WorldWideScience

Sample records for economies of scale

  1. Fusion power economy of scale

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dolan, T.J.

    1993-01-01

    In the next 50 yr, the world will need to develop hundreds of gigawatts of non-fossil-fuel energy sources for production of electricity and fuels. Nuclear fusion can probably provide much of the required energy economically, if large single-unit power plants are acceptable. Large power plants are more common than most people realize: There are already many multiple-unit power plants producing 2 to 5 GW(electric) at a single site. The cost of electricity (COE) from fusion energy is predicted to scale as COE ∼ COE 0 (P/P 0 ) -n , where P is the electrical power, the subscript zero denotes reference values, and the exponent n ∼ 0.36 to 0.7 in various designs. The validity ranges of these scalings are limited and need to be extended by future work. The fusion power economy of scale derives from four interrelated effects: improved operations and maintenance costs; scaling of equipment unit costs; a geometric effect that increases the mass power density; and reduction of the recirculating power fraction. Increased plasma size also relaxes the required confinement parameters: For the same neutron wall loading, larger tokamaks can use lower magnetic fields. Fossil-fuel power plants have a weaker economy of scale than fusion because the fuel costs constitute much of their COE. Solar and wind power plants consist of many small units, so they have little economy of scale. Fission power plants have a strong economy of scale but are unable to exploit it because the maximum unit size is limited by safety concerns. Large, steady-state fusion reactors generating 3 to 6 GW(electric) may be able to produce electricity for 4 to 5 cents/kW·h, which would be competitive with other future energy sources. 38 refs., 6 figs., 6 tabs

  2. Resource Complementarity and IT Economies of Scale

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Woudstra, Ulco; Berghout, Egon; Tan, Chee-Wee

    2017-01-01

    In this study, we explore economies of scale for IT infrastructure and application services. An in-depth appreciation of economies of scale is imperative for an adequate understanding of the impact of IT investments. Our findings indicate that even low IT spending organizations can make...... a difference by devoting at least 60% of their total IT budget on IT infrastructure in order to foster economies of scale and extract strategic benefits....

  3. Price Discrimination, Economies of Scale, and Profits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Donghyun

    2000-01-01

    Demonstrates that it is possible for economies of scale to induce a price-discriminating monopolist to sell in an unprofitable market where the average cost always exceeds the price. States that higher profits in the profitable market caused by economies of scale may exceed losses incurred in the unprofitable market. (CMK)

  4. Economy of scale still holds true

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1985-01-01

    The economic merits of larger generating units have been questioned and have become subject to doubt and controversy. A 1980 study by Sargent and Lundy concluded that economy of scale still held. But some of the basic factors and major assumptions used in that study have changed. An update of those results, which also looks at whether reduced load growth rates affect the study's conclusions, finds economy of scale still applies

  5. Globalization of Brewing and Economies of Scale

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madsen, Erik Strøjer; Wu, Yanqing

    The globalization of the brewing industry after the turn of the century through a large wave of mergers and acquisitions has changed the structure of the world beer markets. The paper tracks the development in industry concentrations from 2002 to 2012 and points to high transportation costs...... for beers and economies of scale in advertising and sales efforts as the main factors behind the wave of cross-country mergers and acquisitions. Using firm-level data from the largest breweries, the estimations verify significant economies of scale in marketing and distribution costs. Based on information...

  6. Location of slaughterhouses under economies of scale

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van den Broek, J.J.J.; Schütz, P.; Stougie, L.; Tomasgard, A.

    2006-01-01

    The facility location problem described in this paper comes from an industrial application in the slaughterhouse industry of Norway. Investigations show that the slaughterhouse industry experiences economies of scale in the production facilities. We examine a location-allocation problem focusing on

  7. Strategic Outsourcing under Economies of Scale

    OpenAIRE

    Chen, Yutian; Sen, Debapriya

    2010-01-01

    Economies of scale in upstream production can lead both disintegrated downstream firms as well as its vertically integrated rival to outsource offshore for intermediate goods, even if offshore production has moderate cost disadvantage compared to in-house production of the vertically integrated firm.

  8. Economies of scale in cardiac surgery

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lillrank, Paul; Chaudhuri, Atanu; Torkki, Paulus

    2015-01-01

    Objective: The objective of this paper is to investigate the impact of scale of surgical units on the productivity of patient processes. Methods: The context, intervention, mechanism, output (CIMO) model of Evaluation research is used. The scale–performance mechanisms are examined through resource...... intensity and throughput time per patient. The productivity of Coronary Artery Bypass Graft (CABG) surgery in a very large and a smaller hospital are compared. Results: While the large hospital performed 5.1 times more CABG surgeries per year than the smaller hospital, in terms of total resource consumption...... per patient it was 13% less productive. The large hospital had a 5% efficiency advantage in Operating Theatres (OTs), but it was 30% less efficient in ward care. Conclusions: Economies of scale are not found at the patient process level. Operating policies seem to assume more importance than scale....

  9. Economies of scale in ICT: how to balance infrastructure and applications for economies of scale in ICT and business

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Woudstra, U.; Dedene, G.; Maes, R.

    2011-01-01

    This study offers new insight into the economies of scale of ICT departments. Drawing from data on Housing Corporations, Municipalities and Hospitals, evidence was found that particularly infrastructure-related investments leverage a more efficient use of ICT resources. The measured economies

  10. Economies of scale in ICT: how to balance infrastructure and applications for economies of scale in ICT and business

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Woudstra, U.A.

    2010-01-01

    This study offers new insight into the economies of scale of ICT departments. Drawing from data on Housing Corporations, Municipalities and Hospitals, evidence was found that particularly infrastructure-related investments leverage a more efficient use of ICT resources. The measured economies

  11. Economies of scale, technology, and intra-industry trade

    OpenAIRE

    Inagawa Nobuo

    1989-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to test empirically economies of scale, defined by technologyin Intra-Industry Trade(IIT). B.Balassa found first the existence of IIT. Grubeland Lloyd, Linder, Dreze, and others treated IIT as consisting of final goods.But P.Raymentfound that IIT consists mostly of intermediate goods and he tried to explain IIT byeconomies of scale and specialization. However, to test the relationship between economiesof scale and IIT, I will use I.Ozaki's definition on economies ...

  12. Economies of scale in ICT: how to balance infrastructure and applications for economies of scale in ICT and business

    OpenAIRE

    Woudstra, U.A.

    2010-01-01

    This study offers new insight into the economies of scale of ICT departments. Drawing from data on Housing Corporations, Municipalities and Hospitals, evidence was found that particularly infrastructure-related investments leverage a more efficient use of ICT resources. The measured economies between low and high infrastructure spending organizations are on average more than 20% for their operational ICT labour and for their total ICT costs. It was also found that organizations should spend a...

  13. Measuring economies of scale at the city market level.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valdmanis, Vivian G

    2010-01-01

    Data envelopment analysis (DEA) techniques have been applied to the assessing efficiency and productivity among individual hospitals. In this article, we employ DEA to address whether economies of scale exist among hospital markets by first assessing individual hospitals operating in 2005 in the State of Florida and then by comparing hospital markets' efficiency relative to each other. The interest in hospital markets stems from issues relating to mergers among hospitals or the reallocation of services (inputs) among hospitals in a market area, particularly as occupancy rates and reimbursements are tending to fall. Facing more competition and stringent financial conditions, hospitals would benefit from decreasing costs by exploiting economies of scale.

  14. ECONOMIES OF SCALE AND PRODUCTION EFFICIENCY IN ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Admin

    high rate of population growth of 2.83% (FOS, 1996). The apparent disparity between the rate of food production and demand for food in Nigeria has led to: (i) a food demand-supply gap thus leading to a widening gap between domestic food supply and the total food requirement; (ii) an increased food importation and (iii).

  15. Economies of scale and competitiveness of an enterprise

    OpenAIRE

    Maksvytienė, Inga

    2007-01-01

    Straipsnyje vertinama masto ekonomijos bei neekonomijos ir įmonės dydžio tarpusavio ryšio poveikio įmonės konkurencingumui galimybė. Veikiant masto ekonomijos ir neekonomijos sąveikos mechanizmui, vidutiniai gamybos kaštai mažėja ir įmonės konkurencingumas didėja. The aim of the research is to introduce the role of enterprise scale under the conditions of competition. In the article the theoretical model of scale economies and diseconomies interaction influence on the competitive ability o...

  16. A Field Study of Scale Economies in Software Maintenance

    OpenAIRE

    Rajiv D. Banker; Sandra A. Slaughter

    1997-01-01

    Software maintenance is a major concern for organizations. Productivity gains in software maintenance can enable redeployment of Information Systems resources to other activities. Thus, it is important to understand how software maintenance productivity can be improved. In this study, we investigate the relationship between project size and software maintenance productivity. We explore scale economies in software maintenance by examining a number of software enhancement projects at a large fi...

  17. Investigation of scale economies for African biogas installations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Amigun, B.; Blottnitz, H. von

    2007-01-01

    Biogas technology can serve as a means to overcome energy poverty, which poses a constant barrier to economic development in Africa. This technology can be built on a wide range of scales, and conventional financial wisdom is that larger installations have advantages resulting from economies of scale. This study analyses the statistical evidence bearing on the existence of economies of scale in the small to medium scale production and use of biogas to support faster estimation (at the order of magnitude level) of investment costs for different plant sizes. Investment cost data were gathered for 21 biogas plants in the 4-100 m 3 range built since 1999 in eight African countries. Statistical regression indicates diseconomies of scale in the size range of the biogas industry investigated with a cost capacity factor (n) of 1.20 (R 2 = 0.90). The cost capacity factor obtained is notably greater than the conventionally used 0.6 factor rule. The result illustrates that the average cost size relationship is statistically significant with ±40% average estimating error

  18. Factors affecting economies of scale in combined sewer systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maurer, Max; Wolfram, Martin; Anja, Herlyn

    2010-01-01

    A generic model is introduced that represents the combined sewer infrastructure of a settlement quantitatively. A catchment area module first calculates the length and size distribution of the required sewer pipes on the basis of rain patterns, housing densities and area size. These results are fed into the sewer-cost module in order to estimate the combined sewer costs of the entire catchment area. A detailed analysis of the relevant input parameters for Swiss settlements is used to identify the influence of size on costs. The simulation results confirm that an economy of scale exists for combined sewer systems. This is the result of two main opposing cost factors: (i) increased construction costs for larger sewer systems due to larger pipes and increased rain runoff in larger settlements, and (ii) lower costs due to higher population and building densities in larger towns. In Switzerland, the more or less organically grown settlement structures and limited land availability emphasise the second factor to show an apparent economy of scale. This modelling approach proved to be a powerful tool for understanding the underlying factors affecting the cost structure for water infrastructures.

  19. A paradigm shift needed for nuclear reactors. From economies of unit scale to economies of production scale

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li, Ning

    2009-01-01

    The success and sustainability of the nascent 'Nuclear Renaissance' will depend heavily on the timely development and deployment SMRs (small and modular reactors) as a new paradigm to increase economic competitiveness and broaden markets and applications for nuclear energy. A critical assessment of the historical and current reactor construction cost data reveals a troubling trend of rapid escalation in practically all countries, while showing little or negative economies of (unit) scale. The escalation cannot be fully accounted for by cost inflation in materials and labors, or by ratcheting regulations and other external factors. Rather, it appears that the intrinsic complexity and the associated risks and costs of extremely large systems have offset all returns of (unit) scale in power engineering and learning effects in practice. The construction heavy nature of the nuclear power plants exacerbates the cost problem as compared to that of the manufactured goods. The power markets have evolved away from the very large monolithic generation units toward modular units more amenable for manufacturing and transportation. This is clearly illustrated through the increasingly bi-modal distribution of generation units around a few MWe (wind, micro-turbines etc) and 100-200 MWe (gas turbine and combined cycle). The rapid market adoption and penetration of these units dwarf the addition rates of the very large units. This is not merely an outcome based on economic and financial risk reduction (important in their own right) or better match of applications - the technological and operational performances are equal or even superior in these smaller modular units. This presentation will use the industry, market and application data analyses, and successful examples from other sectors and industries with different organizing principles to demonstrate the benefits and potentials of SMRs. The resultant paradigm shift, from the singular pursuit of economies of unit scale to

  20. Insight into economies of scale for waste packaging sorting plants

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cimpan, Ciprian; Wenzel, Henrik; Maul, Anja

    2015-01-01

    of economies of scale and discussed complementary relations occurring between capacity size, technology level and operational practice. Processing costs (capital and operational expenditure) per unit waste input were found to decrease from above 100 € for small plants with a basic technology level to 60......This contribution presents the results of a techno-economic analysis performed for German Materials Recovery Facilities (MRFs) which sort commingled lightweight packaging waste (consisting of plastics, metals, beverage cartons and other composite packaging). The study addressed the importance......-70 € for large plants employing advanced process flows. Typical operational practice, often riddled with inadequate process parameters was compared with planned or designed operation. The former was found to significantly influence plant efficiency and therefore possible revenue streams from the sale of output...

  1. Economies of scale and scope in banking : Effects of government intervention, corporate strategy and market power

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dijkstra, M.A.

    2017-01-01

    The financial crisis and ensuing policy responses have made the question of economies of scale and scope in the banking sector as topical as ever. This dissertation estimates economies of scale and scope in the banking sector and discusses the role of government intervention, corporate strategy and

  2. Estimating unbiased economies of scale of HIV prevention projects: a case study of Avahan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lépine, Aurélia; Vassall, Anna; Chandrashekar, Sudha; Blanc, Elodie; Le Nestour, Alexis

    2015-04-01

    Governments and donors are investing considerable resources on HIV prevention in order to scale up these services rapidly. Given the current economic climate, providers of HIV prevention services increasingly need to demonstrate that these investments offer good 'value for money'. One of the primary routes to achieve efficiency is to take advantage of economies of scale (a reduction in the average cost of a health service as provision scales-up), yet empirical evidence on economies of scale is scarce. Methodologically, the estimation of economies of scale is hampered by several statistical issues preventing causal inference and thus making the estimation of economies of scale complex. In order to estimate unbiased economies of scale when scaling up HIV prevention services, we apply our analysis to one of the few HIV prevention programmes globally delivered at a large scale: the Indian Avahan initiative. We costed the project by collecting data from the 138 Avahan NGOs and the supporting partners in the first four years of its scale-up, between 2004 and 2007. We develop a parsimonious empirical model and apply a system Generalized Method of Moments (GMM) and fixed-effects Instrumental Variable (IV) estimators to estimate unbiased economies of scale. At the programme level, we find that, after controlling for the endogeneity of scale, the scale-up of Avahan has generated high economies of scale. Our findings suggest that average cost reductions per person reached are achievable when scaling-up HIV prevention in low and middle income countries. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Economy of scale for nuclear power plants operating in hydroelectric systems - Brazilian case study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Andrade, Gilberto

    1996-01-01

    Economy of scale is considered to enhance competitiveness of nuclear energy for electricity generation but only when high capacity factors are considered. This study shows that for the brazilian electricity generation system low capacity factors are expected and economy of scale has to be considered against the size of the Nuclear program. Units of 600 MW are competitive both for small and large Programs. (author)

  4. Theory and evidence for using the economy-of-scale law in power plant economics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Phung, D.L.

    1987-05-01

    This report compiles theory and evidence for the use of the economy-of-scale law in energy economics, particularly in the estimation of capital costs for coal-fired and nuclear power plants. The economy-of-scale law is widely used in its simplest form: cost is directly proportional to capacity raised to an exponent. An additive constant is an important component that is not generally taken into account. Also, the economy of scale is perforce valid only over a limited size range. The majority of engineering studies have estimated an economy of scale exponent of 0.7 to 0.9 for coal-fired plants and an exponent of 0.4 to 0.6 for nuclear plants in the capacity ranges of 400 to 1000 MWe. However, the majority of econometric analyses found little or no economy of scale for coal-fired plants and only a slight economy of scale for nuclear plants. This disparity is explained by the fact that economists have included regulatory and time-related costs in addition to the direct and indirect costs used by the engineers. Regulatory and time-related costs have become an increasingly larger portion of total costs during the last decade. In addition, these costs appeared to have either a very small economy of scale or to be increasing as the size of the power plant increased. We conclude that gains in economy of scale can only be made by reducing regulatory and time-related costs through design standardization and regulatory stability, in combination with more favorable economic conditions. 59 refs

  5. Economies of scale in biogas production and the significance of flexible regulation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Lise Skovsgaard; Klinge Jacobsen, Henrik

    2017-01-01

    Biogas production is characterised by economies of scale in capital and operational costs of the plant and diseconomies of scale from transport of input materials. We analyse biogas in a Danish setting where most biogas is based on manure, we use a case study with actual distances, and find...... that the benefits of scale in capital and operational costs dominate the diseconomies of increasing transport distances to collect manure. To boost the yield it is common to use co-substrates in the biogas production. We investigate how costs and income changes, when sugar beet is added in this case study......, and demonstrate that transport cost can be critical in relation to co-substrates. Further we compare the new Danish support for upgraded biogas with the traditional support for biogas being used in Combined Heat and Power production in relation to scale economies. We argue that economies of scale is facilitated...

  6. Power plant economy of scale and cost trends: further analyses and review of empirical studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fisher, C.F. Jr.; Paik, S.; Schriver, W.R.

    1986-07-01

    Multiple regression analyses were performed on capital cost data for nuclear and coal-fired power plants in an extension of an earlier study which indicated that nuclear units completed prior to the accident at Three-Mile Island (TMI) have no economy of scale, and that units completed after that event have a weak economy of scale (scaling exponent of about 0.81). The earlier study also indicated that the scaling exponent for coal-fired units is about 0.92, compared with conceptual models which project scaling exponents in a range from about 0.5 to 0.9. Other empirical studies have indicated poor economy of scale, but a large range of cost-size scaling exponents has been reported. In the present study, the results for nuclear units indicate a scaling exponent of about 0.94 but with no economy of scale for large units, that a first unit costs 17% more than a second unit, that a unit in the South costs 20% less than others, that a unit completed after TMI costs 33% more than one completed before TMI, and that costs are increasing at 9.3% per year. In the present study, the results for coal-fired units indicate a scaling exponent of 0.93 but with better scaling economy in the larger units, that a first unit costs 38.5% more, a unit in the South costs 10% less, flue-gas desulfurization units cost 23% more, and that costs are increasing at 4% per year

  7. Competition and Outsourcing with Scale Economies

    OpenAIRE

    Gérard P. Cachon; Patrick T. Harker

    2002-01-01

    Scale economies are commonplace in operations, yet because of analytical challenges, relatively little is known about how firms should compete in their presence. This paper presents a model of competition between two firms that face scale economies; (i.e., each firm's cost per unit of demand is decreasing in demand). A general framework is used, which incorporates competition between two service providers with price- and time-sensitive demand (a queuing game), and competition between two reta...

  8. Economies of scale and optimal size of hospitals: Empirical results for Danish public hospitals

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kristensen, Troels

    number of beds per hospital is estimated to be 275 beds per site. Sensitivity analysis to partial changes in model parameters yields a joint 95% confidence interval in the range 130 - 585 beds per site. Conclusions: The results indicate that it may be appropriate to consolidate the production of small...... the current configuration of Danish hospitals is subject to scale economies that may justify such plans and to estimate an optimal hospital size. Methods: We estimate cost functions using panel data on total costs, DRG-weighted casemix, and number : We estimate cost functions using panel data on total costs......, DRG-weighted casemix, and number of beds for three years from 2004-2006. A short-run cost function is used to derive estimates of long-run scale economies by applying the envelope condition. Results: We identify moderate to significant long-run economies of scale when applying two alternative We...

  9. Economies of scale in the Korean district heating system: A variable cost function approach

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Park, Sun-Young; Lee, Kyoung-Sil; Yoo, Seung-Hoon

    2016-01-01

    This paper aims to investigate the cost efficiency of South Korea’s district heating (DH) system by using a variable cost function and cost-share equation. We employ a seemingly unrelated regression model, with quarterly time-series data from the Korea District Heating Corporation (KDHC)—a public utility that covers about 59% of the DH system market in South Korea—over the 1987–2011 period. The explanatory variables are price of labor, price of material, capital cost, and production level. The results indicate that economies of scale are present and statistically significant. Thus, expansion of its DH business would allow KDHC to obtain substantial economies of scale. According to our forecasts vis-à-vis scale economies, the KDHC will enjoy cost efficiency for some time yet. To ensure a socially efficient supply of DH, it is recommended that the KDHC expand its business proactively. With regard to informing policy or regulations, our empirical results could play a significant role in decision-making processes. - Highlights: • We examine economies of scale in the South Korean district heating sector. • We focus on Korea District Heating Corporation (KDHC), a public utility. • We estimate a translog cost function, using a variable cost function. • We found economies of scale to be present and statistically significant. • KDHC will enjoy cost efficiency and expanding its supply is socially efficient.

  10. An analysis of the Spanish electrical utility industry. Economies of scale, technological progress and efficiency

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arcos, Angel; De Toledo, Pablo Alvarez

    2009-01-01

    In this paper we propose a model to explain the behaviour of the Spanish electrical utility industry during the period 1987-1997, under the then existing regulatory system (Marco Legal Estable). The paper will study the presence of economies of scale, the effect of technological progress and the differences in the efficiency of the different companies within the market. The paper concludes that the Spanish electrical utility industry was not, in fact, characterized by economies of scale during this period, but witnessed a great improvement in efficiency within that period. All the critical market factors remind stable. (author)

  11. Economies of scale in biogas production and the significance of flexible regulation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Skovsgaard, Lise; Jacobsen, Henrik Klinge

    2017-01-01

    Biogas production is characterised by economies of scale in capital and operational costs of the plant and diseconomies of scale from transport of input materials. We analyse biogas in a Danish setting where most biogas is based on manure, we use a case study with actual distances, and find that the benefits of scale in capital and operational costs dominate the diseconomies of increasing transport distances to collect manure. To boost the yield it is common to use co-substrates in the biogas production. We investigate how costs and income changes, when sugar beet is added in this case study, and demonstrate that transport cost can be critical in relation to co-substrates. Further we compare the new Danish support for upgraded biogas with the traditional support for biogas being used in Combined Heat and Power production in relation to scale economies. We argue that economies of scale is facilitated by the new regulation providing similar support to upgraded biogas fed into the natural gas grid, however in order to keep transport costs low, we suggest that the biogas plants should be allowed to use and combine as many co-substrates as possible, respecting the sustainability criteria regarding energy crops in Danish legislation. - Highlights: • For Denmark we find economies of scale in biogas production based on pure manure. • Adding sugar beet outweigh economy of scale due to increased transport costs. • We investigate the main risks associated with input prices, yield and output prices. • Biogas fed into the gas grid should receive similar support as directly used in CHP. • Regulation should allow large biogas plants with few restrictions on co-substrates.

  12. Economies of scale and trends in the size of southern forest industries

    Science.gov (United States)

    James E. Granskog

    1978-01-01

    In each of the major southern forest industries, the trend has been toward achieving economies of scale, that is, to build larger production units to reduce unit costs. Current minimum efficient plant size estimated by survivor analysis is 1,000 tons per day capacity for sulfate pulping, 100 million square feet (3/8- inch basis) annual capacity for softwood plywood,...

  13. Designing for Economies of Scale vs. Economies of Focus in Hospital Departments

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vanberkel, Peter T.; Boucherie, Richardus J.; Hans, Elias W.; Hurink, Johann L.; Litvak, Nelli

    2010-01-01

    Subject/Research problem: Hospitals traditionally segregate resources into centralized functional departments such as diagnostic departments, ambulatory care centres, and nursing wards. In recent years this organizational model has been challenged by the idea that higher quality of care and

  14. Green Supply Chain Network Design with Economies of Scale and Environmental Concerns

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dezhi Zhang

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available This study considers a design problem in the supply chain network of an assembly manufacturing enterprise with economies of scale and environmental concerns. The study aims to obtain a rational tradeoff between environmental influence and total cost. A mixed-integer nonlinear programming model is developed to determine the optimal location and size of regional distribution centers (RDCs and the investment of environmental facilities considering the effects of economies of scale and CO2 emission taxes. Numerical examples are provided to illustrate the applications of the proposed model. Moreover, comparative analysis of the related key parameters is conducted (i.e., carbon emission tax, logistics demand of customers, and economies of scale of RDC, to explore the corresponding effects on the network design of a green supply chain. Moreover, the proposed model is applied in an actual case—network design of a supply chain of an electric meter company in China. Findings show that (i the optimal location of RDCs is affected by the demand of customers and the level of economies of scale and that (ii the introduction of CO2 emission taxes will change the structure of a supply chain network, which will decrease CO2 emissions per unit shipment.

  15. Optimization in the scale of nuclear power generation and the economy of nuclear power

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Suzuki, Toshiharu

    1983-01-01

    In the not too distant future, the economy of nuclear power will have to be restudied. Various conditions and circumstances supporting this economy of nuclear power tend to change, such as the decrease in power demand and supply, the diversification in base load supply sources, etc. The fragility in the economic advantage of nuclear power may thus be revealed. In the above connection, on the basis of the future outlook of the scale of nuclear power generation, that is, the further reduction of the current nuclear power program, and of the corresponding supply and demand of nuclear fuel cycle quantities, the aspect of the economic advantage of nuclear power was examined, for the purpose of optimizing the future scale of nuclear power generation (the downward revision of the scale, the establishment of the schedule of nuclear fuel cycle the stagnation of power demand and nuclear power generation costs). (Mori, K.)

  16. Factor substitution, and economies of scale and utilisation in Kuwait's crude oil industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Al-Mutairi, Naief; Burney, Nadeem A.

    2002-01-01

    The cost structure of the crude oil industry in Kuwait has been examined, with specific focus on factor substitution, and economies of scale and utilisation. This has been done by estimating translog cost functions, both long-run and short-run, using time-series data covering the period from 1976 to 1996. The results indicate that the implied production structure is non-homothetic, and the pattern of scale effect is labour saving, but capital and material using. The evidence also supports the presence of an induced exogenous technical change, which is non-neutral (labour and capital using, and material saving). The elasticity of substitution between capital and labour is positive, implying that the two inputs are substitute. The results also indicate the existence of diseconomies of scale in the production of crude oil, but no economies or diseconomies of utilisation

  17. The Future of Banking: From Scale & Scope Economies to Fintech

    OpenAIRE

    Boot, A.W.A.

    2017-01-01

    Information technology plays a leading role in the transformation of banking. The deepening of financial markets has profoundly affected the business of banking. The recent focus on fintech – basically, new technology-driven players entering the financial services industry – is the latest manifestation of the impact of information technology on the industry. This paper will focus on the structure of the banking industry going forward. We will try to draw lessons from the (older) literature on...

  18. Economies of scale in electricity generation and transmission since 1945

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tombs, F.

    1978-01-01

    Progress in the electricity supply industry since 1945 is reviewed with particular reference to increased ratings of plant and transmission. The contribution of nuclear energy is emphasised. Developments which have taken place, and policy within the nuclear industry since the construction of Calder Hall, are examined. The performance of the Magnox stations, difficulties with AGRs, and the debate on the choice of reactors are discussed. (U.K.)

  19. The Future of Banking: From Scale & Scope Economies to Fintech

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boot, A.W.A.

    2017-01-01

    Information technology plays a leading role in the transformation of banking. The deepening of financial markets has profoundly affected the business of banking. The recent focus on fintech – basically, new technology-driven players entering the financial services industry – is the latest

  20. Economies of scale and asset values in power production

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Considine, T.J.

    1999-01-01

    While innovative trading tools have become an increasingly important aspect of the electricity business, the future of any firm in the industry boils down to a basic bread and butter issue of generating power at competitive costs. While buying electricity from power pools at spot prices instead of generating power to service load may be profitable for some firms in the short run, the need to efficiently utilize existing plants in the long run remains. These competitive forces will force the closure of many inefficient plants. As firms close plants and re-evaluate their generating asset portfolios, the basic structure of the industry will change. This article presents some quantitative analysis that sheds light on this unfolding transformation

  1. Economies of Scale on the Municipal Level: Fact or Fiction in the Czech Republic?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matějová Lenka

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Many countries have carried out extensive amalgamation-related territorial reforms at the level of local self-government and created relatively large municipalities. The Czech Republic is one of the few remaining European countries with a fragmented territorial structure. There is a lot of discussion in the country about the need for amalgamation, but this discussion is mainly based on political arguments rather than on empirical evidence about the feasibility of amalgamation and its potential to improve local government performance. This paper analyses economies of scale on the local level as a factor that should be reflected in debates about the pros and cons of amalgamation in the Czech Republic. To add to the existing knowledge about the reality of economies of scale on the municipal level in the Czech Republic, we processed the municipal costs of three selected areas on a representative sample of municipalities in the South Moravian Region. The analysis showed that economies of scale can be identified for collecting local fees and for pre-school and elementary education, but not for local administration. Our results suggest that the existence of too small municipalities in the Czech Republic results in inefficiencies and should be addressed.

  2. Scale economies in a series of generic interim SNF storage facilities - 15104

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rothwell, G.

    2015-01-01

    This paper describes a micro-economic, cost-engineering model of a centralized (Generic Interim Storage Facility - GISF) facility to monitor LWR irradiated fuel with particular attention to scale economies (e.g., to compare the likely costs at a power plant site or at regional, national and international facilities). This paper is based on the cost estimates of the Private Fuel Services Facility (PFSF) on the Skull Valley Band of Goshute Indians' Reservation in Utah, licensed by the US NRC in 2006 to centralize storage of 40.000 metric tons of heavy metal (MTHM) for 20 to 40 years. Assuming movement of the 40.000 MTHM every 40 years to a new facility, the levelized costs are 144 dollars/kg without high security and physical protection, and 208 dollars/kg with high security through 2111 (assuming disposal within a century), or about 0.50 dollars/MWh to 0.75 dollars/MWh depending on the burnup and thermal efficiency of the nuclear power plant. This cost estimate is generalized to explore scale economies for facilities with and without high security and physical protection. There are declining levelized costs with increasing size to 120.000 MTHM without high security, and to 500.000 MTHM with high security, i.e., the higher the level of security, the stronger the economies of scale. (author)

  3. The Political Economy of Cross-Scale Networks in Resource Co-Management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    W. Neil Adger

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available We investigate linkages between stakeholders in resource management that occur at different spatial and institutional levels and identify the winners and losers in such interactions. So-called cross-scale interactions emerge because of the benefits to individual stakeholder groups in undertaking them or the high costs of not undertaking them. Hence there are uneven gains from cross-scale interactions that are themselves an integral part of social-ecological system governance. The political economy framework outlined here suggests that the determinants of the emergence of cross-scale interactions are the exercise of relative power between stakeholders and their costs of accessing and creating linkages. Cross-scale interactions by powerful stakeholders have the potential to undermine trust in resource management arrangements. If government regulators, for example, mobilize information and resources from cross-level interactions to reinforce their authority, this often disempowers other stakeholders such as resource users. Offsetting such impacts, some cross-scale interactions can be empowering for local level user groups in creating social and political capital. These issues are illustrated with observations on resource management in a marine protected area in Tobago in the Caribbean. The case study demonstrates that the structure of the cross-scale interplay, in terms of relative winners and losers, determines its contribution to the resilience of social-ecological systems.

  4. LARGE-SCALE PRODUCTION OF HYDROGEN BY NUCLEAR ENERGY FOR THE HYDROGEN ECONOMY

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    SCHULTZ, K.R.; BROWN, L.C.; BESENBRUCH, G.E.; HAMILTON, C.J.

    2003-01-01

    OAK B202 LARGE-SCALE PRODUCTION OF HYDROGEN BY NUCLEAR ENERGY FOR THE HYDROGEN ECONOMY. The ''Hydrogen Economy'' will reduce petroleum imports and greenhouse gas emissions. However, current commercial hydrogen production processes use fossil fuels and releases carbon dioxide. Hydrogen produced from nuclear energy could avoid these concerns. The authors have recently completed a three-year project for the US Department of Energy whose objective was to ''define an economically feasible concept for production of hydrogen, by nuclear means, using an advanced high-temperature nuclear reactor as the energy source''. Thermochemical water-splitting, a chemical process that accomplishes the decomposition of water into hydrogen and oxygen, met this objective. The goal of the first phase of this study was to evaluate thermochemical processes which offer the potential for efficient, cost-effective, large-scale production of hydrogen and to select one for further detailed consideration. The authors selected the Sulfur-Iodine cycle, In the second phase, they reviewed all the basic reactor types for suitability to provide the high temperature heat needed by the selected thermochemical water splitting cycle and chose the helium gas-cooled reactor. In the third phase they designed the chemical flowsheet for the thermochemical process and estimated the efficiency and cost of the process and the projected cost of producing hydrogen. These results are summarized in this paper

  5. Competitiveness of small-medium reactors. A probabilistic study on the economy of scale factor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Trianni, A.; Locatelli, G.; Trucco, P.

    2009-01-01

    Smaller size reactors are able to play an important role in the worldwide nuclear renaissance. The major disadvantage of those new reactors - the unit size - would label the small-medium size reactors as not economically competitive with larger plants. But, the economy of scale law applies only if the designs are similar, which is not the case here, since the SMRs are designed with original and innovative solutions not accessible to large size reactors: the IRIS reactor is used as an example of small medium reactors (SMR), but the analyses and conclusions are applicable to the whole spectrum of SMRs. The aim of this paper is to present latest advances in the differential economical assessment of Generation Cost of SMRs compared to LRs. The international literature has started to present studies focused on the two major differential accounts of Levelized Unit Electricity Cost - Captial Costs ($/kWe) and Operation and Maintenance Costs ($/kWh) - providing deterministic values for the main cost drivers (i.e. economy of scale, multiple units, learning during construction, design characteristics and modular build, shorter construction time for CC, economy of scale location of the plant, number of units, capacity factor, learning by doing, plant obsolescence for O and M costs). Since the modern SMR market is in the early stages of development, it is necessary to consider also the uncertainties associated to current estimates of those cost drivers. When available, the uncertainty has been integrated in the Open Model assigning a probabilistic distribution to the input value of each cost driver. As Far as other cost drivers are concerned, parametric analyses are still under development and uncertainty analyses are not available: thus, conservative but realistic values for both of them have been assumed. Some reasonable future scenarios have been assumed, considering the private operator perspective for a single plant investment and postulating, among the others

  6. Theory and evidence of economies of scale in the development of waste management systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chang, Shoou-Yuh; Rivera, A.L.

    1989-01-01

    Waste is a cost of doing business. This cost can be considered in terms of the potential adverse health and environmental impacts, or the waste management costs associated with avoiding, minimizing, and controlling those impacts. There is an anticipated increase in the cost of waste management as a result of the increasing requirements for regulatory compliance. To meet the total waste management capacity needs of the organization and the compliance requirements, low-level radioactive, hazardous, and mixed waste management will need demonstrated technologies strategically managed as a technology portfolio. The role of the decision maker is to select the optimum mix of technologies and facilities to provide the waste management capacity needed for the next twenty years. The waste management system resulting from this mix includes multiple small-scale fixed facilities, large-scale centralized facilities, and waste management subcontracts. This study was conducted to examine the theory and evidence of economies of scale in the development of waste management systems as as exploratory research on the economic considerations in the process of technology selection and implementation. 25 refs., 24 figs., 11 tabs

  7. The time scales of the climate-economy feedback and the climatic cost of growth

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hallegatte, Stephane

    2005-04-01

    This paper is based on the perception that the inertia of climate and socio-economic systems are key parameters in the climate change issue. In a first part, it develops and implements a new approach based on a simple integrated model with a particular focus on an innovative transient impact and adaptation modelling. In a second part, a climate-economy feedback is defined and characterized. It is found that: (i) it has a 70-year characteristic time, which is long when compared to the system's other time-scales, and it cannot act as a natural damping process of climate change; (ii) mitigation has to be anticipated since the feedback of an emission reduction on the economy is significant only after a 20-year delay and really efficient after a one-century delay; (iii) the IPCC methodology, that neglects the feedback from impacts to emissions, is acceptable up to 2100, whatever is the level of impacts. This analysis allows also to define a climatic cost of growth as the additional climate change damages due to the additional emissions linked to economic growth. Usefully, this metric for climate change damages is particularly independent of the baseline scenario. (orig.)

  8. The time scales of the climate-economy feedback and the climatic cost of growth

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hallegatte, Stephane [CIRED - CNRM, Nogent-sur-Marne (France)

    2005-04-01

    This paper is based on the perception that the inertia of climate and socio-economic systems are key parameters in the climate change issue. In a first part, it develops and implements a new approach based on a simple integrated model with a particular focus on an innovative transient impact and adaptation modelling. In a second part, a climate-economy feedback is defined and characterized. It is found that: (i) it has a 70-year characteristic time, which is long when compared to the system's other time-scales, and it cannot act as a natural damping process of climate change; (ii) mitigation has to be anticipated since the feedback of an emission reduction on the economy is significant only after a 20-year delay and really efficient after a one-century delay; (iii) the IPCC methodology, that neglects the feedback from impacts to emissions, is acceptable up to 2100, whatever is the level of impacts. This analysis allows also to define a climatic cost of growth as the additional climate change damages due to the additional emissions linked to economic growth. Usefully, this metric for climate change damages is particularly independent of the baseline scenario. (orig.)

  9. The importance of economies of scale for reductions in greenhouse gas emissions from shipping

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lindstad, Haakon; Asbjørnslett, Bjørn E.; Strømman, Anders H.

    2012-01-01

    CO 2 emissions from maritime transport represent 3.3% of the world's total CO 2 emissions and are forecast to increase by 150%–250% by 2050, due to increased freight volumes (). Fulfilling anticipated climate requirements () could require the sector to reduce emissions per freight unit by a factor of five or six. The International Maritime Organization (IMO) is currently debating technical, operational and market-based measures for reducing greenhouse gas emissions from shipping. This paper also investigates the effects of economies of scale on the direct emissions and costs of maritime transport. We compared emissions from the current fleet (2007), with what can be achieved by increasing average vessel size. The comparison is based on the 2007 levels of trade and predictions for 2050. The results show that emissions can be reduced by up to 30% at a negative abatement cost per ton of CO 2 by replacing the existing fleet with larger vessels. Replacing the whole fleet might take as long as 25 years, so the reduction in emissions will be achieved gradually as the current fleet is renewed. - Highlights: ► We investigate the effects of economy of scale for reduction of GHG emissions from shipping. ► Model includes both cost and emission as function of vessel size and type. ► Model is based on operational patterns as of today for the different vessel types and sizes. ► Comparison is based on actual 2007 tonnages and foreseen 2050 levels of trading. ► Results shows that emissions can be reduced by 25%–30% at a negative abatement cost.

  10. Economies of scale versus economies of density in the electricity distribution. A quantitative analysis; Economie di scala versus economie di densita' nella distribuzione elettrica. Un'analisi quantitativa

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gulli' , F. [IEFE, Universita' Bocconi, Milan (Italy)

    2000-06-01

    The aim of this article is to analyse the costs of the electricity distribution in Italy. The case examined (Enel's distribution activity) is particularly interesting. In fact the specific organization of Enel allows to separate the effects of firm scale from the influence of the customers territorial concentration (territorial density). On this subject, the results of the econometric analysis shows that density economics are more important than scale economics. [Italian] L'obiettivo di questo articolo e' analizzare i costi nell'attivita' di distribuzione elettrica in Italia. Il caso esaminato, la distribuzione dell'Enel, e' a questo proposito particolarmente interessante, grazie alla specifica organizzazione dell'Enel che prevede la presenza di centri di gestione gerarchicamente separati. E' stato cosi' possibile distinguere nettamente fra effetti dovuti alla scala produttiva ed effetti connessi alla concentrazione territoriale dell'utenza (effetti di densita'). Il modello econometrico costruito sui dati dell'Enel ha, al riguardo, permesso di verificare che le economie di densita' sono piu' importanti di quelle di scala.

  11. Is there an optimal pension fund size? A scale-economy analysis of administrative and investment costs

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bikker, J.A.

    2013-01-01

    This paper investigates scale economies and the optimal scale of pension funds, estimating different cost functions with varying assumptions about the shape of the underlying average cost function: Ushaped versus monotonically declining. Using unique data for Dutch pension funds over 1992-2009, we

  12. A Preliminary Review on Economies of Scale (EOS Towards Industrialized Building System (IBS Manufacturer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tajul Ariffin Syazwana

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Industrialized Building System (IBS is a potential technology to improve productivity of construction industry. Controlled production and minimum generation of construction waste are some of the benefits that can be achieved by replacing conventional construction with IBS. In business, IBS is giving a huge opportunity for manufacturer and supplier to expand their business while contributing to construction development. However, bad strategies will put the company in high risk due to higher initial capital for machines and equipment. Therefore, strategic planning for company’s growth, profit maximization, and enhancement of productivity is undeniable to ensure the success of business in construction industry. This preliminary paper is exploring associated factors that affect Economy of Scale (EOS and their relationships in catalyzing the IBS manufacturer especially precast concrete as the scope of study to continue their business in the construction industry. Thus, a framework of EOS is proposed to assist IBS manufacturers to ensure their company’s growth and stability, competitiveness in term of monopoly or an oligopoly, increasing productivity, leading constant returns to scale, and finally increasing the firm’s efficiency. The refined EOS’s conceptual framework is an important turning point to support the development of decision making tools for IBS manufacturer towards their stability and survival in this highly competitive industry.

  13. Argentinean integrated small reactor design and scale economy analysis of integrated reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Florido, P. C.; Bergallo, J. E.; Ishida, M. V.

    2000-01-01

    This paper describes the design of CAREM, which is Argentinean integrated small reactor project and the scale economy analysis results of integrated reactor. CAREM project consists on the development, design and construction of a small nuclear power plant. CAREM is an advanced reactor conceived with new generation design solutions and standing on the large experience accumulated in the safe operation of Light Water Reactors. The CAREM is an indirect cycle reactor with some distinctive and characteristic features that greatly simplify the reactor and also contribute to a highly level of safety: integrated primary cooling system, self pressurized, primary cooling by natural circulation and safety system relying on passive features. For a fully doupled economic evaluation of integrated reactors done by IREP (Integrated Reactor Evaluation Program) code transferred to IAEA, CAREM have been used as a reference point. The results shows that integrated reactors become competitive with power larger than 200MWe with Argentinean cheapest electricity option. Due to reactor pressure vessel construction limit, low pressure drop steam generator are used to reach power output of 200MWe for natural circulation. For forced circulation, 300MWe can be achieved. (author)

  14. Fiscal policy multipliers : The role of monopolistic competition, scale economies, and intertemporal substitution in labour supply

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Heijdra, BJ

    A dynamic macroeconomic model of monopolistic competition is developed for the closed economy. Forward looking consumers demand differentiated goods, supply labour, and save part of their income in the form of shares. Producers manufacture the differentiated goods by using labour and capital. We

  15. Allometric scaling of body mass in running economy data: An important consideration in modeling marathon performance

    OpenAIRE

    Lundstrom, Christopher John; Biltz, George R.; Snyder, Eric M.; Ingraham, Stacy Jean

    2017-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to compare metabolic variables during submaximal running as predictors of marathon performance. Running economy (RE) and respiratory exchange ratio (RER) data were gathered during a 30 min incremental treadmill run completed within 2 weeks prior to running a 42.2-km marathon. Paces during the treadmill run progressed every 5 min from 75-100% of 10-km race velocity. Variables at each stage were analyzed as predictors of relative marathon performance (RMP) in compe...

  16. Improving the economy-of-scale of small organic rankine cycle systems through appropriate working fluid selection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    White, Martin; Sayma, Abdulnaser I.

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • Novel system model coupling turbine and ORC system performance. • Contour plots to characterise working fluid and turbine performance. • Changing working fluid can expand pump and turbine operating envelope. • Possible to improve the economy-of-scale through optimal working fluid selection. - Abstract: Organic Rankine cycles (ORC) are becoming a major research area within the field of sustainable energy systems. However, a major challenge facing the widespread implementation of small and mini-scale ORC systems is the economy-of-scale. To overcome this challenge requires single components that can be manufactured in large volumes and then implemented into a wide variety of different applications where the heat source conditions may vary. The aim of this paper is to investigate whether working fluid selection can improve the current economy-of-scale by enabling the same system components to be used in multiple ORC systems. This is done through coupling analysis and optimisation of the energy process, with a performance map for a small-scale ORC radial turbine. The performance map, obtained using CFD, is adapted to account for additional loss mechanisms not accounted for in the original CFD simulation before being non-dimensionalised using a modified similitude theory developed for subsonic ORC turbines. The updated performance map is then implemented into a thermodynamic model, enabling the construction of a single performance contour that displays the range of heat source conditions that can be accommodated by the existing turbine whilst using a particular working fluid. Constructing this performance map for a range of working fluids, this paper demonstrates that through selecting a suitable working fluid, the same turbine can efficiently utilise heat sources between 360 and 400 K, with mass flow rates ranging between 0.5 and 2.75 kg/s respectively. This corresponds to using the same turbine in ORC applications where the heat available ranges

  17. The role of economies of scale in the cost of dialysis across the world: a macroeconomic perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karopadi, Akash Nayak; Mason, Giacomo; Rettore, Enrico; Ronco, Claudio

    2014-04-01

    The treatment of chronic kidney disease through dialysis is a considerable expense in most health systems. The two chief methods of providing dialysis, haemodialysis (HD) and peritoneal dialysis (PD) have significant differences in cost composition and factors of production. The aim of this article is to identify and quantify the macroeconomic variables that influence the relative cost of such modalities across different countries. From previously published literature, we extracted the estimates of HD/PD cost ratios in a total of 46 countries. We conducted a multivariate regression analysis using the estimated HD/PD cost ratio in each country, with several country level indicators as explanatory variables. We found a strong statistical effect of the following variables on the HD/PD cost ratio: country's level of development, economies of scale and percentage of private health-care expenditure. The statistical effects on HD/PD ratio by local manufacturing and relaxed import regulation of PD equipment were calculated and were found to be very significant. it is possible for a country to still reap the benefits of economies of scale in provision of PD, even in the absence of a large enough market to make local production of PD equipment feasible in that country.

  18. Modeling of similar economies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sergey B. Kuznetsov

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Objective to obtain dimensionless criteria ndash economic indices characterizing the national economy and not depending on its size. Methods mathematical modeling theory of dimensions processing statistical data. Results basing on differential equations describing the national economy with the account of economical environment resistance two dimensionless criteria are obtained which allow to compare economies regardless of their sizes. With the theory of dimensions we show that the obtained indices are not accidental. We demonstrate the implementation of the obtained dimensionless criteria for the analysis of behavior of certain countriesrsquo economies. Scientific novelty the dimensionless criteria are obtained ndash economic indices which allow to compare economies regardless of their sizes and to analyze the dynamic changes in the economies with time. nbsp Practical significance the obtained results can be used for dynamic and comparative analysis of different countriesrsquo economies regardless of their sizes.

  19. Small might be beautiful, but bigger performs better: Scale economies in “green” refurbishments of apartment housing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Michelsen, Claus; Rosenschon, Sebastian; Schulz, Christian

    2015-01-01

    The energy efficiency of the residential housing stock plays a key role in strategies to mitigate climate change and global warming. In this context, it is frequently argued that private investment and the quality of thermal upgrades are too low in the light of the challenges faced and the potential energy cost savings. While many authors address the potential barriers for investors to increase energy efficiency, studies on the capabilities of different investors to reduce energy requirements of their property are scarce. This study investigates potential advantages of housing company's size, i.e. economies of scale, economies of scope and institutional learning in thermal upgrades of residential housing. Based on unique data on energy consumption in 102,307 apartment buildings in Germany, we present new evidence for the advantages and disadvantages of a housing company's size in “green” retrofitting projects. Our estimations show, that large housing companies outperform private landlords by far in high effort refurbishment projects. In contrast, private landlords appear to have advantages in low effort, incremental refurbishment activities. We demonstrate that a substantial share of the advantages of larger firms can be associated with specialization (i.e. repeated projects). The results offer new options for policy makers to refine the support schemes toward a low carbon housing stock. - Highlights: • First study to analyze the effects of housing companies size on “green” refurbishment • Economies of scale, scope and learning all affect energy efficiency refurbishments. • Specialization on distinct refurbishments influences outcome of thermal upgrades. • Analysis based on a large and unique sample of apartment buildings in Germany

  20. Economy of scale: third partner strengthens a keystone ant-plant mutualism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prior, Kirsten M; Palmer, Todd M

    2018-02-01

    While foundation species can stabilize ecosystems at landscape scales, their ability to persist is often underlain by keystone interactions occurring at smaller scales. Acacia drepanolobium is a foundation tree, comprising >95% of woody cover in East African black-cotton savanna ecosystems. Its dominance is underlain by a keystone mutualistic interaction with several symbiotic ant species in which it provides housing (swollen thorns) and carbohydrate-rich nectar from extra-floral nectaries (EFN). In return, it gains protection from catastrophic damage from mega-herbivores. Crematogaster mimosae is the ecologically dominant symbiotic ant in this system, also providing the highest protection services. In addition to tending EFN, C. mimosae tend scale insects for carbohydrate-rich honeydew. We investigated the role of scale insects in this specialized ant-plant interaction. Specifically, does this putatively redundant third partner strengthen the ant-plant mutualism by making the ant a better protector of the tree? Or does it weaken the mutualism by being costly to the tree while providing no additional benefit to the ant-plant mutualism? We coupled observational surveys with two scale-manipulation experiments and found evidence that this third partner strengthens the ant-plant mutualism. Trees with scale insects experimentally removed experienced a 2.5X increase in elephant damage compared to trees with scale insects present over 10 months. Reduced protection was driven by scale removal causing a decrease in ant colony size and per capita baseline activity and defensive behavior. We also found that ants increased scale-tending and the density of scale insects on trees when EFN were experimentally reduced. Thus, in this system, scale insects and EFN are likely complementary, rather than redundant, resources with scale insects benefitting ants when EFN production is low (such as during annual dry periods in this semi-arid ecosystem). This study reveals that a third

  1. Scale-up of organic reactions in ball mills: process intensification with regard to energy efficiency and economy of scale.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stolle, Achim; Schmidt, Robert; Jacob, Katharina

    2014-01-01

    The scale-up of the Knoevenagel-condensation between vanillin and barbituric acid carried out in planetary ball mills is investigated from an engineering perspective. Generally, the reaction proceeded in the solid state without intermediate melting and afforded selectively only one product. The reaction has been used as a model to analyze the influence and relationship of different parameters related to operation in planetary ball mills. From the viewpoint of technological parameters the milling ball diameter, dMB, the filling degree with respect to the milling balls' packing, ΦMB,packing, and the filling degree of the substrates with respect to the void volume of the milling balls' packing, ΦGS, have been investigated at different reaction scales. It was found that milling balls with small dMB lead to higher yields within shorter reaction time, treaction, or lower rotation frequency, rpm. Thus, the lower limit is set considering the technology which is available for the separation of the milling balls from the product after the reaction. Regarding ΦMB,packing, results indicate that the optimal value is roughly 50% of the total milling beakers' volume, VB,total, independent of the reaction scale or reaction conditions. Thus, 30% of VB,total are taken by the milling balls. Increase of the initial batch sizes changes ΦGS significantly. However, within the investigated parameter range no negative influence on the yield was observed. Up to 50% of VB,total can be taken over by the substrates in addition to 30% for the total milling ball volume. Scale-up factors of 15 and 11 were realized considering the amount of substrates and the reactor volume, respectively. Beside technological parameters, variables which influence the process itself, treaction and rpm, were investigated also. Variation of those allowed to fine-tune the reaction conditions in order to maximize the yield and minimize the energy intensity.

  2. Leveraging Economy of Scale across Construction Projects by Implementing Coordinated Purchasing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thuesen, Christian Langhoff

    2010-01-01

    coordinated purchasing is an important step in the attempt to rethink the existing business model in construction. Going from competing on overhead (in a red ocean) to start to compete on company specific core competencies. The paper concludes highlighting the next milestones at the journey leveraging economy...

  3. Incorporating economies of scale in the cost estimation in economic evaluation of PCV and HPV vaccination programmes in the Philippines: a game changer?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thanthima Suwanthawornkul

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Many economic evaluations ignore economies of scale in their cost estimation, which means that cost parameters are assumed to have a linear relationship with the level of production. Economies of scale is the situation when the average total cost of producing a product decreases with increasing volume caused by reducing the variable costs due to more efficient operation. This study investigates the significance of applying the economies of scale concept: the saving in costs gained by an increased level of production in economic evaluation of pneumococcal conjugate vaccines (PCV and human papillomavirus (HPV vaccinations. Methods The fixed and variable costs of providing partial (20% coverage and universal (100% coverage vaccination programs in the Philippines were estimated using various methods, including costs of conducting questionnaire survey, focus-group discussion, and analysis of secondary data. Costing parameters were utilised as inputs for the two economic evaluation models for PCV and HPV. Incremental cost-effectiveness ratios (ICERs and 5-year budget impacts with and without applying economies of scale to the costing parameters for partial and universal coverage were compared in order to determine the effect of these different costing approaches. Results The program costs of the partial coverage for the two immunisation programs were not very different when applying and not applying the economies of scale concept. Nevertheless, the program costs for universal coverage were 0.26 and 0.32 times lower when applying economies of scale compared to not applying economies of scale for the pneumococcal and human papillomavirus vaccinations, respectively. ICERs varied by up to 98% for pneumococcal vaccinations, whereas the change in ICERs in the human papillomavirus vaccination depended on both the costs of cervical cancer screening and the vaccination program. This results in a significant difference in the 5-year budget

  4. Incorporating economies of scale in the cost estimation in economic evaluation of PCV and HPV vaccination programmes in the Philippines: a game changer?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suwanthawornkul, Thanthima; Praditsitthikorn, Naiyana; Kulpeng, Wantanee; Haasis, Manuel Alexander; Guerrero, Anna Melissa; Teerawattananon, Yot

    2018-01-01

    Many economic evaluations ignore economies of scale in their cost estimation, which means that cost parameters are assumed to have a linear relationship with the level of production. Economies of scale is the situation when the average total cost of producing a product decreases with increasing volume caused by reducing the variable costs due to more efficient operation. This study investigates the significance of applying the economies of scale concept: the saving in costs gained by an increased level of production in economic evaluation of pneumococcal conjugate vaccines (PCV) and human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccinations. The fixed and variable costs of providing partial (20% coverage) and universal (100% coverage) vaccination programs in the Philippines were estimated using various methods, including costs of conducting questionnaire survey, focus-group discussion, and analysis of secondary data. Costing parameters were utilised as inputs for the two economic evaluation models for PCV and HPV. Incremental cost-effectiveness ratios (ICERs) and 5-year budget impacts with and without applying economies of scale to the costing parameters for partial and universal coverage were compared in order to determine the effect of these different costing approaches. The program costs of the partial coverage for the two immunisation programs were not very different when applying and not applying the economies of scale concept. Nevertheless, the program costs for universal coverage were 0.26 and 0.32 times lower when applying economies of scale compared to not applying economies of scale for the pneumococcal and human papillomavirus vaccinations, respectively. ICERs varied by up to 98% for pneumococcal vaccinations, whereas the change in ICERs in the human papillomavirus vaccination depended on both the costs of cervical cancer screening and the vaccination program. This results in a significant difference in the 5-year budget impact, accounting for 30 and 40% of reduction in

  5. X-efficiency and economies of scale in pension fund administration and investment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Alserda, Gosse A.G.; Bikker, J.A.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/06912261X; van der Lecq, Fieke (S.G.)

    Pension funds’ operating costs come at the cost of benefits, so it is crucial for pension funds to operate at the lowest cost possible. In practice, we observe substantial differences in costs per member for Dutch pension funds, both across and within size classes. This paper discusses scale

  6. Economies of scale and vertical integration in the investor-owed electric utility industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thompson, H.G.; Islam, M.; Rose, K.

    1996-01-01

    This report analyzes the nature of costs in a vertically integrated electric utility. Findings provide new insights into the operations of the vertically integrated electric utility and supports earlier research on economics of scale and density; results also provide insights for policy makers dealing with electric industry restructuring issues such as competitive structure and mergers. Overall, results indicate that for most firms in the industry, average costs would not be reduced through expansion of generation, numbers of customers, or the delivery system. Evidently, the combination of benefits from large-scale technologies, managerial experience, coordination, or load diversity have been exhausted by the larger firms in the industry; however many firms would benefit from reducing their generation-to-sales ratio and by increasing sales to their existing customer base. Three cost models were used in the analysis

  7. Scale Economies and Industry Agglomeration Externalities: A Dynamic Cost Function Approach

    OpenAIRE

    Donald S. Siegel; Catherine J. Morrison Paul

    1999-01-01

    Scale economies and agglomeration externalities are alleged to be important determinants of economic growth. To assess these effects, the authors outline and estimate a microfoundations model based on a dynamic cost function specification. This model provides for the separate identification of the impacts of externalities and cyclical utilization on short- and long-run scale economies and input substitution patterns. The authors find that scale economies are prevalent in U.S manufacturing; co...

  8. Economy Profile of Argentina

    OpenAIRE

    World Bank Group

    2017-01-01

    Doing Business 2018 is the 15th in a series of annual reports investigating the regulations that enhance business activity and those that constrain it. This economy profile presents the Doing Business indicators for Argentina. Doing Business presents quantitative indicators on business regulation and the protection of property rights that can be compared across 190 economies; for 2018 Arge...

  9. Economy Profile of Estonia

    OpenAIRE

    World Bank Group

    2017-01-01

    Doing Business 2018 is the 15th in a series of annual reports investigating the regulations that enhance business activity and those that constrain it. This economy profile presents the Doing Business indicators for Estonia. Doing Business presents quantitative indicators on business regulation and the protection of property rights that can be compared across 190 economies; for 2018 Estonia ...

  10. Economy Profile of Australia

    OpenAIRE

    World Bank Group

    2017-01-01

    Doing Business 2018 is the 15th in a series of annual reports investigating the regulations that enhance business activity and those that constrain it. This economy profile presents the Doing Business indicators for Australia. Doing Business presents quantitative indicators on business regulation and the protection of property rights that can be compared across 190 economies; for 2018 Aust...

  11. Economy Profile of Bolivia

    OpenAIRE

    World Bank Group

    2017-01-01

    Doing Business 2018 is the 15th in a series of annual reports investigating the regulations that enhance business activity and those that constrain it. This economy profile presents the Doing Business indicators for Bolivia. Doing Business presents quantitative indicators on business regulation and the protection of property rights that can be compared across 190 economies; for 2018 Bolivia ...

  12. Could small scale vegetable production contribute to a green economy in South Africa?

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Musvoto, Constansia D

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available and produces for sale. Some of the practices on these farms are compatible with a green economy, and with interventions that improve alignment with green economy principles, small scale vegetable production could contribute to a green economy and open up...

  13. Scale and scope economies in Mexican private medical units.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keith, Jorge; Prior, Diego

    2014-01-01

    To evaluate technical efficiency and potential presence of scale and scope economies in Mexican private medical units (PMU) that will improve management decisions. We used data envelopment analysis methods with inputs and outputs for 2 105 Mexican PMU published in 2010 by the Instituto Nacional de Estadística y Geografía from the "Estadística de Unidades Médicas Privadas con Servicio de Hospitalización (PEC-6-20-A)" questionnaire. The application of the models used in the paper found that there is a marginal presence of economies of scale and scope in Mexican PMU. PMU in Mexico must focus to deliver their services on a diversified structure to achieve technical efficiency.

  14. Scale and scope economies in Mexican private medical units

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jorge Keith

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Objective. To evaluate technical efficiency and potential presence of scale and scope economies in Mexican private medical units (PMU that will improve management decisions. Materials and methods. We used data envelopment analysis methods with inputs and outputs for 2 105 Mexican PMU published in 2010 by the Instituto Nacional de Estadística y Geografía from the “Estadística de Unidades Médicas Privadas con Servicio de Hospitalización (PEC-6-20-A” questionnaire. Results. The application of the models used in the paper found that there is a marginal presence of economies of scale and scope in Mexican PMU. Conclusions. PMU in Mexico must focus to deliver their services on a diversified structure to achieve technical efficiency.

  15. Economies of scale and firm size optimum in rural water supply

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sauer, Johannes

    2005-11-01

    This article is focused on modeling and analyzing the cost structure of water-supplying companies. A cross-sectional data set was collected with respect to water firms in rural areas of former East and West Germany. The empirical data are analyzed by applying a symmetric generalized McFadden (SGM) functional form. This flexible functional form allows for testing the concavity required by microeconomic theory as well as the global imposition of such curvature restrictions without any loss of flexibility. The original specification of the SGM cost function is modified to incorporate fixed factors of water production and supply as, for example, groundwater intake or the number of connections supplied. The estimated flexible and global curvature correct cost function is then used to derive scale elasticities as well as the optimal firm size. The results show that no water supplier in the sample produces at constant returns to scale. The optimal firm size was found to be on average about three times larger than the existing one. These findings deliver evidence for the hypothesis that the legally set supplying areas, oriented at public administrative criteria as well as local characteristics of water resources, are economically inefficient. Hence structural inefficiency in the rural water sector is confirmed to be policy induced.

  16. Signs of political economy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bernard Lamizet

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Like any political system, economy is a system of signs and representations. The Semiotics of economy elaborates its analytical methods to interpret such signs, which give meaning to the economy by representing its performances in public debate and in the media. Four major features distinguish the Semiotics of political economy from other semiotic forms or other systems of information and political representation. First of all, the relationship between the signification of the economy and the real or the imaginary phenomena to which they refer always pertains to the order of values. The second characteristic of economic signs is the significance of the state of lack they express. The third characteristic of signs of the economy is the form of sign production, which can be designated by the concept of emission of signs and their diffusion. Finally, as all signs, the economic sign is arbitrary. In the field of Economics, such arbitrariness does not imply that the Subject is free to superimpose whatever value to the signs themselves, but refers to the rupture between the world and its possible transformation. The very meaning of the word economy is here at stake. Oikos, in Greek (the term from which the word economy is derived refers to a known, familiar space. Economy transforms the real, natural world into a symbolic social world, into a world of relations with others whom we recognise and whose actions are relatively predictable. It might be useful to consider the contemporary issue of debt, its implications and its multiple meanings, which includes both the ethical and moral dimension of the condemnation of debt as well as the imaginary political dimension based on the expression of an idea of independence.

  17. The influence of the allometric scale on the relationship between running economy and biomechanical variables in distance runners

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MP Tartaruga

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Studies have demonstrated the need for the use of parameters that diminish the effect of body mass, for intra and inter group comparison, in individuals with different masses in order to provide a different analysis on the behaviour of the relation between running economy (RE and biomechanical variables (BVs. The allometric scale is represented by a regression equation that indicates the behaviour of a physiological variable in relation to the variable mass (RE=a.xb, where x is body mass in (kg and the dimensionless coefficient a is characteristic of the species analysed, and the dimensionless exponent b determines the percentage of mass to be associated with the physiological variable. The influence of the allometric scale (b=-1; -0.75; -0.73; -0.67 on the relationship between RE and BVs - stride length (SL, relative stride length (RSL, stride rate (SR, stride time (ST, support time (SUPT and balance time (BALT - at 12 km.h-1, was analysed in nine elite runners. Factorial analysis and Pearson's Correlation Coefficient test (r with P<0.05 were used. A decrease in the explanation power of the RE was observed, with the use of the allometric exponent, due to the BVs, as well as a reduction of the correlation coefficients between SL versus RE, ST versus RE and SR versus RE. The BALT presented a higher correlation where b=-0.75. The RSL and SUPT presented non-significant correlations. The variables SL, ST, SR and BALT were the most effective predictors of the RE, Where: b=-1, the allometric scale was most efficient to predict the running performance.

  18. Flexible versus common technology to estimate economies of scale and scope in the water and sewerage industry: an application to England and Wales.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Molinos-Senante, María; Maziotis, Alexandros

    2018-03-09

    The water industry presents several structures in different countries and also within countries. Hence, several studies have been conducted to evaluate the presence of economies of scope and scale in the water industry leading to inconclusive results. The lack of a common methodology has been identified as an important factor contributing to divergent conclusions. This paper evaluates, for the first time, the presence of economies of scale and scope in the water industry using a flexible technology approach integrating operational and exogenous variables of the water companies in the cost functions. The empirical application carried out for the English and Welsh water industry evidenced that the inclusion of exogenous variables accounts for significant differences in economies of scale and scope. Moreover, completely different results were obtained when the economies of scale and scope were estimated using common and flexible technology methodological approaches. The findings of this study reveal the importance of using an appropriate methodology to support policy decision-making processes to promote sustainable urban water activities.

  19. An economy of scales: A selective review of obesity's economic causes, consequences, and solutions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cawley, John

    2015-09-01

    This paper reviews the economic research on obesity, covering topics such as the measurement of, and trends in, obesity, the economic causes of obesity (e.g. the monetary price and time cost of food, food assistance programs, income, education, macroeconomic conditions, and peer effects), and the economic consequences of obesity (e.g. lower wages, a lower probability of employment, and higher medical care costs). It also examines the extent to which obesity imposes negative externalities, and economic interventions that could potentially internalize such externalities, such as food taxes, subsidies for school-based physical activity programs, and financial rewards for weight loss. It discusses other economic rationales for government intervention with respect to obesity, such as imperfect information, time inconsistent preferences, and irrational behavior. It concludes by proposing a research agenda for the field. Overall, the evidence suggests that there is no single dominant economic cause of obesity; a wide variety of factors may contribute a modest amount to the risk. There is consistent evidence regarding the economic consequences of obesity, which are lower wages and higher medical care costs that impose negative externalities through health insurance. Studies of economic approaches to preventing obesity, such as menu labeling, taxes on energy-dense foods, and financial rewards for weight loss find only modest effects on weight and thus a range of policies may be necessary to have a substantial effect on the prevalence of obesity. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  20. Adaptation of Economy Attitude Scale to Turkish Culture: Validity and Reliability Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alagoz, Bullent

    2015-01-01

    Economics affects us no matter what role we play in social life. Its foundation as a science was laid by the studies of Adam Smith, and since history it has become one of the disciplines accepted in university curriculums. Scarcity, opportunity costs and abandoning something in order to obtain another one are the core concepts of this discipline.…

  1. Food irradiation: a look at regulatory status, consumer acceptance, and economies of scale

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Morrison, R. M. [Economic Research Service, USDA (United States)

    1986-02-15

    Food irradiation is receiving renewed attention by many individuals--scientists, policy makers, agricultural producers, public health officials, and consumers. Interest in food irradiation’s benefits and limitations has been piqued by recent concerns over the safety of chemical fumigants and preservatives and interest in reducing the incidence of food borne diseases. Individuals concerned with food shortage problems in developing countries are anxious to see if irradiation can be used to eliminate high spoilage losses in those countries. Food processors and retailers are always looking for less costly preservation methods and exploring new techniques to achieve desirable qualities in fresh and processed foods.

  2. The relationship between 19th century BMIs and family size: Economies of scale and positive externalities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carson, Scott Alan

    2015-04-01

    The use of body mass index values (BMI) to measure living standards is now a well-accepted method in economics. Nevertheless, a neglected area in historical studies is the relationship between 19th century BMI and family size, and this relationship is documented here to be positive. Material inequality and BMI are the subject of considerable debate, and there was a positive relationship between BMI and wealth and an inverse relationship with inequality. After controlling for family size and wealth, BMI values were related with occupations, and farmers and laborers had greater BMI values than workers in other occupations. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  3. X-efficiency and economies of scale in pension fund administration and investment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    G.A.G. Alserda (Gosse); J.A. Bikker (Jaap); S.G. van der Lecq (Fieke)

    2017-01-01

    textabstractPension funds’ operating costs come at the cost of benefits, so it is crucial for pension funds to operate at the lowest cost possible. In practice, we observe substantial differences in costs per member for Dutch pension funds, both across and within size classes. This paper discusses

  4. Is Bhutan destined for 100% organic? Assessing the economy-wide effects of a large-scale conversion policy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feuerbacher, Arndt; Luckmann, Jonas; Boysen, Ole; Zikeli, Sabine; Grethe, Harald

    2018-01-01

    Organic agriculture (OA) is considered a strategy to make agriculture more sustainable. Bhutan has embraced the ambitious goal of becoming the world's first 100% organic nation. By analysing recent on-farm data in Bhutan, we found organic crop yields on average to be 24% lower than conventional yields. Based on these yield gaps, we assess the effects of the 100% organic conversion policy by employing an economy-wide computable general equilibrium (CGE) model with detailed representation of Bhutan's agricultural sector incorporating agroecological zones, crop nutrients, and field operations. Despite a low dependency on agrochemicals from the onset of this initiative, we find a considerable reduction in Bhutan's GDP, substantial welfare losses, particularly for non-agricultural households, and adverse impacts on food security. The yield gap is the main driver for a strong decline in domestic agricultural production, which is largely compensated by increased food imports, resulting in a weakening of the country's cereal self-sufficiency. Current organic by default farming practices in Bhutan are still underdeveloped and do not apply the systems approach of organic farming as defined in the IFOAM organic farming standards. This is reflected in the strong decline of nitrogen (N) availability to crops in our simulation and bears potential for increased yields in OA. Improvement of soil-fertility practices, e.g., the adoption of N-fixing crops, improved animal husbandry systems with increased provision of animal manure and access to markets with price premium for organic products could help to lower the economic cost of the large-scale conversion.

  5. Economies of scale in the Italian waste collection sector; Analisi dei rendimenti di scala per il servizio di igiene urbana in Italia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Antonioli, B. [Ferrara Univ., Ferrara (Italy). Facolta' di Economia; Universita' della Svizzera Italiana, Facolta' di Economia, Lugano (Switzerland); Fazioli, R. [Ferrara Univ., Ferrara (Italy). Facolta' di Economia; Filippini, M. [Universita' della Svizzera Italiana, Facolta' di Economia, Lugano (Switzerland); Politecnico Federale, Zurich(Switzerland)

    2000-06-01

    The purpose of this study is to analyse the cost structure of a sample of Italian waste collection firms in order to assess economies of scale and density so to estimate economic rationality of competition in the waste collection sector. A trans log cost function was estimated using panel data for a sample of 30 firms of waste collection and disposal operating at provincial level over the period 1991-1995. The results indicate the existence of economies of density and scale for most output levels. The empirical evidence suggests that franchised monopolies, rather than side-by-side competition, is the most efficient form of production organisation in the waste collection sector. [Italian] L'obiettivo del presente studio e' l'analisi della struttura dei costi di un campione di imprese pubbliche italiane operanti nel settore dell'igiene urbana, allo scopo di valutare la presenza di economie di scala e di densita' e, conseguentemente, l'opportunita' di introdurre concorrenza nel settore. A tal fine, e' stata stimata una funzione di costo translogaritmica per un campione di 30 imprese pubbliche di raccolta e smaltimento dei rifiuti, operanti a livello provinciale, per il periodo 1991-1995. I risultati indicano la presenza di economie di scala e di monopolies, piuttosto che la side-by-side competition, costituiscono la forma gestionale maggiormente efficiente per il settore.

  6. Introduction Of Techno-Economy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Park, Woo Hui

    2001-08-01

    This book gives descriptions of science, technology and techno-economy, invention and science and technology in the Twenty-First century, theory and model of technological innovation, technology and economy technology and industry, technology and business, spread and transfer of technique, technology and international economy, science, technique and culture, science, technology and government, development of technology in Korea and developing countries, and conclusion on the past and the future of techno-economy.

  7. Does integration of HIV and SRH services achieve economies of scale and scope in practice? A cost function analysis of the Integra Initiative.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Obure, Carol Dayo; Guinness, Lorna; Sweeney, Sedona; Initiative, Integra; Vassall, Anna

    2016-03-01

    Policy-makers have long argued about the potential efficiency gains and cost savings from integrating HIV and sexual reproductive health (SRH) services, particularly in resource-constrained settings with generalised HIV epidemics. However, until now, little empirical evidence exists on whether the hypothesised efficiency gains associated with such integration can be achieved in practice. We estimated a quadratic cost function using data obtained from 40 health facilities, over a 2-year-period, in Kenya and Swaziland. The quadratic specification enables us to determine the existence of economies of scale and scope. The empirical results reveal that at the current output levels, only HIV counselling and testing services are characterised by service-specific economies of scale. However, no overall economies of scale exist as all outputs are increased. The results also indicate cost complementarities between cervical cancer screening and HIV care; post-natal care and HIV care and family planning and sexually transmitted infection treatment combinations only. The results from this analysis reveal that contrary to expectation, efficiency gains from the integration of HIV and SRH services, if any, are likely to be modest. Efficiency gains are likely to be most achievable in settings that are currently delivering HIV and SRH services at a low scale with high levels of fixed costs. The presence of cost complementarities for only three service combinations implies that careful consideration of setting-specific clinical practices and the extent to which they can be combined should be made when deciding which services to integrate. NCT01694862. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/

  8. Measuring Armenia's progress on the Tobacco Control Scale: an evaluation of tobacco control in an economy in transition, 2005–2009

    Science.gov (United States)

    Movsisyan, Narine K; Connolly, Gregory N

    2014-01-01

    Objectives This study aimed to measure the 5-year progress in the implementation of WHO Framework Convention on Tobacco Control (FCTC) in Armenia by applying the Tobacco Control Scale, a rapid assessment tool developed to assess the strength of tobacco control policies in Europe. Setting Armenia, an economy in transition, has extreme smoking rates among men (62.5%) despite acceding to FCTC in 2004. However, little research has been carried out to evaluate Armenia's progress in tobacco control. Methods The Tobacco Control Scale total score was estimated for Armenia using the original methodology; however, a different source of data was used in estimating the subscores on tobacco price and tobacco control spending. Results Armenia's total score on Tobacco Control Scale has considerably improved from 2005 to 2009, mostly due to larger health warnings and advertising ban, and increased public spending on tobacco control. The scores for smoke-free public places, advertising ban, health warnings and treatment categories were below the European average in 2005 and 2007, while the price score was higher. Neither total tobacco control score nor any of its components showed a significant predictive value in a simple regression analysis using the total score and subscores as predictors for log-transformed per capita tobacco consumption. Conclusions Higher than the European average price score for Armenia cannot be explained by the concept of affordability alone and may reflect a measurement error due to peculiarities of transition economies. The applicability of the Tobacco Control Scale could be limited to countries with mature economies, but not to transition countries such as Armenia with different social, political and economic environment. The scale modification, such as an adjustment for the policy enforcement and the effectiveness of public tobacco control spending along with alternative measures of affordability would be warranted to enhance its applicability in low

  9. Measuring Armenia's progress on the Tobacco Control Scale: an evaluation of tobacco control in an economy in transition, 2005-2009.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Movsisyan, Narine K; Connolly, Gregory N

    2014-02-27

    This study aimed to measure the 5-year progress in the implementation of WHO Framework Convention on Tobacco Control (FCTC) in Armenia by applying the Tobacco Control Scale, a rapid assessment tool developed to assess the strength of tobacco control policies in Europe. Armenia, an economy in transition, has extreme smoking rates among men (62.5%) despite acceding to FCTC in 2004. However, little research has been carried out to evaluate Armenia's progress in tobacco control. The Tobacco Control Scale total score was estimated for Armenia using the original methodology; however, a different source of data was used in estimating the subscores on tobacco price and tobacco control spending. Armenia's total score on Tobacco Control Scale has considerably improved from 2005 to 2009, mostly due to larger health warnings and advertising ban, and increased public spending on tobacco control. The scores for smoke-free public places, advertising ban, health warnings and treatment categories were below the European average in 2005 and 2007, while the price score was higher. Neither total tobacco control score nor any of its components showed a significant predictive value in a simple regression analysis using the total score and subscores as predictors for log-transformed per capita tobacco consumption. Higher than the European average price score for Armenia cannot be explained by the concept of affordability alone and may reflect a measurement error due to peculiarities of transition economies. The applicability of the Tobacco Control Scale could be limited to countries with mature economies, but not to transition countries such as Armenia with different social, political and economic environment. The scale modification, such as an adjustment for the policy enforcement and the effectiveness of public tobacco control spending along with alternative measures of affordability would be warranted to enhance its applicability in low-income and middle-income countries.

  10. Information model of economy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N.S.Gonchar

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available A new stochastic model of economy is developed that takes into account the choice of consumers are the dependent random fields. Axioms of such a model are formulated. The existence of random fields of consumer's choice and decision making by firms are proved. New notions of conditionally independent random fields and random fields of evaluation of information by consumers are introduced. Using the above mentioned random fields the random fields of consumer choice and decision making by firms are constructed. The theory of economic equilibrium is developed.

  11. An Economy of Grace

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Victor Tan Chen

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available This essay is adapted from a plenary talk the author gave at the “Growing Apart: The Implications of Economic Inequality” interdisciplinary conference at Boston College on 9 April 2016, as well as portions of his book Cut Loose: Jobless and Hopeless in an Unfair Economy, a sociological ethnography based on interviews and observations of unemployed autoworkers in Detroit, Michigan, and Windsor, Canada, during and after the Great Recession. The essay discusses four themes from this research. First, it provides a sociological understanding of how long-term unemployment and economic inequality are experienced by today’s less advantaged workers. Second, it illustrates how social policy can improve their circumstances. Third, it examines the limits of policy, and how dealing with inequality also requires changing the broader culture. Fourth, it makes the case for one possible approach to bring about that cultural change: a morality of grace.

  12. Economy

    OpenAIRE

    Haring, Ben

    2009-01-01

    The economy of ancient Egypt is a difficult area of study due to the lack of preservation of much data (especially quantitative data); it is also a controversial subject on which widely divergent views have been expressed. It is certain, however, that the principal production and revenues of Egyptian society as a whole and of its individual members was agrarian, and as such, dependent on the yearly rising and receding of the Nile. Most agricultural producers were probably self-sufficient tena...

  13. Political Economy of Finance

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Perotti, E.

    2013-01-01

    This survey reviews how a recent political economy literature helps explaining variation in governance, competition, funding composition and access to credit. Evolution in political institutions can account for financial evolution, and appear critical to explain rapid changes in financial structure,

  14. Effects of economies of scale and experience on the costs of energy-efficient technologies. Case study of electric motors in Germany

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jardot, D.; Eichhammer, W.; Fleiter, T. [Fraunhofer Institute for Systems and Innovation Research (ISI), Breslauer Str. 48, 76139 Karlsruhe (Germany)

    2010-11-15

    Increasing energy efficiency is discussed as an effective way to protect the climate, even though this is frequently associated with additional (investment) costs when compared to standard technologies. However, the investment costs of emerging energy-efficient technologies can be reduced by economies of scale and experience curve effects. This also brings about higher market penetration by lowering market barriers. Experience curves have already been analyzed in detail for renewable energy technologies, but are not as well documented for energy-efficient technologies despite their significance for energy and climate policy decisions. This work provides empirical evidence for effects of economies of scale and experience on the costs of energy-efficient electric motors. We apply a new methodology to the estimation of learning effects that is particularly promising for energy-efficient technologies where the very low data availability did not allow calculations of learning rates so far. Energy-efficient electric motors are a highly relevant energy technology that is responsible for about 55% of German electricity consumption. The analysis consists of three main steps. First, the calculation of composite price indices based on gross value added statistics for Germany which show the changes in cost components of electric motors over the period 1995 to 2006; second, an estimation of the corresponding learning rate which is, in a third step, compared with learning rates observed for other energy-efficient technologies in a literature review. Due to restrictions of data availability, it was not possible to calculate a learning rate for the differential costs of energy-efficient motors compared to standard motors. Still, we estimated a learning rate of 9% for 'Eff2' motors in a period when they penetrated the market and replaced the less efficient 'Eff3' motors. Furthermore, we showed the contribution of different effects to these cost reductions, like

  15. Reflections on the political economy of large-scale technology using the example of German fast-breeder development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Keck, O.

    1981-01-01

    Proceeding from Anglo-Saxon opinions which, from a liberal point of view, criticize the German practice of research policy - state centres of large-scale research and state subventions for research and development in industry - to be inefficient, the author empirically verified these statements taking the German fast breeder project as an example. If the case of the German fast breeder can be generalized, this had consequences for the research political practice and for other technologies. Supporters as well as opponents of large-scale technology today proceed from the assumption that almost every technology can be made commercially viable when using sufficient amounts of money and persons. This is a migth which owes its existence to the technical success of great projects in non-commercial fields. The German fast breeder project confirms the opinion that the recipes for success of these non-commercial projects cannot be applied to the field of commercial technology. The results of this study suggest that practice and theory of technology policy can be misdirected if they are uncritically oriented according to the form of state intervention so far used in large-scale technology. (orig./HSCH) [de

  16. Linear Economy Versus Circular Economy: A Comparative and Analyzer Study for Optimization of Economy for Sustainability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sariatli Furkan

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Upon visiting the existing literature on the subject of linear vs. circular economy, this paper finds that, the blueprint of the current economy is hardly sustainable by using the comparative benchmarking method that drained from literature. The intrinsic mechanics of the linear economy, by relying on the wasteful take - make - dispose flow, is detrimental to the environment, cannot supply the growing populace of our planet with essential services and it naturally leads to strained profitability. Elements of a plausible solution to the challenges have been around for decades, although they have only recently been compiled in to the conceptual framework of circular economy. The core ideas of Circular Economy are elimination of waste by design, respect for the social, economic and natural environment and resource-conscious business conduct. Built on the backbone of these principles, the circular economy has demonstrated to deliver tangible benefits and viability to address the economic, environmental and social challenges of our days.

  17. Experiences of Emerging Economy Firms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Experiences of Emerging Economy Firms investigates the different elements of the experiences of emerging economy firms and sheds essential light on a large variety of aspects associated with their functioning in both home and host contexts. For example, firms must be able to overcome the liability...... of foreign and emerging issues when they expand their activities in various contexts, enter, exit, and re-enter overseas markets; they have to overcome institutional barriers, adapt the cultural challenges in foreign markets, undergo the impact of large multinational firms from developed economies...

  18. Informal economy as an expression of the state failure

    OpenAIRE

    Agata Kubiczek

    2010-01-01

    The article deals with the phenomenon of second economy, underground or subterranean economy, unofficial economy, unrecorded economy, informal economy, cash economy etc., which has been assessed here as a function of a given mix of economic policies.

  19. Scale economies and optimal size in the Swiss gas distribution sector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alaeifar, Mozhgan; Farsi, Mehdi; Filippini, Massimo

    2014-01-01

    This paper studies the cost structure of Swiss gas distribution utilities. Several econometric models are applied to a panel of 26 companies over 1996–2000. Our main objective is to estimate the optimal size and scale economies of the industry and to study their possible variation with respect to network characteristics. The results indicate the presence of unexploited scale economies. However, very large companies in the sample and companies with a disproportionate mixture of output and density present an exception. Furthermore, the estimated optimal size for majority of companies in the sample has shown a value far greater than the actual size, suggesting remarkable efficiency gains by reorganization of the industry. The results also highlight the effect of customer density on optimal size. Networks with higher density or greater complexity have a lower optimal size. - highlights: • Presence of unexploited scale economies for small and medium sized companies. • Scale economies vary considerably with customer density. • Higher density or greater complexity is associated with lower optimal size. • Optimal size varies across the companies through unobserved heterogeneity. • Firms with low density can gain more from expanding firm size

  20. The effectiveness of small scale Photovoltaic (PV) systems design and cost analysis simulation on Saudi Arabian Economy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Almansour, Faris Abdullah

    The advantages of Renewable Energy Sources (RES) are much more than the disadvantages, RES such as solar, wind energy, biomass, and geothermal, which can be used for generating distributed power but cannot directly replace the existing electric energy grid technologies. The latter are far too well established to abandon, while the new RES technologies are not sufficiently developed to meet the total energy demand. Therefore, it is sensible to gradually infuse RES into existing grids and transform the system over time Saudi Arabia (SA) is a semi-developed nation with a population of over twenty nine million people. It is the largest country in western Asia with an area of 2.225MKm2. SA's largest export is oil, owning 1/5 of the world's supply, and producing twelve million barrels a day. However, SA is far behind in developing a smart grid and RES. A lot of this is to do with lack of participation by both the government and the private business sector. Currently SA spends over $13B a year on generating electricity from oil. SA is the largest consumer of petroleum in the Middle East, due to the high demand for transportation and electricity generation. According to the Saudi electrical company, the total amount of generated power in 2011 was 190.280GW. In addition, SA's electricity consumption is currently growing 8% a year. SA aims to generate 55GW of renewable energy by 2020, in order to free up fossil fuels for export. 41GW of the 55GW will be generated from solar energy. Smart grid technologies are also under consideration in SA; this will allow an efficient and reliable way to control the energy in the future. In addition, the potential for wind and geothermal energy is very high. In this thesis, there is a full exploration of RES components which are critical to manage carbon emission and the limitations of the current grid to the new RES technologies, which face barriers to full-scale deployment. A study in Dhahran, SA has been simulated on a installing a Dual

  1. The symbolic economy of drugs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lentacker, Antoine

    2016-02-01

    This essay reviews four recent studies representing a new direction in the history of pharmaceuticals and pharmaceutical science. To this end, it introduces the notion of a symbolic economy of drugs, defined as the production, circulation, and reception of signs that convey information about drugs and establish trust in them. Each of the studies under review focuses on one key signifier in this symbolic economy, namely the brand, the patent, the clinical trial, and the drug itself. Drawing on Pierre Bourdieu's theory of the economy of symbolic goods, I conceptualize these signifiers as symbolic assets, that is, as instruments of communication and credit, delivering knowledge, carrying value, and producing authority. The notion of a symbolic economy is offered with a threefold intention. First, I introduce it in order to highlight the implications of historical and anthropological work for a broader theory of the economy of drugs, thus suggesting a language for interdisciplinary conversations in the study of pharmaceuticals. Second, I deploy it in an attempt to emphasize the contributions of the recent scholarship on drugs to a critical understanding of our own contemporary ways of organizing access to drugs and information about drugs. Finally, I suggest ways in which it might be of use to scholars of other commodities and technologies.

  2. Small Scale Gasification Application and Perspectives in Circular Economy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klavins, Maris; Bisters, Valdis; Burlakovs, Juris

    2018-06-01

    Gasification is the process converting solid fuels as coal and organic plant matter, or biomass into combustible gas, called syngas. Gasification is a thermal conversion process using carbonaceous fuel, and it differs substantially from other thermal processes such as incineration or pyrolysis. The process can be used with virtually any carbonaceous fuel. It is an endothermic thermal conversion process, with partial oxidation being the dominant feature. Gasification converts various feedstock including waste to a syngas. Instead of producing only heat and electricity, synthesis gas produced by gasification may be transformed into commercial products with higher value as transport fuels, fertilizers, chemicals and even to substitute natural gas. Thermo-chemical conversion of biomass and solid municipal waste is developing as a tool to promote the idea of energy system without fossil fuels to a reality. In municipal solid waste management, gasification does not compete with recycling, moreover it enhances recycling programs. Pre-processing and after-processing must increase the amount of recyclables in the circular economy. Additionally, end of life plastics can serve as an energy feedstock for gasification as otherwise it cannot be sorted out and recycled. There is great potential for application of gasification technology within the biomass waste and solid waste management sector. Industrial self-consumption in the mode of combined heat and power can contribute to sustainable economic development within a circular economy.

  3. Competitiveness of chinese socialist market economy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Henry Ernesto Turner Barragán

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available The article analyzes the dynamics held by the Chinese economy becomes, since it happened to be a communist to a capitalist economy and social market economy. Being in the latter, in which the country achieved high rates of economic growth, and improve their competitiveness pillars, generating higher growth prospects in the economy and the income of the society.

  4. THE NEW ECONOMY AND THE ECONOMY OF TOURISM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MIRELA MAZILU

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Together with the Internet, e-business and the new economy era, in general, fundamental transformation of the social and economic structure take place. In parallel, the assaults on the standard economic science amplify, in the sense of some conceptual reformulations and of some reinterpretations of the economic phenomena and laws. Besides the classical factors of production, work and capital, information is added, either as a distinct factor or as a detached one of the two mentioned. Also, the empiric findings regarding the so-called tertiarisation of the economy or the increase of the share of the services sector in the total of the national economy, as well as the so-called intangible investments in the total of the investment funds, have lead to numerous attempts of redefining what we call today a "modern economy". Other factors with major influence, regarding the adjustment of the economic science to the new trends from the real economy, refer to the following: the liberalisation of the international exchanges and the globalisation; the growth of the importance of the so-called free time (including here the household activities and the ones unfolded in the interest of the community, entertainment, but also the time destined to the development of the degree of culture and education on one's own and the fluidisation of the limits of differentiation between this and the work activity in the formal sector as well as the informal one; the more rapid dynamic of the financial and banking markets than the so-called classic productive sector of the economy; the extension of the use of computers and of the means and techniques of communication, in the activity of the companies as well as in the households, and the impact on the structure of the time and the financial budget of the population etc. All these have an impact on the tourism unfolding.

  5. Options for small and medium sized reactors (SMRs) to overcome loss of economies of scale and incorporate increased proliferation resistance and energy security

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kuznetsov, Vladimir

    2008-01-01

    The designers of innovative small and medium sized reactors pursue new design and deployment strategies making use of certain advantages provided by smaller reactor size and capacity to achieve reduced design complexity and simplified operation and maintenance requirements, and to provide for incremental capacity increase through multi-module plant clustering. Competitiveness of SMRs depends on the incorporated strategies to overcome loss of economies of scale but equally it depends on finding appropriate market niches for such reactors. For many less developed countries, these are the features of enhanced proliferation resistance and increased robustness of barriers for sabotage protection that may ensure the progress of nuclear power. For such countries, small reactors without on-site refuelling, designed for infrequent replacement of well-contained fuel cassette(s) in a manner that impedes clandestine diversion of nuclear fuel material, may provide a solution. Based on the outputs of recent IAEA activities for innovative SMRs, the paper provides a summary of the state-of-the-art in approaches to improve SMR competitiveness and incorporate enhanced proliferation resistance and energy security. (author)

  6. Design and deployment strategies for small and medium sized reactors (SMRs) to overcome loss of economies of scale and incorporate increased proliferation resistance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kuznetsov, V.

    2007-01-01

    The designers of innovative small and medium sized reactors pursue new design and deployment strategies making use of certain advantages provided by smaller reactor size and capacity to achieve reduced design complexity and simplified operation and maintenance requirements, and to provide for incremental capacity increase through multi-module plant clustering. Competitiveness of SMRs (Small and Medium size Reactor) depends on the incorporated strategies to overcome loss of economies of scale but equally it depends on finding appropriate market niches for such reactors. For many less developed countries, these are the features of enhanced proliferation resistance and increased robustness of barriers for sabotage protection that may ensure the progress of nuclear power. For such countries, small reactors without on-site refuelling, designed for infrequent replacement of well-contained fuel cassette(s) in a manner that impedes clandestine diversion of nuclear fuel material, may provide a solution. Based on the outputs of recent IAEA activities for innovative SMRs, the paper provides a summary of the state-of-the-art in approaches to improve SMR competitiveness and incorporate enhanced proliferation resistance and energy security. (author)

  7. The (APolitical Economy of Bitcoin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vasilis Kostakis

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The still raging financial crisis of 2007–2008 has enabled the emergence of several alternative practices concerning the production, circulation and use of money. This essay explores the political economy of the Bitcoin ecosystem. Specifically, we examine the context in which this digital currency is emerging as well as its nature, dynamics, advantages, and disadvantages. We conclude that Bitcoin, a truly interesting experiment, exemplifies "distributed capitalism" and should be mostly seen as a technological innovation. Rather than providing pragmatic answers and solutions to the current views on the financial crisis, Bitcoin provides some useful and timely questions about the principles and bases of the dominant political economy.

  8. Economy of the depletable resources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hotelling, Harold Traductores Alvarez H Carlos Guillermo; Diaz Serna, F Javier; Olaya A, Alfredo

    2001-01-01

    Classic economic theory is analyzed with respect to the exploitation of renewable natural resources renewable as mining and oil exploitation. The principles of the mining economy and the good path of exploitation are presented under the assumptions of monopoly, duopoly and free competition. Advanced mathematical tools are used for the optimization and the effects of the taxes and the compensatory rates are included

  9. Substantial Improvements of Fuel Economy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, Kaj; Nielsen, Lars H.

    1996-01-01

    The paper evaluates the scope for improving the energy and environmental impacts of road transport by means of electrical and hybrid propulsion. These technologies promise considerable improvements of the fuel economy compared to equivalent vehicles mas well as beneficial effects for the energy...... and traffic systems. A case study concerning passenger cars is analysed by means of computer simulation....

  10. The political economy of state failure

    OpenAIRE

    Paul Collier

    2009-01-01

    Rapid decolonization created many arbitrary countries. In contrast to those states which had emerged through a quasi-Darwinian process of selection, some of these new countries had structural characteristics which gravely impeded the provision of public goods. Their lack of a unifying sense of shared identity made cooperation difficult, and their tiny economic size left them unable to reap scale economies. Two public goods, security and accountability, are particularly important for developme...

  11. Social economy of quality food

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Otsuki, K.

    2014-01-01

    Purpose – This paper aims to examine the implications of the efforts to promote a quality-oriented economy that incorporates a vision of environmental sustainability and equitable social development. Design/methodology/approach – The analysis builds on a case study of food procurement in Brazil,

  12. Biocentricity and economy of scale : hypothesis (and product) testing when wood is a part of an experimental system evaluating durability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alex C. Wiedenhoeft

    2009-01-01

    Wood is a biological material, and its structure and organization are relicts of its biogenesis. From the hydrogen bonding of water molecules in the cell wall to extractives bleeding from knots in siding, the characteristics and behavior of wood are derived from its biological origin; this is my unashamedly biocentric view of wood structure. The structure of wood...

  13. The political economy of unfree labour in South Asia: determining the nature and scale of debt bondage

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Breman, J.

    2010-01-01

    Unfree labour used to be a main feature of a pre-capitalist mode of production which dominated agricultural work and life all over the South Asian subcontinent in the past. Households of landless communities were attached in servitude to substantial landowners in a non-monetised relationship which

  14. The changing political economy of sex in South Africa: the significance of unemployment and inequalities to the scale of the AIDS pandemic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hunter, Mark

    2007-02-01

    Between 1990 and 2005, HIV prevalence rates in South Africa jumped from less than 1% to around 29%. Important scholarship has demonstrated how racialized structures entrenched by colonialism and apartheid set the scene for the rapid unfolding of the AIDS pandemic, like other causes of ill-health before it. Of particular relevance is the legacy of circular male-migration, an institution that for much of the 20th century helped to propel the transmission of sexually transmitted infections among black South Africans denied permanent urban residence. But while the deep-rooted antecedents of AIDS have been noted, less attention has been given to more recent changes in the political economy of sex, including those resulting from the post-apartheid government's adoption of broadly neo-liberal policies. As an unintentional consequence, male migration and apartheid can be seen as almost inevitably resulting in AIDS, a view that can disconnect the pandemic from contemporary social and economic debates. Combining ethnographic, historical, and demographic approaches, and focusing on sexuality in the late apartheid and early post-apartheid periods, this article outlines three interlinked dynamics critical to understanding the scale of the AIDS pandemic: (1) rising unemployment and social inequalities that leave some groups, especially poor women, extremely vulnerable; (2) greatly reduced marital rates and the subsequent increase of one person households; and (3) rising levels of women's migration, especially through circular movements between rural areas and informal settlements/urban areas. As a window into these changes, the article gives primary attention to the country's burgeoning informal settlements--spaces in which HIV rates are reported to be twice the national average--and to connections between poverty and money/sex exchanges.

  15. X-efficiency and Economies of Scale in Pension Fund Administration and Investment : There are 2 versions of this paper

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    G.A.G. Alserda (Gosse); J.A. Bikker (Jaap); S.G. van der Lecq (Fieke)

    2017-01-01

    textabstractPension funds’ operating costs come at the cost of benefits, so it is crucial for pension funds to operate at the lowest cost possible. In practice, we observe substantial differences in costs per member for Dutch pension funds, both across and within size classes. This paper discusses

  16. Beacons of the Experience Economy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Delica, Kristian Nagel

    2014-01-01

    This essay outlines the boundaries among various interests in the library sector; among positions that prioritize libraries as aesthetically appealing junctions of the experience economy versus positions that prioritize the library as a community forum. The main emphasis is placed on developments...

  17. The Political Economy of Extraterritoriality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paul B. Stephan

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Near the end of the 2009 Term the Supreme Court decided Morrison v. Australia National Bank, Ltd., the strongest anti-extraterritoriality opinion it has produced in modern times. Not only is Congress presumed generally to prefer only territorial regulation, but lower courts that had carved out exceptions from this principle over a long period of time must now revisit their positions. Again this year in Kiobel v. Royal Dutch Shell Co. the Court relied on an aggressive use of the presumption against extraterritoriality to cut back on an important field of private litigation. The Court appears to have embraced two related stances: The imposition of barriers to extraterritorial regulation generally advances welfare, and the lower courts cannot be trusted to determine those instances where an exception to this rule might be justified. Implicit in the Court's position are intuitions about the political economy of both legislation and litigation. I want to use the occasion of the Morrison and Kiobel decisions to consider the political economy of extraterritorial regulation by the United States. International lawyers for the most part have analyzed state decisions to exercise prescriptive jurisdiction over extraterritorial transactions in terms of a welfare calculus that determines the likely costs and benefits to the state as a whole. Fewer studies have considered the political economy of the decision whether to regulate foreign transactions. No work of which I am aware has considered the political economy of deciding the extraterritorial question through litigation. This paper seeks to fill these gaps by sketching out what political economy suggests both about extraterritoriality and the role of courts as arbiters of extraterritoriality.

  18. Regional Priorities of Green Economy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sergey Nikolayevich Bobylev

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The article is dedicated to transforming the economy of Russian regions to a green economy, which is an essential factor for the sustainable development. This is important not only for Russia but the whole world because our country has the great natural capital and provides important environmental services that support the planet biosphere. Based on the analysis of economic, social and ecological statistical data and Human Development Index (HDI we have shown that the development of Russian Federal Districts is very unbalanced and each Russian region has its own way to new economic model. For instance, it is necessary to increase the well-being in the North Caucasus Federal District, it is important to reach higher life expectancy at birth in the Siberian and the Far Eastern Districts. It is necessary to move from the «brown» economy to a green one by using the human capital (building a knowledge economy, by applying Best Available Technologies (Techniques, by investing in efficiency of use of natural resources and by increasing energy efficiency. The transition to a green economy will help to achieve social equity and the development of human potential; it helps to move from the exploitation of non-renewable natural capital to renewable human capital. All these socio-economic measures should give decoupling effect, make risks lower, reduce the exploitation of natural capital, stop the environmental degradation and prevent the ecological crisis. Transition to the green economic model has to be accompanied by new economic development indicators, which take into account social and environmental factors.

  19. Overview of Low-carbon Economy Research

    OpenAIRE

    Fu, Hui

    2010-01-01

    The paper has a detailed literature review in low-carbon economy research of academy circle in our country from three aspects that are conception and connotation of low-carbon economy, necessity and urgency of developing low-carbon economy and path choice of realizing low-carbon economy in our country. Low-carbon economy is the “green economy†that obtains the maximum output by discharging minimum greenhouse gases with the main characteristics of “three low and three high†that are low ...

  20. Are brand benefits perceived differently in less developed economies ? A scale development and validation

    OpenAIRE

    Lacoeuilhe , Jérôme; Ben Mrad , Selima; Belaïd , Samy; Petrescu , Maria

    2017-01-01

    International audience; The purpose of this paper is to develop a scale measuring consumers’ brand benefits in less developed economies. Based on the literature, items have been generated in qualitative and quantitative studies and tested by using exploratory and confirmatory factor analyses. The findings show that brand benefits converge into a two-factor structure (functional and symbolic) instead of three (functional, experiential and symbolic). These findings can be justified by the fact ...

  1. Unraveling Dutch citizens' perceptions on the bio-based economy : The case of bioplastics, bio-jetfuels and small-scale bio-refineries

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lynch, Durwin H J; Klaassen, Pim; Broerse, Jacqueline E W

    2017-01-01

    Little is known about how citizens perceive the transition towards a bio-based economy (BBE), despite the fact that they are one of the most important actors in this transition. Citizens' perceptions of bio-based innovations can support policy-makers to improve the quality of decision-making and the

  2. Economies of Scale: 9-1-1 Center Consolidation as a Means to Strengthen the Homeland Security Enterprise

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-03-01

    dissonance ; making cognitive adjustments to justify their actions. When possible, assertions made during interviews were corroborated against...available resources, etc.)? Have you evaluated customer satisfaction through surveys or some other feedback mechanism? 18  How are unique, agency...Manager was asked about the effect upon response times, quality of communications with field units, coordination of resources, and the satisfaction

  3. Vine planting rights, farm size and economic performance: Do economies of scale matter in the French viticulture sector?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bernard Delord

    2015-06-01

    In summary, the main argument put forward by the European Commission to justify canceling vine planting rights is not adapted to the case of France because it considers wine as a single product sold at a single price.

  4. Scale and Scope Economies in the Global Advertising and Marketing Services Business

    OpenAIRE

    Alvin J. Silk; Ernst R. Berndt

    2003-01-01

    We assess size and scope-related economies in the global advertising and marketing services business. A translog cost function is employed wherein a firm's costs vary according to its scale and two dimensions of the scope of its operations. Parameters of the model are estimated via three stage least squares using annual data for 1989-2001 for an unbalanced panel consisting of the eight largest firms in this industry. A firm's total variable costs are affected by its scale, scope (mix of servi...

  5. Heroes of the knowledge economy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ørberg, Jakob Williams

    they themselves envisage their futures. The thesis looks behind the mirror cabinet of policy making and aims to better grasp the work and personal investments of Indian youth in creating the imaginaries we rely on globally, when we envision the global knowledge economy. The thesis is as such an account......The Indian engineering student has both nationally and globally come to symbolize the advent of a global knowledge economy. Indian engineering students are depicted in policy documents and popular media as important protagonists that will take India into the this promising future. This thesis...... is a study of these Indian ‘heroes’. It is based on ethnographic fieldwork in an iconic site for their production, the top Indian engineering university, the Indian Institute of Technology Delhi, and it aims to understand how students engage in the creation of both their own and national – even global...

  6. Political economy of population growth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mehta, S; Mehta, H S

    1987-01-01

    Tracing the origin of political economy as a class-science, this paper focuses on the political economy of population growth. Exposing the limitations of Malthusian ideas and their invalidity even for the capitalist economies, it discusses the subsequent revival of the Malthusian model during the period of de-colonization and the misinterpretation of the relationship between population growth and development in the developing and developed countries. Taking India, China, and Japan as some case studies, the paper examines the relationship between birth rate levels and some correlates. It elaborates on the Indian experience, emphasizing the association of population growth with poverty and unemployment and lays bare some of the hidden causes of these phenomena. The authors examine some interstate variations in India and identify constraints and prospects of the existing population policy. The paper proposes outlines of a democratic population policy as an integral part of India's development strategy which should recognize human beings not simply as consumers but also as producers of material values. It pleads for 1) restructuring of property relations; 2) bringing down the mortality rates and raising of the literacy levels, especially among females; and 3) improving nutritional levels, as prerequisites for bringing down birth rates.

  7. Economy of wood supply

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Imponen, V.

    1993-01-01

    Research and development of wood fuels production was vigorous in the beginning of the 1980's. Techniques and working methods used in combined harvesting and transportation of energy and merchantable wood were developed in addition to separate energy wood delivery. After a ten year silent period the research on this field was started again. At present the underutilization of forest supplies and the environmental effects of energy production based on fossil fuels caused the rebeginning of the research. One alternative for reduction of the price of wood fuels at the utilization site is the integration of energy and merchantable wood deliveries together. Hence the harvesting and transportation devices can be operated effectively, and the organizational costs are decreased as well. The wood delivery costs consist of the stumpage price, the harvesting and transportation costs, and of general expenses. The stumpage price form the largest cost category (over 50 %) of the industrial merchantable wood delivery, and the harvesting and transportation costs in the case of thinningwood delivery. Forest transportation is the largest part of the delivery costs of logging residues. The general expenses, consisting of the management costs and the interest costs of the capital bound to the storages, form a remarkable cost category in delivery of low-rank wood for energy or conversion purposes. The costs caused by the harvesting of thinningwood, the logging residues, chipping and crushing, the lorry transportation are reviewed in this presentation

  8. Economy of Vietnam

    OpenAIRE

    Adam McCarty

    2001-01-01

    Viet Nam was a country ruled by colonists, divided, or at war for most of the 20th century. Unification of the country in 1976 was followed by the invasion of Cambodia in 1978, and a subsequent brief but violent war with the People’s Republic of China. This legacy had profound consequences for economic development in general and for attempts to impose central planning in particular. Central planning was introduced in North Viet Nam in the 1950s, and in South Viet Nam after 1976, but less exte...

  9. Making sense of the green economy

    OpenAIRE

    Caprotti, F; Bailey, I

    2014-01-01

    © 2014 Swedish Society for Anthropology and Geography. This special issue editorial explores potential research interfaces between human geography and the rapidly unfolding concept and practices of the "green economy". The article outlines a range of critical issues about the green economy that are particularly pertinent and suited to geographical analysis. The first concerns questions around the construction of the green economy concept and critical questioning of current, largely hegemonic ...

  10. Unleashing the Power of the Circular Economy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kok, L.; Wurpel, G.; Ten Wolde, A. [IMSA Amsterdam, Amsterdam (Netherlands)

    2013-04-15

    The concept of circular economy is an economic and industrial system that focuses on the reusability of products and raw materials, reduces value destruction in the overall system and aims at value creation within each tier of the system. This report for Circle Economy (CE) outlines the general direction and concrete steps that must be taken to accomplish a breakthrough to a circular economy. It also provides a knowledge base behind the concept, connecting it to sustainability.

  11. An economic review of the collaborative economy

    OpenAIRE

    Petropoulos, Georgios

    2017-01-01

    The collaborative economy matches people online who want to share assets and services. This Policy Contribution - i) discusses how the collaborative economy can be defined; ii) provides an overview of evidence about its potential benefits for European economies and the impact of specific platforms in the sectors of their operation; iii) illustrates the criteria that enable professional and non-professional services offered through collaborative platforms to be distinguished; iv) recommends pr...

  12. Political Economies Come Home: On the Political Economies of Housing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Alexander, Catherine; Bruun, Maja Hojer; Koch, Insa

    2018-01-01

    The concept of moral economies of housing centres and links the Introduction and contributions to the Special issue. A number of themes emerge. First, a variety of moral communities exist, sometimes rivalrous, sometimes internally riven, sometimes with expectations of reciprocal obligations. We...... obligations at multiple levels. Second, several actors appear, or are invoked as authorities to be appealed or performed to for satisfaction of rights, from state bodies and individuals to banks, third sector and collective organisations and social movements. Third there is often lack of clarity over how...... to assert rights or engage with authorities. Two final characteristics are the loss of a perceived moral right to a secure home and a sense of betrayal. In some places, housing conflicts lead to protests and resistance as people perform this sense that political and economic elites have violated or reneged...

  13. Geo-economy of the Caspian basin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Raballand, G.

    2003-05-01

    The Caspian area is essential for the development of the central Asia countries and Caucasus. Excepted the Iran and the Russia, these areas economy is poor. The hydrocarbons exploitation should reinforce the economic weight of these States. The author analyzes the Caspian area economies and shows that the basin economies are confronted with three handicaps, and that even with different economic ways, the soviet economic system is still present in the basin. (A.L.B.)

  14. Cost function estimates, scale economies and technological progress in the Turkish electricity generation sector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ali Akkemik, K.

    2009-01-01

    Turkish electricity sector has undergone significant institutional changes since 1984. The recent developments since 2001 including the setting up of a regulatory agency to undertake the regulation of the sector and increasing participation of private investors in the field of electricity generation are of special interest. This paper estimates cost functions and investigates the degree of scale economies, overinvestment, and technological progress in the Turkish electricity generation sector for the period 1984-2006 using long-run and short-run translog cost functions. Estimations were done for six groups of firms, public and private. The results indicate existence of scale economies throughout the period of analysis, hence declining long-run average costs. The paper finds empirical support for the Averch-Johnson effect until 2001, i.e., firms overinvested in an environment where there are excess returns to capital. But this effect was reduced largely after 2002. Technological progress deteriorated slightly from 1984-1993 to 1994-2001 but improved after 2002. Overall, the paper found that regulation of the market under the newly established regulating agency after 2002 was effective and there are potential gains from such regulation. (author)

  15. The impact of virtual world economy in real world economy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ionuţ Constantin

    2008-05-01

    Full Text Available Internet technology is transforming the way we define nation-states. It has created “virtualstates” in which parallel communities are formed and political agendas are executed. Due to the emergenceof Internet technology, visions of “techno-imperialism” and “electronic warfare” are causing nation-statesto enact regulatory measures to preserve political, economic and cultural integrity. While the informationinfrastructure is the heart of the economic stability for most nations, the possibility of “viruses” or “electronicbombs” bringing ruin to an economy is real indeed. This means that architects of the “nation-state”will have the gargantuan task of re-examining existing politico-economic paradigms and fully integratetechnological initiatives in its apparatus to prevent imminent marginalization

  16. THE FATE OF ROMANIAN ECONOMY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    CÎRNU DORU

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available This work is an attempt of the authors to find an answer to the title. If we managed, or not, if we raised more questions then we managed to find answers, its up to you, readers or listeners, to decide. Why this question remains and why we can't say if we found or not an answer, is because for all analysts, including for the deciders that hold the destiny of romaninan economy, the path that it follows remains unknown. As we romanians like to trick, it may be in our style, because concealing the path gives you the posibility to claim, in any situation, that in fact you are on the right one.

  17. KNOWLEDGE ECONOMY – THE ECONOMY OF THE FUTURE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emanoil Muscalu

    2008-05-01

    Full Text Available In these times with strong changes, a so called “knowledge revolution” is on the way andthis designates the evolution from the primarily physical labor based economy to a predominantly knowledgeeconomy.The entire world is dealing, în the dawn of this new century, the 21st one, with a series of majorchanges: social, economic and technological. Consequently, if the 2nd industrial revolution was initiated în theindustry based on intensive production labor “by the pioneers of automobiles such as Ford, it is clear that the3rd revolution will take place în the economic sector of the knowledge based services.”

  18. The NNP and Sustainability in Open Economy: Highlights on Recent World Economy and on Open Economy of Bangladesh

    OpenAIRE

    Mohajan, Haradhan

    2011-01-01

    This paper discusses the theory of the net national product and, emphasizes on social welfare and sustainable accounting in open economy. It is observed that the world economy following an egalitarian path, the aggregate capital gains being positive is equivalent to the interest rate tending to decrease. This is important for the concept of net national product in open economies. Martin Weitzman gives a foundation for net national product as the stationary equivalent of a wealth maximizing pa...

  19. The Institutional Framing of the Market Economy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Howells, John

    2003-01-01

    A review of the significance of the intellectual tool of the technology complex for an understanding of the role of innovation in the market economy. The framing of the market economy is understood as the way that institutions of finance, education and intellectual property are reformed to aid...

  20. Product and labor market imperfections and scale economies: Micro-evidence on France, Japan and the Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dobbelaere, S.; Kiyota, K.; Mairesse, M.

    2012-01-01

    Allowing for three labor market settings, this paper relies on an extension of Hall's econometric framework for simultaneously estimating price-cost mark-ups and scale economies. Using an unbalanced panel of 17,653 firms over the period 1986-2001 in France, 8,725 firms over the period 1994-2006 in

  1. Internationalization of Emerging Economies and Firms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    A contribution to the scarce body of literature on internationalization of emerging economies and their firms. Using a large variety of national contexts, it addresses the advancing business development of new emerging economies and their impact on the process of internationalization of emerging...

  2. Nation-Scale Adoption of Shorter Breast Radiation Therapy Schedules Can Increase Survival in Resource Constrained Economies: Results From a Markov Chain Analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Khan, Atif J., E-mail: atif.j.khan@rutgers.edu [Department of Radiation Oncology, Robert Wood Johnson Medical School/Cancer Institute of New Jersey, New Brunswick, New Jersey (United States); Rafique, Raza [Suleman Dawood School of Business, Lahore University of Management Sciences, Lahore (Pakistan); Zafar, Waleed [Shaukat Khanum Memorial Cancer Hospital and Research Centre, Lahore (Pakistan); Shah, Chirag [Department of Radiation Oncology, Cleveland Clinic, Cleveland, Ohio (United States); Haffty, Bruce G. [Department of Radiation Oncology, Robert Wood Johnson Medical School/Cancer Institute of New Jersey, New Brunswick, New Jersey (United States); Vicini, Frank [Michigan HealthCare Professionals, Farmington Hills, Michigan (United States); Jamshed, Arif [Shaukat Khanum Memorial Cancer Hospital and Research Centre, Lahore (Pakistan); Zhao, Yao [Rutgers University School of Business, Newark, New Jersey (United States)

    2017-02-01

    Purpose: Hypofractionated whole breast irradiation and accelerated partial breast irradiation (APBI) offer women options for shorter courses of breast radiation therapy. The impact of these shorter schedules on the breast cancer populations of emerging economies with limited radiation therapy resources is unknown. We hypothesized that adoption of these schedules would improve throughput in the system and, by allowing more women access to life-saving treatments, improve patient survival within the system. Methods and Materials: We designed a Markov chain model to simulate the different health states that a postlumpectomy or postmastectomy patient could enter over the course of a 20-year follow-up period. Transition rates between health states were adapted from published data on recurrence rates. We used primary data from a tertiary care hospital in Lahore, Pakistan, to populate the model with proportional use of mastectomy versus breast conservation and to estimate the proportion of patients suitable for APBI. Sensitivity analyses on the use of APBI and relative efficacy of APBI were conducted to study the impact on the population. Results: The shorter schedule resulted in more women alive and more women remaining without evidence of disease (NED) compared with the conventional schedule, with an absolute difference of about 4% and 7% at 15 years, respectively. Among women who had lumpectomies, the chance of remaining alive and with an intact breast was 62% in the hypofractionation model and 54% in the conventional fractionation model. Conclusions: Increasing throughput in the system can result in improved survival, improved chances of remaining without evidence of disease, and improved chances of remaining alive with a breast. These findings are significant and suggest that adoption of hypofractionation in emerging economies is not simply a question of efficiency and cost but one of access to care and patient survivorship.

  3. Nation-Scale Adoption of Shorter Breast Radiation Therapy Schedules Can Increase Survival in Resource Constrained Economies: Results From a Markov Chain Analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khan, Atif J.; Rafique, Raza; Zafar, Waleed; Shah, Chirag; Haffty, Bruce G.; Vicini, Frank; Jamshed, Arif; Zhao, Yao

    2017-01-01

    Purpose: Hypofractionated whole breast irradiation and accelerated partial breast irradiation (APBI) offer women options for shorter courses of breast radiation therapy. The impact of these shorter schedules on the breast cancer populations of emerging economies with limited radiation therapy resources is unknown. We hypothesized that adoption of these schedules would improve throughput in the system and, by allowing more women access to life-saving treatments, improve patient survival within the system. Methods and Materials: We designed a Markov chain model to simulate the different health states that a postlumpectomy or postmastectomy patient could enter over the course of a 20-year follow-up period. Transition rates between health states were adapted from published data on recurrence rates. We used primary data from a tertiary care hospital in Lahore, Pakistan, to populate the model with proportional use of mastectomy versus breast conservation and to estimate the proportion of patients suitable for APBI. Sensitivity analyses on the use of APBI and relative efficacy of APBI were conducted to study the impact on the population. Results: The shorter schedule resulted in more women alive and more women remaining without evidence of disease (NED) compared with the conventional schedule, with an absolute difference of about 4% and 7% at 15 years, respectively. Among women who had lumpectomies, the chance of remaining alive and with an intact breast was 62% in the hypofractionation model and 54% in the conventional fractionation model. Conclusions: Increasing throughput in the system can result in improved survival, improved chances of remaining without evidence of disease, and improved chances of remaining alive with a breast. These findings are significant and suggest that adoption of hypofractionation in emerging economies is not simply a question of efficiency and cost but one of access to care and patient survivorship.

  4. Information Subsystem of Shadow Economy Deactivation

    OpenAIRE

    Filippova, Tatyana V.

    2015-01-01

    The article presents information subsystem of shadow economy deactivation aimed at minimizing negative effects caused by its reproduction. In Russia, as well as in other countries, efficient implementation of the suggested system of shadow economy deactivation can be ensured by the developed information subsystem.

  5. The Political Economy of International Treaties

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Merkouris, Panagiotis; Fabbricotti, Alberta

    2016-01-01

    The book, which the present Chapter is a part of, is a ‘call to arms’ for a more systematic and systemic PE- (political economy) and IPE-oriented (international political economy) study of PIL (public international law). The present Chapter tackles the task of demonstrating the need for a PE and IPE

  6. Impact of Unbalanced Development of Economy on Financial Sector Stability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kozlov Vladislav I.

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available The article is devoted to the study of c connection between the stability of development of the financial sector and its share in the aggregate volume of production. The article conducts a comparative study of the countries that suffered the large-scale financial and economic crisis in 2007 (USA and Great Britain and countries economies of which turned out to be more stable (Czech Republic, Poland and Finland. In the course of the study the article marks out indicators that allow characterisation of the degree of balancing of economic development. The developed approach is applied for analysis of the Ukrainian economy in the pre-crisis period. Results of the study allow assertion that excessive growth of the financial sector increases the risk of realisation of financial and economic crises independent on the level of economic development of a country. The article develops an approach to assessment of the role of the financial sector in economy. It underlines important aspects of its application for analysing economies of developing countries. The article leaves a vast expanse for further studies and focuses on importance of monitoring of the state and development of the financial sector with consideration of the direction and rates of development of other sectors of economy. The obtained results justify the necessity of use of indicators that characterise structure of the national economy by financial sector control bodies.

  7. Conference Modernization of Economy and the State

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Laštovková, Jitka

    2006-01-01

    Roč. 42, č. 4 (2006), s. 835-837 ISSN 0038-0288. [Conference Modernization of Economy and the State. Moskva, 04.04.2006-06.04.2006] Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z70280505 Keywords : conference * economy * role of state Subject RIV: AO - Sociology, Demography Impact factor: 0.128, year: 2006

  8. Four Models of Sharing Economy Platforms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Constantiou, Ioanna; Marton, Attila; Tuunainen, Virpi Kristiina

    2017-01-01

    the resulting four sharing economy models "Franchiser," "Principal," "Chaperone" and "Gardener." Each model focuses on a different value proposition and strategic intent, but they all exploit the growing fluidity of organizational boundaries. Understanding the sharing economy in these terms enables businesses...

  9. Bounded Rationality of Generalized Abstract Fuzzy Economies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lei Wang

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available By using a nonlinear scalarization technique, the bounded rationality model M for generalized abstract fuzzy economies in finite continuous spaces is established. Furthermore, by using the model M, some new theorems for structural stability and robustness to (λ,ϵ-equilibria of generalized abstract fuzzy economies are proved.

  10. Business models of sharing economy companies : exploring features responsible for sharing economy companies’ internationalization

    OpenAIRE

    Kosintceva, Aleksandra

    2016-01-01

    This paper is dedicated to the sharing economy business models and their features responsible for internationalization. The study proposes derived definitions for the concepts of “sharing economy” and “business model” and first generic sharing economy business models typology. The typology was created through the qualitative analysis of secondary data on twenty sharing economy companies from nine different industries. The outlined categories of sharing economy business models a...

  11. 49 CFR 537.9 - Determination of fuel economy values and average fuel economy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 6 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Determination of fuel economy values and average fuel economy. 537.9 Section 537.9 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) NATIONAL HIGHWAY TRAFFIC SAFETY ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION AUTOMOTIVE FUEL ECONOMY REPORTS § 537.9 Determination of fuel...

  12. The political economy of finance

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Perotti, E.

    2014-01-01

    This survey reviews how recent political economy literature helps to explain variation in governance, competition, funding composition, and access to credit. Evolution in political institutions can account for financial evolution, and, unlike time-invariant legal institutions or cultural traits, is

  13. Civilizational deadlock of the economy of growth

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alatartseva Elena

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The key topic of the paper is determined by the crisis situation of the nowadays economic model. Capitalism is the dominant economic form in the global economy. Varieties of capitalism exist ranging from state capitalism to neo liberalism but all are pervaded by a dominant theme, an egocentric economy model or ego-economics. This model is underlain by postulates of the need for a continued growth spurred by end-use. The realisation of this model is provided by monetary approaches and stimulation of consumer demand as the main driver of economic growth. The key tools for stimulating demand in this model of economy are competition, information impact on the consumer consciousness and choices, the massive accessibility of credit, the massive accessibility of financial markets and financial instruments, the actualisation of passive incomes as opposed to creative labour, and other degradation triggering factors. The crowning part of this model is the debt economy of consumption of societies of individualists who do not share traditional systems of values but are guided by illusory, temporary, short-term objectives. Thus, the egocentric economy model established dominance in relation to the ecological economy model, exposing a bulk of contradictions in principles underlying the system and promotes unsustainability. The future turned out to be in jeopardy... The paper contrasts ego-economics and ecoeconomics, traces of the emergence of the first one and the need for the second one as a necessary condition for long-term sustainability.

  14. Revisiting the Political Economy of Communication

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicholas Garnham

    2014-02-01

    The task of the paper and the seminar was to revisit some of Nicholas Garnham’s ideas, writings and contributions to the study of the Political Economy of Communication and to reflect on the concepts, history, current status and perspectives of this field and the broader study of political economy today. The topics covered include Raymond Williams’ cultural materialism, Pierre Bourdieu’s sociology of culture, the debate between Political Economy and Cultural Studies, information society theory, Karl Marx’s theory and the critique of capitalism.

  15. The Hybrid Museum: Hybrid Economies of Meaning

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vestergaard, Vitus

    2013-01-01

    Social media has created new ways of communicating and has brought about a new distinctive ethos. New literacies are not simply about new technology but also about this new ethos. Many museums are embracing this ethos by what is often called participatory practices. From a sociocultural perspective...... this article shows that there are two different museum mindsets where the second mindset leans towards participatory practices. It is shown how a museum can support a hybrid economy of meaning that builds on both a user generated economy of meaning and an institutional economy of meaning and adds value to both...

  16. Macroeconomic model of national economy development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. Naval

    1996-03-01

    Full Text Available Some approaches to modeling of national economy development are considered. Methods and models for determination of forecasting values of macroeconomic parameters are proposed at availability or absence of external financing.

  17. The Political Economy of Land and Natural Resources in Africa

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Buur, Lars; Nystrand, Malin; Pedersen, Rasmus Hundsbæk

    Large-scale investments in natural resources (extractives as well as agriculture) can help transform African economies by accelerating economic growth, creating jobs and strengthening the links between local economies and the global economy more broadly. However, they often end up violating rights......, which in turn may lead to social protests and political instability. This Working Paper develops an analytical framework for analysing the implementation of large-scale investments in natural resources. It focuses on the triangular relations between investors, local populations and ruling elites....... The framework treats the outcomes of these triangular relationships as involving ‘reciprocal exchange deals’ between investors and local populations, ‘compatible interests’ between ruling elites and investors, and ‘productive social relations’ between local populations and ruling elites. We show that, in order...

  18. The Competitive Potential of the Belorussian Economy

    OpenAIRE

    Migranyan, A.

    2014-01-01

    The article is an attempt to study the factors of the competitive capacity of Belorussian economy. There are two groups of factors of competitive potential and competitive advantages' formation: internal (changes in resource allocation) and external factors (adaptation to external shocks). The study found that the main source of the increase of competitive capacity of the Belorussian economy were foreign. The competitive potential of Belarus was formed on the basis of the increased exports. H...

  19. Macroeconomic model of national economy development (extended

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Diaconova

    1997-08-01

    Full Text Available The macroeconomic model offered in this paper describes complex functioning of national economy and can be used for forecasting of possible directions of its development depending on various economic policies. It is the extension of [2] and adaptation of [3]. With the purpose of determination of state policies influence in the field of taxes and exchange rate national economy is considered within the framework of three sectors: government, private and external world.

  20. RECIPROCITY IN THE ECONOMY OF THE AGE OF SILICON ECONOMY SYSTEMS TO EARLY EXPERIENCES CURRENT SOLIDARITY ECONOMY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Horacio, Simes

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Reciprocity is an integrating principle of supportive economy activities. In non-capitalist societies, it has been realized through the participation of certain institutional arrangements that favored the stability of exchange relations. Progress towards capitalist societies and deepening them, dissolved many of these institutional supports, while economy relations separated from other social relations in which it was first inserted. In addition, the selfish individual was become an active participant in the economy life of society. With the construction of market economies and state regulation, reciprocal relationships were being reduced to a lower field activities. Under these circumstances, they should investigate how reciprocity is manifested today, the institutional arrangements that are suitable to give stability and unity to cooperative behavior and the dynamics of their relationship to the context of the market and the state.

  1. Economies of vertical integration in the Swiss electricity sector

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fetz, Aurelio; Filippini, Massimo [Department of Management, Technology and Economics, ETH Zurich (Switzerland); Department of Economics, University of Lugano (Switzerland)

    2010-11-15

    Over the last two decades, several European nations have introduced reforms to their electricity sector. Generally, these reforms require a legal and functional unbundling of vertically integrated companies. These unbundling processes may reduce the possibilities that exist to fruitfully exploit the advantages of vertical integration. The goal of this paper is to empirically analyze the presence of economies of scale and vertical integration in the Swiss electricity sector. Economies of vertical integration between electricity production and distribution result from reduced transaction costs, better coordination of highly specific and interdependent investments and less financial risk. Different econometric specifications for panel data, including a random effects and a random-coefficients model, have been used to estimate a quadratic multi-stage cost function for a sample of electricity companies. The empirical results reflect the presence of considerable economies of vertical integration and economies of scale for most of the companies considered in the analysis. Moreover, the results suggest a variation in economies of vertical integration across companies due to unobserved heterogeneity. (author)

  2. New growth type industries of Japanese Economy <論説>

    OpenAIRE

    Ichihashi, Masaru

    1998-01-01

    This paper's purpose aims to survey and sketch a characteristic of new industrial change of Japanese Economy. The Japanese Economy shifted to export dependence type economy at 1980's because rationalization after an oil crisis at the beginning of 70's had been done. Processing structure industries of export oriented type and new service industries led Japanese Economy from that time to bubble economy period. Firstly, Japanese Economy made a recovery from about 1993 after the collapse ...

  3. IMPORTANCE OF FINANCING THE SOCIAL ECONOMY PROJECTS

    OpenAIRE

    Victor NICOL‚ESCU; Corina CACE; Sorin CACE

    2012-01-01

    The re-emergence of the social economy sector as important agent for occupation, economic growth, social solidarity, associationism and social services, coincided with a higher importance of running program and project- based activities in all European countries, irrespective whether they are member states of candidate states. Within the context of the benefits specific to the social economy projects it is important to debate and analyse the subject of continuing the activities of this form o...

  4. The significance of energy for the economy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Spreng, D.; Schwarz, J.

    1993-01-01

    The importance of energy for the economy is described here in practical terms. This is meant for the works and workshop manager, maintenance chief, energy specialist, sales staff of industrial and business organisations. The term 'potential for saving energy' is extensively discussed. Statistical research shows a clear connection between energy application and growth of the economy. Fact: a rational use of energy is worth while in many aspects. figs., tabs., 14 refs

  5. Effect of shadow economy - country's tax losses

    OpenAIRE

    Krumplytė, Jolita

    2009-01-01

    The article analyzes the content of shadow economy through the prism of the tax administration. The author provides the limitations of the study and methodologically based relationship between the shadow economy and the tax revenue not to be received to the national consolidate budget. Country's tax losses (tax gap) is the amount of the tax revenue that is not received to the country's consolidated budget in the tax non-payment effects: tax avoidance and tax evasion. Tax losses (tax gap) is t...

  6. 7th International Conference of Political Economy

    OpenAIRE

    BEKEN, Gülçin

    2016-01-01

    Abstract. In this study, the 7th International Conference of Political Economy in İstanbul was evaluated. This year it  was organized by Marmara University Faculty of Economics and Batman University Faculty of Economics and Administrative Sciences with the cooperation of their international supporters all over the world. These conference series are said to be successful to bring all the scholars, academicians, students, and volunteers who are interested in political economy. Starting from 200...

  7. Gaining Control of Iraq's Shadow Economy

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Ramirez, David S

    2007-01-01

    .... These conditions fuel a sprawling, decades-old shadow economy manipulated by elements of organized crime, militias, and insurgents to fund attacks on Coalition forces, infrastructure and innocent Iraqi civilians...

  8. Essays on Political Economy of the Media

    OpenAIRE

    Lam, Onyi

    2017-01-01

    My research focuses on understanding the political economy of traditional and newmedia. I study these issues by exploiting natural experiments, employing data techniquesborrowed from machine learning and using both observational data from traditional andnew sources.

  9. The economy of climatic change. Discussion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boot, P.

    1996-01-01

    In a previous article in this magazine by Aalbers and Vollebergh it was concluded that good economic arguments are available for the precautionary principle in the climate control policy. That also pleads for a far-going Dutch climate control policy. It is the opinion of the author that the foundations of their arguments are not good enough. The above-mentioned authors reply with the one-page article 'De economie van Utopia' (The economy of Utopia) to Boot's article. 7 refs

  10. Balance of leadership in the power economy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Goeschel, G; Wolff, G

    1986-06-05

    The authors depict the management situation in the German power economy. Using the results of a survey which they carried out and practical observations made when conducting seminars for managers in the power economy, they pinpoint weak points in a number of different sectors. They show how suitable management training programmes can rectify this deficit in management skills and consequently improve a company's overall performance.

  11. The Political Economy of Energy Innovation

    OpenAIRE

    Dasgupta, Shouro; De Cian, Enrica; Verdolini, Elena

    2017-01-01

    This paper empirically investigates the effects of environmental policy, institutions, political orientation, and lobbying on energy innovation and finds that they significantly affect the incentives to innovate and create cleaner energy efficient technologies. We conclude that political economy factors may act as barriers even in the presence of stringent environmental policy, implying that, to move towards a greener economy, countries should combine environmental policy with a general stren...

  12. Effect of Body Composition on Walking Economy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maciejczyk Marcin

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. The aim of the study was to evaluate walking economy and physiological responses at two walking speeds in males with similar absolute body mass but different body composition. Methods. The study involved 22 young men with similar absolute body mass, BMI, aerobic performance, calf and thigh circumference. The participants differed in body composition: body fat (HBF group and lean body mass (HLBM group. In the graded test, maximal oxygen uptake (VO2max and maximal heart rate were measured. Walking economy was evaluated during two walks performed at two different speeds (4.8 and 6.0 km ‧ h-1. Results. The VO2max was similar in both groups, as were the physiological responses during slow walking. The absolute oxygen uptake or oxygen uptake relative to body mass did not significantly differentiate the studied groups. The only indicator significantly differentiating the two groups was oxygen uptake relative to LBM. Conclusions. Body composition does not significantly affect walking economy at low speed, while during brisk walking, the economy is better in the HLBM vs. HBF group, provided that walking economy is presented as oxygen uptake relative to LBM. For this reason, we recommend this manner of oxygen uptake normalization in the evaluation of walking economy.

  13. The Political Economy of Early Exit

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schmitt, Carina; Starke, Peter

    2016-01-01

    Large-scale exit from the labour market began in the 1970s in many OECD countries. The literature indicates that individual early retirement decisions are facilitated by generous and accessible ‘pathways’ into retirement in the public pension system, unemployment insurance or disability benefits....... in the tradable sector, against a more traditional class-based logic of welfare state policy-making. Quantitative analysis of employment outcomes in 21 countries shows that the political economy of early exit clearly rests on the sectoral politics of cost-shifting.......Large-scale exit from the labour market began in the 1970s in many OECD countries. The literature indicates that individual early retirement decisions are facilitated by generous and accessible ‘pathways’ into retirement in the public pension system, unemployment insurance or disability benefits....... It is unclear, however, why early exit became so much more prevalent in some countries than in others and why such differences remain, despite a recent shift back towards higher employment rates and ‘active ageing’. We test a logic of sectoral cost-shifting politics involving cross-class alliances...

  14. Bio-based economy in the Netherlands. Macro-economic outline of a large-scale introduction of green resources in the Dutch energy supply

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Van der Hoeven, D.

    2009-03-01

    The Bio-based Raw Materials Platform (PGG), part of the Energy Transition in The Netherlands, commissioned the Agricultural Economics Research Institute (LEI) and the Copernicus Institute of Utrecht University to conduct research on the macro-economic impact of large scale deployment of biomass for energy and materials in the Netherlands. Two model approaches were applied based on a consistent set of scenario assumptions: a bottom-up study including technoeconomic projections of fossil and bio-based conversion technologies and a topdown study including macro-economic modelling of (global) trade of biomass and fossil resources. The results of the top-down and bottom-up modelling work are reported separately. This is the public version of studies [nl

  15. The external sector of the Serbian economy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ristanović Vladimir

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this paper is to show the external sector of the Serbian economy, its features and peculiarities, as well as anomalies that afflicted it for years. In the analysis, data acquired from the Statistical Office of the Republic of Serbia will be used, as well as the official international methodology. The text will include the analysis of the structure of the external sector, market share, competitive position of Serbian economy and export products according to sectors of the economy and factor intensity. Since 2000, the structure of production and exports of the Serbian economy shows low comparative advantages and competitive position throughout the world. Unfavorable structure of the sectors, departments and the product groups affected the deepening of external imbalances and high foreign trade deficit. Exports of technology of predominantly low intensity, resources, and labor-intensive products, common for Serbian economy, represent no guarantee of economic growth in the long term. The causes of external imbalances should be sought in the absence of adequate export strategy, as well as in high speed of liberalization of foreign trade flows and exchange rate policy.

  16. Three Forms of the Knowledge Economy: Learning, Creativity and Openness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peters, Michael A.

    2010-01-01

    This paper outlines and reviews three forms and associated discourses of the "knowledge economy": the "learning economy", based on the work of Bengt-Ake Lundvall; the "creative economy" based on the work of Charles Landry, John Howkins and Richard Florida; and the "open knowledge economy" based on the work of Yochai Benkler and others. Arguably,…

  17. BITCOIN - THE CURRENCY OF A NEW ECONOMY?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    CARINA-ELENA STEGĂROIU

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available In the knowledge society, a new economy is emerging, New Economy, which also encompasses the Internet economy in the form of e-bussines, which is why the economy is the economy of information society and knowledge. So, in a knowledge-based technology, a new digital coin was also needed in the field of electronic payments, thus creating the virtual currency BITCOIN (BTC, which in a moto translation is the bit of the bit (the unit of measure of the amount of information. It is a decentralized electronic payment system and a digital encrypted opensurce created in 2009 by Satoshi Nakamoto. The need to create Bitcoin (BTC was to ensure investment protection and free business finance, without resorting to financial institutions and beyond any constraints and regulations. The Bitcoin name also refers to the opensource program for using these coins, as well as the peer-to-peer (peer-to peer network it forms. Currently, even if he has many opponents and has gone through several difficult times, Bitcoin seems to survive and offer new technology with revolutionary use possibilities. The concept of the digital coin fits perfectly with the everchanging world, dominated by mobile and omnipresent technology. Compared to Bitcoin or another digital coin, any visit to the bank seems like a trip to another century, an era of time lost at the counter completing dozens of unnecessary papers.

  18. Implementation of the knowledge economy paradigm in the strategy of national economy development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dmytro Lukianenko

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available This paper studies the knowledge economy paradigm and the factors of its influence on the development of national economies in the context of transformation of the global competitive environment. It has been methodologically identified the basic categories and concepts concerning the determination of key factors and parameters of modern economic systems. It has been proved through the example of South Korea that implementation of the knowledge economy paradigm in long-term strategies initiated and supported by the state provides new opportunities of socio-economic progress. The basic problems of innovation-driven development of Ukraine’s economy through an assessment of its readiness to transition to the knowledge economy, compared with South Korea. The latter’s experience, despite the objective limitations, is regarded as an example of strategic success in formation of a creative innovation system.

  19. A report on the development of China's market economy 2005

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI Xiaoxi

    2006-01-01

    This paper dicusses on the issue of the development of China's market economy from six aspects.(1)Basic Content and Conclusions on the development of China's market economy.(2)Further progress in building market-oriented economy in China.(3)Assessment of the degree of market economy development in China.(4)New progress in 2004 in developing market economy in China.(5)A general analysis of twelve key questions concerning market economy.(6)Resolution of the"non-market economy"issue:a win-win option.

  20. TOURISM AN IMPORTANT SECTOR OF ECONOMY DEVELOPMENT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xhiliola Agaraj

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available Tourism has become an important sector that has an impact on development of country economy. The main benefits of tourism are income creation and generation of jobs. For many regions and countries it is the most important source of welfare. The ability of the national economy to benefit from tourism depends on the availability of investment to develop the necessary infrastructure and on its ability to supply the needs of tourists. Albania has a touristic potential for development of seaside tourism and other alternative forms of tourism. The scope of the paper is to present the impact of tourism on economy and especially on income. paper treats why Albania is an attractive country for investors, and which are the possibilities to invest. Through a questioner scattered in different publics and private institution of Albania are presented major problematical of tourism in Albania

  1. Globalization and the financialization of the economy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ion Bucur

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The defining with profound implications on the economy and society is represented the globalization. In this context, we have noticed the increasing influence of the financial markets on the economy, the tendency to remove the finances from the real economy requirements, the growing role of external financing using more volatile capital goods, increased competition regarding the access to financing, the significant increase of power of the international capital markets whose characteristic is represented by the increased instability, the implications of the investors’ obsession with an excessive profitableness of their own funds and the expansion of using sophisticated financial products. Realities of today’s financial markets, which are the subject of numerous studies and analysis, have contributed to the association of the arguments that are contesting the thesis on the virtues of self-regulation markets and promoting a new paradigm, within which finances should subordinate the requirements of a balanced and sustained economic growth.

  2. Technology Roadmap: Fuel Economy of Road Vehicles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2012-07-01

    This roadmap explores the potential improvement of existing technologies to enhance the average fuel economy of motorised vehicles; the roadmap’s vision is to achieve a 30% to 50% reduction in fuel use per kilometre from new road vehicles including 2-wheelers, LDV s and HDV s) around the world in 2030, and from the stock of all vehicles on the road by 2050. This achievement would contribute to significant reductions in GHG emissions and oil use, compared to a baseline projection. Different motorised modes are treated separately, with a focus on LDV s, HDV s and powered two-wheelers. A section on in-use fuel economy also addresses technical and nontechnical parameters that could allow fuel economy to drastically improve over the next decades. Technology cost analysis and payback time show that significant progress can be made with low or negative cost for fuel-efficient vehicles over their lifetime use. Even though the latest data analysed by the IEA for fuel economy between 2005 and 2008 showed that a gap exists in achieving the roadmap’s vision, cutting the average fuel economy of road motorised vehicles by 30% to 50% by 2030 is achievable, and the policies and technologies that could help meet this challenge are already deployed in many places around the world.

  3. Structural characteristics of the economy of Mozambique

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tarp, Finn; Arndt, Channing; Jensen, Henning Tarp

    2000-01-01

    Key features of the Mozambican economy are synthesized in this paper based on a new 1995 social accounting matrix. Particular attention is paid to the critical role of home consumption and large marketing margins. The fundamental importance of agricultural development emerges clearly from...

  4. Economies of scale in the production of swine manure Economias de escala na produção de dejetos de suínos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    W.C. Losinger

    2000-06-01

    Full Text Available Manure production on grower/finisher swine operations in the United States was examined using data from 184 grower/finisher swine operations that participated in the United States National Animal Health Monitoring System's 1995 National Swine Study. Two methods were used: one, assuming that pigs produced 8.4% of their body weight in manure each day; another using the difference between feed fed and weight gained as a proxy variable to study manure production. Using this latter approach, a production function was developed. The function exhibited diminishing returns to scale when food waste was not fed to pigs, but constant returns to scale when food waste was included in their diets. The difference between feed fed and weight gained was lower on operations that restricted entry to employees only.A produção de dejetos em granjas de crescimento e terminação de suínos nos Estados Unidos foi avaliada utilizando dados de 184 granjas participantes de um estudo nacional de 1995 do "United States National Animal Health Monitoring System". Dois métodos foram usados: um considerando que suínos produzem 8,4% do seu peso corporal de dejetos por dia e o outro usando a diferença entre o alimento ingerido e o ganho de peso como um indicador para o estudo da produção de esterco. Através desse último procedimento, desenvolveu-se uma função de produção.

  5. Successes and Challenges of Emerging Economy Multinationals

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Successes and Challenges of Emerging Economy Multinationals investigates a broad variety of cases presenting clear evidence of fast successful internationalization of emerging economy multinationals originating not only from big economic players such as China, India and Russia but also from other...... successfully internationalizing emerging countries, namely South Africa and Poland. In terms of size, the firms vary from huge multinational firms such as Huawei, Tata and Gazprom, to really small high technology firms. The in-depth analysis conducted in this book leads to the indication of numerous novel...

  6. The Political Economy of Capital Income and Profit Taxation in a Small Open Economy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Huizinga, H.P.; Nielsen, S.B.

    1996-01-01

    This paper considers the political economy of the mix of profit, investment and saving taxation in a small open economy where agents generally differ in their shares of profit and other income.In this setting, capital income taxation can have the dual role of financing government spending and of

  7. The Political Economy of Regulatory Change

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Buch-Hansen, Hubert

    2012-01-01

    This article aims to explain the broader evolution of British merger control. To this end it outlines a novel critical political economy perspective on regulation and regulatory change which differs from established political economy approaches, such as the regulatory capitalism/state perspectives...... to the analysis of the evolution of British merger control provides some important new insights, most notably that the content, form, and scope of merger control in Britain have been deeply transformed in accordance with neoliberal ideas since the 1980s and that this process, which was part of a broader...

  8. The offshorization of economy: the present realities

    OpenAIRE

    Maslak Olga; Grishko Natalya; Hlazunova Olha; Vorobiova Kateryna

    2017-01-01

    In this article the essence and main types of offshore zones have been studied. It has been analyzed the main reasons for cooperation with the tax havens, established that the main reason of the Ukrainian economy offshorization is not only the desire of economic entities to optimize taxes, but also the desire to protect their assets from the negative impact of the crisis phenomena in the national economy during 2010-2016. The foreign experience of the anti-offshore regulation has been researc...

  9. Understanding the Drivers of an ‘Entrepreneurial’ Economy : Lessons from Japan and the Netherlands

    OpenAIRE

    Okamuro, Hiroyuki; Van Stel, André; Verheul, Ingrid

    2010-01-01

    Globalization and an increasing importance of knowledge in the production process cause many developed countries to move from a more ‘managed’ to a more ‘entrepreneurial’ economy in recent decades. In the former type of economy, large and incumbent firms play a dominant role, exploiting economies of scale in a relatively certain economic environment. In the latter type, small and new firms play an increasingly important role, introducing new products and services in highly uncertain economic ...

  10. Network analysis of Chinese provincial economies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Xiaoqi; An, Haizhong; Liu, Xiaojia

    2018-02-01

    Global economic system is a huge network formed by national subnetworks that contains the provincial networks. As the second largest world economy, China has "too big to fail" impact on the interconnected global economy. Detecting the critical sectors and vital linkages inside Chinese economic network is meaningful for understanding the origin of this Chinese impact. Different from tradition network research at national level, this paper focuses on the provincial networks and inter-provincial network. Using Chinese inter-regional input-output table to construct 30 provincial input-output networks and one inter-provincial input-output network, we identify central sectors and vital linkages, as well as analyze economic structure similarity. Results show that (1) Communication Devices sector in Guangdong and that in Jiangsu, Transportation and Storage sector in Shanghai play critical roles in Chinese economy. (2) Advanced manufactures and services industry occupy the central positions in eastern provincial economies, while Construction sector, Heavy industry, and Wholesale and Retail Trades sector are influential in middle and western provinces. (3) The critical monetary flow paths in Chinese economy are Communication Devices sector to Communication Devices sector in Guangdong, Metals Mining sector to Iron and Steel Smelting sector in Henan, Communication Devices sector to Communication Devices sector in Jiangsu, as well as Petroleum Mining sector in Heilongjiang to Petroleum Processing sector in Liaoning. (4) Collective influence results suggest that Finance sector, Transportation and Storage sector, Production of Electricity and Heat sector, and Rubber and Plastics sector in Hainan are strategic influencers, despite being weakly connected. These sectors and input-output relations are worthy of close attention for monitoring Chinese economy.

  11. Green Skills for Green Economy: Case of the Environmental Education Role in Kazakhstan's Economy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dlimbetova, Gaini; Zhylbaev, Zhanbol; Syrymbetova, Lyailya; ?liyeva, Aiman

    2016-01-01

    The research on situation with developing "green skills" in conditions of transition to "green economy" is analysed in this article. Kazakhstan like many other states has been going through transition to "green economy" since 2013. Economic reforms have made an impact on the system of environmental education. The…

  12. 78 FR 46799 - Use of Market Economy Input Prices in Nonmarket Economy Proceedings

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-08-02

    ...The Department of Commerce (``Department'') is modifying its regulation which states that the Department normally will use the price that a nonmarket economy (``NME'') producer pays to a market economy supplier when a factor of production is purchased from a market economy supplier and paid for in market economy currency, in the calculation of normal value (``NV'') in antidumping proceedings involving NME countries. The rule establishes a requirement that the input at issue be produced in one or more market economy countries, and a revised threshold requiring that ``substantially all'' (i.e., 85 percent) of an input be purchased from one or more market economy suppliers before the Department uses the purchase price paid to value the entire factor of production. The Department is making this change because it finds that a market economy input price is not the best available information for valuing all purchases of that input when market economy purchases of an input do not account for substantially all purchases of the input.

  13. Energy sustainability performance of the regional economy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. I. Danilov

    2005-03-01

    Full Text Available The results of the study of the dynamics of energy intensity of gross regional product of the Sverdlovsk region for the period 1996 - 2003 years. and projections for the period up to 2015. The principal possibility of growth performance of the regional economy, without a significant increase in the consumption of primary fuel.

  14. Economy of education: National and global aspects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oksana Ishchenko-Padukova

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Our paper focuses on the national economy of education. We assume that under the current conditions of the globalized world, the economy of education reveals its two-fold nature: on the one hand, it represents an element of the national economic system, and on the other, it is also a structural component of the global education system. Therefore, national economy of education is shaped up by both internal and external factors represented by national and international influences. We analyze here the functional composition and the methods of legal regulation of the economy of education under the conditions and provisions of the global geopolitical transformations. In addition, we use the empirical model of returns to education for showing the factors that impact the employability of young graduates at the labor market. Our results confirm the importance of education for achieving higher levels of income, both nationally and internationally. Finally, we come to the conclusion that its target function consists of the global promotion of national education and consolidation of national competitive position within the world education space.

  15. Analysis of Population Dynamics in World Economy

    OpenAIRE

    Martin, Gress

    2011-01-01

    Population dynamics is an important topic in current world economy. The size and growth of population have an impact on economic growth and development of individual countries and vice versa, economic development influences demographic variables in a country. The aim of the article is to analyze historical development of world population, population stock change and relations between population stock change and economic development.

  16. The economy of privately owned windmills

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1994-01-01

    The Danish government ordered that an investigation of the economy of privately owned windmills be undertaken from 1991. Updating is a part of the follow-up of Danish energy policy designated ''Energi 2000'' (Energy 2000). The report contains descriptions of the calculation methods used and related conditions, data on individual privately owned windmills, a summary of the most important tax and duty regulations, details of conditions for private windmill owners, a sensitivity analysis and an analysis of the development of the economy of privately owned windmills since 1991. It is concluded that, based on the current values named in the 1991 report, there is a drop in the case of cooperatively owned windmills of ca. 235,000 DKr and a rise in current value in the case of one-man owned windmills of 270,000 DKr. It is concluded that the changed conditions of the economy since 1991 has resulted in a poorer economy in relation to cooperatively owned windmills and an improvement in single-ownership windmills so that the current value in the latter is now positive. (AB)

  17. Reflections on the perspectives of the global economy from the point of view of emerging economies

    OpenAIRE

    Maria Luiza Falc, o Silva; Joaquim Pinto de Andrade; Thomas S. Torrance

    2000-01-01

    Recently a number of emerging economies, with high inflation and various kinds of imbalances have experienced what has come to be referred to as dollarization - the phenomenon of currency substitution where the dollar gradually replaces the national currency in the performance of its fundamental functions. The phenomenon is most commonly encountered as a component of the exchange-rate-based stabilization programs implemented in a number of emerging economies in Latin America, Asia and the Mid...

  18. The phenomenology of the movement economy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Liebst, Lasse Suonperä

    2015-01-01

    The theory of cities as movement economies constitutes a the¬oretical cornerstone of the space syntax paradigm, and the urban morphology literature offers considerable empirical evidence to support the theory’s key proposition that spatial accessibility correlates with economic land use values...

  19. Events as boosters of the regional economy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Krammer, L.; Heijman, W.J.M.

    2014-01-01

    Events are increasingly being used as a means to boost regional economic development through tourism, but are they truly effective to this end? In this article we attempted to answer this question by measuring the impact of the Christmas Festival ‘Magisch Maastricht’ on the economy of the

  20. Consumer Views: Importance of Fuel Economy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Singer, Mark [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)

    2017-04-11

    This presentation includes data captured by the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) to support the U.S. Department of Energy's Vehicle Technologies Office (VTO) research efforts. The data capture consumer views on the importance of fuel economy amongst other vehicle attributes and views on which alternative fuel types would be the best and worst replacements for gasoline.

  1. Scale interactions in economics: application to the evaluation of the economic damages of climatic change and of extreme events; Interactions d'echelles en economie: application a l'evaluation des dommages economiques du changement climatique et des evenements extremes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hallegatte, S

    2005-06-15

    Growth models, which neglect economic disequilibria, considered as temporary, are in general used to evaluate the damaging effects generated by climatic change. This work shows, through a series of modeling experiences, the importance of disequilibria and of endogenous variability of economy in the evaluation of damages due to extreme events and climatic change. It demonstrates the impossibility to separate the evaluation of damages from the representation of growth and of economic dynamics: the comfort losses will depend on both the nature and intensity of impacts and on the dynamics and situation of the economy to which they will apply. Thus, the uncertainties about the damaging effects of future climatic changes come from both scientific uncertainties and from uncertainties about the future organization of our economies. (J.S.)

  2. The System Dynamics of U.S. Automobile Fuel Economy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Todd K. BenDor

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available This paper analyzes the dynamics of U.S. automobile gasoline consumption since 1975. Using background literature on the history of domestic fuel economy and energy policy, I establish a conceptual model that explains historical trends in adoption of increased fuel economy. I then create a system dynamics simulation model to understand the relationship between increased fuel economy standards and potential changes to gas tax policies. The model suggests that when increases in mandated fuel economy are not conducted in an environment with rising fuel costs, fuel economy improvements may be directly counteracted by shifting tastes of consumers towards larger automobiles with lower fuel economy.

  3. The Migration of Railway Freight Transport from Command Economy to Market Economy: The Case of China.

    OpenAIRE

    Xie, R.; Chen, H.; Nash, C.

    2000-01-01

    In recent years, the Chinese railways freight transport has been facing great challenges from the transport market and economic expansion. The total freight volume has been increasing. But the market share of railway freight has decreased greatly, especially since the beginning of migration from command economy to market economy. In this paper, we make some insight into five aspects. Firstly, the historical and current situation of freight transport in China and the relationship between econo...

  4. The economy of knowledge, collapse and depression

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ugo Pagano

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available This paper reviews a recent strand of research emphasizing how the present institutions of the knowledge economy may be jeopardizing the very promise of growth and prosperity that the increased use of knowledge is generally reported to bring about. The excessive privatization of knowledge generates self-reinforcing vicious and virtuous circles of accumulation of intellectual property and investment in human capital, which increase global inequality. The present institutions of the global economy entail also a reduction of global investment opportunities that is one of the causes of the present global depression. Absent spontaneous antidotes to these phenomena, economic and science policies should aim at redressing the balance between public and private knowledge. Because of the distortion of incentives, stemming from uncompensated knowledge externalities at the international level, these policies should necessarily be coordinated at global level.

  5. Economy globalization and internationalization of business

    OpenAIRE

    Lucia PALIU-POPA

    2009-01-01

    In the conditions of contemporary world, the active participation in international division of labor is an essential component of the development process of each country. In this context the foreign trade, as a distinct branch of the national economy is an important factor of economic growth caused by the internationalization of business and determining for the process of globalization. Starting from the belief that international business development tends to bec...

  6. Dynamic systems of regional economy management optimization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trofimov, S.; Kudzh, S.

    directions of an industrial policy of region. The situational-analytical centers (SAC) of regional administration The major component of SAC is dynamic modeling, analysis, forecasting and optimization systems, based on modern intellectual information technologies. Spheres of SAC are not only financial streams management and investments optimization, but also strategic forecasting functions, which provide an optimum choice, "aiming", search of optimum ways of regional development and corresponding investments. It is expedient to consider an opportunity of formation of the uniform organizational-methodical center of an industrial policy of region. This organization can be directly connected to the scheduled-analytical services of the largest economic structures, local authorities, the ministries and departments. Such "direct communication" is capable to provide an effective regional development strategic management. Anyway, the output on foreign markets demands concentration of resources and support of authorities. Offered measures are capable to provide a necessary coordination of efforts of a various level economic structures. For maintenance of a regional industrial policy an attraction of all newest methods of strategic planning and management is necessary. Their activity should be constructed on the basis of modern approaches of economic systems management, cause the essence of an industrial policy is finally reduced to an effective regional and corporate economic activities control centers formation. Opportunities of optimum regional economy planning and management as uniform system Approaches to planning regional economic systems can be different. We will consider some most effective methods of planning and control over a regional facilities condition. All of them are compact and evident, that allows to put them into the group of average complexity technologies. At the decision of problems of a regional resource management is rather perspective the so

  7. Nigeria: the political economy of oil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khan, S.A.

    1994-01-01

    This book is the second in a series of books on the major petroleum exporting nations, most of them part of the developing world. These countries occupy a central position in the global economy given that oil is the energy source most used in the world and the most important primary commodity in international trade. At the same time they find themselves inescapably dependent on a single source of income. Their own economic prospects are closely bound to the future of their oil. It aims to provide a broad description of the oil and gas sectors, highlighting those features which give the country a physiognomy of its own. The analysis is set in the context of history, economic policy and international relations. It also seeks to identify the specific challenges that the exporting country studies will face in developing its wealth to the best advantage of the economy. (author)

  8. Venezuela: the political economy of oil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boue, J.C.

    1993-01-01

    This book inaugurates a new series of books on the major petroleum exporting nations, most of them part of the developing world. These countries occupy a central position in the global economy given that oil is the energy source most used in the world and the most important primary commodity in international trade. At the same time they find themselves inescapably dependent on a single source of income. Their own economic prospects are closely bound to the future of their oil. It aims to provide a broad description of the oil and gas sectors, highlighting those features which give the country a physiognomy of its own. The analysis is set in the context of history, economic policy and international relations. It also seeks to identify the specific challenges that the exporting country studies will face in developing its wealth to the best advantage of the economy. (author)

  9. Instant Internationalization of Emerging Economy New Ventures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Turcan, Romeo V.

    2012-01-01

    Being positioned and the intersection of international entrepreneurship and institutional theory, this study explores the process of instant internationalization of new ventures from emerging economies. It adopts a single-case study methodology, purposefully selecting an information-rich case where...... context of an emerging industry. Yet another set of contributions concerns the legitimation process of internationalization of a new venture from an emerging economy. A number of propositions are put forward to guide future research....... the phenomenon is manifested intensely, but not extremely. A family-owned venture located in Moldova that is in the business of processing fruit and vegetables was selected for this study. It started up in 2000 and from its inception the sales from exports grew almost 120% per year. Data collection took place...

  10. Diversification of the Economy: Institutional Aspects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nataliya Al. Kravchenko

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Institutional conditions are significant factors influencing motivation, behavior and performance results of different economic agents, which, in turn, determine directions and dynamics of structural shifts in the economy. There is a wide range of research on influence of various formal and informal institutions on processes of structural dynamics and diversification of economic activity through innovations in particular. We have carried out in-depth analysis of scientific publications on institutional impact at the level of the country as a whole and regions within countries, comparisons of different countries on the impact of institutional factors on production and technological diversification and their connection to economic development. As the main conceptual approaches, we emphasize evolutionary economics, theory of agglomeration economics and new economic geography. Based on the analysis we draw a conclusion, important for Russian economy, about priority directions of changing spatial and product specialization concerning resource regions of Russia. In conclusion of the article perspective directions for the future research on mutual influence of institutions and changes of production and technological structure, which are vital for Russian economy and its regions, are formulated.

  11. Estimating the Size and Impact of the Ecological Restoration Economy.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Todd BenDor

    Full Text Available Domestic public debate continues over the economic impacts of environmental regulations that require environmental restoration. This debate has occurred in the absence of broad-scale empirical research on economic output and employment resulting from environmental restoration, restoration-related conservation, and mitigation actions - the activities that are part of what we term the "restoration economy." In this article, we provide a high-level accounting of the size and scope of the restoration economy in terms of employment, value added, and overall economic output on a national scale. We conducted a national survey of businesses that participate in restoration work in order to estimate the total sales and number of jobs directly associated with the restoration economy, and to provide a profile of this nascent sector in terms of type of restoration work, industrial classification, workforce needs, and growth potential. We use survey results as inputs into a national input-output model (IMPLAN 3.1 in order to estimate the indirect and induced economic impacts of restoration activities. Based on this analysis we conclude that the domestic ecological restoration sector directly employs ~ 126,000 workers and generates ~ $9.5 billion in economic output (sales annually. This activity supports an additional 95,000 jobs and $15 billion in economic output through indirect (business-to-business linkages and increased household spending.

  12. Competitiveness in tourism economies of the APEC

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Reyna María Ibáñez Pérez

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available It is estimated that by 2030 the influx of tourists worldwide scope 1. 7 billion people. For such figures become a reality, timely in formation that can be taken as a reference for the generation of strategies aimed at harnessing the tourism potential of the various destinations in the world is required, plus a coordinated work between different economies, blocks and organizations. Here, in this article, an overview of the situation and development of tourism competitiveness of nations that make up the Forum Asia Pacific Economic Cooperation (APEC is provided. The methodology consisted of review of specialized search and sta tistical information influx, income and tourism competitiveness globally and literature APEC member country. The main results indicate that globally between 2010 and 2013, APEC countries experienced an increase in tourism revenues of 25%, a figure that exceeds global trends. In 2013, the level of tourism competitiveness presented by APEC, ranged between 6 and 82 position globally and only 53% of the 19 APEC economies that were evaluated by the World Economic Forum (WEF, improved their level of competitiveness. In relation to the regulatory framework linked to tourism, nations like Peru, Brunei and Russia reached the lowest ratings of the block thus have enormous work to do to improve your score in this category. In business environment and infrastructure, highlighted America. While in human and cultural resources, proved to be the issue in which APEC economies outperformed. Finally, results for APEC economies, evidence that critical areas are those concerning regulation and policies; and particularly sustainability issue, which can become a bottleneck in terms of competitiveness in the area of APEC therefore must strengthen and design better strategies for joint efforts in relation to such matters.

  13. The Moral Economy of Suffering

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Danneskiold-Samsøe, Sofie

    2006-01-01

    This study concerns people who fled Iraq and came to Denmark as refugees, most of them victims of torture and state violence. On the basis of three months of ethnographic fieldwork in a rehabilitation centre for torture victims, followed by ten months of ethnographic fieldwork among Iraqi...... associations and families, the thesis presents the perspective of Iraqi families, trying to make a living in Denmark, and struggling with fellow Iraqis and local authorities for recognition of their suffering. The thesis aims at providing a nuanced understanding of the suffering of Iraqi refugees in Denmark...

  14. The Political Economy of Sport

    OpenAIRE

    Stefan Szymanski

    2000-01-01

    The political constitutions of both the US and Europe provide no guidance on the role of organised sport in society. Without a proper set of rules politicians are finding sports issues increasingly hard to handle. In the US there is widespread concern at the commercial exploitation of major league sports, particularly through the relocation of franchises. In Europe there are anxieties about the increasing polarisation of wealth and the fear that traditions built up over a century will be lost...

  15. Tourism, the Future of Economy in Albania

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arjana Kadiu

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Tourism is one of the main pillars of economy for many countries in the world. It influences the economy and offers more employment possibilities every year. Mediterranean countries have a favorable, geographical position and climate to develop tourism. Most of these countries, have obtained higher incomes from this industry, and as a result, more prosperity and economic development. Today, about 30 % of the world’s tourists spend their vacations in the Mediterranean Region. Albania is one of these countries and it has great possibilities for the future.The nature of Albania, it’s geographical position and its panorama, the climatic and physical diversity of its territory, represent some of its rich resources and strengthness. Previously, Albania’s economy depended in agriculture and small industries. After the 90-s, when many citizens left the country, the situation changed and even that source of income became inconsiderable. Heavy or textile industry, were hardly developed. Tourism was hardly developed too. Only few investments were made in this sector. In October 2012, EU Commission recommended Albania to be granted the EU candidate status. Therefore, Albania’s economy has to be developed according to EU standards. In this paper we would like to assess, which may be some important and effective innovative management strategies for Albania’s tourism. What are some of the steps to follow in this direction? The article aims to make a comparison with Greece and Montenegro, as reference points, in order to understand these countries’ touristic strategies and try to adapt some of them or think about new effective ones. It aims to provide a profile that shows; strengths, weaknesses, opportunities and threats. The study will be based in official statistics and scientific literature. The study concludes that the economic benefits of tourism are considerable, immediate and there are many new ways to activate the natural sources of Albania.

  16. Impacts of biodiesel production on Croatian economy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kulisic, Biljana; Loizou, Efstratios; Rozakis, Stelios; Segon, Velimir

    2007-01-01

    The aim of this paper is to assess the direct and indirect impacts on a national economy from biodiesel (rapeseed methyl ester (RME)) production using input-output (I-O) analysis. Biodiesel development in Croatia is used as a case study. For Croatia, as for many other countries in Europe, biodiesel is a new activity not included in the existing I-O sectoral accounts. For this reason the I-O table has to be modified accordingly before being able to quantify the effect of an exogenous demand for biodiesel. Impacts in terms of output, income and employment lead to the conclusion that biodiesel production could have significant positive net impact on the Croatian economy despite the high level of subsidies for rapeseed growing

  17. The Maritime Potential of ASEAN Economies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hans-Dieter Evers

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Countries may utilize a long coastline in relation to their landmass as a resource to develop their maritime economy. This paper argues that ASEAN countries differ in utilizing their maritime potential. As a basis for further comparative studies the Center for Policy Research and International Studies (CenPRIS in Penang developed a set of indicators to measure the maritime potential of nations, the state of their maritime industries, and the degree to which the maritime potential has actually been utilized. Using the CenPRIS Ocean Index (COI shows that Brunei and the Philippines have underutilized their maritime potentials, whereas Singapore and Thailand have made full use of it. Malaysia still has the potential to further develop its maritime economy.

  18. A new political economy of climate change

    OpenAIRE

    Damian , Michel

    2016-01-01

    International audience; This article responds to Jean Tirole, winner of the Nobel prize for economics in 2014 and the signatories of the international appeal launched by Toulouse School of Economics and the Climate Economics Chair at Paris Dauphine University who propose setting a universal carbon price and establishing a transcontinental emissions trading system. We hold that the Paris Agreement, which disregarded such recommendations, represents a paradigm shift. The new political economy o...

  19. Globalization of the world economy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Adelman, M.A. [Massachusetts Inst. of Technology, Center for Energy and Environmental Policy Research, Cambridge, MA (United States)

    1996-12-01

    Global trade has been growing for some 400 years. Comparing the present with 1914, there are several major changes: speed of communication and travel, the ease of moving financial assets, the growth in the Asian countries and the end of colonialism. The impact of this economic-political change in forces has a market effect on the energy industry and examples are explained. (UK)

  20. Political Economy of Public Health

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Judith W. Leavitt

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Review of: Launching Global Health: The Caribbean Odyssey of the Rockefeller Foundation. Steven Palmer. Ann Arbor: University of Michigan Press, 2010. xi + 301 pp. (Cloth US$ 70.00 Partner to the Poor: A Paul Farmer Reader. Paul Farmer, edited by Haun Saussy. Berkeley: University of California Press, 2010. xii + 660 pp. (Paper US$ 27.50

  1. Economy of electric power transmission

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Manzoni, G.; Delfanti, M.

    2008-01-01

    An analysis is presented of the impact of H V and Ehv transmission costs on the final value of the kWh supplied, with reference both to transmission systems of the European type and to long distance point-to-point transmission links. The analysis is extended to A C transmission by underground cables and to Hvdc submarine and aerial links. In the European power system, the impact of transmission costs results to be usually modest, but it may become important in the case of network congestions [it

  2. Global environmental impacts of the hydrogen economy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Derwent, R.; Simmonds, P.; O'Doherty, S.; Manning, A.; Collins, W.; Stevenson, D.

    2006-01-01

    Hydrogen-based energy systems appear to be an attractive proposition in providing a future replacement for the current fossil-fuel based energy systems. Hydrogen is an important, though little studied, trace component of the atmosphere. It is present at the mixing ratio of about 510 ppb currently and has important man-made and natural sources. Because hydrogen reacts with tropospheric hydroxyl radicals, emissions of hydrogen to the atmosphere perturb the distributions of methane and ozone, the second and third most important greenhouse gases after carbon dioxide. Hydrogen is therefore an indirect greenhouse gas with a global warming potential GWP of 5.8 over a 100-year time horizon. A future hydrogen economy would therefore have greenhouse consequences and would not be free from climate perturbations. If a global hydrogen economy replaced the current fossil fuel-based energy system and exhibited a leakage rate of 1%, then it would produce a climate impact of 0.6% of the current fossil fuel based system. Careful attention must be given to reduce to a minimum the leakage of hydrogen from the synthesis, storage and use of hydrogen in a future global hydrogen economy if the full climate benefits are to be realised. (author)

  3. Business models of the collaborative economy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gyimóthy, Szilvia

    2017-01-01

    Collaborative business models are often equated with disruptive commercial endeavors, epitomised by a handful large global sharing platforms. They represent a certain archetype of business model, extracting profit from market-mediated peer exchanges. A narrow focus on for-profit models obstructs...... coming to terms with the full scope of the collaborative economy phenomena, driven by purposes and actors beyond commercial market domains. This chapter attempts to broaden this perspective by reviewing alternative value creation mechanisms and presents emerging business model archetypes....

  4. The Changing Nature of Doing Business in Transition Economies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    The Changing Nature of Doing Business in Transition Economies uses a variety of national backgrounds to review the advancing business development of emerging economies and the impact of changing business conditions. It provides detailed insights into the way in which businesses function...... successfully in emerging economies with a comprehensive overview of the major strategic aspects involved....

  5. Professors of the New Economy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, Robin

    2000-01-01

    Profiles four professors who epitomize the increasing influence of academe on new technology-driven Internet business: a start-up maven, Steven Kaplan; a social psychologist, Michael Ray; a cyberlawyer, David Post; and an e-commerce expert, Andrew B. Whinston. (DB)

  6. Summary of fuel economy performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-12-09

    This report contains estimated fleet production numbers and CAFE figures obtained from pre-model year (source I) and mid-model year (source 2) documents assembled prior to or during the model year. The actual mpg values reported to EPA at the end of ...

  7. Development pattern of circular economy in Jiangsu coastland

    OpenAIRE

    Wang, Liang

    2009-01-01

    Circular economy is an effective development pattern to balance economic growth, social development and environmental protection. Based on apprehending the connotation of circular economy, this paper fully considers and studies on the future trends in this area according to the theory of circular economy and the empirical circumstances of Jiangsu Coastland. This paper also discusses the circular economy development pattern adopted by Jiangsu coastland during economic and social development fr...

  8. The petroleum economy of the Congo

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gualbert-Brice Massengo, Ph.D.

    2005-01-01

    The author aims to explain the petroleum phenomena in Congo as a contribution to the truth. The Congo petroleum experience can be seen as a lesson for the next generations and for the other african countries. The Congo Brazzaville, a little country by its population and well equipped in natural and human resources, is become meanwhile a non security area for its inhabitants because of a decreasing economy and a continuous political crisis. (A.L.B.)

  9. Political Economies Come Home: On the Political Economies of Housing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Alexander, Catherine; Bruun, Maja Hojer; Koch, Insa

    2018-01-01

    to assert rights or engage with authorities. Two final characteristics are the loss of a perceived moral right to a secure home and a sense of betrayal. In some places, housing conflicts lead to protests and resistance as people perform this sense that political and economic elites have violated or reneged...... obligations at multiple levels. Second, several actors appear, or are invoked as authorities to be appealed or performed to for satisfaction of rights, from state bodies and individuals to banks, third sector and collective organisations and social movements. Third there is often lack of clarity over how...

  10. The economy of the climatic change; Economie du changement climatique

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marvillet, J.

    2011-01-15

    In his introduction, the author recalls that the climatic warming up is admitted by everybody and that the Total firm follows the recommendations of the main point of the scientific community to integrate it in a permanent way in its approach. (O.M.)

  11. Internet of Things, Blockchain and Shared Economy Applications

    OpenAIRE

    Huckle, Steve; Bhattacharya, Rituparna; White, Martin; Beloff, Natalia

    2016-01-01

    This paper explores how the Internet of Things and blockchain technology can benefit shared economy applications. The focus of this research is understanding how blockchain can be exploited to create decentralised, shared economy applications that allow people to monetise, securely, their things to create more wealth. Shared economy applications such as Airbnb and Uber are well-known applications, but there are many other opportunities to share in the digital economy. With the recent interest...

  12. The political economy of global finamcial meltdown (Depression ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    It submitted that the global economy was indeed in depression. The implication of mono-economy based on crude oil, purchased only by the west whose economy is shrinking is very dire to the Nigeria it observed. It recommended the adaptation of the Keynesian principles of economic management which involved massive ...

  13. Political Economies of Health: A Consideration for International Nursing Studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peters, Michael A.; Drummond, John S.

    2008-01-01

    This article introduces and explores the concept of political economy. In particular it focuses upon the political economy of health while also considering the implications for international nursing studies in the context of health care more generally. Political economy is not only about budgets, resources and policy. It is also about particular…

  14. Globalisation, Knowledge and the Myth of the Magnet Economy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Phillip; Lauder, Hugh

    2006-01-01

    This article examines the dominant view of the changing relationship between education, jobs and rewards in the global knowledge economy. This asserts that the developed economies can resolve issues of individual aspirations, economic efficiency and social justice through the creation of a high-skills, high-wage "magnet" economy. Here…

  15. Stretched exponential distributions in Nature and Economy: ``Fat tails'' with characteristic scales

    OpenAIRE

    Laherrère, Jean; Sornette, D.

    1998-01-01

    To account quantitatively for many reported ``natural'' fat tail distributions in Nature and Economy, we propose the stretched exponential family as a complement to the often used power law distributions. It has many advantages, among which to be economical with only two adjustable parameters with clear physical interpretation. Furthermore, it derives from a simple and generic mechanism in terms of multiplicative processes. We show that stretched exponentials describe very well the distributi...

  16. The Initiation of Homeless Youth into the Street Economy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gwadz, Marya Viorst; Gostnell, Karla; Smolenski, Carol; Willis, Brian; Nish, David; Nolan, Theresa C.; Tharaken, Maya; Ritchie, Amanda S.

    2009-01-01

    Homeless youth (HY) who lack employment in the formal economy typically turn to the street economy (e.g., prostitution, drug selling) for survival. Guided by the theory of social control, the present paper explores factors influencing HY's initiation into the street economy. Eighty HY (ages 15-23) were recruited from four community-based…

  17. Characteristics of the Las Vegas/Clark County visitor economy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1988-06-01

    The purpose of this report is to present the results of a review of the Clark County visitor economy and the Clark County visitor. The review, undertaken in support of NWPO's two objectives mentioned above, addressed a number of topics including performance of the Clark County visitor economy as a generator of employment, earnings and tax base; importance of the Clark County visitor economy to the Nevada economy as a whole; elements of the Clark County visitor economy outside the Las Vegas strip and downtown areas; current trends in the Clark County visitor industry; and indirect economic effects of Clark County casino/hotel purchases

  18. The industrial dynamics of the new digital economy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frøslev Christensen, Jens; Maskell, Peter

    This work investigates the implications of digital technologies on the industrial and business dynamics of modern economies. In-depth studies analyse how deep-rooted work practices of the Old Economy have been dramatically challenged when confronted with the entrepreneurial wave of the New Economy...... channels of interaction with old partners must be reconfigured and familiar divisions of labour rethought. This book presents novel and detailed data showing how vast and still dominant industries of the Old Economy have responded to the new challenges and exploited the emerging opportunities...... those interested in technology, innovation and the New Economy....

  19. PRECONDITIONS AND DETERMINING CAUSES OF THE SHADOW ECONOMY IN UKRAINE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Z. Varnalii

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available The article analyzes the main processes that led to the high level of the economy shadowing. The historical aspects of the formation of the shadow economy in Ukraine are highlighted. The socio-economic aspects of the shadow economy of Ukraine causality are discussed. The theoretical contribution of foreign and domestic researchers on the preconditions of formation of the shadow economy in transition economies is studied. Theoretical perspective on the factors of the shadowing processes in the economy of Ukraine from the standpoint of modern scientific researches is analyzed. The paper also provides scientific vectors for further development of researches aimed at studying the causes and preconditions of the shadow economy.

  20. Collaborative Economy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    collaborative economy and tourism Dianne Dredge and Szilvia Gyimóthy PART I - Theoretical explorations 2.Definitions and mapping the landscape in the collaborative economy Szilvia Gyimóthy and Dianne Dredge 3.Business models of the collaborative economy Szilvia Gyimóthy 4.Responsibility and care...... in the collaborative economy Dianne Dredge 5.Networked cultures in the collaborative economy Szilvia Gyimóthy 6.Policy and regulatory perspectives in the collaborative economy Dianne Dredge PART II - Disruptions, innovations and transformations 7.Regulating innovation in the collaborative economy: An examination...... localities of tourism Greg Richards 11.Collaborative economy and destination marketing organizations: A systems approach Jonathan Day 12.Working within the Collaborative Tourist Economy: The complex crafting of work and meaning Jane Widtfeldt Meged and Mathilde Dissing Christensen PART - III Encounters...

  1. The problem of bio-concepts: biopolitics, bio-economy and the political economy of nothing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Birch, Kean

    2017-12-01

    Scholars in science and technology studies—and no doubt other fields—have increasingly drawn on Michel Foucault's concept of biopolitics to theorize a variety of new `bio-concepts'. While there might be some theoretical value in such exercises, many of these bio-concepts have simply replaced more rigorous—and therefore time-consuming—analytical work. This article provides a (sympathetic) critique of these various bio-concepts, especially as they are applied to the emerging `bio-economy'. In so doing, the article seeks to show that the analysis of the bio-economy could be better framed as a political economy of nothing. This has several implications for science education, which are raised in the article.

  2. GDP and efficiency of Russian economy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borodachev, Sergey M.

    2018-01-01

    The goal is to study GDP (gross domestic product) as an unobservable characteristic of the Russian national economy state on the basis of more reliable observed data on gross output (systems output) and final consumption (systems control). To do this, the dynamic Leontief model is presented in a system-like form and its parameters and GDP dynamics are estimated by the Kalman filter (KF). We consider that all previous year's investments affect the growth of the gross output by the next year. The weights of these investments in the sum are equal to unity and decrease in geometric progression. The estimation of the model parameters was carried out by the maximum likelihood method. The original data on the gross output and final consumption in the period from 1995 to 2015 years where taken from the Rosstat website, where maximally aggregated economy of Russia is reflected in the system of national accounts. The growth of direct costs and capital expenditures at gross output increase has been discovered, which indicates the extensive character of the development of the economy. Investments are being absorbed 2 - 4 years; any change of them causes a surge of commissioned fixed assets fluctuation with a period of 2 years. Then these parameter values were used in the KF to estimate the states of the system. The emerging tendency of the transition of GDP growth to its fall means that the rate of growth of final consumption is higher than the rate of GDP growth. In general, the behavior of the curve of Rosstat GDP obviously follows the declared investments, whereas in the present calculation it is closer to the behavior of final consumption. Estimated GDP and investments that really increased it were significantly less after the crisis of 2008-2009 years than officially published data.

  3. Accounting concept of inventories in postindustrial economy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pravdyuk N.L.

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available The accounting of inventories has undergone significant changes over a relatively short period of time. It has changed the scientific picture of their definition and classification, measurement and write-offs reflected in the financial statements. However, these changes happen without proper interpretation and system analysis. And, at least in general terms the inventories are conducted in Ukraine according to IFRS; this causes some obstacles to the objective reflection of working capital of enterprises, and the transparency of disclosure and is not conducive to the formation of a proper investment climate. It is established that the information provision inventory control must meet the requirements of the postindustrial economy by the complicating and deepening the complexity of accounting, the introduction of new forms and their synthesis with the current one, a gradual reorganization to ensure the needs of consumers and enterprise evaluation. The results of the study have substantiated the fundamentals of accounting concepts in the postindustrial economy in the part of the circulating capital, which forms inventories. The information support of inventory management should be implemented in a hierarchical way, when it first and foremost analyzes the working capital, and further deals with inventories and stocks as its subordinate components. The author considers the material goods to be a broader concept than reserves, because they have a dual nature both estimated as the share of negotiable assets, and as the physical component of material costs. The paper gives the definition of this category of symbiosis, which is based on P(CBU 9. The general structure of the current inventories are of significant importance, which has differences in industries, the dominant of which is agriculture, industry, construction, trade, material production. The postindustrial economy caused the questions of differentiation of concepts "production" and "material

  4. Aspen: A microsimulation model of the economy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Basu, N.; Pryor, R.J.; Quint, T.; Arnold, T.

    1996-10-01

    This report presents, Aspen. Sandia National Laboratories is developing this new agent-based microeconomic simulation model of the U.S. economy. The model is notable because it allows a large number of individual economic agents to be modeled at a high level of detail and with a great degree of freedom. Some features of Aspen are (a) a sophisticated message-passing system that allows individual pairs of agents to communicate, (b) the use of genetic algorithms to simulate the learning of certain agents, and (c) a detailed financial sector that includes a banking system and a bond market. Results from runs of the model are also presented.

  5. Impacts of Emerging Economies and Firms on International Business

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    The internationalization of emerging economies has brought new perspectives to international business development. Focusing on the extensive impact these emerging economies and firms have had, this volume covers the strong players, such as Brazil, Russia, India and China, as well as dynamically d...... originating from emerging economies. It explores new horizons in international business development and addresses challenging perspectives.......The internationalization of emerging economies has brought new perspectives to international business development. Focusing on the extensive impact these emerging economies and firms have had, this volume covers the strong players, such as Brazil, Russia, India and China, as well as dynamically...

  6. Impact of Geological Changes on Regional and Global Economies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tatiana, Skufina; Peter, Skuf'in; Vera, Samarina; Taisiya, Shatalova; Baranov, Sergey

    2017-04-01

    Periods of geological changes such as super continent cycle (300-500 million years), Wilson's cycles (300-900 million years), magmatic-tectonic cycle (150-200 million years), and cycles with smaller periods (22, 100, 1000 years) lead to a basic contradiction preventing forming methodology of the study of impact of geological changes on the global and regional economies. The reason of this contradiction is the differences of theoretical and methodological aspects of the Earth science and economics such as different time scales and accuracy of geological changes. At the present the geological models cannot provide accurate estimation of time and place where geological changes (strong earthquakes, volcanos) are expected. Places of feature (not next) catastrophic events are the only thing we have known. Thus, it is impossible to use the periodicity to estimate both geological changes and their consequences. Taking into accounts these factors we suggested a collection of concepts for estimating impact of possible geological changes on regional and global economies. We illustrated our approach by example of estimating impact of Tohoku earthquake and tsunami of March 2011 on regional and global economies. Based on this example we concluded that globalization processes increase an impact of geological changes on regional and global levels. The research is supported by Russian Foundation for Basic Research (Projects No. 16-06-00056, 16-32-00019, 16-05-00263A).

  7. Hegemony and Stability of the International Economy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gheorghe Gruia

    2006-07-01

    Full Text Available This paper evaluates the relationship between hegemony and the stability of the world economy in a time in history when the hegemony of the United States is more and more questioned. The theory of hegemonic stability - firstly launched by Charles Kindleberger and further developed by Robert Gilpin, Stephen Krasner and Robert Keohane, states that for an international system of trade and finance to function smoothly there must be a hegemon. According to Keohane, a hegemon is a state that possesses the following characteristics: the ability to create, enforce and maintain international norms; the will to do it; and the decisive domination in the economic, technological and military fields. During the last two centuries the world experienced the hegemony of two powers: Great Britain and the United States, with their good and bad features. These two hegemonies – when exercised, demonstrated the relationship between hegemony and the stability of the world economy. Now, at the beginning of a new century, the hegemony of the United States seems to be questioned and a future posthegemonic world system is still under theoretical debate. In this situation is it wise for the world politicians to hurry the dethroning of the hegemon? This paper argues for the strengthening of the cooperation - mainly between the United States and the European Union, and for the responsible action of all the states in order to make a smooth and orderly transition to a new world system. The lack of cooperation could lead to disorders, to the revival of the protectionist attitude of the United States, and finally to a worsening of the world economy.

  8. Editorial: Dilemmas of Modern Economy and Business

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jelena Stankevičienė

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Various dilemmas concerning modern economy and business have been in the focus of scientific discussion in recent years (Klich, 2013; Renko & Knezevic, 2013; Szarucki, 2013; Agrawal & Gugnani, 2014; Pardhasaradhi & Grace, 2015. In modern economy, not only researches but corporations face complex economic and business dilemmas in their daily routine. The Joint Research Centre of the European Commission addresses key economic challenges by stimulating innovations, sustainability policies, social and environmental responsibilities. These challenges require the mobilization of significant resources by science, innovation and regional policy makers and scientific communities across Europe (EUA, 2014. Broader scientific discussions are crucial for the success of the Europe 2020 strategy for smart, sustainable and inclusive growth. According to the Global Risks Report 2015, the biggest threat to world stability in the next 10 years arise from the four most serious economic risks. These are high structural unemployment or underemployment, energy price shock, critical information infrastructure breakdown and fiscal crises. We continuously agree that innovation is critical to global prosperity (WEF, 2015. Currently, the internationalisation of family businesses is an increasingly important research area. Substantial numbers of FBs are forced to expand into foreign markets in order to survive and grow in the competitive environment (Daszkiewicz & Wach, 2014. The roles of business angels are especially important taken both decreasing the levels of formal venture capital investment and growing average amount of individual deals. Angel investors are the key players in generating high-growth companies, essential to regional economic development. As a result, they have attracted the attention of policy makers (Rostamzadeh et. al., 2014. Consequently, this issue of EBER concentrates on the current dilemmas of modern economy and business, particularly dealing

  9. Economy of climate policy. Criticism and alternatives

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Van den Bergh, J.C.J.M.

    2002-01-01

    The economy of climate policy is characterized by notions as cost-benefit analysis, optimal policy and optimal timing. It is argued that the use of such notions reflects an unjustified optimism with respect to the contribution of economic science to the discussion on climate policy. The complexity of the biosphere and the uncertainty about climatic change, as well as their socio-economic consequences, are extensive. Another economic approach of the climate problem is suggested, based on complexity and historical justice. 12 refs [nl

  10. The Political Economy of International Transitional Administration

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grasten, Maj Lervad; Tzouvala, Ntina

    2018-01-01

    This article reconstructs how democratic participation and interference can be fended off by the construction of an international authoritarian political architecture and a strongly legalised and specific form of market economy. We do this by interrogating International Territorial Administration...... corporations. Even though the two administrations focused on different aspects of land and agriculture regulation, we argue that significant commonalities exist between their political preferences and interests. Our work draws on the tradition of critical legal studies in International Law (IL) and we posit...... that by drawing on this tradition, scholarship on post-conflict international territorial administration is better able to capture the long-term ramifications of international intervention....

  11. The geography of the knowledge economy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Teis

    Today, acquisition, creation and utilisation of knowledge are the key factors explaining economic development. Firms must constantly employ new knowledge and combine different types of knowledge in their activities to maintain competitiveness. This thesis examines the knowledge economy from two...... on collaboration motives, it is particularly important in collaboration projects at the core of innovation processes, where the objective is to access technologies, obtain knowledge or reduce the innovation time-span. The main conclusion of the thesis’ second part is that low- and medium low-tech industries...

  12. Outlook of Japan's economy and energy demand for FY2017

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aoshima, Momoko; Yorita, Y.; Tsunoda, M.

    2017-01-01

    This paper disclosed the prospects of Japan's economy and energy demand as the standard scenario, with the following major preconditions in mind: (1) world economy grows moderately, (2) supply and demand of crude oil are gently balanced, (3) exchange rate is Yen110/$, (4) nuclear power generation gradually moves back to operation, and the number of cumulative reopening units until the end of FY2017 reaches 14, and (5) supply and demand of electric power can secure 3% supply reserve ratio necessary for stable supply of electricity nationwide. In addition, this paper carried out evaluation analyses on the following various influences: macro economy, production activity, primary energy domestic supply, final energy consumption, electricity sales volume and power source composition (electric power companies), city gas sales volume (gas companies), fuel oil and LPG sales volume and crude oil throughput, renewable energy power generation, impact of nuclear power plant restart base, income/expenditure for on renewable energy generation, and impact of realization of large scale coal thermal power plant plan. (A.O.)

  13. SYSTEMATIZATION OF SCIENTIFIC APPROACHES TO THE INTERPRETATION OF INFORMATION ECONOMY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nataliya Kholiavko

    2017-09-01

    , however, we should not consider them as synonymous terms. There is no the only consistent interpretation of the term “information economy” in the scientific literature, which is explained by differences in views and research methods of different scholars. Moreover, this is complemented by the high dynamism of the economic component of the information society, which is why new aspects of its study are constantly emerging. Conclusions. The article analyses views of domestic and foreign scholars on the essence of the information economy. Systematization of scientific approaches made it possible to note that their pluralism is determined by differences in the views of scientists, the methodology used, scientific schools, etc. The analysed definitions are characterized by different degrees of concreteness, abstractness, scale, complexity, completeness, and systematicity in disclosing the essence of information economy with possible identification of the component composition and determinants of its development. Based on the systematization of scientific approaches to the interpretation of this concept, it is proposed to consider the information economy as a type of economic system, which is characterized by the defining role of information and information technologies in the processes of production, exchange, distribution, and consumption, as well as in the development of basic industries and the national economy as a whole. The author emphasizes that ensuring the competitiveness of economic entities at the micro (local, sectoral, macro (national, and mega (international levels requires the implementation of flexible and highly adaptive mechanisms for generation, accumulation, processing, analysis, information transfer, effective distribution and use of information resources, rapid update and implementation of innovative information and communication technologies. In terms of formation of the information economy, industries, sectors, and spheres, which are capable of

  14. Energy - vital nerve of the economy|

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ebner, F.

    1987-01-01

    A withdrawal from nuclear energy is often demanded by the same parties who also demand full employment, better working conditions, higher salaries and increased social benefits. The demands are conflicting. It would be extremely risky for Switzerland to be forced into a supply bottle-neck. Economists should warn emphatically against such a development. The economy cannot retain its strength in international competition without a sufficient and reliable supply of electricity and with other energy at competitive prices. The employers demanded in their common declaration to the energy policy of September 24, 1986 that the necessary legal preconditions for a secure energy supply should be maintained

  15. International Stand of Ukrainian Mechanical Engineering in the European Economy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anastasia A. Goncharova

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available The article analyses the significant changes in the society that have taken place in Ukraine for the past twenty-five years that considerably influenced the structure and dynamics of mechanical engineering, which, due to objective and subjective reasons, is not ready for large-scale transformational actions. The author has also investigated the dynamics of changes, taking place in the machine-building complex of Ukraine. There have been identified structural changes of the industrial complex that occurred during the crisis and post-crisis period. The article has identified the position of Ukrainian engineering in the European economy.

  16. Political economy of love: nurturance gap, disembedded economy and freedom constraints within neoliberal capitalism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O’Hara Phillip Anthony

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This article critically evaluates the forms of love capital being accumulated by people in capitalist economies, through the lens of some of the core general principles of heterodox political economy (HPE. We start by situating love historically in the neoliberal culture and then examine the six main love styles as well as the five critical factors through the process of circular and cumulative causation. We then scrutinise the contradictions of neoliberal capitalism involving the nurturance gap, disembedded economy and freedom constraint which inhibit the generation of holistic love capital. The path dependent nature of love is then linked to relational phases and instabilities, especially involving serial monogamy in the United States. Some of the core principles of HPE provide a vantage point for scrutinising the problems involved in stimulating holistic love capital in the contemporary environment.

  17. Feminism and Critical Political Economy of Communication

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mojca Pajnik

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The article deals with the study of feminist analysis in the field of political economy of communication. We discuss feminisms that flirt with Marxism, socialist and radical feminism, in the light of the importance of studies in the field of communication. We highlight the relevance of the feminist critique of Marxism, drawing attention to the engendered class and addressing the inequalities of capitalist society, not only in the sphere of production but also with relation to the reproductive labor. We introduce notions of “capitalist patriarchy” and “sex class” in order to emphasize the dialectical relationship between the class stratification and hierarchical structuring of capitalist society. We problematize the decline of the materialist perspectives in feminist critique as a turn to discourse and ideology while marginalizing class as an analytical category. In this article, we introduce an intersectional understanding of gender that contributes to gender de-essencialization and de-homogenization. Attention is also paid to prospects for the feminist political economy of communication today, to how it is constituted and what types of analyses it brings and why it is important for the understanding of contemporary society and the processes of communication.

  18. The impact of oil on the Scottish economy with particular reference to the Aberdeen economy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lloyd, M.G.; Newlands, D.A.

    1992-01-01

    The establishment of the North Sea oil industry over the last 20 years has had far reaching and dramatic effects upon the whole Scottish economy but especially upon those areas where oil related activity is geographically concentrated. This chapter discusses the impact of oil on the Scottish economy with particular reference to developments in the Aberdeen area. It is comprised of five main sections. The first outlines the way in which the oil industry has developed in Britain, noting that, despite rapid growth, there have been many lost opportunities. The impact of oil related developments in Scotland is discussed next before the focus narrows to the Aberdeen economy. The third section describes the familiar benefits of oil developments in Aberdeen while the fourth section analyses some of the less familiar costs. Finally, there is some discussion of the way in which the gains and losses of oil developments in Aberdeen have been distributed. (author)

  19. What drives employment growth of Canadian Businesses? A Fresh Look at Indicators of Agglomeration Economies when Competition and Diversity Matter

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wang, Cong; Steiner, Bodo

    2014-01-01

    This study investigates indicators of external scale economies in Canada for the period 2004-11. Accounting for firm-level external scale forces, we explore the extent to which external scale economies impact employment growth. Our analysis focuses on three factors: the impact of external scale...... economies accounting for Marshallian specialization and Jacobs diversity, competition by industry, and related and unrelated firm varieties in terms of employment and sales. Results accounting for non-linearity between employment growth and agglomeration suggest that in the short run, during the period 2004...

  20. The offshorization of economy: the present realities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maslak Olga

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available In this article the essence and main types of offshore zones have been studied. It has been analyzed the main reasons for cooperation with the tax havens, established that the main reason of the Ukrainian economy offshorization is not only the desire of economic entities to optimize taxes, but also the desire to protect their assets from the negative impact of the crisis phenomena in the national economy during 2010-2016. The foreign experience of the anti-offshore regulation has been researched. It has been defined that the general anti-offshore regulation vector should be based on the principles of financial transparency, active cooperation with the international community, an optimal combination of instruments that restrict the capital outflows and the effective instruments that stimulate the business development in the country. It has been also established that the mechanism of deoffshorization should be aimed not only at elimination of the territories with the preferential taxation, but also at receiving benefits from their use on the basis of the existing financial infrastructure of the leading world offshore centers. The experience of China in attracting additional foreign investments, gaining wider access to financial resources through the cooperation with an offshore financial centre has been researched.

  1. Theory of Microcrediting in Transitional Economies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nikola Kadoić

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available In the early 1970s, Bangladeshi banker and economist Dr. Muhammad Yunus designed microcrediting – a socially sensitive and rightful system of fighting poverty and high unemployment rates. His Grameen Bank for the poorest of the poor in Bangladesh has so far lifted more than 3.2 million of individuals and their families out of poverty. After initial successes at home, microcredit was put into service for reducing unemployment and alleviating poverty in numerous countries throughout the world. This paper explores specific problems that a typical transitional country (like Croatia, is likely to face, with unemployment – the source of a vast number of related problems in a transitional society – as the focal point. The authors have attempted to incorporate particularities of a transitional economy into the original microcrediting principles. As a solution to problems afflicting the domestic economy, the authors define a global microcrediting system framework on the macroeconomic level, assuming at the same time that microcrediting of socially vulnerable groups can resolve many problems of modern transitional societies. Arising from the authors' primary intention – to consider in depth the functionality of microcrediting in general transition conditions – a transitional microcrediting system has been defined in general terms, and a corresponding financial and mathematical model developed.

  2. Influence of peculiarities of transition economy on real estate market

    OpenAIRE

    Venclauskienė, Deimantė; Snieška, Vytautas

    2010-01-01

    Global integration processes highlight relevance and weight of real estate market in determining economic cycle processes in different countries. Real estate market processes in countries with transition economy differ from real estate market processes in countries with developed economy in their peculiarities, possible reactions of market participators to economic shocks and consequences to country‘s economy. Common problems with property privatization, formation of legal and financial syste...

  3. Aspects of essences of competitiveness of national economy

    OpenAIRE

    Dikan, V.; Kirdina, E.

    2009-01-01

    Existent approaches are considered to determination of concept «competitiveness of national economy» and author approach is formed to him. Intercommunication between the competitiveness of national economy is set globalization’s processes, practical recommendations are developed on the increase of competitiveness of Ukraine in outer space.

  4. Scaling cigars in the Cuban tourism economy Configurar a escala dos charutos na economia do turismo em Cuba

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valerio Simoni

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available Taking scale as an object of analysis (Tsing 2000, this article examines how competing scale-making projects emerge in different layers of the Cuban tourism economy. I consider how tourists and Cubans interact along contested chains of production and distribution of cigars, and therefore become entangled in bundles of ideas, discourses, practices and materialities. These constitute different scaling propositions on which tourists and Cubans converge or diverge, and which inform the success of encounters within the tourism economy. Highlighted is the importance of understanding how scaling propositions are enacted and negotiated within tourism. I conclude that the realm of tourism is a particularly fruitful platform to investigate how competing scale-making projects and notions of scale are played out in the contemporary world.Tomando a escala (Tsing 2000 como objecto de análise, este artigo aborda a forma como emergem projectos concorrentes de configuração de escala a diferentes níveis da economia turística cubana. É examinada a interacção de turistas e cubanos no âmbito de cadeias de produção e distribuição controversas, e as formas como, assim, uns e outros se envolvem em conjuntos de ideias, discursos, práticas e materialidades. Estes constituem diferentes propostas de configuração de escala em que turistas e cubanos convergem ou divergem e que determinam o sucesso dos encontros no seio da economia turística. É aqui sublinhada a importância de compreendermos como as propostas de configuração de escala são apresentadas e negociadas no âmbito do turismo. Conclui-se que o campo do turismo constitui uma plataforma particularmente fértil para o estudo de como noções de escala e projectos de configuração de escala concorrentes se desenvolvem no mundo contemporâneo.

  5. Financial Economy and Financial System: Basis of Structural Interconnection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Khorosheva Olena I.

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available The goal of the article lies in identification of grounds of interconnection of the financial economy and financial system. The study was conducted with consideration of main provisions of the theory of finance and concept of financial economy, which is a set of means used in the process of reproduction of finance by their owner for formation and / or maintenance of the own system of values in the viable state. For the first time ever the structure of the financial system is identified as an aggregate of financial economies and financial market. The article justifies a necessity of expansion of boundaries of perception of the state financial economy, which is offered to include public financial economy of the state level and the set of financial economies of the state as a subject of economic activity. Such an approach forms a base for justification of the synthesis of participation of the state in financial relations as the owner and as the basic macro-economic regulator. Prospects of further study in this direction are: development of classification of financial economies; revelation of specific features of impact of shadow finance on development of the national financial economy; and assessment of possibilities of inclusion of structured financial products into the system of values of financial economies in Ukraine.

  6. Testing the growth links of emerging economies: Croatia in a growing world economy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ziesemer, Thomas

    2017-01-01

    We estimate a dynamic simultaneous equation model for 16 variables of the Croatian economy in order to test the links of growth with education, R&D, trade, savings and FDI. In order to motivate the choice of variables we review the related theories of growth and look at the relevant data. Permanent

  7. Volatility of Capital Flows to Emerging Economies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katia Rocha

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available The paper proposes a panel model to the determinants of capital flow volatility to a group of 18 emerging market economies (EME in the period of 2000 to 2011. It studies the robustness of the model regarding different volatility measures; analyses several types of gross capital inflow; focusing the role of government institutional quality and the development of domestic financial system (banks, insurance companies, and capital markets – stocks, bonds and derivatives. The EME analyzed represented roughly 95% of the Emerging Markets Bond Index Global – EMBIG in January 2013, being the biggest destination to international capital flow to EME according to the report of the Bank for International Settlements - BIS (2009. The main conclusion suggests that a reduction of capital flow volatility can be achieved by the adoption of policies that improve government institutional quality and promote development, stability and efficiency of the domestic financial system.

  8. Pattern of Foreign Direct Investment in Developing Economies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Patibandla, Murali

    2004-01-01

    Qualitative information and data show significant differences in the magnitude and type of foreigndirect investment inflows among developing economies. Explanation of the differences requiresanalysis of market institutional factors as well as the supply and demand side conditions. This paperadopts...... the approach that different configurations of supply, demand and market institutional factorsexplain the type of investment flows into developing economies. The argument is illustrated througha comparative study of China and India.Key Words: Developing Economies; Foreign Direct Investment; China, and India...

  9. Can agricultural groundwater economies collapse? An inquiry into the pathways of four groundwater economies under threat

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petit, Olivier; Kuper, Marcel; López-Gunn, Elena; Rinaudo, Jean-Daniel; Daoudi, Ali; Lejars, Caroline

    2017-09-01

    The aim of this paper is to investigate the notion of collapse of agricultural groundwater economies using the adaptive-cycle analytical framework. This framework was applied to four case studies in southern Europe and North Africa to question and discuss the dynamics of agricultural groundwater economies. In two case studies (Saiss in Morocco and Clain basin in France), the imminent physical or socio-economic collapse was a major concern for stakeholders and the early signs of collapse led to re-organization of the groundwater economy. In the other two cases (Biskra in Algeria and Almeria in Spain), collapse was either not yet a concern or had been temporarily resolved through increased efficiency and access to additional water resources. This comparative analysis shows the importance of taking the early signs of collapse into account. These signs can be either related to resource depletion or to environmental and socio-economic impacts. Beyond these four case studies, the large number of groundwater economies under threat in (semi-)arid areas should present a warning regarding their possible collapse. Collapse can have severe and irreversible consequences in some cases, but it can also mean new opportunities and changes.

  10. Amendment of the Energy Economy Act. Novellierung des Energiewirtschaftsgesetzes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1990-12-20

    The Federal Association of German Industry deliberates on the reform of the Energy Economy Act, arriving at the following intermediate result that is to be discussed by the member associations. The following might be essential points for the attitude of the industry regarding the reform of the energy economy act: deregulation, qualitative modernization, concentration on electric power and gas, differentiated regulations for power and gas, limitation of municipal influence (outside the scope of the energy economy act: reform of the municipal right of way), secure power and gas supply at internationally competitive prices. This is followed by considerations regarding the individual provisions of the energy economy act and their discussion. (orig./HSCH).

  11. COMPONENTS OF THE UNEMPLOYMENT ANALYSIS IN CONTEMPORARY ECONOMIES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ion Enea-SMARANDACHE

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available The unemployment is a permanent phenomenon in majority countries of the world, either with advanced economies, either in course of developed economies, and the implications and the consequences are more complexes, so that, practically, the fight with unemployment becomes a fundamental objective for the economy politics. In context, the authors proposed to set apart essentially components for unemployment analyse with the scope of identification the measures and the instruments of counteracted.

  12. Problems of Transition from a Planned to a Market Economy

    OpenAIRE

    Krelle, Wilhelm

    2000-01-01

    The paper shows that a transition from a planned to a market economy implies an important change of the structure of production, i. e. a reallocation of resources which takes time and induces sufferings for some people. These sufferings may be reduced by subsidization of some sectors, with some negative effects on GDP and growth if subsidization exceeds a certain size. The time tillthe economy in transition reaches an ``old" market economy (asymptotically or totally) is estimated by different...

  13. The New and the Future Look of the Economy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liliana CRĂCIUN

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The global financial situation and our future economy remain vital concerns for us all. As a result, the government and the business community have to stimulate the economy and give it new dimensions. Virtually everyone agrees on the importance of the economy, but no consensus has or is expected to be reached soon as to the definition of the economy. Economy as a “discipline”' is a concept torn apart by current economic crisis, where fierce competition, greed and consumerism will neither solve the crisis in progress nor will they rehabilitate the economy. It is true that the current economic crisis and the times of slower economic growth that will inevitably follow are old system-related symptoms of the excesses and the recklessness accumulated in time at global level, for which reason we see ourselves forced now to reconsider the options that are lay ahead and outline a clear future perspective.

  14. Governing economies in areas of limited statehood

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Jacob; Varming, Kirstine Strøh

    This DIIS–GOVSEA working paper reviews key debates within economic anthropology and related academic disciplines explaining how economic life is governed in areas of limited statehood. The paper briefly introduces some of the origins of economic anthropology before going into deeper discussions...... of a number of key debates within the field. The literature review and discussion is organised on the basis of six major themes that shed light on this research question: 1) embeddedness and economic transformations, 2) property governance, 3) informal and popular economies, 4) debt and money, 5) borders...... and cross-border trade, and 6) authority, governance and economic regulation. These themes are supported by case examples from the Somali territories in the East and Horn of Africa. Through the reviewed literature, the paper critically engages common categories, such as formal/informal, state...

  15. Oil's tenacious lock on health of economy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Canes, M.E.

    1992-01-01

    Oil is so vital that its importance cannot be overstated, says the author. Current world reserves are estimated at 1,000 billion barrels - a 43-year supply at current rates of consumption, he reports. The ultimate supply, however, is much greater, he adds, a fact that casts the world's economic outlook in a positive light. The challenge for the US is to take advantage of oil's abundance while, at the same time, protecting against the adverse effects of market instability, environmental degradation, and excessive military involvement. He outlines a number of policy options for the US: further development of domestic petroleum resources; encouragement of production outside the Middle East; strategic stockpiling, conservation, research and development; and environmental protection. Most of these policies would enhance resource efficiency and thus improve both the nation's economy and energy outlook

  16. Provision of Effectiveness of University Education on the Market Economy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuznetsov, Nikolai; Usenko, Lyudmila; Ivanova, Olga; Kostoglodova, Elena

    2017-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to evaluate and determine the effectiveness of university education on the economy of various countries. Design/methodology/approach: To determine the necessity and expedience of making provision for the effectiveness of university education on the market economy, this work uses the method of regression and…

  17. Regulation of the Debt Sustainability of the Russian Economy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seleznev, Alexander Z.; Chapluk, Vladimir Z.; Sayrenko, Tatiana N.; Sorokina, Larisa N.; Pertovskaya, Maria V.; Alekseenko, Elena A.

    2016-01-01

    The relevance of the investigating problem is caused by the need to reduce the total aggregated amount of debt in Russian economy in conditions of crisis and the strengthening of external anti-Russian sanctions. In this context, the purpose of this article is to identify measures aimed to regulate debt sustainability of the Russian economy using…

  18. Energy-economy relationship and environmental regulation in the presence of unrecorded economy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Karanfil, F.

    2008-12-01

    This PhD thesis including five manuscripts and a brief international comparison analysis proposes a multi-field study on the economic and environmental effects of energy consumption. It first investigates the causal relationship between economic growth and energy consumption in Turkey and then offers a new methodology for the estimation of unrecorded economy based on environmental data. The thesis develops also asymmetric information models, where the regulator does not know the true emission level of each firm that it wishes to regulate, so as to examine to what extend different enforcement mechanisms affect incentives for the firms to reduce polluting emissions and to invest in clean energy technologies. In order to provide a complete insight on the effects of both fiscal and environmental enforcement policies, some similar analysis are conducted taking into account the existence of unrecorded economy. The results in this thesis essentially show that: first, energy conservation policies can be implemented in order to reduce greenhouse gas emissions without any adverse effect on the recorded economic activities; second, different audit mechanisms should be used depending on the environmental objective of the enforcement agency; third, in some cases, environmental regulations may increase the size of unrecorded economy; fourth, economic policies to combat unrecorded economy may not serve as a complement to energy conservation policies. (author)

  19. Examples of industrial achievements. [Energy economies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1982-07-01

    Several examples are presented of industrial units concerned by energy economies. The problem, the solution, the energy savings and the financial balance are given for each following case: recuperation of smoke from two glass furnaces with continuous heat and power production; a new type of heating furnace for non-ferrous ingots; heating furnace with smoke recuperation; high-power boiler for very wet barks; smokes to supply heat to buildings and for a dryer; heat pump drying of plaster squares; air-conditioning of a workshop by recuperation on a furnace; dehydration of fodder and beetroot pulp with a straw generator; microprocessor-controlled hot water recuperation in cheese-making; electronic speed regulation for electronic motors.

  20. Statistical Physics of Economic Systems: a Survey for Open Economies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tao, Yong; Chen, Xun

    2012-05-01

    We extend the theoretical framework of an independent economy developed by Tao [Phys. Rev. E 82 (2010) 036118] so as to include multiple economies. Since the starting point of our framework is on the basis of the theory of the competitive markets of traditional economics, this framework shall be suitable for any free market. Our study shows that integration of world economies can decrease trade friction among economic systems, but may also cause a global economic crisis whenever economy disequilibrium occurs in any one of these economic systems.

  1. Theoretical aspects of appearing of bubbles in economy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pronoza Pavlo V.

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The article considers theoretical aspects of appearing of bubbles in economy. It analyses vies of scientists regarding the essence of this phenomenon and, with the help of content analysis, specifies the essence of the bubble notion in economy. It considers main stages of appearance of such bubbles. It offers classification of their types. It analyses pre-requisites of appearance of bubbles in economy and their features. It considers main existing approaches to detection and modelling appearance of bubbles. It proves that bubbles negatively influence economy of the countries, that is why, the problem of their detection and prevention is one of the central problems in the process of development of policy of state regulation of economy.

  2. The Political Economy of Federally Sponsored Data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bart Ragon

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Librarian involvement in the Open Access (OA movement has traditionally focused on access to scholarly publications. Recent actions by the White House have focused attention on access on the data produced from federally sponsored research. Questions have emerged concerning access to the output of federally sponsored research and whether it is a public or private good. Understanding the political battle over access to federally funded research is closely tied to the ownership of the peer review process in higher education and associated revenue streams, and as a result, interest groups seeking to influence government regulation have politicized the issues. As a major funder of research in higher education, policies from the federal government are likely to drive change in research practices at higher education institutions and impact library services. The political economy of federally sponsored research data will shape research enterprises in higher education inspire a number of new services distributed throughout the research life cycle.

  3. Editorial: Globalisation of Economies and Industries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Radosław Rybkowski

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available At  the  beginning  of  the  21st  century  we  also  experience  some  drawbacks  of globalisation. Yes, it “promotes economic and social advancement”, but the progress is not evenly distributes and not “all peoples” enjoy the benefits of globalisation. Growing interdependency has also brought greater competition,  this time reaching much further that  just  neighbouring  countries. Therefore,  we  decided  to  focus  this  issue  of our  journal  on  exploring  the Globalisation of Economies and Industries. We do hope that the articles presented in this issue  will inspire further research.

  4. Innovation activity of corporations in emerging economies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Soboleva Ekaterina N.

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper considers macro parameters of corporation innovation activity in the BRICS countries. The authors determine transnational corporation behavior strategies in the context of creating and transferring new knowledge, where developed countries (the USA, European countries and Japan play an important role and take a leading position in this process. Companies from emerging economies focus on using and adopting innovations. The reason for this is that knowledge “is coded” specifically, consequently the participants of its exchange have to be in similar intellectual space. Nevertheless, the market-leading corporations from the BRICS countries join the world chains of innovation creation, building their networks to satisfy their branches needs concerning technological decisions and personnel training

  5. English in Economy World: an Overview of English Learning

    OpenAIRE

    Setyaningsih, Ani; Kurniasih, Siwi Karmadi

    2007-01-01

    English is not a language for the English-speaking countries anymore. English has spread worldwide to the countries in the five continents. One of the reasons is economy. People need to acquire English since it is one way to cope with the communication in economy trend. English is needed to process information, analyze, evaluate, experiment, negotiate and collaborate in economy. The awareness of English importance in the globalization era has made people learn this universal language consciou...

  6. Effects of intermittent hypoxia on running economy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burtscher, M; Gatterer, H; Faulhaber, M; Gerstgrasser, W; Schenk, K

    2010-09-01

    We investigated the effects of two 5-wk periods of intermittent hypoxia on running economy (RE). 11 male and female middle-distance runners were randomly assigned to the intermittent hypoxia group (IHG) or to the control group (CG). All athletes trained for a 13-wk period starting at pre-season until the competition season. The IHG spent additionally 2 h at rest on 3 days/wk for the first and the last 5 weeks in normobaric hypoxia (15-11% FiO2). RE, haematological parameters and body composition were determined at low altitude (600 m) at baseline, after the 5 (th), the 8 (th) and the 13 (th) week of training. RE, determined by the relative oxygen consumption during submaximal running, (-2.3+/-1.2 vs. -0.3+/-0.7 ml/min/kg, Ptraining phase. Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart . New York.

  7. The role of entrepreneurship in transforming efficiency economies into innovation-based economies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jurie van Vuuren

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Background: Entrepreneurship is believed to be a major driver of economic development. While it is right to consider entrepreneurship as a development tool, it is also crucial to identify the kind of entrepreneurship that contributes meaningfully towards economic development. Extant research revealed a U-shaped relationship between entrepreneurship and economic development and claimed that entrepreneurship in efficiency economies is dwarfed in terms of its contribution to economic development.   Aim: To identify and explain factors that would assist efficiency-based countries to transform their economies using entrepreneurship as a major policy tool.   Setting: We compared two structurally separate groups of countries. Each group consists of three countries and 9 years of data were extracted from Global Entrepreneurship Monitoring (GEM and United Nation (UN datasets.   Methods: We examined the relationship between entrepreneurship and economic development using comparative research design. Bivariate correlation analysis was used to detect associations and various descriptive statistical tools were applied to examine and compare the entrepreneurial tendencies of countries included in our study.   Results: The results indicated that entrepreneurship in efficiency economies is unfairly undervalued by academic commentators and that our findings pose a serious question as to the U-shaped relationship argument. The analysis revealed that the relationship between entrepreneurship and economic development is positive in both contexts, albeit the strength of the correlation is much more pronounced for innovation-driven economies compared to efficiency-driven countries. Furthermore, the analysis revealed that the rate of total early-stage entrepreneurial activity (TEA is strongly correlated with perceived opportunity and entrepreneurial intention scores in both contexts.   Conclusion: It is concluded that countries seeking to transform their

  8. From Economy of Communion to Ecology of Communion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raven John

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available By way of introduction I have to say that I know little about the Focolari movement or the Economy of Communion group. This paper is offered on the assumption that the movement is dedicated to the radical transformation of society and not just tinkering at the edges in order to keep the economy as we know it going.

  9. Oil and the political economy of energy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Matutinovic, Igor [GfK-Center for Market Research, Zagreb (Croatia)

    2009-11-15

    The key issues concerning oil exploitation are still open for discussion: there is no agreement about where we presently stand in the world oil extraction curve, what is its exact shape, and how far can oil price grow before it changes irreversibly the world economy and consumer behavior. The paper proposes an alternative scenario to the Hubbert's bell-shaped model of oil exploitation, based on more realistic assumptions regarding political agendas in oil-exporting countries and consumer behavior dynamics in oil-importing countries. Under this scenario, the joint impact of markets and public policy in oil importing countries together with 'resource pragmatism' policy in oil-exporting countries allows for a less steep oil supply curve with a much fatter tail compared to the Hubbert's model. (author)

  10. Oil and the political economy of energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Matutinovic, Igor

    2009-01-01

    The key issues concerning oil exploitation are still open for discussion: there is no agreement about where we presently stand in the world oil extraction curve, what is its exact shape, and how far can oil price grow before it changes irreversibly the world economy and consumer behavior. The paper proposes an alternative scenario to the Hubbert's bell-shaped model of oil exploitation, based on more realistic assumptions regarding political agendas in oil-exporting countries and consumer behavior dynamics in oil-importing countries. Under this scenario, the joint impact of markets and public policy in oil importing countries together with 'resource pragmatism' policy in oil-exporting countries allows for a less steep oil supply curve with a much fatter tail compared to the Hubbert's model.

  11. The Political Economy of Crisis and the Crisis of Political Economy: The Challenge of Sustainability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Graham Murdock

    2015-10-01

    Recent developments in the organisation of capitalism have given renewed urgency to critical political economy’s core concern with the shifting relations between capital, state and civil society and placed issues around communications and culture at the centre of debate. Successive responses to the crisis of capitalism in the 1970s and the 2008 financial crisis have extended marketization, consolidated corporate control over public culture, displaced and casualised labour, escalated product promotion, placed consumption fuelled by personal debt at the centre of models of growth, and generated rapidly widening inequalities in access and agency. At the same time, the political instabilities following the end of the Cold War have licenced a move from selective to saturation surveillance that has given the major capitalist states unprecedented entry into intimate life. The critical political economy culture and communications has seized the moment and produced powerful accounts and critiques of these shifts and their implications for democratic life. The first part of the paper offers a critical overview of this work. With some notable exceptions however, critical political economies of communications have not fully incorporated the climate crisis into their analyses. Yet communication systems, particularly digital systems, are central to the unfolding climate crisis, not simply as central spaces of public information (and misinformation and debate, but as arrays of infrastructures and machines that consume resources and power and foster patterns of use and disposal that exacerbate problems of waste and pollution and reinforce patterns of inequality, with those least able to cope likely to be the most affected. The second part of the paper expands on this argument The third and final part follows the implications of this analysis through arguing that critical communications policy not only needs to address the problem of curbing corporate and state abuses of control

  12. SOCIAL ECONOMY AS THE MAINSTREAM OF THE EUROPEAN UNION DEVELOPMENT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diana GAFAROVA

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The global community is striving nowadays to find ways to stabilize social processes, as well as to solve the problem of involving socially vulnerable groups in the social and economic life and work out a strategy for reducing long-term unemployment. The development of the social economy has been chosen as the mainstream of the European Union development. A great deal of attention of European Commission is paid to studying and development of recommendations on the introduction of principles of social economy, both in the basic EU countries and in the countries that are becoming the new members of the EU. However the national approach to the legalization and support of social companies is used in each country. So, for example, in Slovakia it is supposed to create social enterprises for inclusion of disadvantaged people to the labour market first of all. Along with support of the traditional actors of the social economy, the EU is also actively developing new forms of social economy actors, social enterprises are primarily among which. The development of the principles of social economy and the activation of social enterprises is relevant for many post-Soviet countries, including Russia. However, so far in Eastern European scientific practice, many researchers do not see the difference between the concepts of social economy, social market economy, solidarity economy. The key characteristics of the social economy are considered in the article, the interrelation of social, social market and solidarity economies is observed, modern trends in the construction of the social economy of the EU are highlighted.

  13. Gaining Control of Iraq's Shadow Economy

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Ramirez, David S

    2007-01-01

    .... The shadow economy is also used extensively by the poor and women for subsistence living. The combined effect for Iraqi citizens is they have to survive in a country without adequate institutions and poor governance...

  14. Collaborative Economy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    that are emerging from them, and how governments are responding to these new challenges. In doing so, the book provides both theoretical and practical insights into the future of tourism in a world that is, paradoxically, becoming both increasingly collaborative and individualized. Table of Contents Preface 1.The...... collaborative economy and tourism Dianne Dredge and Szilvia Gyimóthy PART I - Theoretical explorations 2.Definitions and mapping the landscape in the collaborative economy Szilvia Gyimóthy and Dianne Dredge 3.Business models of the collaborative economy Szilvia Gyimóthy 4.Responsibility and care...... in the collaborative economy Dianne Dredge 5.Networked cultures in the collaborative economy Szilvia Gyimóthy 6.Policy and regulatory perspectives in the collaborative economy Dianne Dredge PART II - Disruptions, innovations and transformations 7.Regulating innovation in the collaborative economy: An examination...

  15. Collaborative Economy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    collaborative economy and tourism Dianne Dredge and Szilvia Gyimóthy PART I - Theoretical explorations 2.Definitions and mapping the landscape in the collaborative economy Szilvia Gyimóthy and Dianne Dredge 3.Business models of the collaborative economy Szilvia Gyimóthy 4.Responsibility and care...... and similar phenomena are among these collective innovations in tourism that are shaking the very bedrock of an industrial system that has been traditionally sustained along commercial value chains. To date there has been very little investigation of these trends, which have been inspired by, amongst other...... in the collaborative economy Dianne Dredge 5.Networked cultures in the collaborative economy Szilvia Gyimóthy 6.Policy and regulatory perspectives in the collaborative economy Dianne Dredge PART II - Disruptions, innovations and transformations 7.Regulating innovation in the collaborative economy: An examination...

  16. The Digital Economy: Controversity of Content and Impact on Economic Development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kolomiyets Ganna M.

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available The transformations of the technological structure of current economy have led to the emergence of digital economy that offers significant opportunities and, at the same time, creates threats. The article is aimed at displaying methodological approaches to interpretation of digital economy, contradiction of the possible results of its development and functioning, and the practical relevance of research into this phenomenon. The digital economy transforms economic interactions; destroys long chains of intermediaries; speeds up the conclusion of different agreements; eliminates spatial constraints in access to markets; offers competitive advantages to companies regardless of their size; enables to create a scale effect and materialize its positive impact by reducing costs. At the same time, in developed countries and industry sectors that can easily be automated, the need for low-and medium-skill workers is severely reduced. A more part-time economy is being formed, with engagement of freelancers who are not covered by the social security system on a short-term basis. These processes threaten the stability of incomes and the development of the national economy. A comparative analysis of the development of digital economy uses the indices that can form the basis of the national economic foresight.

  17. A report on the development of China¡¯s market economy 2005

    OpenAIRE

    LI Xiaoxi

    2006-01-01

    This paper dicusses on the issue of the development of China s market economy from six aspects. (1) Basic Content and Conclusions on the development of China s market economy. (2) Further progress in building market-oriented economy in China. (3) Assessment of the degree of market economy development in China. (4) New progress in 2004 in developing market economy in China. (5) A general analysis of twelve key questions concerning market economy. (6) Resolution of the non-market economy issue:...

  18. STATE REGULATION OF THE NATIONAL ECONOMY OF RUSSIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vitaly Andreevich Shumaev

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The experience in the fi eld of public sector management of the economy, shows the shortcomings identified issues and proposed recommendations to increase the participation of the state in economic development through the expansion of the public sector and the use of innovative industrial policy. The system of economic institutions is recorded in all sectors of the economy. Therefore, the newly formed market institutions are faced with malfunctioning of economic mechanisms and poorly rooted in society. Goal / task. The purpose of this article is to search for the optimal model of management of state sector of economy taking into account modern shortcomings with the purpose of increase of efficiency of activity of economic subjects. The task of this article is to investigate the system of state management of economy in conditions of the worsening economic situation, as well as the search for the optimal model of management of economy of the state. Methodology. In conducting this study the main sources of baseline data were the materials of the state statistics, the works of famous economists. The basis of methodological developments based on comparative methods of analysis. Results. As a result of conducted analysis draws conclusions and makes recommendations aimed at reforming the domestic economy. Conclusions / significance. In the current economic conditions of the state and the new economic realities it is necessary to focus on attracting domestic capital in the Russian economy with the aim of increasing its effectiveness, as well as the analysis of the modern privatisation.

  19. A resource-based view of internationalization in emerging economies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hein Roelfsema; Martijn A. Boermans

    2012-01-01

    Chapter 2 in Impacts of Emerging Economies and Firms on International Business. One of the most remarkable phenomena of recent times is that a large number of firms from emerging economies have come to define and dominate new markets and enter the class of global innovation leaders. Firms that once

  20. Informational economy: specific features and challenges of monopolization

    OpenAIRE

    Kotsofana, T.

    2013-01-01

    The article discusses the features of the informational economy, as well as some issues with which this economy is facing today. In particular, contemporary forms of monopoly, its causes and consequences, changing trends towards monopolization and monopolization of markets due to the high degree of automation and information of the socio-economic life were analyzed.

  1. Sustaining “Lilliputs” in the Global Knowledge-Based Economy: Prospects for Micro, Small, and Medium-Scale Enterprises in the Developing World

    OpenAIRE

    Maria Divina Gracia Z. Roldan

    2015-01-01

    Micro, small, and medium-scale enterprises (MSMEs) comprise bulk of business entities in the developing world. Their contribution is seen in terms of employment generation and capital formation. Seen as the engine of growth in present knowledge-based economies, MSMEs play a crucial role in the economic sustainability of Asian developing countries. This paper discusses the role of MSMEs in Asia, with the Philippines as a case in point. It examines issues and challenges these enterprises face, ...

  2. A Stay-Rich View of the New Global Economy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trusteeship, 2011

    2011-01-01

    Major demographic changes around the world. Disproportionate sovereign debt. A shift from North America, Western Europe, and Japan to emerging economies as centers of growth. Unprecedented levels of market risk and volatility. The structure of the global economy is undergoing significant changes. Michael Oyster, managing principal of Fund…

  3. Education, Globalisation and the Future of the Knowledge Economy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Phillip; Lauder, Hugh; Ashton, David

    2008-01-01

    The dominant view today is of a global knowledge-based economy, driven by the application of new technologies, accelerating the shift to high-skilled, high-waged European economies. This view is reflected in the expansion of higher education and the key role of higher education in national and European economic policy. The Lisbon agenda seeks to…

  4. The Influence of the Economy on Hospitality Industry in Nigeria ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The Influence of the Economy on Hospitality Industry in Nigeria. ... Ethiopian Journal of Environmental Studies and Management ... contributions of the hospitality industry (represented by Hotels and Restaurants) to the Nigerian economy (represented by the Gross Domestic Products – GDP) and the GDP itself from 1980 ...

  5. A Comparative Analysis of Socialists and Capitalists Economies ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    From America's example of capitalist economy and politics, China's capitalist's, socialists and communists' mixed-system; and from North Korea's example of a purely communists' state, the current essay has argued for the illusiveness of attempting to eliminate either a communist, a feudal, a fascist or a socialist's economy, ...

  6. Comparison of district heating expansion potential based on consumer-economy or socio-economy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grundahl, Lars; Nielsen, Steffen; Lund, Henrik

    2016-01-01

    Recent studies show that a high share of district heating is an important part of a future sustainable energy system or smart energy system with a high renewable energy penetration. These studies also show socio-economic benefits of expanding the district heating coverage. However, in order...... to implement such an expansion, district heating needs to be economically feasible for the heat consumers. This aspect is often not investigated and hence it is unknown if calculations based on consumer-economy, where tax payment is included, will yield the same potential of expansion. This study identifies...... the differences in the expansion potential of district heating calculated with a socio-economic and a consumer-economic approach, respectively, in a case study of Denmark. By also investigating the consumer-economy of expanding district heating, a deeper insight is obtained of possible locations for expanding...

  7. Influence of sanctions on Russian economy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aysylu Ildarovna Bulatova

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Objective to identify the background and nature of the sanctions imposed against Russia and their impact on the economy. Methods the methodological basis of the research consists of general scientific methods of cognition such as analysis and synthesis observation comparison system approach expert evaluation synthesis contributing to the economic justification of the main conclusions and recommendations proposed in the article. Results basing on the analysis of the preconditions for the sanctions imposed against Russia the nature of sanctions is revealed and the definition of this concept is given. The main directions of the impact of sanctions are listed. The damage of the imposed bilateral sanctions to the countryrsquos macroeconomic indicators is assessed. The importance of sanctions is identified and the need for the introduction of countersanctions by Russia is determined. The positive and negative consequences from the sanctions imposition are systematized. The factors are determined that can accelerate the economic recovery of Russia under crisis. Scientific novelty systematization of knowledge about the nature of sanctions determination of the factors and measures that can accelerate the economic recovery of Russia. Practical significance the main provisions and conclusions of the article can be used in research and practice when dealing with issues about the nature and trends in economic development and the further development of Russia39s anticrisis program. nbsp

  8. Sport, biopolitics and critique of political economy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Milorad Gačević

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available In this text we tried to point out the relationship between labour and biopolitical mechanisms of power in the context of the current situation in elite sport. In the first part we present developments inside left-oriented theories of sport, especially the need for critical research based on specific aspects of criticism of political economy. We then review brief the current situation in contemporary sport, mainly about parallel evolution of the capitalist commodification of sport and the emergence of the application of biopolitically directed practices, where we have tried to implement a short overview of Foucault’s concepts in the field of sport studies. The third part deals with the connection between Paolo Virno’s biopolitical studies and Marx’s labour power. In conclusion, we raise the possibility of applying Virno’s settings to treat sport practice in the context of its appropriation by capitalism, characterised by the intensification of strategies and techniques for controlling sportsman life. According to Virno’s settings we have tried to show influence to a life of sportsman in the aim of bio-potency, the ability/power to produce a labour force, while this force is treated like labour exchanged in the market in the context of capitalist commodification of modern sport.

  9. Reviewing Some Implications of the Green Economy for Higher and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Higher education (including further education) is viewed by many as an enabling platform for the generation and acquisition of green economy knowledge and skills for the future we want. The question this paper seeks to address is: are African institutions of higher education green economy ready? This question is not only ...

  10. Improvement in Running Economy after 6 Weeks of Plyometric Training.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turner, Amanda M.; Owings, Matt; Schwane, James A.

    2003-01-01

    Investigated whether a 6-week regimen of plyometric training would improve running economy. Data were collected on 18 regular but not highly trained distance runners who participated in either regular running training or plyometric training. Results indicated that 6 weeks of plyometric training improved running economy at selected speeds in this…

  11. The rise, fall and sustainability of capital-resource economies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pezzey, J.; Withagen, C.A.A.M.

    1998-01-01

    In debates about green accounting it is sometimes argued that a positive value of aggregate investments indicates that an economy is developing sustainably. Asheim (1994) and Pezzey (1994) have shown that this is wrong, using a version of the well-known Dasgupta–Heal economy (with one capital and

  12. Statistical dynamics of regional populations and economies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huo, Jie; Wang, Xu-Ming; Hao, Rui; Wang, Peng

    Quantitative analysis of human behavior and social development is becoming a hot spot of some interdisciplinary studies. A statistical analysis on the population and GDP of 150 cities in China from 1990 to 2013 is conducted. The result indicates the cumulative probability distribution of the populations and that of the GDPs obeying the shifted power law, respectively. In order to understand these characteristics, a generalized Langevin equation describing variation of population is proposed, which is based on the correlations between population and GDP as well as the random fluctuations of the related factors. The equation is transformed into the Fokker-Plank equation to express the evolution of population distribution. The general solution demonstrates a transition of the distribution from the normal Gaussian distribution to a shifted power law, which suggests a critical point of time at which the transition takes place. The shifted power law distribution in the supercritical situation is qualitatively in accordance with the practical result. The distribution of the GDPs is derived from the well-known Cobb-Douglas production function. The result presents a change, in supercritical situation, from a shifted power law to the Gaussian distribution. This is a surprising result-the regional GDP distribution of our world will be the Gaussian distribution one day in the future. The discussions based on the changing trend of economic growth suggest it will be true. Therefore, these theoretical attempts may draw a historical picture of our society in the aspects of population and economy.

  13. Spillover Effects of the Russian Economy: Regional Specificity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elena Anatolyevna Fedorova

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of the study is to evaluate the strength and direction of the distribution of the foreign direct investments (FDI in regional economy. The subject matter of the research is FDI to the regions of Russia. The subject of the study is relevant as it makes possible to estimate the long-term consequences from the restrictions of the West countries (in connection with sanctions against the inflow of the foreign capital to the regions of the Russian Federation. The study is based on the following hypotheses: 1. Russian regional economy has horizontal (distribution of effects from FDI within an industry and vertical spillover effects (distribution according to a technological chain, from product suppliers to product consumers. Vertical effects are more important and have greater amplitude than horizontal effects. An industry competition is one of the causes of negative horizontal spillover effect, and the scale of the company is the reason of positive horizontal spillover effect. 2. FDI generates the positive regional spillover effects on the productivity of domestic firms in the Russian economy. 3. Regional industry specificity influences the sign and magnitude of spillovers from FDI. 4. Time sensitivity is revealed for horizontal spillovers, so the regional effects may change the direction. As an empirical basis of the study, the statements of 23567 Russian companies with FDI and 25354 Russian enterprises without FDI for the 5 years were used. The methodology of the research is the calculation of spillover effects, Cobb-Douglas production function and panel data regression. The study has found, that the direct vertical spillover effects are almost absent. That means that industrial consumers do not notice the effect of inward FDI. At the same time, the converse effect related to the product suppliers is positive, but as the direct effect, it is not more important in any group of regions then the horizontal effect. The Russian economy has a

  14. The political economy of churches in Denmark, 1300-2015

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Paldam, Martin; Paldam, Ella

    2017-01-01

    The paper reports new time-series for the numbers and sizes of churches in Denmark over a 715-year period. Per capita, the new series are termed church densities. A pattern emerges in the series that corresponds to the main development in the economy: Until 1750, the economy was in the traditional...

  15. Role of Food Logistics Management in a circular economy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bloemhof-Ruwaard, J.M.; Groot, J.J.; Snels, J.C.M.A.

    2016-01-01

    In this paper we will discuss the role of food logistics management in a circular economy. Specific pillars in Circular Economy such as Closed Loop supply Chain management and Industrial Ecology will be discussed. Apart from a research agenda, we will provide exemplary cases in practice showing the

  16. The Role Of The Military In Myanmars Political Economy

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-03-01

    MILITARY IN MYANMAR’S POLITICAL ECONOMY by Pamela T. Stein March 2016 Thesis Advisor: Naazneen Barma Second Reader: Zachary Shore THIS......DISTRIBUTION CODE 13. ABSTRACT (maximum 200 words) This thesis examines the role of Myanmar’s military, the Tatmadaw, in the country’s political economy

  17. Political economy of nuclear power, 1946-1982

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cohn, S.M.

    1986-01-01

    This dissertation seeks to explain the pattern of nuclear power development in the United States, treating the subject as a case study of how major infrastructural development choices are made in a modern capitalist economy. The main concept adduced in the thesis to organize nuclear history is that of an Official Technology (OT). The latter enjoys strong state support, the promoted image of the coming technology and capture of critical mass advantages. The dissertation analyzes the incentives key political-economic interests had for promoting nuclear power to OT status 1946-1974 and the mechanisms used by these groups to facilitate nuclear expansion. At OT differential, tallying the microeconomic impact of nuclear's capture of OT status is calculated. Included in the differential are the benefits of scale economies, learning curve cost reductions, federal subsidies and regulatory incentives, misleading information environments, and bureaucratic momentum. Nuclear's decline after 1974 is tied to the erosion of this differential by a political challenge to the technology's OT status

  18. MODELLING OF THE POSSIBLE INTEGRATION CONSEQUENCES OF THE ECONOMY OF UKRAINE INTO THE ECONOMIES OF THE EUROPEAN UNION OR RUSSIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lesya Buyak

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of the paper is to mathematically reproduce the process of economic partnership between the two countries and its qualitative analysis, which include the following goals: to identify feasible outcomes, to formulate requirements for the selection of control parameters and coefficients, to give economic reasoning of the results of modelling and to provide alternative scenario of economic cooperation. Methodology. A method of mathematical modelling has been applied to investigate the possible socio-economic impact of integration of Ukraine into the EU economy. We are describing the basic mathematical model of the economy of Ukraine and two mathematical models of the possible convergence with the economies of the European Union or Russia. The results of modelling are reflected by the capacity of relevant dynamic systems and the quantitative distribution of savings. Results. On the basis of economic analysis of mathematical dependence, the conclusions on the possible economic consequences of integration of Ukraine into the economy of the European Union or Russia have been established. Practical implications. It has been found that a step towards the European Union (EU requires the alteration of principles of economic management, timely government control. This should be done in the process of restructuring of social standards and commercial activity in terms of traditional forms of management of enterprises with low financial capacities. The process of convergence with the economy of Russia leads to conservation of the modern type of economy with many disadvantages of commercial management and government control as well as limitation of economic and political freedoms and growth of political instability in the country. Value/originality. The got results extend modern economic and mathematical tool for research of integration processes and acceptance of the proper economic decisions. Formalization of models of economy taking into account

  19. Ibnu Taimiyah and His Concept of Economy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhammad Hifdil Islam

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Human life can not be separated from economic problems which involve human relationships sswith other humans, that relationship must be based on the norms - Islamic religious norms that govern all aspects of life including issues related to mu'amalah. In this context, efforts to develop Islamic economic system, we try to look at a concept that is very brilliant idea at the time, as inspiration and guidance. To the authors try to convey the subject - the subject matter of one of the scholars are: Shaykh al-Islam Ibn Taymiyyah related to economic problems, despite the distance between us and the birth of her very much. He lived at the end of the 7th century and the beginning of the 8th century AH, he has a very deep knowledge about the teachings of Islam. Islam today's economy requires a clear view of what to expect and how things can be done. To achieve this required freedom in business and property rights, which are limited by moral law and supervised by the state fair and able to enforce shari'ah law. All economic activities are allowed, except those expressly prohibited by Shari'ah.

  20. The dangers of the plutonium economy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Altner, G.; Schmitz-Feuerhake, I.

    1979-01-01

    The fast breeder is a critical point in the energy discussion which is even more controversial than other points before: Will modern industrial society submit to the constraints of a plutonium economy or will it have the power and the courage required for the alternative of a more human technology. The fast breeder can produce tons and tons of plutonium, a new energy source; this is an argument frequently presented in view of the limited uranium reserves. At the same time, plutonium is one of the most dangerous poisons, and its radiation endangers lives even at amounts as small as one-millionth of one gramme. This means that technical and political safeguards must be intensified, which in turn will result in just the 'nuclear dictatorship' which is beginning to show up at the horizon already today. In this book, committed journalists and scientists present their arguments to show that the price to be paid for this kind of progress would be two high. (orig./HP) [de

  1. MODERNIZATION OF NATIONAL ECONOMY THROUGH DEVELOPMENT OF REGIONAL PRODUCTION INFRASTRUCTURE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. G. Guilyadov

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Any region’s economy comprises production and non-production spheres which are interconnected and equivalent. Key part of any regional production sphere is its production infrastructure whose value is double: it defines the level of regional economic development on one hand, andinterrelation with the whole national economy on the other hand. The greatest and most important regional production infrastructure elements are transportation infrastructure, information/communication infrastructure and communal infrastructure. Analysis and solution of issues related to development of the basic regional production infrastructure elements as suggested in the article will be very useful for modernization of the national economy.

  2. Stretched exponential distributions in nature and economy: ``fat tails'' with characteristic scales

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laherrère, J.; Sornette, D.

    1998-04-01

    To account quantitatively for many reported "natural" fat tail distributions in Nature and Economy, we propose the stretched exponential family as a complement to the often used power law distributions. It has many advantages, among which to be economical with only two adjustable parameters with clear physical interpretation. Furthermore, it derives from a simple and generic mechanism in terms of multiplicative processes. We show that stretched exponentials describe very well the distributions of radio and light emissions from galaxies, of US GOM OCS oilfield reserve sizes, of World, US and French agglomeration sizes, of country population sizes, of daily Forex US-Mark and Franc-Mark price variations, of Vostok (near the south pole) temperature variations over the last 400 000 years, of the Raup-Sepkoski's kill curve and of citations of the most cited physicists in the world. We also discuss its potential for the distribution of earthquake sizes and fault displacements. We suggest physical interpretations of the parameters and provide a short toolkit of the statistical properties of the stretched exponentials. We also provide a comparison with other distributions, such as the shifted linear fractal, the log-normal and the recently introduced parabolic fractal distributions.

  3. Update of China economy and coal market

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Suen, H.

    2010-01-01

    This presentation discussed the surge in China's coal imports. The depressed demand for coal worldwide made huge tonnages available for the Chinese to buy at the same time that there was a willingness to sell coal more cheaply to compete with the Chinese domestic supply price and a coal shortage in China resulting from mine closures and consolidations. The Chinese Government is seeking to slow economic growth to control inflation and prevent an overheated economy. The government emphasis is on energy saving and emission reduction, production cuts at high energy consuming plants, the closure of outdated steel mills, and a restriction on power production. Steel production is expected to fall in the second half of the year as a result of surpluses. China's coal imports will increase in 2010; however, the consolidation process is now completed, and the new capacity will begin to be released in the second half of the year, ending the domestic coal shortage. The increase in the domestic market is constraining price increases. Premium hard coking coal (HCC) remains tight, but normal grade coals are in surplus and facing pressure to reduce prices. China's domestic coal prices form the bottom for the world coal market. Chinese import demand will continue, but demand is expected to gradually decline and be lower in 2011 as the domestic supply becomes sufficient. Nevertheless, China will always have a tremendous demand for coal and needs to import premium HCC. China adopted a quarterly price for the first time this year. 5 tabs., 4 figs.

  4. Approximation of the economy of fusion energy

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Entler, Slavomír; Horáček, Jan; Dlouhý, T.; Dostál, V.

    2018-01-01

    Roč. 152, June (2018), s. 489-497 ISSN 0360-5442 Grant - others:AV ČR(CZ) StrategieAV21/2 Program:StrategieAV Institutional support: RVO:61389021 Keywords : Nuclear fusion * Fusion energy * Economy * NPV * LCOE * External costs Subject RIV: JF - Nuclear Energetics OBOR OECD: Thermodynamics Impact factor: 4.520, year: 2016 https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0360544218305395

  5. The Theoretical Foundations of Structural Changes in Economy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Khaustova Viktoriia Ye.

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The article is aimed at defining the theoretical foundations of structural changes in economy. It has been proved that structural policy of the State is one of the main directions influencing the structure of economy, balancing its proportions, and ensuring progressive development. The components of structural policy have been defined. Genesis of scientific directions of researching the structure of economy was considered. The interpretation of the concept of «structure of economy» in the works of scientists was studied. The classification of particular structures of the national industrial complex was considered. It has been proved that the main role in the analysis of structural changes should be given to the structure of economy (of industrial complex, according to the types of economic activity. The interpretations of the concepts of «structural transformations», «structural shifts», «structural changes», «structural crisis» in the economy have been clarified. The functions of structural crises have been considered. The dynamics of changes in structural shifts were researched. The classification of structural shifts in the economy was considered. An interpretation of progressive structural changes has been suggested.

  6. Global Trends of "Green" Economy Development as a Factor for Improvement of Economical and Social Prosperity

    OpenAIRE

    Egorova, Mariya Sergeevna; Pluzhnik, Marina Vladimirovna; Glik, P.

    2015-01-01

    The article covers main reasons of emerging a new type of economy, the "green" economy. The aims and objectives of developing green economy were analyzed. The significance of an economy reform carried out on both national and global levels was evaluated. We analyzed both speed and level of the green economy development in the world and in the most developed countries of the world. An influence of institutional and investment factors on the process of greening economy was studied. The authors ...

  7. Child Care and the New Economy: Part I--Three Pillars of the New Economy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neugebauer, Roger

    2009-01-01

    Late in 2008, when it was becoming apparent that the economic downturn was not a simple blip but a serious recession, Warren Buffet confidently predicted that the American economy would bounce back and be as strong as ever. However, he observed, "the economy that emerges will not be the same economy that entered the downturn." Since then, one…

  8. 77 FR 38553 - Proposed Modification to Regulation Concerning the Use of Market Economy Input Prices in...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-06-28

    ... Regulation Concerning the Use of Market Economy Input Prices in Nonmarket Economy Proceedings AGENCY: Import... states that the Department normally will use the price that a nonmarket economy (``NME'') producer pays to a market economy supplier when a factor of production is purchased from a market economy supplier...

  9. The Economy of Experience for the Promotion of Hotel Products

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tatiana G. Zainullina

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available In this work, an attempt is made to use the terminology and tools of the economy of experience as applied to the hotel product. The analysis of the concept of "economy of experience" is analyzed from the point of view of changing human preferences and the appearance of the so-called "market ofexperience". The postulate is advanced that in the modern economy the sale of any goods and services corresponds with the sale of the corresponding impressions from using them, therefore the most successful business projects are aimed not only at satisfying physiological needs, impressions. The object of exchange is not only goods and services, but also impressions, respectively, the emergence of a new exchange object calls for the development of technologies that make this object more attractive to the direct consumer and show the manufacturer what benefits it can receive from the production and sale of impressions. An attempt has been made to transfer the tools of the economy of impressions to the area of promotion of the hotel product. The hotel economy is a dynamically developing branch of the economy, its development is determined by global economic processes, cultural, historical, sport interactions both within the country and between countries. Along with tourism, the hotel industry is an integral part of the creative economy and the economy of experience, which is based on the desires and needs of a person in gaining new experience. Practice shows that the use of tools in the promotion of the hotel product that affect the receipt of new impressions, feelings and experiences creates a basis for attracting regular customers, on which 60% of the income of the hotel company depends.

  10. Token Economy: A Systematic Review of Procedural Descriptions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ivy, Jonathan W; Meindl, James N; Overley, Eric; Robson, Kristen M

    2017-09-01

    The token economy is a well-established and widely used behavioral intervention. A token economy is comprised of six procedural components: the target response(s), a token that functions as a conditioned reinforcer, backup reinforcers, and three interconnected schedules of reinforcement. Despite decades of applied research, the extent to which the procedures of a token economy are described in complete and replicable detail has not been evaluated. Given the inherent complexity of a token economy, an analysis of the procedural descriptions may benefit future token economy research and practice. Articles published between 2000 and 2015 that included implementation of a token economy within an applied setting were identified and reviewed with a focus on evaluating the thoroughness of procedural descriptions. The results show that token economy components are regularly omitted or described in vague terms. Of the articles included in this analysis, only 19% (18 of 96 articles reviewed) included replicable and complete descriptions of all primary components. Missing or vague component descriptions could negatively affect future research or applied practice. Recommendations are provided to improve component descriptions.

  11. The Political Economy of Global Communication

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robert W. McChesney

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Editorial note McChesney’s contribution was first published as an introductory chapter in the edited volume entitled Capitalism and the Information Age. In this volume, authors (also those basing their research in areas other than critical communication studies provided, amongst other things, a critique of the celebratory ideas about the revolutionary potentials of the Internet, the new information and, communication technologies, and of the information society, which supposedly brought about a complete discontinuity with the past. The volume presented an original and sorely needed critical insight into these debates, which often hailed new technologies and social changes. It is worth pointing out that this volume also features two chapters by Noam Chomsky and Edward Herman. In these they rethink the role of propaganda in society and their own “propaganda model”, which was aggressively (but often baselessly criticized. Herman’s chapter is dedicated in its entirety to providing a weighty answer to these critiques. McChesney’s contribution, on the other hand, gives an insight into the history of the approach of political economy of communication, embeds the approach in the context of global capitalism (when the full realization about its role in the world context only started to emerge, while also touching upon the key dilemmas of its time that remain relevant to this day (e.g., market liberalization and the corporate ownership of media industries, growth of monopolization, digitalization and the Internet. This is a timely contribution that also demonstrates McChesney’s activist approach and shows how difficult it is for social scientists to forecast what exactly the future will bring.

  12. The economy of consumption as a socio-theoretical proposal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ortiz Negrón, Laura

    2007-11-01

    Full Text Available We propose the concept of "economy of consumption" as a way of examining the multiple effects of contemporary consumption. We present an interdisciplinary approach to the factors and social processes that have configured Puerto Rico as an economy of consumption. If one considers the specific ways in which modernization has affected the country, as well as the social transformations it has undergone in recent decades, one can take a contextual view of Puerto Rico as an economy of consumption. The transformations of capital and the inscription within consumption itself, as an order of signification, are the hermeneutic keys of this analysis.

  13. Knowledge Economy

    OpenAIRE

    Kerr, Aphra; O Riain, Sean

    2009-01-01

    We examine a number of key questions regarding this knowledge economy. First, we look at the origin of the concept as well as early attempts to define and map the knowledge economy empirically. Second, we examine a variety of perspectives on the socio-spatial organisation of the knowledge economy and approaches which link techno-economic change and social-spatial organisation. Building on a critique of these perspectives, we then go on to develop a view of a knowledge economy that is conteste...

  14. The Economy Goes to College: The Hidden Promise of Higher Education in the Post-Industrial Service Economy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carnevale, Anthony P.; Rose, Stephen J.

    2015-01-01

    This report explores the crucial transformation of the United States from an industrial to a post-industrial economy, with a particular focus on the shifting skill levels and incomes of American workers. It shows the increasing value of postsecondary education in today's economy and examines how workers have fared as the nation's focus has shifted…

  15. Analysis of European Union Economy in Terms of GDP Components

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simona VINEREAN

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The impact of the crises on national economies represented a subject of analysis and interest for a wide variety of research studies. Thus, starting from the GDP composition, the present research exhibits an analysis of the impact of European economies, at an EU level, of the events that followed the crisis of 2007 – 2008. Firstly, the research highlighted the existence of two groups of countries in 2012 in European Union, namely segments that were compiled in relation to the structure of the GDP’s components. In the second stage of the research, a factor analysis was performed on the resulted segments, that showed that the economies of cluster A are based more on personal consumption compared to the economies of cluster B, and in terms of government consumption, the situation is reversed. Thus, between the two groups of countries, a different approach regarding the role of fiscal policy in the economy can be noted, with a greater emphasis on savings in cluster B. Moreover, besides the two groups of countries resulted, Ireland and Luxembourg stood out because these two countries did not fit in either of the resulted segments and their economies are based, to a large extent, on the positive balance of the external balance.

  16. Ethical challenges of the new economy: An agenda of issues

    OpenAIRE

    Argandoña, Antonio

    2002-01-01

    The new economy is a technological revolution involving the information and communication technologies which affects almost all aspects of the economy, business, and our personal lives. The problems it raises for businesses are not radically new, least of all from an ethical viewpoint. However, they deserve particular attention, especially now, in the first years of the 21st century, when we are feeling the full impact of the changes brought about by this technological revolution. In this art...

  17. Analyzing the Knowledge Economy Performances of the Turkish Republics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Selim ŞANLISOY

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Nowadays, the acceleration of knowledge-based global competition and the knowledge economy that become the key to social development requires a transformation of the economic structure of the country to the knowledge economy. How successful is this transformation or how to proceed in the transformation process has a critical importance, especially for the developing countries. In this context, by analyzing the knowledge economy performances of the Turkish Republics, their proceedings in the process of becoming an knowledge economy are examined. For this purpose, analysis was carried out utilizing the knowledge, knowledge economy, and networked readiness index that formed from the elements of the knowledge economies. As a conclusion, these countries have to cover a distance in the context of knowledge economy transformation. In order to achieve this, these countries should establish; national innovation network by knowledge-innovation production together with institutional-legal regulations for innovative entrepreneurship, educational reforms to be able to create knowledge workers with human capital for produce, use and share the knowledge, and in order to do all these they should provide knowledge and communication infrastructure and ensure dissemination of it.

  18. The Factors of Changing the Structure of Modern Economy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pelekh O. B.

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available The article is aimed at attempting to clarify the essence of structural changes and to define the most important factors that cause structural changes in the economy, as well as researching the mechanism of their influence on the process of change. Economic development is directly related to economic structures and the changes that occur in them. Therefore, it is impossible to fully analyze economic development without taking into consideration structural changes in the economy. The economic system consists of separate branches, departments, production places, enterprises, has a certain structure of production resources and external trade, spatial placement, and is regulated by economic rules and norms. Under the economic structure the author understands the placement of the basic elements of economy and the proportions that have developed between them. Therefore, changes in the structure of economy are a complex system of changes in the interrelated proportions, taking place under the influence of the existing technical basis, social mechanisms of production, distribution and exchange in accordance with public needs, available resources, and the level of the labor productivity achieved. In conditions of modern economy and production, the factors influencing changes of the structure of economy, are divided into three groups: socio-economic, scientific-technological, and institutional. The author presents a list of the most important factors for each group and analyzes the mechanisms of interrelations between them.

  19. On the Political Economy of Youth:a comment

    OpenAIRE

    Zucaria, Mayssoun; Tannock, Stuart

    2016-01-01

    This article is written as a brief comment on a recent discussion that has taken place in the pages of the Journal of Youth Studies on the question of youth, youth studies and political economy, in a series of articles by Côté [2014. “Towards a New Political Economy of Youth.” Journal of Youth Studies 17 (4): 527–543; Côté, J. 2016. “A New Political Economy of Youth Reprised: Rejoinder to France and Threadgold.” Journal of Youth Studies. doi:10.1080/13676261.2015.1136058] and France and Threa...

  20. Simulating the impact of new industries on the economy : The case of biorefining in Australia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Malik, Arunima; Lenzen, Manfred; Ely, Romulo Neves; Dietzenbacher, Erik

    2014-01-01

    We investigate the economic and employment consequences of introducing a new sugarcane-based biofuel industry into Australia. We model the new biofuel industry on the production recipe of the existing large-scale gasoalcohol and alcohol sectors in the Brazilian economy. To this end we utilise a

  1. Exploring the Political Economy of Violence in the Border Regions of ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    This project will propose concrete recommendations, based on applied research ... political economy of illicit activity in eight Latin American countries: Argentina, Brazil, ... the geography, nature, scale, and impact of transnational organized crime. ... activity (drug trafficking, small arms, chemical precursors, human trafficking, ...

  2. Government quality bases in the field of restaurant economy

    OpenAIRE

    Naumenko, M.; Vanichev, V.

    2010-01-01

    In the article is considered question of quality management as one of backer-ups competitiveness of enterprises of restaurant business and the problems of quality of grant of services restaurant economies are reflected.

  3. AN INTRODUCTION TO THE UNDERGROUND ECONOMY OF ROMANIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Loredana Maftei

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Shadow economy affected for a long time Romania, even since the old regime. During the period 1995-1996, the expansion of this phenomenon has become more serious. Along with Bulgaria, Romania is the second most affected country in the Eastern part of Europe, the shadow economy reaching around 28% of national GDP. This process is boosted by a high level of tax evasion, black labor and overregulation. With the ascension into EU, Romania made considerable efforts to combat the underground economy through a increase of electronic payments, credit card and deposit use.

  4. INSTITUTIONAL APPROACHES OF MODERN SOCIO-ECOLOGO-ECONOMIC FORMS OF ECONOMY IN AGRARIAN SECTOR OF ECONOMY OF UKRAINE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O. Pimenova

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Main problems of agrarian sector of economy of Ukraine are revealed. Main directions of development of agriculture of Ukraine are determined. The necessity of socio-ecologo-economic agrarian sector is proved. Tendencies of institutionalization of forms of economy in a system of agrarian relationship were investigated. The necessity of creation of effective system of institutions with an aim of functioning effective and rational forms of economy in agrarian sector of Ukraine, which could provide a balancing of economic, social and ecologic spheres, is confirmed. In the paper is proved the necessity of creation and function of social-ecologo-economic model of agriculture development, where a social-ecologo-economic development is characterized like economic development of rural territories, rural employment in agriculture, the efficiency of employment, ecologo-safe production focused on human needs and etc., on the one side and on the other side is a significant role of rural social capital. Based on the analysis of scientific literature, it's confirmed that development socio-ecologo-economical forms of economy are accompanied with modification of the institutional structure of regulation of agriculture. It's proved that the functioning of effective forms of economy promotes the competitiveness of the agricultural sector of the national economy.

  5. Instrumentation of cars for fuel economy. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Morris, J E

    1982-04-01

    The development of an electronic system to control the air-fuel ratio (A/F) and ignition timing of an internal combustion engine to optimize fuel economy is described. Dynamometer and drive cycle testing of the system was performed. The results showed that a significant improvement in fuel economy can be achieved by a control system of the type developed. It is clear, however, that considerably more work needs to be done. One area mentioned is the need for more systematic fuel economy testing against speed and load as control parameters are varied for optimization, and a more economic air bypass system must be developed. (LCL)

  6. A subtle economy of time: Social media and the transformation of Indonesia's Islamic preacher economy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slama, Martin

    2017-01-01

    The article is concerned with the latest developments in Indonesia's Islamic field. Its focus is on the role of social media in exchange relationships between Islamic preachers and their constituency. The article first discusses economic exchanges between preachers and their followers, and then it concentrates on social exchanges and how they are mediated today. Empirically, the article delivers insight into the concerns of mostly female Indonesian middle-class Muslims and shows how preachers have to adjust to the needs of their followers who are regularly online. Theoretically, the article offers a rereading of Pierre Bourdieu's classic work on forms of capital and their conversion. It emphasizes the temporal dimension of capital accumulation and conversion and explores the temporalities of online exchanges that have become constitutive of preacher-follower relationships. In doing so, it shows how Indonesia's Islamic preacher economy is currently transformed by these online exchanges, resulting in preacher-follower relationships that are characterized by dialogic constructions of Islamic authority. Being part of Indonesia's Islamic field, these changes in the Islamic preacher economy point to a broader trend in Indonesia's Islamic field toward greater sensitivity to the needs and worries of Indonesian middle-class Muslims.

  7. Identification of Methodology of Indirect Assessment of Economy Shadowing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Avhustyn Ruslan R.

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available The article explains the essence of the shadow economy as an objective phenomenon of socio-economic relations and its influence upon national economy security through instruments of pricing, fiscal restrictions, tax control, and banking and insurance regulation. It proves the necessity of use of the indirect method of assessment of the level of economy shadowing along with methods of direct control over the growth of shadowed economic relations, since such an approach would allow rational approach to identification of volumes and level of shadow activity. In the result of the study the article marks out varieties of indirect assessment of economy shadowing (methods of document, accounting and economic analysis, their specific features, advantages and shortcomings and results of practical use. The article reveals approaches and indicators of economic analysis that allow identification of reasons of deviations from the normal economic activity of economic subjects. It provides examples of the indirect method of assessment of the volume of shadowed economy that deal with analysis of demand on money and comparison of rates of the growth of the money supply with the volume of sight drafts with GDP.

  8. Assessment of Concentration in the Economy of Ukraine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Khaustova Viktoriia Ye.

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available The article is dedicated to the generalization of theoretical aspects of economic concentration and assessment of concentration in Ukraine’s economy. It is proved that in the world there is a stable trend towards the spread of concentration processes both at the level of economies in general and individual industries and business entities, and it occurs predominantly within TNCs. The main stages of the development of TNCs are considered, and it is shown that modern TNCs are large corporations that are the main players in the market. The genesis of the theory of concentration in economy is considered. The views of scientists on the interpretation of the concept “concentration” are studied. It is proved that it is used in different meanings and with respect to different levels of economy and objects of consideration, and there is a wide diversity of basic criteria that determine the essential signs of this concept. The interpretation of the concept “concentration of the country’s economy” is proposed. The existing approaches to assessment of concentration in economy are analyzed. The trends in the development of concentration processes in Ukraine’s economy and the factors that are determined by them are analyzed. There investigated the distribution of industries of Ukraine’s economy in terms of net income of the largest corporations, dynamics of net income of the largest corporations, dynamics of distribution of industries of Ukraine’s economy in terms of profits of large companies, dynamics of net profit of the largest corporations of the top 10 industries of Ukraine’s economy, dynamics of the GDP of Ukraine and main indicators of the largest national corporations. The concentration of Ukraine’s economy is assessed, and it is determined that the most highly concentrated spheres are production of electronics and computers, the automotive industry, media, production of personal goods and software, provision of business

  9. THE INFLUENCE OF INSTITUTIONAL STRATEGIES ON THE UNDERGROUND ECONOMY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ciprian Tudurachi

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The fight against shadow economy must be addressed not only as a permanent concern of economic analysts and decision-makers, but rather as a problematic ethical-moral nature affecting economic and interpersonal relations, as strategic and operational object. The authors attempt outline an institutional management strategy geared towards underground economy combating has as objective the strands establishment without having exhaustiveness claim. We make a case for extending the implementation of a coherent program, strategic and operational, and its adoption as a way of institutional management in the context it really wants to launch a concerted offensive to combat the underground economy.

  10. A low-carbon scenario creation method for a local-scale economy and its application in Kyoto city

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gomi, Kei; Shimada, Kouji; Matsuoka, Yuzuru

    2010-01-01

    On May 2008, Kyoto city government set up a low-carbon target of a 50% GHG reduction by 2030 compared to the 1990 level. To contribute to these discussions, we developed a local (city-scale) low-carbon scenario creation method. An estimation model was developed to show a quantitative and consistent future snapshot. The model can explicitly treat the uncertainty of future socio-economic situations, which originate from the openness of local economy. The method was applied to Kyoto city, and countermeasures to achieve the low-carbon target were identified. Without countermeasures, emissions would increase 12% from 2000. Among the measures, the reduction potential of energy efficiency improvements to residential and commercial sectors was found to be relatively large (15% and 18% of total reductions, respectively). The reduction potential of the passenger transport sector, in which the city government's policy is especially important, was 17% of the total amount. A sensitivity analysis showed that a 10% increase in exports leads to an 8.5% increase in CO 2 emissions, and a 20% increase in the share of the commuters from outside the city leads to a 3.5% decrease of CO 2 emissions because of the smaller number of residents in the city.

  11. The Effects of Boko Haram's Insecurity on Nigeria's Economy | Njoku ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The Effects of Boko Haram's Insecurity on Nigeria's Economy. ... AFRREV IJAH: An International Journal of Arts and Humanities ... Data used for this study was sourced from online questionnaire, using Analysis of Variance (ANOVA) method of ...

  12. The Political Economy of Land and Natural Ressource Investments in Africa

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Buur, Lars; Nystrand, Malin; Pedersen, Rasmus Hundsbæk

    Large-scale investments in natural resources (extractives as well as agriculture) can help transform African economies by accelerating economic growth, creating jobs and strengthening the links between local economies and the global economy more broadly. However, they often end up violating rights......, which in turn may lead to social protests and political instability. This Working Paper develops an analytical framework for analysing the implementation of large-scale investments in natural resources. It focuses on the triangular relations between investors, local populations and ruling elites...... to understand why some investments are implemented more successfully than others, it is necessary to grasp the politics behind an investment. The paper also explores the conditions under which investments can be implemented without violating the rights of local populations. The paper is based on a review...

  13. The dream of a green economy: cover story

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Musvoto, Constansia D

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available and relevant information to guide implementation, the green economy could just be a pipe dream, says Constansia Musvoto. T he green economy, an ambitious economic approach for a developing nation such as South Africa, is a tool for achieving sustainable.... And without any yardstick it is difficult to plan and The dream of a green economy 12|1 2016 19 implement a project with certainty, and it is impossible to measure success or identify areas for improvement. Specific information and guidance on how...

  14. Economics of the energy economy; Oekonomie der Energiewirtschaft

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Henrichs, Birgit

    2008-11-15

    The series designed by the Federal Association of Energy and Water Economy (BDEW) presents the topic energy by means of an interdisciplinary way in seven magazines. Each magazine is dedicated to important sub-topics. The series does not only address teachers of subjects in the field of natural sciences like physics, biology and chemistry but also teachers of the subjects social studies, geography, work studies and technology of the forms 5 - 10. The present seventh magazine of the study sequence is dedicated to the subject economics of the energy economy. The following aspects are described: the history of energy supply by pipelines, from a monopoly to competition, the electric power and gas market and its mechanism, basic elements of the energy policy, the role of the energy economy in the overall economy as well as perspectives of the world energy supply. (orig./RHN)

  15. ENVIRONMENTAL ASPECTS OF "GREEN ECONOMY" RUSSIA'S ECONOMIC GROWTH

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. N. Botavina

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The article tells the story of the emergence of "green" economy, as opposed to the traditional "brown" ekonomike, given its concept shown shortcomings of the existing definitions of "green" economy, conclusions about the real possibilities of the transition to the growth of "green" economy. The relevance of this work lies in the fact that the changing paradigm of understanding the basis and essence of sustainable development of the national socio-economic systems necessitates the integration of economic and environmental solutions, this integration is seen as part of the concept of "green economy".The approach of this article is based on an interdisciplinary concept of quality management in relation to the specifics of functioning and development of the domestic socio-economic systems.The purpose / goal. The purpose of this article, and its main task is to systematize the areas of environmentally oriented development of economic entities, as well as the determination of the list of key provisions of environmental policy, which will provide further socio-economic development of Russia in line with the green economy. As a result, Russia as one of the great powers of the world will find a stable geopolitical situation.Methodology. The methodological basis of this article are comparative, economic and statistical analysis methods.Results. This article suggests some solutions to be included in the national environmental policy as a major incentive for the further transition to a green economy.Conclusions: The material contained in this article show the special role of the concept of "green economy" in the social and economic processes in the development of Russia's geo-economic stability. The above article aspects of the further development of the green economy in Russia can complement scientific and practical base solutions that provide active creation, implementation and use of green technologies to provide environmentally responsible sustainable

  16. Interdisciplinary Approach to the Study of Shadow Economy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elena Aleksandrovna Orekhova

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Currently the institutional factors of economic development are updated. The problem of neutralizing the impact of informal institutions is becoming paramount. In order to develop adequate measures to influence the shadow economy and the development of the concept of anti-shadow policies requires a deep and comprehensive study of the shadow socio-economic processes in Russia. It is necessary to recognize the fact that the methods of struggle against the shadow economy have not yet had the desired effect, that implies the conclusion – the causes of the shadow economy have deep roots and are out of the sphere of economic relations. Shadow economic processes are the result of the behavioral characteristics of people, socio-psychological reasons as a consequence of the low cultural level, marginality, inefficient conjugation of institutions and culture, lack of confidence in the society, the specific characteristics of economic mentality, etc. Therefore, if the causes of the shadow relations are rooted in completely different spheres, then the methods of research should also belong to different sciences. The article considers the methodological possibilities in the study of the Russian shadow economy. The logical sequence of the shadow economy research includes empirical and theoretical stages. The level of the empirical phase of gathering facts about the shadow economy has a number of complexities and peculiarities. On a theoretical level there is necessity of multimethodological approach. The authors proved the usefulness of the methodological system and the results of research in the fields of sociology, psychology, criminology, statistics and mathematics, as well as related to the economy of sciences – economic psychology, behavioral economics, economic teratology, and others. The article proposes to carry out studies of the shadow economy at the different levels of architectonics of the institutional structure of shadow economy: the nano

  17. Management of Innovative Projects for Ensuring the Economic Safety in the Conditions of Integration of Economies into the World Economy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. K. Usmanova

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: the aim of the article is to reveal problems and prospects, formulate economic security within the framework of innovation projects management, plan technologies in the context of integrating economies into the world economy, identify opportunities for forming, organizing, financing, managing priority economic directions. The subject is the management of innovative projects to ensure the economic security of Russian regions. The relevance of the chosen topic is due to the study of the features of the current state and the problems of the formation of economic security, the development of innovative design solutions in the context of integrating economies into the world economy. Ensuring the economic security of the regions of Russia directly depends on the introduction of innovative technologies and project management in the sectors of the national economy of Russia. Methods: the methodology of the solution of objectives is based on usage of a method of dialectic research, methods of the economic analysis, forecasting, the situational and systemic analysis, expert evaluations and the analysis of empirical data. Hypothesis. Ensuring an economic safety requires formation of innovative solutions, change of the current legislation within the Strategy of social and economic development in the conditions of integration of economies into the world economy. Results: the practical significance of the work is to identify the interrelationship between the development processes of innovative projects that ensure the economic security of the regions of Russia within the framework of regulating the current legislation, forecasting effective economic activity within the framework of the New Industrialization Strategy, selecting optimal project planning models to ensure the country's economic security and competitiveness in the conditions of integration Economies into the world economy. Conclusions and Relevance: in the conditions of integration of

  18. TOURISM DEVELOPMENT IMPACT ON THE ECONOMY OF AZERBAIJAN

    OpenAIRE

    Musayeva, Naila; Silinevica, Irena

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this research is to explore tourism development impact on the economy of Azerbaijan. International tourism as a source of both direct and indirect incomes of the state encourages the development of different sectors not specific to the tourism infrastructure, but through the multiplier effect. In this context, the authors analyze the impact of tourism on employment in Azerbaijan and calculate the indirect impact of tourism on the economy of Azerbaijan due to the multiplier effect. ...

  19. A theory of family, economy, and gender.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huber, J

    1988-03-01

    Historically, the requirements of population replacement have interacted with modes of subsistence technology to shape the differential distribution of power and prestige by sex. Two assumptions undergird Huber's argument: in all societies, producers have more power than consumers; those who control the distribution of valued goods beyond the family have the most power. Evidence comes from societies based on foraging, the hoe, the plow, herding, and industrial technologies. Huber concludes that changes in the work people do have altered the stratification and family systems of plow societies. Declines in mortality and fertility and changes in lactation customs have reduced the time that women spend pregnant or nursing. Increases in educational levels and employment rates enable women to provide sizable shares of family income. These trends have increased the centrality of individual goal attainment in the Western ideational system. Now women, along with men, have been swept into the occupational streams of the industrial revolution, though not quite into the mainstream. Still in question is the extent to which women will hold a fair share of top positions. This will hinge on responsibility for housework and childcare early in a woman's career, a time when most single parents or couples lack resources to command full-time quality care for the daily needs of their children. Ambitious women can avoid much conflict by remaining childless, but that is the point; ambitious men need not make that choice. Women cannot become men's social equals until the most talented women can aspire as realistically as their male counterparts to contribute in proportion to their talents. Thus, the overlap of family, economy, and gender, reshaped by continuing technological change, continues to affect women's status. Industrialization 1st turned the cost-benefit ratio of children upside down. Then wives were drawn into the labor force, raising the opportunity cost of their time, and

  20. Dynamics of International Reserve Accumulation in Turkish Economy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Duygu Ayhan

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Many of the emerging market economies embody macroeconomic and structural vulnerabilities due to large deficits, high inflation, slowing growth and heavy reliance on short-term capital inflows. Therefore, accumulation of international reserve holdings has been frequently used by authorities to serve as an insurance against the volatility of the capital flows and strengthen the fragile nature of these economies. Turkish economy, classified as one of the most fragile of the emerging economies, has been experiencing a similar process of international reserve accumulation. The chronically high current account deficit and low savings rate boost the importance of international reserves. Thus, the aim of this paper is to investigate the determinants of international reserves in Turkey. The dataset covers the 2000-2013 period. Consequently, we find that the international reserve accumulation is mainly explained by current account balance, per capita income and past crisis experience.

  1. Political and Social Economy of Care : Gendered Dimensions in ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Political and Social Economy of Care : Gendered Dimensions in Selected ... in this area; an institutional analysis of the care regimes; and a micro level quantitative ... (and girls and boys) within households assume responsibility for the physical ...

  2. The phenomenon of factoring, benefits for beneficiary and national economy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kasavica Petar

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The essay encompasses three thematic units focused on the phenomenon of factoring and its benefits for beneficiaries and national economies. In the first part the essay analyses background, concept and participants, types of factoring products, and how factoring functions from the perspective of involved risks. In the second part the essay analyses benefits of factoring for beneficiaries, especially their financial performances and how factoring decreases collection risk and costs of working capital financing. In the third part the essay analyses benefits of factoring for national economies tackling its capabilities to support declining companies and how factoring upgrades macroeconomic figures and features of financial sector. This part explains the way how national economies are organized through international factoring based on two factor systems. The goal of the essay is to pinpoint micro benefits and their impact on macro environment, i.e. national economy.

  3. Influence of the economy crisis on project cost management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simankina, Tatyana; Ćetković, Jasmina; Verstina, Natalia; Evseev, Evgeny

    2017-10-01

    Economy crisis significantly affects primarily the project cost management. The article considers the problems of project management in the field of housing under conditions of economy crisis. Project budgets are reduced, their mutual interference grows and framework of risks changes. Apparently, specific approaches are required to be developed to optimize the expenses and guarantee the project implementation within the approved budget. There is considered domestic and foreign experience in terms of project cost management with involvement of BIM technologies.

  4. Integration & Impact of Information Technology on Indian Economy

    OpenAIRE

    Dr. Gulrukh Salim

    2014-01-01

    India occupies a major place in list of developing countries and is expected to have basic capabilities to compete with world economies. Before 1991, India adopted policy of self-reliance but in this era of LPG, India’s industrial and agricultural structure is being transformed into open and mixed economy. On the basis of various surveys and fact conducted by National and International Agencies, India is still lacking in the basic needs of livelihood, despite having occupied the position of t...

  5. ATP economy of force maintenance in human tibialis anterior muscle

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nakagawa, Yoshinao; Ratkevicius, Aivaras; Mizuno, Masao

    2005-01-01

    PURPOSE: The aim of this study was investigate ATP economy of force maintenance in the human tibialis anterior muscle during 60 s of anaerobic voluntary contraction at 50% of maximum voluntary contraction (MVC). METHODS: ATP turnover rate was evaluated using P magnetic resonance spectroscopy (P...... contraction. It averaged at 4.81 +/- 0.42 N.s.micromol-1, and correlated with the relative cross-sectional area of the muscle occupied by Type I fiber (r = 0.73, P contraction, subjects dropping in force showed lower ATP economy compared with those maintaining the force (3.......7 +/- 0.6 vs 5.3 +/- 0.6 N.s.micromol-1; P contraction could be due to an increase in the ATP economy of contracting muscle fibers offsetting the effects of increased temperature and low ATP economy...

  6. Geographies of energy transition: Space, place and the low-carbon economy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bridge, Gavin; Bouzarovski, Stefan; Bradshaw, Michael; Eyre, Nick

    2013-01-01

    This paper makes a case for examining energy transition as a geographical process, involving the reconfiguration of current patterns and scales of economic and social activity. The paper draws on a seminar series on the ‘Geographies of Energy Transition: security, climate, governance' hosted by the authors between 2009 and 2011, which initiated a dialogue between energy studies and the discipline of human geography. Focussing on the UK Government's policy for a low carbon transition, the paper provides a conceptual language with which to describe and assess the geographical implications of a transition towards low carbon energy. Six concepts are introduced and explained: location, landscape, territoriality, spatial differentiation, scaling, and spatial embeddedness. Examples illustrate how the geographies of a future low-carbon economy are not yet determined and that a range of divergent – and contending – potential geographical futures are in play. More attention to the spaces and places that transition to a low-carbon economy will produce can help better understand what living in a low-carbon economy will be like. It also provides a way to help evaluate the choices and pathways available. - Highlights: ► Examines transition as a geographical process, reconfiguring patterns and scales of activity. ► Provides concepts for assessing geographical implications of transition to a low-carbon economy. ► Outlines location, landscape, territoriality, uneven development, scaling, and embeddedness.

  7. Effect of business regulation on investment in emerging market economies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Birungi Korutaro

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper provides an empirical analysis of the business regulatory factors that influence investment in a selection of 29 emerging market economies. Both theoretical and empirical literature on the effect of the regulatory environment on investment is reviewed. A panel data analysis over the period 2003–2007 reveals that investment is influenced by secure property rights and the degree of business entry regulation. The results carry important policy implications for improving the investment climate of emerging market economies.

  8. An analytical framework for a political economy of football

    OpenAIRE

    Grant, Wyn

    2007-01-01

    A political economy of football has become more essential as the game has been colonized by elements of the business class. There is a tension between its profit maximizing understanding of football and a more community oriented, democratic vision that seeks to pursue government policy goals. The insights of economics and politics are both necessary to understand the political economy of football, but they should not be hybridized. Economics allows us to understand the distinctive characteris...

  9. The impact of artificial intelligence on the world economy

    OpenAIRE

    Kuprevich, T. S.

    2017-01-01

    In the article the potential benefits and opportunities offered by AI in the world economy are considered. In the course of the research benefits and tendencies of artificial intelligence in the world economy were revealed, the main directions of development and barriers of artificial intelligence adoption are analyzed and revealed. Nowadays artificial intelligence (AI) is going mainstream, driven by machine learning, big data and cloud computing.

  10. Ranking seasonal rainfall forecast skill of emerging and developing economies

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Landman, WA

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Some of the biggest emerging markets economies include countries in South America, Asia and Africa. In the global south, political and developmental similarities (e.g. climate variability occurring in conjunction with marked developmental challenges...

  11. The state in oil rentier economies: the case of Bahrain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abdulla, K.M.

    1999-01-01

    The word 'rentier' is defined (a rentier economy is one which depends largely on rents that accrue from abroad). The paper concentrates on the activities and economics of rentier economies in general and Bahrain in particular. In a rentier economy, the state is the main recipient of income from abroad, so the state plays a critical role in the spending of the money, thus governing the fabric of society. Bahrain was in a particularly advantageous position since its income per capita was high: statistical data are given to support this. But, recent trends in Bahrain have seen a fall in income from petroleum, and in future it is possible that the private sector will play an increasing role in the economy

  12. Political economy of decentralising HIV and AIDS treatment services ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Political economy of decentralising HIV and AIDS treatment services to primary healthcare facilities in three Nigerian states. Chinyere Mbachu, Obinna Onwujekwe, Nkoli Ezumah, Olayinka Ajayi, Olusola Sanwo, Benjamin Uzochukwu ...

  13. THE GENERATING AND COMPLEMENTARY EFFECTS OF THE UNDERGROUND ECONOMY PHENOMENON

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Corneliu Sorin BAICU

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available For a comprehensive understanding of the informal sector, an analysis addressing the relationships and links between the morphology and etiology of the underground economy, on the one hand, and its effects on the economic, social or legal, on the other hand is required. The double identity, that of cause phenomenon and effect phenomenon, that the underground economy has, gives it a special status in explaining certain phenomena which vitiates the economic and social life. The generating and complementary effects of the underground area covered in this study are analyzed in terms of the following vectors of analysis: tax evasion, illegal work and money laundering. Tax evasion represents the central core of the underground economy and faithfully expresses the fiscal monetary policies ,the fiscal mortality and the degree of compliance of the taxpayer. Undeclared work is an indicator of the labor market in the informal economy and is a good barometer for analyzing the demand and supply of labor in the visible economy. Money laundering defines the level of economic and financial crime and reflects the level of illegal use of capital on the black market. Tax evasion, money laundering and illegal work can only develop on a framework provided by illicit markets for goods, services and labor. Beyond the, unidirectional or bidirectional relationships between phenomena, the paper consists in a plea for an interdependent, multi-causal analysis of the phenomena and operating mechanisms of the relationships within and outside the underground economy.

  14. The Rise of Middle Kingdoms: Emerging Economies in Global Trade

    OpenAIRE

    Gordon H. Hanson

    2012-01-01

    In this paper, I examine changes in international trade associated with the integration of low- and middle-income countries into the global economy. Led by China and India, the share of developing economies in global exports more than doubled between 1994 and 2008. One feature of new trade patterns is greater South-South trade. China and India have booming demand for imported raw materials, which they use to build cities and factories. Industrialization throughout the South has deepened globa...

  15. CONTRIBUTIONS OF “KNOWLEDGE” IN WORLD ECONOMY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gabriela-Liliana CIOBAN

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The effect of knowledge globally is reflected in the growth / development of national economies and improvement of living standards of the population. Arguments underlying this statement are reflected in the values ​​held by certain indicators (Knowledge Economy Index, Gross Domestic Product, Index of Innovation, Knowledge Intensive Services etc. and their effects on national economies. Factors contributing to the development of these indicators are the "key" to success in each economy and also part of their basic foundation. The explanation so far obliges us to analyze current global economic situation and its prospects. As a first step we will try to answer the question "What is the generator factor of growth / prosperity in different countries?" and to identify its evolution over time. A second stage of the study will represent an analysis in the architecture centers of power due to the competitive advantage held by certain countries / companies in creating wealth. The study is based upon emergence and strengthening of competitiveness in the businesses and the national economy. Knowledge-intensive services’ presence in the world's economies is a vital source of economic growth.

  16. Trade, Development, and the Political Economy of Public Standards

    OpenAIRE

    Swinnen, Johan F.M.; Vandemoortele, Thijs

    2009-01-01

    This paper presents a political economy model of public standards in an open economy model. We use the model to derive the political optimum and to analyze different factors that have an influence on this political equilibrium. The paper discusses how the level of development influences the political equilibrium. We also analyze the relation between trade and the political equilibrium and compare this political outcome with the social optimum to identify under which cases ‘under-standardizati...

  17. The Transmission of Liquidity Shocks to the Real Economy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dursun-de Neef, Özlem

    2012-01-01

    This paper uses the 2007-2009 financial crisis as a negative liquidity shock on banks to analyze their lending behavior and study the differences between US and euro-area banks. When faced with a negative liquidity shock, US banks transmitted liquidity shocks to the real economy by reducing...... of the Federal Reserve in the US and the ECB in the euro area has led to differences in the transmission of liquidity shocks to the real economy....

  18. The new architecture of economies' typology within the globalization context

    OpenAIRE

    Popa, Catalin C.

    2009-01-01

    Over viewing the most recently evolutions throughout global economy, we can easily conceive that the collateral effects of economical globalization and market integration, represents the main issues debated in specialized professional or political circles. The first step toward regain the global markets functionality is to review as a sine-qua-non condition, the institutional and functional structure of financial system and global economy system as well. In such context, this paperwork is mea...

  19. Fuel demand on UK roads and dieselisation of fuel economy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bonilla, David

    2009-01-01

    Because of high oil prices, and climate change policy, governments are now seeking ways to improve new car fuel economy thus contributing to air quality and energy security. One strategy is to increase dieselisation rates of the vehicle fleet. Recent trends in fuel economy show improvement since 1995, however, efforts need to go further if the EU Voluntary Agreement targets on CO 2 (a greenhouse gas emission standard) are to be achieved. Trends show diesel car sales have accelerated rapidly and that the advantage of new car fuel economy of diesel cars over gasoline ones is narrowing posing a new challenge. We estimate the demand for new car fuel economy in the UK. In the long-run consumers buy fuel economy, but not in the short-run. We found that long-term income and price changes were the main drivers to achieve improvements particularly for diesel cars and that there is no break in the trend of fuel economy induced by the agreement adopted in the 1990s. Policy should target more closely both consumer choice of, and use of, diesel cars.

  20. Green Economy – A New Dimension of Development

    OpenAIRE

    Raluca Mihalcioiu

    2013-01-01

    The “Green Economy” has been recognized by the international community (United Nations) as a key strategic tool for sustainable development. The transition to a green economy must be a task for all countries - for developing but also for developed countries. Economy and consumers should therefore be able to accelerate the economic transformation for their own interests. In developing this concept representatives of business, trade unions and environmental organizations are involved to ensure ...

  1. RELEVANT PROBLEMS OF UKRAINE’S INTEGRATION INTO GLOBAL ECONOMY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yevheniia Duliba

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this research is to study the main problems that prevent Ukraine from integrating into the global economy and to determine correct focuses of the foreign economic policy of Ukraine against the background of strengthening of globalization tendencies throughout the world. The bases of this research are bases of business development of the foreign economic policy of Ukraine and improvement of Ukrainian economy against the background of international integration. At the heart of the research methodology is a dialectical method of scientific knowledge and, besides, special methods of research based on modern scientific bases of economic, management and related to them knowledge: economic and statistic method – for the assessment of the modern state of foreign trade and investment activity of Ukraine; method of analysis and synthesis – for the determination of tendencies of development of integration processed in Ukraine; comparative analysis – for comparison of information concerning development of specific indicators of foreign economic activities in Ukraine. Results. As a result of research, the main blocks of problems, which impede the integration of Ukraine into the global economy, and requirements for their complex solution are determined. Besides, interdependence and interdetermination of problems, which impede the integration of Ukraine into the global economy, and requirements for their complex solution are explained. Political and legal, economic, sociocultural, and infrastructural preconditions that are necessary for effective integration of Ukraine into the global economy are highlighted. Practical implications. Analysis of the existing problems related to the actual economy, investments, innovation processes gives the possibility to determine the vector of development of Ukraine’s economy taking to account recommendations concerning its improvement for the purposes of integration into global economy. Value

  2. Impact Assessment of Citizen Fairs in the Process of Transition from the Popular Economy to a Solidarity Economy

    OpenAIRE

    Ángel Enrique Zapata-Barros; Mikel Ugando-Peñate

    2017-01-01

    The law of popular and solidarity economy in Ecuador was created to promote the transition of organizational forms of popular solidarity economy towards forms of organization. This law made possible the development of projects aimed at strengthening solidarity economic practices. One of these projects are the citizens fairs, promoted since 2008 by the state (government ministry). The fairs are an associative marketing strategy is an alternative to price speculation and a viable path to the or...

  3. Can the social market economy be a viable solution for a future sustainable development of the Romanian economy?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Strat Vasile Alecsandru

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Social market economy (SME is a socio-economic model which attempts to unite the freedom of a competitive market economy with social equilibrium and progress. It is seen as a “third path” besides a purely liberal market economy and an economy which is heavily regulated by the state – in the SME there is an intermediate degree of regulation. Historically, the model corresponds to the real economic policy of the German Federal Republic after the 1950s, thus it is sometimes called Rhine capitalism. According to the Treaty of Lisbon from 2007, the European Union pursues a competitive social market economy with full employment and social progress. On one hand, this model wishes to exploit the advantages of a free market economy, especially its high efficiency in the production of goods, while on the other hand it uses state intervention to correct for potential negative outcomes from market processes. Further characteristics of this model are: ensuring competition, free price formation, private property, motivating performance through profit aspirations as well as guarding personal freedoms. Last but not least, this model encompasses a strong structural policy by encouraging weaker geographical regions or industries. Therefore, it is highly probable that such a socio-economic model might be the appropriate alternative to fuel a sustainable growth of the Romanian economy. Using county level data, from the National Institute of Statistics and from the National Office of the Trade Register, for the year 2015 we show that the Romanian economy is highly polarized with a few growth poles (islands and a large number of underdeveloped units. Thus, it becomes obvious that these important disparities will hinder a future sustainable development and by consequence a clear “road-map” represented by this economic model might prove to be a viable solution for the Romanian economy.

  4. Ocean warming expands habitat of a rich natural resource and benefits a national economy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jansen, Teunis; Post, Søren Lorenzen; Kristiansen, Trond

    2016-01-01

    Geographic redistribution of living natural resources changes access and thereby harvesting opportunities between countries. Internationally shared fish resources can be sensitive to shifts in the marine environment and this may have great impact on the economies of countries and regions that rely...... northwest in the Atlantic. This change in migration pattern was followed by a rapid development of a large-scale fishery of substantial importance for the national economy of Greenland (23% of Greenland's export value of all goods in 2014). A pelagic trawl survey was conducted in mid-summer 2014...

  5. METHODOLOGY OF RESEARCH AND DEVELOPMENT MANAGEMENT OF REGIONAL NETWORK ECONOMY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O.I. Botkin

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available Information practically of all the Russian regions economy branches and development by managing subjects is information − communicative the Internet technologies render huge influence on economic attitudes development in the environment of regional business: there are new forms of interaction of managing subjects and change is information − organizational structures of regional business management. Integrated image of the set forth above innovations is the regional network economy representing the interactive environment in which on high speed and with minimal transaction (R.H.Coase’s costs are performed social economic and commodity monetary attitudes between managing subjects of region with use of Internet global network interactive opportunities. The urgency of the regional network economy phenomenon research, first of all, is caused by necessity of a substantiation of regional network economy methodology development and management mechanisms development by its infrastructure with the purpose of regional business efficiency increase. In our opinion, the decision of these problems will be the defining factor of effective economic development maintenance and russian regions economy growth in the near future.

  6. Economies of Scope in Distance Education: The Case of Chinese Research Universities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fengliang Li

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available With the rapid development of information technologies, distance education has become “another form of product differentiation in the output mix produced by the multi-product university or college” (Cohn & Cooper, 2004, p. 607. This article aims at analyzing the economies of scope of distance education (as an educational output in Chinese research universities. The empirical results show that a product-specific economies of scope do exist in distance education programs offered by Chinese research universities; b there are economies of scale in distance education; and c there are weak cost complementarities between distance education and research output, meaning that distance education and academic research can promote each other to reduce the costs in Chinese research universities.

  7. Effect of Intake Air Filter Condition on Vehicle Fuel Economy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Norman, Kevin M [ORNL; Huff, Shean P [ORNL; West, Brian H [ORNL

    2009-02-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy and the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) jointly maintain a fuel economy website (www.fueleconomy.gov), which helps fulfill their responsibility under the Energy Policy Act of 1992 to provide accurate fuel economy information [in miles per gallon (mpg)] to consumers. The site provides information on EPA fuel economy ratings for passenger cars and light trucks from 1985 to the present and other relevant information related to energy use such as alternative fuels and driving and vehicle maintenance tips. In recent years, fluctuations in the price of crude oil and corresponding fluctuations in the price of gasoline and diesel fuels have renewed interest in vehicle fuel economy in the United States. (User sessions on the fuel economy website exceeded 20 million in 2008 compared to less than 5 million in 2004 and less than 1 million in 2001.) As a result of this renewed interest and the age of some of the references cited in the tips section of the website, DOE authorized the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) Fuels, Engines, and Emissions Research Center (FEERC) to initiate studies to validate and improve these tips. This report documents a study aimed specifically at the effect of engine air filter condition on fuel economy. The goal of this study was to explore the effects of a clogged air filter on the fuel economy of vehicles operating over prescribed test cycles. Three newer vehicles (a 2007 Buick Lucerne, a 2006 Dodge Charger, and a 2003 Toyota Camry) and an older carbureted vehicle were tested. Results show that clogging the air filter has no significant effect on the fuel economy of the newer vehicles (all fuel injected with closed-loop control and one equipped with MDS). The engine control systems were able to maintain the desired AFR regardless of intake restrictions, and therefore fuel consumption was not increased. The carbureted engine did show a decrease in

  8. SOCIETY OF KNOWLEDGE AND ENTREPRENEURIAL ECONOMY: SOME VIEWS OF DRUCKER

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    KRUME NIKOLOSKI

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this paper is to update the economic thoughts and opinions of Peter Drucker related to society knowledge and entrepreneurial society. The paper will be elaborated his claims relating to the transformation, the capitalism, and the characteristics of the new society. In particular will be analyzed some Ducker’s sightings for entrepreneurs and entrepreneurial economy, and innovations in the society. Namely, in this paper theory of innovation and entrepreneurship economic thinker Drucker is going to be refined and analyzed. In order to get begin the process of economic gain. Drucker believes that entrepreneurial economy is linked to the new companies which develop. According to him, entrepreneurs are the central figure in the economic growth. A main focus of the paper will be placed on the concepts and theories of entrepreneurial economy. The motivation is that theories are the source of new ideas, and every theory upgraded and changed parts of already existing theories.

  9. CORPORATE MODEL OF PUBLIC SECTOR OF THE RUSSIAN ECONOMY: TRENDS AND PATTERNS OF DEVELOPMENT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olga S. Makarenko

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available The article reveals the issues of development and functioning of corporate model of public sector of the Russian economy. Today Russia is fully influenced by consequences of entry into world economy. Privatization processes, on the one hand, and increase in intervention of the state in economy, on the other hand, changed composition and structure of the public sector of the Russian economy. Establishment of large state corporations and further increase in scales and directions of Russian government’s policy. These corporations acquired an extensive set of functions, large volumes of state property (federal budgetary funds, different production and financial assets, which ensured their activity in the long run. The state corporations carry out an important role in ensuring stable development of national economic systems for already several years, smoothing the so-called “failures” of the market, and create the necessary conditions for overcoming the crisis phenomena. The author presents the classification of economic sectors consisting of public, municipal and private sectors, studies the character and structure of public sector of the developed foreign countries. The carried-out comparative characteristic of main national models of public sector allowed to reveal the extent of state’s influence on the economy in the North American, Western European and Asian countries, as well as to define the main features of public sector in these countries. The concept and essence of the state corporation, as well as trends of their creation and development are also studied. The author proposes the corporate model of public sector of the Russian economy and defines its main characteristics. The analysis of the conducted research allowed to draw a conclusion on the need of further development of the state corporations and large national companies with the state participation.

  10. Extension of social security coverage for the informal economy in Indonesia : surveys in the urban and rural informal economy

    OpenAIRE

    Angelini, John; Hirose, Kenichi

    2004-01-01

    This paper focuses on the extension of social security coverage to workers in the informal economy. In particular, the paper presents the results of surveys assessing social security needs of workers in the informal economy in both urban and rural areas. The outcome of these surveys provides primary information for the development of effective policy on social security coverage extension to these groups of workers.

  11. APPLICATION OF QUALITY ECONOMY METHODS IN MANAGING INNOVATION CAPACITY DEVELOPMENT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. V. Okrepilov

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: to reveal the possibilities of applying the methods of the quality economy to improve the management efficiency of the development of the region's innovative potential.Results: in the article topical questions of development of innovative potential of the region are considered - one of the important factors providing improvement of quality of life of the population and sustainable development of the territory. The content of the concept of "innovation potential of the region" is disclosed and its components are described. The purposes of development of innovative potential are considered. A comparative analysis of the methods of managing the development of potential in the market and planned economy is carried out. Particular attention is paid to the application of quality management methods to improve management effectiveness. In conclusion, the advantages and disadvantages of the economy of the macro-region "North-West" from the point of view of transition to an innovative development path, as well as scenarios for the development of the economy, are discussed.Conclusions and relevance: the use of quality economy tools to manage the development of innovative capacity will help to avoid mistakes and choose the right directions for development. In the era of globalization, improving quality is a prerequisite for successful competition in world markets. Therefore, the issues of innovation capacity assessment should be taken into account in the development of regional plans and programs, as well as socio-economic policy.

  12. 19 CFR 351.408 - Calculation of normal value of merchandise from nonmarket economy countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... nonmarket economy countries. 351.408 Section 351.408 Customs Duties INTERNATIONAL TRADE ADMINISTRATION... economy countries. (a) Introduction. In identifying dumping from a nonmarket economy country, the Secretary normally will calculate normal value by valuing the nonmarket economy producers' factors of...

  13. Management of the Structural Transformation of Regional Economy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Khamid Nurislamovich Gizatullin

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available The article presents the research of the structural transformation of the economy. The authors have formulated the theoretical concept and the basic reasons for structural transformation of the economy in regions. According to the authors’ approach, the economy should function as a whole system. This defining principle is aimed at the systemic effect. The loss of regions’ control, and, in some cases, deviation from the national goals are the main reasons for the reduction in the Russian economic efficiency. As a result of the liberalization of the economy, the principle of selective investments has become the dominant one as a result of the liberalization of the economy. It broke the synergetic principle used for the formulation of economic strategy. The authors recommend to structure an efficient economy on the basis of the specificity of the economic situation due to its internal state and international realities. We also advise to achieve the balance between regional development and the development of country’s economic competitiveness. The article substantiates the need to overcome the growth of negative trends. These trends are due to the deformation of the most important economic principles and relationships as a result of weakness in the structural and investment policy. Thus, the high-priority task is the orientation of economic development to ensure the technical and technological independence of the economic system. This strategy contains the determining directions for the next development stages. We propose to focus the modernization of the structure of regional economy on the combination of the conceptual foundations of the federal structural policy and regional conditions for its implementation. Regional economy should balance economic initiative and independence in terms of the methods and means for its implementation. We recommend to combine the economic growth with the regional environmental management and the regulation of

  14. Contribution of small and medium enterprises to economic development: Evidence from a transiting economy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    James Obi

    2018-06-01

    Full Text Available The focus of this research was to present a data article on the contribution of SMEs to economic development in a transiting economy. Descriptive research design was adopted in this study. Data were obtained from 600 respondents in 60 small-scale enterprises located in different parts of the country (20 small-scale enterprises located in Lagos State, 20 in Anambra State and 20 in Kano State of Nigeria respectively. Data analysis was carried out using tables and percentages and the null hypotheses of the study was tested using chi-square (X2 inferential statistical model at 5% level of significance. The findings revealed that there is a significant relationship between the operation of small and medium-scale enterprises and economic growth in developing nations. Keywords: Entrepreneurship, SMEs, Economic development, Transiting economy, Nigeria

  15. Analysis of economy characteristics and improvement ways for China nuclear power

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li Yong

    2010-01-01

    For the nuclear power industry, due to characteristics of its own, its economy is quite different from that of the traditional fossil-fuel power. This paper studied the basic characteristics of the nuclear power economy and the status of economy of domestic nuclear power, and analyzed the main ways to improve the nuclear power economy. (authors)

  16. Trust within Brazilian New Economy Organizations: an Empirical Investigation of Gender Effects Benchmarked on Brazilian Old Economy Organizations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marco Tulio Zanini

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available It has been suggested that one of the negative aspects of the New Economy has been growing organizational survival-risk both at the firm and the sector levels. This precarious positioning of the firm has profoundly changed the work environment resulting in the dissolution of job-definition-boundaries, thereby raising the intensity of work and finally affecting the level and nature of trust in the workplace. This is the starting point for our study. Using a questionnaire developed by Gillespie, we investigated gender profiles concerning trust in Supervisors, Peers, and Team in the New and the Old Economies for Brazilian managers. The results show that, for the New Economy, Brazilian women are more willing to give trust to Supervisors whereas Brazilian men expressed higher levels of trust when dealing with Team members. The Peer results are mixed. For the Old Economy, men uniformly express higher levels of trust compared to women over all three reference groups. Finally, for gender matched comparisons, those working in the Brazilian Old Economy firms express higher levels of trust compared to their counterparts in the New Economy independent of gender or time worked. We conclude by discussing the control implications of the above results.

  17. Forecast model of safety economy contribution rate of China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIU Li-jun; SHI Shi-liang

    2005-01-01

    It is the rational and exact computation of the safety economy contribution rate that has the far-reaching realistic meaning to the improvement of society cognition to safety and the investment to the nation safety and the national macro-safety decision-makings. The accurate function between safety inputs and outputs was obtained through a founded econometric model. Then the forecasted safety economy contribution rate is 3.01% and the forecasted ratio between safety inputs and outputs is 1:1.81 in China in 2005. And the model accords with the practice of China and the results are satisfying.

  18. Latest 'evaluation of size of economy' for nuclear uses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saito, Shinzo; Kume, Tamikazu; Inoue, Tomio; Takahashi, Shoji

    2008-01-01

    Size of economy for nuclear uses in Japan was evaluated for FY 2005. Nuclear uses are classified into nuclear energy use and radiation utilizations. Nuclear energy use totaled 4.7 trillion yen with nuclear power. Economy size of nuclear power decreased due to disgraceful events and accidents, though 5.5 trillion yen around for FY 2000. Radiation utilizations totaled 4.1 trillion yen mainly with industrial uses (2.3 trillion yen) and nuclear medicine, diagnosis and radiotherapy (1.5 trillion yen). Combined total of uses amounted to 8.9 trillion yen and comparable with 9.5 trillion yen for FY 1997. (T. Tanaka)

  19. Deregulation of the Nigerian economy: The theoretical milieu

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nureni Opeyemi Akintoye

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The deregulation of Nigerian economy was the main thrust of the Structural Adjustment Programme (SAP introduced in the country in 1986 under the leadership of General Ibrahim Babandiga (1958-1993. Prior to that period the Nigerian economy was almost a command one with wide range of government control. Indeed, the introduction of SAP was said to be a final solution to the economic crisis faced by the Country. Unfortunately, SAP was introduced yet, the economy became more crunched. During the General Abach's regime (1993­1998, SAP was suspended out rightly. When General Abdulsalami Abubakar (1998-1999 took over, he continued pursuing the privatization programme which is a synonym of deregulation of the economy with the promulgation of another privatization decree. The civilian government led by President Obasanjo which took over from 1999 made deregulation the core with vigour. It is basked on this development that this paper intends to unravel the theoretical paradigm under which the deregulation of Nigerian economy could be explained. This includes capitalism, imperialism, colonialism particularly the incorporation of Nigerian into international capitalist system.

  20. 40 CFR 600.211-08 - Sample calculation of fuel economy values for labeling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... AGENCY (CONTINUED) ENERGY POLICY FUEL ECONOMY AND CARBON-RELATED EXHAUST EMISSIONS OF MOTOR VEHICLES Fuel Economy Regulations for 1977 and Later Model Year Automobiles-Procedures for Calculating Fuel Economy... 40 Protection of Environment 29 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Sample calculation of fuel economy...

  1. 40 CFR 600.209-85 - Calculation of fuel economy values for labeling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... (CONTINUED) ENERGY POLICY FUEL ECONOMY AND CARBON-RELATED EXHAUST EMISSIONS OF MOTOR VEHICLES Fuel Economy Regulations for 1977 and Later Model Year Automobiles-Procedures for Calculating Fuel Economy Values § 600.209... 40 Protection of Environment 29 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Calculation of fuel economy values for...

  2. 40 CFR 600.209-95 - Calculation of fuel economy values for labeling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... (CONTINUED) ENERGY POLICY FUEL ECONOMY AND CARBON-RELATED EXHAUST EMISSIONS OF MOTOR VEHICLES Fuel Economy Regulations for 1977 and Later Model Year Automobiles-Procedures for Calculating Fuel Economy Values § 600.209... 40 Protection of Environment 29 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Calculation of fuel economy values for...

  3. EMERGING ECONOMIES: COMPARATIVE ANALYSIS OF MIST AND IBSA COUNTRIES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gonca Oguz Gok

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Post Second World War liberal economic order and its institutions have been challenged with the rapidly growing powerful economies of some Asian and Latin American countries in the last decade. Yet, there is ambiguity in international political economy field with regard to conceptualizing and categorizing these emerging economies. This study mainly aims to ravel out this obstacle by offering a new quantitative benchmarking framework. In other words, this study proposes a new evaluation criteria set for assessing emerging economies with combining testable domestic and systematic factors. Accordingly, this study presents the cross-country comparison by using quantitative benchmarking analysis between IBSA -India, Brazil and South Africa- and MIST -Mexico, Indonesia, South Korea and Turkey- countries over the period 2008- 2012. We compare these countries based on the criteria of economic growth, human development index, foreign direct investment, and official development assistance. This study also aims to evaluate the group performance of these newly emerging economies- namely the rise of IBSA and MIST countries-in a comparative perspective. In conclusion, the performance of these countries -from both group-of-country and individual-country perspectives- are discussed in light of the results

  4. Impact of global financial crisis on the economy of Ukraine

    OpenAIRE

    Turko, Vasyl; Mukan, Andriy

    2013-01-01

    Thе primary concern of this research is to examine the impact of the global financial crisis on the economy of Ukraine. The principal result of this research is to identify the main causes and levers of that influence. The study proposes a new way out of economic crisis in Ukraine.

  5. Issues of Financial Assurance of Economy Greening in the Regions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shekhova, Natalia V.; Kireeva, Ekaterina E.; Nazarov, Michael A.; Peskova, Dinara R.; Gusakova, Elena P.; Dorozhkin, Vladimir E.

    2016-01-01

    The relevance of the analyzed issue is caused by the need to internalize environmental externalities in the modern world. The purpose of the article is to examine the issue of financial support of the green economy using the example of the regions included in the Volga Federal District (VFD). The leading methods to the study of this issue is a…

  6. INSTITUTIONAL TRANSFORMATIONS TO ECONOMY OF THE URAL FEDERAL DISTRICT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S.I. Mayer

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available Economy of the Ural federal district is characterized by appreciable institutional transformations. First of all, it concerns arrival on the market new and leaving from the market of the old enterprises and the organizations, that, alongside with other factors, defines growth of competitiveness of regions. The processes of development of small business, strengthening of market positions of the organizations with participation of the foreign capital, activisation of the market of merges and absorption of the companies operate also in the same direction. Noted tendencies are characteristic for economy of all Russia. However regional features, as between federal districts, and subjects of Federation are kept also.

  7. THE PLACE OF ENTREPRISE ECONOMY WITHIN ECONOMIC SCIENCES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    CLAUDIA ISAC

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available In this paper I have tried to present the place and importance of the discipline of Enterprise Economy among economic disciplines. Thus, in the first part we have showed the opinions of various authors from Romania on the interference of this discipline in the economic field with great implications through the 5 functions of the company to be presented. The second part of the thesis highlights the enterprise within modern economy and thus all the effects that increasingly complex and dynamic economic processes have upon the functions of the enterprise, the effective management of activities within the major functions of the enterprise: production, commercial, financial-accounting and human resources. Far from being just an analytic approach, this paper reveals the fact that the economy of enterprise is a theoretical and practical discipline with the aim of synthesizing basic knowledge of economic processes that take place at the microeconomic level.

  8. Financial Economy and Financial System: Basis of Structural Interconnection

    OpenAIRE

    Khorosheva Olena I.

    2014-01-01

    The goal of the article lies in identification of grounds of interconnection of the financial economy and financial system. The study was conducted with consideration of main provisions of the theory of finance and concept of financial economy, which is a set of means used in the process of reproduction of finance by their owner for formation and / or maintenance of the own system of values in the viable state. For the first time ever the structure of the financial system is identified as an ...

  9. REVIEW OF FDI THEORY IN THE KNOWLEDGE–INTENSIVE ECONOMY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ruslan Harasym

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available International flow of capital in the form of Foreign Direct Investment (FDI is considered to be the primary form of capital transfer in the global economy. It plays an important role among other forms of international capital flows, due to the intensity of its streams and its strength of impact on local economies. Host countries use FDI to finance activities such as industry restructuring and transfer of technology. The aim of this paper is to present current achievements in the field of theoretical explanations of FDI – its main motives. The article relates also to current selected trends in FDI flows during the economic downturn caused by the recent financial crisis. Above all ,however, this paper aims at showing FDI theories in terms of a knowledge intensive economy.

  10. Knowledge based economy: The role of expert diaspora

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Filipović Jovan

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Diasporas stand out as an economic or cultural avant-garde of transformation. This is especially true for academic and other intellectual Diaspora communities, because science and knowledge creation are global enterprises. Proclivity of knowledge workers to move in order to improve and absorb transnational knowledge through Diaspora networks might be an essential quality of an emerging national economy of a developing country. The article treats the role of expert Diaspora in knowledge based economy, innovation and talent management. Besides presenting the essentials of knowledge based economy and innovation, it discusses the role of expert Diaspora in science, technology and innovation (STI capacity building. Also, the article emphasizes the importance of leadership for talent and its implications for Diaspora. Using WEF statistics, it illustrates negative consequences of the sad policy of “Chaseaway the brightest and the best” for innovative capacity, competitiveness, and prosperity of nations.

  11. The Problem Of Reindustrialization Of The World Economy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. N. Zakharov

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available The article looks into the most important aspects of the world economy reindustrialization, examines strategies for reindustrialization of the USA, Canada, and Australia. The correlation between the world trend, namely the transition to the digital economy, and the process of reindustrialization within the framework of the Fourth Industrial Revolution is considered. On the basis of comparison and analysis of expert evaluations, statistical data by sectors of industrial production of the USA and Canada it is shown that the absolute advantage of Canada when carrying out the re-industrialization of the economy is skilled labor, specialists with secondary education. The study confirms the fact that amid the reindustrialization on the verge of the Fourth industrial revolution, the availability of skilled labor is a necessary condition for the competitiveness of the state. The Russian Federation faces the situation when conducting the re-industrialization is complicated by adverse international economic and political environment (policy of sanctions against Russia. It is revealed that for the Russian Federation the reindustrialization of the economy shall combine the active modernization of the existing production capacity, while shaping new industries on the basis of technologies of the sixth technology wave. The comparative analysis outlined that under the circumstances the drivers of the new industrialization should be science-based industries, with the latest technologies and the largest number of highly skilled personnel concentrating there.

  12. WAYS TO ATTRACT ADDITIONAL INVESTMENTS IN THE ECONOMY OF UKRAINE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Volodymyr Boreiko

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available In the article investigated the role of investment resources in ensuring the dynamic development of the economy of countries; analyzed the dynamics earnings of direct foreign investments in Ukraine and deposits of the population attracted by commercial banks; proved that to create a favorable environment for investors, Ukraine should strengthen legal protection of the commercial interests of investors and provide them with tax breaks, provide insurance their of industrial and commercial risks, cancel taxation of deposits of citizens and to reimburse them the full amount of deposits in bankruptcy of commercial banks. Keywords: investment resources, economy of country, population deposits, legal protection, risk insurance, tax benefits. JEL: O 16

  13. ON THE DEVELOPMENT OF THE ALBANIAN INFORMAL ECONOMY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Majlinda BELLO

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of the paper is to analyze the informal economy in Albania. The measurement of informal economy may be realized through direct and indirect methods. The collection of data about informal economic activities, the frequency and the volume of the underground activities present a challenge, because of the data limitations. Therefore, to measure it used more indirect methods. Albanian governments have always adopted a philosophy that aims to formalize the economy through legal and institutional improvements, reducing taxes, fighting corruption and tax evasion; improvement in revenue collection from customs and taxes in general, improving governance and increasing efficiency of public institutions. Albania is on the way of the integration in the EU. The integration perspective should be supported by concrete politics on the improvement of government functioning and decrease of the informal sector, so that the people think that their country is on the right way toward modernization and prosperity.

  14. The economy of the soviet Tuva: achievements, challenges and lessons

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexander D. Begzi

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available In the Soviet period (1944-1991, the economy of Tuva was rapidly developing. Massive state investment helped create enterprises and whole branches of industry, which in turn outlined the areas of economy Tuva could specialize in. Indicators of regional economic development were higher than the national average. The industrial infrastructure created over the period, including transport, power engineering and technologies, has been since used for several decades without major renovations. However, the smooth function of the regional economy could be guaranteed only under directive planning and stringent control over prices, flows of resources, goods and other assets of planned Socialist economy. Together with other specific features of its economy, this made the economy of the region highly volatile. A breakdown of both economic achievements of the Soviet Tuva and the problems it faced will help us learn the lessons to be accounted for while developing new long-term development programs. Although the programmatic documents adopted in early 2000s (such as the Strategy of social and economic development of the Republic of Tuva to the year 2020, passed in 2007 have not yet expired, the economic situation and the configuration of the main economic actors have seriously changed, which calls for a radical overhaul of the long-term strategy of social and economic development. Some problems which have been around since the Soviet times have grown more acute, while others were replaced by their opposites. The revenue section of the region’s consolidated budget, just as it was in the Soviet period, cannot fully provide the required social expenditures. At the same time, the majority of Soviet mechanisms of economic development are now totally dysfunctional, which calls for the use of new organizational and financial instruments. The article was based on the data from official statistical collections of the Republic of Tuva, and the information found in

  15. Economies of capacity use in decontamination of pig carcasses

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Jørgen Dejgård; Lawson, Lartey Godwin; Lund, Mogens

    2013-01-01

    This article analyzes the economies of capacity use regarding hot water decontamination to reduce postslaughter risk of pathogens in meat, taking interfarm heterogeneities of Salmonella risk and costs of transportation into account, using Denmark as a case study. If risk reduction goals are state...

  16. The impact of remittances outflows on the economy of Poland

    OpenAIRE

    LASTOVETSKA ROKSOLANA ORESTIVNA

    2015-01-01

    The impact of remittances outflows on the economy of Poland is analyzed in the article. Based on historical data the vector autoregression model (VAR) was built to examine the effects of the sharp rise in the volume of remittances outflows. The model results are presented for the next macroeconomic indicators: GDP, inflation, interest rate and exchange rate.

  17. A REVIEW OF STUDIES OF ECONOMIES IN SCHOOLHOUSE CONSTRUCTION.

    Science.gov (United States)

    DOHERTY, LEO D.; WHEATLEY, ARTRELLE

    ECONOMIES IN PLANNING AND DESIGNING BEGIN WITH THE WISE CHOICE OF AN ARCHITECT. COMPLETE INFORMATION ON BUILDING NEEDS, ENROLLMENT PROJECTIONS, AND PROGRAM MUST BE AVAILABLE. INCLUSION OF MULTIPLE-USE ROOMS, MINIMAL PERIMETER WALLS, LOWERED CEILINGS, MINIMAL WASTE SPACE, MINIMAL USE OF GLASS, AND USE OF STOCK PLANS ARE CONCEPTS WHICH CAN EFFECT…

  18. Socio-economic institutions in classical political economy of Ukraine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu.V. Ushchapovskyy

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Fragmentary researches of socio-economic institutions by classical political economy are caused by the absence of social components in its methodological «core». The article concentrates on the ideas of institutionalism in the context of classical political economy formation. The author underlines the necessity to adapt the analysis of socio-economic institutions in the heritage of classical political economy in Ukraine of the 19-th century to the creation of an integral conception of genesis and evolution of institutionalism in Ukrainian economic thought. Following the traditions of European economic science, Ukrainian scientists tried to take into account social contradictions, the needs in democratic transformations of social relations in their works. In spite of absence of the category of «standard (rule» among Adam Smith’s followers, and Ukrainian economists paid attention to a social problematic in the context of traditional researches of classical political economy, there is the necessity to examine socio-economic institutions in their heritage and the possibility of its application to the formation of the paradigm of modern institutionalism. Michail Baludyanskiy considered that a state could limit the freedom of an economic activity only on the base of generally accepted standards, but in this case contributing to safety and freedom of an economic activity. National system of economy, its legislative and management systems must conceptually obey economic policy, Anthropocentrism defined the philosophical conception of Tihon Stepanov’s political economy. He followed methodological holism as he concluded the characteristics of an individual on the base of characteristics of institutions (society. Ivan Vernadskiy’s researches concerning behavior of an individual and his trials to characterize value from a consumer’s point of view don’t fully correspond to traditional classical political economy. To improve Adam Smith’s study

  19. Moneyless Economy

    OpenAIRE

    Das, Subhendu

    2012-01-01

    Moneyless economy (MLE) does not have any money in the economy. All products and services are free for all people. This means everybody must work, work for free, and get everything they want for free also. Any work that a society needs is considered legitimate. MLE is not socialism. MLE has the ability to provide a lifestyle that anyone wants. We show that it is possible to run the exact same economy that we have now, in the exact same way, and without money. Any government of any country can...

  20. THE ROLE OF BUSINESS INSURANCE IN NATIONAL ECONOMY IN POLAND

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aldona Mrówczyńska-Kamińska

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The main aim of the study is to show the role of business insurance in the Polish national economy. The fi rst part presents an overview of the insurance market. In the second part the importance of insurance in the national economy is discussed, based on calculated penetration rates, insurance density, activity monitoring, coverage ratio and solvency ratio. Finally the density and penetration rates in Poland were compared with those in other EU countries. The primary research method was descriptive method and the basic indicators of the importance of insurance in the national economy. The main source materials were data from the Central Statistical Offi ce, the Polish Financial Supervision Authority and the Polish Insurance Association. This study covers the period 2006–2014. The study confi rmed a good standing of the Polish insurance market and the fact that it systematically reduces the distance that separates the Polish insurance market from the largest European markets.

  1. The moral economy of austerity: analysing UK welfare reform.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morris, Lydia

    2016-03-01

    This paper notes the contemporary emergence of 'morality' in both sociological argument and political rhetoric, and analyses its significance in relation to ongoing UK welfare reforms. It revisits the idea of 'moral economy' and identifies two strands in its contemporary application; that all economies depend on an internal moral schema, and that some external moral evaluation is desirable. UK welfare reform is analysed as an example of the former, with reference to three distinct orientations advanced in the work of Freeden (1996), Laclau (2014), and Lockwood (1996). In this light, the paper then considers challenges to the reform agenda, drawn from third sector and other public sources. It outlines the forms of argument present in these challenges, based respectively on rationality, legality, and morality, which together provide a basis for evaluation of the welfare reforms and for an alternative 'moral economy'. © London School of Economics and Political Science 2016.

  2. Growth performance and economy of production of grower pigs fed ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    meal-based diets. ... International Journal of Tropical Agriculture and Food Systems ... Twenty-four landrace x large white grower pigs were used to study the effect of maize-cob- meal-based diets on the growth performance and economy of ...

  3. Effect Of Feed Restriction On Growth Performance And Economy Of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The dietary treatments consisted of providing feed ad libitum (ull fed) and two feed restriction treatments restrictingeedng 80 % of ad libitum ... A cost – benefit analysis was utilized for the economy of production. ... Feed efficiency was improved by restriction followed with re-alimentation. ... AJOL African Journals Online.

  4. The Potential of Circular Economy in Sustainable Buildings

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Malabi Larsen, Leonora Charlotte; Birgisdottir, Harpa; Birkved, Morten

    2018-01-01

    benefits of designing the buildings concrete structure for disassembly, with the purpose of reuse, as well as to exemplify how circular economy can be applied in future building projects. Moreover, the paper aims at suggesting a more industry focused approach towards circular economy in order to seize...... the inherent potentials. As a result, it was found that recycling and energy recovery are the most common circular economy practices in the building industry, even though the economic and environmental benefits of reuse are believed to be much higher. This observation is supported by the findings of the case...... and glass, thereby enabling easier disassembly for both reuse and recycling. However, main challenges preventing the industry from seizing these potentials are identified as: focus on short term goals, complex supply chains, lack of collaboration between stakeholders and absence of a commonly agreed...

  5. Potential role of nuclear power in developing and transition economies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ganiage, D.; Dierstein, P.

    1995-01-01

    The potential role of nuclear power is different in developing or in transition economies; in developing countries such as China, the growth of electricity consumption is high and the construction of several standardized plants is economically justified; in transitional economies, such as Ukraine, the needs are uncertain, old and unsafe plants have to be decommissioned and uncompleted nuclear plants (due to financial problems) should be completed. Nuclear power may provide the developing and transition economies with several advantages such as energy independence and fuel supply security, minimal environmental pollution, support to local industry and employment. It also means the support of national authorities and the development of a suitable infrastructure for plant safety and waste management, financial help and local population acceptance

  6. Innovative economy: preconditions and factors of formation and development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexandru GRIBINCEA

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Dynamic economic growth can be considered an important factor in the country’s competitiveness in the market system. In the process of improvement of the market economy model, priority should be given to development of production on a new technical basis, innovation activity to translate scientific and technological research results into production, creation of new technological processes and restructuring in on the modern scientific and technological basis of all branches concerning material production and the service sector. The purpose of the study is to identify the assumptions and factors regarding the formation and development of innovative economy.

  7. Unmasking decoupling: Redefining the Resource Intensity of the Economy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bithas, Kostas; Kalimeris, Panos

    2018-04-01

    Interest in investigating the complex link between resources and developments has revived recently following studies which support striking "dematerialized" growth over the last hundred years or so. This so-called decoupling effect is defined as the declining quantity of resources required for producing one unit of GDP. Decoupling studies adopt aggregate GDP as the measure of the outcome of the economy. However, this outcome is contributed by the total population which differs over time and between countries. A valid comparison should use a comparable, standardized indicator that adjusts for population size. GDP per capita, the income index, defines in monetary terms the ultimate outcome of the economy and is adopted by international organizations as the standard index for comparing economies. The income index approximates, in monetary terms, the welfare produced by the economic system and enjoyed by individuals. Recently developed alternative indexes of welfare lack broad data coverage and have limited empirical application as yet. For this reason and for ensuring direct comparison with the standard decoupling estimates, our study remains within the monetary context. The present paper re-evaluates the resources-economy link from the perspective of "the resources required for the production of one unit of GDP per capita (Income)" and hence evaluates the efficiency of turning resources into the actual outcome of the economic system. Our estimates suggest that the dependence of global economic growth on natural resources has increased by over 60% in the last 110years (1900-2009), contrasting with the prevailing decoupling estimates which suggest a reduction by 63%. We find that the actual decoupling, which began in the mid-1970s in post-industrial economies, is counterbalanced by the intensified resource intensity of several developing economies. Accordingly, in the pursuit of sustainability, the dematerialization target needs to be more clearly incorporated into

  8. Conference Presentation on “Scaling up the Circular Economy: Smart and Resilient Cities.”

    Science.gov (United States)

    The conference is designed to engage sustainability practitioners from across sectors, including business, academia, government and NGOs. US BCSD meetings typically attract 100+ leading sustainability practitioners from around the US and world. Cities play a key role in scaling u...

  9. Iran's Economy

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Ilias, Shayerah

    2008-01-01

    .... To the extent that U.S. sanctions and other efforts to change Iranian state policy target aspects of Iran ssssssss economy as a means of influence, it is important to evaluate Iran's economic structure, strengths, and vulnerabilities...

  10. Iran's Economy

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Ilias, Shayerah

    2008-01-01

    .... To the extent that U.S. sanctions and other efforts to change Iranian state policy target aspects of Iran's economy as a means of influence, it is important to evaluate Iran's economic structure, strengths, and vulnerabilities...

  11. State of the Nigerian economy: first half of 2017 | Erumebor ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    State of the Nigerian economy: first half of 2017. Wilson Erumebor. Abstract. No Abstract. Full Text: EMAIL FREE FULL TEXT EMAIL FREE FULL TEXT · DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT · AJOL African Journals Online. HOW TO USE AJOL... for Researchers · for Librarians · for Authors · FAQ's · More about ...

  12. The Impact of Religious Tourism on Nepalese Economy

    OpenAIRE

    Pandey, Ramesh

    2016-01-01

    Religious tourism is one of the main contributors to the Nepalese tourism industry. It has not only generated thousands of jobs but also has been one of the main media to promote Nepalese culture, lifestyle and traditions. At the same time, it has grown as a strong contributor to the Nepalese economy. The main aim of this thesis was to point out the impact of religious tourism on the Nepalese economy, to find out the main factors affecting religious tourism and to get views of people about th...

  13. Blockchain - an Innovation Technology of the Post-Industrial Economy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arkhireiska Natalia V.

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available The article is aimed at studying the innovation technology of the post-industrial economy - blockchain. It has been found that blockchain is a multifunctional and multi-level information technology designed to reliably account for different assets. It has been proved that the most important today is blockchain for Bitcoin. The article explores the opportunities, prospects and risks associated with investment in cryptocurrency. It has been determined that the main advantages of investment in Bitcoins are: steadily growing rate, confidence in currency, liquidity, anonymity, decentralization. However, there are significant downsides, such as: scaling problem, uncertainty about the status of the cryptocurrency on the part of the State, and excessive processing time for payments (approximately 10 minutes. It has been proved that the main benefits of Blockchain 1.0 and 2.0 are economic efficiency and cost savings through the use of decentralized network models, which do not require trust in a single transactional center, while Blockchain 3.0 is a freedom that will enable blockchain technology to implement solutions that are not related to monetary turnover and market transactions.

  14. Angola Economy: Economic Growth and Vulnerability of External Sector

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ulises Pacheco-Feria

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Angola is among the 15th most dynamic economies in Africa, economic growth is based on the expansion of oil production. This is close to two million barrels per day, placing the country among the major oil producers in the world. At the same time, Angola shares the characteristics of so-called Least Developed Countries and faces serious structural challenges. At present there are at least three threats targeting Angolan external sector, namely the high propensity to import, the volatility of oil prices and the slowdown in the Chinese economy. The present work aims to identify these threats as a latent danger that hangs over the Angolan economy in the medium.

  15. The importance of the oil sector in the national economy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Montenegro Santiago

    2001-01-01

    The paper is about the oil sector in Colombia as for their growing importance in the economy of the country in the last years, leaving of the base that this strategic sector for the economy for its high participation in the gross internal product, generates a very high percentage of the total exports and because it is also a very important source of fiscal resources for the national government as for the sectional governments. This writing is centered fundamentally in the analysis related with the production and export of raw petroleum

  16. Economies of scope in Danish primary care practices

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kristensen, Troels; Rose Olsen, Kim

    2011-01-01

    between GP services and overall economies of scope. Data: Cross-section data for a sample of 331 primary care practices with 1-8 GPs from the year 2006. This is a unique combined dataset consisting of survey and register data. Results: We find a trend towards cost complementarities between the production......Aim: We analyze total operating costs and activities in Danish General Practice units to assess whether there are unexploited economies of scope in the production of primary care services. Methods: We apply stochastic frontier analysis to derive cost functions and associated cost complementarities...

  17. The impact of migrants' remittances on the Egyptian economy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kandil, M; Metwally, M F

    1990-06-01

    "The main objective of this paper is to evaluate the impact of the large remittances made by Egyptian migrants to their home country on the Egyptian economy. In order to study this impact, we use the implications of the standard Keynesian model. We estimated the structural equations of the model using annual data for the Egyptian economy over the period from 1970 to 1984.... The results suggest that remittances have had a strong positive impact on GNP in Egypt." The authors note that remittances especially affect private consumption spending. Policy implications concerning labor migration are discussed. (SUMMARY IN FRE AND SPA) excerpt

  18. Social epidemiology and political economy: ICU as point of convergence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Segura, Omar

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Questions around epidemiology, economics and critical care are often in the mind of almost any healthcare professional. However, it is seldom realized that epidemiology and economy may converge -in spite of being apparently separated fields of study- in order to explain the present situation or future trends of a hospital or public health service. This essay briefly depicts how social epidemiology and political economy have developed and how both academic activities may find a common ground about the Intensive Care Unit (ICU, particularly to pose questions, to create possible research lines and feasible alternatives towards more efficient, effective and humane health services.

  19. Cambodia's economy

    OpenAIRE

    Ear, Sophal

    2008-01-01

    "This presentation is adapted from a Harvard KSG workshop held earlier this year on the Political Economy of "Binding Constraints to Growth" Cambodia Pilot for which I served as an External Panelist/Resource Person."

  20. Construction of a novel economy-climate model

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CHOU JieMing; DONG WenJie; YE DuZheng

    2007-01-01

    An attempt has been made to construct a novel economy-climate model by combining climate change research with agricultural economy research to evaluate the influence of global climate change on grain yields. The insertion of a climate change factor into the economic C-D (Cobb-Dauglas) production function model yields a novel evaluation model, which connects the climate change factor to the economic variation factor, and the performance and reasonableness of the novel evaluation model are also preliminarily simulated and verified.

  1. Cues and economy in the acquisition of verb movement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kristine Bentzen

    2005-02-01

    Full Text Available In this paper we will discuss how economy principles interact with cues in the input in bilingual first language acquisition. We will look at the acquisition of verb placement in a child acquiring English and Norwegian simultaneously. Based on data from this child, it will be argued that when faced with ambiguous cues with respect to the verb movement parameter, children do not necessarily adopt the default, less marked setting. Rather, they may opt for a setting which yields an overall consistent grammar, even when this grammar contains operations that are more costly than those used in the target language. We will suggest that economy in acquisition may involve consistency in a grammar in correlation with economy in the more traditional sense within minimalism, where moving an element in general is considered more costly than not moving it (Chomsky 1995.

  2. SMEs’ Wealth Creation Model of an Emerging Economy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olalekan Usiobaifo ASIKHIA

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available This article synthesizes the evidence on SMEs’ wealth creation in an emerging economy, paying particular attention to human resource/expertise, technology adoption, innovation and creativity, unit economies, organizational infrastructure and strategy as determinants of SMEs’ wealth creation. A survey of 581 Nigerian SMEs was conducted and the data was analysed and tested using multiple regression and structural equation modelling. The findings revealed Human resource/CEOs expertise as the highest contributory factor to wealth creation within the firm in the industrial and the commercial sectors. The relevant domains were modelled and relevant policy adjustments were suggested.

  3. Measuring flood footprint of a regional economy - A case study for the UK flooding

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guan, D.

    2013-12-01

    Analysis of the urban economy and society is central to understanding the broad impacts of flooding and to identify cost-effective adaptation and mitigation measures. Assessments of the flooding impacts on cities have traditionally focused on the initial impact on people and assets. These initial estimates (so-called ';direct damage') are useful both in understanding the immediate implications of damage, and in marshalling the pools of capital and supplies required for re-building after an event. Since different economies as well as societies are coupled, especially under the current economic crisis, any small-scale damage may be multiplied and cascaded throughout wider economic systems and social networks. The direct and indirect damage is currently not evaluated well and could be captured by quantification of what we call the flood footprint. Flooding in one location can impact the whole UK economy. Neglecting these knock-on costs (i.e. the true footprint of the flood) means we might be ignoring the economic benefits and beneficiaries of flood risk management interventions. In 2007, for example, floods cost the economy about £3.2 bn directly, but the wider effect might actually add another 50% to 250% to that. Flood footprint is a measure of the exclusive total socioeconomic impact that is directly and indirectly caused by a flood event to the flooding region and wider economic systems and social networks. We adopt the UK 2012 flooding. An input-output basic dynamic inequalities (BDI) model is used to assess the impact of the floodings on the level of a Yorkshire economy, accounting for interactions between industries through demand and supply of intermediate consumption goods with a circular flow. After the disaster the economy will be unbalanced. The recovery process finishes when the economy is completely balance, i.e., when labour production capacity equals demands and production and all the variables reach pre-disaster levels. The analysis is carried out

  4. Entrepreneurial Competition Orientation and Profitability: The Case of a Developing Economy

    OpenAIRE

    Marjanova, Tamara Jovanov; Sofijanova, Elenica; Davcev, Ljupco; Temjanovski, Riste

    2015-01-01

    The main purpose of this paper is to verify the significance of the implementation of competition orientation (CO) as a part of market orientation for the financial performance of the entrepreneurial small and medium – sized companies in a developing economy. The objectives are: 1. To measure the level of each of the variables of the scale (CO 1: The management continuously analyses the strengths and weaknesses of the competitors; CO 2: We regularly use information about our competitors in st...

  5. Sorting things out: A typology of the digital collaborative economy

    OpenAIRE

    Pettersen, Lene G. Braathen

    2017-01-01

    Current research on the sharing or collaborative economy has by large adopted a user-centric approach, and studies at the meso-level (firm/organization level) have received little attention and is called for both in the literature and by the Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD). This paper contributes to the meso-level by presenting a framework — a typology — based on the literature and an analysis of 54 services in the collaborative economy (e.g., Airbnb, Uber, and B...

  6. Impact Assessment of Citizen Fairs in the Process of Transition from the Popular Economy to a Solidarity Economy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ángel Enrique Zapata-Barros

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available The law of popular and solidarity economy in Ecuador was created to promote the transition of organizational forms of popular solidarity economy towards forms of organization. This law made possible the development of projects aimed at strengthening solidarity economic practices. One of these projects are the citizens fairs, promoted since 2008 by the state (government ministry. The fairs are an associative marketing strategy is an alternative to price speculation and a viable path to the organization of popular venture. Effective evidence that the fairs do not contribute to the transition offered popular economic forms towards forms of organization solidarity.

  7. Challenges and opportunities of convergence in building a knowledge economy

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Jolliffe, B

    2006-08-01

    Full Text Available Slides include: What is the knowledge economy? Drivers; Will it contribute to development? Development as freedom; Knowledge Economy, ICTs, convergence etc; Ducks to put in a row; Patents and knowledge economy; South Africa? Threat to local...

  8. Connecting experience and economy - aspects of disguised positioning

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Bo Allesøe

    2013-01-01

    The focus of this article is the use of experience made within the literature of the “new” economical discipline of experience economy. By combining a methodological individualism with a causal and dehumanising picture of the process of experience, this discipline conceives economic interactions ...

  9. Relevance of pottery on traditional African economy: an ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study probes the relevance of potteries in archaeological records in the reconstruction of traditional African economy as shown among the people of North-East Yoruba land of Nigeria. The use of ethnoarchaeological paradigms in the study of potteries, which has been employed in this study, can shed immense lights ...

  10. Tourism Multiplicator Effect for the National Economy of the Country

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Platon Nicolae

    2017-01-01

    This article addresses a rather complex theme, chosen from the desire to analyze and interpret the current dimensions of the tourism industry of the Republic of Moldova as a branch of interference, motivating the necessity of its estimation, as a multiplier for the national economy of the country.

  11. Statistical Study of Transformation Changes in the Ukrainian Economy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O. V.

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The article deals with the economic diagnostics of some important macroeconomic indicators of Ukraine that will reveal the nature and speed of the economic transformation. During the period of 2003–2007, the Ukrainian economy grew at an impressive pace. However, at present, the country is undergoing a period of serious trials, it needs to address structural problems that endanger long-term economic growth. The way out of the current situation should be the realization of the potential for growth of advanced sectors and increase of productivity across the national economy. Special attention should be paid to the transition from extractive institutions to inclusive ones. Key factors in accelerating the Ukrainian economy are more vigorous fight against corruption and investment attraction. A set of institutional variables is proposed, which allows for a more thorough assessment of the nature of economic transformation in Ukraine and detection of such deviations – transformation of the national economy occurs at different speeds. Along with the traditional shifts in the structure of GDP (the dominating share of services, there’s still insignificant statistical effect of such important institutional categories as the level of political globalization, the control of corruption, the level of property rights protection, the rule of law, and the level of social globalization.

  12. Creating the Economy of Virtuality: Systemic Aspects and Educational Considerations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julio Rezende

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available This article discuss how an economy of virtuality had been created in Orlando, United States, with the great collaboration of entrepreneurs, creativists and the action of academic institutions like University of Central Florida (UCF. In UCF the Florida Interactive Entertainment Academy – FIEA is an exemplary initiative of education that aims at creating new professionals for the economy of virtuality. Examining the case of Orlando city, would be seen the economic outcomes of the operation of different activities of virtuality: creation of jobs, revenues, tax and improving the quality of life of this community. The research debates the understanding of Economy of Virtuality and as also a educational field. The virtuality can been seen as a technology (a combination of developed hardware and software and as a psychological experience (values, time/ availability, health, motivation, emotions and education. The article presents the story of virtuality and also a typical pathway in the creation of products in Economy of Virtuality taking the example of Spider-Man and the event Awesome.Con held in Washington D.C. in the period of 3 to 5 June 2016. At Central Florida Research Park (CFRP, there are 146 businesses in 59 buildings (March/2016 generating aproximally10 thousand jobs operating.

  13. The Capital Market and Performance of the Nigerian Economy: A ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A vibrant capital market plays a crucial role in promoting the growth and development of the economy. This study examined the performance of the capital market and its impact on the economic growth of Nigeria. Using a time series data covering a period of 26 years (1985–2010) and employing the econometric tool of ...

  14. ACTIVITY OF ENTERPRISES DURING CRISIS AND MEASURES FOR ECONOMY STABILIZATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. I. Yusubov

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of the paper is to determine negative factors of  the crisis affecting the economy ofBelarusand determination of the most important measures directed on strengthening economic and financial situation of the country during the economic crisis.

  15. The importance of mining to Nigeria's economy in colonial times ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    But the oil glut in the 1980s and the subsequent collapse of Nigeria's economy brought about a rethinking of how to reactivate these resources which laid the foundation for the nation's fortunes. Hence, the renewed interest in the exploitation of solid minerals and the growth of cash crops which had ensured the survival of ...

  16. Work in Progress: Narratives of Aspiration from the New Economy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morgan, George

    2006-01-01

    Central to the discourses of the new economy is the model of the flexible, adaptive, ambitious and individualistic worker. This article considers the subjective purchase of that model by analysing interviews with three young women living and working in urban Australia. Their respective narratives of aspiration illustrate contrasting responses to…

  17. A Political Economy of University Funding: The English Case

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saunders, Murray

    2012-01-01

    The focus of this paper is the coalition United Kingdom government policy on university funding in England as a political economy. It depicts higher education as a public and private good in the context of international trends in "cost sharing" and it addresses the centrality of economic drivers for the profile and orientation of higher…

  18. Binary Dreams : An Ethnography of the Digital Economy in China

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lengen, Samuel

    2018-01-01

    As Chinese economic growth slowed and production numbers fell following the world financial crisis of 2008, the digital economy in China became a site of renewed hope both for the modernizing ambitions of the Chinese government and the entrepreneurial aspirations of its citizens. However, just as

  19. The Management of Managers: Challenges in a Small Economy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gilbert, John; Boxall, Peter

    2009-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to discuss the findings of a study of the management of senior managers. The aim is to describe the ways in which firms in a small economy, such as New Zealand, manage their managers and analyse how they deal with the strategic challenges that are involved. Design/methodology/approach: The study applies the…

  20. The Political Economy of Postwar Economic Development in Sri Lanka

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Prasanna-Perera Welgamage Lalith Prasanna-Perera

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Thirty years of civil war in Sri Lanka has affected economic, political, social, cultural and psychological aspects of the society significantly. This paper presents an overview of postwar development strategies in Sri Lanka and compares it with the prewar economy from a political economic perspective. The paper specifically examines the progress of the overall postwar development in the war affected Northern Province of Sri Lanka. Using mixed methodologies data was gathered on critical aspects related to political economy. According to the current study, no clear progress has been made in the areas of economic growth, FDI growth, household income, and poverty and income inequality in the postwar economy of Sri Lanka when compared with the prewar economy. Government fiscal policy targets the postwar reconstruction works while monetary policy enjoys the amalgamation of North and East provinces to country’s aggregate supply apart from introducing very few loan schemes. Security phobia of the government of Sri Lanka limits local, national, regional and international none-government organizations especially in the North and East. There is a considerable amount of progress made in the area of infrastructure development and resettlement of displaced persons. However, primary data from the study indicates these strategies lack conflict sensitivity and public trust. This study emphasizes that postwar economic development strategies should address the critical determinants of sustainable recovery, peace and development aiming at protecting human rights, ensuring rule of law, establishing efficient public service system and finally offering constitutional reforms in Sri Lanka.

  1. Concept of digital nomad: fundamental risks of digital economy development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elena Lyudvigovna Iakovleva

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Objective to identify the key risks of the digital economy development. Methods abstractlogical and dialectical methods. Results a modern individual cannot imagine their life without digital devices which facilitate their functioning and enable them to be included into the virtual space. The role of digital economy in the changes in all spheres of human life is analyzed in the article. With the growing role of the digital economy the approaches to business models formation are changing as well as the role of digital assets. This also leads to the transformation of human behavior the new risks of the digital economy accelerated development. In this regard the article characterizes an individual as a digital nomad defines the features of their behavior in the socioeconomic environment and highlights the main risks that arise in connection with digital nomadism. It is determined that one of the most characteristic features of a modern person is hypermobility eparkourism. In addition the paper describes the problems of anonymity in virtual space and the emergence of systems that provide anonymity of the individual as well as the risks arising in connection with that. The problem of lack of culture and value systems in the virtual space is highlighted as well the problem of developing contradictions in information leading to the alienation of people from the real world. It was determined that the informatization of economy on the one hand leads to faster business processes reduced transaction costs saving of variable costs due to robotization of production and on the other hand it leads to the transformation of competition growth of tension in society in connection with the job cuts. Another problem is personal and national security associated with the development of social networks the developers of which are other countries and also with the emergence of mechanisms of influence on mass consciousness. Scientific novelty it is shown that the risks

  2. Contradictions of international migration in terms of political economy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Josifidis Kosta

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The political economy approach that entails critical arguments in relation to the processes of migration in neoliberal terms is developed in the paper. Starting with the account that migration covers as broad issues as politics, economics and population dynamic, the authors address the issue of migration in the political economy circuits of neoliberalization. In fact, the main line of argument is connected to the political economy as the relevant discursive frame and explanatory principle for the articulation of the complexity of migration. Critical arguments relating to the processes of migration in the neoliberal context thematize the mechanism of implemented flexibilisation and deregulation of labor. Demographic dynamics is essential in this context, but the authors intend to identify those political economy processes that lead to high precariousness, to various forms of temporary labor which are closely associated with forced labor forms. The category of forced labor is emphasized in the contemporary forms of migration, because this mode of labor facilitates the migration throughout the world. Furthermore, the authors point out the contradictory position of the state in relation to the migration-processes and analyse the authoritarian statism. This argumentation leads to articulation of the contradictory position of neoliberalization. The neoliberal discourses bring out the critical stance concerning the supremacy of the state, but it plays a key role in the regulation of migration. The state exposed to migration is faced with the contradictory demands. The globalization indicates the world without borders but is faced with the same contradictions. It is no coincidence that the intention of the reconceptualizations of globalization are interested in promoting global public goods. The processes of privatization in the sphere of the regulation of migration sharpen the contradictions of migration in the context of neoliberalization. The

  3. Dialectical Method and the Critical Political Economy of Culture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brice Nixon

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available This article argues that the quality that defines critical political economy is its critical method. Definitions of the critical political economy of culture are considered and shown to focus on specific theoretical concerns while not fully addressing the fundamental issue of method. Method is here discussed in terms of the way human reason is used to produce knowledge. A critical method for Marx is a historical materialist dialectical method, thus this paper argues for a deeper consideration of the Marxist dialectical method in relation to critical political-economic theorizing. Sources for methodological consideration from Marx to 20th-century Western Marxists are outlined. The potential contribution of the Marxist dialectical method in the continued development of the critical political economy of culture is demonstrated by showing the possibility of developing a complementary critical political economy of consciousness. Smythe’s theorizing of audiences as workers is considered as a useful starting point, and its potential development through incorporation of the work of other critical scholars of media and culture is outlined.

  4. Analysis of Correlations between Economic Growth (Rate of Real GDP and the Underground Economy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pripoaie Silviu

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Analysis of performance of any economy involves the measurement and correlation of threebasic elements: the rate of economic growth, the rate of inflation and unemployment rate. When the rateof growth (rate of real GDP is high, the production of goods and services is growing and thereforeincreasing the number of jobs, decrease unemployment and raise living standards. If the economy is inrecession phase, increasing fiscal pressure to ensure the necessary budgetary funds triggers complexeconomic mechanisms. Rules more strictly is that those who are not able to operate in the normaleconomy to slide towards the underground economy, and this not because he wants to tax evasion, butbecause they simply can not cope with new regulations. It is widely accepted in economic theory andpractice the idea that reliability scale macroeconomic indicators of a country is affected by size ofunderground economy and the various tests made so far on this subject, focusing either on the socialaspect or the economic or moral, or emphasizes the illegal or the edge of legality. This has led to variousstudies in this area do not provide comparable data or provide data to the contrary. Worldwide were putin place, however, some calculation methods provided that applied the same country and same period,the results are rarely consistent, sometimes even in fundamentally different.

  5. Economy-wide Impact of Investment in Road Infrastructure in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In this study an attempt has been made to examine economy wide impact of investment in road infrastructure using a recursive dynamic CGE model. The study used an updated version of the 2005/06 EDRI Social Accounting Matrix. Simulations with the CGE model confirm that with the increasing availability of road ...

  6. Teaching of Psychology in Countries with Advanced versus Developing Economies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pinquart, Martin; Bernardo, Allan B. I.

    2014-01-01

    We compare structures and contents of psychology programmes from countries with developing and advanced economies. Respondents from 49 countries completed a survey of the International Union of Psychological Science on psychology education and training. In general, there are more similarities than differences between countries with developing and…

  7. Antecedents of trust in the sharing economy : A systematic review

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    ter Huurne, Maarten; Ronteltap, Amber; Corten, R.; Buskens, V.W.

    2017-01-01

    Users and potential users of the sharing economy need to place a considerable amount of trust in both the person and the platform with which they are dealing. The consequences of transaction partners’ opportunism may be severe, for example damage to goods or endangered personal safety. Trust is,

  8. A SIMPLE ASSESSMENT OF FISCAL SUSTAINABILITY FOR THE ROMANIAN ECONOMY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ALEXANDRU LEONTE

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available The financial crisis has seriously impacted the economies around the world, emerging and developed alike. With interest rates at historical low levels, constrained in many cases by the zero lower bound, the emphasis is put on fiscal policy to restore the economies on the path of sustainable growth. This paper attempts to shed light on the issue of fiscal sustainability of the Romanian economy, by checking if the intertemporal fiscal constraint of the government is respected. According to the constraint, the current value of debt equals the sum of the discounted values of future government surpluses, which means that the government is not financing itself through a Ponzi scheme. I build on the econometric approach used in papers such as Hamilton and Flavin (1986, Hakkio and Rush (1991, Quintos (1995, Santos Bravo and Silvestre (2002, Bohn (2007. More specifically, I focus on the time series properties of government debt, revenue and expenditure, determining: i the order of integration for the government debt series; ii whether or not government revenue and expenditure are cointegrated. Thus I am able to evaluate the strength of the fiscal position of the Romanian economy and to see the impact of the financial crisis on this position.

  9. Assessment of Biomass Resources from Marginal Lands in APEC Economies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Milbrandt, A.; Overend, R. P.

    2009-08-01

    The goal of this study is to examine the marginal lands in Asia-Pacific Economic Cooperation (APEC) economies and evaluate their biomass productivity potential. Twelve categories of marginal lands are identified using the Global Agro-Ecological Zones system of the United Nations Food and Agriculture Organization.

  10. The Limitations of Monetary Tools in a Developing Economy like ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    He also advocated for the use of fiscal policy to address economic problems. This paper analyzed both the classical and Keynesian policy prescription and came to the conclusion that the Keynesians prescription of government's intervention in the economy is necessary. The use of fiscal policy as prescribed by the ...

  11. The Political Economy of Carbon Tax in South Africa | Mbadlanyana ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This is why many countries are trying to change environmentally harmful behaviour by introducing market-based mitigation measures such as carbon tax. This article engages with the discourse on the political economy of climate change, with a particular focus on South Africa, with the aim of assessing the viability of ...

  12. The Moral Economy of Violence in the US Inner City

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karandinos, George; Hart, Laurie Kain; Castrillo, Fernando Montero; Bourgois, Philippe

    2014-01-01

    In an 8-week period, there were 16 shootings with three fatalities, three stabbings, and 14 additional “aggravated assaults” in the four square blocks surrounding our field site in the Puerto Rican corner of North Philadelphia. In the aftermath of the shoot-outs, the drug sellers operating on our block were forced to close down their operations by several mothers who repeatedly called the police. Drawing on the concept of moral economy (Thompson, Scott, Taussig), Mauss’s interpretation of gift exchange, and a political economy critique of hypercarceralization in the United States, we understand the high levels of US inner-city violence as operating within a moral logic framed by economic scarcity and hostile state relations. Residents seek security, self-respect, and profit in social networks that compel them to participate in solidary exchanges of assistive violence dynamized by kinship and gender obligations. A hierarchical, extractive drug economy fills the void left by deindustrialization, resulting in a dynamic of embodied primitive accumulation at the expense of addicted customers and chronically incarcerated just-in-time street sellers at high risk of assault. Nevertheless, the mobilization of violence organizing the illegal drug economy also follows ethical norms and obligations that are recognized as legitimate by many local residents. PMID:25067849

  13. A proposal for a typology of sharing economy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maira Petrini

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: to propose a typology for sharing economy that allows the characterization and classification of its main forms of manifestation. Originality/value: the theme that involves collaborative consumption and sharing economy has wide definitions with no clear establishment of boundaries between them. Part of that definition gap may occur because of the recent emergency of literature on sharing economy. Additionally, the fact that sharing economy and collaborative consumption are the newest buzzwords, several businesses started calling themselves as such. Design/methodology/approach: from the review of the literature, 11 characteristics that describe the theme were identified. In the light of those characteristics, 72 collaborative consumption websites were analyzed, representatives of the 24 collaborative consumption categories proposed by Botsman and Rogers (2010. Findings: three archetypes were identified: 1. new business models represent the new players based on technological platforms, which are the core business of the company, and generate income by charging service fees; 2. redesigned businesses are traditional market models redesigned to present time and price advantages to the consumer; 3. sharing by ideal is the archetype that best represents sustainable consumption alternative models.

  14. Shaping the Nigerian Economy: The Role of Women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chinwe Regina Pokoyeuzu

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available The thrust of this paper is to see how changing gender identities and roles can impact and influence positive changes in Nigerian economy. There is every need to empower Nigerian women particularly in the present global economy which recognizes the need for individuals to develop their potentials and contribute to the overall development of the nation. The equity aspect implies that labour market participation of women will improve their relative economic position. It will also increase overall economic efficiency and improve development potentials of the country. Researchers world over observed that Should majority of the world’s population remain vulnerable to economic, political, legal and social marginalization, the hope of advancing democracy and prosperity will be jeopardized. This study analyzed the gender matrix in economic activities using secondary data obtained from CBN statistical Bulletin. The total percentage of women workers (participants engaged in one form of activity or the other in the economy is 43.1% as opposed to men’s 56.9%.This picture though appears nice statistically, is quite misleading. Key leading sectors in the economy by way of income yield or reward have not been favorable to women in terms of participation. Poverty will be reduced to the barest minimum if the government will take appropriate measures toimplement and enforce laws and policies directed towards enabling women have the same rights as Nigerian men.

  15. CESAM: The CCSO annual model of the Dutch economy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jongbloed, Benjamin W.A.; Kuipers, S.K.; Kuper, G.H.; Sterken, E.

    1990-01-01

    This paper presents CESAM, a macroeconometric model of the Dutch economy based on annual data. CESAM can be characterized as a Keynesian expenditure model including a neoclassical production model and a post-Keynesian financial model. This characterization holds for most of the Dutch

  16. Market and state in the vision of constitutional economy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristian-Ion Popa

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available This study addresses the general problem of the relationship between Market and State from Constitutional Political Economy perspective, a research program that has developed in recent decades within Public Choice Theory as a paradigmatic alternative to Welfare Economics of Keynesian extraction.

  17. Colleges Are Wary of Global Economy's Effect on Foreign Enrollments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fischer, Karin

    2012-01-01

    Economists in both India and China see signs of slackening economic activity, from currency fluctuations in India to a falloff in imports, electricity consumption, and real-estate sales in China. A weakening of the economies in the two countries could be worrisome news for American colleges, for which an uptick in full-paying foreign students has…

  18. The future direction of electricity reform in APEC economies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pritchard, Robert

    2005-01-01

    A 2003 study of Electricity Supply Industry (ESI) reform experience in the 21 Asia-Pacific Economic Cooperation (APEC) economies emphasised that the overriding principle of ESI reform must be to maintain the security and stability of the entire power system. This is what differentiates ESI reform from reform of other industries. For all economies, particularly developing economies, attracting private investment in the ESI is a vital ongoing need. However, since the mid-1990s, private investors have become more risk-averse. Today, it is less safe for governments to assume that their 'reformed' electricity sectors will attract the requisite level of private investment. The APEC study found that competitive electricity markets are unsuited to developing economies in the early stages of reform. However, enterprise level reforms can produce major gains by commercialising and corporatising electricity utilities and by providing them with economic incentives to operate to high technical and commercial standards. The APEC study also emphasised that governments must remain responsible for the outcomes of ESI reform irrespective of any changes in industry structure and ownership. This is a fundamental responsibility which cannot be left to a regulator. (Author)

  19. Biobased economy : state-of-the-art assessment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nowicki, P.L.; Banse, M.A.H.; Bolck, C.H.; Bos, H.L.; Scott, E.L.

    2008-01-01

    The interest in the biobased economy stems from the possibility to substitute biologically derived materials and processes for the production of goods that will, therefore, result in a reduced use of petroleum and petro-chemistry. Other reasons are the reduction in the energy required in production

  20. Shift in Terms of Trade Towards the Rural Economy

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    First page Back Continue Last page Overview Graphics. Shift in Terms of Trade Towards the Rural Economy. Three Questions. What is the evidence? How did this shift in ToT come about? What are the implications and challenges of this shift on the way forward? Notes: No Notes.

  1. The Networks and Niches of International Political Economy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Seabrooke, Leonard; Young, Kevin L.

    2017-01-01

    We analyze the organizational logics of how social clustering operates within International Political Economy (IPE). Using a variety of new data on IPE publishing, teaching, and conference attendance, we use network analysis and community detection to understand social clustering within the field...

  2. The political economy of local content in African extractives

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Buur, Lars; Hansen, Michael; Kjær, Mette

    Extractive foreign direct investment (FDI) is heralded as the new development opportunity in Africa. But extractive FDI has a record of producing enclaves in host countries with few linkages to the local economy. Only if it creates local content will extractive FDI become a catalyst of development...

  3. The political economy of railway construction in Nigeria: the Bornu ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The political economy of railway construction in Nigeria: the Bornu railway extension. ... One key strategy employed was to side with the faction of the Nigerian petty bourgeoisie whose political, economic and class interests were in agreement with ... The 400-mile extension was eventually constructed and opened in 1964.

  4. Human capital management in a knowledge economy: The case of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This research aims to examine the existence of the human capital management through competencies and knowledge management approach in Scientific Research Centers within knowledge based economy. The study was applied to the case of Scientific Research Centers in Algeria, such as: (CREAD, CRSTRA, CDTA, ...

  5. The debt crisis, the global economy and the challenges of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The debt crisis, the global economy and the challenges of development: sub Saharan Africa at the crossroads. ... democratization, striving towards gender parity, stemming conditions that precipitate incessant conflicts, reversing the region's crumbling environmental conditions, and fighting the HIV/AIDS pandemic. Journal of ...

  6. The impact of Alzheimer's disease on the chinese economy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Keogh-Brown, Marcus R; Jensen, Henning Tarp; Arrighi, H Michael

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Recent increases in life expectancy may greatly expand future Alzheimer's Disease (AD) burdens. China's demographic profile, aging workforce and predicted increasing burden of AD-related care make its economy vulnerable to AD impacts. Previous economic estimates of AD predominantly...

  7. transforming nigeria's economy on the path of sustainable

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    SILKA

    deficit, re-evaluate and revitalize the educational system, all under a ... even though its greater to have a sense of how large the economy is, but what .... procedure, dedicated dynamism and application of capital formation and ... America, China, India, United Kingdom, Netherlands, France, Germany, Brazil and Italy forms.

  8. The Ignorance of the Knowledge-Based Economy. The Iconoclast.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McMurtry, John

    1996-01-01

    Castigates the supposed "knowledge-based economy" as simply a public relations smokescreen covering up the free market exploitation of people and resources serving corporate interests. Discusses the many ways that private industry, often with government collusion, has controlled or denied dissemination of information to serve its own interests.…

  9. Regenerating America: Meeting the Challenge of Building Local Economies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gabel, Medard; And Others

    The document includes five papers on the implications and applications of regeneration by the Regeneration Project, based in Emmaus, Pa. The first paper, "Regenerating America: Meeting the Challenge of Building Local Economies," (Medard Gabel) defines regeneration as economic recovery and growth, fostered by diversification within a…

  10. The Perspectives of Green Economy in the Republic of Moldova under the Impact of Ecologization World Economy Megatrend

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zorina SHISHCAN

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The authors have outlined the conceptual methodology in the field as well as the relevant Strategies, Programs and Projects implemented in European Union and Republic of Moldova, and have figured out the key elements as well as the perspectives of green economy development in the country.

  11. Macroeconomic impacts of oil price shocks in Asian economies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cunado, Juncal; Jo, Soojin; Perez de Gracia, Fernando

    2015-01-01

    This paper analyzes the macroeconomic impact of structural oil shocks in four of the top oil-consuming Asian economies, using a VAR model. We identify three different structural oil shocks via sign restrictions: an oil supply shock, an oil demand shock driven by global economic activity and an oil-specific demand shock. The main results suggest that economic activity and prices respond very differently to oil price shocks depending on their types. In particular, an oil supply shock has a limited impact, while a demand shock driven by global economic activity has a significant positive effect in all four Asian countries examined. Our finding also includes that policy tools such as interest rates and exchange rates help mitigating the effects of supply shocks in Japan and Korea; however, they can be more actively used in response to demands shocks. - Highlights: • We analyze the effects of three structural oil price shocks on Asian economies. • Supply shocks have limited impact on the economic activity of Asian economies examined. • Demand shocks due to economic activity boosts GDP of all economies. • CPIs in India and Indonesia were only marginally affected by oil price shocks. • Monetary and exchange rate tools help mitigating supply shocks in Korea and Japan.

  12. Risk management of hazardous substances in a circular economy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bodar, Charles; Spijker, Job; Lijzen, Johannes; Waaijers-van der Loop, Susanne; Luit, Richard; Heugens, Evelyn; Janssen, Martien; Wassenaar, Pim; Traas, Theo

    2018-04-15

    The ambitions for a circular economy are high and unambiguous, but day-to-day experience shows that the transition still has many difficulties to overcome. One of the current hurdles is the presence of hazardous substances in waste streams that enter or re-enter into the environment or the technosphere. The key question is: do we have the appropriate risk management tools to control any risks that might arise from the re-using and recycling of materials? We present some recent cases that illustrate current practice and complexity in the risk management of newly-formed circular economy chains. We also highlight how separate legal frameworks are still disconnected from each other in these cases, and how circular economy initiatives interlink with the European REACH regulation. Furthermore, we introduce a novel scheme describing how to decide whether a(n)(additional) risk assessment is necessary with regard to the re-use of materials containing hazardous substances. Finally, we present our initial views on new concepts for the fundamental integration of sustainability and safety aspects. These concepts should be the building blocks for the near future shifts in both policy frameworks and voluntary initiatives that support a sound circular economy transition. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Transforming Economies. The Case of the Norwegian Electricity Market Reform

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Olsen, Per Ingvar

    2000-01-01

    The topic of this thesis is the shaping of modern economies, represented by a case-study of the Norwegian electricity market reform process. The essential questions raised are: Why are industries and economies organized the way they are? and Why and how do they occasionally experience fairly radical transformations during which we come to see their organizational structures and associated behaviors in entirely different ways? To answer these questions, the author has followed a radical market-making economic reform process through its many projects, processes and rivalries, from its roots in specific historical controversies through its major breakthrough and into a stabilized new economic system. A major argument through out the analysis is that economics as a scientific activity and -community plays a particularly important role in the re-shaping of economic systems. Large scale economic reforms are found to be dependent upon scientific and political powers and legitimacy which results from broad consensus within the relevant scientific communities. In order to make his point, the author presents and discusses various historical economic reform initiatives both within the Norwegian electricity sector, within other sectors of the economy and in other countries. He also presents elements of a broad process of reorientation within economics during the 1970s and follows these new conceptions up to the electricity market reform process in the late 1980s. The analysis tries to explain why Norway became a hotbed for market reform of the technically integrated and institutionally complex and locked-in electricity system, but also fries to extract medium range insights about economic reform processes and to discuss more general implications for other large scale economic reform projects as well as for economic theories about economic change - through a rethinking of some of the basics in economic thought. The thesis is separated into four parts. The first part discusses

  14. Transforming Economies. The Case of the Norwegian Electricity Market Reform

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Olsen, Per Ingvar

    2000-07-01

    The topic of this thesis is the shaping of modern economies, represented by a case-study of the Norwegian electricity market reform process. The essential questions raised are: Why are industries and economies organized the way they are? and Why and how do they occasionally experience fairly radical transformations during which we come to see their organizational structures and associated behaviors in entirely different ways? To answer these questions, the author has followed a radical market-making economic reform process through its many projects, processes and rivalries, from its roots in specific historical controversies through its major breakthrough and into a stabilized new economic system. A major argument through out the analysis is that economics as a scientific activity and -community plays a particularly important role in the re-shaping of economic systems. Large scale economic reforms are found to be dependent upon scientific and political powers and legitimacy which results from broad consensus within the relevant scientific communities. In order to make his point, the author presents and discusses various historical economic reform initiatives both within the Norwegian electricity sector, within other sectors of the economy and in other countries. He also presents elements of a broad process of reorientation within economics during the 1970s and follows these new conceptions up to the electricity market reform process in the late 1980s. The analysis tries to explain why Norway became a hotbed for market reform of the technically integrated and institutionally complex and locked-in electricity system, but also fries to extract medium range insights about economic reform processes and to discuss more general implications for other large scale economic reform projects as well as for economic theories about economic change - through a rethinking of some of the basics in economic thought. The thesis is separated into four parts. The first part discusses

  15. On sustainable development of population and national economy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tian, X

    1995-01-01

    This article offers a strategy for achieving sustainable development of population and the national economy in China. It is argued that economic growth and population growth must be in balance and coordinated. In 1993 it was estimated that a national economic growth rate of 4.03-4.60% was needed in order to balance the natural population growth rate of 1.15% at the existing standard of living. When the national economy grows faster than population in the life expectancy time period, overpopulation can be checked. Population must be balanced with sufficient means for subsistence. The key measure of sustainable development is the ratio between the size of the working-age population and the means of production. The number of people in the labor force is positively related to fixed assets and negatively related to the labor force's technical equipment. China's problems include weak industrial fixed assets, a surplus labor force, and slow growth in industrial and agricultural productivity. Potential solutions are to shift employment from a cultivation-oriented rural economy to a diversified rural economy, to increase the pace of change to an industrial and commercial economy, and to increase the pace of change to nonmaterial production and to raising employment efficiency. Solutions are dependent upon improvement in the quality of population, which means increased levels of education. China still has 181,610,00 people who are illiterate or semi-illiterate among the working-age population. Sustainable development also relies on active promotion of social support for the elderly by a pension system, family support, and reemployment of the elderly. Surplus labor should be absorbed by the service industry. Population structure and economic development are more advanced in coastal areas that have 41% of total population. Inland areas should develop labor-intensive, technology-intensive, and investment-intensive industries. Northwest areas need an educated population

  16. A Comparative Study of Projection Models on China's Food Economy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zhang XiaoYong, Xiaoyong

    2004-01-01

    During the last two decades, China's food supply and demand has been a hot topic for both politicians and academics given China's rapid economic development and its sheer market size. Accordingly, researchers are trying to project the future development of China's food economy. This article reviews

  17. A comparative study of projection models on China's food economy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zhang XiaoYong, Xiaoyong

    2003-01-01

    During the last two decades, China's food supply and demand has been a hot topic for both politicians and academics given China's rapid economic development and its sheer market size. Accordingly, researchers are trying to project the future development of China's food economy. This article reviews

  18. The Role of Unions in the American Economy. Second Edition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marshall, Ray; Rungeling, Brian

    Intended as a resource for secondary teachers, this book analyzes the role of unions in the American economy and examines the main forces influencing unions in the United States. This second edition includes important domestic and external events that have affected U.S. economic policy and unions since the first edition was published in 1976.…

  19. The Political Economy of Interlibrary Organizations: Two Case Studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Townley, Charles T.

    J. Kenneth Benson's political economy model for interlibrary cooperation identifies linkages and describes interactions between the environment, the interlibrary organization, and member libraries. A tentative general model for interlibrary organizations based on the Benson model was developed, and the fit of this adjusted model to the realities…

  20. Creative economy policy in developing countries : The case of Indonesia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fahmi, Fikri Zul; McCann, Philip; Koster, Sierdjan

    This paper investigates how the creative economy discourse is interpreted and implemented in the context of Indonesia as a developing country. Our main conclusion is that the discourse is interpreted differently across localities. Bandung appears to be the only locality whose interpretation aligns