve both security and competitiveness goals. What CEOs and Boards Should Know Operational risks are growing rapidly and outpacing many companies abilities to manage them. Corporate leadership has historically viewed operational risk management as a back office control function. But managing operational risks increasingly affects real

  2. COMPETITIVENESS FOR SUSTAINABLE ECONOMIES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nelu Eugen POPESCU

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available The current economic environment puts pressure on all national economies which struggle to improve their competitiveness and innovativeness in a sustainable way. This article aims to present the current state of the competitiveness by reviewing the main literature and worldwide researches, in order to provide a brief overview of the determinants that drive productivity and economic success at global and national level, taking into consideration the entrepreneurial activity for a country’s competitiveness and economic growth. The paper identifies the ways in which efficiency driven countries can improve their policies and get a better return on their investments, underlining a set of competitiveness enhancing policies (measures that can be implemented by public and private institutions in order to strengthen the economic fundamentals of the economies.

  3. SMES COMPETITIVENESS IN AN INTEGRATED ECONOMY: A PRELIMINARY STUDY FROM INDONESIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eko Suseno Hr Matrutty

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available ASEAN Economic Community (AEC offers both opportunities and challenges to Indonesian Small Medium Enterprises (SMEs. Highly competitive SMEs are likely to exploit opportunities from AEC by expanding their markets and securing raw materials at lower costs. On the contrary, the increasingly intense competition is likely to marginalize less competitive SMEs in their own domestic market. This study aims to analyze the SMEs competitiveness in anticipating AEC. Using 64 SMEs that already export their products or have potentials to export as the sample; this research shows that Indonesian SMEs exhibit a high competitiveness level from the perspective of the production factor, the availability of related and supporting industries factor (especially in relation to the availability of raw and supporting materials, and the demand factor. However, SME owners acknowledge that AEC intensify competition and the government has not provided adequate facilities to improve the SME competitiveness.

  4. Competition Policies in Emerging Economies: Lessons and ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    30 juil. 2008 ... Do small developing economies, or SDEs, need a specific competition policy to ... to promote competition and business creation, yet the economic and ... in Emerging Economies features in-depth analysis of two strategic ...

  5. Integrating the dark side of competition into explanations of business failures: Evidence from a developing economy

    OpenAIRE

    Amankwah-Amoah, J.; Antwi-Agyei, Issek; Zhang, Hongxu

    2017-01-01

    In spite of the growing body of literature on the bright side of inter-firm relationships, limited attention has been paid to the dark side of inter-firm relationships. Using insights of serial entrepreneurs in a developing economy, we articulate the mechanisms through which adverse rumours and misinformation perpetrated by rivals' firms undermine small businesses and lead to decline and eventual collapse. We uncovered that the rumours were made more potent when combined with other factors su...

  6. The Competitive Potential of the Belorussian Economy

    OpenAIRE

    Migranyan, A.

    2014-01-01

    The article is an attempt to study the factors of the competitive capacity of Belorussian economy. There are two groups of factors of competitive potential and competitive advantages' formation: internal (changes in resource allocation) and external factors (adaptation to external shocks). The study found that the main source of the increase of competitive capacity of the Belorussian economy were foreign. The competitive potential of Belarus was formed on the basis of the increased exports. H...

  7. Competitiveness of chinese socialist market economy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Henry Ernesto Turner Barragán

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available The article analyzes the dynamics held by the Chinese economy becomes, since it happened to be a communist to a capitalist economy and social market economy. Being in the latter, in which the country achieved high rates of economic growth, and improve their competitiveness pillars, generating higher growth prospects in the economy and the income of the society.

  8. Competition and Outsourcing with Scale Economies

    OpenAIRE

    Gérard P. Cachon; Patrick T. Harker

    2002-01-01

    Scale economies are commonplace in operations, yet because of analytical challenges, relatively little is known about how firms should compete in their presence. This paper presents a model of competition between two firms that face scale economies; (i.e., each firm's cost per unit of demand is decreasing in demand). A general framework is used, which incorporates competition between two service providers with price- and time-sensitive demand (a queuing game), and competition between two reta...

  9. Agglomeration economies, competitiveness and entrepreneurial performance

    OpenAIRE

    Páger, Balázs; Komlósi, Éva

    2015-01-01

    This paper aims to elaborate the role of agglomeration effects on countries' competitiveness and entrepreneurial performance. Our research contributes to the understanding of the relationship that exists between a country's urban system characterized by spatial agglomeration (concentration) or deglomeration (deconcentration) processes, and its competitiveness and entrepreneurial performance, respectively. Urbanization economies refer to considerable cost savings generated through the locating...

  10. Institutional Competitiveness in the Global Economy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Campbell, John L.; Pedersen, Ove K.

    that are very different institutionally. The analysis shows that there is no one best way to achieve success in today's global economy, except perhaps for reducing socioeconomic inequality; that the type of capitalism known as coordinated market economies are oversimplified in the literature; and that high...... national competitiveness under conditions of economic globalization. Following the varieties of capitalism literature, this paper argues that Denmark's success has been based in large part on its institutional competitiveness-its capacity to achieve socioeconomic success as a result of the competitive...

  11. Competition Policies in Emerging Economies

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    But important anti-competitive practices persist in this sector, and the ...... Each of these measures helped to establish the principles under which agents could ...... would be carried out by the Tax Administration System, which would be likely to ...... Malaysia. 166.07. 11. 0. 46. 18. 26. 41.26. 38. 2.2. 20. Mauritius. 96.15. 28. 0.

  12. Competitiveness in tourism economies of the APEC

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Reyna María Ibáñez Pérez

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available It is estimated that by 2030 the influx of tourists worldwide scope 1. 7 billion people. For such figures become a reality, timely in formation that can be taken as a reference for the generation of strategies aimed at harnessing the tourism potential of the various destinations in the world is required, plus a coordinated work between different economies, blocks and organizations. Here, in this article, an overview of the situation and development of tourism competitiveness of nations that make up the Forum Asia Pacific Economic Cooperation (APEC is provided. The methodology consisted of review of specialized search and sta tistical information influx, income and tourism competitiveness globally and literature APEC member country. The main results indicate that globally between 2010 and 2013, APEC countries experienced an increase in tourism revenues of 25%, a figure that exceeds global trends. In 2013, the level of tourism competitiveness presented by APEC, ranged between 6 and 82 position globally and only 53% of the 19 APEC economies that were evaluated by the World Economic Forum (WEF, improved their level of competitiveness. In relation to the regulatory framework linked to tourism, nations like Peru, Brunei and Russia reached the lowest ratings of the block thus have enormous work to do to improve your score in this category. In business environment and infrastructure, highlighted America. While in human and cultural resources, proved to be the issue in which APEC economies outperformed. Finally, results for APEC economies, evidence that critical areas are those concerning regulation and policies; and particularly sustainability issue, which can become a bottleneck in terms of competitiveness in the area of APEC therefore must strengthen and design better strategies for joint efforts in relation to such matters.

  13. Aspects of essences of competitiveness of national economy

    OpenAIRE

    Dikan, V.; Kirdina, E.

    2009-01-01

    Existent approaches are considered to determination of concept «competitiveness of national economy» and author approach is formed to him. Intercommunication between the competitiveness of national economy is set globalization’s processes, practical recommendations are developed on the increase of competitiveness of Ukraine in outer space.

  14. ECONOMY COMPETITIVENESS AND MODERN PEDAGOGICS DEFINITIONS CORRELATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Svetlana Tolochko

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of the paper is to understand and explain economy competitiveness and modern pedagogic definition correlation. Education for entrepreneurship or economic development, and education for environmental sustainability, or sustainable development are seen as arguing goals in education reforms. Teachers today also encounter a number of other and equally important challenges in their work, such as educating youth for insecurity, tolerance, new technologies, peace and active citizenship, to mention but a few. National economic competitiveness is linked to intellectual and capital and is driven by knowledge, and innovation. Sustainable development requires an understanding of the complexity of the global ecosystem and of creative problem-solving the solutions searching to ‘wicked problems’ such as that of reconciling economic activity with a sustainable environment. Methodology. It is used the data from publications and reports of the European Commission, OECD, World Bank, World Economic Forum, UNESCO, International Journals in Economics and Pedagogic: American Economic Review, Journal of Education Policy, Journal of Education Change, European Journal of Education. In the article the descriptive analysis, supported by the quantitative analysis is applied. Results. It was defined that national economic competitiveness is linked to capital driven by knowledge and innovation. It was analysed the formation of Global Competitiveness Index (GCI which is made up of over 110 variables. According to the GCI Switzerland is the most competitive economy in the world in 2015. It is highlighted the following overarching needs to: give a higher profile to the notion of interdependence: how closely one part of an ecosystem is linked to and depends upon another; making humanity more aware of its own fragility on this planet; highlight the role of cooperation: problems faced will only be resolved by international cooperation; develop the notion of a global

  15. Transatlantic Integration and Developed Countries Competitiveness Problems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexey. A. Sidorov

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Factors and possible consequences of transatlantic integration are elaborated in the article. An overview of the history of transatlantic cooperation is provided. The author highlights the paramount goal of Transatlantic Trade and Investment Partnership (TTIP - strengthening the positions of its parties in the world economy against the backdrop of global competition. Stalemate in Doha round of WTO trade negotiations as well as depressed state of the European economy also contributed to transatlantic integration. Validity of the EU Commission conclusion on TTIP benefits is examined. Results of TTIP econometric modelling are critically assessed. Problems of the EU-US non-tariff liberalization are analyzed. Efficiency of the EU and US labor markets is compared. Low competitiveness of the EU in comparison to the USA and underlying risks for TTIP economic growth and employment are outlined. High unemployment, difficulties of manufacturing (including high-tech industries thereof recovery, adverse general business situation in the EU are among such risks. Various modes of regulatory cooperation and possibility of their adoption in TTIP are considered. Harmonization, erga omnes mutual recognition of regulations, bilateral mutual recognition of regulations, mutual recognition of conformity testing are distinguished. Possible implications of the modes of regulatory cooperation on TTIP members competitiveness, competition with emerging economies and global standard setting are examined. Conflict of TTIP goals and motivations is revealed. The existence of economic factors of transatlantic integration as well as overestimation of TTIP benefits (primarily for the EU economy is concluded.

  16. The political economy of competition in telecommunication

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Henten, Anders; Skouby, Knud Erik

    1998-01-01

    Article dealing with the regulation of telecommunications and the establishment of a competitive regime.......Article dealing with the regulation of telecommunications and the establishment of a competitive regime....

  17. CASE STUDY: Tanzania — Competition policy spurs economy-wide ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    2010-12-16

    Dec 16, 2010 ... People often fear for their futures when free-market policies are introduced. ... No matter how well an economy is doing, politicians like to say that for each ... holdings that interfere with legitimate and successful competition.

  18. COMPETITIVENESS - KEY ISSUES OF THE ROMANIAN ECONOMY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gabriela-Liliana, CIOBAN

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Based on the theory that competitiveness plays an increasingly powerful role in creating prosperity, wealth, a large number of economists, researchers, scientists, highlight a number of approaches aimed, on the one hand, on the analysis of competitiveness at national or regional level, and on the other hand, on the ability of local firms to achieve competitive products and to commercialize them in the extern markets. In this context we aim to analyze and develop strategies and methods to help identify competitive areas at a national level. This is necessary because in our opinion the competitiveness of a company and / or country is more than wealth itself; it means a systematic process of wealth creation, plus a social system in which most citizens have access to material wealth. We consider in this respect that a country cannot automatically be considered competitive only if it is rich in natural resources. In our view, a competitive country creates wealth through labor, talent and organization and thus it manages to have a productive and creative potential making it independent of material resources.

  19. Service Marketing Competitiveness In The New Economy

    OpenAIRE

    Aleksandar Grubor

    2008-01-01

    In the new economy the basic characteristics of services determine service consumption, just as customer relationship management impacts on the approach to services marketing. Contemporary service customers perceive service quality in service encounters and in ongoing relationships as well. The perception of service quality may be presented as a basic model of perception, known in service marketing reference sources as The Perceived Service Quality Model. Service marketers and marketing manag...

  20. National competitiveness and absolute advantage in a global economy

    OpenAIRE

    Parrinello, Sergio

    2006-01-01

    Distinguished trade theorists maintain that a national economy cannot be uncompetitive as a whole, contrary to the frequent statements of many politicians, because a country must possess a comparative advantage in some sector according to Ricardo’s principle. In this paper the author arguesthat such a criticism addressed to the notion of national competitiveness neglects a bottom line of a national economy engaged in a global market. In this context, characterized by free capital movements an...

  1. Integrated model of destination competitiveness

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Armenski Tanja

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this paper is to determine the weakest point of Serbian destination competitiveness as a tourist destination in comparation with its main competitors. The paper is organized as follows. The short introduction of the previous research on the destination competitiveness is followed by description of the Integrated model of destination competitiveness (Dwyer et al, 2003 that was used as the main reference framework. Section three is devoted to the description of the previous studies on competitiveness of Serbian tourism, while section four outlines the statistical methodology employed in this study and presents and interprets the empirical results. The results showed that Serbia is more competitive in its natural, cultural and created resources than in destination management while, according to the Integrated model, Serbia is less competitive in demand conditions that refer to the image and awareness of the destination itself.

  2. Deregulation and competitive power markets -- Its impact on developing economies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saran, K.

    1998-01-01

    The aim of privatization in developed countries is to encourage competition in generation and supply of power whereas the focus of developing economies is to bridge the demand supply gap by addition of capacity. However, there needs to be a reconciliation between these two apparently having conflicting objectives even in case of developing economies. In competitive power markets it is necessary that rules of the game are identified in advance and followed uniformly by all players. Existence of a ''referee'' would be necessary to regulate the game so as to ensure fair play. The regulatory institution would serve this purpose and work as a stimulator to development of privatization and competitive power markets in developing economies. Consumer interests should be of upper-most priority in the mind while establishing power markets and regulatory institutions, particularly as market forces are unfavorable to consumer interests in power shortage conditions. As competition fosters, gradually market forces take over and the ''harsh'' regulator would convert itself to a ''silent vigil referee'' so as to ensure genuine competition. The debate of deregulation vs. regulation will continue but the show must go on for building of an increasingly sound, competitive and vibrant power sector in the interest of end use consumers. The planned and phased restructuring though a delayed process is a preferred process and India is fully determined to achieve this

  3. Low competitiveness of undeveloped areas: 'Narrow throat' of Serbian economy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vuković Darko

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Inconsistent development policy and traditionally inherited poverty, lack of adequate institutional support and the impact of the transition of Serbian economy are affected the deepening of the parameters of underdeveloped areas in Serbia (South Serbia and Stari Ras and appear of new underdeveloped area (Borski basen. These areas have very low competitiveness and represent bottleneck in the overall competitiveness of Serbian economy. Low Serbian competitiveness caused by many problems (corruption, ineffective legal system and weak protection of contracts, political instability and others, where undeveloped areas represent a special dimension of this problem, with their specific problems, current from almost every social standpoint. This paper explains the specific factors that are the largest source of uncompetitiveness underdeveloped areas, analyzing economic, demographic and socio-political factors, as well as infrastructure, unemployment and education. Results showed that these indicators of competitiveness in underdeveloped areas have far less values than the same indicators in other areas in Serbia. The major causes of low competitiveness of underdeveloped areas (except common with the Republic of Serbia are: low employment, low economic activity, low productivity, low investments, poor educational and demographic structure, underdeveloped infrastructure and socio-political uncertainty. At the end, the paper presents the measures and incentives which increase competitiveness of underdeveloped areas.

  4. National Competitiveness in Global Economy: Evolution of Approaches and Methods of Assessment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    - Teng Delux

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available The basic concept of national competitiveness and the analytic potential model for the estimation of countries' competitiveness, such as diamond model of competitive advantages of national economies by M. Porter, the generalized double diamond model of international competitiveness by C. Moon, 9-factors model by S. Cho, Global Competitiveness Index (GCI and Knowledge Economy Index (KEI are considered.

  5. Economies of scale and competitiveness of an enterprise

    OpenAIRE

    Maksvytienė, Inga

    2007-01-01

    Straipsnyje vertinama masto ekonomijos bei neekonomijos ir įmonės dydžio tarpusavio ryšio poveikio įmonės konkurencingumui galimybė. Veikiant masto ekonomijos ir neekonomijos sąveikos mechanizmui, vidutiniai gamybos kaštai mažėja ir įmonės konkurencingumas didėja. The aim of the research is to introduce the role of enterprise scale under the conditions of competition. In the article the theoretical model of scale economies and diseconomies interaction influence on the competitive ability o...

  6. Competitiveness basis of integrated PWR technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Florido, Pablo C.; Bergallo, Juan E.

    1999-01-01

    this possibility is the integrated advanced reactor. In this work, we analyze the economy of this type of reactors, the tendencies and the possibilities of future competitiveness in an open market. (author)

  7. Competitive intelligence in emerging economies: A comparative study between Brazil and South Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N Sewdass

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Competitive intelligence (CI has long been recognised as a strategic management tool that could enhance competitiveness. CI is expected to play an essential developmental role in emerging economies. The need to enhance companies’ competitiveness has grown rapidly. CI is essential, and will increasingly be a challenge in the years to come, especially for emerging economies. This article will compare CI activities in South Africa with CI activities in Brazil. Companies in these two countries have faced increased environmental uncertainty and increasingly there is a need to compete. A questionnaire survey methodology was used where questionnaires were administered to CI experts in organisations in South Africa and Brazil. The findings of the study revealed that only a limited number of organisations in Brazil and South Africa recognise the importance of a CI unit. It was also interesting to note that the CI function is more mature in South Africa than in Brazil. As Brazil and South Africa become more integrated into the global economy, it stands to reason that the global economy will have more of an impact on the countries’ economies. To this end it has become more crucial to monitor global events and trends and it is very important for both countries to develop a CI culture.

  8. Integrating bioenergy into a green economy: identifying opportunities and constraints

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Von Maltitz, Graham P

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available .kashan.co.za] BACKGROUND Bioenergy is a renewable energy option that has the potential to contribute to a low-carbon development path and stimulate a green economy. However, since bioenergy uses land and natural resources, it is in competition with the valuable bio... an analytical framework and decision-support tools to assist in assessing, managing and monitoring the sustainability of bioenergy. IMPROVING THE SUSTAINABILITY OF BIOENERGY THROUGH INTEGRATION WITH OTHER BIO-BASED PRODUCTS Since bioenergy production...

  9. Algal biodiesel economy and competition among bio-fuels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, D H

    2011-01-01

    This investigation examines the possible results of policy support in developed and developing economies for developing algal biodiesel through to 2040. This investigation adopts the Taiwan General Equilibrium Model-Energy for Bio-fuels (TAIGEM-EB) to predict competition among the development of algal biodiesel, bioethanol and conventional crop-based biodiesel. Analytical results show that algal biodiesel will not be the major energy source in 2040 without strong support in developed economies. In contrast, bioethanol enjoys a development advantage relative to both forms of biodiesel. Finally, algal biodiesel will almost completely replace conventional biodiesel. CO(2) reduction benefits the development of the bio-fuels industry. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. IMPACT OF EUROPEAN INTEGRATION ON COMPETITIVENESS OF CZECH REGIONS

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    Dušan Litva

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Economic integration supports removal of all obstacles (in economy, trade, tax, administration or industrial area and establishment of common rules for market competition. Basic benefit of economic integration is thus occurrence of real or potential competitiveness effects. European integration can influence competitiveness of firm, regions or countries. There are existing agglomeration forces causing space and economic concentration and disperse forces working just opposite way. Both effects are influenced by access to a single market and removal of trade barriers. As a consequence, agglomeration effects are expected to dominate. European Commission established RCI (Regional Competitiveness Index to enable comparison of competitiveness of European regions. Aim of this study is exploration of changes in competitiveness of Czech regions after accession to the European Union as there are no studies analysing regional competitiveness in Czech Republic as a consequence of European integration process via index based approach. Analysis of z statistics of primarily data published by European Commission is used to evaluate theoretical concept of disperse and agglomeration forces. Based on RCI analysis are obvious growing discrepancies with dominant position of Prague and Central Bohemia in comparison with other Czech Regions. Significant differences can be seen in areas of innovations, business sophistication and education. On the opposite, positively can be evaluated lower variability of competitiveness between Czech regions in indicators of infrastructure, institutions and technological readiness. Those indicators could be influenced by European cohesive and regional politics. Decisions on governmental level should follow Europe 2020 strategy and transformation to knowledge based economy.

  11. Dynamic International Competitiveness of Transition Economies: The Case of Poland

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Jørgen Ulff-Møller

    2003-01-01

    This paper shows that the reform on the structures of the Polish economy has had an impressively fast effect on the numbers of different products this country exports to Western countries. The time path may well be described by a logistic curve. The change in the exports of this country may...... therefore be characterised by a widening, instead of a deepening in specialisation. The paper introduces a new empirical methodology to evaluate the dynamic changes in export activities of a country. The result of this new methodology is that quality competition is becoming increasingly important for Poland...

  12. Competition and Consumer Behavior in the Context of the Digital Economy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elena-Mădălina Vătămănescu

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available The current paper aims to investigate the relation between competition and online purchasing decision-making, integrating consumer protection awareness and the corresponding consumer behavior as mediators. The focus is on both subjective and objective measures related to the level of consumer awareness and action in a fast-growing competition, potentiated by the digital economy. In order to investigate the relations between the aforementioned concepts, a questionnaire-based survey was conducted, using a sample of 257 students from three top Romanian universities. Based upon the theoretical directions presented in the literature review, a conceptual model was elaborated and tested by employing a partial least squares structural equation modeling technique. As the examination of the structural model indicated, online purchasing decision-making is indirectly influenced by the high competition in the digital economy, by means of consumer protection awareness and consumer protection behavior. At this level, the analyzed factors, namely the competition in the digital economy, the consumer protection awareness and the consumer behavior with respect to the consumer protection policies, explain over 16% in the variance of the online purchasing decision-making.

  13. Steps towards an integrated eco‐economy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kjeldsen, Chris; Christensen, Bo Allesøe

    2014-01-01

    as an attempt to develop an integrated eco-economy, which transcends established borders between public and private organizations, private and community enterprise and between rural and urban spatial development. The specific aim of the paper is to demonstrate how modernization has decoupled urban and rural...

  14. Steps towards an integrated eco-economy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kjeldsen, Chris; Christensen, Bo Allesøe

    Twenty years ago, the Danish city Randers still suffered from the effects of an economic restructuring process, which had closed many of the traditional industries of the city. In many ways, the challenge for the city of Randers was to reinvent itself. Today, an overall renaissance of the city is...... in Randers constitutes a case of an integrated rural and urban eco-economy, which transcends established borders between public and private organisations, private and community enterprise and between rural and urban spatial development....

  15. Essays on the Indian economy : Competitive pressure, productivity and performance

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sahoo, A.

    2008-01-01

    India undertook a drastic economic reform program in 1991, with the significant objectives of removing existing inefficiencies and enhancing global competitiveness. A competitive environment is a prerequisite condition for gaining higher productivity. The main desired role of economic liberalization

  16. A change in a competitive economy with indivisible commodities

    OpenAIRE

    Takayuki Oishi; Shin Sakaue

    2008-01-01

    We consider the relationship between a traditional competitive market and a competitive market with middlemen for trading indivisible commodities. We demonstrate that existence of many homogeneous middlemen leads to a change from the market with middlemen to the bilateral market.

  17. Increasing Global Competitiveness: A Case for the Pakistan Economy

    OpenAIRE

    Shamyla Chaudry

    2007-01-01

    The issue of global competitiveness is critical for developing countries. This paper looks at the drivers that influence industrial competitiveness and provides a comparison of these drivers for Pakistan, India and China. The analysis shows that Pakistan lags behind China and India in most of the main components of the industrial competitiveness index. The analysis also presents a series of micro and macro level policy recommendations aimed at increasing Pakistan’s industrial competitiveness.

  18. Management of Innovative Projects for Ensuring the Economic Safety in the Conditions of Integration of Economies into the World Economy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. K. Usmanova

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: the aim of the article is to reveal problems and prospects, formulate economic security within the framework of innovation projects management, plan technologies in the context of integrating economies into the world economy, identify opportunities for forming, organizing, financing, managing priority economic directions. The subject is the management of innovative projects to ensure the economic security of Russian regions. The relevance of the chosen topic is due to the study of the features of the current state and the problems of the formation of economic security, the development of innovative design solutions in the context of integrating economies into the world economy. Ensuring the economic security of the regions of Russia directly depends on the introduction of innovative technologies and project management in the sectors of the national economy of Russia. Methods: the methodology of the solution of objectives is based on usage of a method of dialectic research, methods of the economic analysis, forecasting, the situational and systemic analysis, expert evaluations and the analysis of empirical data. Hypothesis. Ensuring an economic safety requires formation of innovative solutions, change of the current legislation within the Strategy of social and economic development in the conditions of integration of economies into the world economy. Results: the practical significance of the work is to identify the interrelationship between the development processes of innovative projects that ensure the economic security of the regions of Russia within the framework of regulating the current legislation, forecasting effective economic activity within the framework of the New Industrialization Strategy, selecting optimal project planning models to ensure the country's economic security and competitiveness in the conditions of integration Economies into the world economy. Conclusions and Relevance: in the conditions of integration of

  19. Urban competitiveness in the knowledge economy: universities as new planning animators

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hospers, Gerrit J.; Benneworth, Paul Stephen

    2007-01-01

    Contemporary economic activity is increasingly dominated by ‘knowledge-based’ activities. Increasingly internationalisation of competition has increased pressures on firms in all advanced economies to compete primarily in terms of product differentiation (Porter, 1990). This has changed the nature

  20. Modern trends of development of the world economy and financial competitiveness of enterprises

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Volkova Nadezhda

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The article considers modern trends in the development of the global economy, the dynamics of the activity of the domestic economy. The statistical data of the share of loss-making enterprises on the domestic market are analyzed. The importance of competitiveness and financial stability of enterprises in modern conditions is considered, the relationship between competitiveness and financial stability is indicated. The notion of financial competitiveness is formulated. Financial competitiveness is analyzed from the point of view of enterprise management and on the parameters for assessing the financial stability of enterprises. Methods for assessing the financial competitiveness of enterprises have been identified. The primary calculation of financial competitiveness indicators for PJSC “SF Almaz” was carried out based on the selected methods. The analysis of the obtained calculation results is carried out. Methods are proposed to ensure financial competitiveness of Russian companies.

  1. Stimulating the Competitiveness of the Macedonian Economy through the Process of Stimulation the Internationalization of the Companies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jovanka Damoska Sekuloska

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available The research in this paper is to be focused on examining the internationalization of the Macedonian companies as a prerequisite in improvement of Macedonian competitiveness. Internationalization as a process of integration in international economic activities contributes to overcome the sizes of national markets. According to the World Economic Forum (WEF the size of the market is one of the pillars of competitiveness and it is revealed as one of the limitation of the competitiveness of Macedonian economy. The contemporary theories of competitiveness recognize the necessity of quantitative and qualitative improvement of the process of internationalization of the companies. Quantitative improvement means involving not only trade but also outward FDI and the new quality signifies the necessity of restructuring the economic activities towards employing and creating innovation based processes, as (Porter, 1990accents that a nation’s competitiveness depends on the capacity of its industry to innovate and upgrade. Using data of some target Central European and Baltic (CEB economies, it will be examined interrelationships between the internationalization and competitiveness and policies that influence the improvement and stimulation of internationalization process.

  2. Technology innovation in an integrated energy economy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Isaacs, E.

    2006-01-01

    A discussion on technology innovation in an integrated energy economy was presented. The mission, mandate and strategy of the Alberta Research Institute was first presented, followed by a discussion on oil supply needs based on historic demand. The presentation then addressed what might happen as oil demand and supply peak. A comparison of conventional versus unconventional resources was included along with a chart illustrating Alberta's contribution to total global reserves. Other topics addressed in the presentation in chart format included: natural gas requirements and natural gas use in oil sands; marketable gas production and the number of producing gas wells; Alberta's natural gas situation; and net United States imports of natural gas. Options for reducing natural gas consumption in oil sand production processes were also identified. These included steam assisted gravity drainage; solvent processes, electrical heating, combustion, nuclear, geothermal, and gasification processes. Advantages and disadvantages of replacing natural gas through gasification were presented. Last, the presentation provided an unconventional gas technology roadmap and discussed an innovative energy technology program. It was concluded that there are no clear cut options for replacing the huge amount of natural gas needed in the expanding oil sands sector. tabs., figs

  3. Technology innovation in an integrated energy economy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Isaacs, E. [Alberta Energy Research Inst., Edmonton, AB (Canada)

    2006-07-01

    A discussion on technology innovation in an integrated energy economy was presented. The mission, mandate and strategy of the Alberta Research Institute was first presented, followed by a discussion on oil supply needs based on historic demand. The presentation then addressed what might happen as oil demand and supply peak. A comparison of conventional versus unconventional resources was included along with a chart illustrating Alberta's contribution to total global reserves. Other topics addressed in the presentation in chart format included: natural gas requirements and natural gas use in oil sands; marketable gas production and the number of producing gas wells; Alberta's natural gas situation; and net United States imports of natural gas. Options for reducing natural gas consumption in oil sand production processes were also identified. These included steam assisted gravity drainage; solvent processes, electrical heating, combustion, nuclear, geothermal, and gasification processes. Advantages and disadvantages of replacing natural gas through gasification were presented. Last, the presentation provided an unconventional gas technology roadmap and discussed an innovative energy technology program. It was concluded that there are no clear cut options for replacing the huge amount of natural gas needed in the expanding oil sands sector. tabs., figs.

  4. Achieving competitiveness through supply chain integration

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Arlbjørn, Jan Stentoft; Wong, Chee Yew; Seerup, Søren

    2007-01-01

    Supply chain development can take place in several steps, from functional optimisation, then internal integration, dyadic integration and last, integration in chains and networks. Before external integration gives true value, order in own house must be achieved. This paper presents a case study...... of a Danish manufacturer that has gone through a major transformation process, and the paper intends to discuss how such a Business Process Reengineering (BPR) project aimed to achieve internal integration. The paper demonstrates how improved competitiveness can be obtained through a synchronous...

  5. Competitiveness of small-medium reactors. A probabilistic study on the economy of scale factor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Trianni, A.; Locatelli, G.; Trucco, P.

    2009-01-01

    Smaller size reactors are able to play an important role in the worldwide nuclear renaissance. The major disadvantage of those new reactors - the unit size - would label the small-medium size reactors as not economically competitive with larger plants. But, the economy of scale law applies only if the designs are similar, which is not the case here, since the SMRs are designed with original and innovative solutions not accessible to large size reactors: the IRIS reactor is used as an example of small medium reactors (SMR), but the analyses and conclusions are applicable to the whole spectrum of SMRs. The aim of this paper is to present latest advances in the differential economical assessment of Generation Cost of SMRs compared to LRs. The international literature has started to present studies focused on the two major differential accounts of Levelized Unit Electricity Cost - Captial Costs ($/kWe) and Operation and Maintenance Costs ($/kWh) - providing deterministic values for the main cost drivers (i.e. economy of scale, multiple units, learning during construction, design characteristics and modular build, shorter construction time for CC, economy of scale location of the plant, number of units, capacity factor, learning by doing, plant obsolescence for O and M costs). Since the modern SMR market is in the early stages of development, it is necessary to consider also the uncertainties associated to current estimates of those cost drivers. When available, the uncertainty has been integrated in the Open Model assigning a probabilistic distribution to the input value of each cost driver. As Far as other cost drivers are concerned, parametric analyses are still under development and uncertainty analyses are not available: thus, conservative but realistic values for both of them have been assumed. Some reasonable future scenarios have been assumed, considering the private operator perspective for a single plant investment and postulating, among the others

  6. Defining competitiveness through the theories of new economic geography and regional economy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vuković Darko

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The subject of work is defining competitiveness through a multidisciplinary approach of the theories of new economic geography and regional economy. The paper describes in detail the theory of competitiveness, defined by numerous authors in this area, with special emphasis on the opposing views of Michael Porter and Paul Krugman. A regional competitiveness that is colsely related to economic geography and regional economy, the development of regional economy and typology of regions have been defined in the work. One of the first authors that stressed the importance of geographical location was Michael Porter. In his model called “diamond“, the author emphasizes that geographical concentration of a business enhances the productivity, innovativity and sector export. After this theory, many authors have foccussed on the location problem research, which resulted in better interconnection of economy and geography. As the result of such activities, new directions have been developed, such as the new theory of economic geography and regional economy. New economic geography has been mentioned mostly in connection with the Nobel Prize winner, Paul Krugman, whose theories are often opposed to Porter's ones. Krugman had the most credit for the development of New Economic Geography. At the end of the work, the differences between comparative and competitive adventages were explained. [Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije, br. 47007, br. 47009 i br. 179015

  7. The Role of Innovation in Fostering Competitiveness and Economic Growth: Evidence from Developing Economies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Terzić Lejla

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper deals with the essential features determining the role of innovation in developing economies by examining the structure of innovation measures. The economic growth and competitiveness of developing economies are powerfully connected to its innovation status. The purpose of this paper is to examine the significance of innovation in driving economic growth per capita and competitiveness in selected developing economies. In order to determine the interconnection among the variables of innovation, competitiveness, and growth, assorted methodological measurement instruments have been applied. The data were collected from both primary and secondary sources. The results suggest the importance of specific innovation dimensions for prospective economic growth in developing economies. The identical measures responsible for fragile innovation are associated to the low composite measures of innovation accomplishment. This demonstrates the enormous disparity concentrated in every innovation aspect over time, specifically in innovation output and enterprise performances between the developing economies and the EU-28 average measures. The research results indicate the usage of appropriate economic instruments in diminishing the problems that developing economies are currently dealing with.

  8. Ireland – industrial competitiveness in a small open economy (NIRSA) Working Paper Series. No. 44

    OpenAIRE

    Cassidy, John; Barry, Frank; Van Egeraat, Chris

    2009-01-01

    The Irish economy has boomed in recent years based on a strategy of attracting FDI, and has become a model economy particularly for EU accession countries. This chapter sets out to provide a deeper understanding of Ireland’s success in the context of Porter’s Diamond Model of national competitiveness. A number of analyses have been done in Ireland on the relevance of Porter’s Diamond theory to national competitiveness. O’Connell, van Egeraat and Enright (1997) adopted a Porter Diamond analysi...

  9. The Darwin Economy: Liberty, Competition, and the Common Good

    OpenAIRE

    Robert Frank

    2013-01-01

    Who was the greater economist — Adam Smith or Charles Darwin? The question seems absurd. Darwin, after all, was a naturalist, not an economist. But Robert Frank, «The New York Times’» economics columnist and best-selling author of «The Economic Naturalist», predicts that within the next century Darwin will unseat Smith as the intellectual founder of economics. The reason, Frank argues, is that Darwin's understanding of competition describes economic reality far more accurately than Smith's. A...

  10. Management in achieving competitive advantage in Nigerian public organisations under the global economy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chijioke Hope Ukanwah

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available This paper explores the strategic role of human resources management in achieving competitive advantage in a global economy. Human resource management remains indispensable in engendering competitive advantage for businesses in this era of tense global competition. Productivity and competitiveness of organisations is now dependent on their employees’ ability to generate, process, and apply knowledge. Scholars and practitioners of human resources management agree that a workforce that is properly trained and managed is a source of competitive advantage. The article recognised the fact that public organisations have not really given importance to human resource management and this is responsible for their underwhelming performance. The paper recommends some HR strategies that managers can adopt to improve the quality and value of their workforce, and these range from effective talent management, continuous workplace learning, safe and healthy work environment, ICT adoption, competitive benefit system, HR planning to proper deployment of skills and expertise.

  11. The Modeling of Competitive Positions of Enterprises of Real Sector of Economy in the Domestic Market

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kutsyk Valentuna A.

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Topicality of rational choice of methodical instrumentaqrium in assessing competitive positions of enterprises is substantiated. A wide list of methodical approaches to assessment of competitive positions of enterprises in market environment is presented, and the spheres of their practical application, general disadvantages and advantages, are characterized. The characteristics of matrix models (GE/McKinsey, SHELL/DPM, PIMS, BCG are presented on a selective basis, so that, proceeding from a wide range of models, supported by the proper information provision, they can be assigned as the exact ones. Given the lack of information provision, disadvantages, and advantages of existing models and considering it as a means of system management, the authors have proposed to use the map of the «portfolio of competitive advantages» in the form of a nine-celled model matrix (3x3 with two-dimensional system of coordinates. The proposed model of «competitiveness / share of the national market» is an expression of competitive position of enterprises of the real sector of economy taking into consideration dynamic influence of factors of competitive environment and, at the same time, a methodical means for substantiation of competitive strategy. However, an important step in choosing the basic variant of competitive strategy for an enterprise in the real sector of economy is to determine the functional objectives to its efficient implementation.

  12. Fiscal policy multipliers : The role of monopolistic competition, scale economies, and intertemporal substitution in labour supply

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Heijdra, BJ

    A dynamic macroeconomic model of monopolistic competition is developed for the closed economy. Forward looking consumers demand differentiated goods, supply labour, and save part of their income in the form of shares. Producers manufacture the differentiated goods by using labour and capital. We

  13. A pro-competitive order as an institute of the economy based on knowledge

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rozhdestvenskaya Elena

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The modern theory of constitutional economy returns to the ideas of the founders of ordoliberalism, marks the function of the state as an institutional mechanism to promote and protect competition. The role of the state is the system subject of a pro-competitive order. The article analyzes the patterns of spontaneous transformation of government involvement in the market economy in the procompetitive order Institute as a condition of sustainable development of the economy based on knowledge. The research results are useful in the development of the theory of regulation of market processes and the formation of a strategic state policy in the field of economic regulation, in particular for Russia.

  14. RELEVANT PROBLEMS OF UKRAINE’S INTEGRATION INTO GLOBAL ECONOMY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yevheniia Duliba

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this research is to study the main problems that prevent Ukraine from integrating into the global economy and to determine correct focuses of the foreign economic policy of Ukraine against the background of strengthening of globalization tendencies throughout the world. The bases of this research are bases of business development of the foreign economic policy of Ukraine and improvement of Ukrainian economy against the background of international integration. At the heart of the research methodology is a dialectical method of scientific knowledge and, besides, special methods of research based on modern scientific bases of economic, management and related to them knowledge: economic and statistic method – for the assessment of the modern state of foreign trade and investment activity of Ukraine; method of analysis and synthesis – for the determination of tendencies of development of integration processed in Ukraine; comparative analysis – for comparison of information concerning development of specific indicators of foreign economic activities in Ukraine. Results. As a result of research, the main blocks of problems, which impede the integration of Ukraine into the global economy, and requirements for their complex solution are determined. Besides, interdependence and interdetermination of problems, which impede the integration of Ukraine into the global economy, and requirements for their complex solution are explained. Political and legal, economic, sociocultural, and infrastructural preconditions that are necessary for effective integration of Ukraine into the global economy are highlighted. Practical implications. Analysis of the existing problems related to the actual economy, investments, innovation processes gives the possibility to determine the vector of development of Ukraine’s economy taking to account recommendations concerning its improvement for the purposes of integration into global economy. Value

  15. Economies of vertical integration in the Swiss electricity sector

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fetz, Aurelio; Filippini, Massimo [Department of Management, Technology and Economics, ETH Zurich (Switzerland); Department of Economics, University of Lugano (Switzerland)

    2010-11-15

    Over the last two decades, several European nations have introduced reforms to their electricity sector. Generally, these reforms require a legal and functional unbundling of vertically integrated companies. These unbundling processes may reduce the possibilities that exist to fruitfully exploit the advantages of vertical integration. The goal of this paper is to empirically analyze the presence of economies of scale and vertical integration in the Swiss electricity sector. Economies of vertical integration between electricity production and distribution result from reduced transaction costs, better coordination of highly specific and interdependent investments and less financial risk. Different econometric specifications for panel data, including a random effects and a random-coefficients model, have been used to estimate a quadratic multi-stage cost function for a sample of electricity companies. The empirical results reflect the presence of considerable economies of vertical integration and economies of scale for most of the companies considered in the analysis. Moreover, the results suggest a variation in economies of vertical integration across companies due to unobserved heterogeneity. (author)

  16. Management of Vertically Integrated Systems Formation and Development in the Russian Economy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kozhevnikov Sergei Aleksandrovich

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The article reviews the essence, nature, features and basic approaches to the interpretation of vertical integration. It proves that one of the key conditions for modernizing and neo-industrializing domestic economy and transforming Russia into an industrialized country is overcoming technological fragmentation of business entities, as was the case in the Soviet Union and is now observed in the developed countries. In this situation, it is vertical integration which can ensure the diversification and restructuring of the economy, the linkage between the extractive and processing industries. Based on the results of analyzing the activities of major multinational corporations (Royal Dutch Shell, Sinopec Corp., Valio Ltd. etc. it has been proved that these integrated systems supply competitive products with high degrees of processing and serve as growth drivers in developed economies. To justify this, the author calculated the companies’ value added multiplier. Currently, vertically integrated systems such as PhosAgro PJSC, LUKOIL PJSC, Miratorg agro-industrial holding company, KamAZ OJSC, Arkhangelsk pulp and paper mill PJSC operate in various economic sectors. The article shows that most of these companies’ level of technological integration is still not optimal; the formation of a full production chain is an additional factor in their development and competitive recovery. Accordingly, the author believes that the key objective of federal and regional authorities should be the transformational change in the economy by eliminating its disintegration and restoring processing chains of value added in priority economic sectors. The example of metallurgical industries integration (Steel Manufacture PJSC and machine-building integration (Mashinostroitel Corporation JSC shows many positive internal and external impacts of this kind of association. The creation of vertically integrated systems implies the development of a public policy which, through

  17. Argentinean integrated small reactor design and scale economy analysis of integrated reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Florido, P. C.; Bergallo, J. E.; Ishida, M. V.

    2000-01-01

    This paper describes the design of CAREM, which is Argentinean integrated small reactor project and the scale economy analysis results of integrated reactor. CAREM project consists on the development, design and construction of a small nuclear power plant. CAREM is an advanced reactor conceived with new generation design solutions and standing on the large experience accumulated in the safe operation of Light Water Reactors. The CAREM is an indirect cycle reactor with some distinctive and characteristic features that greatly simplify the reactor and also contribute to a highly level of safety: integrated primary cooling system, self pressurized, primary cooling by natural circulation and safety system relying on passive features. For a fully doupled economic evaluation of integrated reactors done by IREP (Integrated Reactor Evaluation Program) code transferred to IAEA, CAREM have been used as a reference point. The results shows that integrated reactors become competitive with power larger than 200MWe with Argentinean cheapest electricity option. Due to reactor pressure vessel construction limit, low pressure drop steam generator are used to reach power output of 200MWe for natural circulation. For forced circulation, 300MWe can be achieved. (author)

  18. Undergraduate business students' attitudes towards CSR and competitiveness of Serbian economy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ćoćkalo Dragan

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents the findings of the research dealing with the importance of corporate social responsibility (CSR and its connections with competitiveness. The authors deal with competitiveness of enterprises, as well as activities that promote socially responsible business in Serbia. Special attention is given to the review and analysis of research results of Serbian undergraduate business students' attitudes on CSR and competitiveness. In a five-year- period the research included over 3,300 examinees. The population was built on students from universities and business schools located in total 22 cities and municipalities in Serbia. The research was conducted using questionnaire. Among other, the research has shown that a number of examinees were not informed of the CSR. Students experience the Serbian economy as uncompetitive and have identified several factors that are lacking in the development of competitiveness.

  19. International perspectives on work-family policies: lessons from the world's most competitive economies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Earle, Alison; Mokomane, Zitha; Heymann, Jody

    2011-01-01

    The United States does not guarantee families a wide range of supportive workplace policies such as paid maternity and paternity leave or paid leave to care for sick children. Proposals to provide such benefits are invariably met with the complaint that the costs would reduce employment and undermine the international competitiveness of American businesses. In this article, Alison Earle, Zitha Mokomane, and Jody Heymann explore whether paid leave and other work-family policies that support children's development exist in countries that are economically competitive and have low unemployment rates. Their data show that the answer is yes. Using indicators of competitiveness gathered by the World Economic Forum, the authors identify fifteen countries, including the United States, that have been among the top twenty countries in competitiveness rankings for at least eight of ten years. To this group they add China and India, both rising competitors in the global economy. They find that every one of these countries, except the United States, guarantees some form of paid leave for new mothers as well as annual leave. And all but Switzerland and the United States guarantee paid leave for new fathers. The authors perform a similar exercise to identify thirteen advanced countries with consistently low unemployment rates, again including the United States. The majority of these countries provide paid leave for new mothers, paid leave for new fathers, paid leave to care for children's health care needs, breast-feeding breaks, paid vacation leave, and a weekly day of rest. Of these, the United States guarantees only breast-feeding breaks (part of the recently passed health care legislation). The authors' global examination of the most competitive economies as well as the economies with low unemployment rates makes clear that ensuring that all parents are available to care for their children's healthy development does not preclude a country from being highly competitive

  20. Prerequisites for Forming the Institutional Concept of the National Economy Competitiveness under Conditions of Globalization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yaremenko Oleh L.

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The article attempts to prove that under conditions of globalization there have developed objective and subjective prerequisites for forming the institutional concept of the national economy. The objective prerequisites are the newest information and communication technologies, post-industrial trends and market transformation of civilization intensified by globalization. Under such conditions instability and volatility of the institutional environment both within national economies and at the international level are observed. The aggravation of the global competition between national economies actualizes the role of such institutional factors as political system, property, public administration, economic organization, culture, etc. The subjective prerequisites are related to the fact that the institutional economic theory is currently one of the leading trends in the modern world and Ukrainian economic thought. Interest in it is explained not only by the fact that it overcomes the limitations of a number of prerequisites for the mainstream, but also because it allows considering the modern economic processes in complex

  1. Entrepreneurial Competition Orientation and Profitability: The Case of a Developing Economy

    OpenAIRE

    Marjanova, Tamara Jovanov; Sofijanova, Elenica; Davcev, Ljupco; Temjanovski, Riste

    2015-01-01

    The main purpose of this paper is to verify the significance of the implementation of competition orientation (CO) as a part of market orientation for the financial performance of the entrepreneurial small and medium – sized companies in a developing economy. The objectives are: 1. To measure the level of each of the variables of the scale (CO 1: The management continuously analyses the strengths and weaknesses of the competitors; CO 2: We regularly use information about our competitors in st...

  2. Knowledge economy readiness, innovativeness and competitiveness of the Western Balkan countries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cvetanović Slobodan

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The Western Balkan countries have set themselves the goal to join the European Union as soon as possible. Accordingly, they must adjust the key components of their development policies to the Europe 2020 strategy, focusing on key priorities such as smart, sustainable and inclusive growth. This paper explores the relationship among knowledge economy readiness, innovativeness, and competitiveness of six Western Balkan countries (Albania, Bosnia and Herzegovina, Macedonia, Serbia, Croatia, and Montenegro and the group of six selected neighboring EU countries (Austria, Bulgaria, Greece, Hungary, Romania, and Slovenia. The paper relies on the data obtained from the Knowledge Economy Index of the World Bank Institute, INSEAD's Global Innovation Index and the Global Competitiveness Index of the World Economic Forum for 2013. Obtained data from all three sources indicated significantly lower readiness for the development of economy based on knowledge, innovation and competitiveness in the Western Balkans countries in comparison to the selected EU countries. The analysis of the interdependence of the aforementioned variables points to: a statistically significant correlation between the indicator knowledge economy index and the global innovation index for both groups of countries; b statistically significant linear correlation between innovativeness and innovation efficiency ratio for the Western Balkan countries. Conversely, no respective correlation has been registered for the group of selected EU countries; c no statistically significant correlation between the global innovation index and the global competitiveness index in the Western Balkan countries, while in respect of the group of selected EU countries, the existence of significant linear correlation between these variables has been revealed.

  3. Competitiveness of Workplaces as a Prerequisite for Decent Work: Realities of the Ukrainian Economy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Herasymenko Oksana O.

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the article is the theoretical and applied substantiation of competitiveness of workplaces as a defining feature and component for provision of decent work. The author’s interpretation of the concept “competitiveness of workplaces” and signs of its manifestation in different aspects of social and labor relations are given. Suggestions for improving the methodological structure of the certification of workplaces in the context of determining the components of their competitiveness are outlined. The necessity of implementing a number of measures to create new high-tech workplaces and modernize the existing ones with the aim of bringing their level to the competitive one is justified. The results of analyzing individual indicators of competitiveness of workplaces in the economy of Ukraine for 2006-2015 are presented. It is proved that under conditions of the entry of Ukraine into the European space, the dominant factor in increasing the competitiveness of workplaces is the modernization of the existing ones and bringing them to the level of high-tech and high-performance ones. It is noted that the theoretical and methodological basis for assessing the level of competitiveness of workplaces and determining the directions for its improvement is formed by the concept of decent work and the indicators of decent work deficit that are singled out on its basis.

  4. A multicriterial analysis of national competitiveness: Evidences for a resilient economy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sima Violeta

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available This article is structured in three parts, as follows: In the first part, we summarized the different approaches of national competitiveness in the literature on the economic performance assessment, using specific indexes: Global Competitiveness Index (GCI, Ecological Performance Index (EPI, and Human Development Index (HDI, highlighting their advantages and limitations. These variables were analyzed ante-crisis and ex-crisis, assuming that the economic recession could generate some effects. Data sources are presented at the beginning of the 'Results and discussion' paragraph. Considering the diversity of the issues and the inhomogeneity of data describing those issues, GDP was used along with the four composite indicators: GCI, EPI, HDI, and Economic Resilience Index (ERI. The third part presents the main findings and their implications. Thus, a downward trend of the evolution of Romania's economic resilience index during 2008-2014 was observed. This decline appears to be due largely to the decrease in Social development sub-index and in Governance sub-index. The low level of the Romanian economy resilience is mainly explained by the low level of competitiveness and productivity of production factors. The obtained outcomes suggest that in addition to national competitiveness assessing, ERI evaluation is important because it can reveal the hidden sources of vulnerability of the economy to external shocks.

  5. Integrated marketing communications and their role in economy and education

    OpenAIRE

    Melnikova Nadezhda; Naumenko Tamara; Smakotina Natalia

    2016-01-01

    The article is devoted to the analysis of marketing, its role and significance in the modern education system and economy. The authors review the advantages of integrated marketing communications which include, apart from marketing, organizational culture, advertising, public relations (PR), branding, image making and other types of communication influencing the formation and functions of social processes and institutions, including the economic and education sphere.

  6. Interstate Economic Integration - Essential Characteristic of the Contemporary World Economy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ramona Mariana CALINICA

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available After the Second World War, the world economy became more and more characterized by an intensification of economic relations between different countries. The complex and diverse problems that faced the states, have imposed necessity for the identification of appropriate solutions to economic cooperation and economic interstate integration was considered an effective way to development and an answer to all these problems. The purpose of this article is to analyze the integration process of interstate economic integration in all its essential aspects. The study begins with the definition of the concept and continues with the analysis of the forms of interstate economic integration and the main organizations of this kind that existing in the world economy nowadays.

  7. Linkages and Vertical Integration in the Chinese Economy.

    OpenAIRE

    Heimler, Alberto

    1991-01-01

    The original concept of vertical integration can be applied only to the analysis of the relationship between final demand and gross output, but is unsuitable for most of supply-oriented studies, where what matters are the interindustry relations. For example, vertical integration of an industrial district with the rest of the economy cannot be measured with the traditional technique and should be accounted for by a different measure that considers the direct and indirect demand derived from t...

  8. Competition and stability analyses among emissions, energy, and economy: Application for Mexico

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pao, Hsiao-Tien; Fu, Hsin-Chia

    2015-01-01

    In view of limited natural resources on Earth, linkage among environment, energy, and economy (3Es) becomes important perspectives for sustainable development. This paper proposes to use Lotka–Volterra model for SUstainable Development (LV-SUD) to analyse the interspecific interactions, equilibria and their stabilities among emissions, different types of energy consumption (renewable, nuclear, and fossil fuel), and real GDP, the main factors of 3Es issues. Modelling these interactions provides a useful multivariate framework for prediction outcomes. Interaction between 3Es, namely competition, symbiosis, or predation, plays an important role in policy development to achieve a balanced use of energy resources and to strengthen the green economy. Applying LV-SUD in Mexico, an emerging markets country, analysing results show that there is a mutualism between fossil fuel consumption and GDP; prey-predator relationships that fossil fuel and GDP enhance the growth of emissions, but emissions inhibit the growth of the others; and commensalisms that GDP benefits from nuclear power, and renewable power benefits from fossil fuel. It is suggested that national energy policies should remain committed to decoupling the relevance between non-clean energy and GDP, to actively developing clean energy and thereby to properly reducing fossil fuel consumption and emissions without harming economic growth. - Highlights: • LV-SUD is used to analyse the competition between environment-energy-economy (3Es). • The competitions between renewable, nuclear, and fossil energy are analysed. • Competition between 3Es plays an important role in policy development. • LV-SUD provides a useful multivariate framework for prediction outcomes. • An application for emerging markets countries such as Mexico is presented

  9. Competitive dynamics of energy, environment, and economy in the U.S

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pao, Hsiao-Tien; Chen, Haipeng; Li, Yi-Ying

    2015-01-01

    This paper applies the Lotka–Volterra model to investigate the competitive interactions among energy, environment, and economy (3Es) in the U.S. The proposed LV-COMSUD (Lotka–Volterra COmpetition Model for SUstainable Development) has satisfactory performance for model fitting and provides a useful multivariate framework to predict outcomes concerning these interactions. Our key findings include a pure competition between emissions and GDP (Gross Domestic Product), neutralisms between renewable and fossil/nuclear energy, and commensalisms between GDP and renewable/fossil energy and between nuclear energy and fossil energy/emissions. These results indicate that renewable/fossil energy use contributes to GDP and interacts indirectly with emissions, that an environmental Kuznets curve exists, and that the amount of produced nuclear energy correlates with emission. The U.S. is dependent on non-clean energy sources and its energy efficiency has room for improvement. The results provide unique insights for policy makers to craft up sustainable economic development plans. Overall, it is suggested that for developed markets such as the U.S., to enhance energy security and mitigate climate changes, improving energy efficiency and developing low-carbon clean energy should be top priorities. - Highlights: • The competitive interactions among energy, environment, and economy are examined. • A pure competition between emissions and GDP exists and an EKC exists. • Energy use contributes to GDP and interacts indirectly with emissions. • Nuclear energy was used to tackle the growth of emissions/fossil energy use. • Improved energy efficiency is a viable policy to enhance energy security in U.S

  10. Technological Innovation and Competitiveness in The Global Economy: India's Changing Status and Its Implications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bala Subrahmanya Mungila Hillemane

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available   This paper probes the changing innovation status and resultant competitiveness in the context of global economy and questions the recent ranking improvements of India on the basis of hard economic facts. This paper has made use of secondary data comprising innovation indices and competitiveness rankings published by international organizations and reputed business schools from time to time since 1996 to analyze the changing status of India internationally. Later, using secondary data on key macro-economic variables published by the Government of India, the recent ranking of India is closely examined as well as recent steps taken by the government of India to improve competitiveness is elaborated. The study throws light on the changing but improving innovation dimensions and competitiveness ranking of India since 1996 till 2010. From nowhere India emerges and occupies the second slot, after China, in the global competitiveness ranking. But hard core macro-economic variables do not justify India’s elevation to the top in any way. Given this, the study throws light on the recent policy measures announced by the Government of India and its implications as well as policy imperatives.

  11. Economy of distrust (the institute of trust and its role in the regional competitiveness

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nadezhda Yakovlevna Kalyuzhnova

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available The study is dedicated to the role of social capital in ensuring the competitiveness of the social and economic systems. The indicator of interpersonal trust is used as the important indicator of social capital. Trust and distrust are considered in the article as separate categories, the distrust and its role in the economic component of life in the regions and countries are considered. The theoretical provisions revealing the mechanisms of distrust influence on the economy and the competitiveness of economies are given. The article statistically examines the link of indicators of trust and distrust on the level of countries and Russian regions and the competitiveness of countries and Russian regions. The assessment of parameters of interpersonal trust / distrust at the level of regions of the Russian Federation and the country in general on the basis of the Public Opinion Foundation are provided. The calculations of the correlation between the scores of countries’ competitiveness and credibility of the countries on the basis of survey data from the European Social Survey (ESS, as well as the data of the World Economic Forum on the competitiveness of countries in 2008 and 2010 are also provided. Our empirical study confirmed the link between the low level of interpersonal trust and competitiveness of the Russian economy in general, and the state of the country’s institutions. At the same time, we fail to confirm the link between the indicators of interpersonal trust across regions and economic indicators. This may serve as a confirmation of the fact that regional communities have virtually no effect on the behavior and economic decisions of persons taking decisions in the regions. This can be explained by the lack of relationship between trust to the elites making decisions and their position due to the lack of selectivity of the first persons of regions and mechanisms of the real impact of the population on economic decision-making, as

  12. Production structure and international competition position of the German environmental protection economy; Produktionsstruktur und internationale Wettbewerbsposition der deutschen Umweltschutzwirtschaft

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Legler, Harald; Schasse, Ulrich [Niedersaechsisches Institut fuer Wirtschaftsforschung e.V., Hannover (Germany)

    2009-06-15

    There exists a connection between the economic structural orientation and international competitiveness on the one hand as well as the environmental political requirements on the other hand. The environmental protection economy fits quite well the profile that Germany is demanded in the international change. Under this aspect, the authors of the contribution under consideration report on the production structure and on the international competition position of the German environmental protection economy. The authors report on (a) the production structure and production dynamics of the environmental protection industry; (b) German environmental protection economy in the international comparison; (c) Goods, building works and services for environmental protection in Germany.

  13. Dynamic International Competitiveness of Transition Economies. What do trade figures tell us? The case of Poland

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Jørgen Ulff-Møller

    This paper shows that the reform on the structures of the Polish economy has had an impressively fast effect on the numbers of different products this country exports to Western countries. The time path may well be described by a logistic curve. The change in the exports of this country may...... therefore be characterised by a widening, instead of a deepening in specialisation. The paper introduces a new empirical methodology to evaluate the dynamic changes in export activities of a country. The result of this new methodology is that quality competition is becoming increasingly important for Poland...

  14. ANALYSIS OF INFLUENCE FACTORS OF ECONOMIC EFFICIENCY ON THE ECONOMY OF THE INTEGRATED STRUCTURES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. P. Bogomolova

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Currently in Russia, special attention is paid to the food industry, providing a key influence on the state's economy and food security of the country. The food industry not only creates substantial part of the gross domestic product, which is one of the main sources of fillings budgets of all levels, and contributes to the strengthening of the state in world markets. These circum-stances make it necessary to increase the efficiency of industrial structures by mobilizing factors affecting the economy of enterprises, including by shifting emphasis on the integration of food industry enterprises in General competitiveness of the goods produced, the stability of the entire industry, its leading industries and organizations. The article substantiates the expediency of application of integrated structures, discusses the methods and tools of analysis of influence factors of economic efficiency on the economy of inte-grated structures. Evaluation is recommended in two key areas: assessment of the financial condition and evaluation of training and development of staff, taking into account the strategic objectives of integrated structures. The analysis makes it possible to correctly allocate financial resources and to achieve balanced economic performance management through more effective use of credit re-sources, the rational management of economic parameters optimization of the number of employees and production capacity.

  15. Competitiveness of the economy and the crisis of the European Monetary Union

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Grbić Vladimir

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The crisis in the European Monetary Union revealed the internal weaknesses of its functioning. The evolution of the EMU was not accompanied by appropriate structural transformations. The prerequisite for optimal currency area on its endogenous character is not sufficiently confirmed. It was found that the competitiveness of the euro area economy worsened compared to the relevant competitors in the world. A uniform operation of the single currency has contributed to the deepening of the differences in competitiveness among members. In the longer term, the current recession has slowed the development of the EMU and raises the question of its survival. In front of the EMU's members is a long road of the structural adjustments. In order to adapt to the European crisis adequately, Serbian finance highly dependent on euro must choose an appropriate exchange rate regime.

  16. Integrated marketing communications and their role in economy and education

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Melnikova Nadezhda

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The article is devoted to the analysis of marketing, its role and significance in the modern education system and economy. The authors review the advantages of integrated marketing communications which include, apart from marketing, organizational culture, advertising, public relations (PR, branding, image making and other types of communication influencing the formation and functions of social processes and institutions, including the economic and education sphere.

  17. Regional and international market integration of a small open economy

    OpenAIRE

    Sebastian Fossati; Fernando Lorenzo; Cesar M. Rodríguez

    2007-01-01

    This paper studies the relationship between a set of commodity prices in a small open economy like Uruguay and the corresponding international and regional prices. The empirical methodology used is the multivariate cointegration procedure based on maximum likelihood methods introduced by Johansen (1988) as well as estimations of half-life persistence indicators. In the case of cereals, the evidence suggests strong market integration between domestic and regional markets and, to some extent, a...

  18. Measuring Sustainable Competitiveness in Contemporary Economies—Insights from European Economy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gheorghe H. Popescu

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available The recent transformation of the national economies has raised numerous theoretical and practical aspects in measuring economic growth, welfare, environmental performance, and competitiveness, representing a challenging research topic within the context of economic paradigm transformation. Despite its importance, a fully operational model to be used in any context has not yet been designed. The main aim of this paper is to evaluate and analyze the macroeconomic dimension of the three determinants of sustainable competitiveness: the economic environment, the social environment, and the natural environment, at both the European and Romanian levels. This paper used the Hierarchical Clustering methodology, aiming at evaluating the global competitiveness in terms of a sustainable development model, using four indices: Human Development Index, Environmental Performance Index, Global Competitiveness Index, and GDP per capita. The clusters were designed on the basis of the role of the indices in assessment of the sustainable performances of the countries and also of the possible convergences between them. The results could sustain the conclusion that these indices are not able to offer an exhaustive image of the sustainable performances assessment. A new complex indicator could be considered in order to design a convergence model for the EU member states.

  19. Progress in integrated energy-economy-environment model system development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yasukawa, Shigeru; Mankin, Shuichi; Sato, Osamu; Tadokoro, Yoshihiro; Nakano, Yasuyuki; Nagano, Takao

    1987-11-01

    The Integrated Energy-Economy-Environment Model System has been developed for providing analytical tools for the system analysis and technology assessments in the field of nuclear research and development. This model system consists of the following four model groups. The first model block installs 5 models and can serve to analyze and generate long-term scenarios on economy-energy-environment evolution. The second model block installs 2 models and can serve to analyze the structural transition phenomena in energy-economy-environment interactions. The third model block installs 2 models and can handle power reactor installation strategy problem and long-term fuel cycle analysis. The fourth model block installs 5 models and codes and can treats cost-benefit-risk analysis and assessments. This report describes mainly the progress and the outlines of application of the model system in these years after the first report on the research and development of the model system (JAERI-M 84 - 139). (author)

  20. Market structure and competition in the healthcare industry : Results from a transition economy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lábaj, Martin; Silanič, Peter; Weiss, Christoph; Yontcheva, Biliana

    2018-02-14

    The present paper provides first empirical evidence on the relationship between market size and the number of firms in the healthcare industry for a transition economy. We estimate market-size thresholds required to support different numbers of suppliers (firms) for three occupations in the healthcare industry in a large number of distinct geographic markets in Slovakia, taking into account the spatial interaction between local markets. The empirical analysis is carried out for three time periods (1995, 2001 and 2010) which characterise different stages of the transition process. Our results suggest that the relationship between market size and the number of firms differs both across industries and across periods. In particular, we find that pharmacies, as the only completely liberalised market in our dataset, experience the largest change in competitive behaviour during the transition process. Furthermore, we find evidence for correlation in entry decisions across administrative borders, suggesting that future market analysis should aim to capture these regional effects.

  1. EVALUATION OF COMPETITIVE STRATEGIES OF COFFEE RETAILING IN ASPECT OF MARKET ECONOMY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aslı ÖZTOPÇU

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Coffee retailers are trying to improve both their products and services and to increase their market share. Companies are both competing and developing different strategies such as issues production, R&D, business model, customers, and innovations. The aim of this study is to determine the competitive strategies in the coffee retailing aspect of the market economy. For this purpose, firstly, in this sector, the major competitors, suppliers, and customers were researched and the general structure of the sector was determined. Secondly, size of the global market, industry, and demand growth rate and the future status of the coffee retail industry were determined. Finally, the bargaining power of customers and suppliers of the sector were evaluated. According to the evaluation obtained, it was understood that coffee retailing is an attractive, large and dynamic sector. In the analysis according to the study of Porter’s five force model, important information was obtained for coffee retailing.

  2. Impact of Clusters on Innovation, Knowledge and Competitiveness in the Romanian Economy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristina VLĂSCEANU

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The concept of clusters has become extremely popular in the recent years, as more and more practitioners and theorists refer to it.From my point of view, clusters are the ideal structure for some companies to build their skills, knowledge and know-how together. To the same extent, this form of organization enables the creation of common structures / facilities, which allows the smaller firms or the ones that lack experience to learn from the ones with more experience and to benefit from their more advanced capabilities, and thus to grow together. Moreover, the participation, collaboration and cooperation of universities, institutes, research centers and other organizations/entities inside a cluster undoubtedly leads to the growth of the economic development of the region, from which the cluster is part of. In the case of Romania, the eight development regions could greatly benefit from the formation and implementation of clusters. With the shift to a knowledge-based economy and society, the difference, made by clusters and creative networks that promote innovation, is now clear. Thus, the purpose of this paper is to outline the benefits that can come from the development of clusters, and to highlight the impact of clusters on innovation, knowledge and competitiveness in the Romanian Economy.

  3. What drives employment growth of Canadian Businesses? A Fresh Look at Indicators of Agglomeration Economies when Competition and Diversity Matter

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wang, Cong; Steiner, Bodo

    2014-01-01

    This study investigates indicators of external scale economies in Canada for the period 2004-11. Accounting for firm-level external scale forces, we explore the extent to which external scale economies impact employment growth. Our analysis focuses on three factors: the impact of external scale...... economies accounting for Marshallian specialization and Jacobs diversity, competition by industry, and related and unrelated firm varieties in terms of employment and sales. Results accounting for non-linearity between employment growth and agglomeration suggest that in the short run, during the period 2004...

  4. Competitive integration. A new strategy for the brazilian industrialization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lucas, L.P.V.

    1989-01-01

    It is discussed a new strategy for brazilian industrialization: from importation substitution to structural changes. The strategy of competitive integration, technological progress and the new technologies. (A.C.A.S.)

  5. The Wolf and the Caribou: Coexistence of Decentralized Economies and Competitive Markets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andreas Freund

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available Starting with BitTorrent and then Bitcoin, decentralized technologies have been on the rise over the last 15+ years, gaining significant momentum in the last 2+ years with the advent of platform ecosystems such as the Blockchain platform Ethereum. New projects have evolved from decentralized games to marketplaces to open funding models to decentralized autonomous organizations. The hype around cryptocurrency and the valuation of innovative projects drove the market cap of cryptocurrencies to over a trillion dollars at one point in 2017. These high valued technologies are now enabling something new: globally scaled and decentralized business models. Despite their valuation and the hype, these new business ecosystems are frail. This is not only because the underlying technology is rapidly evolving, but also because competitive markets see a profit opportunity in exponential cryptocurrency returns. This extracts value from these ecosystems, which could lead to their collapse, if unchecked. In this paper, we explore novel ways for decentralized economies to protect themselves from, and coexist with, competitive markets at a global scale utilizing decentralized technologies such as Blockchain.

  6. MODELLING OF THE POSSIBLE INTEGRATION CONSEQUENCES OF THE ECONOMY OF UKRAINE INTO THE ECONOMIES OF THE EUROPEAN UNION OR RUSSIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lesya Buyak

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of the paper is to mathematically reproduce the process of economic partnership between the two countries and its qualitative analysis, which include the following goals: to identify feasible outcomes, to formulate requirements for the selection of control parameters and coefficients, to give economic reasoning of the results of modelling and to provide alternative scenario of economic cooperation. Methodology. A method of mathematical modelling has been applied to investigate the possible socio-economic impact of integration of Ukraine into the EU economy. We are describing the basic mathematical model of the economy of Ukraine and two mathematical models of the possible convergence with the economies of the European Union or Russia. The results of modelling are reflected by the capacity of relevant dynamic systems and the quantitative distribution of savings. Results. On the basis of economic analysis of mathematical dependence, the conclusions on the possible economic consequences of integration of Ukraine into the economy of the European Union or Russia have been established. Practical implications. It has been found that a step towards the European Union (EU requires the alteration of principles of economic management, timely government control. This should be done in the process of restructuring of social standards and commercial activity in terms of traditional forms of management of enterprises with low financial capacities. The process of convergence with the economy of Russia leads to conservation of the modern type of economy with many disadvantages of commercial management and government control as well as limitation of economic and political freedoms and growth of political instability in the country. Value/originality. The got results extend modern economic and mathematical tool for research of integration processes and acceptance of the proper economic decisions. Formalization of models of economy taking into account

  7. The evolution of competition in banking in a transition economy: an application of the Panzar-Rosse model to Armenia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Armenuhi Mkrtchyan

    2005-06-01

    Full Text Available The structure of the banking industry typically undergoes fundamental changes during the transition to a market economy. This research employs the method suggested by Panzar and Rosse (1987 to evaluate the empirical evidence on the evolution of competitive structure in the Armenian banking industry during its recent transition and on the possible forces—market power or efficiency/contestability—that underlie that evolution. The results point to monopolistic competition.The reduction of bank numbers and the simultaneous increase in concentration is accompanied by a decline in competition intensity, which supports the market-power hypothesis

  8. Modeling energy-economy interactions using integrated models

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Uyterlinde, M.A.

    1994-06-01

    Integrated models are defined as economic energy models that consist of several submodels, either coupled by an interface module, or embedded in one large model. These models can be used for energy policy analysis. Using integrated models yields the following benefits. They provide a framework in which energy-economy interactions can be better analyzed than in stand-alone models. Integrated models can represent both energy sector technological details, as well as the behaviour of the market and the role of prices. Furthermore, the combination of modeling methodologies in one model can compensate weaknesses of one approach with strengths of another. These advantages motivated this survey of the class of integrated models. The purpose of this literature survey therefore was to collect and to present information on integrated models. To carry out this task, several goals were identified. The first goal was to give an overview of what is reported on these models in general. The second one was to find and describe examples of such models. Other goals were to find out what kinds of models were used as component models, and to examine the linkage methodology. Solution methods and their convergence properties were also a subject of interest. The report has the following structure. In chapter 2, a 'conceptual framework' is given. In chapter 3 a number of integrated models is described. In a table, a complete overview is presented of all described models. Finally, in chapter 4, the report is summarized, and conclusions are drawn regarding the advantages and drawbacks of integrated models. 8 figs., 29 refs

  9. HAS THE INFORMATION SOCIETY SUCCEEDED TO IMPROVE THE COMPETITIVENESS OF EUROPEAN SUSTAINABLE TOURISM ECONOMY?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    GHITA Simona

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Europe represents one of the most significant tourism destinations in the world, but, nowadays, it is more and more important the issue of adapting the tourism demand and supply to the need of sustainability. Information Technologies can help to increase the competitiveness of the tourism industry, creating a bridge between tourism supply and demand. According to the figures presented by the UNWTO, the growth rate of international tourist arrivals in 2013 compared to 2012 was of 5% (meaning 52 million international tourists arrivals, reaching 1,09 billion arrivals in 2013. The highest absolute growth was experienced by Europe (29 million arrivals in 2013, while the highest relative growth was registered in Asia and the Pacific (6%. The average international tourist receipt exceeded US$700 per person, while total tourists’ expenditures leveled more than $1,4 trillion. Tourism sector, including the related industries, contributed in 2013 by 9,5% to the total global Gross Domestic Product (GDP and created approximately 10% of the jobs worldwide. In Romania the ascending trend of tourists’ arrivals in accommodation establishments was interrupted by decreases in 2009 and 2010, due to the global economic-financial crisis. The indicator “Nights spent at tourist accommodation establishments by residents” experienced a similar evolution. Revenues from tourism and its contribution to GDP can be improved through the usage of information technology services. The present paper gives a possible answer to the following questions: can Information Society improve the competitiveness of European Sustainable Tourism Economy? Are there evidences of the impact of modern informational technologies on trends in sustainable tourism economy? In the analysis, the author used EUROSTAT data for European countries, 2000-2013 time-series. Statistical indicators used in the analysis are grouped by three areas of interest: Tourism Area (Arrivals of residents

  10. JAL/JAS Integration: Toward a New Era of Competition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kanenari, Hideyuki

    2003-01-01

    On October 2, 2002, JAL and JAS established a new holding company after obtaining the necessary approval from the government bodies. Full integration is planned to take place in April 2004. This paper will primarily explain how JAL/JAS integration will enable JAL to compete effectively with ANA, the giant in the domestic market, and how it will reinforce JAL's competitiveness through further cost reduction and revenue enhancement. In addition, the paper will explain how the keener domestic competition brought about by this integration could resolve the following two issues for the first time in the Japanese aviation history. Those two issues are: (1) providing better service to domestic customers, and (2) making Japanese airlines more competitive against foreign airlines in the international market. As a result, the paper will argue that such an integration, a logical outcome of the post-war civil aviation history of Japan, will significantly benefit customers, Japanese aviation industry and Japanese society as a whole.

  11. Labor Market Efficiency as One of the Pillars of the Global Competitiveness of an Economy - Conclusions for the Labor Market Regimes of the EU Countries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Izabela Ostoj

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Labor market activity may have an effect on global economy competitiveness. This issue has been described as "labor market efficiency" (LME, which is a constituent of The Global Competitiveness Index published by The World Economic Forum (WEF. The article's purpose is to clarify the phenomenon of LME and explain the mechanisms which help the constituents affect economy competitiveness. The structure of LME points at the meaning of labor market regime, especially after considering the fact that European Union countries operate within various models of regime. The analysis of the LME diversity may help determine what type of labor market regimes are most efficient in enhancing economy competitiveness

  12. New competitive strategies of foreign banks in large emerging economies: the case of Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernando J. Cardim de Carvalho

    2000-06-01

    Full Text Available Financial relations have been deeply transformed in the 1980s and 1990s by deregulation and liberalization. Among the most affected by these changes has been the banking system. Domestic banks have generally lost the implicit protection given by regulatory barriers to entry. Until very recently, in most of the world, foreign banks had their range of operations limited by both regulatory and market factors in developed and developing countries alike. This has radically changed in the 1990s. Foreign banks previously content to hold marginal positions in domestic emerging markets started to pursue aggressive strategies of expansion. Competition among banks operating domestically is being intensified as a result, particularly in emerging economies large enough to support entry of new banking firms. We examine the case of Brazil, where, following the semi-crisis of 1995, a significant number of banks set up subsidiaries fighting for increasing market shares of the domestic market. The paper shows the ways these banks chose to enter the market and explores the perspectives for the domestic banking sector.

  13. Competitiveness in organizational integrated computer system project management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zenovic GHERASIM

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available The organizational integrated computer system project management aims at achieving competitiveness by unitary, connected and personalised treatment of the requirements for this type of projects, along with the adequate application of all the basic management, administration and project planning principles, as well as of the basic concepts of the organisational information management development. The paper presents some aspects of organizational computer systems project management competitiveness with the specific reference to some Romanian companies’ projects.

  14. The Telecommunications Industry; Integration Vs. Competition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Irwin, Manley R.

    Vertical integration stands as the salient structural configuration of the telecommunications equipment market. Computer hardware manufacturers are obviously potential competitors with the captive telecommunications equipment suppliers. Direct government policies, such as patents and a permissive attitude toward mergers, and indirect policies,…

  15. Economy

    OpenAIRE

    Haring, Ben

    2009-01-01

    The economy of ancient Egypt is a difficult area of study due to the lack of preservation of much data (especially quantitative data); it is also a controversial subject on which widely divergent views have been expressed. It is certain, however, that the principal production and revenues of Egyptian society as a whole and of its individual members was agrarian, and as such, dependent on the yearly rising and receding of the Nile. Most agricultural producers were probably self-sufficient tena...

  16. Functionality of the Kosovo Competition Authority on the basis of European Union standards a guarantee for loyal economy in Kosovo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Armand Krasniqi

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Legal regulation of market mechanisms and the implementation of economic policies for a fair competition in TEs is a challenging issue. The competition is a complex economic phenomenon that is manifested and characterized by the strength and content that gives to the market economy. In Kosovo specific economic entities, in one way or another, are tempted to gain as much buyers or markets and create much more profits. The problem is connected with the irregularity. Such behavior and unfair actions are not only damaging the image of the country but are a serious threat the harmonious development of the national economy and the country’s accession process to the EU. The parliament of Kosovo established the Kosovo Competition Authority as an independent institution with special competences to control and fight this negative phenomenon. Based to official data it turns out that the effectiveness of this institution is not only incomplete but also non-functional. This is because of the “ignorance” and non-adequate treatment that is reserved for this authority by the parliamentary and governmental institutions. All this because the members are not elected based to regular procedures and not allocating the necessary financial means to operate. At least so far, the Kosovo Competition Authority was not allowed to hire professionals with clear competences to act and investigate the negative phenomenon of unfair competition. Certainly, this situation does not guarantee effective implementation of laws and quality protection of competition. Therefore, the mobilization of parliamentary and governmental levels is needed to enhance professional capacities and increase their competence in scope of the investigation including cooperation with prosecutors and courts. These actions should be reconsidered with the aim of creating a competitive safe environment for all operators. To conclude, the loyal competition policies and legislative framework should be

  17. Features of competition and development of markets in an age of globalized economy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dr.Sc. Skender Kërçuku

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available The fall of communism in Eastern Europe in the beginning of the 90-ies of the 20th century marked the beginning of a historical process of triumph of market economy in a wide geographical area and a large population, which had to have an influence on global developments. This age is characterized not only by a comprehensive ruling of capitalist market economy, but also by a series of important structural changes in economies of various countries, national and international mechanisms of market functioning, and relevant institutions thereto. Distinct authors have various opinions on characteristics and positive and negative outcomes of a globalized economy era. Some consider the globalization of world economy as a quantitative and qualitative expansion of market economy throughout the world, similar to the situation before the World War I. Other more serious authors consider the globalization of world economy as a new qualitative era, with important consequences on many areas.

  18. Political Economy of Tradeable Permits. Competitiveness, Co-operation and Market Power

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Convery, F.J.; Dunne, L.; Redmond, L.; Ryan, L.B.

    2003-01-01

    There is a consistent pre-occupation in the research literature on emissions trading with what configurations of trading arrangements are likely to be economically efficient both statically and dynamically, and - to a lesser extent - what is likely to be fair - who are the winners and the losers. Issues of environmental effectiveness are also addressed in this context. Conversely, amongst the policy practitioners, there is little overt interest in economic efficiency, and not much treatment of fairness. There is a strong interest in implementability, and in environmental effectiveness. The presentations at the workshops reflected these parallel pre-occupations, and attempts were made by some to make a bridge between them. In this paper we review some of the papers and associated other literature that address these issues in political economy, with a particular emphasis on insights emerging as regards competitiveness, co-operation and market power. Much of the relevant research emerging at the workshops was animated by either ex post analysis of existing programmes, or an ex ante analysis of 'new' emissions trading proposals, such as the proposal by the European Commission for a European Union (EU) wide scheme. At our first workshop in Venice, in December 2001, Zapfel and Vainio (2001) presented a paper - 'Pathways to European Greenhouse Gas Emission Trading' - which mapped the at times surprising evolution of the emissions trading idea in Europe, the misconceptions that in the past and still to this day complicate progress, and conclude with a presentation of a coherent case for the creation of an EU wide greenhouse gas emissions trading scheme. They both work with the European Commission in DG Environment, and continue to be heavily involved in moving the emissions trading agenda forward. The Commission had released its proposals just two months earlier, in October 2001, following an intensive consultation process. This co-incidence of occurrence of the initiation

  19. Political Economy of Tradeable Permits. Competitiveness, Co-operation and Market Power

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Convery, F.J.; Dunne, L.; Redmond, L.; Ryan, L.B. [Department of Environmental Studies, University College, Dublin (Ireland)

    2003-07-01

    There is a consistent pre-occupation in the research literature on emissions trading with what configurations of trading arrangements are likely to be economically efficient both statically and dynamically, and - to a lesser extent - what is likely to be fair - who are the winners and the losers. Issues of environmental effectiveness are also addressed in this context. Conversely, amongst the policy practitioners, there is little overt interest in economic efficiency, and not much treatment of fairness. There is a strong interest in implementability, and in environmental effectiveness. The presentations at the workshops reflected these parallel pre-occupations, and attempts were made by some to make a bridge between them. In this paper we review some of the papers and associated other literature that address these issues in political economy, with a particular emphasis on insights emerging as regards competitiveness, co-operation and market power. Much of the relevant research emerging at the workshops was animated by either ex post analysis of existing programmes, or an ex ante analysis of 'new' emissions trading proposals, such as the proposal by the European Commission for a European Union (EU) wide scheme. At our first workshop in Venice, in December 2001, Zapfel and Vainio (2001) presented a paper - 'Pathways to European Greenhouse Gas Emission Trading' - which mapped the at times surprising evolution of the emissions trading idea in Europe, the misconceptions that in the past and still to this day complicate progress, and conclude with a presentation of a coherent case for the creation of an EU wide greenhouse gas emissions trading scheme. They both work with the European Commission in DG Environment, and continue to be heavily involved in moving the emissions trading agenda forward. The Commission had released its proposals just two months earlier, in October 2001, following an intensive consultation process. This co-incidence of

  20. New technologies as a factor of development of competitive Russian economy in the context of a post-industrial stage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shamrai Yu.F.

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available the article presents ways of development of a technological platform of the Russian economy and a role of new technologies and «human factor» in providing its competitiveness at a post-industrial stage. The author offers: education systems development, use of channels of the international migration of a skilled labor force, forming of the national market of new technologies, enhancement of interaction with the world market of new technologies.

  1. CSR Integration into the Financial Economy: A Conceptual Approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Georgiana - Loredana FRECEA

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Corporate social responsibility is a complex concept and its design integrates economic, social and environmental issues, pointing out the operational effects on a voluntary basis. It is considered a strategic point in the actual evolution of the economy, due to the financial market dynamism, being identified a critical correlation between financial crises and corporate social responsibility. The main purpose of this paper is to synthesize, through a literature review, the multiple dimensions of CSR, with a special emphasis on the theoretical approach. In order to provide a coherent overview on the banking CSR, it will be proposed a division of the CSR theories according to: (1 the ethical approach, (2 the stakeholders approach, and (3 the corporate governance approach. The major aim of this paper is to fill a gap in the theoretical approach of the CSR for the banking system, due to the necessity to unify the CSR reporting elements in order to find a balance between the bank’s organizational structure and their legitimacy to operate on the financial market.

  2. A competitive integration model of exogenous and endogenous eye movements

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Meeter, M.; van der Stigchel, S.; Theeuwes, J.

    2010-01-01

    We present a model of the eye movement system in which the programming of an eye movement is the result of the competitive integration of information in the superior colliculi (SC). This brain area receives input from occipital cortex, the frontal eye fields, and the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex,

  3. Energy integration: Regional economic integration lever and possible insertion factor in the global economy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lokolo, M.C.

    2001-01-01

    In the 1920s, just after the War, an idea began taking root in the Old Continent, to build what could be described as the United States of Europe. Thirty years later, in 1951, a new source of energy, coal, paved the way for the economic integration of Europe. It culminated into monetary integration in January 2002. Economic integration makes sense in the context of the relatively small size of some national economies and markets, and the judicious utilization of rare resources and their unequal distribution. In this document, the author elaborated on the principles at play in economic integration and argued that the integration of the national energy markets could be the lever for economic integration through the gradual elimination of the various obstacles to trade. The author first presented a brief historical overview of economic integration from the perspective of global economic relationships, covering the period between the two world wars to the General Agreement on Tariffs and Trade (GATT) to the World Trade Organization (WTO). The concept and the forms of economic integration were reviewed. Energy integration as a lever of regional economic integration and as a factor in global economic insertion were discussed. Energy integration is a tool for the improvement of the human condition. 15 refs

  4. The price effects of enhancing services sector competition in a large open economy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    P.A.D. Cavelaars

    2003-01-01

    textabstractThis paper studies the price e?ects of shocks to the degree of competition. It is motivated by initiatives to enhance competition in services in the European Union. The paper shows that a higher degree of competition in the nontradable goods sector may have adverse implications for

  5. Peers or Professionals? The P2P-Economy and Competition Law

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ranchordás, Sofia

    2017-01-01

    For almost a decade, digital peer-to-peer initiatives (eg, Uber, Airbnb) have been disrupting the traditional economy by offering informal, diverse, convenient and affordable services to consumers. However, more recently, the peer-to-peer economy has become increasingly professionalised. Service

  6. The integration of ecopolitical needs in communal competition politics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kraemer, L.

    1993-01-01

    Politically and institutionally the integration of ecopolitical needs in Communal competition politics has not progressed very far. In the domain of Article 85 trade-internal agreements and agreements for self-imposed moderation attain particular importance from the ecopolitical viewpoint. Protection of the environment as a task of common European interest cannot be realed solely or even in large part through market mechanisms. Therefore financial aids for the promotion of environment protection are principally both desirable and permissible. This is the starting point from which to assess effects of ecopolitical measures on competition. (orig./HSCH) [de

  7. Integration & Impact of Information Technology on Indian Economy

    OpenAIRE

    Dr. Gulrukh Salim

    2014-01-01

    India occupies a major place in list of developing countries and is expected to have basic capabilities to compete with world economies. Before 1991, India adopted policy of self-reliance but in this era of LPG, India’s industrial and agricultural structure is being transformed into open and mixed economy. On the basis of various surveys and fact conducted by National and International Agencies, India is still lacking in the basic needs of livelihood, despite having occupied the position of t...

  8. Alterations to multisensory and unisensory integration by stimulus competition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pluta, Scott R; Rowland, Benjamin A; Stanford, Terrence R; Stein, Barry E

    2011-12-01

    In environments containing sensory events at competing locations, selecting a target for orienting requires prioritization of stimulus values. Although the superior colliculus (SC) is causally linked to the stimulus selection process, the manner in which SC multisensory integration operates in a competitive stimulus environment is unknown. Here we examined how the activity of visual-auditory SC neurons is affected by placement of a competing target in the opposite hemifield, a stimulus configuration that would, in principle, promote interhemispheric competition for access to downstream motor circuitry. Competitive interactions between the targets were evident in how they altered unisensory and multisensory responses of individual neurons. Responses elicited by a cross-modal stimulus (multisensory responses) proved to be substantially more resistant to competitor-induced depression than were unisensory responses (evoked by the component modality-specific stimuli). Similarly, when a cross-modal stimulus served as the competitor, it exerted considerably more depression than did its individual component stimuli, in some cases producing more depression than predicted by their linear sum. These findings suggest that multisensory integration can help resolve competition among multiple targets by enhancing orientation to the location of cross-modal events while simultaneously suppressing orientation to events at alternate locations.

  9. The competitiveness of Eurozone periphery countries’ economies and their debt problems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dementiev N. P.

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The article describes that after the periphery PIGS countries (Portugal, Ireland, Greece and Spain joined the Eurozone, several factors previously improving PIGS' export competitiveness (undervalued national currency, protective customs duty, low compensation of employees no longer work. It is revealed that in the pre-crisis years the rapid GDP growth in PIGS took place considerably by means of foreign loans. Moreover, external debt bubbles grew: high rates of economic growth facilitated the inflow of new foreign money used for both reinvestment and current external debt service. Besides, the share of «tradable» goods (that can be moved between countries and internationally traded decreased in the GDP structures of PIGS. During the crisis, the PIGS' economic situation got worse (growth of external and public debts, decline in the GDP and in the investments, high unemployment. Conclusion: the Eurozone should either strengthen the integration (to increase the unification of laws in the economic and social spheres, to tighten control by the Eurozone central authorities, or get rid of the troubled countries. Otherwise, the current crisis, repeatedly flaring and fading, will persist for a long time.

  10. THE COMPETITIVENESS OF EUROZONE PERIPHERY COUNTRIES’ ECONOMIES AND THEIR DEBT PROBLEMS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dementiev N. P.

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The article describes that after the periphery PIGS countries (Portugal, Ireland, Greece and Spain joined the Eurozone, several factors previously improving PIGS' export competitiveness (undervalued national currency, protective customs duty, low compensation of employees no longer work. It is revealed that in the pre-crisis years the rapid GDP growth in PIGS took place considerably by means of foreign loans. Moreover, external debt bubbles grew: high rates of economic growth facilitated the inflow of new foreign money used for both reinvestment and current external debt service. Besides, the share of «tradable» goods (that can be moved between countries and internationally traded decreased in the GDP structures of PIGS. During the crisis, the PIGS' economic situation got worse (growth of external and public debts, decline in the GDP and in the investments, high unemployment. Conclusion: the Eurozone should either strengthen the integration (to increase the unification of laws in the economic and social spheres, to tighten control by the Eurozone central authorities, or get rid of the troubled countries. Otherwise, the current crisis, repeatedly flaring and fading, will persist for a long time.

  11. Competitive effects and instruments of power sector reforms. International reform concepts blockade structures, risk distribution. A political economy analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liebchen, Armin

    2014-01-01

    Power sectors with weak or inadequate competition structures are the rule, despite numerous attempts at reform. But can afford modern economies this defect for a long time? Why can the implementation of competition are blocked so effectively? The author studied international reform experiences and opens up interesting insights that can also reflect on problems of the German energy turnaround: The difficulty of timing and coordination of the reform components, the development of resistance levels of individual interest groups, breach of contract as a rational alternative, causes unwanted price effects, shifting interest situations of major stakeholders, change dynamics impending regulatory risks, pending financing risks, stranded cost-conflict situations for power stations disconnected from the grid and facilities and instruments of a political and regulatory risk management for reforms. With numerous examples, background analyzes and instruments to reform analysis, this book is aimed at investors, policy planners and analysts. [de

  12. A Factor Analysis of Trade Integration: The Case of Asian and Oceanic Economies

    OpenAIRE

    Yin-Wong Cheung; Matthew S. Yiu; Kenneth K. Chow

    2009-01-01

    We study trade integration among 15 selected Asian and Oceanic economies using factor models. The principal component approach is employed to extract the common factor that drives trade integration from bilateral trade integration series. It is found that the estimated common trade integration factor has strong seasonal and deterministic components. In accordance with theory, the common trade integration factor is significantly associated with the economic growth and the trade barriers of the...

  13. Eurozone Integration - Performance and Risk to the National Economies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adrian Petre

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Given the theoretical basis of achieving monetary union and the legal framework of euro adoption, this paper aims to analyze the advantages and disadvantages arising from the adoption of the single European currency - Euro, and the implications of the single currency on individuals and businesses. Also, in this paper we highlighted the situation of Romania regarding the introduction of the single currency and its implications on the Romanian economy.

  14. Economic competitiveness of fuel cell onsite integrated energy systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bollenbacher, G.

    1983-01-01

    The economic competitiveness of fuel cell onsite integrated energy systems (OS/IES) in residential and commercial buildings is examined. The analysis is carried out for three different buildings with each building assumed to be at three geographic locations spanning a range of climatic conditions. Numerous design options and operating strategies are evaluated and two economic criteria are used to measure economic performance. In general the results show that fuel cell OS/IES's are competitive in most regions of the country if the OS/IES is properly designed. The preferred design is grid connected, makes effective use of the fuel cell's thermal output, and has a fuel cell powerplant sized for the building's base electrical load.

  15. Outsmarting the gig-economy through collective bargaining - EU competition law as a barrier?

    OpenAIRE

    Schiek, Dagmar; Gideon, Andrea

    2018-01-01

    In August 2016, drivers delivering meals in London after being booked via the platforms ‘Deliveroo’ and ‘UberEATS’ made headlines by challenging working practices in the gig-economy through collective industrial action. Dissatisfaction resulted from extremely low levels of pay as well as a new payment calculation system being introduced without consultation. This indicates that the ‘gig-economy’ may not always constitute the smartest solution for those serving within it. However, it also high...

  16. Against Amateur Economies: Spec Work Competitions and the Anti-spec Movement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Helen Kennedy

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available The rise and rise of the amateur cultural producer has been greeted with a spectacular amount of celebratory rhetoric, in both popular and academic writing . It has also been criticised, often for the inferior quality of amateur productions compared to the fruits of professional labour. But apart from that by a small number of journalism scholars, little empirical research has been carried out with professional creative labourers about the impact of amateur economies on their work, and their responses to amateur production practices. This article addresses that gap, and also counterbalances the dominant celebratory discourse by focusing on an initiative that is critical of amateur economies and that emerges from creative workers themselves: the anti-spec movement within design industries. Anti-spec activists campaign against speculative (or spec work, which is seen as one problematic materialisation of crowdsourced, amateur economies. Here, it is argued that responses to spec work can be understood in relation to designers’ ethics and values and the extent to which they feel that these are thrown into question by amateur activity.

  17. International Perspectives on Work-Family Policies: Lessons from the World's Most Competitive Economies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Earle, Alison; Mokomane, Zitha; Heymann, Jody

    2011-01-01

    The United States does not guarantee families a wide range of supportive workplace policies such as paid maternity and paternity leave or paid leave to care for sick children. Proposals to provide such benefits are invariably met with the complaint that the costs would reduce employment and undermine the international competitiveness of American…

  18. Ghana integrated to the world economy : focus on Ghana-UK-Germany trade linkage model

    OpenAIRE

    Sarpong, Daniel Bruce

    1998-01-01

    In this study of Ghana integrated to the world economy, we focus primarily on Ghana-UK-Germany trade axis partly because of Ghana?s relative dependence on the EU for her international trade. The study employs ?representative? country macroeconometric models of these economies, using data over 1970-1991, including bilateral trade links among them and with the USA and Japan, to quantitatively analyze and draw policy inference of the international transmission mechanism of macroeconomic disturba...

  19. Arctic Climate Change, Economy and Society (ACCESS): Integrated perspectives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crépin, Anne-Sophie; Karcher, Michael; Gascard, Jean-Claude

    2017-12-01

    This introduction to the special issue presents an overview of the wide range of results produced during the European Union project Arctic Climate Change, Economy and Society (ACCESS). This project assessed the main impacts of climate change on Arctic Ocean's geophysical variables and how these impending changes could be expected to impact directly and indirectly on socio-economic activities like transportation, marine sea food production and resource exploitation. Related governance issues were examined. These results were used to develop several management tools that can live on beyond ACCESS. In this article, we synthesize most of the project results in the form of tentative responses to questions raised during the project. By doing so, we put the findings of the project in a broader perspective and introduce the contributions made in the different articles published in this special issue.

  20. Inflation in a Fully-Euroised Economy: Could Inflation Differentials Threaten Competitiveness?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mitrović-Mijatović Marijana

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available This paper analyses inflation in Montenegro, a country which uses euro outside the euro area, and investigates the factors which contribute to price differentials in Montenegro relative to the euro area. Furthermore, the paper examines whether changes in the real effective exchange rates, which in Montenegro’s case follow the path of price differentials, may have any influence on country’s competitiveness.

  1. Integrating ICT in Agriculture for Knowledge-Based Economy

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    agriculture –based livelihoods, demands the integration of ICT knowledge with agriculture. .... (CGIAR) shows the vital role of Agricultural development in Rwanda's ... Network, Rwanda National Backbone Project, Regional Communication.

  2. Energy as a competitive factor - Opportunities for the Swiss economy; Wettbewerbsfaktor Energie - Chancen fuer die Schweizer Wirtschaft

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ziegler, M.; Baettig, R.

    2010-02-15

    This report Swiss for the Swiss Federal Office of Energy (SFOE) reviews opportunities offered to the Swiss economy by regarding energy as a competitive factor. Goals set in Switzerland regarding the reduction of greenhouse-gas emissions and measures taken in this area are commented on. The report takes a look at measures that are technically and economically implementable in the building and transport areas. The costs and investment involved in the implementation of a particular scenario are examined. The chances offered to Swiss companies in the area of replacements for fossil fuels are examined. Market potentials in the areas of renewable energy sources and energy productivity are reviewed as are related financial services and workplace effects.

  3. The structural transformation of the economy of Russia: administrative aspect of formation and implementation of competitiveness in the context of its personnel

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. S. Popova

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available It were developed in this article the author's scientific and practical approach, methodology, and managerial tools allowing to construct and implement the policy of the competitiveness of the national economy in its personnel division at the federal, regional and enterprise levels, providing a selection and recruitment of qualified personnel capable of update the socioeconomic mechanism of public administration. Groups of industries of national economy were studied depending on the level of competitiveness of their products, trends, characteristics and factors of policy selection and recruitment in the civil service and industry sectors on example of CBEER - CFD.

  4. An integrated approach to hydrogen economy in Sicilian islands

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Matera, Fabio V.; Sapienza, C.; Andaloro, L.; Dispensa, G.; Ferraro, M.; Antonucci, V. [Italian National Research Council, Institute of Advanced Energy Technologies ' ' Nicola Giordano' ' , salita S. Lucia sopra Contesse, 5, Messina 98126 (Italy)

    2009-08-15

    CNR-ITAE is developing several hydrogen and fuel cell demonstration and research projects, each intended to be part of a larger strategy for hydrogen communities settling in small Sicilian islands. These projects involve vehicle design, hydrogen production from renewable energy sources and methane, as well as implementation strategies to develop a hydrogen and renewable energy economy. These zero emission lightweight vehicles feature regenerative braking and advanced power electronics to increase efficiency. Moreover, to achieve a very easy-to-use technology, a very simple interface between driver and the system is under development, including fault-recovery strategies and GPS positioning for car-rental fleets. Also marine applications have been included, with tests on PEFC applied on passenger ships and luxury yacht as power system for on-board loads. In marine application, it is under study also an electrolysis hydrogen generator system using seawater as hydrogen carrier. For stationary and automotive applications, the project includes a hydrogen refuelling station powered by renewable energy (wind or/and solar) and test on fuel processors fed with methane, in order to make the power generation self-sufficient, as well as to test the technology and increase public awareness toward clean energy sources. (author)

  5. Increasing competitiveness with intercompany integration of logistics and marketing functions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Darja Topolšek

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Researchers of different scientific disciplines, such as management strategies, organizational theories and marketing, have in the past explored relations of mutual influences and the importance of cooperation between different functions in a company. The increased focus on the logistics function has potential to increase competitiveness. This is especially true for globally aimed production companies. In any company, logistics functions cooperate with various related functions such as production, marketing, procurement, engineering or developing new products as well as with financial functions. Each of the aforementioned connections or cooperation among logistics and its complementary functions can have a decisive effect on the company's competitiveness. Using a survey, we determined which activities in the surveyed companies are performed by the logistical function together with the marketing function and which activities they suggest should be performed together but are currently not, meaning they are co-dependent. Since interfunctional integration between logistics and marketing increases the success of a company, we also examined the connection between the current joint performance of activities and the suggested joint performance of activities among the before mentioned sectors, connected to the effectiveness of the company. To examine the mentioned connections among the logistical and marketing functions, Explanatory Factor Analysis (EFA, Confirmatory Factor Analysis (CFA and Structural Equation Modelling (SEM were performed.

  6. INTEGRATED PRODUCT AND ENTERPRISE DESIGN FOR GLOBAL COMPETITIVENESS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N.D. Du Preez

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presentsan overview of the challenge to integrate product and process life cycles in maintaining global competitiveness of an enterprise and proposes IEKOS as a possible solution . It provides the reader with a framework of two virtual life cycles which create a problem solving matrix for the industrial engineer. In this matrix, bordered by the virtual enterprise life cycle and the virtual product life cycles, the business functions of analyze, design deploy and operate are predominantly functions executed by the, industrial engineer. The different phases of each life cycle serves as a framework to a virtual industrial engineering toolkit providing access to detailed functions, formats, examples and a series of software and other "tools" available to the industrial engineer.
    In conclusion a brief overview is provided of the progress of the IEKOS toolkit which is under development at the department of Industrial Engineering at Stellenbosch University.

  7. Integrating ICT in Agriculture for Knowledge-Based Economy | Balraj ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... demands the integration of ICT knowledge with agriculture. Already projects such as Agriculture Management Information System (AMIS), and e-Soko (which means electronic marketing) – which provides farmers with the price decision making tools enlightens the path to socio-economic development through agriculture.

  8. Commercialization of Intellectual Property Objects in Nanoindustry as a Factor of Increasing the Competitiveness of the Russian Economy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maksim Alekseevich Manyakin

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Formation and development of the sixth technological mode in the global economy leads to the search for new ways to enhance the competitiveness of products both on the domestic and on the world market. Commercialization of intellectual property (IP objects, created in the field of nanotechnology, can be a significant factor in ensuring the competitiveness of the country. The article gives the notion of nanoindustry IP objects’ commercialization as an economic category. The specificity of this process, which takes into account research intensity, capital intensity and interdisciplinary essence of nanotechnology, is disclosed. The basic problems of the IP objects’ commercialization in Russian nanotechnology sphere, as well as the conditions that ensure the effectiveness of this process are characterized. On the basis of analysis of foreign experience in the IP objects’ commercialization in nanoindustry five models of mechanisms managing this process, depending on the role of the state, have been identified. The necessity of reorientation of Russian model of nanoindustry development from a predominant state to the private one in conditions of the budget financing deficit is substantiated. Main directions of improving the process of commercialization of the IP objects created in the field of nanotechnology in Russia are identified.

  9. The informal economy employment impacts of trade liberalization & increased competition in export markets

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Morocco and United States. The overall logic of such measures was that liberalization and privatization would stimulate trade, support the requested modernization of the production systems and infrastructures, and enhance public administrations and services as well. Positive impacts on income, employments...... and privatization processes were implemented at the international level by the WTO's, at regional level by the establishment of free trade agreements between individual states on the southern and eastern Mediterranean rim and the EU [under the Barcelona Process] and by bilateral agreements as the one signed between...... to focus on the impacts of restructuring in the formal textile and clothing sectors (TC) which is the major employer in three Maghrib countries: Algeria, Morocco and Tunisia. The textile and clothing sectors have been particularly exposed to increased competition in foreign and/or domestic markets...

  10. INTEGRATION OF TRADE AND DISINTEGRATION OF PRODUCTION IN THE GLOBAL ECONOMY

    OpenAIRE

    Robert Feenstra

    2003-01-01

    The last few decades have seen a spectacular integration of the global economy through trade. The rising integration of world markets has brought with it a disintegration of the production process, however, in which manufacturing or services activities done abroad are combined with those performed at home. The author compares several different measures of foreign outsourcing and argues that they have all increased since the 1970s. He also considers the implications of globalization for employ...

  11. The impact of the energy cost on the competitiveness of the manufacturing industry. A review of the contributions of research in economy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bordigoni, Mathieu

    2013-01-01

    After a large introduction on the variations of energy prices (in relationship with energy sources, with end users, with competitiveness), on what can be found in the literature on competitiveness in the industry in relationship with energy, and on the current debates on energy prices and energy transition, this report discusses the variations of energy prices among countries and among industrial sectors, outlines that high oil prices threaten more economic growth than competitiveness, notices that countries possessing abundant energy resources tend to be specialised in intensive industries, that energy prices tends to have an important impact on competitiveness in some specific sectors, outlines that shale gases boost the demand of the whole American economy but that the associated competitiveness improvement rather concerns energy intensive sectors, and finally discusses the energy issue at a European level

  12. The Information as competitive advantage in the process of integrated logistics in tourism services

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sara Joana Gadotti dos Anjos

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available In all the sectors of the economy the competition is speeding more and more every day, because technologically, organizations can reach the same level of development. Particularly in the management of services, the differential is in the strategical form of using the information, in the attainment of the competitive advantages, providing to the new organizations forms to surpass the performance of the competitors, transforming the chains and having as focus activities of value. This article is centered in the delimitation of a model of Integrated Management - SIGESTur, having the hotel management as the central point of the process of joint among the elements that integrate the tourism system. At first, studies deepen the thematic quarrels having as base the bibliographical analysis. At a second moment,   develop a methodological proposal having as a base the bibliographical analysis and at a third moment present the considered model. For the development of the considered model, researchers used a study of a case in a Hotel of National Chain and 12 companies partners (feeding, leisure, entertainment and ways of transport, that is part of the value net. After the accomplishment of the interviews models were made to shape the processes of the net of value of the tourist services, having as a focus the identification of the existing joints among the hotel and the tourist services and finally the model SIGESTUR was developed conceptually.The results of the inquiry points about the hotel management chain of value show that the focus must be centered in an efficient flow of information and in a net of value lined up with agility among the tourist logistic partners, innovating and adding value to the offered services.

  13. The role of coal in the US energy economy: Interfuel competition, environmental concerns, and the impact of utility restructuring

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Raschke, M.G.

    1988-01-01

    This paper briefly examines the role coal plays in the US energy economy and its competition with nuclear power, and then in greater detail the impact of environmental regulation, changes in utility regulation, and inter fuel competition on the future of coal. The US as the world's number two coal producer, shares many of the same problems and concerns as China, the world's number one coal producer. The use of coal in electric generation has been and will continue to be the only growth sector for the coal industry. The steel industry remains in permanent long-term decline. Forecasts vary, but there are indications that even in conservative forecasts, there is more down side risk than upside potential. Poor performance in the nuclear power sector can be expected to favorably impact coal consumption in the long term. Continued escalation of operating costs could erode any cost advantage that nuclear plants currently enjoy. However, environmental concerns could also escalate operating costs for coal fired plants. Also, concern over the greenhouse effect may lead policy makers to reexamine the nuclear option of inherently safe reactors. The greatest challenge to expanded use of coal comes from environmental concerns. Acid rain is a complex political, economic, and scientific issue. Clean coal technologies are seen by many as the answer to the threat posed by various forms of clean air legislation and regulation. Significant changes in the regulatory environment for electric and gas utilities and technological developments are likely in the 1990's to alter the nature of the electric generation industry

  14. Russia's accession to the WTO as an important factor of the country's integration into the world economy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Linetsky Alexander

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Russia's accession to the WTO is an efficient instrument of the country's integration into the globalized world economy. However, it can adversely affect a number of enterprises and industries within the national economy. Thus, there is a need to develop a methodology for the assessment of the preparedness for operating under WTO membership conditions, which can be practically applied in the development of measures aimed at increasing the competitiveness of economic entities. This determines the objective of the research. This article offers the author's assessment of the reasonability of Russia's accession to the WTO and suggests methodological approaches to the assessment of preparedness of the constituent entities of the Russian Federation for functioning in the new economic conditions based on the algorithm of choosing a system of indicators, as well as the organisation of enterprise monitoring according to this system, which makes it possible to formulate rational administrative decisions in order to minimise the adverse effects of Russia's accession to the WTO. The major result of the research is the conclusion that, although the objective of identifying the start position of the constituent entities before the accession to the WTO and its possible implications is quite difficult to attain, it is both theoretically and practically feasible.

  15. Competition

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bridoux, F.; Vodosek, M.; Den Hartog, D.N.; McNett, J.M.

    2014-01-01

    Competition traditionally refers to the actions that firms take in a product market to outperform rivals in attracting customers and generating revenues. Yet, competition extends beyond product markets to other arenas such as factor markets, where firms compete for resources, and the political

  16. A test of vertical economies for non-vertically integrated firms: The case of rural electric cooperatives

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Greer, Monica L.

    2008-01-01

    This paper seeks to evaluate unrealized economies of vertical integration for rural electric cooperatives. Given the well-established network economies that are inherent in the generation, transmission, and distribution of electricity, the coops long-standing choice of market structure is questionable (especially if their strategy is welfare maximization). Organized as either generation-and-transmission or distribution-only, the traditional measures of vertical economies will not work. Thus, I have devised an alternative method by which to measure such economies and find that, on average, cost savings in excess of 39% could have been realized had the coops adopted a vertically integrated structure. (author)

  17. The Neoindustrial Principles for the Development of Integration Relations in the Agrarian Sector of Economy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hutorov Andrii O.

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available The article is aimed at elaborating the neoindustrial principles for the development of integration relations in the agrarian sector of economy. It has been shown that the engine of sectoral development and economic growth in the context of neoliberal globalization are the integration relations formed by the product principle and intrinsically linked to the neoindustrial transformation of the agro-industrial potential. The article explores the lack of options when choosing a national model for the sectoral development of economy: vertical integration of advanced playback, neoindustrialization, and economic security. It has been proven that the mutual relationship between the socio-economic formations and the strategies for integration interaction is organic. The replacement of the functional target setting of economic system at all levels of the hierarchy from the maximum profit to the maximum of the cumulative newly created (added value has been substantiated. A conceptual model for the development of the agrarian sector through integration and neoindustrialization has been accomplished, as well as the principles of strategic management of the system of integration relations have been elaborated. The main forms of implementation of the integration relations with the centralized and decentralized models of neoindustrial development of the agrarian sector have been defined.

  18. Analysis of Regional Competitiveness on the Basis of Integrative Criteria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Costel NISTOR

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available The European interventionist policy is much stronger on the regional level than on the level of national states. Each economic activity in Europe’s regions has now its own place on the European market economy. Creating a European market is important due to its size and economic potential. The Central and Eastern Europe is a potential area of new markets expansion and organization. Moreover expansion and trade are becoming important to the entire European economy as well as all its regions.

  19. Innovative clusters as a form of integration associations of economicentities in the postindustrial economy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bondarenko N. E.

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available the article describes three categories of network models of cluster structures inherent to the industrial and post-industrial economy, given their characteristics, highlighted fundamental differences between them, which allows more accurate and reasonable to carry out cluster policy aimed at the development of competitive markets to choose effective measures to increase the competitiveness of companies, and to communicate effectively to public authorities, business and academia in order to coordinate efforts to improve innovative production.

  20. State Policy of Stimulation of Industrial Competitiveness under Conditions of Economic Integration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kovalchuk Viacheslav H.

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available The article is devoted to problems of state regulatory policy of stimulation of economic growth, increase of efficiency of activity of industrial branches of the country. It considers examples of foreign experience in the part of state support of domestic manufacturers. It shows possible variants of integration of co-operation between CIS countries on the basis of specialisation, co-operation and joint activity for achieving economic growth of economies. It demonstrates an automated system of mass servicing of customers, which is offered to be used in the structure of associations of trade enterprises. It offers ways of achievement of competitive advantages of domestic enterprises under conditions of globalisation by means of introduction of clusters of the consumer market enterprises. The article reveals their shortcomings and possibilities of development in the territory of Ukraine under conditions of limited financial resources. It acknowledges that measures of the fiscal policy should be directed, first of all, at support of creation of associations of medium enterprises of the light and other branches of industry and agriculture, which have development potential. It identifies main elements of creation of state programmes of support and development of the cluster form of organisation of the light and other branches of industry, agriculture and trade.

  1. The Role of Government in Restoring International Competitiveness: the Case of Crisis Management in the Baltic States Economies versus Poland Economies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna Matysek-Jędrych

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available This paper focuses on the relationship between the government actions, global economic crisis, and competitiveness on a national and regional dimension. The Baltic States (i.e., Estonia, Latvia, and Lithuania have experienced one of the biggest Gross Domestic Product (GDP contractions during the Global Crisis so far. Meanwhile, Poland was the only country with a positive GDP growth in the European Union during the Global Crisis. Hence, identifying and assessing changes in the relative competitiveness, as a consequence of the economic downturn in both Baltic States and Poland, has sparked many interests.The main channel through which the crisis undermined competitiveness has been the macroeconomic situation. That is why employing single macroeconomic variables as proxies of competitiveness suggests a much stronger influence of the crisis on competitiveness in comparison to overall measures (e.g. Global Competitiveness Index. It may be generally concluded that a short-term crisis, even if severe, does not have a negative influence on international competitiveness as long as a proper anti-crisis policy is implemented and the country is small enough to react fast and adapt to new conditions in the global environment.

  2. Development of integrated models for energy-economy systems analysis at JAERI

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yasukawa, Shigeru; Mankin, Shuichi; Sato, Osamu; Yonese, Hiromi

    1984-08-01

    This report, being a revision of the preprint for distribution to participants at IEA/ETSAP Workshop held, at JAERI, Tokyo, March 1984, describes the concept of the integrated models for energy-economy systems analysis now being carried out at JAERI. In this model system, there contains four different categories of computer codes. The first one is a series of computer codes named as E 3 -SD representatively, which are utilized to develop a dynamic scenario generation in a long-term energy economy evolution. The second one, of which the main constituents are the MARKAL, i.e. an optimal energy flow analizer, and the TRANS-I/O, i.e. a multi-sectoral economy analyzer, has been developed for the analysis of structural characteristics embodied in our energy-economy system. The third one is for a strategy analysis on nuclear power reactor installation and fuel cycle development, and its main constituent is the JALTES. The fourth one is for a cost-benefit-risk analysis including various kinds of data bases. As the model system being still under development, but the idea of application of it to such a problem as '' the role of the HTGR in the prospects of future energy supply'' is also explained in the report. (author)

  3. Political economy of energy in Europe. Forces of integration and fragmentation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fermann, Gunnar (ed.)

    2009-07-01

    The political economy of energy in Europe is defined by a large majority of states being heavily dependent upon the import of energy from a limited number of energy-producing countries located mainly outside Europe or the EU, and the relative failure of the EU to develop strong common energy policies capable of effectively counteracting the sensitivities and vulnerabilities arising from oil and gas import dependence. The eleven contributions to the Political Economy of Energy in Europe investigate unique research questions, engage in different lines of reasoning, and apply diverse sets of data fitting their particular purposes. However, the chapters of the present anthology share several common denominators defining the volume as a coherent whole: First, energy is part of the fabric of modern society and thus qualifies as a political issue of the first order. Second, political and economical aspects of the European energy condition need to be analysed in conjunction. Finally, issues of energy security need to be addressed at different levels and from several angles in order to better understand the interaction between the contradictory dynamics of integration and fragmentation pervading the political economy of energy in Europe. This volume elaborates on several lectures given at the conference ''Political Economy of Energy in Europe'', October 12-13, 2007, arranged by E.ON Ruhrgas scholarship program for Political Science at Oslo Militaere Samfund, Norway. (orig.)

  4. Integrating Into the Global Economy Through Services. The Case of Romania

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Agnes Ghibuțiu

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Services represent a most important and dynamic frontier of international trade and investment. The steady expansion of trade in services and its relative resilience in the recent crisis, coupled with its key role in global production networks and its increasing potential in attracting investment provides new opportunities for countries to grow their economies and integrate into the global economy. Drawing on insights from current literature and relying on balance of payments and trade in value-added statistics, this paper examines the main developments shaping Romania’s services trade over the post-crisis years. Its aim is to assess whether the country is grabbing the new opportunities arising from services globalization. It finds that following the dramatic crisis-induced decline in the value and performance of Romania’s services trade, the outlook is now radically improving as evidenced by the strongly rebounding services flows and net exports. Nonetheless, the country’s integration into the global economy through services flows continues to remain below its potential.

  5. [Ecological misunderstanding, integrative approach, and potential industries in circular economy transition].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Rusong

    2005-12-01

    Based on the Social-Economic-Natural Complex Ecosystem theory, this paper questioned 8 kinds of misunderstandings in current planning, incubation, development, and management of circular economy, which had led to either ultra-right or ultra-left actions in ecological and economic development. Rather than concentrated only on the 3-r micro-principles of "reduce-reuse-recycle", thise paper suggested 3-R macro-principles of "Rethinking-Reform-Refunction" for circular economy development. Nine kinds of eco-integrative strategies in industrial transition were put forward, i.e., food web-based horizontal/parallel coupling, life cycle-oriented vertical/serial coupling, functional service rather than products-oriented production, flexible and adaptive structure, ecosystem-based regional coupling, social integrity, comprehensive capacity building, employment enhancement, and respecting human dignity. Ten promising potential eco-industries in China's near-future circular economy development were proposed, such as the transition of traditional chemical fertilizer and pesticide industry to a new kind of industrial complex for agro-ecosystem management.

  6. Integrating into the Global Economy through Services. The Case of Romania

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    AGNES GHIBUŢIU

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Services represent a most important and dynamic frontier of international trade and investment. The steady expansion of trade in services and its relative resilience in the recent crisis, coupled with its key role in global production networks and its increasing potential in attracting investment provides new opportunities for countries to grow their economies and integrate into the global economy. Drawing on insights from current literature and relying on balance of payments and trade in value-added statistics, this paper examines the main developments shaping Romania’s services trade over the post-crisis years. Its aim is to assess whether the country is seizing the new opportunities arising from services globalization. It finds that following the dramatic crisis-induced decline in the value and performance of Romania’s services trade, the outlook is now radically improving as evidenced by strongly rebounding services flows and net exports. Nonetheless, the country’s integration into the global economy through services flows continues to remain below its potential.

  7. A review of the potential for competitive cereal cultivars as a tool in integrated weed management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andrew, I K S; Storkey, J; Sparkes, D L

    2015-06-01

    Competitive crop cultivars offer a potentially cheap option to include in integrated weed management strategies (IWM). Although cultivars with high competitive potential have been identified amongst cereal crops, competitiveness has not traditionally been considered a priority for breeding or farmer cultivar choice. The challenge of managing herbicide-resistant weed populations has, however, renewed interest in cultural weed control options, including competitive cultivars. We evaluated the current understanding of the traits that explain variability in competitive ability between cultivars, the relationship between suppression of weed neighbours and tolerance of their presence and the existence of trade-offs between competitive ability and yield in weed-free scenarios. A large number of relationships between competitive ability and plant traits have been reported in the literature, including plant height, speed of development, canopy architecture and partitioning of resources. There is uncertainty over the relationship between suppressive ability and tolerance, although tolerance is a less stable trait over seasons and locations. To realise the potential of competitive crop cultivars as a tool in IWM, a quick and simple-to-use protocol for assessing the competitive potential of new cultivars is required; it is likely that this will not be based on a single trait, but will need to capture the combined effect of multiple traits. A way needs to be found to make this information accessible to farmers, so that competitive cultivars can be better integrated into their weed control programmes.

  8. Competition

    CERN Multimedia

    Staff Association

    2017-01-01

    Get ready for the Easter Egg Hunt! The Staff Association is organising a competition from 10 to 21 April 2017. There are several Go Sport gift vouchers to win, with a value of 50 € each. Try your luck! Count the number of different eggs that we have hidden on our website. Then indicate your answer in the online form. To participate, you just need to be a member of the Staff Association. Winners will be randomly drawn among the correct answers.

  9. Competition

    CERN Multimedia

    Staff Association

    2016-01-01

      The Staff Association is organising a competition from 13 to 21 December 2016. There are several Go Sport vouchers to win with a value of 50 € each. Try your luck! To participate, you just have to be a member of the Staff Association and take the online quiz: https://ap-vote.web.cern.ch/content/jeu-concours-de-noel. The winners will be drawn among the correct answers.

  10. Competition

    CERN Multimedia

    Staff Association

    2016-01-01

      The Staff Association is organising a competition from April 11 to 20. There are several Go Sport gift vouchers with a value of 50 € each to win. Try your luck! To participate, you just have to be a member of the Staff Association and take the online quiz: https://ap-vote.web.cern.ch/content/jeu-concours. The winners will be drawn among the correct answers.

  11. Apples and Oranges Mean a New Fruit Crop: New Business Plan Competition Model Integrates Economic and Community Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feldman, Jacqueline; Oden, Lisa Derby

    2007-01-01

    Mount Wachusett Community College Entrepreneurial Resource Center Business Plan Competition brings together stakeholders across all economic sectors to bolster the regional economy. It also highlights entrepreneurs as a viable career choice. The competition disintegrates existing silos, provides education to all entrants, and gives business…

  12. 'Ecological value added' in an integrated ecosystem-economy model. An indicator for sustainability

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kratena, Kurt

    2004-01-01

    This paper sets up an input-output system of the relevant ecosystem flows that determine the carbon cycle in the global ecosystem. Introducing energy as the value added component in the ecosystem allows to calculate ecosystem prices expressed in 'energy values'. Linking the ecosystem with the economy in an integrated input-output model then allows to calculate prices of economic activities and of ecosystem activities. In analogy to the 'Ecological Footprint', where productive land is needed to absorb anthropogenic emissions, in this integrated input-output model additional carbon sinks are introduced for emission absorption. These carbon sinks need solar energy input, i.e. 'ecological value added'. Emission absorption as well as GDP therefore become activities valued in the numeraire of the integrated system, i.e.'energy values'. From that sustainability indicators can be derived

  13. Integrated environmental research and networking of economy and information in rural areas of Finland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. LUOSTARINEN

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available This article uses material from many extensive research projects starting from the construction of the electric power supply network and its water supply systems in northern Finland in 1973-1986, to the Agropolis agricultural strategy and networking for the Loimijoki project. A list of the material and references of the publications is available in Agronet on the Internet. All these projects applied integrated environmental research covering biology, the natural sciences, social sciences, and planning methodology. To be able to promote sustainable agriculture and rural development there is a pressing need to improve research methodology and applications for integrated environmental research. This article reviews the philosophy and development of the theory behind integrated environmental re-search and the theory of network economy.

  14. Integrated assessment technology in management of competition efficiency in business corporations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Savel’eva Nadezhda

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available To date, the banking sector is subsidized. the state co-finances players in the domestic banking sector against the background of reduced availability of foreign debt financing. on the one hand is an additional source of competitive advantages, on the other hand, the question is how commercial banks use their capabilities. In a fast growing sector of banking services, increased competition, rapid growth in the breadth and richness of banking service range it is necessary to use the entire arsenal of marketing tools that determine the competitiveness of services and effectiveness of company. The economic importance of technologies development for integrated assessment of competition efficiency is that banks have to be able to use different methods of competition for adaptation to ambient conditions changes and ensure competitive success. The article describes an integrated assessment approach to effectiveness of management of price and non-price competition in business corporations based on sample of banking market. The technology that proposed in article helps to identify the main target segments of consumers, investigate the influence and perception factors of price and non-price competition to the banking service consumers; to form the main ways and directions in management of competition efficiency; to evaluate the effectiveness of interventions.

  15. The Future of the World Economy is an Integrated World Economic Structure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sergey Yurievich Glazyev

    2018-03-01

    the Integrated world economic structure. The authors formulated the main contradiction of our present day — the confrontation of the dying Industrial Civilization in the face of the cumulative West and the emerging Information Society. The authors analyzed the main tendencies, problems and possible alternatives to the development of the world economy. It can ensure the development and adoption of political decisions for the most painless transition of Russia to the emerging forms and institutions of the global economy.

  16. Cyber-Security Challenges with SMEs in Developing Economies: Issues of Confidentiality, Integrity & Availability (CIA)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yeboah-Boateng, Ezer Osei

    The essence of this study is first to highlight the cyber-security challenges confronting SMEs in developing economies, and to model a framework for safeguarding their assets, to ensure continuous optimal business operations, and to participate and compete securely in the ubiquitous cyber......, to develop customer-centric strategies. While connectivity is indispensable for achieving business success, being connected also implies being exposed to a myriad of cyber-security challenges, such as vulnerabilities of confidentiality, integrity and availability (CIA). As vulnerabilities are exploited...... cognitive map (FCM) approach is also used to show the implications of vulnerabilities amongst SMEs asset disposal policies....

  17. Integrated resource planning in the power sector and economy-wide changes in environmental emissions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shrestha, Ram M.; Marpaung, Charles O.P.

    2006-01-01

    This paper analyzes the roles of key factors (i.e., changes in structure, fuel mix and final demand) on total economy-wide changes in CO 2 , SO 2 and NO x emissions when power sector development follows the integrated resource planning (IRP) approach instead of traditional supply-based electricity planning (TEP). It also considers the rebound effect (RE) of energy efficiency improvements in the demand side and analyzes the sensitivity of the results to variations in the values of the RE. A framework is developed to decompose the total economy-wide change in the emission of a pollutant into four major components, i.e., structural change-, fuel mix- , final demand- and joint-effects. The final demand effect is further decomposed into three categories, i.e., construction of power plants, electricity final demand and final demand related to electricity using equipments. The factor decomposition framework is then applied in the case of the power sector in Indonesia. A key finding in the case of Indonesia is that in the absence of the RE, there would be total economy-wide reductions in CO 2 , SO 2 and NO x emissions of 431, 1.6 and 1.3 million tons respectively during the planning horizon of 2006-2025 under IRP as compared to that under TEP. The decomposition analysis shows that the final demand effect would account for 38% of the total CO 2 emission reduction followed by the structural change effect (35.1%) and fuel mix effect (27.6%) while the joint effect is negligible. The study also shows that economy-wide CO 2 emission reduction due to IRP considering the RE of 45% would be 241 million tons as compared to 333 million tons when the RE is 25%

  18. Integrated resource planning in the power sector and economy-wide changes in environmental emissions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shrestha, Ram M.; Marpaung, Charles O.P.

    2006-01-01

    This paper analyzes the roles of key factors (i.e., changes in structure, fuel mix and final demand) on total economy-wide changes in CO 2 , SO 2 and NO x emissions when power sector development follows the integrated resource planning (IRP) approach instead of traditional supply-based electricity planning (TEP). It also considers the rebound effect (RE) of energy efficiency improvements in the demand side and analyzes the sensitivity of the results to variations in the values of the RE. A framework is developed to decompose the total economy-wide change in the emission of a pollutant into four major components, i.e., structural change-, fuel mix- , final demand- and joint-effects. The final demand effect is further decomposed into three categories, i.e., construction of power plants, electricity final demand and final demand related to electricity using equipment. The factor decomposition framework is then applied in the case of the power sector in Indonesia. A key finding in the case of Indonesia is that in the absence of the RE, there would be total economy-wide reductions in CO 2 , SO 2 and NO x emissions of 431, 1.6 and 1.3 million tons respectively during the planning horizon of 2006-2025 under IRP as compared to that under TEP. The decomposition analysis shows that the final demand effect would account for 38% of the total CO 2 emission reduction followed by the structural change effect (35.1%) and fuel mix effect (27.6%) while the joint effect is negligible. The study also shows that economy-wide CO 2 emission reduction due to IRP considering the RE of 45% would be 241 million tons as compared to 333 million tons when the RE is 25%. (Author)

  19. Multinationals and Institutional Competitiveness

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hull Kristensen, Peer; Morgan, Glenn

    This article discusses how institutional competitiveness and multinationals are mutually enriching concepts. Seen from the perspective of Multinationals, institutional competitiveness becomes expressed at two levels. At the level of corporate HQs institutional competitiveness proves itself...... competitiveness of Liberal Market Economies and Coordinated Markets Economies under the current competitive regime....

  20. Achieving competitive advantage through the integration of disabled architects in architectural design firms in Egypt

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ezzat Othman Ayman Ahmed

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The 2030 strategy of sustainable development in Egypt is based on integrated goals, including Human Resource Development. Egypt has ~9,540 disabled architects, who can play an important role in achieving competitive advantage through their integration in Architectural Design Firms (ADFs. By neglecting the benefits of integrating disabled architects, ADFs encounter the risk of losing unique skills and competent personnel. This article investigates the integration of disabled architects in ADFs as an approach for achieving competitive advantage. To achieve this aim, a research methodology consisting of literature review, case studies, and survey questionnaire has been adopted, and it is designed to achieve five objectives. First, literature review is used to investigate the concepts of disabilities and competitive advantage, as well as the relation between integrating disabled architects and the achievement of competitiveness in ADFs. Second, six case studies are presented and analyzed to investigate the role and process of achieving competitive advantage in ADFs through employing disabled architects. Third, the results of a survey questionnaire are analyzed to examine the perception regarding and application of employing disabled architects as an approach for achieving competitive advantage in ADFs in Egypt. Fourth, a framework is developed to facilitate the integration of disabled architects in ADFs with the goal of achieving competitive advantage. Finally, the research findings are summarized and recommendations are put forth. The value of this research stems from the need to address the issue of lack of employment of disabled architects in ADFs and the benefits of making better use of their unique capabilities and skills toward achieving competitiveness. In addition, this research covers a controversial topic that receives scant attention in construction literature, especially in Egypt.

  1. Impact of Foreign Direct Investments on Unemployment in Emerging Market Economies: A Co-integration Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yilmaz Bayar

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: The goal of the paper is to investigate the long run effect of both foreign direct investments and domestic investments on the unemployment in 21 emerging economies over the period 1994-2014. Design/methodology/approach: The effect of domestic and foreign direct investments on unemployment was investigated via panel data analysis. First tests of cross-section dependence and homogeneity were conducted, and then the stationarity of the series was analyzed with Pesaran's (2007 CIPS unit root test. The long run relationship among the series was examined with Westerlund-Durbin-Hausman's (2008 co -integration test. Finally, we estimated the long run coefficients with the Augmented Mean Group (AMG estimator. Findings: The empirical findings revealed a co-integrating relationship among domestic investments, foreign direct investments, and unemployment. Furthermore, foreign direct investment inflows affected the unemployment positively in the long term, but domestic investments affected the unemployment negatively. Originality/value: This study can be considered as one of the early studies researching the long run interaction between domestic investments, foreign direct investments and unemployment for the sample of emerging market economies. Furthermore, the findings are very meaningful for policymakers in the design the economic policies for decreasing unemployment.

  2. INSTITUTIONS IN TRANSITION: IS THE EU INTEGRATION PROCESS RELEVANT FOR INWARD FDI IN TRANSITION EUROPEAN ECONOMIES?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Uros Delevic

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available This research challenges the contemporary view of economic policy makers in transition European economies that the EU integration process will lead to a greater inflow of Foreign Direct Investments (FDI, thereby increasing living standards. With the Brexit referendum, the integration of the EU has been threatened by a distressing existential question: is EU membership valuable for transition countries if even developed countries (like the UK vote to leave or decided not to align like Switzerland and Norway in the past? Our analysis considers the success of several countries in Eastern Europe in attracting and benefiting from FDI on their way to EU membership. Analyzing a 13-year panel data of 16 transition countries, we found no statistically significant positive association between FDI inflow and EU accession. We argue, that it is also important to consider the welfare for domestic economies that can emerge from those investments. We illustrate this through the case study of a successful combination of institutional development and local content policies implementation accompanied by sufficient FDI inflows in a non-EU country - Kazakhstan.

  3. Internet Usage and Competitive Advantage: The Impact of the Internet on an Old Economy Industry in Spain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    del Aguila Obra, Ana Rosa; Bruque Camara, Sebastian; Padilla Melendez, Antonio

    2002-01-01

    Considers whether Internet technologies have led to competitive advantage for companies operating in traditional industries. Highlights include a literature review; using the resource-based view (RBV) of firms as a theoretical framework for an empirical investigation; and a survey that investigated Internet technologies and competitive advantage…

  4. Life on the edge: navigating the competitive tensions between the 'social' and the 'economic' in the social economy and in its relations to the mainstream

    OpenAIRE

    Ray Hudson

    2009-01-01

    Drawing on detailed empirical research in the UK, in this article I explore the motivations that lie behind the formation of social economy organisations (SEOs) and the multiple trajectories that these can then follow and the tensions to which this can give rise as the ‘social’ runs up against the ‘economic’. This can, and often does, involve competition between SEOs in limited local markets and in search of state grant income. For those that seek to transcend these limits, the tensions betwe...

  5. Integrated traction control strategy for distributed drive electric vehicles with improvement of economy and longitudinal driving stability

    OpenAIRE

    Zhang, Xudong; Göhlich, Dietmar

    2017-01-01

    This paper presents an integrated traction control strategy (ITCS) for distributed drive electric vehicles. The purpose of the proposed strategy is to improve vehicle economy and longitudinal driving stability. On high adhesion roads, economy optimization algorithm is applied to maximize motors efficiency by means of the optimized torque distribution. On low adhesion roads, a sliding mode control (SMC) algorithm is implemented to guarantee the wheel slip ratio around the optimal slip ratio po...

  6. An Internationally Competitive Economy: a Comparison of Poland and the Visegrad Group Countries in the Post‑Accession Period

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Molendowski Edward

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available This article presents the results of an analysis comparing the competitive position of Poland and other countries of the Visegrad Group (V4 in the post‑accession period (2004-2015. The assumption is that among the V4 countries, Poland has joined those countries where the diverse effects of EU membership are clearly visible. In the study, analysis was applied to secondary data pertaining to pillars of economic competitiveness, as determined by the ‘Global Competitiveness Reports’ prepared by the World Economic Forum. The article ends with a list of vital conclusions based on the presented analysis.

  7. Dynamic International Competitiveness of Transition Economies: What Do Trade Figures Tell Us? The Case of Poland and the Czech Republic

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Jørgen Ulff-Møller; Mortensen, Kim

    2002-01-01

    This paper shows that the reform on the structures of the Polish and Czech economies has had an impressively fast effect on the numbers of different products, these countries export to Western countries. The time path may well be described by a logistic curve. The change in the exports of these c......This paper shows that the reform on the structures of the Polish and Czech economies has had an impressively fast effect on the numbers of different products, these countries export to Western countries. The time path may well be described by a logistic curve. The change in the exports...

  8. ECONOMIC MODEL FOR EVALUATION OF INTEGRAL COMPETITIVENESS OF AUTOMOTIVE ENTERPRISES (AE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. F. Zubritsky

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper considers problems pertaining to evaluation of competitiveness of automotive enterprises in the field of international consignments. An economic model for determination of the integral AE competitiveness is proposed in the paper and the model permits to substitute an expert estimation in respect of some factors by their qualitative calculation on the basis of data on enterprise activity in the international consignment market.

  9. The strategic role of partnerships between universities and private corporations as a driver for increasing workforce competitiveness in a global economy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Damoc Adrian-Ioan

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available A global economic context means increased competition as corporations face contenders from other countries, and there is a wider range of choices on the market available to consumers. This global competition drives economic actors to seek competitive edges to increase the efficiency of their operations; within this global economy, corporations seek these advantages, outsourcing their activities in order to make use of the opportunities of globalisation. The same situation can be encountered on the labour market. While the expansion of economic activities globally often means increased employment opportunities, it also means that job seekers from around the world need to become more competitive on the job market to attract better employment opportunities. Workforce competitiveness is determined by various factors, like availability and ease of access (i.e. job market legislation, level and quality of education, and cost. The level and quality of education are of particular concern, as it gauges the potential of the workforce, and is the cornerstone of the controversial “skills gap”, based on a common complaint of corporations regarding a shortage of skilled employees. Acknowledging the importance of this factor, numerous companies have concluded partnerships with local universities, leading to intimate connections between the business environment and education. Thus, in the same manner that supply and demand shape the markets for typical goods and determine the success of a market, these partnerships between universities and corporations influence the labour market, bringing together demand (i.e. the corporations seeking skilled employees and supply (universities and education centres training the future workforce. There are numerous long-term benefits that such partnerships can bring to a country’s education sector. As such, the present paper seeks to examine the strategic importance of partnerships between academia and industry as a key

  10. Enabling Sustainable Agro-Food Futures: Exploring Fault Lines and Synergies Between the Integrated Territorial Paradigm, Rural Eco-Economy and Circular Economy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kristensen, Dan Kristian; Kjeldsen, Chris; Thorsøe, Martin Hvarregaard

    2016-01-01

    What kind of futures does agro-food imaginaries enable and who can get involved in the making of agro-food futures? In this respect, what can the increasingly influential idea of circular economy potentially offer in terms of enabling more sustainable agrofood futures? We approach this task...... important contributions in relation to studies of alternative food networks and the “quality” turn. These research agendas have challenged the current logic of the food system in terms of offering alternative visions of future development. We highlight two examples from the literature—the eco......-economy and the integrated territorial agri-food paradigm—that develop broader frameworks for rethinking the future of the agro-food system and which have distinguished themselves in contrast to the industrialized and globalized conventional food system. We find that with respect to reorienting and reconfiguring economic...

  11. A Study of the Impact of Underground Economy on Integral Tax Burden in the Proportional Growth Model under Uncertainty

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Akif Musayev

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Economic processes are naturally characterized by imprecise and uncertain relevant information. One of the main reasons is existence of an underground economy. However, in existing works, real-world imprecision and uncertainty of economic conditions are not taken into account. In this paper we consider a problem of calculation of a taxation base to assess tax burden for proportionally growing economy under uncertainty. In order to account for imprecision and uncertainty of economic processes, we use the theory of fuzzy sets. A fuzzy integral equation is used to identify an integral tax burden taking into account the contribution of the underground economy for a certain financial (tax year. It is also assumed that dynamics of gross domestic product are modeled by fuzzy linear differential equation. An optimal value of tax burden is determined as a solution to the considered fuzzy integral equation. An example is provided to illustrate validity of the proposed study.

  12. Analysis of the Impact of the Flow of Migrant Workers on Regional Economy: Based on the Thought about the Promotion of Jiangxi Regional Economic Competitiveness

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sun Yuping

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Labor resource is the necessary productive factor in regional economic development, and one of important indexes to evaluate regional economic competitiveness. The great economic achievement brought by the 30-year reform and opening up of China is due to the fact that China brought the backward advantage of “demographic dividend” into play, promoted the fast development of industrialization and urbanization, and became the second largest economy in the world. The entity of “demographic dividend” is the non-agricultural migrant population, i.e., migrant workers. The transfer employment of migrant workers has typical regional liquidity, and the imbalance of regional economy causes the flow of many migrant workers. In order to achieve harmonious development and coordinated development, underdeveloped areas must understand the character and regulation, adopt positive industrial policy and supportive policy, guide the reasonable flow of migrant workers, and realize the transfer of local employment and citizenization of migrant workers, which can enhance regional economic competitiveness

  13. Economies of scale and vertical integration in the investor-owed electric utility industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thompson, H.G.; Islam, M.; Rose, K.

    1996-01-01

    This report analyzes the nature of costs in a vertically integrated electric utility. Findings provide new insights into the operations of the vertically integrated electric utility and supports earlier research on economics of scale and density; results also provide insights for policy makers dealing with electric industry restructuring issues such as competitive structure and mergers. Overall, results indicate that for most firms in the industry, average costs would not be reduced through expansion of generation, numbers of customers, or the delivery system. Evidently, the combination of benefits from large-scale technologies, managerial experience, coordination, or load diversity have been exhausted by the larger firms in the industry; however many firms would benefit from reducing their generation-to-sales ratio and by increasing sales to their existing customer base. Three cost models were used in the analysis

  14. Dynamics of a developing economy with a remote region: Agglomeration, trade integration and trade patterns

    Science.gov (United States)

    Commendatore, Pasquale; Kubin, Ingrid; Sushko, Iryna

    2018-05-01

    We consider a three-region developing economy with poor transport infrastructures. Two models are related to different stages of development: in the first all regions are autarkic; in the second two of the regions begin to integrate with the third region still not accessible to trade. The properties of the two models are studied also considering the interplay between industry location and trade patterns. Dynamics of these models are described by two-dimensional piecewise smooth maps, characterized by multistability and complex bifurcation structure of the parameter space. We obtain analytical results related to stability of various fixed points and illustrate several bifurcation structures by means of two-dimensional bifurcation diagrams and basins of coexisting attractors.

  15. Decarbonizing the Global Economy - An Integrated Assessment of Low Carbon Emission Scenarios proposed in Climate Policy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hokamp, Sascha; Khabbazan, Mohammad Mohammadi

    2017-04-01

    In 2015, the Conference of the Parties (COP 21) reaffirmed to targeting the global mean temperature rise below 2 °C in 2100 while finding no consent on decarbonizing the global economy, and instead, the final agreement called for enhanced scientific investigation of low carbon emission scenarios (UNFCC, 2015). In addition, the Climate Action Network International (CAN) proposes Special Reports to address decarbonization and low carbon development including 1.5 °C scenarios (IPCC, 2016). In response to these developments, we investigate whether the carbon emission cuts, in accordance with the recent climate policy proposals, may reach the climate target. To tackle this research question, we employ the coupled climate-energy-economy integrated assessment Model of INvestment and endogenous technological Development (MIND, cf. Edenhofer et al., 2005, Neubersch et al. 2014). Extending MIND's climate module to the two-box version used in the Dynamic Integrated model of Climate and the Economy (DICE, cf. Nordhaus and Sztorc, 2013, Nordhaus 2014), we perform a cost-effectiveness analysis with constraints on anthropogenic carbon emissions. We show that a climate policy scenario with early decarbonization complies with the 2° C climate target, even without Carbon Capturing and Storage (CCS) or negative emissions (see van Vuuren et al., 2013, for negative emissions). However, using emission inertia of 3.7 percent annually, reflecting the inflexibility on transforming the energy sector, we find a climate policy with moderately low emissions from 2100 onwards at a cost in terms of Balanced Growth Equivalents (BGE, cf. Anthoff and Tol, 2009) of 0.764 % that requires an early (2035 vs. 2120) peak of investments in renewable energy production compared to a business-as-usual scenario. Hence, decarbonizing the global economy and achieving the 2 °C target might still be possible before 2100, but the window of opportunity is beginning to close. References: Anthoff, D., and Tol, R

  16. Integrating the bottom-up and top-down approach to energy economy modelling. The case of Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Klinge Jacobsen, Henrik

    1998-01-01

    This paper presents results from an integration project covering Danish models based on bottom-up and top-down approaches to energy]economy modelling. The purpose of the project was to identify theoretical and methodological problems for integrating existing models for Denmark and to implement...... an integration of the models. The integration was established through a number of links between energy bottom-up modules and a macroeconomic model. In this integrated model it is possible to analyse both top-down instruments, such as taxes along with bottom-up instruments, such as regulation of technology...

  17. Competitive Advantage in the Creation of a Network of Solidarity Based Economy: the case of Ceará Bee Network

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rosângela Andrade Pessoa

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available The fast growth of solidarity based economic networks and their acting power within businesses’ development is one of the remarkable phenomena of the last decade. The Bee Network of economic solidarity illustrates the dynamics of this new form of productive organization, in which entrepreneurs get together, in cooperation, aiming at raising their competitiveness. The main research objective in this study was to investigate the perception of the Bee Network members about the competitive advantages resulting from their participation in the network. Furthermore, the study sought to identify the solutions reached by the Bee Network in relation to solidarity based cooperation that creates competitiveness. Porter´s (1996 model of five forces was used as a theoretical framework. The methodology was a case study and the data analyzed through descriptive and content analysis. The results indicated that the network formation has become a competitive advantage for the group of honey producers, who emphasized its benefits for their business, especially related to scale gains from the group´s purchases, governmental support for financing and training for honey production.

  18. The Competitiveness-Crisis Nexus in the EU Politics of Internal Devaluation. A Critical Political Economy Perspective

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wigger, A.

    2017-01-01

    In response to Chancellor Merkel’s call for a ‘Competitiveness Compact’ at the World Economic Forum in Davos in January 2013, the European Commission has launched a package of new economic policies that are argued to be key for realising a "Genuine Monetary and Economic Union". Part and parcel of

  19. Development of innovative potential of the region as a way to increase Russian economy competitiveness in today's realities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yamkova S. P.

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available the article explains the importance of the development of innovation as the economic competitiveness of regions of Russia. Considered term innovation potential of the region. The problems of development of innovative potential of the region and ways to solve them.

  20. [Is vocational integration in the competitive labor market a realistic goal for the chronically mentally ill?].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoffmann, H

    1999-09-01

    A wide range of sheltered jobs has been created in the second or special labour market with the aim of enabling the chronically mentally ill to participate in working life. However, having a job in the special labour market often precludes the chance of obtain-ing employment in the competitive labour market. To date, vocational integration programs enable only a small number of persons with psychiatric disabilities to attain reintegration into competitive employment. The predictors of successful vocational integration are subsequently discussed. A substantial increase in both sheltered and competitive jobs on the common labour market could be achieved for mentally ill and disabled people by adapting the "supported employment" model, as widely practised in the USA, to European labour market standards and appropriately funding its implementation. The utilisation of this model could serve to reduce the necessity of further expansion in the special labour market.

  1. Physiological integration affects growth form and competitive ability in clonal plants

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Herben, Tomáš

    2004-01-01

    Roč. 18, - (2004), s. 493-520 ISSN 0269-7653 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GA206/02/0953 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z6005908 Keywords : competitive ability * Physiological integration * clonal plants Subject RIV: EF - Botanics Impact factor: 3.215, year: 2004

  2. Outsmarting the gig-economy through collective bargaining – EU competition law as a barrier to smart cities?

    OpenAIRE

    Schiek, Dagmar; Gideon, Andrea

    2018-01-01

    In August 2016, drivers delivering meals in London after being booked via the platforms ‘deliveroo’ and ‘UberEATS’ made headlines by challenging working practices in the gig-economy through collective in-dustrial action. Dissatisfaction resulted from extremely low levels of pay as well as a new payment cal-culation system being introduced without consultation. This indicates that the ‘gig-economy’ may not always constitute the smartest solution for those serving within it. However, it also hi...

  3. Research document no.31. Integration of European gas markets: nascent competition in a diversity of models

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Finon, D.

    2002-01-01

    The idea of building an integrated European gas market based on competitive trade, like a gas lake supplied indifferently by remote, intra-European and national sources with the help of active market places allowing arbitration and price convergence, is far from being reached. In fact it depends upon two conditions: the deregulation of each gas market at national level, and at the upper level of the market the change in contractual relations between remote gas producers and buyers, who currently make the relations rigid with long-term transactions and limit opportunities for exchange on a competitive basis. This document analyses at two levels, namely national and European, the changing shape of the European gas markets under the effects of the market reforms and their chance of integration. Firstly the former two-level European gas market, the legacy of which determines the constraints on competition development more strongly than in electricity, are characterized. Secondly, in order to characterize the potential for development of competition, the main traits of each national gas market are identified in terms of market attractiveness and market accessibility for the incumbents competitors. Thirdly, dynamics of market development towards market integration are inferred at European level from these characteristics and from the possibility for development of new forms of gas trade between foreign producers, suppliers and users at national level. (A.L.B.)

  4. Research document no.31. Integration of European gas markets: nascent competition in a diversity of models

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Finon, D

    2002-07-01

    The idea of building an integrated European gas market based on competitive trade, like a gas lake supplied indifferently by remote, intra-European and national sources with the help of active market places allowing arbitration and price convergence, is far from being reached. In fact it depends upon two conditions: the deregulation of each gas market at national level, and at the upper level of the market the change in contractual relations between remote gas producers and buyers, who currently make the relations rigid with long-term transactions and limit opportunities for exchange on a competitive basis. This document analyses at two levels, namely national and European, the changing shape of the European gas markets under the effects of the market reforms and their chance of integration. Firstly the former two-level European gas market, the legacy of which determines the constraints on competition development more strongly than in electricity, are characterized. Secondly, in order to characterize the potential for development of competition, the main traits of each national gas market are identified in terms of market attractiveness and market accessibility for the incumbents competitors. Thirdly, dynamics of market development towards market integration are inferred at European level from these characteristics and from the possibility for development of new forms of gas trade between foreign producers, suppliers and users at national level. (A.L.B.)

  5. The water economy of South American desert rodents: from integrative to molecular physiological ecology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bozinovic, Francisco; Gallardo, Pedro

    2006-01-01

    Rodents from arid and semi-arid habitats live under conditions where the spatial and temporal availability of free water is limited, or scarce, thus forcing these rodents to deal with the problem of water conservation. The response of rodents to unproductive desert environments and water deficits has been intensively investigated in many deserts of the world. However, current understanding of the cellular, systemic and organismal physiology of water economy relies heavily on short-term, laboratory-oriented experiments, which usually focus on responses at isolated levels of biological organization. In addition, studies in small South American mammals are scarce. Indeed xeric habitats have existed in South America for a long time and it is intriguing why present day South American desert rodents do not show the wide array of adaptive traits to desert life observed for rodents on other continents. Several authors have pointed out that South American desert rodents lack physiological and energetic specialization for energy and water conservation, hypothesizing that their success is based more on behavioral and ecological strategies. We review phenotypic flexibility and physiological diversity in water flux rate, urine osmolality, and expression of water channels in South American desert-dwelling rodents. As far as we know, this is the first review of integrative studies at cellular, systemic and organismal levels. Our main conclusion is that South American desert rodents possess structural as well as physiological systems for water conservation, which are as remarkable as those found in "classical" rodents inhabiting other desert areas of the world.

  6. The integration of China and India into the world economy: a comparison

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Isabelle Bensidoun

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available China and India have successfully integrated into the world economy. Once specialised in textiles, they have developed new export-oriented sectors linked to the information and communication technology (ICT, taking advantage of the globalisation process which has enlarged access to new technology, capital and markets. China has become a global export platform for electronic goods and India a global centre for ICT services. They have followed different paths of specialisation. China is heavily involved in the international segmentation of production processes in manufacturing, which is not the case of India. China is heavily specialised in mass exports of cheap goods, while India focuses on niches. Both countries are in a process of technological catch-up but in different industries. By the middle of this decade, the pattern of development followed by each of them seemed to have reached its limits and even before the shock of the global crisis in 2008, there was a debate about the changes necessary to make growth sustainable. The crisis has made clear that their long term growth will depend on their ability to build on their large domestic markets.

  7. The search for co-integration between money, prices and income: Low frequency evidence from the Turkish economy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saatçioğlu Cem

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, we aim to test the empirical validity of the QTM relationship for the Turkish economy. Using some contemporaneous time series estimation techniques, our estimation results reveal that stationarity characteristics of the velocities of currency in circulation and the broad money aggregate in the economy cannot be rejected through a quantity theoretical co-integrating long-term variable space. We find that there exists an about one-to-one proportionality between money and prices and money and real income, and that exogeneity of money cannot be rejected for the currency in circulation in the economy. But, the exception here comes from the broad monetary aggregate used in the QTM equation such that money seems to be endogenous as for the long-term variable space.

  8. Teaching Children about the Global Economy: Integrating Inquiry with Human Rights

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCall, Ava L.

    2017-01-01

    Although children are already part of the global economy, they often have little understanding of its influence without explicit instruction. The article focuses on recommendations for teaching elementary students in grades three through five about the global economy utilizing the pedagogical recommendations from the National Council for the…

  9. MOBILE MONEY TRANSFER DIGITAL ECONOMY IN GAINING COMPETITIVE ADVANTAGE OVER MFIS IN RWANDAN CONTEXT: AS A CASE STUDY OF SACCOS IN RWANDA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The Government of Rwanda has adopted a very ambitious financial sectordevelopment plan which is at the implementation stage. This has made the administration to create atleast one SACCO at every administrative level hence known as '' umurenge''. This plan is captured in the vision 2020 under the Economic Development and Poverty Reduction Strategy (EDPRS. It is realized that micro financial institutions MFIs is an important sector in mobilising savings and availability of credit at reasonable rates and other financial services for investment to the rural majority. However, despite all these effort by Government, the level of domestic savings remains very low and the financial exclusion highly alarming. MFIs is a strategy to eradicate poverty amongst the vulnerable youth and women. Mobile money is a tool to allow individuals to transact using cell phone technology. The study will explore how Digital Economy has gained competitive advantage over SACCOs/ MFIs. The study is motivated by the acceptance and embracing of technology (ICT amongst low income earners giving it competitive advantage and encouraging e-commerce services in Rwanda. A qualitative analysis will be undertaken, and an in depth examination of the variables using business models to establish a relationship in the Rwandan context.

  10. Key directions of the Russian economy innovative development with the innovative activity practice of the integrated corporate structures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. I. Shamhalov

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The article deals with the problems and the key directions of The article deals with the problems and key directions of innovative development of the Russian industry in connection with the need to reduce the dependence of the national economy on the situation on world commodity markets, as well as to create the conditions and incentives for the introduction and modern technologies development, improving energy and environmental efficiency of the economy and productivity for the development of economic sectors and industries, producing goods with high added value for the implementation of innovative projects and in general - to upgrade the socio-economic system of the country.The following statement is given: the development of innovative high-tech and knowledge-intensive industries must ensure import substitution products at the first stage, primarily in the militaryindustrial complex, and in the future - export-oriented competitive product.The article analyzes the experience of innovative activity of the integrated corporate structures with the participation of the state in the following areas: the integration of the industrial and financial capital; the concentration of capital (through the merger and acquisition of enterprises, strategic alliances; diversification of forms and fields of activity; globalization of activities (creation of subsidiaries in the most attractive countries and working on promising markets; capital internationalization (through the creation of transnational companies.On the basis of generalization of global corporate management experience in the state corporations the article analyzes key conditions and factors that determine the efficiency of the state-owned companies as a whole: a clear statement of goals and objectives of the state as the owner, whose interests go beyond the usual business purposes; fixing of these goals and objectives in the regulations, in the concepts and programs of long-term socioeconomic

  11. Innovation incubators – entities of support of small and medium-sized enterprises’ competitiveness in the Modern economy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maier Lidia

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Innovation incubators are entities of the infrastructure network of support of small and medium-sized enterprises. At the stage of SMEs’ maximum vulnerability, they improve the survival of innovative businesses through the range of services and facilities provided. They are designed to mitigate the problems faced by SMEs, which develop and implement innovations, ensuring sustainability and competitiveness. Along with promoting the entrepreneurial spirit, innovation incubators play an essential role in promoting knowledge and innovation transfer, introduction of the research results into economic circuit, creating links between businesses, universities, research institutions, etc., links between people, talents and resources.In this article, we will focus on innovation incubators, their role in the development of SMEs in the world and in the Republic of Moldova, making an accent in the creation and development of the country's first Innovation Incubator „Inovatorul”.

  12. A Rule of Reason for Inward FDI: Integrating Canadian Foreign Investment Review and Competition Policy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Grant Bishop

    2016-10-01

    regime would require decisions based on economically-grounded criteria, with the onus placed on the federal government to prove that a given transaction would be detrimental to the domestic economy. This would shift the government’s role from its current one, in which the minister of innovation, science and economic development approves a proposal deemed to be beneficial to Canada, and has broad powers to withhold federal approval. This leaves the rejected foreign acquirer with no impartial avenue of appeal, such as a specialized tribunal. The reforms to the ICA should also include establishing a specialized tribunal where foreign acquirers can challenge negative decisions, just as the Competition Act provides a means for challenging antitrust aspects of mergers and acquisitions more broadly. There is extensive empirical evidence demonstrating that foreign investment is beneficial to Canada because it results in improvements in productivity and competitiveness. As well, foreign-controlled firms in Canada pay higher wages, make large investments in R&D, innovation and skilled labour, experience fewer layoffs during economic downturns, and impart their technologies to domestic firms, among other benefits. Indeed, from 1980 to 1999, 2/3 of Canada’s manufacturing sector labour productivity growth came from foreign-controlled companies, even though they comprised only 40 per cent of that sector’s employment. Not only could the Competition Act with its tribunal model serve as a framework for these much-needed reforms to the ICA, but, as well, reform of the ICA should similarly entrench the promotion of competition, economic efficiency and domestic welfare as its core objectives. That translates to not treating foreign investment as an end in itself, but as a means to promote economic efficiency through competition in both markets for products and corporate control.

  13. Statistical Physics of Economic Systems: a Survey for Open Economies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tao, Yong; Chen, Xun

    2012-05-01

    We extend the theoretical framework of an independent economy developed by Tao [Phys. Rev. E 82 (2010) 036118] so as to include multiple economies. Since the starting point of our framework is on the basis of the theory of the competitive markets of traditional economics, this framework shall be suitable for any free market. Our study shows that integration of world economies can decrease trade friction among economic systems, but may also cause a global economic crisis whenever economy disequilibrium occurs in any one of these economic systems.

  14. The integration of gas and electricity: potential effects on competition in markets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lopez Milla, J.

    2007-01-01

    During the last years, an increasing number of gas and electricity companies have integrated their activities in both sectors. Following this trend, several Mergers and Acquisitions between gas and electricity companies have emerged, and some of them have been cross-borders operations that have given rise to multinational enterprises. This paper analyses the causes of the integration of gas and electricity activities, and examines its implications on regulation and competition policy, showing that these changes in the energy industry raise new challenges and compel to adopt new measures in that field of the economic policy. (Author) 25 refs

  15. Economics of voluntarist approaches in environmental policies with non-perfect competition and cooperation; Economie des approches volontaires dans les politiques environnementales en concurrence et cooperation imparfaites

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    David, M

    2004-05-15

    Voluntarist approaches (VA) are a form of environmental regulation which has been recently developed and which allows companies to voluntarily commit themselves to improve their environmental efficiencies. This work integrates for the first time the role of market structures which prevail both on the polluting industries side and on the cleansing industries side in order to compare some VA with other environmental policy instruments. A VA inspired from a policy introduced in Denmark is compared first with a tax in the framework of an imperfect competition between polluting companies. The same form of VA is then compared to a tax, a pollution quota and a process standard when the cleansing is delegated to an imperfectly competitive industry. Finally, the study of a VA applied in France in the domain of domestic packing wastes allows to compare the theoretical point of view and the real situation. (J.S.)

  16. RENEWABLE ENERGY, A KEY TO INTEGRATING COMPETITIVE POLICIES WITH ADVANCED ENVIRONMENT PROTECTION STRATEGIES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cinade Lucian Ovidiu

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Development of competitive policies and improvement of environment protection strategies are two basic trends of the development of the European Unique Market. Energy, also known as 'industry bread', is basic product and strategic resource, where energy industry plays an obvious role in the economic and social development of any community. Traditional energy production is marred by three major drawbacks: it generates negative externalities by polluting; it is totally in the hands of the producers; hence, prices rise at their will, of fossil fuels such as oil and gas. Present study focuses on electric energy industry, yet bearing over the whole length of the chain producer-to-end-consumer, thus revealed as particularly complex. The question is do alternative energy sources meet the prerequisite of market being competitive meanwhile environment protection being highly observed. We identify limits in point, of the energy market; effects of market liberalization; entry barriers; interchangeability level of energy sources; active forces on the energy market. Competitive rivalry has been expressed as per market micro-economic analysis, based on Michael Porter's 5-forces model. It will thus be noticed that, morphologically, competition evolution depends firstly on the market type. For the time being, the consumer on the energy market stays captive, for various reasons such as: legislation; limits of energy transfer infrastructure; scarcity of resources; resources availability imbalance; no integrative strategy available, of renewable energy resources usage. Energy availability is vital for human society to function. Comparative advantages of renewable energy resources are twofold, as manifested: in terms of economics, i.e. improving competition by substitute products entered at the same time as new producers enter market; and in terms of ecology, by reducing CO2 emissions. As to energy production technology and transfer, the complementary nature will

  17. Competition-Based Learning: A Model for the Integration of Competitions with Project-Based Learning Using Open Source LMS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Issa, Ghassan; Hussain, Shakir M.; Al-Bahadili, Hussein

    2014-01-01

    In an effort to enhance the learning process in higher education, a new model for Competition-Based Learning (CBL) is presented. The new model utilizes two well-known learning models, namely, the Project-Based Learning (PBL) and competitions. The new model is also applied in a networked environment with emphasis on collective learning as well as…

  18. An integrated approach for developing a technology strategy framework for small- to medium-sized furniture manufacturers to improve competitiveness

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lourens, A.S.

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Low-technology firms, such as those found within the furniture manufacturing industry, have no framework or methodology to guide them successfully to acquire and integrate technology that enables them to operate more competitively. The aim of this article is to illustrate the development of a technology strategy framework for small- to medium-sized furniture manufacturers to assist them to improve their competitiveness. More specifically, this article presents an integrated technology strategy framework that enables management to integrate their business strategy with their technology requirements successfully, thus improving competitiveness.

  19. Integrated Traction Control Strategy for Distributed Drive Electric Vehicles with Improvement of Economy and Longitudinal Driving Stability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xudong Zhang

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents an integrated traction control strategy (ITCS for distributed drive electric vehicles. The purpose of the proposed strategy is to improve vehicle economy and longitudinal driving stability. On high adhesion roads, economy optimization algorithm is applied to maximize motors efficiency by means of the optimized torque distribution. On low adhesion roads, a sliding mode control (SMC algorithm is implemented to guarantee the wheel slip ratio around the optimal slip ratio point to make full use of road adhesion capacity. In order to avoid the disturbance on slip ratio calculation due to the low vehicle speed, wheel rotational speed is taken as the control variable. Since the optimal slip ratio varies according to different road conditions, Bayesian hypothesis selection is utilized to estimate the road friction coefficient. Additionally, the ITCS is designed for combining the vehicle economy and stability control through three traction allocation cases: economy-based traction allocation, pedal self-correcting traction allocation and inter-axles traction allocation. Finally, simulations are conducted in CarSim and Matlab/Simulink environment. The results show that the proposed strategy effectively reduces vehicle energy consumption, suppresses wheels-skid and enhances the vehicle longitudinal stability and dynamic performance.

  20. Concept of an integrated waste economy represented on the example of recycling of valuable materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wender, H

    1980-08-01

    The historical development of waste elimination is discussed, followed by the waste problem in an environmental discussion, the possibilities of recycling within the framework of a waste industry, and the solution of the waste problem from a waste-economy viewpoint, including the definition of 'waste' and the grouping by types of waste, their amounts and increase rates, composition and valuable materials in community wastes with a review of waste technologies under waste-economy viewpoints. This is followed by a discussion of the sales possibilities for valuable components from mechanical sorting facilities, including used paper, old glass, hard substances, metals, plastics, succeeded by a comparative evaluation method, and the national economy aspect of the waste industry, with the savings effect in raw materials for different branches, effects on raw material reserves, the problem of dependence on imports, waste rates and living standard, and the importance of environmental instruments which are discussed in detail.

  1. Political Economy of Finance

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Perotti, E.

    2013-01-01

    This survey reviews how a recent political economy literature helps explaining variation in governance, competition, funding composition and access to credit. Evolution in political institutions can account for financial evolution, and appear critical to explain rapid changes in financial structure,

  2. The Economic Integration Of The EU13 Regions Into EU Economy During The 2004–2013 Period

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kabát Libor

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this paper is to study and to highlight the applicative and interpretive limits of the GDP per capita indicators, when regional economics of the new member countries (EU13, particularly the process of integration of their regions into EU economy is examined in terms of the beta and sigma convergence. The growth of gross domestic product has long been pursued as the main objective of the economic activities of countries and regions. Its growth is seen as almost a guarantee of the proper functioning of the economy. The governments of individual countries, in the event of a decline in GDP, take measures for its recovery. Small attention, however, is given to the fact, whether such an economic development copes with the parameters of sustainable economic growth. Also, little attention is paid to the study of how the previous growth is reflected in the standard of living of the population and households in respective countries and regions.

  3. Book Review: Jandl, Thomas, Vietnam in the Global Economy – The Dy-namics of Integration, Decentralization and Contested Politics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adam Fforde

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Book Review of the Monograph: Thomas Jandl (2013, Vietnam in the Global Economy – The Dynamics of Integration, Decentralization and Contested Politics. Plymouth: Lexington Books, ISBN 978-0-7391-7786-0, 312 pages

  4. Integrated economy - energy - environment policy analysis : a case study for the People's Republic of China

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zhang, Z.

    1996-01-01


    This study is the first systematic and comprehensive attempt to deal with the economic implications of carbon abatement for the Chinese economy in the light of the economics of climate change, of which this dissertation is the results. It consists of nine chapters. After a brief

  5. Methodology of Integration for Competitive Technical Intelligence with Blue Ocean Strategy: Application to an exotic fruit

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marisela Rodríguez Salvador

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available This article presents a new methodology that integrates Competitive Technical Intelligence with Blue Ocean Strategy. We explore new business niches taking advantage of the synergy that both areas offer, developing a model based on cyclic interactions through a process developed in two stages: Understanding opportunity that arise from idea formulation to decision making and strategic development. The validity of our approach (first stage was observed in the evaluation of an exotic fruit, Anacardium Occidentale, in the South of the State of Veracruz, Mexico with the support of the university ITESM, Campus Monterrey. We identified critical factors for success, opportunities and threats. Results confirm the attractiveness of this crop.

  6. Self-organizing path integration using a linked continuous attractor and competitive network: path integration of head direction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stringer, Simon M; Rolls, Edmund T

    2006-12-01

    A key issue is how networks in the brain learn to perform path integration, that is update a represented position using a velocity signal. Using head direction cells as an example, we show that a competitive network could self-organize to learn to respond to combinations of head direction and angular head rotation velocity. These combination cells can then be used to drive a continuous attractor network to the next head direction based on the incoming rotation signal. An associative synaptic modification rule with a short term memory trace enables preceding combination cell activity during training to be associated with the next position in the continuous attractor network. The network accounts for the presence of neurons found in the brain that respond to combinations of head direction and angular head rotation velocity. Analogous networks in the hippocampal system could self-organize to perform path integration of place and spatial view representations.

  7. Renewable energies and competition in the power economy. Governmental regulation - comparison between Germany and Great Britain; Erneuerbare Energien und Wettbewerb in der Elektrizitaetswirtschaft. Staatliche Regulierung im Vergleich zwischen Deutschland und Grossbritannien

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Suck, A.

    2008-07-01

    Throughout Europe the energy economy faces two major challenges from new governmental regulation, namely regulation for the purposes of climate policy and regulation for the introduction of competition to what used to be monopolistic sectors. With regard to the growing regulatory influence of the European Union the author of this British-German comparative study analyses how diverging structures of governmental organisation and historical paths of development have led to different regulatory approaches to the market introduction of renewable energies and the liberalisation of the power economy. He offers an in-depth analysis of the differences in success the two countries success have had in developing sustainable electricity production systems and establishing competitive structures in the power sector.

  8. Lags from Money to Inflation in a Monetary Integrated Economy: Evidence from the Extreme Case of Puerto Rico

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos A. Rodríguez

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available This paper examines the time-lenght of money growth's long and short run effect in affecting the rate of inflation in the context of an economy of extreme monetary integration. Money growth is measured as the rate of growth of Puerto Rico's consumer price index. By analyzing the case of Puerto Rico, we find that a dynamic expansion of money is reflected on prices immediately, but the unitary effect occurs approximately within ten quarters. In addition, the results show that local inflation is significantly influenced by its own past history and monetary policy, with the second having the greater effect.

  9. COMPETITIVENESS AND INNOVATION OF THE ROMANIAN COMPANIES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Csaba Nagy

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available In front of the Romanian economy which has been integrated only for a few years, lies the challenge of competitiveness which in many cases is associated with innovation. To turn from a close center oriented economy to market economy required an enormous effort from the population and from the companies as well, but the real challenge is still to come. The requirements of competitiveness and innovation of the United European Market are compulsory, from the point of view of the Romanian entrepreneurs is vital for their survival and development. The studies made so far are not very promising. There are many things to be done, many problems are still not solved in the European Union. The European Union is behind its traditional competitors USA and Japan. This is why one of the major concerns of the EU is competitiveness and innovation.

  10. The Formation of Competitive Advantages for Corporate Structures Based on the Cluster Integration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ekaterina Vasilyevna Pustynnikova

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available The article studies the cluster forms of integration as well as the development of corporate and cluster connections. At present, economic knowledge is rather focused on the development of integrated regional systems recognized as one of the most effective forms of integration. In turn, the processes, based on the interdependence and cooperation of economic entities located on the same territory, determine the possibility of stable economic relations, synergetic effect and growth of the competitive advantages of these territories. Such development tendencies reflect corporate interests and define trends for the integration of corporations in the context of regional and industrial limitations. Thus, one of the main aspects of integration is focused on the establishment of sustainable cost-beneficial relationships between corporate entities. The dialectical unity of the coordination and cooperation of corporate structures in economic clusters expands the traditional boundaries of economic benefits. Considering the government of corporate structure on the basis of internal approach, we can see that the benefits from the fragmented leadership may be neutralized due to unevenness of expenses. The corporate-cluster approach of corporate structure government allows not only to coordinate actions at the micro-level but also to generate more sustainable economic relations at the industrial, market and regional levels. It is reflected in the synergistic effect. The coordination of economic processes and geographic concentration contribute to system flexibility and adaptability in the market conditions as well as stimulate economic processes. Therefore, all cluster participants benefit from mutually beneficial cooperation. This, in turn, contributes to the decrease of total expenses and hastens the responses of entities on different market changes. The authors’ hypothesis assumes the coordination of interests in the economic cluster that allows to create

  11. Integrated economy - energy - environment policy analysis : a case study for the People's Republic of China

    OpenAIRE

    Zhang, Z.

    1996-01-01


    This study is the first systematic and comprehensive attempt to deal with the economic implications of carbon abatement for the Chinese economy in the light of the economics of climate change, of which this dissertation is the results. It consists of nine chapters. After a brief introduction, Chapter 2 discusses some economic aspects of climate change. This in turn will serve as a good guide to pursuing the case study for CO 2

  12. 10th Handelsblatt annual 'power economy' conference

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    2003-01-01

    Deregulation, internationalization, and EU enlargement within the confines of sustainability and competition were the overriding topics of this year's 10th Handelsblatt annual 'Power Economy' conference. Leading presenters from politics, industry, public authorities, and administration gave papers on these subjects for subsequent discussion. Expectations of Europe were clearly underlined. Europe has an important key function in the integration and shaping of a future energy supply system in the light of all societal, political, economic, and ecological factors. (orig.)

  13. Carbon dioxide abatement in an empirical model of the Indian economy: an integration of micro and macro analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gupta, S.

    1995-01-01

    Global warming and associated climate change are the likely results of an enhanced greenhouse effect due to excessive emission of greenhouse gases. Carbon dioxide (CO 2 ) is the largest contributor to the greenhouse effect. The costs of stabilising or reducing CO 2 emissions are estimated by two types of models. Macro models based on aggregate macroeconomic relationships, study the macroeconomic impacts of and responses to different policies. These overestimate costs as technological responses are not adequately modelled. Micro models contain the necessary technical information to assess the abatement potential, but exclude indirect costs. In this study, a methodology for integrating the two approaches for developing countries is proposed and illustrated for India. The problems associated with modelling developing economies are recognized in the integrated model proposed. (Author)

  14. Issues affecting the electricity transmission system in Mexico under a competitive integrated model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Avila Rosales, M.A.; Gonzalez Flores, J. [Federal Electricity Commission, Mexico City (Mexico)

    2008-07-01

    The electricity sector in Mexico is undergoing a process of significant structural change. The traditional industry framework has been exposed to new market structures and greater competition, both of which are being introduced by changing regulations regarding who can generate, transmit, distribute and sell electricity. Mexico's power industry is changing to a competitive integrated model. Electricity industry restructuring is partly based on the assumption that transmission systems should be flexible, reliable, and open to all exchanges no matter where the suppliers and consumers of energy are located and who they are. However, neither the existing transmission systems nor its management infrastructure can fully support this open exchange. This paper described the primary issues affecting the transmission system in Mexico under a competitive environment and a transmission expansion planning approach that took the uncertainties associated with the location and size of new generating power stations into consideration in order to produce least-cost and robust transmission plans. The paper described the planning process, including a rigorous analysis of the economics of the resulting transmission plans. Specifically, the paper described the current regulatory framework and supply adequacy as well as current procedures and methodologies for transmission management and expansion planning. The transmission planning methodology was also presented. This included a minimum cost analysis; profit analysis; and least-cost transmission plan. It was concluded that the transmission expansion planning approach stressed that a horizon year viewpoint was important because transmission additions have long-term use. The transmission expansion planning approach, further defined the process of selecting transmission projects as one of comparing and optimizing attributes such as near-term needs; long-term utilization; contribution to overall reliability; and favorable or least

  15. Integrating novel chemical weapons and evolutionarily increased competitive ability in success of a tropical invader.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Yu-Long; Feng, Yu-Long; Zhang, Li-Kun; Callaway, Ragan M; Valiente-Banuet, Alfonso; Luo, Du-Qiang; Liao, Zhi-Yong; Lei, Yan-Bao; Barclay, Gregor F; Silva-Pereyra, Carlos

    2015-02-01

    The evolution of increased competitive ability (EICA) hypothesis and the novel weapons hypothesis (NWH) are two non-mutually exclusive mechanisms for exotic plant invasions, but few studies have simultaneously tested these hypotheses. Here we aimed to integrate them in the context of Chromolaena odorata invasion. We conducted two common garden experiments in order to test the EICA hypothesis, and two laboratory experiments in order to test the NWH. In common conditions, C. odorata plants from the nonnative range were better competitors but not larger than plants from the native range, either with or without the experimental manipulation of consumers. Chromolaena odorata plants from the nonnative range were more poorly defended against aboveground herbivores but better defended against soil-borne enemies. Chromolaena odorata plants from the nonnative range produced more odoratin (Eupatorium) (a unique compound of C. odorata with both allelopathic and defensive activities) and elicited stronger allelopathic effects on species native to China, the nonnative range of the invader, than on natives of Mexico, the native range of the invader. Our results suggest that invasive plants may evolve increased competitive ability after being introduced by increasing the production of novel allelochemicals, potentially in response to naïve competitors and new enemy regimes. © 2014 The Authors. New Phytologist © 2014 New Phytologist Trust.

  16. Two-echelon competitive integrated supply chain model with price and credit period dependent demand

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pal, Brojeswar; Sankar Sana, Shib; Chaudhuri, Kripasindhu

    2016-04-01

    This study considers a two-echelon competitive supply chain consisting of two rivaling retailers and one common supplier with trade credit policy. The retailers hope that they can enhance their market demand by offering a credit period to the customers and the supplier also offers a credit period to the retailers. We assume that the market demand of the products of one retailer depends not only on their own market price and offering a credit period to the customers, but also on the market price and offering a credit period of the other retailer. The supplier supplies the product with a common wholesale price and offers the same credit period to the retailers. We study the model under a centralised (integrated) case and a decentralised (Vertical Nash) case and compare them numerically. Finally, we investigate the model by the collected numerical data.

  17. The German way to an energy efficient future. Process and cross cutting technology improvements for CO{sub 2} reductions and a competitive economy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Radgen, P.

    1999-07-01

    The aim of the paper is to show how Germany tries to improve the energy efficiency of the economy and reduce carbon dioxide emissions without affecting the competitiveness of the industry. Between 1990 to 1995 Germany has reduced its CO{sub 2} emission from 1029 to 933 million tonnes, which is equivalent to an emission reduction of 9%. To analyse and compare different options to reach the emission reduction target, multiple tools have been developed and can be used to help in setting policy priorities. The IKARUS model and database together with the use of energy efficiency indicators helps to keep the development of energy consumption and emission reduction on track to the reduction target. Voluntary agreements between industry and government had been worked out, to limit the emissions in the energy intensive sectors of the German industry. Results from the monitoring of this efforts will be presented together with a short evaluation of the factors influencing the improvements in energy efficiency. As energy related emissions can be reduced significantly by closing energy and material flows, the effect of recycling of energy intensive materials such as steel, glass, plastics, and paper is discussed. The possible role of renewables as energy carrier and feedstock is evaluated for the production of surfactants. If more oleochemical surfactants could be applied, this will help to reduce the CO{sub 2} emissions from the use of fossil fuels as feedstock. The efficiency improvement by cross cutting technologies will be discussed for furnaces, compressed air systems and electric motors. Most of these improvement potentials are economic at present energy prices, but some barriers for their application has to be overcome. One way to help decision makers in industry is the use of energy benchmarking. Benchmarking helps to analyse the energy efficiency of the own company in comparison to the competitors and to set appropriate targets and to prepare a road map of measures to

  18. A review and integration of empirical evidence on internal economy in marketing channel relationships

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Nils Bøgelund; Skytte, Hans

    Papiret gennemgår empirisk forskning omkring intern økonomi i distributionskanaler. Ved intern økonomi forstås graden af vertikal integration og beslutningsprocesser i distributionskanaler. På basis af gennemgangen diskuteres konklusioner og resultaterne integreres....

  19. Network Transformations in Economy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bolychev O.

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available In the context of ever-increasing market competition, networked interactions play a special role in the economy. The network form of entrepreneurship is increasingly viewed as an effective organizational structure to create a market value embedded in innovative business solutions. The authors study the characteristics of a network as an economic category and emphasize certain similarities between Rus sian and international approaches to identifying interactions of economic systems based on the network principle. The paper focuses on the types of networks widely used in the economy. The authors analyze the transformation of business networks along two lines: from an intra- to an inter-firm network and from an inter-firm to an inter-organizational network. The possible forms of network formation are described depending on the strength of connections and the type of integration. The drivers and reasons behind process of transition from a hierarchical model of the organizational structure to a network type are identified. The authors analyze the advantages of creating inter-firm networks and discuss the features of inter-organizational networks as compares to inter-firm ones. The article summarizes the reasons for and advantages of participation in inter-rganizational networks and identifies the main barriers to the formation of inter-organizational network.

  20. Analysis of technological alternatives and energy to the Metroplus system under an integrated assessment, Energy, Environment, Economy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alzate, Juan M; Builes, Luis A; Rave, Claudia C; Smith, Ricardo A; Cadena, Angela I

    2007-01-01

    Using a multi-period optimization model based on lineal programming, which integrates energy, economy and environment dimensions (MARKAL - Standard version), some economic and environmental impacts due to five different technological choices for the omnibus fleet of the Rapid Bus Transit (Metroplus System) which will operate at the metropolitan area of the Aburra Valley (Medellin - Colombia) were estimated. The technological choices compared are: (1) a fleet powered by compressed natural gas, (2) powered by diesel, (3) powered by Euro diesel III imported from the Mexican Gulf, (4) powered by a mixed fleet 50% compressed natural gas and 50% diesel, and (5) a fleet powered by hybrid diesel vehicles. Results out stand the economic and environmental benefits associated to the use of an omnibus fleet powered by compressed natural gas

  1. Political Economy, Capability Development, and Fundamental Cause: Integrating Perspectives on Child Health in Developing Countries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rebekah Burroway

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Several dominant theoretical perspectives attempt to account for health disparities in developing countries, including political economy, the capability approach, and fundamental cause. This study combines the perspectives in a multi-level analysis of child malnutrition and diarrhea in order to gain a more comprehensive understanding of who faces increased health risks and who is shielded from them. Using the Demographic and Health Surveys and World Bank data, I estimate a series of models that predict the likelihood of child malnutrition and diarrhea, based on a set of country- and individual-level explanatory variables. Results suggest that at the individual-level, household wealth and maternal education are the most robust predictors of child health. These social factors are even more important than more proximate factors like clean water or sanitation. At the country-level, gross domestic product (GDP per capita reduces malnutrition, but does not significantly affect incidence of diarrhea. Contrary to the predominant economic development paradigm, health care and education are more important in accounting for the prevalence of diarrhea than GDP. Finally, trade in and of itself is not harmful to well-being in developing countries. It is when countries become too dependent on one or a few commodities that trade starts to have detrimental costs. Thus, a synthesis of theoretical frameworks best illustrates the complex web of social structural factors that manifest as unequal life chances for children.

  2. An Integrated Approach to Modelling the Economy-Society-Ecology System in Urbanization Process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yunqiang Liu

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Urbanization has become a key part of social and economic progress in the 21st Century, but achieving healthy and safe urban development has a long way to go for many developed and developing countries. Urbanization has been recognized as a complex ecosystem which is affected by economic, social, and ecological factors. With this in mind, this paper looks at many factors to first evaluate based on the matter-element (ME method and then model an Economy-Society-Ecology (ESE subsystem using a hybrid method by a fuzzy analytical hierarchy process (FAHP, and then by using the entropy method (EM to determine the relevant index weights. To avoid subjectivity when defining the model’s boundaries, the technique for order preference by similarity to an ideal solution (TOPSIS is introduced. Then, a coupling coordination degree model focusing on the degree of coordination in the ESE subsystem is established. Panel data collected from 2003 to 2012 for Chengdu, China, is then simulated to analyze the development process. The results show that: (1 The quality of urbanization continues to improve and the phasic features are presented; (2 The sensitivity analysis of subsystem weight shown that it had less effect on the coupling coordinated system; (3 The coordination in the ESE subsystem has also improved. However, the development rate of the economic subsystem is greater than that of the societal and ecological subsystem. The approach used here therefore, is shown to provide a promising basis for policy-making to support healthy urban development.

  3. Competition, integration, and diversification: seven hospitals of Growthville, U.S.A.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Starkweather, D B

    1990-01-01

    Summing up across the three phases of this case, the pattern of evolution was (1) emergence of a market orientation by hospitals as the industry moved away from regulation; (2) steady expansion of what the hospitals considered to be their business, to include nonacute hospital and medical services as well as insurance, with vertical integration and concentric diversification serving as the vehicles for accomplishing this expansion; (3) remarkable change with respect to who was competing with whom, stemming from restructuring of hospital relationships away from open competition among many toward domination by a few; (4) a shift in the market from one of consumer choices among physicians and hospitals toward one of competitive choice among health plans; and (5) the emergence of negotiated pricing within the context of the new oligopoly, stemming from the heightened and organized power of corporate purchasers. Finally, we return to a concept presented in the introduction to this case: strategic alignment. The case has described the substantial realignment of our study hospitals to their new and changing environment. And it has highlighted their managers' use of boundary scanning, competitor analysis, and strategy to achieve this realignment. James Thompson's word for this process is "co-alignment," referring to "the most critical managerial function, and the skill closest to creativity." This case has illustrated this management skill, defined as "the discernment of hitherto unnoticed relationships in the complex environment, calculating their cause-effect relationships, and translating them into appropriate programs of action". This is both a summary of the performances of our case study managers and a powerful prescription for those who might face similar circumstances and challenges.

  4. Financial integration and financial development in transition economies: What happens during financial crises?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Igor Masten

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available

    This paper provides an empirical analysis of the role of financial development and financial integration in the growth dynamics of transition countries. We focus on the role of financial integration in determining the impact of financial development on growth, distinguishing “normal times” from periods of financial crises. In addition to confirming the significant positive effect on growth exerted by financial development and financial integration, our estimates show that a higher degree of financial openness tends to reduce the contractionary effect of financial crises, by cushioning the effect on the domestic supply of credit. Consequently, the high reliance on international capital flows by transition countries does not necessarily increase their financial fragility. This implies that financial protectionism is a self-defeating policy, at least for transition countries.

  5. Integrated methodology for standard-setting norms of innovative product in the new competitive environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Polyakova, Marina; Rubin, Gennadiy

    2017-07-01

    Modern theory of technological and economical development is based on long-term cycles. So far it has been proved that the technological structure of the economy can be subdivided into groups of technological complexes, which are inter-related with each other by similar technological links, so called technological modes. Technological mode is defined as a complex of interrelated production units of similar technological level, which develop simultaneously. In order to provide competitiveness of products in the new changing conditions, it is necessary to make sure that they meet all the regulatory requirements specified in standards. But the existing and the fast changing situation on the merchandise markets causes disbalance between the growing customer requirements and the technological capabilities of the manufacturer. This makes the issue of standardization development even more urgent both from the point of view of establishing the current positions and from the point of view of possible promising development trends in technology. In the paper scientific and engineering principles of developing standardization as a science are described. It is shown that further development of standardization is based on the principles of advanced standardization the main idea of which is to set up the prospective requirements to the innovative product. Modern approaches of advanced standardization are shown in this paper. The complexity of the negotiation procedure between customer and manufacturer as a whole and achieving of consensus, in particular, make it necessary to find conceptually new approaches to developing mathematical models. The developed methodology picture the process of achieving the consensus between customer and manufacturer while developing the standard norms in the form of decreasing S-curve diagram. It means that in the end of the negotiation process, there is no difference between customer and manufacturer positions. It makes it possible to provide the

  6. Business strategies within the knowledge economy context

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Prof. Ph.D. Gheorghe Popescu

    2008-05-01

    Full Text Available Competitive strategies in the fast-changing information economy are distinct from strategiesin more traditional sectors of the economy.Today, the reason the entity must consider their intangible asset is because it supports and gives coherenceto the strategy itself, and if strategically exploited can be a source of sustainable competitive advantagethrough time.Strategy deals not just with the unpredictable but also with the unknowable. Consequently, the essenceof strategy is to build a posture that is so strong, but in the same time, potentially flexible in selectiveways that the organization can achieve its goals despite the unforeseeable ways external forces may actuallyinteract when the time comes. The essence of strategy formulation is to deal with competitors. However,goal development is an integral part of strategy formulation.

  7. Plutonium economy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Traube, K.

    1984-01-01

    The author expresses his opinion on the situation, describes the energy-economic setting, indicates the alternatives: fuel reprocessing or immediate long-term storage, and investigates the prospects for economic utilization of the breeder reactors. All the facts suggest that the breeder reactor will never be able to stand economic competition with light-water reactors. However, there is no way to prove the future. It is naive to think that every doubt could and must be removed before stopping the development of breeder reactors - and thus also the reprocessing of the fuel of light-water reactors. On the basis of the current state of knowledge an unbiased cost-benefit-analysis can only lead to the recommendation to stop construction immediately. But can 'experts', who for years or even decades have called for and supported the development of breeder reactors be expected to make an unbiased analysis. Klaus Traube strikes the balance of the state Germany's nuclear economy is in: although there is no chance of definitively abandoning that energy-political cul-de-sac, no new adventures must be embarked upon. Responsible handling of currently used nuclear technology means to give up breeder technology and waive plutonium economy. It is no supreme technology with the aid of which structural unemployment or any other economic problem could be solved. (orig.) [de

  8. How Is the Liberalization of Food Markets Progressing? Market Integration and Transaction Costs in Subsistence Economies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zant, W.

    2013-01-01

    We propose a modification of Baulch's parity bounds model to measure the market integration of food markets in developing countries. Instead of extrapolating a single observation of transaction costs, we estimate transaction costs. Predicted transaction costs compare well with survey data of

  9. Integrated environmental research and networking of economy and information in rural areas of Finland

    OpenAIRE

    M. LUOSTARINEN

    2008-01-01

    This article uses material from many extensive research projects starting from the construction of the electric power supply network and its water supply systems in northern Finland in 1973-1986, to the Agropolis agricultural strategy and networking for the Loimijoki project. A list of the material and references of the publications is available in Agronet on the Internet. All these projects applied integrated environmental research covering biology, the natural sciences, social sciences, and...

  10. Organizational Culture, Absorptive Capacity, Innovation Performace and Competitive Advantage: An Integrated Assessment in Indonesian Banking Industry

    OpenAIRE

    Ahmad Adriansyah; Adi Zakaria Afiff

    2015-01-01

    The positive impact of absorptive capacity (ACAP) on innovation and the positive impact of innovation on competitive advantage have been proven in different research contexts. However, current knowledge on organizational culture that affects ACAP, innovation and competitive advantage as a whole, remains unclear. This article proposes a model to examine how organizational culture (developmental culture and rational culture) affects ACAP, innovation and competitive advantage, directly and indir...

  11. Eastern Partnership Integration with the EU and Inclusive Growth of National Economies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eka SEPASHVILI

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available The paper aims at analyzing the circumstances and objectives of the regional integration in the context of global development. The EU is one of the most influential and important actors of the global world, which represents one of the most developed examples of the regional integration. During the development, the EU went through the several stages on enlargement. Even nowadays, without having targeted to the reactive new member in foreseen future, the EU continues the process of integration of adjacent regions by setting goals and priorities through different forms such as the European Neighborhood, the Eastern Partnership, Association Agreements, various types of Trade agreements. The Eastern Partnership which represents the EU’s eastern neighborhood consisting by former soviet republics has steadily gone up with integration: 1. Georgia, Moldova, and Ukraine have already signed the Association Agreement (AA including Deep and Comprehensive Free Trade Areas (DCFTAs with the EU and now these countries work on further progress in terms of the Implementation of AA/DCFTA; 2. Armenia and Azerbaijan are seeking new framework to up-grade their relationship with the EU, Belarus created EU Belarus Co-ordination Group and acts within the Single Support Framework program for 2017-2020. The evolution of EaP countries’ trade data evidently show the changes and growing dynamics in the region. The obvious increasing tendency of trade volumes predicts for further success in the future after the DC FTAs are enacted fully for some countries and/or other trade facilitation measures are utilized fully for others. A new approach to the economic growth also suggests that benefit from economic growth supports poverty reduction, widely spreads across sectors and affects the majority of the labor force and hence, rise the welfare of the population. In this context, Corporate Social Responsibility (CSR appears to be a useful tool to achieve this overwhelming goal

  12. Organizational Culture, Absorptive Capacity, Innovation Performace and Competitive Advantage: An Integrated Assessment in Indonesian Banking Industry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmad Adriansyah

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The positive impact of absorptive capacity (ACAP on innovation and the positive impact of innovation on competitive advantage have been proven in different research contexts. However, current knowledge on organizational culture that affects ACAP, innovation and competitive advantage as a whole, remains unclear. This article proposes a model to examine how organizational culture (developmental culture and rational culture affects ACAP, innovation and competitive advantage, directly and indirectly as well.  Surveyed data (in Indonesian Banking Industry shows that both of organizational culture have a direct impact on ACAP. Only developmental culture has a direct impact on innovation. There is no culture type affects competitive advantage directly. In this research, culture affects competitive advantage through ACAP and innovation.    

  13. Supply chain responsibilities and the need for an integrative ethic Management in Emerging Economies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lothar Auchter

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The economic importance of the Indian Textile and Clothing (T&C industry is unquestioned. It is one of the second largest employment generating industry, after agriculture, with direct employment of over 35 million people. Tamil Nadu accounts for over 65% of the total number spinning units in India and has been reported exploiting young women workers in the spinning and textile units what is called the “Sumangali Scheme”. “Sumangali” in Tamil means ‘happily married woman’. Globalization confronts decision-makers in connection with global conditions in identifying labour standards that can serve as guidelines for corporations producing or outsourcing outside of their home country. The Article shows that in a globalized business world the concept of a conventional corporate ethic system to put all energy into the development of codes of conduct, and ethical audits and sustainability reporting falls short. This applies to industries like the Tamil Nadu textile industry, as there is no clarity with regard to the causal factors and the key players in the supply chain of such a complex social system. The Integrative Social Contract Theory (ISCT allows understanding the problem of Supply-Chain Responsibilities as a contractual relationship that denotes concrete moral responsibilities.

  14. A METHODOLOGY BASED ON AN ECOLOGICAL ECONOMY APPROACH FOR THE INTEGRATING MANAGEMENT OF THE SULPHUROUS WATER IN AN OIL REFINERY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gabriel Orlando Lobelles Sardiñas

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Despite the current highly stringent international standards regulating the contaminating emissions to the environment, the Oil refinery of Cienfuegos is still generating liquid and gaseous emissions contaminating the environment. The construction of new units as part of the Refinery expansion leads to an increase of these emissions due to the lack of technologies for the reutilization of the sulphurous water. The objective of this paper is to propose a methodology for the integral management of the sulphurous residual water in the oil refining process, including the evaluation and selection of the most feasible technological variant to minimize the sulphur contamination of water and the resulting emissions during the process. The methodology is based on the ecological economy tools, allowing a comprehensible evaluation of six technological variants at the refinery of Cienfuegos. The Life Cycle Assessment was applied (ACV by its Spanish acronym, by means of the software SimaPro 7.1. It was evaluated through the Eco Speed Method, to minimize the possible uncertainty. An economic evaluation was performed, taking into account the external costs for a more comprehensive analysis, enabling, along with the ecological indicators, the selection of the best technological variant, achieving a methodology based on a comprehensive evaluation, and as a positive impact, the implementation of the chosen variant (V5, 98.27% of the process water was recovered, as well as the sulphur that recovered from 94 to 99.8 %, reducing the emissions from 12 200 to 120 mg/Nm3 as SO2.

  15. The Methodology for Integral Assessment of the Impact of Renewable Energy on the Environment under Non-Stationary Economy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Petrakov Iaroslav V.

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The need to reduce anthropogenic load, eliminate threats to environmental safety and provide ecologically oriented development are one of the main global challenges of our time. At the same time, the replacement of traditional energy sources with alternatives ones requires a quantitative assessment of direct and indirect environmental impacts. The article analyzes the dynamics and structure of pollution in Ukraine in terms of its sources and forms as well as their impact on the carbon productivity of the GDP. It is proposed to assess the impact of alternative energy on the environment under non-stationary economy using an integral indicator that takes into account a number of factors, in particular the change in the share of RES in the total primary energy supply, share of renewable energy production, the index of greenhouse gases by the energy sector, change in the quality of atmospheric air in the urban populated area, amount of investment in reducing CO2 emissions, carbon intensity of energy production, share of thermal generation capacity that meets the ecological requirements of the EU.

  16. Collaborative Economy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    collaborative economy and tourism Dianne Dredge and Szilvia Gyimóthy PART I - Theoretical explorations 2.Definitions and mapping the landscape in the collaborative economy Szilvia Gyimóthy and Dianne Dredge 3.Business models of the collaborative economy Szilvia Gyimóthy 4.Responsibility and care...... in the collaborative economy Dianne Dredge 5.Networked cultures in the collaborative economy Szilvia Gyimóthy 6.Policy and regulatory perspectives in the collaborative economy Dianne Dredge PART II - Disruptions, innovations and transformations 7.Regulating innovation in the collaborative economy: An examination...... localities of tourism Greg Richards 11.Collaborative economy and destination marketing organizations: A systems approach Jonathan Day 12.Working within the Collaborative Tourist Economy: The complex crafting of work and meaning Jane Widtfeldt Meged and Mathilde Dissing Christensen PART - III Encounters...

  17. The transition from industrial (traditional to new (information economy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ilić Bogdan B.

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available At the end of 20th century a new economy and a new information society emerged, as a result of achieving the third and the transition to the fourth scientific and technological revolution. The basis of this new economy lies in the transition from the industrial production to the production based on information and technology. The new economy contributes to changing the character of the factors of production, the structure of the value produced the motives of production, the workers’ position (robots replacing slaves etc. Besides labor, capital, land and entrepreneurship, information appears to be the fifth and the most important factor of production. The Internet is becoming the foundation of the new economy and contributes to changing the way people learn and do research, as well as to reducing the burden of administration, changing the way of competition, reducing operating costs crossing national borders and leading to the process of globalization of the world economy into an integral entity. Some basic characteristics of this new economy are the following: the information basis of production, rapid changes of products, flexible production systems, network organization of production, integration, services backed by products, skills and knowledge generalization, education, knowledge and talent becoming the most important factor of the socio-economic growth and development, etc. The new economy leads to a number of advantages when compared to the traditional one. However, it also has a number of negative consequences: pollution indebtedness of underdeveloped countries, widening the gap between the development level of regions, countries and individuals, growing inflation unemployment etc. But the new economy is objectively conditioned and the task of each national economy is to determine the most favorable way of its incorporation into this new economy (globalization.

  18. Integrating economy, ecology and uncertainty in an oil-spill DSS: The Prestige accident in Spain, 2002

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wirtz, Kai W.; Liu, Xin

    2006-12-01

    Major accidental oil spills still affect sensitive marine areas and shorelines around the world, constituting a challenge for operational as well as strategic contingency management. As a rationale basis for addressing both issues we here propose a Decision Support System (DSS) consisting of a combination of modelling and evaluation methods which in particular assesses various impacts on habitats and local economies. By integrating the state-of-the-art oil spill contingency simulation system OSCAR with wind and current forecasts, environmental GIS data and multi-criteria analysis techniques, the DSS is able to rank different response actions to a chemical or oil spill. In this study, the usefulness of the approach is tested by hindcasting the Prestige accident off the coast of Spain in 2002. In particular, the short- to mid-term economic and ecological consequences of different mitigation measures are estimated. We identified clearly one worst option matching the actual decision taken by the responsible parties and one or two almost equally well performing routes. Two procedures of including uncertainty at various stages of the DSS are tested. The first method averages ensembles of outcomes between each modelling/evaluation stage, while the second one preserves the entire degree of freedom till the final ranking procedure. Results in the Prestige case turned out to be rather insensitive against both ways to account for uncertainties. The robustness as well as clarity of the DSS has the potential to enhance the efficiency of decision making even in politically sensitive situations. Limitations as well as ongoing improvements of the system are highlighted, in particular emphasizing linkages to environmental economics.

  19. Maize dependence or market integration? Caries prevalence among indigenous Maya communities with maize-based versus globalized economies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vega Lizama, Elma Maria; Cucina, Andrea

    2014-02-01

    The relationship between diet and oral health is widely known, yet data on dental caries prevalence is lacking for many indigenous groups with traditional or rapidly modernizing diets. This research documents caries prevalence in two Maya communities from northern Yucatán (Mexico) with significantly different levels of market integration, subsistence, and diet: Yalsihón, with a traditional, maize-based subsistence economy, and Dzilam, with access to globalized food markets. Each sample was subdivided by sex into 15-19, 20-24, and 25-30 years-of-age classes. Caries prevalence was considered separately both when the lesion affected the enamel superficially (grade 1+) and when it reached the dentin (grade 2+). In both villages, females of all age classes manifest more caries than males. Results show higher prevalence of caries at Dzilam than at Yalsihón, except for grade 1+ caries among 15-19-year-old males and grade 2+ caries among 15-19-year-old females. Though differences are not significant, earlier pregnancies among 15-19-year-old females at Yalsihón could be a causative factor. A survey indicated a more balanced diet at Yalsihón despite a heavier intake of maize than at Dzilam. Striking differences were documented in the ingestion of soda and globalized foods; sodas were virtually absent at Yalsihón, while at Dzilam they were ingested daily in great quantities. The decline in oral health at Dzilam is inferred to result from consumption of industrially processed foods and drinks, while a traditional diet leads to less caries despite daily heavy consumption of maize, which must be considered when interpreting caries rates in archaeological samples. Copyright © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  20. International competitivity, productive flexibility and social integration in the South of Brazil

    OpenAIRE

    Pimenta, Margareth de Castro Afeche

    2007-01-01

    Until the middle of the 80’s, Brazil, through an import replacement process, contrived to develop a modern and diversified industrial park. After the 90’s, the Brazilian State starts to play a significant role in the submission of the national economy to designs of international financial capital, by adopting fiscal, exchange and credit policies that resulted in the fragilization of the productive sector. The indiscriminate opening of the internal market to imported products and loss of entre...

  1. CSR and technology companies: A study on its implementation, integration and effects on the competitiveness of companies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan Andres Bernal-Conesa

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: In this paper, a structural equation model is presented in order to explain the motivations of implementing Corporate Social Responsibility (CSR in Spanish technology companies and its linkage with others standardized management systems before CSR implementation. It also examines whether CSR influences the competitiveness of these companies. Design/methodology/approach: The study was conducted in companies located in Spanish Science and Technology Parks. For this study, a survey was sent and structural equation model was used. Findings and Originality/value: Model results show that there is a positive, direct and statistically significant relationship between the motivations, previous management systems, implementation of CSR and the real integration of CSR in the organization. Research limitations/implications: Limitations are determined by the technique used for the proposed model: structural equations, which assume linearity of the relationship between latent variables. Practical implications: Companies can use the results of this study as a foothold to enhance the integration of CSR based on previous management systems and take advantage of synergies between them, since the integration of CSR has a direct relationship with the competitiveness of the company. Originality/value: The link between the motivations of CSR, CSR actions and their integration in technology companies are reliably and empirically demonstrated.

  2. Competition policies and environmental quality: Empirical analysis of the electricity sector in OECD countries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Asane-Otoo, Emmanuel

    2016-01-01

    Over the last decades, electricity markets across OECD countries have been subjected to profound structural changes with far-reaching implications on the economy and the environment. This paper investigates the effect of restructuring – changes in entry regulations, the degree of vertical integration and ownership structure – on GHG emissions. The findings show that competition policies – particularly reducing the degree of vertical integration and increasing privatization – correlate negatively with emission intensity. However, the environmental effect of reducing market entry barriers is generally insignificant. Integration of competition and stringent environmental policies are required to reduce GHG emissions and improve environmental quality. - Highlights: •Empirical study on competition policies and GHG emissions from the electricity sector. •Product market regulation scores for OECD countries are used to measure the extent of competition. •Evidence of a positive relationship between competition policies and environmental quality. •Integration of competition and stringent environmental policies is recommended.

  3. Sports Competition--Integrated or Segregated? Which Is Better for Your Child?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grosse, Susan J.

    2008-01-01

    Selecting competitive sports opportunities for a child is a challenging process. Parents have to make the right choices so that their young athletes will have many years of healthy, happy, active experiences. If parents make the wrong choices, their son or daughter will have, at the very least, a few unhappy hours, and worst-case scenario, could…

  4. PRICES IN COMPETITIVE SYSTEM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    VADUVA MARIA

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Regularities of competitive market determine rules for determining prices and their dynamics. Orientation prices to competition (competitive pricing is the strategy most frequently used in countries with market economies and especially for exports. Moreover, in an economy dominated by market competition it cannot be ignored without certain risks the prices resulting from competition between products bidders. Companies that use this type of strategy seek to maintain a level of prices linked to that charged by other competitors (or exporting producers generally no longer covering production costs or demand, relying on the assumption that the average market price is a reasonable basis of costs. But the way how practical guidance and reporting to the competition in every price strategy, will be determined by the company's market position, by the available power and enjoyed prestige, objectives and prospects of its market share etc. according to these elements, there may be several versions of pricing strategies oriented to competitors.

  5. Collaborative Economy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    that are emerging from them, and how governments are responding to these new challenges. In doing so, the book provides both theoretical and practical insights into the future of tourism in a world that is, paradoxically, becoming both increasingly collaborative and individualized. Table of Contents Preface 1.The...... collaborative economy and tourism Dianne Dredge and Szilvia Gyimóthy PART I - Theoretical explorations 2.Definitions and mapping the landscape in the collaborative economy Szilvia Gyimóthy and Dianne Dredge 3.Business models of the collaborative economy Szilvia Gyimóthy 4.Responsibility and care...... in the collaborative economy Dianne Dredge 5.Networked cultures in the collaborative economy Szilvia Gyimóthy 6.Policy and regulatory perspectives in the collaborative economy Dianne Dredge PART II - Disruptions, innovations and transformations 7.Regulating innovation in the collaborative economy: An examination...

  6. Collaborative Economy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    collaborative economy and tourism Dianne Dredge and Szilvia Gyimóthy PART I - Theoretical explorations 2.Definitions and mapping the landscape in the collaborative economy Szilvia Gyimóthy and Dianne Dredge 3.Business models of the collaborative economy Szilvia Gyimóthy 4.Responsibility and care...... and similar phenomena are among these collective innovations in tourism that are shaking the very bedrock of an industrial system that has been traditionally sustained along commercial value chains. To date there has been very little investigation of these trends, which have been inspired by, amongst other...... in the collaborative economy Dianne Dredge 5.Networked cultures in the collaborative economy Szilvia Gyimóthy 6.Policy and regulatory perspectives in the collaborative economy Dianne Dredge PART II - Disruptions, innovations and transformations 7.Regulating innovation in the collaborative economy: An examination...

  7. New perspectives on internationalization and competitiveness integrating economics, innovation and higher education

    CERN Document Server

    2015-01-01

    This volume showcases contributions from leading academics, educators and policymakers derived from two workshops hosted by the Interdisciplinary Center for Economic Science (ICES) at George Mason University on internationalization and competitiveness. It aims to present key areas of current research and to identify basic problems within the field to promote further discussion and research. This book is organized into two sections, focusing on: science and economics and innovation policy and its measurement, with an underlying emphasis on exploring connections across disciplines and across research, practice and policy. The first workshop was held at George Mason University (GMU) in Arlington, VA, USA in March 2013 and a second, building on the key results from the first, was held at the Royal Institute of Technology (KTH) in Stockholm, Sweden in October 2013. A variety of problems were discussed and several interdisciplinary concepts in internationalization and competitiveness have already emerged from the...

  8. Integrating Collaborative Learning and Competition in a Hematology/Oncology Training Program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Makhoul, Issam; Motwani, Pooja; Schafer, Liudmila; Arnaoutakis, Konstantinos; Mahmoud, Fade; Safar, Mazin; Graves, Dorothy; Mehta, Paulette; Govindarajan, Rang; Hutchins, Laura; Thrush, Carol

    2018-02-01

    New educational methods and structures to improve medical education are needed to face the challenge of an exponential increase and complexity of medical knowledge. Collaborative learning has been increasingly used in education, but its use in medical training programs is in its infancy, and its impact is still unknown; the role of competition in education is more controversial. We introduced these pedagogical methods to the hematology/oncology fellowship program at the University of Arkansas for Medical Sciences to improve attendance and performance at didactic activities and different educational outcomes. One year after the adoption of these methods, the fellowship program has reached many of the expected goals from this intervention without the negative consequences of competition observed in younger learners. The most important conclusion of this project is that collaboration and cross-generational team work provide a healthy and effective learning environment and competition may not add further benefit. Analysis, interpretation, and discussion of our experience are provided. This study was approved by the University of Arkansas for Medical Sciences IRB as a low risk educational intervention not requiring a consent form.

  9. MACROECONOMIC ASPECTS OF COMPETITIVENESS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oleg Hooke

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available In the process of globalization of world economic processes, the role of individual national economies increases, comparative advantages of the development of a country are formed, and their competitiveness is ensured. That is why it is worth emphasizing the importance of increasing the competitiveness of each individual country, based on its internal capacity. In a broad aspect, the competitiveness of the national economy is perceived as the ability of the country to ensure the balance of its external proportions and to avoid those constraints imposed by the foreign economic sphere, to self-organizing the improvement of their world economic ties. The competitiveness of the economy at the macro level is associated with the duration of the cycle of reproduction of the main productive assets and, accordingly, the jobs, productive forces of society and determined by the overall economic efficiency of investment. The criteria of competitiveness of the national economy are the growth of social productivity of labor, increase of social and economic efficiency of production and standard of living of the population. The competitiveness of the national economy determines sustainable socio-economic development of the country, as well as sustainable development predetermines the competitiveness of not only the country, but also all its levels. Scientific results are obtained using special methods of research of economic objects and phenomena, that is, based on the correlation and regressive, comparative analysis (establishing the relationship between the indicator factor, as well as economic modeling. Findings. Generalizing analysis and the importance of the macroeconomic aspect of competitiveness were used in the research paper, which will allow to better respond to the economic situation, in accordance with the trends of the “green” transformation of the economy; which in turn will solve important problems of the development and implementation of its

  10. Factor Structure and Market Integration under Two-Factor Monopolistic Competition Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Evgeny Vladimirovich Zhelobodko

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available The authors study the impact of trade liberalization on the market of a differentiated good and consumers’ welfare. The economy involves two factors of production: labor and capital. The researchers find that consumers always gain from trade liberalization. The article also establishes that the behavior of equilibrium price is independent of factor endowments’ structure in the countries involved into trade. The equilibrium price decreases (increases, remains unchanged under trade liberalization if and only if the inverse demand elasticity is increasing (decreasing, constant with respect to the individual consumption level. Furthermore, firms’ size which are measured as output increases (decreases when autarky changes to free trade if and only if the country is relatively richer (poorer in capital than its trading partner, regardless of the demand-side properties of the economy. Finally, the behavior of capital price (which equals firms’ profits in equilibrium is more complicated in the general case, but can be fully characterized for two limiting cases: (i when the structure of factor endowments in both countries is the same, and (ii when the Foreign country is a periphery country, i.e. it has zero endowment of capital

  11. COMPETITION AS MARKET MECHANISM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. Ya. Kazhuro

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The essence of a competition as an objective law for development of the commodities production based on private ownership of the means of production and commodity exchange has been revealed in the paper. The paper presents an economic basis of market economy (private ownership which generates a corresponding production objective. Such purpose is a maximization of profit and a minimization of market subject expenses. Therefore, a struggle for the most favourable conditions on commodity production and sales is inevitable in such situation. The struggle is considered in the community with developed market economy as a competition.The competition is regarded not as an exogenic factor exerting its influence on market economic system from the outside, but as an objective phenomenon which is inherent to management market system in itself. Such treatment is substantiated by economic disintegration of individual commodity producers. Being an important engine of market economy, the competition does not establish its laws, and its role is to be an executive of data which are internally inherent in commodity production laws and firstly it concerns a profit maximization law which defines a purpose and guiding motif of economic entities in the given economy.The competition plays a contradictory role under conditions of market economy. On the one hand, it makes manufacturers constantly to aspire to expense reduction for the sake of profit increase. This has resulted in labour productivity increase, production cost decrease and a company receives an opportunity to reduce retail price for its products. Consequently, the competition acts as a potential factor for lowering of prices while increasing production efficiency. On the other hand, sellers have more freedom in price fixing under conditions of imperfect competition as they sell their products under the conditions of a monopolistic competition or an oligopoly. This is the main weakest point of the market

  12. A new vision on competitiveness within the post-crisis economy. Causes, evolutions and possible innovative solutions to fight against the undesirable effects of the economic crisis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laura Mariana CISMAŞ

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available The main objective of this paper is to highlight the need for promoting a new vision regarding competitiveness mostly in the context of amplifying the effects and the complexity of the nature of crisis manifested now on the international level (economic, environment, demographic, value and moral etc..The economic thinking pays increased attention to the issues related to economic crisis, as well as the development of theories that give satisfactory answers about the causes and, especially, the solutions to the crisis.Using scientific observation and comparative case study as research methods, this paper aims to make a theoretical critical review of the theories regarding the causes of economic crisis over time and to identify and analyze some anti-crisis policies.

  13. Theoretical aspects of competitive advantage and competition

    OpenAIRE

    Hudakova, Ivana

    2009-01-01

    The concept of competitive advantage is well-known for many of us and a number of literary resources focused on entrepreneurship and functioning of economies deal with it, either directly or indirectly. The understanding of the term competitive advantage though sometimes varies. One can only perceive it when looking at it as a whole, a live organism that is constantly developing in a complex dynamic entrepreneurial environment, the individual parts of which do not function when separated from...

  14. Knowledge Economy

    OpenAIRE

    Kerr, Aphra; O Riain, Sean

    2009-01-01

    We examine a number of key questions regarding this knowledge economy. First, we look at the origin of the concept as well as early attempts to define and map the knowledge economy empirically. Second, we examine a variety of perspectives on the socio-spatial organisation of the knowledge economy and approaches which link techno-economic change and social-spatial organisation. Building on a critique of these perspectives, we then go on to develop a view of a knowledge economy that is conteste...

  15. Does integration of HIV and SRH services achieve economies of scale and scope in practice? A cost function analysis of the Integra Initiative.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Obure, Carol Dayo; Guinness, Lorna; Sweeney, Sedona; Initiative, Integra; Vassall, Anna

    2016-03-01

    Policy-makers have long argued about the potential efficiency gains and cost savings from integrating HIV and sexual reproductive health (SRH) services, particularly in resource-constrained settings with generalised HIV epidemics. However, until now, little empirical evidence exists on whether the hypothesised efficiency gains associated with such integration can be achieved in practice. We estimated a quadratic cost function using data obtained from 40 health facilities, over a 2-year-period, in Kenya and Swaziland. The quadratic specification enables us to determine the existence of economies of scale and scope. The empirical results reveal that at the current output levels, only HIV counselling and testing services are characterised by service-specific economies of scale. However, no overall economies of scale exist as all outputs are increased. The results also indicate cost complementarities between cervical cancer screening and HIV care; post-natal care and HIV care and family planning and sexually transmitted infection treatment combinations only. The results from this analysis reveal that contrary to expectation, efficiency gains from the integration of HIV and SRH services, if any, are likely to be modest. Efficiency gains are likely to be most achievable in settings that are currently delivering HIV and SRH services at a low scale with high levels of fixed costs. The presence of cost complementarities for only three service combinations implies that careful consideration of setting-specific clinical practices and the extent to which they can be combined should be made when deciding which services to integrate. NCT01694862. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/

  16. Modern Paradigm of Ensuring Competitive Advantages of an Enterprise

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Klymchuk Alyona O.

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The article considers evolution of development of the paradigm of ensuring competitive advantages of an enterprise. Foreign and domestic scientists focus on individual directions of development of competitive advantages and pay insufficient attention to new management concepts – development of the information society, knowledge economy and dynamism of integration processes. The goal of the study is formation of the modern paradigm of ensuring competitive advantages of an enterprise with consideration of tendencies of development of the knowledge economy, information society and integration processes. Enterprise competitiveness is a synergetic characteristic, which reflects enterprise capability of dynamic response to changes of the market situation with the aim of keeping predominance over other economic subjects. Management of the future, on the basis of the management 2.0 concept, should take into account interests not only of top management and shareholders but also employees, local communities and territories and meet requirements of the society in general, individual groups of consumers and tendencies of development of managerial and information technologies. The paradigm of the modern theory of ensuring competitive advantages should include models of keeping competitive advantages in the existing markets and models of development of future markets; strategy of development of enterprise competitiveness, human capital development and efficient enterprise management.

  17. MEASURING COMPETITIVENESS OF ECONOMIC ENTITIES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MUNGIU-PUPĂZAN MARIANA CLAUDIA

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available A competitive structure of a national economy is influenced by the competitiveness of each of the actors made the national economy. In other words, to achieve competitive economic structure shall contribute all sectors of the national economy and hence all branches of the national economy, all organizations within each branch. Thus, the productive sectors of the economy contribute by increasing their competitiveness, GDP growth, added value, while other branches making a contribution through activity, increased quality of life (health, culture, social in training skilled labor (education to ensure effective functioning of the judiciary, protection of private property and citizen safety, lower crime rate (police, reducing the risk of political instability, increasing social cohesion, social disparities (richness and extreme poverty, and discrimination against women and minority groups. Human resources are probably the most important factor determining the competitiveness of an area. The ability of a country to move up the value chain is closely related to human resource capability. In understanding the competitive evaluation is important to assess not only in terms of education, improvement, skills and work experience, but also in terms of other attributes, more difficult to measure, as entrepreneurial relationships, creativity and risk tolerance. Secondly, we must accept that individual productivity is determined by external factors. Latent potential of the individual can develop when the person moves to another environment that provides better and more opportunities. Currently structural changes to remain competitive obtaining essential parameters of the Romanian economy to cope with competitive pressures of the single European market.

  18. The real new economy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farrell, Diana

    2003-10-01

    During the soar-and-swoon days of the late 1990s, many people believed that information technology, and the Internet in particular, were "changing everything" in business. A fundamental change did happen in the 1990s, but it was less about technology than about competition. Under director Diana Farrell, the McKinsey Global Institute has conducted an extensive study of productivity and its connection to corporate IT spending and use during that period. The study revealed that information technology is important--but not central--to the fate of industries and individual companies. So if information technology was not the primary factor in the productivity surge, what was? The study points to competition and innovation. In those industries that saw increases in competitive intensity, managers were forced to innovate aggressively to protect their revenues and profits. Those innovations--in products, business practices, and technology--led to the gains in productivity. In fact, a critical dynamic of the new economy--the real new economy--is the virtuous cycle of competition, innovation, and productivity growth. Managers can innovate in many ways, but during the 1990s, information technology was a particularly powerful tool, for three reasons: First, IT enabled the development of attractive new products and efficient new business processes. Second, it facilitated the rapid industrywide diffusion of innovations. And third, it exhibited strong scale economies--its benefits multiplied rapidly as its use expanded. This article reveals surprising data on how various industries in the United States and Europe were affected by competition, innovation, and information technology in the 1990s and offers insights about how managers can get more from their IT investments.

  19. Abraham Lincoln and the global economy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hormats, Robert D

    2003-08-01

    Abraham Lincoln would have well understood the challenges facing many modern emerging nations. In Lincoln's America, as in many developing nations today, sweeping economic change threatened older industries, traditional ways of living, and social and national cohesion by exposing economies and societies to new and powerful competitive forces. Yet even in the midst of the brutal and expensive American Civil war--and in part because of it--Lincoln and the Republican Congress enacted bold legislation that helped create a huge national market, a strong and unified economy governed by national institutions, and a rising middle class of businessmen and property owners. Figuring out how to maximize the benefits of globalization while minimizing its disruptions is a formidable challenge for policy makers. How do you expand opportunities for the talented and the lucky while making sure the rest of society doesn't fall behind? It may be helpful to look at the principles that informed the policies that Lincoln and the Republican Congress instituted after they came to power in 1861: Facilitate the upward mobility of low- and middle-income groups to give them a significant stake in the country. Emphasize the good of the national economy over regional interests. Affirm the need for sound government institutions to temper the dynamics of the free enterprise system. Tailor policies to the national situation. Realize that a period of turmoil may present a unique opportunity for reform. These principles drove the reforms that helped Americans cope with and benefit from rapid technological advances and the fast integration of the American economy in the nineteenth century. They may be instructive to today's policy makers who are struggling to help their own citizens integrate into the fast-changing global economy of the twenty-first century.

  20. An Invasive Clonal Plant Benefits from Clonal Integration More than a Co-Occurring Native Plant in Nutrient-Patchy and Competitive Environments

    Science.gov (United States)

    You, Wenhua; Fan, Shufeng; Yu, Dan; Xie, Dong; Liu, Chunhua

    2014-01-01

    Many notorious invasive plants are clonal, however, little is known about the different roles of clonal integration effects between invasive and native plants. Here, we hypothesize that clonal integration affect growth, photosynthetic performance, biomass allocation and thus competitive ability of invasive and native clonal plants, and invasive clonal plants benefit from clonal integration more than co-occurring native plants in heterogeneous habitats. To test these hypotheses, two stoloniferous clonal plants, Alternanthera philoxeroides (invasive), Jussiaea repens (native) were studied in China. The apical parts of both species were grown either with or without neighboring vegetation and the basal parts without competitors were in nutrient- rich or -poor habitats, with stolon connections were either severed or kept intact. Competition significantly reduced growth and photosynthetic performance of the apical ramets in both species, but not the biomass of neighboring vegetation. Without competition, clonal integration greatly improved the growth and photosynthetic performance of both species, especially when the basal parts were in nutrient-rich habitats. When grown with neighboring vegetation, growth of J. repens and photosynthetic performance of both species were significantly enhanced by clonal integration with the basal parts in both nutrient-rich and -poor habitats, while growth and relative neighbor effect (RNE) of A. philoxeroides were greatly improved by clonal integration only when the basal parts were in nutrient-rich habitats. Moreover, clonal integration increased A. philoxeroides's biomass allocation to roots without competition, but decreased it with competition, especially when the basal ramets were in nutrient-rich sections. Effects of clonal integration on biomass allocation of J. repens was similar to that of A. philoxeroides but with less significance. These results supported our hypothesis that invasive clonal plants A. philoxeroides benefits

  1. GLOBAL COMPETITIVENESS IN THE CONTEXT OF SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT: THE ROMANIAN CASE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cecilia – Nicoleta Jurcuț (Aniș

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available In an increasingly open and integrated world economy, competitiveness and sustainability have become a central preoccupation of both advanced and emerging countries. Thus, the goal of this paper is to research the interconnection between the competitiveness and sustainable development factors, based on the development of the concepts and current research tendencies. Using extensive data over a period of 10 years, this study explores and tests the sign of the relationship between national competitiveness and sustainable development indicators. Our findings are the basis of developing new models describing the relationships between competitiveness, economic growth and sustainability, justified by the need of sustainable economy’s development to increase the national competitiveness, in order to attract financial resources necessary for financing the growth of the economy and economic entities.

  2. Competitive effects and instruments of power sector reforms. International reform concepts blockade structures, risk distribution. A political economy analysis; Wettbewerbseffekte und Instrumente von Stromsektorreformen. Internationale Reformkonzepte, Blockadestrukturen, Risikoverteilung. Eine politoekonomische Analyse

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liebchen, Armin [Liebchen Consulting, Berlin (Germany)

    2014-07-01

    Power sectors with weak or inadequate competition structures are the rule, despite numerous attempts at reform. But can afford modern economies this defect for a long time? Why can the implementation of competition are blocked so effectively? The author studied international reform experiences and opens up interesting insights that can also reflect on problems of the German energy turnaround: The difficulty of timing and coordination of the reform components, the development of resistance levels of individual interest groups, breach of contract as a rational alternative, causes unwanted price effects, shifting interest situations of major stakeholders, change dynamics impending regulatory risks, pending financing risks, stranded cost-conflict situations for power stations disconnected from the grid and facilities and instruments of a political and regulatory risk management for reforms. With numerous examples, background analyzes and instruments to reform analysis, this book is aimed at investors, policy planners and analysts. [German] Stromsektoren mit schwachen oder unzulaenglichen Wettbewerbsstrukturen sind trotz zahlreicher Reformversuche die Regel. Aber koennen sich moderne Volkswirtschaften diesen Mangel dauerhaft leisten? Warum kann die Einfuehrung von Wettbewerb so wirksam blockiert werden? Der Autor untersucht internationale Reformerfahrungen und eroeffnet interessante Einsichten, die sich auch auf Problemlagen der deutschen Energiewende spiegeln lassen: Die Schwierigkeit des richtigen Timings und der Abstimmung der Reformteile, dem Aufbau von Widerstandslinien einzelner Interessensgruppen, Vertragsbruch als rationaler Alternative, Ursachen unerwuenschter Preiseffekte, sich verschiebenden Interessenslagen wichtiger Akteure, Veraenderungsdynamik drohender Regulierungsrisiken, schwebenden Finanzierungsrisiken, stranded-cost-Konfliktlagen fuer vom Netz genommene Kraftwerke und Moeglichkeiten und Instrumenten eines politisch-regulatorischen Risikomanagements

  3. Implementation of the integrated emerging contractor development model: Towards enhanced competition for small construction firms

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Dlungwana, Wilkin S

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available to be suffered, but an opportunity to be managed. The notion of South Africa’s “technology colony” status is explored to highlight the country’s challenges in terms of technological development. The authors suggest that an Integrated Emerging Contractor...

  4. A Course Programme in Mobile Robotics with Integrated Hands-on Exercises and Competitions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ravn, Ole; Andersen, Nils Axel

    2010-01-01

    The paper describes the design of and the considerations for a course programme in mobile robotics at the Technical University of Denmark. An integrated approach was taken designing mobile robot hardware, software and course curricula in an interconnected way. The courses in the programme all...

  5. Moneyless Economy

    OpenAIRE

    Das, Subhendu

    2012-01-01

    Moneyless economy (MLE) does not have any money in the economy. All products and services are free for all people. This means everybody must work, work for free, and get everything they want for free also. Any work that a society needs is considered legitimate. MLE is not socialism. MLE has the ability to provide a lifestyle that anyone wants. We show that it is possible to run the exact same economy that we have now, in the exact same way, and without money. Any government of any country can...

  6. Integrating competition and planning: A mixed institutional model of the Brazilian electric power sector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bajay, S.V.

    2006-01-01

    During the past decade, the Brazilian electric power sector went through similar institutional changes taken place in both developing and developed countries. The main goals for such changes were to inject competition into the generation and supply links of the sector's production chain and to reduce public debt via privatization of state-owned utilities that dominated the pre-reform sector. This paper discusses why these changes took place in Brazil and explains why the results of the reform model implemented by the previous federal administration were unsatisfactory. The current federal administration has substantially altered the prior model, aiming to remedy insufficient private investment in new power stations that caused a serious power shortage in 2001. The paper addresses the main characteristics of the new model, which implements (a) public biddings of new power plants for all distribution utilities in the country, and (b) forward planning of optimal commissioning times and capacity of new plants. The paper ends with a discussion of the potential benefits and drawbacks of the new scheme and the role of the regulator in the early stage of the ongoing transition in the Brazilian electrical power industry. (author)

  7. LENIENCY POLICY FOR COMPETITIVE ACTIVITY

    OpenAIRE

    Ilie Moga

    2013-01-01

    A market driven economy is inconceivable without competition. In this system, the competition is beneficial firstly for consumers, but also for producers. The former have the ability to satisfy their needs according to taste and financial ability, while the latter are incentivized to innovate and increase efficiency. Competition induces natural selection among companies. This selection must adhere to strictly abiding by competition law regulation, while regulation must benefit both consumers ...

  8. Generator Rescheduling under Congested Power System with Wind Integrated Competitive Power Market

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sadhan Gope

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Integration of renewable energy like wind or solar energy creates a huge pressure to the system operator (SO to ensure the congestion free transmission network under deregulated power market. Congestion Management (CM with integration of wind farm in double auction electricity market are described in this work to minimize fuel cost, system losses and locational marginal price (LMP of the system. Location of Wind Farm (WF is identified based by using Bus sensitivity factor (BSF, which is also used for selection of load bus for double auction bidding (DAB. The impacts of wind farm in congested power system under deregulated environment have been investigated in this work. Modified 39-bus New England test system is used for demonstrate the effectiveness of the presented approach by using Sequential Quadratic Programming (SQP.

  9. Iran's Economy

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Ilias, Shayerah

    2008-01-01

    .... To the extent that U.S. sanctions and other efforts to change Iranian state policy target aspects of Iran ssssssss economy as a means of influence, it is important to evaluate Iran's economic structure, strengths, and vulnerabilities...

  10. Iran's Economy

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Ilias, Shayerah

    2008-01-01

    .... To the extent that U.S. sanctions and other efforts to change Iranian state policy target aspects of Iran's economy as a means of influence, it is important to evaluate Iran's economic structure, strengths, and vulnerabilities...

  11. Cambodia's economy

    OpenAIRE

    Ear, Sophal

    2008-01-01

    "This presentation is adapted from a Harvard KSG workshop held earlier this year on the Political Economy of "Binding Constraints to Growth" Cambodia Pilot for which I served as an External Panelist/Resource Person."

  12. Mobile economy

    OpenAIRE

    Turowski, Klaus

    2004-01-01

    Mobile economy : Transaktionen, Prozesse, Anwendungen und Dienste ; 4. Workshop Mobile Commerce, 02.-03. Februar 2004, Univ. Augsburg / K. Turowski ... (Hrsg.). - Bonn : Ges. für Informatik, 2004. - 189 S. : Ill., graph. Darst. - (GI-Edition : Proceedings ; 42)

  13. Higher educational institution as an organization of social entrepreneurship: the opportunities of integration into the economy of the region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Geshko Olesja Aleksandrovna

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available The necessity of the relationship "government" higher educational institution "business" improving is underlined in the article. The model of a “socio – entrepreneurial educational institution” and its main characteristics are described here. Strong connections between higher educational institutions and small and medium – sized businesses as a part of innovation infrastructure development and regional economy development are analyzed in the paper. The results of the research can be used as conceptual ideas for the development structure of higher educational institutions.

  14. GLOBAL COMPETITION AND ROMANIA’S NATIONAL COMPETITIVE ADVANTAGE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pop Nicolae Alexandru

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Analyzing products and services around us it is clear that most of them are the result of production factors, labor and capital becoming more international and increasingly less and less national. We are witnessing the globalization of markets and production, to a large global integration and interdependence, increase personalization of production and services as a result of new communication systems interaction and flexible production processes. Markets will continue to homogenize and diversify at the same time, so it is important that as a global marketer one addresses a market segment defined by income, age, and consumption habits and not by membership of a nation. The most visible and polarized is the premium segment fighting for high income clients where brand value plays an important role. Instead identification of large segments of customers offers the advantages of scale economy in production and marketing for global enterprises. Consumer profile is the dominant global consumer requesting and accepting global products and services easily. In fact, what can force an economic alignment to achieve the best performance, rather than the global consumer. The research methodology used includes literature review, comparative analysis, synthesis of data based on bibliographic resources and official documents.The aim of the paper is to highlight current models that underlie the competitive advantage of nations and assess the competitive advantage of Romania in the context of the global market. A case study is used to offer an overview of competitive advantage of Antibiotice Iasi SA, a competitive player, in a global pharmaceutical market with strong global competition. Countries moderate companies’ achievements of global efficiency objectives due to the countries’ rivalry. Romania has to understand that it is in competition with other countries in order to fulfill economic, political and social objectives. The scope in the end is the well

  15. Entrepreneurship and corporate competitiveness

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mihailović Božo

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Macroeconomics reforms are not enough for long-range stability. Transition enterprises in domestic economy hasn't prepare itself for the market economy. It has some specific characteristics which are analyzed in this paper. Entrepreneurship is the corner stone for enterprise development in the sense of achieving sustainable competitiveness in the contemporary globalized world economy. There are two possibilities to introduce it in transition enterprises: (a self-development (development by itself or evolution and (b create partnerships or alliance with some reputable competitor. In current situation, author proposal is for the second solution.

  16. Gaining competitive advantage in the gas boilers market of Vojvodina through integrated marketing communications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jovičić Dragoljub

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Since the appearance of marketing and implementation of marketing concept in practice, the importance of the marketing mix, through which organizations adapt their offer to targeted customer segments, was emphasized . Regardless of the fact that the product is commonly referred to as the basic (key instrument of the marketing mix, in the last ten years, due to the rapid and strong development of science, technology, especially information technology, business and society in general, integrated marketing communications (IMK are becoming increasingly important, without which organizations can not even begin, or end, any significant marketing activity. In this context, the aim of the authors of this study was to investigate the importance of integrated marketing communications on the placement of gas boilers, i.e. on the market share of individual producers in the market of Vojvodina, which also represents the basic hypothesis of the research. Research results confirmed the basic hypothesis as well as an extraordinary influence of IMK to the market share of producers in the placement of gas boilers. Supplementary hypothesis was not confirmed, advertising is not a key promotional instrument. Thanks to the specific characteristics, primarily the high technical complexity of gas boilers, a key promotional instrument are education and training of sales and installation staff in the marketing channels, which operate on the market of Vojvodina.

  17. Exchange rate volatility effects on export competitiveness. Romanian Case

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anca GHERMAN

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available In this paper we determine and analyze the impact of the exchange rate variation over the international trade of Romania. We highlighted the sense of the relationship between exchange rate and exports or imports, but the intensity between the variables and the lags that characterize the interdependency between them. In the context of actual great imbalances in the global economy and other risks (financial, political or social that drive to the decrease in aggregate demand on global level, we consider that external competitivity became one of the key variable for the economic growth in Romania like an integrated process in the European economy.

  18. Competition between bank regulators

    OpenAIRE

    Schindler, Dirk; Eggert, Wolfgang

    2004-01-01

    This paper examines competition between bank regulators in open economies. We use a model where credit demand of firms is endogenous and show any tendency for downward competition in regulation policy is limited by the effect of regulation on profits of nonfinancial firms. Moreover, perfect mobility on loans and deposit markets fully eliminates the incentives of regulators to set bank regulation at ine±cient low levels.

  19. Competitive advantage by customer integration. Empirical investigation by the example of German manufacturers of baggage handling systems.

    OpenAIRE

    Schindler, Uwe

    2017-01-01

    Achieving strong and unique competitive advantages is a goal in the strategic management of customer relations. Sustainable successful relationships to customers to secure profitable business in the face of growing competition are among the most important challenges for firms. In order to remain competitive in the future, German manufacturers have to force the application of innovative state- of-the-art methods to develop competitive advantages to attract and bind customers and to differentia...

  20. The energy economy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Meritet, Sophie; Vaujour, Jean-Baptiste

    2015-01-01

    This introduction to the economy of energy applies the main economic concepts to the energy sector (nature of the good, supply, demand), proposes an overview of existing actors, and analyses challenges and tools of economic policy like network regulation, competition policy, independence and energy transition. By using recent examples, statistics and international comparisons, it gives elements to highlight issues like the relationship between shale gas exploitation and economic recovery in the USA, the choice between monopole and competition for electricity or gas supply, reaching greenhouse gas emissions of the energy sector by incentives or taxes, secure energy supplies in a changing international environment, ways to supply energy to everyone at prices guaranteeing economy competitiveness, or ways to evolve towards energy systems which would be more environment- and climate-friendly. The successive chapters address fundamentals issues (nature of the good, historical and technical overview), the State intervention (definition of an energy policy, steering the energy mix, ensuring secure supply), the reorganisation of industries and the protection of consumers, the relationship between energy and climate (worrying perspectives, progressive emergence of solutions). The last chapter addresses the future challenges like innovation, and disruptive innovations (smart grids, big data, batteries, CO 2 capture and storage, nuclear waste processing and management, development of nuclear fusion), and the issue of energy poverty

  1. LINGUISTIC LANDSCAPE AND WHAT IT TELLS US ABOUT THE INTEGRATION OF THE RUSSIAN LANGUAGE INTO ISRAELI ECONOMY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Мария Еленевская

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available This essay analyzes the use of Russian in the linguistic landscape of Israel. Despite continu-ing hegemony of Hebrew, Russian has penetrated all spheres of public life, although concessions to multi-lingualism in Israeli society are hesitant and unsystematic. Russian written texts marking urban areas are unevenly distributed and reveal ethnic and social stratification of Israeli cities. The concentration of Russian signs is highest in business and commercial areas, where they target both domestic and international cus-tomers. The article focuses on the use of Russian in language-intensive domains and traces its influence on the symbolic economy in which cultural symbols are used as a marketing strategy.

  2. Integrative CO2 Capture and Hydrogenation to Methanol with Reusable Catalyst and Amine: Toward a Carbon Neutral Methanol Economy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kar, Sayan; Sen, Raktim; Goeppert, Alain; Prakash, G K Surya

    2018-02-07

    Herein we report an efficient and recyclable system for tandem CO 2 capture and hydrogenation to methanol. After capture in an aqueous amine solution, CO 2 is hydrogenated in high yield to CH 3 OH (>90%) in a biphasic 2-MTHF/water system, which also allows for easy separation and recycling of the amine and catalyst for multiple reaction cycles. Between cycles, the produced methanol can be conveniently removed in vacuo. Employing this strategy, catalyst Ru-MACHO-BH and polyamine PEHA were recycled three times with 87% of the methanol producibility of the first cycle retained, along with 95% of catalyst activity after four cycles. CO 2 from dilute sources such as air can also be converted to CH 3 OH using this route. We postulate that the CO 2 capture and hydrogenation to methanol system presented here could be an important step toward the implementation of the carbon neutral methanol economy concept.

  3. THE IMPACT OF INNOVATION PERFORMANCE ON THE COMPETITIVENESS OF THE VISEGRAD 4 COUNTRIES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eva Ivanová

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available The economic development of world economies accompanied by their growing openness and stronger integration processes put pressure on mutual confrontation of their economic power based on its determinant sources. International comparison requires determining a complex of factors that affect the success of developed economies; factors that, given their multiplier effects, influence the social productivity of labor in a country and create a competitive advantage in an international comparison. A key factor of the states’ increasing competitiveness is assumed to be the innovation performance of enterprises, which is projected through innovative business processes into the innovation performance of the economy as a whole. This paper determines the impact of their innovation performance on their international competitiveness position observed by the Global Economic Forum based on the Global Competitiveness Index (GCI. To assess the impact, the following economic-statistical methods were used: comparative and correlation analyses and logical deduction. Data from the World Economic Forum (WEF, European Innovation Scoreboard (EIS, and Eurostat database were used to process the assessment. The results of the research have led to the conclusion that the Visegrad 4 (V4 countries as transition economies in terms of their economic development are quite similar, but in the ranking of global competitiveness, their position varies depending on the innovative performance. The Czech economy is the best performing of the four, while the worst indicators are attributed to the economies of Slovakia and Hungary. The economy of Poland has a relatively balanced development. The results of these analyses have led to the creation of a discussion platform focused on the evaluation of the innovation potential status and its determinants in Slovakia, with the aim of pointing out critical areas in the country’s competitiveness growth on an international scale.

  4. Label-free detection of endocrine disrupting chemicals by integrating a competitive binding assay with a piezoelectric ceramic resonator.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Liang-sheng; Fong, Chi-Chun; Zou, Lan; Wong, Wing-Leung; Wong, Kwok-Yin; Wu, Rudolf S S; Yang, Mengsu

    2014-03-15

    A piezoelectric biosensor for detection of endocrine disrupting chemicals (EDCs) was developed by incorporating chemical/biochemical recognition elements on the ceramic resonator surface for competitive binding assays. A facile electrodeposition was employed to modify the sensor surface with Au nanoparticles, which increased the surface area and enhanced the binding capacity of the immobilized probes. Thiol-labeled long chain hydrocarbon with bisphenol A (BPA) as head group was synthesized and self-assembled on the Au nanoparticle surface as the sensing probes, which showed a linear response upon the binding of estrogen receptor (ER-α) ranging from 1 to 30 nM. Detection of estrone, 17β-estradiol and BPA was achieved by integrating a competitive binding assay with the piezoelectric sensor. In this detection scheme, different concentrations of EDCs were incubated with 30 nM of ER-α, and the un-bounded ER-α in the solution was captured by the probes immobilized on the ceramic resonator, which resulted in the frequency changes for different EDCs. The biosensor assay exhibited a linear response to EDCs with a low detection limit of 2.4-2.9 nM (S/N=3), and required only a small volume of sample (1.5 µl) with the assay time of 2h. The performance of the biosensor assay was also evaluated for rapid and facile determination of EDCs of environmental relevant concentrations in drinking water and seawater, and the recovery rate was in the range between 94.7% and 109.8%. © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. INTEGRATION OF THE BUSINESS COMMUNITY AND EDUCATION AS A FACTOR OF INNOVATION DEVELOPMENT OF THE REGION'S ECONOMY (ON THE EXAMPLE OF THE LIPETSK REGION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Y. L. Esina

    2015-01-01

    are created and developing. It is necessary to strengthen the integration of the business community and education, to form professional competence, to extend forms of interaction between the real sector of economy and professional educational institutions.

  6. Social economy and social enterprise

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hulgård, Lars

    2011-01-01

    practice will be put under increasing pressure. There is a difference between a social economy approach to the third sector and an approach based upon the notion of a non-profit constraint. Social economy is well positioned as a third sector to play a core role in meeting this urgency. But how does...... the social economy fit with current strategies in the areas of welfare policies and social service? Is it as a certain type of social entrepreneurship an integral part of a social innovation of the mainstream market economy or is it part of an emerging counter discourse in the sense of a participatory non...

  7. Hydrogen economy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pahwa, P.K.; Pahwa, Gulshan Kumar

    2013-10-01

    In the future, our energy systems will need to be renewable and sustainable, efficient and cost-effective, convenient and safe. Hydrogen has been proposed as the perfect fuel for this future energy system. The availability of a reliable and cost-effective supply, safe and efficient storage, and convenient end use of hydrogen will be essential for a transition to a hydrogen economy. Research is being conducted throughout the world for the development of safe, cost-effective hydrogen production, storage, and end-use technologies that support and foster this transition. This book discusses hydrogen economy vis-a-vis sustainable development. It examines the link between development and energy, prospects of sustainable development, significance of hydrogen energy economy, and provides an authoritative and up-to-date scientific account of hydrogen generation, storage, transportation, and safety.

  8. The political economy of finance

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Perotti, E.

    2014-01-01

    This survey reviews how recent political economy literature helps to explain variation in governance, competition, funding composition, and access to credit. Evolution in political institutions can account for financial evolution, and, unlike time-invariant legal institutions or cultural traits, is

  9. Economy of the depletable resources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hotelling, Harold Traductores Alvarez H Carlos Guillermo; Diaz Serna, F Javier; Olaya A, Alfredo

    2001-01-01

    Classic economic theory is analyzed with respect to the exploitation of renewable natural resources renewable as mining and oil exploitation. The principles of the mining economy and the good path of exploitation are presented under the assumptions of monopoly, duopoly and free competition. Advanced mathematical tools are used for the optimization and the effects of the taxes and the compensatory rates are included

  10. Radiation processing and market economy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zagorski, Z.P.

    1998-01-01

    In the system of totalitarian economy, regulated by bureaucracy, the real value of equipment, materials and services is almost completely unknown, what makes impossible the comparison of different technologies, eliminates competition, disturbs research and development. With introduction of market economy in Central and Eastern Europe, the radiation processing has lost doubtful support, becoming an independent business, subject to laws of free market economy. Only the most valuable objects of processing have survived that test. At the top of the list are: radiation sterilization of medical equipment and radiation induced crosslinking of polymers, polyethylene in particular. New elements of competition has entered the scene, as well as questions of international regulations and standards have appeared

  11. Working Within the Collaborative Tourist Economy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Meged, Jane Widtfeldt; Christensen, Mathilde Dissing

    2017-01-01

    This chapter explores from a critical perspective how workers in the collaborative tourism economy craft meaning and identity in work and discusses transformations on the established labor market induced by the collaborative economy. It does so through the perspectives of guides working...... pseudo-sharing manoeuvring in micro-competitive platform capitalism....

  12. Knowledge Production in a Cooperative Economy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cottey, Alan

    2014-01-01

    Knowledge here means something similar to but broader than science--it is reliable but not necessarily as systematic or explicit. A cooperative economy is contrasted with the competitive economy that has dominated political thinking almost everywhere for about half a century - the neo-liberal period. It is argued that the neo-liberal ideology and…

  13. Animal spirits, competitive markets, and endogenous growth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miyazaki, Kenji

    2013-10-01

    This paper uses a simple model with an endogenous discount rate and linear technology to investigate whether a competitive equilibrium has a higher balanced growth path (BGP) than the social planning solution and whether the BGP is determinate or indeterminate. The implications are as follows. To start with, people with an instinct to compare themselves with others possess an endogenous discount rate. In turn, this instinct affects the economic growth rate in a competitive market economy. The competitive market economy also sometimes achieves higher economic growth than a social planning economy. However, the outcomes of market economy occasionally fluctuate because of the presence of the self-fulfilling prophecy or animal spirits.

  14. Competition policy spurs economy-wide gains

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    tive markets is more likely to empower the poor, a thesis the UNCTAD .... PHONE: 613-236-6163. FAX: 613-567-7748. EMAIL: ggp@idrc.ca. WEB: www.idrc.ca/ ... leading institutions in the generation and application of new knowledge to meet.

  15. Competition Policies in Emerging Economies: Lessons and ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    2008-07-30

    Jul 30, 2008 ... Eugenio Rivera is an adviser with the Public Works Commission of Chile and ... Asian outlook: New growth dependent on new productivity ... Special journal issue highlights IDRC-supported findings on women's paid work.

  16. Competition Policies in Emerging Economies : Lessons and ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    30 juil. 2008 ... Il s'adresse principalement aux décideurs et aux analystes des politiques en matière de commerce et d'économie internationale, et intéressera également les chercheurs, les universitaires, les étudiants et les spécialistes dans les domaines de l'économie institutionnelle, de l'économie du développement, ...

  17. Competitiveness and Campaign '88.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kernan-Schloss, Adam, Ed.; And Others

    This report profiles the positions of the six Democratic and six Republican 1988 presidential candidates on policy issues affecting U.S. competitiveness in the global economy. Candidate profiles are provided for: Bruce Babbitt, Michael Dukakis, Richard Gephardt, Albert Gore, Jr., Jesse Jackson, and Paul Simon (Democrats); and George Bush, Robert…

  18. Industrial location and competitiveness

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    S. Brakman (Steven); J.H. Garretsen (Harry); J.G.M. van Marrewijk (Charles)

    2006-01-01

    textabstractThe interaction between the extent of location advantages and the intensity of firm competition relative to the size of the market jointly determines the location of industrial activity. Technology, factor endowments, geography, and scale economies are influential for determining

  19. Human economy and natural economy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Masullo Andrea

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available The decline of economy is due to its dependency from a virtual value, the currency, the coin, that in the recent phase of consumerism is so far from real value: human capital and natural capital. If human economy wants to continue to produce wellbeing, it must accept to be a subset of natural economy, intercept flux of matter produced by its circular mechanisms, put constraints in it, i.e. machines and structures, to direct it temporarily for our advantage, and finally release it to the same original flux, in an still usable state. In this way it will assume a function no more parasitic but symbiotic. It will be connected to natural cycles without destroying it, recovering the co-evolutionary link between nature and culture, building an economic web suited to the ecological web; thus we will have a mosaic characterised by biodiversity, technological diversity, and cultural diversity, able to produce a durable prosperity.

  20. A hybrid energy-economy model for global integrated assessment of climate change, carbon mitigation and energy transformation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cai, Yiyong; Newth, David; Finnigan, John; Gunasekera, Don

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • This paper introduces the design of a hybrid energy-economy model, GTEM-C. • The model offers a unified tool to analyse the energy-carbon-environment nexus. • Results are presented on global energy transformation due to carbon mitigation. • Electrification with renewable energies can contain the spiking of carbon prices. - Abstract: This paper introduces the design of the CSIRO variant of the Global Trade and Environment model (GTEM-C). GTEM-C is a hybrid model that combines the top-down macroeconomic representation of a computable general equilibrium model with the bottom-up engineering details of energy production. The model features detailed accounting for global energy flows that are embedded in traded energy goods, and it offers a unified framework to analyse the energy-carbon-environment nexus. As an illustrative example, we present simulation results on global energy transformation under the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change’s representative carbon pathways 4.5 and 8.5. By testing the model’s sensitivity to the relevant parameter, we find that the pace of electrification will significantly contain the spiking of carbon prices because electricity can be produced from carbon-free or less carbon-intensive technologies. The decoupling of energy use and carbon footprint, due to the uptake of clean electricity technologies, such as nuclear, wind, solar, and carbon capture and storage, allows the world to maintain high level of energy consumption, which is essential to economic growth

  1. SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT AS A SOLUTION TO AGRICULTURAL COMPETITIVENESS: THE CASE OF GREECE IN THE ERA OF EUROPEAN INTEGRATION

    OpenAIRE

    PAPAGEORGIOU, Athanassios

    2012-01-01

    The liberalization of international trade, due to the elimination of market barriers between countries within the context of economic unions, like the European Union (EU) and the expansion of globalization have caused increased competitiveness, at both geographical and sector level. European Commission documents state competitiveness as a continuous rise in the standards of living of a nation or region, a definition which combines competitiveness with sustainability and social goals. Although...

  2. The choice of strategy of development of the enterprise entering into the integrated structure on the basis of obtaining additional competitive benefits by the enterprise

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. I. Khorev

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available In article process of the choice of strategy of development of the enterprise, entering into the integrated structure (IS taking into account a possibility of obtaining additional competitive benefits by the enterprise from this occurrence is considered. The enterprises as a part of IS has to use a possibility of realization of effect of a synergy. In relation to the enterprise which is in IS, the synergy has not one concept, but three interrelations, different according to types, between the enterprises, namely: material, non-material and competitive. Such opinion of M. Porter shares most of the experts working in the sphere of strategic management. Realization of a synergy allows to improve overall performance not only IS (2 + 2 = 5 in general, but also and separately the enterprises entering IS. Overall performance of the enterprises improves thanks to obtaining additional competitive benefits by the enterprises in the form of decrease in expenses and differentiation of production that is realized by means of competitive strategy. Realization of effect of a synergy thanks to establishment of interrelations, as a rule, is followed also by increase in production of the enterprises entering IS that can be realized by means of growth strategy. Thus, it is desirable to develop strategy of development of the enterprise entering IS as the combined strategy consisting of two strategy: competitive and growth. The matrix of alternative strategy of development of the enterprise entering IS in the form of combinations competitive and strategy of growth, and also model of the choice of the similar combined strategy taking into account a possibility of obtaining additional competitive benefits by the enterprise is given in article. For an assessment of competitive advantages of the enterprise as a part of IS by means of ball estimates of experts the technique of a similar assessment, and a matrix of the arising interrelations of the enterprises in IS is

  3. Energie 2011. Development of competition with good sides and bad. Special Report of the Monopolies Commission in accordance with Art. 62 Para. 1 of the Energy Economy Law; Energie 2011. Wettbewerbsentwicklung mit Licht und Schatten. Sondergutachten der Monopolkommission gemaess paragraph 62 Abs. 1 EnWG

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2012-07-01

    The Special Report by the Monopolies Commission on electricity and gas is its third on the energy market pursuant to Art. 62 of the German Energy Economy Law (EnWG). In it the Commission relates its view of the status quo and development trend of competition and assesses whether there is effective competition in the markets for the grid-bound supply of electricity and gas in the German Federal Republic. It also reviews how the provisions of the Energy Economy Law concerning regulation and the safeguarding of competition have been applied and discusses current issues of competition policy in the energy sector. This third report analyses new developments in these areas. It also addresses other topics of recent interest such as the consequences of the revised view on nuclear energy, remunicipalisation or regulatory problems relating to railway electricity and railway electricity grids. The editorial work on this Special Report was completed shortly after the enactment of the Law Amending Energy Law Related Provisions, and the analyses conducted by the Monopolies Commission were updated accordingly.

  4. Assessing Competition in Philippine Markets

    OpenAIRE

    Aldaba, Rafaelita M.

    2008-01-01

    This paper reviews the current empirical literature on competition and market structure of Philippine industries. It shows that weak competition is one of the fundamental factors that explain limited growth, productivity, and employment in the economy. Philippine experience has shown that reforms such as trade liberalization, deregulation, and privatization, while necessary, are not sufficient to foster effective competition. The success of these reforms depends on the creation of a competiti...

  5. Local economic development and globalisation : the international competitiveness of certain South African municipalities / Vincent Monti Malebo Mongake

    OpenAIRE

    Mongake, Monti Malebo Vincent

    2004-01-01

    In today's global competitive environment, a city or a town more than ever needs a strategy that articulates how its international competitiveness is to be improved. Since 1994, following its first democratic elections, South Africa started processes of significant local government reform, as well as fast integration into the global economy. These processes will place significant challenges in the way of South Africa's local government (municipalities) since they now not only h...

  6. CURRENCY WARFARE AS PRACTICE OF THE EUROZONE’S EFFILOCHEMENT: THE LOGIC OF GEO–ECONOMY IN LIEU OF THE EUROPEAN INTEGRATION THEORIES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria DUNIN-WĄSOWICZ

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Since the Eurozone’s Effilochement has become a fact and European integration theories, as defined in existing theories, falls short of offering a hope for the salvation of EU’s monetary integrity, the logic of geo-economy is prevailing among the European states. In particular, it means that the Eurozone has introduced currency warfare against the currencies of EU states that do not use the euro. The argument is that a paradigm shift away from solidarity towards quite narrow-minded policy has occurred; different from what has been understood by European integration thus far. This paper outlines a two - level geo-economic approach to analyse how and why the current Eurozone’s Effilochement - structural and political - are solved by means of currency wars. On a theoretical level, the paper argues that such behaviour systematically undermines the status of the euro as a currency of public trust and reframes the economic benefits and international importance of the EU. The empirical tier of the work shows that the euro is perceived as a differentiation tool to impede the tempo of the real enlargement process of the EU that began in 2004. The Eurozone’s efforts to adopt its exclusive institutional and governance structure despite the potential risks involved, provide all the elements of this demonstration. The conclusion leads to the thesis that we need to be think more about geo-economics, this specific example being currency wars, to discern whether this paradigm of IPE became either a hindrance or a vehicle of the European integration ‘game’.

  7. Future Economy and Touristic Entrepreneurship

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Viorica Jelev

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Specialists claim that Eco-Bio-economy or social economy is the economy of future, in the service of human life by the rational use of environmental resources. The concept brings together in an integrated manner, according to the researchers, economy, ecology, biodiversity, biotechnologies and focuses on integrated sustainable development of the world. The new social economy, together with the corporate social responsibility joins a new multipolar world to a healthy environment by creative and innovative concepts that will ensure the sustainability of living in a sustainable manner. Doctors have added to thisEco-Bio-Economy concept a new one called One Health - a new integrated approach for human, animals and environment health state to that they should emphasize the importance of human behavior upon the planet biodiversity. Economer agents have mostly understood the importance of alarm signals drawn up by researchers on the destruction of the resources of the planet and adapted their business sites to the requirements of the green economy. A responsible business is also ecotourism that promotes a favourable travel for the surrounding environment. It requires accommodation on farms, in peasant houses, small rural hotels. The educational environment contributes to the trend planetary tourism, with the formation of new specialists with new knowledge, behaviors and consumers use formation of new characters, sensitive to environmental issues. This educational model is also promoted by Spiru Haret University, by creating the Master degree in tourism but also in environmental protection.

  8. COMPETITIVE PRODUCT ADVANTAGES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adrian MICU

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Cost advantages may be either internal or external. Internal economics of scope, scale, or experience, and external economies of focus or logistical integration, enable a company to produce some products at a lower cost than the competition. The coordination of pricing with suppliers, although not actually economizing resources, can improve the efficiency of pricing by avoiding the incrementalization of a supplier's nonincremental fixed costs and profit. Any of these strategies can generate cost advantages that are, at least in the short run, sustainable. Even cost advantages that are not sustainable, however, can generate temporary savings that are often the key to building more sustainable cost or product advantages later.. Even when a product's physical attributes are not readily differentiable, opportunities to develop product advantages remain. The augmented product that customers buy is more than the particular product or service exchanged. It includes all sorts of ancillary services and intangible relationships that make buying thesame product from one company less difficult, less risky, or more pleasant than buying from a competitor. Superior augmentation of the same basic product can add substantial value in the eyes of consumers, leading them to pay willingly what are often considerable price premiums.

  9. The Integration Role of European Defense Procurement in Achieving a More Competitive and Stronger European Defense Equipment Market

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-06-01

    and systems, even monopolistic ) essence of the supply side of the defense market . There are only a few suppliers that can meet today’s complex...DEFENSE PROCUREMENT IN ACHIEVING A MORE COMPETITIVE AND STRONGER EUROPEAN DEFENSE EQUIPMENT MARKET by Kiril O. Angelov June 2015 Thesis Advisor...COMPETITIVE AND STRONGER EUROPEAN DEFENSE EQUIPMENT MARKET 5. FUNDING NUMBERS 6. AUTHOR(S) Kiril O. Angelov 7. PERFORMING ORGANIZATION NAME(S) AND

  10. New Approaches to Cross-Strait Integration and Its Impacts on Taiwan’s Domestic Economy: An Emerging “Chaiwan”?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gordon C. K. Cheung

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Taiwan’s Legislative Yuan and Presidential elections in January and March 2008 respectively re-orientated cross-Strait relations from hostility to co-operation. On 4 November 2008, Chen Yunlin, head of the Association for Relations Across the Taiwan Straits (ARATS, and Chiang Pin-kun (Jiang Bingkun, chairman of Taiwan’s Straits Exchange Foundation (SEF, meeting in the Second Chiang-Chen Talks in Taiwan, took a historical step in the further development of cross-Strait relations. Agreements were signed on direct air and sea transport, postal services and food-safety security. On 22 December 2009, the Fourth Chiang- Chen Talks took place in Taizhong and more substantial and technical agreements were signed on agriculture, inspection/ accreditation and fisheries. It seems that continuous integration between China and Taiwan is inevitable. To address the implications of this process for Taiwan’s domestic economy, four dimensions of the current cross-Strait relationship are scrutinized: guanxi, plutocracy, legalism and the idea of a Chinese Common Market. It is argued that in order to intensify economic co-operation across the Taiwan Strait, more institutionalization of the cross-Strait relationship must be brought about.

  11. Competition and social cohesion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mario Libertini

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available "Competition" and "social cohesion" are both protected by E.U. and Italian laws. The author moves from the analysis of the meaning of these two concepts, in order to reflect on their compatibility and the way to conciliate them. The central problem - in the opinion of the Author - is to abandon the myth of spontaneous markets' order and to rebuild a political order able to maintain and support, as far as possible, the competitive market economy, but also to govern economic processes in critical moments and situations.

  12. Integration of Forest Fuel Handling in the Ordinary Forestry. Studies on Forestry, Technology and Economy of Forest Fuel Production in Lithuania

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Andersson, Lars [Regional Forestry Board of Vaermland-Oerebro, Karlstad (Sweden); Budrys, Renatas [Lithuanian Forest Research Inst. (Lithuania)

    2002-07-01

    During the year 2000, The Swedish Forest Administration and Forest Department, Ministry of Environment in Lithuania, started a bilateral co-operation project, named: 'Swedish Lithuanian Wood Fuel Development Project', financed by the Swedish Energy Agency. The project was divided into 2 phases. The first phase objectives were to make a feasibility study in the eastern part of Lithuania and to identify the present conditions for the utilization of wood fuel within seven state forest enterprises and to define a demonstration and experimental area for the phase 2. The purpose of this work was to find solutions for creating horizontal and vertical integration in the handling of forest fuels in ordinary forestry and supply systems. The aim would be to give specific recommendations on which methods are the most suitable and profitable and on what type of equipment to use for various conditions and by the means of demonstrations to show how to integrate the positive results into the ordinary forestry activities. Different kinds of activities have been carried out to ensure capacity building and development on other levels within the system. 3 activity groups were established and have been working side by side with the appointed team leaders for each activity group from the institutions leading in the specific area within the forest sector in Lithuania. Swedish specialists from the Swedish Forest Administration were involved into the project and the activity groups as well. Lithuanian Forest Research Institute was involved into the project with research support. Additional to the project a mobile drum wood chipper was purchased from Sweden. 3 separate investigations have been conducted, one by Kaunas Univ. of Tech. on the analysis and estimation of material balance in Lithuania saw milling industry, another by Forest Economy Centre on wood fuel produced in industry in Lithuania and the third one by Lithuanian Energy Institute and AF international on Bio fuel

  13. FDI from Emerging Economies in EU27

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jindra, Björn

    This paper scrutinizes FDI from a wide range of emerging economies (including newly industrializing Asian countries, Latin American countries and East European transition economies) that adopted different growth models in the past. The overarching research question of this paper is to which...... the integration of firms from different emerging economies via FDI into the global economy is linked to technological upgrading. We assume that technology seeking in advanced economies should be reflected in the relevance of particular location factors such as knowledge spillover. We analyses a large firm level...

  14. STATISTICAL ANALYSIS OF COMPETITIVENESS FACTORS OF REGIONS OF THE RUSSIAN FEDERATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O. V. Bakanach

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available In the conditions of market economy the competition is the main driving force of economic growth. The idea about existence of the interregional competition isn't conventional and demands the proof. The phenomena allowing to state existence of the interregional competitive relations which are realized through system of prerequisites of political, economic, legal and technological character were for this purpose studied. Competitiveness – one of the most important characteristics of the territory which level directly influences formation of positive tendencies in development of subjects of the Russian Federation. Productive indicators of level of competitiveness of the region are: a gross regional product on one occupied in economy, production of a gross regional product for one ruble of fixed assets, a gross regional product for one ruble of investments, a share of balanced financial result in a gross regional product. On the basis of private indicators the Pattern method received an integrated indicator of level of competitiveness of region. The quantitative assessment of the factors determining distinctions of regions of the Russian Federation by competitiveness level allowed to define that the competitiveness variation in the territory of regions in the greatest measure depends on a variation of number of graduates of educational institutions with higher education on 1000 people and the specific weight of investments into the enterprises occupied with mining. Regional values of competitiveness are most elastic relatively the specific weight of own investments, that is increase of this indicator for 1 % causes increase of competitiveness for 0.9 %. The practical importance of this work is caused by possibility of application of results of research by federal and regional executive authorities as information representation when developing programs of increase of level of competitiveness of regions of the Russian Federation. Besides, it is

  15. Innovation, human capital and trade competitiveness how are they connected and why do they matter?

    CERN Document Server

    2014-01-01

    This work focuses on researching and establishing the importance of human capital and innovation as determinants of competitive advantages in international trade—in the context of rapidly evolving technological advancement, globalization, and economic integration.  The processes that accompany the shift from industrial economics to a knowledge-based economy are currently the object of interest of both scientists, politicians, investors and entrepreneurs. In many countries, the traditional sources of socioeconomic development, such as low labor costs, availability of inexpensive raw materials, and favorable geographic location are waning.  These economies are searching for new sources of competitive advantage that will allow for maintaining growth, among other things by boosting participation in international trade. The book explores non-traditional drivers of competitiveness in both theory and practice.  First, chapters 1 through 4 present theoretical and methodological aspects of the relationships among...

  16. Nuclides Economy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ivanov, Evgeny; Subbotin, Stanislav

    2007-01-01

    Traditionally the subject of discussion about the nuclear technology development is focused on the conditions that facilitate the nuclear power deployment. The main objective of this work is seeking of methodological basis for analysis of the coupling consequences of nuclear development. Nuclide economy is the term, which defines a new kind of society relations, dependent on nuclear technology development. It is rather closed to the setting of problems then to the solving of them. Last year Dr. Jonathan Tennenbaum published in Executive Intelligence Review Vol. 33 no 40 the article entitled as 'The Isotope Economy' where main interconnections for nuclear energy technologies and their infrastructure had been explained on the popular level. There he has given several answers and, therefore, just here we will try to expand this concept. We were interested by this publication because of similarity of our vision of resource base of technologies development. The main paradigm of 'Isotope economy' was expresses by Lyndon H. LaRouche: 'Instead of viewing the relevant resources of the planet as if they were a fixed totality, we must now assume responsibility of man's creating the new resources which will be more than adequate to sustain a growing world population at a constantly improved standard of physical per-capita output, and personal consumption'. We also consider the needed resources as a dynamic category. Nuclide economy and nuclide logistics both are needed for identifying of the future development of nuclear power as far we follow the holistic analysis approach 'from cave to grave'. Thus here we try to reasoning of decision making procedures and factors required for it in frame of innovative proposals development and deployment. The nuclear power development is needed in humanitarian scientific support with maximally deep consideration of all inter-disciplinary aspects of the nuclear power and nuclear technologies implementation. The main objectives for such

  17. THE EFFECT OF STRUCTURAL FUNDS ON REGIONAL COMPETITIVENESS IN THE NEW EU COUNTRIES: THE CASE OF ROMANIA AND BULGARIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    GLIGOR DELIA ANCA GABRIELA

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available In the context of internationalization and globalization of the world economy, regional competitiveness is thoroughly debated by politicians and policy makers, emphasizing measurable differences between development regions, without any clear political or conceptual framework. The process of European Union integration is a main driving force of change, aiming to increase the efficiency and competitiveness of the fragmented European economy in the face of increasing internationalization. This often exposes countries and regions with unequal resources and technology and different economic structures to international competition. Such is the case of Romania and Bulgaria, countries that after joining the European Union in 2007 were given an opportunity to recover in terms of regional competitiveness and economic growth, namely structural funds as a form of nonrefundable European financial help to disadvantaged regions of member states. This research is thus focused on underlining and analyzing the relation between structural funds’ absorption and the degree of regional competitiveness for the development regions of Romania and Bulgaria, during their first programming period, through identifying and analyzing the factors that influence regional competitiveness and the amount of structural funds absorbed. First, two competitiveness country profiles are created based on data provided by relevant international organisms and second, an impact analysis is developed using six regional competitiveness indicators, grouped into three categories (economic, social and technological. Results show that EU funds critically influence the competitiveness of Romanian and Bulgarian regions, providing reliable data for policy decision makers

  18. Integrating multiple vegetation indices via an artificial neural network model for estimating the leaf chlorophyll content of Spartina alterniflora under interspecies competition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Pudong; Shi, Runhe; Zhang, Chao; Zeng, Yuyan; Wang, Jiapeng; Tao, Zhu; Gao, Wei

    2017-10-31

    The invasive species Spartina alterniflora and native species Phragmites australis display a significant co-occurrence zonation pattern and this co-exist region exerts most competitive situations between these two species, competing for the limited space, directly influencing the co-exist distribution in the future. However, these two species have different growth ratios in this area, which increase the difficulty to detect the distribution situation directly by remote sensing. As chlorophyll content is a key indicator of plant growth and physiological status, the objective of this study was to reduce the effect of interspecies competition when estimating Cab content; we evaluated 79 published representative indices to determine the optimal indices for estimating the chlorophyll a and b (Cab) content. After performing a sensitivity analysis for all 79 spectral indices, five spectral indices were selected and integrated using an artificial neural network (ANN) to estimate the Cab content of different competition ratios: the Gitelson ratio green index, the transformed chlorophyll absorption ratio index/optimized soil-adjusted vegetation index, the modified normalized difference vegetation index, the chlorophyll fluorescence index, and the Vogelmann chlorophyll index. The ANN method yielded better results (R 2  = 0.7110 and RMSE = 8.3829 μg cm -2 ) on average than the best single spectral index (R 2  = 0.6319 and RMSE = 9.3535 μg cm -2 ), representing an increase of 10.78% in R 2 and a decrease of 10.38% in RMSE. Our results indicated that integrating multiple vegetation indices with an ANN can alleviate the impact of interspecies competition and achieve higher estimation accuracy than the traditional approach using a single index.

  19. Inefficient equilibria in transition economy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sergei Guriev

    1999-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper studies a general equilibrium in an economy where all market participants face a bid-ask spread. The spread may be caused by indirect business taxes, middlemen rent-seeking, delays in payments or liquidity constraints or price uncertainty. Wherever it comes from the spread causes inefficiency of the market equilibrium. We discuss some institutions that can decrease the inefficiency. One is second currency (barter exchange in the inter-firm transactions. It is shown that the general equilibrium in an economy with second currency is effective though is still different from Arrow–Debreu equilibrium. Another solution can be introduction of mutual trade credit. In the economy with trade credit there are multiple equilibria that are more efficient than original bid-ask spread but still not as efficient as Arrow–Debreu one, too. The implications for firms' integration and applicability to Russian economy are discussed.

  20. A New Approach to the Economic Integration between South and North Korea: A Comparative Study with the Transition Economies in Eastern Europe

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Myoung Chul Cho

    1999-06-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this thesis is to find the enlightenment that the experience of state system transition in Eastern Europe offers to the economic integration of Korea and DPRK if leave DPRK as an independent economic area to seek its economic transition in a certain period, when the political structure breaks down. The transition policies of economic system of Eastern Europe states could be roughly divided into four types, the policies of liberalization, the policies of stabilization of the macro economy, the policies of privatization and financial reform. This thesis is trying to analyze how to use these types of polices in DPRK. According to the situation in Eastern Europe, compared to the fact that whether the speed of the transition of economic system is radical or gradual, the result of the transition of economic system depends on the condition of the preliminary stage of the transition of economic system and how consistently and ardently the states which plan to change their system promote all kinds of reform policy. The way to minimize the side-effect which the Eastern Europe suffered after the transition is to minimize the cost of the unity of Korea as much as possible. Therefore, the following policies coordination must be carried out. First, do not launch the stabilization policy mainly by restraining the aggregate demand as the Eastern Europe states. Appropriate policy adjustment should follow that. Second, the fruit of the economic reform should be distributed to the class or group which has got the acquired right. Third, appropriate income policy is needed in order to allay the controversy between economic growth and stabilization policy.

  1. Antimatter Economy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hansen, Norm

    2004-05-01

    The Antimatter Economy will bring every country into the 21st century without destroying our environment and turn the Star Trek dream into reality by using antimatter from comets. At the April 2002 joint meeting of the American Physical Society and American Astronomical Society, I announced that comets were composed of antimatter, there were 109 antimatter elements, and the Periodic Table of Elements had been updated to include the antimatter elements. When matter and antimatter come together, energy is produce according to Einstein's equation of mass times the speed of light squared or E = mc2. Antimatter energy creates incredible opportunities for humanity. People in spacecraft will travel to the moon in hours, planets in days, and stars in weeks. Antimatter power will replace fossil plants and produce hydrogen from off-peak electrical power. Hydrogen will supplant gas in cars, trucks, and other vehicles. The billions of ton of coal, billions of barrels of oil, and trillions of cubic feet of natural gas will be used to make trillions of dollars of products to bring countries into the 21st century. Within this millennium, the Worlds Gross National Product will increase from 30 trillion to 3,000 trillion plus 1,500 trillion from space commercialization bringing the Total Gross National Product to 4,500 trillion. Millions of businesses and billions of jobs will be created. However, the real benefits will come from taking billions of people out of poverty and empowering them to pursue their dreams of life, liberty and pursuit of happiness. Please visit www.AntimatterEnergy.com.

  2. THE INFLUENCE OF THE SIZE OF THE ECONOMY AND EUROPEAN INTEGRATION ON FOREIGN DIRECT INVESTMENTS IN THE CENTRAL, SOUTHEASTERN AND EASTERN EUROPEAN STATES 1994-2013

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Petar Kurecic

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The paper studies the interdependence of the economy size and foreign direct investments (FDI in the transitional economies of Central, Southeastern and Eastern Europe. In the global capitalist economy, foreign direct investments (FDI represent one of the key determinants of economic growth. Among some transitional economies, in the last 20 years, FDI represented one of factors that increased the economic growth, and in other transitional economies, the influence of FDI was minor or even negligible. In the literature devoted to the influence of FDI on economies, the research about the determinants of geographical pattern of FDI distribution usually focuses on the factors that determine why some states manage to draw FDI in higher levels than some other states. Our research focused on the transitional economies of Central, Southeastern and Eastern Europe, which were for the most part of the last 20 years net receivers of the FDI. Only a couple of these countries in the years of the current economic crisis have experienced FDI net outflow. Among the states studied, we have equally studied the EU members, as well as the non-EU members. We have tried to find similarities and differences between these two groups of states in order to determine the influence of EU membership on FDI per capita and how it correlates with the size of the state’s economy. We have also tried to answer the question of how much the GDP growth rate correlates to the FDI net inflow share in GDP for EU and non-EU members. The methodology is based on the statistical correlation between FDI in current US dollars and GDP per capita in current US dollars (World Bank data for each represented state, through the surveyed period from 1994 until 2013. The statistical correlation matrix (Pearson method determined whether any correlation between the average GDP growth rate (chain index and the average share of FDI in GDP per each state exists for each state surveyed.

  3. INTEGRATION OF AN ECONOMIC WITH AN ECOLOGICAL MODEL

    Science.gov (United States)

    We summarize our work on integration of an economy under imperfect competition with a simple Lotka-Volterra type ecological model. Firms and households operate within a single period planning horizon, thus there is no savings or investment. Wages are set by a dominant employer. P...

  4. Achieving Competitive Advantage through Using an Integrated Multi-selling Model. The Case from Romanian Linjerie Producer: Jolidon

    OpenAIRE

    CUC Sunhilde

    2011-01-01

    Information and communication technologies applications and services have greatly influenced the behavior of both retailers andconsumers. In order to win new markets, to increase the sales and gain competitive advantages, e-commerce has been widely adopted in the fashion industry, particularly in the lingerie sector. The purposes of the paper were to examine the retailing formats in relation to e-business, to determine which were significantfactors affecting e-commerce and the distinctive asp...

  5. Market integration of local energy systems: Is local energy management compatible with European regulation for retail competition?

    OpenAIRE

    Eid, Cherrelle; Bollinger, L. Andrew; Koirala, Binod; Scholten, Daniel; Facchinetti, Emanuele; Lilliestam, Johan; Hakvoort, Rudi

    2016-01-01

    The growing penetration of distributed energy resources is opening up opportunities for local energy management (LEM) – the coordination of decentralized energy supply, storage, transport, conversion and consumption within a given geographical area. Because European electricity market liberalization concentrates competition at the wholesale level, local energy management at the distribution level is likely to impose new roles and responsibilities on existing and/or new actors. This paper prov...

  6. Price competition in procurement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Keisler, J.M.; Buehring, W.A.

    1996-07-01

    When creating a private market to provide a public good, government agencies can influence the market's competitive characteristics. Markets have predictable, but often counterintuitive, behaviors. To succeed in applying available controls, and thereby reduce future costs, agencies must understand the behavior of the market. A model has been constructed to examine some issues in establishing competition for a structure in which there are economies of scale and government is obligated to purchase a fixed total quantity of a good. This model is used to demonstrate a way to estimate the cost savings from several alternative plans for a buyer exploring competitive procurement. The results are not and cannot be accurate for budgeting purposes; rather, they indicate the approximate magnitude of changes in cost that would be associated with changes in the market structure within which procurement occurs

  7. Competition compliant wholesale electricity prices. An examination of the regulation on the integrity and transparency of wholesale energy market

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Konar, Selma

    2015-01-01

    The development of wholesale electricity prices showed in recent years a very fluctuating course. The starting point for ensuring competitive compliant electricity prices have uniform rules that establish effective competition in the overall wholesale electricity, ensure greater transparency in the market and prohibit market abuse influence exercised on the wholesale price. The REMIT regulation creates a first union-law rules to this standardized specifications. The volume first examines the transparency, competitiveness, and supervisory structures in the wholesale electricity before legislating a regulation. It is clear, as the transparency and supervisory structures should be designed from the wholesale electricity ideally. On this basis, the work is dealing with the REMIT regulation. The author works out to market participants relevant notification and publication requirements, the follow-up demands on the company as well as the now existing prohibitions on market abuse and the related penalty catalog and analyze the supervisory structures newly created in the wholesale electricity. Here, the work also identified the weaknesses of the regulation and shows suitable solution approaches. [de

  8. Foreword. The Knowledge Economy: The Present Future

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Constantin Bratianu

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available All the statistics and evaluations show that the Knowledge Economy is our future. However, a close look at the developed economies demonstrates that the Knowledge Economy is already here, shaping our present time. Although there are many definitions of this new economic framework, their core content stresses the importance of data, information, and knowledge in the production of goods and delivering services in creating value for society. For instance, Powell and Snellman (2004, p.1999 define the knowledge economy as “production and services based on knowledge-intensive activities that contribute to an accelerated pace of technical and scientific advance, as well as a rapid obsolescence. The key component of the knowledge economy is a greater reliance on intellectual capabilities than on physical inputs or natural resources”. In the knowledge economy, knowledge becomes a strategic resource (Davenport & Prusak, 2000; Nonaka & Takeuchi, 1995 and knowledge strategies contribute directly to the competitive advantage (Bratianu & Bolisani, 2015. In this new economy, data, information, and knowledge are the driving forces of development and the knowledge economy is the engine of the global economy growth...

  9. Development of multiple strain competitive index assays for Listeria monocytogenes using pIMC; a new site-specific integrative vector

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cronin Michael

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The foodborne, gram-positive pathogen, Listeria monocytogenes, is capable of causing lethal infections in compromised individuals. In the post genomic era of L. monocytogenes research, techniques are required to identify and validate genes involved in the pathogenicity and environmental biology of the organism. The aim here was to develop a widely applicable method to tag L. monocytogenes strains, with a particular emphasis on the development of multiple strain competitive index assays. Results We have constructed a new site-specific integrative vector, pIMC, based on pPL2, for the selection of L. monocytogenes from complex samples. The pIMC vector was further modified through the incorporation of IPTG inducible markers (antibiotic and phenotypic to produce a suite of four vectors which allowed the discrimination of multiple strains from a single sample. We were able to perform murine infection studies with up to four EGDe isolates within a single mouse and showed that the tags did not impact upon growth rate or virulence. The system also allowed the identification of subtle differences in virulence between strains of L. monocytogenes commonly used in laboratory studies. Conclusion This study has developed a competitive index assay that can be broadly applied to all L. monocytogenes strains. Improved statistical robustness of the data was observed, resulting in fewer mice being required for virulence assays. The competitive index assays provide a powerful method to analyse the virulence or fitness of L. monocytogenes in complex biological samples.

  10. The Brazilian electric power industry restructuring: an evaluation of the competition through the contestable market theory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vinhaes, Elbia; Santana, Edvaldo de

    1999-01-01

    The central issue of debate was the need to align the energy sector's options and organization with changing global patterns of economic and social development, characterized by the increasing role played by the private sector, greater integration in the world economy, and new economic and social priorities such as efficiency, decentralization, deregulation, and a closer attention to environmental issues. The aim of the work is to evaluate the competition in the Brazilian electric power industry through the Contestable Market Theory proposed by Baumol

  11. Integrating Agricultural and Ecological Goals into the Management of Species-Rich Grasslands: Learning from the Flowering Meadows Competition in France

    Science.gov (United States)

    Magda, Danièle; de Sainte Marie, Christine; Plantureux, Sylvain; Agreil, Cyril; Amiaud, Bernard; Mestelan, Philippe; Mihout, Sarah

    2015-11-01

    Current agri-environmental schemes for reconciling agricultural production with biodiversity conservation are proving ineffective Europe-wide, increasing interest in results-based schemes (RBSs). We describe here the French "Flowering Meadows" competition, rewarding the "best agroecological balance" in semi-natural grasslands managed by livestock farmers. This competition, which was entered by about a thousand farmers in 50 regional nature parks between 2007 and 2014, explicitly promotes a new style of agri-environmental scheme focusing on an ability to reach the desired outcome rather than adherence to prescriptive management rules. Building on our experience in the design and monitoring of the competition, we argue that the cornerstone of successful RBSs is a collective learning process in which the reconciliation of agriculture and environment is reconsidered in terms of synergistic relationships between agricultural and ecological functioning. We present the interactive, iterative process by which we defined an original method for assessing species-rich grasslands in agroecological terms. This approach was based on the integration of new criteria, such as flexibility, feeding value, and consistency of use, into the assessment of forage production performance and the consideration of biodiversity conservation through its functional role within the grassland ecosystem, rather than simply noting the presence or abundance of species. We describe the adaptation of this methodology on the basis of competition feedback, to bring about a significant shift in the conventional working methods of agronomists and conservationists (including researchers).The potential and efficacy of RBSs for promoting ecologically sound livestock systems are discussed in the concluding remarks, and they relate to the ecological intensification debate.

  12. Social Economy: Challenges and Opportunities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ioan HOSU

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available The present article addresses a topic of interest for both the public sector and the nonprofit sector, namely that of the innovative practices of social economy. Diverse practices and models of social economy are increasingly present in the Romanian community, this being the reason why it is important to study the major coordinates of social economy and social entrepreneurship identified by means of an empirical research done in Romania. Social economy is considered one of the most important innovative strategy approaches as this sector may contribute to some efforts done for the elimination of poverty and the re-launching of local economies. The integration of the identified elements in regional programs and public policies is the starting point of the strategic approaches regarding reform in public administration. Social economy can be an example of joint action for public and private organizations and institutions interested in carrying out community projects based on inclusive, participative and innovative forms of community development.

  13. Rate design, yardstick regulation, and franchise competition: An integrated approach to improving the efficiency of 21st century electric distribution

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reiter, H.L.; Cook, C.

    1999-09-01

    Regulators need to take a hard look at stranded cost policies that make it difficult for municipalities to replace incumbent distributors, and also reconsider whether distributors should be allowed to roll expansion costs into systemwide rates. This article focuses on the importance of efficient electric distribution in the post-restructuring era and how regulators can promote that efficiency by (1) protecting and encouraging franchise competition, (2) employing regulatory yardsticks, and (3) designing rate structures that send proper price signals about the relative costs of expanding distribution plant and substituting distributed generation, conservation services, or other alternatives.

  14. Competitive Intelligence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bergeron, Pierrette; Hiller, Christine A.

    2002-01-01

    Reviews the evolution of competitive intelligence since 1994, including terminology and definitions and analytical techniques. Addresses the issue of ethics; explores how information technology supports the competitive intelligence process; and discusses education and training opportunities for competitive intelligence, including core competencies…

  15. Integrated delivery systems. Evolving oligopolies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malone, T A

    1998-01-01

    The proliferation of Integrated Delivery Systems (IDSs) in regional health care markets has resulted in the movement of these markets from a monopolistic competitive model of behavior to an oligopoly. An oligopoly is synonymous with competition among the few, as a small number of firms supply a dominant share of an industry's total output. The basic characteristics of a market with competition among the few are: (1) A mutual interdependence among the actions and behaviors of competing firms; (2) competition tends to rely on the differentiation of products; (3) significant barriers to entering the market exist; (4) the demand curve for services may be kinked; and (5) firms can benefit from economies of scale. An understanding of these characteristics is essential to the survival of IDSs as regional managed care markets mature.

  16. Competition and the hydrogen market

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Takeda, T.

    2006-01-01

    This paper addresses the issues of competition in the hydrogen market. The major drivers for the hydrogen-based economy are industrial growth, environmental and health benefits from improved air quality and reduced greenhouse gases as well as diversification of energy supply and security

  17. Government quality bases in the field of restaurant economy

    OpenAIRE

    Naumenko, M.; Vanichev, V.

    2010-01-01

    In the article is considered question of quality management as one of backer-ups competitiveness of enterprises of restaurant business and the problems of quality of grant of services restaurant economies are reflected.

  18. TRIPOLARISATION OF THE CURRENCIES IN THE WORLD ECONOMY: US DOLLAR – EURO – YEN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ramona TOMA

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available At present, the world economy is dominated by three poles – the USA, the European Union and Japan – among which there should be real co-operation to ensure the international stability on all levels. The introduction of the euro was perceived by the experts as the beginning of the competition among the currencies on the international financial markets. The European Monetary Union was conceived to cause an internal, not an external change, with an economic and financial purpose and as a further step of the European integration. Moreover, the international monetary system does not allow the European single currency to make gains that might cause losses to the US dollar. Both currencies have room in the world economy, but the euro has been beneficial to both the euro area and the rest of the world. At present, the euro is stronger than the sum of the twelve former national currencies. The consolidation of the national economies of the euro area becomes stronger due to the impact on liquidities, to the various investment opportunities for the entities that manage the financial portfolios and the central banks that manage the foreign currency reserves. The competition among the currencies means more opportunities in the world economy: the euro is an international currency used along with the US dollar and the yen, not against them.

  19. Selection of Mergers and Acquisitions by Foreign Capital in Open Economies

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHENG Ying-fei; CHEN Hong-min; XU Li

    2007-01-01

    By a linear Cournot model, the factors associated with the integration of two firms are discussed in terms of their effects on the private surplus and the social welfare in economies with varying extent of openness. Meanwhile, the trade policy of the host government is taken into account. It is concluded that the more open the economy and the more intense the competition, the less profitable the integration; the most important determinant to the changes of the domestic social welfare is the industry strength of the host country. The host authority can enhance the domestic social welfare in two ways: to adjust the trade policy and to only approve the socially desirable cross-border mergers and acquisitions.

  20. Retail competition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1998-01-01

    Retail competition as the cornerstone of a competitive electricity marketplace was the subject of the seventh in the series of policy discussion papers developed at the Market Design Conference. Concern was expressed that because of the complexities involved in market design and technical implementation, the retail competition may lag behind other elements of the implementation of the new market design. A variety of key issues were debated, including the role of physical versus financial contracts, the form of retail competition and financial settlement systems in the short term, the requirement to separate 'competitive' (metering, billing, maintenance, consumer education) from non-competitive' (the transmission wires) services and the role of municipal electric utilities. It was agreed that the IMO should play an important role in defining and enforcing the separation of services, and that as a general rule, the development of policy in this area should be guided by the principle of maximizing the potential for competition

  1. Dimensions of Real-World Competition

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Buch-Hansen, Hubert

    2014-01-01

    academic disciplines, with a particular focus on historical materialist political economy. Competition is conceptualised as a social relation, and the paper outlines how competition interacts with numerous other mechanisms to produce a variety of outcomes. Specifically, Roy Bhaskar’s concept of the social...

  2. Trans-nationalisation Processes in the Ukrainian Economy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bolharova Natalya K.

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The article considers main processes of trans-nationalisation of Ukrainian economy, identifies specific features of trans-national production and explains some theoretical aspects of these issues. It provides main stages of theoretical comprehension of activity of trans-national corporations (TNC, specific features of the theory of competitive advantages of TNC and specifies the basic ones of them. The article conducts analysis of flows of direct foreign investments into the Ukrainian economy. It shows distribution of direct foreign investments into Ukraine by main countries-investors, regions-recipients and types of economic activity. It conducts review and analysis of the modern state of trans-national corporations of foreign origin in the Ukrainian market. It considers functioning of domestic TNC in Ukraine and main tendencies of entering of Ukrainian companies into the world environment and also identifies directions of further development of these phenomena. Prospects of further studies in this direction are identification of the degree of trans-nationalisation processes in the Ukrainian economy and identification of the positive effect, in particular, synergy from integration and globalisation.

  3. Performance of the Dutch non-life insurance industry: competition, efficiency and focus

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bikker, J.A.; Gorter, J.

    This paper investigates competition in the Dutch non-life insurance industry indirectly by measuring scale economies and X-inefficiency, assuming that strong competition would force insurance firms to exploit unused scale economies and to push down inefficiencies. We observe substantial economies of

  4. Knowledge based economy in European Union

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ecaterina Stănculescu

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Nowadays we assist at a fundamental change from the economy based mainly on resources to the one based mostly on knowledge. The concept has been launched in the last decade of the past century. The knowledge became a production agent and a value creation instrument for whatever country and of course for an entire community like European Union which is constantly concerned by its development and competitiveness. This paper presents the principal characteristics of the present EU preoccupations with the expansion of a knowledge based economy through the 2020 European Development Strategy for smart, sustainable and inclusive economy, and especially for the Framework Programs (Framework Programme 7 and Competitiveness and Innovation Framework Programme.

  5. For the elaboration of a report that integrates environment and economy: recommendations from the analysis of 122 practical cases; Pour l'elaboration d'un rapport integrant environnement et economie: recommandations a partir de l'analyse de 122 cas pratiques

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2001-07-01

    In 1999 the 'Friends of the Earth' association has started an 'eco-management' campaign with 4 main goals: verifying the implementation of the environmental management system and its certification, dialoguing with authorities to fill up the gaps of the system and promoting the participation of companies, spreading the knowledge about these instruments to the public, and working with the different actors (companies, syndicates, associations, employees, organizations..) for the implementation of a reliable and credible environmental management system. The aim of this study is to elaborate recommendations for the elaboration of a report that integrates environment and economy, to use an original approach in the elaboration of the report with an identification of the environmental impact of the activity and/or products of the company due to the production, the use or the recycling, and finally, to provide a methodological sustain to companies through the presentation of the best examples chosen among the analyzed documents. The first part of this report is devoted to the analysis of the actors concerned and to the initiatives performed in the domain of reporting. The second part concerns the presentation of the content of the recommendations elaborated by the committee of control which proposes remarkable examples to be followed. (J.S.)

  6. Tourism Cluster Competitiveness and Sustainability: Proposal for a Systemic Model to Measure the Impact of Tourism on Local Development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sieglinde Kindl da Cunha

    2005-07-01

    Full Text Available This article proposes a model to measure tourism cluster impact on local development with a view to assessing tourism cluster interaction, competitiveness and sustainability impacts on the economy, society and the environment. The theoretical basis for this model is founded on cluster concept and typology adapting and integrating the systemic competitiveness and sustainability concepts within economic, social, cultural, environmental and political dimensions. The proposed model shows a holistic, multidisciplinary and multi-sector view of local development brought back through a systemic approach to the concepts of competitiveness, social equity and sustainability. Its results make possible strategic guidance to agents responsible for public sector tourism policies, as well as the strategies for competitiveness, competition, cooperation and sustainability in private companies and institutions.

  7. Sustainable development in a developing economy: Challenges ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    USER

    2013-08-21

    Aug 21, 2013 ... towards environmental management in Nigeria which is a fast developing economy. The basic ... almost every developing country in which it is grown ..... perspective of Development in Formal and Integrated Management of.

  8. DEVELOPING COUNTRIES. TRANSITION ECONOMIES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dumitru FILIPEANU

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available According to the modern theories of economic development – the take-off, backwardness, convergence and balanced growth hypothesis - the new industrialized states from Asia seem to have noticed the advantages of backwardness from which low income countries benefited, namely the possibility to take advantage of the latest technological discoveries of advanced countries, thus achieving a faster growth than the latter which operated closer to the technological border. The assimilation of appropriate technologies, however, required the efficient mobilization and allocation of resources and the improvement of human and physical capital. While the Western countries were confronted with crises generated by inflationary shocks and movements of speculative capital, the relative isolation of countries whose economy was planned by the world economy sheltered them until 1990, unemployment being practically non-existent. Asia's exceptional economic success is not only due to borrowing Western practices, but also to the fact that Asian societies maintained certain traditional features of their own culture - such as a strong work ethic - and integrated them in the modern business environment.

  9. COMPETITIVENESS IN HOSPITALITY INDUSTRY: ROMANIAN STYLE

    OpenAIRE

    Claudia-Elena TUCLEA; Ana-Mihaela PADUREAN

    2008-01-01

    In this paper is presented one of the important sectors of the national economy, at least from its potential for development perspective: the hospitality industry. The research interest is related to finding out the main factors of competitiveness in this field. This research attempts to identify the essential aspects of competitiveness in the hospitality industry. The objectives pursued refer to: discovering the degree to which the concept of competitiveness is understood and capitalized on ...

  10. National hydrogen technology competitiveness analysis with an integrated fuzzy AHP and TOPSIS approaches: In case of hydrogen production and storage technologies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Seongkon; Mogi, Gento

    2017-02-01

    The demand of fossil fuels, including oil, gas, and coal has been increasing with the rapid development of developing countries such as China and India. U.S., Japan, EU, and Korea have been making efforts to transfer to low carbon and green growth economics for sustainable development. And they also have been measuring to cope with climate change and the depletion of conventional fuels. Advanced nations implemented strategic energy technology development plans to lead the future energy market. Strategic energy technology development is crucial alternative to address the energy issues. This paper analyze the relative competitiveness of hydrogen energy technologies in case of hydrogen production and storage technologies from 2006 to 2010. Hydrogen energy technology is environmentally clean technology comparing with the previous conventional energy technologies and will play a key role to solve the greenhouse gas effect. Leading nations have increasingly focused on hydrogen technology R&D. This research is carried out the relative competitiveness of hydrogen energy technologies employed by an integrated fuzzy analytic hierarchy process (Fuzzy AHP) and The Technique for Order of Preference by Similarity to Ideal Solution (TOPSIS) approaches. We make four criteria, accounting for technological status, R&D budget, R&D human resource, and hydrogen infra. This research can be used as fundamental data for implementing national hydrogen energy R&D planning for energy policy-makers.

  11. UNDERGROUND ECONOMY, INFLUENCES ON NATIONAL ECONOMIES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    CEAUȘESCU IONUT

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of research is to improve the understanding of nature underground economy by rational justification of the right to be enshrined a reality that, at least statistically, can no longer be neglected. So, we propose to find the answer to the question: has underground economy to stand-alone?

  12. Energy and competition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1982-01-01

    The members of the Enquete Commission ''Future Energy Policy'' of the German Bundestag are introduced as well as the list of participants from industry and other organizations in the public heaving on 18 th December 1981. Then the catalogue of questions of the Enquete Commission is presented. The written answers of the 11 representatives of industry form the main part of the report. In the following the minutes of the public hearing of the Enquete Commission 'Future Energy Policy' of the German Bundestag on Friday, 18 th December 1981 on the topic of 'The Competitiveness of German economy in various energy supply structures' is presented. (UA) [de

  13. Implementation of the knowledge economy paradigm in the strategy of national economy development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dmytro Lukianenko

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available This paper studies the knowledge economy paradigm and the factors of its influence on the development of national economies in the context of transformation of the global competitive environment. It has been methodologically identified the basic categories and concepts concerning the determination of key factors and parameters of modern economic systems. It has been proved through the example of South Korea that implementation of the knowledge economy paradigm in long-term strategies initiated and supported by the state provides new opportunities of socio-economic progress. The basic problems of innovation-driven development of Ukraine’s economy through an assessment of its readiness to transition to the knowledge economy, compared with South Korea. The latter’s experience, despite the objective limitations, is regarded as an example of strategic success in formation of a creative innovation system.

  14. Marketing technologies for building competitiveness of companies export

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tatyana Tsygankova

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available In context of post-industrial development of global economy, escalating competition in international goods markets, the definition of competitive export is proposed based upon both existing criteria – sustainability, effectiveness, adaptivity and fair competition, and on those described in the work – ecological performance, service maintenance, brand awareness and high technology. Given that, it is proved that with the aim of detailing the elements of competitive export, the latter should be typified depending upon the performer (export competitiveness of a company, country, region and subject (export competitiveness of goods, services, rights upon intellectual property objects, keeping in mind universal and specific features of export criteria proposed to be characterised through a range of indices on corporate and state levels. Groups of factors affecting export competitiveness building are systematized (institutional, financial and economic, marketing, foreign trade, scientific and technological, resource-related and social and ecological. Marketing technologies are typified on corporate level under the following criteria: novelty, object, creative component availability, internationalization stages, international marketing forms, digitalization level, management functions, customer-centreness scale, international marketing activity stages, financial security, specific features of intercorporate coordination. The practice of applying international marketing technologies by companies is investigated. In context of necessity to overcome crisis phenomena and increase competitive export volume, an assessment is made of integrating national manufacturing into regulated global chains of creating added value with the relevant rating, in particular, depending upon the available potential, minimality of technical and organizational changes, marketing relevancy, enabling to determine the manufacturing areas most prepared to cooperation, and

  15. Problems of innovative development of an entrepreneurship in the industry in the conditions of upgrade of Economy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Golubetskaya, Natalya; Kosheleva, Tatyana; Kunin, Vladimir

    2017-10-01

    Innovative development of economy is a necessary condition for increase of competitiveness of Russia. Organization change should pass consistently taking into account a strategic target of development of the Russian economy as a whole. The analysis of work of the large innovatively focused corporations has shown that an important direction of formation of system of innovative activity in Russia is development of interaction, integration of large and small enterprise structures, entrepreneurs in the sphere of transportation, transportation or energy companies and educational institutions in this sphere. Stopping development threatens the organization with the stagnation, therefore each organization the plans for development directed on formation of competitive advantages of the transportation or energy company - strategy are developed. The work offers guidelines for managing the modernization of the educational process. Formulates the stages of organizational changes in the educational business organizations. Recommendations for formation in the educational enterprise structures matrix management innovation are given.

  16. Applying the Dufournaud econometric model to the determination of the prices dynamics impact over the national economy and over its main vulnerable sectors in connection with the Romanian national economy specificity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elena Claudia Serban

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available In economics, a model represents an abstract, formal image of a phenomenon, process or economic system. It is built by symbolically reproducing the economic theory and by getting new information regarding the behavior of the objective being investigated. In economic theory there are several integrated econometric models meant to underline the interdependency between the branches of a national economy by the public utilities services, especially those connected to energy. The present article presents the first results of our efforts of building an econometric model adapted to the specificity of the Romanian economy, that would underline the impact of the prices modification for public utilities on the Romanian economy as a hole, on the competitiveness of Romanian companies and on the inflation.

  17. Asia and South America: A Quasi-Common Economy Approach

    OpenAIRE

    Canuto, Otaviano; Sharma, Manu

    2011-01-01

    The Asian style of regional integration may be seen as a 'quasi-common economy' that eschews a formal linkup in political or monetary terms, but manages to generate similar results by strong physical integration and distributed chains of production and service delivery. This note proposes the Asian quasi-common economy as a benchmark for South America's regional integration efforts because...

  18. Understanding the New Economy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morrell, Louis R.

    2001-01-01

    Asserts that while the Nasdaq bubble did burst, the new economy is real and that failure to understand the rules of the digital economy can lead to substandard investment portfolio performance. Offers guidelines for higher education institutional investors. (EV)

  19. Hi-tech products marketing and competitive advantage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Perović Jelena

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available The company today, in causes turbulent environment and intensive integrations must cooperate, accept and develop high technology in order to achieve needs of customers. It's only way that companies replay on challenge global environment, decrease costs of investment per capita, decrease the risk, captivate new market and held competitive in causes of global market. High tech technology marketing function is help that results of new technology transfer on economy. Their function is reach need of customers, too. Positive influence of technology is the highest in area of production costs and productivity. Speed years are in front of our and it demands larger productivity, which primary source must be technology changes. High technology marketing is the most provocative framework for take competitive advantage, answer on global change and way of permanent reach rigorous need of customers.

  20. Innovating for a competitive and resource-efficient transport system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2012-05-15

    Transport is vital to the economic prosperity and social integration of Europe. EU-transport policy is directed to developing a smart, efficient transport system with reduced dependency on fossil fuels and less environmental impacts that will enhance mobility in Europe and will underpin Europe's competitiveness in global markets. This includes the transport sector itself, which is an important part of the EU economy. In contributing to achieving these ambitious goals, extensive investments are made in research and development for sustainable and innovative solutions. This Policy Brochure, which is produced by the Transport Research and Innovation Portal (TRIP), highlights the contribution of research, development, and innovation in securing a competitive and resource-efficient transport system in Europe.

  1. Knowledge Based Economy Assessment

    OpenAIRE

    Madalina Cristina Tocan

    2012-01-01

    The importance of knowledge-based economy (KBE) in the XXI century is evident. In the article the reflection of knowledge on economy is analyzed. The main point is targeted to the analysis of characteristics of knowledge expression in economy and to the construction of structure of KBE expression. This allows understanding the mechanism of functioning of knowledge economy. The authors highlight the possibility to assess the penetration level of KBE which could manifest itself trough the exist...

  2. Corporate governance and competitiveness in the context of Serbian approaching to EU

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Knežević Vladimir

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The theme of this work is corporate governance and competitiveness of Serbia in the context of approaching the European Union. Serbia is a country in the process of admission to this integration, for which it must fulfill a number of conditions. The most important conditions, besides political, are economic, and their very essence may be defined as an increase in competitiveness of its economy. Our goal is to point out the connection between these two issues and the phenomenon of corporate governance. To this end, among the indicators for measuring the competitiveness of the economies in the world, used by the World Economic Forum, we have chosen those who are directly connected to the internal and external mechanisms of corporate governance. In comparative analysis we have used the latest results in this area that are related to Serbia and its neighboring countries. Comparing those who are members of the European Union, but also those who belong to the candidate group, we concluded that Serbia lags behind both groups according to most of the analysed indicators. In this way, we have shown that corporate governance is essential segment of competitiveness of the national economy, and that Serbia lags behind all comparable countries in meeting the economic criteria for admission to the European Union. It was concluded that in the process of approaching the European Union, Serbia must improve the competitiveness of its economy, and one way is to raise the quality of corporate governance in it, because these are firmly related phenomena that have an intense mutual influence.

  3. Mediterranean Way of Competitiveness

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Art Kovacic

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available The Mediterranean area have a special concept of competitiveness topic. Normally is that region not so industrial and knowledge based oriented as a North Europe.That countries can't reach the same development level as the north one. Lisbon's and Goethenburg's strategies create the main framework of development programme. Mediterranean programme is such a case. European internal market has forced the EU countries to increase competitiveness. The economic prosperity of countries is associated with their ability to generate or attract economic activities which are able to increase income by performing well on themarket. Financial crisis in the EU has changed the look on the competitiveness research. Economy in the main countries has to find way of recovery. Former giants of the financial world have found themselves suddenly facing bankruptcy.Inevitably, the crisis is also having an effect on households and businesses - economic growth has slowed sharply and in some EU countries unemployment has begun to increase for the first time in several years. Form that perspective we have to find the right solution of European competitiveness.

  4. FROM CIRCULAR ECONOMY TO BLUE ECONOMY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iustin-Emanuel, ALEXANDRU

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Addressing the subject of this essay is based on the background ideas generated by a new branch of science - Biomimicry. According to European Commissioner for the Environment, "Nature is the perfect model of circular economy". Therefore, by imitating nature, we are witnessing a process of cycle redesign: production-consumption-recycling. The authors present some reflections on the European Commission's decision to adopt after July 1, 2014 new measures concerning the development of more circular economies. Starting from the principles of Ecolonomy, which is based on the whole living paradigm, this paper argues for the development within each economy of entrepreneurial policies related to the Blue economy. In its turn, Blue economy is based on scientific analyses that identify the best solutions in a business. Thus, formation of social capital will lead to healthier and cheaper products, which will stimulate entrepreneurship. Blue economy is another way of thinking economic practice and is a new model of business design. It is a healthy, sustainable business, designed for people. In fact, it is the core of the whole living paradigm through which, towards 2020, circular economy will grow more and more.

  5. Consumer Empowerment in the Digital Economy: Availing Sustainable Purchasing Decisions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patrizia Gazzola

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available The advent of the digital economy and, implicitly, of competition in the online marketplace has triggered new challenges in terms of consumer protection approaches. Online, consumer skills are expected to be improved and the level of consumer awareness and engagement increased. These are the baseline prerequisites of the sustainable purchasing decision and, thus, should be considered as pillars of responsible online consumption. Consistent with the novel consumption challenges, the current paper is intended to advance and test a research model integrating five main constructs, namely, competition in the online marketplace, online consumer skills, online consumer awareness, online consumer engagement and sustainable purchasing decision. A total of 318 college students—a representative population of the new Millennials generation—accepted the invitation to participate in a questionnaire-based survey. In order to pertinently analyze the collected data, a structural equation modeling technique based on partial least squares was employed for the assessment of the measurement and the structural model. The findings indicated that the model explained 24.4 percent of the variance of sustainable purchasing decisions, while the highest influence was exerted by the improvement of online consumer skills. This implies that online providers should revisit their products sustainability standards on purpose to preserve a competitive advantage.

  6. The Sharing Economy

    OpenAIRE

    Reinhold, Stephan; Dolnicar, Sara

    2017-01-01

    Peer-to-peer accommodation networks in general, and Airbnb in specific, are frequently referred to as part of the sharing economy. This chapter provides an overview of key characteristics of the sharing economy, discusses how these characteristics relate to peer-to-peer accommodation, and positions peer-to-peer accommodation networks within the sharing economy.

  7. Based on the core competitiveness of enterprise innovation culture research

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    韩 军

    2017-01-01

    In the spring tide of market economy at present, the enterprise is a must to survive in order to achieve innovation, promote enterprise's core competitiveness. Enterprise innovation culture, the promotion enterprise's core competitiveness plays an important role in promoting, therefore must complete enterprise innovation culture. Therefore, put forward by enterprise innovation culture, promote enterprise's core competitiveness.

  8. Romania's Competitiveness and Competitive Position in Global Context

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valentin NECULITA

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Competitiveness increase has become a primordial framework of the social and economic development strategies of most world countries (mainly the most developed ones over the last decades. The vigorous boost of the contemporary phenomenon of globalization, which has widened the global area of economies, sectors and firms confrontation, has laid an emphasis on their competitiveness importance for their favorable position in the international competition and has therefore force the status to take proper, broad and concerted measures to stimulate the determining factors of action and to take better advantage of their effects. The purpose of the paper is to determine whether an increase in competitiveness could reduce the disparities between regions. The E.U. Member States and regions need significant financial help to solve various structural problems and to achieve their potential of growth. Romania is no exception, one of the main problems being the low rate in attracting European funds.

  9. From Enclave to Linkage Economies?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Michael W.

    as the enclave economy par excellence, moving in with fully integrated value chains, extracting resources and exporting them as commodities having virtually no linkages to the local economy. However, new opportunities for promoting linkages are offered by changing business strategies of local African enterprises...... as well as foreign multinational corporations (MNCs). MNCs in extractives are increasingly seeking local linkages as part of their efficiency, risk, and asset-seeking strategies, and linkage programmes are becoming integral elements in many MNCs’ corporate social responsibility (CSR) activities....... At the same time, local African enterprises are eager to, and increasingly capable of, linking up to the foreign investors in order to expand their activities and acquire technology, skills and market access. The changing strategies of MNCs and the improving capabilities of African enterprises offer new...

  10. The external sector of the Serbian economy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ristanović Vladimir

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this paper is to show the external sector of the Serbian economy, its features and peculiarities, as well as anomalies that afflicted it for years. In the analysis, data acquired from the Statistical Office of the Republic of Serbia will be used, as well as the official international methodology. The text will include the analysis of the structure of the external sector, market share, competitive position of Serbian economy and export products according to sectors of the economy and factor intensity. Since 2000, the structure of production and exports of the Serbian economy shows low comparative advantages and competitive position throughout the world. Unfavorable structure of the sectors, departments and the product groups affected the deepening of external imbalances and high foreign trade deficit. Exports of technology of predominantly low intensity, resources, and labor-intensive products, common for Serbian economy, represent no guarantee of economic growth in the long term. The causes of external imbalances should be sought in the absence of adequate export strategy, as well as in high speed of liberalization of foreign trade flows and exchange rate policy.

  11. TRENDS OF NATURAL RESOURCES MARKET IN A GLOBALIZED WORLD ECONOMY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristian, SIMA

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Natural resources are not homogeneous in nature, having certain features in the productive process that require grouping them into different categories by different criteria. Consequently, natural resources cannot be addressed all at once, but only distinctly, according to relevant criteria selected based on the proposed goals. Changing approaches based resources (materials to the knowledge, from quantity to quality, from mass products to new concepts of higher added value, follows a development that is based on eco-efficiency and sustainable products and services. In this respect, integrated research will become key factors towards global processing. Also, global digitalization requires a new approach on the role of information in the development of economy and increase of competitiveness.

  12. Amendment of the Energy Economy Act. Novellierung des Energiewirtschaftsgesetzes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1990-12-20

    The Federal Association of German Industry deliberates on the reform of the Energy Economy Act, arriving at the following intermediate result that is to be discussed by the member associations. The following might be essential points for the attitude of the industry regarding the reform of the energy economy act: deregulation, qualitative modernization, concentration on electric power and gas, differentiated regulations for power and gas, limitation of municipal influence (outside the scope of the energy economy act: reform of the municipal right of way), secure power and gas supply at internationally competitive prices. This is followed by considerations regarding the individual provisions of the energy economy act and their discussion. (orig./HSCH).

  13. A Informação como vantagem competitiva no processo logístico integrado nos serviços turísticos The Information as competitive advantage in the process of integrated logistics in tourism services

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francisco Antonio dos Anjos

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Em todos os setores da economia a competição está cada vez mais acelerada, pois tecnologicamente as organizações podem alcançar o mesmo patamar. Particularmente na gestão de serviços, o diferencial está na forma estratégica de utilização da informação, na obtenção da vantagem competitiva, proporcionando as organizações novas formas de superar o desempenho dos competidores, transformando toda a cadeiae tendo como foco as atividades de valor. Este artigo esta centrado na delimitação de um modelo de Gestão Integrada – SIGESTur, tendo a hotelaria como ponto central do processo de articulação entre os elementos que integram o sistema de turismo. Num primeiro momento, se aprofundam as discussões temáticas tendo por base a análisebibliográfica. Em um segundo momento, se desenvolve uma proposta metodológica tendo por base a análise bibliográfica e num terceiro momento se apresenta o modelo proposto. Para o desenvolvimento do modelo proposto fez-se uso de um estudo de caso em um hotel de rede nacional e 12 empresas parceiras (alimentação, lazer, entretenimento e meios de transporte, que fazem parte da rede de valor. Após arealização das entrevistas foram modelados os processos da rede de valor dos serviços turísticos, tendo como foco a identificação das articulações existentes entre o hotel e os demais serviços turísticos e por fim desenvolveu-se conceitualmente o modelo SIGESTUR. Os resultados da investigação apontam para uma cadeia de valor hoteleiracujo foco deve estar centrado num fluxo informacional eficiente e uma rede de valor alinhada com agilidade entre os parceiros logísticos do setor de turismo, inovando e agregando valor aos serviços ofertados.In all the sectors of the economy the competition is speeding more and more every day, because technologically, organizations can reach the same level of development. Particularly in the management of services, the differential is in the strategical form

  14. Modeling of similar economies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sergey B. Kuznetsov

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Objective to obtain dimensionless criteria ndash economic indices characterizing the national economy and not depending on its size. Methods mathematical modeling theory of dimensions processing statistical data. Results basing on differential equations describing the national economy with the account of economical environment resistance two dimensionless criteria are obtained which allow to compare economies regardless of their sizes. With the theory of dimensions we show that the obtained indices are not accidental. We demonstrate the implementation of the obtained dimensionless criteria for the analysis of behavior of certain countriesrsquo economies. Scientific novelty the dimensionless criteria are obtained ndash economic indices which allow to compare economies regardless of their sizes and to analyze the dynamic changes in the economies with time. nbsp Practical significance the obtained results can be used for dynamic and comparative analysis of different countriesrsquo economies regardless of their sizes.

  15. THE COMPETITION POLICY IN THE EUROPEAN UNION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dumitriţa Florea (Ionescu

    2012-09-01

    2009.The economic development of each community country, of the European Union as a whole isunthinkable without maintaining a functioning competitive environment, fundamental requirement in themarket economy. Moreover, competition is considered as the most important cause of economic andscientific-technical progress.The purpose of the present work is the elucidation of the specific notions attached to competition,competition policy, give-away of the types of competition and the analyze of the existent policies in thedomain of the competition.Leaving from the hypothesis off the specialty literature (reminding here: Ioan Alexandru and theco-workers, Aurelia Cotutin, Dumitru Mazilu, Tudorel Ştefan, Beatrice Grigoriu, such as the relationshipswhich it’s proceed between the participants on the same market with the intention to accomplish somepersonal concerns by the conditions of economic liberty, we try to analyze each type of competition, thecompetition policies, following concomitantly the achievements of the specific nature of the policy in thedomain of competition.The question which it’s shape is if the process of the European integration it’s manage to generatean competition policy materialized in a necessary condition for the existence of the unique internal market.Another problem tackle in this paper-work is the evolution of the competition policy in theEuropean Union bringing close-up the mains international documents which is settle the competition andthose evolution in time. As well, an important bearing represent the European institution whichadministrate the competition policy, an aspect which is debate in the section 3 of this scientific demarche.

  16. Facing the petrochemical competition. Are you prepared?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baggett, P.E.

    1997-01-01

    The factors that impact petrochemical supply, demand and economics were discussed. Petrochemicals are the basis for most commodities consumed in today's society. The demand for these products is determined by the economy and by the population. Recent changes in the world's political structure will have an impact on the petrochemical industry. There is evidence that petrochemical activity is shifting to the developing regions of the world as a result of the fall of communism, the fall of some dictatorships and the privatization of state enterprises. In 1980, the world's economic strength was in Western Europe, North America, and Japan, with 78 per cent of the world's GDP. It was forecast that by 2010, these three areas will only account for 70 per cent of the world's GDP. Shifting population and economies will increase per capita incomes in Eastern Europe, South America, and Asia. These areas will see an increase in purchases of petrochemicals products. Demand for base petrochemicals is expected to increase by 106 million tons over the next ten years. However, to survive in a competitive market, companies will have to develop programs to reduce costs, integrate and be prepared to take advantage of opportunities created by the supply/demand cycles

  17. Fusion power economy of scale

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dolan, T.J.

    1993-01-01

    In the next 50 yr, the world will need to develop hundreds of gigawatts of non-fossil-fuel energy sources for production of electricity and fuels. Nuclear fusion can probably provide much of the required energy economically, if large single-unit power plants are acceptable. Large power plants are more common than most people realize: There are already many multiple-unit power plants producing 2 to 5 GW(electric) at a single site. The cost of electricity (COE) from fusion energy is predicted to scale as COE ∼ COE 0 (P/P 0 ) -n , where P is the electrical power, the subscript zero denotes reference values, and the exponent n ∼ 0.36 to 0.7 in various designs. The validity ranges of these scalings are limited and need to be extended by future work. The fusion power economy of scale derives from four interrelated effects: improved operations and maintenance costs; scaling of equipment unit costs; a geometric effect that increases the mass power density; and reduction of the recirculating power fraction. Increased plasma size also relaxes the required confinement parameters: For the same neutron wall loading, larger tokamaks can use lower magnetic fields. Fossil-fuel power plants have a weaker economy of scale than fusion because the fuel costs constitute much of their COE. Solar and wind power plants consist of many small units, so they have little economy of scale. Fission power plants have a strong economy of scale but are unable to exploit it because the maximum unit size is limited by safety concerns. Large, steady-state fusion reactors generating 3 to 6 GW(electric) may be able to produce electricity for 4 to 5 cents/kW·h, which would be competitive with other future energy sources. 38 refs., 6 figs., 6 tabs

  18. Coal competitiveness?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rogeaux, B.

    2006-01-01

    Will coal electrical plants be more competitive in the coming years? Answering this one cannot be limited to merely comparing estimates based on reference electricity production costs. The competitiveness of coal will indeed depend on the final product marketed, as the MWhs are not equal: is the purpose to produce base, half-base MWh? Does the electrical equipment structure require flexible MWh (for instance in the event of significant intermittent renewable energy amounts), and therefore plants able to adjust their power rapidly? But the competitiveness of coal will also depend on many factors that will correct reference cost estimates: uncertainties, risks, externalities. These factors will need to be appreciated on a case by case basis. We introduce some of the reasoning used to better appreciate the future competitiveness of coal, and the main factors conditioning it in three contrasting regions of the world: Europe, USA, china. (author)

  19. Competition Regime

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Danilo Icaza Ortiz

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper is a review of the competition regime works of various authors, published under the auspices of the University of the Hemispheres and the Corporation for Studies and Publications. Analyzes the structure, the general concepts, case law taken for development. Includes comments on the usefulness of this work for the study of competition law and the contribution to the lawyers who want to practice in this branch of economic law.

  20. Neo-industrialization of Kuzbass economy in innovative development of coal industry and machinery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Balabanova Anna

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available As part of rental-resource model and access restrictions to capital and new technologies, the attempts to encourage import substitution made by the government do not generate innovative type of economic development and reconstruction of economy’s manufacturing industry competitive on the domestic market. In conditions of searching for a new model of Russian economy development the analysis of a number of problems such as industry degradation, reducing the competitiveness of Russian producers, the growth of structural imbalances and overcoming the negative macroeconomic trends becomes strategically important. This raises the value of neo-industrialization as the integrator of resource security, scientific and industrial potential of Russian economy and high capacity of the domestic market in the innovative development system. A special role neo-industrialization plays for the economic development of old industrial regions, which include Kuzbass (Western Siberia, Russia. Neo-industrial development of Kuzbass economy should be initiated by the technological modernization of mining machinery and innovative development of coal industry.

  1. ECONOMY DEVELOPMENT: BENCHLEARNING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vanja Malobabic

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Benchlearning like new method integrates efficient methods and human development at a time when such integration is recognized as increasingly vital to organizational succes. It: -offers practical inspiration on improving quantitative goals -company performance and competitiveness-by influencing the attitudes of people within the organization -provides a new method combining the qualities of both the learning organization and knowledge management -shows how this concept can be applied using case studies and illustrations and the result of pilot project -describes practical perspectives and tools on management and learning theory. This work will be invaluable to senior and middle managers, consultants and practitioners and MBA students, as well all those working within organizations that are keen to improve and develop their performance. The aim is to produce a business strategy which will make organizations work more efficiently. Different aspects of ‘ the economics of learning’ have been the main content research. This work answers the question ’how do you know that your operation is efficient?’Benchlearning show that it is possible to move on from pure comparison to benefit from the knowledge and experience of others and create a real learning organization. Examples from a range of organizations including Ericsson show how to monitor efficiency, provide inspiration for a development drive, and illustrate how to influence people’s experience, in combination with the principles of organizational learning. Benchlearning principles can be applied to almost any group or company to promote a win-win-win situation: employees’ performance improves as they learn to develop, customers gain more value and choice, and owners benefit from a more competitive organization.

  2. Civilizational deadlock of the economy of growth

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alatartseva Elena

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The key topic of the paper is determined by the crisis situation of the nowadays economic model. Capitalism is the dominant economic form in the global economy. Varieties of capitalism exist ranging from state capitalism to neo liberalism but all are pervaded by a dominant theme, an egocentric economy model or ego-economics. This model is underlain by postulates of the need for a continued growth spurred by end-use. The realisation of this model is provided by monetary approaches and stimulation of consumer demand as the main driver of economic growth. The key tools for stimulating demand in this model of economy are competition, information impact on the consumer consciousness and choices, the massive accessibility of credit, the massive accessibility of financial markets and financial instruments, the actualisation of passive incomes as opposed to creative labour, and other degradation triggering factors. The crowning part of this model is the debt economy of consumption of societies of individualists who do not share traditional systems of values but are guided by illusory, temporary, short-term objectives. Thus, the egocentric economy model established dominance in relation to the ecological economy model, exposing a bulk of contradictions in principles underlying the system and promotes unsustainability. The future turned out to be in jeopardy... The paper contrasts ego-economics and ecoeconomics, traces of the emergence of the first one and the need for the second one as a necessary condition for long-term sustainability.

  3. Outsourcing induced by strategic competition

    OpenAIRE

    Chen, Yutian; Dubey, Pradeep; Sen, Debapriya

    2009-01-01

    We show that intermediate goods can be sourced to firms on the "outside" (that do not compete in the final product market), even when there are no economies of scale or cost advantages for these firms. What drives the phenomenon is that "inside" firms, by accepting such orders, incur the disadvantage of becoming Stackelberg followers in the ensuing competition to sell the final product. Thus they have incentive to quote high provider prices to ward off future competitors, driving the latter t...

  4. Strategic Outsourcing under Economies of Scale

    OpenAIRE

    Chen, Yutian; Sen, Debapriya

    2010-01-01

    Economies of scale in upstream production can lead both disintegrated downstream firms as well as its vertically integrated rival to outsource offshore for intermediate goods, even if offshore production has moderate cost disadvantage compared to in-house production of the vertically integrated firm.

  5. Energy - vital nerve of the economy|

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ebner, F.

    1987-01-01

    A withdrawal from nuclear energy is often demanded by the same parties who also demand full employment, better working conditions, higher salaries and increased social benefits. The demands are conflicting. It would be extremely risky for Switzerland to be forced into a supply bottle-neck. Economists should warn emphatically against such a development. The economy cannot retain its strength in international competition without a sufficient and reliable supply of electricity and with other energy at competitive prices. The employers demanded in their common declaration to the energy policy of September 24, 1986 that the necessary legal preconditions for a secure energy supply should be maintained

  6. FOREIGN DIRECT INVESTMENT AND THE ROMANIAN ECONOMY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elena CHIRILA – DONCIU

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available In a country's economy, investments take center stage, both in the production of goods and services and in the sphere of consumption. They represent a factor that influences simultaneously both demand and supply. The importance and impact of FDI have righteously attracted all EU Members heed and resulted in a fierce competition for foreign capital. The purpose of this paper is to analyze the impact of FDI on Romania economic growth. Research results show that FDI have a positive impact through the medium of productivity and competitiveness growth in the host countries, by means of technology and capital transfer.

  7. Growing a market economy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Basu, N.; Pryor, R.J.

    1997-09-01

    This report presents a microsimulation model of a transition economy. Transition is defined as the process of moving from a state-enterprise economy to a market economy. The emphasis is on growing a market economy starting from basic microprinciples. The model described in this report extends and modifies the capabilities of Aspen, a new agent-based model that is being developed at Sandia National Laboratories on a massively parallel Paragon computer. Aspen is significantly different from traditional models of the economy. Aspen`s emphasis on disequilibrium growth paths, its analysis based on evolution and emergent behavior rather than on a mechanistic view of society, and its use of learning algorithms to simulate the behavior of some agents rather than an assumption of perfect rationality make this model well-suited for analyzing economic variables of interest from transition economies. Preliminary results from several runs of the model are included.

  8. The Sharing Economy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Avital, Michel; Carroll, John M.; Hjalmarsson, Anders

    2015-01-01

    The sharing economy is spreading rapidly worldwide in a number of industries and markets. The disruptive nature of this phenomenon has drawn mixed responses ranging from active conflict to adoption and assimilation. Yet, in spite of the growing attention to the sharing economy, we still do not know...... much about it. With the abundant enthusiasm about the benefits that the sharing economy can unleash and the weekly reminders about its dark side, further examination is required to determine the potential of the sharing economy while mitigating its undesirable side effects. The panel will join...... the ongoing debate about the sharing economy and contribute to the discourse with insights about how digital technologies are critical in shaping this turbulent ecosystem. Furthermore, we will define an agenda for future research on the sharing economy as it becomes part of the mainstream society as well...

  9. Knowledge Management – the Key Resource in the Knowledge Economy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Domingo NEVADO PEÑA

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available The influence of global information and communication technology changes and globalization have transformed our society by favoring the economy and innovation as key driver of global competition. Creation and exploitation of knowledge has become key resource in the new economy. All advanced economies are technologically knowledgebased economy. Many of today's managers and their employees, still guided by the definition given by Francis Bacon (1597 “Knowledge is power” instead of “sharing and managing knowledge is power”. Knowing taken alone may not bring value if not shared before and then managed in an efficient manner. This article seeks to demonstrate what knowledge, what the knowledge management is and what are its main implications in the new economy, a knowledge-based economy.

  10. The New and the Future Look of the Economy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liliana CRĂCIUN

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The global financial situation and our future economy remain vital concerns for us all. As a result, the government and the business community have to stimulate the economy and give it new dimensions. Virtually everyone agrees on the importance of the economy, but no consensus has or is expected to be reached soon as to the definition of the economy. Economy as a “discipline”' is a concept torn apart by current economic crisis, where fierce competition, greed and consumerism will neither solve the crisis in progress nor will they rehabilitate the economy. It is true that the current economic crisis and the times of slower economic growth that will inevitably follow are old system-related symptoms of the excesses and the recklessness accumulated in time at global level, for which reason we see ourselves forced now to reconsider the options that are lay ahead and outline a clear future perspective.

  11. Economy and Grace

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Else Marie Wiberg

    2015-01-01

    Luther develops his idea the grace of God in tandem with his idea of economy, and a society characterized by ethical and social values such as love of neighbour and caring for the poor. Hence, the reformer's search for a gracious God is developed along with his criticism of the current indulgence...... doctrine and the emerging 'oeconomia moderna'. Thus, building on a simul gratia et oeconomia, grace and economy simultaneously, Luther's reformation theology can be perceived as te intersection of an economy of grace and a horizontal social economy (works of love) in quotidian life that together constitute...

  12. THEORETICAL AND METHODOLOGICAL APPROACHES TO REGIONAL COMPETITION INVESTIGATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.I. Tatarkin

    2006-03-01

    Full Text Available The article is dedicated to theoretical-methodological issues of regional economy competitiveness investigation. Economic essence of regional competitiveness is analyzed, its definition is given. The factors that determine relations of competition on medium and macrolevels are proved. The basic differences between world-economical and inter-regional communications are formulated. The specific features of globalization processes as form of competitive struggle are considered.

  13. Strategies for 2nd generation biofuels in EU - Co-firing to stimulate feedstock supply development and process integration to improve energy efficiency and economic competitiveness

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Berndes, Goeran; Hansson, Julia; Egeskog, Andrea; Johnsson, Filip

    2010-01-01

    The present biofuel policies in the European Union primarily stimulate 1st generation biofuels that are produced based on conventional food crops. They may be a distraction from lignocellulose based 2nd generation biofuels - and also from biomass use for heat and electricity - by keeping farmers' attention and significant investments focusing on first generation biofuels and the cultivation of conventional food crops as feedstocks. This article presents two strategies that can contribute to the development of 2nd generation biofuels based on lignocellulosic feedstocks. The integration of gasification-based biofuel plants in district heating systems is one option for increasing the energy efficiency and improving the economic competitiveness of such biofuels. Another option, biomass co-firing with coal, generates high-efficiency biomass electricity and reduces CO 2 emissions by replacing coal. It also offers a near-term market for lignocellulosic biomass, which can stimulate development of supply systems for biomass also suitable as feedstock for 2nd generation biofuels. Regardless of the long-term priorities of biomass use for energy, the stimulation of lignocellulosic biomass production by development of near term and cost-effective markets is judged to be a no-regrets strategy for Europe. Strategies that induce a relevant development and exploit existing energy infrastructures in order to reduce risk and reach lower costs, are proposed an attractive complement the present and prospective biofuel policies. (author)

  14. CONCEPTUAL APPROACH OF COMPETITIVENESS AND INTERDEPENDENCE BETWEEN COMPETITION AND COMPETITIVENESS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tatiana GUTIUM

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available This article is devoted to analysis of interdependence and correlation between competition and competitiveness, and competition’s consequences. The author analysed some authors’ visions on competitiveness, and common features between theories of competition and competitiveness. Using the synthetic indicator elaborated by author has been evaluated the competitiveness of domestic goods on the internal and external market. At the end of this article, the author has developed proposals to increase competitiveness.

  15. Knowledge Economy and its Effects in Romania

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Prof. Ph. D. Laura Cismas

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available Knowledge economy implies that the rationality of individuals is limited because they make and adapt their choices in an environment affected by risk and uncertainty. The first part of this paper proposes an analysis of the knowledge economy, based on its interdisciplinary nature. Thus, classical theories adapt to visions that pertain to the dynamics of human interactions, the restructuring of the social network theory, the general equilibrium theory and the game theory.The research part of this paper identifies and explains the link between innovation and knowledge, as well as its effects on the Romanian economy’s competitiveness and innovation. The conclusions illustrate that the consolidation of knowledge-based economy in Romania implies setting certain priorities, such as: investing in education, developing entrepreneurship, creating an innovative and efficient system made up of companies, research centers and universities, which enables new technologies to be absorbed, adapted and created for the society.

  16. Globalization and the financialization of the economy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ion Bucur

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The defining with profound implications on the economy and society is represented the globalization. In this context, we have noticed the increasing influence of the financial markets on the economy, the tendency to remove the finances from the real economy requirements, the growing role of external financing using more volatile capital goods, increased competition regarding the access to financing, the significant increase of power of the international capital markets whose characteristic is represented by the increased instability, the implications of the investors’ obsession with an excessive profitableness of their own funds and the expansion of using sophisticated financial products. Realities of today’s financial markets, which are the subject of numerous studies and analysis, have contributed to the association of the arguments that are contesting the thesis on the virtues of self-regulation markets and promoting a new paradigm, within which finances should subordinate the requirements of a balanced and sustained economic growth.

  17. Business Intelligence & Knowledge Management - Technological Support for Strategic Management in the Knowledge Based Economy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dorel PARASCHIV

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available The viability and success of modern enterprises are subject to the increasing dynamic of the economic environment, so they need to adjust rapidly their policies and strategies in order to respond to sophistication of competitors, customers and suppliers, globalization of business, international competition. Perhaps the most critical component for success of the modern enterprise is its ability to take advantage of all available information - both internal and external. Making sense of all this information, gaining value and competitive advantage through represents real challenges for the enterprise. The IT solutions designed to address these challenges have been developed in two different approaches: structured data management (Business Intelligence and unstructured content management (Knowledge Management. Integrating Business Intelligence and Knowledge Management in new software applications designated not only to store highly structured data and exploit it in real time but also to interpret the results and communicate them to decision factors provides real technological support for Strategic Management. Integrating Business Intelligence and Knowledge Management in order to respond to the challenges the modern enterprise has to deal with represents not only a "new trend" in IT, but a necessity in the emerging knowledge based economy. These hybrid technologies are already widely known in both scientific and practice communities as Competitive Intelligence. In the end of paper,a competitive datawarehouse design is proposed, in an attempt to apply business intelligence technologies to economic environment analysis making use of romanian public data sources.

  18. In-Service Teachers' Self-Efficacy, Professional Development, and Web 2.0 Tools for Integration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pan, Shu Chien; Franklin, Teresa

    2011-01-01

    Background: The implementation and integration of computer technologies in K-12 education has seen nearly constant growth since the early 1980s (Culp, Honey, Mandinach & Bailey, 2003), in part because this trend has become synonymous with skills that students will need as participants in a competitive global economy (Culp et al., 2003). It has…

  19. Competitive Advantage in the Service Industry : The Importance of Strategic Congruence, Integrated Control and Coherent Organisational Structure – A Longitudinal Case Study of an Insurance Company

    OpenAIRE

    Poth, Susanna

    2014-01-01

    Competitive advantage has received considerable attention. Few studies have however chosen a holistic approach taking multiple aspects and organisational levels into consideration. This research has the goal of filling parts of this void. The aim is to deepen the understanding of competitive advantage in the service industry by analysing how alignment of strategy, control and organisation structure on multiple organisational levels impacts competitive advantage of a service company over a lon...

  20. Business cycles in oil economies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Al-Mutairi, N.H.

    1991-01-01

    This study examines the impact of oil price shocks on output fluctuations of several oil-exporting economies. In most studies of business cycles, the role of oil price is ignored; the few studies that use oil price as one of the variables in the system focus on modeling oil-importing economies. The vector autoregression (VAR) technique is used to consider the cases of Norway, Nigeria, and Mexico. Both atheoretical and 'structural' VARs are estimated to determine the importance of oil price impulses on output variations. The study reports two types of results: variance decomposition and impulse response functions, with particular emphasis on the issues of stationarity and co-integration among the series. The empirical results suggest that shocks to oil price are important in explaining output variations. In most cases, shocks to oil price are shown to explain more than 20% of the forecast variance of output over a 40-quarter horizon

  1. REGULATION AND ENFORCEMENT OF COMPETITION POLICY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liviana Andreea Niminet

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Competition policy starts by shaping a legislative framework. This is aimed to establish boundaries for conducting competition and also sets limits of licit and illicit demarcation, for competitive and anticompetitive practices. The Romanian Competition Law has a divalent approach and it aims to provide specific behavioral conditions in order to stimulate and protect free-market competition, with the ultimate goal of developing a balanced, efficient and competitive economy. Our country’s Competition policy is based on punishing the behavior. There are three such types of anti-competitive behavior, namely: agreements between undertakings, abuse of dominant position and mergers and other concentrations between undertakings. Recent Practice proved that this “enforcement-conduct-punishment” structure is not necessary the best way to address competition and it is high time for authorities to switch both regulation and enforcement of competition from the “classical perspective” towards concepts like “competition advocacy” and “soft power” and give competition policy a new, reshaped face.

  2. Real economy versus virtual economy - New challenges for nowadays society

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Associates Professon Dr. Veronica Adriana Popescu

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available In the paper Real Economy versus Virtual Economy – New Challenges for Nowadays Society our goal is to present the importance of both real economy and virtual economy.At the begging of our research, we have presented the main views of some specialists concerning both virtual and real economy. After that we have compared the two types of economies and we have stressed the most important aspects connected to them. The main reason why we have decided to approach this complex subject is due to the increasing interest in the virtual economy matters and the relation that this particular type of economy develops with the real economy.

  3. Competition policy and public procurement in developing countries

    OpenAIRE

    Falvey, Rod; La Chimia, Annamaria; Morrissey, Oliver; Zgovu, Evious

    2008-01-01

    Measures to support Competition Policy and enhance the efficiency of Public Procurement can enhance the impact of regional integration agreements. The first part addresses Competition Policy - measures employed by government to ensure a fair competitive market environment. Competition policy aims to ensure that markets remain competitive (through anti-trust or anti-cartel enforcement) or become competitive (through liberalisation). For a variety of reasons, competition is often restricted in ...

  4. Industrial restructuring as an instrument for enhancing national competitiveness

    OpenAIRE

    Muradov, Shahbaz; Yuzbashieva, Gulshen

    2008-01-01

    This article considers matters of fostering national economic competitiveness in the context of industrial restructuring. The authors show the dependence of dynamic and sustainable economic and social development on the frequency and depth of structural transformations in the economy.

  5. Competitive Advantages of Effective Relationships of Business Entities as a Basis for Economic Development of Ukraine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Butenko Nataliia V.

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the article is to determine the transformation of sense of relationships between business entities in the national economy as well as basic ideas and principles of forming competitive advantages of effective relationships. The objective preconditions for the transition from the confrontation strategy to relationships as a basis of interaction of business entities in the structure of the national economy are analyzed. It is determined that the weakening of the antagonistic dominant of competitive relations and the growing importance of a constructive component of partnership has become a background of the desire of business entities to establish effective relationships. The attention is focused on the trends of the cooperation and integration approach to competitive behavior, which is manifested in such forms of competitive interactions as coordination, constructive interaction and competitive collaboration in order to achieve individual and common goals of competitive relationships of the entities. The competitive advantages based on establishing long-term and effective relationships are considered. The peculiarities in the formation of the system of relationships in the insurance market are justified, in particular the causes hindering the development of relationships in the sphere of security are determined, the main partners — entities in the system of relationships in the insurance market are identified, the levels of relationships management in the insurance market are determined. Among the advantages of the use of effective relationships in the field of insurance are the following: improving the company’s image, attracting new customers, additional sales of insurance services, limiting the access of competitors’ offers, more efficient use of the advertising budget, improving the efficiency of the development of new insurance products and services, increasing the profits and value of brands, improving relations with

  6. Economy Profile of Argentina

    OpenAIRE

    World Bank Group

    2017-01-01

    Doing Business 2018 is the 15th in a series of annual reports investigating the regulations that enhance business activity and those that constrain it. This economy profile presents the Doing Business indicators for Argentina. Doing Business presents quantitative indicators on business regulation and the protection of property rights that can be compared across 190 economies; for 2018 Arge...

  7. Economy Profile of Estonia

    OpenAIRE

    World Bank Group

    2017-01-01

    Doing Business 2018 is the 15th in a series of annual reports investigating the regulations that enhance business activity and those that constrain it. This economy profile presents the Doing Business indicators for Estonia. Doing Business presents quantitative indicators on business regulation and the protection of property rights that can be compared across 190 economies; for 2018 Estonia ...

  8. Economy Profile of Australia

    OpenAIRE

    World Bank Group

    2017-01-01

    Doing Business 2018 is the 15th in a series of annual reports investigating the regulations that enhance business activity and those that constrain it. This economy profile presents the Doing Business indicators for Australia. Doing Business presents quantitative indicators on business regulation and the protection of property rights that can be compared across 190 economies; for 2018 Aust...

  9. Economy Profile of Bolivia

    OpenAIRE

    World Bank Group

    2017-01-01

    Doing Business 2018 is the 15th in a series of annual reports investigating the regulations that enhance business activity and those that constrain it. This economy profile presents the Doing Business indicators for Bolivia. Doing Business presents quantitative indicators on business regulation and the protection of property rights that can be compared across 190 economies; for 2018 Bolivia ...

  10. Free variable economy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Roelofsen, F.

    2009-01-01

    Several authors have recently argued that semantic interpretation is subject to economy constraints. In particular, Fox (1999) argued that the interpretation of pronouns is subject to BINDING ECONOMY, which favors local binding over non-local binding. The present paper points out a problem for

  11. Competitiveness - higher education

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Labas Istvan

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Involvement of European Union plays an important role in the areas of education and training equally. The member states are responsible for organizing and operating their education and training systems themselves. And, EU policy is aimed at supporting the efforts of member states and trying to find solutions for the common challenges which appear. In order to make our future sustainable maximally; the key to it lies in education. The highly qualified workforce is the key to development, advancement and innovation of the world. Nowadays, the competitiveness of higher education institutions has become more and more appreciated in the national economy. In recent years, the frameworks of operation of higher education systems have gone through a total transformation. The number of applying students is continuously decreasing in some European countries therefore only those institutions can “survive” this shortfall, which are able to minimize the loss of the number of students. In this process, the factors forming the competitiveness of these budgetary institutions play an important role from the point of view of survival. The more competitive a higher education institution is, the greater the chance is that the students would like to continue their studies there and thus this institution will have a greater chance for the survival in the future, compared to ones lagging behind in the competition. Aim of our treatise prepared is to present the current situation and main data of the EU higher education and we examine the performance of higher education: to what extent it fulfils the strategy for smart, sustainable and inclusive growth which is worded in the framework of Europe 2020 programme. The treatise is based on analysis of statistical data.

  12. Case competitions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schjoldager, Anne Gram

    2009-01-01

    The paper presents and discusses a teaching project with case competitions for MA students of specialised translation at the Aarhus School of Business, Aarhus University. Drawing on a series of online questionnaires, the paper ascertains how the project was evaluated by the participating students...

  13. Economic Development and "National Competitive Advantage"

    OpenAIRE

    J.T., Goode

    2002-01-01

    Despite the preponderance of economic theory and research which argues to the contrary, the notion that national economies stand in a fundamentally competitive relationship with one another remains surprisingly widespread. In recent years, some of the most influential impetus for this misperception has come from Michael Porter's conceptualization of "the competitive advantage of nations" in relation to economic development and date theory. It is argued that Porter neither proposes nor demonst...

  14. Statistical Discrimination in a Competitive Labor Market

    OpenAIRE

    Jonathan B. Berk

    1999-01-01

    This paper studies the effect of employee job selection in a model of statistical discrimination in a competitive labor market. In an economy in which there are quality differences between groups, a surprisingly strong condition is required to guarantee discrimination against the worse qualified group --- MLRP must hold. In addition, because of the self-selection bias induced by competition, the resulting discrimination is small when compared to the magnitude of the underlying quality differe...

  15. Hungary Embracing Globalization: The Challenge Of Competitiveness

    OpenAIRE

    Laszlo Csaba

    2007-01-01

    This think piece is an attempt to survey the evolution of competitiveness in a small open economy under the angle of costs and benefits of globalization. First a historical survey assesses the road leading to the present sage of transnationalization. Then a situation assessment is presented, followed by a survey of challenges and factors of competitiveness. Finally some general lessons are listed, without attempting to be exhaustive.

  16. RECIPROCITY IN THE ECONOMY OF THE AGE OF SILICON ECONOMY SYSTEMS TO EARLY EXPERIENCES CURRENT SOLIDARITY ECONOMY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Horacio, Simes

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Reciprocity is an integrating principle of supportive economy activities. In non-capitalist societies, it has been realized through the participation of certain institutional arrangements that favored the stability of exchange relations. Progress towards capitalist societies and deepening them, dissolved many of these institutional supports, while economy relations separated from other social relations in which it was first inserted. In addition, the selfish individual was become an active participant in the economy life of society. With the construction of market economies and state regulation, reciprocal relationships were being reduced to a lower field activities. Under these circumstances, they should investigate how reciprocity is manifested today, the institutional arrangements that are suitable to give stability and unity to cooperative behavior and the dynamics of their relationship to the context of the market and the state.

  17. EDITORIAL: Physics competitions Physics competitions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jordens, H.; Mathelitsch, L.

    2009-11-01

    1. Physics competitions: aims and realizations One aim of physics competitions is to increase the interest of young students, primarily at upper secondary level, to physics and natural sciences in general. A competition has motivational aspects known usually from sports events or games—comparing one's own ability with others, of course with the desire to be better and to win. If competitions reach nationwide and even international levels, additional stimulation is created. Competitions provide greatest attraction to possible winners, to the group of gifted people in a particular field. This implies that science contests are excellent tools for the promotion of talented students. Traditional teaching has been shown to have problems in supporting this group of students. Very often teachers are overstretched with the demands of teaching both low- and high-level students. Extracurricular activities are therefore a good chance to relieve the teacher, and to give talented students the opportunity for appropriate training and challenge. The competitions, however, have a broader impact and address more young people than one might guess from the statements above. Training courses and selection at school level give a larger group of students extra and, to some extent, complimentary education in physics. The degree of complexity of the tasks corresponds very often to the standards of the next level of education in the school system. Interestingly, many physics competitions have their origin in countries beyond the former Iron Curtain. They started as regional and national tournaments, were joined by neighbouring countries and have grown, in some cases, to events with participants from more than 80 countries. Although the features mentioned above are common to the different competitions, there are distinct differences between them [1]. The International Physics Olympiad (IPhO) is the oldest international physics competition for students at upper secondary level [2]. It dates

  18. INNOVATIVE CLUSTER OR COMPETITIVENESS POLE?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liliana Scutaru

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available The paper analyzes the situation of clusters in Romania and their areas of activity and innovation in entrepreneurship Romanian state. It is made also a territorial distribution of clusters on the eight regions. The findings lead to the conclusion that there are some clusters that have the vocation to become poles of competitiveness in areas such as renewable energy, automotive, electronics, health, biotechnology, mechatronics or ICT (Information and Communication Technology which represent the resources for future of the Romanian economy. Regarding the degree of innovation of Romanian Small and Medium Enterprises (SMEs, the level is relatively modest, 30.8% of all enterprises being innovative. If we were to answer the question the title suggests, we would say "yes" to both since the innovative cluster as well as the competitiveness pole promotes par excellence, innovation through study, research and stimulation of creativity. And this is more than enough to support economic growth of Romania and maintain the competitiveness worldwide.

  19. Plutonium economy. Plutonium-Wirtschaft

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Traube, K

    1984-01-01

    The author expresses his opinion on the situation, describes the energy-economic setting, indicates the alternatives: fuel reprocessing or immediate long-term storage, and investigates the prospects for economic utilization of the breeder reactors. All the facts suggest that the breeder reactor will never be able to stand economic competition with light-water reactors. However, there is no way to prove the future. It is naive to think that every doubt could and must be removed before stopping the development of breeder reactors - and thus also the reprocessing of the fuel of light-water reactors. On the basis of the current state of knowledge an unbiased cost-benefit-analysis can only lead to the recommendation to stop construction immediately. But can 'experts', who for years or even decades have called for and supported the development of breeder reactors be expected to make an unbiased analysis. Klaus Traube strikes the balance of the state Germany's nuclear economy is in: although there is no chance of definitively abandoning that energy-political cul-de-sac, no new adventures must be embarked upon. Responsible handling of currently used nuclear technology means to give up breeder technology and waive plutonium economy. It is no supreme technology with the aid of which structural unemployment or any other economic problem could be solved.

  20. Evaluación de la competencia profesional de residentes de Medicina General Integral para la atención a la familia Evaluation of the professional competition of residents of Integral General Medicine for the attention to the family

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Rocha-Vázquez

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Introducción. El proceso de evaluación de las competencias para diagnóstico de necesidades de aprendizaje es un elemento de vital importancia para el perfeccionamiento continuo del personal de salud; por ello, el presente trabajo pretendió evaluar la competencia de los residentes de Medicina General Integral en la atención a la familia, área de acción de estos profesionales de la salud. Sujetos y métodos. Para lograr el objetivo propuesto se ejecutó una investigación de evaluación, con diseño cuanticualitativo, en la Facultad de Ciencias Médicas de Cienfuegos, desde noviembre de 2005 a enero de 2007. De un total de 64 residentes de segundo año se seleccionaron 25 de manera aleatoria, que representan el 39% del total, a los cuales se les aplicó un examen de competencia, y cada uno de ellos efectuó dos visitas a la familia. Resultados. Sólo el 11,8% de los residentes aprobó el examen aplicado; las mayores dificultades se centraron en los temas de intervención familiar, evaluación del funcionamiento familiar y determinación de la salud familiar. De igual forma se constataron deficiencias en la ejecución de las visitas a la familia en cuanto a cumplimiento de sus principios, violación de etapas e intervenciones necesarias, fundamentalmente. Conclusiones. Con los instrumentos aplicados y los criterios asumidos para esta investigación se observa un muy bajo nivel de competencia de los residentes para la atención a la familia, lo que alerta de que deben diseñarse e implementarse estrategias inmediatas para revertir esta situación.Introduction. The process of evaluation of the competitions for diagnostic of learning necessities is an element of vital importance for the personnel's of health continuous improvement, it is for it that the present work sought to evaluate the competition of the residents of Integral General Medicine in the attention to the family, area of these professionals' of the health action. Subjects and

  1. Strategic directions of social management of the Voronezh region economy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. A. Galkin

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Over the past decades, Russian society has changed significantly. A virtual information and financial space is being formed, where there are no customary boundaries of territories. Social communication begins to develop in new forms, knowledge is exchanged and social consciousness is manipulated. To develop the economy, the most acute social need is its focus on social landmarks. An urgent need is the creation of mechanisms: the approval of uniform, equitable, social bases of legality in all regions of the Russian Federation; maintenance of civil peace; intellectual self–reproduction of the nation, through the appropriate system of education, education, health; reduction of income differentiation; self–realization of man. The ongoing social tolerance is not an expression of the slavish or heroic traits of the nature of Russian citizens, but rather the manifestation of expectations from the political process of what the immature market economy was not capable of accomplishing. Potential factors of the region's strategic development or its competitive advantages are highlighted in the paper. Five strategic directions of social management of the region's economy are grounded: the first is the creation and maintenance of a healthy atmosphere for sustainable development of the region; the second – stimulation of the aggregate consumer demand of the Voronezh region; the third is the democratization of capital; the fourth – the social orientation in agriculture; the fifth – the adjustment of the environmental policy of the region. For each direction, the distribution approaches are highlighted. So, the first direction involves: increasing the social responsibility of entrepreneurs, the entire population, executive and legislative authorities to society. The second is based on the skilful expansion of the intervention of regional and municipal authorities in the economy. The third should involve considerable investments in the regional economy

  2. Service Recovery in Transition Economies: Russia and China

    OpenAIRE

    Wendy K. T. Gubler; Matthew W. McCarter; Kristie K. W. Seawright; Yuli Zhang

    2008-01-01

    While processes for transition from planned to market economy vary, there is one common outcome from the transition process – more discriminating customers. Growing customer expectations increase the possibility of failing to meet those expectations. In competitive market economies service failures are accompanied by new consequences of lost customer loyalty. These potential losses to service providers that can result from service failures necessitate the implementation of service recov...

  3. An entropic framework for modeling economies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caticha, Ariel; Golan, Amos

    2014-08-01

    We develop an information-theoretic framework for economic modeling. This framework is based on principles of entropic inference that are designed for reasoning on the basis of incomplete information. We take the point of view of an external observer who has access to limited information about broad macroscopic economic features. We view this framework as complementary to more traditional methods. The economy is modeled as a collection of agents about whom we make no assumptions of rationality (in the sense of maximizing utility or profit). States of statistical equilibrium are introduced as those macrostates that maximize entropy subject to the relevant information codified into constraints. The basic assumption is that this information refers to supply and demand and is expressed in the form of the expected values of certain quantities (such as inputs, resources, goods, production functions, utility functions and budgets). The notion of economic entropy is introduced. It provides a measure of the uniformity of the distribution of goods and resources. It captures both the welfare state of the economy as well as the characteristics of the market (say, monopolistic, concentrated or competitive). Prices, which turn out to be the Lagrange multipliers, are endogenously generated by the economy. Further studies include the equilibrium between two economies and the conditions for stability. As an example, the case of the nonlinear economy that arises from linear production and utility functions is treated in some detail.

  4. Circular economy and waste to energy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rada, E. C.; Ragazzi, M.; Torretta, V.; Castagna, G.; Adami, L.; Cioca, L. I.

    2018-05-01

    Waste management in European Union has long being regulated by the 4Rs principle, i.e. reduction, reuse, recycling, recovery, with landfill disposal as the last option. This vision recently led the European Union (especially since 2015) to the introduction of virtuous goals based on the rejection of linear economy in favour of circular economy strongly founded on materials recovery. In this scenario, landfill disposal option will disappear, while energy recovery may appear controversial when not applied to biogas production from anaerobic digestion. The present work aims to analyse the effects that circular economy principles introduced in the European Union context will have on the thermochemical waste treatment plants design. Results demonstrate that indirect combustion (gasification + combustion) along with integrated vitrification of the non-combustible fraction of treated waste will have a more relevant role in the field of waste treatment than in the past, thanks to the compliance of this option with the principles of circular economy.

  5. Revealed Competition for Greenfield Investments between European Regions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    M.J. Burger (Martijn); G.A. van der Knaap (Bert); R.S. Wall (Ronald)

    2012-01-01

    textabstractIn the modern economy, cities are assumed to be in fierce competition over attracting foreign investments in leading sectors of the world economy. Despite the rich theoretical discourse on these 'wars', it remains unclear which territories are competing with each other over which types

  6. ECONOMY AND SOCIAL ENVIRONMENT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oleg BOGOMOLOV

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Market reforms in the post-socialist countries have brought into sharp focus the problem of interconnection and interaction between the economy and the social environment. The economy is inseparable from politics and the operation of the political system, from the state of the social consciousness, the moral and cultural level of the population and from many other aspects of human life and behavior, in short, from everything that can be described by the concept of social environment. Society in every country is a single organism with closely interconnected and interacting parts and systems. Their conjugation and mutual influence are not always apparent and are often overlooked. It is quite easy to see how changes in policy affect the economy and then trace the feedback effect of the economy on policy. It is more difficult to discern the direct and feedback relationship of the economy with administrative relations, with the state of culture, science, morals and public opinion. Meanwhile, an underestimation of these mutual influences is a frequent cause of failures in socio-economic transformation. It is to be regretted that the reforms in Russia were accompanied by a dangerous disruption not only of the economy, but also of the entire system of social relations. What was primary here and what was secondary? In order to answer this question the paper takes a theoretical look at the problem of interaction between the economy and the social environment.

  7. Energy recovery from Municipal Solid Waste in EU: proposals to assess the management performance under a circular economy perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rada Elena Cristina

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available In 2015 the European Commission issued a package of documents on Circular Economy concerning an integrated revision of legislative proposals on waste management. The aim was to stimulate a European transition towards a circular economy concept, which is expected to foster competitiveness, sustainable economic growth and new jobs generation. Three indicators are proposed in this paper to contribute to the assessment of the energy recovery management performance from MSW in a scenario of circular economy: a referring to MSW directly used (RMSW or indirectly used (SRF as input of thermochemical plants, an indicator can be the percentage of waste having LHV > 13MJ/kg; b referring to the MSW directly or indirectly used as input of thermochemical plants, the percentage of waste having ash recovered; c referring to food waste, percentage of this stream sent to anaerobic digestion. The above indicators, proposed and discussed in this paper, have to be integrated with other ones in order to complete the quantification of the role of MSW management in term of energy recovery under a circular economy strategy. It is not the aim of the present paper to give a comprehensive solution to this complex issue.

  8. Analysis on the integration of ERP and e-commerce

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yongqing; Shi, Yuliana

    2017-08-01

    With the continuous development of China's modern economic construction, a variety of information technology are emerging. The new economic development characterized by e-commerce has accelerated the globalization of the economy. In face of increasingly fierce market competition, for enterprises, the constructions of ERP and e-commerce are necessary ways to enhance the core competitiveness of enterprises. At present, most of the internal ERP systems and external e-commerce systems are in relatively independent state. However, with the increasing fierce market competition, a single mode of operation has been unable to meet the requirements of enterprise development. Accordingly, the effective integration of ERP and e-commerce in the new era has become one of the most important topics for enterprise development. This paper firstly analyzes the relationship between ERP and e-commerce, and then analyzes the necessity and feasibility of integration, and finally discusses the integration strategies and technologies.

  9. Economies Evolve by Energy Dispersal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stanley Salthe

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available Economic activity can be regarded as an evolutionary process governed by the 2nd law of thermodynamics. The universal law, when formulated locally as an equation of motion, reveals that a growing economy develops functional machinery and organizes hierarchically in such a way as to tend to equalize energy density differences within the economy and in respect to the surroundings it is open to. Diverse economic activities result in flows of energy that will preferentially channel along the most steeply descending paths, leveling a non-Euclidean free energy landscape. This principle of 'maximal energy dispersal‘, equivalent to the maximal rate of entropy production, gives rise to economic laws and regularities. The law of diminishing returns follows from the diminishing free energy while the relation between supply and demand displays a quest for a balance among interdependent energy densities. Economic evolution is dissipative motion where the driving forces and energy flows are inseparable from each other. When there are multiple degrees of freedom, economic growth and decline are inherently impossible to forecast in detail. Namely, trajectories of an evolving economy are non-integrable, i.e. unpredictable in detail because a decision by a player will affect also future decisions of other players. We propose that decision making is ultimately about choosing from various actions those that would reduce most effectively subjectively perceived energy gradients.

  10. Political economy of population growth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mehta, S; Mehta, H S

    1987-01-01

    Tracing the origin of political economy as a class-science, this paper focuses on the political economy of population growth. Exposing the limitations of Malthusian ideas and their invalidity even for the capitalist economies, it discusses the subsequent revival of the Malthusian model during the period of de-colonization and the misinterpretation of the relationship between population growth and development in the developing and developed countries. Taking India, China, and Japan as some case studies, the paper examines the relationship between birth rate levels and some correlates. It elaborates on the Indian experience, emphasizing the association of population growth with poverty and unemployment and lays bare some of the hidden causes of these phenomena. The authors examine some interstate variations in India and identify constraints and prospects of the existing population policy. The paper proposes outlines of a democratic population policy as an integral part of India's development strategy which should recognize human beings not simply as consumers but also as producers of material values. It pleads for 1) restructuring of property relations; 2) bringing down the mortality rates and raising of the literacy levels, especially among females; and 3) improving nutritional levels, as prerequisites for bringing down birth rates.

  11. EDITORIAL: Physics competitions Physics competitions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jordens, H.; Mathelitsch, L.

    2010-07-01

    This editorial opens the second special section on physics competitions in European Journal of Physics. In the first section last year, we asked for feedback on the idea of such a section and on the content of the articles. We received no answer whatsoever, which can be interpreted in two ways: the section is not interesting enough to raise motivation for feedback, or the reader is satisfied. Having no indication which scenario is the correct one, we are optimistic and favour the second. The section at hand contains three articles. Again, as last year, the organizer of the annual Olympiad reports on tasks and outcomes of this competition. The Olympiad took place in Merida, Mexico, and was by far the largest event with 316 contestants from 68 countries. Again, the predominance of Asian/Chinese students was manifest, showing how serious the training is taken by both their authorities and students. Unfortunately, the winners of the last International Young Physicists' Tournament (IYPT), the team from Korea, did not accept the offer to report on their prize-winning contribution. We are thankful that two students from Austria, who achieved second place with their team, took over and reported on the task which they presented in the finals of the competition. It connects the fields of sport and physics and explains a special move in skateboarding. The third contribution introduces a different competition, 'International Conference of Young Scientists'. On one hand, as in the Olympiad, it addresses individuals, not teams. On the other, as in the IYPT, students have several months to prepare and also the quality of the presentation is an important element of the judgment. In fact, this competition comes closer to real scientific research compared to the other events. Finally and again, we hope that this section will serve several purposes: To show the competitions as a very important tool in the support of gifted students. To raise awareness amongst university teachers, and

  12. Signs of political economy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bernard Lamizet

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Like any political system, economy is a system of signs and representations. The Semiotics of economy elaborates its analytical methods to interpret such signs, which give meaning to the economy by representing its performances in public debate and in the media. Four major features distinguish the Semiotics of political economy from other semiotic forms or other systems of information and political representation. First of all, the relationship between the signification of the economy and the real or the imaginary phenomena to which they refer always pertains to the order of values. The second characteristic of economic signs is the significance of the state of lack they express. The third characteristic of signs of the economy is the form of sign production, which can be designated by the concept of emission of signs and their diffusion. Finally, as all signs, the economic sign is arbitrary. In the field of Economics, such arbitrariness does not imply that the Subject is free to superimpose whatever value to the signs themselves, but refers to the rupture between the world and its possible transformation. The very meaning of the word economy is here at stake. Oikos, in Greek (the term from which the word economy is derived refers to a known, familiar space. Economy transforms the real, natural world into a symbolic social world, into a world of relations with others whom we recognise and whose actions are relatively predictable. It might be useful to consider the contemporary issue of debt, its implications and its multiple meanings, which includes both the ethical and moral dimension of the condemnation of debt as well as the imaginary political dimension based on the expression of an idea of independence.

  13. www.FuelEconomy.gov

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — FuelEconomy.gov provides comprehensive information about vehicles' fuel economy. The official U.S. government site for fuel economy information, it is operated by...

  14. Welcome to the experience economy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pine, B J; Gilmore, J H

    1998-01-01

    First there was agriculture, then manufactured goods, and eventually services. Each change represented a step up in economic value--a way for producers to distinguish their products from increasingly undifferentiated competitive offerings. Now, as services are in their turn becoming commoditized, companies are looking for the next higher value in an economic offering. Leading-edge companies are finding that it lies in staging experiences. To reach this higher level of competition, companies will have to learn how to design, sell, and deliver experiences that customers will readily pay for. An experience occurs when a company uses services as the stage--and goods as props--for engaging individuals in a way that creates a memorable event. And while experiences have always been at the heart of the entertainment business, any company stages an experience when it engages customers in a personal, memorable way. The lessons of pioneering experience providers, including the Walt Disney Company, can help companies learn how to compete in the experience economy. The authors offer five design principles that drive the creation of memorable experiences. First, create a consistent theme, one that resonates throughout the entire experience. Second, layer the theme with positive cues--for example, easy-to-follow signs. Third, eliminate negative cues, those visual or aural messages that distract or contradict the theme. Fourth, offer memorabilia that commemorate the experience for the user. Finally, engage all five senses--through sights, sounds, and so on--to heighten the experience and thus make it more memorable.

  15. Logo competition

    CERN Multimedia

    Staff Association

    2013-01-01

    Award of the prizes The price ceremony for the Staff Association’s new logo competition which took place on Friday 1st March at 5 p.m. was a big success. The first prize, an Ezee Suisse electric bike, was won by Paulo Rios, from Portugal. In his absence, the bike was handed to his brother Vitor. The other five winners of the competition also received their prize: Go Sport vouchers. A peize draw was then organized to award 22 other participants with prizes offered by our commercial partners (Aquaparc, BCGE, L’Occitane, Passeport Gourmand, Sephora, Theater La Comédie de Genève), whom we would like to warmly thank. After all prices were distributed the evening continued with discussions around a friendly drink.

  16. Competitive Framing

    OpenAIRE

    Ran Spiegler

    2014-01-01

    I present a simple framework for modeling two-firm market competition when consumer choice is "frame-dependent", and firms use costless "marketing messages" to influence the consumer's frame. This framework embeds several recent models in the "behavioral industrial organization" literature. I identify a property that consumer choice may satisfy, which extends the concept of Weighted Regularity due to Piccione and Spiegler (2012), and provide a characterization of Nash equilibria under this pr...

  17. Trends of International Trade in Services: Integration Opportunities for Ukraine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tetyana Bodnarchuk

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available In the article the main trends and patterns of the development of international trade in services in the period of post-industrial development of the world economy are considered. Ukraine’s competitive positions on international service market are outlined. The main endogenous factors of enhancing the country’s integration to the world trade relations system in service sector are determined.

  18. The Economics of Outsourcing in a De-integrating Industry

    OpenAIRE

    Jawaid Abdul Ghani; Arif Iqbal Rana

    2005-01-01

    Many large firms in low scale economy industries are actively considering outsourcing options, in the face of competition from smaller more efficient players. Based on a review of the theoretical literature and a case-study of outsourcing decisions at two large vertically integrated footwear manufacturers in Pakistan, a framework is developed for determining which set of products and activities to outsource and which to keep in-house. The framework suggests activities being considered for out...

  19. Digitalizing the Circular Economy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reuter, Markus A.

    2016-12-01

    Metallurgy is a key enabler of a circular economy (CE), its digitalization is the metallurgical Internet of Things (m-IoT). In short: Metallurgy is at the heart of a CE, as metals all have strong intrinsic recycling potentials. Process metallurgy, as a key enabler for a CE, will help much to deliver its goals. The first-principles models of process engineering help quantify the resource efficiency (RE) of the CE system, connecting all stakeholders via digitalization. This provides well-argued and first-principles environmental information to empower a tax paying consumer society, policy, legislators, and environmentalists. It provides the details of capital expenditure and operational expenditure estimates. Through this path, the opportunities and limits of a CE, recycling, and its technology can be estimated. The true boundaries of sustainability can be determined in addition to the techno-economic evaluation of RE. The integration of metallurgical reactor technology and systems digitally, not only on one site but linking different sites globally via hardware, is the basis for describing CE systems as dynamic feedback control loops, i.e., the m-IoT. It is the linkage of the global carrier metallurgical processing system infrastructure that maximizes the recovery of all minor and technology elements in its associated refining metallurgical infrastructure. This will be illustrated through the following: (1) System optimization models for multimetal metallurgical processing. These map large-scale m-IoT systems linked to computer-aided design tools of the original equipment manufacturers and then establish a recycling index through the quantification of RE. (2) Reactor optimization and industrial system solutions to realize the "CE (within a) Corporation—CEC," realizing the CE of society. (3) Real-time measurement of ore and scrap properties in intelligent plant structures, linked to the modeling, simulation, and optimization of industrial extractive process

  20. How can design science contribute to a circular economy?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pigosso, Daniela Cristina Antelmi; McAloone, Tim C.

    2017-01-01

    Circular Economy is increasingly seen as a key approach to operationalising goals and supporting the transition to a sustainable society by enhancing competitiveness and economic growth. Creating a Circular Economy requires fundamental changes throughout the value chain, from innovation, product...... design and production processes all the way to end of life, new business models and consumption patterns. This paper explores how design science can support the transition from the traditional linear 'take-make-consume-dispose' approach, to a Circular Economy. By means of a systematic literature review...

  1. Can the social market economy be a viable solution for a future sustainable development of the Romanian economy?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Strat Vasile Alecsandru

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Social market economy (SME is a socio-economic model which attempts to unite the freedom of a competitive market economy with social equilibrium and progress. It is seen as a “third path” besides a purely liberal market economy and an economy which is heavily regulated by the state – in the SME there is an intermediate degree of regulation. Historically, the model corresponds to the real economic policy of the German Federal Republic after the 1950s, thus it is sometimes called Rhine capitalism. According to the Treaty of Lisbon from 2007, the European Union pursues a competitive social market economy with full employment and social progress. On one hand, this model wishes to exploit the advantages of a free market economy, especially its high efficiency in the production of goods, while on the other hand it uses state intervention to correct for potential negative outcomes from market processes. Further characteristics of this model are: ensuring competition, free price formation, private property, motivating performance through profit aspirations as well as guarding personal freedoms. Last but not least, this model encompasses a strong structural policy by encouraging weaker geographical regions or industries. Therefore, it is highly probable that such a socio-economic model might be the appropriate alternative to fuel a sustainable growth of the Romanian economy. Using county level data, from the National Institute of Statistics and from the National Office of the Trade Register, for the year 2015 we show that the Romanian economy is highly polarized with a few growth poles (islands and a large number of underdeveloped units. Thus, it becomes obvious that these important disparities will hinder a future sustainable development and by consequence a clear “road-map” represented by this economic model might prove to be a viable solution for the Romanian economy.

  2. STATE INTERVENTION IN THE ECONOMY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andreea-Elena, BURDUF (MIERLARU

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Starting from the deffinition of protectionism, an economic policy of restraining trade between states through methods such as tariffs on imported goods, restrictive quotas, and a variety of other government regulations designed to allow, according to proponents fair competition between imports and goods and service produced domestically, I am compelled to find Manoilescu's vision of economy. Was this system of political and economic measures of protection of national products from similar foreign products Manoilescu's vision? In the spirit of clasical protectionist doctrine, Manoilescu thought that the focal point of economy was the national economy, the sum of production assets and a conglomerate of individual traders. Amongst national production assets the foremost is the labour, capital and the others having only secondary importance in direct comparison. After the great depression of 1929, his book, The theory of protectionism and international exchanges , was the basis for justifying protectionism in Brazil while in Romania he had to face hostility from authorities, making it impossible for him, even if for several months in 1931 he was the Governor of the National Bank, to apply his vision to end the economic crisis in Romania. M. Manoilescu analyzed the state's economic role and how this is reflected in modern economic science. He saw the state as having the role of setting certain convergent common goals for the whole society and to set rules that removes free will in economic decisions, thus creating the premises for a regulated economic space, based on the transition from little rationale of firms to big rationale of national economy. He demonstrated the necessity of state intervetionism, he has shared the conviction that through the alignment of the Romanian economic strategy to the one from the developed countries the lagging behind of Romania could be surpassed. M. Manoilescu took the occidental type economic policies of the time

  3. Is nuclear power competitive

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brandfon, W.W.

    1984-01-01

    The first phase of a two-phase study of the competitiveness of electricity from new coal and nuclear plants with oil and natural gas in common markets concludes that, with few exceptions throughout the country, overall levelized nuclear generating cost could be lower than coal generating costs by more than 40%. The study shows a wider margin of economic superiority for nuclear than has been seen in other recent studies. Capital and fuel costs are the major determinants of relative nuclear and coal economics. The only substantial difference in the input assumptions has related to a shorter lead time for both coal and nuclear units, which reduces capital costs. The study gives substance to the charge that delaying tactics by intervenors and an unstable licensing environment drove up lifetime costs of both coal and nuclear plants. This caused an increase in electric rates and affected the entire economy. The study shows that nuclear power is competitive when large baseload capacity is required. 14 figures

  4. Financial Sector Competition, Service Trade, and Growth

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    J.F. François (Joseph); F.W. Eschenbach

    2002-01-01

    textabstractWe explore dynamic linkages between financial/banking sector openness, financial sector competition, and growth. We first develop an analytical model, highlighting links between long-run economic performance and services trade, through scale economies and market and cost structures in

  5. Exploring the Sharing Economy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Netter, Sarah

    Despite the growing interest on the part of proponents and opponents - ranging from business, civil society, media, to policy-makers alike - there is still limited knowledge about the working mechanisms of the sharing economy. The thesis is dedicated to explore this understudied phenomenon...... and to provide a more nuanced understanding of the micro- and macro-level tensions that characterize the sharing economy. This thesis consists of four research papers, each using different literature, methodology, and data sets. The first paper investigates how the sharing economy is diffused and is ‘talked......-level tensions experience by sharing platforms by looking at the case of mobile fashion reselling and swapping markets. The final paper combines the perspectives of different sharing economy stakeholders and outlines some of the micro and macro tensions arising in and influencing the organization of these multi...

  6. Research Award: Networked Economies

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Office 2004 Test Drive User

    2015-08-06

    year, paid, ... the areas of democracy, human rights and economic growth. ... Networked Economies is seeking a Research Award Recipient to explore research questions ... such as engineering or computer/information science;.

  7. Livelihoods and the economy

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    better lives. IDRC's support for economic research has helped governments steer national eco-nomies toward growth, level the playing field for busi- ... special treatment and accounting stan- dards were ... part alongside men in all activities,.

  8. Collaborative Economy and Tourism

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dredge, Dianne; Gyimóthy, Szilvia

    2017-01-01

    The digital collaborative economy is one of the most fascinating developments to have claimed our attention in the last decade. Not only does it defy clear definition, but its historical links back to non-monetised sharing and gift economies and its contemporary foundations in monetising idling...... or spare capacity make it difficult to theorise. In this chapter, we lay the foundation for a social science approach to the exploration of the collaborative economy and its relationship with tourism. We argue that “collaborative” and “economy” should be conceptualised in a broad and inclusive manner...... in order to avoid narrow theorisations and blinkered accounts that focus only on digitally-mediated, monetised transactions. A balance between individual and collective dimensions of the collaborative economy is also necessary if we are to understand its societal implications....

  9. The Effects: Economy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nutrient pollution has diverse and far-reaching effects on the U.S. economy, impacting tourism, property values, commercial fishing, recreational businesses and many other sectors that depend on clean water.

  10. The Collaborative Economy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Avital, Michel; Andersson, Magnus; Nickerson, Jeffrey

    2014-01-01

    An economy based on the exchange of capital, assets and services between individuals has grown significantly, spurred by proliferation of internet-based platforms that allow people to share underutilized resources and trade with reasonably low transaction costs. The movement toward this economy...... of “sharing” translates into market efficiencies that bear new products, reframe established services, have positive environmental effects, and may generate overall economic growth. This emerging paradigm, entitled the collaborative economy, is disruptive to the conventional company-driven economic paradigm...... as evidenced by the large number of peer-to-peer based services that have captured impressive market shares sectors ranging from transportation and hospitality to banking and risk capital. The panel explores economic, social, and technological implications of the collaborative economy, how digital technologies...

  11. Disentangling Competition Among Platform Driven Strategic Groups

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kazan, Erol; Tan, Chee-Wee; Lim, Eric

    2015-01-01

    In platform-driven markets, competitive advantage is derived from superior platform design and configurations. For this reason, platform owners strive to create unique and inimitable platform configurals to maintain and extend their competitiveness within network economies. To disentangle firm...... competition within platform-driven markets, we opted for the UK mobile payment market as our empirical setting. By embracing the theoretical lens of strategic groups and digital platforms, this study supplements prior research by deriving a taxonomy of platform-driven strategic groups that is grounded...

  12. Influence of peculiarities of transition economy on real estate market

    OpenAIRE

    Venclauskienė, Deimantė; Snieška, Vytautas

    2010-01-01

    Global integration processes highlight relevance and weight of real estate market in determining economic cycle processes in different countries. Real estate market processes in countries with transition economy differ from real estate market processes in countries with developed economy in their peculiarities, possible reactions of market participators to economic shocks and consequences to country‘s economy. Common problems with property privatization, formation of legal and financial syste...

  13. The Informal Economy in Kosovo: Characteristics, Current Trends and Challenges

    OpenAIRE

    Florentina XHELILI KRASNIQI; Rahmije MUSTAFA TOPXHIU

    2012-01-01

    The informal economy is present in all countries, but its consequences reflect in different countries with different intensity. Types and scale of informal economic activities reflect the specificities of socio-economic context and the integration of the countries into the wider local-regional economy. The informal economy represents an important potential of labor and incomes, therefore there is a need for better understanding, since on this will depend the direction of the path for safer ad...

  14. Shadow Economy and Poverty

    OpenAIRE

    Nikopour, Hesam; Shah Habibullah, Muzafar

    2010-01-01

    This study attempts to investigate the relationship between shadow economy and poverty by explaining the mechanism through which shadow economy affects poverty via its impact on government size and economic growth, and using the human poverty index (HPI) for developing and developed countries. In order to achieve this objective, the three-way interaction model is utilized using data of 139 developing and 23 developed countries separately during 1999-2007. For developing countries the dynamic ...

  15. Observing the economy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosenbaum, Stan

    2009-07-01

    In "The (unfortunate) complexity of the economy" (April pp28-32) Jean-Philippe Bouchaud presents clear evidence that traditional assumptions of rational markets have to be abandoned. The old investor slogan "buy on promise, sell on rumour" quickly magnifies a downturn into a crisis, which triggers two questions. If physics-based models are applied (beyond understanding and prediction) to actual market decisions, does this make the economy more or less stable? And, is this cause for stronger regulation?

  16. Corruption and the economy

    OpenAIRE

    Tanzi Vito

    2013-01-01

    This paper focuses on the economic and not on the political impact of corruption. Corruption delegitimizes the working of a market economy, as well as the outcomes of political processes. This paper highlights ways in which corruption, by distorting economic decisions and the working of the market economy, inevitably reduces a country’s rate of growth. The paper also discusses some of the channels through which corruption distorts various economic decisions. Finally, the paper reports o...

  17. The Placenta Economy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kroløkke, Charlotte; Dickinson, Elizabeth; Foss, Karen A.

    2018-01-01

    This article examines the human placenta not only as a scientific, medical and biological entity but as a consumer bio-product. In the emergent placenta economy, the human placenta is exchanged and gains potentiality as food, medicine and cosmetics. Drawing on empirical research from the United......, in the emergent bio-economy, the dichotomy between the inner and the outer body is deconstructed, while the placenta gains clinical and industrial as well as affective value....

  18. The Dutch Economy 2009

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2010-09-01

    In the series 'The Dutch Economy' the Dutch Statistical Office describes and analyzes annual developments in enterprises, households and governments, and with respect to employment and the environment. One of the subjects is 'Economy and Environment' with the sub-topics 'Resources and Energy', 'Emissions' and 'Environmental Taxes'. Furthermore, in articles on specific themes current economic issues are discussed. One of those themes has the title 'Share of renewable energy in the Netherlands is still small'. [nl

  19. Token economy for schizophrenia.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    McMonagle, T

    2000-01-01

    A token economy is a behavioural therapy technique in which the desired change is achieved by means of tokens administered for the performance of predefined behaviours according to a program. Though token economy programmes were widespread in the 1970s they became largely restricted to wards where long-stay patients from institutions are prepared for transfer into the community and were particularly aimed at changing negative symptoms of schizophrenia - poor motivation, poor attention and social withdrawal.

  20. Regulating the sharing economy

    OpenAIRE

    Erickson, Kristofer; Sorensen, Inge

    2016-01-01

    In this introductory essay, we explore definitions of the ‘sharing economy’, a concept indicating both social (relational, communitarian) and economic (allocative, profit-seeking) aspects which appear to be in tension. We suggest combining the social and economic logics of the sharing economy to focus on the central features of network enabled, aggregated membership in a pool of offers and demands (for goods, services, creative expressions). This definition of the sharing economy distinguishe...

  1. Energy's role in competitiveness: Context and strategy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Roop, J.M.

    1990-02-01

    This study of competitiveness has three objectives. The first objective is to explain how macroeconomic and microeconomic factors can affect structural change in the US economy and how energy is linked to these factors. The second objective is to provide an explanation of how many individual decision makers, in responding to higher energy prices, have changed the structure of the economy. This structural change, and the effect it has had on energy use, is estimated for the US economy. A major component of these changes results from changes in US trade with other countries, which gives rise to the third objective. The third objective is to develop a research design that will allow a better understanding of the role that energy plays in the competitiveness of goods in world trade. 30 refs., 11 figs., 5 tabs.

  2. The integration of gas and electricity: potential effects on competition in markets; La integracion vertical de los negocios de gas y electricidad: Posibles efectos sobre la competencia en los mercados afectados

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lopez Milla, J.

    2007-07-01

    During the last years, an increasing number of gas and electricity companies have integrated their activities in both sectors. Following this trend, several Mergers and Acquisitions between gas and electricity companies have emerged, and some of them have been cross-borders operations that have given rise to multinational enterprises. This paper analyses the causes of the integration of gas and electricity activities, and examines its implications on regulation and competition policy, showing that these changes in the energy industry raise new challenges and compel to adopt new measures in that field of the economic policy. (Author) 25 refs.

  3. The effects of regional economic integration in Europe of the pattern north-north and north-south

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antevski Miroslav

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper examines the effects of regional economic integration in Europe, especially the North-North and North-South integration patterns, and how the benefits and costs of integration are divided between countries. Outcomes depend on: comparative advantages, factor endowments, factor intensities, competitive advantages, FDI flows, transfers of technology, knowledge spillovers, economies of scale, transport costs, industry/GDP ratios, and agglomeration forces. The North-North integration between high income countries tends to lead to convergence of country incomes. Contrary, the South-South integration between low income countries causes divergence. Low income countries are likely to be better served by the North-South integration.

  4. A comparison of competitive intelligence activities in Brazil, Malaysia, Morocco and South Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adeline S.A. du Toit

    2014-06-01

    Research purpose: The purpose was to determine how these countries can use competitive intelligence to increase their competitiveness in the global economy. Motivation for the study: Competitive intelligence is a challenge in developing economies. Research design, approach and method: A questionnaire survey was sent to competitive intelligence professionals in the four study countries. Main findings: The most important primary information source used in all four countries is direct customer feedback and the most important secondary information source used is corporate websites. Companies in all four countries did not use advanced analysis techniques. Practical/managerial implications: It is recommended that all four countries should develop a competitive intelligence culture by creating awareness of competitive intelligence amongst their employees. Contribution/value added: It is crucial to apply competitive intelligence in the four countries in order to become more competitive in the global economy.

  5. Pollution taxes and international competitiveness

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Birch Soerensen, P.

    1994-01-01

    Throughout the industrialized world policy makers are becoming increasingly aware of the potential gains in economic efficiency and environmental quality to be reaped in certain areas of pollution control by switching from direct regulation to market-oriented policy instruments such as pollution taxes. However, concern about the impact on the international competitiveness of domestic producers seems to make governments in many countries hesitant to introduce pollution taxes. As a result, several observers have called for international agreements on harmonized pollution taxes among larger groups of countries such as the member states of the European Community. This paper argues that policy makers should be less concerned about the effects of pollution taxes on international competitiveness and more conscious about their effects on economic efficiency and equity. If pollution taxes improve the allocation of resources, it would be possible to compensate those citizens who might lose from their introduction and still leave the rest of society better off. The openness of the economy only means that a given improvement of environmental quality can be achieved through a lower level of pollution tax rates than would be necessary in a closed economy, because a given pollution tax rate will cause a greater contraction of output in polluting industries, the more these industries are exposed to foreign competition. (EG)

  6. EDITORIAL: Physics competitions Physics competitions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jordens, H.; Mathelitsch, L.

    2011-07-01

    International tests on competences, such as TIMSS or PISA, and knowledge of young students have revealed low average scores in many countries, often unexpectedly. One effective measure to increase the average standard of a population is to bring the last third of the group to a higher level. Therefore, many nations put some effort into this activity. This brings the danger that not enough attention is paid to students at the other end, those who are talented. Indeed, it is a very difficult task for a teacher to support the less able and at the same time challenge the gifted students, to lead them to the limits of their abilities and provide for a smooth transition to university study. Physics competitions have been proven to fulfil these last demands to a large degree, and therefore are an important additional and, to some extent, complementary tool for the promotion of talented students. This third special section on physics competitions in European Journal of Physics contains three papers, each dealing with a different form of science contest. The first continues the series of presentations of tasks performed at the International Young Physicists' Tournament, which was held in Vienna in 2011. First place went to the team from Singapore, and they have put their investigation on vertical oscillations of coupled magnets into written form (not required by the tournament, where an oral presentation and a defence and discussion are the central aspects). Their paper shows how rich in physics this problem is, and what level of solutions high-school students can already achieve. Sadly, those responsible for the organization of last year's International Physics Olympiad did not provide us with a report on this competition. This is unfortunate, since the Olympiad in Zagreb was very successful and, in particular, the experimental tasks were creative and demanding. Very similar to the aims and the execution of the Physics Olympiad is the International Olympiad on Astronomy

  7. The Green Economy in the Global South

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brockington, Dan; Ponte, Stefano

    2015-01-01

    As multiple visions for a Green Economy seek to become real, so are green economic initiatives in the global South multiplying. These can offer integration into wealth-generating markets – as well as displacement, alienation, conflict and opportunities for ‘green washing’. The articles included i...

  8. LOGISTICS MANAGEMENT IN THE CONTEMPORARY ECONOMY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ion SARBU

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available The evolution of logistics management as a system in the recent decades can be characterized by the influence of the globalization processes and the economic integration in the European Union. Systemic logistic approach ensured revolutionizing the optimization of the logistics chain. Logistics management must be given to permanent forms of the new legal and organizational structure appropriate to the contemporary economy.

  9. LOGISTICS MANAGEMENT IN THE CONTEMPORARY ECONOMY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ion SARBU

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The evolution of logistics management as a system in the recent decades can be characterized by the influence of the globalization processes and the economic integration in the European Union. Systemic logistic approach ensured revolutionizing the optimization of the logistics chain. Logistics management must be given to permanent forms of the new legal and organizational structure appropriate to the contemporary economy.

  10. VIRTUAL COMPETITIVENESS: YOUTHS’ VIEWS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Yu. Semenov

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Nowadays, the use of information and communication technologies (ICT has become an integral part both of every individual’s life and of the society in general. It is no longer possible to deny the impact of virtual environment on socialisation and development of the identity of young people. In this regard, the investigation of young people’s view on virtual social networks, and the possibility of students’ own competitiveness realization through various web services. The aim of the research presented in the article is to study the factors of students’ assessment of virtual social networks as a tool of personal fulfillment. Methodology and research methods. Content analysis and synthesis of scientific publications studies were carried out at a theoretical stage of the research; secondary sampling analysis of sociologic data material sources was conducted. The empirical research stage involved the instrument of questionnaire surveys, statistical data processing and interpretation of the results. Results and scientific novelty. The social survey conducted in 2017 with the participation of 1087 high school students and 1196 college students of the Tyumen Region shown that the more competitive students consider themselves, the more competitive they perceive the people having great popularity on the Internet. At that, compared to girls, young people are more inclined to consider the people having great popularity on the Internet competitive. It is determined that having a popular virtual media account for the young person is less worthwhile than for female respondents. The author explains this fact: male representatives regard it as “social capital” which can contribute to growth of their competitiveness in society as well as to achieve some profit. The author concludes that youth views on competitiveness are not directly related to the activity in virtual social networks. Frequent use by respondents of the Internet and

  11. GLOBAL TRADE. THE KEY TO TRANSATLANTIC COMPETITIVENESS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mădălina Laura CUCIURIANU

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Global trade has an important characteristic in terms of open global markets by means of eliminating barriers to trade and investment. The United States and the European Union, two major international actors and competitors in the economic field, have both the opportunity to change the global trade by concluding the negotiations of the Transatlantic Trade and Investment Partnership. For this reason, this paper tries to find the connections between global trade and transatlantic competitiveness in the way that the global trade can be considered a key to transatlantic competitiveness. The United States and the European Union are global actors and competitors in the global economy and the play field is the global trade. In order to be aware of the importance ofglobal trade in the transatlantic competitiveness, this paper includes also an analysis of the concrete actions that both economic powers are taking in key-sectors of the transatlantic economy.

  12. Formal-informal economy linkages: What implications for poverty in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The findings have implications for poverty analysis in South Africa. Policy which views poverty as being located outside the mainstream of the economy – in the so-called 'second' economy – is misleading. Instead, an integrated approach which views poverty as linked to and a product of the trajectory and growth patterns of ...

  13. Africa's Competitiveness In The Global Economy and The Tourism ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    PROF. OLIVER OSUAGWA

    2014-12-01

    Dec 1, 2014 ... only 3.4 percent of global tourism receipts and 5.2 percent of tourist arrivals, despite accounting for almost ... The business environment and infrastructure are not favorable to ... Globally, today's generation of young people are ...

  14. Competition and SMEs front informal economy - Case of Kosovo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Afrim Loku

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available This study aims to raise a discussion in order to raise awareness of the population about understanding the problems that informality brings. In general, the study has the potential to not only affect economic development, but also to set up a socio-political agenda that will benefit the citizens of Kosovo. Informality is a globally widespread phenomenon, which has become a feature of developed and developing countries. Despite the global reach, and despite the adverse effects it has, informality still remains the term that causes many disagreements, which are directly related to its definition, classification and measurement. This study aims to present the real picture of informality in Kosovo; The size, the determinants, and the economic consequences that this phenomenon may cause. In this study, informality is defined as a phenomenon that describes all the economic activities that are secretly developed by the state and which do not neglect the rule of the state. As such, it includes concepts such as tax evasion, informal employment and undersigning employee salaries.

  15. Competition and SMEs front informal economy - Case of Kosovo

    OpenAIRE

    Afrim Loku; Naim Baftiu; Nadire Shehu Loku

    2017-01-01

    This study aims to raise a discussion in order to raise awareness of the population about understanding the problems that informality brings. In general, the study has the potential to not only affect economic development, but also to set up a socio-political agenda that will benefit the citizens of Kosovo. Informality is a globally widespread phenomenon, which has become a feature of developed and developing countries. Despite the global reach, and despite the adverse effects it has, informa...

  16. Competitiveness of Estonian Economy : some Dilemmas Looming Ahead / Alari Purju

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Purju, Alari

    1999-01-01

    Eesti majandus on jõudnud avatud majanduse perioodist järgmisesse arenguetappi. Seoses sellega tõstatuvad probleemid praeguse makroökonoomilise strateegia seostamisest strukturaalsete reformidega. Eesti ühinemine Euroopa Liiduga

  17. Africa's Competitiveness In The Global Economy and The Tourism ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Africa's achievements in tourism revenues and tourists arrivals must be understood in the context of the continent's relatively unexploited tourism potential. Africa still accounted for only 3.4 percent of global tourism receipts and 5.2 percent of tourist arrivals, despite accounting for almost 15% of the world's population.

  18. Public transportation and the nation's economy : a quantitative analysis of public transportation's economic impact

    Science.gov (United States)

    1999-10-01

    The relationship between the strength and competitiveness of the nation's economy and the extent, condition and performance of the nation's transportation system is a topic of critical interest. There is mounting evidence that we, as a nation, are se...

  19. CREATIVE ECONOMY. DETERMINANTS AND STAKES OF CREATIVITY AND INNOVATION MANAGEMENT. REGIONAL INGRESSIONS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    IVANOVICI MINA

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available Within the framework of creative economy the creative and innovative management represents a strategic issue to consider when stimulating the enhancement of competitiveness among companies and countries. Creativity, innovation and new product development

  20. Essays in Open Economy Monetary Policy

    OpenAIRE

    Castro, Pedro

    2012-01-01

    International economic integration has risen during the last decades and the interdependence between each economy and the rest of the world has become central for policy decisions. My dissertation contributes to the debate about the conduct of monetary policy in a financially integrated world. In the first chapter of the dissertation I discuss the relationship between domestic policies and the currency denomination of foreign debt. Foreign debt is a double-edged sword. It allows countries to ...

  1. COMPETITION FOR THE MARKET AND LIBERALIZATION: THE FRENCH EXPERIENCE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bruno Lassere

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Progressing from a state controlled economy to a fully liberalized market economy takes considerable efforts. Depending on the specificities of the markets and the sectors regulated, the opening of markets to competition can take different forms. Competition on the market is considered to be the traditional form of competition. Certain economic sectors, however, are not prone to this traditional form of competition, specifically in situations where natural monopolies seem to be the only viable solutions. This is where competition for the market can be a good substitute.Competition for the market implies that a bidding process is organized to select the operator, which will be allowed to serve demand on a given market for a given time. Going through this bidding process is meant to introduce market mechanisms or, in other words, ex ante competition. As such, competition for the market contributes to put competitive pressure on monopolists, which is beneficial to consumers and users not only in terms of price and service quality, but also in terms of adjustment between supply and demand and access to information.Experience has shown, however, that several factors can hinder the expected benefits derived from competition for the market. In light of these difficulties, the French Competition Authority de la concurrence has developed solutions to unleash the full potential of competition for the market.Naturally, once markets are liberalized, comes the time for regulation through enforcement actions as well as continued advocacy efforts toward government, incumbent operators and new market players.

  2. COMPETITIVE INTELLIGENCE ANALYSIS - SCENARIOS METHOD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivan Valeriu

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Keeping a company in the top performing players in the relevant market depends not only on its ability to develop continually, sustainably and balanced, to the standards set by the customer and competition, but also on the ability to protect its strategic information and to know in advance the strategic information of the competition. In addition, given that economic markets, regardless of their profile, enable interconnection not only among domestic companies, but also between domestic companies and foreign companies, the issue of economic competition moves from the national economies to the field of interest of regional and international economic organizations. The stakes for each economic player is to keep ahead of the competition and to be always prepared to face market challenges. Therefore, it needs to know as early as possible, how to react to others’ strategy in terms of research, production and sales. If a competitor is planning to produce more and cheaper, then it must be prepared to counteract quickly this movement. Competitive intelligence helps to evaluate the capabilities of competitors in the market, legally and ethically, and to develop response strategies. One of the main goals of the competitive intelligence is to acknowledge the role of early warning and prevention of surprises that could have a major impact on the market share, reputation, turnover and profitability in the medium and long term of a company. This paper presents some aspects of competitive intelligence, mainly in terms of information analysis and intelligence generation. Presentation is theoretical and addresses a structured method of information analysis - scenarios method – in a version that combines several types of analysis in order to reveal some interconnecting aspects of the factors governing the activity of a company.

  3. ROMANIA’S WAY TOWARDS COMPETITIVENESS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andreea Vass

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available We want Romania to become a benchmark for our region, a center of clear competencies and a top reference exporter. Still, our integration in the global economy through the strategic partnership with the European Union has been built mainly on the cheap labor and low and medium-technology exports. Severe social problems have been solved by creating new jobs. Yet, these exports are low value added and have a small contribution to raising the living standard through high and lasting economic growth rates. There is definitely no place for further illusions. We have basically two options left: - To compete globally with the Chinese dragon and the Indian elephant on the labour-intensive product markets, or - To build a sound policy for attracting foreign direct investments (FDI that may turn Romania from a spectator into an active player on the high-technology based global market.Taking into account the perishable first option, we are left to play the second card. In other words, to achieve sustainable global competitiveness, Romania has no choice but to become a vibrant knowledge economy. The last few years witnessed constant economic growth and adjustment of the strategic investors’ perception of risks. But I believe that Romania is still un undervalued asset. The reasons are gathered on three late bloomer pillars: economics, property rights and geo-strategic advantage. Romania is now in a position to cash in on its geo-strategic location, savvy foreign policy, abundance of natural resources, sound macroeconomic policies, skilled and still inexpensive labor force and the stock-market spectacular growth.

  4. Regulating the sharing economy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kristofer Erickson

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available In this introductory essay, we explore definitions of the ‘sharing economy’, a concept indicating both social (relational, communitarian and economic (allocative, profit-seeking aspects which appear to be in tension. We suggest combining the social and economic logics of the sharing economy to focus on the central features of network enabled, aggregated membership in a pool of offers and demands (for goods, services, creative expressions. This definition of the sharing economy distinguishes it from other related peer-to-peer and collaborative forms of production. Understanding the social and economic motivations for and implications of participating in the sharing economy is important to its regulation. Each of the papers in this special issue contributes to knowledge by linking the social and economic aspects of sharing economy practices to regulatory norms and mechanisms. We conclude this essay by suggesting future research to further clarify and render intelligible the sharing economy, not as a contradiction in terms but as an empirically observable realm of socio-economic activity.

  5. Economy of education: National and global aspects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oksana Ishchenko-Padukova

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Our paper focuses on the national economy of education. We assume that under the current conditions of the globalized world, the economy of education reveals its two-fold nature: on the one hand, it represents an element of the national economic system, and on the other, it is also a structural component of the global education system. Therefore, national economy of education is shaped up by both internal and external factors represented by national and international influences. We analyze here the functional composition and the methods of legal regulation of the economy of education under the conditions and provisions of the global geopolitical transformations. In addition, we use the empirical model of returns to education for showing the factors that impact the employability of young graduates at the labor market. Our results confirm the importance of education for achieving higher levels of income, both nationally and internationally. Finally, we come to the conclusion that its target function consists of the global promotion of national education and consolidation of national competitive position within the world education space.

  6. Organizational Learning and Sustainable Competitive Advantages (SCA): The Nigerian Experience

    OpenAIRE

    Omotayo Oyeniyi

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to test for core competencies of organizations in achieving sustainable competitive advantage within the service organizations in a developing economy like Nigeria. The paper specifically deals with the importance of organizational learning on sustainable competitive advantage and how it can be used to achieve sustainable advantage. Despite the wide spread importance attached to building sustainable competitive advantage, the relationship between organizational le...

  7. What the new economy means for the oil business

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kopeck, J.

    2001-01-01

    The value-creation opportunities associated with electronically transforming old economy sectors, particularly oil and gas companies, was discussed. Traditional businesses that use Internet technology extensively can shift their strategic perspective to an e-business perspective where required physical capital and working capital is very low, and where focus on product capital can be the greatest. This new strategy creates a more efficient and dynamic company with potential for long-term competitive advantages. Many oil companies have moved forward with implementing the needed technology and management infrastructure for e-business. Electronic transformation through a meta-capitalism perspective offers oil companies a great opportunity to create exceptional shareholder value. Some graphs showed that integrated oil companies have under-performed the Standard and Poors 500 even as they aggressively reduce their cost structures. The reinforcing dynamics between the responses from the integrated oil companies are creating the basis for an accelerated change of pace. The efforts that Texaco, Chevron, Shell and BP have made to move forward with e-business initiatives were highlighted. 8 figs

  8. RECONSIDERING COMPETITIVE ADVANTAGES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valentina Zaharia

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Development of the competitive advantage involves a considerable effort from any organization. In particular, those organizations involved in a strong competitive market require the development of strategies to allocate long-term strategic marketing resources, efficiently and with easily quantifiable results. Faced with a multitude of phenomena and processes sometimes contradictory on different markets of consumption, contemporarily marketing has the mission to develop as creative as possible the business strategy of the organizations, their capacity of interacting with customers and other categories of audience. Such concepts as strategic positioning, relational marketing, management of the relationship with the consumer, marketing integrated research, a.s.o. are only a few of the tools with the help of which the marketing managers will implement successful operational strategies. All these developments are creating a real new paradigm of Marketing aimed to better explain the new types of complex market relationship in which the 21st Century organization is .

  9. Directions of Increasing Competition in Clothes and Textiles Industry on the Basis of Information Technologies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daina Jansevičiūtė

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available The importance of the clothes and textile sector in Lithuanian economy is discussed and declining trends of the sector values for the economy warns about the problems of competitiveness in the current economic conditions. The main factors behind the decline in the competitiveness of the sector are provided; and directions of the development, which are associated with the intensified use of information technologies to create new competitive advantages of the sector, are analysed.Article in Lithuanian

  10. Economy of scale for nuclear power plants operating in hydroelectric systems - Brazilian case study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Andrade, Gilberto

    1996-01-01

    Economy of scale is considered to enhance competitiveness of nuclear energy for electricity generation but only when high capacity factors are considered. This study shows that for the brazilian electricity generation system low capacity factors are expected and economy of scale has to be considered against the size of the Nuclear program. Units of 600 MW are competitive both for small and large Programs. (author)

  11. Petroleum and the economy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bohi, D.R.

    1992-01-01

    In re-examining the effect of energy price shocks on the economy, this article applies several tests to show that the apparent coincidence between price shocks and poor economic performance may be misleading. For example, whereas macroeconomic analysis graphs of employment and GNP clearly indicate an apparent correlation between the 1979 petroleum price hike and economic downturn in the USA, Great Britain and Germany, Japan's performance stayed fairly constant during that period. Additional sectoral analyses of the performances of the western economies show that the impacts of the '74 and '79 oil price shocks were not equally distributed across the different industrial sectors of the various nations. The paper argues that a deeper understanding of the energy-economy relationship is required to reduce these ambiguities

  12. Market Economy under Rapid Globalization and Rising Productivity

    OpenAIRE

    Konov, Joshua Ioji

    2012-01-01

    Market economy of enhancing business laws in contracting, bonding, insuring, legal corporate structures , e.g. will marginalize the economic agents and tools that make market competition unfair, empower small and medium businesses and investors, and boost business activities, fiscal strength, employment, and capital transmission. Keynesian capital infusion will extend its market effect in such higher security marketplace.

  13. Private Forests: Management and Policy in a Market Economy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frederick W. Cubbage; Anthony G. Snider; Karen Lee Abt; Robert L. Moulton

    2003-01-01

    This chapter discusses privately owned forests and timber management in a market economy, including private property rights and tenure, landowner objectives and characteristics, markets, and government policies. Private forest land ownership and management-whether it be industrial or nonindustrial-is often assumed to represent the classic model of atomistic competition...

  14. Globalization, Tax Competition and Tax Burden İn Turkey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Veli KARGI

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available 1990’s world was quite different from the world of 1950’s. Especially in the last twenty years, the increasing involvement of Japan in the world economy since the 1990s, in addition to the dominance of globalization and market economy throughout the world, the rapid spread of information resulting from the developments in IT-technology and the international competition emerging in the field of technology have all led to some significant developments in the world economy. Reduction of high mobility income and corporate tax rates due to tax competition may cause an unjust distribution of the tax burden. The fact that indirect taxation constitutes about 70% of the tax revenues obtained in Turkey can be taken as an indication of the unfairness in the distribution of tax burden in Turkey. In this study, following a definition of globalization and tax competition, classification of tax competition, reasons for increasing tax competition, benefits and losses of tax competition are explained, and changes introduced by various countries in their tax systems due to tax competition, the distribution of tax burden resulting from tax competition in Turkey and the effectiveness of the new income tax law in Turkey in terms of tax competition are analyzed.

  15. Experimenting with alternative economies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Longhurst, Noel; Avelino, Flor; Wittmayer, Julia

    2016-01-01

    Neoliberalism is a powerful narrative that has shaped processes of urban economic development across the globe. This paper reports on four nascent ‘new economic’ narratives which represent fundamentally different imaginaries of the urban economy. Experiments informed by these narratives challenge...... the dominant neoliberal logic in four key dimensions: What is the purpose of economic development? What are the preferred distributive mechanisms? Who governs the economy? What is the preferred form of economic organisation? The emergence of these experiments illustrates that cities are spaces where counter...

  16. SOCIAL ECONOMY EFFICIENCY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Florina Oana Virlanuta

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available The social economy combines profitability with social inclusion. Social innovation is the first step in the creation of a social enterprise. Social economy development is a process underway, innovative in terms of relating the individual to the production processes, the concept of citizenship, production areas and modalities. The concern for sustainable development, analysis of economic and financial crisis, the issue of the relationship between the individual and the production process open up many opportunities for development that can influence public policies on employment and social cohesion.

  17. Inverting the moral economy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olwig, Mette Fog; Noe, Christine; Kangalawe, Richard

    2017-01-01

    Governments, donors and investors often promote land acquisitions for forest plantations as global climate change mitigation via carbon sequestration. Investors’ forestry thereby becomes part of a global moral economy imaginary. Using examples from Tanzania we critically examine the global moral...... economy’s narrative foundation, which presents trees as axiomatically ‘green’, ‘idle’ land as waste and economic investments as benefiting the relevant communities. In this way the traditional supposition of the moral economy as invoked by the economic underclass to maintain the basis of their subsistence...

  18. Inverting the moral economy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olwig, Mette Fog; Noe, Christine; Kangalawe, Richard

    2015-01-01

    Governments, donors and investors often promote land acquisitions for forest plantations as global climate change mitigation via carbon sequestration. Investors’ forestry thereby becomes part of a global moral economy imaginary. Using examples from Tanzania we critically examine the global moral...... economy’s narrative foundation, which presents trees as axiomatically ‘green’, ‘idle’ land as waste and economic investments as benefiting the relevant communities. In this way the traditional supposition of the moral economy as invoked by the economic underclass to maintain the basis of their subsistence...

  19. Plan competitions reveal entrepreneurial talent

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Madison, Alison L.

    2011-05-15

    Monthly economic diversity column for Tri-City Herald business section. Excerpt below: There’s something to be said for gaining valuable real-world experience in a structured, nurturing environment. Take for instance learning to scuba dive in the comfort of my resort pool rather than immediately hanging out with sharks while I figure out little things like oxygen tanks and avoiding underwater panic attacks. Likewise, graduate students are getting some excellent, supportive real-world training through university business plan competitions. These competitions are places where smart minds, new technologies, months of preparation and coaching, and some healthy pre-presentation jitters collide to reveal not only solid new business ideas, but also some promising entrepreneurial talent. In fact, professionals from around our region descend upon college campuses every spring to judge these events, which help to bridge the gap between academics and the real technology and business-driven economy.

  20. What Is Hampering the Development of Our Education? The New Economy and the New Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maksakovskii, V. P.

    2006-01-01

    At the turn of the twenty-first century a paradigm shift in economic development is taking place in the world. This is reflected in the transition to what goes by the name of the new economy. Given birth by the information and communications revolution, this economy is developing under the conditions of globalization and competition while…