WorldWideScience

Sample records for economy class syndrome

  1. [Economy-class syndrome or Immobile Traveler's syndrome?].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gispert, Pilar; Drobnic, M Estrella; Vidal, Rafael

    2006-07-01

    Economy class syndrome describes the situation of patients who suffer pulmonary embolism following prolonged immobility in a long distance flight. The objective of the present study was to analyze whether there is a risk of pulmonary thromboembolism after a long overland journey. The study consecutively enrolled 100 patients diagnosed with pulmonary thromboembolism. Nine of them had previously undertaken a long journey (>5 h), 6 of which had been over land. Consequently, we think that the preventative measures recommended for airline passengers should be extended to users of other means of transport.

  2. Economy class syndrome: what is it and who are the individuals at risk?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dusse, Luci Maria SantAna; Silva, Marcos Vinícius Ferreira; Freitas, Letícia Gonçalves; Marcolino, Milena Soriano; Carvalho, Maria das Graças

    The term 'economy class syndrome' refers to the occurrence of thrombotic events during long-haul flights that mainly occur in passengers in the economy class of the aircraft. This syndrome results from several factors related to the aircraft cabin (immobilization, hypobaric hypoxia and low humidity) and the passenger (body mass index, thrombophilia, oral contraceptives or hormone replacement therapy, cancer), acting together to predispose to excessive blood coagulation, which can result in venous thromboembolism. Several risk factors, both genetic and acquired, are associated with venous thromboembolism. The most important genetic risk factors are natural anticoagulant deficiencies (antithrombin, protein C and protein S), factor V Leiden, prothrombin and fibrinogen gene mutations and non-O blood group individuals. Acquired risk factors include age, pregnancy, surgery, obesity, cancer, hormonal contraceptives and hormone replacement therapy, antiphospholipid syndrome, infections, immobilization and smoking. People who have these risk factors are predisposed to hypercoagulability and are more susceptible to suffer venous thromboembolism during air travel. For these individuals, a suitable outfit for the trip, frequent walks, calf muscle exercises, elastic compression stockings and hydration are important preventive measures. Hence, it is essential to inform about economic class syndrome in an attempt to encourage Brazilian health and transport authorities to adopt measures, in partnership with the pharmaceutical industry, to prevent venous thromboembolism. Copyright © 2017 Associação Brasileira de Hematologia, Hemoterapia e Terapia Celular. Published by Elsevier Editora Ltda. All rights reserved.

  3. Clinical Characteristics and Prognosis of Pulmonary Embolism Caused by Economy Class Syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abellás, María; Menéndez, Ana; Morillo, Raquel; Jara-Palomares, Luis; Barrios, Deisy; Nieto, Rosa; Barbero, Esther; Corres, Jesús; Ruiz-Artacho, Pedro; Jiménez, David

    2017-09-01

    Clinical presentation and short-term prognosis of patients with travel-associated acute pulmonary embolism (PE) (i.e., economy class syndrome [ECS]) is not well understood. In this retrospective cohort study of patients with acute PE identified from a single center registry, we assessed the clinical presentation and the association between ECS and the outcomes of all-cause mortality, PE-related mortality, nonfatal venous thromboembolism and nonfatal major bleeding rates through 30days after initiation of PE treatment. Of the 2,333 patients with acute symptomatic PE, 124 (5.3%; 95% confidence interval, 4.4-6.3%) had ECS. Patients with ECS were younger and had fewer comorbid diseases (recent bleeding, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, congestive heart failure), but they presented with more signs of clinical severity (syncope [48% vs. 14%; P<.001], tachycardia [37% vs. 21%; P<.001], right ventricular dysfunction [31% vs. 19%; P<.01] and myocardial injury [57% vs. 28%; P<.001]) compared to those without ECS. Regression analyses showed a significantly lower risk of all-cause mortality for patients with ECS compared to patients without ECS (1.6% vs. 9.6%; P<.01). We did not detect a difference in PE-related mortality at 30days between those with and those without ECS (0.8% vs. 3.1%; P=.18). PE patients with ECS are younger and have fewer comorbid diseases compared to those without ECS. Though they present with more signs of clinical severity, their short-term prognosis is excellent. Copyright © 2017 SEPAR. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  4. Economies of Scale and Large Classes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saiz, Martin

    2014-01-01

    Making classes larger saves money--and public universities across the country have found it a useful strategy to balance their budgets after decades of state funding cuts and increases to infrastructure costs. Where this author teaches, in the College of Social and Behavioral Sciences at California State University, Northridge (CSUN),…

  5. A globalisation challenge: Preventing a clash between the middle classes of the developed and emerging economies

    OpenAIRE

    Ortega, Andrés; Otero-Iglesias, Miguel; Steinberg, Federico

    2017-01-01

    Tension is growing between the interests of the middle classes that are in decline in the mature economies and the rising ones in emerging markets. The aim of the public policies proposed in this paper is to impede such a clash by not threatening de-globalisation, avoiding protectionism, fostering inclusive technological innovation, compensating the losers of globalisation in developed economies and reassuring the winners in emerging economies. It argues that the G20 concept of "inclusive gro...

  6. Race walking gait and its influence on race walking economy in world-class race walkers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gomez-Ezeiza, Josu; Torres-Unda, Jon; Tam, Nicholas; Irazusta, Jon; Granados, Cristina; Santos-Concejero, Jordan

    2018-03-06

    The aim of this study was to determine the relationships between biomechanical parameters of the gait cycle and race walking economy in world-class Olympic race walkers. Twenty-One world-class race walkers possessing the Olympic qualifying standard participated in this study. Participants completed an incremental race walking test starting at 10 km·h -1 , where race walking economy (ml·kg -1 ·km -1 ) and spatiotemporal gait variables were analysed at different speeds. 20-km race walking performance was related to race walking economy, being the fastest race walkers those displaying reduced oxygen cost at a given speed (R = 0.760, p economy (moderate effect, p economi cal than the lesser performers. Similarly, shorter flight times are associated with a more efficient race walking economy. Coaches and race walkers should avoid modifying their race walking style by increasing flight times, as it may not only impair economy, but also lead to disqualification.

  7. Economy

    OpenAIRE

    Haring, Ben

    2009-01-01

    The economy of ancient Egypt is a difficult area of study due to the lack of preservation of much data (especially quantitative data); it is also a controversial subject on which widely divergent views have been expressed. It is certain, however, that the principal production and revenues of Egyptian society as a whole and of its individual members was agrarian, and as such, dependent on the yearly rising and receding of the Nile. Most agricultural producers were probably self-sufficient tena...

  8. Food Desertification: Situating Choice and Class Relations within an Urban Political Economy of Declining Food Access

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Melanie Bedore

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available While food deserts create whole sets of tangible consequences for people living within them, the problem has yet to be the subject of much normative, in-depth evaluation as an urban political economy of food access. This paper provides a critical analysis of a specific food desert and its responses, drawing on a case study of the low-income, spatially segregated North End of the small city of Kingston, Ontario, Canada. The main thrust of the paper is that the food desert remains a useful yet underexplored phenomenon through which to reveal the complexities and tensions surrounding the treatment of “choice” in a classed society. Understood as an urban political economy of declining food access, the food desert phenomenon reveals capital’s complex role in the promotion or violation of dignity through the urban geographies of acquiring food for oneself, family, or household. Through the data presented here, the article also argues for a collective pause among critical scholars to radicalize, rather than reject, the role of consumer choice in a more just food system, and for further normative engagement with urban landscapes of retail consolidation.

  9. Increased Blood Lactate Level Deteriorates Running Economy in World Class Endurance Athletes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoff, Jan; Støren, Øyvind; Finstad, Arnstein; Wang, Eivind; Helgerud, Jan

    2016-05-01

    Blood lactate accumulation is associated with development of muscle fatigue and negatively correlated to endurance performance. No research has quantified the effects of lactate presence at moderate levels of lactate accumulation. The purpose of this study was to test whether 2 moderate blood lactate concentration levels affect running economy (RE) when running at the individual lactate threshold (LT). Seven male world class endurance athletes with an average V[Combining Dot Above]O2max of 80.7 ± 2.7 ml·kg·min or 5.8 ± 0.5 L·min participated in this study. After the V[Combining Dot Above]O2max test, the subjects were resting or walking and in a random order tested for RE at their LT velocity when the blood lactate level reached either 3 mmol·L or 5 mmol·L. After a new 5-minute exercising period at maximal aerobic velocity, the crossover lactate value RE testing was performed. Running economy was significantly (p ≤ 0.05) deteriorated from 0.668 ± 0.044 to 0.705 ± 0.056 ml·kg·m or 5.5% (p ≤ 0.05) for blood lactate level of 3 mmol·L compared with 5 mmol·L, respectively. Increased lactate level from 3 to 5 mmol·L is thus accompanied by deteriorated RE at LT running velocity. The deteriorated RE at moderate levels of lactate concentration emphasizes the importance of avoiding intensities above LT in the early parts of a dominantly aerobic endurance competition. It also emphasizes the importance of a high V[Combining Dot Above]O2max for aerobic endurance athletes and may partly explain the V[Combining Dot Above]O2 slow component as impaired RE.

  10. The BEST study--a prospective study to compare business class versus economy class air travel as a cause of thrombosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacobson, Barry F; Münster, Marion; Smith, Alberto; Burnand, Kevin G; Carter, Andrew; Abdool-Carrim, A Talib O; Marcos, Elizabeth; Becker, Piet J; Rogers, Timothy; le Roux, Dirk; Calvert-Evers, Jennifer L; Nel, Marietha J; Brackin, Robyn; Veller, Martin

    2003-07-01

    As many as 10% of airline passengers travelling without prophylaxis for long distances may develop a venous thrombosis. There is, however, no evidence that economy class travellers are at increased risk of thrombosis. A suitably powered prospective study, based on the incidence of deep-vein thrombosis (DVT) reported in previous studies on long-haul flights, was designed to determine the incidence of positive venous duplex scans and D-dimer elevations in low and intermediate-risk passengers, comparing passengers travelling in business and economy class. Eight hundred and ninety-nine passengers were recruited (180 travelling business class and 719 travelling economy). D-dimers were measured before and after the flight. A value greater than 500 ng/ml was accepted as abnormal. A thrombophilia screen was conducted which included the factor V Leiden mutation, the prothombin 20210A mutation, protein C and S levels, antithrombin levels, and anticardiolipin antibodies immunoglobulin G (IgG) and immunoglobulin M (IgM). On arrival, lower limb compression ultrasonography of the deep veins was performed. Logistical regression analysis was used to determine the risk factors related to abnormally high D-dimer levels. Only 434 subjects had a full venous duplex scan performed. None had ultrasonic evidence of venous thrombosis. Nine passengers tested at departure had elevated D-dimer levels and these volunteers were excluded from further study. Seventy-four of the 899 passengers had raised D-dimers on arrival. Twenty-two of 180 business class passengers (12%) developed elevated D-dimers compared with 52 of 719 economy class passengers (7%). There was no significant association between elevation of D-dimers and the class flown (odds ratio (OR) 0.61, p = 0.109). The factor V Leiden mutation, factor VIII levels and the use of aspirin were, however, associated with raised D-dimers (OR 3.36, p = 0.024; OR 1.01, p = 0.014; and OR 2.04, p = 0.038, respectively). Five hundred and five

  11. [Economic class syndrome: epidemiological features and preventive measures].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Signorelli, Carlo; Pasquarella, Cesira; Trabacchi, Valeria; Carreri, Vittorio; Blangiardi, Francesco; Fara, Gaetano Maria

    2011-01-01

    The term "economic class syndrome" is generally used to describe the occurrence of venous thromboembolism (VTE) in travelers after long-distance airline travel in economic class. However, cases of VTE have also been reported in business class travelers and in subjects exposed to prolonged periods of immobilization while using other forms of transportation such as automobile, train, and bus. VTE manifests with deep vein thrombosis and pulmonary embolism but may also present with less severe, reversible manifestations such as headache, vertigo, and respiratory symptoms. Epidemiological studies have shown that the risk of VTE doubles following airline travel lasting longer than four hours. The risk of VTE increases with increased duration of air travel even in the presence of multiple stop-overs. In subjects with known risk factors, incidence of VTE depends on the degree of risk (low, medium, high) and on the duration of the flight. The main factor leading to VTE is prolonged immobilization and the pathogenesis is based on Virchow's triad: venous stasis, vessel wall injury, and hypercoagulability of blood. Specific characteristics of airline travel such as jet lag, low air quality and dehydration may increase the risk of VTE with respect to other forms of travel. This article discusses epidemiological aspects and pathogenesis of travel-related VTE and prophylactic measures that should be undertaken.

  12. Measuring energy efficiency under heterogeneous technologies using a latent class stochastic frontier approach: An application to Chinese energy economy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lin, Boqiang; Du, Kerui

    2014-01-01

    The importance of technology heterogeneity in estimating economy-wide energy efficiency has been emphasized by recent literature. Some studies use the metafrontier analysis approach to estimate energy efficiency. However, for such studies, some reliable priori information is needed to divide the sample observations properly, which causes a difficulty in unbiased estimation of energy efficiency. Moreover, separately estimating group-specific frontiers might lose some common information across different groups. In order to overcome these weaknesses, this paper introduces a latent class stochastic frontier approach to measure energy efficiency under heterogeneous technologies. An application of the proposed model to Chinese energy economy is presented. Results show that the overall energy efficiency of China's provinces is not high, with an average score of 0.632 during the period from 1997 to 2010. - Highlights: • We introduce a latent class stochastic frontier approach to measure energy efficiency. • Ignoring technological heterogeneity would cause biased estimates of energy efficiency. • An application of the proposed model to Chinese energy economy is presented. • There is still a long way for China to develop an energy efficient regime

  13. L'Economie Francais. Units in Economics for French Classes. Intermediate Level.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jennings, Carol; And Others

    Four units on the French economy, designed for classroom use at the intermediate level, are related in their educational objectives: to shed light on French culture and strengthen second language skills. Each unit describes its specific objectives, materials, texts, instructional procedures, and student evaluation methods. Sample tests and…

  14. The moral economy of contemporary working-class adolescence: managing symbolic capital in a French public 'Adolescent Centre'.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coutant, Isabelle; Eideliman, Jean-Sébastien

    2013-06-01

    Working-class adolescents of French urban peripheries are key figures in a new social debate that reactivates the nineteenth century spectre of 'dangerous' classes to be controlled. Since the 1990s, French social counselling has privileged two modalities of response: taking account of suffering and government by listening and speech. We hypothesize that the contemporary moral economy allows for social interactions that go beyond social control and institutional domination. This is partly because professionals engaged in this moral undertaking may keep a critical distance, and partly because the concerned populations aren't necessarily devoid of resources to advance their interests or incapable of resistance. The concept of moral economy, coupled with the ethnographic method, is heuristic for fully comprehending the complexity of these issues and their stakes. Our fieldwork was centred on a French Adolescent Centre in an impoverished commune in Paris's periphery, from January 2010 through March 2011. These institutions were established in the early 2000s to respond to adolescent 'suffering' by crossing social work and psychiatry. Adolescents, parents, and other institutions (especially schools) solicit the professionally diverse staff for assistance, which in turn may take on cases and/or make referrals to other support institutions. By paying attention to all the scenes upon which the story of a counselled adolescent evolves, and bearing more general social evolutions in mind by applying the concept of moral economy, we can consider the multiplicity of seemingly contradictory processes as a whole. We see the destabilization of parents and their loss of symbolic capital, partly due to the norms of contemporary parenthood and partly due to the stigmatization of working-class adolescence. But we also discern possibilities for expressing sentiments of injustice and humiliation, for increasing symbolic capital, and in some cases a reappropriation of the system

  15. Economies of Racism: Grounding Education Policy Research in the Complex Dialectic of Race, Class, and Capital

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Anthony L.; De Lissovoy, Noah

    2011-01-01

    The intent of this paper is to interrogate the current theoretical discourse in education concerning issues of race and class. The authors maintain that in recent years educational theory and critical policy discourse have unintentionally become splintered in such a way that race and class theories are employed separately, without much analysis of…

  16. Green capitalist economies through a focus on labour: enclosures, exploitation and class conflict in Senegal

    OpenAIRE

    Hiraldo, Rocio

    2017-01-01

    The recent promotion of monetary incentives for preserving the environment is being interpreted as a means of advancing capitalist interests. Until present most research on this topic has concentrated on the strategies used by conservation organisations, private companies and development institutions, while little is known about how people working to make a living (hereafter “workers”) are experiencing the development of green economies. This thesis seeks to fill this gap. It s...

  17. Leisure of the theory class. [Relationship of socio-economic status and espousals on energy or the economy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Laney, R.V.

    1978-05-11

    The energy debate is evolving into discussions of how to select options capable of meeting long-range social goals and how to apply the appropriate weight to the various perceptions that underlie individual opinions. The causal relationships linking personal status and attitudes is examined to see if there is a correlation between economic well-being and enthusiasm for a no-growth economy. The affluent U.S. college-educated, primarily concerned with self-actualization, show an inversion of Maslow's hierarchy of needs compared to people in developing countries. They are also in a position to express and promote theories for no-risk technology. The author suggests that these theorists be required to submit the same detailed support for their theories as is required for new energy facilities. The theory class is noted for acting upon faith rather than evidence; for ideas rather than workable plans.

  18. Effect of Weight and Roadway Grade on the Fuel Economy of Class-8 Frieght Trucks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Franzese, Oscar [ORNL; Davidson, Diane [ORNL

    2011-11-01

    In 2006-08, the Oak Ridge National Laboratory, in collaboration with several industry partners, collected real-world performance and situational data for long-haul operations of Class-8 trucks from a fleet engaged in normal freight operations. Such data and information are useful to support Class-8 modeling of combination truck performance, technology evaluation efforts for energy efficiency, and to provide a means of accounting for real-world driving performance within combination truck research and analyses. The present study used the real-world information collected in that project to analyze the effects that vehicle speed and vehicle weight have on the fuel efficiency of Class-8 trucks. The analysis focused on two type of terrains, flat (roadway grades ranging from -1% to 1%) and mild uphill terrains (roadway grades ranging from 1% to 3%), which together covered more than 70% of the miles logged in the 2006-08 project (note: almost 2/3 of the distance traveled on mild uphill terrains was on terrains with 1% to 2% grades). In the flat-terrain case, the results of the study showed that for light and medium loads, fuel efficiency decreases considerably as speed increases. For medium-heavy and heavy loads (total vehicle weight larger than 65,000 lb), fuel efficiency tends to increase as the vehicle speed increases from 55 mph up to about 58-60 mph. For speeds higher than 60 mph, fuel efficiency decreases at an almost constant rate with increasing speed. At any given speed, fuel efficiency decreases and vehicle weight increases, although the relationship between fuel efficiency and vehicle weight is not linear, especially for vehicle weights above 65,000 lb. The analysis of the information collected while the vehicles were traveling on mild upslope terrains showed that the fuel efficiency of Class-8 trucks decreases abruptly with vehicle weight ranging from light loads up to medium-heavy loads. After that, increases in the vehicle weight only decrease fuel

  19. Effectiveness of recommended drug classes in secondary prevention of acute coronary syndrome in France

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bezin, Julien; Groenwold, Rolf; Ali, Sanni; Lassalle, Régis; De Boer, Anthonius; Moore, Nicholas; Klungel, Olaf; Pariente, Antoine

    Background: Guidelines for cardiovascular secondary prevention are based on evidence from relatively old clinical trials and need to be evaluated in daily clinical practice. Objectives: To evaluate effectiveness of the recommended drug classes after an acute coronary syndrome (ACS) for secondary

  20. Malaysia and the Knowledge Economy: Building a World-Class Higher Education System. Human Development Sector Reports

    Science.gov (United States)

    Regel, Omporn; Salmi, Jamil; Watkins, Alfred; Tan, Hong; Dawkins, John; Saroyan, Alenoush; Vestergaard, Jakob

    2007-01-01

    This report was prepared at the request of the Government of Malaysia (GOM) as a contribution to the long term development objectives for the university sector under the Ninth Malaysia Plan. The GOM is considering new policy directions to make the country a more competitive player in the world economy. Such a strategy will require bold innovations…

  1. Schizophrenia with prominent catatonic features ('catatonic schizophrenia') III. Latent class analysis of the catatonic syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ungvari, Gabor S; Goggins, William; Leung, Siu-Kau; Lee, Edwin; Gerevich, Jozsef

    2009-02-01

    No reports have yet been published on catatonia using latent class analysis (LCA). This study applied LCA to a large, diagnostically homogenous sample of patients with chronic schizophrenia who also presented with catatonic symptoms. A random sample of 225 Chinese inpatients with DSM-IV schizophrenia was selected from the long-stay wards of a psychiatric hospital. Their psychopathology, extrapyramidal motor status and level of functioning were evaluated with standardized rating scales. Catatonia was rated using a modified version of the Bush-Francis Catatonia Rating Scale. LCA was then applied to the 178 patients who presented with at least one catatonic sign. In LCA a four-class solution was found to fit best the statistical model. Classes 1, 2, 3 and 4 constituted 18%, 39.4%, 20.1% and 22.5% of the whole catatonic sample, respectively. Class 1 included patients with symptoms of 'automatic' phenomena (automatic obedience, Mitgehen, waxy flexibility). Class 2 comprised patients with 'repetitive/echo' phenomena (perseveration, stereotypy, verbigeration, mannerisms and grimacing). Class 3 contained patients with symptoms of 'withdrawal' (immobility, mutism, posturing, staring and withdrawal). Class 4 consisted of 'agitated/resistive' patients, who displayed symptoms of excitement, impulsivity, negativism and combativeness. The symptom composition of these 4 classes was nearly identical with that of the four factors identified by factor analysis in the same cohort of subjects in an earlier study. In multivariate regression analysis, the 'withdrawn' class was associated with higher scores on the Scale of Assessment of Negative Symptoms and lower and higher scores for negative and positive items respectively on the Nurses' Observation Scale for Inpatient Evaluation's (NOSIE). The 'automatic' class was associated with lower values on the Simpson-Angus Extrapyramidal Side Effects Scale, and the 'repetitive/echo' class with higher scores on the NOSIE positive items. These

  2. Social class and metabolic syndrome in populations from Tunisia and Spain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gannar, Fadoua; Cabrera de León, Antonio; Brito Díaz, Buenaventura; Del Cristo Rodríguez Pérez, María; Marcelino Rodríguez, Itahisa; Ben Dahmen, Fatma; Sakly, Mohsen; Attia, Nabil

    2015-01-01

    There is an increasing prevalence of obesity and metabolic syndrome (MS) in developing countries. It has been shown the relationship between social class and MS in developed countries. The objective of our study was to compare the association of social class with the prevalence of MS in a developing country (Tunisia, region of Cap-Bon) and a developed one (Spain, Canary Islands). Cross-sectional study of 6729 Canarian and 393 Tunisian individuals. Social class was measured with the income, crowding and education (ICE) model, which includes family income, household crowding and education level. Logistic regression models adjusted by age estimated the risk by odds ratio (OR) and confidence interval (CI 95 %) of MS according to social class. MS prevalence was higher in Tunisian (50 %) than in Canarian women (29 %; p = 0.002), with no significant differences between men. For Canarian women, being in the highest social class was a protective factor against MS (OR = 0.39; CI 95 % 0.29-0.53) and all its components. The Canarian population and the Tunisian women, showed a significant linear trend (p Tunisia can improve the population health in a sex-specific manner.

  3. Identification of a Syndrome Class of Neuropsychiatric Adverse Reactions to Mefloquine from Latent Class Modeling of FDA Adverse Event Reporting System Data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nevin, Remington L; Leoutsakos, Jeannie-Marie

    2017-03-01

    Although mefloquine use is known to be associated with a risk of severe neuropsychiatric adverse reactions that are often preceded by prodromal symptoms, specific combinations of neurologic or psychiatric reactions associated with mefloquine use are not well described in the literature. This study sought to identify a distinct neuropsychiatric syndrome class associated with mefloquine use in reports of adverse events. Latent class modeling of US Food and Drug Administration Adverse Event Reporting System (FAERS) data was performed using indicators defined by the Medical Dictionary for Regulatory Activities neurologic and psychiatric high-level group terms, in a study dataset of FAERS reports (n = 5332) of reactions to common antimalarial drugs. A distinct neuropsychiatric syndrome class was identified that was strongly and significantly associated with reports of mefloquine use (odds ratio = 3.92, 95% confidence interval 2.91-5.28), defined by a very high probability of symptoms of deliria (82.7%) including confusion and disorientation, and a moderate probability of other severe psychiatric and neurologic symptoms including dementia and amnesia (18.6%) and seizures (18.1%). The syndrome class was also associated with symptoms that are considered prodromal including anxiety, depression, sleep disturbance, and abnormal dreams, and neurological symptoms such as dizziness, vertigo, and paresthesias. This study confirms in FAERS reports the existence of a severe mefloquine neuropsychiatric syndrome class associated with common symptoms that may be considered prodromal. Clinical identification of the characteristic symptoms of this syndrome class may aid in improving case finding in pharmacovigilance studies of more serious adverse reactions to the drug.

  4. The moral economy of person production : the class relations of self-performance on “reality” television

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Beverley Skeggs

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Drawing on the textual analysis of an ESRC research project “Making Class and the Self through Mediated Ethical Scenarios”, the paper illustrates how “reality” television offers a visible barometer of a person’s moral value. The research included an examination of the shift to self-legitimation, the increased importance of reflexivity and the decline of class proposed by the individualisation thesis.2 We focused on self-transformation “reality” television programmes as public examples of the dramatisation of individualisation. The over-recruitment of different types of working-class participants to these shows and the positioning of many in need of transformation, enabled an exploration of how certain people and cultures are positioned, evaluated and interpreted as inadequate, deficient and requiring improvement. We found that the individualisation promoted through the programmes was always reliant upon access to and operationalisation of specific social, cultural, economic and symbolic capital

  5. Night eating syndrome in class II-III obesity: metabolic and psychopathological features.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calugi, S; Dalle Grave, R; Marchesini, G

    2009-08-01

    To investigate the relationship of metabolic disorders and psychological features with the night eating syndrome (NES) in individuals with moderate-to-severe obesity. Cross-sectional observation. A total of 266 consecutive participants with class II-III obesity, entering an inpatient weight loss program. Participants who reported consuming either a large amount of their caloric intake after the evening meal (roughly self-assessed as > or =25% of daily calories) or the presence of nocturnal feeding at the Night Eating Questionnaire (NEQ) (N=49) were interviewed by the Night Eating Syndrome History and Inventory (NESHI). Assessment also included the clinical/biochemical parameters of the metabolic syndrome and several questionnaires of psychopathology. NES was diagnosed by NESHI criteria (evening hyperphagia (> or =25% of daily food intake after the evening meal) and/or waking at night to eat at least three times a week) in the last 3 months. Twenty-seven participants (10.1%) met NESHI criteria. Differences were not observed between participants with and without NES as to age, body mass index (BMI), prevalence of metabolic syndrome, Binge Eating Scale and Body Shape Questionnaire. NES participants had significantly higher scores of Beck Depression Inventory (BDI) and Impact of Weight on Quality of Life (IWQOL). Among NES cases, the BDI score was indicative of moderate depression in 18.5% of cases and of severe depression in 44.4%. Logistic regression analysis, adjusted for confounders, identified the BDI score as the only variable significantly associated with the diagnosis of NES. Diagnosing NES does not help identify obese individuals with specific medical complications, but indicates more severe psychological distress and depression.

  6. Effects of an irritable bowel syndrome educational class on health-promoting behaviors and symptoms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colwell, L J; Prather, C M; Phillips, S F; Zinsmeister, A R

    1998-06-01

    The degree to which patient education in the areas of diet, exercise, and stress management can improve symptoms of irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) through healthier lifestyle behaviors is unknown. The aim of this study was to determine the effects of outpatient education on the short and long term outcomes, and the association between health-promoting behaviors and symptoms. Pender's Health Promotion Model provided the theoretical framework. The study had a prospective longitudinal design. A consecutive sample of 52 adult outpatients with IBS attended a structured class that taught health-promoting modifications of lifestyle. Participants completed the Health-Promoting Lifestyle Profile (HPLP) and selected items from a Bowel Disease Questionnaire (BDQ) before the class and 1 month and 6 months later. Spearman rank correlations were used to assess the association between HPLP and symptom scores. Wilcoxon rank sum tests compared changes in scores versus their baseline values. Response rates at 1 and 6 months were 75% and 83%, respectively. Results revealed significant 1- and 6 month-improvements in pain and Manning symptoms (p health-promoting behaviors. However, relationships among specific behaviors and specific symptoms did not consistently correspond with this improvement.

  7. Immunogenetics of rheumatoid arthritis and primary Sjögren's syndrome: DNA polymorphism of HLA class II genes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Morling, Niels; Andersen, V; Fugger, L

    1992-01-01

    We investigated the DNA restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP) of the Major Histocompatability Complex (MHC) class II genes: HLA-DRB, -DQA, -DQB, DPA, and -DFB in 24 patients with rheumatoid arthritis (RA), in 19 patients with primary Sjögren's syndrome (primary SS), and healthy Danes. T...

  8. Nonalcoholic Fatty Liver Disease Relationship with Metabolic Syndrome in Class III Obesity Individuals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Cordeiro

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Obesity is represented mainly by abdominal obesity and insulin resistance (IR, both present in most individuals diagnosed with metabolic syndrome (MS. IR is the key risk factor in the pathogenesis of nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD. Objective. To relate NAFLD to MS in class III obese individuals. Methodology. A descriptive cross-sectional study with class III obese individuals, aged ≥ 20–60 years. Blood pressure measurement, weight, height, body mass index (BMI, waist circumference (WC and blood glucose, insulin, high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-c, and triglycerides data were obtained. HOMA-IR (homeostatic model assessment insulin resistance calculation was carried out with a cutoff value of 2.71 for IR evaluation. The diagnosis of NAFLD was performed by liver biopsy and the diagnosis of MS was performed in accordance with the National Cholesterol Education Program/Adult Treatment Panel III (NCEPATP III. Results. Of the 50 individuals evaluated, 86% were women and BMI means were 45.4 ± 3.6 Kg/m2. The overall individuals had NAFLD, 70% steatosis, and 30% steatohepatitis. The diagnosis of MS occurred in 56% but showed no significant association with NAFLD (P=0.254. Triglycerides (178 ± 65.5 mg/dL and insulin (28.2 ± 22.6 mcU/mL mean values were significantly higher in steatohepatitis (P=0.002 and P=0.042, resp. compared to individuals with steatosis. IR was confirmed in 76% and showed a relationship with NAFLD severity. Conclusion. NAFLD was not related to MS; however, MS components, evaluated in isolation, as well as IR, were related to the presence and severity of NAFLD.

  9. Association of chronic fatigue syndrome with human leucocyte antigen class II alleles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, J; Fritz, E L; Kerr, J R; Cleare, A J; Wessely, S; Mattey, D L

    2005-01-01

    Background: A genetic component to the development of chronic fatigue syndrome (CFS) has been proposed, and a possible association between human leucocyte antigen (HLA) class II antigens and chronic fatigue immune dysfunction has been shown in some, but not all, studies. Aims: To investigate the role of HLA class II antigens in CFS. Methods: Forty nine patients with CFS were genotyped for the HLA-DRB1, HLA-DQA1, and HLA-DQB1 alleles and the frequency of these alleles was compared with a control group comprising 102 normal individuals from the UK. All patients and controls were from the same region of England and, apart from two patients, were white. Results: Analysis by 2 × 2 contingency tables revealed an increased frequency of HLA-DQA1*01 alleles in patients with CFS (51.0% v 35%; odds ratio (OR), 1.93; p  =  0.008). HLA-DQB1*06 was also increased in the patients with CFS (30.2% v 20.0%; OR, 1.73, p  =  0.052). Only the association between HLA-DQA1*01 and CFS was significant in logistic regression models containing HLA-DQA1*01 and HLA-DRQB1*06, and this was independent of HLA-DRB1 alleles. There was a decreased expression of HLA-DRB1*11 in CFS, although this association disappeared after correction for multiple comparisons. Conclusions: CFS may be associated with HLA-DQA1*01, although a role for other genes in linkage disequilibrium cannot be ruled out. PMID:16049290

  10. Phenotypic variability in Angelman syndrome: comparison among different deletion classes and between deletion and UPD subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Varela, Monica Castro; Kok, Fernando; Otto, Paulo Alberto; Koiffmann, Celia Priszkulnik

    2004-12-01

    Angelman syndrome (AS) can result from either a 15q11-q13 deletion (del), paternal uniparental disomy (UPD), imprinting, or UBE3A mutations. Here, we describe the phenotypic and behavioral variability detected in 49 patients with different classes of deletions and nine patients with UPD. Diagnosis was made by methylation pattern analysis of exon 1 of the SNRPN-SNURF gene and by microsatellite profiling of loci within and outside the 15q11-q13 region. There were no major phenotypic differences between the two main classes (BP1-BP3; BP2-BP3) of AS deletion patients, except for the absence of vocalization, more prevalent in patients with BP1-BP3 deletions, and for the age of sitting without support, which was lower in patients with BP2-BP3 deletions. Our data suggest that gene deletions (NIPA1, NIPA2, CYF1P1, GCP5) mapped to the region between breakpoints BP1 and BP2 may be involved in the severity of speech impairment, since all BP1-BP3 deletion patients showed complete absence of vocalization, while 38.1% of the BP2-BP3 deletion patients were able to pronounce syllabic sounds, with doubtful meaning. Compared to UPD patients, deletion patients presented a higher incidence of swallowing disorders (73.9% del x 22.2% UPD) and hypotonia (73.3% del x 28.57% UPD). In addition, children with UPD showed better physical growth, fewer or no seizures, a lower incidence of microcephaly, less ataxia and higher cognitive skills. As a consequence of their milder or less typical phenotype, AS may remain undiagnosed, leading to an overall underdiagnosis of the disease.

  11. Obstructive sleep apnea syndrome (OSAS) in children with Class III malocclusion: involvement of the PHOX2B gene.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lavezzi, Anna Maria; Casale, Valentina; Oneda, Roberta; Gioventù, Silvia; Matturri, Luigi; Farronato, Giampietro

    2013-12-01

    The aim of this study is to provide new molecular approaches to the children with obstructive sleep apnea syndrome by evaluating the possible involvement of the PHOX2B gene, notoriously associated to congenital central hypoventilation syndrome (CCHS), in Class III malocclusion. Fifty subjects with Class III malocclusion, aged from 8 to 14 years, and with history of sleep apneic episodes, and 20 age-matched controls were submitted to genomic DNA examination from oral cells to specifically analyze the PHOX2B genotype. Point "silent" mutations affecting different nucleotides of the PHOX2B gene were observed in 32 % of patients with Class III malocclusion and never in controls (0 %). The genetic data obtained in this study in children with Class III malocclusion and sleep-related breathing disorders provide new information useful to the genetic characterization of this pathology. The PHOX2B gene silent mutations can lead to structural and functional modification of their product providing to a group of children with Class III malocclusion similar features to those of CCHS (sleep apnea episodes and craniofacial malformations).

  12. The Danish Negotiated Economy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Ove K.

    2012-01-01

    Denmark is characterised by a number of distinct traits: a small and open economy, a stable democratic political system, a high proportion of organised wage earners covered by collective agreements, a political culture marked by social partnership, and a long tradition of institutionalised class...... cooperation. In this sense, Denmark has not only developed from a market to a mixed economy, but from a mixed to a negotiated economy. Because of its political history, the institutional structure in Denmark is hybrid. Market power and state authority are mixed in corporate bodies. Public authority...

  13. Vaccination and Infection as Causative Factors in Japanese Patients With Rasmussen Syndrome: Molecular Mimicry and HLA Class I

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yukitoshi Takahashi

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Rasmussen syndrome is an intractable epilepsy with a putative causal relation with cellular and humoral autoimmunity. Almost half of the patients have some preceding causative factors, with infections found in 38.2%, vaccinations in 5.9% and head trauma in 8.9% of Japanese patients. In a patient with seizure onset after influenza A infections, cross-reaction of the patient's lymphocytes with GluRε2 and influenza vaccine components was demonstrated by lymphocyte stimulation test. Database analyses revealed that influenza A virus hemagglutinin and GluRε2 molecules contain peptides with the patient's HLA class I binding motif (HLA ࢤ A*0201. The relative risks of HLA class I genotypes for Rasmussen syndrome are 6.1 (A*2402, 6.4 (A*0201, 6.3 (A*2601 and 11.4 (B*4601. The relative risks of HLA class I-A and B haplotypes are infinity (A*2601+B*5401, 21.1 (A*2402+B*1501, 13.3 (A*2402+B*4801 and 5.1 (A*2402+B*5201. Some alleles and haplotypes of HLA class I may be the risk factors in Japanese patients. Cross-reactivity of cytotoxic T lymphocytes may contribute to the processes leading from infection to the involvement of CNS.

  14. Collaborative Economy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    that are emerging from them, and how governments are responding to these new challenges. In doing so, the book provides both theoretical and practical insights into the future of tourism in a world that is, paradoxically, becoming both increasingly collaborative and individualized. Table of Contents Preface 1.The...... collaborative economy and tourism Dianne Dredge and Szilvia Gyimóthy PART I - Theoretical explorations 2.Definitions and mapping the landscape in the collaborative economy Szilvia Gyimóthy and Dianne Dredge 3.Business models of the collaborative economy Szilvia Gyimóthy 4.Responsibility and care...... in the collaborative economy Dianne Dredge 5.Networked cultures in the collaborative economy Szilvia Gyimóthy 6.Policy and regulatory perspectives in the collaborative economy Dianne Dredge PART II - Disruptions, innovations and transformations 7.Regulating innovation in the collaborative economy: An examination...

  15. Collaborative Economy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    collaborative economy and tourism Dianne Dredge and Szilvia Gyimóthy PART I - Theoretical explorations 2.Definitions and mapping the landscape in the collaborative economy Szilvia Gyimóthy and Dianne Dredge 3.Business models of the collaborative economy Szilvia Gyimóthy 4.Responsibility and care...... in the collaborative economy Dianne Dredge 5.Networked cultures in the collaborative economy Szilvia Gyimóthy 6.Policy and regulatory perspectives in the collaborative economy Dianne Dredge PART II - Disruptions, innovations and transformations 7.Regulating innovation in the collaborative economy: An examination...... of Airbnb’s early legal issues Daniel Guttentag 8.Free walking tour enterprises in Europe: An evolutionary economic approach Maria del Pilar Leal and L. Xavier Medina, 9.Cultural capitalism: Manipulation and control in Airbnb’s intersection with tourism Michael O' Reganand Jaeyeon Choe 10.Sharing the new...

  16. Knowledge Economy

    OpenAIRE

    Kerr, Aphra; O Riain, Sean

    2009-01-01

    We examine a number of key questions regarding this knowledge economy. First, we look at the origin of the concept as well as early attempts to define and map the knowledge economy empirically. Second, we examine a variety of perspectives on the socio-spatial organisation of the knowledge economy and approaches which link techno-economic change and social-spatial organisation. Building on a critique of these perspectives, we then go on to develop a view of a knowledge economy that is conteste...

  17. HLA class I and II in Lambert-Eaton myasthenic syndrome without associated tumor.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wirtz, P.W.; Roep, B.O.; Schreuder, G.M.; Doorn, P. van; Engelen, B.G.M. van; Kuks, J.B.M.; Twijnstra, A.; Visser, L.H.; Wokke, J.H.J.; Wintzen, A.R.; Verschuuren, J.J.; Visser, J.E.

    2001-01-01

    Lambert-Eaton myasthenic syndrome (LEMS) is an autoimmune disorder, in which antibodies against voltage-gated calcium channels located at nerve terminals cause muscle weakness and autonomic dysfunction. In approximately half of the patients the autoimmune process is initiated by a tumor. In the

  18. Immunogenetics of rheumatoid arthritis and primary Sjögren's syndrome: DNA polymorphism of HLA class II genes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Morling, Niels; Andersen, V; Fugger, L

    1992-01-01

    We investigated the DNA restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP) of the Major Histocompatability Complex (MHC) class II genes: HLA-DRB, -DQA, -DQB, DPA, and -DFB in 24 patients with rheumatoid arthritis (RA), in 19 patients with primary Sjögren's syndrome (primary SS), and healthy Danes....... The frequencies of DNA fragments associated with the following HLA class II genes were increased in RA when compared to normal controls: DRB1*04 (DR4) (relative risk, RR = 7.4, P less than 10(-3), DRB4*0101 (DRw53) (RR = 9.6, P less than 10(-3), DQA1*0301 (RR = 9.6, P less than 10(-3), DQB1*0301 (DQw7) (RR = 2.......05). The frequencies in RA of other HLA class II associated DNA fragments including DPA and DPB and the antigens DPw1-w6 defined by primed lymphocyte stimulation, did not differ significantly from those in controls. In primary SS, the frequency of HLA-B8 was significantly increased (RR = 9.0, P less than 10...

  19. Moneyless Economy

    OpenAIRE

    Das, Subhendu

    2012-01-01

    Moneyless economy (MLE) does not have any money in the economy. All products and services are free for all people. This means everybody must work, work for free, and get everything they want for free also. Any work that a society needs is considered legitimate. MLE is not socialism. MLE has the ability to provide a lifestyle that anyone wants. We show that it is possible to run the exact same economy that we have now, in the exact same way, and without money. Any government of any country can...

  20. Iran's Economy

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Ilias, Shayerah

    2008-01-01

    .... To the extent that U.S. sanctions and other efforts to change Iranian state policy target aspects of Iran ssssssss economy as a means of influence, it is important to evaluate Iran's economic structure, strengths, and vulnerabilities...

  1. Iran's Economy

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Ilias, Shayerah

    2008-01-01

    .... To the extent that U.S. sanctions and other efforts to change Iranian state policy target aspects of Iran's economy as a means of influence, it is important to evaluate Iran's economic structure, strengths, and vulnerabilities...

  2. Mobile economy

    OpenAIRE

    Pousttchi, Key

    2004-01-01

    Mobile economy : Transaktionen, Prozesse, Anwendungen und Dienste ; 4. Workshop Mobile Commerce, 02.-03. Februar 2004, Univ. Augsburg / K. Turowski ... (Hrsg.). - Bonn : Ges. für Informatik, 2004. - 189 S. : Ill., graph. Darst. - (GI-Edition : Proceedings ; 42)

  3. Alternative treatment for open bite Class III malocclusion in a child with Williams-Beuren syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vieira, Giovanni Modesto; Franco, Eduardo Jacomino; da Rocha, Denise Falcão Pinheiro; de Oliveira, Laudimar Alves; Amorim, Rivadávio Fernandes Batista

    2015-01-01

    Williams-Beuren syndrome (WBS) is a rare genetic condition that affects approximately 1 in every 20,000 - 50,000 live births. WBS children have specific skeletal deformities, dental malformations and rare lingual muscle dysfunction. The need for orthodontic and orthognathic therapy has arisen and has been considered a real clinical challenge even for experienced professionals, once it requires a complex and individualized treatment plan. This study reports a case of orthopedic expansion of the maxilla, in which a modified facial mask was used for protraction of the maxillary complex associated with clockwise rotation of the maxilla. In addition, special considerations about treatment time and orthopedic outcomes are discussed.

  4. New Class Divisions in the New Market Economies: Evidence from the Careers of Young Adults in Post-Soviet Armenia, Azerbaijan and Georgia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roberts, Ken; Pollock, Gary

    2009-01-01

    This paper presents evidence from the biographies of samples totaling 1,215 young adults in Armenia, Azerbaijan and Georgia, who all reached age 16 between 1986 and 1992, and whose subsequent life histories coincided with their countries' transitions from communism. The evidence is used to examine whether new classes are being created in the new…

  5. Deficient Peptide Loading and MHC Class II Endosomal Sorting in a Human Genetic Immunodeficiency Disease: the Chediak-Higashi Syndrome

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faigle, Wolfgang; Raposo, Graça; Tenza, Daniele; Pinet, Valérie; Vogt, Anne B.; Kropshofer, Harald; Fischer, Alain; de Saint-Basile, Geneviève; Amigorena, Sebastian

    1998-01-01

    The Chediak-Higashi syndrome (CHS) is a human recessive autosomal disease caused by mutations in a single gene encoding a protein of unknown function, called lysosomal-trafficking regulator. All cells in CHS patients bear enlarged lysosomes. In addition, T- and natural killer cell cytotoxicity is defective in these patients, causing severe immunodeficiencies. We have analyzed major histocompatibility complex class II functions and intracellular transport in Epstein Barr Virus–transformed B cells from CHS patients. Peptide loading onto major histocompatibility complex class II molecules and antigen presentation are strongly delayed these cells. A detailed electron microscopy analysis of endocytic compartments revealed that only lysosomal multilaminar compartments are enlarged (reaching 1–2 μm), whereas late multivesicular endosomes have normal size and morphology. In contrast to giant multilaminar compartments that bear most of the usual lysosomal markers in these cells (HLA-DR, HLA-DM, Lamp-1, CD63, etc.), multivesicular late endosomes displayed reduced levels of all these molecules, suggesting a defect in transport from the trans-Golgi network and/or early endosomes into late multivesicular endosomes. Further insight into a possible mechanism of this transport defect came from immunolocalizing the lysosomal trafficking regulator protein, as antibodies directed to a peptide from its COOH terminal domain decorated punctated structures partially aligned along microtubules. These results suggest that the product of the Lyst gene is required for sorting endosomal resident proteins into late multivesicular endosomes by a mechanism involving microtubules. PMID:9606205

  6. Alternative treatment for open bite Class III malocclusion in a child with Williams-Beuren syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giovanni Modesto Vieira

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Williams-Beuren syndrome (WBS is a rare genetic condition that affects approximately 1 in every 20,000 - 50,000 live births. WBS children have specific skeletal deformities, dental malformations and rare lingual muscle dysfunction. The need for orthodontic and orthognathic therapy has arisen and has been considered a real clinical challenge even for experienced professionals, once it requires a complex and individualized treatment plan. This study reports a case of orthopedic expansion of the maxilla, in which a modified facial mask was used for protraction of the maxillary complex associated with clockwise rotation of the maxilla. In addition, special considerations about treatment time and orthopedic outcomes are discussed.

  7. Hydrogen economy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pahwa, P.K.; Pahwa, Gulshan Kumar

    2013-10-01

    In the future, our energy systems will need to be renewable and sustainable, efficient and cost-effective, convenient and safe. Hydrogen has been proposed as the perfect fuel for this future energy system. The availability of a reliable and cost-effective supply, safe and efficient storage, and convenient end use of hydrogen will be essential for a transition to a hydrogen economy. Research is being conducted throughout the world for the development of safe, cost-effective hydrogen production, storage, and end-use technologies that support and foster this transition. This book discusses hydrogen economy vis-a-vis sustainable development. It examines the link between development and energy, prospects of sustainable development, significance of hydrogen energy economy, and provides an authoritative and up-to-date scientific account of hydrogen generation, storage, transportation, and safety.

  8. Sharing Economy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Marton, Attila; Constantiou, Ioanna; Thoma, Antonela

    De spite the hype the notion of the sharing economy is surrounded by, our understanding of sharing is surprisingly undertheorized. In this paper, we make a first step towards rem edying this state of affairs by analy sing sharing as a s ocial practice. Based on a multi ple - case study, we analys...

  9. Human economy and natural economy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Masullo Andrea

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available The decline of economy is due to its dependency from a virtual value, the currency, the coin, that in the recent phase of consumerism is so far from real value: human capital and natural capital. If human economy wants to continue to produce wellbeing, it must accept to be a subset of natural economy, intercept flux of matter produced by its circular mechanisms, put constraints in it, i.e. machines and structures, to direct it temporarily for our advantage, and finally release it to the same original flux, in an still usable state. In this way it will assume a function no more parasitic but symbiotic. It will be connected to natural cycles without destroying it, recovering the co-evolutionary link between nature and culture, building an economic web suited to the ecological web; thus we will have a mosaic characterised by biodiversity, technological diversity, and cultural diversity, able to produce a durable prosperity.

  10. Placental economies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lee, Jieun

    2016-01-01

    Thinking with the vital materiality of placentas as it is evinced in a placental stem cell research lab in Korea, this article explores the relations and practices of care that are essential to the circulation of biological matters as infrastructure of tissue economies. I attend to the flows...... and sustained through the relations and practices of care that animate the placenta in different forms. On the basis of an ethnographic fieldwork conducted in Korea, this article focuses on two different forms of care (lab workers’ care of cells, and pregnant women’s care of fetuses) that enable the (re...

  11. Model Year 2014 Fuel Economy Guide: EPA Fuel Economy Estimates

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    2013-12-01

    The Fuel Economy Guide is published by the U.S. Department of Energy as an aid to consumers considering the purchase of a new vehicle. The Guide lists estimates of miles per gallon (mpg) for each vehicle available for the new model year. These estimates are provided by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency in compliance with Federal Law. By using this Guide, consumers can estimate the average yearly fuel cost for any vehicle. The Guide is intended to help consumers compare the fuel economy of similarly sized cars, light duty trucks and special purpose vehicles. The vehicles listed have been divided into three classes of cars, three classes of light duty trucks, and three classes of special purpose vehicles.

  12. Model Year 2010 Fuel Economy Guide: EPA Fuel Economy Estimates

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    2009-10-14

    The Fuel Economy Guide is published by the U.S. Department of Energy as an aid to consumers considering the purchase of a new vehicle. The Guide lists estimates of miles per gallon (mpg) for each vehicle available for the new model year. These estimates are provided by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency in compliance with Federal Law. By using this Guide, consumers can estimate the average yearly fuel cost for any vehicle. The Guide is intended to help consumers compare the fuel economy of similarly sized cars, light duty trucks and special purpose vehicles. The vehicles listed have been divided into three classes of cars, three classes of light duty trucks, and three classes of special purpose vehicles.

  13. Model Year 2016 Fuel Economy Guide: EPA Fuel Economy Estimates

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    2015-11-01

    The Fuel Economy Guide is published by the U.S. Department of Energy as an aid to consumers considering the purchase of a new vehicle. The Guide lists estimates of miles per gallon (mpg) for each vehicle available for the new model year. These estimates are provided by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency in compliance with Federal Law. By using this Guide, consumers can estimate the average yearly fuel cost for any vehicle. The Guide is intended to help consumers compare the fuel economy of similarly sized cars, light duty trucks and special purpose vehicles. The vehicles listed have been divided into three classes of cars, three classes of light duty trucks, and three classes of special purpose vehicles.

  14. Model Year 2015 Fuel Economy Guide: EPA Fuel Economy Estimates

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    2014-12-01

    The Fuel Economy Guide is published by the U.S. Department of Energy as an aid to consumers considering the purchase of a new vehicle. The Guide lists estimates of miles per gallon (mpg) for each vehicle available for the new model year. These estimates are provided by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency in compliance with Federal Law. By using this Guide, consumers can estimate the average yearly fuel cost for any vehicle. The Guide is intended to help consumers compare the fuel economy of similarly sized cars, light duty trucks and special purpose vehicles. The vehicles listed have been divided into three classes of cars, three classes of light duty trucks, and three classes of special purpose vehicles.

  15. Model Year 2005 Fuel Economy Guide: EPA Fuel Economy Estimates

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    2004-11-01

    The Fuel Economy Guide is published by the U.S. Department of Energy as an aid to consumers considering the purchase of a new vehicle. The Guide lists estimates of miles per gallon (mpg) for each vehicle available for the new model year. These estimates are provided by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency in compliance with Federal Law. By using this Guide, consumers can estimate the average yearly fuel cost for any vehicle. The Guide is intended to help consumers compare the fuel economy of similarly sized cars, light duty trucks and special purpose vehicles. The vehicles listed have been divided into three classes of cars, three classes of light duty trucks, and three classes of special purpose vehicles.

  16. Model Year 2006 Fuel Economy Guide: EPA Fuel Economy Estimates

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    2005-11-01

    The Fuel Economy Guide is published by the U.S. Department of Energy as an aid to consumers considering the purchase of a new vehicle. The Guide lists estimates of miles per gallon (mpg) for each vehicle available for the new model year. These estimates are provided by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency in compliance with Federal Law. By using this Guide, consumers can estimate the average yearly fuel cost for any vehicle. The Guide is intended to help consumers compare the fuel economy of similarly sized cars, light duty trucks and special purpose vehicles. The vehicles listed have been divided into three classes of cars, three classes of light duty trucks, and three classes of special purpose vehicles.

  17. Model Year 2009 Fuel Economy Guide: EPA Fuel Economy Estimates

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    2008-10-01

    The Fuel Economy Guide is published by the U.S. Department of Energy as an aid to consumers considering the purchase of a new vehicle. The Guide lists estimates of miles per gallon (mpg) for each vehicle available for the new model year. These estimates are provided by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency in compliance with Federal Law. By using this Guide, consumers can estimate the average yearly fuel cost for any vehicle. The Guide is intended to help consumers compare the fuel economy of similarly sized cars, light duty trucks and special purpose vehicles. The vehicles listed have been divided into three classes of cars, three classes of light duty trucks, and three classes of special purpose vehicles.

  18. Model Year 2008 Fuel Economy Guide: EPA Fuel Economy Estimates

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    2007-10-01

    The Fuel Economy Guide is published by the U.S. Department of Energy as an aid to consumers considering the purchase of a new vehicle. The Guide lists estimates of miles per gallon (mpg) for each vehicle available for the new model year. These estimates are provided by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency in compliance with Federal Law. By using this Guide, consumers can estimate the average yearly fuel cost for any vehicle. The Guide is intended to help consumers compare the fuel economy of similarly sized cars, light duty trucks and special purpose vehicles. The vehicles listed have been divided into three classes of cars, three classes of light duty trucks, and three classes of special purpose vehicles.

  19. Model Year 2007 Fuel Economy Guide: EPA Fuel Economy Estimates

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    2007-10-01

    The Fuel Economy Guide is published by the U.S. Department of Energy as an aid to consumers considering the purchase of a new vehicle. The Guide lists estimates of miles per gallon (mpg) for each vehicle available for the new model year. These estimates are provided by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency in compliance with Federal Law. By using this Guide, consumers can estimate the average yearly fuel cost for any vehicle. The Guide is intended to help consumers compare the fuel economy of similarly sized cars, light duty trucks and special purpose vehicles. The vehicles listed have been divided into three classes of cars, three classes of light duty trucks, and three classes of special purpose vehicles.

  20. Nuclides Economy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ivanov, Evgeny; Subbotin, Stanislav

    2007-01-01

    Traditionally the subject of discussion about the nuclear technology development is focused on the conditions that facilitate the nuclear power deployment. The main objective of this work is seeking of methodological basis for analysis of the coupling consequences of nuclear development. Nuclide economy is the term, which defines a new kind of society relations, dependent on nuclear technology development. It is rather closed to the setting of problems then to the solving of them. Last year Dr. Jonathan Tennenbaum published in Executive Intelligence Review Vol. 33 no 40 the article entitled as 'The Isotope Economy' where main interconnections for nuclear energy technologies and their infrastructure had been explained on the popular level. There he has given several answers and, therefore, just here we will try to expand this concept. We were interested by this publication because of similarity of our vision of resource base of technologies development. The main paradigm of 'Isotope economy' was expresses by Lyndon H. LaRouche: 'Instead of viewing the relevant resources of the planet as if they were a fixed totality, we must now assume responsibility of man's creating the new resources which will be more than adequate to sustain a growing world population at a constantly improved standard of physical per-capita output, and personal consumption'. We also consider the needed resources as a dynamic category. Nuclide economy and nuclide logistics both are needed for identifying of the future development of nuclear power as far we follow the holistic analysis approach 'from cave to grave'. Thus here we try to reasoning of decision making procedures and factors required for it in frame of innovative proposals development and deployment. The nuclear power development is needed in humanitarian scientific support with maximally deep consideration of all inter-disciplinary aspects of the nuclear power and nuclear technologies implementation. The main objectives for such

  1. Longitudinal Follow-up of Autism Spectrum Features and Sensory Behaviors in Angelman Syndrome by Deletion Class

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peters, Sarika U.; Horowitz, Lucia; Barbieri-Welge, Rene; Taylor, Julie Lounds; Hundley, Rachel J.

    2012-01-01

    Background: Angelman syndrome (AS) is a neurogenetic disorder characterized by severe intellectual disability, lack of speech, and low threshold for laughter; it is considered a "syndromic" form of autism spectrum disorder (ASD). Previous studies have indicated overlap of ASD and AS, primarily in individuals with larger (approximately 6 Mb) Class…

  2. CREATIVE ECONOMY AND CREATIVE CITIES

    OpenAIRE

    Marta-Christina Suciu

    2009-01-01

    The paper sets out why creativity has become so important to urban and regional economics. It focuses on the role of creativity, creative industries, creative economy, creative class and creative cities for the modern urban economics. It points out the idea that the power of the future economy lays within the development of the creative city. The aim of a creative city is to make us to think of our city as a living work of art, where citizens can involve and engage themselves in the creation ...

  3. Speech Production of Tourette Syndrome Sufferer Portrayed in Bradley Cohen Character in Front of the Class Movie

    OpenAIRE

    ANJARWATI, EKA

    2013-01-01

    People use language to communicate to others. However, when the language areas in the brain get injured, the speakers may not express their mind clearly to the hearers. There are many causes of language disorder, one of them is Tourette Syndrome. This study is aimed at describing (1) the symptoms of Tourette Syndrome produced by Bradley Cohen in “Front of The Class” movie, and (2) the conditions that worsen the Tourette Syndrome experienced by Bradley Cohen in “Front of The Class” ...

  4. Antimatter Economy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hansen, Norm

    2004-05-01

    The Antimatter Economy will bring every country into the 21st century without destroying our environment and turn the Star Trek dream into reality by using antimatter from comets. At the April 2002 joint meeting of the American Physical Society and American Astronomical Society, I announced that comets were composed of antimatter, there were 109 antimatter elements, and the Periodic Table of Elements had been updated to include the antimatter elements. When matter and antimatter come together, energy is produce according to Einstein's equation of mass times the speed of light squared or E = mc2. Antimatter energy creates incredible opportunities for humanity. People in spacecraft will travel to the moon in hours, planets in days, and stars in weeks. Antimatter power will replace fossil plants and produce hydrogen from off-peak electrical power. Hydrogen will supplant gas in cars, trucks, and other vehicles. The billions of ton of coal, billions of barrels of oil, and trillions of cubic feet of natural gas will be used to make trillions of dollars of products to bring countries into the 21st century. Within this millennium, the Worlds Gross National Product will increase from 30 trillion to 3,000 trillion plus 1,500 trillion from space commercialization bringing the Total Gross National Product to 4,500 trillion. Millions of businesses and billions of jobs will be created. However, the real benefits will come from taking billions of people out of poverty and empowering them to pursue their dreams of life, liberty and pursuit of happiness. Please visit www.AntimatterEnergy.com.

  5. A Pentagon of Creative Economy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rasa Levickaitė

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available The article presents five concepts of the creative economy based on creative economy theories and interpretations developed by five authors. John Howkins interpretation is based on the theory that the creative economy consists of fifteen creative industries (classified by the author. The creativity and economics is nothing new, but new is the relationship between them in its nature and extent. Broad interpretation of creativity led to the theory of creative class developed by Richard Florida. The creative class is a group of professionals, scientists and artists, whose existence creates economic, social and cultural dynamism, especially in urban areas. Richard Caves characterizes creative industries by seven economic properties and states that creative industries themselves are not unique, but sectors of the creative industries which are driven by creativity generate new approaches to business processes, new product supply and demand both in terms of economic and socio-economic development indicators of countries. Charles Landry has developed a concept of the creative city. The author argues that cities have the single most important resource - its people. Creativity substitutes the location, natural resources and access to the market, becoming a key engine in the dynamic growth of the city. This term is used to define a city where varied cultural activities are an integral part of economic and social functioning of the city. A theory developed by John Hartley is based on the concept of creative identities. The main factors behind the rapid growth of the creative industries worldwide are connected both to the technology and the economy. Digital revolution and economic environments in which this revolution took place has caused technological and communicational changes which have merged creating the conditions for the development of the creative economy

  6. UNDERGROUND ECONOMY, INFLUENCES ON NATIONAL ECONOMIES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    CEAUȘESCU IONUT

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of research is to improve the understanding of nature underground economy by rational justification of the right to be enshrined a reality that, at least statistically, can no longer be neglected. So, we propose to find the answer to the question: has underground economy to stand-alone?

  7. Economy or chrematistics: Serbian case

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anđelković Petar M.

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The nations are worth as much as it is worth their economies. In today's global world, people gain or lose independence primarily by how successful their economy is . Of course, freedom and independence of a people is defended in all fields, but the economic success is the key to success to all the rest. A society that is for us and the former socialist countries, termed transition, represents a return to predatory capitalism and the way in hypocritical, orchestrated democracy; it is now the world of lasting evil and bigger injustice that undermine the state and relentlessly pushing them into ,,peripheral capitalism' (Ljubisa Mitrovic. The word 'economy' is of Greek origin and translated into our language it means' skill of housekeeping (economy'. What we habitually continue to call economy in the world today and in Serbia, we can not call the skill of keeping. The term 'economy' has long been superseded, in his place is the term 'chrematistics' also a word of Greek origin that means inserted enrichment. This term in use is introduced by Aristotle. This ancient philosopher emphasized that the economy and chrematistics are antipodes and that chrematistics destructive to society. By its nature, it leads to the destruction of the economy. Practically, it can be called 'destroyers skill of keeping the economy.' Today in the world and Serbia do not have the economy, we have chrematistics (speculation on commodity markets , pyramid schemes, the development of the securities market , games on the stock market ... . Chrematistics the trick word, and that's why we can replace it with the term 'casino-economy.' A new form of monarchy, which is expressed as a new imperialism, is not based on ' cunning mind' (Hegel and the 'spirit of the law' ( Montesquieu , but the 'cunning of the economy', which is dominated by raw (Hobbes laws of the market and where the economy becomes policies. Figure of societies of Eastern Europe, where the neoliberal social

  8. 41 CFR 301-10.121 - What classes of airline accommodations are available?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... airlines as “tourist class,” “economy class,” or as “single class” when the airline offers only one class... generally referred to as “business, business elite, business first, world business, connoisseur, or envoy... as full-fare economy class, and only restricted economy fares are available in the back of the...

  9. Understanding the New Economy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morrell, Louis R.

    2001-01-01

    Asserts that while the Nasdaq bubble did burst, the new economy is real and that failure to understand the rules of the digital economy can lead to substandard investment portfolio performance. Offers guidelines for higher education institutional investors. (EV)

  10. Economies and Sustainability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shu-Kun Lin

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The motivation for launching the journal Economies (ISSN 2227-7099 is my concern regarding human sustainability [1,2]. There are two major categories of economic systems: capitalism, or free market economy and socialism, or planned economy. The last 30 years have witnessed great social change in China, for example, indicating that the free market economy has prevailed and now dominates around the World.

  11. FROM CIRCULAR ECONOMY TO BLUE ECONOMY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iustin-Emanuel, ALEXANDRU

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Addressing the subject of this essay is based on the background ideas generated by a new branch of science - Biomimicry. According to European Commissioner for the Environment, "Nature is the perfect model of circular economy". Therefore, by imitating nature, we are witnessing a process of cycle redesign: production-consumption-recycling. The authors present some reflections on the European Commission's decision to adopt after July 1, 2014 new measures concerning the development of more circular economies. Starting from the principles of Ecolonomy, which is based on the whole living paradigm, this paper argues for the development within each economy of entrepreneurial policies related to the Blue economy. In its turn, Blue economy is based on scientific analyses that identify the best solutions in a business. Thus, formation of social capital will lead to healthier and cheaper products, which will stimulate entrepreneurship. Blue economy is another way of thinking economic practice and is a new model of business design. It is a healthy, sustainable business, designed for people. In fact, it is the core of the whole living paradigm through which, towards 2020, circular economy will grow more and more.

  12. Pevonedistat (MLN4924), a First-in-Class NEDD8-activating enzyme inhibitor, in patients with acute myeloid leukaemia and myelodysplastic syndromes: a phase 1 study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swords, Ronan T; Erba, Harry P; DeAngelo, Daniel J; Bixby, Dale L; Altman, Jessica K; Maris, Michael; Hua, Zhaowei; Blakemore, Stephen J; Faessel, Hélène; Sedarati, Farhad; Dezube, Bruce J; Giles, Francis J; Medeiros, Bruno C

    2015-05-01

    This trial was conducted to determine the dose-limiting toxicities (DLTs) and maximum tolerated dose (MTD) of the first in class NEDD8-activating enzyme (NAE) inhibitor, pevonedistat, and to investigate pevonedistat pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics in patients with acute myeloid leukaemia (AML) and myelodysplastic syndromes (MDS). Pevonedistat was administered via a 60-min intravenous infusion on days 1, 3 and 5 (schedule A, n = 27), or days 1, 4, 8 and 11 (schedule B, n = 26) every 21-days. Dose escalation proceeded using a standard '3 + 3' design. Responses were assessed according to published guidelines. The MTD for schedules A and B were 59 and 83 mg/m(2) , respectively. On schedule A, hepatotoxicity was dose limiting. Multi-organ failure (MOF) was dose limiting on schedule B. The overall complete (CR) and partial (PR) response rate in patients treated at or below the MTD was 17% (4/23, 2 CRs, 2 PRs) for schedule A and 10% (2/19, 2 PRs) for schedule B. Pevonedistat plasma concentrations peaked after infusion followed by elimination in a biphasic pattern. Pharmacodynamic studies of biological correlates of NAE inhibition demonstrated target-specific activity of pevonedistat. In conclusion, administration of the first-in-class agent, pevonedistat, was feasible in patients with MDS and AML and modest clinical activity was observed. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  13. Modeling of similar economies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sergey B. Kuznetsov

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Objective to obtain dimensionless criteria ndash economic indices characterizing the national economy and not depending on its size. Methods mathematical modeling theory of dimensions processing statistical data. Results basing on differential equations describing the national economy with the account of economical environment resistance two dimensionless criteria are obtained which allow to compare economies regardless of their sizes. With the theory of dimensions we show that the obtained indices are not accidental. We demonstrate the implementation of the obtained dimensionless criteria for the analysis of behavior of certain countriesrsquo economies. Scientific novelty the dimensionless criteria are obtained ndash economic indices which allow to compare economies regardless of their sizes and to analyze the dynamic changes in the economies with time. nbsp Practical significance the obtained results can be used for dynamic and comparative analysis of different countriesrsquo economies regardless of their sizes.

  14. Scale and Scope Economies of Distance Education in Australian Universities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Liang-Cheng; Worthington, Andrew C.

    2017-01-01

    Despite compelling qualitative arguments for scale and scope economies in university-level distance education, as distinct from traditional class-based face-to-face instruction, there is little rigorous quantitative evidence in support. In this paper, we explore the scale and scope economies of distance education using a multiplicatively separable…

  15. A resource-based view of internationalization in emerging economies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hein Roelfsema; Martijn A. Boermans

    2012-01-01

    Chapter 2 in Impacts of Emerging Economies and Firms on International Business. One of the most remarkable phenomena of recent times is that a large number of firms from emerging economies have come to define and dominate new markets and enter the class of global innovation leaders. Firms that once

  16. Growing a market economy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Basu, N.; Pryor, R.J.

    1997-09-01

    This report presents a microsimulation model of a transition economy. Transition is defined as the process of moving from a state-enterprise economy to a market economy. The emphasis is on growing a market economy starting from basic microprinciples. The model described in this report extends and modifies the capabilities of Aspen, a new agent-based model that is being developed at Sandia National Laboratories on a massively parallel Paragon computer. Aspen is significantly different from traditional models of the economy. Aspen`s emphasis on disequilibrium growth paths, its analysis based on evolution and emergent behavior rather than on a mechanistic view of society, and its use of learning algorithms to simulate the behavior of some agents rather than an assumption of perfect rationality make this model well-suited for analyzing economic variables of interest from transition economies. Preliminary results from several runs of the model are included.

  17. The Sharing Economy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Avital, Michel; Carroll, John M.; Hjalmarsson, Anders

    2015-01-01

    The sharing economy is spreading rapidly worldwide in a number of industries and markets. The disruptive nature of this phenomenon has drawn mixed responses ranging from active conflict to adoption and assimilation. Yet, in spite of the growing attention to the sharing economy, we still do not know...... much about it. With the abundant enthusiasm about the benefits that the sharing economy can unleash and the weekly reminders about its dark side, further examination is required to determine the potential of the sharing economy while mitigating its undesirable side effects. The panel will join...... the ongoing debate about the sharing economy and contribute to the discourse with insights about how digital technologies are critical in shaping this turbulent ecosystem. Furthermore, we will define an agenda for future research on the sharing economy as it becomes part of the mainstream society as well...

  18. Sustaining the Afghan Economy

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-03-01

    budget. Agriculture and pastoralism accounted for 60 percent of GDP in the 1970s and about 85 percent of the population depended on rural economy ...for its livelihood.1 The Soviet war devastated the rural economy and most of the population fled to Pakistan and Iran, where it depended largely on...AU/ACSC/YADAV/AY10 i AIR COMMAND AND STAFF COLLEGE AIR UNIVERSITY SUSTAINING THE AFGHAN ECONOMY By Mukesh Kumar Yadav, Wg Cdr

  19. Political economy of population growth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mehta, S; Mehta, H S

    1987-01-01

    Tracing the origin of political economy as a class-science, this paper focuses on the political economy of population growth. Exposing the limitations of Malthusian ideas and their invalidity even for the capitalist economies, it discusses the subsequent revival of the Malthusian model during the period of de-colonization and the misinterpretation of the relationship between population growth and development in the developing and developed countries. Taking India, China, and Japan as some case studies, the paper examines the relationship between birth rate levels and some correlates. It elaborates on the Indian experience, emphasizing the association of population growth with poverty and unemployment and lays bare some of the hidden causes of these phenomena. The authors examine some interstate variations in India and identify constraints and prospects of the existing population policy. The paper proposes outlines of a democratic population policy as an integral part of India's development strategy which should recognize human beings not simply as consumers but also as producers of material values. It pleads for 1) restructuring of property relations; 2) bringing down the mortality rates and raising of the literacy levels, especially among females; and 3) improving nutritional levels, as prerequisites for bringing down birth rates.

  20. Real economy versus virtual economy - New challenges for nowadays society

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Associates Professon Dr. Veronica Adriana Popescu

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available In the paper Real Economy versus Virtual Economy – New Challenges for Nowadays Society our goal is to present the importance of both real economy and virtual economy.At the begging of our research, we have presented the main views of some specialists concerning both virtual and real economy. After that we have compared the two types of economies and we have stressed the most important aspects connected to them. The main reason why we have decided to approach this complex subject is due to the increasing interest in the virtual economy matters and the relation that this particular type of economy develops with the real economy.

  1. Economy Profile of Hungary

    OpenAIRE

    World Bank Group

    2017-01-01

    Doing Business 2018 is the 15th in a series of annual reports investigating the regulations that enhance business activity and those that constrain it. This economy profile presents the Doing Business indicators for Hungary. Doing Business presents quantitative indicators on business regulation and the protection of property rights that can be compared across 190 economies; for 2018 Hungary ...

  2. Towards Circular Economy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Guldmann, Eva

    The present report concerns the practical process of developing initiatives based on the circular economy in eight Danish companies. The report outlines how the process of integrating the circular economy was approached in each of the participating companies during 2014 and 2015 and what came out...

  3. Free variable economy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Roelofsen, F.

    2009-01-01

    Several authors have recently argued that semantic interpretation is subject to economy constraints. In particular, Fox (1999) argued that the interpretation of pronouns is subject to BINDING ECONOMY, which favors local binding over non-local binding. The present paper points out a problem for

  4. Economy Profile of Australia

    OpenAIRE

    World Bank Group

    2017-01-01

    Doing Business 2018 is the 15th in a series of annual reports investigating the regulations that enhance business activity and those that constrain it. This economy profile presents the Doing Business indicators for Australia. Doing Business presents quantitative indicators on business regulation and the protection of property rights that can be compared across 190 economies; for 2018 Aust...

  5. MEREDUKSI PROKRASTINASI AKADEMIK MAHASISWA MELALUI TEKNIK TOKEN ECONOMY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mujiyati Mujiyati

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The research is motivated by the indiscipline of students in attendance in class, working and collecting duties. That is the behavior of student academic procrastination. Therefore, efforts were made to solve the problem, one of them using a technique token economy. The purpose of this study was to determine the effect of the use of techniques token economy in reducing students' academic procrastination. The research methodusing aquasi-experimentalanddata analysis techniquesusing the t test.The results showed that the use of techniques token economy proved to effectively reduce students' academic procrastination. Keywords: Academic Procrastination, Reinforcement, Token Economy

  6. ECONOMY AND SOCIAL ENVIRONMENT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oleg BOGOMOLOV

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Market reforms in the post-socialist countries have brought into sharp focus the problem of interconnection and interaction between the economy and the social environment. The economy is inseparable from politics and the operation of the political system, from the state of the social consciousness, the moral and cultural level of the population and from many other aspects of human life and behavior, in short, from everything that can be described by the concept of social environment. Society in every country is a single organism with closely interconnected and interacting parts and systems. Their conjugation and mutual influence are not always apparent and are often overlooked. It is quite easy to see how changes in policy affect the economy and then trace the feedback effect of the economy on policy. It is more difficult to discern the direct and feedback relationship of the economy with administrative relations, with the state of culture, science, morals and public opinion. Meanwhile, an underestimation of these mutual influences is a frequent cause of failures in socio-economic transformation. It is to be regretted that the reforms in Russia were accompanied by a dangerous disruption not only of the economy, but also of the entire system of social relations. What was primary here and what was secondary? In order to answer this question the paper takes a theoretical look at the problem of interaction between the economy and the social environment.

  7. www.FuelEconomy.gov

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — FuelEconomy.gov provides comprehensive information about vehicles' fuel economy. The official U.S. government site for fuel economy information, it is operated by...

  8. Essays in political economy

    OpenAIRE

    Mavridis, Christos

    2016-01-01

    This thesis consists of five essays in the field of political economy. The first part of the thesis includes three essays covering various aspects of the political economy of globalization and economic reforms, which are linked in several ways. The second part of the thesis includes two essays on the political economy of development in India. The aim of this introductory section is to give a brief and non-technical overview of the essays, as well as to explain the links between them. The disc...

  9. The Effects: Economy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nutrient pollution has diverse and far-reaching effects on the U.S. economy, impacting tourism, property values, commercial fishing, recreational businesses and many other sectors that depend on clean water.

  10. The Collaborative Economy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Avital, Michel; Andersson, Magnus; Nickerson, Jeffrey

    2014-01-01

    An economy based on the exchange of capital, assets and services between individuals has grown significantly, spurred by proliferation of internet-based platforms that allow people to share underutilized resources and trade with reasonably low transaction costs. The movement toward this economy...... of “sharing” translates into market efficiencies that bear new products, reframe established services, have positive environmental effects, and may generate overall economic growth. This emerging paradigm, entitled the collaborative economy, is disruptive to the conventional company-driven economic paradigm...... as evidenced by the large number of peer-to-peer based services that have captured impressive market shares sectors ranging from transportation and hospitality to banking and risk capital. The panel explores economic, social, and technological implications of the collaborative economy, how digital technologies...

  11. Exploring the Sharing Economy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Netter, Sarah

    Despite the growing interest on the part of proponents and opponents - ranging from business, civil society, media, to policy-makers alike - there is still limited knowledge about the working mechanisms of the sharing economy. The thesis is dedicated to explore this understudied phenomenon...... and to provide a more nuanced understanding of the micro- and macro-level tensions that characterize the sharing economy. This thesis consists of four research papers, each using different literature, methodology, and data sets. The first paper investigates how the sharing economy is diffused and is ‘talked......-level tensions experience by sharing platforms by looking at the case of mobile fashion reselling and swapping markets. The final paper combines the perspectives of different sharing economy stakeholders and outlines some of the micro and macro tensions arising in and influencing the organization of these multi...

  12. Collaborative Economy and Tourism

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dredge, Dianne; Gyimóthy, Szilvia

    2017-01-01

    The digital collaborative economy is one of the most fascinating developments to have claimed our attention in the last decade. Not only does it defy clear definition, but its historical links back to non-monetised sharing and gift economies and its contemporary foundations in monetising idling...... or spare capacity make it difficult to theorise. In this chapter, we lay the foundation for a social science approach to the exploration of the collaborative economy and its relationship with tourism. We argue that “collaborative” and “economy” should be conceptualised in a broad and inclusive manner...... in order to avoid narrow theorisations and blinkered accounts that focus only on digitally-mediated, monetised transactions. A balance between individual and collective dimensions of the collaborative economy is also necessary if we are to understand its societal implications....

  13. Nonstructural Protein 4 of Porcine Reproductive and Respiratory Syndrome Virus Modulates Cell Surface Swine Leukocyte Antigen Class I Expression by Downregulating β2-Microglobulin Transcription.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qi, Pengfei; Liu, Ke; Wei, Jianchao; Li, Yuming; Li, Beibei; Shao, Donghua; Wu, Zhuanchang; Shi, Yuanyuan; Tong, Guangzhi; Qiu, Yafeng; Ma, Zhiyong

    2017-03-01

    Porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV) is the causative agent of PRRS, which has important impacts on the pig industry. PRRSV infection results in disruption of the swine leukocyte antigen class I (SLA-I) antigen presentation pathway. In this study, highly pathogenic PRRSV (HP-PRRSV) infection inhibited transcription of the β2-microglobulin (β2M) gene ( B2M ) and reduced cellular levels of β2M, which forms a heterotrimeric complex with the SLA-I heavy chain and a variable peptide and plays a critical role in SLA-I antigen presentation. HP-PRRSV nonstructural protein 4 (Nsp4) was involved in the downregulation of β2M expression. Exogenous expression of Nsp4 downregulated β2M expression at both the mRNA and the protein level and reduced SLA-I expression on the cell surface. Nsp4 bound to the porcine B2M promoter and inhibited its transcriptional activity. Domain III of Nsp4 and the enhancer PAM element of the porcine B2M promoter were identified as essential for the interaction between Nsp4 and B2M These findings demonstrate a novel mechanism whereby HP-PRRSV may modulate the SLA-I antigen presentation pathway and provide new insights into the functions of HP-PRRSV Nsp4. IMPORTANCE PRRSV modulates the host response by disrupting the SLA-I antigen presentation pathway. We show that HP-PRRSV downregulates SLA-I expression on the cell surface via transcriptional inhibition of B2M expression by viral Nsp4. The interaction between domain III of Nsp4 and the enhancer PAM element of the porcine B2M promoter is essential for inhibiting B2M transcription. These observations reveal a novel mechanism whereby HP-PRRSV may modulate SLA-I antigen presentation and provide new insights into the functions of viral Nsp4. Copyright © 2017 American Society for Microbiology.

  14. Iran’s Economy

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-06-12

    larger than Alaska) Population : 65.9 million Median Age : 26.4 years Population Growth Rate: 0.8% Head of State: Mahmoud Ahmadinejad, elected as... populism damages economy ,” Oxford Analytica, February 19, 2008. 22 Fredrik Dahl, “Iranians worry about high food prices before vote,” Reuters, March 6...IRNA, May 17, 2008. Iran also has been working to reduce its dependence on oil export revenues by building up other sectors of its economy . In an

  15. Token economy for schizophrenia.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    McMonagle, T

    2000-01-01

    A token economy is a behavioural therapy technique in which the desired change is achieved by means of tokens administered for the performance of predefined behaviours according to a program. Though token economy programmes were widespread in the 1970s they became largely restricted to wards where long-stay patients from institutions are prepared for transfer into the community and were particularly aimed at changing negative symptoms of schizophrenia - poor motivation, poor attention and social withdrawal.

  16. The Placenta Economy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kroløkke, Charlotte; Dickinson, Elizabeth; Foss, Karen A.

    2018-01-01

    This article examines the human placenta not only as a scientific, medical and biological entity but as a consumer bio-product. In the emergent placenta economy, the human placenta is exchanged and gains potentiality as food, medicine and cosmetics. Drawing on empirical research from the United......, in the emergent bio-economy, the dichotomy between the inner and the outer body is deconstructed, while the placenta gains clinical and industrial as well as affective value....

  17. The Dutch Economy 2009

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2010-09-01

    In the series 'The Dutch Economy' the Dutch Statistical Office describes and analyzes annual developments in enterprises, households and governments, and with respect to employment and the environment. One of the subjects is 'Economy and Environment' with the sub-topics 'Resources and Energy', 'Emissions' and 'Environmental Taxes'. Furthermore, in articles on specific themes current economic issues are discussed. One of those themes has the title 'Share of renewable energy in the Netherlands is still small'. [nl

  18. Human Leukocyte Antigen Class I Genes Associated With Stevens-Johnson Syndrome and Severe Ocular Complications Following Use of Cold Medicine in a Brazilian Population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wakamatsu, Tais H; Ueta, Mayumi; Tokunaga, Katsushi; Okada, Yukinori; Loureiro, Renata R; Costa, Karita A; Sallum, Juliana Maria F; Milhomens, José Arthur; Inoue, Chikara; Sotozono, Chie; Gomes, José Álvaro P; Kinoshita, Shigeru

    2017-04-01

    Describing the association with human leukocyte antigen (HLA) alleles could facilitate the understanding of increased risk factors for development of Stevens-Johnson syndrome (SJS) and toxic epidermal necrolysis (TEN) in patients with severe ocular complications (SOCs). To investigate the association between HLA class I genes and cold medicine (CM)-associated SJS/TEN with SOCs. This case-control study was conducted between February 8, 2013, and August 29, 2014. Thirty-nine Brazilian patients with CM-SJS/TEN of 74 patients with SJS/TEN with SOCs and 133 healthy Brazilian volunteers were enrolled. Human leukocyte antigen class I genes (HLA-A, HLA-B, and HLA-C) were examined to determine whether there was a genetic predisposition for CM-SJS/TEN with SOC. Patients were interviewed to identify possible etiologic factors. Data analysis was performed from April 14, 2013, to August 29, 2014. Genetic predisposition for CM-SJS/TEN with SOCs by analysis of HLA class I genes. Of 74 patients included in the analysis, 32 (43%) were male; mean (SD) age was 36.01 [15.42] years. HLA-A*66:01 (odds ratio [OR], 24.0; 95% CI, 2.79-206.0; P < .001), HLA-B*44:03 (OR, 2.71; 95% CI, 1.11-6.65; P = .04), and HLA-C*12:03 (OR, 5.6; 95% CI, 1.67-18.80; P = .006) were associated with Brazilian CM-SJS/TEN with SOCs, and HLA-A*11:01 (OR, 0.074; 95% CI, 0.004-1.26; P = .008), HLA-B*08:01 (OR, 0.15; 95% CI, 0.02-1.15; P = .048), and HLA-B*51:01 (OR, 0.23; 95% CI, 0.05-1.03; P = .045) were inversely associated with Brazilian CM-SJS/TEN with SOCs (39 cases: 19 Pardo and 16 European ancestry; 14 males and 25 females; age, 35.2 [14.4] years; and 133 controls: 66 Pardo and 61 European ancestry; 55 males and 78 females; age, 41.2 [12.9] years). When multiple test correction within the HLA locus, HLA-A*66:01 and HLA-C*12:03 demonstrated associations. When participants were segregated into Pardo and locus is considered, HLA-A*66:01 was associated with CM-SJS/TEN with SOC among

  19. "Racializing" Class

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hatt-Echeverria, Beth; Urrieta, Luis, Jr.

    2003-01-01

    In an effort to explore how racial and class oppressions intersect, the authors use their autobiographical narratives to depict cultural and experiential continuity and discontinuity in growing up white working class versus Chicano working class. They specifically focus on "racializing class" due to the ways class is often used as a copout by…

  20. Status rent in new developing economy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aleksandrova Natal'ja

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The status rent and conditions of its appearance are characterized in new developing economy by the position of new political economy. The bases of the general theory of rent were laid by classicists of political economy (F. Cene, A. Smith, J. Anderson, J. Mill, T. Maltus, D. Ricardo, K. Marx. They differentiated the rare rent (natural, absolute rent and differential land rent. Neoclassicists widened the definition of rent understanding it as income from any productive factor not only from land. Mostly, investigators of rent keep to two main postulates. Firstly, it is over profit, the income of special kind connected with using of exclusive, limited or rare goods for some time. Secondly, the rent is owned by the owners of these goods. These statements belonging to the natural rent can be used for the analysis of others, unnatural kinds of rent. The status rent belongs here. Let us analyze the status rent from the position of new political economy. As old political economy the new one also has its object - economic relations in the society and it call for the opening of deep, important processes of economic life. But by contrast with old political economy the new one, firstly, is based on other methodology (institutional economy, the theory of social choice, system approach; secondly, it studies economic relations not as static (the position of different classes, but as dynamic in economic behavior; thirdly, it is not confrontational: economic relations are understood not as antagonistic with non-avoidance of social cataclysm but as conflict-compromising; fourthly, it operates not only with social aggregates (class, country, social group, but it is also directed to a person, his/her freedom of choice in economic behavior; and, finally, fifthly, it overcomes the past careful marking out of other sciences, and, on the contrary, strives for an interdisciplinary approach in the stream of modern institutionalism including the problems of sociology

  1. Chilean economy under Pinochet

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Libor Žídek

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Period of Pinochet rule in Chile is still in the centre of interest of many experts. This article concentrates (mostly on the economic side of the military rule. Pinochet took responsibility for the country in situation near to economic collapse caused by policy of the previous – Allendeęs government. The new government after the coup dęétat in 1973 had to stabilize economy. Soldiers at the same time start to implement economic reforms that improved the long run ability of the economy to grow. The economic uplift was interrupted by debt crisis at the beginning of 1980s. Pinochetęs government was able to deal with these obstacles and at the end passed the economy to the democratic government (at the end of 1980s in good shape. The following positive development in the 1990s is thus based on the foundations built under the military rule.

  2. Rethinking the Sharing Economy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kornberger, Martin; Leixnering, Stephan; Meyer, Renate

    2017-01-01

    Our paper focuses on a non-standard sharing example that harbors the potential to disrupt received wisdom on the sharing economy. While originally entering the field to analyze, broadly from a governance perspective, how the 2015 refugee crisis was handled in Vienna, Austria, we found that the non...... the phenomenon as part of the ‘sharing economy’. Continuing this innovative line of thought, we argue that our unusual case is in fact an excellent opportunity to discover important aspects about both the nature and organization of sharing. First, we uncover an additional dimension of sharing beyond the material...... arguments. Second, we hold that a particular form of organizing facilitates the sharing economy: the sharing economy organization. This particular organizational form is distinctive – at the same time selectively borrowing and skillfully combining features from platform organizations (e.g., use...

  3. SOCIAL ECONOMY EFFICIENCY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Florina Oana Virlanuta

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available The social economy combines profitability with social inclusion. Social innovation is the first step in the creation of a social enterprise. Social economy development is a process underway, innovative in terms of relating the individual to the production processes, the concept of citizenship, production areas and modalities. The concern for sustainable development, analysis of economic and financial crisis, the issue of the relationship between the individual and the production process open up many opportunities for development that can influence public policies on employment and social cohesion.

  4. Inverting the moral economy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olwig, Mette Fog; Noe, Christine; Kangalawe, Richard

    2017-01-01

    Governments, donors and investors often promote land acquisitions for forest plantations as global climate change mitigation via carbon sequestration. Investors’ forestry thereby becomes part of a global moral economy imaginary. Using examples from Tanzania we critically examine the global moral...... economy’s narrative foundation, which presents trees as axiomatically ‘green’, ‘idle’ land as waste and economic investments as benefiting the relevant communities. In this way the traditional supposition of the moral economy as invoked by the economic underclass to maintain the basis of their subsistence...

  5. Inverting the moral economy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olwig, Mette Fog; Noe, Christine; Kangalawe, Richard

    2015-01-01

    Governments, donors and investors often promote land acquisitions for forest plantations as global climate change mitigation via carbon sequestration. Investors’ forestry thereby becomes part of a global moral economy imaginary. Using examples from Tanzania we critically examine the global moral...... economy’s narrative foundation, which presents trees as axiomatically ‘green’, ‘idle’ land as waste and economic investments as benefiting the relevant communities. In this way the traditional supposition of the moral economy as invoked by the economic underclass to maintain the basis of their subsistence...

  6. Experimenting with alternative economies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Longhurst, Noel; Avelino, Flor; Wittmayer, Julia

    2016-01-01

    Neoliberalism is a powerful narrative that has shaped processes of urban economic development across the globe. This paper reports on four nascent ‘new economic’ narratives which represent fundamentally different imaginaries of the urban economy. Experiments informed by these narratives challenge...... the dominant neoliberal logic in four key dimensions: What is the purpose of economic development? What are the preferred distributive mechanisms? Who governs the economy? What is the preferred form of economic organisation? The emergence of these experiments illustrates that cities are spaces where counter...

  7. Thriving locally in the global economy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kanter, Rosabeth Moss

    2003-08-01

    More and more small and midsize companies are joining corporate giants in striving to exploit international growth markets. At the same time, civic leaders worry about their communities' economic future in light of the impact of global forces on the operation and survival of business. How can communities retain local vitality yet still link their business to the global economy? Harvard professor Rosabeth Moss Kanter addresses that question in this classic HBR article, orginally published in 1995. To avoid a clash between international economic interests and local political interests, globalizing business must learn how to be responsive to the communities in which they operate, Kanter says. And communities must determine how to create a civic culture that will attract and retain footloose companies. The author surveyed five U.S. regions with direct connections to the global economy--Boston, Cleveland, Miami, Seattle, and the Spartanburg-Greenville region of South Carolina--to determine their business and civic leader's strategies for improving their constituent's quality of life. She identified ways in which the global economy can work locally by capitalizing on the resources that distinguish one place from another. Kanter argues that regions can invest in capabilities that connect their local populations to the global economy in one of three ways: as thinkers, makers, or traders. She points to the Spartanburg-Greenville region as a good example of a world-class makers, with its exceptional blue-collar workforce that has attracted more than 200 companies from 18 countries. The history of the economic development of this region is a lesson for those seeking to understand how to achieve world-class status and bring local residents into the world economy.

  8. Professional Elites in "Classes" Societies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    S.J. Magala (Slawomir)

    2003-01-01

    textabstractModern European identity has been forged in class struggles between the French revolution and fall of the Berlin Wall, which fell twice. Once, with the rest of the city in May 1945, when a national socialist alternative to a modernizing mix of parliamentary democracy and market economy

  9. Fueling the Green Economy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elder, James

    2009-01-01

    The Obama administration, along with many others, has placed a high priority on accelerating the nation's transition to a cleaner, greener economy. Transforming the nation's economic, energy, and environmental systems to become more sustainable will require a level of expertise, innovation, and cooperation unseen since the 1940s war effort. Public…

  10. Operant Conditioning - Token Economy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montgomery, Jacqueline; McBurney, Raymond D.

    Described is an Operant Conditioning-Token Economy Program, teaching patients to be responsible for their own behavior, to make choices, and to be motivated to change. The program was instigated with mentally ill patients in a state hospital and was later used with institutionalized mentally handicapped groups. After two years, only four of the…

  11. Airline Safety and Economy

    Science.gov (United States)

    1993-01-01

    This video documents efforts at NASA Langley Research Center to improve safety and economy in aircraft. Featured are the cockpit weather information needs computer system, which relays real time weather information to the pilot, and efforts to improve techniques to detect structural flaws and corrosion, such as the thermal bond inspection system.

  12. Economy and Grace

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Else Marie Wiberg

    2015-01-01

    Luther develops his idea the grace of God in tandem with his idea of economy, and a society characterized by ethical and social values such as love of neighbour and caring for the poor. Hence, the reformer's search for a gracious God is developed along with his criticism of the current indulgence...

  13. Ecology and economy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Menard, M.; Bischoff, J.

    1980-01-01

    The green movement challenges workers' unions and socialists. Who are the 'Greens', and what do they want. Where do their theoretical fundamentals come from. Will an ecological economy be able to function. Are the 'Greens' leftists or dreamers fighting against progress. Arguments for trade unionists and socialists in the ecological controversy. (orig.) [de

  14. Dependent Classes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gasiunas, Vaidas; Mezini, Mira; Ostermann, Klaus

    2007-01-01

    of dependent classes and a machine-checked type soundness proof in Isabelle/HOL [29], the first of this kind for a language with virtual classes and path-dependent types. [29] T.Nipkow, L.C. Poulson, and M. Wenzel. Isabelle/HOL -- A Proof Assistant for Higher-Order Logic, volume 2283 of LNCS, Springer, 2002......Virtual classes allow nested classes to be refined in subclasses. In this way nested classes can be seen as dependent abstractions of the objects of the enclosing classes. Expressing dependency via nesting, however, has two limitations: Abstractions that depend on more than one object cannot...... be modeled and a class must know all classes that depend on its objects. This paper presents dependent classes, a generalization of virtual classes that expresses similar semantics by parameterization rather than by nesting. This increases expressivity of class variations as well as the flexibility...

  15. Economy and culture are dead! Long live economy and culture!

    OpenAIRE

    Castree, Noel

    2004-01-01

    This essay critically evaluates the debate in human geography and cognate fields about economy-culture relationships. It takes issue with the terms of the debate, wherein different authors have sought to ground their claims about economy and culture with reference to supposed 'ontological realities'. Building on the arguments of Don Mitchell (1995; 2000), I argue that economy and culture should be seen as two powerful ideas that help to create the realities they seem only to describe. Economy...

  16. Millennials and the Sharing Economy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ranzini, Giulia; Newlands, Gemma; Anselmi, Guido

    Report from the EU H2020 Research Project Ps2Share: Participation, Privacy, and Power in the Sharing Economy......Report from the EU H2020 Research Project Ps2Share: Participation, Privacy, and Power in the Sharing Economy...

  17. Introduction Of Techno-Economy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Park, Woo Hui

    2001-08-01

    This book gives descriptions of science, technology and techno-economy, invention and science and technology in the Twenty-First century, theory and model of technological innovation, technology and economy technology and industry, technology and business, spread and transfer of technique, technology and international economy, science, technique and culture, science, technology and government, development of technology in Korea and developing countries, and conclusion on the past and the future of techno-economy.

  18. Knowledge Economy and Research Innovation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bastalich, Wendy

    2010-01-01

    The "knowledge economy" has been received with considerable scepticism by scholars within the fields of political economy, social and political philosophy, and higher education. Key arguments within this literature are reviewed in this article to suggest that, despite policy claims, "knowledge economy" does not describe a "new" mode of economic…

  19. Popular Education in Solidarity Economy

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Melo Neto, José Francisco; da Costa, Francisco Xavier Pereira

    2015-01-01

    This article seeks to show the relation between popular education and solidarity economy in experiences of solidarity economy enterprises in Brazil. It is based on diverse experiences which have occurred in various sectors of this economy, highlighting those experiences which took place in João Pessoa with the creation of a Cooperative of Workers…

  20. Green economy and related concepts

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Loiseau, Eleonore; Saikku, Laura; Antikainen, Riina; Droste, Nils; Hansjürgens, Bernd; Pitkänen, Kati; Leskinen, Pekka; Kuikman, Peter; Thomsen, Marianne

    2016-01-01

    For the last ten years, the notion of a green economy has become increasingly attractive to policy makers. However, green economy covers a lot of diverse concepts and its links with sustainability are not always clear. In this article, we focus on definitions of green economy and related concepts

  1. Power economy of Bulgaria

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kovatschew, D.

    1975-01-01

    After a description of the development of the power economy of Bulgaria after World War 2, the author states that of all the native primary energy sources, brown coal plays the most important part in heat and power generation. Of the lucrative water power, only 50% will be made available at the end of 1975 and only 75% in ten years. The future power economy - and, as a result, the future standard of living - of Bulgaria depend to a great degree on the import of energy carriers and the construction of nuclear power stations. Bulgaria will be the first Balkan country to use nuclear energy. The two pressure water reactors of Kosloduj will provide 880 MWe after their start-up. (GG/AK) [de

  2. COMPETITIVENESS FOR SUSTAINABLE ECONOMIES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nelu Eugen POPESCU

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available The current economic environment puts pressure on all national economies which struggle to improve their competitiveness and innovativeness in a sustainable way. This article aims to present the current state of the competitiveness by reviewing the main literature and worldwide researches, in order to provide a brief overview of the determinants that drive productivity and economic success at global and national level, taking into consideration the entrepreneurial activity for a country’s competitiveness and economic growth. The paper identifies the ways in which efficiency driven countries can improve their policies and get a better return on their investments, underlining a set of competitiveness enhancing policies (measures that can be implemented by public and private institutions in order to strengthen the economic fundamentals of the economies.

  3. [An evaluation of HLA class 2 alleles and anti-islet antibodies as evidence for non-autoimmune diabetes in Wolfram syndrome].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zmysłowska, Agnieszka; Borowiec, Maciej; Antosik, Karolina; Wyka, Krystyna; Cieślik-Heinrich, Agnieszka; Klich, Izabela; Młynarski, Wojciech

    2010-01-01

    A clinical criterion of the Wolfram syndrome is the coexistence of diabetes and optic atrophy recognized before the age of 15. Diabetes present in Wolfram syndrome is a result of the selective β cell loss and failed insulin secretion which is probably associated with non-autoimmune pathogenesis. The aim of the study was an evaluation of HLA subtypes and presence of β-cell autoantibodies in patients with molecularly confirmed Wolfram syndrome. 9 patients with Wolfram syndrome aged 10-24 years were examined. We also studied 218 patients with type 1 diabetes as a reference group. A control group of 176 healthy individuals was included in the study. Besides the clinical assessment the HLA typing by PCR-SSO was performed. Islet cell antibodies (ICA), antibodies to glutamic acid decarboxylase (GADA), thyrosine phosphatase antibodies (IA2A) and insulin antibodies (IAA) were also detected. In all nine patients the coexistence of diabetes with optic atrophy was observed and in 8/9 individuals additional symptoms were recognized. In patients with Wolfram syndrome a significantly lower age of diagnosis of diabetes (Me=5.0 years) than in type 1 diabetic children (Me=10.4; p=0.002) was observed. Studies of HLA subtypes demonstrated an increased prevalence of HLA-DQw1, DRB1⋅03 and/or 04 and DR2. A comparison of the frequency of the HLA alleles in patients with Wolfram syndrome with type 1 diabetic children showed a more frequent presence of the DRB1⋅1501 (p=0.03; OR=13.28 (2.44-72.12)) and DQB1⋅06 (p=0.016; OR=10.15 (2.49-41.35)) alleles in patients with Wolfram syndrome. Polish patients with Wolfram syndrome have a different profile of the HLA antigens with the presence of DR2, DQw1 and DRB3/4 allele and are negative for diabetes-related autoantibodies, which may confirm non-autoimmune β-cell destruction in this syndrome.

  4. Energy-Economy-Sustainability

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Meier, R.; Renggli, M.; Previdoli, P.

    1999-12-01

    With an annual turnover of more than 20 billion Swiss Francs energy is an important factor of economic development. Even in periods of seemingly unlimited energy reserves emphasis has to placed on the safety of supply and energy policy has to be adjusted to long term goals. The high impacts of the use of energy are causing external costs of 11 to 16 billion Swiss Francs per year, thereby violating the requirements of a sustainable development. The research programme 'Principles of energy economy' of the Swiss Federal Office of Energy is focused on energy economy and energy policy. In this volume selected projects are presented in a concentrated form to a wider public. Perspectives are drawn up concerning future energy demand, and special attention is paid to the impact of political measures (including various types of taxes) on demand trends and on environmental effects. With the aid of refined models the economic consequences are demonstrated, and significant results are shown which influence the ongoing discussion on double dividends (positive effects on both energy/environment and on economy). The analysis of energy-related measures in the transportation sector including, e.g., promotion measures for renewable energy or consumption-related motor vehicle taxes, is another focus of the programme. In view of a possible revision of the nuclear energy liability act related questions are discussed from the economic point of view. Finally, considerations and results on the role of public service in a liberalized electricity market are reviewed. Dr. R. Meier is head of the research programme 'Principles of energy economy'. (authors) [de

  5. Moral Economies of Corruption

    OpenAIRE

    Pierce, Steven

    2016-01-01

    Nigeria is famous for "419" emails asking recipients for bank account information and for scandals involving the disappearance of billions of dollars from government coffers. Corruption permeates even minor official interactions, from traffic control to university admissions. In Moral Economies of Corruption Steven Pierce provides a cultural history of the last 150 years of corruption in Nigeria as a case study for considering how corruption plays an important role in the processes of politic...

  6. A green hydrogen economy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Clark, Woodrow W.; Rifkin, Jeremy

    2006-01-01

    This paper is the result of over a dozen scholars and practitioners who strongly felt that a hydrogen economy and hence the future is closer than some American politicians and bureaucrats state. Moreover, when seen internationally, there is strong evidence, the most recent and obvious ones are the proliferation of hybrid vehicles, that for any nation-state to be energy independent it must seek a renewable or green hydrogen future in the near term. The State of California has once again taken the lead in this effort for both an energy-independent future and one linked strongly to the hydrogen economy. Then why a hydrogen economy in the first instance? The fact is that hydrogen most likely will not be used for refueling of vehicles in the near term. The number of vehicles to make hydrogen commercially viable will not be in the mass market by almost all estimates until 2010. However, it is less than a decade away. The time frame is NOT 30-40 years as some argue. The hydrogen economy needs trained people, new ventures and public-private partnerships now. The paper points out how the concerns of today, including higher costs and technologies under development, can be turned into opportunities for both the public and private sectors. It was not too long ago that the size of a mobile phone was that of a briefcase, and then almost 10 years ago, the size of a shoe box. Today, they are not only the size of a man's wallet but also often given away free to consumers who subscribe or contract for wireless services. While hydrogen may not follow this technological commercialization exactly, it certainly will be on a parallel path. International events and local or regional security dictate that the time for a hydrogen must be close at hand

  7. ECONOMY, ECONOMICS, ECONOMIC, ECONOMICAL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sim Monica Ariana

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available To speak and understand a language means - among many other things - knowing the words of that language. The average speaker knows, hears, understands and uses thousands of words daily. But does he use them appropriately? That is why this paper is about words and meanings. More specifically, it deals with the internal structure of complex words, i.e. derivatives. The purpose of the paper is to enable students and potentially other individuals dealing with English language on business basis to engage in their own analyses of some aspects of the language, namely the family tree of the word economy. After having read the paper, the reader should be familiar with the necessary knowledge regarding differences between meanings, misuse and actual sense of words deriving from economy, be able to systematically analyze data and relate his own findings on theoretical language problems. English is used by hundreds of millions speakers and still there is always need for improving our knowledge continuously. Knowing and speaking approximate English may not be enough at an advanced level as in the case of students who prepare themselves for careers that involve proficient communication in a foreign language on specific business issues. This is where the idea of such a paper appeared: students of the Faculty of Economic Sciences talk about economy and all the other terms deriving from it, with approximate knowledge of their meaning, without even being aware that some ‘minor' suffixes like –ic, -ical, -ics etc. really matter and do make a difference. Consequently, we started our teaching of Business English lecture in September 2012 with a working sheet based on the terms economic/ economical/ economics/ economy to assess students' awareness of these terms. The result was not a surprise as more than 90% misused economical instead of economic. That seemed a perfect introduction for students in economics. From that moment on, the building of their specific

  8. Social Economy and Responsibility

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eva Abramuszkinová Pavlíková

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Given the importance of entrepreneurial activities as an engine of economic growth and poverty alleviation, the issue of business development and entrepreneurial activities, has received increasing attention from a number of interested parties worldwide and also in the Czech Republic. The focus of this paper is on a social economy, a social responsibility and social enterprises. The development of the social economy framework will be introduced in the European context and specifically in the Czech Republic. A case study of a Czech social entrepreneur will be introduced based on qualitative research, namely the biographical narrative method.Social enterprises can support activities of various target groups, such as economic activities of mentally and physically handicapped people, which often operate in economically and socially marginalized situations, including stereotyped images. They give them a chance to become active members of society. In this way they can help to reduce the poverty on a local level. The aim of this paper is to introduce a social entrepreneurship as important part of social economy development in the Czech Republic.

  9. Abraham Lincoln and the global economy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hormats, Robert D

    2003-08-01

    Abraham Lincoln would have well understood the challenges facing many modern emerging nations. In Lincoln's America, as in many developing nations today, sweeping economic change threatened older industries, traditional ways of living, and social and national cohesion by exposing economies and societies to new and powerful competitive forces. Yet even in the midst of the brutal and expensive American Civil war--and in part because of it--Lincoln and the Republican Congress enacted bold legislation that helped create a huge national market, a strong and unified economy governed by national institutions, and a rising middle class of businessmen and property owners. Figuring out how to maximize the benefits of globalization while minimizing its disruptions is a formidable challenge for policy makers. How do you expand opportunities for the talented and the lucky while making sure the rest of society doesn't fall behind? It may be helpful to look at the principles that informed the policies that Lincoln and the Republican Congress instituted after they came to power in 1861: Facilitate the upward mobility of low- and middle-income groups to give them a significant stake in the country. Emphasize the good of the national economy over regional interests. Affirm the need for sound government institutions to temper the dynamics of the free enterprise system. Tailor policies to the national situation. Realize that a period of turmoil may present a unique opportunity for reform. These principles drove the reforms that helped Americans cope with and benefit from rapid technological advances and the fast integration of the American economy in the nineteenth century. They may be instructive to today's policy makers who are struggling to help their own citizens integrate into the fast-changing global economy of the twenty-first century.

  10. ICT Innovation in Emerging Economies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Xiao, Xiao; B. Califf, Christopher; Sarker, Saonee

    2013-01-01

    a third of the world’s largest 25 economies, and that they are likely to be critical for the success of a global economy, it is important to understand how these economies innovate, what factors affect innovation in such nations, and what are the impacts. However, to the best of our knowledge, little......ICT innovation is known to significantly elevate a country’s growth and to enhance productivity. It is now well-acknowledged that emerging economies are beginning to innovate at a rapid rate despite some of the challenges they face. Given that these countries with such economies now comprise...... economies, what needs to be studied, and how they should be studied. We attempt to contribute in this area by: (1) providing a comprehensive framework of existing research on ICT innovation in emerging economies, (2) highlighting the gaps that have been left behind, and (3) providing specific guidelines...

  11. Privacy in the Sharing Economy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ranzini, Giulia; Etter, Michael; Lutz, Christoph

    Report from the EU H2020 Research Project Ps2Share:Participation, Privacy, and Power in the Sharing Economy. This paper gives an in-depth overview of the topic of power in the sharing economy. It forms one part of a European Union Horizon 2020 Research Project on the sharing economy: "Ps2Share...... Participation, Privacy, and Power in the Sharing Economy". We aim to foster better awareness of the consequences which the sharing economy has on the way people behave, think, interact, and socialize across Europe. Our overarching objective is to identify key challenges of the sharing economy and improve Europe......’s digital services through providing recommendations to Europe’s institutions. The initial stage of this research project involves a set of three literature reviews of the state of research on three core topics in relation to the sharing economy: participation (1), privacy (2), and power (3). This piece...

  12. Coding Class

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ejsing-Duun, Stine; Hansbøl, Mikala

    Sammenfatning af de mest væsentlige pointer fra hovedrapporten: Dokumentation og evaluering af Coding Class......Sammenfatning af de mest væsentlige pointer fra hovedrapporten: Dokumentation og evaluering af Coding Class...

  13. Feminism and Critical Political Economy of Communication

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mojca Pajnik

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The article deals with the study of feminist analysis in the field of political economy of communication. We discuss feminisms that flirt with Marxism, socialist and radical feminism, in the light of the importance of studies in the field of communication. We highlight the relevance of the feminist critique of Marxism, drawing attention to the engendered class and addressing the inequalities of capitalist society, not only in the sphere of production but also with relation to the reproductive labor. We introduce notions of “capitalist patriarchy” and “sex class” in order to emphasize the dialectical relationship between the class stratification and hierarchical structuring of capitalist society. We problematize the decline of the materialist perspectives in feminist critique as a turn to discourse and ideology while marginalizing class as an analytical category. In this article, we introduce an intersectional understanding of gender that contributes to gender de-essencialization and de-homogenization. Attention is also paid to prospects for the feminist political economy of communication today, to how it is constituted and what types of analyses it brings and why it is important for the understanding of contemporary society and the processes of communication.

  14. Comparison between response dynamics in transition economies and developed economies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tenenbaum, Joel; Horvatić, Davor; Bajić, Slavica Cosović; Pehlivanović, Bećo; Podobnik, Boris; Stanley, H. Eugene

    2010-10-01

    In developed economies, the sign of the price increment influences the volatility in an asymmetric fashion—negative increments tend to result in larger volatility (increments with larger magnitudes), while positive increments result in smaller volatility. We explore whether this asymmetry extends from developed economies to European transition economies and, if so, how such asymmetry changes over time as these transition economies develop and mature. We analyze eleven European transition economies and compare the results with those obtained by analyzing U.S. market indices. Specifically, we calculate parameters that quantify both the volatility asymmetry and the strength of its dependence on prior increments. We find that, like their developed economy counterparts, almost all transition economy indices exhibit a significant volatility asymmetry, and the parameter γ characterizing asymmetry fluctuates more over time for transition economies. We also investigate how the association between volatility and volatility asymmetry varies by type of market. We test the hypothesis of a negative correlation between volatility and volatility asymmetry. We find that, for developed economies, γ experiences local minima during (i) “Black Monday” on October 19, 1987, (ii) the dot-com bubble crash in 2002, and (iii) the 2007-2009 global crisis while for transition economies, γ experiences local maxima during times of economic crisis.

  15. Subaltern Classes, Class Struggles and Hegemony : a Gramscian Approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivete Simionatto

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available This article sought to revive the concept of subaltern classes and their relation with other categories, particularly the State, civil society and hegemony in the thinking of Antonio Gramsci, as a support for contemporary class struggles. It also analyzes the relations between subaltern classes, common sense and ideology, as well as the forms of “overcoming” conceptualized by Gramsci, through the culture and philosophy of praxis. The paper revives the discussion of the subaltern classes, based on the original Gramscian formulation in the realm of Marxism, through the dialectic interaction between structure and superstructure, economy and politics. In addition to the conceptual revival, it indicates some elements that can support the discussion of the forms of subalternity found in contemporary reality and the possibilities for strengthening the struggles of these class layers, above all in moments of strong demobilization of popular participation.

  16. The real new economy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farrell, Diana

    2003-10-01

    During the soar-and-swoon days of the late 1990s, many people believed that information technology, and the Internet in particular, were "changing everything" in business. A fundamental change did happen in the 1990s, but it was less about technology than about competition. Under director Diana Farrell, the McKinsey Global Institute has conducted an extensive study of productivity and its connection to corporate IT spending and use during that period. The study revealed that information technology is important--but not central--to the fate of industries and individual companies. So if information technology was not the primary factor in the productivity surge, what was? The study points to competition and innovation. In those industries that saw increases in competitive intensity, managers were forced to innovate aggressively to protect their revenues and profits. Those innovations--in products, business practices, and technology--led to the gains in productivity. In fact, a critical dynamic of the new economy--the real new economy--is the virtuous cycle of competition, innovation, and productivity growth. Managers can innovate in many ways, but during the 1990s, information technology was a particularly powerful tool, for three reasons: First, IT enabled the development of attractive new products and efficient new business processes. Second, it facilitated the rapid industrywide diffusion of innovations. And third, it exhibited strong scale economies--its benefits multiplied rapidly as its use expanded. This article reveals surprising data on how various industries in the United States and Europe were affected by competition, innovation, and information technology in the 1990s and offers insights about how managers can get more from their IT investments.

  17. Economy and energy politic

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Martin, J.M.

    1992-01-01

    This book, divided into four parts, describes, first, energy consumption and national economy growth. In a second part, the irresistible ascent of coal, natural gas and petroleum international markets is studied. In the third part, energy politic is investigated: exchanges releasing, prices deregulation, contestation of power industry monopoly, energy national market and common energetic politic, single market concept. In the last part, global risks and world-wide regulations are given: demand, energy resources, technical changes, comparative evaluations between fossil, nuclear and renewable energies, environment, investments financing and international cooperation. 23 refs., 14 figs., 16 tabs

  18. CORRUPTION IN ECONOMY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ljupka B. Petrevska

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Ethics in the social life of the people there since ancient times. Not so long ago, jobs were assembled so that, after the deal, people shake hands. Such a ritual was enough to formalize the act of entering into a business deal. Over time, he grew up living standards, it appears that the mistrust between the people grew, the business is not the same as before, and corruption is all over. Countries in transition, going through a period when food is fixed in a sensitive stage and when corruption is playing a very important role in the progress of the economy of a country.

  19. The Methanol Economy Project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Olah, George [Univ. of Southern California, Los Angeles, CA (United States); Prakash, G. K. [Univ. of Southern California, Los Angeles, CA (United States)

    2014-02-01

    The Methanol Economy Project is based on the concept of replacing fossil fuels with methanol generated either from renewable resources or abundant natural (shale) gas. The full methanol cycle was investigated in this project, from production of methanol through bromination of methane, bireforming of methane to syngas, CO2 capture using supported amines, co-electrolysis of CO2 and water to formate and syngas, decomposition of formate to CO2 and H2, and use of formic acid in a direct formic acid fuel cell. Each of these projects achieved milestones and provided new insights into their respective fields.

  20. Public Economy versus Planned Economy. Current Approaches and Problems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ani Matei

    2006-03-01

    Full Text Available he present paper proposes a review of the current object and problems facing the public economy. For the past decade and a half, public economy has clearly come back in the attention of the research interests of specialists from the Central and Eastern European countries. Among these, the scientific research encompassed by the public economy area interrelates with the international trends. At a closer look, public economy appears to be a science, particularly interdisciplinary, with sociological, political, econometrical or systemic approaches possible to prevail. To continue, the author makes reference to four pillars of the public economy: optimum, welfare, social choice and economic justice that allow different approaches to develop. A science branch, equally theoretical and practical, public economy will stress its connections with the economic and mathematic modeling, systemic analysis or sociological and political research. Still, seve¬ral problems in public economy remain open. These concentrate on the public interest, intervention and decision. Conceptualization, understanding and description of the mechanisms that allow the operationalisation may form the basis for further developments on both theoretical and practical level. A clear distinction in order to justify the title of this article needs to be made. Public economy is not to be confused with planning economy. The state remains but one of the producers and delivery agents of public goods and services.

  1. Public Economy versus Planned Economy. Current Approaches and Problems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ani Matei

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available The present paper proposes a review of the current object and problems facing the public economy. For the past decade and a half, public economy has clearly come back in the attention of the research interests of specialists from the Central and Eastern European countries. Among these, the scientific research encompassed by the public economy area interrelates with the international trends. At a closer look, public economy appears to be a science, particularly interdisciplinary, with sociological, political, econometrical or systemic approaches possible to prevail. To continue, the author makes reference to four pillars of the public economy: optimum, welfare, social choice and economic justice that allow different approaches to develop. A science branch, equally theoretical and practical, public economy will stress its connections with the economic and mathematic modeling, systemic analysis or sociological and political research. Still, seve¬ral problems in public economy remain open. These concentrate on the public interest, intervention and decision. Conceptualization, understanding and description of the mechanisms that allow the operationalisation may form the basis for further developments on both theoretical and practical level. A clear distinction in order to justify the title of this article needs to be made. Public economy is not to be confused with planning economy. The state remains but one of the producers and delivery agents of public goods and services.

  2. A green economy?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Petrus Simons

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Economic growth has become a fetish, as it is believed to yield many benefits to society. It has its origins in the Enlightenment ideal of progress through science, technology and a free market economy. J.W. Goethe anticipated the problems of such progress in his poem Faust, especially its second part. Binswanger interprets Goethe’s view on the modern economy as a form of alchemy, an attempt to master time through the invention of monetary capital. Keynes’s views on progress and liquidity are compatible with this analysis. The problems, evoked by the uncritical application of scientific technology so as to increase material welfare, have given rise to a dialectic between business seeking growth and those concerned about its effects, especially on ecology. Sustainable development is an outcome of this dialectic, without abandoning it. Others, particularly those advocating décroissance [de-growth], reject the concepts underlying growth. The ideology underlying this is a combination of technicism and economism. A spiritual revolution is called for to break the hold of this ideology on society, with a change from the metaphor of the world as a machine to that of a garden-city. It is suggested that working groups should analyse the various proposals for change from the perspective of the garden-city metaphor.

  3. The energy economy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Meritet, Sophie; Vaujour, Jean-Baptiste

    2015-01-01

    This introduction to the economy of energy applies the main economic concepts to the energy sector (nature of the good, supply, demand), proposes an overview of existing actors, and analyses challenges and tools of economic policy like network regulation, competition policy, independence and energy transition. By using recent examples, statistics and international comparisons, it gives elements to highlight issues like the relationship between shale gas exploitation and economic recovery in the USA, the choice between monopole and competition for electricity or gas supply, reaching greenhouse gas emissions of the energy sector by incentives or taxes, secure energy supplies in a changing international environment, ways to supply energy to everyone at prices guaranteeing economy competitiveness, or ways to evolve towards energy systems which would be more environment- and climate-friendly. The successive chapters address fundamentals issues (nature of the good, historical and technical overview), the State intervention (definition of an energy policy, steering the energy mix, ensuring secure supply), the reorganisation of industries and the protection of consumers, the relationship between energy and climate (worrying perspectives, progressive emergence of solutions). The last chapter addresses the future challenges like innovation, and disruptive innovations (smart grids, big data, batteries, CO 2 capture and storage, nuclear waste processing and management, development of nuclear fusion), and the issue of energy poverty

  4. Network Transformations in Economy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bolychev O.

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available In the context of ever-increasing market competition, networked interactions play a special role in the economy. The network form of entrepreneurship is increasingly viewed as an effective organizational structure to create a market value embedded in innovative business solutions. The authors study the characteristics of a network as an economic category and emphasize certain similarities between Rus sian and international approaches to identifying interactions of economic systems based on the network principle. The paper focuses on the types of networks widely used in the economy. The authors analyze the transformation of business networks along two lines: from an intra- to an inter-firm network and from an inter-firm to an inter-organizational network. The possible forms of network formation are described depending on the strength of connections and the type of integration. The drivers and reasons behind process of transition from a hierarchical model of the organizational structure to a network type are identified. The authors analyze the advantages of creating inter-firm networks and discuss the features of inter-organizational networks as compares to inter-firm ones. The article summarizes the reasons for and advantages of participation in inter-rganizational networks and identifies the main barriers to the formation of inter-organizational network.

  5. The political economy of railway construction in Nigeria: the Bornu ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The political economy of railway construction in Nigeria: the Bornu railway extension. ... One key strategy employed was to side with the faction of the Nigerian petty bourgeoisie whose political, economic and class interests were in agreement with ... The 400-mile extension was eventually constructed and opened in 1964.

  6. A Token Economy Made Easy through ClassDojo

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robacker, Cassie M.; Rivera, Christopher J.; Warren, Sandra H.

    2016-01-01

    Students with behavioral and emotional disabilities spend less time on academic instruction due to their behavioral disruptions, contributing to the academic difficulties these students face. Classroom management strategies, in the form of positive behavioral interventions and supports (PBIS), incorporate principles of applied behavior analysis to…

  7. An Economy of Class Differential: Productivity in Composition Studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vandenberg, Peter

    By the late 19th century, the new universities in the United States had become so closely intertwined with the research imperative that their future depended on their position at the center of knowledge creation. The tension between the liberal arts college and the "modern" research university initiated a process of differentiation that…

  8. The collaborative Economy and Tourism

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dredge, Dianne; Gyimóthy, Szilvia

    2015-01-01

    House swapping, ridesharing, voluntourism, couchsurfing, dinner hosting and similar innovations epitomize the collaborative economy. The rise of the collaborative economy, also known as collaborative consumption, the sharing economy and peer-to-peer consumption, has been fuelled by a range...... experiences; and higher levels of consumer risk-taking balanced against mechanisms such as peer-to-peer feedback designed to engender trust between producers and consumers. This paper explores and critically assesses the collaborative economy and its implications for tourism industrial systems. It achieves...... this by mapping out the current knowledge dynamics characterising tourism and the collaborative economy, paying particular attention to the asymmetries of knowledge that are emerging. The paper then identifies and critically discusses five pervasive claims being made about the collaborative economy, arguing...

  9. Grey economy, crisis and transition in Serbia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Novaković Nada G.

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available In this article the author uses a sociological approach to the study of the gray economy in a society in transition, i.e. the Serbian society. A special emphasis is placed on the socio-economic development from 2007 to 2012. This is the time just before the onset of the global economic crisis, and its deepening and expansion. In Serbia, the privatization and transition of society had just terminated. The main thesis of this paper is that the main factors of the emergence and spread of the shadow economy are primarily of domestic origin. The world crisis gave them just a special stamp. The most important factors of gray economy are systemic in nature. These are the following: the inherent nature of the state transition, the selected and implemented concept of privatization and, finally, the character of Serbian political and economic elites. They form the core of the new capitalist class in Serbia, which is dependent on the international centers of financial, political and military power. The concept of the underground, gray economy refers to the following: unauthorized activities outside the law and norms of business, avoidance of tax and other obligations, bribery and corruption. The author emphasized the multidimensionality of the gray economy and attempted to interdisciplinary approach its study. Therefore, he used a large array of data: economic, demographic and historical. Special attention was paid to the results of sociological research on the structure of society, inequality, unemployment and poverty of citizens. The first part lists the most important systemic factors of growth of gray economy in Serbia. They are numerous, but the article focuses on the following: 1. the neo-liberal model of social transition; 2. the model of 'shock' privatization of the social assets; 3. the collapse of the welfare state and the dwindling of acquired economic and social rights; 4. the influence of the 'international community'; 5. the low activity and

  10. Seigniorage revenue and Turkish economy

    OpenAIRE

    Levent, Korap

    2006-01-01

    In our paper, we try to investigate the courses of inflation tax and seigniorage revenue for policy makers of the Turkish economy. For this purpose, we first construct an ex-ante seigniorage revenue maximizing inflation model, and then calculate annual inflation tax and seigniorage revenues for the post-1980 period Turkish economy. Following these theoretical issues, an empirical model is constructed upon the Turkish economy, and our expost estimation results reveal that inside the period con...

  11. Heroes of the knowledge economy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ørberg, Jakob Williams

    – futures. The thesis provides new knowledge about the relationship between the development of a global knowledge economy in policy and popular culture, and of the ethnographic detail in which it is materializing. Throughout the thesis it is explored how students cope with policy expectations, and how...... of anxieties over falling out or falling behind in a global economy, as well as about the student and institutional work to further India’s position in this economy....

  12. Nationalizing Rituals? The Ritual Economy in Malaysia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fischer, Johan

    2008-01-01

    Starting in the 1970s, the wave of Islamic revivalism in Malaysia has revitalized ritual life among many Malay Muslims. In the same period, the country has witnessed steady economic growth, an emerging Malay middle class and the formation of an Islamic state bureaucracy that attempts to transform...... the understanding and practice of Islamic ritual. Building on fieldwork in a suburb outside Malaysia’s capital city, Kuala Lumpur, this article explores this ritual economy i.e. ways in which economic processes are driven by and integrated with religious ritual. I shall show how the question of Islamic rituals...... evokes a wide range of contestations in the interfaces between the state and everyday lives of middle-class Malays. An important theme is how the state as a consequence of its de-emphasis on Islamic ritual practices tries to transform ritual to make it compatible with what I shall call ‘proper Islamic...

  13. Macroeconomics in an open economy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cooper, R N

    1986-09-12

    The customary treatment of national economies as closed and self-contained must be substantially modified to allow for those economies that typically trade goods, services, and securities with other countries in increasing volume. Open economy macroeconomics is essential to understanding the major events of the U.S. economy over the past half dozen years. Both the sharp rise in the dollar and the unprecedentedly large U.S. trade deficit are linked to the U.S. budget deficit, as is the drop in the rate of inflation.

  14. From war economies to peace economies in Africa | Broodryk ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    One reason for the persistence and protracted nature of conflict on the. African continent is the phenomenon of war economies. These have transformed the nature of war itself where the object is not at neutralizing an enemy but to institutionalize violence at a profitable level of intensity. Transforming war economies into ...

  15. Political economies and environmental futures for the sharing economy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Frenken, Koen|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/207145253

    2017-01-01

    The sudden rise of the sharing economy has sparked an intense public debate about its definition, its effects and its future regulation. Here, I attempt to provide analytical guidance by defining the sharing economy as the practice that consumers grant each other temporary access to their

  16. An Economy of Grace

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Victor Tan Chen

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available This essay is adapted from a plenary talk the author gave at the “Growing Apart: The Implications of Economic Inequality” interdisciplinary conference at Boston College on 9 April 2016, as well as portions of his book Cut Loose: Jobless and Hopeless in an Unfair Economy, a sociological ethnography based on interviews and observations of unemployed autoworkers in Detroit, Michigan, and Windsor, Canada, during and after the Great Recession. The essay discusses four themes from this research. First, it provides a sociological understanding of how long-term unemployment and economic inequality are experienced by today’s less advantaged workers. Second, it illustrates how social policy can improve their circumstances. Third, it examines the limits of policy, and how dealing with inequality also requires changing the broader culture. Fourth, it makes the case for one possible approach to bring about that cultural change: a morality of grace.

  17. Domesticizing Financial Economies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ossandón, José; Deville, Joe; Lazarus, Jeanne

    a lively academic atmosphere for this emerging multidisciplinary and international academic conversation around the place of finance in contemporary life. Second, we expect to demonstrate that what we term domesticizing finance adds a particular modification to the study of finance more generally......In the wake of the financial crisis, there has been an explosion of interest in the place finance occupies in our societies and economies. This paper suggests a different angle from which to study of finance, interested in how finance is domesticized. Domesticizing finance, as a theoretical...... and methodological orientation, is about simultaneously studying the use and practice of finance in domestic settings and the ways in which domestic life is enacted as target of varied financial providers and governed in terms of its financial capabilities. We aim to achieve three things in this article. First...

  18. Gold in Modern Economy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Boryshkevych Olena V.

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The article studies the role of gold in modern economy. It analyses dynamics and modern state of the gold market. It studies volumes of contracts in exchange and off-exchange markets. In order to reveal changes of key features of the gold market, it focuses on the study of gold demand volumes, studies volumes and geographical changes in the world gold mining, and analyses volumes of monetary gold of central banks and its share in gold and currency reserves. It analyses price fluctuations in the gold market during 1968 – 2013 and identifies main factors that determine the gold price. It identifies interconnection between the state of the gold market and financial markets of countries. The study showed that namely geopolitical and economic instability restricts the spectrum of financial assets for investing and gold is not only a safe investment object but also a profitable one.

  19. Securing the Digital Economy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valentin P. MĂZĂREANU

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The Digital economy has naturally led to thereconfiguration of communication and information processes.These processes are depending on the computer, starting fromthe personal one and reaching to computer networks, whetherlocal, metropolitan or global. These led to the development ofsuch information systems able to communicate information,systems that must also ensure the security of communicationsbetween computers within the company, but also betweencomputers of different parties, outside the company. As thecommunication between computers in the network has evolvedto electronic funds transfer (EFT, digital money andcommunication of personal data, internet banking, etc., theimportance of security issues of data transmitted over thenetwork also has increased. Even more as the network hasevolved into a “wireless” one.

  20. Linear Economy Versus Circular Economy: A Comparative and Analyzer Study for Optimization of Economy for Sustainability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sariatli Furkan

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Upon visiting the existing literature on the subject of linear vs. circular economy, this paper finds that, the blueprint of the current economy is hardly sustainable by using the comparative benchmarking method that drained from literature. The intrinsic mechanics of the linear economy, by relying on the wasteful take - make - dispose flow, is detrimental to the environment, cannot supply the growing populace of our planet with essential services and it naturally leads to strained profitability. Elements of a plausible solution to the challenges have been around for decades, although they have only recently been compiled in to the conceptual framework of circular economy. The core ideas of Circular Economy are elimination of waste by design, respect for the social, economic and natural environment and resource-conscious business conduct. Built on the backbone of these principles, the circular economy has demonstrated to deliver tangible benefits and viability to address the economic, environmental and social challenges of our days.

  1. Economie en totale oorlog

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H.A.M. Klemann

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available J. Meihuizen, Noodzakelijk kwaad. De bestraffing van economische collaboratie in Nederland na de Tweede WereldoorlogThe economy and full-scale warMeihuizen concludes that the interests of the reconstruction had to take precedence over those of an honourable judicial process, as a result of which cases of economic collaboration seldom reached the courts. This essay argues that Dutch firms could not avoid manufacturing goods for the occupying forces because they were often relatively small-scale in nature and organised along the lines of a family business. If this type of firm refused to fulfil a German order and its competitor was willing to accept it, then it ran the risk of being squeezed out by the competition. This is why, in the Netherlands and elsewhere, as soon as a firm made the transition from a smallscale to a medium-sized family business it was inclined to work all-out for the occupying forces. This had nothing to do with free choice, but rather the will to survive. In addition to this, non-military production, even that which was geared towards keeping the people at home alive and healthy, supported the German war effort. In an economy where all military production is systematically maximized and manufacturing geared towards producing civilian goods is pushed back to a level where it can just about survive, all manufacturing becomes economic collaboration, thereby making the notion redundant. Consequently, the question that should have resounded throughout this study ought to have been whether a legal case could have been made against economic collaboration at all or whether this was doomed to fail from the start.

  2. Tourism's intimate economies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bill Maurer

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available [First paragraph] What’s Love Got To Do with It? Transnational Desires and Sex Tourism in the Dominican Republic. Denise Brennan. Durham NC: Duke University Press, 2004. ix + 280 pp. (Paper US$ 21.95 Behind the Smile: The Working Lives of Caribbean Tourism. George Gmelch. Bloomington: Indiana University Press, 2003. x + 212 pp. (Paper US$ 19.95 New research on Caribbean tourism solidly locates it within the regional shift from “incentive-induced exports” like bananas to “service-based exports” like data processing, offshore finance, and novel forms of mass tourism (Mullings 2004:294; Duval 2004. Earlier studies may have made mention of the similarities between plantation economies and tourism development, but new models like the all-inclusive resort demonstrate a near identity of form and structure with plantation systems: foreign dominance over ownership and profit leaves little multiplier effect for the Caribbean islands playing host to enclaved resorts. Agricultural exports have been in free fall since the end of preferential trade protocols, and export manufacturing after the North American Free Trade Agreement is in steep decline. If new service economies seemed to offer a solution to economic and social disorder, the reaction to the events of September 11, 2001 demonstrated the fragility of service-based exports and, in particular, of new kinds of tourism. It took four years for international tourism to rebound to pre-9/11 levels;1 with the perceived threat of SARS and avian flu, as well as the Iraq war and the weak U.S. dollar, official projections of the industry’s near future are “cautiously optimistic.”2

  3. New Economy, Old Central Banks?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Berk, Jan Marc

    2002-01-01

    Proponents of the so-called New Economy claim that it entails a structural change of the economy. Such a change, in turn, would require the central bank to rethink its monetary policy to the extent that traditional relationships between inf1ation and economic growth are no longer valid. But such a

  4. Experience economy brimming with potential

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Flemming; Sundbo, Jon

    2014-01-01

    In these days of economic uncertainty, businesses ought to make better use of recent research into the experience economy. Perhaps co-creation and individualisation can save us from the crisis, argue the editors of a new book about the latest research into the experience economy....

  5. Learning in a credit economy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Assenza, T.; Berardi, M.

    2008-01-01

    In this work we analyze a credit economy à la Kiyotaki and Moore (JPE, 1997) enriched with learning dynamics. Both borrowers and lenders need to make expectations about the future price of the collateral, and under heterogeneous learning this can have interesting con- sequences for the economy when

  6. Fuel Economy Testing and Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    EPA’s Fuel Economy pages provide information on current standards and how federal agencies work to enforce those laws, testing for national Corporate Average Fuel Economy or CAFE standards, and what you can do to reduce your own vehicle emissions.

  7. New Economy - New Policy Rules?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bullard, J.; Schaling, E.

    2000-01-01

    The U.S. economy appears to have experienced a pronounced shift toward higher productivity over the last five years or so. We wish to understand the implications of such shifts for the structure of optimal monetary policy rules in simple dynamic economies. Accordingly, we begin with a standard

  8. Entrepreneurship in the network economy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    F.J. de Graaf; Dr. Hugo Velthuijsen

    2009-01-01

    The network economy typically signifies a notion from the information society where new products and services are developed by collaborating individuals and/or businesses organised in virtual networks. The network economy has important characteristics in common with Northern European governance

  9. Interorganisational Management in Entrepreneurial Economies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Poul Rind; Piihl, Jesper

    2004-01-01

    In this article relationship management is defined and discussed in the context of an entrepreneurial society. Important aspects of trends in entrepreneurial economies to aspects of managerial economies. Based on a review of established management theories, it is concluded that there is a need...

  10. An Evaluation of the Revenue side as a source of fiscal consolidation in high debt economies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Banerjee, Ritwik

    Unsustainable levels of debt in some European economies are causing considerable strain in the Euro area. Successful debt consolidation in high debt economies is one of the most important important objective for the European policy makers. I use a dynamic general equilibrium closed economy model...... to compute the dynamic Laffer Curves for Portugal, Ireland, Greece and Spain for different class of taxes. The general equilibrium effects of the interaction of labor tax, consumption tax and capital tax is demonstrated. Location of each economy on its Laffer curve suggests that there exists a scope...

  11. Gaming the Attention Economy

    OpenAIRE

    Estrada, Daniel; Lawhead, Jonathan

    2013-01-01

    The future of human computation (HC) benefits from examining tasks that agents already perform and designing environments to give those tasks computational significance. We call this natural human computation (NHC). We consider the possible future of NHC through the lens of Swarm!, an application under development for Google Glass. Swarm! motivates users to compute the solutions to a class of economic optimization problems by engaging the attention dynamics of crowds. We argue that anticipati...

  12. Informal economy as an expression of the state failure

    OpenAIRE

    Agata Kubiczek

    2010-01-01

    The article deals with the phenomenon of second economy, underground or subterranean economy, unofficial economy, unrecorded economy, informal economy, cash economy etc., which has been assessed here as a function of a given mix of economic policies.

  13. Word classes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rijkhoff, Jan

    2007-01-01

    This article provides an overview of recent literature and research on word classes, focusing in particular on typological approaches to word classification. The cross-linguistic classification of word class systems (or parts-of-speech systems) presented in this article is based on statements found...... in grammatical descriptions of some 50 languages, which together constitute a representative sample of the world’s languages (Hengeveld et al. 2004: 529). It appears that there are both quantitative and qualitative differences between word class systems of individual languages. Whereas some languages employ...... a parts-of-speech system that includes the categories Verb, Noun, Adjective and Adverb, other languages may use only a subset of these four lexical categories. Furthermore, quite a few languages have a major word class whose members cannot be classified in terms of the categories Verb – Noun – Adjective...

  14. Coding Class

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ejsing-Duun, Stine; Hansbøl, Mikala

    Denne rapport rummer evaluering og dokumentation af Coding Class projektet1. Coding Class projektet blev igangsat i skoleåret 2016/2017 af IT-Branchen i samarbejde med en række medlemsvirksomheder, Københavns kommune, Vejle Kommune, Styrelsen for IT- og Læring (STIL) og den frivillige forening......, design tænkning og design-pædagogik, Stine Ejsing-Duun fra Forskningslab: It og Læringsdesign (ILD-LAB) ved Institut for kommunikation og psykologi, Aalborg Universitet i København. Vi har fulgt og gennemført evaluering og dokumentation af Coding Class projektet i perioden november 2016 til maj 2017....... Coding Class projektet er et pilotprojekt, hvor en række skoler i København og Vejle kommuner har igangsat undervisningsaktiviteter med fokus på kodning og programmering i skolen. Evalueringen og dokumentationen af projektet omfatter kvalitative nedslag i udvalgte undervisningsinterventioner i efteråret...

  15. Future Economy and Touristic Entrepreneurship

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Viorica Jelev

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Specialists claim that Eco-Bio-economy or social economy is the economy of future, in the service of human life by the rational use of environmental resources. The concept brings together in an integrated manner, according to the researchers, economy, ecology, biodiversity, biotechnologies and focuses on integrated sustainable development of the world. The new social economy, together with the corporate social responsibility joins a new multipolar world to a healthy environment by creative and innovative concepts that will ensure the sustainability of living in a sustainable manner. Doctors have added to thisEco-Bio-Economy concept a new one called One Health - a new integrated approach for human, animals and environment health state to that they should emphasize the importance of human behavior upon the planet biodiversity. Economer agents have mostly understood the importance of alarm signals drawn up by researchers on the destruction of the resources of the planet and adapted their business sites to the requirements of the green economy. A responsible business is also ecotourism that promotes a favourable travel for the surrounding environment. It requires accommodation on farms, in peasant houses, small rural hotels. The educational environment contributes to the trend planetary tourism, with the formation of new specialists with new knowledge, behaviors and consumers use formation of new characters, sensitive to environmental issues. This educational model is also promoted by Spiru Haret University, by creating the Master degree in tourism but also in environmental protection.

  16. Perspectives on Eco Economics. Circular Economy and Smart Economy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristina Balaceanu

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The implementation of sustainable development principles in contemporary economic thinking has generated the conceptual remodeling that expresses the new mechanisms of the economy. Thus, the concept of circular economy meet the theoretical representation of an economic system oriented towards the re-use of waste as raw materials and limiting the production of waste that cannot come back into the economic circuit. Circular economy is one that involves even its concept of operation, recovery and regeneration, as much as possible of resources, aiming to preserve, at the highest level, the value and usefulness of products, components and raw materials, distinguishing between technical and biological cycles. In this way, we can find solutions for two major issues affecting today's economy: the limited nature of resources and the pollution generated by the waste resulting from economic activities.

  17. Experiences of Emerging Economy Firms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Experiences of Emerging Economy Firms investigates the different elements of the experiences of emerging economy firms and sheds essential light on a large variety of aspects associated with their functioning in both home and host contexts. For example, firms must be able to overcome the liability...... of foreign and emerging issues when they expand their activities in various contexts, enter, exit, and re-enter overseas markets; they have to overcome institutional barriers, adapt the cultural challenges in foreign markets, undergo the impact of large multinational firms from developed economies...

  18. Handbook on the Experience Economy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    surrounding the nature and importance of the experience economy. The second section presents more specific topics including innovation, networks and the design of experiences. Finally, the last section explores issues such as cultural events, cuisine, theatre and video games. Moreover, the Handbook gives......This illuminating Handbook presents the state-of-the-art in the scientific field of experience economy studies. It offers a rich and varied collection of contributions that discuss different issues of crucial importance for our understanding of the experience economy. Each chapter reflects diverse...

  19. Digitalizing the Circular Economy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reuter, Markus A.

    2016-12-01

    Metallurgy is a key enabler of a circular economy (CE), its digitalization is the metallurgical Internet of Things (m-IoT). In short: Metallurgy is at the heart of a CE, as metals all have strong intrinsic recycling potentials. Process metallurgy, as a key enabler for a CE, will help much to deliver its goals. The first-principles models of process engineering help quantify the resource efficiency (RE) of the CE system, connecting all stakeholders via digitalization. This provides well-argued and first-principles environmental information to empower a tax paying consumer society, policy, legislators, and environmentalists. It provides the details of capital expenditure and operational expenditure estimates. Through this path, the opportunities and limits of a CE, recycling, and its technology can be estimated. The true boundaries of sustainability can be determined in addition to the techno-economic evaluation of RE. The integration of metallurgical reactor technology and systems digitally, not only on one site but linking different sites globally via hardware, is the basis for describing CE systems as dynamic feedback control loops, i.e., the m-IoT. It is the linkage of the global carrier metallurgical processing system infrastructure that maximizes the recovery of all minor and technology elements in its associated refining metallurgical infrastructure. This will be illustrated through the following: (1) System optimization models for multimetal metallurgical processing. These map large-scale m-IoT systems linked to computer-aided design tools of the original equipment manufacturers and then establish a recycling index through the quantification of RE. (2) Reactor optimization and industrial system solutions to realize the "CE (within a) Corporation—CEC," realizing the CE of society. (3) Real-time measurement of ore and scrap properties in intelligent plant structures, linked to the modeling, simulation, and optimization of industrial extractive process

  20. Why the New Economy is a Learning Economy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lundvall, Bengt-Åke

    In this paper it is shown that the intense focus on the new economy reflected real change as well as 'hype?. The basic reason why new economy-growth could not be seen as sustainable is that introducing advanced technologies can only take place successfully when it is accompanied by organizational....... In the conclusion it is argued that there is a need for a new type of knowledge and learning oriented Keynesianism in order to get close to the kind of growth rates characterizing the high days of the new economy adventure in the US.......In this paper it is shown that the intense focus on the new economy reflected real change as well as 'hype?. The basic reason why new economy-growth could not be seen as sustainable is that introducing advanced technologies can only take place successfully when it is accompanied by organizational...... change and competence-building among employees. Any strategy that gives technology an independent role as problem-solver is doomed to fail. Danish data of a unique character are used to demonstrate that the key to economic performance is to promote learning at different levels of the economy...

  1. Fuel Economy Label and CAFE Data

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — The Engine and Vehicle Compliance Certification and Fuel Economy Inventory contains measured emissions and fuel economy compliance information for light duty...

  2. MARKETING IMPLICATION IN WINE ECONOMY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ştefan MATEI

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available The wine, a very complex product in viticulture, has proved its tremendous importance not only to the individual but rational nutrition and increasing national income of a country cultivators (evidenced by the upward trend of the share of crop production horticulture and viticulture in the global economy agricultural. More interesting is, given the continued growth in the number of scientific publications and their quality (at least since the 1980s - where "wine" is the centerpiece of these studies - we can not but be witnessing a growing interest more to this "potion" and found that the growing popularity of wine in the science reveals the emergence of a new academic field, ie "wine economy" (or wine-economy. This study aims to make a foray into "wine economy" and to outline some of the implications of marketing in this area.

  3. From Enclave to Linkage Economies?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Michael W.

    If African developing countries are to benefit fully from the current boom in foreign direct investment (FDI) in extractives (i.e. mining and oil/gas), it is essential that the foreign investors foster linkages to the local economy. Traditionally, extractive FDI in Africa has been seen as the enc......If African developing countries are to benefit fully from the current boom in foreign direct investment (FDI) in extractives (i.e. mining and oil/gas), it is essential that the foreign investors foster linkages to the local economy. Traditionally, extractive FDI in Africa has been seen...... as the enclave economy par excellence, moving in with fully integrated value chains, extracting resources and exporting them as commodities having virtually no linkages to the local economy. However, new opportunities for promoting linkages are offered by changing business strategies of local African enterprises...

  4. Iraq's Economy: Past, Present, Future

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Sanford, Jonathan E

    2003-01-01

    .... Iraq's industrial sector was created, in large part, as a result of government efforts to diversify the economy through economic development projects using the proceeds from Iraq's oil wealth and borrowed funds...

  5. Green capitalist economies through a focus on labour

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lopez-Alonso, Rocio Hiraldo

    -related PES projects; and c) workers’ mobilisations against exploitation and expropriation. The thesis shows how, through expropriation, exploitation and class conflict, the green economy benefits capitalist owners while separating workers from the ownership of their labour. Forest privatisation belongs...... institutions, while little is known about how people working to make a living (hereafter “workers”) are experiencing the development of green economies. This thesis seeks to fill this gap. It studies how the conditions of workers’ labour are being shaped by the social relations of production enabling...... three ways in which the social relations of capitalist production in this green economy have shaped labour conditions: a) the privatisation of 1800 hectares of mangrove forest through the creation of a tourism-oriented protected area; b) the activity of work in nature-based tourism and forestry...

  6. The Underground Economy in Romania

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cleopatra Sendroiu

    2006-07-01

    Full Text Available Underground economic activities exist in most countries around the world, and they usually have the same causes: inadequate tax systems, excessive state interference in the economy and the lack of coordination in establishing economic policies. Through this paper, we aim to offer certain recommendations, which, in our opinion, would lead to solving the issue of inadequate allocation of resources and would also contribute to restoration of the worldwide economy.

  7. Competitiveness Evaluation of Slovenian Economy

    OpenAIRE

    Art Kovacic

    2007-01-01

    Evaluation of competitiveness became an important instrument for balancing the development process of the economy. For Slovenia it is important tool for policy creation. Benchmarking with more developed countries shows us the right directions of development process. Competitiveness can be analysed from different sides. Existed studies have focused on several different analytical levels: product, firm, industry cluster, region and nation. The most successful economies are raising the skill con...

  8. Stockholm: green economy leader report

    OpenAIRE

    Graham Floater; Philipp Rode; Dimitri Zenghelis

    2013-01-01

    Stockholm is a leading city for green economic growth. Despite the global downturn, the city’s low carbon economy remains highly competitive and well positioned for driving sustained growth in the medium to long term. This report, produced in partnership with the City of Stockholm, shows that Stockholm took early action to build a green economy – unlike most cities, environmental policies have been important to Stockholm for over 40 years. At the same time, early infrastructure investment suc...

  9. Social Economy: Challenges and Opportunities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ioan HOSU

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available The present article addresses a topic of interest for both the public sector and the nonprofit sector, namely that of the innovative practices of social economy. Diverse practices and models of social economy are increasingly present in the Romanian community, this being the reason why it is important to study the major coordinates of social economy and social entrepreneurship identified by means of an empirical research done in Romania. Social economy is considered one of the most important innovative strategy approaches as this sector may contribute to some efforts done for the elimination of poverty and the re-launching of local economies. The integration of the identified elements in regional programs and public policies is the starting point of the strategic approaches regarding reform in public administration. Social economy can be an example of joint action for public and private organizations and institutions interested in carrying out community projects based on inclusive, participative and innovative forms of community development.

  10. Social Classes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aktor, Mikael

    2018-01-01

    , and the Vaiśyas, the fourth underprivileged class, the Śūdras, and, at the bottom of the society, the lowest so-called ‘untouchable’ castes. It also discusses the understanding of human differences that lies at the center of the system and the possible economic and political motivations of the Brahmin authors......The notions of class (varṇa) and caste (jāti) run through the dharmaśāstra literature (i.e. Hindu Law Books) on all levels. They regulate marriage, economic transactions, work, punishment, penance, entitlement to rituals, identity markers like the sacred thread, and social interaction in general....... Although this social structure was ideal in nature and not equally confirmed in other genres of ancient and medieval literature, it has nevertheless had an immense impact on Indian society. The chapter presents an overview of the system with its three privileged classes, the Brahmins, the Kṣatriyas...

  11. Social Classes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aktor, Mikael

    2018-01-01

    The notions of class (varṇa) and caste (jāti) run through the dharmaśāstra literature (i.e. Hindu Law Books) on all levels. They regulate marriage, economic transactions, work, punishment, penance, entitlement to rituals, identity markers like the sacred thread, and social interaction in general....... Although this social structure was ideal in nature and not equally confirmed in other genres of ancient and medieval literature, it has nevertheless had an immense impact on Indian society. The chapter presents an overview of the system with its three privileged classes, the Brahmins, the Kṣatriyas......, and the Vaiśyas, the fourth underprivileged class, the Śūdras, and, at the bottom of the society, the lowest so-called ‘untouchable’ castes. It also discusses the understanding of human differences that lies at the center of the system and the possible economic and political motivations of the Brahmin authors...

  12. Pakistan: social basis of the economy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maloney, C

    1987-01-01

    Pakistan's gross domestic product (GDP) has grown at an average of 5.3%/year since 1950 and real per capita income has increased 3.7%/year over the past decade, despite a 3% annual population growth rate. Contributing to this dynamic economic growth have been migration, the construction of a new national economy following independence, controlled irrigation, foreign exchange availability, and an expectation on the part of the public of higher earnings and consumption. Despite these trends, the Pakistan economy is structurally weak and there have been rapid increases in both the domestic and foreign debt. Economic growth has been based largely on trading and soft services. Government departments are known for their corruption. This self-contradictory economic picture derives directly from the structure of Pakistani society, which is dominated by the elite of Punjab Province. Urbanization is increasing economic inequality in the society, and government taxation policies are biased toward big agriculture and industry. Pakistan's poor performance in education, social development, and family planning are expected to inhibit future economic development. Only 26% of Pakistanis are literate, reflecting the low social value placed on education. Even in urban areas, there is no evidence of a decline in fertility. This results from the psychological and economic need for children, women's limited roles, Islamic opposition to family planning, and inefficient government delivery of social services. Within a few years, population growth will magnify the structural weaknesses of the Pakistan economy. It is hoped that the dynamic nature of Panjabi values and behavior, especially of the new middle class, will lead to a redress of this situation.

  13. Serotonin syndrome

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hyperserotonemia; Serotonergic syndrome; Serotonin toxicity; SSRI - serotonin syndrome; MAO - serotonin syndrome ... brain area. For example, you can develop this syndrome if you take migraine medicines called triptans together ...

  14. Viable Techniques, Leontief’s Closed Model, and Sraffa’s Subsistence Economies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alberto Benítez

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available This paper studies the production techniques employed in economies that reproduce themselves. Special attention is paid to the distinction usually made between those that do not produce a surplus and those that do, which are referred to as first and second class economies, respectively. Based on this, we present a new definition of viable economies and show that every viable economy of the second class can be represented as a viable economy of the first class under two different forms, Leontief‘s closed model and Sraffa’s subsistence economies. This allows us to present some remarks concerning the economic interpretation of the two models. On the one hand, we argue that the participation of each good in the production of every good can be considered as a normal characteristic of the first model and, on the other hand, we provide a justification for the same condition to be considered a characteristic of the second model. Furthermore, we discuss three definitions of viable techniques advanced by other authors and show that they differ from ours because they admit economies that do not reproduce themselves completely.

  15. "Poor man's risk factor": correlation between high sensitivity C-reactive protein and socio-economic class in patients of acute coronary syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sethi, Rishi; Puri, Aniket; Makhija, Aman; Singhal, A; Ahuja, A; Mukerjee, S; Dwivedi, S K; Narain, V S; Saran, R K; Puri, V K

    2008-01-01

    Inflammation has been proposed as one of the factors responsible for the development of coronary artery disease (CAD) and high sensitivity C-reactive protein (hs CRP) at present is the strongest marker of inflammation. We did a study to assess the correlation of hs-CRP with socio-economic status (SES) in patients of CAD presenting as acute coronary syndrome (ACS). Baseline hs-CRP of 490 patients of ACS was estimated by turbidimetric immunoassay. Patients were stratified by levels of hs-CRP into low (3 mg/L) groups and in tertiles of 0-0.39 mg/L, 0.4-1.1 mg/L and >1.1 mg/L, respectively. Classification of patient into upper (21.4%), middle (45.37 percent) and lower (33.3%) SES was based on Kuppuswami Index which includes education, income and profession. Presence or absence of traditional risk factors for CAD diabetes, hypertension, dyslipidemia and smoking was recorded in each patient. Mean levels of hs-CRP in lower, middle and upper SES were 2.3 +/- 2.1 mg/L, 0.8 +/- 1.7 mg/L and 1.2 +/- 1.5 mg/L, respectively. hs-CRP levels were significantly higher in low SES compared with both upper SES (p = 0.033) and middle SES (p = 0.001). Prevalence of more than one traditional CAD risk factors was seen in 13.5%, 37.5% and 67.67 percent; in patient of lower, middle and upper SES. It was observed that multiple risk factors had a linear correlation with increasing SES. Of the four traditional risk factors of CAD, smoking was the only factor which was significantly higher in lower SES (73%) as compared to middle (51.67 percent;) and upper (39.4%) SES. We found that 62.3%, 20.8% and 26.5% patients of low, middle and upper SES had hs-CRP values in the highest tertile. Median value of the Framingham risk score in low, middle and upper SES as 11, 14 and 18, respectively. We observed that at each category of Framingham risk, low SES had higher hs-CRP. We conclude from our study that patient of lower SES have significantly higher levels of hs-CRP despite the fact that they have

  16. Birthing Classes

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... management options. Breastfeeding basics. Caring for baby at home. Birthing classes are not just for new parents, though. ... midwife. Postpartum care. Caring for your baby at home, including baby first aid. Lamaze One of the most popular birthing techniques in the U.S., Lamaze has been around ...

  17. Class Trash.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chemecology, 1992

    1992-01-01

    Presents a classroom activity in which students calculate the amount and types of trash thrown out by their class at school to investigate how much trash is generated, where it goes, and speculate about alternatives. Students need to be familiar with the concepts of weight, volume, and numbers. (MCO)

  18. A subtle economy of time: Social media and the transformation of Indonesia's Islamic preacher economy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slama, Martin

    2017-01-01

    The article is concerned with the latest developments in Indonesia's Islamic field. Its focus is on the role of social media in exchange relationships between Islamic preachers and their constituency. The article first discusses economic exchanges between preachers and their followers, and then it concentrates on social exchanges and how they are mediated today. Empirically, the article delivers insight into the concerns of mostly female Indonesian middle-class Muslims and shows how preachers have to adjust to the needs of their followers who are regularly online. Theoretically, the article offers a rereading of Pierre Bourdieu's classic work on forms of capital and their conversion. It emphasizes the temporal dimension of capital accumulation and conversion and explores the temporalities of online exchanges that have become constitutive of preacher-follower relationships. In doing so, it shows how Indonesia's Islamic preacher economy is currently transformed by these online exchanges, resulting in preacher-follower relationships that are characterized by dialogic constructions of Islamic authority. Being part of Indonesia's Islamic field, these changes in the Islamic preacher economy point to a broader trend in Indonesia's Islamic field toward greater sensitivity to the needs and worries of Indonesian middle-class Muslims.

  19. Doing Business Economy Profile 2017 : Australia

    OpenAIRE

    World Bank Group

    2016-01-01

    This economy profile presents the Doing Business indicators for Australia. To allow useful comparison, it also provides data for other selected economies (comparator economies) for each indicator. Doing Business 2017 is the 14th in a series of annual reports investigating the regulations that enhance business activity and those that constrain it. Economies are ranked on their ease of doing...

  20. Competitiveness of chinese socialist market economy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Henry Ernesto Turner Barragán

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available The article analyzes the dynamics held by the Chinese economy becomes, since it happened to be a communist to a capitalist economy and social market economy. Being in the latter, in which the country achieved high rates of economic growth, and improve their competitiveness pillars, generating higher growth prospects in the economy and the income of the society.

  1. Class size versus class composition

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jones, Sam

    Raising schooling quality in low-income countries is a pressing challenge. Substantial research has considered the impact of cutting class sizes on skills acquisition. Considerably less attention has been given to the extent to which peer effects, which refer to class composition, also may affect...... outcomes. This study uses new microdata from East Africa, incorporating test score data for over 250,000 children, to compare the likely efficacy of these two types of interventions. Endogeneity bias is addressed via fixed effects and instrumental variables techniques. Although these may not fully mitigate...

  2. Sustainable degrowth through more amateur economy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nørgaard, Jørgen

    2010-01-01

    By a simple descriptive model is illustrated how the role of labor input tothe economy will have to revised in a degrowth economy. A destinction is made btween the Professional (GDP) economy, driven by money, and the Amateur economy (voluntary) driven by love. Shifting some economic activities...... (back) from the prof. economy to the amateur economy will be less productive than the prof. economy in terms of output per man hour, but often more 'productive' in generating satisfaction and happiness in the process. Such a shift can create more ultimate benefit (happiness), but less product output...

  3. THE NEW ECONOMY AND THE ECONOMY OF TOURISM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MIRELA MAZILU

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Together with the Internet, e-business and the new economy era, in general, fundamental transformation of the social and economic structure take place. In parallel, the assaults on the standard economic science amplify, in the sense of some conceptual reformulations and of some reinterpretations of the economic phenomena and laws. Besides the classical factors of production, work and capital, information is added, either as a distinct factor or as a detached one of the two mentioned. Also, the empiric findings regarding the so-called tertiarisation of the economy or the increase of the share of the services sector in the total of the national economy, as well as the so-called intangible investments in the total of the investment funds, have lead to numerous attempts of redefining what we call today a "modern economy". Other factors with major influence, regarding the adjustment of the economic science to the new trends from the real economy, refer to the following: the liberalisation of the international exchanges and the globalisation; the growth of the importance of the so-called free time (including here the household activities and the ones unfolded in the interest of the community, entertainment, but also the time destined to the development of the degree of culture and education on one's own and the fluidisation of the limits of differentiation between this and the work activity in the formal sector as well as the informal one; the more rapid dynamic of the financial and banking markets than the so-called classic productive sector of the economy; the extension of the use of computers and of the means and techniques of communication, in the activity of the companies as well as in the households, and the impact on the structure of the time and the financial budget of the population etc. All these have an impact on the tourism unfolding.

  4. Model Year 2012 Fuel Economy Guide: EPA Fuel Economy Estimates

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    2011-11-01

    The Fuel Economy Guide is published by the U.S. Department of Energy as an aid to consumers considering the purchase of a new vehicle. The Guide lists estimates of miles per gallon (mpg) for each vehicle available for the new model year. These estimates are provided by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency in compliance with Federal Law. By using this Guide, consumers can estimate the average yearly fuel cost for any vehicle. The Guide is intended to help consumers compare the fuel economy of similarly sized cars, light duty trucks and special purpose vehicles.

  5. Model Year 2011 Fuel Economy Guide: EPA Fuel Economy Estimates

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    2010-11-01

    The Fuel Economy Guide is published by the U.S. Department of Energy as an aid to consumers considering the purchase of a new vehicle. The Guide lists estimates of miles per gallon (mpg) for each vehicle available for the new model year. These estimates are provided by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency in compliance with Federal Law. By using this Guide, consumers can estimate the average yearly fuel cost for any vehicle. The Guide is intended to help consumers compare the fuel economy of similarly sized cars, light duty trucks and special purpose vehicles.

  6. Model Year 2013 Fuel Economy Guide: EPA Fuel Economy Estimates

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    2012-12-01

    The Fuel Economy Guide is published by the U.S. Department of Energy as an aid to consumers considering the purchase of a new vehicle. The Guide lists estimates of miles per gallon (mpg) for each vehicle available for the new model year. These estimates are provided by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency in compliance with Federal Law. By using this Guide, consumers can estimate the average yearly fuel cost for any vehicle. The Guide is intended to help consumers compare the fuel economy of similarly sized cars, light duty trucks and special purpose vehicles.

  7. Model Year 2017 Fuel Economy Guide: EPA Fuel Economy Estimates

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    2016-11-01

    The Fuel Economy Guide is published by the U.S. Department of Energy as an aid to consumers considering the purchase of a new vehicle. The Guide lists estimates of miles per gallon (mpg) for each vehicle available for the new model year. These estimates are provided by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency in compliance with Federal Law. By using this Guide, consumers can estimate the average yearly fuel cost for any vehicle. The Guide is intended to help consumers compare the fuel economy of similarly sized cars, light duty trucks and special purpose vehicles.

  8. Model Year 2018 Fuel Economy Guide: EPA Fuel Economy Estimates

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    2017-12-07

    The Fuel Economy Guide is published by the U.S. Department of Energy as an aid to consumers considering the purchase of a new vehicle. The Guide lists estimates of miles per gallon (mpg) for each vehicle available for the new model year. These estimates are provided by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency in compliance with Federal Law. By using this Guide, consumers can estimate the average yearly fuel cost for any vehicle. The Guide is intended to help consumers compare the fuel economy of similarly sized cars, light duty trucks and special purpose vehicles.

  9. The symbolic economy of drugs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lentacker, Antoine

    2016-02-01

    This essay reviews four recent studies representing a new direction in the history of pharmaceuticals and pharmaceutical science. To this end, it introduces the notion of a symbolic economy of drugs, defined as the production, circulation, and reception of signs that convey information about drugs and establish trust in them. Each of the studies under review focuses on one key signifier in this symbolic economy, namely the brand, the patent, the clinical trial, and the drug itself. Drawing on Pierre Bourdieu's theory of the economy of symbolic goods, I conceptualize these signifiers as symbolic assets, that is, as instruments of communication and credit, delivering knowledge, carrying value, and producing authority. The notion of a symbolic economy is offered with a threefold intention. First, I introduce it in order to highlight the implications of historical and anthropological work for a broader theory of the economy of drugs, thus suggesting a language for interdisciplinary conversations in the study of pharmaceuticals. Second, I deploy it in an attempt to emphasize the contributions of the recent scholarship on drugs to a critical understanding of our own contemporary ways of organizing access to drugs and information about drugs. Finally, I suggest ways in which it might be of use to scholars of other commodities and technologies.

  10. 49 CFR 537.9 - Determination of fuel economy values and average fuel economy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 6 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Determination of fuel economy values and average fuel economy. 537.9 Section 537.9 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation... ECONOMY REPORTS § 537.9 Determination of fuel economy values and average fuel economy. (a) Vehicle...

  11. Ecodesign for a Circular Economy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bundgaard, Anja Marie

    The Earth is a closed system and with the exception of energy, the resources available to us are finite, but our consumption and productions systems are typically linear systems where resources are extracted, used and wasted. The circular economy is proposed as an alternative and is defined...... as a consumption and production system based on closed loops that minimise resources, energy flows and environmental degradation. In this PhD thesis, I have examined how ecodesign can close the material loops in the circular economy for electrical and electronic equipment. The study examines how to improve...... be necessary to develop both product and company specific guidelines. The analysis revealed that activities or product attributes of importance to a circular economy are not solely driven by ecodesign....

  12. Radiation processing and market economy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zagorski, Z.P.

    1998-01-01

    In the system of totalitarian economy, regulated by bureaucracy, the real value of equipment, materials and services is almost completely unknown, what makes impossible the comparison of different technologies, eliminates competition, disturbs research and development. With introduction of market economy in Central and Eastern Europe, the radiation processing has lost doubtful support, becoming an independent business, subject to laws of free market economy. Only the most valuable objects of processing have survived that test. At the top of the list are: radiation sterilization of medical equipment and radiation induced crosslinking of polymers, polyethylene in particular. New elements of competition has entered the scene, as well as questions of international regulations and standards have appeared

  13. Optimization in a Networked Economy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmet Sekreter

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available An age of network has been living for the last decades. The information technologies have been used by hundreds of millions of users. These technologies are enabling to connect businesses and economic activities. One of the characteristics of the networked economy is the amount of data that produced due to the interlinking of firms, individuals, processes by businesses, and economic activities. Another issue with the networked economy is the complexity of the data. Extraction of the knowledge from the networked economy has challenges by the traditional approach since data is large scale, second decentralized, and third they connect many heterogeneous agents. The challenges can be overcome by the new optimization methods including human element or the social interactions with technological infrastructure.

  14. Leadership and the Nigerian Economy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Victor E. Dike

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available The Nigerian economy is largely oil-based. Some people would rather say it is a mono-product economy. The economy has been in dire straits over the years, because of a combination of the neglect of education, especially technical and vocational education and science-based technology education, poor leadership and governance, corruption, as well as poor monetary and fiscal policies. All these have made a review of the poor investment in human capital development and infrastructure and institutions that drive the Nigerian economy and national development rather compelling. The political leaders have always raised the people’s hope by painting glowing pictures of their development plans and how they would stimulate the economy and improve the people’s living conditions. Thus, they swore that they would give priority attention to human capital development and national development, and empower the citizens, particularly the poorly educated, unskilled, and unemployed youths, with relevant human skills capital and entrepreneurial skills to enable them to contribute profoundly to national development. Yet the political leaders have, over the years, failed to adequately fund education and strengthen the infrastructure and institutions that would drive the economy and create employment for the teeming population. Both the new-breed politicians, like the old politicians before them, are promising to transform the nation into an industrialized society and the people cannot hold their expectations. The reality though is that Nigeria cannot become an industrialized society without investing abundantly in human capital development (education and health, leadership, and technological capabilities, which means investing in the future development of the nation.

  15. The (APolitical Economy of Bitcoin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vasilis Kostakis

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The still raging financial crisis of 2007–2008 has enabled the emergence of several alternative practices concerning the production, circulation and use of money. This essay explores the political economy of the Bitcoin ecosystem. Specifically, we examine the context in which this digital currency is emerging as well as its nature, dynamics, advantages, and disadvantages. We conclude that Bitcoin, a truly interesting experiment, exemplifies "distributed capitalism" and should be mostly seen as a technological innovation. Rather than providing pragmatic answers and solutions to the current views on the financial crisis, Bitcoin provides some useful and timely questions about the principles and bases of the dominant political economy.

  16. The Social Economy in Europe

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Spear, Roger

    2010-01-01

    This paper gives an overview of the social economy in Europe. Drawing on the most recent statistical data, the paper examines the social economy’s size in different European countries, and current trends and challenges in Europe; it also reviews its status and political context at the EU level....... The paper draws on the CIRIEC (2007) study of the Social Economy in the European Union (see: http://www2.ulg.ac.be/ciriec/en/), and the contribution on social enterprise draws on the work of the EMES Network (see www.emes.net)....

  17. Manufacturing in the knowledge economy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Teis; Winther, Lars

    2015-01-01

    Recent studies stress the relevance of a broad conceptualization of the knowledge economy which goes beyond the strong, current policy focus on high-tech industries. Today, low-tech industries continue to have a significant role in European manufacturing in terms of employment, value added......-tech industries. This calls for a rethinking of manufacturing’s position in contemporary capitalism and a redefinition of the central categories based on research and development (R & D) intensity that dominate the debate on the knowledge economy....

  18. Energy policy and market economy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1980-10-01

    To reduce the dependence on petroleum remains the aim of the energy and economy policy which remains strictly oriented at market economy. Financial incentives granted by the government help to utilize the control function of the prices in energy saving and in the finding of new energy sources. The development of coal refining is continued and the supply with coal guaranteed from the long-term point of view. The structural change in the heat market is to concentrate on the expansion of the district heat supply and the utilization of the heat pump.

  19. Political economies and environmental futures for the sharing economy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frenken, Koen

    2017-05-01

    The sudden rise of the sharing economy has sparked an intense public debate about its definition, its effects and its future regulation. Here, I attempt to provide analytical guidance by defining the sharing economy as the practice that consumers grant each other temporary access to their under-utilized physical assets. Using this definition, the rise of the sharing economy can be understood as occurring at the intersection of three salient economic trends: peer-to-peer exchange, access over ownership and circular business models. I shortly discuss some of the environmental impacts of online sharing platforms and then articulate three possible futures of the sharing economy: a capitalist future cumulating in monopolistic super-platforms allowing for seamless services, a state-led future that shifts taxation from labour to capital and redistributes the gains of sharing from winners to losers, and a citizen-led future based on cooperatively owned platforms under democratic control. The nature and size of the social and environmental impacts are expected to differ greatly in each of the three scenarios. This article is part of the themed issue 'Material demand reduction'.

  20. Political economies and environmental futures for the sharing economy

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-01-01

    The sudden rise of the sharing economy has sparked an intense public debate about its definition, its effects and its future regulation. Here, I attempt to provide analytical guidance by defining the sharing economy as the practice that consumers grant each other temporary access to their under-utilized physical assets. Using this definition, the rise of the sharing economy can be understood as occurring at the intersection of three salient economic trends: peer-to-peer exchange, access over ownership and circular business models. I shortly discuss some of the environmental impacts of online sharing platforms and then articulate three possible futures of the sharing economy: a capitalist future cumulating in monopolistic super-platforms allowing for seamless services, a state-led future that shifts taxation from labour to capital and redistributes the gains of sharing from winners to losers, and a citizen-led future based on cooperatively owned platforms under democratic control. The nature and size of the social and environmental impacts are expected to differ greatly in each of the three scenarios. This article is part of the themed issue ‘Material demand reduction’. PMID:28461431

  1. Political economies and environmental futures for the sharing economy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frenken, Koen

    2017-06-13

    The sudden rise of the sharing economy has sparked an intense public debate about its definition, its effects and its future regulation. Here, I attempt to provide analytical guidance by defining the sharing economy as the practice that consumers grant each other temporary access to their under-utilized physical assets. Using this definition, the rise of the sharing economy can be understood as occurring at the intersection of three salient economic trends: peer-to-peer exchange, access over ownership and circular business models. I shortly discuss some of the environmental impacts of online sharing platforms and then articulate three possible futures of the sharing economy: a capitalist future cumulating in monopolistic super-platforms allowing for seamless services, a state-led future that shifts taxation from labour to capital and redistributes the gains of sharing from winners to losers, and a citizen-led future based on cooperatively owned platforms under democratic control. The nature and size of the social and environmental impacts are expected to differ greatly in each of the three scenarios.This article is part of the themed issue 'Material demand reduction'. © 2017 The Authors.

  2. The economy of natural gas; De economie van het gas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Scholtens, B. [Rijksuniversiteit Groningen, Groningen (Netherlands)

    2013-03-08

    The Dutch government uses the benefits of natural gas especially for public consumption expenditures. Re-establishment of a natural gas fund would lead to productive investment and create a more prosperous Dutch economy [Dutch] De Nederlandse overheid gebruikt de aardgasbaten nu met name voor consumptieve overheidsbestedingen. Heroprichting van een aardgasfonds zou tot productieve investeringen leiden en Nederland welvarender maken.

  3. Beals Syndrome

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... the syndrome. How does Beals syndrome compare with Marfan syndrome? People with Beals syndrome have many of the ... bone) and aortic enlargement problems as people with Marfan syndrome, and treatments for these problems are the same. ...

  4. Rebalancing the Eurozone Troubled Economies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ziółkowski Michał

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the article is to assess how much rebalancing of the six eurozone troubled economies (Ireland, Portugal, Spain, Italy, Greece, Cyprus was achieved since the outbreak of the financial crisis in 2007/2008, to what extent migrations were a mitigating factor on their labor markets and how much the troubled countries were assisted in their adjustment by other countries. The first part of the article shows an overall macroeconomic picture of the troubled economies' rebalancing together with a presentation of the etiology of the problem (i.e. accumulation of imbalances. The second part presents the role of migrations and the third part the role of the Eurosystem and international financial assistance in the rebalancing process. The research is based on comparing developments in selected indicators across countries. The conclusions are that the rebalancing in the troubled countries was either at most limited or actually their economies continued to fall out of balance (various indicators showing various developments make the situation ambiguous, migrations were either not much supportive for rebalancing of the troubled economies or they did not provide any dent to unemployment at all and that the troubled countries were provided with significant international assistance mainly in the form of the ECB policies causing the rise in the Target balances.

  5. Murphy's Moral Economy of Labor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masters, Roger D.

    1996-01-01

    Praises and summarizes James Bernard Murphy's "The Moral Economy of Labor: Aristotelian Themes in Economic Theory." Linking economic theories from Adam Smith to Karl Marx, Murphy criticizes traditional economic and social thinking regarding the division of labor. He proposes an integration of conceptualization and execution to humanize…

  6. The political economy of finance

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Perotti, E.

    2014-01-01

    This survey reviews how recent political economy literature helps to explain variation in governance, competition, funding composition, and access to credit. Evolution in political institutions can account for financial evolution, and, unlike time-invariant legal institutions or cultural traits, is

  7. Social economy of quality food

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Otsuki, K.

    2014-01-01

    Purpose – This paper aims to examine the implications of the efforts to promote a quality-oriented economy that incorporates a vision of environmental sustainability and equitable social development. Design/methodology/approach – The analysis builds on a case study of food procurement in Brazil,

  8. Substantial Improvements of Fuel Economy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, Kaj; Nielsen, Lars H.

    1996-01-01

    The paper evaluates the scope for improving the energy and environmental impacts of road transport by means of electrical and hybrid propulsion. These technologies promise considerable improvements of the fuel economy compared to equivalent vehicles mas well as beneficial effects for the energy...... and traffic systems. A case study concerning passenger cars is analysed by means of computer simulation....

  9. Education and the Next Economy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reich, Robert B.

    The features of a mass production-based economy are traced and contrasted within a competitive global marketplace in this political-economic analysis. The early reform movement's equation of "more" with "better" is no longer appropriate to meet the human resource needs of a nation undergoing profound economic changes. Older industrial economies…

  10. Water for greening the economy

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    De Lange, Willem J

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Water is one of several primary inputs in all sectors of an economy and is, therefore, a crucial resource with huge political significance and a determinative political– economic history. Although this chapter refers to the topic, it is not intended...

  11. Agglomeration Economies in Classical Music

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Borowiecki, Karol Jan

    2015-01-01

    This study investigates agglomeration effects for classical music production in a wide range of cities for a global sample of composers born between 1750 and 1899. Theory suggests a trade-off between agglomeration economies (peer effects) and diseconomies (peer crowding). I test this hypothesis...

  12. The political economy of transformation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ellman, M.J.

    1997-01-01

    This article gives an analysis of the political economy of transformation which stresses the major achievements of some countries, the fact that the transformation is not yet over, the existence of both winners and losers, and the limitations of transition orthodoxy. Attention is paid to the

  13. Beacons of the Experience Economy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Delica, Kristian Nagel

    2014-01-01

    This essay outlines the boundaries among various interests in the library sector; among positions that prioritize libraries as aesthetically appealing junctions of the experience economy versus positions that prioritize the library as a community forum. The main emphasis is placed on developments...... in the Danish library sector with the additional inclusion of international examples....

  14. Business management in digital economy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bogdan GHILIC-MICU

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Changes that are taking place within business and economical environment, complexity and difficulty of the decision taking processes need the usage of management models specific to digital economy businesses. This paper’s objective consists in defining such a management model, identifying its usefulness, presenting its architecture and comparing some models of ebusiness management.

  15. Trade microenterprises in EU economy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zbigniew Gołaś

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The article shows the results of the analysis of positions of microenterprises in trade and repair in European Union (EU economy. The results show that microenterprises make up the most numerous group of economic subjects in EU. In terms of income generation, value added, labour productivity and financial efficiency the position of microenterprises in enterprises sector is conclusively the weakest.

  16. Monetary regimes in open economies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Korpos, A.

    2006-01-01

    This thesis presents a two-country open economy framework for the analysis of strategic interactions among monetary authorities and wage bargaining institutions. From this perspective, the thesis investigates the economic consequences of replacing flexible and fixed exchange rate regimes with a

  17. "1968" and the German Economy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lindlar, Ludger

    1997-01-01

    The turning point in the postwar economic development of West Germany was 1973, not 1968. But the massive increase of the world prices for energy in 1973 did not hit an economy with bright prospects for stable growth rates and low inflation. Contrary, the pattern of economic growth of the 1960s was

  18. Product Innovations in Emerging Economies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Xiao, Xiao; Sarker, Saonee; Rai, Sudhanshu

    2011-01-01

    Studies on enterprise innovations have established the relationships between a number of determinants and enterprise innovativeness. However, such studies in general have been conducted in developed economies. Recent literature has called for broadening innovation-related research to other contex....... Initial findings show that firm size, sales value, and external R&D will affect enterprise innovations in the presence of collaborative capacity....

  19. Economy of the depletable resources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hotelling, Harold Traductores Alvarez H Carlos Guillermo; Diaz Serna, F Javier; Olaya A, Alfredo

    2001-01-01

    Classic economic theory is analyzed with respect to the exploitation of renewable natural resources renewable as mining and oil exploitation. The principles of the mining economy and the good path of exploitation are presented under the assumptions of monopoly, duopoly and free competition. Advanced mathematical tools are used for the optimization and the effects of the taxes and the compensatory rates are included

  20. New Approaches to Social Economy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniela VÎRJAN

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Social economy is a relatively new phenomenon, having started just a few decades ago, and due to this reason it has yet to reach great scale. Due to the phenomenon of global crisis propagation, the economies of all countries have been affected and have gone into an economical cycle recession phase, some economical agents hitting the climax of the crisis, practically shutting down their activities. Starting from this, some social problems started to accentuate: the number of unemployed people has risen, the poverty rate went up, the marginalization and social exclusion rates went up, the aging of the population has increased, the discrepancy between the rich and poor has widened and so on, and in this context social economy has gained a greater importance not only at an European level but also at an international level. As such, social economy may become one of the innovative and creative solutions which can contribute to a more human approach to economical problems, combining freedom of market with social responsibility to the benefit of the whole community.

  1. Innovative Economy in Post-Crisis Age

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gulnaz Galieva

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available The global economic crisis has shifted main attention to the role of innovative technologies in the forming of the innovation economy. Russian economy has been severely impacted by thecrisis downslide. This was predetermined by the export-orientated nature of Russian economy. Manufacturing sector is poorly developed which contributes to Russia’s falling behind from developed economies. So now the only way to eliminate the gap is to introduce innovation into production and manufacturing and save them from shutdowns and downslides. So aim of the paper is to find a mechanism for Russia to shift to innovative economy.Keywords: innovation economy, dynamics, management, information technologies, economic development

  2. Class categories and the subjective dimension of class: the case of Denmark.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harrits, Gitte Sommer; Pedersen, Helene Helboe

    2018-03-01

    Class relations have been proven to affect various aspects of social life, even in modern individualized societies. However, following claims on individualization and the so-called 'death of class' thesis, studying the subjective dimension of class - that is, the way individuals perceive of class relations and their own position within them - has gone out of style. We argue that even in equalized societies, subjective class perceptions may still influence attitudes and behaviour as they evolve to fit modern class relations. To explore the existence as well as structure and content of perceived social classes, this article investigates how people describe society and social groups in focus group discussions. We find that groups in different positions in terms of education and economy all tend to apply hierarchical class categories to describe Danish society, which is normally seen as one of the most equal societies and political systems in the world. In addition, we find that economic resources serve as a baseline for the hierarchical ordering, often supplemented with notions of education, lifestyle and/or occupational profile. Even though people are somewhat uncomfortable with the notion of class, their descriptions of Danish society and classes are surprisingly similar within and across groups. We conclude that not only do class relations matter; people are also highly aware of the existing classes and able to position themselves and others according to their notion of classes. © London School of Economics and Political Science 2017.

  3. Regional Priorities of Green Economy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sergey Nikolayevich Bobylev

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The article is dedicated to transforming the economy of Russian regions to a green economy, which is an essential factor for the sustainable development. This is important not only for Russia but the whole world because our country has the great natural capital and provides important environmental services that support the planet biosphere. Based on the analysis of economic, social and ecological statistical data and Human Development Index (HDI we have shown that the development of Russian Federal Districts is very unbalanced and each Russian region has its own way to new economic model. For instance, it is necessary to increase the well-being in the North Caucasus Federal District, it is important to reach higher life expectancy at birth in the Siberian and the Far Eastern Districts. It is necessary to move from the «brown» economy to a green one by using the human capital (building a knowledge economy, by applying Best Available Technologies (Techniques, by investing in efficiency of use of natural resources and by increasing energy efficiency. The transition to a green economy will help to achieve social equity and the development of human potential; it helps to move from the exploitation of non-renewable natural capital to renewable human capital. All these socio-economic measures should give decoupling effect, make risks lower, reduce the exploitation of natural capital, stop the environmental degradation and prevent the ecological crisis. Transition to the green economic model has to be accompanied by new economic development indicators, which take into account social and environmental factors.

  4. Presence or absence of a known diabetic ketoacidosis precipitant defines distinct syndromes of "A-β+" ketosis-prone diabetes based on long-term β-cell function, human leukocyte antigen class II alleles, and sex predilection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nalini, Ramaswami; Ozer, Kerem; Maldonado, Mario; Patel, Sanjeet G; Hampe, Christiane S; Guthikonda, Anu; Villanueva, Jesus; O'Brian Smith, E; Gaur, Lakshmi K; Balasubramanyam, Ashok

    2010-10-01

    Ketosis-prone diabetes (KPD) is heterogeneous. Longitudinal follow-up revealed that patients with "A-β+" KPD (absent autoantibodies and preserved β-cell function) segregated into 2 subgroups with distinct evolution of β-cell function and glycemic control. Generalized linear analysis demonstrated that the variable that most significantly differentiated them was presence of a clinically evident precipitating event for the index diabetic ketoacidosis (DKA). Hence, we performed a comprehensive analysis of A-β+ KPD patients presenting with "provoked" compared with "unprovoked" DKA. Clinical, biochemical, and β-cell functional characteristics were compared between provoked and unprovoked A-β+ KPD patients followed prospectively for 1 to 8 years. Human leukocyte antigen class II allele frequencies were compared between these 2 groups and population controls. Unprovoked A-β+ KPD patients (n = 83) had greater body mass index, male preponderance, higher frequency of women with oligo-/anovulation, more frequent African American ethnicity, and less frequent family history of diabetes than provoked A-β+ KPD patients (n = 64). The provoked group had higher frequencies of the human leukocyte antigen class II type 1 diabetes mellitus susceptibility alleles DQB1*0302 (than the unprovoked group or population controls) and DRB1*04 (than the unprovoked group), whereas the unprovoked group had a higher frequency of the protective allele DQB1*0602. β-Cell secretory reserve and glycemic control improved progressively in the unprovoked group but declined in the provoked group. The differences persisted in comparisons restricted to patients with new-onset diabetes. "Unprovoked" A-β+ KPD is a distinct syndrome characterized by reversible β-cell dysfunction with male predominance and increased frequency of DQB1*0602, whereas "provoked" A-β+ KPD is characterized by progressive loss of β-cell reserve and increased frequency of DQB1*0302 and DRB1*04. Unprovoked DKA predicts long

  5. Impact of telecommunication technologies on the middle class formation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khusnullova, A.; Absalyamova, S.; Sakhapov, R.; Mukhametgalieva, Ch

    2017-12-01

    The article is devoted to the study of the impact of the information economy on the formation of the middle class. The paper identifies factors contributing to the increase in the share of the middle class in the transition to the information economy. The positive synergetic influence of telecommunication technologies on the formation of the middle class is considered through a possibility of using virtual spaces for labor and educational activities, a possibility of obtaining high returns in the form of dividends on intellectual capital, a qualitative change in the structure of needs, an access to new types of information services, etc. Authors develop a complex model of research of the middle class in the information economy, differing from those available using an expanded list of criteria. In addition to such widely used criteria as income level, level of education and self-identification, the criterion "degree of involvement in the information society" was introduced. The study substantiates that the transition to the information economy made an access to information and communication technologies one of the most significant criteria for social differentiation of society. On the basis of the model, an econometric estimate of the middle class has been carried out, which makes it possible to reveal the share of the middle class in modern society, dynamics of its development, as well as multicollinearity between spending on education, the Gini coefficient, access to information and telecommunication technologies and the size of the middle class.

  6. Human Trafficking: Fighting the Illicit Economy with the Legitimate Economy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Louise Shelley

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Since the beginning of research on human trafficking, there has been attention paid to the challenges surrounding the illicit economy. In creating new strategies and initiatives on combatting human trafficking, there needs to be more discussion surrounding the legitimate economy and how the business sector can make an impact in the fight against trafficking. Currently, there is a growing movement of businesses that are looking to address human trafficking through training, education, and leadership initiatives; codes of conduct; supply chain management; and financial analysis. This paper will examine the latest in these strategies and approaches by businesses in the global war against human trafficking, in addition to a discussion of a new initiative engaging the private sector co-led by Dr. Louise Shelley and Christina Bain through the World Economic Forum’s Global Agenda Council Network.

  7. Aloimunidade contra antígenos HLA de classe I em pacientes com síndromes mielodisplásicas e anemia aplástica Aloimmunity against HLA class I antigens in patients with myelodisplastic syndrome and aplastic anemia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daisy M. M. Arruda

    2008-02-01

    Full Text Available As síndromes mielodisplásicas (SMD e a anemia aplástica (AA apresentam citopenias periféricas necessitando, com freqüência, de reposições transfusionais contínuas de concentrados de hemácias e/ou de concentrados de plaquetas. O objetivo do presente estudo foi verificar a ocorrência de anticorpos anti-HLA de classe I em pacientes portadores das SMD e AA atendidos no ambulatório de Hematologia do Hemoce/UFC. Foram analisados 110 pacientes, sendo 70 com SMD e 40 com AA. A pesquisa de anticorpos anti-HLA de classe I foi realizada frente a um painel (PRA, utilizando-se a técnica de microlinfocitotoxicidade dependente do complemento. Vinte (28,6% dos 70 pacientes com as SMD e 18 (45% dos 40 pacientes com AA desenvolveram anticorpos anti-HLA contra o PRA. Esses pacientes que receberam uma carga de antígenos estranhos advindos de múltiplas transfusões de vários doadores de CH e/ou CP, geralmente desenvolvem aloanticorpos contra os antígenos HLA presentes na superfície das plaquetas e dos leucócitos que contaminam esses concentrados. A produção desses anticorpos pode trazer sérias complicações para o tratamento dos pacientes com SMD e AA. As avaliações sistemáticas para detecção de anticorpos anti-HLA após a reposição transfusional podem ser valiosas para adoção de estratégias transfusionais mais adequadas para esta população de pacientes.Patients with myelodysplastic syndromes (MDS or aplastic anemia (AA present peripheral cytopenias and require continuous transfusions of red cell and/or platelet concentrates. The objective of this study is to verify the existence of anti-HLA class 1 antibodies in patients with MDS and AA treated at the hematology Out patient Clinic of Hemoce/UFC. A total of 110 patients were analyzed, 70 with MDS and 40 with AA. Anti-HLA class 1 antibody detection was achieved with an antibody reactivity panel using the complement-dependent microlymphocytotoxicity technique. A total of 20 (28.6% of

  8. Beyond GDP: towards a green economy index

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Nahman, Anton

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Worldwide, there is increasing recognition of the need for countries to pursue a "green economy". Given the broad (economic, social and environmental) objectives of a green economy, and the limitations associated with mainstream measures of economic...

  9. Platform economy in Denmark – precarious employment?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Stine; Madsen, Per Kongshøj

    This paper takes a labour market perspective on the emerging concept of the 'sharing economy' or 'platform economy', which we use as a more appropriate term for the phenomenon. Platform economy is in the article understood as those business models that have emerged since the millennium, where...... of this paper is to examine the work-related activities in the Danish platform economy and discuss whether and to what extent these activities are to be considered precarious forms of employment. The paper begins with a discussion of the terms sharing economy and platform economy in order to reach...... of employment has a precarious character. The empirical material in the paper stems from a Nordic pilot project on the sharing economy in the Nordic countries (Dølvik & Jesnes fortcoming; Rasmussen & Madsen 2016).The paper concludes that the work-related activities in the Danish platform economy are somewhat...

  10. INTEGRATION AND GLOBALIZATION OF THE WORLD ECONOMY

    OpenAIRE

    Alexandrin Caraganciu; Andronic Roman

    2008-01-01

    This article emphasizes some aspects regarding integrationist processes in world economy, as well as the phenomenon of globalization. Also, there are mentioned stages of world economy globalization, as well as problems referring to this phenomenon.

  11. Digital Economy and Management in Spain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    del Aguila, Ana R.; Padilla, Antonio; Serarols, Christian; Veciana, Jose M.

    2003-01-01

    Explains the digital economy and its impact on the firm. Highlights include subsectors of the digital economy, including infrastructure; analysis of the digital economy in Spain; analysis of the ICT (information and communication technology) sector in Spain; and electronic commerce through the Internet. (LRW)

  12. Doing Business 2014 Economy Profile : Malaysia

    OpenAIRE

    World Bank; International Finance Corporation

    2013-01-01

    This economy profile presents the Doing Business indicators for Malaysia. In a series of annual reports, Doing Business assesses regulations affecting domestic firms in 189 economies and ranks the economies in 10 areas of business regulation, such as starting a business, resolving insolvency and trading across borders. This year's report data cover regulations measured from June 2012 throu...

  13. Doing Business 2014 Economy Profile : Vietnam

    OpenAIRE

    World Bank; International Finance Corporation

    2013-01-01

    This economy profile presents the Doing Business indicators for Vietnam. In a series of annual reports, Doing Business assesses regulations affecting domestic firms in 189 economies and ranks the economies in 10 areas of business regulation, such as starting a business, resolving insolvency and trading across borders. This year's report data cover regulations measured from June 2012 throug...

  14. Doing Business 2014 Economy Profile : Chile

    OpenAIRE

    World Bank; International Finance Corporation

    2013-01-01

    This economy profile presents the Doing Business indicators for Chile In a series of annual reports, Doing Business assesses regulations affecting domestic firms in 189 economies and ranks the economies in 10 areas of business regulation, such as starting a business, resolving insolvency and trading across borders. This year's report data cover regulations measured from June 2012 through M...

  15. The Hybrid Museum: Hybrid Economies of Meaning

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vestergaard, Vitus

    2013-01-01

    this article shows that there are two different museum mindsets where the second mindset leans towards participatory practices. It is shown how a museum can support a hybrid economy of meaning that builds on both a user generated economy of meaning and an institutional economy of meaning and adds value to both....... Such a museum is referred to as a hybrid museum....

  16. Doing Business 2014 Economy Profile : Australia

    OpenAIRE

    World Bank; International Finance Corporation

    2013-01-01

    This economy profile presents the Doing Business indicators for Australia. In a series of annual reports, Doing Business assesses regulations affecting domestic firms in 189 economies and ranks the economies in 10 areas of business regulation, such as starting a business, resolving insolvency and trading across borders. This year's report data cover regulations measured from June 2012 thro...

  17. NEW ECONOMY: APPROACHES, FEATURES, SOCIAL SPHERE DEVELOPMENT

    OpenAIRE

    Babicheva E.E.

    2015-01-01

    The article presents main features of the New economy. Special consideration was given to social sphere development and social institutions restructuring in the context of the New economy. A number of social problems arisen out of this processes had been covered. In the issue author concluded that social sphere development occurred under the conditions of the New economy is fundamental process

  18. LABOUR RELATIONS IN POSTINDUSTRIAL ECONOMY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuriy Rostislavovitch Chistyakov

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available The article deals with inadequacy of present-day labour relations in economy. Out of date form of labour relations makes workforce dependable, causes social inequality, prevents economical development. The article gives results of theoretical and empiric research. The mechanism of guaranteed reproduction of labour to be realized as social partnership is offered.Purpose: the purpose is to give critical estimation of present-day labour relations in postindustrial economy.Method of studies: monographic, general theoretic economic analysis, correlation statistic analysisResults: a new modern adequate alternative form of labour relations guarantying the reproduction of labour is introducedField of application: industrial regulation both in economics in general and concrete businesses; motivation of workers.DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.12731/2218-7405-2013-8-29

  19. Social entrepreneurship and economy organisations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lundgaard Andersen, Linda

    Departing from a brief state of the art on social entrepreneurship in Denmark sketching out how social entrepreneurship and social innovation is introduced referring to partly a more classical approach to entrepreneurship and innovation and partly referring to a specific Danish tradition for soci...... that the phenomenon of social entrepreneurship and social economy organizations is a contested concept that caters to different strategies for welfare, democracy, learning and advocacy....... development and local participation in welfare production this presentation draws upon a number of case studies on young social economy organizations. These organizations seek to gain ground as social enterprises delivering social services in partnerships with the civic society and sometimes also a number...... of public bodies. Hereby they embody the new arenas of social entrepreneurship that has entered the Danish policy and practical arena in the forms of hybrid types of social service provision in the area of social enterprise and social entrepreneurship. Based on these case studies it is suggested...

  20. Dismantling the Cold War economy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Markusen, A.; Yudkin, J.

    1992-01-01

    End-of-the-Cold-War economic realities include political jockeying over the future of weapons systems, a paucity of meaningful conversion efforts, and a suspicion that a weak economy will be unable to compensate for the loss of jobs and purchasing power as defense budgets are reduced. The authors of this book present three interrelated hypotheses: The first is that the existence of a large military production sector has depleted the civilian economy of key resources and has preempted creation of the kind of broad-base civilian-oriented industrial policies needed for economic revitalization. The second is that a large military production sector creates barriers to the movement of resources. The third is that economic depletion and the barriers to moving resources to civilian production make conversion planning essential. This book explains why conversion is difficult, but offers only a few pages of specific conversion proposals

  1. Business cycles in oil economies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Al-Mutairi, N.H.

    1991-01-01

    This study examines the impact of oil price shocks on output fluctuations of several oil-exporting economies. In most studies of business cycles, the role of oil price is ignored; the few studies that use oil price as one of the variables in the system focus on modeling oil-importing economies. The vector autoregression (VAR) technique is used to consider the cases of Norway, Nigeria, and Mexico. Both atheoretical and 'structural' VARs are estimated to determine the importance of oil price impulses on output variations. The study reports two types of results: variance decomposition and impulse response functions, with particular emphasis on the issues of stationarity and co-integration among the series. The empirical results suggest that shocks to oil price are important in explaining output variations. In most cases, shocks to oil price are shown to explain more than 20% of the forecast variance of output over a 40-quarter horizon

  2. Boiler economy. Terms and application

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boehm, G.

    1995-01-01

    Economy calculations are nearly exclusively made by computers. Undisputed advantage is apart from the high speed in which even complex calculations are made the 'document character' of the printout. Disadvantageous is that apart from the soft manufacturer almost nobody knows the calculation formulations, basic assumptions and logical connections. One can only accept the result without being able to prove the 'correctness'. There is also hardly the possibility to gain knowledge as the reason for certain results is not explained. Based on known terms of boiler economy many questions arising in practice can be answered with sufficient accuracy. Excessive accuracy is with the many unknown or only estimated operating data anyhow not reasonable. (orig.) [de

  3. Availability Cascades & the Sharing Economy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Netter, Sarah

    2014-01-01

    In search of a new concept that will provide answers to as to how modern societies should not only make sense but also resolve the social and environmental problems linked with our modes of production and consumption, collaborative consumption and the sharing economy are increasingly attracting...... attention. This conceptual paper attempts to explain the emergent focus on the sharing economy and associated business and consumption models by applying cascade theory. Risks associated with this behavior will be especially examined with regard to the sustainability claim of collaborative consumption....... With academics, practitioners, and civil society alike having a shared history in being rather fast in accepting new concepts that will not only provide business opportunities but also a good conscience, this study proposes a critical study of the implications of collaborative consumption, before engaging...

  4. Fusion power economy of scale

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dolan, T.J.

    1993-01-01

    In the next 50 yr, the world will need to develop hundreds of gigawatts of non-fossil-fuel energy sources for production of electricity and fuels. Nuclear fusion can probably provide much of the required energy economically, if large single-unit power plants are acceptable. Large power plants are more common than most people realize: There are already many multiple-unit power plants producing 2 to 5 GW(electric) at a single site. The cost of electricity (COE) from fusion energy is predicted to scale as COE ∼ COE 0 (P/P 0 ) -n , where P is the electrical power, the subscript zero denotes reference values, and the exponent n ∼ 0.36 to 0.7 in various designs. The validity ranges of these scalings are limited and need to be extended by future work. The fusion power economy of scale derives from four interrelated effects: improved operations and maintenance costs; scaling of equipment unit costs; a geometric effect that increases the mass power density; and reduction of the recirculating power fraction. Increased plasma size also relaxes the required confinement parameters: For the same neutron wall loading, larger tokamaks can use lower magnetic fields. Fossil-fuel power plants have a weaker economy of scale than fusion because the fuel costs constitute much of their COE. Solar and wind power plants consist of many small units, so they have little economy of scale. Fission power plants have a strong economy of scale but are unable to exploit it because the maximum unit size is limited by safety concerns. Large, steady-state fusion reactors generating 3 to 6 GW(electric) may be able to produce electricity for 4 to 5 cents/kW·h, which would be competitive with other future energy sources. 38 refs., 6 figs., 6 tabs

  5. Forest Economy Versus Sustainable Development

    OpenAIRE

    Małgorzata Falencka-Jabłońska

    2017-01-01

    In 2017 it is 30 years since The World Commission on Environment and Development has published the Brundtland report “Our common future”. Documents of III Ministerial Conference on the Protection of Forests in Europe and the notations of 1.2 resolution adopted in Lisbon has obliged Poland to run forest management according to rules of durable and sustainable development. Forest economy was based on multi-use forest model with special attention to its environment-creating and social role. ...

  6. Tourist product in experience economy

    OpenAIRE

    Stasiak Andrzej

    2014-01-01

    The turn of the 20th and 21st c. was marked by the development of experience economy, in which the basic commodities are not specific products, but the customers’ emotions, impressions and experiences. Tourism has always been a particular “holiday experience industry”. In recent years, however, the importance of the conscious creation of emotional tourism products has become even greater; we may observe continuous efforts to multiply and intensify tourism experience. The key activities to ach...

  7. Experiences of Emerging Economy Firms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    of foreign and emerging issues when they expand their activities in various contexts, enter, exit, and re-enter overseas markets; they have to overcome institutional barriers, adapt the cultural challenges in foreign markets, undergo the impact of large multinational firms from developed economies...... and experience the impact of home institutions and government policies. This ground breaking and illuminating title presents issues of theoretical and practical significance, thus challenging existing paradigms of firm internationalization....

  8. Car buyers and fuel economy?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Turrentine, Thomas S.; Kurani, Kenneth S.

    2007-01-01

    This research is designed to help researchers and policy makers ground their work in the reality of how US consumers are thinking and behaving with respect to automotive fuel economy. Our data are from semi-structured interviews with 57 households across nine lifestyle 'sectors.' We found no household that analyzed their fuel costs in a systematic way in their automobile or gasoline purchases. Almost none of these households track gasoline costs over time or consider them explicitly in household budgets. These households may know the cost of their last tank of gasoline and the unit price of gasoline on that day, but this accurate information is rapidly forgotten and replaced by typical information. One effect of this lack of knowledge and information is that when consumers buy a vehicle, they do not have the basic building blocks of knowledge assumed by the model of economically rational decision-making, and they make large errors estimating gasoline costs and savings over time. Moreover, we find that consumer value for fuel economy is not only about private cost savings. Fuel economy can be a symbolic value as well, for example among drivers who view resource conservation or thrift as important values to communicate. Consumers also assign non-monetary meaning to fuel prices, for example seeing rising prices as evidence of conspiracy. This research suggests that consumer responses to fuel economy technology and changes in fuel prices are more complex than economic assumptions suggest. The US Department of Energy and the Energy Foundation supported this research. The authors are solely responsible for the content and conclusions presented

  9. Latinos in the Credit Economy

    OpenAIRE

    Ralph, Lisa M.

    2010-01-01

    Access to consumer credit as a means of building wealth is one of the least examined forms of social inequality. The recent economic crisis in the United States has brought attention to the significance of consumer credit in our nation's economy; however, less understood are the specific obstacles and barriers that prevent low-income individuals from reaching the "American Dream." In an exploratory manner, this study compared credit access, credit literacy, and credit experience of low-income...

  10. Knowledge Economy: Characteristics and Dimensions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shahrazad HADAD

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Over the past several decades, the theme of knowledge economy (KE has become increasingly important, being seen as a source of economic growth and competitiveness in all economic sectors. As a consequence of this development, the author provides evidence that scholars and commentators have pleaded in favor of using modern resources which enrich knowledge-based-economies, such as investments in IT&C, high-technology industries, and highly skilled workers. These factors are perceived as fundamental factors of KE, as the present research will state. The drivers of KE are indeed technologies with the help of knowledge and the production of information, all these conditioned by dissemination. The hereby article opens with a compare and contrast analysis of the traditional economy versus the knowledge economy. Also, the article defines the KE, focusing on the debate existing on the subject of its key characteristics and components (dimensions according to international forums, scholars, and practitioners. At the same time, the author provides information on the drivers of KE, by thoroughly reviewing the academic literature in this field. In the end of the research, the focus moves to the four pillars of KE and their means of assessment. The positive economic trends that the KE brings forth are also analyzed, as well as the core elements of KE, also known under the name of the four pillars of KE: economic and institutional development stimuli; educated and skilled workers that can facilitate the creation and dissemination of knowledge; an adequate innovation system able to embrace the globalized knowledge stock, grasp it and adjust it to particular regional/local conditions; up-to-date information infrastructure enabling communication, information delivery and handling of information and knowledge.

  11. Colours in a Circular Economy

    OpenAIRE

    Niinimäki, Kirsi; Smirnova, Eugenia; Ilen, Elina; Sixta, Herbert; Hummel, Michael

    2017-01-01

    | openaire: EC/H2020/646226/EU//Trash-2-Cash This paper reports on preliminary results on the recycling of coloured cellulose-based textiles using a novel dry-jet wet spinning denoted as the Ioncell-F process. The practical possibility of colour circulation is useful knowledge for colour designers in the industry. The findings can help define further parameters for circular economy products

  12. Population and the Colombian economy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanders, T G

    1983-01-01

    Colombia is the only one of the 6 most populous Latin American countries that is currently free of major economic crisis requiring an agreement with the International Monetary Fund. The difference in the economic performances of these countries is relative, since the rate of growth in the Colombian economy was only 1.5% in 1982. Yet, Colombia seems to have weathered the international recession better than most. The crisis atmosphere in the rest of Latin America, triggered by overall economic decline, high rates of inflation, and an indebtedness that soaks up much of export earnings to service it, is lacking in Colombia or present in lesser degree. If Colombia can strengthen its political performance and tighten national unity, it could move through the 1980s with considerable confidence and success in economic development. Colombia differs little from other major Latin American countries with regard to traditionalism and modernization. Most Colombians are secularized. Colombia is far ahead of most comparable Latin American countries in fertility control. The lower rate of population increase defines the extent to which the economy must provide education, health, food, and jobs. 2 other factors are essential for understanding the current situation in Colombia and its prospects for the 1980s. Government policy in the 1970s opted for an austerity program while the other countries were growing rapidly, in large part through borrowed resources. A 2nd factor is the prospect of attaining autonomy in energy production. These special characteristics--population, public policy, and energy--are discussed. Since the mid 1960s Colombia has functioned with 3 family planning programs. Their existence makes contraception easily available to the population generally. In 1960 Colombia had a higher total fertility rate (TFR) 7.0, than either Venezuela (6.6) or Brazil (5.3), but by 1976 its TFR was down to 4.1, while Venezuela's (4.8) and Brazil's (4.3) were now higher. On balance

  13. FDI from Emerging Economies in EU27

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jindra, Björn

    This paper scrutinizes FDI from a wide range of emerging economies (including newly industrializing Asian countries, Latin American countries and East European transition economies) that adopted different growth models in the past. The overarching research question of this paper is to which...... the integration of firms from different emerging economies via FDI into the global economy is linked to technological upgrading. We assume that technology seeking in advanced economies should be reflected in the relevance of particular location factors such as knowledge spillover. We analyses a large firm level...

  14. Four Models of Sharing Economy Platforms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Constantiou, Ioanna; Marton, Attila; Tuunainen, Virpi Kristiina

    2017-01-01

    Sharing economy platforms combine organizational and market mechanisms in innovative ways to gain competitive advantages over incumbents. These mechanisms are combined on two key dimensions: tight or loose control over participants, and high or low rivalry between participants. We call...... the resulting four sharing economy models "Franchiser," "Principal," "Chaperone" and "Gardener." Each model focuses on a different value proposition and strategic intent, but they all exploit the growing fluidity of organizational boundaries. Understanding the sharing economy in these terms enables businesses...... to identify, and respond to, the threats and opportunities provided by sharing economy platforms. The lessons learned from our research will help businesses to engage with the sharing economy....

  15. Fanconi syndrome

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Toni-Fanconi syndrome ... Fanconi syndrome can be caused by faulty genes, or it may result later in life due to kidney damage. Sometimes the cause of Fanconi syndrome is unknown. Common causes of Fanconi syndrome in ...

  16. Duane Syndrome

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Frequently Asked Questions Español Condiciones Chinese Conditions Duane Syndrome En Español Read in Chinese What is Duane Syndrome? Duane syndrome, also called Duane retraction syndrome (DRS), ...

  17. Hunter Syndrome

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... in girls. There's no cure for Hunter syndrome. Treatment of Hunter syndrome involves management of symptoms and complications. Symptoms Hunter syndrome is one type of a group of inherited metabolic disorders called mucopolysaccharidoses (MPSs), and Hunter syndrome is ...

  18. Underdeveloping Appalachia: Toward an environmental sociology of extractive economies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wishart, William Ryan

    This dissertation uses mixed methods to examine the role of the coal industry in the reproduction of Central Appalachia as an internal periphery within the United States and the economic, ecological, and human inequalities this entails. It also analyzes the related political economy and power structure of coal in a national context. Particularly important for analysis of the region's underdevelopment are the class relations involved in unequal ecological exchange and the establishment of successive "modes of extraction." I employ a historical comparative analysis of Appalachia to evaluate Bunker's thesis that resource dependent peripheries often become locked into a "mode of extraction" (with aspects parallel to Marxist concepts of mode of production) triggering economic and ecological path dependencies leading to underdevelopment. This historical comparative analysis establishes the background for a closer examination of the political economy of the modern US coal industry. After sketching the changes in the structure of monopoly and competition in the coal industry I employ network analysis of the directorate interlocks of the top twenty coal firms in the US within the larger energy policy-planning network to examine their connections with key institutions of the policy formation network of think tanks and business groups. My findings show the importance of the capacities of fossil fuel fractions of the capitalist class in formulating energy policy around issues such as the 2009 climate legislation. As a contribution to the growing literature applying the concept of metabolism as link between contemporary and classical theory, I examine the conflict at Coal River Mountain from the vantage points of ecology, political economy, and human development in dialectical rotation. Utilizing Marx's method of successive abstractions, the mountain is presented as a nexus of metabolic rifts in the human relationship to the earth's natural systems and an impediment to genuine

  19. The Nordic Approach to the Experience Economy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bille, Trine

    . In the Nordic countries the experience economy has been developed in a political context and it is apparently a popular development policy for local government authorities and regions. This paper discusses the Nordic definition of experience economy and questions if it makes any sense. The definition...... of experiences is not clear, and the definition of the word "economy" has different interpretations as well. In a narrow interpretation the term economy is related to market economic value, which is used in the political terminology. The paper shows that the experience economy can follow three different routes......This paper discusses the concept of the experience economy in a Nordic context and shows how the Nordic version of the concept has come about from a mix of three different approaches and theories. Besides, the Nordic definition links the experience economy closely with cultural activities...

  20. Measuring the informal economy in South Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S Saunders

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Measuring the size of the South African informal economy has received inadequate attention, making it difficult for policy-makers to assess the impact of policy measures to stimulate informal economic activity. This article aims to estimate the size of the informal economy by using the Currency Demand Approach.  The empirical results reveal that the informal economy as a percentage of GDP decreased from 1967 to 1993, before levelling off.  The growth in the informal econmy has also underperformed in comparison to formal economic growth. There appears to be a causal relationship running from the informal to the formal economy. Macro-economic policies aimed at the formal economy will not necessarily 'trickle down' to the informal, while these polcies aimed at the informal economy may have a profound effect on the formal economy.

  1. Historical Improvement in Speed Skating Economy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noordhof, Dionne A; van Tok, Elmy; Joosten, Florentine S J G M; Hettinga, Florentina J; Hoozemans, Marco J M; Foster, Carl; de Koning, Jos J

    2017-02-01

    Half the improvement in 1500-m speed-skating world records can be explained by technological innovations and the other half by athletic improvement. It is hypothesized that improved skating economy is accountable for much of the athletic improvement. To determine skating economy in contemporary athletes and to evaluate the change in economy over the years. Contemporary skaters of the Dutch national junior team (n = 8) skated 3 bouts of 6 laps at submaximal velocity, from which skating economy was calculated (in mL O 2 ・ kg -1 ・ km -1 ). A literature search provided historic data on skating velocity and submaximal V̇O 2 (in mL ・ kg -1 ・ min -1 ), from which skating economy was determined. The association between year and skating economy was determined using linear-regression analysis. Correcting the change in economy for technological innovations resulted in an estimate of the association between year and economy due to athletic improvement. A mean (± SD) skating economy of 73.4 ± 6.4 mL O 2 ・ kg -1 ・ km -1 was found in contemporary athletes. Skating economy improved significantly over the historical time frame (-0.57 mL O 2 ・ kg -1 ・ km -1 ・ y -1 , 95% confidence interval [-0.84, -0.31]). In the final regression model for the klapskate era, with altitude as confounder, skating economy improved with a nonsignificant -0.58 mL O 2 ・ kg -1 ・ km -1 ・ y -1 ([-1.19, 0.035]). Skating economy was 73.4 ± 6.4 mL O 2 ・ kg -1 ・ km -1 in contemporary athletes and improved over the past ~50 y. The association between year and skating economy due to athletic improvement, for the klapskate era, approached significance, suggesting a possible improvement in economy over these years.

  2. The European Economy: From a Linear to a Circular Economy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Florin Bonciu

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available For quite some time a profound preoccupation for many economists, politicians, environmentalists, sociologists or philosophers looking towards the coming decades consisted in searching for a new paradigm of development and growth that is feasible within the given limits of planet Earth. There are already widely accepted concepts like “sustainable development” or “low-carbon economy” that seem right but not enough. Such concepts seem to address the effects and not the causes. In this paper we analyze a broader approach that places human activity into a long term historical perspective, namely the circular economy. This new development paradigm, supported by the European Union, is, in fact, an “old” one moved upwards on a dialectical spiral so that it connects and resonates with the spirit and realities of our times. The conclusions reflect optimism concerning the success in large scale implementation of the circular economy concept in the European Union and worldwide and thus in taking advantage of opportunities rather than wasting resources by opposing the ineluctable changes.

  3. Strategies to improve running economy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barnes, Kyle R; Kilding, Andrew E

    2015-01-01

    Running economy (RE) represents a complex interplay of physiological and biomechanical factors that is typically defined as the energy demand for a given velocity of submaximal running and expressed as the submaximal oxygen uptake (VO2) at a given running velocity. This review considered a wide range of acute and chronic interventions that have been investigated with respect to improving economy by augmenting one or more components of the metabolic, cardiorespiratory, biomechanical or neuromuscular systems. Improvements in RE have traditionally been achieved through endurance training. Endurance training in runners leads to a wide range of physiological responses, and it is very likely that these characteristics of running training will influence RE. Training history and training volume have been suggested to be important factors in improving RE, while uphill and level-ground high-intensity interval training represent frequently prescribed forms of training that may elicit further enhancements in economy. More recently, research has demonstrated short-term resistance and plyometric training has resulted in enhanced RE. This improvement in RE has been hypothesized to be a result of enhanced neuromuscular characteristics. Altitude acclimatization results in both central and peripheral adaptations that improve oxygen delivery and utilization, mechanisms that potentially could improve RE. Other strategies, such as stretching should not be discounted as a training modality in order to prevent injuries; however, it appears that there is an optimal degree of flexibility and stiffness required to maximize RE. Several nutritional interventions have also received attention for their effects on reducing oxygen demand during exercise, most notably dietary nitrates and caffeine. It is clear that a range of training and passive interventions may improve RE, and researchers should concentrate their investigative efforts on more fully understanding the types and mechanisms that

  4. Hamartomatous polyposis syndromes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jelsig, Anne Marie; Qvist, Niels; Brusgaard, Klaus

    2014-01-01

    Hamartomatous Polyposis Syndromes (HPS) are genetic syndromes, which include Peutz-Jeghers syndrome, Juvenile polyposis syndrome, PTEN hamartoma tumour syndrome (Cowden Syndrom, Bannayan-Riley-Ruvalcaba and Proteus Syndrome) as well as hereditary mixed polyposis syndrome. Other syndromes such as ......Hamartomatous Polyposis Syndromes (HPS) are genetic syndromes, which include Peutz-Jeghers syndrome, Juvenile polyposis syndrome, PTEN hamartoma tumour syndrome (Cowden Syndrom, Bannayan-Riley-Ruvalcaba and Proteus Syndrome) as well as hereditary mixed polyposis syndrome. Other syndromes...

  5. Relationship marketing in digital economy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Đorđević Bojan

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Relationship marketing in digital economy represents a new phase of marketing development in the XXI century. Key features lie in the development of closer relationship and cooperation between companies and their Internet consumers and partners. It was the problem of nonestablished e-relationships that was the main reason for failure of those companies that first started their new, digital environment business. Challenge for companies in the future will be introducing the CRM concept, with the main goal of bringing the high satisfaction and loyalty to their consumers in the e-market. .

  6. Equilibrium in a Production Economy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chiarolla, Maria B., E-mail: maria.chiarolla@uniroma1.it [Universita di Roma ' La Sapienza' , Dipartimento di Metodi e Modelli per l' Economia, il Territorio e la Finanza, Facolta di Economia (Italy); Haussmann, Ulrich G., E-mail: uhaus@math.ubc.ca [University of British Columbia, Department of Mathematics (Canada)

    2011-06-15

    Consider a closed production-consumption economy with multiple agents and multiple resources. The resources are used to produce the consumption good. The agents derive utility from holding resources as well as consuming the good produced. They aim to maximize their utility while the manager of the production facility aims to maximize profits. With the aid of a representative agent (who has a multivariable utility function) it is shown that an Arrow-Debreu equilibrium exists. In so doing we establish technical results that will be used to solve the stochastic dynamic problem (a case with infinite dimensional commodity space so the General Equilibrium Theory does not apply) elsewhere.

  7. LINS Curve in Romanian Economy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emilian Dobrescu

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents theoretical considerations and empirical evidence to test the validity of the Laffer in Narrower Sense (LINS curve as a parabola with a maximum. Attention is focused on the so-called legal-effective tax gap (letg. The econometric application is based on statistical data (1990-2013 for Romania as an emerging European economy. Three cointegrating regressions (fully modified least squares, canonical cointegrating regression and dynamic least squares and three algorithms, which are based on instrumental variables (two-stage least squares, generalized method of moments, and limited information maximum likelihood, are involved.

  8. Equilibrium in a Production Economy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chiarolla, Maria B.; Haussmann, Ulrich G.

    2011-01-01

    Consider a closed production-consumption economy with multiple agents and multiple resources. The resources are used to produce the consumption good. The agents derive utility from holding resources as well as consuming the good produced. They aim to maximize their utility while the manager of the production facility aims to maximize profits. With the aid of a representative agent (who has a multivariable utility function) it is shown that an Arrow-Debreu equilibrium exists. In so doing we establish technical results that will be used to solve the stochastic dynamic problem (a case with infinite dimensional commodity space so the General Equilibrium Theory does not apply) elsewhere.

  9. Fluctuations in Overlapping Generations Economies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tvede, Mich

    In the present paper stationary pure-exchange overlapping generations economies with l  goods per date and m consumers per generation are considered. It is shown that for an open and dense set of utility functions there exist endowment vectors such that n-cycles exist for n = l +1 and l  = m....... The approach to existence of endogenous fluctuations is basic in the sense that the prime ingredients are the implicit function theorem and linear algebra. Moreover the approach is applied to show that for an open and dense set of utility functions there exist endowment vectors such that sunspot equilibria...

  10. STATE INTERVENTION IN THE ECONOMY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andreea-Elena, BURDUF (MIERLARU

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Starting from the deffinition of protectionism, an economic policy of restraining trade between states through methods such as tariffs on imported goods, restrictive quotas, and a variety of other government regulations designed to allow, according to proponents fair competition between imports and goods and service produced domestically, I am compelled to find Manoilescu's vision of economy. Was this system of political and economic measures of protection of national products from similar foreign products Manoilescu's vision? In the spirit of clasical protectionist doctrine, Manoilescu thought that the focal point of economy was the national economy, the sum of production assets and a conglomerate of individual traders. Amongst national production assets the foremost is the labour, capital and the others having only secondary importance in direct comparison. After the great depression of 1929, his book, The theory of protectionism and international exchanges , was the basis for justifying protectionism in Brazil while in Romania he had to face hostility from authorities, making it impossible for him, even if for several months in 1931 he was the Governor of the National Bank, to apply his vision to end the economic crisis in Romania. M. Manoilescu analyzed the state's economic role and how this is reflected in modern economic science. He saw the state as having the role of setting certain convergent common goals for the whole society and to set rules that removes free will in economic decisions, thus creating the premises for a regulated economic space, based on the transition from little rationale of firms to big rationale of national economy. He demonstrated the necessity of state intervetionism, he has shared the conviction that through the alignment of the Romanian economic strategy to the one from the developed countries the lagging behind of Romania could be surpassed. M. Manoilescu took the occidental type economic policies of the time

  11. Supergroups and economies of scale.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schlossberg, Steven

    2009-02-01

    With the changing environment for medical practice, physician practice models will continue to evolve. These "supergoups'' create economies of scale, but their advantage is not only in the traditional economic sense. Practices with enough size are able to better meet the challenges of medical practice with increasing regulatory demands, explosion of clinical knowledge, quality and information technology initiatives, and an increasingly tight labor market. Smaller practices can adapt some of these strategies selectively. Depending on the topic, smaller practices should think differently about how to approach the challenges of practice.

  12. Availability Cascades & the Sharing Economy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Netter, Sarah

    2014-01-01

    attention. This conceptual paper attempts to explain the emergent focus on the sharing economy and associated business and consumption models by applying cascade theory. Risks associated with this behavior will be especially examined with regard to the sustainability claim of collaborative consumption....... With academics, practitioners, and civil society alike having a shared history in being rather fast in accepting new concepts that will not only provide business opportunities but also a good conscience, this study proposes a critical study of the implications of collaborative consumption, before engaging...

  13. Towards a political economy of urbanizaton in Third World countries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Safa H.I. (ed.)

    1981-01-01

    Urbanization has emerged as one of the major issues confronting contemporary developing countries. The essays in this volume bring a new perspective to bear on the urbanization problem in the Third World, particularly on the survival mechanisms of the poor. The authors, who include anthropologists, geographers, economists and sociologists, examine the impact of colonialism on the economies of the Third World countries, their dependence on advanced industrial societies for capital and technology, their urban class structures, and the role of their governments in shaping the urban process.

  14. Exploring the connections between green economy and informal economy in South Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suzanne Smit

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available The notion of an inclusive green economy in the context of sustainable development and poverty eradication requires an approach that engages with the informal economy. However, the informal economy is generally ignored or undervalued in discussions on the green economy. This paper set out to bolster this argument by identifying the ways in which the green economy and the informal economy may be connected by establishing the extent to which policies and plans relating to green economy connect with the informal economy, and recognising several informal green activities. The barriers and opportunities for connecting the two spheres were also explored as well as possible ways in which such activities may be supported at different levels of organisation. In the case of South Africa, many informal green activities that contribute to sustainable livelihoods are recognised. However, issues pertaining to procedure, process and participation hinder the transition to a truly inclusive green economy.

  15. Comorbidity profiles of psoriasis in Taiwan: A latent class analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Chen-Yi; Hu, Hsiao-Yun; Li, Chung-Pin; Chou, Yiing-Jeng; Chang, Yun-Ting

    2018-01-01

    Psoriasis is associated with many comorbidities. An understanding of these comorbidity patterns can help foster better care of patients with psoriasis. To identify the heterogeneity of psoriasis comorbidities using latent class analysis (LCA). LCA was used to empirically identify psoriasis comorbidity patterns in a nationwide sample of 110,729 incident cases of psoriasis (2002-2012) from the National Health Insurance database in Taiwan. The mean age of incident psoriasis was 46.1 years. Hypertension (28.8%), dyslipidemia (18.9%), and chronic liver disease/cirrhosis/hepatitis (18.1%) were the top three comorbidities in patients with psoriasis. LCA identified four distinct comorbidity classes among these patients, including 9.9% of patients in the "multi-comorbidity" class, 17.9% in the "metabolic syndrome" class, 11.3% in the "hypertension and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD)" class, and 60.9% in the "relatively healthy" class. Psoriatic arthritis was evenly distributed among each class. Relative to membership in the "relative healthy" class, an increase of one year of age had a higher probability of membership in the "multi-comorbidity" (odds ratio [OR], 1.25), "metabolic syndrome" (OR, 1.11), or "hypertension and COPD" (OR, 1.34) classes. Relative to membership in the "relative healthy" class, compared to women, men had a higher probability of membership in the "multi-comorbidity" (OR, 1.39), "metabolic syndrome" (OR, 1.77), or "hypertension and COPD" (OR, 1.22) classes. We observed four distinct classes of psoriasis comorbidities, including the "multi-comorbidity", "metabolic syndrome", "hypertension and COPD", and "relatively healthy" classes, as well as the clustering of liver diseases with metabolic syndrome and clustering of COPD with hypertension.

  16. The NNP and Sustainability in Open Economy: Highlights on Recent World Economy and on Open Economy of Bangladesh

    OpenAIRE

    Mohajan, Haradhan

    2011-01-01

    This paper discusses the theory of the net national product and, emphasizes on social welfare and sustainable accounting in open economy. It is observed that the world economy following an egalitarian path, the aggregate capital gains being positive is equivalent to the interest rate tending to decrease. This is important for the concept of net national product in open economies. Martin Weitzman gives a foundation for net national product as the stationary equivalent of a wealth maximizing pa...

  17. Health Information Economy: Literature Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ebrahimi, Kamal; Roudbari, Masoud; Sadoughi, Farahnaz

    2015-01-01

    Introduction: Health Information Economy (HIE) is one of the broader, more complex, and challenging and yet important topics in the field of health science that requires the identification of its dimensions for planning and policy making. The aim of this study was to determine HIE concept dimensions. Methods: This paper presents a systematic methodology for analyzing the trends of HIE. For this purpose, the main keywords of this area were identified and searched in the databases and from among 4775 retrieved sources, 12 sources were studied in the field of HIE. Results: Information Economy (IE) in the world has passed behind four paradigms that involve the information evaluation perspective, the information technology perspective, the asymmetric information perspective and information value perspective. In this research, the fourth perspective in the HIE was analyzed. The main findings of this research were categorized in three major groups, including the flow of information process in the field of health (production. collection, processing and dissemination), and information applications in the same field (education, research, health industry, policy, legislation, and decision-making) and the underlying fields. Conclusion: According to the findings, HIE has already developed a theoretical and conceptual gap that due to its importance in the next decade would be one of the research approaches to health science. PMID:26153182

  18. Health Information Economy: Literature Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ebrahimi, Kamal; Roudbari, Masoud; Sadoughi, Farahnaz

    2015-04-19

    Health Information Economy (HIE) is one of the broader, more complex, and challenging and yet important topics in the field of health science that requires the identification of its dimensions for planning and policy making. The aim of this study was to determine HIE concept dimensions. This paper presents a systematic methodology for analyzing the trends of HIE. For this purpose, the main keywords of this area were identified and searched in the databases and from among 4775 retrieved sources, 12 sources were studied in the field of HIE. Information Economy (IE) in the world has passed behind four paradigms that involve the information evaluation perspective, the information technology perspective, the asymmetric information perspective and information value perspective. In this research, the fourth perspective in the HIE was analyzed. The main findings of this research were categorized in three major groups, including the flow of information process in the field of health (production. collection, processing and dissemination), and information applications in the same field (education, research, health industry, policy, legislation, and decision-making) and the underlying fields. According to the findings, HIE has already developed a theoretical and conceptual gap that due to its importance in the next decade would be one of the research approaches to health science.

  19. Youth entrepreneurship and new economy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Željko Pavić

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper starts with a theoretical analysis of changes, which are usually designated as the new economy. These changes are characterized by globalization, more intensive use of information technology and other important structural changes. Multidimensional character of the entrepreneurship phenomenon and its role in economic development and social integration are emphasized. The youth represent a social group, which is, due to its transitional attributes and developments in the labour market, in particularly vulnerable position in the new economy. This position could be improved through activation of the entrepreneurial potential of the youth. In order to estimate entrepreneurial potential and its determinants an empirical research is carried out on a cluster sample of 200 high-school students and 200 university students in Osijek. The results of the research show relatively high entrepreneurial aspiration of the youth, but they also show the negative impact of the lack of financial means and the unfavourable sociocultural conditions. The results also confirmed the importance of the entrepreneurial family background and sex as the significant determinants of entrepreneurial aspirations.

  20. Europe - the first hydrogen economy?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hart, D.

    1999-01-01

    An examination of the state of research relating to hydrogen production and utilization indicates that interest in hydrogen from major companies in Europe has increased by several orders of magnitude in recent years. Of the three major areas where a hydrogen economy could be expected to start, namely, Japan, the United States and Europe, the latter may have advantages in diversity of resources, attitudes towards environmental issues and specific fiscal and regulatory structures. Examples of ongoing research and development projects in Europe include Norway's hydrogen combustion turbine to run on hydrogen from decarbonised natural gas, a project in the Netherlands involving mixing hydrogen and methane in the natural gas grid and a variety of projects involving liquid hydrogen refuelling, hydrogen aircraft, hydrogen fuelling stations and fuel cell vehicle development. There are also ongoing projects in carbon sequestration and hydrogen production for power generation and vehicle use. The author's main contention is that the combination of natural surroundings, environmental problems and attitudes, and business and government frameworks strongly suggest that Europe may be the first to have a hydrogen-based economy. 8 refs

  1. Transitional Forces in a Resource Based Economy: Phases of Economic and Institutional Development in Hawaii

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kaiser, Brooks; Roumasset, James

    2014-01-01

    that funds management and governance through a non-productive elite class. We use both archeological and historical evidence from natural resource use during the settlement and modernization of the Hawaiian economy. Hawaii’s resources are first controlled by hierarchy, which intensifies over time...... as the balance between sustenance and other resource uses shifts....

  2. Metabolic syndrome in sub-Saharan Africa: "smaller twin" of a region's prostatic diseases?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ejike, Chukwunonso E C C; Ezeanyika, Lawrence U S

    2008-01-01

    Prostate cancer (PC) and benign prostate hyperplasia (BPH) constitute many of the health concerns of males around the world. Prostate cancer is the major cause of death after lung cancer in men. Benign prostate hyperplasia affects most males above 40 years of age. A variety of factors, chiefly age, genetics and lifestyle, have been linked to the development of PC and BPH. The metabolic syndrome describes a chain of chronic disorders that are inter-related in aetiology, and result from unhealthy lifestyles, often due to an affluent economy. The eating of processed foods and a sedentary lifestyle apparently are status symbols among the middle and upper classes in sub-Saharan Africa. These have resulted in a surge in the disease burden of sub-Saharan Africa. This paper looks at the aetiology and prevalence of the metabolic syndrome and prostatic diseases, especially in sub-Saharan Africa. Evidence from the available literature shows that prostate disorders may be related to the metabolic syndrome. There is a likelihood that if sub-Saharan Africans keep copying the lifestyles of the developed world, especially in the direction of the nature of food items consumed, then the rising prevalence of diseases of the metabolic syndrome and the attendant prostate disorders may become very formidable healthcare "twin" problems for the region.

  3. Dropout Factories and the Vaccination Approach: The Impact of the Dropout Rate on the Economy and the Need for Effective Literacy Instruction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carlson, Carolyn L.

    2014-01-01

    Almost seven thousand students drop out of high school every day. Without strong literacy skills, students are less likely to experience academic success and more likely to drop out. This has a negative impact not only on those students, but on the economy. If the dropouts from the Class of 2011 had graduated, the nation's economy would have…

  4. KNOWLEDGE ECONOMY – THE ECONOMY OF THE FUTURE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emanoil Muscalu

    2008-05-01

    Full Text Available In these times with strong changes, a so called “knowledge revolution” is on the way andthis designates the evolution from the primarily physical labor based economy to a predominantly knowledgeeconomy.The entire world is dealing, în the dawn of this new century, the 21st one, with a series of majorchanges: social, economic and technological. Consequently, if the 2nd industrial revolution was initiated în theindustry based on intensive production labor “by the pioneers of automobiles such as Ford, it is clear that the3rd revolution will take place în the economic sector of the knowledge based services.”

  5. Corporate Communication in the Network Economy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Foss, Nicolai Juul; Kristensen, Tore; Wilke, Ricky

    This paper draws on ideas in economics and game theory to develop a new theory of marketing and corporate communication in the emerging network economy. We argue that in a network economy, firms and consumers will confront `coordination problems.' With the emerging network economy all this become...... a simple game theoretic model to explain this, and discuss marketing applications and possible strategies.Key wordsCoordination problems, common knowledge, corporate communication......This paper draws on ideas in economics and game theory to develop a new theory of marketing and corporate communication in the emerging network economy. We argue that in a network economy, firms and consumers will confront `coordination problems.' With the emerging network economy all this become...

  6. The Scandinavian Approach to the Experience Economy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bille, Trine

    2012-01-01

    This article discusses the concept of experience economy in a Scandinavian context and shows how the Scandinavian version of the concept has come about from a mix of three different approaches and theories. In the Scandinavian countries, the experience economy has been developed in a political...... context and is apparently a popular development policy for local government authorities and regions. The Scandinavian definition links the experience economy closely with cultural activities, and to the expectation of economic return and economic development. This article discusses the Scandinavian...... definition of experience economy and questions if it makes any sense. The definition of experiences is not clear, which makes the demarcation of the experience economy almost impossible and creates other difficulties in relation to policy. The article shows that the experience economy can follow three...

  7. ENTREPRENEURSHIP EDUCATION AND THE ECONOMY VICIOUS CIRCLES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MEDAR LUCIAN ION

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Education for sustainable development, involves training honest, active, social and creative persons for ensuring the link between environment, society, economy and politics. Trained entrepreneurs in sustainable development, are the engine system which can bring an economic prosperity. Lack of entrepreneurial education in the last 25 years has led accentuated conditions to avoiding economic development in all reference fields where added value can be achieved. Running away from excessive taxation led to the establishment of vicious circles in the economy. Vicious circles of the economy can be found in saving, tax policy, productive investment and the informal economy. Through this study will present the importance of entrepreneurship education in the real economy and some specifications to exit entrepreneurs from vicious circles of the economy.

  8. Unleashing the Power of the Circular Economy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kok, L.; Wurpel, G.; Ten Wolde, A. [IMSA Amsterdam, Amsterdam (Netherlands)

    2013-04-15

    The concept of circular economy is an economic and industrial system that focuses on the reusability of products and raw materials, reduces value destruction in the overall system and aims at value creation within each tier of the system. This report for Circle Economy (CE) outlines the general direction and concrete steps that must be taken to accomplish a breakthrough to a circular economy. It also provides a knowledge base behind the concept, connecting it to sustainability.

  9. Geo-economy of the Caspian basin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Raballand, G.

    2003-05-01

    The Caspian area is essential for the development of the central Asia countries and Caucasus. Excepted the Iran and the Russia, these areas economy is poor. The hydrocarbons exploitation should reinforce the economic weight of these States. The author analyzes the Caspian area economies and shows that the basin economies are confronted with three handicaps, and that even with different economic ways, the soviet economic system is still present in the basin. (A.L.B.)

  10. Corporate Communication in the Network Economy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Foss, Nicolai Juul; Kristensen, Tore; Wilke, Ricky

    This paper draws on ideas in economics and game theory to develop a new theory of marketing and corporate communication in the emerging network economy. We argue that in a network economy, firms and consumers will confront `coordination problems.' With the emerging network economy all this become...... a simple game theoretic model to explain this, and discuss marketing applications and possible strategies.Key wordsCoordination problems, common knowledge, corporate communication...

  11. Can Tourism Revive the Croatian Economy?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    McCormick Janice

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Croatia has one of its weakest economies in European Union. The most powerful engine driving a nation’s economy is its businesses. But Croatian business is not faring well. The Croatian government is hoping tourism will help revive the economy. This is a realistic hope but one that will be realized only through concerted action by business, government, and the education sector.

  12. Introduction: popular economies in South Africa

    OpenAIRE

    Elizabeth Hull; Deborah James

    2012-01-01

    African economies have long been a matter of concern to anthropologists, not least in the pages of Africa. These economies are situated, somewhat contradictorily, between global settings of financialized capitalism on the one hand and impoverished local arenas where cash-based economic transfers predominate on the other. The more such economies appear to be tied to wider global arenas and operations that place them beyond the reach of ordinary people, the more necessary it is to explore the l...

  13. Resource Complementarity and IT Economies of Scale

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Woudstra, Ulco; Berghout, Egon; Tan, Chee-Wee

    2017-01-01

    In this study, we explore economies of scale for IT infrastructure and application services. An in-depth appreciation of economies of scale is imperative for an adequate understanding of the impact of IT investments. Our findings indicate that even low IT spending organizations can make...... a difference by devoting at least 60% of their total IT budget on IT infrastructure in order to foster economies of scale and extract strategic benefits....

  14. The Moral Economy and Operationalising Trust

    OpenAIRE

    Smyth, H.

    2006-01-01

    The objective of this paper is to make a conceptual contribution to the analysis of projects through an exploration of the moral economy and trust. The moral economy is defined and trust is then explored in relation to the moral concepts of dignity and respect. An evaluation is made of the importance of understanding the moral economy as an additional means to operationalise trust.The analysis will be placed in the context of the theoretical importance of the moral economy to the operation of...

  15. Economy Home Improvement, Inc. Information Sheet

    Science.gov (United States)

    Economy Home Improvement, Inc. (the Company) is located in Lexington, Kentucky. The settlement involves renovation activities conducted at a property constructed prior to 1978, located in Lexington, Kentucky.

  16. Foreword. The Knowledge Economy: The Present Future

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Constantin Bratianu

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available All the statistics and evaluations show that the Knowledge Economy is our future. However, a close look at the developed economies demonstrates that the Knowledge Economy is already here, shaping our present time. Although there are many definitions of this new economic framework, their core content stresses the importance of data, information, and knowledge in the production of goods and delivering services in creating value for society. For instance, Powell and Snellman (2004, p.1999 define the knowledge economy as “production and services based on knowledge-intensive activities that contribute to an accelerated pace of technical and scientific advance, as well as a rapid obsolescence. The key component of the knowledge economy is a greater reliance on intellectual capabilities than on physical inputs or natural resources”. In the knowledge economy, knowledge becomes a strategic resource (Davenport & Prusak, 2000; Nonaka & Takeuchi, 1995 and knowledge strategies contribute directly to the competitive advantage (Bratianu & Bolisani, 2015. In this new economy, data, information, and knowledge are the driving forces of development and the knowledge economy is the engine of the global economy growth...

  17. Informed Questions Concerning the Vietnamese Economy

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Cabot , Jr, Nelson

    2003-01-01

    .... By 1989 liberalization of the economy began in earnest, including privatization of agriculture, abolishment of subsidies and price controls for state run enterprises, reformation of the banking...

  18. MNCs in a Strongly Regulated Economy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Navrbjerg, Steen Erik; Minbaeva, Dana

    2011-01-01

    happens when a MNC from one market economy overtake enterprises in another market economy. When a MNC originated from a Liberal Market Economy (LME - e.g. UK) operates in LME’s institutional structure (e.g. South Africa) we have a situation with relatively limited potential for conflicts. The MNC operates...... in a situation where there is a limited tradition for listening to employees as a collective. However, employees’ expectations are often adjusted to that; hence clashes are few and limited. In a way, the same applies for the meeting of a MNC from a Coordinated Market Economy (CME - e.g. Norway) meeting CME...

  19. MNCs in a Strongly Regulated Economy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Navrbjerg, Steen Erik; Minbaeva, Dana

    2010-01-01

    happens when a MNC from one market economy overtake enterprises in another market economy. When a MNC originated from a Liberal Market Economy (LME - e.g. UK) operates in LME’s institutional structure (e.g. South Africa) we have a situation with relatively limited potential for conflicts (see Table 1......). The MNC operates in a situation where there is a limited tradition for listening to employees as a collective. However, employees’ expectations are often adjusted to that; hence clashes are few and limited. In a way, the same applies for the meeting of a MNC from a Coordinated Market Economy (CME - e...

  20. DETERMINING FACTORS OF ECONOMY GLOBALISATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mirela Mazilu

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Approached from an economic and financial point of view, globalisation can be defined as strengthening and widening the connections between the national economies on the global market of goods, services and especially the capitals. Globalisation has become an implacable objective process, which often unfolds at a very high speed, comprising the quasi-total of the world's states in its sphere. Under a strictly economic aspect, of the efficiency of allocation and use of the resources, the economic globalisation occurs as a rational phenomenon, which supplies a larger volume of goods and services with less and less resources. The economic globalisation, thus, means the globalisation of the process of creating the gross internal production of the world's states.

  1. Nuclear power, economy and environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stoffaes, C.

    1994-01-01

    The explanations in this article aim at clarifying the background of the problem of nuclear energies. Why did countries give up developing nuclear energy? Which roles do economic political and psychological factors play in making energy political decisions? How could a balance be found in using the various energy sources which must meet the constantly increasing demand for electric power? Which preconditions must be fulfilled to return to nuclear energy world-wide (as using coal is connected with many environmental risks) and how long would it take? If, however, nuclear power is even to be included in the energy-political discussions of the governments and the public opinions in each country, there are a number of sensitive topics waiting for an answer: Safety and costs of power plants; recycling and storing nuclear wastes; the relationship between civil energy and the availability of nuclear weapons and the future plutonium economy. (orig./UA) [de

  2. Circular economy and nuclear energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2016-01-01

    Circular economy means no production of waste through re-using and recycling. As other industries, nuclear industry has committed itself to a policy of sustainability and resource preservation. EDF has developed a 5 point strategy: 1) the closure of the fuel cycle through recycling, 2) operating nuclear power plants beyond 40 years, 3) reducing the volume of waste, 4) diminishing the consumption of energy through the implementation of new processes (for instance the enrichment through centrifugation uses 50 times less power than gaseous diffusion enrichment) and 5) making evolve the prevailing doctrine concerning the management of very low level radioactive waste: making possible the re-use of slightly contaminated steel scrap or concrete instead of storing them in dedicated disposal centers. (A.C.)

  3. CIO in a Service Economy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sorenson, Paul G.

    The role of the Chief Information Officer (CIO) has evolved considerably since its inception in the 1980s. This paper begins with a brief review of the evolution of this role and sets the stage for future change brought about by the rise of the service economy. The enterprise of the future is then characterized based on an important global study by IBM. Using this characterization, the future challenges for CIOs in areas such as strategic planning, governance and operations management of information technology services are assessed from the perspectives of the four major elements of a service system (technology, people, organization and shared information). The paper concludes with a summary of the important findings, pointing to the challenge that CIOs of the future must be the leaders in their organizations in the delivery of smarter, on-demand service systems to smarter customers.

  4. The formate bio-economy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yishai, Oren; Lindner, Steffen N; Gonzalez de la Cruz, Jorge; Tenenboim, Hezi; Bar-Even, Arren

    2016-12-01

    In this review we discuss the concept of the formate bio-economy: formate can be produced efficiently from various available resources and can be consumed by microbes as the sole carbon source for the production of value-added chemicals, directly addressing major challenges in energy storage and chemical production. We show that the formate assimilation pathways utilized by natural formatotrophs are either inefficient or are constrained to organisms that are difficult to cultivate and engineer. Instead, adapting model industrial organisms to formatotrophic growth using synthetic, specially tailored formate-assimilation routes could prove an advantageous strategy. Several studies have started to tackle this challenge, but a fully active synthetic pathway has yet to be established, leaving room for future undertakings. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. From Enclave to Linkage Economies?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Michael W.

    If African developing countries are to benefit fully from the current boom in foreign direct investment (FDI) in extractives (i.e. mining and oil/gas), it is essential that the foreign investors foster linkages to the local economy. Traditionally, extractive FDI in Africa has been seen....... At the same time, local African enterprises are eager to, and increasingly capable of, linking up to the foreign investors in order to expand their activities and acquire technology, skills and market access. The changing strategies of MNCs and the improving capabilities of African enterprises offer new...... opportunities for governments and donors to mobilize extractive FDI for development goals. This paper seeks to take stock of what we know about the state of and driving forces of linkage formation in South Sahel Africa extractives based on a review of the extant literature. The paper argues that while MNCs...

  6. GENERAL OVERWIEV ON EU ECONOMY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    NICOLETA GEORGETA PANAIT

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available The impact of the international economic crisis on new EU member states has proven to be more severe than the first estimates of the economic analysts. The situation is different for each Member State, the nature and the dimension of the challenges faced are not identical, and the pace of reform is not the same. The economic crisis has prompted intense and sustained action by the EU's national governments, the European Central Bank and the Commission. All have been working closely together to support growth and employment, ensure financial stability, and put in place a better governance system for the future. Sustainable development in the future is the common responsibility of all Member States and EU institutions, because our economies are closely interlinked, and the EU economic governance now reconfigured to provide more effective responses at the policy level, to give a good reaction to the present and the future challenges.

  7. Proporción divina en pacientes con síndrome de clase II división 1 Divine proportion in patients with Class II Division I Syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yaima Lazo Amador

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available La belleza y la armonía facial desempeñan una función decisiva en las relaciones sociales del hombre. La afectación estética es el principal motivo de consulta de los pacientes de Ortodoncia. La Proporción Divina está siendo estudiada cada día más, con fines diagnósticos y terapéuticos relacionados con la estética facial. Con el objetivo de evaluar el comportamiento de la Proporción Divina en mediciones faciales en pacientes con Síndrome de Clase II división 1 y su relación con el sexo se realizó un estudio descriptivo transversal durante los años 2008-2010 en el Departamento de Ortodoncia de la Facultad de Estomatología de la Habana. La muestra estuvo formada por 30 pacientes que cumplieron con los criterios de inclusión y se estudiaron las mediciones faciales mediante fotografías de frente y perfil. El estudio arrojó que los mayores porcentajes se encontraron en los pares que relacionaban la distancia entre el canto lateral de los ojos y el margen lateral de la nariz (66,7 %; la base del tragus y el canto lateral del ojo y de este a la punta de la nariz (66,7 %; de trichion al ala de la nariz y de esta al mentón (63,3 %. Pocos pacientes mostraron la Proporción Divina en las mediciones faciales estudiadas, sin diferencias significativas en su comportamiento en relación con el sexo.The beauty and the facial harmony have a decisive function in social relationships of man. The esthetic affection is the leading cause of consultation of patients to Orthodontics. Divine Proportion is being more and more studied having diagnostic and therapeutical aims related to the facial aesthetics. To assess the behavior of Divine Proportion in facial measurements in patients presenting with Class II Division I syndrome and its relation to sex a cross-sectional and descriptive study was conducted for 2008-2010 in the Orthodontics Department of the Stomatology Faculty of La Habana. The sample included 30 patients who fulfilled the inclusion

  8. Rational piety and social reform in Glasgow: the life, philosophy and political economy of James Mylne (1757-1839)

    OpenAIRE

    Cowley, Stephen Graham

    2013-01-01

    The philosopher James Mylne (1757-1839) vindicated the rational powers of humanity against the sceptical and “common sense” philosophies of his Scottish predecessors and earned the trust of his contemporaries for his Whig politics. He and the largely neglected philosophy and political economy classes he taught in Glasgow clearly merited closer study. My thesis thus contains a biography of Mylne and interpretative essays on his lectures on moral philosophy and political economy ...

  9. RxClass

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — The RxClass Browser is a web application for exploring and navigating through the class hierarchies to find the RxNorm drug members associated with each class....

  10. Training in Toronto's "New Economy"=La formation dans la "nouvelle" economie de Toronto.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Community Perspectives Series, 2002

    2002-01-01

    This Community Perspectives Series document includes statements about the new economy in Toronto made by four participants in a March 2001 forum. The new economy was defined by the moderator as "an economy that emphasizes knowledge and technical processes put to the production of goods and other outputs so that an individual's knowledge is…

  11. Marfan Syndrome

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marfan syndrome is a disorder that affects connective tissue. Connective tissues are proteins that support skin, bones, blood ... fibrillin. A problem with the fibrillin gene causes Marfan syndrome. Marfan syndrome can be mild to severe, and ...

  12. WIEDEMANN SYNDROME

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    hi-tech

    BILATERAL BENIGN HAEMORRHAGIC ADRENAL CYSTS IN BECKWITH - WIEDEMANN. SYNDROME: CASE REPORT. P. ANOOP and M. A. ANJAY. SUMMARY. Beckwith-Wiedemann syndrome is the most common overgrowth malformation syndrome. The classical features include macrosomia, macroglossia, ...

  13. Tourette syndrome

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gilles de la Tourette syndrome; Tic disorders - Tourette syndrome ... Tourette syndrome is named for Georges Gilles de la Tourette, who first described this disorder in 1885. The disorder is likely passed down through families. ...

  14. Williams syndrome

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams-Beuren syndrome ... Williams syndrome is caused by not having a copy of several genes. It may be passed down in families. ... history of the condition. However, people with Williams syndrome have a 50% chance of passing the disorder ...

  15. Piriformis Syndrome

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... the National Library of Medicine’s MedlinePlus Piriformis Syndrome Metabolic Syndrome Show More Show Less Search Disorders SEARCH SEARCH Definition Treatment Prognosis Clinical Trials Organizations Publications Definition Piriformis syndrome ...

  16. Interdependences between sustainable development and sustainable economy

    OpenAIRE

    Emilia Mioara CÂMPEANU; Carmen Valentina RĂDULESCU

    2014-01-01

    Sustainable development and sustainable economy are mostly used concepts. Understanding clearly their meaning allows their use in an appropriate context and, therefore, their boundaries in terms of theoretical and practical approaches on which occasion it can be given their interdependencies. The paper aim is to analyze the interdependences between sustainable development and sustainable economy.

  17. Culture as a Caveat Towards Circular Economy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Guerrieri, Valeria

    2015-01-01

    Circular economy represents an economic and political challenge, as well as a cultural one, requiring a massive transformation on all levels of society. But why is cultural change so important to understanding today’s economy and how can the circular model be considered a truly cross...

  18. Social investment in the globalising learning economy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lundvall, Bengt-Åke; Lorenz, Edward

    2011-01-01

    This paper demonstrates the importance of social investment and egalitarian distribution policy for reproducing the basis of a learning economy.......This paper demonstrates the importance of social investment and egalitarian distribution policy for reproducing the basis of a learning economy....

  19. The law of the electricity economy 1987

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Blischke, U.; Heesch, H.; Hermann, H.P.; Koch, U.; Rupp, J.

    1988-01-01

    The authors survey the essential developments of electricity economy legislation in the year 1987. These reports are a continuation of the survey on 'Law of the electricity economy 1986'. The authors enunciate major legal-political topics and important questions on the interpretation and application of laws and regulations. (orig.) [de

  20. Bounded Rationality of Generalized Abstract Fuzzy Economies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lei Wang

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available By using a nonlinear scalarization technique, the bounded rationality model M for generalized abstract fuzzy economies in finite continuous spaces is established. Furthermore, by using the model M, some new theorems for structural stability and robustness to (λ,ϵ-equilibria of generalized abstract fuzzy economies are proved.

  1. Why are Market Economies Politically Stable?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dalgaard, Carl-Johan Lars; Olsson, Ola

    at the expense of other groups in society. If the gains from specialization become su¢ ciently large, however, a market economy will emerge. From being essentially noncooperative under self-sufficiency, the political decision making process becomes cooperative in the market economy, as the welfare of individuals...

  2. The Greenlandic Economy – Structure and Prospects

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Torben M.

    an economic development which addresses current economic and social problems, makes the economy independent of transfers from outside, and provides for a satisfactory increase in living standards. Essential for this is a transformation such that the economy does not only rely on renewable natural resources...

  3. The Hydrogen Economy as a Technological Bluff

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vanderburg, Willem H.

    2006-01-01

    The hydrogen economy is a technological bluff in its implied assurance that, despite the accelerating pace at which we are depleting the remaining half of our fossil fuels, our energy future is secure. Elementary thermodynamic considerations are developed to show that a hydrogen economy is about as feasible as a perpetual motion machine. Hydrogen…

  4. Working Within the Collaborative Tourist Economy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Meged, Jane Widtfeldt; Christensen, Mathilde Dissing

    2017-01-01

    This chapter explores from a critical perspective how workers in the collaborative tourism economy craft meaning and identity in work and discusses transformations on the established labor market induced by the collaborative economy. It does so through the perspectives of guides working...... pseudo-sharing manoeuvring in micro-competitive platform capitalism....

  5. Understanding the peri-urban economy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Monsson, Christian Kjær

    2013-01-01

    Christian Kjær Monsson suggests that the peri-urban economy should be understood as a metaphor of a mosaic.......Christian Kjær Monsson suggests that the peri-urban economy should be understood as a metaphor of a mosaic....

  6. Knowledge Production in a Cooperative Economy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cottey, Alan

    2014-01-01

    Knowledge here means something similar to but broader than science--it is reliable but not necessarily as systematic or explicit. A cooperative economy is contrasted with the competitive economy that has dominated political thinking almost everywhere for about half a century - the neo-liberal period. It is argued that the neo-liberal ideology and…

  7. Price Discrimination, Economies of Scale, and Profits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Donghyun

    2000-01-01

    Demonstrates that it is possible for economies of scale to induce a price-discriminating monopolist to sell in an unprofitable market where the average cost always exceeds the price. States that higher profits in the profitable market caused by economies of scale may exceed losses incurred in the unprofitable market. (CMK)

  8. Historical Improvement in Speed Skating Economy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Noordhof, Dionne A; Tok, Elmy van; Joosten, Florentine S J G M; Hettinga, Florentina J; Hoozemans, Marco J M; Foster Jr., Carl; Koning, Jos J de

    Half the improvement in 1500-m speed-skating world records can be explained by technological innovations and the other half by athletic improvement. It is hypothesized that improved skating economy is accountable for much of the athletic improvement. PURPOSE: To determine skating economy in

  9. Successes and Challenges of Emerging Economy Multinationals

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Successes and Challenges of Emerging Economy Multinationals investigates a broad variety of cases presenting clear evidence of fast successful internationalization of emerging economy multinationals originating not only from big economic players such as China, India and Russia but also from other...

  10. The knowledge economy and lifelong learning

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Milana, Marcella

    2014-01-01

    Anmeldelse af bogen: The knowledge economy and lifelong learning. A critical reader, edited by David W. Livingstone and David Guile (Sense Publishers, Rotterdam, 2012.......Anmeldelse af bogen: The knowledge economy and lifelong learning. A critical reader, edited by David W. Livingstone and David Guile (Sense Publishers, Rotterdam, 2012....

  11. Internationalization of Emerging Economies and Firms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    A contribution to the scarce body of literature on internationalization of emerging economies and their firms. Using a large variety of national contexts, it addresses the advancing business development of new emerging economies and their impact on the process of internationalization of emerging...... are brought under scrutiny in this volume. The chapters provide insights from diverse contexts ranging from Brazil to Malaysia....

  12. The solar-hydrogen economy: an analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reynolds, Warren D.

    2007-09-01

    The 20th Century was the age of the Petroleum Economy while the 21st Century is certainly the age of the Solar-Hydrogen Economy. The global Solar-Hydrogen Economy that is now emerging follows a different logic. Under this new economic paradigm, new machines and methods are once again being developed while companies are restructuring. The Petroleum Economy will be briefly explored in relation to oil consumption, Hubbert's curve, and oil reserves with emphasis on the "oil crash". Concerns and criticisms about the Hydrogen Economy will be addressed by debunking some of the "hydrogen myths". There are three major driving factors for the establishment of the Solar-Hydrogen Economy, i.e. the environment, the economy with the coming "oil crash", and national security. The New Energy decentralization pathway has developed many progressive features, e.g., reducing the dependence on oil, reducing the air pollution and CO II. The technical and economic aspects of the various Solar-Hydrogen energy options and combinations will be analyzed. A proposed 24-hour/day 200 MWe solar-hydrogen power plant for the U.S. with selected energy options will be discussed. There are fast emerging Solar Hydrogen energy infrastructures in the U.S., Europe, Japan and China. Some of the major infrastructure projects in the transportation and energy sectors will be discussed. The current and projected growth in the Solar-Hydrogen Economy through 2045 will be given.

  13. Conference Modernization of Economy and the State

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Laštovková, Jitka

    2006-01-01

    Roč. 42, č. 4 (2006), s. 835-837 ISSN 0038-0288. [Conference Modernization of Economy and the State. Moskva, 04.04.2006-06.04.2006] Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z70280505 Keywords : conference * economy * role of state Subject RIV: AO - Sociology, Demography Impact factor: 0.128, year: 2006

  14. Nuclear energy in the hydrogen economy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bertel, E.; Lee, K.S.; Nordborg, C.

    2004-01-01

    In the framework of a sustainable development, the hydrogen economy is envisaged as an alternative scenario in substitution to the fossil fuels. After a presentation of the hydrogen economy advantages, the author analyzes the nuclear energy a a possible energy source for hydrogen production since nuclear reactors can produce both the heat and electricity required for it. (A.L.B.)

  15. Advancing Green Economy through Technology Transfer

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Beyond this debate, the United Nations. Environment Programme's widely used definition states that a green economy is, 'one that results in improved human well-being and social equity, while significantly reducing environmental risks and ecological scarcities' (UNEP, 2013). Diverse lists of green economy principles ...

  16. Collaborative Economy in Tourism in Latin America

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Clausen, Helene Balslev; Velázquez, Mario

    2017-01-01

    have named the collaborative economy. Acknowledging the importance of Web 2.0, we will discuss how the digital technologies have brought about new collaborative consumption patterns and finally, we will address the question of whether the technology-induced collaborative economy can create new economic...

  17. Putting the sharing economy into perspective

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Frenken, Koen|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/207145253; Schor, Juliet

    2017-01-01

    We develop a conceptual framework that allows us to define the sharing economy and its close cousins and we understand its sudden rise from an economic-historic perspective. We then assess the sharing economy platforms in terms of the economic, social and environmental impacts. We end with

  18. Sustainable development in a developing economy: Challenges ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    USER

    2013-08-21

    Aug 21, 2013 ... towards environmental management in Nigeria which is a fast developing economy. The basic paradigms of the interaction of ... presence of the economy within the ecosphere now rival in magnitude the flow rates of many .... As households (a group of people sharing common cooking and housekeeping ...

  19. Hydrogen economy: a little bit more effort

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pauron, M.

    2008-01-01

    In few years, the use of hydrogen in economy has become a credible possibility. Today, billions of euros are invested in the hydrogen industry which is strengthened by technological advances in fuel cells development and by an increasing optimism. However, additional research efforts and more financing will be necessary to make the dream of an hydrogen-based economy a reality

  20. The Social Economy. An Integrating Approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sorin CACE

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available The first part of this article analyses the normative approach of the social economy. The social economy is developed in order to create an alternative economic and social space for the people excluded from life necessities and, furthermore, it is not a recent phenomenon; it relies on historical practices which have developed over several centuries in order to meet people’s needs. The social economy institutions from Romania and Greece are then presented. The purpose is to show that clear regulations contribute to the acceptance of the social economy as an alternative and complementary form of producing social welfare. In order to accomplish the normative purposes of meeting life’s necessities and of changing the existing social conditions, the social economy actors must start to think of themselves not as individual agents, but as belonging to a large movement acting within the continuum between the market and state intervention for welfare production.

  1. Happy degrowth through more amateur economy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nørgaard, Jørgen

    2013-01-01

    to a brief historical overview of the role of work, including turning points in the 1930s in the United States, when work sharing was displaced by work creation through consumerism, and, in the post-war economy when GDP became the dominant economic indicator. The paper proposes the aim of a happy......This paper outlines a simple, aggregate, descriptive model of what is here termed a “whole economy”, covering all human involvement in the economy, from ultimate means or ecological sacrifices, to the ultimate ends of human satisfaction. The model embraces not only the formal “professional economy......” driven by money, but also the parallel non-paid, voluntary economy, here termed “amateur economy”, driven by peoples’ affective motivations. The input of work to the economy plays an essential role in the paper’s analysis of options for reducing ecological sacrifices. Hence, part of the paper is devoted...

  2. The Institutional Framing of the Market Economy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Howells, John

    2003-01-01

    A review of the significance of the intellectual tool of the technology complex for an understanding of the role of innovation in the market economy. The framing of the market economy is understood as the way that institutions of finance, education and intellectual property are reformed to aid th...... the development of innovation for public and private purposes. It is argued that the speed and efficacy of this institutional reform effort is what distinguishes one market economy from another.......A review of the significance of the intellectual tool of the technology complex for an understanding of the role of innovation in the market economy. The framing of the market economy is understood as the way that institutions of finance, education and intellectual property are reformed to aid...

  3. The Social Economy Enterprises in Romania

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chelariu Gabriel

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The social economy plays an important role at every country and globally. It provides an economic development alternative based on ethical principles - solidarity, democracy, professional and personal development, functioning according to the market economy and independent of the state. The European Parliament attaches great importance to the social economy; through the adoption of a resolution on the social economy, the parliamentarians had in mind both the recognition of organizations in this sector and the promotion of a new economic model centered on social needs. In the context of the social economy, social enterprises are considered to promote innovative behavior in creating new forms of organization and new services, relying on a diverse mix of resources. Social enterprises receive income mainly from commercial activities and less as a result of public funding.

  4. Rate-making in economies in transition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Horvath, R.S.

    1996-01-01

    Eastern European economies in transition have unique needs which may be best served by considering how other economies around the world are making the transition to market-based economies. In particular, the recent Mexican experience may provide some lessons learned. Mexico has recently established for the first time a regulatory body with the power to regulate natural gas in certain ways. This paper outlines how the Mexican experience may be an appropriate jumping-off point for Eastern European economies in transition as they develop their own regulatory structure and rate-making. The paper concludes with an update on the recent experience in the U.S. to push the development of a market economy for natural gas further than it ever has before

  5. The effect of social and token economy reinforcements on academic achievement of students with intellectual disabilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mirzamani, S Mahmood; Ashoori, Mohammad; Sereshki, Narges Adib

    2011-01-01

    This study investigates the effect of social and token economy reinforcements on academic achievement of 9th grade boy students with intellectual disabilities in an experimental science class in Tehran Province. The method used for this study was experimental by pre-test, post- test with a control group. The boy students with intellectual disabilities from three junior high schools participated in this study. The sample consisted of thirty, 9th grade boy students with intellectual disabilities in the selected schools; the schools were chosen by the multi-stage cluster method. To measure the progress of students in the science class, a teacher made test and the Wechsler intelligence test for matching the groups for IQ were used. To ensure validity, the content validity criteria depended tests calculated by the Lashe method and teachers' perspective were used. The reliability coefficient was obtained by the reliability coefficient of related tests; the percent agreement method and the obtained data were analyzed using one-way variance analysis and Shefe prosecution test. The results showed that there was a significant increase in academic achievement of students with intellectual disabilities when using token economy than using social reinforcements compared with the control group. Also, when using social reinforcements, the academic achievement of students was more than the control group. Token economy and social reinforcements increased the academic achievement of students with intellectual disabilities in the science class; and also the effect of token economy reinforcements was more than social reinforcements on the subjects.

  6. Het Nederlandse beleid voor de creatieve economie: te veel vliegen in één klap?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Floor Basten

    2009-02-01

    Full Text Available Dutch policy for the creative economy: aiming for too many birds with one stone? Creative economy is a subject that enjoys a lot of attention from Dutch governments, from local to state. It is assumed that creative economy results in a positive image, safety and money. In the Netherlands, the writings of Richard Florida have become prominent in policy making. Florida characterises the creative class as value driven. Values are individuality, tolerance, and meritocracy. Cities that score high on Technology, Talent and Tolerance attract the creative class. The Dutch policy for this economy often coincides with urban renewal. Moreover, the Dutch government has a desire to define what successful creativity is. This has some side-effects that might harm the tolerant atmosphere that is essential to the creative class, as it excludes groups of people from the public domain. In this contribution, I present a project that wants to resist the homogenization and zero tolerance policies in the public domain. In the project Maximum Tolerance Zone all parties concerned negotiate the quality of ‘their’ public sphere and the rules needed to advance this quality. The MTZ-project does not assume a social intervention in which the government imposes norms one has to learn to adapt to, but a social-administrative intervention in which a joint learning process takes place. This is not an easy, but still a necessary assignment for all parties concerned, the government included.

  7. Formation of paradigmatic theory of regional economy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aleksandr Ivanovich Tatarkin

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available This paper reviews the evolution of scientific ideas about the regional economy as an independent direction of economic knowledge. The growing interest of scientists, university lecturers and specialists to the regional economy is noticed. The authors pay special attention to the origins of the regional economy, the contribution of Russian scientists to the disclosure of the content and nature of economic regionalization of the country as well as highlight the role of Soviet geographers and economists in developing the theory of clusters and the study of challenges to the rational distribution of production forces. It is emphasized that the new scientific discipline — regional economy — was born in the acute scientific discussions between Soviet geographers and economists, particularly regarding the subject of investigation. The conclusion is substantiated that so far in economic science four major views on the subject of understanding and interpretation of the regional economy were formed. The authors pay attention to the fact that at present there is a further extension of the subject of the regional economy, mainly over the border of the material space and location of productive forces. The paper concludes that the formation of a modern paradigm of regional economy should be based on several basic principles, among which are the following ones: consideration of the regional economy as an evolving complex structural discipline; territoriality as a dominant feature of any research in the regional economy; the imperative of any study that claims to belong to a regional economy is not only to establish general patterns of development and organization of economic life in the territory, but also the identification of its regional (local specific

  8. Goods Traffic and the Economy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Frank Bruns

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available Le transport intra-alpin et transalpin est en constante augmentation. Dans les corridors de transit alpins, les répercussions négatives de cette circulation sur l’homme et l’environnement se ressentent particulièrement. Pour les régions alpines affectées, des solutions en terme de développement durable devront être trouvées au plus vite. Toutes suggestions pour résoudre ce problème, devront être discutées à la lumière de nombreux facteurs. Ainsi, les relations entre « le transport des marchandises et l’économie/la société » doivent être prises en compte. Le problème central est que l’impact du transport sur l’économie et la société, diffère selon les ressources économiques et la réactivité des acteurs des régions concernées. Le projet MONITRAF examine les impacts réciproques et identifie les indicateurs (Bruns, Delb, 2005.Transport through and within the Alps is continuously increasing. In the Alpine transit corridors the negative effects of transport on humans and the environment are felt particularly. From the focus point of the affected Alpine regions, a sustainable development solution for this problem is required as soon as possible. Any suggestions in order to solve this problem should be discussed in view of all the facts: Thus, the relationship between “freight transport and the Economy/Society” also need to be taken into account. In this context, the central issue is that the impact of transport on the economy and society will differ depending on the economic potential and the reaction of players in the relevant region. Within the project MONITRAF the respective relationships has been investigated and indicators identified (BRUNS F., DELB V., 2005.

  9. Associação entre doença hepática gordurosa não alcoólica e marcadores de lesão/função hepática com componentes da síndrome metabólica em indivíduos obesos classe III Association between non-alcoholic fatty liver disease and liver function/injury markers with metabolic syndrome components in class III obese individuals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gabriela Villaça Chaves

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Investigar a associação entre doença hepática gordurosa não alcoólica (DHGNA e os marcadores de lesão e função hepática com os componentes da síndrome metabólica (SM em indivíduos obesos classe III. MÉTODOS: A população estudada foi constituída por 144 pacientes com obesidade classe III (IMC > a 40 kg/m². A SM foi identificada segundo o critério do NCEP ATP III, por meio da determinação do perfil lipídico, glicemia e insulina basal. Foram quantificados ainda os marcadores de função e lesão hepática. A resistência à insulina (RI foi verificada pelo índice HOMA-IR e o diagnóstico da DHGNA por ressonância magnética. Os cálculos estatísticos foram realizados pelo programa estatístico SPSS na versão 13.0. A associação foi verificada pelo teste Mann-Whitney e qui-quadrado, com nível de significância de 5%. RESULTADOS: Foi encontrada associação significativa entre o diagnóstico de SM e DHGNA (χ² = 6,84; p = 0,01. Quanto aos componentes diagnósticos para SM, constatou-se associação positiva e significativa entre HDL-c (p = 0,05, circunferência da cintura (p OBJECTIVE: To investigate the association between non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD and liver function/injury markers with components of metabolic syndrome (MS in class III obese individuals. METHODS: The study population consisted of 144 patients with class III obesity (body mass index [BMI] > 40 kg/m². MS was diagnosed according to the National Cholesterol Education Program - Adult Treatment Panel III (NCEP ATP III criteria, by determining the lipid profile, blood glucose and basal insulin. Liver function/injury markers were also quantified. Insulin resistance (IR was measured by HOMA-IR and NAFLD diagnosis was established by magnetic resonance imaging (MRI. Statistical calculations were performed by SPSS version 13.0. The association was assessed by the Mann-Whitney and Chi-square tests, with a level of significance set at 5

  10. Quantifying the vitamin D economy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heaney, Robert P; Armas, Laura A G

    2015-01-01

    Vitamin D enters the body through multiple routes and in a variety of chemical forms. Utilization varies with input, demand, and genetics. Vitamin D and its metabolites are carried in the blood on a Gc protein that has three principal alleles with differing binding affinities and ethnic prevalences. Three major metabolites are produced, which act via two routes, endocrine and autocrine/paracrine, and in two compartments, extracellular and intracellular. Metabolic consumption is influenced by physiological controls, noxious stimuli, and tissue demand. When administered as a supplement, varying dosing schedules produce major differences in serum metabolite profiles. To understand vitamin D's role in human physiology, it is necessary both to identify the foregoing entities, mechanisms, and pathways and, specifically, to quantify them. This review was performed to delineate the principal entities and transitions involved in the vitamin D economy, summarize the status of present knowledge of the applicable rates and masses, draw inferences about functions that are implicit in these quantifications, and point out implications for the determination of adequacy. © The Author(s) 2014. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the International Life Sciences Institute. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  11. Gig economy, rating, labour relationship

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gemma Pacella

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available In the era of gig economy, the job performance is now influenced by the customer rating system. A new London’s Employment Tribunal judgment approaches the Uber London issue focusing also on customer feedback. Since drivers are qualified as workers, not self-employed, as the English Court ruled on, this article tooks a position about on-line feedback incidence on job relationship. Referring to customer’s opinion, the employer exercises control on services performed by each worker, whereas Italian Legal System bounds it, within the meaning of article 4 of Worker’s Statutory. On the other hand, the customer rating can be considered as a type of control on the business organization, in observance of limits established by the same article.Moreover, the paper’s purpose is to inquire about the feedback positive impact on workers: customer satisfaction could provide business bonus, or it could become an evidence against employer in a court case.

  12. Welcome to the experience economy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pine, B J; Gilmore, J H

    1998-01-01

    First there was agriculture, then manufactured goods, and eventually services. Each change represented a step up in economic value--a way for producers to distinguish their products from increasingly undifferentiated competitive offerings. Now, as services are in their turn becoming commoditized, companies are looking for the next higher value in an economic offering. Leading-edge companies are finding that it lies in staging experiences. To reach this higher level of competition, companies will have to learn how to design, sell, and deliver experiences that customers will readily pay for. An experience occurs when a company uses services as the stage--and goods as props--for engaging individuals in a way that creates a memorable event. And while experiences have always been at the heart of the entertainment business, any company stages an experience when it engages customers in a personal, memorable way. The lessons of pioneering experience providers, including the Walt Disney Company, can help companies learn how to compete in the experience economy. The authors offer five design principles that drive the creation of memorable experiences. First, create a consistent theme, one that resonates throughout the entire experience. Second, layer the theme with positive cues--for example, easy-to-follow signs. Third, eliminate negative cues, those visual or aural messages that distract or contradict the theme. Fourth, offer memorabilia that commemorate the experience for the user. Finally, engage all five senses--through sights, sounds, and so on--to heighten the experience and thus make it more memorable.

  13. Economy. The Japanese shock wave

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lecompte-Boinet, G.; Dupin, L.; Chandes, C.; Gateaud, P.; Guez, L.; Maillard, C.

    2011-01-01

    Several articles analyse and comment the consequences of the earthquake which occurred in Japan, not only for the Japanese industry and economy, but also for the French ones. In Japan, the most impacted sectors are the energy, the semiconductor and the automotive industries. Renewable energies and gas will at least temporarily replace nuclear energy. Other countries will be impacted, notably China and its automotive industry due to a lack of components. There will also be a lack of electronic components because Japan represents, directly or indirectly, about 40 per cent of world production in this field. In some regions of Japan, the whole production system is in danger because of the supply chain organisation. Other sectors are concerned for differing reasons: raw materials, aeronautic construction, luxury and cosmetics. An article evokes initiatives of French company chairmen, personnel and trade unions to help Japan and the Japanese. An article describes the development of robots and unmanned vehicles by French companies, which are able to intervene in radioactive environments. Another consequence is the inspection of the French and European nuclear plants in order to see whether they can withstand extreme risks. An article stresses that several French industrial sites are exposed to natural risks (earthquake, floods). Finally, Daniel Cohn-Bendit stresses that, after Fukushima, the unlikely is not impossible any longer

  14. Paraguay: population and the economy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanders, T G

    1986-01-01

    Paraguay's political conflicts and development experiences have been accompanied by compensatory population movements; however, economic and population policies of the past are not adequate to address the current economic challenges. The principal structural problem is dependence on international commodity prices. Since late 1984, the international prices for soya and cotton have declined more than 50%; these 2 products account for 83% of official exports. The external debt has grown significantly in the past 5 years and is increasingly difficult to service. A major problem the government faces in servicing the debt and maintaining economic growth is its inability to get control of foreign exchange. Much of Paraguay's external trade is contraband, with the dollars passing into the black market. As a result of the illegal economy, government earnings have been insufficient to cover expenses. Unemployment stands at 12% because of general economic decline, cuts in government expenditure, and the reduction of investment in hydroelectricity. Occupation of new land, the classic solution by the Paraguayan peasantry, is no longer a viable option since all land is now utilized. About 20-25% of Paraguayans live outside the country, expecially in Argentina. In 1986, a commission drafted an Adjustment Plan that recommended a devaluation of the official gurani rate, tax increases, higher tariffs for public services, and incentives to invest in priority areas; however, this plan has not been implemented to date.

  15. Consequences of Criminals in Economy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shaban Sulejmani

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available The criminal in all its forms is not an occurrence which is connected to a particular country, territory, religion or civilization; however the truth witnessed by events in every moment is that the occurrence of criminal activities does not have a nation, confession, religious beliefs or identity. They are initiated by the hands of the individual who plans it, especially emphasizing the ones who finance it and input ‘rented’ elements with the initial intention to destroy, damage and ruin the economy and kill and shed blood as well, followed by the intention to deceit people through focusing on specific religious beliefs sometimes, as well as human rights some other time. Thus, every problem can be observed through collecting a number of important elements which are presented below: - Manifestation of the topic of the problem, which involves the type of activity around which the problem is developing, in order to stop its progress and development and finally, to end the efforts which are being spent for it; - Manifestation of the size of the problem, which involves highlighting the fields affected by the problem, starting from the economic, social, political and other dangers that it involves; - Manifestation of the direct consequence of criminal activities problem, observing it from an objective point of view.

  16. The Nordic Approach to the Experience Economy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bille, Trine

    This paper discusses the concept of the experience economy in a Nordic context and shows how the Nordic version of the concept has come about from a mix of three different approaches and theories. Besides, the Nordic definition links the experience economy closely with cultural activities. In the......, and in relation to, the different experience areas. The greatest growth potential resides probably in the broad value creation in association with the experience areas. But the experience economy does not lend itself to any consistent definition.......This paper discusses the concept of the experience economy in a Nordic context and shows how the Nordic version of the concept has come about from a mix of three different approaches and theories. Besides, the Nordic definition links the experience economy closely with cultural activities....... In the Nordic countries the experience economy has been developed in a political context and it is apparently a popular development policy for local government authorities and regions. This paper discusses the Nordic definition of experience economy and questions if it makes any sense. The definition...

  17. Political economy of agrarian change: Some key concepts and questions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H Bernstein

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper draws on lectures given in recent years at the China Agricultural University, on author’s book Class Dynamics of Agrarian Change [1] and on a recent article [3]. The author supplied as few references as possible to very large literature in English on agrarian change both historical and contemporary; there is an ample bibliography in [1], which is expanded in [2-5]. The paper outlines in schematic fashion some key concepts in the political economy of agrarian change with special reference to capitalism historically and today; some key questions posed by the political economy of agrarian change, and how it seeks to investigate and answer them; two sets of more specific questions about agrarian transition to capitalism and agrarian change within capitalism (internal to the countryside, bringing in rural-urban interconnections, pointing towards the place of agriculture within larger ‘national’ economies, and concerning the character and effects of the capitalist world economy. With the aid of the last group of questions, the author discusses three themes, which they are deployed to investigate: the agrarian origins of capitalism, the distinction between farming and agriculture generated by capitalism, and the fate(s of peasant farmers in the modern world of capitalism. The author believes that one cannot conceive the emergence and functioning of agriculture in modern capitalism without the centrality and configurations of new sets of dynamics linking agriculture and industry, and the rural and urban, and the local, national and global. The three themes all feed into the fourth and final theme, that of investigating the fate(s of the peasantry in capitalism today, which resonates longstanding debates of the ‘disappearance’ or ‘persistence’ of the peasantry, albeit now in the conditions of contemporary ‘globalization’. The author does not deny some of the critique of the contemporary globalization, or at least its effects

  18. RECIPROCITY IN THE ECONOMY OF THE AGE OF SILICON ECONOMY SYSTEMS TO EARLY EXPERIENCES CURRENT SOLIDARITY ECONOMY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Horacio, Simes

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Reciprocity is an integrating principle of supportive economy activities. In non-capitalist societies, it has been realized through the participation of certain institutional arrangements that favored the stability of exchange relations. Progress towards capitalist societies and deepening them, dissolved many of these institutional supports, while economy relations separated from other social relations in which it was first inserted. In addition, the selfish individual was become an active participant in the economy life of society. With the construction of market economies and state regulation, reciprocal relationships were being reduced to a lower field activities. Under these circumstances, they should investigate how reciprocity is manifested today, the institutional arrangements that are suitable to give stability and unity to cooperative behavior and the dynamics of their relationship to the context of the market and the state.

  19. Macroeconomic perspectives on the Danish economy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Torben M.; Hougaard Jensen, Svend E.; Risager, Ole

    A guide to major economic policy issues in Denmark. Leading Danish and international economists discuss, in comparative conte×t, the Danish economy's performance in the last 40 years, and assess the challenges which Denmark in common with other small, open economies faces in the global economy...... today. Major features include the continuing of academic analysis with policy making e×perience and e×pertise, and the e×amination of topical issues including the impact of EMU on "outsider" nations....

  20. Revisiting the Political Economy of Communication

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicholas Garnham

    2014-02-01

    The task of the paper and the seminar was to revisit some of Nicholas Garnham’s ideas, writings and contributions to the study of the Political Economy of Communication and to reflect on the concepts, history, current status and perspectives of this field and the broader study of political economy today. The topics covered include Raymond Williams’ cultural materialism, Pierre Bourdieu’s sociology of culture, the debate between Political Economy and Cultural Studies, information society theory, Karl Marx’s theory and the critique of capitalism.

  1. Working Within the Collaborative Tourist Economy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Meged, Jane Widtfeldt; Christensen, Mathilde Dissing

    2017-01-01

    This chapter explores from a critical perspective how workers in the collaborative tourism economy craft meaning and identity in work and discusses transformations on the established labor market induced by the collaborative economy. It does so through the perspectives of guides working...... with Copenhagen Free Walking Tours, a platform offering guided tours and hosts offering short-term rentals on the platform Airbnb. Both guides and hosts practice job crafting. However, guides and hosts approach and navigate the collaborative economy in different ways. Both markets require hosting qualities...

  2. Economies of Size in Production Agriculture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duffy, Michael

    2009-07-01

    Economies of size refer to the ability of a farm to lower costs of production by increasing production. Agriculture production displays an L-shaped average cost curve where costs are lower initially but reach a point where no further gains are achieved. Spreading fixed costs, bulk purchases, and marketing power are cited as reasons for economies of size. Labor-reducing technologies may be the primary reason. Most studies do not include the external costs from prophylactic antibiotic use, impact on rural communities, and environmental damage associated with large-scale production. These can contribute to the economies of size.

  3. Working Within the Collaborative Tourist Economy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Meged, Jane Widtfeldt; Christensen, Mathilde Dissing

    2017-01-01

    This chapter explores from a critical perspective how workers in the collaborative tourism economy craft meaning and identity in work and discusses transformations on the established labor market induced by the collaborative economy. It does so through the perspectives of guides working...... with Copenhagen Free Walking Tours, a platform offering guided tours and hosts offering short-term rentals on the platform Airbnb. Both guides and hosts practice job crafting. However, guides and hosts approach and navigate the collaborative economy in different ways. Both markets require hosting qualities...... pseudo-sharing manoeuvring in micro-competitive platform capitalism....

  4. Universities in the Knowledge Economy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ruxandra BEJINARU

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Throughout this paper, we present the observations and conclusions of our research that is both conceptual and pragmatic. As the title suggests, our research focuses on the new roles of universities in the knowledge economy. Since their beginning, universities have been scientific, cultural and moral landmarks for society and even today they have the mission of stimulating a social and economic progress in society. We start the presentation of the research by emphasizing the correlations between the new understanding of the knowledge concept and the functioning of the university. We consider that knowledge represents a strategic resource for universities and also the main resource used in all its organizational processes and has great impact on the final products and services that the university delivers for its stakeholders and finally for the whole society. In the second section of the paper we discuss the strategic roles that the universities play in society. Though we consider that the primordial role of the university is to educate students and to contribute to the scientific knowledge of the world, today universities integrate more and diverse responsibilities which represent new dynamics capabilities. Within the third section of the paper we approach the problem of the intellectual capital which we consider also as a strategic component of universities and with great potential for their prosperity. The discussion regarding the impact of the intellectual capital is particularly important due to the presentation of the novel entropic model of intellectual capital. In the final part of the paper we analyze and argue the most recently announced challenges and high perspectives for the universities world-wide and we present our concluding remarks.

  5. Albania economy toward official euroisation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erjola BARBULLUSHI

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available The euroisation issue in European Integration context, is a continuous process of discussions between different researchers and regulatory institutions. Nowadays, different aspects of collaboration and integration processes between countries in the region, are extended in all politics, economic and security dimensions. In this study, we are going to treat one of the aspects of this process integration for Albania: the possibility of substituting the Albanian Lek with Euro, beginning with the explanation of the concept of euroisation. Also we are going to identify the actual non-official replacement level of lek and how it is expected to be realized in the future. Albania like other developing countries is lack of a currency with which people can buy abroad and which can be used in short-run and long-run credit contracts. On the other hand, the exchange rate represents an important risk, especially for the business which realizes transactions in foreign currency. Here in we are focused on the measurement of the money replacement level in Albania through three main methods. For this purpose is used the regression analysis in order to test the hypothesis under evaluation in two directions: endogenous and exogenous potential factors affecting this replacement. Through the factor analysis identifying the pro and cons of the euroisation phenomenon, we will give the potential alternative in our county economy conditions. Finally, the replacement rate cannot be assessed without being related to the degree of money in circulation replacement and the degree of assets replacement and without being connected with the exchange rate between currencies.

  6. Dynamic systems of regional economy management optimization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trofimov, S.; Kudzh, S.

    One of the most actual problems of the Russian economic life is a regional economic systems formation. The hierarchy of economic and branch priorities should follow from the general idea of an industrial policy. The matter is that the concept of an industrial policy is defined by the system of priorities mainly incorporated in it. The problem of priorities is not solved yet neither on federal, nor at a regional level. It is necessary to recognize, that a substantiation of this or that variant of priorities - objectively a challenge. Such substantiation can be received with the help of dynamic structural modeling and management technology. At formation of the regional industrial policy program the special attention is given to creation of modern type commercial structures. In regions there are headquarters and branches of many largest corporations, holdings and banks. Besides it, many regional enterprises already became inter-regional or even the transnational companies. In this connection an assistance of transformation of the industrial enterprises and their groups in vertically integrated companies and modern type holdings can become a prominent aspect of an industrial policy. Regional economic structures should be reconstructed gradually on the general model of the world class competitive companies. Assistance to creation of new corporational control systems, the organization of headquarters and the central services work - all this can be included into the sphere of regional administration industrial policy. The special attention should be turned on necessity of development of own system of the corporate structures, capable to provide to the region an independent participation in use of the natural resources and industrial-technological potential, at the stage of a regional industrial policy program formation. Transformation of the industrial enterprises and their groups into modern type vertically-integrated companies and holdings can become one of the major

  7. Agrofuels capitalism: a view from political economy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    B.N.F. White (Benjamin); A. Dasgupta (Anirban)

    2010-01-01

    textabstractThis article considers the global expansion of agrofuels feedstock production from a political economy perspective. It considers and dismisses the environmental and pro-poor developmental justifications attached to agrofuels. To local populations and direct producers, the specific

  8. Optimization models in a transition economy

    CERN Document Server

    Sergienko, Ivan V; Koshlai, Ludmilla

    2014-01-01

    This book opens new avenues in understanding mathematical models within the context of a  transition economy. The exposition lays out the methods for combining different mathematical structures and tools to effectively build the next model that will accurately reflect real world economic processes. Mathematical modeling of weather phenomena allows us to forecast certain essential weather parameters without any possibility of changing them. By contrast, modeling of transition economies gives us the freedom to not only predict changes in important indexes of all types of economies, but also to influence them more effectively in the desired direction. Simply put: any economy, including a transitional one, can be controlled. This book is useful to anyone who wants to increase profits within their business, or improve the quality of their family life and the economic area they live in. It is beneficial for undergraduate and graduate students specializing in the fields of Economic Informatics, Economic Cybernetic...

  9. Chemical engineers, nanotechnology and future green economy

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Musee, N

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Nanotechnology is envisaged to address present human needs and secure living comforts of future generations cheaply, faster and more cleanly. To date, nanotechnology's impact on the economy and on our daily lives has been enormous....

  10. Energy and economy; Energia y Economia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Diaz Fernandez, J. L.

    2010-07-01

    This article, which reflects the authors presentation at the opening of the Congress of the Spanish Nuclear Society, examines the relationship between the Spanish economy and energy consumption in our country compared with major industrialized countries. (Author)

  11. Gaining Control of Iraq's Shadow Economy

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Ramirez, David S

    2007-01-01

    .... These conditions fuel a sprawling, decades-old shadow economy manipulated by elements of organized crime, militias, and insurgents to fund attacks on Coalition forces, infrastructure and innocent Iraqi civilians...

  12. Essays on Political Economy of the Media

    OpenAIRE

    Lam, Onyi

    2017-01-01

    My research focuses on understanding the political economy of traditional and newmedia. I study these issues by exploiting natural experiments, employing data techniquesborrowed from machine learning and using both observational data from traditional andnew sources.

  13. Gaining Control of Iraq's Shadow Economy

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Ramirez, David S

    2007-01-01

    .... The shadow economy is also used extensively by the poor and women for subsistence living. The combined effect for Iraqi citizens is they have to survive in a country without adequate institutions and poor governance...

  14. Responsibility and care in the collaborative economy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dredge, Dianne

    2017-01-01

    This paper explores moral responsibility in the collaborative economy using examples from the collaborative economy accommodation sector as the context to excavate key issues and challenges. The paper traverses difficult philosophical terrain in order to better understand the relationship between...... concepts such as ethics, responsibility and moral action in the collaborative economy. The traditional approach is for governments to adopt universal rules to determine who is responsible for what consequences and to prescribe remedies so that actors can ‘earn’ the claim of being responsible. However......, the global and liquid nature of the collaborative economy operating across jurisdictions and the difficulty and lack of interest in implementing strict regulatory frameworks that contradict neoliberal free market ideology suggest that utilitarian and rule bound approaches to defining and apportioning...

  15. The Economy Governing During Globalization Era

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ion Bucur

    2006-07-01

    Full Text Available World and national economie governing is an essential premise of the political stability and democratic evolution. In this study are approached theoretical and practical aspects of the economie governing. Theoretical acquisitions in this field highlit multiple perspectives of approaching and difficulties to characterize this complex and multisized fenomenon. A possible theory of governing the economy needs to use some concepts and mechanisms particular to more scientific fields (political science, economy, cibernetics, the theory of systems and others. The dinamic character and the instability of the present system of governing imposed the analysis of the factors and conditions which have generated the crises of the national and world economic governing. In this context, there are indentified the forms of manifesting the instability (lack of legitimacy, transpa¬rence and democratic responsability, and also the direction of necessary action to implement an efficient and responsable economic governing.

  16. Institutional Competitiveness in the Global Economy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Campbell, John L.; Pedersen, Ove K.

    that are very different institutionally. The analysis shows that there is no one best way to achieve success in today's global economy, except perhaps for reducing socioeconomic inequality; that the type of capitalism known as coordinated market economies are oversimplified in the literature; and that high......Despite high taxes, a large state budget and welfare state, much economic regulation, and a very open economy, Denmark continues to compete successfully against the other advanced capitalist economies. Hence, Denmark presents a paradox for neoliberalism, which predicts that these policies will hurt...... national competitiveness under conditions of economic globalization. Following the varieties of capitalism literature, this paper argues that Denmark's success has been based in large part on its institutional competitiveness-its capacity to achieve socioeconomic success as a result of the competitive...

  17. China's Economy and the Beijing Olympics

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Martin, Michael F

    2008-01-01

    ... in preparation for the international event. China anticipates that the 2008 Olympics will provide both short-term and long-term direct and indirect benefits to its economy, as well as enhance the nation's global image...

  18. The Vindolanda Tablets and the Ancient Economy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Evers, Kasper Grønlund

    , a model is outlined which takes into account the different economic behaviours revealed by the tablets and attempts to fit them together into one coherent, economic system, whilst also relating the activities to questions of scale in the ancient economy; moreover, the conclusions drawn in the study......, the aim is to investigate how best to comprehend the economic system attested at Vindolanda and to consider the wider implications for studies of the ancient economy in general. This is accomplished by a three-step approach: first, the nature of the Vindolandan evidence is assessed, and the state...... of research on both studies of the ancient economy and the economy of early Roman Britain is accounted for, so as to highlight the value of the Vindolanda Tablets and lay the ground for the interpretations which follow. Secondly, the economic activities attested by the tablets are analysed in terms of market...

  19. The Clean Air Act and the Economy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Since 1970, cleaner air and a growing economy have gone hand in hand. The Act has created market opportunities that have helped to inspire innovation in cleaner technologies for which the United States has become a global market leader.

  20. Comparing flexibility mechanisms for fuel economy standards

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fischer, Carolyn

    2008-01-01

    Since 1975, the Corporate Average Fuel Economy (CAFE) program has been the main policy tool in the US for coping with the problems of increasing fuel consumption and dependence on imported oil. The program mandates average fuel economy requirements for the new vehicle sales of each manufacturer's fleet, with separate standards for cars and light trucks. The fact that each manufacturer must on its own meet the standards means that the incentives to improve fuel economy are different across manufacturers and vehicle types, although the problems associated with fuel consumption do not make such distinctions. This paper evaluates different mechanisms to offer automakers the flexibility of joint compliance with nationwide fuel economy goals: tradable CAFE credits, feebates, output-rebated fees, and tradable credits with banking. The policies are compared according to the short- and long-run economic incentives, as well as to issues of transparency, implementation, administrative and transaction costs, and uncertainty. (author)

  1. Implementing logistics strategies in a developing economy

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Ittmann, HW

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available competitiveness. Currently these strategies are being implemented within the developing economy with varying degrees of success. The theme of this survey, “Implementing logistics strategies in a developing economy”, is therefore highly appropriate. Implementation...

  2. Steering innovations towards a green economy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Droste, N.; Hansjürgens, B.; Kuikman, P.; Otter, N.; Antikainen, R.; Leskinen, P.; Pitkänen, K.; Saikku, L.; Loiseau, E.; Thomsen, M.

    2016-01-01

    In this paper we analyse institutional conditions facilitating the transition towards a green economy by encouraging investment in the enhancement of natural capital and social equity, focussing especially on government interventions. Presenting a conceptual institutional model how innovation

  3. E3: Economy, Energy and Environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    E3 is a technical assistance framework helping communities, manufacturers, and manufacturing supply chains adapt and thrive in today's green economy. Find information on pollution prevention, sustainable business practices, and energy efficiency.

  4. The Shadow Economy and Corruption in Greece

    OpenAIRE

    Stavros Katsios

    2006-01-01

    The paper highlights the interaction between the underground economy and corruption, focussing on the regional dimensions of the problem in south-eastern Europe. It discusses the theoretical approach to underground economic activities and focuses on the determinants of the Greek economy, the tax and national insurance burdens and the intensity of the relevant regulations in Greece, concluding that Greece shows profound signs of a transition country in terms of the high level of regulation lea...

  5. Probabilistic political economy and endogenous money

    OpenAIRE

    Cockshott, W.P.; Cottrell, A.

    2008-01-01

    Since the foundational work of Farjoun and Machover , important contributions to the field of\\ud probabilistic economy have been made. In this context one naturally has conservation of money as a postulate. However\\ud it is questionable whether a capitalist economy could ever work with entirely exogenous money, and it\\ud is interesting to see to what extent probabilistic arguments can illuminate the evolution of the type of\\ud endogenous money system that characterizes contemporary capitalism....

  6. Remittances, trade and the Philippine economy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alburo, F A

    1993-01-01

    "The relationships between trade, remittances from overseas workers and the domestic economy are examined for their implications for labor and trade policy [in the Philippines].... The limited use of remittances for real reproductive investments at the household level is associated with length of migration, reliance on overseas workers as a source of foreign exchange, and a failure to correct the structural imbalances of the economy." excerpt

  7. "Creative destruction" and the economy of Waste

    OpenAIRE

    Ruggiero, Vincenzo

    2013-01-01

    Starting off with some examples of illegal dumping of waste, the author examines the relationship between the official economy and organised crime. At the core of ‘creative destruction’, in his argument, are not only conventional illegal practices, but entrepreneurial initiative per se, revolving around notions of limitless growth and obsessive, infinite, development. Ultimately, it is economic thought itself which may be held ideologically and empirically responsible for an economy of waste ...

  8. The significance of energy for the economy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Spreng, D.; Schwarz, J.

    1993-01-01

    The importance of energy for the economy is described here in practical terms. This is meant for the works and workshop manager, maintenance chief, energy specialist, sales staff of industrial and business organisations. The term 'potential for saving energy' is extensively discussed. Statistical research shows a clear connection between energy application and growth of the economy. Fact: a rational use of energy is worth while in many aspects. figs., tabs., 14 refs

  9. Basic Aspects of the Digital Economy

    OpenAIRE

    Unold, Jacek

    2003-01-01

    The digital economy is characterized by the digitations of many product and services and the user of the Internet and other networks to support economic activities. The traditional marketplace shifts to a virtual marketspace. Competition in such an environment is very intense and major changes occur. The impact of digital economy on business can be identified at three basic levels: improving direct marketing, transforming organizations, and redefining organizations. Ekonomia cyfrowa charak...

  10. The economy of climatic change. Discussion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boot, P.

    1996-01-01

    In a previous article in this magazine by Aalbers and Vollebergh it was concluded that good economic arguments are available for the precautionary principle in the climate control policy. That also pleads for a far-going Dutch climate control policy. It is the opinion of the author that the foundations of their arguments are not good enough. The above-mentioned authors reply with the one-page article 'De economie van Utopia' (The economy of Utopia) to Boot's article. 7 refs

  11. The political economy of development: an assessment

    OpenAIRE

    Christopher Adam; Stefan Dercon

    2009-01-01

    Research in the field of economic development is increasingly engaged with questions of political economy, of how political choices, institutional structures, and forms of governance influence the economic choices made by governments and citizens. We summarize recent developments in the field and introduce a set of papers that illustrate key themes and methodological innovations associated with the 'new' political economy of development. Copyright 2009, Oxford University Press.

  12. NAFTA: The Mexican Economy, and Undocumented Migration

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-10-28

    ABSTRACT NAFTA, The Mexican Economy, and Undocumented Migration The North American Free Trade Agreement is variously blamed for undocumented...16 iii Abstract NAFTA, The Mexican Economy, and Undocumented Migration The North American Free...g.aspx?v=65&c=mx&l=en. 8 Daniel Lederman et al, Lessons From NAFTA for Latin America and the Caribbean Countries, The World Bank,December 2003, v

  13. Instant Internationalization of Emerging Economy New Ventures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Turcan, Romeo V.

    2012-01-01

    Being positioned and the intersection of international entrepreneurship and institutional theory, this study explores the process of instant internationalization of new ventures from emerging economies. It adopts a single-case study methodology, purposefully selecting an information-rich case where...... context of an emerging industry. Yet another set of contributions concerns the legitimation process of internationalization of a new venture from an emerging economy. A number of propositions are put forward to guide future research....

  14. Swiss economy and the future energy policy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Leuenberger, A.F.

    1997-01-01

    Lecture of the president of the Swiss Trade and Industry Association at their premises on the occasion of the Annual General meeting of the SVA. The lecture dealt with the subject of economic growth and the difficulties faced by this growth in Switzerland. He formulated energy-political theories in respect of provision security, market economy, free choice between suppliers, economy-friendly energy laws, keeping the nuclear energy option open

  15. IMPORTANCE OF FINANCING THE SOCIAL ECONOMY PROJECTS

    OpenAIRE

    Victor NICOL‚ESCU; Corina CACE; Sorin CACE

    2012-01-01

    The re-emergence of the social economy sector as important agent for occupation, economic growth, social solidarity, associationism and social services, coincided with a higher importance of running program and project- based activities in all European countries, irrespective whether they are member states of candidate states. Within the context of the benefits specific to the social economy projects it is important to debate and analyse the subject of continuing the activities of this form o...

  16. Expanding Policy Imagination in Political Economy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Seabrooke, Leonard

    2006-01-01

    Much of the literature in political economy seeks to capture an essential insight into the evolution of political and economic systems to provide a foundation for policy advice. This article suggests that attempts to nut out the kernels of change often restrict rather than expand policy imagination...... be implemented. Historical sociology provides a way to generate information about contextual constellations through two "tonics": intentional rationality and social mechanisms. With the assistance of these tonics, historical sociology widens political economy's policy imagination....

  17. Macroeconomic model of national economy development (extended

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Diaconova

    1997-08-01

    Full Text Available The macroeconomic model offered in this paper describes complex functioning of national economy and can be used for forecasting of possible directions of its development depending on various economic policies. It is the extension of [2] and adaptation of [3]. With the purpose of determination of state policies influence in the field of taxes and exchange rate national economy is considered within the framework of three sectors: government, private and external world.

  18. Moving beyond the circular economy [forthcoming

    OpenAIRE

    Moreno, MA; Braithwaite, N; Cooper, T

    2014-01-01

    The production model, which currently underpins our material prosperity, remains highly resource-intensive, and the volume of minerals, ores and fossil fuels consumed annually is set to triple by 2050 unless economic growth is decoupled from resource consumption [1]. One response that has been attracting significant attention is the idea of a circular economy (or close loop economy), in which waste is transformed into value rather than disposed of to landfill [2]. While acknowledging potentia...

  19. Economy of scale still holds true

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1985-01-01

    The economic merits of larger generating units have been questioned and have become subject to doubt and controversy. A 1980 study by Sargent and Lundy concluded that economy of scale still held. But some of the basic factors and major assumptions used in that study have changed. An update of those results, which also looks at whether reduced load growth rates affect the study's conclusions, finds economy of scale still applies

  20. Problems measuring the underground economy in transition

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Hanousek, Jan; Palda, F.

    2006-01-01

    Roč. 14, č. 4 (2006), s. 707-718 ISSN 0967-0750 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA402/04/0166 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z70850503 Keywords : informal economy * macro estimates of shadow economy * transition Subject RIV: AH - Economics Impact factor: 1.000, year: 2006 http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1468-0351.2006.00268.x

  1. Fiji 2012: Revitalizing the Fiji Economy

    OpenAIRE

    Asian Development Bank (ADB)

    2012-01-01

    This report provides a longitudinal study of the Fiji economy covering more than 2 decades of growth and development. It presents an economic update and outlook for the Fiji economy and assesses the key drivers of performance across key economic sectors. The report identifies potential reform strategies that can guide future policy action, assist in accelerating growth, and strengthen pro-poor policy development in Fiji.

  2. Mitigating Double Taxation in an Open Economy

    OpenAIRE

    Lindhe, Tobias

    2001-01-01

    The interaction of various methods of mitigating economic and international double taxation of corporate source income is studied within a standard neoclassical model of firm behavior. The main purpose is to determine to what extent methods effective in mitigating economic double taxation in a closed economy remain useful in an open economy where the firm's marginal investor is a foreigner. While a cut in the statutory corporate tax rate invariably reduces the cost of capital, the impact of t...

  3. WORLD ECONOMY POST-CRYSIS DEVELOPMENT

    OpenAIRE

    Sergiu GARSTEA; Iulita BIRCA; Alexandru GRIBINCEA

    2016-01-01

    Once the acute phases of the financial and euro crises were over, it was clear that it would take time for advanced economies to recover. The history of past financial crises gave a clear warning that recovery would typically be long and painful. The aim is to investigate the state of the world economy to make some conclusions for the less advanced countries, like Moldova. Research methodology involves analytical, comparative, foresight, induction and deduction methods. New development and pl...

  4. Globalization of Brewing and Economies of Scale

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madsen, Erik Strøjer; Wu, Yanqing

    for beers and economies of scale in advertising and sales efforts as the main factors behind the wave of cross-country mergers and acquisitions. Using firm-level data from the largest breweries, the estimations verify significant economies of scale in marketing and distribution costs. Based on information...... to be shared between the merging partners as marketing and distribution costs are very high in this industry....

  5. CONTRIBUTION OF CULTURAL TOURISM ON TURKISH ECONOMY

    OpenAIRE

    Demet ÇAK; Þeref BOZOKLU; Faruk ALAEDDÝNOÐLU; Murat ÇAK

    2015-01-01

    The positive effects of Turkey’s tourism sector on the economy are increasing with each passing day. To increase tourism revenues that have a positive contribution on Turkey’s current account balance year by year, have a great importance. Therefore, the diversification of tourism types and expansion of deseasonalized cultural tourism applications are necessary. For such purposes within this work, cultural tourism has been introduced by mentioning about the place of the tourism in the economy....

  6. Effect of Body Composition on Walking Economy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maciejczyk Marcin

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. The aim of the study was to evaluate walking economy and physiological responses at two walking speeds in males with similar absolute body mass but different body composition. Methods. The study involved 22 young men with similar absolute body mass, BMI, aerobic performance, calf and thigh circumference. The participants differed in body composition: body fat (HBF group and lean body mass (HLBM group. In the graded test, maximal oxygen uptake (VO2max and maximal heart rate were measured. Walking economy was evaluated during two walks performed at two different speeds (4.8 and 6.0 km ‧ h-1. Results. The VO2max was similar in both groups, as were the physiological responses during slow walking. The absolute oxygen uptake or oxygen uptake relative to body mass did not significantly differentiate the studied groups. The only indicator significantly differentiating the two groups was oxygen uptake relative to LBM. Conclusions. Body composition does not significantly affect walking economy at low speed, while during brisk walking, the economy is better in the HLBM vs. HBF group, provided that walking economy is presented as oxygen uptake relative to LBM. For this reason, we recommend this manner of oxygen uptake normalization in the evaluation of walking economy.

  7. Strategies for developing knowledge economy in Romania

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hadad Shahrazad

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available The present paper delves into the specifics of knowledge economy with a particular focus on Romania. In the first part, it identifies knowledge economy characteristics and pillars and it analyses them as compared to levels exhibited by countries in the European Union. In the second part it argues for the strategies that could be used for enhancing knowledge economy in Romania. In order to do so we used the Delphi method and we identified 25 experts in the knowledge economy/management field coming from internationally renowned companies, universities and ministries located in Romania, to whom we sent invitations for participating in our Delphi survey that lasted one month. Out of the 25 experts, 10 answered positively and during the research we had an attrition rate of 90%. The experts delivered their opinions on the measures to be adopted in order to increase education and learning, ICT and innovation as building blocks of knowledge economy. Findings reveals that knowledge economy can be developed by adopting measures such as: devising a governmental program that will sustain the development of knowledge repositories at the level of technological clusters, industry associations and other professional organizations by providing financial assistance for hardware acquisition and software development in order to facilitate knowledge transfer; Governmental program for the financial support of schools’ investments in hardware and educational software and the training of staff for the use of ITC in teaching and learning, etc.

  8. Hydrogen economy and nuclear energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Knapp, V.

    2004-01-01

    Global energy outlooks based on present trends, such as WETO study, give little optimism about fulfilling Kyoto commitments in controlling CO2 emissions and avoiding unwanted climate consequences. Whilst the problem of radioactive waste has a prominence in public, in spite of already adequate technical solutions of safe storage for future hundreds and thousands of years, there s generally much less concern with influence of fossil fuels on global climate. In addition to electricity production, process heat and transportation are approximately equal contributors to CO2 emission. Fossil fuels in transportation present also a local pollution problem in congested regions. Backed by extensive R and D, hydrogen economy is seen as the solution, however, often without much thought where from the hydrogen in required very large quantities may come. With welcome contributions from alternative sources, nuclear energy is the only source of energy capable of producing hydrogen in very large amounts, without parallel production of CO2. Future high temperature reactors could do this most efficiently. In view of the fact that nuclear weapon proliferation is not under control, extrapolation from the present level of nuclear power to the future level required by serious attempts to reduce global CO2 emission is a matter of justified concern. Finding the sites for many hundreds of new reactors would, alone, be a formidable problem in developed regions with high population density. What is generally less well understood and not validated is that the production of nuclear hydrogen allows the required large increases of nuclear power without the accompanied increase of proliferation risks. Unlike electricity, hydrogen can be economically shipped or transported by pipelines to places very far from the place of production. Thus, nuclear production of hydrogen can be located and concentrated at few remote, controllable sites, far from the population centers and consumption regions. At such

  9. Managers and minerals in a monarchy: The political economy of mining in Jordan, 1970-1989

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Piro, T.J.

    1992-01-01

    This study investigates why developing states that profess to follow free market principles continue to intervene in their economies. The study investigates the extent to which the state in Jordan has penetrated its most potentially productive economic sector - the extractive mineral industry (phosphates, potash, fertilizers, cement, and the refining of oil). The study examined Jordan's [open quotes]Big 5[close quotes] companies: the Jordan Cement Factories Company, the Jordan Phosphate Mines Company, the Jordan Petroleum Refinery Company, the Arab Potash Company, and the Jordan Fertilizer Industries Company. This examination sought to reveal the political factors that give rise to an interventionist state and that sustain intervention over time. The study discusses the political nature of building a national economy in a society with limited resources and in which certain groups and classes are favored over others. In Jordan the absence of a real entrepreneurial class or vibrant private sector prompted the state to enter the economy in order to construct its economic infrastructure. This is evidenced in the establishment of Jordan's extractive minerals companies. Through its links to these companies, the state crafted an economy in which the role of labor is weak and economic power is still situated within the organs of the state. Centralized authority within the kingdom and the various policy networks linking the state to industry make it difficult for the state to withdraw from the economy. Regional and international factors reinforce this tendency. A review of these companies' activities from 1970 to 1989 reveals the political contours of state capitalism and demonstrates why the private sector has not taken hold in many small developing nations. This study analyzes the institutional environment in which public officials act. The study concludes that the state's room to maneuver within the political arena and the economy is quite substantial.

  10. ORAL FINDINGS IN PATIENTS WITH APERT SYNDROME

    OpenAIRE

    Dalben, Gisele da Silva; Neves, Lucimara Teixeira das; Gomide, Marcia Ribeiro

    2006-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: The Apert syndrome is a rare disorder of autosomal dominant inheritance caused by mutations in the FGFR2 gene at locus 10q26; patients with this syndrome present severe syndactyly, exophthalmia, ocular hypertelorism and hypoplastic midface with Class III malocclusion, besides systemic alterations. Most investigations available on the Apert syndrome address the genetic aspect or surgical management, with little emphasis on the oral aspects. OBJECTIVE: to investigate the oral find...

  11. PRCR Classes and Activities

    Data.gov (United States)

    Town of Cary, North Carolina — This data is specific to Parks and Recreation classes, workshops, and activities within the course catalog. It contains an entry for upcoming classes.*This data set...

  12. Class 1 Areas

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — A "Class 1" area is a geographic area recognized by the EPA as being of the highest environmental quality and requiring maximum protection. Class I areas are areas...

  13. Digital Economy for Sustainable Economic Growth

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shuyong Guo

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Recent decades have seen a rapid digital transformation resulting in important and sometimes even crucial changes in business, society and the global economy. After the global crisis of 2008–2009, digital industries have been among the most dynamic and promising in the global economy. Nevertheless, the world lacks equilibrium between benefits and risks in the digital economy, which explains the need for global governance in this sphere. This article analyzes the role and characteristics of the G20 in the introduction of global governance in the digital economy. The authors review what’s meant by the digital economy and define the key characteristics of this sector, as well as highlight the challenges to international cooperation, analyze the digital strategies of G20 countries, study the G20’s participation in the global governance of the digital economy, analyze the potential for the leaders of China and Russia, and make recommendations concerning the participation of the G20 in the global governance of the digital economy. The authors arrive at the following conclusions. First, society has to govern the digital economy properly in order to eliminate disparities between developed and developing countries, as well as address cyber security and other threats, and promote a higher quality of life for all. Second, the G20 has very limited experience in the governing of the digital economy, but as a leader in terms of soft power, and as an organization with limited membership that includes both countries with a developed digital sector and countries that lag behind, it may play a great role in the digital economy’s global governance. Third, the US has historically been a leader in the IT sector and the digital economy. In recent years, China has sufficiently improved its positions, which allows it to aspire to a higher role in global governance. Russia may also play a greater (though not a leading role, taking into account its experience and

  14. Work, worklessness and the political economy of health inequalities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bambra, Clare

    2011-09-01

    This essay argues that work, and the socioeconomic class polarities it creates, plays a fundamental role in determining inequalities in the distribution of morbidity and mortality. This is by means of uneven exposure to physical hazards and psychosocial risks in the workplace, as well as by inequalities in exclusion from the labour market and the absence of paid work. Furthermore, this essay shows that the relationships between work, worklessness and health inequalities are influenced by the broader political and economic context in the form of welfare state regimes. This leads to the development of a model of the political economy of health inequalities, and how different types of public policy interventions can mitigate these relationships. This model is then applied to the case of work and worklessness. The essay concludes by arguing that politics matters in the aetiology of health inequalities.

  15. Spectrum of Class Operators

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuan Jiangtao

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper discusses some spectral properties of class operators for , , , and . It is shown that if is a class operator, then the Riesz idempotent of with respect to each nonzero isolated point spectrum is selfadjoint and . Afterwards, we prove that every class operator has SVEP and property , and Weyl's theorem holds for when .

  16. A Virtual Class Calculus

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ernst, Erik; Ostermann, Klaus; Cook, William Randall

    2006-01-01

    model for virtual classes has been a long-standing open question. This paper presents a virtual class calculus, vc, that captures the essence of virtual classes in these full-fledged programming languages. The key contributions of the paper are a formalization of the dynamic and static semantics of vc...

  17. A class of 'natural' composite models

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schrempp, B.; Schrempp, F.; Hamburg Univ.

    1984-01-01

    The starting point is the attractive class of composite models where quarks and leptons appear as fermion-scalar bound states (FPHI). The aim is to resolve the 'naturality' problem associated with fundamental scalars without losing the appealing properties of FPHI-type composite models. A systematic construction of such models is given, where the scalar constituents automatically qualify as light dynamical scalars, i.e. as composite (pseudo) Goldstone bosons. A comfortably large class of composite models then results, where all standard 'naturality' requirements are satisfied: the quark and lepton masses are kept small through 't Hooft's chiral protection mechanism; the dynamical scalar 'constituents' are light and the CP problem of QCD finds an automatic solution. Further characteristics are economy, absence of light exotics, possibility of three generations and elegance of anomaly matching. It is shown that existing attractive models with fundamental scalars can be made 'natural' in the sense defined above. (orig.)

  18. Translation, the Knowledge Economy, and Crossing Boundaries in Contemporary Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Yun-Shiuan

    2016-01-01

    Significant developments in the global economy and information technology have been accompanied by a transformation in the nature and process of knowledge production and dissemination. Concepts such as the knowledge economy or creative economy have been formulated to accommodate the new and complex developments in knowledge, creativity, economy,…

  19. 40 CFR 600.113-78 - Fuel economy calculations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 29 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Fuel economy calculations. 600.113-78... FUEL ECONOMY AND CARBON-RELATED EXHAUST EMISSIONS OF MOTOR VEHICLES Fuel Economy Regulations for 1978 and Later Model Year Automobiles-Test Procedures § 600.113-78 Fuel economy calculations. The...

  20. 40 CFR 600.113-93 - Fuel economy calculations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 29 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Fuel economy calculations. 600.113-93... FUEL ECONOMY AND CARBON-RELATED EXHAUST EMISSIONS OF MOTOR VEHICLES Fuel Economy Regulations for 1978 and Later Model Year Automobiles-Test Procedures § 600.113-93 Fuel economy calculations. The...

  1. 40 CFR 600.113-88 - Fuel economy calculations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 29 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Fuel economy calculations. 600.113-88... FUEL ECONOMY AND CARBON-RELATED EXHAUST EMISSIONS OF MOTOR VEHICLES Fuel Economy Regulations for 1978 and Later Model Year Automobiles-Test Procedures § 600.113-88 Fuel economy calculations. The...

  2. The Underground Economy and GDP Estimation in Developing ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The estimation of gross domestic product (GDP) in most developing countries portrays a lot of meaning; most often it is very low. This could be true or false. The existence of underground economy in this economies tend to undermine the estimation of GDP in developing economies, because the size of such economy is ...

  3. Three Forms of the Knowledge Economy: Learning, Creativity and Openness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peters, Michael A.

    2010-01-01

    This paper outlines and reviews three forms and associated discourses of the "knowledge economy": the "learning economy", based on the work of Bengt-Ake Lundvall; the "creative economy" based on the work of Charles Landry, John Howkins and Richard Florida; and the "open knowledge economy" based on the work of Yochai Benkler and others. Arguably,…

  4. Teaching New Keynesian Open Economy Macroeconomics at the Intermediate Level

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bofinger, Peter; Mayer, Eric; Wollmershauser, Timo

    2009-01-01

    For the open economy, the workhorse model in intermediate textbooks still is the Mundell-Fleming model, which basically extends the investment and savings, liquidity preference and money supply (IS-LM) model to open economy problems. The authors present a simple New Keynesian model of the open economy that introduces open economy considerations…

  5. Worker’s Health: Considerations Based on a Criticism of Political Economy

    OpenAIRE

    Ricardo Lara

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this article is to analyze worker health, based on a criticism of political economy. It seeks to understand the causes of illnesses and accidents among workers, and to highlight elements to consider the struggles of the working class in the realm of health, principally concerning public policies and union practices. It infers that under contemporary labor relations, workers get ill and have accidents due to the intensified pace of production, whether in activities on the factor...

  6. Loosely coupled class families

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ernst, Erik

    2001-01-01

    are expressed using virtual classes seem to be very tightly coupled internally. While clients have achieved the freedom to dynamically use one or the other family, it seems that any given family contains a xed set of classes and we will need to create an entire family of its own just in order to replace one...... of the members with another class. This paper shows how to express class families in such a manner that the classes in these families can be used in many dierent combinations, still enabling family polymorphism and ensuring type safety....

  7. Class, Culture and Politics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Harrits, Gitte Sommer

    2013-01-01

    Even though contemporary discussions of class have moved forward towards recognizing a multidimensional concept of class, empirical analyses tend to focus on cultural practices in a rather narrow sense, that is, as practices of cultural consumption or practices of education. As a result......, discussions within political sociology have not yet utilized the merits of a multidimensional conception of class. In light of this, the article suggests a comprehensive Bourdieusian framework for class analysis, integrating culture as both a structural phenomenon co-constitutive of class and as symbolic...

  8. Myelodysplastic Syndromes

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... blood cells, and the cells have a specific mutation in their DNA. Myelodysplastic syndrome with excess blasts — ... Chemicals linked to myelodysplastic syndromes include tobacco smoke, pesticides and industrial chemicals, such as benzene. Exposure to ...

  9. Moebius Syndrome

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... and supports a broad range of research on neurogenetic disorders, including Moebius syndrome. The goals of these ... and supports a broad range of research on neurogenetic disorders, including Moebius syndrome. The goals of these ...

  10. Pendred Syndrome

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... scan) to look for two characteristics of Pendred syndrome. One characteristic might be a cochlea with too few turns. ... Inner Ear Credit: NIH Medical Arts A second characteristic of Pendred syndrome is an enlarged vestibular aqueduct (see figure). The ...

  11. Rett Syndrome

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rett syndrome is a rare genetic disease that causes developmental and nervous system problems, mostly in girls. It's related to autism spectrum disorder. Babies with Rett syndrome seem to grow and ...

  12. Ohtahara Syndrome

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... but be profoundly handicapped. As they grow, some children will progress into other epileptic disorders such as West syndrome and Lennox-Gestaut syndrome. What research is being done? The NINDS conducts and supports an extensive research program on seizures ...

  13. Gardner's syndrome

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sobrado Junior, C.W.; Bresser, A.; Cerri, G.G.; Habr-Gama, A.; Pinotti, H.W.; Magalhaes, A.

    1988-01-01

    A case of familiar poliposis of colon related to a right mandibular osteoma is reported (this association is usually called Gardner's syndrome). Radiologic pictures ae shown and some commentaries about this syndrome concerning the treatment are made. (author) [pt

  14. Turner Syndrome

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turner syndrome is a genetic disorder that affects a girl's development. The cause is a missing or incomplete X ... work properly. Other physical features typical of Turner syndrome are Short, "webbed" neck with folds of skin ...

  15. Metabolic Syndrome

    Science.gov (United States)

    Metabolic syndrome is a group of conditions that put you at risk for heart disease and diabetes. These conditions ... agree on the definition or cause of metabolic syndrome. The cause might be insulin resistance. Insulin is ...

  16. Felty syndrome

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seropositive rheumatoid arthritis (RA); Felty's syndrome ... The cause of Felty syndrome is unknown. It is more common in people who have had rheumatoid arthritis (RA) for a long time. People with ...

  17. Cushing's Syndrome

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cushing's syndrome is a hormonal disorder. The cause is long-term exposure to too much cortisol, a hormone that ... your body to make too much cortisol. Cushing's syndrome is rare. Some symptoms are Upper body obesity ...

  18. Usher Syndrome

    Science.gov (United States)

    Usher syndrome is an inherited disease that causes serious hearing loss and retinitis pigmentosa, an eye disorder that causes ... and vision. There are three types of Usher syndrome: People with type I are deaf from birth ...

  19. Piriformis syndrome

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pseudosciatica; Wallet sciatica; Hip socket neuropathy; Pelvic outlet syndrome; Low back pain - piriformis ... Sciatica is the main symptom of piriformis syndrome. Other symptoms include: Tenderness or a dull ache in ...

  20. Dressler's Syndrome

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... syndrome Overview Dressler's syndrome is a type of pericarditis — inflammation of the sac surrounding the heart (pericardium). ... reducing its ability to pump blood efficiently. Constrictive pericarditis. Recurring or chronic inflammation can cause the pericardium ...

  1. Creative class as the leading group of modern society

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O. Y. Sakalo

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available In the article one of the modern approaches to the social structure of the society is considered. The creative class is determined as the main driving force and as a leading social class of modern society. The author studies the history of the concept of creative class, and R. Florida’s concept in particular, and determines its characteristics and peculiarities. The influence of the creative class on the society, on its transformation processes, and the system of social values is analyzed. The role of creative class in developing creative and innovative economy of the post­industrial society era is found out. The author considers the relationship between the creative class and the other social classes of modern society. The essence of the concept of creativity is defined, and one of the most important problems of the modern era that is a constant conflict between creativity and organization is examined. The comparative historical analysis of the so­called «institutional»/ «industrial» and «creative»/ «post­industrial» era is made. The role of the creative class in developing and social changing the modern American society is studied. The questions of forming and developing creative class in modern Ukrainian society are analyzed, and the peculiarities and problems of this process are figured out. The need of state support for forming national creative class, for its strengthening and growth is emphasized.

  2. Indigenous Economies, Theories of Subsistence, and Women: Exploring the Social Economy Model for Indigenous Governance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuokkanen, Rauna

    2011-01-01

    The significance of traditional economies in indigenous communities goes beyond the economic realm--they are more than just livelihoods providing subsistence and sustenance to individuals or communities. The centrality of traditional economies to indigenous identity and culture has been noted by numerous scholars. However, today one can detect a…

  3. 78 FR 46799 - Use of Market Economy Input Prices in Nonmarket Economy Proceedings

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-08-02

    ... DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE International Trade Administration 19 CFR Part 351 [Docket No. 120424022-3616-02] RIN 0625-XC001 Use of Market Economy Input Prices in Nonmarket Economy Proceedings AGENCY: Import Administration, International Trade Administration, Department of Commerce. ACTION: Final rule...

  4. The Political Economy of Capital Income and Profit Taxation in a Small Open Economy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Huizinga, H.P.; Nielsen, S.B.

    1996-01-01

    This paper considers the political economy of the mix of profit, investment and saving taxation in a small open economy where agents generally differ in their shares of profit and other income.In this setting, capital income taxation can have the dual role of financing government spending and of

  5. Youth and the New Economy=Les jeunes et la nouvelle economie.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Community Perspectives Series, 2002

    2002-01-01

    This Community Perspective Series document includes statements about young people in the new economy of Toronto made by three participants in the October 2000 annual general meeting of the Toronto Training Board. "A Hitchhiker's Guide to the New Economy" (Olivia Chow) suggests that training programs available to young people are…

  6. Green Skills for Green Economy: Case of the Environmental Education Role in Kazakhstan's Economy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dlimbetova, Gaini; Zhylbaev, Zhanbol; Syrymbetova, Lyailya; ?liyeva, Aiman

    2016-01-01

    The research on situation with developing "green skills" in conditions of transition to "green economy" is analysed in this article. Kazakhstan like many other states has been going through transition to "green economy" since 2013. Economic reforms have made an impact on the system of environmental education. The…

  7. Environmental issues elimination through circular economy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Špirková, M.; Pokorná, E.; Šujanová, J.; Samáková, J.

    2016-04-01

    Environmental efforts of European Union are currently going towards circular economy. Tools like Extended Producer Responsibility and Eco-design were established. The circular economy deals with resources availability issue on one hand and waste management on the other hand. There are few pioneering companies all over the world with some kind of circular economy practice. Generally the concept is not very wide-spread. The paper aims to evaluate possibility of transition towards circular economy in Slovak industrial companies. They need to have an active approach to material treatment of their products after usage stage. Innovation is another important pre-condition for the transition. Main problem of current cradle to grave system is landfilling of valuable materials after one cycle of usage. Their potential value for next manufacturing cycles is lost. Companies may do not see connection between waste management and material resource prices and volatility of supplies. Municipalities are responsible for municipal waste collection and treatment in Slovakia. The circular economy operates by cradle to cradle principle. Company manages material flow until the material comes back to the beginning of manufacturing process by itself or by another partners. Stable material supplies with quite low costs are provided this way. It is necessary to deal with environmental problems in phase of product design. Questionnaire survey results show on one hand low involvement of industrial companies in waste management area, however on the other hand they are open to environmental innovations in future.

  8. Environmental issues elimination through circular economy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Špirková, M.; Pokorná, E.; Šujanová, J.; Samáková, J.

    2016-01-01

    Environmental efforts of European Union are currently going towards circular economy. Tools like Extended Producer Responsibility and Eco-design were established. The circular economy deals with resources availability issue on one hand and waste management on the other hand. There are few pioneering companies all over the world with some kind of circular economy practice. Generally the concept is not very wide-spread. The paper aims to evaluate possibility of transition towards circular economy in Slovak industrial companies. They need to have an active approach to material treatment of their products after usage stage. Innovation is another important pre-condition for the transition. Main problem of current cradle to grave system is landfilling of valuable materials after one cycle of usage. Their potential value for next manufacturing cycles is lost. Companies may do not see connection between waste management and material resource prices and volatility of supplies. Municipalities are responsible for municipal waste collection and treatment in Slovakia. The circular economy operates by cradle to cradle principle. Company manages material flow until the material comes back to the beginning of manufacturing process by itself or by another partners. Stable material supplies with quite low costs are provided this way. It is necessary to deal with environmental problems in phase of product design. Questionnaire survey results show on one hand low involvement of industrial companies in waste management area, however on the other hand they are open to environmental innovations in future.

  9. BITCOIN - THE CURRENCY OF A NEW ECONOMY?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    CARINA-ELENA STEGĂROIU

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available In the knowledge society, a new economy is emerging, New Economy, which also encompasses the Internet economy in the form of e-bussines, which is why the economy is the economy of information society and knowledge. So, in a knowledge-based technology, a new digital coin was also needed in the field of electronic payments, thus creating the virtual currency BITCOIN (BTC, which in a moto translation is the bit of the bit (the unit of measure of the amount of information. It is a decentralized electronic payment system and a digital encrypted opensurce created in 2009 by Satoshi Nakamoto. The need to create Bitcoin (BTC was to ensure investment protection and free business finance, without resorting to financial institutions and beyond any constraints and regulations. The Bitcoin name also refers to the opensource program for using these coins, as well as the peer-to-peer (peer-to peer network it forms. Currently, even if he has many opponents and has gone through several difficult times, Bitcoin seems to survive and offer new technology with revolutionary use possibilities. The concept of the digital coin fits perfectly with the everchanging world, dominated by mobile and omnipresent technology. Compared to Bitcoin or another digital coin, any visit to the bank seems like a trip to another century, an era of time lost at the counter completing dozens of unnecessary papers.

  10. Walking economy in people with Parkinson's disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christiansen, Cory L; Schenkman, Margaret L; McFann, Kim; Wolfe, Pamela; Kohrt, Wendy M

    2009-07-30

    Gait dysfunction is an early problem identified by patients with Parkinson's disease (PD). Alterations in gait may result in an increase in the energy cost of walking (i.e., walking economy). The purpose of this study was to determine whether walking economy is atypical in patients with PD when compared with healthy controls. A secondary purpose was to evaluate the associations of age, sex, and level of disease severity with walking economy in patients with PD. The rate of oxygen consumption (VO(2)) and other responses to treadmill walking were compared in 90 patients (64.4 +/- 10.3 years) and 44 controls (64.6 +/- 7.3 years) at several walking speeds. Pearson correlation coefficients (r) were calculated to determine relationships of age, sex, and disease state with walking economy in PD patients. Walking economy was significantly worse in PD patients than in controls at all speeds above 1.0 mph. Across all speeds, VO(2) was 6 to 10% higher in PD patients. Heart rate, minute ventilation, respiratory exchange ratio, and rating of perceived exertion were correspondingly elevated. No significant relationship of age, sex, or UPDRS score with VO(2) was found for patients with PD. The findings suggest that the physiologic stress of daily physical activities is increased in patients with early to mid-stage PD, and this may contribute to the elevated level of fatigue that is characteristic of PD. Copyright 2009 Movement Disorder Society.

  11. The external sector of the Serbian economy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ristanović Vladimir

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this paper is to show the external sector of the Serbian economy, its features and peculiarities, as well as anomalies that afflicted it for years. In the analysis, data acquired from the Statistical Office of the Republic of Serbia will be used, as well as the official international methodology. The text will include the analysis of the structure of the external sector, market share, competitive position of Serbian economy and export products according to sectors of the economy and factor intensity. Since 2000, the structure of production and exports of the Serbian economy shows low comparative advantages and competitive position throughout the world. Unfavorable structure of the sectors, departments and the product groups affected the deepening of external imbalances and high foreign trade deficit. Exports of technology of predominantly low intensity, resources, and labor-intensive products, common for Serbian economy, represent no guarantee of economic growth in the long term. The causes of external imbalances should be sought in the absence of adequate export strategy, as well as in high speed of liberalization of foreign trade flows and exchange rate policy.

  12. Technology Roadmap: Fuel Economy of Road Vehicles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2012-07-01

    This roadmap explores the potential improvement of existing technologies to enhance the average fuel economy of motorised vehicles; the roadmap’s vision is to achieve a 30% to 50% reduction in fuel use per kilometre from new road vehicles including 2-wheelers, LDV s and HDV s) around the world in 2030, and from the stock of all vehicles on the road by 2050. This achievement would contribute to significant reductions in GHG emissions and oil use, compared to a baseline projection. Different motorised modes are treated separately, with a focus on LDV s, HDV s and powered two-wheelers. A section on in-use fuel economy also addresses technical and nontechnical parameters that could allow fuel economy to drastically improve over the next decades. Technology cost analysis and payback time show that significant progress can be made with low or negative cost for fuel-efficient vehicles over their lifetime use. Even though the latest data analysed by the IEA for fuel economy between 2005 and 2008 showed that a gap exists in achieving the roadmap’s vision, cutting the average fuel economy of road motorised vehicles by 30% to 50% by 2030 is achievable, and the policies and technologies that could help meet this challenge are already deployed in many places around the world.

  13. Environmental issues elimination through circular economy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Špirková, M., E-mail: marta.spirkova@stuba.sk; Pokorná, E.; Šujanová, J.; Samáková, J. [Paulínska 16, 917 24 Trnava, Slovakia, Slovak University of Technology in Bratislava, Faculty of Materials Science and Technology in Trnava (Slovakia)

    2016-04-21

    Environmental efforts of European Union are currently going towards circular economy. Tools like Extended Producer Responsibility and Eco-design were established. The circular economy deals with resources availability issue on one hand and waste management on the other hand. There are few pioneering companies all over the world with some kind of circular economy practice. Generally the concept is not very wide-spread. The paper aims to evaluate possibility of transition towards circular economy in Slovak industrial companies. They need to have an active approach to material treatment of their products after usage stage. Innovation is another important pre-condition for the transition. Main problem of current cradle to grave system is landfilling of valuable materials after one cycle of usage. Their potential value for next manufacturing cycles is lost. Companies may do not see connection between waste management and material resource prices and volatility of supplies. Municipalities are responsible for municipal waste collection and treatment in Slovakia. The circular economy operates by cradle to cradle principle. Company manages material flow until the material comes back to the beginning of manufacturing process by itself or by another partners. Stable material supplies with quite low costs are provided this way. It is necessary to deal with environmental problems in phase of product design. Questionnaire survey results show on one hand low involvement of industrial companies in waste management area, however on the other hand they are open to environmental innovations in future.

  14. International Rett Syndrome Foundation

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Newsletters & Reports About Rett Syndrome What is Rett Syndrome? Rett Syndrome Diagnosis Boys with MECP2 Clinics FAQs Glossary ... Newsletters & Reports About Rett Syndrome What is Rett Syndrome? Rett Syndrome Diagnosis Boys with MECP2 Clinics FAQs Glossary ...

  15. [Capgras syndrome].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alcoverro Fortuny, O; Sierra Acín, A C

    2001-01-01

    The authors report a case of Capgras' syndrome in a 16-years-old child, who had been hospitalized for psychotic disorder. A review of the literature is performed. Most authors state that Capgras' syndrome would represent a symptom of underlying medical o functional disorders, although the term syndrome is used. The main etiopathogenic hypothesis of this syndrome are put forward (psychodynamic, disconnection, neuropsychological and medical).

  16. Velocardiofacial Syndrome

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gothelf, Doron; Frisch, Amos; Michaelovsky, Elena; Weizman, Abraham; Shprintzen, Robert J.

    2009-01-01

    Velocardiofacial syndrome (VCFS), also known as DiGeorge, conotruncal anomaly face, and Cayler syndromes, is caused by a microdeletion in the long arm of Chromosome 22. We review the history of the syndrome from the first clinical reports almost half a century ago to the current intriguing molecular findings associating genes from the…

  17. Inserção do conceito de economia atômica no programa de uma disciplina de química orgânica experimental Inclusion of atom economy concept in an experimental organic chemistry undergraduate course

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leila Maria Oliveira Coelho Merat

    2003-10-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, the atom economy concepts are applied in a series of experiments during an experimental organic chemistry class, to implement "green chemistry" in an undergraduate course.

  18. TOURISM AN IMPORTANT SECTOR OF ECONOMY DEVELOPMENT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xhiliola Agaraj

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available Tourism has become an important sector that has an impact on development of country economy. The main benefits of tourism are income creation and generation of jobs. For many regions and countries it is the most important source of welfare. The ability of the national economy to benefit from tourism depends on the availability of investment to develop the necessary infrastructure and on its ability to supply the needs of tourists. Albania has a touristic potential for development of seaside tourism and other alternative forms of tourism. The scope of the paper is to present the impact of tourism on economy and especially on income. paper treats why Albania is an attractive country for investors, and which are the possibilities to invest. Through a questioner scattered in different publics and private institution of Albania are presented major problematical of tourism in Albania

  19. The geography of the knowledge economy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Teis

    Today, acquisition, creation and utilisation of knowledge are the key factors explaining economic development. Firms must constantly employ new knowledge and combine different types of knowledge in their activities to maintain competitiveness. This thesis examines the knowledge economy from two...... perspectives. The first focuses on the role of geographical proximity for interactive knowledge creation. It follows from the increasing knowledge intensity of the economy that it is highly unlikely that firms can access knowledge of a sufficient depth and variety within their own boundaries. Papers I...... as vital to economic development, lowand medium low-tech industries maintain economic importance in high-wage countries. Papers IV-VI in the thesis examine the responses of low- and medium low-tech manufacturing industries to the challenges of the knowledge economy. The results of the first part...

  20. Collaboration and communication in a networked economy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hans-Christian Pfohl

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Background: The networked economy is a result of the increasing specialization and productivity. The blurring of company boundaries enables potential for new competitive advantages. However, along with the growing networked economy, the complexity also increases. Methods: With their current study the German logistics association sheds a light on the most important trends of the networked and complex economy and the strategies of logistics and supply chain management (SCM coping with them. Results and conclusions: This paper focuses on the collaboration of actors in logistics and supply chain management and the communication required for being successful. Furthermore, going beyond the study, the role of collaboration for innovation in logistics and SCM is considered, that has been neglected in literature so far. Finally, the paper concludes with a discussion reflecting the current state of collaboration in the context of its potential.

  1. Towards an ammonia-mediated hydrogen economy?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Claus H.; Johannessen, Tue; Sørensen, Rasmus Zink

    2006-01-01

    . Recently, metal ammine salts were proposed as safe, reversible. high-density and low-cost hydrogen carriers. Here, we discuss how this development could provide a platform for using ammonia as a fuel for the hydrogen economy, We do that by comparing various possible hydrogen carriers with respect to energy......Materialization of a hydrogen economy could provide a solution to significant global challenges, In particular. the possibility of improving the efficiency and simultaneously minimizing the environmental impact of energy conversion processes, together with the opportunity to reduce the dependency...... of fossil fuels, are main drivers for the currently increasing research and development efforts. However. significant technological breakthroughs are necessary for making a hydrogen economy feasible. In particular, it is necessary to develop appropriate hydrogen storage and transportation technologies...

  2. Entry and Growth Strategies for Emerging Economies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Meyer, Klaus E.; Tran, Yen Thi Thu

    2004-01-01

    Multinational enterprises (MNEs) are expanding their global reach, carrying their products and brands to ever more remote corners of the world. They encounter business environments that vary not only from their country of origin, but also vary greatly amongst each other. Thus foreign investors have...... to adapt their strategies, most notably their marketing and acquisition strategies, to the local context. In this paper, we outline why globalisation drives MNEs into emerging economies, and we provide conceptual frameworks that may aid investors to adapt their strategies to emerging economy contexts. MNEs...... requires the acquisition of complementary local resources controlled by local firms. However, acquisitions in emerging economies are inhibited by institutional obstacles and weak local firms. Thus, foreign investors may pursue staged, multiple, indirect, or Brownfield acquisitions to build their projected...

  3. The phenomenology of the movement economy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Liebst, Lasse Suonperä

    2015-01-01

    The theory of cities as movement economies constitutes a the¬oretical cornerstone of the space syntax paradigm, and the urban morphology literature offers considerable empirical evidence to support the theory’s key proposition that spatial accessibility correlates with economic land use values...... than economic aspect of the theory has received only limited attention in the urban morphological literature. This paper addresses the gap in the literature, and reports the results of a multilevel regression model, which combines individual survey data on urban attraction experiences and morphological...... data on the movement economy context of these experiences, measured with space syntax tools. After controlling for the effect of individual-level variables, the model suggests that the movement economy has a significant contextual effect on the experienced level of urban attraction....

  4. Approaches about the social and solidarity economy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Odalys Labrador Machín

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The topic of the Social and Solidarity Economy, from its own emergence, has been approached by diverse authors, closely associated to this debate divergent points of view have arisen, become the theoretical and methodological references of this definition, as a basis for its practical realization, in a context in which neoliberal globalization has conditioned the search for viable alternatives to alleviate the contradictions it generates. Although, generally speaking, the Social and Solidarity Economy is understood as the interrelation of companies and participative associative organizations, constituted by cooperatives, mutuals, savings banks, employee funds, community enterprises, associations, dedicated to production, distribution and consumption of goods and services, non-profit and in solidarity. The different places and contexts in which it develops, gives this sector particularities and, therefore, the need for a broad and divergent analysis. The present work proposes an evaluation of different criteria about the Social and Solidarity Economy in the current international context.

  5. Intelligent management in the knowledge economy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Junghagen, Sven; Linderoth, Henrik

    The knowledge economy is a notion that has been used, since the 1990s, to describe a new economic order perceived by scholars and practitioners. The authors argue that this order, triggered by new information and communication technologies, has resulted in a different set of challenges for effect......The knowledge economy is a notion that has been used, since the 1990s, to describe a new economic order perceived by scholars and practitioners. The authors argue that this order, triggered by new information and communication technologies, has resulted in a different set of challenges...... management will be the key to how internal operations can be organized, in order to take advantage of opportunities brought about by new technologies. This change in management is discussed throughout the book from a wide array of perspectives ranging from contextual and philosophical aspects, through tools...... and methods to case studies concerning the organization of business, its management and application in the knowledge economy....

  6. Experience economy meets business model design

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gudiksen, Sune Klok; Smed, Søren Graakjær; Poulsen, Søren Bolvig

    2012-01-01

    companies automatically get a higher prize when offering an experience setting to the customer illustrated by the coffee example. Organizations that offer experiences still have an advantage but when an increasing number of organizations enter the experience economy the competition naturally gets tougher......Through the last decade the experience economy has found solid ground and manifested itself as a parameter where business and organizations can differentiate from competitors. The fundamental premise is the one found in Pine & Gilmores model from 1999 over 'the progression of economic value' where...... produced, designed or staged experience that gains the most profit or creates return of investment. It becomes more obvious that other parameters in the future can be a vital part of the experience economy and one of these is business model innovation. Business model innovation is about continuous...

  7. Solar emergy evaluation for Chinese economy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yang, Z.F.; Jiang, M.M.; Chen, B.; Zhou, J.B.; Chen, G.Q.; Li, S.C.

    2010-01-01

    A unified evaluation integrating various forms of energy sources and natural resources, products and services, and imports and exports is carried out systematically at the national scale for the booming Chinese economy 1978-2005, based on the ecological measure of solar emergy. The development of the economy is shown heavily dependent on the consumption of nonrenewable natural resources. Of the total resources use, the indigenous resources contribute the most, along with the increasing imports of nonrenewable resources. The development of the Chinese economy is characterized with the recovery stage during 1978-1981, transformation stage during 1981-1991, steady growth stage during 1991-2000, and accelerated increase stage after 2000, with specific distinctive systems indications.

  8. Challenges in Building a Sustainable Biobased Economy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mussatto, Solange I.

    2017-01-01

    Moving to a more sustainable economy, where renewable biomass such as crop residues and dedicated energy crops are used for the production of fuels, chemicals, energy and materials, is one of the main challenges faced by the society nowadays. The transition from the current fossil-based to a biob......Moving to a more sustainable economy, where renewable biomass such as crop residues and dedicated energy crops are used for the production of fuels, chemicals, energy and materials, is one of the main challenges faced by the society nowadays. The transition from the current fossil...... for the production of fuels, chemicals, energy and materials is therefore recognized as a need by numerous industries and policy makers in countries around the world. In addition, a biobased economy has the potential to generate new jobs and even new industries, creating new opportunities for entrepreneurship...

  9. Availability Cascades and the Sharing Economy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Netter, Sarah

    2016-01-01

    As scholars search for a new concept that will provide answers on how modern societies should make sense of and resolve the social and environmental problems linked to our modes of production and consumption, the sharing economy is attracting increased attention. To better understand this emergent...... focus on a sharing economy and associated business and consumption models, this conceptual chapter applies cascade theory to some of the most pronounced narratives , suggesting a win-win scenario, especially as they relate to the claim of sustainability. Given academics, practitioners, and civil society......’s shared history of (too) rapidly embracing new concepts that enable both business opportunities and a clear conscience, this chapter proposes that the implications of the sharing economy should be critically explored before it is actively promoted as the latest best fix....

  10. Network analysis of Chinese provincial economies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Xiaoqi; An, Haizhong; Liu, Xiaojia

    2018-02-01

    Global economic system is a huge network formed by national subnetworks that contains the provincial networks. As the second largest world economy, China has "too big to fail" impact on the interconnected global economy. Detecting the critical sectors and vital linkages inside Chinese economic network is meaningful for understanding the origin of this Chinese impact. Different from tradition network research at national level, this paper focuses on the provincial networks and inter-provincial network. Using Chinese inter-regional input-output table to construct 30 provincial input-output networks and one inter-provincial input-output network, we identify central sectors and vital linkages, as well as analyze economic structure similarity. Results show that (1) Communication Devices sector in Guangdong and that in Jiangsu, Transportation and Storage sector in Shanghai play critical roles in Chinese economy. (2) Advanced manufactures and services industry occupy the central positions in eastern provincial economies, while Construction sector, Heavy industry, and Wholesale and Retail Trades sector are influential in middle and western provinces. (3) The critical monetary flow paths in Chinese economy are Communication Devices sector to Communication Devices sector in Guangdong, Metals Mining sector to Iron and Steel Smelting sector in Henan, Communication Devices sector to Communication Devices sector in Jiangsu, as well as Petroleum Mining sector in Heilongjiang to Petroleum Processing sector in Liaoning. (4) Collective influence results suggest that Finance sector, Transportation and Storage sector, Production of Electricity and Heat sector, and Rubber and Plastics sector in Hainan are strategic influencers, despite being weakly connected. These sectors and input-output relations are worthy of close attention for monitoring Chinese economy.

  11. Evaluation of Digital Shadow Economy Prevention Measures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Remeikiene Rita

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Although during the past few years the scopes of shadow economy in Lithuania have slightly decreased, different forms of this phenomenon, in particular digital shadow activities, still generate a significant part of the overall value added. As no constant estimations of the scope of digital shadow economy have been made in Lithuania, alleviation of this problem is based on consequence fighting rather than reason elimination. Digital shadow economy poses a significant challenge for law enforcement agencies concerning its investigation and prevention. Hence, it is purposeful to research both theoretical and practical aspects of digital shadow economy prevention in order to identify the measures that could be used for the efficient reduction of the scope of this phenomenon. The aim of this research is to identify the measures of digital shadow economy prevention and compare the attitudes of governmental institutions and consumers towards the efficiency of these measures. The results of the empirical research showed that both consumers and experts agree that the level of tax morale has to be raised not only by using the measures of self-education but also by introducing long-term educational programmes; second, public authorities should ensure business friendly environment, actively implement the principles of justice and officially acknowledge and announce the concept of digital shadow economy; finally, for more efficient detection of the cases of digital shadow activities, it is necessary to reinforce current labour resources that should be specially trained to be able to disclose revenue hiding and tax evasion schemes, employed in e-trade.

  12. [Vulnerability of eco-economy in northern slope region of Tianshan Mountains].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Jian-zhai; Li, Bo; Zhang, Xin-shi; Zhao, Wen-wu; Jiang, Guang-hui

    2008-04-01

    Based on the theoretical meaning of vulnerability, a vulnerability assessment of eco-econom in fifteen counties in the northern slope region of Tianshan Mountains was conducted. The ecosystem services change to land use was regarded as the impact, and based on the fourteen indices from resource holding, society development, and economy development statistic data, the adaptive ability was evaluated by using the methods of analytic hierarchy process (AHP) and fuzzy synthetic evaluation. On the basis of assessment results of impact and adaptive capacity, the fifteen counties were divided into five classes under the assessment principles, and the district with higher-class number was of more vulnerability. The first class included Usu City and Changji City, the second class included Hutubi County, Miquan County, Fukang City, Jimsar County, Qitai County and Mori Kazak Autonomous County, the third class included Karamay City and Urumqi City, the fourth class included Kuitun City and Shawan County, and the fifth class included Jinghe County, Shihezi City and Manas County. The vulnerability reflected the level of eco-environment change and socioeconomic development, and the vulnerability assessment could be a good way to ensure the sustainable development. Aiming to decrease the vulnerability, various districts belonging to different class of vulnerability should establish relevant tactics according to the vulnerability factors to accelerate the region's sustainable development.

  13. ATLAS OF SOCIAL ECONOMY 2014 EDITION - STATISTICAL OVERVIEW OF THE REALITY OF THE SOCIAL ECONOMY IN ROMANIA

    OpenAIRE

    Cristina Barna; Irina Opincaru; Ancuţa Vameşu

    2016-01-01

    Atlas of Social Economy, periodical publication of the Institute of Social Economy - Civil Society Development Foundation, aims to offer a statistical dimension and analyse of the sector of social economy in Romania and of its main actors (associations, foundations, cooperatives, credit unions of employees, credit unions of retired people, commercial societies owned by social economy organizations). 2014 Edition of the Atlas of Social Economy presented the statistical overview of 2011 and 201...

  14. Strategy, Economic Organization, and the Knowledge Economy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Foss, Nicolai Juul

    The rise of the knowledge economy has far-reaching implications for the nature of economic organization as well as firm strategy. Not surprisingly, thinking in management studies as well as in economics has been profoundly affected by these changes. Thus, management thinking in particular has been...... basic argument is that knowledge-based and organizational economics approaches are not substitutes but complements. In particular, organizational economics has much to contribute with respect to furthering the understanding of efficient organization and strategy in the emerging knowledge economy...

  15. The Political Economy of Regulatory Change

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Buch-Hansen, Hubert

    2012-01-01

    This article aims to explain the broader evolution of British merger control. To this end it outlines a novel critical political economy perspective on regulation and regulatory change which differs from established political economy approaches, such as the regulatory capitalism/state perspectives......, in three main ways: it places regulatory ideas at the heart of the analysis, it differentiates between different degrees of regulatory change, and it links regulatory change in delineated issue areas with changing power balances between fractions of capital and labor. The application of this perspective...

  16. ECONOMIC RESEARCH AND ANALYSIS OF NATIONAL ECONOMY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stanka Đurić

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Liquidity is generally the biggest problem of the Serbian economy. At the end of November 2012th Serbia's public debt stood at EUR 17.5 billion, which is close to 60% of gross domestic product (GDP, the debt continued to rise in December for new debt, so the debt could soon be equal to the one that had the entire ex- Yugoslavia. Historically, the growth of the economy, increasing employment and living standards in Serbia in the next three years can only be done if you reduce the deficit in the state budget, curb inflation and the gap between the inflow and outflow of money abroad.

  17. Product design in the circular economy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Atlason, Reynir Smari; Giacalone, Davide; Parajuly, Keshav

    2017-01-01

    . Such strategies may also assist societies in the transition to a more circular economy. However, at the end of a product's useful life, it is uncertain whether the end users will handle the product according to the original intention of the product developers. Situated within this context, this research...... of according to a favorable EoL scenarios, but may not have any prior expectations at point of purchase. Reuse potential emerged as the most attractive EoL scenario, suggesting that users' preferences are largely aligned with the concept of circular economy. Interestingly, women were found to prefer all Eo...

  18. India’s Experience: Innovation Oriented Economy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Y A Konovalova

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Under the conditions of tough competition and complicated economic situation, transition of the economy to the innovative social oriented model of development is of the ways to achieve the goal of different strategies of the economy development. In spite of a lot of various opinions, BRICS can determine the «face» of the world in future and in some degree it depends on innovative type of development. India announced current decade as the decade of innovation, which is oriented to stimulation of economic growth.

  19. Institutional economy applied to the Natural Resources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aguilera klink, Federico

    1999-01-01

    The author intend to show how the perspective of institutional economy, worried about natural resources and the environment, insists in the necessity of a conceptual reconstruction of the concept of economy. This proposal is presented by considering three main aspects essentials for that reconstruction: a) The displacement of the philosophical assumptions of XVIII and XIX countries, b) Reformulation a widening of the meaning of the basic concepts and c) How to complement the marked price analysis with the consideration of social values. After analyzing these aspects it is show how they are applied to the study of natural resources and environmental problems through the notion of social costs

  20. The Green Economy in the Global South

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brockington, Dan; Ponte, Stefano

    2015-01-01

    As multiple visions for a Green Economy seek to become real, so are green economic initiatives in the global South multiplying. These can offer integration into wealth-generating markets – as well as displacement, alienation, conflict and opportunities for ‘green washing’. The articles included...... in this collection bring together a multidisciplinary team of scholars and a range of case studies, from forestry governance to tourism to carbon finance, to provide nuanced analyses of Green Economy experiences in the global South – examining the opportunities they provide, the redistributions they entail...