WorldWideScience

Sample records for economies affect foreign

  1. Does a foreign subsidiary’s network status affect its innovation activity? Evidence from postsocialist economies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matija Rojec

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Questionnaire survey among 809 foreign subsidiaries in five post-socialist economies (East Germany, Poland, Romania, Slovenia and Croatia is used to study determinants of innovation activity of foreign subsidiaries. Findings demonstrate that foreign subsidiaries are relatively independent as far as innovation activity is concerned, while at the same time subsidiaries with better access to foreign parent companies R&D results are more likely to innovate. Important differences are found in factors that determine product and process innovation: subsidiaries that invest more in R&D exhibit higher probability for product but not for process innovation; transfer of responsibilities from headquarters to subsidiaries is conducive to process innovation; market-seeking motivation of foreign investors has a negative impact on product innovation status.

  2. Foreign Investment Boosts Rural Economies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glasmeier, Amy; Glickman, Norman

    1990-01-01

    Through 1987, 10 percent of foreign investment was in nonmetro counties; 44 percent of this was in the South; and 38 percent of nonmetro foreign investment created new jobs (versus 17 percent in metro areas). Foreign investors chose nonmetro areas with low wages, lack of unionization history, good transportation access, and government incentives.…

  3. FOREIGN DIRECT INVESTMENT AND THE ROMANIAN ECONOMY

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    Elena CHIRILA – DONCIU

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available In a country's economy, investments take center stage, both in the production of goods and services and in the sphere of consumption. They represent a factor that influences simultaneously both demand and supply. The importance and impact of FDI have righteously attracted all EU Members heed and resulted in a fierce competition for foreign capital. The purpose of this paper is to analyze the impact of FDI on Romania economic growth. Research results show that FDI have a positive impact through the medium of productivity and competitiveness growth in the host countries, by means of technology and capital transfer.

  4. Pattern of Foreign Direct Investment in Developing Economies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Patibandla, Murali

    2004-01-01

    Qualitative information and data show significant differences in the magnitude and type of foreigndirect investment inflows among developing economies. Explanation of the differences requiresanalysis of market institutional factors as well as the supply and demand side conditions. This paperadopts...... the approach that different configurations of supply, demand and market institutional factorsexplain the type of investment flows into developing economies. The argument is illustrated througha comparative study of China and India.Key Words: Developing Economies; Foreign Direct Investment; China, and India...

  5. The effects of foreign banks entry in emerging market economies

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    MSc. Florida Veljanoska

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper investigates the effects of foreign bank entry in emerging markets. We developed a picture of a multinational bank in an emerging markets by combining statistics from several sources, in order to explore broad range of effects that brings foreign bank entry in the developing countries. Some impacts of foreign bank entry have been thoroughly studied, while others are hardly mention. Entry of foreign bank brings large benefits to host country’s financial system and economies at large. This paper is studying those benefits very carefully, by analyzing the impact of foreign bank entry on economy, government, monetary policy, large enterprises, small and medium size enterprises, domestic bank etc. But, we also consider the fact that at the same time, foreign investment in the financial sector, rises some concerns, and therefore we analyze the negative effects as well. At the end we must admit that although there are some negative consequences from foreign bank entry in emerging markets, the benefits that arise from foreign banks penetration are much more, and this trend of foreign bank entry has brought new positive economic impulse in developing world.

  6. Strong Dollar, Weak Dollar: Foreign Exchange Rates and the U.S. Economy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schilling, Tim

    Many generalizations sound simple enough--for example, "strong is good, weak is bad"--but they can be confusing when talking about money. This booklet explores how the U.S. dollar and foreign currencies affect each other and how their interaction affects the individual and the economy. The booklet contains the following sections:…

  7. Exchange Rate Movement and Foreign Direct Investment in Asean Economies

    OpenAIRE

    Lily, Jaratin; Kogid, Mori; Mulok, Dullah; Thien Sang, Lim; Asid, Rozilee

    2014-01-01

    The inflows of foreign direct investment (FDI) are important for a country's economic development, but the world market for FDI has become more competitive. This paper empirically analyses the exchange rate movements and foreign direct investment (FDI) relationship using annual data on ASEAN economies, that is, Malaysia, the Philippines, Thailand, and Singapore. By employing ARDL bounds test approach, the empirical results show the existence of significant long-run cointegration between excha...

  8. Pension fund regulation: Unintended consequences of foreign investment restrictions in an emerging market economy

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    Coert Frederik Erasmus

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Retirement savings allow investors to earn income after retirement by saving while being part of the workforce. Retirement savings comprise the largest portion of retirement savings and should be safeguarded by effective regulation. To safeguard retirement savings, exposure to foreign asset investments is limited. However, in an emerging economy, limiting foreign asset investments, especially investment in developed markets, could hamper the potential investment returns due to the translation risk. To assess the effect of translation risk, a preservation provident fund was used in the present study to determine whether the returns of this preservation provident fund would be adversely affected by investment allocation regulation. The findings indicated how the translation effect affected the preservation provident fund, illustrating the adverse unintended consequences of investment regulation in emerging market economies. Consequently, regulators should reconsider the maximum allowed foreign asset investment in pension fund regulations to enhance investment returns from foreign asset investments

  9. Colleges Are Wary of Global Economy's Effect on Foreign Enrollments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fischer, Karin

    2012-01-01

    Economists in both India and China see signs of slackening economic activity, from currency fluctuations in India to a falloff in imports, electricity consumption, and real-estate sales in China. A weakening of the economies in the two countries could be worrisome news for American colleges, for which an uptick in full-paying foreign students has…

  10. Impact of Foreign Direct Investments on Unemployment in Emerging Market Economies: A Co-integration Analysis

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    Yilmaz Bayar

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: The goal of the paper is to investigate the long run effect of both foreign direct investments and domestic investments on the unemployment in 21 emerging economies over the period 1994-2014. Design/methodology/approach: The effect of domestic and foreign direct investments on unemployment was investigated via panel data analysis. First tests of cross-section dependence and homogeneity were conducted, and then the stationarity of the series was analyzed with Pesaran's (2007 CIPS unit root test. The long run relationship among the series was examined with Westerlund-Durbin-Hausman's (2008 co -integration test. Finally, we estimated the long run coefficients with the Augmented Mean Group (AMG estimator. Findings: The empirical findings revealed a co-integrating relationship among domestic investments, foreign direct investments, and unemployment. Furthermore, foreign direct investment inflows affected the unemployment positively in the long term, but domestic investments affected the unemployment negatively. Originality/value: This study can be considered as one of the early studies researching the long run interaction between domestic investments, foreign direct investments and unemployment for the sample of emerging market economies. Furthermore, the findings are very meaningful for policymakers in the design the economic policies for decreasing unemployment.

  11. The Transmission of Foreign Shocks to South Eastern European Economies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petrevski, Goran; Bogoev, Jane; Tevdovski, Dragan

    2014-01-01

    This paper investigates the transmission of foreign shocks to economic activity and macroeconomic policies in the South Eastern European (SEE) economies with fixed exchange rate regimes: Croatia, Macedonia and Bulgaria. Specifically, we provide empirical evidence on the influence of the EMU policy...... with rigid exchange rate regimes, with different degree of integration within the EU. As for the methodological issues, we employ recursive Vector Auto regressions to identify the exogenous shocks in the euro-area. Generally, the estimated results imply that euro-zone economic activity has significant...... reference rate are relatively quickly transmitted to domestic money market rates. We can explain these effects by several factors, such as: the fixed exchange rates, the relatively high integration of SEE financial markets to EMU financial markets as well as the dependence of banks on foreign financing...

  12. FOREIGN DIRECT INVESTMENTS – AN ESSENTIAL FACTOR FOR ECONOMIC GROWTH IN TRANSITION ECONOMIES

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    Carmen BOGHEAN

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this analysis is to analyse the connection between foreign direct investments and economic growth in transition economies during a period of increased integration of financial systems in the global financial system. The research focuses on the relationship between foreign direct investments and economic growth during 1970-2013, by means of methods such as the graphic, the regression and the correlation ones. The research findings show that there is a direct and strong connection between the inward financial flows of foreign direct investments and the GDP during the period under analysis in transition economies. In transition economies, a high inward flow of foreign direct investments leads to an increase of the Gross Domestic Product per capita, while a positive development of the standard of living will attract new inward FDI flows, since transition economies are seen as attractive recipients/hosts for foreign direct investments.

  13. How extractive industries affect health: Political economy underpinnings and pathways.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schrecker, Ted; Birn, Anne-Emanuelle; Aguilera, Mariajosé

    2018-06-07

    A systematic and theoretically informed analysis of how extractive industries affect health outcomes and health inequities is overdue. Informed by the work of Saskia Sassen on "logics of extraction," we adopt an expansive definition of extractive industries to include (for example) large-scale foreign acquisitions of agricultural land for export production. To ground our analysis in concrete place-based evidence, we begin with a brief review of four case examples of major extractive activities. We then analyze the political economy of extractivism, focusing on the societal structures, processes, and relationships of power that drive and enable extraction. Next, we examine how this global order shapes and interacts with politics, institutions, and policies at the state/national level contextualizing extractive activity. Having provided necessary context, we posit a set of pathways that link the global political economy and national politics and institutional practices surrounding extraction to health outcomes and their distribution. These pathways involve both direct health effects, such as toxic work and environmental exposures and assassination of activists, and indirect effects, including sustained impoverishment, water insecurity, and stress-related ailments. We conclude with some reflections on the need for future research on the health and health equity implications of the global extractive order. Copyright © 2018 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  14. The Impact Of The Foreign Direct Investment On Romania’s Economy

    OpenAIRE

    Mihaela Ioneci; Georgiana Mîndreci

    2010-01-01

    Foreign direct investment can be regarded as a factor out of the crisis of the Romanian economy. The relationship between the foreign direct investment and the gross domestic product is beneficial for the economy to the extent to which investment is directed towards innovation and new technologies. The virtuous circle diversity - change - technology needs investment to take effect. Microeconomic level investment completes the strategies and the investment decisions at macroeconomic level.

  15. The Meaning of Foreign Investment in the Chinese Economy. Training Discussion Paper No. 39.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castro, Claudio de Moura

    As the Chinese economy opens up to the outside world, the decision to engage in joint ventures with foreign capital is among the most important national policies. Significant direct consequences of joint ventures are the influx of foreign capital, expanding exports, and employment creation. However, the great importance of joint ventures lies in…

  16. Do democratic institutions and foreign direct investment affect ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Do democratic institutions and foreign direct investment affect economic growth? Evidence from ... International Journal of Development and Management Review ... The importance of sound democratic institutional structures and foreign direct investment for enhancing economic growth is well documentedin literature.

  17. Foreign currency borrowing by small firms in the transition economies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brown, M.; Ongena, S.; Yesin, P.

    2011-01-01

    We examine the firm- and country-level determinants of foreign currency borrowing by small firms, using information on the most recent loan extended to 3101 firms in 25 transition countries between 2002 and 2005. Our results suggest that foreign currency borrowing is much stronger related to

  18. ATTRACTING FOREIGN DIRECT INVESTMENT IN TRANSITION ECONOMIES WITH SPECIAL REFERENCE TO THE REPUBLIC OF MACEDONIA

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    Marija Gogova Samonikov

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available The focus of this paper is an analysis of foreign direct investment and their impact and scale in countries in transition, with special reference to Macedonia. The main aim of this article is to show the investment in Macedonia, in the period before and after the crisis of 2007 and to provide guidance for future activities that will help improve the economic situation in general. The results show that the Macedonian economy is especially supported by active government action on this issue. Government and its activities significantly improve the position of Macedonia in relation to neighboring countries, but there are still areas that need to act. Such domain infrastructure is an issue that would fulfill the image of Macedonian policy for attracting foreign investors. The conclusion is that despite all activities there are determinants that affect traditional markets. The most important of them is the level of gross domestic product. Macedonia has taken many measures to increase the level of GDP and in the level of attracting foreign capital has introduced tax benefits, customs benefits and other benefits with which is competitive with neighboring countries. However, GDP and employment are still not satisfactorily reflected.

  19. Openness of Economy, Foreign Investment Inflows and the Phenomenon of Rent Seeking Corruption

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    Syed Toqueer Akhter

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Rent seeking behavior has been amongst noticeable obstacles in path of economic growth and development for developing communities. Due to this the study aims at testing the hypothesis that the Rent seeking behavior among bureaucracy is being influenced by the openness of economy as well as inflows of foreign investment significantly. Model estimations imply that reforms may have an insignificant impact upon impact upon curtailing the rent seeking behavior among bureaucracy in a time series setting therefore this research will use two statistical econometric models to show the effect of corruption on the foreign direct inflow received in Pakistan. In order to pretest the impact of all the mentioned variables on rent seeking behavior generalized least square was used because its results were unbiased, consistent and the problem of Serial correlation was solved by using it. In order to quantify rent seeking behavior among bureaucracy different aspects of misuse of public offices appearing in form of petty and grand corruption were used using the variables informal sector, tax evasion, judicial outlay, G.D.P and F.D.I as percentage of G.D.P. All of the variables had proper signs aligned with the theory and all of the variables appeared to be significant except judicial outlay proving that the judiciary has been incompetent and ineffective. The robust regression showed all the same signs except in it every variable was appearing to be significant. Rent seeking corruption has been highly affecting Pakistan in adverse ways and this paper will show how many factors like judiciary is not playing effective role in limiting corruption and also how the economy is being affected by rent seeking behavior.

  20. The place of foreign direct investment in the global economy

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    Tomasz Gutowski

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Foreign direct investment (FDI plays an extraordinary and growing role in global business. It can provide a firm with new markets and marketing channels, cheaper production facilities, access to new technology, products, skills and financing. For a host country or the foreign firm which receives the investment, it can provide a source of new technologies, capital, processes, products, organizational technologies and management skills and as such can provide a strong impetus to economic development. The sea change in trade and investment policies and the regulatory environment globally in the past decade, including trade policy and tariff liberalization, easing of restrictions on foreign investment and acquisition in many nations, and the deregulation and privitazation of many industries, has probably been been the most significant catalyst for FDI’s expanded role.

  1. The Export Intensity of Foreign Affiliates in Transition Economies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Jørgen Ulff-Møller; Pawlik, Konrad

    2007-01-01

      Using a unique database containing trade and industry variables of foreign-owned companies in the Polish manufacturing industry for the years 1993-2002, we investigate the relationship between the organizational structure of multinational enterprises in Poland and the export structure of their ......  Using a unique database containing trade and industry variables of foreign-owned companies in the Polish manufacturing industry for the years 1993-2002, we investigate the relationship between the organizational structure of multinational enterprises in Poland and the export structure...... of their affiliates. We find that labour intensity and foreign control are the main explanatory variables for the export intensity of the affiliates. Given the overall rise in export intensity over the period of investigation, our findings suggest that export-platform FDI has become a more important mode...

  2. Foreign Language Learning, Motivation and the Market Economy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diamantatou, Christina; Hawes, Thomas

    2016-01-01

    This study explores UK students' motivation to study foreign languages, linking unrewarding past learning experiences with attrition rates and posing questions about the influence of official policy and socially structured conditions. 31 Further Education college students were given a questionnaire based on Gardner's (1975) Attitude/Motivation…

  3. Foreign direct investment in the financial sector of emerging market economies

    OpenAIRE

    Bank for International Settlements

    2004-01-01

    Executive summary Foreign participation in the financial sectors of emerging market economies (EMEs) increased rapidly during the 1990s. It has continued to expand so far in this decade, on balance – although its pace fell somewhat following problems in Argentina in 2002 and the global slowdown in mergers and acquisitions. While banks accounted for the majority of financial sector foreign direct investment (FSFDI), they were joined during this period by securities and investment firms. In a n...

  4. The Impact Of Foreign Direct Investment On Turkish Economy 2010–2016

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    Isiks Aliya Zhkanova

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available This study focuses on Foreign Direct Investment (FDI inflows and how they are linked with the economic indicators in Turkey including the Real Effective Exchange Rate (REER, and Gross Domestic Product per capita of Purchasing Power Parity - GDP (PPP in Turkey. The GDP (PPP variable is used because it shows significant causality on REER, along with the exchange rate volatility of the U.S Dollar in the Turkish stock market. Also, as an important sector of the Turkish economy, tourism revenue is elucidated according to the Organization for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD data from 2016. The main objective of this study is to evaluate the impact of the FDI investment on economic condition in Turkey for the period between January 2010 and July 2016. The selected period is important because it represents the crucial time for Turkish economy following the 2008 global financial crisis along with the ongoing Civil War in neighboring Syria that had initiated in 2012, Turkish-Russian crises of 2015, and the military coup attempt in Turkey in 2016. It is argued that despite all the negative international and regional developments, FDI and Tourism play key roles in attracting income to the country. This is presented in the level of REER and GDP for PPP. The results also support the findings of many economists, who have previously asserted that the Turkish economic interaction is growing at a globalized level, and is able to compete with the other large attractive areas for foreign investors around the world. Finally, the results demonstrate that the tourism industry was the least affected sector in Turkey.

  5. New competitive strategies of foreign banks in large emerging economies: the case of Brazil

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    Fernando J. Cardim de Carvalho

    2000-06-01

    Full Text Available Financial relations have been deeply transformed in the 1980s and 1990s by deregulation and liberalization. Among the most affected by these changes has been the banking system. Domestic banks have generally lost the implicit protection given by regulatory barriers to entry. Until very recently, in most of the world, foreign banks had their range of operations limited by both regulatory and market factors in developed and developing countries alike. This has radically changed in the 1990s. Foreign banks previously content to hold marginal positions in domestic emerging markets started to pursue aggressive strategies of expansion. Competition among banks operating domestically is being intensified as a result, particularly in emerging economies large enough to support entry of new banking firms. We examine the case of Brazil, where, following the semi-crisis of 1995, a significant number of banks set up subsidiaries fighting for increasing market shares of the domestic market. The paper shows the ways these banks chose to enter the market and explores the perspectives for the domestic banking sector.

  6. Foreign market entry strategies in developed and emerging economies: A case study of how the entry strategies of Norwegian oil service firms are affected by the differing institutional contexts of Australia and Brazil

    OpenAIRE

    Arnstorp, Henrik

    2013-01-01

    When firms expand to foreign markets, their entry strategies unfold. Traditionally, research on entry strategies has focused exclusively on firm- and industry-specific factors and largely ignored the context constituted by the institutions of the host country. The institutional context determines the ?rules of the game? in any market, and includes both formal institutions such as laws and regulations and informal institutions such as norms and culture. With the increasing relevance of emergin...

  7. How do Institutions Affect Corruption and the Shadow Economy?

    OpenAIRE

    Axel Dreher; Christos Kotsogiannis; Steve McCorriston

    2005-01-01

    This paper analyzes a simple model that captures the relationship between institutional quality, the shadow economy and corruption. It shows that an improvement in institutional quality reduces the shadow economy and affects the corruption market. The exact relationship between corruption and institutional quality is, however, ambiguous and depends on the relative effectiveness of the institutional quality in the shadow and corruption markets. The predictions of the model are empirically test...

  8. Domestic and foreign effects on prices in an open economy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Juselius, Katarina

    1992-01-01

    Domestic price determination in Denmark is investigated using three kinds of macroeconomic explanations: (1) internal labor market theories describing the relation between price and wage inflation, (2) pure monetarist theories describing the effect of excess money on the inflation rate. and (3...... found to be the main determinants of the inflation rate. Among these, the domestic effects were small compared to the foreign effects. The empirical results strongly favored a backward-looking behavioral model in terms of structurally stable parameters as opposed to a forward-looking expectations model...

  9. EFECT OF FOREIGN EXCHANGE RATE FLUCTUATIONS ON NIGERIAN ECONOMY

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    Lawrence Olisaemeka UFOEZE

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available This study investigated the effect of exchange rate fluctuations on Nigerian economy. The fixed and floating exchange eras were compared to know the exchange rate system in which the economy has fairly better. The time period covered was 1970 to 2012. The study employed the ordinary least square (OLS multiple regression technique for the analysis. The coefficient of determination (R2, F-test, t-test, beta and Durbin-Watson were used in the interpretation of the results. The resulted revealed that about 85% of the changes in macroeconomic indicators are explained in the fixed exchange era. In the floating exchange era, 99% was explained while the whole periods has 73% explanatory power, hence the floating exchange era (1986 to date is more effective in explaining economic trend in Nigeria. Also, exchange rate has significant positive effect on GDP during the fixed exchange rate era and negative effect the eras floating and all-time; inflation has insignificant negative effect on GDP during the fixed exchange era; significant effect in floating era and significant negative effect in the all-time period; money supply has insignificant negative effect GDP in fixed exchange era; and significant positive effect during the floating and all-time period; and oil revenue has significant positive effect on the GDP in all the exchange rate regimes (floating, fixed and all-time in Nigeria.  The study thus conclude that exchange rate movement is a good indicator for monitoring Nigerian economic growth. So far exchange rate has always been a key economic indicator for Nigeria. The floating exchange period has outperformed the fixed exchange rate in terms of contribution inflation, money supply and oil revenue to economic growth. This indicate that the floating exchange rate has been a better economic regime for sustainable economic growth in Nigeria. From the findings, it is evident that oil revenue has positive effect in Nigeria and has remained the mainstay

  10. Foreign Direct Investment and Trade Openness: The Case of Developing Economies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liargovas, Panagiotis G.; Skandalis, Konstantinos S.

    2012-01-01

    This paper examines the importance of trade openness for attracting Foreign Direct Investment (FDI) inflows, using a sample of 36 developing economies for the period 1990-2008. It provides a direct test of causality between FDI inflows, trade openness and other key variables in developing regions of the world: Latin America, Asia, Africa, CIS…

  11. Domestic and Foreign Effects on Prices in an Open Economy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Juselius, Katarina

    1994-01-01

    Domestic price determination in Denmark is investigated using three kinds of macro-economic explanations: (1) internal labor mar­ ket theories describing the relation between price and wage inflation, (2) pure monetarist theories describing the effect of excess money on the inflation rate, and (3...... model. The results stand up as quite strong evidence against the Lucas critiqueDomestic price determination in Denmark is investigated using three kinds of macro-economic explanations: (1) internal labor mar­ ket theories describing the relation between price and wage inflation, (2) pure monetarist...... found to be the main determinants of the inflation rate. Among these, the domestic effects were small compared to the foreign effects. The em­ pirical results strongly favored a backward-looking behavioral model in terms of structurally stable parameters as opposed to a forward- looking expectations...

  12. The scope of foreign direct investment in South Eastern Europe and the economy of SCG

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Beslać Milan

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Foreign direct investments have had a long tradition in the modern Serbian history. The influence of the foreign capital on the Serbian economy was particularly expressed in the period between the two World Wars, when France England, Belgium, Germany and even Russia invested into Serbia. After World War II, until the end of the sixth decade, foreign direct investments were not stipulated in the legal regulations. In the last decade of the twentieth century and at the beginning of the twenty-first, the inflow of foreign direct investments has been provided for through the economy transformation and privatization process. In the last three years, privatization has been oriented only to sale and inflow of foreign capital, while the reverse process, i.e. investment into foreign countries (outflow, has been totally neglected. Therefore, orientation only to the FDI inflow constitutes both an opportunity and an obstacle to intensive economic development. Along with that, the following laws have not been passed yet: Law on Denationalization Law on Investment Funds and Law on Takeover of Joint-Stock Companies. Such laws will ensure completion of the privatization process and create an ambience for intensive economic development.

  13. A New Trend of Foreign Direct Investment and Sustainable Growth of Emerging Economies

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    Pradeep Kumar

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available With the rise of globalisation concept, the opportunity of going global for companies has become so influential that many of the companies that are doing well in the home country are staring up their businesses in other countries to maximise the profit. The trend of investing in other economies has become very popular that's why the trend of foreign direct investment between developed and developing economies has not only been increased but significantly a new trend has emerged for foreign direct investment among developing to developing economies. It has been seen that foreign direct investment (FDI as foreign capital is playing very wider and important role in the socio-economic development of a nation. Evidently, it played an important role to the development of the developed nations, and playing a significant role in the development of the number of developing nations. Today, FDI is considered to be the core incentive for economic and social development as far as the developing nations are concerned.

  14. International Trade and Foreign Direct Investment as Innovation Factors of the U.S. Economy

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    Napiórkowski1 Tomasz M.

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this research is to asses the hypothesis that foreign direct investment (FDI and international trade have had a positive impact on innovation in one of the most significant economies in the world, the United States (U.S.. To do so, the author used annual data from 1995 to 2010 to build a set of econometric models. In each model, 11 in total the number of patent applications by U.S. residents is regressed on inward FDI stock, exports and imports of the economy as a collective, and in each of the 10 SITC groups separately.

  15. Determinants of Foreign Direct Investments in Transition Economies: Case of Commonwealth of Independent Countries

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    Sobir Shukurov

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available While there has been voluminous research on the determinants of FDI for developed and developing countries, little has been done on this issue for transition economies, especially, for the Commonwealth of Independent States (CIS countries. the present paper examines the determinants of inward Foreign Direct Investment (FDI flows in the CIS during 1995–2010. the results of empirical analysis using panel data models, conducted with the purpose of identifying the factors that determine the motivation and decision of multinational companies (MNC to invest in CIS economies, show that regardless of the presence of high investment risk in transition economies, the choice of FDI location always depends on a preliminary analysis of countries’ advantages (FDI stock, market size, abundance in natural resources and disadvantages at macro level (fiscal imbalance and inflation. These pre‑existing conditions can always roughly predict the type of FDI (resource-seeking, market‑seeking, efficiency-seeking.

  16. Foreign direct investment with regard to the economic growth of the Japanese economy

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    Milan Palát

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Foreign direct investment presents an indivisible part of the global economy and a major catalyst to development. The paper stresses out the importance of FDI in boosting the growth of the nation’s economy and is aimed at assessing the flow of inward FDI into Japan in the frame of the economic development of the country. Many studies reflected the superior managerial efficiency and productivity of foreign business companies operating in Japan and this is considered to be an asset of inward FDI into Japan. From the beginning of the reference period (with an exception of last two decades the ratio of FDI on gross domestic product in Japan remained quite stable. This economy witnessed augmented FDI flows in the 1990s but current economic situation aggravated by the global financial and economic crisis differs significantly from the development in previous years. A fitted developmental series using a logarithmic polynomial indicate the described trend of FDI in Japan. Based on results of methods of regression and correlation analysis (including testing the statistical significance, the correlation is evident between FDI and gross domestic product in the monitored country and the existence of a growth impact of FDI can be thus accepted.

  17. Particularities Regarding the Evolution and Role of Foreign Direct Investments in Romania’s Economy

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    Ion Botescu

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Criticized by some, praised by others foreign direct investments are a financial flow with amajor impact on the economies of many countries. In an increasingly globalized world, the processthrough which multinationals open production and distribution branches over the entire surface ofthe globe is something as natural as possible. After the fall of communism in Europe, Romania has been a favorite destination for manyforeign investors, fact which requires a careful analysis on the dynamics and structure of foreigndirect investment flows attracted by Romania. I have also tried to highlight the nature of the linkbetween the flow of foreign direct investment attracted by Romania and the variations recorded inthe economic development of our country. Given all the positive and negative aspects presented, foreign direct investments are a realityfor Romania, and future policies promoted in the area should stimulate the entry foreign capitalfirms whose work will generate a high level of content of knowledge and technology directlyimpacting the improvement of the economic efficiency at national level.

  18. EXTENSIVE ROLE OF FOREIGN DIRECT INVESTMENT IN DEVELOPMENT OF INDIAN ECONOMY

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    Amit Saini

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Since 2001, the extensive growth in domestic economy were potentially associated with the scale of foreign direct inflows that were largely interconnected with industrial growth, re-shuffling investment policies, and availability of large market size in India. However, the government remained much restrictive earlier in these issues to protect the domestic entrepreneurs along with to promote the self-efficacy among individuals. Within this framework, this paper is being prepared to observe the degree of effect of foreign direct investment inflow over successive economic parameters such as gross domestic product and Export. Moreover, to define such interconnection, the generalized linear model econometric model has been developed to analyze the overall effect and uni-variate effect over three categorical factors i.e. country, year and foreign direct investment itself. Finally, the results shown, the consistent foreign direct investment inflows is the result of successive years that led to increase the prestige of gross domestic products and Export in many folds during a period from 2000 to 2012.

  19. The Impact of Foreign Direct Investment on Developing Economies and the Environment The Impact of Foreign Direct Investment on Developing Economies and the Environment

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    Anne Marie Zwerg

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available This article is about the impact of foreign direct investment on developing economies and the environment. All of us that are concerned about the environment should ask ourselves if the increase in capital mobility associated with the world-wide process of  liberalization, deregulation and privatization, known as the Neo-liberal global regime, has contributed to the problems of higher emissions, ozone layer destruction, and pollution of water sources, as well as to create false economic bubbles that lead to increased consumption in these regions whilst forcing the destruction of the environment by the poor in order to survive and cope with the roles their society demands. Neo-liberal practices such as those enforced in developing countries like Colombia, while seeking to attract foreign investment to push their economies, tend to generate a false aggregated demand growth that in most cases is not sustainable in the long term, increases global unemployment, unleash destructive competitive processes and weaken government’s ability to regulate business in the citizens` best interests.Este artículo trata sobre el impacto de inversión extranjera directa en economíasen vías de desarrollo y el medio ambiente. Todos los que nos preocupamos por elmedio ambiente debemos preguntarnos, si el aumento en la movilidad de capitales asociada con el proceso mundial de liberalización, desregulación y privatización,conocido como “neoliberalismo”, ha contribuido a problemas de emisiones másaltas, destrucción de la capa de ozono, y polución de fuentes de agua, así como a lacreación de falsas burbujas económicas que llevan a aumentar el consumo en estasregiones, obligando a los más pobres a destruir el medio ambiente para sobrevivir ypoder cumplir con los roles impuestos por la sociedad. Prácticas neoliberales talescomo las implantadas en países en vías de desarrollo, como Colombia, en busquedade alcanzar mayor inversión extranjera para

  20. Intra-Industry Affiliate Trade of Foreign-Owned Companies in Transition Economies:

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Jørgen Ulff-Møller; Pawlik, Konrad

    2008-01-01

    Using a database containing trade and industry variables of foreign-owned companies in the Polish manufacturing industry for the years 1993-2002, we investigate the relationship between the organizational structure of multinational enterprises (MNE) in Poland and the intra-industry trade of their...... become a more important mode of organization for multinational enterprises as Poland has evolved into a relatively stable economic environment where MNEs feel comfortable basing their regional operations.......Using a database containing trade and industry variables of foreign-owned companies in the Polish manufacturing industry for the years 1993-2002, we investigate the relationship between the organizational structure of multinational enterprises (MNE) in Poland and the intra-industry trade...... of their affiliates (IIAT). We find labour intensity; scale economies and absorptive capacity of affiliates are the main explanatory variables for IIAT. Given the overall rise in export and import intensities of foreign affiliates over the period of investigation, our findings suggest that export-platform FDI has...

  1. Factors affecting economies of scale in combined sewer systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maurer, Max; Wolfram, Martin; Anja, Herlyn

    2010-01-01

    A generic model is introduced that represents the combined sewer infrastructure of a settlement quantitatively. A catchment area module first calculates the length and size distribution of the required sewer pipes on the basis of rain patterns, housing densities and area size. These results are fed into the sewer-cost module in order to estimate the combined sewer costs of the entire catchment area. A detailed analysis of the relevant input parameters for Swiss settlements is used to identify the influence of size on costs. The simulation results confirm that an economy of scale exists for combined sewer systems. This is the result of two main opposing cost factors: (i) increased construction costs for larger sewer systems due to larger pipes and increased rain runoff in larger settlements, and (ii) lower costs due to higher population and building densities in larger towns. In Switzerland, the more or less organically grown settlement structures and limited land availability emphasise the second factor to show an apparent economy of scale. This modelling approach proved to be a powerful tool for understanding the underlying factors affecting the cost structure for water infrastructures.

  2. The Belgian Minister of Economy, Energy, Foreign Trade and Science Policy, Marc Verwilghen, with CERN's Director-General, Robert Aymar.

    CERN Multimedia

    Michel Blanc

    2005-01-01

    Marc Verwilghen, Belgian Minister of Economy, Energy, Foreign Trade and Science Policy, came to CERN on 8 April 2005, where he visited the CMS assembly hall and underground cavern, as well as the hall where the LHC superconducting magnets are being tested.

  3. Do international economic developments affect the South African economy?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    JA Swanepoel

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Globalisation has opened economies more, exposing them to more international shocks and increasing the challenges to which domestic economic policies must respond. This paper provides a starting point for the analysis of the impact of international economic developments on the South African economy by means of graphical illustrations, correlations coefficients and in some cases a VAR analysis. Although this paper has shed some light on the importance of international economic developments on the South African economy, more rigorous econometric investigation is needed to validate the arguments and to address many of the unresolved questions.

  4. Evidence of fueling of the 2000 new economy bubble by foreign capital inflow: implications for the future of the US economy and its stock market

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sornette, Didier; Zhou, Wei-Xing

    2004-02-01

    Previous analyses of a large ensemble of stock markets have demonstrated that a log-periodic power law (LPPL) behavior of the prices constitutes a qualifying signature of speculative bubbles that often land with a crash. We detect such a LPPL signature in the foreign capital inflow during the bubble on the US markets culminating in March 2000. We detect a weak synchronization and lag with the NASDAQ LPPL pattern. We propose to rationalize these observations by the existence of positive feedback loops between market-appreciation/increased-spending/increased-deficit-of-balance-of-payment/larger-foreign-surplus/increased-foreign-capital-inflows and so on. Our analysis suggests that foreign capital inflow has been following rather than causing the bubble. We then combine a macroeconomic analysis of feedback processes occurring between the economy and the stock market with a technical analysis of more than 200 years of the DJIA to investigate possible scenarios for the future, three years after the end of the bubble and deep into a bearish regime. We conclude that the low interest rates and depreciating dollar are the indispensable ingredients for a lower sustainable burden of the global US debt structure and for allowing the slow rebuilding of an internationally competitive economy. This will probably be accompanied by a weak stock market on the medium term as the growing Federal deficit is consuming a large part of the foreign surplus dollars and the stock market is remaining a very risky and unattractive investment. Notwithstanding strong surge of liquidity in recent months orchestrated by the Federal Reserve, this macroeconomic analysis which incorporates an element of collective behavior is in line with our recent analyses of the bearish market that started in 2000 in terms of a LPPL “anti-bubble”. We project this LPPL anti-bubble to continue at least for another year. On the short term, increased availability of liquidity (M1) and self-fulfilling bullish

  5. How did China's foreign exchange reform affect the efficiency of foreign exchange market?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ning, Ye; Wang, Yiming; Su, Chi-wei

    2017-10-01

    This study compares the market efficiency of China's onshore and offshore foreign exchange markets before and after the foreign exchange reform on August 11, 2015. We use the multifractal detrended fluctuation analysis of the onshore and offshore RMB/USD spot exchange rate series as basis. We then find that the onshore foreign exchange market before the reform has the lowest market efficiency, which increased after the reform. The offshore foreign exchange market before the reform has the highest market efficiency, which dropped after the reform. This finding implies the increased efficiency of the onshore foreign exchange market and the loss of efficiency in the offshore foreign exchange market. We also find that the offshore foreign exchange market is more efficient than the onshore market and that the gap shrank after the reform. Changes in intervention of the People's Bank of China since the reform is a possible explanation for the changes in the efficiency of the foreign exchange market.

  6. The Effect of Foreign Trade Policy Transparency on Integration of Ukraine in the World Economy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yakovchenko Victoria S.

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available The article is concerned with the interdependence between dynamics of the international trade and economic relations development and the existing level of foreign trade policy transparency in accordance with the provisions of the WTO Trade Facilitation Agreement. The effect of observance of transparency principle in foreign trade policy on forming the transaction costs in foreign trade is analyzed. A comparative analysis of the influence of import duties and transaction costs on the formation of Ukraine’s foreign trade barriers is carried out. Prospects of the national export-import activity development under increasing transparency of foreign trade policy of Ukraine and other world countries are determined.

  7. Current energy situation affecting national economy, security, and psyche

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Blundell, H.; Culbreath, H.L.

    1979-01-01

    Nuclear energy should be perceived by Americans as the energy option that can fill the gap left by petroleum shortages. Opposition to nuclear power symbolizes a drive to slow economic growth and return to a decentralized society, but it overlooks the implications that not going nuclear will have for the economy and national security. The General Accounting Office plotted the consequences for three scenarios and concluded that only nuclear power can provide enough domestic energy to meet projected electrical needs. The impact of higher energy prices that will follow energy-supply shortages will result in social change and in a decline in national security. The issues of import dependence, proliferation, economic competition, and morality are not valid reasons to forego nuclear development because the connections are not valid

  8. Economy

    OpenAIRE

    Haring, Ben

    2009-01-01

    The economy of ancient Egypt is a difficult area of study due to the lack of preservation of much data (especially quantitative data); it is also a controversial subject on which widely divergent views have been expressed. It is certain, however, that the principal production and revenues of Egyptian society as a whole and of its individual members was agrarian, and as such, dependent on the yearly rising and receding of the Nile. Most agricultural producers were probably self-sufficient tena...

  9. FEATURES OF FOREIGN INVESTMENTS AND THEIR IMPACT ON THE ECONOMY OF THE STATE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. V. Zhyzhko

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available In this article the importance of foreign direct investments forUkraineare analyzed and studied, and main investors are described. Also the role of transnational companies and theirs influence on recipient countries are studied, and the basic strategies on the markets of countries depending on theirs aims are analyzed. The advantages and disadvantages of foreign investments are described

  10. Factors affecting running economy in trained distance runners.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saunders, Philo U; Pyne, David B; Telford, Richard D; Hawley, John A

    2004-01-01

    Running economy (RE) is typically defined as the energy demand for a given velocity of submaximal running, and is determined by measuring the steady-state consumption of oxygen (VO2) and the respiratory exchange ratio. Taking body mass (BM) into consideration, runners with good RE use less energy and therefore less oxygen than runners with poor RE at the same velocity. There is a strong association between RE and distance running performance, with RE being a better predictor of performance than maximal oxygen uptake (VO2max) in elite runners who have a similar VO2max). RE is traditionally measured by running on a treadmill in standard laboratory conditions, and, although this is not the same as overground running, it gives a good indication of how economical a runner is and how RE changes over time. In order to determine whether changes in RE are real or not, careful standardisation of footwear, time of test and nutritional status are required to limit typical error of measurement. Under controlled conditions, RE is a stable test capable of detecting relatively small changes elicited by training or other interventions. When tracking RE between or within groups it is important to account for BM. As VO2 during submaximal exercise does not, in general, increase linearly with BM, reporting RE with respect to the 0.75 power of BM has been recommended. A number of physiological and biomechanical factors appear to influence RE in highly trained or elite runners. These include metabolic adaptations within the muscle such as increased mitochondria and oxidative enzymes, the ability of the muscles to store and release elastic energy by increasing the stiffness of the muscles, and more efficient mechanics leading to less energy wasted on braking forces and excessive vertical oscillation. Interventions to improve RE are constantly sought after by athletes, coaches and sport scientists. Two interventions that have received recent widespread attention are strength training and

  11. DIRECT FOREIGN INVESTMENTS AND THE LACK OF POSITIVE EFFECTS ON THE ECONOMY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suzana Djordjevic

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available In recent years, Croatia was interesting to investors in attracting foreign direct investment. One of the objectives of this research was to deal with their negative effects. Most of invested capital was invested in brownfield investments, i.e. in taking over the ownership share of companies through privatization. Consequently, revenues were spent to settle financial debts and not on the growth and development of competitiveness. According to economic theory, foreign direct investments have a positive impact on the economic growth of the recipient country. This paper attempts to answer the question: ‘Is the economic theory confirmed in the Croatian case?’ The aim is to analyse the impact of foreign direct investments on the economic growth of Croatia in the period from 1999 to 2014. The paper analyses the impact that direct foreign investments had on the unemployment rate, GDP per capita and export using the model of linear regression.

  12. Do English Teaching Materials Foster Foreign Language Education Affectively?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Isik, Ali

    2018-01-01

    The paper investigates the role of English language teaching materials in the creation of a classroom atmosphere conducive to foreign language education. In this study, teachers and students were given a questionnaire and later interviewed to elicit their ideas about the materials. The data was analyzed and the responses of teachers and students…

  13. Foreign Shocks, Monetary Policy, and Macroeconomic Fluctuations in a Small Open Economy: A SVAR Study of Malaysia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zulkefly Abdul Karim

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper investigates the effect of foreign shocks upon domestic macroeconomic fluctuations and monetary policy, and examines the effectiveness of domestic monetary policy as a stabilization policy in Malaysia. Monetary policy variables (interest rate and money supply have been measured through a non-recursive structural VAR (SVAR identification scheme, which allows the monetary authority to set the interest rate and money supply after observing the current value of foreign variables, domestic output and inflation. The results show the important role of foreign shocks in influencing Malaysian monetary policy and macroeconomic variables. There is a real effect of monetary policy, that is, a positive shock in money supply increases domestic output. In contrast, a positive interest rates shock has a negative effect on domestic output growth and inflation. The effects of money supply and interest rate shocks on the exchange rate and stock prices are also consistent with standard economic theory. In addition, domestic monetary policy is able to mitigate the negative effect of external shocks upon domestic economy.

  14. Does Corporate Governance or Transparency Affect Foreign Direct Investment?

    OpenAIRE

    Haksoon Kim

    2010-01-01

    The paper investigates the relationship between the foreign direct investment (FDI) and the corporate governance or transparency by investigating the country-level FDI flows, FDI inward performance, corporate governance and transparency variables. From the regression analysis with Newey-West estimator of 28 country panel data from 1990- 2002, we find strong positive relationships between corporate governance or transparency level of hosting countries and FDI inward performance within hosting ...

  15. Intimate Encounters: Affective Economies in Cuba and the Dominican Republic

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amalia L. Cabezas

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Drawing on research in Cuba and the Dominican Republic this paper explores the uses of intimacy in both the corporate sector and in romantic relationships. I use research with hotel workers and with people involved in sexual-affective exchanges connected to tourism to link intimacy to the political economic structures of transnational tourism. These are new spaces of analysis that present practices of transnational corporategenerated intimacy that combine love – or the exploitation of worker’s emotions − and labour. The central aim is to intertwine the intimate with the global, from the formal customer service policies of transnational hotels with the informal, on-the-ground, intimate encounters between tourists and hospitality workers. The commercialization of intimacy, including sexual-affective relations in the delivery of hospitality services, is linked to political and economic processes that are part of transnational tourism practices. This paper challenges the notion that sex tourism and sex work are individualistic practices that exist outside of the spaces of corporate global profit. It further posits that relationships where money is exchanged are not necessarily devoid of care and intimacy.Resumen: Encuentros íntimos: economías afectivas en Cuba y República Dominicana A partir de investigaciones en Cuba y la República Dominicana, este trabajo explora los usos de la intimidad, tanto en el sector empresarial como en las relaciones románticas. Se hicieron investigaciones entre trabajadores de hostelería y personas involucradas en el intercambio afectivosexual relacionado con el turismo con el fin de vincular la intimidad de las estructuras políticoeconómicas del turismo transnacional. Estos son nuevos espacios de análisis que las prácticas de las empresas transnacionales generan por el uso de la intimidad que combinan el amor – o la explotación de las emociones del trabajador – y la mano de obra. El objetivo central

  16. Foreign direct investment (FDI) in energy/electricity projects in the economies in transition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brendow, K.

    1995-01-01

    Registered foreign direct investments (FDI) in energy/ electricity projects in central and eastern Europe and the CIS are weak and disappointing compared with expectations and business opportunities. In addition, energy FDI is highly concentrated in oil and gas exploration/extraction. FDI opportunities in electricity generation, transmission and distribution while being explored, have not been implemented, mostly for legislation restriction reasons towards foreign participation. The major issue appears to be the extent of privatization of this politically and socially sensitive industry. Progress are made in Hungary, Poland and the Czech Republic. A significant breakthrough depends on political stability, economic recovery and progress in privatization. 2 figs

  17. Analyzing R&D Activities of Foreign Enterprises in Emerging Economies. Lessons from Turkey

    OpenAIRE

    M. Teoman Pamukçu; Erkan Erdil

    2011-01-01

    Emerging economies have played an important role in the internationalization of R&D activities at least since the 1990s. Turkey, an emerging economy and at same time an accession country to the European Union which signed a Customs Union Agreement with the EU already in 1995, is no exception. In-depth face-to-face semi-structured interviews were conducted with R&D directors of 26 multinational companies operating in Turkey –with headquarters located in France, Germany, Italy, Japan, Switzerla...

  18. Foreign direct investment mode choice : entry and establishment modes in transition economies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dikova, Desislava; van Witteloostuijn, Arien

    In this study, we bridge two streams of foreign direct investment literature, specifically studies on establishment mode choice (i.e., the choice between an acquisition and a greenfield establishment) and studies on entry mode choice (i.e., the choice between a wholly owned outlet and a subsidiary

  19. Outward Foreign Direct Investment from Emerging Economies and National Development Strategies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gammeltoft, Peter; Kokko, Ari

    2013-01-01

    Foreign direct investment (FDI) is an integral part of national development strategy throughout the developing world. However, while traditionally strategies have focused on the role of inward flows only, today, outward FDI is used on a larger scale and more deliberately to access markets...

  20. Foreign direct investment as an entry mode. An application in emerging economies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sels, A.T.H.

    2006-01-01

    This dissertation examines the determinants of foreign investment entry modes in Central and Eastern Europe during transition. Utilizing various theoretical bases in industrial organization and strategy, it attempts to distill a better understanding of the ownership choice between joint ventures and

  1. Political economy with affect: on the role of emotions and relationships in political economics

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Winden, F.

    2015-01-01

    This paper discusses and provides experimental evidence on the role of emotions and, in particular, the neglected role of endogenous affective relationships (bonding) in three key areas of political economy: (i) appropriation, with compliance or resistance as response; (ii) competition for access to

  2. Foreign direct investments (FDI) in energy and electricity projects in the economies in transition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brendow, K.

    1996-01-01

    Registered foreign direct investments (or equity finance) in energy and electricity projects in central and eastern Europe (CEE) and the Commonwealth of Independent States (CIS) presently stand at about US$ 3 billion (flows) and US$ 5.5 billion (stock). This is insignificant compared with world FDI and disappointing compared with expectations and business opportunities. In addition, energy FDI is concentrated in oil and gas exploration/extraction, primarily in Russia, Kazakhstan and Azerbaijan. FDI opportunities in electricity generation, transmission and distribution while being explored (see list), have not been implemented: legislation was either restrictive as regards foreign participation, or not yet finalized, or not yet enacted. The major issue at present appears to be the extent of privatisation of this politically and socially sensitive industry. 1995 will see progress in Hungary, Poland and the Czech Republic. Related FDI would, however, still be modest. A significant breakthrough depends on political stability, economic recovery and progress in privatisation. (author)

  3. Selection of Mergers and Acquisitions by Foreign Capital in Open Economies

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHENG Ying-fei; CHEN Hong-min; XU Li

    2007-01-01

    By a linear Cournot model, the factors associated with the integration of two firms are discussed in terms of their effects on the private surplus and the social welfare in economies with varying extent of openness. Meanwhile, the trade policy of the host government is taken into account. It is concluded that the more open the economy and the more intense the competition, the less profitable the integration; the most important determinant to the changes of the domestic social welfare is the industry strength of the host country. The host authority can enhance the domestic social welfare in two ways: to adjust the trade policy and to only approve the socially desirable cross-border mergers and acquisitions.

  4. THE EFFECTS OF FOREIGN DIRECT INVESTMENT ON THE ECONOMIES OF CENTRAL AND EASTERN EUROPE COUNTRIES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    CUCOŞ PAULA – ROXANA

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available The present study aims to highlight the positive impact that foreign direct investments have on occupancy rate, on government revenue and economic growth of Central and Eastern Europe countries. The period of time that was analyzed is conducted from 1993 to 2012. Results have validated what the literature says, namely that FDI exerts a positive influence on economic growth in the FDI receiving countries.

  5. Determinants of Foreign Direct Investment in Fast-Growing Economies: A Study of BRICS and MINT

    OpenAIRE

    Uduak, Akpan; Salisu, Isihak; Asongu, Simplice A.

    2014-01-01

    This study employs panel analysis to examine the determinants of foreign direct investment (FDI) in Brazil, Russia, India, China, and South Africa (BRICS) and Mexico, Indonesia, Nigeria, and Turkey (MINT) using data for eleven years i.e. 2001 – 2011. First, it uses pooled time-series cross sectional analysis to estimate the model on determinants of FDI for three samples: BRICS only, MINT only, and BRICS and MINT combined; then, random effects model is also employed to estimate the model for B...

  6. Multinational companies from transition economies and their outward foreign direct investment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wladimir Andreff

    2017-12-01

    Econometric testing shows that push factors are major determinants of OFDI. The results demonstrate that OFDI is determined by the home country's level of economic development, the size of its home market, and its rate of growth as well as technological variables: OFDI decreases with an increase in the number of scientists in the home economy and with an increase in the share of high-tech products in overall exports, exhibiting a negative technological gap. A lagged relationship between OFDI and previous inward FDI suggests that Mathews’ linkage-leverage-learning theory is relevant in the case of PTEs.

  7. Biophysical structure of the Ecuadorian economy, foreign trade, and policy implications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vallejo, Maria Cristina [Facultad Latinoamericana de Ciencias Sociales, Pradera E7-174 y Avenida Diego de Almagro, Quito (Ecuador)

    2010-12-15

    At the core of this paper lays the notion that a systematic analysis of material flow accounts enables us to discuss the sustainability of an economic model. Ecuador is going through a socio-ecological transition from an agrarian towards an industrial regime, based on the use of nonrenewable sources of materials and energy. Direct material flow indicators are used in this article to analyze the ecological dimension of the economy of Ecuador during 1970-2007. This approach enables the concept of societal metabolism to become operative. The paper compares societal metabolic profiles showing that per capita use of materials is still at about one-fifth of the average in the high income countries of the world. Physical flows of trade indicate that there is an ecologically unequal exchange. Whereas a positive trade balance is desirable from an economic policy, its counterpart in physical units has been a persistent net outflow of material resources, the extraction of which causes environmental impacts and social conflicts. (author)

  8. Biophysical structure of the Ecuadorian economy, foreign trade, and policy implications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vallejo, Maria Cristina

    2010-01-01

    At the core of this paper lays the notion that a systematic analysis of material flow accounts enables us to discuss the sustainability of an economic model. Ecuador is going through a socio-ecological transition from an agrarian towards an industrial regime, based on the use of nonrenewable sources of materials and energy. Direct material flow indicators are used in this article to analyze the ecological dimension of the economy of Ecuador during 1970-2007. This approach enables the concept of societal metabolism to become operative. The paper compares societal metabolic profiles showing that per capita use of materials is still at about one-fifth of the average in the high income countries of the world. Physical flows of trade indicate that there is an ecologically unequal exchange. Whereas a positive trade balance is desirable from an economic policy, its counterpart in physical units has been a persistent net outflow of material resources, the extraction of which causes environmental impacts and social conflicts. (author)

  9. Rural poor economies and foreign investors: an opportunity or a risk?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Angelo Antoci

    Full Text Available In the current age of commercial and financial openness, remote and poor local economies are becoming increasingly exposed to inflows of external capital. The new investors - enjoying lower credit constraints than local dwellers - might play a propulsive role in local development. At the same time, inflows of external capital can have negative impacts on local natural resource-dependent activities. We analyze a two-sector model where both sectors damage the environment, but only that of domestic producers relies on natural resources. We assess under which conditions the coexistence of the two sectors is compatible with sustainability, defined as convergence to a stationary state characterized by a positive stock of the natural resource. Moreover, we find that capital inflows can be stimulated by an increase in the pollution intensity of incoming activities, but also in the pollution intensity of the domestic sector; in both cases, capital inflows generate environmental degradation and a decrease in welfare for the local population. Finally, we show that a reduction in the cost of capital for external investors and the consequent capital inflows have the effect to increase wages, local investments and welfare of the local populations only if the environmental impact of the external sector is relatively low with respect to that of local activities. Otherwise, an unexpected scenario characterized by a reduction in domestic capital accumulation and the impoverishment of local agents can occur.

  10. THE INFLUENCE OF THE SIZE OF THE ECONOMY AND EUROPEAN INTEGRATION ON FOREIGN DIRECT INVESTMENTS IN THE CENTRAL, SOUTHEASTERN AND EASTERN EUROPEAN STATES 1994-2013

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Petar Kurecic

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The paper studies the interdependence of the economy size and foreign direct investments (FDI in the transitional economies of Central, Southeastern and Eastern Europe. In the global capitalist economy, foreign direct investments (FDI represent one of the key determinants of economic growth. Among some transitional economies, in the last 20 years, FDI represented one of factors that increased the economic growth, and in other transitional economies, the influence of FDI was minor or even negligible. In the literature devoted to the influence of FDI on economies, the research about the determinants of geographical pattern of FDI distribution usually focuses on the factors that determine why some states manage to draw FDI in higher levels than some other states. Our research focused on the transitional economies of Central, Southeastern and Eastern Europe, which were for the most part of the last 20 years net receivers of the FDI. Only a couple of these countries in the years of the current economic crisis have experienced FDI net outflow. Among the states studied, we have equally studied the EU members, as well as the non-EU members. We have tried to find similarities and differences between these two groups of states in order to determine the influence of EU membership on FDI per capita and how it correlates with the size of the state’s economy. We have also tried to answer the question of how much the GDP growth rate correlates to the FDI net inflow share in GDP for EU and non-EU members. The methodology is based on the statistical correlation between FDI in current US dollars and GDP per capita in current US dollars (World Bank data for each represented state, through the surveyed period from 1994 until 2013. The statistical correlation matrix (Pearson method determined whether any correlation between the average GDP growth rate (chain index and the average share of FDI in GDP per each state exists for each state surveyed.

  11. A STUDY OF CHINESE YUAN (RMB APPRECIATION ACCOMPANYING WITH OTHERS FACTORS INCLUDING FOREIGN DIRECT INVESTMENT (FDI AND THEIR EFFECT ON CHINA ECONOMY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ping-fu (Brian LAI

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available The Chinese Yuan (RMB has been on the trend of appreciation over the last decade, and such a trend will likely be continuing for some years over the next decade. According to some scholars in their published literatures, the appreciation of RMB, the influx of Foreign Direct Investment (FDI has been ongoing accompanying the sustained growing economy in mainland China over the past decade. It is believed that the China economy has an implication from some significant factors including appreciation of RMB, interest rate of RMB, inflation and continuous increase of FDI for the next several years. The present study aims to provide an emphasis on investigation into effect on China economy as a result of appreciation of RMB and FDI together with some other factors, and to provide an outlook on the economy in China for the coming decades. First, a review was carried on relevant background information and development history of RMB and FDI. There are many reasons and factors behind leading to the sustained growth in the economy in China in the last decade and such effects were in coverage in the literature review. An overview of the development of RMB exchange mechanism, and other variables including (1 RMB exchange rate, (2 China interest rate, (3 Foreign Direct Investment (FDI, (4 Trade Balance of China, (5 Annual Inflation rate in China, (6 Energy Consumption in China, (7 Foreign Exchange Reserve in China, (8 China wages, (9 China External Debt and (10 China Consumer Price Index, which may have effect on the growth of the economy in China is covered in the literature review conducted in Chapter 2.

  12. “Rational, Emotional, Affective Learning” and the Use of Innovative Methods in Foreign Language Teaching

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paolo Frascà

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Foreign language didactics is a field which, notwithstanding the many centuries of application and development, is still very methodologically problematic. Statistics clearly show that, in certain countries, the educational system provides foreign language instruction that is not apt and does not deliver effective linguistic competence; a few methods, however, have been developed to contravene this problem. In the specific case of Italy, a country which is renowned for its general monolingualism, Associazione Culturale Linguistica Educational (ACLE has developed an innovative language teaching method (Rational, Emotional, Affective Learning to attempt to fill the lacunae of the Italian school system, especially in regards to the teaching of English as a foreign language. This paper seeks to briefly outline the REAL method and its applications, describe its affinity to didactic and cognitive theories, and speculate on its potential effectiveness.

  13. The economy of smiles: affect, labour and the contemporary deserving poor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gerrard, Jessica

    2018-02-14

    This paper examines the affective dimensions of new forms of informal entrepreneurial work carried out in spaces of unemployment. Situating the analysis within contemporary scholarship on deservingness and on affect and labour, I shed light on the forms of entrepreneurial labour that rely upon affect-driven economies of exchange underpinned by moral judgements of deservingness, value and worth. In particular, this paper draws on a multi-city (Melbourne, London, San Francisco) study of homeless street press sellers (The Big Issue and Street Sheet) to explore the ways in which contemporary practices of charity and care are carried out through individualized market-place exchanges. Sellers' accounts of their work reveal how smiling and being (or looking) happy is a performative expectation that must be managed in the face of poverty and precarity. © London School of Economics and Political Science 2018.

  14. Does the economy affect functional restoration outcomes for patients with chronic disabling occupational musculoskeletal disorders?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hartzell, Meredith M; Mayer, Tom G; Neblett, Randy; Marquardt, Dennis J; Gatchel, Robert J

    2015-06-01

    To determine how the economy affects psychosocial and socioeconomic treatment outcomes in a cohort of chronic disabling occupational musculoskeletal disorder (CDOMD) patients who completed a functional restoration program (FRP). A cohort of 969 CDOMD patients with active workers' compensation claims completed an FRP (a medically-supervised, quantitatively-directed exercise progression program, with multi-modal disability management). A good economy (GE) group (n = 532) was released to work during a low unemployment period (2005-2007), and a poor economy (PE) group (n = 437) was released during a higher unemployment period (2008-2010). Patients were evaluated upon admission for demographic and psychosocial variables, and were reassessed at discharge. Socioeconomic outcomes, including work return and work retention 1 year post-discharge, were collected. Some significant differences in psychosocial self-report data were found, but most of the effect sizes were small, so caution should be made when interpreting the data. Compared to the PE group, the GE group reported more depressive symptoms and disability at admission, but demonstrated a larger decrease in depressive symptoms and disability and increase in self-reported quality of life at discharge. The PE group had lower rates of work return and retention 1-year after discharge, even after controlling for other factors such as length of disability and admission work status. CDOMD patients who completed an FRP in a PE year were less likely to return to, or retain, work 1-year after discharge, demonstrating that a PE can be an additional barrier to post-discharge work outcomes. A difference in State unemployment rates of <3% (7 vs. 5%) had a disproportionate effect on patients' failure to return to (19 vs. 6%) or retain (28 vs. 15%) work.

  15. The Parallel Market for Foreign Exchange in an Oil Exporting Economy; The Case of Iran, 1978-1990

    OpenAIRE

    Adnan Mazarei

    1995-01-01

    This paper provides a model for the determination of the parallel market exchange rate premium in a country where oil export earnings accrue directly to the government, and foreign exchange is centrally allocated for the importation of specific goods. Next, it studies the parallel market for foreign exchange In the Islamic Republic of Iran during the period 1978-90. The paper then examines the various time series properties of parallel market exchange rate in Iran, and the evidence of the rol...

  16. Performance of nuclear power plants and analysis of some factors affecting their operational reliability and economy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kozak, M.; Havel, S.

    1989-09-01

    In Czechoslovakia, there are eight WWER 440 type reactors in operation at present. Since their introduction into operation, nuclear power plants in Czechoslovakia have exhibited high reliability. In the paper, total parameters of reliability with an analysis of causes affecting negatively their annual utilization are presented. Existence of a computerized information system for acquisition, recording and evaluation of reliability-significant data from operation and its feedback to designers and manufacturers of nuclear power plant equipment and components is a basic requirement of a systematic assurance of the needed level of nuclear power plant reliability. The information system is used simultaneously also for realistic evaluation of aging of equipment and systems. Analysis of the state of equipment is important mainly in the final stage of the NPP during consideration of further extension of its service life. Environmental effects of the Czechoslovak NPPs are very low (favourable). It follows from comparison of annual dose equivalents of the Czechoslovak NPPs operational personnel with the foreign NPPs that the values recorded in Czechoslovakia belong to the lowest ones. In conclusion, some ways of assurance of operational safety and reliability of the Czechoslovak nuclear power plants including the role of the State regulatory body are briefly discussed. (author). 3 tabs

  17. STYLE OVER SUBSTANCE? THE EFFECT OF PERCEPTIONS OF THE ECONOMY AND AFFECT TOWARD THE PRESIDENT ON TRUST IN GOVERNMENT

    OpenAIRE

    Holmes, Adam J

    2005-01-01

    This study examines persons' trust in the federal government using data from the National Election Study for the presidential election years 1980 through 2000. I hypothesize that person's perceptions of the national economy's health and their affect toward the incumbent president are both positively correlated with their trust in the federal government. I also hypothesize that a person's level of affect toward the president is a stronger predictor of their trust in the federal government th...

  18. Labor skills and foreign investment in a dynamic economy : estimating the knowledge-capital model for Singapore

    OpenAIRE

    Chellaraj, Gnanaraj; Maskus, Keith E.; Mattoo, Aaditya

    2009-01-01

    Singapore is an interesting example of how the pattern of foreign investment changes with economic development. The authors analyze inbound and outbound investment between Singapore and a sample of industrialized and developing countries over the period 1984-2003. They find that Singapore s two-way investment with industrialized nations has shifted into skill-seeking activities over the p...

  19. Is There an Economical Running Technique? A Review of Modifiable Biomechanical Factors Affecting Running Economy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, Isabel S

    2016-06-01

    Running economy (RE) has a strong relationship with running performance, and modifiable running biomechanics are a determining factor of RE. The purposes of this review were to (1) examine the intrinsic and extrinsic modifiable biomechanical factors affecting RE; (2) assess training-induced changes in RE and running biomechanics; (3) evaluate whether an economical running technique can be recommended and; (4) discuss potential areas for future research. Based on current evidence, the intrinsic factors that appeared beneficial for RE were using a preferred stride length range, which allows for stride length deviations up to 3 % shorter than preferred stride length; lower vertical oscillation; greater leg stiffness; low lower limb moment of inertia; less leg extension at toe-off; larger stride angles; alignment of the ground reaction force and leg axis during propulsion; maintaining arm swing; low thigh antagonist-agonist muscular coactivation; and low activation of lower limb muscles during propulsion. Extrinsic factors associated with a better RE were a firm, compliant shoe-surface interaction and being barefoot or wearing lightweight shoes. Several other modifiable biomechanical factors presented inconsistent relationships with RE. Running biomechanics during ground contact appeared to play an important role, specifically those during propulsion. Therefore, this phase has the strongest direct links with RE. Recurring methodological problems exist within the literature, such as cross-comparisons, assessing variables in isolation, and acute to short-term interventions. Therefore, recommending a general economical running technique should be approached with caution. Future work should focus on interdisciplinary longitudinal investigations combining RE, kinematics, kinetics, and neuromuscular and anatomical aspects, as well as applying a synergistic approach to understanding the role of kinetics.

  20. Estimation of Effect of Foreign Direct Investment on the Russian Economy during Sanctions Based on Spillover Effects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elena Anatolievna Fedorova

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available The study estimates the effect of foreign direct investments (FDI on the efficiency of enterprises in Russia. The article test the following hypotheses: first – FDI coming from the countries that sanctioned Russia cause larger effect on the efficiency of local companies, unlike China and countries that didn’t impose sanctions, and the effect depends on the share of property of foreign investors in the local companies; second – increasing the volume of investments into research and development of receivers of FDI causes positive effect on the competitiveness of local enterprises; third – FDI into import substituting industries coming from countries that imposed sanctions cause lesser effect on the competitiveness and operational efficiency of Russian companies. The empirical base of the study includes 168 000 observations among 33 606 Russian enterprises during 2011–201. Based on the study, the authors partially confirm the first hypothesis and fully confirm the second and the third hypotheses

  1. Assessing the relationship between total factor productivity and foreign direct investment in an economy with a skills shortage: the case of South Africa

    OpenAIRE

    Bonga-Bonga, Lumengo; Phume, Maphelane

    2017-01-01

    This paper assesses the relationship between total factor productivity (TFP) and foreign direct investment (FDI) in a country with skills shortage. South Africa is used as a case study. Literature is inconclusive on how FDI should affect TFP. This paper shows that it is important to account for the interactivity between FDI and human capital when assessing the effects of FDI on TFP. Moreover, the empirical results show that, contrary to countries with abundance of skills, in countries with sk...

  2. How energy technology innovation affects transition of coal resource-based economy in China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guo, Pibin; Wang, Ting; Li, Dan; Zhou, Xijun

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this research paper is to investigate factors and mechanisms that may facilitate the transition from coal resource-based economy to sustainability. Based on the energy technology innovation theory, factors that may influence the transition of coal resource-based economy were categorized into four types, including: innovation policy, innovation input, innovation ability, and innovation organization. Hypotheses were proposed regarding the mechanisms of these factors. Data were collected from surveys administered to 314 Chinese energy firms, and a structural equation model (SEM) was employed to test the hypotheses. Ten of fifteen hypotheses were retained based on the reliability tests, validity tests, and SEM. The results show that the four proposed factors are crucial in transforming the coal resource-based economy, and the effects become statistically significant through three intermediate variables, namely, transition of energy consumption structure, correction of resource wealth investment, and improvement of transition environment. - Highlights: •Approximately, 66% of energy relies on coal in China. •Serious environment problems have occurred in many coal-based regions. •Energy technology innovation can promote the transition of coal-based economy. •China should accelerate the development of clean energy.

  3. Does Foreign Direct Investment Affect Green Growth? Evidence from China’s Experience

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shujing Yue

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Foreign Direct Investment (FDI not only affects the economic growth but also affects the environmental protection of the host country. With China’s background of pursuing green growth, we need to consider the performance of FDI from the economic and environmental benefit aspects. On this basis, using slacks-based measure directional distance function (SBMDDF to build up green growth efficiency, economic efficiency and environmental efficiency indexes, empirical research on FDI in 104 Chinese cities from 2004 to 2011 has shown that: (1 Different cities have differences in their green growth efficiency. Shenzhen city is always efficient in green economic growth. (2 Overall, FDI is positive on Chinese cities’ green growth. (3 When the green growth efficiency is broken down into economic efficiency and environmental efficiency, FDI promotes China’s economic green growth through both environmental benefits and economic benefits. (4 The effect of FDI differs in different sectors. FDI in the emission-intensive sector promotes green efficiency mainly through the improvement of economic efficiency. FDI in the non-emission-intensive sector promotes economic efficiency, environmental efficiency and green efficiency.

  4. Determinants Of Foreign Direct Investment In Transition Economies, With Special Reference To Macedonia: Evidence From Gravity Model1

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dauti Bardhyl

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper accounts for the main determinants of Foreign Direct Investment stocks to 5-South East European Countries and the 10-New Member States of the European Union countries by using an augmented Gravity Model, for the purpose of calculating the potential levels of FDI stock in Macedonia. The study takes into account country specific institutional factors that determine foreign investors’ decisions from 20 core OECD countries to invest in SEE-5 and EU-NMS-10 countries. From the results of the study we find that gravity factors (market size and distance, institutional related factors (control of corruption, corruption perception index, regulatory quality, transition progress and WTO membership and other traditional determinants of FDI (schooling, bilateral exports appear to significantly determine inward FDI stock to the SEE region and new EU member states. The GMM estimates suggest that bilateral FDI stock is subject to persistence effects. The study additionally confirms the relatively strong gravitational character of Macedonia’s inward FDI stock.

  5. Does Combining the Embodiment and Personalization Principles of Multimedia Learning Affect Learning the Culture of a Foreign Language?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yanlin; Crooks, Steven M.

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate how social cues associated with the personalization and embodiment principles in multimedia learning affect the learning and attitude of students studying the culture of a foreign language. University students were randomly assigned to one of two experimental conditions that consisted of an…

  6. Do business groups affect corporate cash holdings? Evidence from a transition economy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Weixing Cai

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available We examine whether business groups’ influence on cash holdings depends on ownership. Group affiliation can increase firms’ agency costs or benefit firms by providing an internal capital market, especially in transition economies characterized by weak investor protection and difficult external capital acquisition. A hand-collected dataset of Chinese firms reveals that group affiliation decreases cash holdings, alleviating the free-cash-flow problem of agency costs. State ownership and control of listed firms moderate this benefit, which is more pronounced when the financial market is less liquid. Group affiliation facilitates related-party transactions, increases debt capacity and decreases investment-cash-flow sensitivity and overinvestment. In transitional economies, privately controlled firms are more likely to benefit from group affiliation than state-controlled firms propped up by the government.

  7. Motivations and attitudes affecting high school students' choice of foreign language.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stewart-Strobelt, Jody; Chen, Huabin

    2003-01-01

    There are some foreign languages that enjoy great status in the United States, while other foreign languages are rarely represented at the high school level. The present study explored the following questions: Why do students choose to take a particular foreign language? Do students gravitate toward it because it is widely thought to be the easiest language to learn or because they perceive greater career opportunities with proficiency in this particular language, or is it simply because there are more classes offered? As long as foreign language study is elective in high schools and as long as a variety of languages are offered, the answers to these questions will remain important for foreign language educators, especially in schools where the various language programs compete with one another for student enrollments and the programs' ultimate survival.

  8. Foreign language affects the contribution of intentions and outcomes to moral judgment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geipel, Janet; Hadjichristidis, Constantinos; Surian, Luca

    2016-09-01

    We examine whether the use of a foreign language, as opposed to the native language, influences the relative weight intentions versus outcomes carry in moral evaluations. In Study 1, participants were presented with actions that had positive outcomes but were motivated by dubious intentions, while in Study 2 with actions that had negative outcomes but were motivated by positive intentions. Participants received the materials either in their native or a foreign language. Foreign language prompted more positive moral evaluations in Study 1 and less positive evaluations in Study 2. These results show that foreign language reduces the relative weight placed on intentions versus outcomes. We discuss several theoretical accounts that are consistent with the results such as that foreign language attenuates emotions (triggered by intentions) or it depletes cognitive resources. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. The dynamics and economic impact of foreign debt in South Africa

    OpenAIRE

    2010-01-01

    D.Comm. Foreign debt affects the economy through three main channels, namely: the debt overhang effect, the liquidity constraint effect and the uncertainty effect. The main aim of this study is to derive an optimal level of foreign debt relative to Gross Domestic Product (GDP) for South Africa by investigating these channels. Incurring foreign debt is like a double edge sword. On the one side the foreign debt is needed for economic development (from a demand perspective) and on the other s...

  10. An Investigation into Emotional Intelligence, Foreign Language Anxiety and Empathy through a Cognitive-Affective Course in an EFL Context

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rouhani, Ali

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Emotional intelligence, as concerned with how an individual recognizes and regulates his or her emotions, has been in limelight quite recently. The present study seeks to fill a small gap in the literature on emotional intelligence, together with foreign language anxiety and empathy. To this end, short literary readings are used in a cognitive-affective reading-based course to see how emotional intelligence, foreign language anxiety and empathy are affected. Mayer, Salovey and Caruso (2002 Emotional Intelligence Test (MSCEIT, Cooper's (1996/1997 EQ-Map, Horwitz, Horwitz and Cope's (1986 Foreign Language Classroom Anxiety Test (FLCAS and Caruso and Mayer's (1998 Multi-Dimensional Emotional Empathy Scale (MDEES were administered to 70 Iranian EFL undergraduate students in a pretest posttest quasi-experimental design. MANOVA and ANCOVA were conducted. The results revealed that the cognitive-affective reading-based course in which literary readings were used significantly improved the subjects' emotional intelligence scores from the MSCEIT measure as well as empathy (MDEES scores, but significantly decreased their foreign language anxiety (FLCAS scores. The pedagogical implications for learners, teachers, educators and materials developers are presented.

  11. How does labour market structure affect the response of economies to shocks?

    OpenAIRE

    Aurelijus Dabusinskas; István Kónya; Stephen Millard

    2015-01-01

    The recent crisis in the Eurozone has led to much discussion about the structure of labour markets in different Eurozone economies. In particular, there has been much talk of the need for structural labour market reform in the Eurozone periphery. But, there are many aspects of labour market structure – eg, wage flexibility, flexibility in hiring and firing, benefits, etc – and it is not clear a priori which aspects really matter. In this paper, we analyse how cross-country differences in labo...

  12. Can memory training positively affect the skills of learning a foreign language and support learning English by older students?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Agata Kozak

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The experiment covered in this paper was conducted from November 2011 until February 2012 in the University of Third Age at the University of Wrocław in Poland as a part of the Third Age and New Technologies (TANT project which was realised as a Grundtvig partnership programme. The aim of the experiment was to determine whether memory training can positively affect learning a foreign language (English by senior students.

  13. The Swedish Automotive Cluster : How will it be affected by foreign acquisitions at the end of the value chain?

    OpenAIRE

    Sundqvist, Helena

    2011-01-01

    In this master thesis it is analyzed how the Swedish automotive cluster will be affected by foreign acquisitions at the end of the value chain. This is a relevant topic as the Swedish automotive industry is a very important industry in Sweden. It is of interest to evaluate how the recent shifts of ownership for the Swedish automotive manufacturers will affect the Swedish automotive cluster as a whole. It is also relevant from a theoretical point of view and this thesis draws on the extensive ...

  14. Influence of the economy crisis on project cost management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simankina, Tatyana; Ćetković, Jasmina; Verstina, Natalia; Evseev, Evgeny

    2017-10-01

    Economy crisis significantly affects primarily the project cost management. The article considers the problems of project management in the field of housing under conditions of economy crisis. Project budgets are reduced, their mutual interference grows and framework of risks changes. Apparently, specific approaches are required to be developed to optimize the expenses and guarantee the project implementation within the approved budget. There is considered domestic and foreign experience in terms of project cost management with involvement of BIM technologies.

  15. Does Access to Foreign Markets shape Internal Migration? Evidence from Brazil

    OpenAIRE

    Laura Hering; Rodrigo Paillacar

    2014-01-01

    This paper investigates how internal migration is affected by Brazil’s increased integration into the world economy. It analyzes the impact of regional differences in access to foreign demand on sector-specific bilateral migration rates between the Brazilian states for the years 1995 to 2003. Using international trade data, a foreign market access measure is computed at the sectoral level,...

  16. A Historical Analysis of Three Main Issues Affecting United States Foreign Policy in the Middle East

    Science.gov (United States)

    1979-06-01

    4 Objectives . . . . . .. . . . 5 Reserach Questions .a. . . . . . . . . . 6 Literature Review .. a .a . .a aa 7 The United...Question . . . . 12 The Importance of Middle East Oil 14 The Soviet Threat t . . . 15 II. METHODOLOGY ..... b 18 III. THE BIRTH OF ISRAEL AND UNITED...thoroughly’analyzing the history behind these problems can one begin to understand United States foreign policy in the Middle East. 17 17i CHAPTER II METHODOLOGY This

  17. Identification of risk factors affecting construction of projects: The case of emerging economy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chipo Mellania Maseko

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Controlling project risks has become a daunting task in construction and this can be attributed to issues such as the nature of modern projects. The challenge is that risk appears unannounced at any project phase for various reasons and thereby affecting the performance and the success of unprepared projects. The current studies that explored risk matters include Pehlivan and Öztemir (2015, Katre, and Ghaitidak (2016 amongst others. However, there is absence of unanimity from these studies on risk factors in construction. Thus, this article was instigated in order to identify and classify risk factors that affect the chances of project success. The research methodology selected for this article comprised of peer-reviewed articles between the periods of 2007 to 2017. This approach involved a comprehensive scrutiny into scholarly articles to comprehend risks in construction projects. Following a conceptual analysis, eighty factors were identified and classified under the following; technical, construction, financial, socio-political, physical, organisational, and environmental and other risks. From these categories, political instability was, found to be the most influential risk factor in construction projects and this factor was classified within the socio-political category and this category has total of 11 factors. Finding suggests the need for further empirical study.

  18. When Sex Work Becomes Your Everything: The Complex Linkages Between Economy and Affection Among Male Sex Workers in Peru.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bayer, Angela M; Garvich, Mijail; Díaz, David A; Sánchez, Hugo; García, Patricia J; Coates, Thomas J

    2014-09-01

    In Peru, there are few studies on male sex workers (MSWs), and existing studies explore limited subgroups or offer limited information about MSWs' perspectives. This study provides in-depth perspectives from 40 MSWs who work in downtown Lima (Cercado) and in surrounding urban neighborhoods (non-Cercado) through interviews on their identities, lives, and HIV/STI (sexually transmitted infection) risks and vulnerabilities. Findings are that entry into sex work links economy and affection, particularly among Cercado MSWs. Continued sex work cements this link, making it difficult to exit sex work and establish goals. Ties between economics and affections influence MSWs' perceived HIV/STI risks, vulnerabilities, and prevention practices. Although Cercado MSWs report higher HIV/STI risks and vulnerabilities than non-Cercado peers, they report fewer prevention practices given inability to buy condoms and acceptance of client offers of higher payment, especially clients they feel affection for. MSWs need support to strengthen their self-perceptions and define and pursue their goals in order to improve their HIV/STI prevention practices, health, and well-being. © The Author(s) 2013.

  19. What Drives Bank Lending in Domestic and Foreign Currency Loans in a Small Open Transition Economy with Fixed Exchange Rate? The Case of Macedonia

    OpenAIRE

    Jane Bogoev

    2011-01-01

    This paper investigates two different bank loan supply functions and their determinants according to the currency of bank loans in the Republic of Macedonia. There is robust statistical evidence in favour of the existence of a bank lending channel through foreign currency loans and the foreign reference interest rate. This suggests that the impact of domestic monetary policy over the bank lending channel is limited. The most significant bank-specific characteristic for the foreign currency lo...

  20. From a Perspective on Foreign Language Learning Anxiety to Develop an Affective Tutoring System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Hao-Chiang Koong; Chao, Ching-Ju; Huang, Tsu-Ching

    2015-01-01

    According to Krashen's affective filter hypothesis, students who are highly motivated have their self-consciousness. When they enter a learning context with a low level of anxiety, they are much more likely to become successful language acquirers than those who do not. Affective factors such as motivation, attitude, and anxiety, have a direct…

  1. The external sector of the Serbian economy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ristanović Vladimir

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this paper is to show the external sector of the Serbian economy, its features and peculiarities, as well as anomalies that afflicted it for years. In the analysis, data acquired from the Statistical Office of the Republic of Serbia will be used, as well as the official international methodology. The text will include the analysis of the structure of the external sector, market share, competitive position of Serbian economy and export products according to sectors of the economy and factor intensity. Since 2000, the structure of production and exports of the Serbian economy shows low comparative advantages and competitive position throughout the world. Unfavorable structure of the sectors, departments and the product groups affected the deepening of external imbalances and high foreign trade deficit. Exports of technology of predominantly low intensity, resources, and labor-intensive products, common for Serbian economy, represent no guarantee of economic growth in the long term. The causes of external imbalances should be sought in the absence of adequate export strategy, as well as in high speed of liberalization of foreign trade flows and exchange rate policy.

  2. Motivations of Russian firms to invest abroad: how do sanctions affect Russia’s outward foreign direct investment?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liuhto Kari

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available In 2013, Russia’s outward foreign direct investment (OFDI soared and the OFDI stock exceeded $ 500 billion. However, a year later, Russia’s OFDI dropped by nearly 15 per cent. Rapid upward and downward swings make it necessary to analyze the motivation of Russian firms to invest abroad as well as to assess the impact of sanctions on Russian OFDI. The author points out that a significant part of Russia’s outward FDI stock is accounted for by the operations of Russian corporations in their home market. It is concluded that although Western sanctions target a relatively small number of Russian citizens and companies, they nevertheless affect some of Russia’s key people, largest banks, and hydrocarbon producers. Therefore, their direct impact could be substantial. Alongside the direct impact, one should consider their indirect impact, such as the tumbling rouble exchange rate and Russian banks’ increasing interest rates, which decrease Russian firms’ capability to invest abroad. Moreover, a less amicable politic al atmosphere in the West may push some Russian corporations out of the Western markets and diminish the enthusiasm of new ones to enter them. Today, Russia’s counter-sanctions do not directly restrict the country’s OFDI, but Russian state-owned enterprises may reach a decision to hold foreign investments to support Russia’s sanction policy.

  3. Social Interaction Affects Neural Outcomes of Sign Language Learning As a Foreign Language in Adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yusa, Noriaki; Kim, Jungho; Koizumi, Masatoshi; Sugiura, Motoaki; Kawashima, Ryuta

    2017-01-01

    Children naturally acquire a language in social contexts where they interact with their caregivers. Indeed, research shows that social interaction facilitates lexical and phonological development at the early stages of child language acquisition. It is not clear, however, whether the relationship between social interaction and learning applies to adult second language acquisition of syntactic rules. Does learning second language syntactic rules through social interactions with a native speaker or without such interactions impact behavior and the brain? The current study aims to answer this question. Adult Japanese participants learned a new foreign language, Japanese sign language (JSL), either through a native deaf signer or via DVDs. Neural correlates of acquiring new linguistic knowledge were investigated using functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI). The participants in each group were indistinguishable in terms of their behavioral data after the instruction. The fMRI data, however, revealed significant differences in the neural activities between two groups. Significant activations in the left inferior frontal gyrus (IFG) were found for the participants who learned JSL through interactions with the native signer. In contrast, no cortical activation change in the left IFG was found for the group who experienced the same visual input for the same duration via the DVD presentation. Given that the left IFG is involved in the syntactic processing of language, spoken or signed, learning through social interactions resulted in an fMRI signature typical of native speakers: activation of the left IFG. Thus, broadly speaking, availability of communicative interaction is necessary for second language acquisition and this results in observed changes in the brain.

  4. Does foreign direct investment affect environmental pollution in China's cities? A spatial econometric perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Qianqian; Wang, Shaojian; Zhang, Wenzhong; Zhan, Dongsheng; Li, Jiaming

    2018-02-01

    Environmental pollution has aroused extensive concern worldwide. Existing literature on the relationship between foreign direct investment (FDI) and environmental pollution has, however, seldom taken into account spatial effects. Addressing this gap, this paper investigated the spatial agglomeration effects and dynamics at work in FDI and environmental pollution (namely, in waste soot and dust, sulfur dioxide, and wastewater) in 285 Chinese cities during the period 2003-2014, using global and local measures of spatial autocorrelation. Our results showed significant spatial autocorrelation in FDI and environmental pollution levels, both of which demonstrated obvious path dependence characteristics in their geographical distribution. A range of agglomeration regions were observed. The high-value and low-value agglomeration areas of FDI were not fully consistent with those of environmental pollution. This result indicates that higher inflows of FDI did not necessarily lead to greater environmental pollution from a geographic perspective, and vice versa. Spatial panel data models were further adopted to explore the impact of FDI on environmental pollution. The results of a spatial lag model (SLM) and a spatial error model (SEM) revealed that the inflow of FDI had distinct effects on different environmental pollutants, thereby confirming the Pollution Heaven Hypothesis and Pollution Halo Hypothesis. The inflow of FDI was found to have reduced waste soot and dust pollution to a certain extent, while it increased the degree of wastewater and sulfur dioxide pollution. The findings set out in this paper hold significant implications for Chinese environmental pollution protection. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Spillovers from Foreign Direct Investment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Meyer, Klaus E.; Sinani, Evis

    2005-01-01

    The extensive empirical literature analyzing productivity spillovers from foreign direct investment to local firms provides inconclusive results. Some studies find that foreign presence has a positive impact on the productivity of domestic firms, while others find no evidence or a negative effect...... for industrialized countries in the 1990s. Transition economies may experience spillovers, but these have been declining in recent years. Keywords: developing countries, transition economies, spillovers, foreign direct investment, technology transfer, meta-analysis...

  6. Foreign clouds in the European sky: how US laws affect the privacy of Europeans

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Primavera De Filippi

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available This article presents a general analysis of how user autonomy in the cloud is increasingly put into jeopardy by the growing comfort and efficiency of the user-interface. Although this issue has not been, thus far, explicitly addressed by the law, it is a fundamental ethical question that should be carefully assessed to guide the future deployment of cloud computing. Different policy decisions might, in fact, significantly affect user’s fundamental rights and online freedoms by shifting the balance from one part or another of the trade-off. This article aims to explore emerging trends in cloud computing technologies and analyse them from an ethical perspective to identify the issues they might raise, and the extent to which current laws and regulations actually take these issues into account.

  7. Foreign Remittances, Foreign Direct Investment, Foreign Imports and Economic Growth in Pakistan: A Time Series Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhammad Tahir

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available This empirical research paper focuses on establishing a relationship between external determinants and economic growth of Pakistan economy. Empirical analyses are carried out with time series econometric techniques using data over the period of 1977-2013. The main finding is that external determinants such as foreign remittances, foreign direct investment, and foreign imports matter from a growth perspective. Foreign remittances and foreign direct investment have a significant positive role in the growth process of Pakistan economy. Furthermore, it is found that foreign imports have adversely influenced the economic growth of Pakistan. The study recommends that policy makers shall take appropriate steps to increase the inflow of both foreign remittances and foreign direct investment in order to achieve the long run economic growth.

  8. The Impact of Foreign Ownership on Research and Development Intensity and Technology Acquisition in Indian Industries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aggarwal, Aradhna

    2018-01-01

    of the Center for Monitoring Indian Economy. Foreign ownership is categorized according to the level of control exercised by foreign firms as defined under the Companies Act of India. A comparative analysis of domestic and different categories of foreign firms was conducted for two time periods: (i) the global...... boom period of 2004–2008, and (ii) the post global financial crisis period of 2008–2014. A horizontal cluster analysis of 3-digit, industry-level data shows that foreign firms cluster in high-technology industries. The propensity score matching analysis, however, reveals that in a matched sample...... of foreign and domestic firms, majority-owned foreign firms spend less on research and development and more on technology transfers than their local counterparts, demonstrating that the level of equity holdings by a foreign firm matters. There is little evidence of the global financial crisis affecting...

  9. Experiences of Emerging Economy Firms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Experiences of Emerging Economy Firms investigates the different elements of the experiences of emerging economy firms and sheds essential light on a large variety of aspects associated with their functioning in both home and host contexts. For example, firms must be able to overcome the liability...... of foreign and emerging issues when they expand their activities in various contexts, enter, exit, and re-enter overseas markets; they have to overcome institutional barriers, adapt the cultural challenges in foreign markets, undergo the impact of large multinational firms from developed economies...

  10. How do high and low levels of social trust affect the long-run performance of poor economies?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gundlach, Erich; Svendsen, Gert Tinggaard

    2018-01-01

    Poor countries with high levels of social trust are shown to experience a hump-shaped pattern of long-run growth. With social trust modeled as a human capital externality, a calibrated two-sector model (Lucas 2009) replicates the observed hump-shaped growth path. The simulation results imply...... that a hypothetical poor economy with a high level of social trust, when beginning at a relative income level of 10%, may need about 150 years to reach 50% of the income level of the leading countries. However, the process of catching up may only begin after 150 years of relative stagnation for a hypothetical poor...

  11. The Optimal Taxation of Dividends in a Small Open Economy

    OpenAIRE

    Fuest, Clemens; Huber, Bernd

    2000-01-01

    This paper analyses the optimal taxation of dividends and other types of income from portfolio investment. We show that, in an open economy, it is not desirable to offer double taxation relief for dividends paid by domestic firms to domestic households. This result holds for fairly general utility functions. The reason is that the marginal shareholder in domestic firms is a foreign investor. This implies that the level of real investment is not affected by the taxation of domestic dividend in...

  12. Collaborative Economy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    collaborative economy and tourism Dianne Dredge and Szilvia Gyimóthy PART I - Theoretical explorations 2.Definitions and mapping the landscape in the collaborative economy Szilvia Gyimóthy and Dianne Dredge 3.Business models of the collaborative economy Szilvia Gyimóthy 4.Responsibility and care...... in the collaborative economy Dianne Dredge 5.Networked cultures in the collaborative economy Szilvia Gyimóthy 6.Policy and regulatory perspectives in the collaborative economy Dianne Dredge PART II - Disruptions, innovations and transformations 7.Regulating innovation in the collaborative economy: An examination...... localities of tourism Greg Richards 11.Collaborative economy and destination marketing organizations: A systems approach Jonathan Day 12.Working within the Collaborative Tourist Economy: The complex crafting of work and meaning Jane Widtfeldt Meged and Mathilde Dissing Christensen PART - III Encounters...

  13. Does Foreign Aid Increase Foreign Direct Investment?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Selaya, Pablo; Sunesen, Eva Rytter

      The notion that foreign aid and foreign direct investment (FDI) are complementary sources of capital is conventional among governments and international cooperation agencies. This paper argues that the notion is incomplete. Within the framework of an open economy Solow model we show...... that the theoretical relationship between foreign aid and FDI is indeterminate. Aid may raise the marginal productivity of capital by financing complementary inputs, such as public infrastructure projects and human capital investment. However, aid may also crowd out productive private investments if it comes...... in the shape of physical capital transfers. We therefore turn to an empirical analysis of the relationship between FDI and disaggregated aid flows. Our results strongly support the hypotheses that aid invested in complementary inputs draws in foreign capital while aid invested in physical capital crowds out...

  14. Affective and situational correlates of foreign language proficiency : A study of Chinese university learners of English and Japanese

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jin, Yinxing; de Bot, Kees; Keijzer, Merel

    The study explores the effects of teacher support and student cohesiveness on foreign language (FL) learning outcomes and compares their effect with that of FL anxiety. One hundred and forty-six first-year Chinese undergraduates of Japanese, who were also learning English, participated in two

  15. Exploitation, exploration, and how learning affects strategic intent in multinational enterprises' foreign direct investment decisions: A commentary essay

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kamal, F.; Englis-Danskin, Paula

    2012-01-01

    Research on foreign direct investment is a rich vein of inquiry in international business and management literature. Scholars explore various aspects of FDI including the reasons for location selection. Chen and Yeh's research is in that tradition. Under the title of “Re-examining location

  16. Capital income taxation in a growing open economy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Søren Bo; Sørensen, Peter Birch

    1991-01-01

    The paper studies the dynamic macroeconomic effects of various forms of capital income taxation in a model of a small open economy with perfect mobility of financial capital and intertemporal optimization on the part of households and firms. One of the noteworthy results is that the introduction...... of a (low) corporate income tax will not affect consumption in the long run, but will simply lead to a replacement of shares by foreign financial assets in household portfolios. It is also found that an anticipated investment tax credit can have and that an anticipated dividend tax will have contractionary...... effects on investment before they are introduced. Moreover, it is shown that while an unanticipated dividend tax is neutral with respect to investment, it will have real effects on consumption and net foreign assets in a growing economy...

  17. Why foreign firms forsake franchises

    OpenAIRE

    Blajina, M.

    2013-01-01

    This article is devoted to the problem of franchising in Russia. The article informs about difficulties, which face foreign companies developing their business in our country. Doing business in franchising foreign companies have to overcome some challenges such as: obtain a credit, unpredictability of the economy and so on. But in spite of all these difficulties many foreign companies and Russian ones set up franchising in Russia and promote themselves at the Russian market, but never the les...

  18. CONSIDERATIONS ON TRANSACTIONS OF FOREIGN TRADE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paliu-Popa Lucia

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available In the complex connection process of national economies to global economy flows, an important role has the foreign trade, which in recent decades has become, in the market economy conditions, one of the factors determining for economic growth. Foreign trade, as a separate branch of the national economy is an important factor of economic growth, caused by the internationalization of business and determining for the process of globalization. For Romania, a country still in transition and recent member of the European Union is particularly important to enhance the participation to international trade in goods and services, but also attracting foreign investments in the economy as the main possibilities for the re-industry and restructuring the national economy in order to creation and maintenance of sustainable competitive advantages. Starting from these considerations, in this article I addressed/aproached the theoretical aspects of foreign trade, without omitting intracomunity purchases and deliveries of goods.

  19. Collaborative Economy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    that are emerging from them, and how governments are responding to these new challenges. In doing so, the book provides both theoretical and practical insights into the future of tourism in a world that is, paradoxically, becoming both increasingly collaborative and individualized. Table of Contents Preface 1.The...... collaborative economy and tourism Dianne Dredge and Szilvia Gyimóthy PART I - Theoretical explorations 2.Definitions and mapping the landscape in the collaborative economy Szilvia Gyimóthy and Dianne Dredge 3.Business models of the collaborative economy Szilvia Gyimóthy 4.Responsibility and care...... in the collaborative economy Dianne Dredge 5.Networked cultures in the collaborative economy Szilvia Gyimóthy 6.Policy and regulatory perspectives in the collaborative economy Dianne Dredge PART II - Disruptions, innovations and transformations 7.Regulating innovation in the collaborative economy: An examination...

  20. Collaborative Economy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    collaborative economy and tourism Dianne Dredge and Szilvia Gyimóthy PART I - Theoretical explorations 2.Definitions and mapping the landscape in the collaborative economy Szilvia Gyimóthy and Dianne Dredge 3.Business models of the collaborative economy Szilvia Gyimóthy 4.Responsibility and care...... and similar phenomena are among these collective innovations in tourism that are shaking the very bedrock of an industrial system that has been traditionally sustained along commercial value chains. To date there has been very little investigation of these trends, which have been inspired by, amongst other...... in the collaborative economy Dianne Dredge 5.Networked cultures in the collaborative economy Szilvia Gyimóthy 6.Policy and regulatory perspectives in the collaborative economy Dianne Dredge PART II - Disruptions, innovations and transformations 7.Regulating innovation in the collaborative economy: An examination...

  1. Japanese attitudes towards foreign languages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abe, Keiko

    2004-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to clarify Japanese attitudes towards foreign languages based on the kinds and changes of TV and radio programs that aired on the Japanese national broadcasting station (NHK) between 1955 and 2000. Foreign language programs are classified into three groups according to their content: 1) cultivation, 2) education, or 3) communication. For Japanese people, foreign languages are the measures of intelligence and intellect. Studying a foreign language is considered a sign of intelligence whether or not it is used for actual communication. The number of foreign language programs has increased tremendously since 1965 in part because the global economy has brought many countries in such close contact. Since 1990, programs for the purpose of communication have increased because of the necessity to communicate with foreign people. Japanese attitudes towards studying foreign languages have been changing gradually from an intellectual purpose to a communication purpose.

  2. Knowledge Economy

    OpenAIRE

    Kerr, Aphra; O Riain, Sean

    2009-01-01

    We examine a number of key questions regarding this knowledge economy. First, we look at the origin of the concept as well as early attempts to define and map the knowledge economy empirically. Second, we examine a variety of perspectives on the socio-spatial organisation of the knowledge economy and approaches which link techno-economic change and social-spatial organisation. Building on a critique of these perspectives, we then go on to develop a view of a knowledge economy that is conteste...

  3. Foreign Body

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... SearchingPediatrics.com Pediatrics Common Questions, Quick Answers Foreign Body Donna D'Alessandro, M.D. Lindsay Huth, B. ... I call the doctor? What is a foreign body? A foreign body is when an object is ...

  4. Shadow Economy and Poverty

    OpenAIRE

    Nikopour, Hesam; Shah Habibullah, Muzafar

    2010-01-01

    This study attempts to investigate the relationship between shadow economy and poverty by explaining the mechanism through which shadow economy affects poverty via its impact on government size and economic growth, and using the human poverty index (HPI) for developing and developed countries. In order to achieve this objective, the three-way interaction model is utilized using data of 139 developing and 23 developed countries separately during 1999-2007. For developing countries the dynamic ...

  5. The Placenta Economy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kroløkke, Charlotte; Dickinson, Elizabeth; Foss, Karen A.

    2018-01-01

    This article examines the human placenta not only as a scientific, medical and biological entity but as a consumer bio-product. In the emergent placenta economy, the human placenta is exchanged and gains potentiality as food, medicine and cosmetics. Drawing on empirical research from the United......, in the emergent bio-economy, the dichotomy between the inner and the outer body is deconstructed, while the placenta gains clinical and industrial as well as affective value....

  6. DETERMINANTS OF FOREIGN DIRECT INVESTMENTS IN ROMANIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lenuta CARP (CEKA

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Foreign direct investments have known an increased importance in the worldwide economy. Theoretical approaches highlight the positive externalities foreign direct investments generate in the beneficiary economy though different channels. The aim of this paper is to emphasize, based on an econometric analysis using data for Romania, the fundamental determinants of foreign direct investments attractiveness. The analysis will be followed by the recommendations for increasing the inflows in our country and measures to enhance their effect in the national economy. Further analysis will be developed focusing on the emerging countries from Europe using a panel technique.

  7. ECONOMY AND SOCIAL ENVIRONMENT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oleg BOGOMOLOV

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Market reforms in the post-socialist countries have brought into sharp focus the problem of interconnection and interaction between the economy and the social environment. The economy is inseparable from politics and the operation of the political system, from the state of the social consciousness, the moral and cultural level of the population and from many other aspects of human life and behavior, in short, from everything that can be described by the concept of social environment. Society in every country is a single organism with closely interconnected and interacting parts and systems. Their conjugation and mutual influence are not always apparent and are often overlooked. It is quite easy to see how changes in policy affect the economy and then trace the feedback effect of the economy on policy. It is more difficult to discern the direct and feedback relationship of the economy with administrative relations, with the state of culture, science, morals and public opinion. Meanwhile, an underestimation of these mutual influences is a frequent cause of failures in socio-economic transformation. It is to be regretted that the reforms in Russia were accompanied by a dangerous disruption not only of the economy, but also of the entire system of social relations. What was primary here and what was secondary? In order to answer this question the paper takes a theoretical look at the problem of interaction between the economy and the social environment.

  8. Moneyless Economy

    OpenAIRE

    Das, Subhendu

    2012-01-01

    Moneyless economy (MLE) does not have any money in the economy. All products and services are free for all people. This means everybody must work, work for free, and get everything they want for free also. Any work that a society needs is considered legitimate. MLE is not socialism. MLE has the ability to provide a lifestyle that anyone wants. We show that it is possible to run the exact same economy that we have now, in the exact same way, and without money. Any government of any country can...

  9. Foreign Ownership Wage Premia in Emerging Economies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Eriksson, Tor; Pytlikova, Mariola

    2011-01-01

    In this paper we examine the relationship between wages, labour productivity and ownership using a linked employer-employee dataset covering a large fraction of the Czech labour market in 2006. We distinguish between different origins of ownership and study wage and productivity differences. The ...... capital, the difference in productivity is about twice as large as the wage differential. Overall, results indicate that the international firms share their rents with their employees....

  10. Foreign Ownership Wage Premia in Emerging Economies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Eriksson, Tor Viking; Pytlikova, Mariola

    In this paper we examine the relationship between wages, labour productivity and ownership using a linked employer-employee dataset covering a large fraction of the Czech labour market in 2006. We distinguish between different origins of ownership and study wage and productivity differences. The ...... capital, the difference in productivity is about twice as large as the wage differential. The results indicate that the international firms share their rents with their employees....

  11. Determinants Of Foreign Direct Investment In Mauritius Evidence From Time Series Data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Medha Kisto

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Over the last two decades Foreign Direct Investment FDI claimed an impressive economic record as it enables economy to transit from an agrarian to knowledge based economy. This paper focuses on the determinants and impact of FDI in Mauritius using annual time series data from 1975 through 2015. The Vector Error Correction Model VECM analysis reveals that macroeconomic variables namely inflation rates and exchange rate are among the major and important factor that affect FDI in Mauritius over this period of time. Exchange rate exhibited negative significant influence on FDI while interest rate affects FDI positively. The study therefore recommends that government should continue to diversify the export and tourism markets ensure stable macroeconomic policies implement reforms on doing business increase its expenditure in the area of infrastructural development and redirect FDI in productive sector of the economy as ways to accelerate the growth of Mauritian economy.

  12. Iran's Economy

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Ilias, Shayerah

    2008-01-01

    .... To the extent that U.S. sanctions and other efforts to change Iranian state policy target aspects of Iran ssssssss economy as a means of influence, it is important to evaluate Iran's economic structure, strengths, and vulnerabilities...

  13. Iran's Economy

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Ilias, Shayerah

    2008-01-01

    .... To the extent that U.S. sanctions and other efforts to change Iranian state policy target aspects of Iran's economy as a means of influence, it is important to evaluate Iran's economic structure, strengths, and vulnerabilities...

  14. Cambodia's economy

    OpenAIRE

    Ear, Sophal

    2008-01-01

    "This presentation is adapted from a Harvard KSG workshop held earlier this year on the Political Economy of "Binding Constraints to Growth" Cambodia Pilot for which I served as an External Panelist/Resource Person."

  15. Mobile economy

    OpenAIRE

    Turowski, Klaus

    2004-01-01

    Mobile economy : Transaktionen, Prozesse, Anwendungen und Dienste ; 4. Workshop Mobile Commerce, 02.-03. Februar 2004, Univ. Augsburg / K. Turowski ... (Hrsg.). - Bonn : Ges. für Informatik, 2004. - 189 S. : Ill., graph. Darst. - (GI-Edition : Proceedings ; 42)

  16. Foreign material exclusion program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Perez Moreno, J.; Folguera Mateo, M.

    2015-01-01

    Foreign material is any element that is not part of the system as it has been designed. For example dirt, loose parts, wires, chips, etc. that may affect the operation of the system or component. (Author)

  17. PROMOTING AND ATTRACTING FOREIGN DIRECT INVESTMENT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elena CHIRILA DONCIU

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available FDI is an important element of the economic development of any country and its functioning on market principles. They have a great importance for strengthening the economy of countries in transition and their integration into the world’s economy. The modernization of national economies occurs with FDI help, by implementing advanced technologies, know-how sites, the most powerful equipment and the new quality standards by switching to a higher type of growth. The purpose of this research is to identify of the policies to attract and promote FDI, adopted by host countries for foreign investors and are highlighted beneficial aspects of foreign investments flows on recipient economies. The research results show that policies aimed at ensuring access to foreign markets, those that are considering providing commercial facilities and last, but not least, policies focused on tax incentives are very important for foreign investors.

  18. How Newspaper-Article-Events, Other Stock Market Indices, and the Foreign Currency Rate Affect the Philippine Stock Market

    OpenAIRE

    Percival S. Gabriel

    2013-01-01

    Eugene Fama in his “Efficient Market Hypothesis” introduced the term newspaper-article-event. The aim of this paper is to find out if newspaper-article-events which are presented and discussed in newspaper articles and which could collage to create an atmosphere of investment, together with the indices of other stock markets (treated as other events) and the performance of the Philippine Peso against the US Dollar (considered as another event) could affect the closing Philippine Stock Market ...

  19. Depletion policies for oil-exporting developing economies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stournaras, Y A

    1984-01-01

    The fact that most oil-exporting countries are developing economies has important implications for oil supply which have not been properly taken into account in the literature on exhaustible resource depletion. The way in which depletion policies are affected by trade uncertainty, given the high degree of the major oil exporters' 'dependence' on crude oil revenues, by investment time lags which delay the exploitation of (some of) these countries' comparative advantage in a petroleum based development, and by ideological objections to the ideal of a rentier society and to foreign capital are examined.

  20. Entry and Growth Strategies for Emerging Economies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Meyer, Klaus E.; Tran, Yen Thi Thu

    2004-01-01

    to adapt their strategies, most notably their marketing and acquisition strategies, to the local context. In this paper, we outline why globalisation drives MNEs into emerging economies, and we provide conceptual frameworks that may aid investors to adapt their strategies to emerging economy contexts. MNEs...... requires the acquisition of complementary local resources controlled by local firms. However, acquisitions in emerging economies are inhibited by institutional obstacles and weak local firms. Thus, foreign investors may pursue staged, multiple, indirect, or Brownfield acquisitions to build their projected...... operation. We illustrate our proposed strategies by analysing how one multination enterprise - Carlsberg Breweries - has developed its operations in three very different emerging economies: Poland, Lithuania and Vietnam....

  1. FACTORS AFFECTING ENGLISH AS A FOREIGN LANGUAGE TEACHERS’ PARTICIPATION IN ONLINE COMMUNITIES OF PRACTICE: THE CASE OF WEBHEADS IN ACTION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali BOSTANCIOĞLU

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available An online community of practice (OCoP is a group of people, who are brought together by a shared interest and with the aim of deepening their understanding of an area of knowledge through regular interactions facilitated by computer mediated communication (CMC tools. An OCoP potentially provides teachers with those elements of effective professional development (PD, cited in the literature, such as; collaboration, opportunities for mentoring, and sustainability over time. In this sense, OCoPs can be considered as a viable alternative for teacher PD. If OCoPs are to become an alternative approach to teacher PD then it is important to understand what factors affect teachers’ participation in such communities. Therefore, through the case of Webheads in Action (WiA OCoP, this study aimed to identify what factors contribute towards creating successful OCoPs. Members’ interactions in WiA’s public group page were collated over a period of nine months and interviews with 24 members of the community (4 core, 9 active, 11 peripheral were used to gather the data. Two major themes emerged in relation to factors affecting members’ participation in this OCoP. The first one was identified as the creation of a sense of belonging to the community which was achieved through various means such as having an initiation process and fostering trust and an inclusive community environment through community norms. The second was dynamism inherent in the community which manifested itself as new topics that kept members interested and participating, and a flow of continuous member recruitment to the community. In conclusion, this study highlighted the importance of the socio-affective dimension for designing and sustaining OCoPs.

  2. Hydrogen economy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pahwa, P.K.; Pahwa, Gulshan Kumar

    2013-10-01

    In the future, our energy systems will need to be renewable and sustainable, efficient and cost-effective, convenient and safe. Hydrogen has been proposed as the perfect fuel for this future energy system. The availability of a reliable and cost-effective supply, safe and efficient storage, and convenient end use of hydrogen will be essential for a transition to a hydrogen economy. Research is being conducted throughout the world for the development of safe, cost-effective hydrogen production, storage, and end-use technologies that support and foster this transition. This book discusses hydrogen economy vis-a-vis sustainable development. It examines the link between development and energy, prospects of sustainable development, significance of hydrogen energy economy, and provides an authoritative and up-to-date scientific account of hydrogen generation, storage, transportation, and safety.

  3. FOREIGN INVESTMENTS IN RUSSIA IN 2013

    OpenAIRE

    Ekaterina Ilyukhina

    2014-01-01

    Foreign investment in the Russian economy in 2013 increased 10.1% year-o-year. The increase was triggered by the results achieved in Q1 2013. Foreign investment was concentrated in the industrial sector, trade, and financial sector. Manufacturing industry was leading in the industrial sector. Cyprus, Switzerland, and Great Britain were leading in volumes of investment in the Russian Federation.

  4. The Foreign Exchange Rate Exposure of Nations

    OpenAIRE

    Entorf, Horst; Moebert, Jochen; Sonderhof, Katja

    2007-01-01

    Following the well-known approach by Adler and Dumas (1984), we evaluate the foreign exchange rate exposure of nations. Results based on data from 27 countries show that national foreign exchange rate exposures are significantly related to the current trade balance variables of corresponding economies.

  5. Human economy and natural economy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Masullo Andrea

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available The decline of economy is due to its dependency from a virtual value, the currency, the coin, that in the recent phase of consumerism is so far from real value: human capital and natural capital. If human economy wants to continue to produce wellbeing, it must accept to be a subset of natural economy, intercept flux of matter produced by its circular mechanisms, put constraints in it, i.e. machines and structures, to direct it temporarily for our advantage, and finally release it to the same original flux, in an still usable state. In this way it will assume a function no more parasitic but symbiotic. It will be connected to natural cycles without destroying it, recovering the co-evolutionary link between nature and culture, building an economic web suited to the ecological web; thus we will have a mosaic characterised by biodiversity, technological diversity, and cultural diversity, able to produce a durable prosperity.

  6. From Enclave to Linkage Economies?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Michael W.

    as the enclave economy par excellence, moving in with fully integrated value chains, extracting resources and exporting them as commodities having virtually no linkages to the local economy. However, new opportunities for promoting linkages are offered by changing business strategies of local African enterprises...... as well as foreign multinational corporations (MNCs). MNCs in extractives are increasingly seeking local linkages as part of their efficiency, risk, and asset-seeking strategies, and linkage programmes are becoming integral elements in many MNCs’ corporate social responsibility (CSR) activities....... At the same time, local African enterprises are eager to, and increasingly capable of, linking up to the foreign investors in order to expand their activities and acquire technology, skills and market access. The changing strategies of MNCs and the improving capabilities of African enterprises offer new...

  7. The impact of oil price volatility on the future of the U.S. economy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boyd, Roy; Doroodian, K.; Thornton, Dennis

    2000-01-01

    This paper examines the impact of a foreign oil price shock on domestic energy markets as well as the U.S. economy as a whole. The analytical approach employed in the analysis consisted of a dynamic CGE model composed of eight production sectors, eight consumption sectors, three household categories classified by income, foreign sector, and the government. The results show that oil price shocks will have, as expected, a significantly positive effect on crude oil production. We also find that such price shocks negatively affect the refinery sector as input costs rise there. A decline in per-well productivity has the effect of dampening the rise in crude oil extraction and causing a further decline in refinery output. Economy-wide, the impact of a new series of oil price shocks is quite limited with overall welfare falling, but nowhere near the levels experienced in the 1970s and early 1980s. (Author)

  8. El impacto de las inversiones extranjeras directas en las economías en desarrollo y el ambiente The impact of foreign direct investment on developing economies and the environment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luis Carlos Arango Vieira

    2009-01-01

    poor to destroy the environment in order to survive and cope with the roles their society demands. Neo-liberal practices such as those enforced in developing countries like Colombia, seeking to attract foreign investment to push their economies tend to generate a false aggregated demand growth, that in most cases is not sustainable in the long term, and thus high global unemployment, unleash destructive competitive processes, and weaken government's ability to regulate business in the citizens best interests. The forces of global Neo-liberalism are now so powerful that it has become difficult if not impossible for countries like Colombia to maintain non-Neo-liberal economic structures, in which countries are forced to deregulate FDI policies and receive inflows of capital no matter the terms and the objectives as long as it helps to maintain consumption levels.

  9. Doing Business 2014 Economy Profile : Australia

    OpenAIRE

    World Bank; International Finance Corporation

    2013-01-01

    This economy profile presents the Doing Business indicators for Australia. In a series of annual reports, Doing Business assesses regulations affecting domestic firms in 189 economies and ranks the economies in 10 areas of business regulation, such as starting a business, resolving insolvency and trading across borders. This year's report data cover regulations measured from June 2012 thro...

  10. Doing Business 2014 Economy Profile : Croatia

    OpenAIRE

    World Bank; International Finance Corporation

    2013-01-01

    This economy profile presents the Doing Business indicators for Croatia. In a series of annual reports, Doing Business assesses regulations affecting domestic firms in 189 economies and ranks the economies in 10 areas of business regulation, such as starting a business, resolving insolvency and trading across borders. This year's report data cover regulations measured from June 2012 throug...

  11. Doing Business 2014 Economy Profile : Chile

    OpenAIRE

    World Bank; International Finance Corporation

    2013-01-01

    This economy profile presents the Doing Business indicators for Chile In a series of annual reports, Doing Business assesses regulations affecting domestic firms in 189 economies and ranks the economies in 10 areas of business regulation, such as starting a business, resolving insolvency and trading across borders. This year's report data cover regulations measured from June 2012 through M...

  12. Doing Business 2014 Economy Profile : Taiwan, China

    OpenAIRE

    World Bank; International Finance Corporation

    2013-01-01

    This economy profile presents the Doing Business indicators for Taiwan. In a series of annual reports, Doing Business assesses regulations affecting domestic firms in 189 economies and ranks the economies in 10 areas of business regulation, such as starting a business, resolving insolvency and trading across borders. This year's report data cover regulations measured from June 2012 through...

  13. Doing Business 2014 Economy Profile : Marshall Islands

    OpenAIRE

    World Bank; International Finance Corporation

    2013-01-01

    This economy profile presents the Doing Business indicators for Marshall Islands. In a series of annual reports, Doing Business assesses regulations affecting domestic firms in 189 economies and ranks the economies in 10 areas of business regulation, such as starting a business, resolving insolvency and trading across borders. This year's report data cover regulations measured from June 20...

  14. Essays in Open Economy Monetary Policy

    OpenAIRE

    Castro, Pedro

    2012-01-01

    International economic integration has risen during the last decades and the interdependence between each economy and the rest of the world has become central for policy decisions. My dissertation contributes to the debate about the conduct of monetary policy in a financially integrated world. In the first chapter of the dissertation I discuss the relationship between domestic policies and the currency denomination of foreign debt. Foreign debt is a double-edged sword. It allows countries to ...

  15. The Competitive Potential of the Belorussian Economy

    OpenAIRE

    Migranyan, A.

    2014-01-01

    The article is an attempt to study the factors of the competitive capacity of Belorussian economy. There are two groups of factors of competitive potential and competitive advantages' formation: internal (changes in resource allocation) and external factors (adaptation to external shocks). The study found that the main source of the increase of competitive capacity of the Belorussian economy were foreign. The competitive potential of Belarus was formed on the basis of the increased exports. H...

  16. Mitigating Double Taxation in an Open Economy

    OpenAIRE

    Lindhe, Tobias

    2001-01-01

    The interaction of various methods of mitigating economic and international double taxation of corporate source income is studied within a standard neoclassical model of firm behavior. The main purpose is to determine to what extent methods effective in mitigating economic double taxation in a closed economy remain useful in an open economy where the firm's marginal investor is a foreigner. While a cut in the statutory corporate tax rate invariably reduces the cost of capital, the impact of t...

  17. Affect

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cetinic, M.; Diamanti, J.; Szeman, I.; Blacker, S.; Sully, J.

    2017-01-01

    This chapter historicizes four divergent but historically contemporaneous genres of affect theory – romantic, realist, speculative, and materialist. While critics credited with the turn to affect in the 1990s wrote largely in the wake of poststructuralism from the perspective of gender and queer

  18. Foreign aid

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tarp, Finn

    2008-01-01

    Foreign aid has evolved significantly since the Second World War in response to a dramatically changing global political and economic context. This article (a) reviews this process and associated trends in the volume and distribution of foreign aid; (b) reviews the goals, principles...

  19. The underground economy in Romania

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adriana Veronica LITRA

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available The paper aims at covering issues related to the underground economy, activities that compound this phenomenon, its magnitude in Romania and reported to the European average. Underground economy in Romania consists of undeclared work (2/3 from the total and unreported income; it decreased from 33.6% of GDP in 2003 to 28% in 2014, but remained over EU-28 average with about 10 p.p. Among EU-28 countries, only Bulgaria exceeds the size of the underground economy of Romania. The underground economy is a challenge for the leadership of the state which must act simultaneously to stop illegal activities, and to discourage non-declaration of the legal activities. Corruption favours maintaining the underground economy, delays economic development, obstructs democratic processes and affects justice and the law state.

  20. Foreign Direct Investments Expansion – Essential Globalization Factor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cătălin Emilian HUIDUMAC PETRESCU

    2011-01-01

    emerging countries. In the global economic crisis, foreign investment flow analysis is a dynamic element that can help the economy of a country. This is not the first time when the world economy is facing recession, but it happens after many years, namely after the Great Depression that began in 1929 and after Breton Woods System Fall in 1971. In addition, we can say that it is for the first time after a long period when the crisis is located at the level of developed countries, not only in emerging economies. The FDI expansion is indeed a fabulous one, aspects of their development periods of time are presented in detail in this paper. In the last decades of the twentieth century, international investment flows have risen to unprecedented growth. The climax was reached in 2000, next period representing a regression of foreign investments. From 2003 to 2007, it was a period marked by a continuous expansion and increase flows until 2008, when the global economical crisis has had an impact on the entire world economy, including foreign direct investments. Undoubtedly, the world economic crisis had a negative effect on FDI. The negative impact mostly consisted of two elements, namely: reducing access to financial resources, which affected the ability of firms to invest, and the tendency of companies to invest because of gloomy prospects for the economy, markets and risks.

  1. Plutonium economy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Traube, K.

    1984-01-01

    The author expresses his opinion on the situation, describes the energy-economic setting, indicates the alternatives: fuel reprocessing or immediate long-term storage, and investigates the prospects for economic utilization of the breeder reactors. All the facts suggest that the breeder reactor will never be able to stand economic competition with light-water reactors. However, there is no way to prove the future. It is naive to think that every doubt could and must be removed before stopping the development of breeder reactors - and thus also the reprocessing of the fuel of light-water reactors. On the basis of the current state of knowledge an unbiased cost-benefit-analysis can only lead to the recommendation to stop construction immediately. But can 'experts', who for years or even decades have called for and supported the development of breeder reactors be expected to make an unbiased analysis. Klaus Traube strikes the balance of the state Germany's nuclear economy is in: although there is no chance of definitively abandoning that energy-political cul-de-sac, no new adventures must be embarked upon. Responsible handling of currently used nuclear technology means to give up breeder technology and waive plutonium economy. It is no supreme technology with the aid of which structural unemployment or any other economic problem could be solved. (orig.) [de

  2. Foreign aid

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tarp, Finn

    2008-01-01

    Foreign aid has evolved significantly since the Second World War in response to a dramatically changing global political and economic context. This article (a) reviews this process and associated trends in the volume and distribution of foreign aid; (b) reviews the goals, principles and instituti......Foreign aid has evolved significantly since the Second World War in response to a dramatically changing global political and economic context. This article (a) reviews this process and associated trends in the volume and distribution of foreign aid; (b) reviews the goals, principles...... and institutions of the aid system; and (c) discusses whether aid has been effective. While much of the original optimism about the impact of foreign aid needed modification, there is solid evidence that aid has indeed helped further growth and poverty reduction...

  3. Czech small and medium-sized enterprises and the success in foreign markets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lenka Procházková

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The importance of small and medium-sized enterprises (SMEs in national economies has been growing. For these reasons, SME’s are paid more attention. The paper deals with the success of Czech SME’s activities in the foreign markets. These enterprises exploited the opportunity of extensive European Union market without internal borders and extended its activities to foreign markets. The objective of this paper is to determine characteristics related to activities carried on by small and medium-sized Czech companies in the foreign markets and then to describe those that fundamentally affect the success of these entities in the foreign markets. The characteristics are divided into five groups (a group of characteristics relating to the company, product, management, international experience and a group of characteristics relating to the target market. The enterprises’ success in foreign markets is assessed by aggregate indicator of success. This indicator is monitored by multi-dimensional indicators of corporate success and evaluation of both objective and subjective. At the last part of the article due to analysis of relationship used, there are identified characteristics affecting the success of Czech small and medium-sized enterprises in foreign markets.

  4. The "Celtic Tiger" and a Knowledge Economy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crawley, Gerard M.; O'Sullivan, Eoin

    2006-01-01

    Over the last two decades, Ireland has proactively marketed its educated workforce, its favourable corporate tax rates, membership of the European common market, and other advantages, to multinational technology corporations. The resulting foreign direct investment in high-tech manufacturing operations has driven a booming Irish economy that has…

  5. Albania economy toward official euroisation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erjola BARBULLUSHI

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available The euroisation issue in European Integration context, is a continuous process of discussions between different researchers and regulatory institutions. Nowadays, different aspects of collaboration and integration processes between countries in the region, are extended in all politics, economic and security dimensions. In this study, we are going to treat one of the aspects of this process integration for Albania: the possibility of substituting the Albanian Lek with Euro, beginning with the explanation of the concept of euroisation. Also we are going to identify the actual non-official replacement level of lek and how it is expected to be realized in the future. Albania like other developing countries is lack of a currency with which people can buy abroad and which can be used in short-run and long-run credit contracts. On the other hand, the exchange rate represents an important risk, especially for the business which realizes transactions in foreign currency. Here in we are focused on the measurement of the money replacement level in Albania through three main methods. For this purpose is used the regression analysis in order to test the hypothesis under evaluation in two directions: endogenous and exogenous potential factors affecting this replacement. Through the factor analysis identifying the pro and cons of the euroisation phenomenon, we will give the potential alternative in our county economy conditions. Finally, the replacement rate cannot be assessed without being related to the degree of money in circulation replacement and the degree of assets replacement and without being connected with the exchange rate between currencies.

  6. Nuclides Economy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ivanov, Evgeny; Subbotin, Stanislav

    2007-01-01

    Traditionally the subject of discussion about the nuclear technology development is focused on the conditions that facilitate the nuclear power deployment. The main objective of this work is seeking of methodological basis for analysis of the coupling consequences of nuclear development. Nuclide economy is the term, which defines a new kind of society relations, dependent on nuclear technology development. It is rather closed to the setting of problems then to the solving of them. Last year Dr. Jonathan Tennenbaum published in Executive Intelligence Review Vol. 33 no 40 the article entitled as 'The Isotope Economy' where main interconnections for nuclear energy technologies and their infrastructure had been explained on the popular level. There he has given several answers and, therefore, just here we will try to expand this concept. We were interested by this publication because of similarity of our vision of resource base of technologies development. The main paradigm of 'Isotope economy' was expresses by Lyndon H. LaRouche: 'Instead of viewing the relevant resources of the planet as if they were a fixed totality, we must now assume responsibility of man's creating the new resources which will be more than adequate to sustain a growing world population at a constantly improved standard of physical per-capita output, and personal consumption'. We also consider the needed resources as a dynamic category. Nuclide economy and nuclide logistics both are needed for identifying of the future development of nuclear power as far we follow the holistic analysis approach 'from cave to grave'. Thus here we try to reasoning of decision making procedures and factors required for it in frame of innovative proposals development and deployment. The nuclear power development is needed in humanitarian scientific support with maximally deep consideration of all inter-disciplinary aspects of the nuclear power and nuclear technologies implementation. The main objectives for such

  7. Foreign Trade

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The Foreign Trade database has monthly volume and value information for US imports, exports, and re-exports of fishery or fishery derived products. Data is...

  8. Foreign Body Retrieval

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Physician Resources Professions Site Index A-Z Foreign Body Retrieval Foreign body retrieval is the removal of ... foreign body detection and removal? What is Foreign Body Retrieval? Foreign body retrieval involves the removal of ...

  9. Gaps in EU Foreign Policy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Henrik

    of Capability-Expectations Gap in the study of European foreign policy. Through examples from relevant literature, Larsen not only demonstrates how this concept sets up standards for the EU as a foreign policy actor (that are not met by most other international actors) but also shows how this curtails analysis...... of EU foreign policy. The author goes on to discuss how the widespread use of the concept of ‘gap' affects the way in which EU foreign policy has been studied; and that it always produces the same result: the EU is an unfulfilled actor outside the realm of “normal” actors in IR. This volume offers new...... perspectives on European foreign policy research and advice and serves as an invaluable resource for students of EU foreign policy and, more broadly, European Studies....

  10. Perspectives on Eco Economics. Circular Economy and Smart Economy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristina Balaceanu

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The implementation of sustainable development principles in contemporary economic thinking has generated the conceptual remodeling that expresses the new mechanisms of the economy. Thus, the concept of circular economy meet the theoretical representation of an economic system oriented towards the re-use of waste as raw materials and limiting the production of waste that cannot come back into the economic circuit. Circular economy is one that involves even its concept of operation, recovery and regeneration, as much as possible of resources, aiming to preserve, at the highest level, the value and usefulness of products, components and raw materials, distinguishing between technical and biological cycles. In this way, we can find solutions for two major issues affecting today's economy: the limited nature of resources and the pollution generated by the waste resulting from economic activities.

  11. An empirical study of the substitution of foreign for domestic savings in Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luiz Carlos Bresser-Pereira

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This study aims to investigate the relations between the level of the real exchange rate, foreign savings and domestic savings in Brazil. The appreciation of the domestic currency caused by financing the current account deficit reduces the expected profit rate in the tradable goods industry, leading to a drop in domestic savings and the substitution of foreign for domestic savings. An econometric analysis of the Brazilian economy indicates a stable long-term relation between the exchange rate and domestic savings, and that relative devaluations of the real exchange rate positively and significantly affect domestic savings in 1994–2013. The estimations’ results persist even after the period is divided into two samples, after tests showing the presence of a structural break in the model in 2002. In addition, the results of the estimations performed on the two samples confirm the presence of substitution of foreign for domestic savings.

  12. Antimatter Economy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hansen, Norm

    2004-05-01

    The Antimatter Economy will bring every country into the 21st century without destroying our environment and turn the Star Trek dream into reality by using antimatter from comets. At the April 2002 joint meeting of the American Physical Society and American Astronomical Society, I announced that comets were composed of antimatter, there were 109 antimatter elements, and the Periodic Table of Elements had been updated to include the antimatter elements. When matter and antimatter come together, energy is produce according to Einstein's equation of mass times the speed of light squared or E = mc2. Antimatter energy creates incredible opportunities for humanity. People in spacecraft will travel to the moon in hours, planets in days, and stars in weeks. Antimatter power will replace fossil plants and produce hydrogen from off-peak electrical power. Hydrogen will supplant gas in cars, trucks, and other vehicles. The billions of ton of coal, billions of barrels of oil, and trillions of cubic feet of natural gas will be used to make trillions of dollars of products to bring countries into the 21st century. Within this millennium, the Worlds Gross National Product will increase from 30 trillion to 3,000 trillion plus 1,500 trillion from space commercialization bringing the Total Gross National Product to 4,500 trillion. Millions of businesses and billions of jobs will be created. However, the real benefits will come from taking billions of people out of poverty and empowering them to pursue their dreams of life, liberty and pursuit of happiness. Please visit www.AntimatterEnergy.com.

  13. Tourism's intimate economies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bill Maurer

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available [First paragraph] What’s Love Got To Do with It? Transnational Desires and Sex Tourism in the Dominican Republic. Denise Brennan. Durham NC: Duke University Press, 2004. ix + 280 pp. (Paper US$ 21.95 Behind the Smile: The Working Lives of Caribbean Tourism. George Gmelch. Bloomington: Indiana University Press, 2003. x + 212 pp. (Paper US$ 19.95 New research on Caribbean tourism solidly locates it within the regional shift from “incentive-induced exports” like bananas to “service-based exports” like data processing, offshore finance, and novel forms of mass tourism (Mullings 2004:294; Duval 2004. Earlier studies may have made mention of the similarities between plantation economies and tourism development, but new models like the all-inclusive resort demonstrate a near identity of form and structure with plantation systems: foreign dominance over ownership and profit leaves little multiplier effect for the Caribbean islands playing host to enclaved resorts. Agricultural exports have been in free fall since the end of preferential trade protocols, and export manufacturing after the North American Free Trade Agreement is in steep decline. If new service economies seemed to offer a solution to economic and social disorder, the reaction to the events of September 11, 2001 demonstrated the fragility of service-based exports and, in particular, of new kinds of tourism. It took four years for international tourism to rebound to pre-9/11 levels;1 with the perceived threat of SARS and avian flu, as well as the Iraq war and the weak U.S. dollar, official projections of the industry’s near future are “cautiously optimistic.”2

  14. Financial Frictions, Foreign Direct Investment, and Growth

    OpenAIRE

    Luis San Vicente Portes

    2010-01-01

    This paper assesses the role of financial frictions and Foreign Direct Investment (FDI) on an economy´s growth rate, business cycle volatility, and firm´s capital structure. We gauge these effects within the Financial Accelerator framework, where entrepreneurs can establish affiliates of local firms abroad through Foreign Direct Investment. Model simulations suggest that in the presence of credit market imperfections FDI is associated with faster growth, less leverage, and lower aggregate vol...

  15. Bir Geçiş Ekonomisi Olarak Kırgızistan’da Doğrudan Yabancı Yatırımlar ve Orta Asya Ülkeleri İle Kıyaslanması(Foreign Direct Investments in Kyrgyzstan as a Transition Economy and Its Comparison with Central Asian Countries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Madina PASHALIEVA

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Sovyetler Birliği’nin dağılmasıyla bağımsızlığı ilan eden ve piyasa ekonomisine geçmeye çalışan ülkelere geçiş ekonomileri denilmektedir. Bu ülkelerden birisi olan Kırgızistan, Orta Asya bölgesindeki stratejik konumu, liberal ekonomisi ve ılımlı yaklaşımı itibariyle gün geçtikçe daha fazla dikkatleri üzerine çekmektedir. Geçiş döneminin izlerini üzerinden atmaya çalışan ülke, yabancı yatırımları teşvik etmek üzere ciddi yasal ve yapısal düzenleme ve uygulamalara gitmiştir. Bu çalışmada, Kırgızistan Cumhuriyeti’nde sürdürülebilir büyüme ve refahın arttırılması amacıyla uygulamaya konulan politikalar sayesinde ülkenin yabancı yatırımları hangi düzeyde çekebildiği ve bölge ülkeleri ile kıyaslandığında, durumunun ne olduğu ve sahip olduğu üstünlükler incelenmiştir. The countries which pronounced their independence after the dissolution of the Soviet Union and are endeavouring to shift to market economy are called transition economies. As one of these countries Kyrgyzstan is attracting more attention every other day due to its strategic position in Central Asia, its liberal economy and moderate approach. Trying to get rid of the traces of the transition period, this country has established serious legal and structural regulations and practices in order to promote foreign investments. This study deals with how much the Republic of Kyrgyzstan has managed to attract foreign investments thanks to the policies implemented for sustainable growth and improvement of welfare, and its status and superiorities when compared to other countries in the region.

  16. GLOBALIZATION AND FOREIGN DIRECT INVESTMENTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elena Chirilă – Donciu

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Mobilizing financial resources to cover investment needs is a concern of all countries, developed or developing ones, of consolidated market economies or emerging ones. A distinctive characteristic of Global Economy over the last few decades has been the rising rate and impressive increase in Foreign Direct Investment (FDI. The purpose of this research is to analyse global FDI inflows in Europe and in Romania. The results of the research support the idea that the balance of economic power is changing in the world economy and the countries that own a stable and solid industrial base are at an advantage. The new trends determined by the economic crisis in the field of FDI refer to the growing percentage of developing and emerging countries in the global flows of FDI.

  17. Foreign correspondence

    CERN Document Server

    Hamilton, John Maxwell

    2013-01-01

    Despite the importance of foreign news, its history, transformation and indeed its future have not been much studied. The scholarly community often calls attention to journalism's shortcomings covering the world, yet the topic has not been systematically examined across countries or over time. The need to redress this neglect and the desire to assess the impact of new media technologies on the future of journalism - including foreign correspondence - provide the motivation for this stimulating, exciting and thought-provoking book. While the old economic models supporting news have crumbled in

  18. IMPACT OF FOREIGN DIRECT INVESTMENTS ON CROATIAN FINANCIAL GROWTH

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zoran Ivanovic

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Foreign direct investments are for the transition and less developed countries very important source of capital. Such investments have very positive impact on country’s economy in terms of employment growth, industrial production growth, gross domestic product growth, favorable effects on the balance of payments and many other positive impacts for country economy, so it’s not strange that countries in the absence of its domestic investors, are trying to attract foreign investors. Foreign investors analyze in detail possibilities and risks of each country, and if the risks exceed the opportunities there will be no inflow of foreign capital. Therefore every country which is trying to attract foreign direct investments must take care about the policy and its economy and try to be most attractive as it can be.

  19. Foreign Capital, GDP and Effects Affairs of Macedonia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mico Apostolov

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available This paper focuses on Southeast Europe and analyzes foreign capital movements, gross domestic product and possible effects, through a case study of Macedonia. There are many respectable sources of data, especially macro data and firm-level data that are used in this research. What we are interested in are the movements of foreign direct investment i.e. foreign capital, gross domestic product and effects of such changes, and possible contributions to the development of domestic firms and the overall economy. Foreign direct investment is usually defined as dominant or controlling ownership of a company in one country, by an entity based in another country. As of the beginning of the transition process, foreign direct investments remain priority, as essential pillar, that moves forward the society towards developed market economy. Further, we are interested in the possibility that these two indicators have positive and upward climb to facilitate this developing economy.

  20. 15 CFR 1300.1 - Reporting of exports of technology to nonmarket economy countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... nonmarket economy countries. 1300.1 Section 1300.1 Commerce and Foreign Trade Regulations Relating to... § 1300.1 Reporting of exports of technology to nonmarket economy countries. (a) For purposes of complying... the export of technology to a nonmarket economy country, exporters of such technology shall be deemed...

  1. Foreign Trade Dvelopment between Libya and the European Union

    OpenAIRE

    Mansoor Maitah; Nassir Salim; Abulgasem Bazina

    2011-01-01

    This article deals with the analysis of foreign trade development betweenLibyaand the European Union in the recent years. Libya is one of the developing countries with large area, low density of population and large endowment of natural resources, oil and gas. The Libyan economy like a number of other Arab economies, depends heavily on oil revenue, it relies heavily on a single exportable commodity, as the main source of foreign exchange earnings. Trade relations betweenLibyaand the European ...

  2. Clinical and Surgical Findings and Outcome Following Rumenotomy in Adult Dairy Cattle Affected with Recurrent Rumen Tympany Associated with Non-Metallic Foreign Bodies

    OpenAIRE

    Z. Bani Ismail; A. Al-Majali; K. Al-Qudah

    2007-01-01

    Medical records of 31 adult dairy cows suffering from recurrent rumen tympany for at least 1 month duration that underwent exploratory laparotomy and rumenotomy were reviewed and information was obtained on signalment, history, physical examination findings, laboratory findings and surgical findings. Cases were categorized according to surgical findings into 3 groups. Group 1 (n = 10) included cattle with reticuloruminal, metallic foreign bodies and perireticular adhesions/inflammation, group...

  3. Los giros del comercio exterior y la inversión extranjera directa en Cuba. The turns of foreign trade and direct foreign investment in cuba

    OpenAIRE

    Quintero Santos, Jose

    2013-01-01

    Cuban economy has a high dependence on foreign trade. In this way, Cuban economy is very vulnerable to changes occurring in the international economy. The changes in domestic economic policy and in the international economic have a great influence in the structure of the trade balance and the positioning of the various products and services in the composition of exports and imports that Cuba needs for economic development. Hence, external financing and the foreign direct invest...

  4. PRECONDITIONS AND DETERMINING CAUSES OF THE SHADOW ECONOMY IN UKRAINE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Z. Varnalii

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available The article analyzes the main processes that led to the high level of the economy shadowing. The historical aspects of the formation of the shadow economy in Ukraine are highlighted. The socio-economic aspects of the shadow economy of Ukraine causality are discussed. The theoretical contribution of foreign and domestic researchers on the preconditions of formation of the shadow economy in transition economies is studied. Theoretical perspective on the factors of the shadowing processes in the economy of Ukraine from the standpoint of modern scientific researches is analyzed. The paper also provides scientific vectors for further development of researches aimed at studying the causes and preconditions of the shadow economy.

  5. The Political Economy of Extraterritoriality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paul B. Stephan

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Near the end of the 2009 Term the Supreme Court decided Morrison v. Australia National Bank, Ltd., the strongest anti-extraterritoriality opinion it has produced in modern times. Not only is Congress presumed generally to prefer only territorial regulation, but lower courts that had carved out exceptions from this principle over a long period of time must now revisit their positions. Again this year in Kiobel v. Royal Dutch Shell Co. the Court relied on an aggressive use of the presumption against extraterritoriality to cut back on an important field of private litigation. The Court appears to have embraced two related stances: The imposition of barriers to extraterritorial regulation generally advances welfare, and the lower courts cannot be trusted to determine those instances where an exception to this rule might be justified. Implicit in the Court's position are intuitions about the political economy of both legislation and litigation. I want to use the occasion of the Morrison and Kiobel decisions to consider the political economy of extraterritorial regulation by the United States. International lawyers for the most part have analyzed state decisions to exercise prescriptive jurisdiction over extraterritorial transactions in terms of a welfare calculus that determines the likely costs and benefits to the state as a whole. Fewer studies have considered the political economy of the decision whether to regulate foreign transactions. No work of which I am aware has considered the political economy of deciding the extraterritorial question through litigation. This paper seeks to fill these gaps by sketching out what political economy suggests both about extraterritoriality and the role of courts as arbiters of extraterritoriality.

  6. Corporate taxes in the world economy: reforming the taxation of cross-border income

    OpenAIRE

    Grubert, Harry; Altshuler, Rosanne

    2006-01-01

    Proposals for the reform of the taxation of cross-border income are evaluated within the general context of the corporate tax in an open economy. We focus on the various behavioral decisions that can be affected such as the location of income and its repatriation. The two income tax proposals considered are: (1) dividend exemption and (2) burden neutral worldwide taxation in which all foreign subsidiary income is included currently in the U.S. worldwide tax base, and at the same time the corp...

  7. Attracting foreign direct investment under high risk and volatility of international financial markets

    OpenAIRE

    PARTACHI Ion; ARVINTE Vitalie

    2009-01-01

    International financial crisis caused significant reduction of investment flows, especially to emerging markets, vulnerable to external shocks and foreign exchange rate fluctuations. Under these conditions, decision factors are pushed to adopt changes in investment strategies in order to maintain competitiveness in attracting foreign investments needed to stabilize economy and continue development programs. Under the conditions of incertitude and high risks emerging economies adopted differen...

  8. Foreign Body Retrieval

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... percent of foreign body ingestions occur among children. Most foreign bodies pass through the gastrointestinal tract without ... fainting and shock. Foreign bodies in the airway: Most foreign bodies in the airway are usually expelled ...

  9. Institutional Distance and International Business Strategies in Emerging Economies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ionascu, Delia Simona; Meyer, Klaus E.; Estrin, Saul

    2004-01-01

    The concept of `distance' has been used by international business scholars to explain variations in international business strategies and operations across countries. The more distant a host country is from the organizational centre of a multinational enterprise (MNE), the more it has to manage...... for the investing MNE. Using a unique dataset of foreign direct investment in emerging economies that incorporates multi-host as well as multi-home countries, we find empirical support for our propositions, and provide an explanation for apparently inconsistent results in the previous literature....... on Hofstede's work on culture. However, these measures capture only very partially the dimensions of distance of concern to international business. In this paper, we show how the broader theoretical concept of institutional distance, which incorporates normative, regulatory and cognitive aspects, affects...

  10. Foreign Direct Investment and its Spillover Efficiency in China

    OpenAIRE

    劉, 黄金

    2004-01-01

    In this paper, we review the development process and its characteristics of inward foreign direct investment (FDI) in China. Using the latest data of Jiangsu province, we test the spillover efficiency of FDI. We find that FDI has spillover efficiency in Jiangsu's economy, but the smaller the technology gap between domestic and foreign enterprises, the larger the spillovers.

  11. The foreign exchange rate rate exposure of nations

    OpenAIRE

    Entorf, Horst; Moebert, Jochen; Sonderhof, Katja

    2007-01-01

    Following the well-known approach by Adler and Dumas (1984) we evaluate the foreign exchange rate exposure of nations. Results based on data from 27 countries show that national foreign exchange rate exposures are significantly related to the current trade balance variables of corresponding economies.

  12. Evaluation Of Democracy And Foreign Investment In Nigeria | Arinze ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This paper contends that a good indicator of confidence in the stability of Nigerian economy is the significant inflow of foreign direct investment. Foreign capital inflow to Nigeria in recent years has not been significant. The object of the paper is to examine how the current democracy contributed significantly to improvement in ...

  13. Services tradeability, trade liberalization and foreign direct investment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    J.G.M. van Marrewijk (Charles); J.J. Stibora (Joachim); A. Vaal, de (Albert)

    1996-01-01

    textabstractThe article analyzes a two-country general equilibrium model to examine the role played by services in the world economy. Services play an increasingly important role in the world economy, as observed, for instance, by the growing share in employment, production, exports and foreign

  14. Determinants of Foreign Direct Investment and Nigerian Economic ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study on foreign Direct Investment determinants and the Nigeria's economy covering 38 years, was empirically done, and was discovered that exchange rate is a very important determinant influencing FDI inflow, and FDI is a significant variable influencing the economy (GDP) The study recommends that adequate ...

  15. The offshorization of economy: the present realities

    OpenAIRE

    Maslak Olga; Grishko Natalya; Hlazunova Olha; Vorobiova Kateryna

    2017-01-01

    In this article the essence and main types of offshore zones have been studied. It has been analyzed the main reasons for cooperation with the tax havens, established that the main reason of the Ukrainian economy offshorization is not only the desire of economic entities to optimize taxes, but also the desire to protect their assets from the negative impact of the crisis phenomena in the national economy during 2010-2016. The foreign experience of the anti-offshore regulation has been researc...

  16. UNDERGROUND ECONOMY, GDP AND STOCK MARKET

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Caus Vasile Aurel

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Economic growth is affected by the size and dynamics of underground economy. Determining this size is a subject of research for many authors. In this paper we present the relationship between underground economy dynamics and the dynamics of stock markets. The observations are based on regression used by Tanzi (1983 and the relationship between GDP and stock market presented in Tudor (2008. The conclusion of this paper is that the dynamics of underground economy is influenced by dynamic of financial markets. Thus, using specific stock market mathematical tools analysis, one can analyze the dynamic of underground economy

  17. Considering foreign direct investment in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gjerding, Allan Næs

    2005-01-01

    The present paper examines the aspect of relational assets and relates it to the strategic decision on undertaking foreign direct investment (FDI). The point of departure is the increasing importance of FDI globally as well as in the Danish economy, and the observation that even though Denmark...

  18. Institutional Field for Outward Foreign Direct Investment:

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Marinova, Svetla Trifonova; Child, John; Marinov, Marin Alexandrov

    2012-01-01

    The paper AU :3 explores the stages of development of an outward foreign direct investment (OFDI) institutional field during periods of major system change in big emerging economies. The state and its agencies appear to be the principal institutional entrepreneurs in developing the OFDI...

  19. Smallish foreign direct investment, sluggish growth: Can ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    2010-12-08

    Dec 8, 2010 ... Since the 1990s, foreign direct investment (FDI) has been on the rise worldwide. ... to developing countries, mainly the fast-growing economies of East Asia. ... besides Brazil, and to entrust these subsidiaries to develop global ...

  20. Efficiency of Foreign Exchange Markets and Measures of Turbulence

    OpenAIRE

    Jacob A. Frenkel; Michael L. Mussa

    1980-01-01

    Since the move to generalized floating in1973, exchange rates between major currencies have displayed large fluctuations. This turbulence of foreign exchange rates is an important concern of government policy and its explanation is a challenge for theories of foreign exchange market behavior. In Section I of this paper, we document the extent of turbulence in foreign exchange markets by examining (i) the magnitude of short-run variations in exchange rates relative to other measures of economi...

  1. Do foreign direct investment and renewable energy consumption affect the CO2 emissions? New evidence from a panel ARDL approach to Kyoto Annex countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mert, Mehmet; Bölük, Gülden

    2016-11-01

    This study examines the impact of foreign direct investment (FDI) and the potential of renewable energy consumption on carbon dioxide (CO 2 ) emissions in 21 Kyoto countries using an unbalanced panel data. For this purpose, Environmental Kuznets Curve (EKC) hypothesis was tested using panel cointegration analysis. Panel causality tests show that there are significant long-run causalities from the variables to carbon emissions, renewable energy consumption, fossil fuel energy consumption and inflow foreign direct investments. The results of our model support the pollution haloes hypothesis which states that FDI brings in clean technology and improves the environmental standards. However, an inverted U-shaped relationship (EKC) was not supported by the estimated model for the 21 Kyoto countries. This means that economic growth cannot ensure environmental protection itself or environmental goals cannot await economic growth. Another important finding is that renewable energy consumption decreases carbon emissions. Based on the empirical results, some important policy implications emerge. Kyoto countries should stimulate the FDI inflows and usage of renewable energy consumption to mitigate the air pollution and meet the emission targets. This paper provides new insights into environment and energy policies through FDI inclusion.

  2. The real new economy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farrell, Diana

    2003-10-01

    During the soar-and-swoon days of the late 1990s, many people believed that information technology, and the Internet in particular, were "changing everything" in business. A fundamental change did happen in the 1990s, but it was less about technology than about competition. Under director Diana Farrell, the McKinsey Global Institute has conducted an extensive study of productivity and its connection to corporate IT spending and use during that period. The study revealed that information technology is important--but not central--to the fate of industries and individual companies. So if information technology was not the primary factor in the productivity surge, what was? The study points to competition and innovation. In those industries that saw increases in competitive intensity, managers were forced to innovate aggressively to protect their revenues and profits. Those innovations--in products, business practices, and technology--led to the gains in productivity. In fact, a critical dynamic of the new economy--the real new economy--is the virtuous cycle of competition, innovation, and productivity growth. Managers can innovate in many ways, but during the 1990s, information technology was a particularly powerful tool, for three reasons: First, IT enabled the development of attractive new products and efficient new business processes. Second, it facilitated the rapid industrywide diffusion of innovations. And third, it exhibited strong scale economies--its benefits multiplied rapidly as its use expanded. This article reveals surprising data on how various industries in the United States and Europe were affected by competition, innovation, and information technology in the 1990s and offers insights about how managers can get more from their IT investments.

  3. THE DILEMMA OF DEMAND SIDE POLICIES VERSUS SUPPLY SIDE POLICIES FOR RELAUNCHING CAPITALIST ECONOMIES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    PETRE PRISECARU

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available The first important economic recession in this century started in USA with the burst of real estate bubble followed by the bankruptcy of some investment and commercial banks and the collapse of capital market. The financial-banking crisis spilt over the world economy and caused the second deepest economic recession in the last 80 years. The financial crisis has badly affected almost all market economies and was the result of a combination between market failures and mistakes made in macroeconomic policies. In the financial sector there was not enough regulation and supervision of corporate governance while in goods industry the pressure of over-regulation led to higher factor costs and supply contraction. The direct result of supply side policies and particularly of monetarist instruments is seen now clearly in the USA: large deficits, huge debts, reduced savings, heavy dependence on foreign money (capital and resources, relatively low domestic output and supply.

  4. Foreign language interactive didactics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arnaldo Moisés Gómez

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Foreign Language Interactive Didactics is intended for foreign language teachers and would-be teachers since it is an interpretation of the foreign language teaching-learning process is conceived from a reflexive social interaction. This interpretation declares learning based on interactive tasks that provide learners with opportunities to interact meaningfully among them, as a way to develop interactional competence as objective in itself and as a means to obtain communicative competence. Foreign language interactive didactics claims for the unity of reflection and action while learning the language system and using it to communicate, by means of solving problems presented in interactive tasks. It proposes a kind of teaching that is interactive, developmental, collaborative, holist, cognitive, problematizing, reflexive, student centered, humanist, and with a strong affective component that empower the influencing psychological factors in learning. This conception appears in the book: DIDÁCTICA INTERACTIVA DE LENGUAS (2007 y 2010. The book is used as a textbook for the subject of Didactics that is part of the curriculum in language teachers’ formation of all the pedagogical sciences universities, in Spanish teachers’ formation who are not Spanish speaking people at Havana University, and also as a reference book for postgraduate courses, master’s and doctorate’ s degrees.

  5. UNDERGROUND ECONOMY, INFLUENCES ON NATIONAL ECONOMIES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    CEAUȘESCU IONUT

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of research is to improve the understanding of nature underground economy by rational justification of the right to be enshrined a reality that, at least statistically, can no longer be neglected. So, we propose to find the answer to the question: has underground economy to stand-alone?

  6. Economy globalization and internationalization of business

    OpenAIRE

    Lucia PALIU-POPA

    2009-01-01

    In the conditions of contemporary world, the active participation in international division of labor is an essential component of the development process of each country. In this context the foreign trade, as a distinct branch of the national economy is an important factor of economic growth caused by the internationalization of business and determining for the process of globalization. Starting from the belief that international business development tends to bec...

  7. Asymmetric Effects of Global Liquidity Expansion on Foreign Portfolio Inflows, Exchange Rates, and Stock Prices

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dong-Eun Rhee

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper examines the effects of global liquidity expansion on advanced and emerging economies by using panel VAR methodology. The results show that global liquidity expansion tends to boost economy by increasing GDP growth and stock prices. However, we find that the effects are asymmetric. The effects of global liquidity on GDP and stock prices are greater and more persistent in emerging economies than in liquidity recipient advanced economies. Moreover, global liquidity appreciates emerging economies' exchange rates more persistently than those of advanced economies. Lastly, while global liquidity expansion increases foreign portfolio investment inflows to Asian countries and liquidity recipient advanced economies, there is no evidence for Latin American countries.

  8. Understanding the New Economy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morrell, Louis R.

    2001-01-01

    Asserts that while the Nasdaq bubble did burst, the new economy is real and that failure to understand the rules of the digital economy can lead to substandard investment portfolio performance. Offers guidelines for higher education institutional investors. (EV)

  9. Knowledge Based Economy Assessment

    OpenAIRE

    Madalina Cristina Tocan

    2012-01-01

    The importance of knowledge-based economy (KBE) in the XXI century is evident. In the article the reflection of knowledge on economy is analyzed. The main point is targeted to the analysis of characteristics of knowledge expression in economy and to the construction of structure of KBE expression. This allows understanding the mechanism of functioning of knowledge economy. The authors highlight the possibility to assess the penetration level of KBE which could manifest itself trough the exist...

  10. FROM CIRCULAR ECONOMY TO BLUE ECONOMY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iustin-Emanuel, ALEXANDRU

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Addressing the subject of this essay is based on the background ideas generated by a new branch of science - Biomimicry. According to European Commissioner for the Environment, "Nature is the perfect model of circular economy". Therefore, by imitating nature, we are witnessing a process of cycle redesign: production-consumption-recycling. The authors present some reflections on the European Commission's decision to adopt after July 1, 2014 new measures concerning the development of more circular economies. Starting from the principles of Ecolonomy, which is based on the whole living paradigm, this paper argues for the development within each economy of entrepreneurial policies related to the Blue economy. In its turn, Blue economy is based on scientific analyses that identify the best solutions in a business. Thus, formation of social capital will lead to healthier and cheaper products, which will stimulate entrepreneurship. Blue economy is another way of thinking economic practice and is a new model of business design. It is a healthy, sustainable business, designed for people. In fact, it is the core of the whole living paradigm through which, towards 2020, circular economy will grow more and more.

  11. The Sharing Economy

    OpenAIRE

    Reinhold, Stephan; Dolnicar, Sara

    2017-01-01

    Peer-to-peer accommodation networks in general, and Airbnb in specific, are frequently referred to as part of the sharing economy. This chapter provides an overview of key characteristics of the sharing economy, discusses how these characteristics relate to peer-to-peer accommodation, and positions peer-to-peer accommodation networks within the sharing economy.

  12. Doing Business 2014 Economy Profile : Iran, Islamic Rep.

    OpenAIRE

    World Bank; International Finance Corporation

    2013-01-01

    This economy profile presents the Doing Business indicators for Iran. In a series of annual reports, Doing Business assesses regulations affecting domestic firms in 189 economies and ranks the economies in 10 areas of business regulation, such as starting a business, resolving insolvency and trading across borders. This year's report data cover regulations measured from June 2012 through M...

  13. EMPIRICAL EVIDENCE ON DYNAMICS OF CREDIT GROWTH AND FOREIGN RESERVE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Satrugan Sinah

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents a model for looking into the nature of change in foreign reserve from movements in domestic credit. This model is relevant to foreign reserve targeting, small and open economies. The model denotes that measures undertaken by central banks to constraint domestic credit growth with the view of controlling capital outflows will also be detrimental to foreign reserves level. The empirical studies with application of Fourier Transformation technique have been used to build a model, which shows that growth in domestic credit is more biased towards positive swings in foreign reserves, rather than being unfavorable. The small and open economies, particularly, the Pacific Island nations, have the right set up for application of this model to safeguard foreign reserves level.

  14. Modeling of similar economies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sergey B. Kuznetsov

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Objective to obtain dimensionless criteria ndash economic indices characterizing the national economy and not depending on its size. Methods mathematical modeling theory of dimensions processing statistical data. Results basing on differential equations describing the national economy with the account of economical environment resistance two dimensionless criteria are obtained which allow to compare economies regardless of their sizes. With the theory of dimensions we show that the obtained indices are not accidental. We demonstrate the implementation of the obtained dimensionless criteria for the analysis of behavior of certain countriesrsquo economies. Scientific novelty the dimensionless criteria are obtained ndash economic indices which allow to compare economies regardless of their sizes and to analyze the dynamic changes in the economies with time. nbsp Practical significance the obtained results can be used for dynamic and comparative analysis of different countriesrsquo economies regardless of their sizes.

  15. MULTIFRACTAL STRUCTURE OF CENTRAL AND EASTERN EUROPEAN FOREIGN EXCHANGE MARKETS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cn#259;pun#351;an Rn#259;zvan

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available It is well known that empirical data coming from financial markets, like stock market indices, commodities, interest rates, traded volumes and foreign exchange rates have a multifractal structure. Multifractals were introduced in the field of economics to surpass the shortcomings of classical models like the fractional Brownian motion or GARCH processes. In this paper we investigate the multifractal behavior of Central and Eastern European foreign exchange rates, namely the Czech koruna, Croatian kuna, Hungarian forint, Polish zlot, Romanian leu and Russian rouble with respect to euro from January 13, 2000 to February 29, 2012. The dynamics of exchange rates is of interest for investors and traders, monetary and fiscal authorities, economic agents or policy makers. The exchange rate movements affect the international balance of payments, trade flows, and allocation of the resources in national and international economy. The empirical results from the multifractal detrending fluctuation analysis algorithm show that the six exchange rate series analysed display significant multifractality. Moreover, generating shuffled and surrogate time series, we analyze the sources of multifractality, long-range correlations and heavy-tailed distributions, and we find that this multifractal behavior can be mainly attributed to the latter. Finally, we propose a foreign exchange market inefficiency ranking by considering the multifractality degree as a measure of inefficiency. The regulators, through policy instruments, aim to improve the informational inefficiency of the markets, to reduce the associated risks and to ensure economic stabilization. Evaluation of the degree of information efficiency of foreign exchange markets, for Central and Eastern Europe countries, is important to assess to what extent these countries are prepared for the transition towards fully monetary integration. The weak form efficiency implies that the past exchange rates cannot help to

  16. Capital Accumulation in a Region. Cooperatives Versus Foreign Direct Investments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zimnoch Krystyna

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The main aim of this article is to demonstrate the ability of cooperatives to create internal resources of a region through foreign direct investments and the creation of financial, physical, human, and social capital. It concerns the comparing and emphasizing of the stability of resources created in a region by these forms of action. In order to demonstrate the stability of internal resources of a region, generated through foreign direct investment, a research was conducted involving the analysis of the rankings of the largest foreign investors in Poland, statistical data from the Central Statistical Office and the NBP, showing the inflow and outflow of FDIs, the number of companies with foreign capital participation, and the number of people working in them. In addition, a case study was used for the regions where the investments have been withdrawn, showing the importance of cooperatives for the stabilization of the potential of the regions. The study shows that the transfer of FDIs is always guided by the maximization of profit, tax optimization of a location, and the native currency exchange rate fluctuations. The following consequences of withdrawal have no significance to foreign investors but affect the regions: the increase in the unemployment rate, the reduction in the income of local residents, the increase in debt, the acquisition of real estate purchased on credit. The case study shows that cooperative enterprises can replace foreign capital in the region, ensuring the stability and durability of its internal resources. The concepts and strategies for regional development should focus on cooperatives as a way to create the internal resources of a region, which are seen as the current development source. Co-operatives can prevent the leaching of resources and backwash effects. The economic policy must ensure the equal treatment of all of the entities investing in the region. Currently, Poland gives the priority to foreign investors

  17. Foreign Body Retrieval

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... top of page What are the benefits vs. risks? Benefits Removal of a foreign body will reduce ... good tool for guiding foreign body removal procedures. Risks While foreign body removal procedures are safe and ...

  18. Foreign Body Retrieval

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... 80 percent of foreign body ingestions occur among children. Most foreign bodies pass through the gastrointestinal tract ... blockages that may require surgical removal of magnets. Children account for about 80 percent of foreign body ...

  19. An empirical study of the underground economy in the Kingdom of Belgium

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rezaei, Shahamak; Goli, Marco; Dana, Léo-Paul

    2013-01-01

    This article investigates the underground economy in Belgium. Although several government initiatives are attempting to combat underground economic activities, we found illegal foreign workers identifying opportunities and fulfilling market needs. Underground employment thus thrives in a variety...

  20. When does fdi have positive spillovers? Evidence from 17 emerging market economies

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Gorodnichenko, Y.; Švejnar, Jan; Terrell, D.

    -, č. 58 (2007), s. 1-53 ISSN N Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z70850503 Keywords : foreign direct investment * spillovers * transition economies * efficiency Subject RIV: AH - Economics http://hdl.handle.net/2027.42/57179

  1. Fertility and the economy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Becker, G S

    1992-08-01

    Fertility and the economy is examined in the context of the Malthusian question about the links between family choices and longterm economic growth. Micro level differences are not included not are a comprehensive range of economic or determinant variables. Specific attention is paid to income and price effects, the quality of children, overlapping generations, mortality effects, uncertainty, and economic growth. Fertility and the demand for children in linked to parental incomes and the cost of rearing children, which is affected by public policies that change the costs. Demand is also related to child and adult mortality, and uncertainty about sex of the child. Fertility in one generation affects fertility in the next. Malthusian and neoclassical models do not capture the current model of modern economies with rising income/capita and human and physical capital, extensive involvement of married women in the labor force, and declining fertility to very low levels. In spite of the present advances in firm knowledge about the relationships between fertility and economic and social variables, there is still much greater ignorance of the interactions. The Malthusian utility function that says fertility rises and falls with income did hold up to 2 centuries of scrutiny, and the Malthusian inclusion of the shifting tastes in his analysis could be translated in the modern context to include price of children. The inclusion of net cost has significant consequences, i.e., rural fertility can be higher because the cost of rearing when children contribute work to maintaining the farm is lower than in the city. An income tax deduction for children in the US reduces cost. Economic growth raises the cost of children due the time spent on child care becoming more valuable. The modern context has changed from Malthusian time, and the cost of education, training, and medical care is relevant. The implication is that a rise in income could reduce the demand for children when

  2. Growing a market economy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Basu, N.; Pryor, R.J.

    1997-09-01

    This report presents a microsimulation model of a transition economy. Transition is defined as the process of moving from a state-enterprise economy to a market economy. The emphasis is on growing a market economy starting from basic microprinciples. The model described in this report extends and modifies the capabilities of Aspen, a new agent-based model that is being developed at Sandia National Laboratories on a massively parallel Paragon computer. Aspen is significantly different from traditional models of the economy. Aspen`s emphasis on disequilibrium growth paths, its analysis based on evolution and emergent behavior rather than on a mechanistic view of society, and its use of learning algorithms to simulate the behavior of some agents rather than an assumption of perfect rationality make this model well-suited for analyzing economic variables of interest from transition economies. Preliminary results from several runs of the model are included.

  3. The Sharing Economy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Avital, Michel; Carroll, John M.; Hjalmarsson, Anders

    2015-01-01

    The sharing economy is spreading rapidly worldwide in a number of industries and markets. The disruptive nature of this phenomenon has drawn mixed responses ranging from active conflict to adoption and assimilation. Yet, in spite of the growing attention to the sharing economy, we still do not know...... much about it. With the abundant enthusiasm about the benefits that the sharing economy can unleash and the weekly reminders about its dark side, further examination is required to determine the potential of the sharing economy while mitigating its undesirable side effects. The panel will join...... the ongoing debate about the sharing economy and contribute to the discourse with insights about how digital technologies are critical in shaping this turbulent ecosystem. Furthermore, we will define an agenda for future research on the sharing economy as it becomes part of the mainstream society as well...

  4. Foreign investment multinational companies and economic development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Popov Đorđe

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available There is no universal answer on the question whether foreign investments stimulate economic development. The positive effect of foreign direct investments will follow when the investments is carried out under normal conditions of competition. That means, above all, low barriers for foreign trade and the low level of restrictions for foreign owned companies. In such circumstances, multinational corporations can assist the economies of penetration to make its businesses more efficient. Foreign investors bring with them brand new types of economic activities and in that way shifting the limits of business opportunities in the countries of penetration. But if the investments are implemented in markets protected with protectionist barriers of various kinds, then they could have negative effects. The negative effects are in particularly reflected in the inefficient use of domestic resources. Foreign investments depend on the macro and micro institutional reforms, low inflation, real exchange rate, and reasonably efficient legal system that protects the property rights and encourages savings and investment. The low level of corruption, together with the foregoing conditions is a prerequisite for the creation of a stimulating environment for foreign investments.

  5. Foreign Relations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De La Hoz, Alejandro; Díaz, Eduardo; Feinstein, Max Moses

    2017-05-01

    In a large Colombian teaching hospital, a fifty-five-year-old woman complaining of stomach pain is examined by a foreign-exchange medical student from the United States. Speaking in Spanish, the student elicits a medical history that suggests a possible recurrence of gallstones, but nothing further. Upon discussing the patient's case in private with the attending physician, the student is shocked to learn that the patient is suffering from terminal, metastatic gastric cancer but is unaware of her diagnosis. The attending physician explains that the patient's husband instructed the health care providers not to tell the patient what her diagnosis is. The medical student feels uncomfortable withholding the diagnosis from the patient. The thought of disclosure feels equally uncomfortable, however, as it would mean contradicting the instructions of the attending physician at the host hospital as well as violating what the student suspects, but is not sure, may be acceptable medical practice in Colombia. How should the medical student proceed? © 2017 The Hastings Center.

  6. Economy and Grace

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Else Marie Wiberg

    2015-01-01

    Luther develops his idea the grace of God in tandem with his idea of economy, and a society characterized by ethical and social values such as love of neighbour and caring for the poor. Hence, the reformer's search for a gracious God is developed along with his criticism of the current indulgence...... doctrine and the emerging 'oeconomia moderna'. Thus, building on a simul gratia et oeconomia, grace and economy simultaneously, Luther's reformation theology can be perceived as te intersection of an economy of grace and a horizontal social economy (works of love) in quotidian life that together constitute...

  7. Real economy versus virtual economy - New challenges for nowadays society

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Associates Professon Dr. Veronica Adriana Popescu

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available In the paper Real Economy versus Virtual Economy – New Challenges for Nowadays Society our goal is to present the importance of both real economy and virtual economy.At the begging of our research, we have presented the main views of some specialists concerning both virtual and real economy. After that we have compared the two types of economies and we have stressed the most important aspects connected to them. The main reason why we have decided to approach this complex subject is due to the increasing interest in the virtual economy matters and the relation that this particular type of economy develops with the real economy.

  8. The Political Economy of Energy Innovation

    OpenAIRE

    Dasgupta, Shouro; De Cian, Enrica; Verdolini, Elena

    2017-01-01

    This paper empirically investigates the effects of environmental policy, institutions, political orientation, and lobbying on energy innovation and finds that they significantly affect the incentives to innovate and create cleaner energy efficient technologies. We conclude that political economy factors may act as barriers even in the presence of stringent environmental policy, implying that, to move towards a greener economy, countries should combine environmental policy with a general stren...

  9. Economy of scale still holds true

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1985-01-01

    The economic merits of larger generating units have been questioned and have become subject to doubt and controversy. A 1980 study by Sargent and Lundy concluded that economy of scale still held. But some of the basic factors and major assumptions used in that study have changed. An update of those results, which also looks at whether reduced load growth rates affect the study's conclusions, finds economy of scale still applies

  10. The political economy of local content in African extractives

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Buur, Lars; Hansen, Michael; Kjær, Mette

    Extractive foreign direct investment (FDI) is heralded as the new development opportunity in Africa. But extractive FDI has a record of producing enclaves in host countries with few linkages to the local economy. Only if it creates local content will extractive FDI become a catalyst of development...

  11. Healthcare delivery in a frail economy: challenges and way forward ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The Nigerian Nation is a pluralized, multi-ethnic and diverse geographical entity. The country is naturally endowed with financial, material and human resources. Nigeria is a mono-economy with an entirely skewed dependence on Crude-oil as a major source of foreign exchange earnings at the expense of other viable ...

  12. Mediatised affective activism

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Reestorff, Camilla Møhring

    2014-01-01

    bodies by addressing affective registers. The mediatised ‘affective environment’ (Massumi, 2009) cues bodies and generates spreadability, yet it also produces disconnections. These disconnections might redistribute the ‘economy of recognizability’ (Butler and Athanasiou, 2013); however, the Femen...

  13. The Influence of Low-carbon Economy on Global Trade Pattern

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiao-jing, Guo

    Since global warming has seriously endangered the living environment of human being and their health and safety, the development of low-carbon economy has become an irreversible global trend. Under the background of economic globalization, low-carbon economy will surely exert a significant impact on global trade pattern. Countries are paying more and more attention to the green trade. The emission permits trade of carbon between the developed countries and the developing countries has become more mature than ever. The carbon tariff caused by the distribution of the "big cake" will make the low-cost advantage in developing countries cease to exist, which will, in turn, affect the foreign trade, economic development, employment and people's living in developing countries. Therefore, under the background of this trend, we should perfect the relevant laws and regulations on trade and environment as soon as possible, optimize trade structure, promote greatly the development of service trade, transform thoroughly the mode of development in foreign trade, take advantage of the international carbon trading market by increasing the added value of export products resulted from technological innovation to achieve mutual benefit and win-win results and promote common development.

  14. Determinants of cross-border bank acquisitions in transition economies1

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Poghosyan, Tigran; de Haan, Jakob

    2010-01-01

    We analyse the microeconomic determinants of cross-border bank acquisitions in 11 transition economies over the period 1992-2006. We find that foreign banks target relatively large and efficient banks when they enter transition economies with weak institutions. This evidence provides support for the

  15. Economy Profile of Argentina

    OpenAIRE

    World Bank Group

    2017-01-01

    Doing Business 2018 is the 15th in a series of annual reports investigating the regulations that enhance business activity and those that constrain it. This economy profile presents the Doing Business indicators for Argentina. Doing Business presents quantitative indicators on business regulation and the protection of property rights that can be compared across 190 economies; for 2018 Arge...

  16. Economy Profile of Estonia

    OpenAIRE

    World Bank Group

    2017-01-01

    Doing Business 2018 is the 15th in a series of annual reports investigating the regulations that enhance business activity and those that constrain it. This economy profile presents the Doing Business indicators for Estonia. Doing Business presents quantitative indicators on business regulation and the protection of property rights that can be compared across 190 economies; for 2018 Estonia ...

  17. Economy Profile of Australia

    OpenAIRE

    World Bank Group

    2017-01-01

    Doing Business 2018 is the 15th in a series of annual reports investigating the regulations that enhance business activity and those that constrain it. This economy profile presents the Doing Business indicators for Australia. Doing Business presents quantitative indicators on business regulation and the protection of property rights that can be compared across 190 economies; for 2018 Aust...

  18. Economy Profile of Bolivia

    OpenAIRE

    World Bank Group

    2017-01-01

    Doing Business 2018 is the 15th in a series of annual reports investigating the regulations that enhance business activity and those that constrain it. This economy profile presents the Doing Business indicators for Bolivia. Doing Business presents quantitative indicators on business regulation and the protection of property rights that can be compared across 190 economies; for 2018 Bolivia ...

  19. Free variable economy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Roelofsen, F.

    2009-01-01

    Several authors have recently argued that semantic interpretation is subject to economy constraints. In particular, Fox (1999) argued that the interpretation of pronouns is subject to BINDING ECONOMY, which favors local binding over non-local binding. The present paper points out a problem for

  20. FOREIGN EXPERIENCE OF SOCIAL ENTREPRENEURSHIP DEVELOPMENT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. Ignatovych

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The theoretical and applied aspects of forming and realization conception of social entrepreneurship are considered in the world economy. The main features of social entrepreneurship are distinguished. On the basis of generalization foreign experience of social entrepreneurship realization are certained its organization leading forms, in particular, unprofitable private organizations, business with social mission, social co-operatives, and also priority spheres and basic directions of modern development. The features of social entrepreneurship state support are investigated in the different countries of the world. Differences between European models and The USA model of social entrepreneurship are shown, pointed reasons of these differences. Foreign experience of social entrepreneurship is very important for Ukrainian social enterprises development. In unstable political situation and in period of financial crisis with production reducing and high inflation only social entrepreneurs can make economy conditions better. Also there is pointed the important role of legislative power for creating favorable conditions.

  1. Ageing, funded pensions and the Dutch economy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bovenberg, A.L.; Knaap, T.; Fenge, R.; de Menil, G.; Pestieau, P.

    2008-01-01

    This chapter presents a discussion that seeks to identify through which different channels aging and pensions affect the Dutch economy, how these effects propagate, what the feedback effects are, and how the income distribution across and within generations is affected. It also seeks to quantify

  2. STATE INTERVENTION IN THE ECONOMY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andreea-Elena, BURDUF (MIERLARU

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Starting from the deffinition of protectionism, an economic policy of restraining trade between states through methods such as tariffs on imported goods, restrictive quotas, and a variety of other government regulations designed to allow, according to proponents fair competition between imports and goods and service produced domestically, I am compelled to find Manoilescu's vision of economy. Was this system of political and economic measures of protection of national products from similar foreign products Manoilescu's vision? In the spirit of clasical protectionist doctrine, Manoilescu thought that the focal point of economy was the national economy, the sum of production assets and a conglomerate of individual traders. Amongst national production assets the foremost is the labour, capital and the others having only secondary importance in direct comparison. After the great depression of 1929, his book, The theory of protectionism and international exchanges , was the basis for justifying protectionism in Brazil while in Romania he had to face hostility from authorities, making it impossible for him, even if for several months in 1931 he was the Governor of the National Bank, to apply his vision to end the economic crisis in Romania. M. Manoilescu analyzed the state's economic role and how this is reflected in modern economic science. He saw the state as having the role of setting certain convergent common goals for the whole society and to set rules that removes free will in economic decisions, thus creating the premises for a regulated economic space, based on the transition from little rationale of firms to big rationale of national economy. He demonstrated the necessity of state intervetionism, he has shared the conviction that through the alignment of the Romanian economic strategy to the one from the developed countries the lagging behind of Romania could be surpassed. M. Manoilescu took the occidental type economic policies of the time

  3. PREVIOUS DEVELOPMENTS AND THE CURRENT SITUATION IN THE TURKISH BANKING SECTOR, FOREIGN ENTRY AND ITS REFLECTIONS ON THE NATIONAL BANKING INDUSTRY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aytac GOKMEN

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available The banking industry possesses a unique property that is unlike to other sectors with respect to supplying liquidity and financial strength for the economy and transaction operations However, despite their significance, banking industries in the world are subject to various crises and foreign interventions that could affect the financial industry negatively. This study describes the background of the Turkish Banking Sector, explains the reasons for the three major crises it was subjected to in 1994, 2001 and 2002 that resulted from numerous factors such as insufficient implementation of regulations, inadequate depth of the capital markets, lack of assessment of risk, inadequate managerial applications and excessive lending to incorporated institutions. The study also dwells on the restructuring process that has been continuing for more than two decades, reasons of foreign entry to the Turkish Banking Industry, as well as explains the reflections of foreign entry on the national banking industry depending on various comprehensive and credible national and international publications.

  4. MULTINATIONAL COMPANIES AND FOREIGN DIRECT INVESTMENT

    OpenAIRE

    Lucia P. BLĂJUȚ

    2014-01-01

    This paper highlights the significant share of multinational companies in international trade that are a factor of developing global economies. In the context of economic globalization the activity of multinational companies and their foreign direct investment have a strong impact on the host country which presents advantages and disadvantages for them. The main objective of this article is the review of the important role played by multinationals in economic development, especially in develo...

  5. Foreign Prices Shocks in a Small Open Economy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gestsson, Marias Halldór

    Countries specialize in producing goods that they have comparative advantages in producing. This results in a country exporting some goods while it imports other. Hence, there is a reason to expect that changes in the prices of these goods have consid- erable economic e¤ect and that demand manage...

  6. 77 FR 8127 - Foreign Tax Credit Splitting Events

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-02-14

    ... Tax Credit Splitting Events AGENCY: Internal Revenue Service (IRS), Treasury. ACTION: Final and... affect taxpayers claiming foreign tax credits. The text of the temporary regulations also serves as the... that if there is a foreign tax credit splitting event with respect to a foreign income tax paid or...

  7. 77 FR 8184 - Foreign Tax Credit Splitting Events

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-02-14

    ... Foreign Tax Credit Splitting Events AGENCY: Internal Revenue Service (IRS), Treasury. ACTION: Notice of... these proposed regulations. The regulations affect taxpayers claiming foreign tax credits. Special... of the Federal Register.] Sec. 1.909-6 Pre-2011 foreign tax credit splitting events. [The text of...

  8. A Literature Review of Foreign Ownership and Company Performance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iuliana Oana MIHAI

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this article is to review the results of research papers conducted in the area of foreign ownership impact on company’s performance and to highlight the specifics of this linkage in the environment of transition economies. Several authors have documented greater efficiency of private companies compared to state-owned. According to different studies, an alternative option for transition economies is foreign ownership. Recent studies show that the effect of ownership forms on companies and financial performance is more significant in Eastern European countries compared to developed countries. However, study results are often contradictory, therefore they require additional research.

  9. The Research of Foreign Exchange Exposures in Taiwan

    OpenAIRE

    Chen, Yi Chen

    2006-01-01

    The research will be mainly focused on the relationship between the stock returns and the fluctuation of foreign exchange rate exposure in Taiwan listed corporations. Due to the environmental limitations and in sufficient resources, if Taiwan inclines to develop international trade, the exchange market plays an important role in the advances of Taiwan's economy. Therefore, the fluctuations of foreign exchange rate must have a substantially impact on the profitability of industries in Taiwan.

  10. Foreign bond markets and financial market development: International perspectives

    OpenAIRE

    Batten, Jonathan A.; Hogan, Warren P.; Szilagyi, Peter G.

    2009-01-01

    The domestic bond markets of the Asia and Pacific region have grown considerably since the Asian financial crisis of 1997, although they remain undeveloped relative to the region's weight in the world economy. This paper proposes that in order to encourage further development of these markets, regulators should make them more accessible to foreign borrowers. To that end we offer insights into the nature and mechanics of foreign bond issuance by investigating the key characteristics of 3,132 f...

  11. Improving quality of foreign direct investment attraction in Vietnam

    OpenAIRE

    Ngo Phuc Hanh; Đao Van Hùng; Nguyen Thac Hoat; Dao Thi Thu Trang

    2017-01-01

    Foreign direct investment (FDI) enterprises are playing a key role in Vietnam's economy. By the end of 2016, there are more than 21,398 FDI projects in force, with the total registered capital of nearly 293 billion USD. One hundred six countries and territories have invested in 19 industries in 68 provinces and cities of Vietnam. These investments have added a large amount of capital to the economy, which has basically been used effectively, contributing to the economic growth of Vietnam. In ...

  12. A Qualitative Study on Foreign Language Teaching Anxiety

    OpenAIRE

    İpek, Hülya

    2018-01-01

    Affective constructs such as motivation, self-esteem, and anxiety play an important role in learning a foreign language. Scholars have conducted many studies to find out how these constructs affect foreign language (FL) learning. They aimed to find out how anxiety affects language learning, the sources of anxiety in FL learners, and how to overcome this anxiety. Teachers were offered various strategies to lower their students’ anxiety. Studies on Foreign Language (FL) anxiety mostly focused o...

  13. RELEVANT PROBLEMS OF UKRAINE’S INTEGRATION INTO GLOBAL ECONOMY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yevheniia Duliba

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this research is to study the main problems that prevent Ukraine from integrating into the global economy and to determine correct focuses of the foreign economic policy of Ukraine against the background of strengthening of globalization tendencies throughout the world. The bases of this research are bases of business development of the foreign economic policy of Ukraine and improvement of Ukrainian economy against the background of international integration. At the heart of the research methodology is a dialectical method of scientific knowledge and, besides, special methods of research based on modern scientific bases of economic, management and related to them knowledge: economic and statistic method – for the assessment of the modern state of foreign trade and investment activity of Ukraine; method of analysis and synthesis – for the determination of tendencies of development of integration processed in Ukraine; comparative analysis – for comparison of information concerning development of specific indicators of foreign economic activities in Ukraine. Results. As a result of research, the main blocks of problems, which impede the integration of Ukraine into the global economy, and requirements for their complex solution are determined. Besides, interdependence and interdetermination of problems, which impede the integration of Ukraine into the global economy, and requirements for their complex solution are explained. Political and legal, economic, sociocultural, and infrastructural preconditions that are necessary for effective integration of Ukraine into the global economy are highlighted. Practical implications. Analysis of the existing problems related to the actual economy, investments, innovation processes gives the possibility to determine the vector of development of Ukraine’s economy taking to account recommendations concerning its improvement for the purposes of integration into global economy. Value

  14. Signs of political economy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bernard Lamizet

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Like any political system, economy is a system of signs and representations. The Semiotics of economy elaborates its analytical methods to interpret such signs, which give meaning to the economy by representing its performances in public debate and in the media. Four major features distinguish the Semiotics of political economy from other semiotic forms or other systems of information and political representation. First of all, the relationship between the signification of the economy and the real or the imaginary phenomena to which they refer always pertains to the order of values. The second characteristic of economic signs is the significance of the state of lack they express. The third characteristic of signs of the economy is the form of sign production, which can be designated by the concept of emission of signs and their diffusion. Finally, as all signs, the economic sign is arbitrary. In the field of Economics, such arbitrariness does not imply that the Subject is free to superimpose whatever value to the signs themselves, but refers to the rupture between the world and its possible transformation. The very meaning of the word economy is here at stake. Oikos, in Greek (the term from which the word economy is derived refers to a known, familiar space. Economy transforms the real, natural world into a symbolic social world, into a world of relations with others whom we recognise and whose actions are relatively predictable. It might be useful to consider the contemporary issue of debt, its implications and its multiple meanings, which includes both the ethical and moral dimension of the condemnation of debt as well as the imaginary political dimension based on the expression of an idea of independence.

  15. www.FuelEconomy.gov

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — FuelEconomy.gov provides comprehensive information about vehicles' fuel economy. The official U.S. government site for fuel economy information, it is operated by...

  16. National policy measures. Right approach to foreign direct investment flows

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cătălin-Emilian HUIDUMAC-PETRESCU

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available 2011 was a difficult year for all the countries, developed and emerging ones. For overcoming the negative effects of the financial crisis, many economies have established as purpose to adopt new economic policies regarding the foreign direct investment flows (FDI, even to stimulate the flows or to reduce it (protectionism measures. So, there can be identified two categories of national policies: measures for the FDI flows stimulation and measures whose aim was the weighting of FDI developing, through restriction and regulation. In the first category we could include the liberalization measures and promotional and faciletation policies. In this study we evidenced that the fundament of the second category of policies is the belief that the FDI outward lead to job exports, to a raise of unemployment and a weakness of the industrial base.Many reports on FDI flows, here we talk about those made by UNCTAD, show that the regulation and restriction policies are seen as a possible protectionism, especially in the agricultural and extractive industries, where there have been required nationalization processes and divestments. Even more, the economies which adopted this kind of policies have been less interested in investing abroad, the outward of FDI being affected and globally the total outward decreased.

  17. Romanian Economy in the Interwar Period

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gheorghe Stefan

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Resumption of economic progress Will Be slow, but unevenly but after overcoming the food crisis of 1920-1921, Romania will be able to deliver on economic recovery by attracting capital investment, Increase the number of enterprises and workers and especially by increasing the driving force and technical endowment of enterprises. The Central Authorities Legislation Will draw up related protectionist liberal economic doctrine “by ourselves” in most of the period, According to political algorithm and the result of Increasing domestic resource mobilization of capital while limiting the foreign capital in the Romanian economy.

  18. Oil boycott and the political economy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Katouzian, H.

    1988-01-01

    The severe foreign exchange shortage caused by the loss of oil revenues forced Musaddiq's government to adopt the strategy of non-oil economics. This was not a coherent and comprehensive policy framework, but its different strands tended to complement and reinforce each other. Hence by August 1953 the balance of payments was on a steady course, and the domestic economy was under control. This paper gives a brief review of the background of the oil boycott and a discussion of the search for a solution

  19. ROMANIAN FOREIGN TRADE - A REGIONAL PERSPECTIVE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gabriela Carmen Pascariu

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available The increasing integration of Romania in the global economy is a reality of the last years, proved through a constant growth of the foreign trade with other countries, which exceeded, in terms ofdynamics, both GDP and industrial production. In the first part of our paper, we intend to analyze the evolution of Romanian foreign trade in the period 1995-2007, focusing on the proportions of the imports and exports, at regional level. We wish to emphasize the correlations between the indicators that describe the degree of openness to foreign trade and indicators of competitiveness and specialization in different industries. The main goal of our approach is to highlight the sectors which generate comparative advantages and potential competitiveness poles, contributing significantly to the increase of the Romanian economy, expressed in GDP/capita. In the second part of the paper, based on the frame of analysis and interpretation defined and implemented in the first part, we intend to establish if the agglomeration processes in some regions of ourcountry will lead gradually to the strengthening of growth poles and, therefore to boost the foreign trade.

  20. MULTINATIONAL COMPANIES AND FOREIGN DIRECT INVESTMENT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lucia P. BLĂJUȚ

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available This paper highlights the significant share of multinational companies in international trade that are a factor of developing global economies. In the context of economic globalization the activity of multinational companies and their foreign direct investment have a strong impact on the host country which presents advantages and disadvantages for them. The main objective of this article is the review of the important role played by multinationals in economic development, especially in developed economies. In the economies in which they operate, they bring capital, technology transfer, improve the national reputation and influence the other companies to invest in this countries, they provide a substantial source of revenue for the government and always improve the balance of payments in the host country.

  1. Fast processing of foreign fiber images by image blocking

    OpenAIRE

    Yutao Wu; Daoliang Li; Zhenbo Li; Wenzhu Yang

    2014-01-01

    In the textile industry, it is always the case that cotton products are constitutive of many types of foreign fibers which affect the overall quality of cotton products. As the foundation of the foreign fiber automated inspection, image process exerts a critical impact on the process of foreign fiber identification. This paper presents a new approach for the fast processing of foreign fiber images. This approach includes five main steps, image block, image pre-decision, image background extra...

  2. Economies Evolve by Energy Dispersal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stanley Salthe

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available Economic activity can be regarded as an evolutionary process governed by the 2nd law of thermodynamics. The universal law, when formulated locally as an equation of motion, reveals that a growing economy develops functional machinery and organizes hierarchically in such a way as to tend to equalize energy density differences within the economy and in respect to the surroundings it is open to. Diverse economic activities result in flows of energy that will preferentially channel along the most steeply descending paths, leveling a non-Euclidean free energy landscape. This principle of 'maximal energy dispersal‘, equivalent to the maximal rate of entropy production, gives rise to economic laws and regularities. The law of diminishing returns follows from the diminishing free energy while the relation between supply and demand displays a quest for a balance among interdependent energy densities. Economic evolution is dissipative motion where the driving forces and energy flows are inseparable from each other. When there are multiple degrees of freedom, economic growth and decline are inherently impossible to forecast in detail. Namely, trajectories of an evolving economy are non-integrable, i.e. unpredictable in detail because a decision by a player will affect also future decisions of other players. We propose that decision making is ultimately about choosing from various actions those that would reduce most effectively subjectively perceived energy gradients.

  3. Exploring the Sharing Economy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Netter, Sarah

    Despite the growing interest on the part of proponents and opponents - ranging from business, civil society, media, to policy-makers alike - there is still limited knowledge about the working mechanisms of the sharing economy. The thesis is dedicated to explore this understudied phenomenon...... and to provide a more nuanced understanding of the micro- and macro-level tensions that characterize the sharing economy. This thesis consists of four research papers, each using different literature, methodology, and data sets. The first paper investigates how the sharing economy is diffused and is ‘talked......-level tensions experience by sharing platforms by looking at the case of mobile fashion reselling and swapping markets. The final paper combines the perspectives of different sharing economy stakeholders and outlines some of the micro and macro tensions arising in and influencing the organization of these multi...

  4. Research Award: Networked Economies

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Office 2004 Test Drive User

    2015-08-06

    year, paid, ... the areas of democracy, human rights and economic growth. ... Networked Economies is seeking a Research Award Recipient to explore research questions ... such as engineering or computer/information science;.

  5. Livelihoods and the economy

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    better lives. IDRC's support for economic research has helped governments steer national eco-nomies toward growth, level the playing field for busi- ... special treatment and accounting stan- dards were ... part alongside men in all activities,.

  6. Political Economy of Finance

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Perotti, E.

    2013-01-01

    This survey reviews how a recent political economy literature helps explaining variation in governance, competition, funding composition and access to credit. Evolution in political institutions can account for financial evolution, and appear critical to explain rapid changes in financial structure,

  7. Collaborative Economy and Tourism

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dredge, Dianne; Gyimóthy, Szilvia

    2017-01-01

    The digital collaborative economy is one of the most fascinating developments to have claimed our attention in the last decade. Not only does it defy clear definition, but its historical links back to non-monetised sharing and gift economies and its contemporary foundations in monetising idling...... or spare capacity make it difficult to theorise. In this chapter, we lay the foundation for a social science approach to the exploration of the collaborative economy and its relationship with tourism. We argue that “collaborative” and “economy” should be conceptualised in a broad and inclusive manner...... in order to avoid narrow theorisations and blinkered accounts that focus only on digitally-mediated, monetised transactions. A balance between individual and collective dimensions of the collaborative economy is also necessary if we are to understand its societal implications....

  8. The Effects: Economy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nutrient pollution has diverse and far-reaching effects on the U.S. economy, impacting tourism, property values, commercial fishing, recreational businesses and many other sectors that depend on clean water.

  9. The Collaborative Economy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Avital, Michel; Andersson, Magnus; Nickerson, Jeffrey

    2014-01-01

    An economy based on the exchange of capital, assets and services between individuals has grown significantly, spurred by proliferation of internet-based platforms that allow people to share underutilized resources and trade with reasonably low transaction costs. The movement toward this economy...... of “sharing” translates into market efficiencies that bear new products, reframe established services, have positive environmental effects, and may generate overall economic growth. This emerging paradigm, entitled the collaborative economy, is disruptive to the conventional company-driven economic paradigm...... as evidenced by the large number of peer-to-peer based services that have captured impressive market shares sectors ranging from transportation and hospitality to banking and risk capital. The panel explores economic, social, and technological implications of the collaborative economy, how digital technologies...

  10. Observing the economy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosenbaum, Stan

    2009-07-01

    In "The (unfortunate) complexity of the economy" (April pp28-32) Jean-Philippe Bouchaud presents clear evidence that traditional assumptions of rational markets have to be abandoned. The old investor slogan "buy on promise, sell on rumour" quickly magnifies a downturn into a crisis, which triggers two questions. If physics-based models are applied (beyond understanding and prediction) to actual market decisions, does this make the economy more or less stable? And, is this cause for stronger regulation?

  11. Corruption and the economy

    OpenAIRE

    Tanzi Vito

    2013-01-01

    This paper focuses on the economic and not on the political impact of corruption. Corruption delegitimizes the working of a market economy, as well as the outcomes of political processes. This paper highlights ways in which corruption, by distorting economic decisions and the working of the market economy, inevitably reduces a country’s rate of growth. The paper also discusses some of the channels through which corruption distorts various economic decisions. Finally, the paper reports o...

  12. The Dutch Economy 2009

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2010-09-01

    In the series 'The Dutch Economy' the Dutch Statistical Office describes and analyzes annual developments in enterprises, households and governments, and with respect to employment and the environment. One of the subjects is 'Economy and Environment' with the sub-topics 'Resources and Energy', 'Emissions' and 'Environmental Taxes'. Furthermore, in articles on specific themes current economic issues are discussed. One of those themes has the title 'Share of renewable energy in the Netherlands is still small'. [nl

  13. Token economy for schizophrenia.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    McMonagle, T

    2000-01-01

    A token economy is a behavioural therapy technique in which the desired change is achieved by means of tokens administered for the performance of predefined behaviours according to a program. Though token economy programmes were widespread in the 1970s they became largely restricted to wards where long-stay patients from institutions are prepared for transfer into the community and were particularly aimed at changing negative symptoms of schizophrenia - poor motivation, poor attention and social withdrawal.

  14. Regulating the sharing economy

    OpenAIRE

    Erickson, Kristofer; Sorensen, Inge

    2016-01-01

    In this introductory essay, we explore definitions of the ‘sharing economy’, a concept indicating both social (relational, communitarian) and economic (allocative, profit-seeking) aspects which appear to be in tension. We suggest combining the social and economic logics of the sharing economy to focus on the central features of network enabled, aggregated membership in a pool of offers and demands (for goods, services, creative expressions). This definition of the sharing economy distinguishe...

  15. ForeignAssistance.gov

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Agency for International Development — ForeignAssistance.gov provides a view of U.S. Government foreign assistance funds across agencies and enables users to explore, analyze, and review aid investments...

  16. Foreign Body Retrieval

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... the body. When your physician suspects that a blunt foreign body is stuck in the esophagus, you ... tract. Other drugs taken by mouth can help blunt foreign objects pass through the digestive tract by ...

  17. Foreign Body Retrieval

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... foreign objects that have been ingested through the mouth or airway or introduced into the soft tissues. ... through the digestive tract. Other drugs taken by mouth can help blunt foreign objects pass through the ...

  18. Foreign Body Retrieval

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... can leak into the bowel and cause mercury poisoning. Magnetic toys can obstruct the bowel when they ... soft tissue foreign body, contact your physician immediately. Treatment will depend on the type of foreign body ...

  19. Foreign Body Retrieval

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... tissues. top of page What are some common uses of the procedure? Foreign body retrieval is used ... bones also may be difficult to visualize. Additional evaluation is required when the suspected foreign body is ...

  20. Foreign Aid Explorer)

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Agency for International Development — The Foreign Aid Explorer shows the multi-dimensional picture of U.S. foreign assistance through a highly visual and interactive website. The website makes it easy...

  1. Foreign Body Retrieval

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... able to view the surgical instrument as it advances to the location of the foreign object in ... helps dilate, or widen, the esophagus. This helps advance the foreign body into the stomach, from where ...

  2. Foreign Direct Investments – Challenges and Perspectives for Romania

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristina Batusaru

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available In the context of globalization of markets, foreign direct investments have an important role in terms of supporting endogenous growth factors, on the one hand and the circuit of financial flows between countries, on the other hand. If we refer to the effects of the economic crisis on economies, ISD may represent capital infusion instruments for affected economic sectors, contributing to faster recovery of economic gaps that occurred. By studying this topic of FDI we consider the great impact and benefits that they can bring, being essential element in the development of a country, as in the case of Romania. This paper presents the main trends of international financial flows for the period 2008-2012, whereas in the context of economic globalization requires an overall analysis of country-specific FDI performance as it helps in improving and optimizing strategies adopted by foreign transnational companies. In order to underline their importance and necessity, we study the situation of Romania in this field by analyzing the performance of countries in attracting direct foreign investments. Following the study conducted it has been made a number of conclusions and recommendations on how to improve this process in Romania. Academics, researchers, administrators of the university all have a great responsibility on how they support to attract FDI in Romania, even if we refer to work force that they form, the ideas they can provide in supporting and developing this process or by sharing the “know-how” related to the many fields that FDI can have an impact on. This paper aims to bring on the loop the main strengths and weaknesses that Romania has in the field of FDS and invites the readers interested on the topic to involve by providing feedback in order to improve this process in Romania.

  3. Management of financial sources for innovative development: foreign countries experience

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dyba O. M.

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Authors have analyzed and synthesized the main features of financial sources management for innovative development in development economies of foreign countries. The article describes the peculiarities of above mentioned type of management, using the examples of such countries as Germany, USA and Japan, which represent different kinds of economy and society. The main sources for innovative development financing are highlighted within the national economies conditions. The authors proposed the generalized models of financial sources management for innovative development. The information will be useful for Ukrainian model of financial sources management development.

  4. TITLE: OTIC FOREIGN BODIES

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Dr. A.O.A. Ogunleye

    A large variety of foreign bodies may be encountered in the external auditory meatus 1 . The objects may be organic or inorganic. Organic foreign bodies include paper, cotton wool, rubber, seeds, etc while inorganic objects include beads, ball bearings, stones, and crayons 1- 4. Foreign bodies are inserted into the ear.

  5. Macroeconomic Issues in Foreign Aid

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hjertholm, Peter; Laursen, Jytte; White, Howard

    foreign aid, macroeconomics of aid, gap models, aid fungibility, fiscal response models, foreign debt,......foreign aid, macroeconomics of aid, gap models, aid fungibility, fiscal response models, foreign debt,...

  6. Opportunities for a bio-based economy in the Netherlands

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sanders, J.; Hoeven, D. van der

    2008-01-01

    The shift to a bio-based economy for the Netherlands is not only required because of climate change, but also for industrial strategy reasons. Traditional strongholds of the Dutch economy like the Rotterdam harbour, the agricultural sector (including the greenhouse sector, and food and feed industries) and the petrochemical industry will be affected by the new economic realities, and it is precisely to these sectors that a bio-based economy will offer new opportunities. (author)

  7. Policy Reforms in Indonesia: A Political Economy Perspective

    OpenAIRE

    Abu N. M. Wahid; Mohamad Ikhsan

    1996-01-01

    During the 1970s the Indonesian economy grew at a rapid rate. This growth was primarily attributable to the government’s oil revenue and massive expansion of public sector in Indonesia. However, the decline in oil price of the 1980s adversely affected the growth and stability of the economy. The government clearly recognized the fact that a restructuring of the economy was imperative. The present paper is a critical analysis of this restructuring effort. The paper argues that the restructurin...

  8. Sharing Economy in Travel and Tourism: Finland vs. Hong Kong

    OpenAIRE

    Shoaib Ullah, Syed

    2017-01-01

    The key aim of this thesis is to determine how the sharing economy companies, especially sharing accommodation services like Airbnb, are affecting travel and tourism industry in Fin-land and in Hong Kong. The thesis also looks into the future of sharing economy in travel and tourism industry and any possibilities of cooperation between traditional service providers and sharing economy companies. The thesis is commissioned by the Association of Finnish Travel Agents (AFTA/SMAL). In the the...

  9. Paraguay: population and the economy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanders, T G

    1986-01-01

    Paraguay's political conflicts and development experiences have been accompanied by compensatory population movements; however, economic and population policies of the past are not adequate to address the current economic challenges. The principal structural problem is dependence on international commodity prices. Since late 1984, the international prices for soya and cotton have declined more than 50%; these 2 products account for 83% of official exports. The external debt has grown significantly in the past 5 years and is increasingly difficult to service. A major problem the government faces in servicing the debt and maintaining economic growth is its inability to get control of foreign exchange. Much of Paraguay's external trade is contraband, with the dollars passing into the black market. As a result of the illegal economy, government earnings have been insufficient to cover expenses. Unemployment stands at 12% because of general economic decline, cuts in government expenditure, and the reduction of investment in hydroelectricity. Occupation of new land, the classic solution by the Paraguayan peasantry, is no longer a viable option since all land is now utilized. About 20-25% of Paraguayans live outside the country, expecially in Argentina. In 1986, a commission drafted an Adjustment Plan that recommended a devaluation of the official gurani rate, tax increases, higher tariffs for public services, and incentives to invest in priority areas; however, this plan has not been implemented to date.

  10. FOREIGN INVESTMENTS INTO SVERDLOVSK AREA IN THE CONTEXT OF RUSSIAN CONNECTION TO WTO

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L.M. Kapustina

    2005-09-01

    Full Text Available Dynamics and structure of the foreign investments involved in economy of Sverdlovsk area are analyzed in the article. Consequences of Russian connection to WTO from the view point of foreign investments volumes change are considered. Directions of multilateral regulation of investment measures on the basis of the international arrangements are certain.

  11. Effect of Body Composition on Walking Economy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maciejczyk Marcin

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. The aim of the study was to evaluate walking economy and physiological responses at two walking speeds in males with similar absolute body mass but different body composition. Methods. The study involved 22 young men with similar absolute body mass, BMI, aerobic performance, calf and thigh circumference. The participants differed in body composition: body fat (HBF group and lean body mass (HLBM group. In the graded test, maximal oxygen uptake (VO2max and maximal heart rate were measured. Walking economy was evaluated during two walks performed at two different speeds (4.8 and 6.0 km ‧ h-1. Results. The VO2max was similar in both groups, as were the physiological responses during slow walking. The absolute oxygen uptake or oxygen uptake relative to body mass did not significantly differentiate the studied groups. The only indicator significantly differentiating the two groups was oxygen uptake relative to LBM. Conclusions. Body composition does not significantly affect walking economy at low speed, while during brisk walking, the economy is better in the HLBM vs. HBF group, provided that walking economy is presented as oxygen uptake relative to LBM. For this reason, we recommend this manner of oxygen uptake normalization in the evaluation of walking economy.

  12. The offshorization of economy: the present realities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maslak Olga

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available In this article the essence and main types of offshore zones have been studied. It has been analyzed the main reasons for cooperation with the tax havens, established that the main reason of the Ukrainian economy offshorization is not only the desire of economic entities to optimize taxes, but also the desire to protect their assets from the negative impact of the crisis phenomena in the national economy during 2010-2016. The foreign experience of the anti-offshore regulation has been researched. It has been defined that the general anti-offshore regulation vector should be based on the principles of financial transparency, active cooperation with the international community, an optimal combination of instruments that restrict the capital outflows and the effective instruments that stimulate the business development in the country. It has been also established that the mechanism of deoffshorization should be aimed not only at elimination of the territories with the preferential taxation, but also at receiving benefits from their use on the basis of the existing financial infrastructure of the leading world offshore centers. The experience of China in attracting additional foreign investments, gaining wider access to financial resources through the cooperation with an offshore financial centre has been researched.

  13. Regulating the sharing economy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kristofer Erickson

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available In this introductory essay, we explore definitions of the ‘sharing economy’, a concept indicating both social (relational, communitarian and economic (allocative, profit-seeking aspects which appear to be in tension. We suggest combining the social and economic logics of the sharing economy to focus on the central features of network enabled, aggregated membership in a pool of offers and demands (for goods, services, creative expressions. This definition of the sharing economy distinguishes it from other related peer-to-peer and collaborative forms of production. Understanding the social and economic motivations for and implications of participating in the sharing economy is important to its regulation. Each of the papers in this special issue contributes to knowledge by linking the social and economic aspects of sharing economy practices to regulatory norms and mechanisms. We conclude this essay by suggesting future research to further clarify and render intelligible the sharing economy, not as a contradiction in terms but as an empirically observable realm of socio-economic activity.

  14. Population and the Colombian economy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanders, T G

    1983-01-01

    , when compared with other Latin American countries, Colombia's basic population trends place it in a relatively favorable position. The economy affected by these population changes is 1 of the most diversified in Latin America. 1 of the most promising aspects of the Colombian economy in the future will be energy production. Although currently an energy importer, in the form of petroleum and petroleum products, Colombia expects to be totally self-sufficient in all forms of energy by 1985 and to become a major importer of coal. The road ahead is not smooth, but Colombia seems likely to make progress in raising the standard of living of its population, especially if the world economy recovers.

  15. Analysis of Factors That Affects the Investors in Conducting Business in Indonesia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rini Kurnia Sari

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Investment is needed in the development of the economy. With the decentralization of investment is expected to evolve as a whole in every province in Indonesia. Local governments need to improve the quality of economic (GDP / Capita, social (HDI and the infrastructure to attract domestic and foreign investors. Fromthe test results showed that factors affecting investors conducting business in Indonesia is still influenced by GDP/capita, HDI and Infrastructure instead of natural resources.This study uses descriptive analysis and correlation analysis methods to look at the correlation factors that affect investors doing business in Indonesia.

  16. Determinants of Foreign Direct Investment and Its Causal Effect on ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Foreign direct investment (FDI) is an important tool for the growth of any economy as it is more stable than several forms of capital flows. The consensus is that it provides the much needed requirement for economic development and growth. However, evidences in Nigeria have shown FDI crowding out of domestic firms and ...

  17. 46 Evaluating Foreign Direct Investment and Africa's Development ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Africa to several factors discouraging foreign direct investment. Suggestions and ... in the economy of African states and what reasons account for such impacts. ..... information to second-guess market signals (prices) and because powerful interest ..... over 115 million people using cell phones in Nigeria, we do not have any ...

  18. Political Strategies of Foreign Firms in the Dutch Chemical Industry

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kranenburg, H.L. van; Voinea, C.L.; Burger, M.; Tulder, R. van; Verbeke, A.; Voinea, L.

    2012-01-01

    - Purpose – This chapter explores the rationale for foreign companies to have a political strategy and how these companies are politically active in a small, open and regionally integrated economy. The reasons why companies are engaged in corporate political activities are tied to the rationales for

  19. Advantages and risks of foreign investors' participation in the projects of public-private partnership

    OpenAIRE

    I. Bohdan

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this article is investigating the role of foreign investments in a contemporary globalized economy as a factor of acceleration of the national economic development. Based on the analysis of international trends in the investment projects involving foreign investors the author proves that active gross fixed capital formation, particularly in low- and middle-income countries, is largely determined by the availability of efficient mechanisms to attract foreign investments into the...

  20. PROBLEM ASSESSMENT OF THE LEVEL INVESTMENT ACTIVITY IN THE NATIONAL ECONOMY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tatiana ANDREEVA

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available In this article the fundamental importance of the investment sphere, forming of factors of production and defining the competitiveness of the national economy, as well as some of the problems of evaluation of the level of investment made in the national economy, the problems of attracting foreign direct investment, as the most important conditions for sustainable growth of the national economies. The special attention in the article is paid to the methods of factor analysis of the investment climate, as well as the General trends of changes in the business environment, as basic conditions for improving the level of investment activity of the national economy.

  1. Petroleum and the economy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bohi, D.R.

    1992-01-01

    In re-examining the effect of energy price shocks on the economy, this article applies several tests to show that the apparent coincidence between price shocks and poor economic performance may be misleading. For example, whereas macroeconomic analysis graphs of employment and GNP clearly indicate an apparent correlation between the 1979 petroleum price hike and economic downturn in the USA, Great Britain and Germany, Japan's performance stayed fairly constant during that period. Additional sectoral analyses of the performances of the western economies show that the impacts of the '74 and '79 oil price shocks were not equally distributed across the different industrial sectors of the various nations. The paper argues that a deeper understanding of the energy-economy relationship is required to reduce these ambiguities

  2. Transnational corruption and innovation in transition economies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Habiyaremye, A.; Raymond, W.

    2013-01-01

    In this paper, we examine how transnational corruption affects host country firms’ innovation behaviour and performance in transition economies of Eastern Europe and Central and Western Asia. Using firm-level data from the Business Environment and Enterprise Performance Survey, we show that the

  3. Essays in financial intermediation and political economy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Luo, Mancy

    2017-01-01

    This thesis consists of three chapters in financial intermediation and political economy. The first chapter studies how investors’ preference for local stocks affects global mutual funds’ investment behaviors, and shows that mutual funds overweight stocks from their client countries (i.e., where

  4. Essays on Industrial Organization and Political Economy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Camara, Odilon Roberto VG de a

    2009-01-01

    This thesis presents three essays on industrial organization and political economy. In the first essay, I show how the attributes of a managerial workforce affect firms' placement decisions and wage offers, and managers' quit decisions. My OLG model features two division managers and a CEO, where each executive may be at a different point in his…

  5. China – A New Center of Power in the Global Economy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sarmiza Pencea

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available In its first part, this paper looks at China’s rapid economic transformation of the last more than three decades, at its accelerated, never-met-in-history growth, and at the factors underneath: masive investments, both foreign and local, technology and managerial know-how transfers, related productivity rises, huge exports and, hopefully, increasingly larger future domestic comsumption. In its second part, the article highlights China’s complex impact on world demand, supply and prices, resulting from its extensive development and from its new positioning in the world economy. Finally, the paper also looks at the negative externalities of China’s unsustainable development, in terms of land, water and air pollution, speedier depletion of the natural resources of the planet and climate change, stressing upon the ideea that while the whole mankind is affected, the first to suffer are the Chinese themselves.

  6. Contagion of us subprime mortgage crisis to Colombian economy: measured by financial market data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chu V. Nguyen

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available The long-horizon event study methodology is used to document the severe impact of the US subprime mortgage crisis on the Colombian economy. The estimated parameter of a constantmean return model is used to derive the “abnormal return” on the market portfolios of Colombia over its selected event window. Analyses of the results reveal that the US subprime mortgage crisis negatively affected both the Colombian and the US equity markets almost identically in terms of cumulative percentage reductions and timing. Statistic testing results seem to support the qualitative observation. This phenomenon can be attributable to the recent multilateral and regional trade agreements that increase the flow of trade and foreign direct investment to Colombia.

  7. WAYS TO ATTRACT ADDITIONAL INVESTMENTS IN THE ECONOMY OF UKRAINE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Volodymyr Boreiko

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available In the article investigated the role of investment resources in ensuring the dynamic development of the economy of countries; analyzed the dynamics earnings of direct foreign investments in Ukraine and deposits of the population attracted by commercial banks; proved that to create a favorable environment for investors, Ukraine should strengthen legal protection of the commercial interests of investors and provide them with tax breaks, provide insurance their of industrial and commercial risks, cancel taxation of deposits of citizens and to reimburse them the full amount of deposits in bankruptcy of commercial banks. Keywords: investment resources, economy of country, population deposits, legal protection, risk insurance, tax benefits. JEL: O 16

  8. INSTITUTIONAL TRANSFORMATIONS TO ECONOMY OF THE URAL FEDERAL DISTRICT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S.I. Mayer

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available Economy of the Ural federal district is characterized by appreciable institutional transformations. First of all, it concerns arrival on the market new and leaving from the market of the old enterprises and the organizations, that, alongside with other factors, defines growth of competitiveness of regions. The processes of development of small business, strengthening of market positions of the organizations with participation of the foreign capital, activisation of the market of merges and absorption of the companies operate also in the same direction. Noted tendencies are characteristic for economy of all Russia. However regional features, as between federal districts, and subjects of Federation are kept also.

  9. On the creative economy chain in Brazil: potential and challenges

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ANITA KON

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT The article presents an analysis of the Creative Economy in Brazil, showing its development potential for the generation of income and employment, in order to the country's development resumption. They are initially presented concepts and features of the Creative Economy for, in sequence, to analyze the economic development profile and potential of this industry in Brazil. The empirical part introduces some methodological aspects, in continuing with the analysis of the creative chain contribution to the generation of Value Added and employment in the country, and a vision of their foreign trade.potential. Finally, the challenges to the implementation of public policies are investigated.

  10. Experimenting with alternative economies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Longhurst, Noel; Avelino, Flor; Wittmayer, Julia

    2016-01-01

    Neoliberalism is a powerful narrative that has shaped processes of urban economic development across the globe. This paper reports on four nascent ‘new economic’ narratives which represent fundamentally different imaginaries of the urban economy. Experiments informed by these narratives challenge...... the dominant neoliberal logic in four key dimensions: What is the purpose of economic development? What are the preferred distributive mechanisms? Who governs the economy? What is the preferred form of economic organisation? The emergence of these experiments illustrates that cities are spaces where counter...

  11. SOCIAL ECONOMY EFFICIENCY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Florina Oana Virlanuta

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available The social economy combines profitability with social inclusion. Social innovation is the first step in the creation of a social enterprise. Social economy development is a process underway, innovative in terms of relating the individual to the production processes, the concept of citizenship, production areas and modalities. The concern for sustainable development, analysis of economic and financial crisis, the issue of the relationship between the individual and the production process open up many opportunities for development that can influence public policies on employment and social cohesion.

  12. Inverting the moral economy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olwig, Mette Fog; Noe, Christine; Kangalawe, Richard

    2017-01-01

    Governments, donors and investors often promote land acquisitions for forest plantations as global climate change mitigation via carbon sequestration. Investors’ forestry thereby becomes part of a global moral economy imaginary. Using examples from Tanzania we critically examine the global moral...... economy’s narrative foundation, which presents trees as axiomatically ‘green’, ‘idle’ land as waste and economic investments as benefiting the relevant communities. In this way the traditional supposition of the moral economy as invoked by the economic underclass to maintain the basis of their subsistence...

  13. Inverting the moral economy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olwig, Mette Fog; Noe, Christine; Kangalawe, Richard

    2015-01-01

    Governments, donors and investors often promote land acquisitions for forest plantations as global climate change mitigation via carbon sequestration. Investors’ forestry thereby becomes part of a global moral economy imaginary. Using examples from Tanzania we critically examine the global moral...... economy’s narrative foundation, which presents trees as axiomatically ‘green’, ‘idle’ land as waste and economic investments as benefiting the relevant communities. In this way the traditional supposition of the moral economy as invoked by the economic underclass to maintain the basis of their subsistence...

  14. Sipping fuel and saving lives: increasing fuel economy withoutsacrificing safety

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gordon, Deborah; Greene, David L.; Ross, Marc H.; Wenzel, Tom P.

    2007-06-11

    The public, automakers, and policymakers have long worried about trade-offs between increased fuel economy in motor vehicles and reduced safety. The conclusion of a broad group of experts on safety and fuel economy in the auto sector is that no trade-off is required. There are a wide variety of technologies and approaches available to advance vehicle fuel economy that have no effect on vehicle safety. Conversely, there are many technologies and approaches available to advance vehicle safety that are not detrimental to vehicle fuel economy. Congress is considering new policies to increase the fuel economy of new automobiles in order to reduce oil dependence and reduce greenhouse gas emissions. The findings reported here offer reassurance on an important dimension of that work: It is possible to significantly increase the fuel economy of motor vehicles without compromising their safety. Automobiles on the road today demonstrate that higher fuel economy and greater safety can co-exist. Some of the safest vehicles have higher fuel economy, while some of the least safe vehicles driven today--heavy, large trucks and SUVs--have the lowest fuel economy. At an October 3, 2006 workshop, leading researchers from national laboratories, academia, auto manufacturers, insurance research industry, consumer and environmental groups, material supply industries, and the federal government agreed that vehicles could be designed to simultaneously improve safety and fuel economy. The real question is not whether we can realize this goal, but the best path to get there. The experts' studies reveal important new conclusions about fuel economy and safety, including: (1) Vehicle fuel economy can be increased without affecting safety, and vice versa; (2) Reducing the weight and height of the heaviest SUVs and pickup trucks will simultaneously increase both their fuel economy and overall safety; and (3) Advanced materials can decouple size from mass, creating important new possibilities

  15. The Role Of Foreign Investment In Economic And Social Development In Libya

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mustafa Khalifa Thawadi El. Hamoudi

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Investment is whether in local or foreign organization is the action Plan split by various investment activities The Libyan economy is among those economies that require this kind of foreign investment to achieve the desired economic goals which are correlated with the objectives of the Libyan economic system for subsequent stages. Therefore it is important to study the trends and determinants of FDI in developing in general and in Libya in particular. This paper describes the role that could be played by investment foreign investment in economic and social development in Libya pointing out the positive and negative aspects and how to deal with each of them in proportion to the facts of the Libyan Economy needs. And in the light of the new economic orientation in line with the political and economic developments in the international arena and foreign investment and thus contributing to the expansion of the ownership base and create job opportunities for citizen in this study will follow the descriptive approach through the way ahead obtained from digital data from various sources using the forms as required and discussed this paper to the definition of foreign investment evolved of investment determinants of FDI motivated encourage foreign investment history prospects for foreign direct investment in Libya Barriers to foreign direct investment in Libya Policies strategies to support foreign direct investment in Libya conclusions and recommendations.

  16. The State Strategies for Building the Knowledge Economy: the Transformation Vector and Group Features

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Khanin Igor G.

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the article is to analyze the state strategies for building the knowledge economy, determine the directions of transformation and group features of the developed countries and the most economically powerful developing countries. Attention is drawn to the modern world context of historical circumstances affecting the state strategies for the transition to the knowledge economy, the changes in patterns of economic growth and the new stage of globalization associated with the development and dissemination of knowledge. In this regard, there singled out a number of global megatrends covering scientific and technical activities, international trade in high-technology goods and knowledge-intensive services, international migration of labor, etc. There also noted the change in the paradigm of rivalry and the “architecture” of the global economic leadership. The indicators of scientific and technical activities in several countries are analyzed, which proves the preservation of asymmetry. The results of the analysis of the strategies for building the knowledge economy in a number of developed countries (the US, EU countries, Germany, France, Denmark, Finland, Sweden, Japan, South Korea, Singapore, Israel and developing countries (China, India, Malaysia, Brazil, South Africa, Mexico are presented. Their participation in the world scientific progress and innovation process is characterized, as well as the main directions of transformations in terms of the transition to the knowledge economy (new industrialization, development of science and education, improvement of innovation systems, development of international scientific and technical cooperation, etc.. One of the factors of structural changes at all levels is macro innovations. Within the framework of the proposed concept, three types of such innovations are distinguished: scientific and paradigm, structural, and transformational. Their relationship with the foreign economic strategy

  17. Foreign Investors Able to Establish Foreign- exclusively Exhibition Corporations

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2005-01-01

    Foreign Investors Able to Establish Foreign-exclusively Exhibition Corporations In Feb, Ministry of Commerce issued its 1st decree on temporary regulation for foreign-investing corporations; the regulation allows foreign investors to set up foreign-investing convention & exhibition corporations exclusively or through cooperation with other Chinese corporations, enterprises or organizations. With legal protection on their regulatory management and legal rights, these foreign-investing corporations are in the charge of Department of Foreign Investment Administration, Ministry of Commerce.

  18. Post acquisition business synergies of a foreign affiliate. Case study of companies in Nuevo Leon

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luis Cabeza

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available This article will explain the importance of creating synergies after having acquired foreign affiliates. Interviews were conducted to executives of four of the most important manufacturing companies in Nuevo Leon, which have been involved in the international acquisition process of foreign affiliates. Also presented are 10 areas where synergies may be obtained after having acquired a foreign affiliate, in accordance with (Marin and Ketelhohn, 2008 economies of size at corporate headquarters, greater opportunities for professional development, corporate image, interdivisional transactions, vertical integration, economies of scale and/or scope, coordination of skills, learning center, leverage of intangible assets and unleashing of skills.

  19. [Selective internationalization: foreign workers and Japanese society].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ito, R

    1990-01-01

    Japan's December 1989 revision of the law on immigration and recognition of refugees was intended to provide greater felxibility for employment of foreigners with specialized skills or professional qualifications while excluding migrant workers. This policy, referred to as selective internationalization by the author, represents an effort by the government to early 1980s and to changes in the Japanese economy which after decades of rapid growth is entering a new phase of diversification. The ideal of national homogeneity has prevented formulation of any coherent policy of integrating Japan's foreign born population, mostly descendents of laborers from Japan's former colonies. In 1988, Japan's 677,000 Korean residents constituted 72% of the foreign population registered in Japan. As of 1988, some 40,000 foreigners were registered as residents and permitted to work in any of several well-defined areas. The number, while small, is growing. Illegal migrants are defined essentially as foreigners exercising economic activities not authorized by their visas. The number of such workers is notoriously difficult to estimate, but the number of expulsions for labor violations increased by 4700 in 1989 to 22,600, suggesting that the problem is growing. The Ministry of Justice estimated the number of foreigners in irregular situations at 70,000 in 1988, and it has probably reached 120,000 at present. The number of foreign workers, authorized or not, is estimated at 150-160,000 or .3% of the active population. The 1989 revision of the immigration law does not constitute a foreign labor policy, but it does clearly signal the end of complete protectionism vis a vis the labor market which characterized Japan's period of rapid growth. Internationalization of the labor market reflects 2 concerns, provision of highly qualified employees to enable large enterprises to adapt more readily to changing international conditions, and continued control over the foreign labor supply of small

  20. Ecology and economy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Menard, M.; Bischoff, J.

    1980-01-01

    The green movement challenges workers' unions and socialists. Who are the 'Greens', and what do they want. Where do their theoretical fundamentals come from. Will an ecological economy be able to function. Are the 'Greens' leftists or dreamers fighting against progress. Arguments for trade unionists and socialists in the ecological controversy. (orig.) [de

  1. The Danish Negotiated Economy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Ove K.

    2012-01-01

    Denmark is characterised by a number of distinct traits: a small and open economy, a stable democratic political system, a high proportion of organised wage earners covered by collective agreements, a political culture marked by social partnership, and a long tradition of institutionalised class...

  2. Operant Conditioning - Token Economy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montgomery, Jacqueline; McBurney, Raymond D.

    Described is an Operant Conditioning-Token Economy Program, teaching patients to be responsible for their own behavior, to make choices, and to be motivated to change. The program was instigated with mentally ill patients in a state hospital and was later used with institutionalized mentally handicapped groups. After two years, only four of the…

  3. Japan's plutonium economy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hecht, M.M.

    1994-01-01

    Japan's plutonium economy is based on the most efficient use of nuclear energy, as envisioned under the Atoms for Peace program of the 1950s and 1960s. The nuclear pioneers assumed that all nations would want to take full advantage of atomic energy, recycling waste into new fuel to derive as much energy as possible from this resource

  4. Airline Safety and Economy

    Science.gov (United States)

    1993-01-01

    This video documents efforts at NASA Langley Research Center to improve safety and economy in aircraft. Featured are the cockpit weather information needs computer system, which relays real time weather information to the pilot, and efforts to improve techniques to detect structural flaws and corrosion, such as the thermal bond inspection system.

  5. Radical Circular Economy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Prins, M.; Mohammadi, S.; Slob, N.

    2015-01-01

    Recently the Circular Economy (CE) concept has gained momentum in the Netherlands, propounding that environmental impact reduction can provide a significant positive economical impulse. The government, larger parts of the industry as a whole, as well as the construction industry, has warmly received

  6. The Hidden STEM Economy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rothwell, Jonathan

    2013-01-01

    Workers in STEM (science, technology, engineering, and math) fields play a direct role in driving economic growth. Yet, because of how the STEM economy has been defined, policymakers have mainly focused on supporting workers with at least a bachelor's (BA) degree, overlooking a strong potential workforce of those with less than a BA. This report…

  7. The Impact of Foreign Direct Investment on the Export Performance: Empirical Evidence for Western Balkan Countries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dr.Sc. Nasir Selimi

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Recently there are many authors that have studied and analyzed the impact of foreign direct investments (FDI on the export performance. They have different opinions about the effect of foreign direct investments on the export performance. Some of them in their papers conclude that FDI have positive effect on the export performance and some not. There are also findings that FDI do not have any impact on the export performance. Of course for economic benefit of host country it is not important only the amount of FDI, but also their structure. To measure the effect of FDI on the export performance is not easy. Therefore, the main objective of this paper is to analyze empirically the foreign direct investments and exports performance during the period of 1996-2013 in Western Balkan countries. The paper also investigates for the fixed effects and individual heterogeneity across countries and years. Based on the panel regression techniques and Least Square Dummy Variable (LSDV regression method, FDI positively affect export performance in the sample countries in various model specifications. The results and conclusions of this paper we hope that will help everybody who are interested and studying this matter, especially the policy makers.  The last ones have the obligation to facilitate and promote the export if they award confirm that FDI contribute on developing their economy.

  8. FAKTOR-FAKTOR YANG MEMPENGARUHI FOREIGN DIRECT INVESTMENT (FDI DI KAWASAN ASIA TENGGARA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cep Jandi Anwar1

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available The need for investment as factors triggering the development of a country has a very important role. Foreign direct investment can be one of the important sources of capital in developing countries, and contribute, the national development by transfer of asset, management, and technology to stimulate the economy of the country.The purpose of this research is to determine the effects of interest rate, inflation, economic growth, openness on foreign direct investment (cases study in 5 South-east Asia countries namely, Indonesia, Malaysia, Thailand, Philippines, and Vietnam period of 2005 to 2012. The analytical method in this study is linear regression analytical method of panel data with Fixed Effect Model (FEM method to calculate the data is used by Eviews 8 software.The result of this research showed that during 2005 to 2012 the economic growth has positive and significant effect on foreign direct investment. Interest rate, inflation, and openness have negative and significant onforeign direct investment. Simultaneously, independent variable is significantly affect on dependent variable.

  9. Aptitude for Learning a Foreign Language.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sparks, Richard; Ganschow, Leonore

    2001-01-01

    Review research on foreign language aptitude and its measurement prior to 1990. Describes research areas in the 1990s, including affective variables, language learning strategies, learning styles as contributors to aptitude and aptitude as a cognitive construct affected by language variables. Reviews research on individual differences and the…

  10. Human Capital Influences in FDI in Eastern European Economies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shpresim Vranovci

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Despite the increase of total foreign direct investments (FDI in developing countries, the distribution of these investments among countries is disproportional. The inflows have been directed only to a limited number of developing countries. The most significant effect of FDI on the country’s economy is the injection of needed capital and employment to overcome the gap between the savings of a developing economy, which does not invest much in new business, hindering so the employment increase. The idea that possible determinants of FDIs are not only determinants of economic nature, but also other factors that have impacts in attracting FDI inflows are progressively increasing. New studies realized that social capital is a factor, which is considered by foreign enterprises before investment decisions.

  11. THE DYNAMICS OF FOREIGN DIRECT INVESTMENT IN ROMANIA AFTER EU ACCESSION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicoleta Rusu

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Identification of potential investment of the countries in the current context is one of the main important problem of the world economy because the investments, particularly foreign ones, is considered the key factor for economic growth and development. Foreign direct investments are an alternative source for financing the national economy, with a tendency in recent years of a positive effect on the Romanian economy. This paperwork highlights the role of foreign direct investment in Romania's economical growth potential, with major impact on employment, on the economic modernization, technology transfer and on the living standards. At the same time the article analyzed and highlights the contains of the current trend of foreign direct investments, structure and dynamics after Romania joined the European Union and their geographical distribution on the main development regions.

  12. Turkey’s Foreign Trade as a Driver of Economic Development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nigyar R. Masumova

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Turkey now is a regional leader due to economic success story of the past decade, changes in the economy's structure and dynamic. Since 1980th foreign trade has become the main driver of the economic growth. Due to liberalization policy Turkey was able to overcome the system crisis. The negative economic trends had contributed to the political instability. That's why it will be interesting to highlight some aspects of Turkish foreign trade policy, which influence the value, geographical and product orientation of foreign trade. Negative balance of trade is the result of its oil import dependence. But the export of goods with more value added has the trend to growth - 30% of exports come to machineries and transport equipments. After the collapse of the USSR Turkish-Russian economic relationship was facing revival. Trade and investment cooperation was developing rapidly. But the conflict of interest during the war in Syria led to growing differences between Russia and Turkey. 24th of November 2015 became a turning point for the Russian-Turkish relations, when Turkish fighter jet F-16 shot down a Russian military jet along the Syrian border. This tragedy had serious consequences for the bilateral economic relations. Huge investment pipeline project "Turkish stream" is freezed, the work of intergovernmental authorities is stopped, certain agricultural goods originated from Turkey is banned to the territory of the Russian Federation. Russia also suspended the visa-free regime for Turkish citizens, all charter flights to Turkey are prohibited. Nevertheless economic sanctions inevitable affect both the Turkish and Russian economies, but Russia is still one of the main partners of Turkey.

  13. Knowledge Economy and its Effects in Romania

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Prof. Ph. D. Laura Cismas

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available Knowledge economy implies that the rationality of individuals is limited because they make and adapt their choices in an environment affected by risk and uncertainty. The first part of this paper proposes an analysis of the knowledge economy, based on its interdisciplinary nature. Thus, classical theories adapt to visions that pertain to the dynamics of human interactions, the restructuring of the social network theory, the general equilibrium theory and the game theory.The research part of this paper identifies and explains the link between innovation and knowledge, as well as its effects on the Romanian economy’s competitiveness and innovation. The conclusions illustrate that the consolidation of knowledge-based economy in Romania implies setting certain priorities, such as: investing in education, developing entrepreneurship, creating an innovative and efficient system made up of companies, research centers and universities, which enables new technologies to be absorbed, adapted and created for the society.

  14. Toxic economy - interferences with recent Romanian experience

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristian Gheorghe Iacob

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available What is the toxic economy? Economy through which the legislation and control in place, fails to provide a standard of living with sustainable uptrend, getting to transform assets into cash whose value is consumed unproductively. Why we do not live well? Good life is in fact the standard of living of the economic and political offered by the laws of a state or groups of states, citizens living on a certain territory. The standard of living is a result of variety of factors, difficult to quantify both separately and in particular unit. In this article we will try to define the fractal complexity of how the toxic economy is affecting the standard of leaving

  15. Does SDDS Subscription Reduce Borrowing Costs for Emerging Market Economies?

    OpenAIRE

    John Cady

    2005-01-01

    Does macroeconomic data transparency-as signaled by subscription to the IMF's Special Data Dissemination Standard (SDDS)-help reduce borrowing costs in international capital markets? This question is examined using data on new issues of sovereign foreign-currency-denominated (U.S. dollar, yen, and euro) bonds for several emerging market economies. Panel econometric estimates indicate that spreads on new bond issues declined on average by close to 20 percent, or by an average of about 55 basis...

  16. Depreciation of the Indian Currency: Implications for the Indian Economy.

    OpenAIRE

    Sumanjeet Singh

    2009-01-01

    The Indian currency has depreciated by more than 20 per cent since April 2008 and breached its crucial 50-level against the greenback on sustained dollar purchases by foreign banks and stronger dollar overseas. The fall in the value of Indian rupee has several consequences which could have mixed effects on Indian economy. But, mainly, there are four expected implications of falling rupee. First, it should boost exports; second, it will lead to higher cost of imported goods and make some of th...

  17. DEDOLLARISATION DE L’ECONOMIE CONGOLAISE : Atouts, contraintes et perspectives.

    OpenAIRE

    MALINGUMU, Crispin

    2015-01-01

    This paper examines the reasons for the downward irreversibility of dollarization and analyses possibilities of de-dollarization of the Congolese economy. During the 2000s, stabilizing the macroeconomic framework has not ended this phenomenon. Indeed, the dollarization rate approximated by the ratio on foreign currency deposit on the total currency, deposit on total currency deposits passed respectively from on average of 35% in 2001 to more than 69.1% at the end of 2013 for the first while t...

  18. Trans-nationalisation Processes in the Ukrainian Economy

    OpenAIRE

    Bolharova Natalya K.; Panevnyk Tetyana M.

    2013-01-01

    The article considers main processes of trans-nationalisation of Ukrainian economy, identifies specific features of trans-national production and explains some theoretical aspects of these issues. It provides main stages of theoretical comprehension of activity of trans-national corporations (TNC), specific features of the theory of competitive advantages of TNC and specifies the basic ones of them. The article conducts analysis of flows of direct foreign investments into the Ukrainian econom...

  19. Strategic imperative formation of foreign economic policy of Ukraine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O. P. Borysenko

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Deep rethinking and thorough elaboration require a general plan for the development of the state management in the sphere of foreign economic processes - strategy formation and implementation of foreign economic policy of Ukraine. Formed in conditions of political and economic crisis, it is not aimed at providing qualitative change - innovation development, enhance national business investment, measuring asymmetry foreign trade balance, optimize the structure of imports, increasing competitiveness of Ukrainian goods and so on. Significant changes need in government regulation mechanisms of transformation processes, their system updates, meaningful transition to a model of a market transformations, which combined with effective self-governance. The purpose of the article is to explore the strategic principles of foreign economic policy formation, identifying directions Ukraine’s foreign economic strategy formation and ways to improve its effectiveness. Today in Ukraine needs logically consistent application of the basic model of strategy formation and implementation of foreign economic policy: strategy of protectionism, strategy of competitiveness and foreign economic trade integration strategy. The scale and fragmentation tasks are preventing their full implementation. For a targeted and effective state influence on the economy suggest to build a strategy of foreign economic policy on the principles of consistency, integrity, comprehensiveness, subordination, continuity, dynamism, system-creating relations.

  20. FOREIGN DIRECT INVESTMENTS DURING FINANCIAL CRISES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    VINTILA DENISIA MARIANA

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available The fundamental idea of International capital flows is that short-term flows can be easily reversed, while flows on a longer time horizon are more stable. Crises are associated with withdrawals of short-term capital flows and growth of the foreign direct investment flows. The current crisis has meant a major decline of international capital flows, also of the foreign direct investment. The analysis in this article tries to establish if and under which conditions foreign direct investments can bring greater stability during the crisis, comparing the evolution of foreign direct investments in the current crisis with their response in previous crises. We show that during previous crises foreign direct investments were stable, behaving differently from other types of capital. Yet, during the current crisis, foreign direct investments have proven to be not so stable and all the components declined, raising questions about the resumption of the positive trend. The stability of foreign direct investments in the past was given by the increase of mergers and acquisitions during the crisis, reflecting fire-sale FDI. This feature is not found in the current crisis as mergers and acquisitions were severe affected by the crises and recorded a major decline. The current paper is realized in the doctoral program entitled PhD in economics at the standards of European knowledge- DoEsEc, scientific coordinator Prof. PhD Rodica Zaharia, institution The Academy of Economic Studies Bucharest, Faculty of International Business, period of research 2009-2012.

  1. Globalization and Public Policy Analysis: A Case Study of Foreign Policy of ASEAN Member States

    OpenAIRE

    Nattapol Pourprasert

    2016-01-01

    This study has an objective to analyze foreign policy of member states in globalization current, aiming to answer that the foreign policy of member states have been changed or remained the same and there are any factors affecting changing of foreign policy of the member states. From the study results, it is found that the foreign policy of Thailand is a friendly foreign policy with all states. The policy of Indonesia is more opened because of a change in leader, allowing ...

  2. Millennials and the Sharing Economy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ranzini, Giulia; Newlands, Gemma; Anselmi, Guido

    Report from the EU H2020 Research Project Ps2Share: Participation, Privacy, and Power in the Sharing Economy......Report from the EU H2020 Research Project Ps2Share: Participation, Privacy, and Power in the Sharing Economy...

  3. The collaborative Economy and Tourism

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dredge, Dianne; Gyimóthy, Szilvia

    2015-01-01

    House swapping, ridesharing, voluntourism, couchsurfing, dinner hosting and similar innovations epitomize the collaborative economy. The rise of the collaborative economy, also known as collaborative consumption, the sharing economy and peer-to-peer consumption, has been fuelled by a range of soc...... for a balanced assessment of such claims. Highlighting these claims allows us to pursue a more reflective research agenda and leads to a more informed, evidence-based assessment of the collaborative economy and tourism.......House swapping, ridesharing, voluntourism, couchsurfing, dinner hosting and similar innovations epitomize the collaborative economy. The rise of the collaborative economy, also known as collaborative consumption, the sharing economy and peer-to-peer consumption, has been fuelled by a range...... experiences; and higher levels of consumer risk-taking balanced against mechanisms such as peer-to-peer feedback designed to engender trust between producers and consumers. This paper explores and critically assesses the collaborative economy and its implications for tourism industrial systems. It achieves...

  4. SOME ASPECTS OF THE GEORGIAN ECONOMY AT THE CONTEMPORARY STAGE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tamaz ZUBIASHVILI

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available In the former Soviet Union the economy of the Georgian Republic occupied advanced positions. At the very first stage of the restoration of independence the post-Soviet Georgia’s economy declined 3-times; in the following years, the situation improved, but it reached the 1990 level only after 15 years. In spite of difficult problems of development it should be singled out the middle period progress of the 90-ies when the country introduced a new currency - Lari, created conditions for attracting foreign investments, economic growth was expressed in double-digit figures; it created an independent banking system, rapidly implemented the program of privatization, strengthened the links with international financial organizations and others. By this time, the private sector’s share in the state budget revenues was already 80%. After the end of the 90-ies, in a few years, economic reforms stalled. After the “Rose Revolution” - until 2012, the development of economy was greatly influenced by tightened administrative methods, foreign loans, foreign investment, and so forth. Unfortunately, at this stage of development, a property encroachment for the government became common practice in such a way as pressure on business. In recent four years, more attention was paid to the actual development, deepening of integration with European Union, the governmental pressure on business was removed. However, because of the lack of jobs, labour force continues to flow abroad.

  5. Trans-nationalisation Processes in the Ukrainian Economy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bolharova Natalya K.

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The article considers main processes of trans-nationalisation of Ukrainian economy, identifies specific features of trans-national production and explains some theoretical aspects of these issues. It provides main stages of theoretical comprehension of activity of trans-national corporations (TNC, specific features of the theory of competitive advantages of TNC and specifies the basic ones of them. The article conducts analysis of flows of direct foreign investments into the Ukrainian economy. It shows distribution of direct foreign investments into Ukraine by main countries-investors, regions-recipients and types of economic activity. It conducts review and analysis of the modern state of trans-national corporations of foreign origin in the Ukrainian market. It considers functioning of domestic TNC in Ukraine and main tendencies of entering of Ukrainian companies into the world environment and also identifies directions of further development of these phenomena. Prospects of further studies in this direction are identification of the degree of trans-nationalisation processes in the Ukrainian economy and identification of the positive effect, in particular, synergy from integration and globalisation.

  6. What we buy with foreign aid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rowan, C T

    1995-02-03

    Some in the US view foreign assistance as some type of wasteful international welfare program. To the contrary, US foreign aid is invaluable investment in both the country's future and that of the world. 43 of the top 50 customers of American agricultural products were, for example, once foreign aid recipients. South Korea imports three times as much in US goods each year as it received in aid during the entire 1960s. Furthermore, President Bill Clinton's recent bypass of Congress to bail Mexico from its economic morass serves both US and Mexican interests. Helping to help the economy of Mexico afloat protected 750,000 US jobs which come from trade with Mexico as well as billions of dollars of investments by middle-class Americans in Mexico and Latin America. It is unfortunate that the Republican-controlled Congress fails to understand that the continuation of US foreign aid serves US interests while at the same time helping other less fortunate populations. It is clear that US aid over the decades has made an enormous positive impact upon the health and welfare of populations in developing countries worldwide, especially in the area of population assistance. Congressional leaders are considering cutting US foreign aid to developing countries by 10-20%, but that won't save much money. The US in 1994 spent $12.3 billion on foreign assistance, less than 1% of the federal budget and the lowest amount in the history of the aid program. About half of that was in military assistance, which would not be cut.

  7. Privatization Framework: Political Economy Perspective

    OpenAIRE

    Bastian, Indra

    2009-01-01

    Privatization has been recognized as a worldwide phenomenon. In this pa-per, a political economy approach is developed to analyze privatization. The ap-proach assumes that political economy and privatization overlap in people’s need. So, the framework of political economy in privatization is based on the ‘need’ phi-losophy. Government and private sectors are contrasted in this respect, leading to a conclusion on privatization as a method to manage the economy. Keywords: privatization, politic...

  8. Are transition economy workers underpaid?

    OpenAIRE

    Adamchik, Vera A.; Brada, Josef C.; King, Arthur E.

    2009-01-01

    We examine the extent to which workers in transition and developed market economies are able to obtain wages that fully reflect their skills and labor force characteristics. We find that workers in two transition economies, the Czech Republic and Poland, are able to better attain the maximum wage available than are workers in a sample of developed market economies. This greater wage-setting efficiency in the transition economies ap-pears to be more the result of social and demographic charact...

  9. Introduction Of Techno-Economy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Park, Woo Hui

    2001-08-01

    This book gives descriptions of science, technology and techno-economy, invention and science and technology in the Twenty-First century, theory and model of technological innovation, technology and economy technology and industry, technology and business, spread and transfer of technique, technology and international economy, science, technique and culture, science, technology and government, development of technology in Korea and developing countries, and conclusion on the past and the future of techno-economy.

  10. COMPETITIVENESS FOR SUSTAINABLE ECONOMIES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nelu Eugen POPESCU

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available The current economic environment puts pressure on all national economies which struggle to improve their competitiveness and innovativeness in a sustainable way. This article aims to present the current state of the competitiveness by reviewing the main literature and worldwide researches, in order to provide a brief overview of the determinants that drive productivity and economic success at global and national level, taking into consideration the entrepreneurial activity for a country’s competitiveness and economic growth. The paper identifies the ways in which efficiency driven countries can improve their policies and get a better return on their investments, underlining a set of competitiveness enhancing policies (measures that can be implemented by public and private institutions in order to strengthen the economic fundamentals of the economies.

  11. Corruption and the economy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tanzi Vito

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper focuses on the economic and not on the political impact of corruption. Corruption delegitimizes the working of a market economy, as well as the outcomes of political processes. This paper highlights ways in which corruption, by distorting economic decisions and the working of the market economy, inevitably reduces a country’s rate of growth. The paper also discusses some of the channels through which corruption distorts various economic decisions. Finally, the paper reports on some actions that have been taken by countries in their attempt to reduce corruption stressing that the fight against corruption cannot rely on a magic bullet but has to be fought on many fronts.

  12. Iran’s Economy

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-08-22

    Toyota (Japan), Kia Motors (South Korea), Proton ( Malaysia ), and Chery CRS-22 89 EIU, “Country Profile 2007: Iran,” 2007, p. 45. Prime Vista Research...Background The 1979 Islamic revolution changed Iran’s modern political and economic history . Ayatollah Ruhollah Khomeini and his supporters transformed Iran...heating during one of the coldest winters in recent Iranian history . Turkmenistan has since resumed supplying gasoline to Iran. Foreign Involvement in

  13. Green economy and related concepts

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Loiseau, Eleonore; Saikku, Laura; Antikainen, Riina; Droste, Nils; Hansjürgens, Bernd; Pitkänen, Kati; Leskinen, Pekka; Kuikman, Peter; Thomsen, Marianne

    2016-01-01

    For the last ten years, the notion of a green economy has become increasingly attractive to policy makers. However, green economy covers a lot of diverse concepts and its links with sustainability are not always clear. In this article, we focus on definitions of green economy and related concepts

  14. Knowledge Economy and Research Innovation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bastalich, Wendy

    2010-01-01

    The "knowledge economy" has been received with considerable scepticism by scholars within the fields of political economy, social and political philosophy, and higher education. Key arguments within this literature are reviewed in this article to suggest that, despite policy claims, "knowledge economy" does not describe a "new" mode of economic…

  15. Popular Education in Solidarity Economy

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Melo Neto, José Francisco; da Costa, Francisco Xavier Pereira

    2015-01-01

    This article seeks to show the relation between popular education and solidarity economy in experiences of solidarity economy enterprises in Brazil. It is based on diverse experiences which have occurred in various sectors of this economy, highlighting those experiences which took place in João Pessoa with the creation of a Cooperative of Workers…

  16. POLAND`S OUTWARD FOREIGN DIRECT INVESTMENT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Buczkowski Bogdan

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available The paper contributes to the discussion of motives, determinants and effects of outward FDI of companies from emerging economies. We analyze the the scale, structure, geographical location and effects of Polish foreign direct investments as well as we prioritize their determinants. The interest of Polish companies in investing abroad has increased sharply over the last decade, due to the need to broaden the scale of business operations and geographical scope of their economic activities after the Poland`s accession to the European Union.

  17. A green hydrogen economy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Clark, W.W. II [Clark Communications, Beverly Hills, CA (United States). Green Hydrogen Scientific Advisory Committee; Rifkin, J. [The Foundation on Economic Trends (United States)

    2006-11-15

    This paper is the result of over a dozen scholars and practitioners who strongly felt that a hydrogen economy and hence the future is closer than some American politicians and bureaucrats state. Moreover, when seen internationally, there is strong evidence, the most recent and obvious ones are the proliferation of hybrid vehicles, that for any nation-state to be energy independent it must seek a renewable or green hydrogen future in the near term. The State of California has once again taken the lead in this effort for both an energy-independent future and one linked strongly to the hydrogen economy. Then why a hydrogen economy in the first instance? The fact is that hydrogen most likely will not be used for refueling of vehicles in the near term. The number of vehicles to make hydrogen commercially viable will not be in the mass market by almost all estimates until 2010. However, it is less than a decade away. The time frame is NOT 30-40 years as some argue. The hydrogen economy needs trained people, new ventures and public-private partnerships now. The paper points out how the concerns of today, including higher costs and technologies under development, can be turned into opportunities for both the public and private sectors. It was not too long ago that the size of a mobile phone was that of a briefcase, and then almost 10 years ago, the size of a shoe box. Today, they are not only the size of a man's wallet but also often given away free to consumers who subscribe or contract for wireless services. While hydrogen may not follow this technological commercialization exactly, it certainly will be on a parallel path. International events and local or regional security dictate that the time for a hydrogen must be close at hand. (author)

  18. A green hydrogen economy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Clark, Woodrow W.; Rifkin, Jeremy

    2006-01-01

    This paper is the result of over a dozen scholars and practitioners who strongly felt that a hydrogen economy and hence the future is closer than some American politicians and bureaucrats state. Moreover, when seen internationally, there is strong evidence, the most recent and obvious ones are the proliferation of hybrid vehicles, that for any nation-state to be energy independent it must seek a renewable or green hydrogen future in the near term. The State of California has once again taken the lead in this effort for both an energy-independent future and one linked strongly to the hydrogen economy. Then why a hydrogen economy in the first instance? The fact is that hydrogen most likely will not be used for refueling of vehicles in the near term. The number of vehicles to make hydrogen commercially viable will not be in the mass market by almost all estimates until 2010. However, it is less than a decade away. The time frame is NOT 30-40 years as some argue. The hydrogen economy needs trained people, new ventures and public-private partnerships now. The paper points out how the concerns of today, including higher costs and technologies under development, can be turned into opportunities for both the public and private sectors. It was not too long ago that the size of a mobile phone was that of a briefcase, and then almost 10 years ago, the size of a shoe box. Today, they are not only the size of a man's wallet but also often given away free to consumers who subscribe or contract for wireless services. While hydrogen may not follow this technological commercialization exactly, it certainly will be on a parallel path. International events and local or regional security dictate that the time for a hydrogen must be close at hand

  19. Influence of Foreign Direct Investments on Commodity Exchange of the Republic of Croatia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Goran Marijanović

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Almost all countries of the world try to ensure accelerated development of their economies with the help of foreign direct investments. Since the foreign direct investments, in addition to capital, potentially ensure the transfer of contemporary technology, management and marketing knowledge and skills respectively, they can be a signifcant growth factor of competitive abilities of national economies and involvement of countries into international exchange. Trough the RCA method and “Trade Overlap” index, this paper analyzes the infuence of foreign direct investments on the comparative advantages and specialization degree in international commodity exchange for the selected group of transition countries and the Republic of Croatia. The paper tries to determine how much the foreign direct investments have infuenced the structure change of the foreign trade exchange and whether they have contributed to export growth of more complex groups of products in the observed period.

  20. Social Economy and Responsibility

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eva Abramuszkinová Pavlíková

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Given the importance of entrepreneurial activities as an engine of economic growth and poverty alleviation, the issue of business development and entrepreneurial activities, has received increasing attention from a number of interested parties worldwide and also in the Czech Republic. The focus of this paper is on a social economy, a social responsibility and social enterprises. The development of the social economy framework will be introduced in the European context and specifically in the Czech Republic. A case study of a Czech social entrepreneur will be introduced based on qualitative research, namely the biographical narrative method.Social enterprises can support activities of various target groups, such as economic activities of mentally and physically handicapped people, which often operate in economically and socially marginalized situations, including stereotyped images. They give them a chance to become active members of society. In this way they can help to reduce the poverty on a local level. The aim of this paper is to introduce a social entrepreneurship as important part of social economy development in the Czech Republic.

  1. AN INTRODUCTION TO THE UNDERGROUND ECONOMY OF ROMANIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Loredana Maftei

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Shadow economy affected for a long time Romania, even since the old regime. During the period 1995-1996, the expansion of this phenomenon has become more serious. Along with Bulgaria, Romania is the second most affected country in the Eastern part of Europe, the shadow economy reaching around 28% of national GDP. This process is boosted by a high level of tax evasion, black labor and overregulation. With the ascension into EU, Romania made considerable efforts to combat the underground economy through a increase of electronic payments, credit card and deposit use.

  2. Foreign Body Retrieval

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... to the location of the foreign object in real-time. Your physician also may locate soft-tissue objects by probing the wound. Additional tests ... magnets pulling together parts of bowel. Removal of soft-tissue foreign bodies will ... provides real-time imaging, making it a good tool for guiding ...

  3. Foreign Body Retrieval

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... to the location of the foreign object in real-time. Your physician also may locate soft-tissue objects by probing the wound. Additional tests ... magnets pulling together parts of bowel. Removal of soft-tissue foreign bodies will ... provides real-time imaging, making it a good tool for guiding ...

  4. Foreign Body Retrieval

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available Toggle navigation Test/Treatment Patient Type Screening/Wellness Disease/Condition Safety En Español More Info Images/Videos About Us News Physician Resources Professions Site Index A-Z Foreign Body Retrieval Foreign ...

  5. Foreign Languages and Careers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Honig, Lucille J.; Brod, Richard I.

    1974-01-01

    Gives employment opportunity information in the following fields where foreign language can be used as an auxiliary skill: 1) Business, Industry, Commerce; 2) Civil Service; 3) Education; 4) Law; 5) Library Science; 6) Media; 7) Science; 8) Service; 9) Social Sciences; 10) Travel, Tourism. The fields of foreign language teaching and interpretation…

  6. Foreign Investment Welcome

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2011-01-01

    @@ New procedures will help facilitate mergers and acquisitions by foreign companies in China The State Council, or China's cabinet, said in a February statement that China will establish a ministerial panel to review foreign firms' attempts to buy, or merge with, domestic companies.

  7. Foreign Investment Welcome

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2011-01-01

    New procedures will help facilitate mergers and acquisitions by foreign companies in China The State Council,or China’s cabinet,said in a February statement that China will establish a ministerial panel to review foreign firms’ attempts to buy,or merge with,domestic companies.The committee, led by the National Development and Reform Commission and the Ministry of

  8. The Development of Service Sector in the Economy of Ukraine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Melnyk Tetyana M.

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available The article is concerned with the topical issue of the importance of the service sector in economy of Ukraine with the purpose of identification of directions of promoting the national services in foreign markets. Consideration of this issue is carried out on the basis of studying tendencies of foreign trade in services in Ukraine in comparison with global tendencies. The review of scientific sources in this direction indicates that discussions about the prospects of development of tertiary sector in the context of groups of countries according to the level of economic development are being held among scholars. The article characterizes the current trends in the development of world trade in services, assesses the proportion of individual groups of countries in the foreign trade in services. The geographical structure of exports of services of Ukraine was analyzed. Tendencies of trade in information-communication services were researched. The contribution of certain economic activities to the formation of GVA has been evaluated. The reserves for expansion of potential of service sector in the economy of Ukraine have been defined. The prospective direction of further scientific researches in this direction is identification of instruments of promotion of exports of national services to foreign markets.

  9. Slovenia’s Foreign Policy Opportunities and Constraints: The Analysis of an Interplay of Foreign Policy Environments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fenko Ana Bojinović

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available The article focuses on the interconnectedness of foreign policy environments to explain Slovenia’s opportunities and constraints for foreign policy action. During the period of pre-independence para-diplomacy, the building of an internal and external domestic environment successfully turned constraints (no international recognition into opportunities (applying for membership of European and global intergovernmental organizations. In the second period - post-recognition - considering the absence of a strategic foreign policy document, the Slovenian internal foreign policy environment became a major constraint to seize foreign environment opportunities. This affected Slovenia’s accomplishments, notably after NATO and EU memberships were achieved in 2004. Although the Slovenian internal environment matured during the following period to adopt, in 2015, a comprehensive foreign policy strategy the recent turn in world politics (especially the European financial and economic crisis and the migration crisis created for the first time a foreign environment for Slovenia that offered many fewer opportunities and far more constraints.

  10. Free Market Institutions and FDI Performance in Emerging Asian Economies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vogiatzoglou Klimis

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper examines long-term developments in the quality and efficiency of free market institutional systems across thirteen emerging economies from South, South-east, and East Asia over the 1995–2014 period. The paper also empirically assesses the impact of free market institutions on a country’s inward foreign direct investment (FDI performance. We find that the free market institutional framework in most economies is still relatively inefficient, restrictive, and underdeveloped but has, nevertheless, substantially improved during the last twenty-year period. Our empirical results also indicate that a free market institutional system in a host-country is a factor that attracts inward FDI to emerging Asian economies by multinational companies. Consequently, policy makers should focus on further improving the quality of free market institutions.

  11. Knowledge Creation in International Joint Ventures in Emerging Economies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Ulrik B.

    Entering and developing presence in emerging economies often require foreign firms to set up International Joint Ventures (IJVs) with local partners, especially when the prime motive of the operation is to capture opportunities in the local markets (Mohr & Puck, 2005). IJVs have therefore become...... an important way for firms to enter these markets and a significant force in shaping a firm’s global strategy in expanding international activities abroad. However, research has shown that IJVs in emerging economies are unstable, and firms have experienced that performance of their IJVs in these emerging...... economies often does not meet their expectations (Fang & Zou, 2010). Extant research has shown that, in general, management of IJVs appears to be a difficult issue. 60-70% of all partnerships are not successful (Lambe, Spekman, & Hunt, 2002). Inter-partner learning has been proposed in the literature...

  12. REVIEW OF FDI THEORY IN THE KNOWLEDGE–INTENSIVE ECONOMY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ruslan Harasym

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available International flow of capital in the form of Foreign Direct Investment (FDI is considered to be the primary form of capital transfer in the global economy. It plays an important role among other forms of international capital flows, due to the intensity of its streams and its strength of impact on local economies. Host countries use FDI to finance activities such as industry restructuring and transfer of technology. The aim of this paper is to present current achievements in the field of theoretical explanations of FDI – its main motives. The article relates also to current selected trends in FDI flows during the economic downturn caused by the recent financial crisis. Above all ,however, this paper aims at showing FDI theories in terms of a knowledge intensive economy.

  13. Where do Foreign Student STEM graduates work after they graduate?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruiz, Neil

    2017-01-01

    Foreign students and entrepreneurs add path-breaking innovative ideas and billions of dollars to the United States economy. This presentation takes a look at where foreign students originate, what degrees and subjects they are pursuing in the U.S., and where they work after they graduate from U.S. universities. With a special focus on STEM degrees and physics, Dr. Ruiz will show how foreign students open up markets in their hometown cities which facilitates trade, foreign direct investment and knowledge transfer. In addition, they infuse revenue into local communities, and they help fill demand for jobs requiring specific skills in local U.S. labor markets. He argues that America's business, educational, and community leaders need to develop better strategies that retain their talents after they graduate. Invited speaker number 44869.

  14. Foreign Firms, Domestic Wages

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Malchow-Møller, Nikolaj; Markusen, James R.; Schjerning, Bertel

    to the firm?s productivity. Foreign-owned firms have, on average, higher productivity in equilibrium due to entry costs, which means that low-productivity foreign firms cannot enter. Foreign firms have higher wage growth and, with some exceptions, pay higher average wages, but not when compared to similarly...... large domestic firms. The empirical implications of the model are tested on matched employer-employee data from Denmark. Consistent with the theory, we find considerable evidence of higher wages and wage growth in large and/or foreign-owned firms. These effects survive controlling for individual...... characteristics, but, as expected, are reduced significantly when controlling for unobservable firm heterogeneity. Furthermore, acquired skills in foreign-owned and large firms appear to be transferable to both subsequent wage work and self-employment...

  15. Realism in Foreign Policy Analysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wivel, Anders

    2017-01-01

    'Realism in Foreign Policy Analysis' traces how realist thinking on foreign policy has developed over the years and discusses the challenges and opportunities faced by various strands of realism when applied to foreign policy analysis....

  16. 49 CFR 525.11 - Termination of exemption; amendment of alternative average fuel economy standard.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... average fuel economy standard. 525.11 Section 525.11 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to... EXEMPTIONS FROM AVERAGE FUEL ECONOMY STANDARDS § 525.11 Termination of exemption; amendment of alternative average fuel economy standard. (a) Any exemption granted under this part for an affected model year does...

  17. ANALYSIS OF BUSINESS ENVIRONMENT USING THE MULTI-CRITERIA APPROACH – CASE OF BALKAN’S TRANSITION ECONOMIES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saša Obradović

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Due to the lack of their own financial resources, attracting the foreign direct investment (FDI isthe main prerequisite for transitional economies in order to increase production and employment, sothat they can ensure the long term sustainable economic growth. In addition, the foreign directinvestment is an important instrument for the economy restructuring, based on market principles.However, achieving this goal is not simple at all. In order to attract foreign investors, it is necessaryto create a favorable business environment in transition countries, which requires a number ofeconomic, institutional, political and other reforms. The aim of this paper is to point out the mainfactors attracting foreign direct investment and, by using the multi-criteria approach, to rank theBalkan’s transition economies depending on the preferences of investors taking into account certaincomponents of the business environment.

  18. Effects of Fiscal Policy in a Small Open Economy: Evidence of Croatia

    OpenAIRE

    Deskar-Škrbić, Milan; Šimović, Hrvoje; Ćorić, Tomislav

    2013-01-01

    In this paper we use structural VAR model to analyze dynamic effects of fiscal shocks on economic activity in Croatia from 2000Q1-2012Q2. Due to the fact that Croatia is a small open economy we assume that shocks of foreign origination can have notable effects on its performance. Therefore, original Blanchard-Perotti (2002) model is extended by introducing variables that represent external (foreign) demand shocks. The results show that the government spending has a positive and statistically ...

  19. The Real Effects of Foreign Inflation in the Presence of Currency Substitution

    OpenAIRE

    Charles Engel

    1987-01-01

    The paper explores optimizing models of small open economies that hold foreign money balances. Particular attention is paid to the impact of foreign inflation on the real exchange rate and other real variables. At first, an environment in which foreign money is the only traded asset is explored. This is compared to a more general setting in which many assets can be traded. The effect of foreign inflation on domestic real variables depends on: 1) the degree to which it causes a substitution ou...

  20. The MIRAB Model of Small Island Economies in the Pacific and their Security Issues: Revised Version

    OpenAIRE

    Tisdell, Clem

    2014-01-01

    The MIRAB model of Pacific island micro-economies was developed in the mid-1980s by the New Zealand economists, Bertram and Watters, and dominated the literature on the economics of small island nations and economies until alternative models were proposed two decades later. Nevertheless, it is still an influential theory. MIRAB is an acronym for migration (MI), remittance (R) and foreign aid (A) and the public bureaucracy (B); the main components of the MIRAB model. The nature of this model i...

  1. Alternative Financial Policy Rules in an Open Economy Under Rational and Adaptive Expectations

    OpenAIRE

    Blackburn, Keith; Currie, David; Whittaker, R; Wren-Lewis, Simon

    1985-01-01

    The potential instability of a fixed monetary rule combined with automatic fixed stabilisers is a well-established feature of closed economy IS/LM models with wealth effects and asset accumulation. This paper examines the stability issue in a general open economy macromodel with alternative expectations mechanisms (rational or adaptive) in both the labour market and the foreign exchange market. The fixed monetary rule is found to be stabilising only in special cases, notably when post-tax rea...

  2. Reframing aid in a world where the poor live in emerging economies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gilles Carbonnier

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available This special issue of International Development Policy analyses the major shifts affecting traditional development assistance, particularly with regard to global public policy and the emerging economies. In this introductory chapter, the authors examine the changing development landscape and the shifting geography of poverty to question the role of aid organisations in middle-income economies (MICs. They argue that continued donor engagement in these richer countries is warranted for two reasons. First, and in the best interest of lower-income countries (LICs, traditional donors and MICs must cooperate in the design and implementation of global policies to protect global public goods. Second, foreign aid agencies can assist MICs in reducing poverty at home. They must, however, tread lightly in this political endeavour that often implies supporting domestic drivers of change in pushing for tax reform and improved public service delivery. The authors focus in particular on the pivotal role of the emerging middle classes and civil society organisations in MICs. Finally, they introduce policy coherence for sustainable development as a shared framework for MICs and high-income countries (HICs to effectively address the poverty and global public goods agendas.

  3. Nuclear energy development and national economy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fukami, Hiroaki

    1982-01-01

    The utilization and development of nuclear power in Japan are now advanced on the basis of a fact that nuclear power generation has taken root in the country. The scale of nuclear power generation is currently a total of 22 power plants with aggregate capacity over 15,500 MW, 16% of the total power generation. There are still two alternate arguments: i.e. whether nuclear energy can be a complete substitute of petroleum or not, because the consumption of petroleum is necessary for the fuel cycle. Due to the rise of petroleum price, the nuclear power generation is now positively economical. On the other hand, the promotion of nuclear power can lead to the saving in foreign currency. While the economy in nuclear power is through the use of LWRs presently, the research and development efforts in ATRs, FBRs, etc. are essential for the future. (Mori, K.)

  4. Comparison between response dynamics in transition economies and developed economies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tenenbaum, Joel; Horvatić, Davor; Bajić, Slavica Cosović; Pehlivanović, Bećo; Podobnik, Boris; Stanley, H. Eugene

    2010-10-01

    In developed economies, the sign of the price increment influences the volatility in an asymmetric fashion—negative increments tend to result in larger volatility (increments with larger magnitudes), while positive increments result in smaller volatility. We explore whether this asymmetry extends from developed economies to European transition economies and, if so, how such asymmetry changes over time as these transition economies develop and mature. We analyze eleven European transition economies and compare the results with those obtained by analyzing U.S. market indices. Specifically, we calculate parameters that quantify both the volatility asymmetry and the strength of its dependence on prior increments. We find that, like their developed economy counterparts, almost all transition economy indices exhibit a significant volatility asymmetry, and the parameter γ characterizing asymmetry fluctuates more over time for transition economies. We also investigate how the association between volatility and volatility asymmetry varies by type of market. We test the hypothesis of a negative correlation between volatility and volatility asymmetry. We find that, for developed economies, γ experiences local minima during (i) “Black Monday” on October 19, 1987, (ii) the dot-com bubble crash in 2002, and (iii) the 2007-2009 global crisis while for transition economies, γ experiences local maxima during times of economic crisis.

  5. Rapid Detection and Characterization of Emerging Foreign Animal Disease Pathogens

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jaing, C. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States)

    2016-11-18

    To best safeguard human and animal health requires early detection and characterization of disease events. This must include effective surveillance for emerging infectious diseases. Both deliberate and natural outbreaks have enormous economic and public health impacts, and can present serious threats to national security. In this project, we developed novel next generation detection technologies to protect the agricultural economy and biosecurity. The first technology is a multiplexed assay to simultaneously detection 10 swine viral and bacterial pathogens. The second one is the Lawrence Livermore Microbial Detection Array (LLMDA) which can detect more than 10,000 microbial species including 4219 viruses, 5367 bacteria, 265 fungi, 117 protozoa and 293 archaea. We analyzed a series of swine clinical samples from past disease events to demonstrate the utility of the assays for faster and cheaper detection of emerging and foreign animal disease pathogens, and their utility as s routine diagnosis and surveillance tool. A second goal of the study is to better understand mechanisms of African swine fever virus (ASFV) infection in pigs to aid the development of countermeasures and diagnostics. There is no vaccine available for ASF. ASF outbreak is on the rise on several European countries. Though ASF is not currently in the U.S., a potential outbreak in the U.S. would be detrimental to the swine industry and the US agricultural economy. We pursued a genome-wide approach to characterize the pig immune responses after ASFV infection. We used RNA sequencing and bioinformatics methods to identify genes and pathways that are affected during ASF infection. We have identified a list of most differentially expressed genes that are in the immune response pathways.

  6. [Foreign Body in Esophagus].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Domeki, Yasushi; Kato, Hiroyuki

    2015-07-01

    An esophageal foreign body is the term for a foreign body in the esophagus. The 2 age groups most prone to this condition are children age 9 and under (and especially toddlers age 4 and under) and elderly individuals age 70 and over. A foreign body often lodges where the esophagus is most constricted. In toddlers, the foreign body is often currency or coins or a toy. In adults, the body is often a piece of fish, dentures, a piece of meat, a pin or needle, or a drug in its blister pack packaging. In children, an esophageal foreign body is treated by fluoroscopically guided removal of the body with a balloon catheter or magnetic catheter or removal of the body via endoscopy or direct esophagoscopy under general anesthesia. In adults, the best choice for treating an esophageal foreign body is removing the body with an endoscope but there are instances where surgery is performed because the body is hard to remove endoscopically, a puncture has occurred, or empyema or mediastinitis has developed. This paper reviews the diagnosis and treatment of an esophageal foreign body.

  7. The relationship between foreign direct investment and economic growth in South Africa: Vector error correction analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tshepo S. Masipa

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available Orientation: From the Growth, Employment and Redistribution (GEAR strategy of 1996 to the currently implemented National Development Plan (NDP, the need to attract more foreign investors and promote exports in pursuit of economic growth and job creation has been emphasised. Research purpose: It is within this context that the purpose of this article was to determine the nexus between foreign direct investment (FDI inflows and economic growth from 1980 to 2014. Research design, approach and method: The vector error correction model is employed to determine and estimate the long-run relationship between the variables in the model. Main findings: From the findings, it was found that economic growth shares a positive relationship with both FDIs and the real effective exchange rate, while sharing a negative long-run relationship with government expenditure. Practical and managerial implications: The article contributes towards the on going debates on the impact of FDIs on economic growth and job creation in the recipient countries. Accordingly, its findings reinforce the importance of attracting FDIs in South Africa and to what extent they affect economic growth and employment. Contribution or value-add: From a policy perspective, the attraction of foreign investors must target sources that can create jobs and boost the South African economy. It is vital for the government to strengthen its machinery to fight corruption to create an environment conducive for foreign investors. Hence, this article suggests that South Africa’s capacity to grow and create jobs also depends on the country’s performance to enhance gross domestic product growth and attract more FDIs. The attraction of FDIs should, however, not be seen as an end in itself but also as a means of supporting other initiatives such as eradicating poverty and inequalities in South Africa.

  8. Windfall gains, political economy and economic development

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dalgaard, Carl-Johan Lars; Olsson, Ola

    2008-01-01

    Natural resource rents and foreign aid have the character of windfall gains that affect economic outcomes both directly and indirectly. Several studies have shown that the indirect effect typically works via institutions like corruption. In this article, we offer a theoretical framework for a joi...... in a large cross-section of countries. Our results suggest that whereas more aid means less corruption, natural resource rents is positively correlated with corruption, although both relationships are non-linear......Natural resource rents and foreign aid have the character of windfall gains that affect economic outcomes both directly and indirectly. Several studies have shown that the indirect effect typically works via institutions like corruption. In this article, we offer a theoretical framework for a joint...

  9. COMMUNAL ECONOMY TARIFF POLICY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. A. Ivanov

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Approach to management of apartment houses in Russia is close to that practiced in developed foreign countries. Main difference consists in that market relations are completely operable there. Particularly, it is possible to transfer dwelling funds from one managing company to another oneas well as easily, within a couple of days, to change supplier of a communal service. At the same time, the population is provided with communal services under strict control on the part of state authorities who determine competing private enterprises’ work rules, protect consumers’ rightsand guarantee quality standards for vital services.

  10. Domesticizing Financial Economies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Deville, Joe; Lazarus, Jeanne; Luzzi, Mariana

    show. Third, the “domestication of financial economies”: financial literacy programs developed by governmental bodies, international organizations, and banks have become a ubiquitous layer attached to the assemblage of financial economies in many countries. And last but not least, “domesticizing social...... practices as well as the precise way financial providers are evaluating, sorting and targeting their consumers. We believe these diverse trends are starting to converge, and the ambitions of this paper are both to organize scattered literature and to reflect upon the consequences of the new field...

  11. Economy and energy politic

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Martin, J.M.

    1992-01-01

    This book, divided into four parts, describes, first, energy consumption and national economy growth. In a second part, the irresistible ascent of coal, natural gas and petroleum international markets is studied. In the third part, energy politic is investigated: exchanges releasing, prices deregulation, contestation of power industry monopoly, energy national market and common energetic politic, single market concept. In the last part, global risks and world-wide regulations are given: demand, energy resources, technical changes, comparative evaluations between fossil, nuclear and renewable energies, environment, investments financing and international cooperation. 23 refs., 14 figs., 16 tabs

  12. The Methanol Economy Project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Olah, George [Univ. of Southern California, Los Angeles, CA (United States); Prakash, G. K. [Univ. of Southern California, Los Angeles, CA (United States)

    2014-02-01

    The Methanol Economy Project is based on the concept of replacing fossil fuels with methanol generated either from renewable resources or abundant natural (shale) gas. The full methanol cycle was investigated in this project, from production of methanol through bromination of methane, bireforming of methane to syngas, CO2 capture using supported amines, co-electrolysis of CO2 and water to formate and syngas, decomposition of formate to CO2 and H2, and use of formic acid in a direct formic acid fuel cell. Each of these projects achieved milestones and provided new insights into their respective fields.

  13. Information model of economy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N.S.Gonchar

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available A new stochastic model of economy is developed that takes into account the choice of consumers are the dependent random fields. Axioms of such a model are formulated. The existence of random fields of consumer's choice and decision making by firms are proved. New notions of conditionally independent random fields and random fields of evaluation of information by consumers are introduced. Using the above mentioned random fields the random fields of consumer choice and decision making by firms are constructed. The theory of economic equilibrium is developed.

  14. NAFTA: The Mexican Economy, and Undocumented Migration

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-10-28

    NAFTA contributed to modest increases in Mexican formal employment since 1994. Since employment constitutes one of the chief factors affecting poverty...any other provision of law , no person shall be subject to any penalty for failing to comply with a collection of information if it does not display a...FINAL 3. DATES COVERED (From - To) 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE NAFTA , the Mexican Economy, and Undocumented Migration 5a

  15. Optimal Taxation in a Limited Commitment Economy

    OpenAIRE

    Yena Park

    2012-01-01

    This article studies optimal Ramsey taxation when risk sharing in private insurance markets is imperfect due to limited enforcement. In a limited commitment economy, there are externalities associated with capital and labour because individuals do not take into account that their labour and saving decisions affect aggregate labour and capital supply and wages, and thus the value of autarky. Therefore, a Ramsey government has an additional goal, which is to internalize these externalities of l...

  16. Words of foreign origin in political discourse

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sabina Zorčič

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The paper discusses the use of words of foreign origin in Slovenian political discourse. At the outset, this usage is broken down into four groups: the first contains specific phrases and terminology inherent to the political domain; the second contains words of foreign origin generally present in the Slovene language (because of their high frequency of nonexclusivistic use, these words are not of interest to the scope of this investigation; the third contains various words of foreign origin used as affectional packaging for messages with the aim of stimulating the desired interpretation (framing reality; the fourth group, which is the most interesting for our research, is made up of words of foreign origin which could have a marker: + marked, + not necessary, + unwanted, but only if we accept the logic of purism. All the words in this group could be replaced - without any loss of meaning - with their Slovene equivalents. The speakerʼs motivation for using the foreign word is crucial to our discussion. In the framework of Pierre Bourdieuʼs poststructural theory as well as Austinʼs and Searleʼs speech act theory, statistical data is analysed to observe how usage frequency varies in correlation with selected factors which manifest the speakerʼs habitus. We argue that words of foreign origin represent symbolic cultural capital, a kind of added value which functions as credit and as such is an important form of the accumulation of capital.

  17. Words of foreign origin in political discourse

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sabina Zorčič

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The paper discusses the use of words of foreign origin in Slovenian political discourse. At the outset, this usage is broken down into four groups: the first contains specific phrases and terminology inherent to the political domain; the second contains words of foreign origin generally present in the Slovene language (because of their high frequency of nonexclusivistic use, these words are not of interest to the scope of this investigation; the third contains various words of foreign origin used as affectional packaging for messages with the aim of stimulating the desired interpretation (framing reality; the fourth group, which is the most interesting for our research, is made up of words of foreign origin which could have a marker: + marked, + not necessary, + unwanted, but only if we accept the logic of purism. All the words in this group could be replaced - without any loss of meaning - with their Slovene equivalents. The speakerʼs motivation for using the foreign word is crucial to our discussion. In the framework of Pierre Bourdieuʼs poststructural theory as well as Austinʼs and Searleʼs speech act theory, statistical data is analysed to observe how usage frequency varies in correlation with selected factors which manifest the speakerʼs habitus. We argue that words of foreign origin represent symbolic cultural capital, a kind of added value which functions as credit and as such is an important form of the accumulation of capital.       

  18. IS IT POSSIBLE TO REDUCE THE STOCK OF FOREIGN RESERVES?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcello Spanò

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available This work determines the optimal reserves to short term debt ratio of an exporting economy indebted in foreign currency and suggests possible remedies to reduce it. Theoretical results and numerical simulations establish that the ratios recently observed reflect the increasing weight assigned to the risk of firms going bankrupt. They also establish that neither a lower risk premium charged by international lenders nor a lower exchange rate volatility reduce the stock of reserves significantly. Full elimination of the need to hold reserves to prevent financial crises should rely either on limiting foreign capital inflow or on reforming the international monetary system.

  19. Personality Traits and Foreign Policy Attitudes in German Public Opinion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schoen, Harald

    2007-01-01

    This article examines the effects of personality traits on attitudes toward foreign policy issues among the German public. Building on previous research, it argues that personality characteristics shape an individual's motivation, goals, and values, thereby providing criteria to evaluate external stimuli and affecting foreign policy opinions. An…

  20. Dyslexia and Learning a Foreign Language: A Personal Experience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simon, Charlann S.

    2000-01-01

    This participant observer report reviews research on how dyslexia complicates learning a second language, a description of how dyslexia has affected educational experiences, personal experiences learning a foreign language, and recommendations to individuals with dyslexia who are faced with fulfilling a foreign language requirement and their…

  1. The energy economy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Meritet, Sophie; Vaujour, Jean-Baptiste

    2015-01-01

    This introduction to the economy of energy applies the main economic concepts to the energy sector (nature of the good, supply, demand), proposes an overview of existing actors, and analyses challenges and tools of economic policy like network regulation, competition policy, independence and energy transition. By using recent examples, statistics and international comparisons, it gives elements to highlight issues like the relationship between shale gas exploitation and economic recovery in the USA, the choice between monopole and competition for electricity or gas supply, reaching greenhouse gas emissions of the energy sector by incentives or taxes, secure energy supplies in a changing international environment, ways to supply energy to everyone at prices guaranteeing economy competitiveness, or ways to evolve towards energy systems which would be more environment- and climate-friendly. The successive chapters address fundamentals issues (nature of the good, historical and technical overview), the State intervention (definition of an energy policy, steering the energy mix, ensuring secure supply), the reorganisation of industries and the protection of consumers, the relationship between energy and climate (worrying perspectives, progressive emergence of solutions). The last chapter addresses the future challenges like innovation, and disruptive innovations (smart grids, big data, batteries, CO 2 capture and storage, nuclear waste processing and management, development of nuclear fusion), and the issue of energy poverty

  2. Network Transformations in Economy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bolychev O.

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available In the context of ever-increasing market competition, networked interactions play a special role in the economy. The network form of entrepreneurship is increasingly viewed as an effective organizational structure to create a market value embedded in innovative business solutions. The authors study the characteristics of a network as an economic category and emphasize certain similarities between Rus sian and international approaches to identifying interactions of economic systems based on the network principle. The paper focuses on the types of networks widely used in the economy. The authors analyze the transformation of business networks along two lines: from an intra- to an inter-firm network and from an inter-firm to an inter-organizational network. The possible forms of network formation are described depending on the strength of connections and the type of integration. The drivers and reasons behind process of transition from a hierarchical model of the organizational structure to a network type are identified. The authors analyze the advantages of creating inter-firm networks and discuss the features of inter-organizational networks as compares to inter-firm ones. The article summarizes the reasons for and advantages of participation in inter-rganizational networks and identifies the main barriers to the formation of inter-organizational network.

  3. A green economy?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Petrus Simons

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Economic growth has become a fetish, as it is believed to yield many benefits to society. It has its origins in the Enlightenment ideal of progress through science, technology and a free market economy. J.W. Goethe anticipated the problems of such progress in his poem Faust, especially its second part. Binswanger interprets Goethe’s view on the modern economy as a form of alchemy, an attempt to master time through the invention of monetary capital. Keynes’s views on progress and liquidity are compatible with this analysis. The problems, evoked by the uncritical application of scientific technology so as to increase material welfare, have given rise to a dialectic between business seeking growth and those concerned about its effects, especially on ecology. Sustainable development is an outcome of this dialectic, without abandoning it. Others, particularly those advocating décroissance [de-growth], reject the concepts underlying growth. The ideology underlying this is a combination of technicism and economism. A spiritual revolution is called for to break the hold of this ideology on society, with a change from the metaphor of the world as a machine to that of a garden-city. It is suggested that working groups should analyse the various proposals for change from the perspective of the garden-city metaphor.

  4. DEVELOPING COUNTRIES. TRANSITION ECONOMIES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dumitru FILIPEANU

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available According to the modern theories of economic development – the take-off, backwardness, convergence and balanced growth hypothesis - the new industrialized states from Asia seem to have noticed the advantages of backwardness from which low income countries benefited, namely the possibility to take advantage of the latest technological discoveries of advanced countries, thus achieving a faster growth than the latter which operated closer to the technological border. The assimilation of appropriate technologies, however, required the efficient mobilization and allocation of resources and the improvement of human and physical capital. While the Western countries were confronted with crises generated by inflationary shocks and movements of speculative capital, the relative isolation of countries whose economy was planned by the world economy sheltered them until 1990, unemployment being practically non-existent. Asia's exceptional economic success is not only due to borrowing Western practices, but also to the fact that Asian societies maintained certain traditional features of their own culture - such as a strong work ethic - and integrated them in the modern business environment.

  5. Chinese Foreign Direct Investment in Indonesia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gammeltoft, Peter; Tarmidi, Lepi T.

    China‟s increasing integration with the world economy is met with much anticipation and much anxiety in the Southeast Asian region. In Indonesia, there is intense interest in Chinese foreign direct investment (FDI), not only among academics but also among policy makers, industrialists and the gen......China‟s increasing integration with the world economy is met with much anticipation and much anxiety in the Southeast Asian region. In Indonesia, there is intense interest in Chinese foreign direct investment (FDI), not only among academics but also among policy makers, industrialists...... conducted in 2008 among Chinese invested enterprises supplemented with available official statistics and secondary data, the study finds that Chinese FDI in Indonesia is performed by mixed entities: some are owned by central government, some by regional government and some are private firms. In the case...... of joint ventures, their local partners are mostly local Chinese, except in the infrastructure, mining and energy sector where their local partners are Indonesian state-owned enterprises. Where the local developmental effects are concerned, a picture emerges where Chinese investments, at this early period...

  6. Foreign Body Retrieval

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... may become lodged in the esophagus and cause pain, even though they are able to swallow. Larger ... the stomach or intestines can cause severe abdominal pain, fever, fainting and shock. Foreign bodies in the ...

  7. Foreign Body Retrieval

    Medline Plus

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  8. Foreign Body Retrieval

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... tissue, such as a splinter embedded under the skin, you may undergo an ultrasound, x-ray or ... that gets embedded in the tissue under the skin. Soft tissue foreign bodies can cause infection and ...

  9. Foreign Body Retrieval

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... digestive tract. Other drugs taken by mouth can help blunt foreign objects pass through the digestive tract ... a thin tube that can be used to help trap smooth objects like a marble, or to ...

  10. Foreign Body Retrieval

    Medline Plus

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  11. Foreign Body Retrieval

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... saved. Using an ultrasound transducer to visualize the location of the object, the physician may make an ... the surgical instrument as it advances to the location of the foreign object in real-time. Your ...

  12. Foreign Body Retrieval

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... in the esophagus, you may receive an intravenous drug to relax the esophagus and allow the object to pass through the digestive tract. Other drugs taken by mouth can help blunt foreign objects ...

  13. Foreign Body Retrieval

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... small toys or pieces of toys and fish bones. Swallowing of magnets can cause significant problems including ... like toothpicks. Small esophageal foreign bodies like fish bones also may be difficult to visualize. Additional evaluation ...

  14. Foreign Body Retrieval

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... extended over the patient while an x-ray film holder or image recording plate is placed beneath ... through the body, recording an image on photographic film or a special detector. Many foreign bodies, like ...

  15. Foreign Body Retrieval

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... the large intestine, causing cramps, bloating, loss of appetite, vomiting, and sometimes fever. A sharp object that ... top of page What are the benefits vs. risks? Benefits Removal of a foreign body will reduce ...

  16. Foreign Body Retrieval

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... pregnant. Many imaging tests are not performed during pregnancy so as not to expose the fetus to ... See the Safety page for more information about pregnancy and x-rays. If the foreign body is ...

  17. Foreign Body Retrieval

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... object is solid or filled with fluid). In medicine, ultrasound is used to detect changes in appearance, ... Anesthesia Safety X-ray, Interventional Radiology and Nuclear Medicine Radiation Safety Videos related to Foreign Body Retrieval ...

  18. Foreign Body Retrieval

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... only 10 to 20 percent of the time. Evaluation and treatment will depend on the type of ... bones also may be difficult to visualize. Additional evaluation is required when the suspected foreign body is ...

  19. Foreign Body Retrieval

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... batteries, small toys or pieces of toys and fish bones. Swallowing of magnets can cause significant problems ... bodies like toothpicks. Small esophageal foreign bodies like fish bones also may be difficult to visualize. Additional ...

  20. Foreign Body Retrieval

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... two snares. The catheter is guided into place just beyond the foreign object using x-ray fluoroscopy. ... perform surgery using ultrasound guidance. Ultrasound provides real-time imaging, making it a good tool for guiding ...

  1. Foreign Body Retrieval

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... recording an image on photographic film or a special detector. Many foreign bodies, like coins and batteries, ... or white on x-ray. Fluoroscopy is a special x-ray technique that makes it possible to ...

  2. Foreign Body Retrieval

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... include coins, buttons, pins, nails, glass pieces, toothpicks, batteries, small toys or pieces of toys and fish ... foreign body ingestions. Sometimes problems occur when button batteries are swallowed as mercury within the batteries can ...

  3. Foreign Data Library

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The Foreign Data Library consists of meteorological data from nations other than the United States. The data are on original observational forms, in publications,...

  4. Foreign Body Retrieval

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... related to Foreign Body Retrieval Sponsored by Please note RadiologyInfo.org is not a medical facility. Please ... is further reviewed by committees from the American College of Radiology (ACR) and the Radiological Society of ...

  5. Foreign Body Retrieval

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... pieces of toys and fish bones. Swallowing of magnets can cause significant problems including bowel blockages that may require surgical removal of magnets. Children account for about 80 percent of foreign ...

  6. Foreign object - swallowed

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Nelson Textbook of Pediatrics . 20th ed. Philadelphia, PA: Elsevier; 2016:chap 327. Pfau PR, Hancock SM. Foreign ... Gastrointestinal and Liver Disease . 10th ed. Philadelphia, PA: Elsevier Saunders; 2016:chap 27. Schoem SR, Rosbe KW, ...

  7. Foreign Body Retrieval

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... tissues. top of page What are some common uses of the procedure? Foreign body retrieval is used ... community, you can search the ACR-accredited facilities database . This website does not provide cost information. The ...

  8. Foreign Body Retrieval

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    Full Text Available ... as infection. top of page What are the benefits vs. risks? Benefits Removal of a foreign body will reduce your ... cancer from excessive exposure to radiation. However, the benefit of an accurate diagnosis far outweighs the risk. ...

  9. Foreign Body Retrieval

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    Full Text Available ... especially to iodinated contrast materials. Leave jewelry at home and wear loose, comfortable clothing. You may be ... relative or friend accompany you and drive you home afterward. Foreign bodies are typically dealt with in ...

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  11. Foreign Body Retrieval

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... that may require surgical removal of magnets. Children account for about 80 percent of foreign body ingestions. ... anesthesia) and no IV. top of page Additional Information and Resources Society of Interventional Radiology (SIR) - Patient ...

  12. Foreign Body Retrieval

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... stuck in their throat or esophagus. Drooling and difficulty swallowing are common symptoms. A small sharp object ... able to view the surgical instrument as it advances to the location of the foreign object in ...

  13. Foreign Body Retrieval

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    Full Text Available ... you ingest a foreign body or witness a child ingest one or suspect the presence of a ... have special pediatric considerations. The teddy bear denotes child-specific content. Related Articles and Media Computed Tomography ( ...

  14. Surviving and Thriving in the Digital Economy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Goran Samuel Pesic

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Cyber-crime is growing exponentially and Canadian governments at all levels have not kept pace quickly enough to protect both themselves and private enterprise. Evolving technology allows for ever-more sophisticated cyber-threats to intellectual property, but some businesses and governments have neither changed their pre-internet thinking nor established adequate safeguards. Protection should start with educational campaigns about the scope and varieties of risk that permeate the private sector, e-commerce and smart cities using the internet of things. Thirty years ago, just 32 per cent of the market value of Standard & Poor’s 500 companies was based on intangible assets, mainly intellectual property. Today, that figure stands at 80 per cent and protecting those assets from cyber-crime is of vital importance. While cyber-criminals look to make money off of phishing scams, their interests have also extended to infiltrating proprietary industrial designs, resource management and information affecting acquisitions. The fact that some countries see this type of crime as a normal way to gain access to foreign business information is often poorly understood by Canadian businesses accustomed to functioning under much higher ethical standards. The e-commerce realm faces its own cyber-threats including those affecting privacy, data sovereignty, location of data centres, data security and legislation. E-commerce merchants must protect themselves by ensuring the security of their clients’ computers, communication channels, web servers and data encryption. It sounds daunting, but it shouldn’t be. Merchants can take steps such as doing risk assessments, developing security policies, establishing a single point of security oversight, instituting authentication processes using biometrics, auditing security and maintaining an emergency reporting system. Government can assist with cyber-security in Canada’s private sector through awareness campaigns

  15. Editorial: Dilemmas of Modern Economy and Business

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jelena Stankevičienė

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Various dilemmas concerning modern economy and business have been in the focus of scientific discussion in recent years (Klich, 2013; Renko & Knezevic, 2013; Szarucki, 2013; Agrawal & Gugnani, 2014; Pardhasaradhi & Grace, 2015. In modern economy, not only researches but corporations face complex economic and business dilemmas in their daily routine. The Joint Research Centre of the European Commission addresses key economic challenges by stimulating innovations, sustainability policies, social and environmental responsibilities. These challenges require the mobilization of significant resources by science, innovation and regional policy makers and scientific communities across Europe (EUA, 2014. Broader scientific discussions are crucial for the success of the Europe 2020 strategy for smart, sustainable and inclusive growth. According to the Global Risks Report 2015, the biggest threat to world stability in the next 10 years arise from the four most serious economic risks. These are high structural unemployment or underemployment, energy price shock, critical information infrastructure breakdown and fiscal crises. We continuously agree that innovation is critical to global prosperity (WEF, 2015. Currently, the internationalisation of family businesses is an increasingly important research area. Substantial numbers of FBs are forced to expand into foreign markets in order to survive and grow in the competitive environment (Daszkiewicz & Wach, 2014. The roles of business angels are especially important taken both decreasing the levels of formal venture capital investment and growing average amount of individual deals. Angel investors are the key players in generating high-growth companies, essential to regional economic development. As a result, they have attracted the attention of policy makers (Rostamzadeh et. al., 2014. Consequently, this issue of EBER concentrates on the current dilemmas of modern economy and business, particularly dealing

  16. MNE R&D Subsidiary Mandates Evolution in Emerging Economies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schulzmann, David; Slepniov, Dmitrij

    2017-01-01

    The aim of this paper is to present the results of a systematic literature review (SLR) on the subject of Research and Development (R&D) subsidiary mandate evolution in emerging economies and to illustrate what triggers R&D mandate upgrade. The subject of R&D mandates is of crucial importance to ...... on subsidiary evolution in general and particularly in emerging markets. From a practical perspective, a better-integrated framework can provide guidance to businesses in emerging economies on how to start and successfully upgrade their R&D activities.......The aim of this paper is to present the results of a systematic literature review (SLR) on the subject of Research and Development (R&D) subsidiary mandate evolution in emerging economies and to illustrate what triggers R&D mandate upgrade. The subject of R&D mandates is of crucial importance...... to many multinational enterprises (MNEs) striving to utilize the potential of their foreign operations towards higher-value-added activities. While developed economies have long been a destination for R&D activities, emerging economies are increasingly recognized for their innovation potential. Previous...

  17. EMERGING ECONOMIES: COMPARATIVE ANALYSIS OF MIST AND IBSA COUNTRIES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gonca Oguz Gok

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Post Second World War liberal economic order and its institutions have been challenged with the rapidly growing powerful economies of some Asian and Latin American countries in the last decade. Yet, there is ambiguity in international political economy field with regard to conceptualizing and categorizing these emerging economies. This study mainly aims to ravel out this obstacle by offering a new quantitative benchmarking framework. In other words, this study proposes a new evaluation criteria set for assessing emerging economies with combining testable domestic and systematic factors. Accordingly, this study presents the cross-country comparison by using quantitative benchmarking analysis between IBSA -India, Brazil and South Africa- and MIST -Mexico, Indonesia, South Korea and Turkey- countries over the period 2008- 2012. We compare these countries based on the criteria of economic growth, human development index, foreign direct investment, and official development assistance. This study also aims to evaluate the group performance of these newly emerging economies- namely the rise of IBSA and MIST countries-in a comparative perspective. In conclusion, the performance of these countries -from both group-of-country and individual-country perspectives- are discussed in light of the results

  18. Esophageal Foreign Bodies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ufuk Cobanoglu

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Esophageal foreign body aspiration is a common event which can cause serious morbidity and mortality in the children and adult population. For that reason, early diagnosis and treatment are crucial for preventing these life threateining complications. Children most often ingest coins and toys whereas adults commonly tend to have problems with meat and bones. Esophageal foreign bodies are located at the cricopharyngeus muscle level in 70%, the thoracic esophagus in 15% and the gastroesophageal junction in the remaining 15%. Symptoms can vary according to the shape and structure of the ingested object, type of location, patient%u2019s age and complications caused by the foreign body. Delay in treatment, esophageal perforation and an underlying esophageal disease are poor prognostic factors. In treatment, observation, foley catheter, rigid or flexible esophagoscopy and removing the foreign body with a Magill forceps, pushing the foreign body into the stomach, giving intravenous glucagon and surgical treatment methods can be used. Rigid esophagoscopy is an effective and safe procedure for foreign body diagnosis and removal. Improved endoscopic experience and clinical management of thoracic surgeons led to reduced morbidity and mortality in recent years. Most of those emergencies of childhood are preventable. Family education is very important.

  19. ‘ SILENT’ LARYNGEAL FOREIGN BODY

    OpenAIRE

    Chandrasekhar; Sreenivas

    2015-01-01

    Laryngeal foreign bodies in adults are rare. The foreign bodies accidentally entering the larynx are symptomatic in the form of choking , stridor or even death. We are presenting a rare case of foreign body in the larynx in a 42 year old male who was symptom free except for dysphonia. The foreign body was removed successfully under local anesthesia.

  20. Trends and Prospects in Foreign Student Admissions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slocum, Joel

    1984-01-01

    One of the most important factors affecting the choices of many foreign students for study in the United States is the availability of financial aid. Availability of places and the competition for them vary. Access to undergraduate engineering programs is seen as almost impossible. (MLW)

  1. Barter Economies and Centralized Merchants

    OpenAIRE

    Jose Noguera

    2000-01-01

    The main goal of this essay is to analyze the emergence of a barter economy, and the rise of centralized merchants and a barter redistribution system out of a primitive barter system. The environment is a spatial general equilibrium model where exchange is costly. Since exchange becomes more complicated as the scope of the economy increases, we prove that, after the economy reaches a critical size, the cost of trade expansion surpasses its benefits. This imposes limitations on the scope of th...

  2. The Determinants of International Capital Movements and an Analysis in the Context of Foreign Direct Investments: A Case of Turkey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oğuzhan AYDEMİR

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Foreign direct investments being an important part of the international capital movements are evaluated as the investments making in the form of reestablishing a factory in a foreign country, becoming a partner with an existing company or purchasing an established company. Foreign direct investments make a major contribution to economic development in connection with employment, technology, business information, integration with international markets and generating a sound competition environment. In view of the results which foreign direct investments give to national economy; determining the economic factors as to which national economy foreign direct investments would prefer is of great importance in terms of providing foreign capital inflows with continuity. In this regard; the factors determining foreign direct investments are estimated and the relationship between these factors and direct foreign capital inflows is analyzed in this study. As a result of the study; it is seen that gross domestic product (GDP, trade openness, unit labor cost and inflation are the economic determinants of foreign direct investments. Separately it is concluded that GDP, trade openness and unit labor cost have a positive effect on foreign direct investments and that there is negative relationship between inflation and foreign direct investments.

  3. An Exploration of Foreign Language Anxiety and English Learning Motivation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Meihua Liu

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Perceived to be two important affective variables, anxiety and motivation have been found to be highly correlated to second/foreign language acquisition. In order to examine the relationship between foreign language anxiety, English learning motivation, and performance in English, the present study investigated 980 undergraduate students from three universities in China who answered a 76-item survey. Analyses of the data revealed that (1 the respondents generally did not feel anxious in English and were moderately motivated to learn English, (2 foreign language anxiety and English learning motivation were significantly negatively correlated with each other, and (3 both foreign language anxiety and English learning motivation were significantly correlated with students' performance in English. Among the scales, foreign language classroom anxiety (FLCAS, intrinsic motivation (IntrinM, instrumental motivation (InstruM, fear of being negatively evaluated (FLCAS1, and interest in foreign languages and cultures (IFLC proved to be powerful predictors for the latter.

  4. Detection of foreign objects using bobbin probe eddy current test

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jung, Hee Sung; Kweon, Young Ho; Lee, Dong Ha; Shin, Wook Jo; Yim, Chan Ki [ECT Group, Sae-An Engineering Corporation, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-08-15

    Residual foreign objects at the secondary side (top of the tubesheet and tube support plates) of a steam generator are likely to cause a leak by causing wear in the tube. The extent of wear is significantly affected by the material, shape, and size of the foreign object, and the corrosion properties of the tube. The presence of foreign objects at the top of the tubesheet and tube support plates has been identified using remote visual inspection methods such as the foreign object search and retrieval and eddy current test (ECT). The detection of the residual foreign object at the secondary side of a steam generator has limitations that depend on the material properties and the condition of contact with the tube. In this study, which is vertical and horizontal from the upper tubesheet, the corresponding bobbin ECT signals were collected and analyzed to measure its ability to detect foreign objects.

  5. Current Trends in Foreign Trade Theory and Policy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zdzisław W. Puślecki

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available In this research work, Author focus on the current analysis trends in foreign trade theory and policy. Accordance with the foreign trade policy theory further trade liberalisation and improved framework policies would increase trade and promote growth. It must be emphasized that openness to trade is associated with higher incomes and growth and there is the need for new approaches to trade cooperation in light of the forces that are currently re-shaping international business. What indicates the importance and innovativeness of the research is the presentation of the new models of the foreign trade policy and trade interests. First of all, it must underline that in the new theoretical terms in demand for trade policy very important is factor specificity. The low specificity of factors means that factor returns are equalized throughout a region’s economy. On the other hand, some factors are stuck in their present uses; therefore, factor returns are not equalized throughout a region’s economy but are industry specific. The main objective of the research task is to give a comprehensive analysis of current trends in foreign trade theory and policy and in particular models of foreign trade policy, trade interests indicated by export orientation and import sensitivity, foreign trade policy in different types of authoritarian regimes, protectionist pressures in different political system, the level of protectionist pressures, the tendencies to bilateralism in the foreign trade policy. It should be stressed that free trade in itself is not responsible for economic growth, but more significant are the determining macroeconomic stability and increasing investment.

  6. Macroeconomics in an open economy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cooper, R N

    1986-09-12

    The customary treatment of national economies as closed and self-contained must be substantially modified to allow for those economies that typically trade goods, services, and securities with other countries in increasing volume. Open economy macroeconomics is essential to understanding the major events of the U.S. economy over the past half dozen years. Both the sharp rise in the dollar and the unprecedentedly large U.S. trade deficit are linked to the U.S. budget deficit, as is the drop in the rate of inflation.

  7. Social economy and social enterprise

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hulgård, Lars

    2011-01-01

    practice will be put under increasing pressure. There is a difference between a social economy approach to the third sector and an approach based upon the notion of a non-profit constraint. Social economy is well positioned as a third sector to play a core role in meeting this urgency. But how does...... the social economy fit with current strategies in the areas of welfare policies and social service? Is it as a certain type of social entrepreneurship an integral part of a social innovation of the mainstream market economy or is it part of an emerging counter discourse in the sense of a participatory non...

  8. Foreign Direct Investment and its Role in the Development of Greece

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vasiliki DELITHEOU

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available A distinctive characteristic of Global Economy over the last few decades has been the rising rate and impressive increase in Foreign Direct Investment (FDI globally. Due to the potential role that foreign direct investment may play in accelerating the growth rate and re-shaping the economy, many developing countries are seeking such types of investment that can multiply efforts being made towards the growth of their economy. Consequently, foreign direct investment has become an important source of private external finance for developing countries. For this reason, countries like Greece are attempting to focus on the implementation of policies that can attract specific FDI and thus achieve high rates of growth. Attracting FDI and the subsequent creation of sustainable enterprises that will provide an increase in jobs and will reinforce the productivity of the country, is today a national target.

  9. THE MAIN FEATURES OF THE FLOWS OF FOREIGN DIRECT INVESTMENTS IN ROMANIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elena Chirilă-Donciu

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available A distinctive characteristic of The Global Economy over the last few decades has been the rising rate and the impressive increase in the Foreign Direct Investment (FDI globally. Due to the potential role that foreign direct investments may play in accelerating the growth rate and re-shaping the economy, many developing countries are seeking such types of investments that can multiply the efforts being made towards the growth of their economy. The purpose of this research is to analyze the flows of foreign direct investments in Romania between 2003 and 2010. The results of the research highlight the negative balance between the trade balance and the enterprises with FDI in 2007-2010, due to the financial crisis, to the fragile budget balance, due to the low competitiveness of the imports, the low quality of the Romanian products and the macroeconomic risk determined by the rate of inflation, the unemployment and the instability in the exchange rate.

  10. Airway foreign body in children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marina GONZÁLEZ-HERRERO

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Introduction and objective: The aspiration of a foreign body in children is a frequent emergency in pediatrics, being potentially lethal. Method: Narrative review. Results: This pathology mainly affects children under 5 years of age with a peak of incidence between the first and third years of life. The clinic will depend on the type of foreign body (size, shape, possibility of breaking, organic or not, the age of the child and the location of the object. In our environment, the most frequent is the aspiration of nuts (peanuts and sunflower seeds. After the initial picture, an asymptomatic period tends to occur, which favors delayed diagnosis and leads to possible errors in the diagnosis. Discussion: An adequate clinical history and a high diagnostic suspicion are fundamental to favor an early treatment. The presence of a normal chest X-ray does not exclude the presence of a foreign body in the airway, so a bronchoscopy is indicated if the diagnostic suspicion is high. The treatment of choice is extraction by rigid bronchoscopy, being controversial the use of flexible fibrobronchoscope. Conclusions: Conclusions: The aspiration of a foreign body is a pediatric emergency that requires a diagnosis and early treatment. The highest incidence occurs in children under 3 years and more frequently in men. The most commonly aspirated material in our environment are nuts, mainly located in the bronchial tree. The initial episode may go unnoticed, delaying the diagnosis and may lead to progressive respiratory distress in the child. A detailed clinical history and suspicion of this pathology are essential in children at risk age who present with cough and dyspnea of sudden onset. The existence of a normal chest radiograph should not postpone bronchoscopy when there is high clinical suspicion. The treatment of choice for the extraction of foreign bodies in airways in children is rigid bronchoscopy, being controversial the use of the flexible fibrobronchoscope

  11. Chinese Foreign Direct Investment in R&D in Europe

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Di Minin, Alberto; Zhang, Jieyin; Gammeltoft, Peter

    2012-01-01

    ’ investment in R&D in Europe, focusing on three different aspects: technology exploration vs. technology exploitation as investment motive; locational strategies for R&D investments; and the dynamics of motives of overseas R&D units. The analysis proceeds to draw out differences between the R...... rather than technological innovation, as the extant literature tends to assume. Chinese R&D units appear to evolve often from a strategy of pure technology exploration, over fusion of foreign technologies with R&D activities back home, into one of technology exploitation in foreign locations.......&D internationalization process of multinationals from developed economies and those from emerging economies. Evidence of Chinese R&D internationalization is provided through analyses of five cases of international R&D units set up by Chinese companies in Europe: ZTE Corporation, JAC Motors, Chang’an Motors, Hisense...

  12. TRENDS IN THE EVOLUTION OF WORLDWIDE FOREIGN DIRECT INVESTMENTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Ramona Sarbu

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The flows of foreign direct investments constitutes a major component of the phenomena that manifest themselves in the world economy, these representing financial resources geared toward a particular investment area that allow those who invest to develop operations over which they have the control and the decision-making power. Given the fact that the world economy is characterized by the increasing interconnectedness of national states as a result of spreading the links in the spheres of economic, political, social and cultural life, following starting with 2008 a period of unusual developments, the purpose of the paper is to analyze the evolution of worldwide foreign direct investment (FDI inflows, before and after the onset of the global economic crisis.

  13. Rethinking the Sharing Economy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kornberger, Martin; Leixnering, Stephan; Meyer, Renate

    2017-01-01

    Our paper focuses on a non-standard sharing example that harbors the potential to disrupt received wisdom on the sharing economy. While originally entering the field to analyze, broadly from a governance perspective, how the 2015 refugee crisis was handled in Vienna, Austria, we found that the no...... of sharing: economic and moral. Our paper contributes to this Special Issue of the Academy of Management Discoveries by highlighting and explaining the two-fold economic and moral nature of sharing and the organization of sharing between movement and platform....... sharing of resources (i.e., the economic dimension): the sharing of a distinct concern (i.e., the moral dimension of sharing). Our discovery exemplifies such a moral dimension that is rather different from the status quo materialistic treatments focusing on economic transactions and property rights...

  14. An Economy of Grace

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Victor Tan Chen

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available This essay is adapted from a plenary talk the author gave at the “Growing Apart: The Implications of Economic Inequality” interdisciplinary conference at Boston College on 9 April 2016, as well as portions of his book Cut Loose: Jobless and Hopeless in an Unfair Economy, a sociological ethnography based on interviews and observations of unemployed autoworkers in Detroit, Michigan, and Windsor, Canada, during and after the Great Recession. The essay discusses four themes from this research. First, it provides a sociological understanding of how long-term unemployment and economic inequality are experienced by today’s less advantaged workers. Second, it illustrates how social policy can improve their circumstances. Third, it examines the limits of policy, and how dealing with inequality also requires changing the broader culture. Fourth, it makes the case for one possible approach to bring about that cultural change: a morality of grace.

  15. Securing the Digital Economy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valentin P. MĂZĂREANU

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The Digital economy has naturally led to thereconfiguration of communication and information processes.These processes are depending on the computer, starting fromthe personal one and reaching to computer networks, whetherlocal, metropolitan or global. These led to the development ofsuch information systems able to communicate information,systems that must also ensure the security of communicationsbetween computers within the company, but also betweencomputers of different parties, outside the company. As thecommunication between computers in the network has evolvedto electronic funds transfer (EFT, digital money andcommunication of personal data, internet banking, etc., theimportance of security issues of data transmitted over thenetwork also has increased. Even more as the network hasevolved into a “wireless” one.

  16. Fuel economy handbook

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Short, W [ed.

    1979-01-01

    An overview of the UK's energy situation from 1950 to 2020 is presented. Problems are discussed and recommendations are made. A strong argument is presented for energy conservation, greater use of nuclear energy, and restrained production of North Sea oil. Specific recommendations are made for financial and operational considerations of (1) new or replacement boiler plants; (2) space heating of factories, offices and similar buildings; and (3) possible use of various fuels including duel-fuel economics and use of wastes. Tariffs and charges are discussed as well as services (e.g. compressed air, cooling water, sources of waste, etc.). Standby considerations (peak load lopping, turbines-engines, parallel or sectioned operation, etc.) and heat distribution (steam, condensate return and uses) are discussed. Throughout, the emphasis is on fuel economy. Savings in process such as recovering waste heat and the storage of heat are considered. For small industrial furnaces, intermittent heating, heat recovery, and the importance of furnace loading are discussed. (MJJ)

  17. [Economy class syndrome].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morio, Hiroshi

    2003-10-01

    Economy class syndrome is venous thromboembolism following air travel. This syndrome was firstly reported in 1946, and many cases have been reported since 1990s. Low air pressure and low humidity in the aircraft cabin may contribute to the mechanism of this syndrome. Risk factors for venous thrombosis in the plane were old age, small height, obesity, hormonal therapy, malignancy, smoking, pregnancy or recent parturition, recent trauma or operation, chronic disease and history of venous thrombosis. In Japan, the feminine gender is also risk factor though reason was not well known. For prophylaxis, adequate fluid intake and leg exercise are recommended to all passengers. For passengers with high risk, prophylactic measures such as compression stockings, aspirin or low molecular weight heparin should be considered.

  18. Travel patterns and characteristics of foreign-born sub-population in New York state

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chin, Shih-Miao [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Hwang, Ho-Ling [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Reuscher, Tim [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Wilson, Daniel W. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States)

    2017-10-01

    According to the 2010 Census, over 22% of total New York State (NYS) residents were foreign-born and over one in three persons living in New York City (NYC) were foreign-born. Foreign-born and their dependents impact local economies in many different ways, including purchasing power, transportation service needs, business sales and receipts generated, and workforce. To allow better policy decision making and program planning of transportation developments and investments in NYS, a clear understanding of the foreign-born population’s travel characteristics and behaviors, as well as their unique transportation service needs, are necessary. This report documents the characteristics of the foreign-born population and identified differences in travel behaviors and mobility issues between foreign-born residents of NYS and their U.S.-born counterparts.

  19. THE INFLUENCE OF INSTITUTIONAL STRATEGIES ON THE UNDERGROUND ECONOMY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ciprian Tudurachi

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The fight against shadow economy must be addressed not only as a permanent concern of economic analysts and decision-makers, but rather as a problematic ethical-moral nature affecting economic and interpersonal relations, as strategic and operational object. The authors attempt outline an institutional management strategy geared towards underground economy combating has as objective the strands establishment without having exhaustiveness claim. We make a case for extending the implementation of a coherent program, strategic and operational, and its adoption as a way of institutional management in the context it really wants to launch a concerted offensive to combat the underground economy.

  20. The economy of consumption as a socio-theoretical proposal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ortiz Negrón, Laura

    2007-11-01

    Full Text Available We propose the concept of "economy of consumption" as a way of examining the multiple effects of contemporary consumption. We present an interdisciplinary approach to the factors and social processes that have configured Puerto Rico as an economy of consumption. If one considers the specific ways in which modernization has affected the country, as well as the social transformations it has undergone in recent decades, one can take a contextual view of Puerto Rico as an economy of consumption. The transformations of capital and the inscription within consumption itself, as an order of signification, are the hermeneutic keys of this analysis.

  1. Goods Traffic and the Economy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Frank Bruns

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available Le transport intra-alpin et transalpin est en constante augmentation. Dans les corridors de transit alpins, les répercussions négatives de cette circulation sur l’homme et l’environnement se ressentent particulièrement. Pour les régions alpines affectées, des solutions en terme de développement durable devront être trouvées au plus vite. Toutes suggestions pour résoudre ce problème, devront être discutées à la lumière de nombreux facteurs. Ainsi, les relations entre « le transport des marchandises et l’économie/la société » doivent être prises en compte. Le problème central est que l’impact du transport sur l’économie et la société, diffère selon les ressources économiques et la réactivité des acteurs des régions concernées. Le projet MONITRAF examine les impacts réciproques et identifie les indicateurs (Bruns, Delb, 2005.Transport through and within the Alps is continuously increasing. In the Alpine transit corridors the negative effects of transport on humans and the environment are felt particularly. From the focus point of the affected Alpine regions, a sustainable development solution for this problem is required as soon as possible. Any suggestions in order to solve this problem should be discussed in view of all the facts: Thus, the relationship between “freight transport and the Economy/Society” also need to be taken into account. In this context, the central issue is that the impact of transport on the economy and society will differ depending on the economic potential and the reaction of players in the relevant region. Within the project MONITRAF the respective relationships has been investigated and indicators identified (BRUNS F., DELB V., 2005.

  2. From war economies to peace economies in Africa | Broodryk ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    One reason for the persistence and protracted nature of conflict on the. African continent is the phenomenon of war economies. These have transformed the nature of war itself where the object is not at neutralizing an enemy but to institutionalize violence at a profitable level of intensity. Transforming war economies into ...

  3. Political economies and environmental futures for the sharing economy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Frenken, Koen|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/207145253

    2017-01-01

    The sudden rise of the sharing economy has sparked an intense public debate about its definition, its effects and its future regulation. Here, I attempt to provide analytical guidance by defining the sharing economy as the practice that consumers grant each other temporary access to their

  4. Metallic Foreign Body in the Foot

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Firat Ozan

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Aim: A foreign body injury of the foot is a frequently encountered problem. These foreign bodies can lead to various complications in the affected tissues, and their removal can be difficult and time consuming. Therefore, the removal of a foreign body requires good preoperative preparations. The surgical treatment results of patients with a foreign body, identified as a sewing needle, that had penetrated their foot were evaluated. Material and Method: Thirty-four patients (11 males, 23 females; mean age, 30.2 ± 18.6 years who were surgically treated between 2011 and 2013 were included. Data concerning the affected limb, placement of the needle, imaging techniques, season when the injury occurred, time between medical intervention and injury, anaesthesia type, fluoroscopy of use during surgery and surgical complications were analyzed. Results: A sewing needle had penetrated the right foot of 20 (58.8% patients and the left foot of 14 (41.1% patients. Broken needles were found in the toes of 14 (41.1% patients, in the middle of the foot of 12 (35.2% patients and in the heel area of 8 (23.5% patients. The injuries occurred in summer in 13 (38.2% patients, in winter in seven (20.6% patients, in spring in one (2.9% patient and in autumn in 13 (38.2% patients. Needle penetration had occurred in 28 (82.3% patients at home and 6 (17.6% patients outside of the home environment. The average follow-up time was 8.9 ± 2.8 months. Discussion: Removal of foreign bodies from the foot requires good preoperative preparations. Foreign bodies can lead to various complications in the affected tissues. It is important to perform detailed physical and radiological examinations to obtain good treatment results in these patients.

  5. Linear Economy Versus Circular Economy: A Comparative and Analyzer Study for Optimization of Economy for Sustainability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sariatli Furkan

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Upon visiting the existing literature on the subject of linear vs. circular economy, this paper finds that, the blueprint of the current economy is hardly sustainable by using the comparative benchmarking method that drained from literature. The intrinsic mechanics of the linear economy, by relying on the wasteful take - make - dispose flow, is detrimental to the environment, cannot supply the growing populace of our planet with essential services and it naturally leads to strained profitability. Elements of a plausible solution to the challenges have been around for decades, although they have only recently been compiled in to the conceptual framework of circular economy. The core ideas of Circular Economy are elimination of waste by design, respect for the social, economic and natural environment and resource-conscious business conduct. Built on the backbone of these principles, the circular economy has demonstrated to deliver tangible benefits and viability to address the economic, environmental and social challenges of our days.

  6. Patterns of Foreign Direct Investment in Transylvania

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aniela Raluca DANCIU

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Foreign direct investment (FDI has gained significant importance over the past decade as a tool for accelerating growth and development of transition economies. It is widely believed that the advantages that FDI brings to the standard of living and prospects for economic growth of the host nation largely outweigh its disadvantages. Despite the growing interest in the subject, to our knowledge, there is still no satisfactory empirical work which can explain the determinants of the spatial distribution of FDI flows into the separate regions of Romania, one of the largest new EU-member states. Thus, this research attempts to fill this gap by using a primary data from a questionnaire that covers the entire transition period. The main goal of this study is to identify the main determinants of the direct foreign investments in Central, West and North West Romanian regions. Basically, the study is constructed so, that it will provide a list of the main strengths and weaknesses of Center, West and North West regions, that would influence a foreign investor to choose the proper location for a future investment when developing his strategy.

  7. MODELING THE RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN FOREIGN DIRECT INVESTMENTS AND ECONOMIC GROWTH – EVIDENCE FROM CENTRAL AND EASTERN EUROPEAN COUNTRIES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Florin Cornel Dumiter

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available The internationalization and globalization of economical problems, industrial manufacturing, and the movement of financial capital, determine the investment activities to become a global one, with implications for all the national and world wide economies. As a result, the foreign direct investments, throughout their economical constitution and substance, form a part of the economical relationships and international cooperation, which bring an essential contribution to the economical growth, creating work places, optimize the allocation of resources, enabling technology transfer and stimulate trading. Foreign Direct Investments have presently become the most important source of external funding for all the countries, regardless of their level of development. This kind of investments proved to be a more stable and used source of funding than the portfolio investments or the bank loans, as they are less affected by the financial crisis. Against this background, global direct financial investments flows remain one of the main manifestations of globalization, which is easily demonstrated if we reflect on the fact that currently over 50% of everything that happens in the world, be it product or services, is carried out by subsidiaries of transnational corporations, namely companies resulting from direct financial investments. It is estimated that the volume, structure and geographical distribution of foreign direct investments will be "patterned" in the proportion of 50% by the international economic situation, the implications of the crisis on the global financial system.

  8. Ethical challenges of the new economy: An agenda of issues

    OpenAIRE

    Argandoña, Antonio

    2002-01-01

    The new economy is a technological revolution involving the information and communication technologies which affects almost all aspects of the economy, business, and our personal lives. The problems it raises for businesses are not radically new, least of all from an ethical viewpoint. However, they deserve particular attention, especially now, in the first years of the 21st century, when we are feeling the full impact of the changes brought about by this technological revolution. In this art...

  9. Critical Analysis on Construction Workforce Sustainability in Developed Economy

    OpenAIRE

    Sing, Michael; Tam, Vivian; Fung, Ivan; Liu, Henry

    2017-01-01

    The construction industry in the developed economy has suffered a shortage of workforce which triggers project cost escalation and project delay and suppresses the whole economy. This paper aims to explore the perceptions of the general public and construction workers towards workforce shortage in the Hong Kong construction industry and identifies the critical factors affecting their intention to join the industry. Triangulation approach was adopted in this study and a street survey was condu...

  10. KNOWLEDGE SOCIETY, GENERAL FRAMEWORK FOR KNOWLEDGE BASED ECONOMY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dragos CRISTEA

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available This paper tries to present the existent relation between knowledge society and knowledge based economy. We will identify the main pillars of knowledge society and present their importance for the development of knowledge societies. Further, we will present two perspectives over knowledge societies, respectively science and learning perspectives, that directly affects knowledge based economies. At the end, we will conclude by identifying some important questions that must be answered regarding this new social paradigm.

  11. Political pressures and exchange rate stability in emerging market economies

    OpenAIRE

    Ester Faia; Massimo Giuliodori; Michele Ruta

    2008-01-01

    This paper presents a political economy model of exchange rate policy. The theory is based on a common agency approach with rational expectations. Financial and exporter lobbies exert political pressures to influence the government’s choice of exchange rate policy, before shocks to the economy are realized. The model shows that political pressures affect exchange rate policy and create an over-commitment to exchange rate stability. This helps to rationalize the empirical evidence on fear of l...

  12. How do Locals in Finland Identify Resident Foreigners

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Minna Säävälä

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available This study examines the identi? cation by Finns of foreign residents in Finland by analyzing data from a representative sample survey carried out in 2002. When people were asked to name a group of foreigners residing in Finland, the majority ?rst mentioned Somalis, despite the fact that only 4 percent of foreign residents are Somali and 6 percent of foreign-language speakers speak Somali. The general tendency when identifying resident foreigners is to refer primarily to ethnic or national groups; references to status (e.g. refugee, return migrant, guest worker or religion (e.g. Muslim are rare in the survey. In terms of ethnicity, identifying foreign residents in Finland is inconsistent, particularly as Russians and Estonians, the two largest groups, are not readily seen as foreign residents. The prevalence of answering Somalis could be considered an outcome of the maximally visible difference between Finns and Somalis. A logistic regression analysis is used to examine whether identifying resident foreigners differs according to socio-economic and educational characteristics, age, gender, region, and attitude towards the number of resident foreigners in Finland. The variables that signi? cantly in? uence the probability of answering Somalis and Russians are the respondents region, age, attitude towards the number of foreign residents in Finland, and to some extent, gender and higher education. Respondents occupational status, vocational education or income does not have a signi? cant impact on the answers. Regional differences appear to be a major factor affecting how foreigners are identi? ed, which shows that although the need to consider resident foreigners as visibly, culturally and linguistically maximally different may be a nearly universal base line for creating difference and identity, identifying foreign residents in Finland is not entirely independent of demographic realities.

  13. Global Cities and Liability of Foreignness

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wernicke, Georg; Mehlsen, Kristian

    2016-01-01

    In this paper, we combine the concepts of location, liability of foreignness (LoF), and their relation to factors that drive multinational enterprises (MNEs) towards, or away from, global cities. We argue that three interrelated characteristics of global cities - cosmopolitanism, availability...... indicate that MNEs have a stronger propensity to locate in global cities than in metropolitan or peripheral areas, and that these locational choices are affected by institutional distance and industrial characteristics. The results provide empirical support for our argument that locating in a global city...... can reduce the liability of foreignness suffered by MNEs, and that global cities play a central role in the process of globalisation....

  14. Impact of Globalization in Kosovo’s Economy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MSc. Nexhat Shkodra

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The economy in Kosovo continues to generate macroeconomic growth and solid stability, especially in fiscal and financial terms. Despite the increasing risks from the external sector, Kosovo’s economy has marked positive growth rates in 2012 also. Nevertheless, being an open economy, it has not been spared of the effects of the crisis faced direly by some of the most developed countries, and especially those in the Eurozone, which have shrinked the growth rate in comparison to previous years, despite it being positive. These risks mainly are reflected into the adverse impacts of the crisis on external demand for Kosovo products (along with an already low export rate, and by a lighter impact on migrant remittances, and a stronger impact on foreign direct investment. The decline in remittances has been smaller than forecasted, mainly because migration in Kosovo is of longer term in nature, and 70% of our migrants possess foreign citizenships. The banking sector has remained solid, with private sector deposits and loans continuing to increase in 2009 and 2010. There is still evidence though, that banks have become more prudent in extending loans, mainly due to the fact that bad loans are increasing at a slow pace. Adverse impacts of the global financial crisis have been compensated by an expansionist fiscal policy adopted by the Government, thereby ensuring medium growth rates.

  15. Foreign direct investments and their impact on the economic development of Bosnia and Herzegovina

    Science.gov (United States)

    Susic, I.; Stojanovic-Trivanovic, M.; Susic, M.

    2017-05-01

    From the perspective of macroeconomic indicators, investment is a significant determinant of economic development in general, as well as the development indicator of economic entities in the micro segment. Investments are an essential element of any economic policy, because their implementation provides a platform not only for economic development, but also are prerequisite for the stability of economic and social trends. Foreign direct investment plays an important role in the financing of the global economy, and it represents the most frequent feature in financing the national economies of developing countries and countries in transition. Demand for foreign investment in the global market is large, and thus the governments have been conducting many activities in order to create a more favorable environment to attract investors. In this paper, special attention was paid to direct investments in financing the economy on a global scale, their importance for the development of the global economy and the impact of foreign direct investment in the economic development of Bosnia and Herzegovina. The major activities, which are necessary to be done to attract investments in the highest possible volume, have been emphasized. With the use of statistical and quantitative analysis, the paper shows that the inflow of foreign capital is one of the basic prerequisite of economic growth acceleration and that the inflow of foreign capital has a positive impact on the economic development of Bosnia and Herzegovina. By monitoring and analyzing the various instruments of foreign capital inflow, with an emphasis on investment in the free zone and a joint venture with foreign investors, it has been clearly pointed out the fact that they have diverse, but proven positive impact on macroeconomic variables in the economy of Bosnia and Herzegovina.

  16. Does Foreign Aid increase Foreign Direct Investment?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Selaya, Pablo; Sunesen, Eva Rytter

    2012-01-01

    We examine the idea that aid and FDI are complementary sources of foreign capital. We argue that the relationship between aid and FDI is theoretically ambiguous: aid raises the marginal productivity of capital when used to finance complementary inputs (like public infrastructure and human capital...... investments), but aid may crowd out private investments when it comes in the shape of pure physical capital transfers. Empirically, we find that aid invested in complementary inputs draws in FDI, while aid invested in physical capital crowds it out. The paper shows that the composition of aid matters for its...

  17. 78 FR 54391 - Determining the Amount of Taxes Paid for Purposes of the Foreign Tax Credit

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-09-04

    ... Determining the Amount of Taxes Paid for Purposes of the Foreign Tax Credit AGENCY: Internal Revenue Service... purposes of the foreign tax credit. These regulations address certain highly structured arrangements that produce inappropriate foreign tax credit results. The regulations affect individuals and corporations that...

  18. 76 FR 53818 - Determining the Amount of Taxes Paid for Purposes of the Foreign Tax Credit

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-08-30

    ... Determining the Amount of Taxes Paid for Purposes of the Foreign Tax Credit AGENCY: Internal Revenue Service... of taxes paid for purposes of the foreign tax credit. These regulations address certain highly structured arrangements that produce inappropriate foreign tax credit results. The regulations affect...

  19. 76 FR 53819 - Determining the Amount of Taxes Paid for Purposes of the Foreign Tax Credit

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-08-30

    ... Determining the Amount of Taxes Paid for Purposes of the Foreign Tax Credit AGENCY: Internal Revenue Service... purposes of the foreign tax credit. These regulations address certain highly structured arrangements that produce inappropriate foreign tax credit results. The regulations affect individuals and corporations that...

  20. 76 FR 42036 - Determining the Amount of Taxes Paid for Purposes of the Foreign Tax Credit

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-07-18

    ... Determining the Amount of Taxes Paid for Purposes of the Foreign Tax Credit AGENCY: Internal Revenue Service... purposes of the foreign tax credit. These regulations address certain highly structured arrangements that produce inappropriate foreign tax credit results. The regulations affect individuals and corporations that...

  1. Interorganisational Management in Entrepreneurial Economies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Poul Rind; Piihl, Jesper

    2004-01-01

    In this article relationship management is defined and discussed in the context of an entrepreneurial society. Important aspects of trends in entrepreneurial economies to aspects of managerial economies. Based on a review of established management theories, it is concluded that there is a need...

  2. Entrepreneurship in the network economy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Velthuijsen, Hugo; de Graaf, Frank Jan; Zhang, Henry; Zhao, Ruimei

    2009-01-01

    The network economy typically signifies a notion from the information society where new products and services are developed by collaborating individuals and/or businesses organised in virtual networks. The network economy has important characteristics in common with Northern European governance

  3. Experience economy brimming with potential

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Flemming; Sundbo, Jon

    2014-01-01

    In these days of economic uncertainty, businesses ought to make better use of recent research into the experience economy. Perhaps co-creation and individualisation can save us from the crisis, argue the editors of a new book about the latest research into the experience economy....

  4. New Economy - New Policy Rules?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bullard, J.; Schaling, E.

    2000-01-01

    The U.S. economy appears to have experienced a pronounced shift toward higher productivity over the last five years or so. We wish to understand the implications of such shifts for the structure of optimal monetary policy rules in simple dynamic economies. Accordingly, we begin with a standard

  5. Fuel Economy Testing and Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    EPA’s Fuel Economy pages provide information on current standards and how federal agencies work to enforce those laws, testing for national Corporate Average Fuel Economy or CAFE standards, and what you can do to reduce your own vehicle emissions.

  6. Water for greening the economy

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    De Lange, Willem J

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available ] for such an overview). The focus here falls on a discussion aimed to improve alignment between water resource management and the principles of a green economy. Previous chapters have made it clear that a green economy requires a holistic approach towards policy...

  7. RISK AND FOREIGN DIRECT INVESTMENT IN ROMANIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Catalin Drob

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available This paper tries to present the main categories (types of risks that affect the inflows of foreign direct investment (FDI in Romania, such as: country risk, political risk, economic risks, sovereign risks and so on. FDI is an important factor contributing to the economic development and to the economic growth of a country. In order to recuperate its economic handicap as compared to the other countries in the EU, Romania needs a massive inflow of foreign capital, especially in the form of direct investment. The paper also presents the evolution of FDI inflows in Romania and how they were influenced by the main factors affecting the FDI. In principle, between risk and the level of FDI inflows there is a direct dependency relationship: the higher the risk is in a country, the lower the level of FDI inflows is in that country. This is demonstrated by the empirical studies regarding FDI. These studies show that countries with high risk have major difficulties in attracting foreign investment. Therefore, it is important to identify very precisely the main risks that may affect the level of FDI inflows in Romania, in order to propose and implement strategies to mitigate these risks and to attract more foreign direct investment in Romania.

  8. Foreign direct investments in Romania in EU28 framework

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Constantin Postoiu

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Foreign direct investments flows are perceived by economic policymakers and by economic researchers as one of the key - determinants of the process of adjustment and structural modernization of emerging economies. They are also recognized in the economic literature as an important source of economic growth. This research aims to identify whether FDI can contribute to the economic growth of a country and to estimate whether the foreign investors are attracted to investin economies that recorded successive growth rates. This approach involves the use of econometric tools and descriptive statistics to empirically support the assumptions made. Thus, for the quantitative analysis Eviews 7 and ArcGIS software tools were used. For the case study we analysed the Romanian economic situation in the current European context. First we take a look at the main evolution of foreign direct investment flows in the European Union. Subsequently we focus on the FDI flows into the Romanian economy and we test the links between these FDI flows and the economic growth process.

  9. The Rise of China and Foreign Direct Investment from Southeast Asia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Krislert Samphantharak

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper discusses foreign direct investment from Southeast Asia to China. With the exception of some government-linked companies, most investments from Southeast Asia have been dominated by the region’s overseas Chinese businesses. In addition to cheap labour costs, large domestic market and growing economy, China has provided business opportunities to investors from Southeast Asia thanks to their geographic proximity and ethnic connections, at least during the initial investment period. However, the network effects seem to decline soon after. As the Chinese economy becomes more globalised and more competitive, the success of foreign investment in China will increasingly depend on business competency rather than ethnic relations.

  10. METHODS TO QUANTIFY THE UNDERGROUND ECONOMY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oana Simona HUDEA

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The underground economy issue has raised in time miscellaneous discussions, it representing a large interest problem that affects the nations all over the world, without exception and, thereby, the well—being of stand—alone individuals. Although also treated in some previous works of the author, this topic in herein approached from a different perspective, namely the one related to distinct methods to be used in order to capture, by quantification, this undesirable economic form. Such methods, empirically tested or just imposed, based on arguments, by the researchers having launched the same, are rendered while considering their pluses and minuses in revealing, with a reasonable accuracy, the level of the above—mentioned informal economy.

  11. On inflation in the Russian economy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexey I. Bolonin

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available For the economy is very important to have the amount of money in circulation, sufficient to serve the movement of goods and services without generating inflation, indicating an excess of money, so matching the growth rate of monetary and commodity weight control is an important task of the monetary system in all countries. During the time of the gold standard and bimetallism regulation of the economy as a whole was not considered as an important macroeconomic problem. But the economic crisis of 1929 - 1933 forced to reconsider these views and problems of regulation of financial and credit sphere began to be perceived as a function of a stable level of production and employment. The article describes the monetary factors of inflation in the economy and describes the causes, which can lead to programming of monetary growth in the Russian Federation. As the first group of factors impact on the volume of money in circulation in the national economy, the author defined low value added products produced in the country, based on the external market, and the absence, so the room for maneuver of financial resources to stabilize budget revenues with a deterioration in global market conditions. The weakening of the national currency provides large ruble revenues from exports, which reduces the growth of the budget deficit. But the decline of import revenues, which can compensate for the devaluation of the national currency, leads to higher prices in the domestic market due to the prevalence it offers imported goods. The second group of factors linked to the credit activity of banks, which consists in increasing primary issue in lending importers and secondary, which occurs during the formation of foreign exchange reserves by the Bank of Russia. Result of credit activity of banks is to increase money supply growth and the discrepancy between the higher growth of money in circulation and lower growth rates actually created in the production of value added

  12. ICT Innovation in Emerging Economies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Xiao, Xiao; B. Califf, Christopher; Sarker, Saonee

    2013-01-01

    ICT innovation is known to significantly elevate a country’s growth and to enhance productivity. It is now well-acknowledged that emerging economies are beginning to innovate at a rapid rate despite some of the challenges they face. Given that these countries with such economies now comprise...... economies, what needs to be studied, and how they should be studied. We attempt to contribute in this area by: (1) providing a comprehensive framework of existing research on ICT innovation in emerging economies, (2) highlighting the gaps that have been left behind, and (3) providing specific guidelines...... to future researchers, including a research model summarizing the salient issues that need examination. We believe that our study makes an important contribution to research on ICT innovation in emerging economies, and can be a useful resource for future researchers interested in this topic....

  13. Impact Of Foreign Currency Hedging On Firm Value Among Indian Corporates

    OpenAIRE

    Gupta, Amit

    2016-01-01

    Indian economy was opened for globalization in 1991 and Indian Rupee was deregulated in 1993 and subjected to market fluctuations. Indian Rupee was very volatile during the past decade due to global events like US subprime crisis (2007-2009), European sovereign debt crisis, Oil prices fluctuations and Fed monetary policy speculations to name few. This volatility has put pressure on Indian firms to manage their foreign currency exposure. Hedging and use of Foreign Currency Derivatives (FCD) is...

  14. Major Problems and Countermeasures of Foreign Trade in China under the Background of Expanding Domestic Demand

    OpenAIRE

    Ruan, Wei-tong; Li, Yu-hong

    2010-01-01

    Starting from China's macro-economic policy level and combining with the status of foreign trade in China, major problems in the development of foreign trade are analyzed under the background of expanding domestic demand, which is guided by the macro-economy, international finance, international trade and other related disciplines. Problems are mainly the inflation, the reduction of import, the trade protection, the increase in export costs, the reduction of export, the scale shrinkage of for...

  15. Do Foreign-Owned Firms Provide Better Working Conditions Than Their Domestic Counterparts? A Comparative Analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Hijzen, Alexander; Martins, Pedro S.; Schank, Thorsten; Upward, Richard

    2010-01-01

    This paper analyses to what extent working conditions in foreign-owned firms differ from those in their domestic counterparts. It makes three main contributions. First, we replicate the consensus in the empirical literature by applying a standardised methodology to firm-level data for three developed (Germany, Portugal, UK) and two emerging economies (Brazil, Indonesia). We show that, consistent with previous evidence, foreign-owned firms offer substantially higher average wages than domestic...

  16. THE PLACE OF THE EMERGING ECONOMY OF ROMANIA INSIDE THE EUROPEAN UNION ECONOMIES IN TERMS OF FTSE CRITERIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mardiros Daniela-Neonila

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available The importance of this research lies from the need to know the economies developed, emerging and frontier of the European Union and the mode of their manifestation according to the market indicators. Consequently, we had in mind a presentation of the economies in the categories mentioned above framed in terms of market criteria used by FTSE Group, a provider of stock market indices and associated data services. Using data from a series of reports published by FTSE we made an analysis of how each of the considered economies and in particular Romania, acts according of these. Was taken into consideration criteria as: market and regulatory environment (formal stock market regulatory authorities actively monitor market; fair and non-prejudicial treatment of minority shareholders; non or selective incidence of foreign ownership restrictions; free and well-developed equity market; no objections or significant restrictions or penalties applied on the repatriation of capital; free and well-developed foreign exchange market; non or simple registration process for foreign investors; custody and settlement (settlement-rare incidence of failed trades; custody-sufficient competition to ensure high quality custodian services; clearing and settlement; stock lending permitted; settlement-free delivery available; custody-omnibus account facilities available to international investors; dealing landscape (brokerage-sufficient competition to ensure high quality broker services; liquidity-sufficient broad market liquidity to support sizeable global investment; transaction costs-implicit and explicit costs to be reasonable and competitive; short sales permitted; off-exchange transactions permitted; efficient trading mechanism; transparency; derivates (developed derivatives market. The final part of the paper is reserved to the understanding of the mode in which each of the considered economies of the European Union, including Romania and regardless of what category

  17. EXPORT ACTIVITY OF MASHINE-BUILDING ENTERPRISES WITHIN TRANSFORMATION OF UKRAINIAN FOREIGN TRADE

    OpenAIRE

    Yarosh-Dmytrenko, Liudmila Oleksiivna

    2017-01-01

    Urgency of the research. Transformational processes in Ukrainian economy and its integration to European and world economic areas set new challenges to domestic machine building. Target setting. In modern conditions, national machine building suffers from huge economic crisis and loses its competitive fight in domestic and, what is sufficiently important for the economy of Ukraine, in foreign markets. Actual scientific researches and issues analysis. The operation of Ukrainian machine buildin...

  18. Measurement of Foreign Exchange Exposure on the Turkish Private Banks’ Stock Prices

    OpenAIRE

    Serpil Canbas; Murat Doganlar; Yildirim B.Onal

    2002-01-01

    All performance criteria of the banks are affected by the exchange rate fluctuations through foreign currency transactions and operations. However, exchange rate fluctuations -even without such activities can influence the banks through their affect on foreign competition, foreign loan demand and other banking conditions. Exchange rate exposure is classified as operation, transaction, and accounting exposures. Most of the studies, which measure these exposures, focused on the affect of the ex...

  19. Foreign Exchange Reserves: Bangladesh Perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Md Zahangir Alam

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available This study is about foreign exchangereserves of Bangladesh. The mainpurpose of this study is to the influence of exchange rates on foreign exchangereserves to the Bangladesh context.  Both the primary and secondary data has been used inthis study. The primary data has been collected through a structuredquestionnaire from 50 respondents. The secondary data, namely Bangladeshforeign exchange reserves (FER, Bangladesh current account balance (CAB,Bangladesh capital andfinancial account balance (CFAB, and BDT/USD exchange rates (ER.  This study covers yearly data from July 01,1996 to June 30, 2005 and quarterly data from July 01, 2005 to June 30, 2012. Findingsof this study shows that out of the selected 16 factors affecting foreignexchange reserves, exchange rates occupy the first position, weighted averagescore (WAS being 4.56. Foreign exchange reserves (FER and current accountbalance (CAB have increased by 502.9087% and 1451.218%,whereas capital and financial account (CFAB has decreased by -649.024% on June30, 2012 compared to June 30, 1997. The influence of other factors heldconstant, as ER changes by 285.6894 units due to one unit change in FER, onaverage in the same direction which represents that ER has positive effect on theFER and this relationship is statistically significant.  62.1526 percentof the variation in FER is explained by ER. The outcomes of Breusch-Godfrey test (LM test, ARCHtest, and the Normality test are that there is a serial correlation among residuals, the variance of residuals is notconstant, and the residuals are not normally distributed.

  20. FOREIGN EXCHANGE RISK MANAGEMENT IN THE REPUBLIC OF MOLDOVA IN CONDITIONS OF CURRENCY CRISIS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pavel TIPA

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available At the end of 2014 and beginning of 2015, the banking sector from Moldova faced a tough crisis. It was generated by a series of frauds which led to three banks in process of liquidation, three other banks under NBM`s supervision and a huge gap in the broad money in the economy. These events severely affected the banking sector from the Republic of Moldova. Thus, the novelty of this paper is to highlight the difficulties which the banks from the Republic of Moldova have faced at managing their FX operations during that period. Also, considering the conditions of the downturn of the financial situation in the national banking sector and in the national economy in general, which followed as consequences of the crisis, this paper has the purpose to explain from theoretical point of view the basic concepts of correct banks’ FX operations management. For this, the author applied analytical, logical, bibliographical and synthesis research techniques. The results of the research are identification of the causes of currency crises, presentation of the basic measures taken by the National Bank of Moldova for mitigating the effects of the crisis, as well as exhibition of author’s recommendations regarding the main directions which have to be considered by banks in their foreign currency operations management.