WorldWideScience

Sample records for economically viable marine

  1. Environmental protection economically viable

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dartsch, B.; Hildebrandt, T.

    1994-01-01

    The Environmental Technology Forum for Industry and Research (Utech) was held for the fifth time this year at the International Congress Centre in Berlin. The main themes of this year's Utech were additive environmental protection, production-integrated environmental protection, management and economic aspects of environmental protection, research and development in environmental protection as well as environmental information legislation. (orig.) [de

  2. An economically viable space power relay system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bekey, Ivan; Boudreault, Richard

    1999-09-01

    This paper describes and analyzes the economics of a power relay system that takes advantage of recent technological advances to implement a system that is economically viable. A series of power relay systems are described and analyzed which transport power ranging from 1,250 megawatts to 5,000 megawatts, and distribute it to receiving sites at transcontinental distances. Two classes of systems are discussed—those with a single reflector and delivering all the power to a single rectenna, and a second type which has multiple reflectors and distributes it to 10 rectenna sites, sharing power among them. It is shown that when offering electricity at prices competitive to those prevalent in developed cities in the US that a low IRR is inevitable, and economic feasibility of a business is unlikely. However, when the target market is Japan where the prevalent electricity prices are much greater, that an IRR exceeding 65% is readily attainable. This is extremely attractive to potential investors, making capitalization of a venture likely. The paper shows that the capital investment required for the system can be less than 1 per installed watt, contributing less than 0.02 /KW-hr to the cost of energy provision. Since selling prices in feasible regions range from 0.18 to over 030 $/kW-hr, these costs are but a small fraction of the operating expenses. Thus a very large IRR is possible for such a business.

  3. Economically viable large-scale hydrogen liquefaction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cardella, U.; Decker, L.; Klein, H.

    2017-02-01

    The liquid hydrogen demand, particularly driven by clean energy applications, will rise in the near future. As industrial large scale liquefiers will play a major role within the hydrogen supply chain, production capacity will have to increase by a multiple of today’s typical sizes. The main goal is to reduce the total cost of ownership for these plants by increasing energy efficiency with innovative and simple process designs, optimized in capital expenditure. New concepts must ensure a manageable plant complexity and flexible operability. In the phase of process development and selection, a dimensioning of key equipment for large scale liquefiers, such as turbines and compressors as well as heat exchangers, must be performed iteratively to ensure technological feasibility and maturity. Further critical aspects related to hydrogen liquefaction, e.g. fluid properties, ortho-para hydrogen conversion, and coldbox configuration, must be analysed in detail. This paper provides an overview on the approach, challenges and preliminary results in the development of efficient as well as economically viable concepts for large-scale hydrogen liquefaction.

  4. Dye Sensitized Solar Cells for Economically Viable Photovoltaic Systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jung, Hyun Suk; Lee, Jung-Kun

    2013-05-16

    TiO2 nanoparticle-based dye sensitized solar cells (DSSCs) have attracted a significant level of scientific and technological interest for their potential as economically viable photovoltaic devices. While DSSCs have multiple benefits such as material abundance, a short energy payback period, constant power output, and compatibility with flexible applications, there are still several challenges that hold back large scale commercialization. Critical factors determining the future of DSSCs involve energy conversion efficiency, long-term stability, and production cost. Continuous advancement of their long-term stability suggests that state-of-the-art DSSCs will operate for over 20 years without a significant decrease in performance. Nevertheless, key questions remain in regards to energy conversion efficiency improvements and material cost reduction. In this Perspective, the present state of the field and the ongoing efforts to address the requirements of DSSCs are summarized with views on the future of DSSCs.

  5. An economically viable alternative to coastal discharge of produced water

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    D'Unger, C.V.; Carr, R.S.; Chapman, D.C.

    1993-01-01

    The discharge of produced waters to coastal estuaries has been common practice on the Texas coast for many years as these discharges are currently exempt from NPDES permitting. A study of the active produced water discharges in Nueces Bay, Texas revealed that all eight effluents were highly toxic as determined by the sea urchin (Arbacia punctulata) fertilization and embryological development assays. An alternative to discharging produced water into coastal estuaries is the use of disposal wells. Inactive wells can be converted to produced water disposal wells. Production records for the Nueces Bay, Texas area reveal that 52% of the gas wells produce less than 100 mcf/d and 50% of the oil wells produce less than 10 b/d. Using conservative estimates, the cost of converting an inactive well to a disposal well was calculated to be $31,500 which could be paid out by a gas well producing as little as 100 mcf/d in 26 months using only 50% of the well's profit. Combining multiple leases to a single disposal well would reduce proportionately the cost to each operation. This study has demonstrated that economically viable disposal options could be achieved in the Nueces Bay area through the imaginative and cooperative formation of produced water disposal ventures. This same model could be applied to produced water discharges in other coastal areas

  6. Zero energy homes – Are they economically viable?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Berry, Stephen; Davidson, Kathryn

    2015-01-01

    Whilst net zero energy homes are espoused in many policy circles, and many bespoke examples have been constructed to demonstrate their technical feasibility, there is a scarcity of evidence demonstrating such a standard would be economically rational, particularly for large scale housing development where orientation and aspect may not always be optimal. Drawing on energy monitoring evidence and construction economics associated with a nearly zero energy housing estate in Adelaide, Australia, this paper explores the economic feasibility of the net zero energy home policy in warm temperate climates. The results demonstrate that using economic tools and assumptions typically applied for building energy regulatory policy changes, net societal economic benefits significantly outweigh costs. The clear economic outcomes, combined with expected health and productivity benefits from improved levels of thermal comfort, should provide security to policy makers to progress home energy standards towards net zero energy performance. -- Highlights: •The concept of net zero energy homes is examined for economic viability. •Evidence is collected from a near net zero energy housing estate. •Conservative results show that societal benefits outweigh costs. •Significant additional benefits gained from net zero energy homes

  7. The Most Economic, Socially Viable, and Environmentally Sustainable Alternative Energy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vanderburg, Willem H.

    2008-01-01

    The strengths and weaknesses of current energy planning can be attributed to the limited economic, social, and environmental contexts taken into account as a result of the current intellectual and professional division of labor. A preventive approach is developed by which the ratio of desired to undesired effects can be substantially improved. It…

  8. Entrepreneurship: A Viable Addition to Home Economics Curriculum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fortenberry, Sally L.

    1988-01-01

    Argues that information relating to entrepreneurship should be part of every curriculum within the field of home economics. Discusses characteristics of successful entrepreneurs and discusses how the curriculum can be modified to develop these characteristics. Reviews sources of entrepreneurship materials. (CH)

  9. Farming a new economically viable fish species: Kisinja (Barbus altianalis)

    OpenAIRE

    Aruho, C.; Ondhoro, C.C.

    2010-01-01

    Kisinja (Barbus altianalis)is an indigenous omnivorous fish, of high economic value in Uganda. It was widely distributed in most lakes and rivers in the country but its stocks were depleted due to overfishing and degradation of its natural habitat. 1t can grow up to a maximum length of 120m and a weight of 15kg in the wild and grows faster, attains larger size than commonly farmed fishes in Uganda, including the Nile tilapia, the African catfish, and mirror carp. Kisinja is a highly valuable ...

  10. Economically viable and environment-friendly hydro energy in Estonia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saks, Ants; Velner, Harald

    2001-01-01

    Hydro energy has been in oblivion in Estonia for about 30 years now. During the 1960s, most of Estonia's small hydropower plants were closed down, just as it was done in the whole Soviet Union. As the only larger hydro plant, the 125 MW plant in Narva, was situated on the Russian side of the Narva River, there were only two or three small hydro plants left. Even those were exploited at low capacity and mainly for heating the buildings. It was not until the 1990s that a number of enthusiasts started to re-establish the hydro plants by reconstructing old installations. The pre-feasibility study 'Hydropower in Estonia' proposed by Estonian and Swedish experts, showed that the restoration of the hydropower plants and watermills is economically feasible and technically possible if advanced technology is used. Hydropower as an alternative ('green') energy source should be used in the best technical-economical way. The first pilot plant in Estonia, the 200 kW Kamari plant was constructed in 1998 with compact-propeller units, in co-operation with Waterpumps WP Oy and ABB. Today, ten new plants have been constructed or are under construction. Hydropower plants/watermills should be reconstructed in accordance with the legislative acts on environment protection

  11. Algae to Economically Viable Low-Carbon-Footprint Oil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhujade, Ramesh; Chidambaram, Mandan; Kumar, Avnish; Sapre, Ajit

    2017-06-07

    Algal oil as an alternative to fossil fuel has attracted attention since the 1940s, when it was discovered that many microalgae species can produce large amounts of lipids. Economics and energy security were the motivational factors for a spurt in algae research during the 1970s, 1990s, and early 2000s. Whenever crude prices declined, research on algae stopped. The scenario today is different. Even given low and volatile crude prices ($30-$50/barrel), interest in algae continues all over the world. Algae, with their cure-all characteristics, have the potential to provide sustainable solutions to problems in the energy-food-climate nexus. However, after years of effort, there are no signs of algae-to-biofuel technology being commercialized. This article critically reviews past work; summarizes the current status of the technology; and based on the lessons learned, provides a balanced perspective on a potential path toward commercialization of algae-to-oil technology.

  12. Enforcing environmental standards: Economic mechanisms as viable means?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wolfrum, R.; Heidelberg Univ.

    1996-01-01

    The papers presented at the symposium organised by the Heidelberg Max-Planck-Institute for international law touch upon two major aspects of developments in international law, relating to international environmental law for protection of the global atmosphere and environment, and to international and national means of enforcing existing laws. The situation is shown against the background of conflicts of interests arising from the different perspectives and objectives involved, i.e. those of protection of the environment or economic development. The 21 contributions, all in English, present an outline picture of developments and activities as well as legal regimes and instruments and address details of agreements and their implementation and enforcement. Individual subject analyses of 17 papers are available in the database. (CB)

  13. Compost plant of Medellin - An economically viable project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bedoya V, Julian; Arango M, Carlos Andres

    1999-01-01

    The solid waste treatment facility of Empresas Varias de Medellln started operation of the 70's. The total investment in equipment and construction by 1971 was of about $ 36'000. 000 Colombian pesos, that by 1997 was valued at more than seven thousand million pesos $7.000'000. 000). The solid waste treatment facility was able to process 180 t/day, generating compost and recyclable by products (textile fibbers. paper, cardboard, glass, plastics, scrap metals) with commercial value. Operating expenses for the facility in 1972 were $2'187.742 to process 53.300 t/year in 296 working days. Revenues from compost and recyclable by products were $ 8 '791.280, with a positive balance of $ 6 '603.538. For those years debt annual payments were $ 3'919.372, giving a yearly profit of $ 2'684.165. Instead of debt payments a yearly charge of $ 7 '315. 240 can be made to account for equipment and construction costs; in addition land rent of $ 500000 per year should be charged to the plant. in this case the operational loss is of $ 1' 397.663 ($ 26/ t) that has to be covered by solid waste service charges. Under these conditions the project is not economically feasible, especially if taking solid wastes to Moravia has not cost at all. Twenty-five years later situation is different: transportation and final disposal costs in Curva de Rodas amount to more than $ 19. 000/t. expected total revenues for a similar project in 1997 could be $2.778' 000.000 and operational expenses for 365 days are estimated at $ 506' 000.000; yearly annual cost for construction and equipment amounts to $1. 411' 000.000 and land rental of $96'000.000 give a profit of close to $765 '000.000. Under these conditions the project is economically feasible and generates a profit: it may be even more attractive if the solid waste company pays a disposal fee, since it is saving room in Curva de Rodas. In order to obtain fully feasibility of the project requires: compost must be improved and positioned in the market

  14. Changes in total viable count and TVB-N content in marinated chicken breast fillets during storage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baltić, T.; Ćirić, J.; Velebit, B.; Petronijević, R.; Lakićević, B.; Đorđević, V.; Janković, V.

    2017-09-01

    Marination is a popular technique for enhancing meat properties. Depending on the marinade type and ingredients added, marination can improve sensory, chemical and microbiological quality of meat products. In this study, the total viable count and total volatile basic nitrogen (TVB-N) content in marinated chicken breast fillets were investigated. The possible correlation between bacterial growth and formation of TVB-N was also tested. Chicken breast fillets were immersed in a solution of table salt (as a control) orthree different marinades,which consisted of table salt, sodium tripolyphosphate and/or sodium citrate, and stored in air for nine days at 4±1°C. Analyses of the total viable count and TVB-N were performed on days0, 3, 6 and 9 day of storage. The total viable count gradually increased in all examined groups, and statistically significant differences (pchicken were significantly higher (pchicken marinated with sodium citrate was established (pchicken marinated with sodium tripolyphosphate.

  15. Economic impacts of marine ecological change

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Groeneveld, Rolf A.; Bartelings, Heleen; Börger, Tobias; Bosello, Francesco; Buisman, Erik; Delpiazzo, Elisa; Eboli, Fabio; Fernandes, Jose A.; Hamon, Katell G.; Hattam, Caroline; Loureiro, Maria; Nunes, Paulo A.L.D.; Piwowarczyk, Joanna; Schasfoort, Femke E.; Simons, Sarah L.; Walker, Adam N.

    2018-01-01

    Marine ecological change is likely to have serious potential economic consequences for coastal economies all over the world. This article reviews the current literature on the economic impacts of marine ecological change, as well as a number of recent contributions to this literature carried out

  16. Global Marine Fisheries with Economic Growth

    OpenAIRE

    Sugiawan, Yogi; Islam, Moinul; Managi, Shunsuke

    2017-01-01

    This study explores the state of global marine fisheries and empirically analyzes its relationship to economic factors. We apply the pooled mean group estimator method to examine 70 fishing countries for the period of 1961-2010. We use both catch and the estimated size of stock as proxies for marine ecosystems. Our results confirm that economic growth initially leads to the deterioration of marine ecosystems. However, for a per capita income level of approximately 3,827 USD for the catch mode...

  17. Economically viable biochemical processes for the advanced rural biorefinery and downstream recovery operations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rural biorefineries offer an alternative to traditional ethanol production by providing the opportunity to produce fuel on site to reduce costs associated with biomass transportation thus making the fuel economically viable. Widespread installation of rural biorefineries could lead to increased upt...

  18. Economic instruments and marine litter control

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Oosterhuis, F.H.; Papyrakis, E.; Boteler, B.

    2014-01-01

    This paper provides a comprehensive up-to-date review of the literature on the economic instruments that can reduce marine litter. We assess their cost of implementation, level of effectiveness as well as indirect environmental and socio-economic effects (externalities) that may arise as a result of

  19. Economically Viable Components from Jerusalem Artichoke (Helianthus tuberosus L.) in a Biorefinery Concept

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Johansson, Eva; Prade, Thomas; Angelidaki, Irini

    2015-01-01

    Biorefinery applications are receiving growing interest due to climatic and waste disposal issues and lack of petroleum resources. Jerusalem artichoke (Helianthus tuberosus L.) is suitable for biorefinery applications due to high biomass production and limited cultivation requirements. This paper...... focuses on the potential of Jerusalem artichoke as a biorefinery crop and the most viable products in such a case. The carbohydrates in the tubers were found to have potential for production of platform chemicals, e.g., succinic acid. However, economic analysis showed that production of platform chemicals...

  20. Economically Viable Components from Jerusalem Artichoke (Helianthus tuberosus L.) in a Biorefinery Concept

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johansson, Eva; Prade, Thomas; Angelidaki, Irini; Svensson, Sven-Erik; Newson, William R.; Gunnarsson, Ingólfur Bragi; Persson Hovmalm, Helena

    2015-01-01

    Biorefinery applications are receiving growing interest due to climatic and waste disposal issues and lack of petroleum resources. Jerusalem artichoke (Helianthus tuberosus L.) is suitable for biorefinery applications due to high biomass production and limited cultivation requirements. This paper focuses on the potential of Jerusalem artichoke as a biorefinery crop and the most viable products in such a case. The carbohydrates in the tubers were found to have potential for production of platform chemicals, e.g., succinic acid. However, economic analysis showed that production of platform chemicals as a single product was too expensive to be competitive with petrochemically produced sugars. Therefore, production of several products from the same crop is a must. Additional products are protein based ones from tubers and leaves and biogas from residues, although both are of low value and amount. High bioactive activity was found in the young leaves of the crop, and the sesquiterpene lactones are of specific interest, as other compounds from this group have shown inhibitory effects on several human diseases. Thus, future focus should be on understanding the usefulness of small molecules, to develop methods for their extraction and purification and to further develop sustainable and viable methods for the production of platform chemicals. PMID:25913379

  1. Advanced light water reactors: an economically viable part of the world's future energy mix

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bruschi, H.J.

    1996-01-01

    In addition to safety and reliability, a common mission for the international nuclear industry in the 21. century will be ensure affordable electricity. At the Westinghouse Electric Corporation believe our advanced light water reactor (ALWR) design gives us the opportunity to provide the safest, most reliable, lowest cost, most competitive generation method possible for use by nations and utilities worldwide. While the safety and reliability aspects of the ALWR can be proven tangibly and are well-documented, questions have been raised about the technology's ability to work within the world's selling price range for electricity generation. For our industry's financial stability, and especially for the stability of the world's future power needs, Westinghouse has done extensive work on this issue and we are convinced we can meet the competitive challenge. We believe the ALWR can be an economically viable part of the world's future energy mix. This paper will define the competitive challenge that is being addressed by the industry and then analyze three specific areas: capital costs, operating costs, and financing costs. The hidden advantage of nuclear power in responding to these challenges will be explored, and a strong case will be made asserting that the advanced light water reactor will be able to compete in international markets with viable production costs. (authors)

  2. Marine environmental pollution stress detection through direct viable counts of bacteria

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Ramaiah, N.; Kenkre, V.D.; Verlecar, X.N.

    usefulfordeterminingmetabolicallyactivebacterialcells [7,8]. It is a proven method to understand the hetero- trophicpotentialofmicrobialassemblagesinthemarine environment[9].Itiseasytoperformandyieldshighly reproducibleresults.DVChasbeenthemostemployed techniquetoassessbacterialmetabolicactivitystate... stress on microbial communities. From the extensive fieldandlaboratoryanalyses,wereportonthereliability of DVC for sensing risks in the marine environment causedbyindustrialactivities. 2. Materials and methods 2.1. Sampling locations...

  3. Conceptualizing an economically, legally, and politically viable active debris removal option

    Science.gov (United States)

    Emanuelli, M.; Federico, G.; Loughman, J.; Prasad, D.; Chow, T.; Rathnasabapathy, M.

    2014-11-01

    challenges and propose an economically, politically, and legally viable ADR option. Much like waste management on Earth, cleaning up space junk will likely lie somewhere between a public good and a private sector service. An international, cooperative, public-private partnership concept can address many of these issues and be economically sustainable, while also driving the creation of a proper set of regulations, standards and best practices.

  4. A propidium monoazide–quantitative PCR method for the detection and quantification of viable Enterococcus faecalis in large-volume samples of marine waters

    KAUST Repository

    Salam, Khaled W.; El-Fadel, Mutasem E.; Barbour, Elie K.; Saikaly, Pascal

    2014-01-01

    The development of rapid detection assays of cell viability is essential for monitoring the microbiological quality of water systems. Coupling propidium monoazide with quantitative PCR (PMA-qPCR) has been successfully applied in different studies for the detection and quantification of viable cells in small-volume samples (0.25-1.00 mL), but it has not been evaluated sufficiently in marine environments or in large-volume samples. In this study, we successfully integrated blue light-emitting diodes for photoactivating PMA and membrane filtration into the PMA-qPCR assay for the rapid detection and quantification of viable Enterococcus faecalis cells in 10-mL samples of marine waters. The assay was optimized in phosphate-buffered saline and seawater, reducing the qPCR signal of heat-killed E. faecalis cells by 4 log10 and 3 log10 units, respectively. Results suggest that high total dissolved solid concentration (32 g/L) in seawater can reduce PMA activity. Optimal PMA-qPCR standard curves with a 6-log dynamic range and detection limit of 102 cells/mL were generated for quantifying viable E. faecalis cells in marine waters. The developed assay was compared with the standard membrane filter (MF) method by quantifying viable E. faecalis cells in seawater samples exposed to solar radiation. The results of the developed PMA-qPCR assay did not match that of the standard MF method. This difference in the results reflects the different physiological states of E. faecalis cells in seawater. In conclusion, the developed assay is a rapid (∼5 h) method for the quantification of viable E. faecalis cells in marine recreational waters, which should be further improved and tested in different seawater settings. © 2014 Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg.

  5. A propidium monoazide–quantitative PCR method for the detection and quantification of viable Enterococcus faecalis in large-volume samples of marine waters

    KAUST Repository

    Salam, Khaled W.

    2014-08-23

    The development of rapid detection assays of cell viability is essential for monitoring the microbiological quality of water systems. Coupling propidium monoazide with quantitative PCR (PMA-qPCR) has been successfully applied in different studies for the detection and quantification of viable cells in small-volume samples (0.25-1.00 mL), but it has not been evaluated sufficiently in marine environments or in large-volume samples. In this study, we successfully integrated blue light-emitting diodes for photoactivating PMA and membrane filtration into the PMA-qPCR assay for the rapid detection and quantification of viable Enterococcus faecalis cells in 10-mL samples of marine waters. The assay was optimized in phosphate-buffered saline and seawater, reducing the qPCR signal of heat-killed E. faecalis cells by 4 log10 and 3 log10 units, respectively. Results suggest that high total dissolved solid concentration (32 g/L) in seawater can reduce PMA activity. Optimal PMA-qPCR standard curves with a 6-log dynamic range and detection limit of 102 cells/mL were generated for quantifying viable E. faecalis cells in marine waters. The developed assay was compared with the standard membrane filter (MF) method by quantifying viable E. faecalis cells in seawater samples exposed to solar radiation. The results of the developed PMA-qPCR assay did not match that of the standard MF method. This difference in the results reflects the different physiological states of E. faecalis cells in seawater. In conclusion, the developed assay is a rapid (∼5 h) method for the quantification of viable E. faecalis cells in marine recreational waters, which should be further improved and tested in different seawater settings. © 2014 Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg.

  6. Social Capital: A Neglected Resource to Create Viable and Sustainable Youth Economic Groups in Urban Tanzania

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manyerere, David J.

    2015-01-01

    There has been an alarming increase in the rate of unemployment among active urban population in Tanzania whereby the youth are severely affected. In this regard Youth Economic Groups (YEGs) program was formed as one among the best alternative strategies to address this perennial problem. Membership in YEGs act as a means to complement youth…

  7. The Economics of Marine Ecosystem Services – the Fisheries Case

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ravensbeck, Lars

    of five papers, but additionally five other documents have been authored or co-authored in relation to the thesis. The first document is a book chapter that surveys the state of art in some main areas related to green accounting and the links to economic value of ecosystem services particularly those......The thesis “The Economics of Marine Ecosystem Services − the Fisheries Case” focuses on some of the issues in marine resources economics that have attracted significant interest in recent years. Historically, the central issue has been fisheries economics and how to management fish stocks to obtain...... in the formation of flows of ecosystem services from the oceans it is possible to integrate classical fisheries economics with a broader ecosystem approach. The core element of the thesis is the combination of fisheries economics, an ecosystem approach and extended, applied bioeconomic models. The thesis consists...

  8. Propulsion challenges for a 21st century economically viable, environmentally compatible High-Speed Civil Transport

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shaw, Robert J.

    1991-01-01

    Recent NASA funded studies suggest an opportunity exists for a 21st Century High Speed Civil Transport (HSCT) to become part of the international air transportation system. However, before this opportunity for high speed travel can be realized, certain environmental and economic barrier issues must be overcome. These challenges are outlined. Research activities which NASA has planned to address these barrier issues and provide a technology base to allow the U.S. manufacturers to make an informed go/no go decision on developing an HSCT are discussed.

  9. Geopolitics of Natural and Energetic Resources in Vietnam: an Economically Viable Anchor?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mottet, Eric; Lasserre, Frederic

    2015-01-01

    Since the 1990's, Vietnam has been mutating into an economic dragon together with an unprecedented demographic boom. The high growth expresses itself through an increased demand for energy and raw materials. Though Vietnam is endowed with quite a number of resources, most of them are available in limited amounts. Medium-term estimates reckon the country's fossil resources will not meet the domestic demand. Consequently, Hanoi is planning the development of a national energy policy focused on three sectors: hydroelectricity, renewable energies, and civilian nuclear programme. For lack of strict work plans and adequate financing, the Vietnam energy development plan does not sound technically and financially feasible without the help of foreign players whose presence on the national territory exacerbates the local, national and regional geopolitical stakes

  10. Freedom space for rivers: An economically viable river management concept in a changing climate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buffin-Bélanger, Thomas; Biron, Pascale M.; Larocque, Marie; Demers, Sylvio; Olsen, Taylor; Choné, Guénolé; Ouellet, Marie-Audray; Cloutier, Claude-André; Desjarlais, Claude; Eyquem, Joanna

    2015-12-01

    The freedom space concept applies hydrogeomorphic principles to delineate zones that are either frequently flooded or actively eroding, or that include riparian wetlands. Freedom space limits mapped for three rivers in southern Quebec (Canada) were assessed to determine whether they would still be valid under a future climate using a sensitivity analysis approach with numerical models predicting mobility of meanders (RVRMeander) and flood stage (HEC-RAS). The freedom space limits were also used in a cost-benefit analysis over a 50-year period where costs consist of loss or limitations to the right of farming and construction in this zone, whereas benefits are avoided costs for existing or future bank stabilization structures and avoided costs of flooding in agricultural areas. The economic value of ecosystem services provided by riparian wetlands and increased buffer zones within the freedom space were also included in the analysis. Results show that freedom space limits would be robust in future climate, and show net present values ranging from CDN0.7 to 3.7 million for the three rivers, with ratios of benefits over costs ranging between 1.5:1 and 4.8:1. River management based on freedom space is thus beneficial for society over a 50-year period.

  11. Economic growth and marine biodiversity: influence of human social structure on decline of marine trophic levels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clausen, Rebecca; York, Richard

    2008-04-01

    We assessed the effects of economic growth, urbanization, and human population size on marine biodiversity. We used the mean trophic level (MTL) of marine catch as an indicator of marine biodiversity and conducted cross-national time-series analyses (1960-2003) of 102 nations to investigate human social influences on fish catch and trends in MTL. We constructed path models to examine direct and indirect effects relating to marine catch and MTL. Nations' MTLs declined with increased economic growth, increased urbanization, and increased population size, in part because of associated increased catch. These findings contradict the environmental Kuznets curve hypothesis, which claims that economic modernization will reduce human impact on the environment. To make informed decisions on issues of marine resource management, policy makers, nonprofit entities, and professional societies must recognize the need to include social analyses in overall conservation-research strategies. The challenge is to utilize the socioeconomic and ecological research in the service of a comprehensive marine-conservation movement.

  12. Renewal of Collaborative Research: Economically Viable Forest Harvesting Practices That Increase Carbon Sequestration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Davidson, E.A.; Dail, D.B., Hollinger, D.; Scott, N.; Richardson, A.

    2012-08-02

    Forests provide wildlife habitat, water and air purification, climate moderation, and timber and nontimber products. Concern about climate change has put forests in the limelight as sinks of atmospheric carbon. The C stored in the global vegetation, mostly in forests, is nearly equivalent to the amount present in atmospheric CO{sub 2}. Both voluntary and government-mandated carbon trading markets are being developed and debated, some of which include C sequestration resulting from forest management as a possible tradeable commodity. However, uncertainties regarding sources of variation in sequestration rates, validation, and leakage remain significant challenges for devising strategies to include forest management in C markets. Hence, the need for scientifically-based information on C sequestration by forest management has never been greater. The consequences of forest management on the US carbon budget are large, because about two-thirds of the {approx}300 million hectare US forest resource is classified as 'commercial forest.' In most C accounting budgets, forest harvesting is usually considered to cause a net release of C from the terrestrial biosphere to the atmosphere. However, forest management practices could be designed to meet the multiple goals of providing wood and paper products, creating economic returns from natural resources, while sequestering C from the atmosphere. The shelterwood harvest strategy, which removes about 30% of the basal area of the overstory trees in each of three successive harvests spread out over thirty years as part of a stand rotation of 60-100 years, may improve net C sequestration compared to clear-cutting because: (1) the average C stored on the land surface over a rotation increases, (2) harvesting only overstory trees means that a larger fraction of the harvested logs can be used for long-lived sawtimber products, compared to more pulp resulting from clearcutting, (3) the shelterwood cut encourages growth of

  13. Bovine meat and bone meal is an economically viable alternative in quail feeding in the initial phase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pizzolante, Carla C; Kakimoto, Sérgio K; Moraes, José E; Saccomani, Ana Paula O; Soares, Daniela F; Paschoalin, Gustavo C; Budiño, Fábio E L

    2016-05-31

    Quail egg production has experienced a steep rise in the last decade. Nutrition is the main factor affecting productive potential in the poultry industry, as appropriate nutritional management is necessary to ensure the maintenance of optimal physical conditions, growth and the production of high quality products. Meat and bone meal (MBM) has often been used in the poultry industry as an alternative and cost-effective source of protein in partial replacement of corn and soybean meal. However, there have been no studies to date that have investigated the effect of dietary MBM on the performance of quail or on the costs of production in the starter phase. This is particularly important considering that this phase is characterized by large investments by producers, without immediate economic return. In this study, we investigated whether partial replacement of soybean meal (SBM) by meat and bone meal (MBM) in the diet of Japanese quail during the starter phase is a viable alternative that would maintain or improve their productive and economic performance. Our results show that the inclusion of MBM in the diet of quail reduces feeding costs by up to 6% without impairing productive performance.

  14. Bovine meat and bone meal is an economically viable alternative in quail feeding in the initial phase

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carla C. Pizzolante

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Quail egg production has experienced a steep rise in the last decade. Nutrition is the main factor affecting productive potential in the poultry industry, as appropriate nutritional management is necessary to ensure the maintenance of optimal physical conditions, growth and the production of high quality products. Meat and bone meal (MBM has often been used in the poultry industry as an alternative and cost-effective source of protein in partial replacement of corn and soybean meal. However, there have been no studies to date that have investigated the effect of dietary MBM on the performance of quail or on the costs of production in the starter phase. This is particularly important considering that this phase is characterized by large investments by producers, without immediate economic return. In this study, we investigated whether partial replacement of soybean meal (SBM by meat and bone meal (MBM in the diet of Japanese quail during the starter phase is a viable alternative that would maintain or improve their productive and economic performance. Our results show that the inclusion of MBM in the diet of quail reduces feeding costs by up to 6% without impairing productive performance.

  15. Bovine meat and Bone Meal as an Economically Viable Alternative in Quail Feeding in the Final Phase

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    CC Pizzolante

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Bovine meat and bone meal (MBM has been used as a low-cost protein source in corn- and soybean meal-based poultry diets. However, to date, no studies investigating the effect of the dietary inclusion of MBM on the performance of Japanese quails and on egg production costs were found in literature. In this study, 600 Japanese quails in lay were distributed in a completely randomized experimental design consisting of six treatments (replacement levels of soybean meal by MBM:0, 1, 2, 3, 4, and 5% with five replicates of 20 birds each to investigate if MBM is a viable alternative to maintain or to improve the live and economic performances of these birds. Treatments consisted of a control diet, based on corn and soybean meal, with no inclusion of MBM, and diets formulated with increasing levels (1, 2, 3, 4, and 5% of MBM inclusion at the expense of soybean meal. The studied parameters were evaluated in four periods of 28 days each. Live performance parameters (egg weight, g; average egg production, %; egg weight, g; feed intake, g; feed conversion ratio per egg mass, kg/kg and per dozen eggs, dz/kg; and livability, %; egg quality parameters (proportion of egg components, yolk, albumen, eggshell %; egg specific weight, g/cm3; and economic parameter (bio-economic nutritional index were determined. Only egg weight, egg specific weight, and eggshell percentage were affected (p<0.05 by the treatments. Our results show that inclusion of bovine meat and bone meal can be added to the diet of Japanese quails in lay, causing no performance losses and promoting feed cost savings up to 5.24%.

  16. Economic analysis of Marine Protected Areas: Bioeconomic Modeling and Economic Valuation Approaches

    OpenAIRE

    Bui, Bich Xuan

    2017-01-01

    The papers 2 and 3 of this thesis are not available in Munin. Paper 2: Xuan, B. B., Sandorf, E. D., Aanesen, M.: “Informing Management Strategies for a Reserve: Results from a Discrete Choice Experiment Survey”. (Manuscript). Paper 3: Xuan, B. B.: “Extractive and Non-extractive Values of a Marine Protected Area: A Bio-economic Model Application". (Manuscript). Marine protected areas (MPAs) are often established for conservation objectives. Benefits provided by MPAs exceed pure biod...

  17. Reducing marine mammal bycatch in global fisheries: An economics approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lent, Rebecca; Squires, Dale

    2017-06-01

    The broader ecosystem impacts of fishing continue to present a challenge to scientists and resource managers around the world. Bycatch is of greatest concern for marine mammals, for which fishery bycatch and entanglement is the number one cause of direct mortality. Climate change will only add to the challenge, as marine species and fishing practices adapt to a changing environment, creating a dynamic pattern of overlap between fishing and species (both target and bycatch). Economists suggest policy instruments for reducing bycatch that move away from top-down, command-and-control measures (e.g. effort reduction, time/area closures, gear restrictions, bycatch quotas) towards an approach that creates incentives to reduce bycatch (e.g. transferable bycatch allowances, taxes, and other measures). The advantages of this flexible, incentive-oriented approach are even greater in a changing and increasingly variable environment, as regulatory measures would have to be adapted constantly to keep up with climate change. Unlike the regulatory process, individual operators in the fishery sector can make adjustments to their harvesting practices as soon as the incentives for such changes are apparent and inputs or operations can be modified. This paper explores policy measures that create economic incentives not only to reduce marine mammal bycatch, but also to increase compliance and induce technological advances by fishery operators. Economists also suggest exploration of direct economic incentives as have been used in other conservation programs, such as payments for economic services, in an approach that addresses marine mammal bycatch as part of a larger conservation strategy. Expanding the portfolio of mandatory and potentially, voluntary, measures to include novel approaches will provide a broader array of opportunities for successful stewardship of the marine environment.

  18. Economic perspective of marine reserves in fisheries: a bioeconomic model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chakraborty, Kunal; Kar, T K

    2012-12-01

    The present paper describes a prey-predator type fishery model with prey dispersal in a two-patch environment, one of which is a free fishing zone and other is protected zone. The objective of the paper is to maximize the net economic revenue earn from the fishery through implementing the sustainable properties of the fishery to keep the ecological balance. Biological measures are introduced to increase the understanding of the mechanisms in the bioeconomic system. The importance of marine reserve is analyzed through the obtained results of the numerical simulations of proposed model system. The results depict that reserves will be most effective when coupled with harvesting controls in adjacent fisheries. The paper also incorporates the induced cost and premium from establishing a marine protected area in a fishery. It is found that premium of marine protected area (MPA) increases with the increasing size of the reserve. Results are analyzed with the help of graphical illustrations. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Infectious diseases affect marine fisheries and aquaculture economics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lafferty, Kevin D.; Harvell, C. Drew; Conrad, Jonathan M.; Friedman, Carolyn S.; Kent, Michael L.; Kuris, Armand M.; Powell, Eric N.; Rondeau, Daniel; Saksida, Sonja M.

    2015-01-01

    Seafood is a growing part of the economy, but its economic value is diminished by marine diseases. Infectious diseases are common in the ocean, and here we tabulate 67 examples that can reduce commercial species' growth and survivorship or decrease seafood quality. These impacts seem most problematic in the stressful and crowded conditions of aquaculture, which increasingly dominates seafood production as wild fishery production plateaus. For instance, marine diseases of farmed oysters, shrimp, abalone, and various fishes, particularly Atlantic salmon, cost billions of dollars each year. In comparison, it is often difficult to accurately estimate disease impacts on wild populations, especially those of pelagic and subtidal species. Farmed species often receive infectious diseases from wild species and can, in turn, export infectious agents to wild species. However, the impact of disease export on wild fisheries is controversial because there are few quantitative data demonstrating that wild species near farms suffer more from infectious diseases than those in other areas. The movement of exotic infectious agents to new areas continues to be the greatest concern.

  20. Economic and environmental impact of the utilization of the industrial potential of viable cogeneration for period 1998 - 2007; Impacto economico y ambiental de aprovechamiento del potencial industrial de cogeneracion viable para el periodo 1998 - 2007

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Leon de los Santos, Gabriel; Mendoza Gonzslez, Lourdes [Universidad Nacional Autonoma de Mexico, Mexico, D.F. (Mexico)

    2001-07-01

    The utilization of the industrial potential of cogeneration offers a significant contribution to the construction of the electrical infrastructure that the growth of the country will require for the period 1998 - 2007. The conditions of growth of the co-generation potential and their levels of utilization are related to a on isolated growth of the other inter actors of the processes of power supply; As levels of economic viability, economic savings to industry, requirements of additional electrical capacity, growth of the industrial activity, costs, use of fuels, environmental impact. Rates of average growth for period 1998 - 2007 are considered and what levels of economic and environmental benefit offers this development to the industry, to the electrical company and to the country. And to what proportion can contribute the utilization of the industrial potential of electrical cogeneration to the requirements of additional electrical capacity that will require the development of the country during this period. With the rates of viable growth of the co-generation the equivalent reduction of fuel consumption is estimated for the industrial sector, given by the improvement in the generation efficiency and with the change in the proportion of fuels used in Comision Federal de Electricidad (CFE) for this period. Evaluating the emissions of the main fuels avoided with this growth and its repercussion at national level via the CFE, and showing the possible international implications of this reduction. [Spanish] El aprovechamiento del potencial industrial de cogeneracion ofrece una significativa aportacion a la construccion de la infraestructura electrica que el crecimiento del pais requerira para el periodo 1998 -2007. Las condiciones de crecimiento del potencial de cogeneracion y sus niveles de aprovechamiento estan relacionados con un crecimiento o aislado de los demas inter actores de los procesos de abasto energetico; Como niveles de viabilidad economica, ahorros

  1. Economic essays on marine invasive species and international fisheries agreements

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Walker, A.N.

    2016-01-01

    This thesis is divided into two parts, as explained in Chapter 1, which focus on different aspects of marine ecological change. Part A considers marine Invasive Alien Species (IAS), which are taxa introduced outside of their native range. The detrimental consequences of invasions for human

  2. Extracts from Field Margin Weeds Provide Economically Viable and Environmentally Benign Pest Control Compared to Synthetic Pesticides.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Prisila Mkenda

    Full Text Available Plants with pesticidal properties have been investigated for decades as alternatives to synthetics, but most progress has been shown in the laboratory. Consequently, research on pesticidal plants is failing to address gaps in our knowledge that constrain their uptake. Some of these gaps are their evaluation of their efficacy under field conditions, their economic viability and impact on beneficial organisms. Extracts made from four abundant weed species found in northern Tanzania, Tithonia diversifolia, Tephrosia vogelii, Vernonia amygdalina and Lippia javanica offered effective control of key pest species on common bean plants (Phaseolus vulgaris that was comparable to the pyrethroid synthetic, Karate. The plant pesticide treatments had significantly lower effects on natural enemies (lady beetles and spiders. Plant pesticide treatments were more cost effective to use than the synthetic pesticide where the marginal rate of return for the synthetic was no different from the untreated control, around 4USD/ha, compared to a rate of return of around 5.50USD/ha for plant pesticide treatments. Chemical analysis confirmed the presence of known insecticidal compounds in water extracts of T. vogelii (the rotenoid deguelin and T. diversifolia (the sesquiterpene lactone tagitinin A. Sesquiterpene lactones and the saponin vernonioside C were also identified in organic extracts of V. amygdalina but only the saponin was recorded in water extracts which are similar to those used in the field trial. Pesticidal plants were better able to facilitate ecosystem services whilst effectively managing pests. The labour costs of collecting and processing abundant plants near farm land were less than the cost of purchasing synthetic pesticides.

  3. Is CAPD a viable option among ADPKD with end stage renal disease population in India? Its outcomes and economics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaul, Anupma; Dharshan, R; Bhadhuaria, Dharmendra; Prasad, Narayan; Gupta, Amit; Sharma, R K

    2015-09-01

    Autosomal dominant polycystic kidney disease (ADPKD) is the most common inherited renal disease, with 50-75% of these patients requiring renal replacement therapy (RRT). The outcome of peritoneal dialysis (PD) in ADPKD with end-disease renal disease (ESRD) is not clearly defined, more so in developing countries. We conducted a retrospective analysis of the outcomes and economics of PD in these ESRD patients and compared them with other causes of ESRD on PD. Data were reviewed of all the PD patients who were followed-up at our institute from January 2007 to December 2011. The inclusion criteria were ADPKD patients who chose PD as the dialysis modality (Group 1), while age and gender-matched ESRD (other than ADPKD) patients who were started on PD during the same period were considered as the other group (Group 2). A total of 26 ADPKD patients underwent PD with an average size of kidneys among ADPKD ESRD patients of 15.2 + 2.1 cm. The overall peritonitis rates were similar among the compared groups. The median survival for the first peritonitis episodes were 1.2 and 1.8 years (95% confidence interval 0.82-1.91) for the control and ADPKD groups, respectively. The overall patient survival was 22 among PKD while five patients died among the control group. Among PKD, one patient died due to intra-cerebral bleed while one patient had severe cyst hemorrhage and infection, while three others had peritonitis and sepsis. Hernia was observed in four ADPKD patients, once on PD that was surgically corrected and PD was resumed in all. Two patients lost the catheter due to peritonitis while one patient had membrane failure while one underwent surgical exploration due to diverticulosis. PD treatment was not prevented by voluminous kidneys in any of these patients and no patient ceased PD treatment due to insufficient peritoneal space. Besides this, the cost on PD was much less as compared with that on hemodialysis (HD). PD is a reasonable mode of RRT among ADPKD, where HD is not

  4. The "Surgeon on Service" Model for Timely, Economically Viable Inpatient Care of Tracheostomy Patients in Academic Pediatric Otolaryngology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lavin, Jennifer M; Schroeder, James W; Thompson, Dana M

    2017-10-01

    The traditional practice model for pediatric otolaryngologists at high-volume academic centers is to simultaneously balance outpatient care responsibilities with those of the inpatient service, emergency department, and ambulatory care clinics. This model leads to challenges with care coordination, timeliness of nonemergency operative care, and consistent participation in care and consultation at the attending surgeon level. The "surgeon on service" (SOS) model-where faculty members rotate to manage the inpatient service in lieu of outpatient responsibilities-has been described as one method to address this conundrum. The operational and economic feasibility of the SOS model has been demonstrated; however, its impact on care coordination, time from consultation to surgical care, and length of stay (LOS) have not been evaluated. To determine the impact of the SOS model on the quality principles of timeliness and efficiency of tracheostomy tube placement and to determine if the SOS model is fiscally feasible in an academic pediatric otolaryngology practice. Medical record review of patients undergoing tracheostomy in a pediatric academic medical center and survey of their treating physician trainees, comparing the 6-month SOS pilot phase (postimplementation, January-June 2016) with the 6-month preimplementation period (January-June 2015). Implementation of the SOS model. Time to tracheostomy, frequency of successful coordination of tracheostomy with gastrostomy tube placement, total LOS, productivity measured in work relative value units, and responses to trainee surveys. Of the 41 patients included in the study (24 boys and 17 girls; mean age, 3 years; range, 3 months to 17 years), 15 were treated before SOS implementation, and 26 after. Also included were 21 trainees. Before SOS implementation, median time to tracheostomy was 7 days (range, 2-20 days); after SOS implementation, it was 4 days (range, 1-10 days) (difference between the medians, before to after, -3

  5. Exploring economically and environmentally viable northeastern US dairy farm strategies for coping with rising corn grain prices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghebremichael, L T; Veith, T L; Cerosaletti, P E; Dewing, D E; Rotz, C A

    2009-08-01

    In 2008, corn grain prices rose $115/t of DM above the 2005 average. Such an increase creates tight marginal profits for small (profit losses by growing more corn silage and reducing corn grain purchases. This study applies the Integrated Farm Systems Model to 1 small and 1 medium-sized New York State dairy farm to predict 1) sediment and P loss impacts from expanding corn fields, 2) benefits of no-till or cover cropping on corn fields, and 3) alternatives to the economic challenge of the current farming system as the price ratio of milk to corn grain continues to decline. Based on the simulation results, expanding corn silage production by 3% of the cultivated farm area increased sediment and sediment-bound P losses by 41 and 18%, respectively. Implementing no-till controlled about 84% of the erosion and about 75% of the sediment-bound P that would have occurred from the conventionally tilled, expanded corn production scenario. Implementing a conventionally tilled cover crop with the conventionally tilled, expanded corn production scenario controlled both erosion and sediment-bound P, but to a lesser extent than no-till corn with no cover crop. However, annual farm net return using cover crops was slightly less than when using no-till. Increasing on-farm grass productivity while feeding cows a high-quality, high-forage diet and precise dietary P levels offered dual benefits: 1) improved farm profitability from reduced purchases of dietary protein and P supplements, and 2) decreased runoff P losses from reduced P-levels in applied manure. Moreover, alternatives such as growing additional small grains on marginal lands and increasing milk production levels demonstrated great potential in increasing farm profitability. Overall, it is crucial that conservation measures such as no-till and cover cropping be implemented on new or existing corn lands as these areas often pose the highest threat for P losses through runoff. Although alternatives that would likely provide

  6. Are State-Sponsored New Radiation Therapy Facilities Economically Viable in Low- and Middle-Income Countries?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Datta, Niloy R., E-mail: nrdatta@yahoo.com [Centre for Radiation Oncology, KSA-KSB, Kantonsspital Aarau, Aarau (Switzerland); Samiei, Massoud [Consultant, International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA), Vienna (Austria); Bodis, Stephan [Centre for Radiation Oncology, KSA-KSB, Kantonsspital Aarau, Aarau, Switzerland and Department of Radiation Oncology, University Hospital Zurich (Switzerland)

    2015-10-01

    Purpose: The economic viability of establishing a state-funded radiation therapy (RT) infrastructure in low- and middle-income countries (LMICs) in accordance with the World Bank definition has been assessed through computation of a return on investment (ROI). Methods and Materials: Of the 139 LMICs, 100 were evaluated according to their RT facilities, gross national income (GNI) per capita, and employment/population ratio. The assumption was an investment of US$5 million for a basic RT center able to treat 1000 patients annually. The national breakeven points and percentage of ROI (%ROI) were calculated according to the GNI per capita and patient survival rates of 10% to 50% at 2 years. It was assumed that 50% of these patients would be of working age and that, if employed and able to work after treatment, they would contribute to the country's GNI for at least 2 years. The cumulative GNI after attaining the breakeven point until the end of the 15-year lifespan of the teletherapy unit was calculated to estimate the %ROI. The recurring and overhead costs were assumed to vary from 5.5% to 15% of the capital investment. Results: The %ROI was dependent on the GNI per capita, employment/population ratio and 2-year patient survival (all P<.001). Accordingly, none of the low-income countries would attain an ROI. If 50% of the patients survived for 2 years, the %ROI in the lower-middle and upper-middle income countries could range from 0% to 159.9% and 11.2% to 844.7%, respectively. Patient user fees to offset recurring and overhead costs could vary from “nil” to US$750, depending on state subsidies. Conclusions: Countries with a greater GNI per capita, higher employment/population ratio, and better survival could achieve a faster breakeven point, resulting in a higher %ROI. Additional factors such as user fees have also been considered. These can be tailored to the patient's ability to pay to cover the recurring costs. Certain pragmatic steps that could

  7. Are State-Sponsored New Radiation Therapy Facilities Economically Viable in Low- and Middle-Income Countries?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Datta, Niloy R.; Samiei, Massoud; Bodis, Stephan

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: The economic viability of establishing a state-funded radiation therapy (RT) infrastructure in low- and middle-income countries (LMICs) in accordance with the World Bank definition has been assessed through computation of a return on investment (ROI). Methods and Materials: Of the 139 LMICs, 100 were evaluated according to their RT facilities, gross national income (GNI) per capita, and employment/population ratio. The assumption was an investment of US$5 million for a basic RT center able to treat 1000 patients annually. The national breakeven points and percentage of ROI (%ROI) were calculated according to the GNI per capita and patient survival rates of 10% to 50% at 2 years. It was assumed that 50% of these patients would be of working age and that, if employed and able to work after treatment, they would contribute to the country's GNI for at least 2 years. The cumulative GNI after attaining the breakeven point until the end of the 15-year lifespan of the teletherapy unit was calculated to estimate the %ROI. The recurring and overhead costs were assumed to vary from 5.5% to 15% of the capital investment. Results: The %ROI was dependent on the GNI per capita, employment/population ratio and 2-year patient survival (all P<.001). Accordingly, none of the low-income countries would attain an ROI. If 50% of the patients survived for 2 years, the %ROI in the lower-middle and upper-middle income countries could range from 0% to 159.9% and 11.2% to 844.7%, respectively. Patient user fees to offset recurring and overhead costs could vary from “nil” to US$750, depending on state subsidies. Conclusions: Countries with a greater GNI per capita, higher employment/population ratio, and better survival could achieve a faster breakeven point, resulting in a higher %ROI. Additional factors such as user fees have also been considered. These can be tailored to the patient's ability to pay to cover the recurring costs. Certain pragmatic steps that could

  8. ECONOMIC, POLITICAL, AND CIVIL SOCIETIES AT PEMUTERAN VILLAGE, BALI IN COASTAL AND MARINE ENVIRONMENTAL PRESERVATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I Wayan Mudana

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available This study was focused on questions (1 what factors caused the economic, political, and civil societies to invest their social capital in the preservation of marine and coastal environments at Pemuteran Village? (2 What was the social capital invested by the economic, political, and civil societies in the preservation of coastal and marine environments at Pemuteran Village like? (3 What was done to discipline the maintenance of the social capital invested in the preservation of the coastal and marine environments at Pemuteran Village? Some critical theories were used to analyze the answers to the problems. Qualitative research method with the approach of cultural studies was employed in this study. The data were collected through observation, in-depth interview, and library research. The data were qualitatively and descriptively analyzed. The result of the study showed that the cooperation among the economic, political, and civil societies to invest their social capital in the preservation of the marine and coastal environments at Pemuteran Village was based on the awareness of the condition of the natural environment, ecological smartness, meaningfulness which was economic, political, sociological, and socio-religious in nature, and developmental policy. The social capital invested by the economic, political and civil societies was in the forms of the ideologies of tri hita karana, nyegara-gunung, menyama braya, kinship system, neighborhood relation, traditional village, and administrative village. It was maintained through cultural socialization process, and physical and spiritual disciplining process.

  9. Modelling the economic consequences of Marine Protected Areas using the BEMCOM model

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hoff, A.; Andersen, J.L.; Christensen, Asbjørn

    2013-01-01

    the question ‘what’s best?’, i.e. finds the overall optimal effort allocation, from an economic point of view, between multiple harvesting fleets fishing under a subset of restrictions on catches and effort levels. The BEMCOM model is described and applied to the case of the Danish sandeel fishery in the North......This paper introduces and describes in detail the bioeconomic optimization model BEMCOM (BioEconomic Model to evaluate the COnsequences of Marine protected areas) that has been developed to assess the economic effects of introducing Marine Protected Areas (MPA) for fisheries. BEMCOM answers...... Sea. It has several times been suggested to close parts of the sandeel fishery in the North Sea out of concern for other species feeding on sandeel and/or spawning in the sandeel habitats. The economic effects of such closures have been assessed using BEMCOM. The results indicate that the model yields...

  10. Marine energy consumption, national economic activity, and greenhouse gas emissions from international shipping

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chang, Ching-Chih

    2012-01-01

    The causal relationships among marine energy consumption, greenhouse gas emissions from international shipping, and economic growth for Kyoto Protocol Annex I countries for the period of 1990 to 2006 are discussed. The real gross domestic product is used as a proxy for economic activity. The United States is also discussed because it was the main global polluter before 2006. The co-integration methodology and an error-correction model are used to examine the causal relationships. The empirical results show that marine energy consumption and GDP are the main factors of increased GHG emissions in the short-run, and that economic activity significantly increased emissions in the long-run. Emissions from shipping are more closely related to marine energy consumption than to economic activity. Hence, policies for mitigating greenhouse gas emissions from marine shipping need to focus on greater energy efficiency in the design of ship engines and hulls. - Highlights: ► Energy consumption and GDP are the main causes to increased GHG emissions in the shipping industry. ► Emissions from shipping are more closely related to energy consumption than to GDP. ► Policies to mitigate GHG emissions from shipping industry should focus on the engine and hull design.

  11. Economic impacts of marine ecological change: Review and recent contributions of the VECTORS project on European marine waters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Groeneveld, Rolf A.; Bartelings, Heleen; Börger, Tobias; Bosello, Francesco; Buisman, Erik; Delpiazzo, Elisa; Eboli, Fabio; Fernandes, Jose A.; Hamon, Katell G.; Hattam, Caroline; Loureiro, Maria; Nunes, Paulo A. L. D.; Piwowarczyk, Joanna; Schasfoort, Femke E.; Simons, Sarah L.; Walker, Adam N.

    2018-02-01

    Marine ecological change is likely to have serious potential economic consequences for coastal economies all over the world. This article reviews the current literature on the economic impacts of marine ecological change, as well as a number of recent contributions to this literature carried out under the VECTORS project. We focus on three main types of change, namely invasive alien species; outbreak-forming species, such as jellyfish and toxic algae; and gradual changes in species distribution and productivity. The case studies available in the literature demonstrate that the impacts of invasions and outbreaks on fisheries, aquaculture, and tourism can potentially amount to several tens of millions of dollars each year in some regions. Moreover, stated preference studies suggest a substantial impact on coastal tourism and non-use values that is likely not visible in case studies of specific outbreak events. Climate-driven gradual changes in distribution and productivity of commercial fish stocks will have an impact on fisheries, although these impacts are likely to be overshadowed by much larger changes in prices of seafood and fuel.

  12. Increase Economic Valuation of Marine Ecotourism Spots In Small Islands

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rahakbauw, Siska D.; Teniwut, Wellem A.; Renjaan, Meiskyana R.; Hungan, Marselus

    2017-10-01

    Ecotourism is one of the fast-growing sectors especially in the developing country as a source of revenue. To get a sustainable development of ecotourism, it needs broad and comprehensive effort from central government and local government, perfect example in that regards in Indonesia is Bali and Lombok. For another area in Indonesia like Kei Islands which located in two administrative governments have a major problem to build a sustainable nature-based tourism because of the location of this area to the major cities in the country makes the travel cost is high. This situation makes the role of local community as the backbone of the growth and development of nature-based tourism is critical. By using structural equation modeling (SEM), we constructed a model to enhance local community perception on economic valuation of ecotourism spots in the area. Results showed that perceived quality as the mediation driven by the intensity of appearance on national television and the internet could increase community attachment to increase willingness to pay from the local community on ecotourism in Kei islands. Also, the result also indicated that WTP value for the local community on ecotourism in Kei Islands was 10.81 per trip, with average trip per month was 1 to 4 times.

  13. Spatial, socio-economic, and ecological implications of incorporating minimum size constraints in marine protected area network design.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Metcalfe, Kristian; Vaughan, Gregory; Vaz, Sandrine; Smith, Robert J

    2015-12-01

    Marine protected areas (MPAs) are the cornerstone of most marine conservation strategies, but the effectiveness of each one partly depends on its size and distance to other MPAs in a network. Despite this, current recommendations on ideal MPA size and spacing vary widely, and data are lacking on how these constraints might influence the overall spatial characteristics, socio-economic impacts, and connectivity of the resultant MPA networks. To address this problem, we tested the impact of applying different MPA size constraints in English waters. We used the Marxan spatial prioritization software to identify a network of MPAs that met conservation feature targets, whilst minimizing impacts on fisheries; modified the Marxan outputs with the MinPatch software to ensure each MPA met a minimum size; and used existing data on the dispersal distances of a range of species found in English waters to investigate the likely impacts of such spatial constraints on the region's biodiversity. Increasing MPA size had little effect on total network area or the location of priority areas, but as MPA size increased, fishing opportunity cost to stakeholders increased. In addition, as MPA size increased, the number of closely connected sets of MPAs in networks and the average distance between neighboring MPAs decreased, which consequently increased the proportion of the planning region that was isolated from all MPAs. These results suggest networks containing large MPAs would be more viable for the majority of the region's species that have small dispersal distances, but dispersal between MPA sets and spill-over of individuals into unprotected areas would be reduced. These findings highlight the importance of testing the impact of applying different MPA size constraints because there are clear trade-offs that result from the interaction of size, number, and distribution of MPAs in a network. © 2015 Society for Conservation Biology.

  14. Marine research in the Iberian Peninsula: A pledge for better times after an economic crisis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borja, Angel; Marques, Joao-Carlos; Olabarria, Celia; Quintino, Victor

    2013-10-01

    The “17th Iberian Symposium of Marine Biology Studies” took place in San Sebastian (Spain), in September 2012. This contribution is an introduction to a special issue collating the most challenging papers submitted by Portuguese and Spanish scientists to the symposium. The text was structured as a novel, with the three main parts of a novel: (i) Setup: a historical context, from old times to the 1970's. This part presents the main Iberian scientific contribution to marine science, since the 15th Century, as a precedent to modern scientific research; (ii) Conflict: from the 1970's to the economic crisis. This part presents the evolution of Iberian research production, based upon a bibliometric study, from 1974 to 2012; and (iii) Resolution: what for the future?, which shows the main challenges, proposed by the authors, to the European research initiative 'Horizon 2020', including aspects such as the need of knowledge-base for marine management, the marine research as a potential source of jobs, the ecosystem-based approach, human activities and Marine Spatial Planning, moving from fisheries to aquaculture, or global change issues, among others.

  15. VECTORS of change in the marine environment: Ecosystem and economic impacts and management implications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Austen, M. C.; Crowe, T. P.; Elliott, M.; Paterson, D. M.; Peck, M. A.; Piraino, S.

    2018-02-01

    Human use of the European marine environment is increasing and diversifying. This is creating new mechanisms for human induced-changes in marine life which need to be understood and quantified as well as the impact of these changes on ecosystems, their structures (e.g. biodiversity) and functioning (e.g. productivity), and the social and economic consequences that arise. The current and emerging pressures are multiple and interacting, arising, for example, from transport, platforms for renewable and non-renewable energy, exploitation of living and non-living resources, agricultural and industrial discharges, together with wider environmental changes (including climate change). Anticipating the future consequences of these pressures and vectors of change for marine life and of adaptation and mitigation measures (such as the introduction of new technologies and structures, new ballast water practices, ocean and offshore wind energy devices and new fishing strategies) is a prerequisite to the development and implementation of strategies, policies and regulations to manage the marine environment, such as the IMO Convention on ballast water management and the EU Maritime Policy and Marine Strategy Framework Directive.

  16. Concurrent and legacy economic and environmental impacts from establishing a marine energy sector in Scotland

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Allan, Grant J.; Bryden, Ian; McGregor, Peter G.; Stallard, Tim; Kim Swales, J.; Turner, Karen; Wallace, Robin

    2008-01-01

    We examine the economic and environmental impact that the installation of 3 GW of marine energy capacity would have on Scotland. This is not a forecast, but a projection of the likely effects of meeting the Scottish Government's targets for renewable energy through the development of a marine energy sector. Energy, with a particular focus on renewables, is seen by the Scottish Government as a 'key sector', with high growth potential and the capacity to boost productivity (Scottish Government, 2007a. The Government Economic Strategy. The Scottish Government, Edinburgh). The key nature of this sector has been identified through targets being set for renewable energy to achieve environmental and economic benefits. Using a regional computable general equilibrium (CGE) model of Scotland we show that the development of a marine energy sector can have substantial and beneficial impacts on GDP, employment and the environment over the lifetime of the devices, given the encouragement of strong indigenous inter-industry linkages. Furthermore, there are also substantial 'legacy' effects that persist well beyond the design life of the devices

  17. Assessment of economic benefits and costs of marine managed areas in Hawaii, 1998 - 2003 (NODC Accession 0001756)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This dataset combines the research results from a number of papers carried out under the study "Assessment of Economic Benefits and Costs of Marine Managed Areas in...

  18. Assessment of Economic Benefits and Costs of Marine Managed Areas in Hawaii 1998-2003 (NODC Accession 0001756)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This dataset combines the research results from a number of papers carried out under the study "Assessment of Economic Benefits and Costs of Marine Managed Areas in...

  19. Electrical Components for Marine Renewable Energy Arrays: A Techno-Economic Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adam J. Collin

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a review of the main electrical components that are expected to be present in marine renewable energy arrays. The review is put in context by appraising the current needs of the industry and identifying the key components required in both device and array-scale developments. For each component, electrical, mechanical and cost considerations are discussed; with quantitative data collected during the review made freely available for use by the community via an open access online repository. This data collection updates previous research and addresses gaps specific to emerging offshore technologies, such as marine and floating wind, and provides a comprehensive resource for the techno-economic assessment of offshore energy arrays.

  20. Economic Incentives, Perceptions and Compliance with Marine Turtle Egg Harvesting Regulation in Nicaragua

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Róger Madrigal-Ballestero

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available La Flor Wildlife Refuge and nearby beaches on the Pacific coast of Nicaragua are important nesting sites for various species of endangered marine turtles. However, illegal harvesting of turtle eggs threatens the survival of marine turtles. In this study, we analysed the different motivations of local villagers for complying with a ban on harvesting marine turtle eggs in a context, in which government authorities do not have the means to fully enforce existing regulations. We also analysed the effectiveness and the participation of locals in an incipient performance-based nest conservation payment programme to protect turtle eggs. The analysis of survey-based data from 180 households living in Ostional, the largest village near La Flor Wildlife Refuge, indicates remarkable socio-economic differences between harvesters and non-harvesters. Our findings suggest that harvesters are associated mainly with a lack of income from other activities and the absence of productive assets, such as land for cattle and/or agriculture. In addition, the lack of legitimacy of prevailing institutions (i.e., actual regulations also seems to perpetuate illegal harvesting. The performance-based payments programme is an effective option for protecting nests on isolated beaches, however, it is not clear if it changes harvesting behaviour overall. Normative motivations to protect the turtles are important determinants of participation in this programme, although the financial reward is also an important incentive, particularly since most participants who are egg harvesters depend on this activity as their main source of income.

  1. Defining scenarios of future vectors of change in marine life and associated economic sectors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Groeneveld, Rolf A.; Bosello, Francesco; Butenschön, Momme; Elliott, Mike; Peck, Myron A.; Pinnegar, John K.

    2018-02-01

    Addressing the multitude of challenges in marine policy requires an integrated approach that considers the multitude of drivers, pressures, and interests, from several disciplinary angles. Scenarios are needed to harmonise the analyses of different components of the marine system, and to deal with the uncertainty and complexity of the societal and biogeophysical dynamics in the system. This study considers a set of socio-economic scenarios to (1) explore possible futures in relation to marine invasive species, outbreak forming species, and gradual changes in species distribution and productivity; and (2) harmonise the projection modelling performed within associated studies. The exercise demonstrates that developing interdisciplinary scenarios as developed in this study is particularly complicated due to (1) the wide variety in endogeneity or exogeneity of variables in the different analyses involved; (2) the dual role of policy decisions as variables in a scenario or decisions to be evaluated and compared to other decisions; and (3) the substantial difference in time scale between societal and physical drivers.

  2. A Reliability-Based Determination of Economic Life of Marine power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Atua, K.

    1999-01-01

    The reliability-based life approach is utilized. Selective failure modes of marine power plants are used for illustration. A case study of the Egyptian Commercial Fleet owned by the Public Sector Company was analyzed and used to establish a demonstration of the expected economic life based on local operating and maintenance conditions. The data acquired is analyzed and failure trend is derived for each failure mode. Probabilistic techniques are used to randomly generate numbers and times of occurrence of different failure modes. The reliability analysis is performed on the life span expected by the manufacture to predict the total number of failures, dependent failures, and cost of failures. Total expenditure due to random failure and cost of scheduled maintenance together with the annual income are utilized (using the time value of money) to determine the economic life of the plant. Conclusions are derived and recommendations for the enhancement of this work in the future are made

  3. Economic justification of costs at inspection of industrial safety of high-rise marine structures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garibin, Pavel; Ol'khovik, Evgeniy; Rastorguev, Igor

    2018-03-01

    The task of technical and economic regulation within mutual international recognition of testing laboratories are considered. Codes and procedures within requirements of international ISO/IEC standards of a series 17000 for elimination of non-tariff barriers and interlaboratory exchange of experts in the field of high-rise marine construction are considered. In paper, the methods of assessment of formation of economically justified cost of works at inspection and monitoring of technical condition of high-rise marine wharf engineering port structure based on settlement and actual labor input were applied. For the countries of EU, data on the average cost of works of testing laboratory within a week have been taken as a basis. Such approach will be objective as considers only expenses on obligatory actions in the course of inspection of technical condition of port engineering constructions. The analysis of public results of financial activities of the accredited organizations allowed to calculate the main indicators of the size of necessary profit and overheads at observance of all requirements imposed to test laboratories including taking into account their future technical development. The offered practice corresponds to the general direction by mutual international recognition of independent testing laboratories and can be use in the future.

  4. RoadRail: An economically viable infrastructure which facilitates the transition from oil to electricity for all forms of road transport

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Connolly, David

    2012-01-01

    to convert road transport from oil to electricity. This involves the electrification of major roads so that electric cars, vans, busses, and trucks can use electricity as their primary fuel over long distance, which in this study is referred to as ‘RoadRail’. This is a new and radical alternative......In recent decades, economic renewable energy technologies have been developed for the electricity and heat sectors. Although there has been some development in the transport sector, there is still no well-establish sustainable alternatives to oil. In this study, a new alternative is proposed...... and electricity/oil costs, Denmark is presented as a case study for the installation of RoadRail. The results indicate that based on 2020 cost assumptions, RoadRail is a more socio-economic alternative than a business-as-usual using oil. This is primarily due to decreasing electric vehicle costs, decreasing...

  5. Managing Viable Knowledge

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Achterbergh, J.M.I.M.; Vriens, D.J.

    2002-01-01

    In this paper, Beer's Viable System Model (VSM) is applied to knowledge management. Based on the VSM, domains of knowledge are identified that an organization should possess to maintain its viability. The logic of the VSM is also used to support the diagnosis, design and implementation of the

  6. Is a HIV vaccine a viable option and at what price? An economic evaluation of adding HIV vaccination into existing prevention programs in Thailand

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peerapatanapokin Wiwat

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background This study aims to determine the maximum price at which HIV vaccination is cost-effective in the Thai healthcare setting. It also aims to identify the relative importance of vaccine characteristics and risk behavior changes among vaccine recipients to determine how they affect this cost-effectiveness. Methods A semi-Markov model was developed to estimate the costs and health outcomes of HIV prevention programs combined with HIV vaccination in comparison to the existing HIV prevention programs without vaccination. The estimation was based on a lifetime horizon period (99 years and used the government perspective. The analysis focused on both the general population and specific high-risk population groups. The maximum price of cost-effective vaccination was defined by using threshold analysis; one-way and probabilistic sensitivity analyses were performed. The study employed an expected value of perfect information (EVPI analysis to determine the relative importance of parameters and to prioritize future studies. Results The most expensive HIV vaccination which is cost-effective when given to the general population was 12,000 Thai baht (US$1 = 34 Thai baht in 2009. This vaccination came with 70% vaccine efficacy and lifetime protection as long as risk behavior was unchanged post-vaccination. The vaccine would be considered cost-ineffective at any price if it demonstrated low efficacy (30% and if post-vaccination risk behavior increased by 10% or more, especially among the high-risk population groups. The incremental cost-effectiveness ratios were the most sensitive to change in post-vaccination risk behavior, followed by vaccine efficacy and duration of protection. The EVPI indicated the need to quantify vaccine efficacy, changed post-vaccination risk behavior, and the costs of vaccination programs. Conclusions The approach used in this study differentiated it from other economic evaluations and can be applied for the economic

  7. Is a HIV vaccine a viable option and at what price? An economic evaluation of adding HIV vaccination into existing prevention programs in Thailand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leelahavarong, Pattara; Teerawattananon, Yot; Werayingyong, Pitsaphun; Akaleephan, Chutima; Premsri, Nakorn; Namwat, Chawetsan; Peerapatanapokin, Wiwat; Tangcharoensathien, Viroj

    2011-07-05

    This study aims to determine the maximum price at which HIV vaccination is cost-effective in the Thai healthcare setting. It also aims to identify the relative importance of vaccine characteristics and risk behavior changes among vaccine recipients to determine how they affect this cost-effectiveness. A semi-Markov model was developed to estimate the costs and health outcomes of HIV prevention programs combined with HIV vaccination in comparison to the existing HIV prevention programs without vaccination. The estimation was based on a lifetime horizon period (99 years) and used the government perspective. The analysis focused on both the general population and specific high-risk population groups. The maximum price of cost-effective vaccination was defined by using threshold analysis; one-way and probabilistic sensitivity analyses were performed. The study employed an expected value of perfect information (EVPI) analysis to determine the relative importance of parameters and to prioritize future studies. The most expensive HIV vaccination which is cost-effective when given to the general population was 12,000 Thai baht (US$1 = 34 Thai baht in 2009). This vaccination came with 70% vaccine efficacy and lifetime protection as long as risk behavior was unchanged post-vaccination. The vaccine would be considered cost-ineffective at any price if it demonstrated low efficacy (30%) and if post-vaccination risk behavior increased by 10% or more, especially among the high-risk population groups. The incremental cost-effectiveness ratios were the most sensitive to change in post-vaccination risk behavior, followed by vaccine efficacy and duration of protection. The EVPI indicated the need to quantify vaccine efficacy, changed post-vaccination risk behavior, and the costs of vaccination programs. The approach used in this study differentiated it from other economic evaluations and can be applied for the economic evaluation of other health interventions not available in

  8. Bacillus Probiotic Enzymes: External Auxiliary Apparatus to Avoid Digestive Deficiencies, Water Pollution, Diseases, and Economic Problems in Marine Cultivated Animals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olmos Soto, Jorge

    Exploitation of marine fishes is the main source of several life-supporting feed compounds such as proteins, lipids, and carbohydrates that maintain the production of most trading marine organisms by aquaculture. However, at this rate the marine inventory will go to the end soon, since fishery resources are finite. In this sense, the availability of the principal ingredients obtained from marine fishes is going to decrease considerably, increasing the diet prices and affecting the economy of this activity. Therefore, aquaculture industry needs to find nonexpensive land unconventional resources of protein, carbohydrates, and lipids and use bacterial probiotics to improve digestion-assimilation of these unfamiliar compounds. Bacillus subtilis is a cosmopolitan probiotic bacterium with a great enzymatic profile that could improve nutrient digestion-assimilation, induce healthy growth, and avoid water pollution, decreasing economic problems and increasing yields in the aquaculture industry. In this chapter, we present how Bacillus enzymes can help marine animals to assimilate nutrients from unconventional and economic plant resources. © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Structuring to promote: Which Legal Framework for the Economic Development of Marine Energies?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gelas, Helene

    2015-01-01

    To this day, the development of renewable marine energies does not dispose of a satisfying legal framework. In the territorial sea, the construction and operation of renewable energy projects is subject to a series of permits stemming from different legislation (Occupation of the maritime public domain or the 'Water act Permit'). Because this framework is unable to foster the development of these energy sources, it should be simplified by either abandoning the requirement for a permit under the 'Water act' in favour of an extended licence of occupation granting the public authorities the same guarantees, or by the creation of an ad hoc permit regime to be included in the Energy Code. Also, the reinforcement of power purchase obligation mechanisms of the generated electricity to which these projects are eligible is required. Indeed, beyond the call for tenders and the existing feed-in tariffs, the development of marine renewable energy sources, in particular during the test stage (e.g. pilot offshore farms) has to be accompanied by a tailored tariff system. In the Exclusive Economic Zone, a decree was adopted in July 2013, which seeks to create a special permit granted by the decentralized administrative authority in charge of maritime issues (Prefet maritime). This new legal framework should foster the development of projects in the Zone. Due to the technical challenges, some other evolutions of the known regimes may be required because of the distance of the plants to the shore, for example regarding grid connection or the power purchase obligation regime. (author)

  10. Coal liquefaction becomes viable

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2005-11-15

    In 2003 the May/June issue of CoalTrans International speculated that coal liquefaction would become viable due to falling coal prices. This has not proved the case but the sustained high oil price is sparking new interest. A survey by Energy Intelligence and Marketing Research during November 2005 revealed a growth in the number of projects under development or at the feasibility stage. The article reports projects in China, the USA, Australia, New Zealand, the Philippines and India. China is commissioning the first wave of large liquefaction plants. The key question is whether other countries, particularly the USA, will follow.

  11. Competing Interests, Economics, and Marine Fisheries Management: An Educational Case Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thorson, James T.; Berkson, Jim; Murphy, Brian

    2010-01-01

    Managing fish resources in the ocean, known as marine fisheries management, often involves disagreement among many groups of people: commercial fishers, recreational anglers, national and local conservationists, and several branches of government. While managing marine fisheries in federal waters, the federal government must rebuild marine fish…

  12. An innovative use of marine energies can economically produce fifteen per cent of electricity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lemperiere, F.

    2013-12-01

    After having outlined some interesting characteristics and opportunities of marine energies, the author analyses the peculiarities of tidal energy, presents the different components of tidal power stations: tanks or basins, plants (horizontal bulb-turbines, orthogonal turbines). Then, he focuses on an innovative solution: tidal gardens which can be created as closed basins along the coast comprising channels equipped with tidal turbines, and sea walls. Performance of such an installation is assessed. Issues of production gain by pumping, of connection to the grid and energy storage are addressed. The construction modality is described. Visual impacts, impact on the environment, direct and indirect social-economic impacts are discussed. The issue of ship navigation is also addressed. The example of the Somme Bay is presented and assessed in terms of production, of costs (turbines, channels, main sea wall), of impacts, and of possible additional wind turbines. Other potential and more or less important sites in France, in Great-Britain, in India, Bangladesh and Korea, in America (Canada, Argentina, Brazil) and notably in Australia are identified and briefly assessed

  13. Potential ramifications of the global economic crisis on human-mediated dispersal of marine non-indigenous species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Floerl, Oliver; Coutts, Ashley

    2009-11-01

    The global economy is currently experiencing one of its biggest contractions on record. A sharp decline in global imports and exports since 2008 has affected global merchant vessel traffic, the principal mode of bulk commodity transport around the world. During the first quarter of 2009, 10% and 25% of global container and refrigerated vessels, respectively, were reported to be unemployed. A large proportion of these vessels are lying idle at anchor in the coastal waters of South East Asia, sometimes for periods of greater than 3 months. Whilst at anchor, the hulls of such vessels will develop diverse and extensive assemblages of marine biofouling species. Once back in service, these vessels are at risk of transporting higher-than-normal quantities of marine organisms between their respective global trading ports. We discuss the potential ramifications of the global economic crisis on the spread of marine non-indigenous species via global commercial shipping.

  14. Thermal and economic analyses of a compact waste heat recovering system for the marine diesel engine using transcritical Rankine cycle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yang, Min-Hsiung

    2015-01-01

    Graphical abstract: Schematic diagram of the CWHRS for a marine diesel engine. - Highlights: • The economic optimization of a CWHRS of a marine engine is investigated. • The environmental protection refrigerant, R1234yf is used as the working fluid of the TRC system. • The optimal analysis and comparison of three models for waste heat recovering have been carried out. • The optimization of payback periods, CO_2 emission reducing and diesel oil saving are reported. - Abstract: The aim of this study is to investigate the economic performance of a novel compact waste heat recovering system for the marine diesel engine. The transcritical Rankine cycle is employed to convert the waste heat resources to useful work with R1234yf. To evaluate the utilizing efficiency and economic performance of waste heat resources, which are exhaust gas, cylinder cooling water and scavenge air cooling water, three operating models of the system are investigated and compared. The levelized energy cost, which represents the total cost per kilo-watt power, is employed to evaluate the economic performance of the system. The economic optimization and its corresponding optimal parameters of each operating model in the compact waste heat recovering system are obtained theoretically. The results show that the minimal levelized energy cost of the proposed system operated in Model I is the lowest of the three models, and then are Model II and Model III, which are 2.96% and 9.36% lower for, respectively. Similarly, the CO_2 emission reduction is the highest for Model I of the three models, and 21.6% and 30.1% lower are obtained for Model II and Model III, respectively. The compact waste heat recovering system operated in Model I has superiority on the payback periods and heavy diesel oil saving over the others. Finally, the correlations using specific work of working fluid and condensation temperature as parameters are proposed to assess the optimal conditions in economic performance

  15. Management of Ecological-Economic Processes of Pollution Accumulation and Assimilation in the Coastal Zone Marine Environment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I.E. Timchenko

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available A model for managing the balance of pollution (getting into the sea with the coastal runoff assimilation and accumulation, based on the negative feedback between the coastal economic system efficiency and penalties for the sea coastal zone pollution is proposed. The model is constructed by the Adaptive Balance of Causes method and is intended for finding a rational balance of profit from the use of assimilative resources of the marine environment and the costs of maintaining its quality. The increase of pollutions in the coastal zone is taken as proportional to the volume of product realization. The decrease of pollution concentration is related to the environment protection activities paid for by the production. The model contains the agents for managing the volume of the economic system generalized production release. The agents control pollution accumulation rate at different ones of the bio-chemical processes resulting in the marine environment natural purification. Scenario analysis of ecological-economic processes in the “Land–Sea” system is carried out, and the dependencies of economic subsystem production profitability on penalty sanctions limiting the pollutant flux getting into the sea are constructed. Sea temperature and water mass dynamics effect on these processes is considered. The scenarios of their intra-annual variability are constructed. It is shown that the sea temperature and near-water wind consideration in the model have a significant effect on marine environment pollution level and production profitability. The conclusion is that the proposed adaptive simulation model “Sea–Land” can be used for forecasting the scenarios of coastal subsystem production processes (the volume of generalized product manufacturing, production cost, profitability in parallel with the forecast of pollution concentration in the sea scenarios.

  16. Distribution of 210Pb activity concentrations in marine surface sediments within East Coast Peninsula Malaysia Exclusive Economic Zone (EEZ)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ahmad Sanadi Abu Bakar; Zaharudin Ahmad

    2010-01-01

    A sampling expedition into the East Coast Peninsula Malaysia Exclusive Economic Zone (EEZ) was carried in June 2008. Marine surface sediment samples were taken and the activity concentrations of 210 Pb have been determined. Its distribution was plotted and the findings show that the activity concentrations decline from north to south. On the other hand, the activity concentrations are increasing from west to east right to the edge of the EEZ. The highest activity concentrations were found to be near offshore oil platforms. The 210 Pb activity concentrations were found to be in the range of 18.3 - 123.1 Bq/ kg. (author)

  17. Economic research of the transcritical Rankine cycle systems to recover waste heat from the marine medium-speed diesel engine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yang, Min-Hsiung; Yeh, Rong-Hua

    2017-01-01

    The aim of this study is to investigate the economic performance of a transcritical Rankine cycle (TRC) system for recovering waste heat from the exhaust gas of a marine medium-speed diesel engine. The variation of net power output, total cost of equipments and exergy destruction are investigated for the TRC system. Furthermore, to evaluate the economic performance of energy utilization, a parameter, net power output index, which is the ratio of net power output to the total cost, is introduced of the TRC system using R125, R143a, R218 and R1234yf as working fluids. The results show that R1234yf performs the highest economic performance, followed by R143a, R125 and R218 of the TRC system. It reveals that R1234yf not only has the smallest high and low pressures of the TRC system for reducing the purchased cost of equipments, but also promotes a larger pressure ratio of the expander for generating power output among these working fluids. The comparisons of optimal pressure ratios obtained from thermodynamic and economic optimizations for these working fluids in the TRC system are also reported. In addition, an evaluation method using thermal efficiency and operating pressure ratio as parameters is proposed to assess the suitability of the working fluids of TRC system in economic analysis for waste heat recovery from the exhaust gas of a diesel engine.

  18. 2002–2012: 10 Years of Research Progress in Horizontal-Axis Marine Current Turbines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kai-Wern Ng

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Research in marine current energy, including tidal and ocean currents, has undergone significant growth in the past decade. The horizontal-axis marine current turbine is one of the machines used to harness marine current energy, which appears to be the most technologically and economically viable one at this stage. A number of large-scale marine current turbines rated at more than 1 MW have been deployed around the World. Parallel to the development of industry, academic research on horizontal-axis marine current turbines has also shown positive growth. This paper reviews previous research on horizontal-axis marine current turbines and provides a concise overview for future researchers who might be interested in horizontal-axis marine current turbines. The review covers several main aspects, such as: energy assessment, turbine design, wakes, generators, novel modifications and environmental impact. Future trends for research on horizontal-axis marine current turbines are also discussed.

  19. Regulation of Viable and Optimal Cohorts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aubin, Jean-Pierre, E-mail: aubin.jp@gmail.com [VIMADES (Viabilité, Marchés, Automatique, Décisions) (France)

    2015-10-15

    This study deals with the evolution of (scalar) attributes (resources or income in evolutionary demography or economics, position in traffic management, etc.) of a population of “mobiles” (economic agents, vehicles, etc.). The set of mobiles sharing the same attributes is regarded as an instantaneous cohort described by the number of its elements. The union of instantaneous cohorts during a mobile window between two attributes is a cohort. Given a measure defining the number of instantaneous cohorts, the accumulation of the mobile attributes on a evolving mobile window is the measure of the cohort on this temporal mobile window. Imposing accumulation constraints and departure conditions, this study is devoted to the regulation of the evolutions of the attributes which are1.viable in the sense that the accumulations constraints are satisfied at each instant;2.and, among them, optimal, in the sense that both the duration of the temporal mobile window is maximum and that the accumulation on this temporal mobile window is the largest viable one. This value is the “accumulation valuation” function. Viable and optimal evolutions under accumulation constraints are regulated by an “implicit Volterra integro-differential inclusion” built from the accumulation valuation function, solution to an Hamilton–Jacobi–Bellman partial differential equation under constraints which is constructed for this purpose.

  20. Thermodynamic and economic performances optimization of an organic Rankine cycle system utilizing exhaust gas of a large marine diesel engine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yang, Min-Hsiung; Yeh, Rong-Hua

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • A new parameter is proposed for optimizing economic performance of the ORC system. • Maximal thermodynamic and economic performances of an ORC system are presented. • The corresponding operating pressures in turbine of optimum thermodynamic and economic performances are investigated. • An optimal effectiveness of pre-heater is obtained for the ORC system. - Abstract: The aim of this study is to investigate the thermodynamic and economic performances optimization for an ORC system recovering the waste heat of exhaust gas from a large marine diesel engine of the merchant ship. Parameters of net power output index and thermal efficiency are used to represent the economic and thermodynamic performances, respectively. The maximum net power output index and thermal efficiency are obtained and the corresponding turbine inlet pressure, turbine outlet pressure, and effectiveness of pre-heater of the ORC system are also evaluated using R1234ze, R245fa, R600, and R600a. Furthermore, the analyses of the effects of turbine inlet temperature and cooling water temperature on the optimal economic and thermodynamic performances of the ORC system are carried out. The results show that R245fa performs the most satisfactorily followed by R600, R600a, and R1234ze under optimal economic performance. However, in the optimal thermodynamic performance evaluations, R1234ze has the largest thermal efficiency followed by R600a, R245fa, and R600. The payback periods will decrease from 0.5 year for R245fa to 0.65 year for R1234ze respectively as the system is equipped with a pre-heater. In addition, compared with conventional diesel oil feeding, the proposed ORC system can reduce 76% CO 2 emission per kilowatt-hour

  1. Modelling the sequential geographical exploitation and potential collapse of marine fisheries through economic globalization, climate change and management alternatives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gorka Merino

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Global marine fisheries production has reached a maximum and may even be declining. Underlying this trend is a well-understood sequence of development, overexploitation, depletion and in some instances collapse of individual fish stocks, a pattern that can sequentially link geographically distant populations. Ineffective governance, economic considerations and climate impacts are often responsible for this sequence, although the relative contribution of each factor is contentious. In this paper we use a global bioeconomic model to explore the synergistic effects of climate variability, economic pressures and management measures in causing or avoiding this sequence. The model shows how a combination of climate-induced variability in the underlying fish population production, particular patterns of demand for fish products and inadequate management is capable of driving the world’s fisheries into development, overexploitation, collapse and recovery phases consistent with observations. Furthermore, it demonstrates how a sequential pattern of overexploitation can emerge as an endogenous property of the interaction between regional environmental fluctuations and a globalized trade system. This situation is avoidable through adaptive management measures that ensure the sustainability of regional production systems in the face of increasing global environmental change and markets. It is concluded that global management measures are needed to ensure that global food supply from marine products is optimized while protecting long-term ecosystem services across the world’s oceans.

  2. Socio-Economic analysis and fishing activites of lagoon and marine ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Fishermen have distinctive social and economic features which affect their fishing operations. The study was therefore designed to identify the socio-economic characteristics of fisher-folks living in lagoon and coastal communities and assesses the fishing activities. Frequency distribution, percentages, chi-square and ...

  3. Integration of marine transport into the European Emissions Trading System. Environmental, economic and legal analysis of different options

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baeuerle, Tim [Rechtsanwaelte Zimmermann - Gretz - Trautmann - Baeuerle, Heidelberg (Germany); Graichen, Jakob; Meyer, Kristin; Seum, Stefan [Oeko-Institut e.V., Berlin (Germany); Kulessa, Margareta [Mainz Univ. of Applied Sciences (Germany); Oschinski, Matthias

    2010-05-15

    Marine vessels globally contribute to carbon dioxide emissions with approximately 3.3% (IMO 2009). Interna-tional ocean shipping has been growing significantly over recent years. To date international marine emissions are not part of the Kyoto obligations and the member states at IMO have not implemented instruments that would have limited or reduced the amount of greenhouse gas emissions from ships. The European Union has announced that if no international agreement including reduction targets for seaborne emissions has been approved by the UNFCCC by December 31, 2011, the EC is tasked to submit a proposal for including international marine transport in Euro-pean reduction targets and policy measures. An inclusion of international marine transport in the European Emis-sions Trading Scheme (EU ETS) is a likely scenario. The study investigates three options for integrating international ocean shipping into the EU ETS based on: a last period; the last distance travelled and the distance the cargo has travelled. Basing the system on a last period is superior to basing it on last trip or cargo in terms of environmental effectiveness. However, the system would cover vessel activities in international waters, even potentially between two non-European ports, and thus the legal feasi-bility of this challenge is discussed. Another element of the study is the analysis of the economic effects of the inte-gration of international seaborne greenhouse gas emissions into the EU ETS. Overall it can be concluded that the integration of international ocean shipping into the EU ETS is a legally and technically feasible option with no significantly negative or even beneficial economic effects. The extension to vessel activity in international waters secures adequate coverage and environmental effectiveness. This extension to vessel activity in international waters is not only a prerequisite for adequate emissions coverage, but is also associated with the least legal obstacles, is

  4. The Stock Concept Applicability for the Economic Evaluation of Marine Ecosystem Exploitation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ravn-Jonsen, Lars

    Stock models, in which production is interpreted as if it were the population growth of a stock, have been the preferred tool for fishery economics since Clark and Munro (1975) introduced capital theory in these models. Ravn-Jonsen (2009) applied capital theory to a model in which the production ...... of a stock. The concept of a stock is rather an illusion, as is the concept of an optimal stock level. It is essential to liberate fishery economics from a simplified view of population and communities.......Stock models, in which production is interpreted as if it were the population growth of a stock, have been the preferred tool for fishery economics since Clark and Munro (1975) introduced capital theory in these models. Ravn-Jonsen (2009) applied capital theory to a model in which the production...

  5. Radioactivity levels in the marine environment along the Exclusive Economic Zone (EEZ) of Qatar.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Qaradawi, Ilham; Abdel-Moati, Mohamed; Al-Yafei, Mohsin Al-Ansi; Al-Ansari, Ebrahim; Al-Maslamani, Ibrahim; Holm, Elis; Al-Shaikh, Ismail; Mauring, Alexander; Pinto, Primal V; Abdulmalik, Dana; Amir, Amina; Miller, Mark; Yigiterhan, Oguz; Persson, Bertil

    2015-01-15

    A study on (137)Cs, (40)K, (226)Ra, (228)Ra, and (238)U was carried out along the EEZ of Qatar. Results serve as the first ever baseline data. The level of (137)Cs (mean value 1.6 ± 0.4 Bq m(-3)) in water filters was found to be in the same order of magnitude as reported by others in worldwide marine radioactivity studies. Results are also in agreement with values reported from other Gulf regions. The computed values of sediment-water distribution coefficients Kd, are lower than the values given by IAEA. Measurements were carried out for bottom sediments, biota samples like fish, oyster, sponge, seashell, mangrove, crab, shrimp, starfish, dugong and algae. The 'concentration factors' reported for biota samples are below the levels published by IAEA and cause no significant impact on human health for seafood consumers in Qatar. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Managing conflicts between economic activities and threatened migratory marine species toward creating a multiobjective blue economy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harris, Linda R; Nel, Ronel; Oosthuizen, Herman; Meÿer, Mike; Kotze, Deon; Anders, Darrell; McCue, Steven; Bachoo, Santosh

    2018-04-01

    Harnessing the economic potential of the oceans is key to combating poverty, enhancing food security, and strengthening economies. But the concomitant risk of intensified resource extraction to migratory species is worrying given these species contribute to important ecological processes, often underpin alternative livelihoods, and are mostly already threatened. We thus sought to quantify the potential conflict between key economic activities (5 fisheries and hydrocarbon exploitation) and sea turtle migration corridors in a region with rapid economic development: southern and eastern Africa. We satellite tracked the movement of 20 loggerhead (Caretta caretta) and 14 leatherback (Dermochelys coriacea) turtles during their postnesting migrations. We used movement-based kernel density estimation to identify migration corridors for each species. We overlaid these corridors on maps of the distribution and intensity of economic activities, quantified the extent of overlap and threat posed by each activity on each species, and compared the effects of activities. These results were compared with annual bycatch rates in the respective fisheries. Both species' 3 corridors overlapped most with longline fishing, but the effect was worse for leatherbacks: their bycatch rates of approximately 1500/year were substantial relative to the regional population size of 50 years of conservation, potentially affecting >80% of loggerheads, 33% of the (critically endangered) leatherbacks, and their nesting beaches. We support establishing blue economies (i.e., generating wealth from the ocean), but oceans need to be carefully zoned and responsibly managed in both space and time to achieve economic (resource extraction), ecological (conservation, maintenance of processes), and social (maintenance of alternative livelihood opportunities, alleviate poverty) objectives. © 2017 Society for Conservation Biology.

  7. Incorporation of Socio-Economic Features' Ranking in Multicriteria Analysis Based on Ecosystem Services for Marine Protected Area Planning.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michelle E Portman

    Full Text Available Developed decades ago for spatial choice problems related to zoning in the urban planning field, multicriteria analysis (MCA has more recently been applied to environmental conflicts and presented in several documented cases for the creation of protected area management plans. Its application is considered here for the development of zoning as part of a proposed marine protected area management plan. The case study incorporates specially-explicit conservation features while considering stakeholder preferences, expert opinion and characteristics of data quality. It involves the weighting of criteria using a modified analytical hierarchy process. Experts ranked physical attributes which include socio-economically valued physical features. The parameters used for the ranking of (physical attributes important for socio-economic reasons are derived from the field of ecosystem services assessment. Inclusion of these feature values results in protection that emphasizes those areas closest to shore, most likely because of accessibility and familiarity parameters and because of data biases. Therefore, other spatial conservation prioritization methods should be considered to supplement the MCA and efforts should be made to improve data about ecosystem service values farther from shore. Otherwise, the MCA method allows incorporation of expert and stakeholder preferences and ecosystem services values while maintaining the advantages of simplicity and clarity.

  8. Marine Renewable Energy Seascape

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alistair G.L. Borthwick

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Energy production based on fossil fuel reserves is largely responsible for carbon emissions, and hence global warming. The planet needs concerted action to reduce fossil fuel usage and to implement carbon mitigation measures. Ocean energy has huge potential, but there are major interdisciplinary problems to be overcome regarding technology, cost reduction, investment, environmental impact, governance, and so forth. This article briefly reviews ocean energy production from offshore wind, tidal stream, ocean current, tidal range, wave, thermal, salinity gradients, and biomass sources. Future areas of research and development are outlined that could make exploitation of the marine renewable energy (MRE seascape a viable proposition; these areas include energy storage, advanced materials, robotics, and informatics. The article concludes with a sustainability perspective on the MRE seascape encompassing ethics, legislation, the regulatory environment, governance and consenting, economic, social, and environmental constraints. A new generation of engineers is needed with the ingenuity and spirit of adventure to meet the global challenge posed by MRE.

  9. Economic effects of oil and gas development on marine aquaculture leases. Study 17. Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Caswell, M.F.

    1991-03-01

    There are three primary mariculture products grown in California waters: oysters, mussels, and abalone. In total, the California mariculture industry earns revenues of about $6.5 million. Water quality degradation was the primary concern of most growers. Coliform bacteria and pesticide residues are currently threatening several shallow-water sites. Lease holders (and potential lease holders) for deep-water sites state that coliform bacteria from municipal sewer outfalls and offshore oil and gas drilling effluents are the greatest dangers to their profitability. The Southern California Educational Initiative is an attempt to determine whether such concerns are warranted. A simple model of economic externalities was described to highlight the scientific data one must gather so as to choose the optimal production levels for both energy and mariculture resources. That information is necessary to assess the economic consequences to the California mariculture industry of chronic exposure to oil and gas development. The co-development model shows that the marginal (incremental) effects of oil production on mariculture costs needs to be assessed. The model also shows that if the effects are moderated by distance from the point of discharge, such changes must be estimated in order to determine optimal lease boundaries. The report concludes that interdisciplinary cooperation is essential for designing a co-development plan that maximizes the social welfare to be gained from developing multiple coastal resources

  10. Techno-Economic Approach to Solar Energy Systems Onboard Marine Vehicles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Salem Ahmed A.

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The world is facing the challenge of continuously increasing energy consumption. At the same time, the energy resources are getting scarcer. Despite a sudden significant drop of fuel prices worldwide, research activities that focus on reducing the dependence on fossil fuels as a traditional source of energy still have the preference in the field of shipping industry. The use of clean and renewable energies, such as solar energy for instance, is proposed as a method to improve the ship efficiency. Ships can get the benefits from solar energy due to the fact that most of their upper decks are always exposed to the Sun, especially in sunny water regions. The present paper discusses the effectiveness and challenges of installing solar panels for auxiliary power production on board a ship. As a case study, the research evaluates both economic and environmental benefits resulting from implementing such concept aboard a research vessel.

  11. Roots of success: cultivating viable community forestry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    MacQueen, Duncan

    2009-05-15

    Is community forestry emerging from the shadows? The evidence shows that locally controlled enterprises can be economically viable, and often build on stronger social and environmental foundations than the big private-sector players. Certainly this is an industry in need of a shakeup. Many forests have become flashpoints where agro-industry, large-scale logging concerns and conservation interests clash, while forest-dependent communities are left out in the cold. Meanwhile, governments – driven by concerns over the climate impacts of deforestation – are having to gear up for legal, sustainable forestry production. Community forestry could be crucial to solving many of these challenges. By building on local core capabilities and developing strategic partnerships, they are forging key new business models that could transform the sector.

  12. Wind energy: A viable alternative

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Soin, R.S.

    1991-01-01

    This article examines the economic feasibility of wind energy in the current economic and political environment. The article specifically addresses the wind farm application to India, with asides to Europe and the US. Topics discussed include cost of energy generation for a 10 MW wind farm, cost comparison for captive energy options (diesel, coal, wind), environmental impacts, and social benefits

  13. Exotic harmful algae in marine ecosystems : an integrated biological-economic-legal analysis of impacts and policies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van den Bergh, JCJM; Nunes, PALD; Dotinga, HM; Kooistra, WHCF; Vrieling, EG; Peperzak, L

    Harmful algal blooms (HABs) are the cause of important damages to marine living resources and human beings. HABs are generated by micro-algae. These marine species are primarily introduced through ballast water of ships and, to a lesser extent, through import of living fish, in particular shellfish.

  14. Viable Syntax: Rethinking Minimalist Architecture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ken Safir

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Hauser et al. (2002 suggest that the human language faculty emerged as a genetic innovation in the form of what is called here a ‘keystone factor’—a single, simple, formal mental capability that, interacting with the pre-existing faculties of hominid ancestors, caused a cascade of effects resulting in the language faculty in modern humans. They take Merge to be the keystone factor, but instead it is posited here that Merge is the pre-existing mechanism of thought made viable by a principle that permits relations interpretable at the interfaces to be mapped onto c-command. The simplified minimalist architecture proposed here respects the keystone factor as closely as possible, but is justified on the basis of linguistic analyses it makes available, including a relativized intervention theory applicable across Case, scope, agreement, selection and linearization, a derivation of the A/A’-distinction from Case theory, and predictions such as why in situ wh-interpretation is island-insensitive, but susceptible to intervention effects.

  15. Economics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palley, Paul D; Parcero, Miriam E

    2016-10-01

    A review of literature in the calendar year 2015 dedicated to environmental policies and sustainable development, and economic policies. This review is divided into these sections: sustainable development, irrigation, ecosystems and water management, climate change and disaster risk management, economic growth, water supply policies, water consumption, water price regulation, and water price valuation.

  16. Economism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Simons

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Modern society is characterised not only by a fascination with scientific technology as a means of solving all problems, especially those that stand in the way of material progress (technicism, but also by an obsessive interest in everything that has to do with money (economism or mammonism. The article discusses the relationship between technicism and economism, on the basis of their relationship to utilitarian thinking: the quest for the greatest happiness for the greatest number of people. Recent major studies of neo-liberalism (seen as an intensification of utilitarianism by Laval and Dardot are used as reference to the development of utilitarianism. It is suggested that the western view of the world, as expressed in economism and technicism, with a utilitarian ethics, features three absolutisations: those of theoretical thinking, technology and economics. In a second part, the article draws on the framework of reformational philosophy to suggest an approach that, in principle, is not marred by such absolutisations.

  17. Marine Biogeochemistry of Particulate Trace Elements in the Exclusive Economic Zone (eez) of the State of Qatar

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yigiterhan, O.; Al-Ansari, I. S.; Abdel-Moati, M.; Murray, J. W.; Al-Ansi, M.

    2016-02-01

    We focus on the trace element geochemistry of particulate matter in the Exclusive Economic Zone (EEZ) of Qatar. A main goal of this research was to analyze a complete suite of trace elements on particulate matter samples from the water column from different oceanographic biogeochemical zones of the EEZ around Qatar. The sample set also includes plankton samples which are the main source of biogenic particles, dust samples which are a source of abiological particles to surface seawater and surface sediments which can be a source of resuspended particles and a sink for settling particles. The 15 metals and 2 non-metals analyzed in this study will be Al, Ti, V, Cd, Co, Cu, Fe, Mn, Ni, Pb, Zn, Mo, Ag, Ba, U and P, N. Many factors control the composition of trace elements in marine particles. Most of these are important in the EEZ of Qatar, including:1. Natural sources: These are rivers, atmospheric dust, sediment resuspension and leaks from oil beds. However, due to very limited rainfall rivers play no major role in Qatar but resuspension of shallow carbonate rich sediments and input of atmospheric dust are important due to strong currents and surrounding deserts.2. Adsorption/desorption: These chemical processes occur everywhere in the ocean and transfer metals between particles and the solution phase.3. Biological uptake: This process is likewise a universal ocean process and results in transport of metals from the solution phase to biological particles.4. Redox conditions: These are important chemical reactions in the oxic, suboxic and anoxic zones. This can be the dominant controlling mechanism in the northeastern hypoxic deeper waters of the Qatar EEZ.5. Anthropogenic sources: The eastern part of the Qatar contains numerous industrial sites, petroleum/gas platforms and refineries. There are numerous industrial sources but the main hot spots are the port of Doha and the industrial cities of Mesaieed, Khor Al-Odaid, and Ras Laffan. We aimed to determine the

  18. Developing Viable Financing Models for Space Tourism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eilingsfeld, F.; Schaetzler, D.

    2002-01-01

    Increasing commercialization of space services and the impending release of government's control of space access promise to make space ventures more attractive. Still, many investors shy away from going into the space tourism market as long as they do not feel secure that their return expectations will be met. First and foremost, attracting investors from the capital markets requires qualifying financing models. Based on earlier research on the cost of capital for space tourism, this paper gives a brief run-through of commercial, technical and financial due diligence aspects. After that, a closer look is taken at different valuation techniques as well as alternative ways of streamlining financials. Experience from earlier ventures has shown that the high cost of capital represents a significant challenge. Thus, the sophistication and professionalism of business plans and financial models needs to be very high. Special emphasis is given to the optimization of the debt-to-equity ratio over time. The different roles of equity and debt over a venture's life cycle are explained. Based on the latter, guidelines for the design of an optimized loan structure are given. These are then applied to simulating the financial performance of a typical space tourism venture over time, including the calculation of Weighted Average Cost of Capital (WACC) and Net Present Value (NPV). Based on a concluding sensitivity analysis, the lessons learned are presented. If applied properly, these will help to make space tourism economically viable.

  19. On-Chip Dielectrophoretic Separation and Concentration of Viable, Non-Viable and Viable but Not Culturable (VBNC) Escherichia coli

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Packard, M M; Shusteff, M; Alocilja, E C

    2012-04-12

    Although bacterial culture remains the gold standard for detection of viable bacteria in environmental specimens, the typical time requirement of twenty-four hours can delay and even jeopardize appropriate public health intervention. In addition, culture is incapable of detecting viable but not culturable (VBNC) species. Conversely, nucleic acid and antibody-based methods greatly decrease time to detection but rarely characterize viability of the bacteria detected. Through selection by membrane permeability, the method described in this work employs positive dielectrophoresis (pDEP) for separation and purification of viable and VBNC species from water and allows concentration of bacteria for downstream applications.

  20. Development of economically viable, highly integrated, highly modular SEGIS architecture.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Enslin, Johan (Petra Solar, Inc., South Plainfield, NJ); Hamaoui, Ronald (Petra Solar, Inc., South Plainfield, NJ); Gonzalez, Sigifredo; Haddad, Ghaith (Petra Solar, Inc., South Plainfield, NJ); Rustom, Khalid (Petra Solar, Inc., South Plainfield, NJ); Stuby, Rick (Petra Solar, Inc., South Plainfield, NJ); Kuran, Mohammad (Petra Solar, Inc., South Plainfield, NJ); Mark, Evlyn (Petra Solar, Inc., South Plainfield, NJ); Amarin, Ruba (Petra Solar, Inc., South Plainfield, NJ); Alatrash, Hussam (Petra Solar, Inc., South Plainfield, NJ); Bower, Ward Isaac; Kuszmaul, Scott S.; Sena-Henderson, Lisa; David, Carolyn; Akhil, Abbas Ali

    2012-03-01

    Initiated in 2008, the SEGIS initiative is a partnership involving the U.S. DOE, Sandia National Laboratories, private sector companies, electric utilities, and universities. Projects supported under the initiative have focused on the complete-system development of solar technologies, with the dual goal of expanding renewable PV applications and addressing new challenges of connecting large-scale solar installations in higher penetrations to the electric grid. Petra Solar, Inc., a New Jersey-based company, received SEGIS funds to develop solutions to two of these key challenges: integrating increasing quantities of solar resources into the grid without compromising (and likely improving) power quality and reliability, and moving the design from a concept of intelligent system controls to successful commercialization. The resulting state-of-the art technology now includes a distributed photovoltaic (PV) architecture comprising AC modules that not only feed directly into the electrical grid at distribution levels but are equipped with new functions that improve voltage stability and thus enhance overall grid stability. This integrated PV system technology, known as SunWave, has applications for 'Power on a Pole,' and comes with a suite of technical capabilities, including advanced inverter and system controls, micro-inverters (capable of operating at both the 120V and 240V levels), communication system, network management system, and semiconductor integration. Collectively, these components are poised to reduce total system cost, increase the system's overall value and help mitigate the challenges of solar intermittency. Designed to be strategically located near point of load, the new SunWave technology is suitable for integration directly into the electrical grid but is also suitable for emerging microgrid applications. SunWave was showcased as part of a SEGIS Demonstration Conference at Pepco Holdings, Inc., on September 29, 2011, and is presently undergoing further field testing as a prelude to improved and expanded commercialization.

  1. Strengthening Agricultural Research Capacity for Viable Extension ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Strengthening Agricultural Research Capacity for Viable Extension Policies in Nigeria: An Exploration of Ricoeur's Hermeneutic Theory for Analysing Extension Research. ... Progressively more, researchers use hermeneutic philosophy to inform the conduct of interpretive research. Analogy between the philosophical ...

  2. Supply-side approaches to the economic valuation of coastal and marine habitat in the Red Sea

    KAUST Repository

    Hoagland, P.; Kite-Powell, H.L.; Jin, D.; Solow, A.R.

    2013-01-01

    The degradation of natural fish habitat in the ocean implies lost economic benefits. These value losses often are not measured or anticipated fully, and therefore they are mainly ignored in decisions to develop the coast for industrial

  3. Economic benefits of large-scale remediation of contaminated marine sediments. A literature review and an application to the Grenland fjords in Norway

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barton, David Nicholas [Norwegian Inst. for Water Research (NIVA) / Norwegian Inst. Nature Research, Oslo (Norway); Navrud, Staale; Bjoerkeslett, Heid; Lilleby, Ingrid [Dept. of Economics and Resource Management, Norwegian Univ. of Life Sciences (UMB), As (Norway)

    2010-03-15

    Purpose: As input to a cost-benefit analysis of large-scale remediation measures of contaminated sediments in the Grenland fjords in Norway, we conducted a contingent valuation (CV) survey of a representative sample of households from municipalities adjacent to these fjords. Materials and methods: The CV method aimed at valuing the benefits perceived by households of removing dietary health advisories on seafood consumption currently in place through the fjords. Results: Mean household willingness-to-pay (WTP) per year over a 10-year period was found to decrease with increased distance from the Grenland fjords and was somewhat higher than in a similar study conducted 10 years earlier than our study. Aggregating mean WTP over all households in neighbouring municipalities to the fjords resulted in total economic benefits of the same magnitude as the total remediation costs. The WTP results make the case in such a way that the high costs of remediation of contaminated marine sediments can be defended by the large economic benefits generated for households around the fjord. The research was financed by the local environmental authorities and the local industry that had caused the contaminated sediments. The WTP results were strongly contested by the industry upon completion of the study. Conclusion: The paper addresses the industry's critiques of this particular CV study and discusses how to better inform local stakeholders about the potential and limitations of the CV method and how to improve communication of economic valuation results. (orig.)

  4. Marine mineral resources of Pacific Islands - a review of the Exclusive Economic Zones of islands of U.S. affiliation, excluding the State of Hawaii

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hein, James R.; McIntyre, Brandie R.; Piper, David Z.

    2005-01-01

    The United States Exclusive Economic Zone (EEZ) was established in 1983 and comprises all marine areas within 200 nautical miles (370 kilometers) of the nearest U.S. land. This vast area of 3.38 million square nautical miles (11.6 million square kilometers) is about 20 percent greater than the entire land area of the United States. The resource potential of the vast mineral deposits that occur within the U.S. EEZ is unknown, despite field studies that have taken place during the past 25 years. Since about 1975, information on marine mineral deposits has been obtained by numerous research cruises to the Pacific Ocean by the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS), the U.S. National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA), equivalent government agencies in Germany, Canada, France, Russia, Japan, China, South Korea, Australia, and New Zealand, and by academic researchers from all of these nations. Although most of the cruises by other nations explored areas outside the U.S. EEZ, information gained from those studies can aid in the evaluation of the mineral potential in the U.S. EEZ. However, the global effort remains inadequate to allow for the quantitative evaluation of mineral resources contained within the EEZ of nations or within international regions of the oceans.

  5. Marine Planning for Potential Wave Energy Facility Placement Amongst a Crowded Sea of Existing Resource Uses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feist, B. E.; Fuller, E.; Plummer, M. L.

    2016-12-01

    Conversion to renewable energy sources is a logical response to increasing pressure to reduce greenhouse gas emissions. Ocean wave energy is the least developed renewable energy source, despite having the highest energy per unit area. While many hurdles remain in developing wave energy, assessing potential conflicts and evaluating tradeoffs with existing uses is essential. Marine planning encompasses a broad array of activities that take place in and affect large marine ecosystems, making it an ideal tool for evaluating wave energy resource use conflicts. In this study, we focus on the potential conflicts between wave energy conversion (WEC) facilities and existing marine uses in the context of marine planning, within the California Current Large Marine Ecosystem. First, we evaluated wave energy facility development using the Wave Energy Model (WEM) of the Integrated Valuation of Ecosystem Services and Trade-offs (InVEST) toolkit. Second, we ran spatial analyses on model output to identify conflicts with existing marine uses including AIS based vessel traffic, VMS and observer based measures of commercial fishing effort, and marine conservation areas. We found that regions with the highest wave energy potential were distant from major cities and that infrastructure limitations (cable landing sites) restrict integration with existing power grids. We identified multiple spatial conflicts with existing marine uses; especially shipping vessels and various commercial fishing fleets, and overlap with marine conservation areas varied by conservation designation. While wave energy generation facilities may be economically viable in the California Current, this viability must be considered within the context of the costs associated with conflicts that arise with existing marine uses. Our analyses can be used to better inform placement of WEC devices (as well as other types of renewable energy facilities) in the context of marine planning by accounting for economic tradeoffs

  6. Supply-side approaches to the economic valuation of coastal and marine habitat in the Red Sea

    KAUST Repository

    Hoagland, P.

    2013-07-01

    The degradation of natural fish habitat in the ocean implies lost economic benefits. These value losses often are not measured or anticipated fully, and therefore they are mainly ignored in decisions to develop the coast for industrial or residential purposes. In such circumstances, the ocean habitat and its associated ecosystem are treated as if they are worthless. Measures of actual or potential economic values generated by fisheries in commercial markets can be used to assess a conservative (lower-bound) value of ocean habitat. With this information, one can begin to compare the values of coastal developments to the values of foregone ocean habitat in order to help understand whether development would be justified economically. In this paper, we focus on the economic value associated with the harvesting of commercial fish stocks as a relevant case for the Saudi Arabian portion of the Red Sea. We describe first the conceptual basis behind supply-side approaches to economic valuation. Next we review the literature on the use of these methods for valuing ocean habitat. We provide an example based on recent research assessing the bioeconomic status of the traditional fisheries of the Red Sea in the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia (KSA). We estimate the economic value of ecosystem services provided by the KSA Red Sea coral reefs, finding that annual per-unit values supporting the traditional fisheries only are on the order of 7000/km2. Finally, we develop some recommendations for refining future applications of these methods to the Red Sea environment and for further research. © 2013 .

  7. Blue Growth and Economics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Phoebe eKoundouri

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Oceans and seas represent over 70% of the earth's surface. Furthermore, living aquatic resources can provide a significant contribution to food, energy and bio-based products. However, marine ecosystems are subject to increasing pressures and competing usages, resulting from resources over-exploitation and pollution. In order to produce efficient marine management plans, it is essential to consider the total economic value provided by the marine ecosystems. In this review, we are focusing on the Marine Framework Strategy Directive and the European Marine Spatial Planning that are established for the protection and efficient use of the marine area. We present the ecosystem services approach with regards to the marine ecosystem and propose economic methods that capture the marine ecosystem’s total economic value in relation to the opportunity cost of marine space. Values should be used to guide policy makers following the European directives and initiatives.

  8. Status of marine turtle rehabilitation in Queensland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jaylene Flint

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Rehabilitation of marine turtles in Queensland has multifaceted objectives. It treats individual animals, serves to educate the public, and contributes to conservation. We examined the outcome from rehabilitation, time in rehabilitation, and subsequent recapture and restranding rates of stranded marine turtles between 1996 and 2013 to determine if the benefits associated with this practice are cost-effective as a conservation tool. Of 13,854 marine turtles reported as stranded during this 18-year period, 5,022 of these turtles were stranded alive with the remainder verified as dead or of unknown condition. A total of 2,970 (59% of these live strandings were transported to a rehabilitation facility. Overall, 1,173/2,970 (39% turtles were released over 18 years, 101 of which were recaptured: 77 reported as restrandings (20 dead, 13 alive subsequently died, 11 alive subsequently euthanized, 33 alive and 24 recaptured during normal marine turtle population monitoring or fishing activities. Of the turtles admitted to rehabilitation exhibiting signs of disease, 88% of them died, either unassisted or by euthanasia and 66% of turtles admitted for unknown causes of stranding died either unassisted or by euthanasia. All turtles recorded as having a buoyancy disorder with no other presenting problem or disorder recorded, were released alive. In Queensland, rehabilitation costs approximately $1,000 per animal per year admitted to a center, $2,583 per animal per year released, and $123,750 per animal per year for marine turtles which are presumably successfully returned to the functional population. This practice may not be economically viable in its present configuration, but may be more cost effective as a mobile response unit. Further there is certainly benefit giving individual turtles a chance at survival and educating the public in the perils facing marine turtles. As well, rehabilitation can provide insight into the diseases and environmental

  9. Status of marine turtle rehabilitation in Queensland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flint, Jaylene; Flint, Mark; Limpus, Colin James; Mills, Paul

    2017-01-01

    Rehabilitation of marine turtles in Queensland has multifaceted objectives. It treats individual animals, serves to educate the public, and contributes to conservation. We examined the outcome from rehabilitation, time in rehabilitation, and subsequent recapture and restranding rates of stranded marine turtles between 1996 and 2013 to determine if the benefits associated with this practice are cost-effective as a conservation tool. Of 13,854 marine turtles reported as stranded during this 18-year period, 5,022 of these turtles were stranded alive with the remainder verified as dead or of unknown condition. A total of 2,970 (59%) of these live strandings were transported to a rehabilitation facility. Overall, 1,173/2,970 (39%) turtles were released over 18 years, 101 of which were recaptured: 77 reported as restrandings (20 dead, 13 alive subsequently died, 11 alive subsequently euthanized, 33 alive) and 24 recaptured during normal marine turtle population monitoring or fishing activities. Of the turtles admitted to rehabilitation exhibiting signs of disease, 88% of them died, either unassisted or by euthanasia and 66% of turtles admitted for unknown causes of stranding died either unassisted or by euthanasia. All turtles recorded as having a buoyancy disorder with no other presenting problem or disorder recorded, were released alive. In Queensland, rehabilitation costs approximately $1,000 per animal per year admitted to a center, $2,583 per animal per year released, and $123,750 per animal per year for marine turtles which are presumably successfully returned to the functional population. This practice may not be economically viable in its present configuration, but may be more cost effective as a mobile response unit. Further there is certainly benefit giving individual turtles a chance at survival and educating the public in the perils facing marine turtles. As well, rehabilitation can provide insight into the diseases and environmental stressors causing

  10. Status of marine turtle rehabilitation in Queensland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flint, Mark; Limpus, Colin James; Mills, Paul

    2017-01-01

    Rehabilitation of marine turtles in Queensland has multifaceted objectives. It treats individual animals, serves to educate the public, and contributes to conservation. We examined the outcome from rehabilitation, time in rehabilitation, and subsequent recapture and restranding rates of stranded marine turtles between 1996 and 2013 to determine if the benefits associated with this practice are cost-effective as a conservation tool. Of 13,854 marine turtles reported as stranded during this 18-year period, 5,022 of these turtles were stranded alive with the remainder verified as dead or of unknown condition. A total of 2,970 (59%) of these live strandings were transported to a rehabilitation facility. Overall, 1,173/2,970 (39%) turtles were released over 18 years, 101 of which were recaptured: 77 reported as restrandings (20 dead, 13 alive subsequently died, 11 alive subsequently euthanized, 33 alive) and 24 recaptured during normal marine turtle population monitoring or fishing activities. Of the turtles admitted to rehabilitation exhibiting signs of disease, 88% of them died, either unassisted or by euthanasia and 66% of turtles admitted for unknown causes of stranding died either unassisted or by euthanasia. All turtles recorded as having a buoyancy disorder with no other presenting problem or disorder recorded, were released alive. In Queensland, rehabilitation costs approximately $1,000 per animal per year admitted to a center, $2,583 per animal per year released, and $123,750 per animal per year for marine turtles which are presumably successfully returned to the functional population. This practice may not be economically viable in its present configuration, but may be more cost effective as a mobile response unit. Further there is certainly benefit giving individual turtles a chance at survival and educating the public in the perils facing marine turtles. As well, rehabilitation can provide insight into the diseases and environmental stressors causing

  11. A crisis in waste management, economic vitality, and a coastal marine environment: Boston Harbor and Massachusetts Bay

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manheim, F.T.; Butman, B.

    1994-01-01

    Discharge of sewage sludge and effluent from 43 communities in the greater Boston metropolitan area has helped make the harbor one of the most polluted in the nation. As part of a court-mandated plan to end pollution of the harbor, effluent will no longer be discharged into the harbor, but instead, by 1995 it will be discharged into Massachusetts Bay through a record-long 15.34 km tunnel. By the year 2000 all of the sewage is scheduled to recive full secondary treatment. The public is concerned about long-term effects of the new ocean outfall on the environment, including Cape Cod Bay and Stellwagen Bank, which is an important habitat for whales and a newly designated national marine sanctuary. The bay has been additionally stressed by dumping of low-level radioactive and other hazardous wastes during the 1950s and 1960s. -from Authors

  12. Economic Impact of Large-Scale Deployment of Offshore Marine and Hydrokinetic Technology in Oregon Coastal Counties

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jimenez, T. [Bureau of Ocean Energy Management (BOEM), Washington, DC (United States); Tegen, S. [Bureau of Ocean Energy Management (BOEM), Washington, DC (United States); Beiter, P. [Bureau of Ocean Energy Management (BOEM), Washington, DC (United States)

    2015-03-01

    To begin understanding the potential economic impacts of large-scale WEC technology, the Bureau of Ocean Energy Management (BOEM) commissioned the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) to conduct an economic impact analysis of largescale WEC deployment for Oregon coastal counties. This report follows a previously published report by BOEM and NREL on the jobs and economic impacts of WEC technology for the entire state (Jimenez and Tegen 2015). As in Jimenez and Tegen (2015), this analysis examined two deployment scenarios in the 2026-2045 timeframe: the first scenario assumed 13,000 megawatts (MW) of WEC technology deployed during the analysis period, and the second assumed 18,000 MW of WEC technology deployed by 2045. Both scenarios require major technology and cost improvements in the WEC devices. The study is on very large-scale deployment so readers can examine and discuss the potential of a successful and very large WEC industry. The 13,000-MW is used as the basis for the county analysis as it is the smaller of the two scenarios. Sensitivity studies examined the effects of a robust in-state WEC supply chain. The region of analysis is comprised of the seven coastal counties in Oregon—Clatsop, Coos, Curry, Douglas, Lane, Lincoln, and Tillamook—so estimates of jobs and other economic impacts are specific to this coastal county area.

  13. Sycamore produces viable seed after six years

    Science.gov (United States)

    A. F. Ike

    1966-01-01

    In the early stages of any tree improvement program it is desirable to know how soon progenies of selected parents can themselves be included in a breeding program. How soon will they produce viable pollen and seed? In the case of sycamore (Platanus occidentalis L.), the information is meager: the Woody- Plant Seed Manual lists the minimum commercial seedbearing age...

  14. Strategies to increase the hygienic and economic value of fresh fish: Biopreservation using lactic acid bacteria of marine origin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gómez-Sala, Beatriz; Herranz, Carmen; Díaz-Freitas, Belén; Hernández, Pablo E; Sala, Ana; Cintas, Luis M

    2016-04-16

    In this work we describe the development of a biopreservation strategy for fresh fish based on the use of bacteriocinogenic LAB of marine origin. For this purpose, two multibacteriocinogenic LAB strains, Lactobacillus curvatus BCS35 and Enterococcus faecium BNM58, previously isolated from fish and fish products were selected owing to their capability to inhibit the growth of several fish-spoilage and food-borne pathogenic bacteria. Two commercially important fish species were chosen, young hake (Merluccius merluccius) and megrim (Lepidorhombus boscii), and the specimens were acquired at the Marín (Pontevedra, Spain) retail fish market, after one night in the chilled hold of a near-shore fishing vessel. The biopreservation potential and the application strategies of these two LAB strains were first tested at a laboratory scale, where several batches of fresh fish were inoculated with: (i) the multibacteriocinogenic LAB culture(s) as protective culture(s); and/or (ii) their cell-free culture supernatant(s) as food ingredient(s), and (iii) the lyophilized bacteriocin preparation(s) as lyophilized food ingredient(s). All batches were stored in polystyrene boxes, permanently filled with ice at 0-2 °C, for 14 days. Microbiological analyses, as well as sensorial analyses, were carried out during the biopreservation trials. Subsequently, Lb. curvatus BCS35 was selected to up-scale the trials, and combinations of the three application methods were assayed. For this purpose, this strain was grown in a semi-industrial scale fermentor (150l) in modified MRS broth, and three batches of fresh fish were inoculated with the protective culture and/or food ingredient, and stored on ice in a chilled chamber at 0-2 °C at the Marín retail fish market for 14 days. Microbiological analyses were carried out during the storage period, showing that when Lb. curvatus BCS35 culture or the corresponding cell-free culture supernatant was used as protective culture or food ingredient

  15. Techno-economic assessment of biofuel development by anaerobic digestion of European marine cold-water seaweeds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dave, Ashok; Huang, Ye; Rezvani, Sina; McIlveen-Wright, David; Novaes, Marcio; Hewitt, Neil

    2013-05-01

    The techno-economic characteristics of macro-algae utilisation from European temperate zones was evaluated in a selected Anaerobic Digester (AD) using the chemical process modelling software ECLIPSE. The assessment covered the mass and energy balance of the entire process followed by the economic feasibility study, which included the total cost estimation, net present value calculation, and sensitivity analysis. The selected plant size corresponded to a community based AD of 1.6 MWth with a macro-algae feed rate of 8.64 tonnes per day (dry basis). The produced biogas was utilised in a combined heat and power plant generating 237 kWenet electricity and 367 kWth heat. The breakeven electricity-selling price in this study was estimated at around €120/MWh. On the ground of different national and regional policies, this study did not account for any government incentives. However, different support mechanisms such as Feed-in-Tariffs or Renewable Obligation Certificates can significantly improve the project viability. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Monotone viable trajectories for functional differential inclusions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haddad, Georges

    This paper is a study on functional differential inclusions with memory which represent the multivalued version of retarded functional differential equations. The main result gives a necessary and sufficient equations. The main result gives a necessary and sufficient condition ensuring the existence of viable trajectories; that means trajectories remaining in a given nonempty closed convex set defined by given constraints the system must satisfy to be viable. Some motivations for this paper can be found in control theory where F( t, φ) = { f( t, φ, u)} uɛU is the set of possible velocities of the system at time t, depending on the past history represented by the function φ and on a control u ranging over a set U of controls. Other motivations can be found in planning procedures in microeconomics and in biological evolutions where problems with memory do effectively appear in a multivalued version. All these models require viability constraints represented by a closed convex set.

  17. Identifying Sources of Marine Litter

    OpenAIRE

    VEIGA Joana Mira; FLEET David; KINSEY Sue; NILSSON Per; VLACHOGIANNI Thomais; WERNER Stefanie; GALGANI Francois; THOMPSON Richard; DAGEVOS Jeroen; GAGO Jesus; SOBRAL Paula; CRONIN Richard

    2016-01-01

    Marine litter is a global problem causing harm to marine wildlife, coastal communities and maritime activities. It also embodies an emerging concern for human health and safety. The reduction of marine litter pollution poses a complex challenge for humankind, requiring adjustments in human behaviour as well as in the different phases of the life-cycle of products and across multiple economic sectors. The Marine Strategy Framework Directive (MSFD) requires European Member States to monitor...

  18. Bioactive potential of some economically important marine gastropods along the Gulf of Mannar region, southeast coast of India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    JayanthiGovindarajalu

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To analyse the economically important gastropods for prospective antimicrobial, antioxidant and cytotoxic activities from the Gulf of Mannar region, southeast coast of India. Methods: The bioactive potential of some gastropods i.e. Babylonia spirata (B. spirata, Phalium glaucum, Tonna dolium, Hemifusus pugilinus, Xancus pyrum, Chicoreus ramosus (C. ramosus, Harpa articularis, Ficus ficus and Babylonia zeylanica were analysed. Antimicrobial activity was carried out against 8 human pathogenic bacteria and 3 fungal strains by well diffusion method. Antioxidant and cytotoxic activities were analyzed by standard methods. Results: In antibacterial and antifungal activities, methanolic extract of B. spirata significantly showed the highest inhibition zone against Aeromonas hydrophila and Fusarium spp. (P > 0.05. In the total antioxidant activity, the maximum activity was observed in B. spirata (510 µg/mg and in the 1.1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl scavenging activity, B. spirata showed the highest percentage of inhibition (76.7%. In the case of cytotoxicity i.e. brine shrimp lethality tests the methanolic extract of C. ramosus showed the lowest percentage of mortality and the LC50 values were found to be 523.9 µg/mL. Conclusions: The results revealed that all the gastropods in the present study possessed antimicrobial, antioxidant and cytotoxic effects. However, species like B. spirata and C. ramosus exhibited potent activity and can be used for further clinical studies.

  19. Axenic isolation of viable Giardia muris trophozoites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tillotson, K D; Buret, A; Olson, M E

    1991-06-01

    Large numbers of viable Giardia muris trophozoites were isolated from the duodenum of experimentally infected mice 6 days after inoculation with 1,000 G. muris cysts. A series of shaking, incubation, and washing steps in the presence of the broad-spectrum antibiotic piperacillin readily provided 4.9 +/- 1.5 x 10(5) G. muris trophozoites per mouse, free of detectable contaminant organisms. Anaerobic and microaerophilic culturing and scanning electron microscopy demonstrated axenic status and high purity of the isolates. The viability of trophozoites was 98 +/- 2%. Application of this technique should permit novel immunological and epidemiological analyses of G. muris infection and biochemical investigations of this protozoan parasite.

  20. Western Indian Ocean Journal of Marine Science: Editorial Policies

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Economics - TANZANIA. Thierry LEVITRA. Marine Biology and Mariculture - MADAGASCAR. Blandina LUGENDO. Marine Ecology - TANZANIA. Aviti MMOCHI. Mariculture - TANZANIA. Nyawira MUTHIGA. Marine Ecology and Management - KENYA. Brent NEWMAN. Contamination and Risk Assessment – SOUTH AFRICA.

  1. In search of viable business models for development: sustainable energy in developing countries

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kolk, A.; van den Buuse, D.

    2012-01-01

    Purpose - Although the crucial role of business, and of business-based approaches, in development is increasingly emphasised by academics and practitioners, insight is lacking into the "whether and how" of viable business models, in environmental, social and economical terms. This article analyses

  2. Marine current energy devices: Current status and possible future applications in Ireland

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rourke, Fergal O.; Boyle, Fergal; Reynolds, Anthony

    2010-01-01

    There is a growing demand for the use of renewable energy technologies to generate electricity due to concerns over climate change. The oceans provide a huge potential resource of energy. Energy extraction using marine current energy devices (MCEDs) offers a sustainable alternative to conventional sources and a predictable alternative to other renewable energy technologies. A MCED utilises the kinetic energy of the tides as opposed to the potential energy which is utilised by a tidal barrage. Over the past decade MCEDs have become an increasingly popular method of energy extraction. However, marine current energy technology is still not economically viable on a large scale due to its current stage of development. Ireland has an excellent marine current energy resource as it is an island nation and experiences excellent marine current flows. This paper reviews marine current energy devices, including a detailed up-to-date description of the current status of development. Issues such as network integration, economics, and environmental implications are addressed as well as the application and costs of MCEDs in Ireland. (author)

  3. Senior health clinics: are they financially viable?

    Science.gov (United States)

    McAtee, Robin E; Crandall, Debra; Wright, Larry D; Beverly, Claudia J

    2009-07-01

    Are hospital-based outpatient interdisciplinary clinics a financially viable alternative for caring for our burgeoning population of older adults in America? Although highly popular, with high patient satisfaction rates among older adults and their families, senior health clinics (SHCs) can be expensive to operate, with limited quantifiable health outcomes. This study analyzed three geriatric hospital-based interdisciplinary clinics in rural Arkansas by examining their patient profiles, revenues, and expenses. It closely examined the effects of the downstream revenue using the multiplier effect and acknowledged other factors that weigh heavily on the success of SHCs and the care of older adults. The findings highlight the similarities and differences in the three clinics' operating and financial structures in addition to the clinics' and providers' productivity. The analysis presents an evidence-based illustration that SHCs can break even or lose large amounts of money.

  4. Introduce of Viable But Nonculturable Bacteria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mehdi Hassanshahian

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available Viable-But-Nonculturable-State (VBNC is the condition in which bacteria fail to grow on their routine bacteriological media where they would normally grow and develop into colonies, but are still alive and capable of renewed metabolic activity. VBNC state is useful for evaluating public health and for ascertaining the sterility of drinking water, pharmaceuticals, and foodstuff. A number of bacteria, mostly pathogenic to humans, have been proved to enter into this state in response to natural stresses such as starvation, incubation out of optimum growth temperature, increased osmotic pressure, etc. Once in the VBNC state, they undergo various physiological, structural, and genetic alterations. These alterations result in reduced cell size, conversion from bacilli to coccid, thickened cell walls, and peptidoglycan gaining many cross links. Metabolic changes also occur that include reductions in growth, nutrient transport, and respiratory rate; biosynthesis of new protein, and ATP remaining at a constant level. It has been shown that in the VBNC state, some pathogens conserve their virulence properties. Gene expression continues in the VBNC cell. Nucleic acids remain intact in the early VBNC phase but they gradually undergo degradation with prolonged VBNC. Cytological methods such as direct viable count and reduction of tetrazolium salts, and molecular methods such as reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction and green fluorescent protein have been used for the study of VBNC. Resuscitation from VBNC state starts when the inducing factor(s is/are lifted. Factors that help the resuscitation of VBNC bacteria include addition of certain nutrients and chemicals, introduction of a few culturable cells into the VBNC cell population, and passage through the animal host. As virulence properties are sustained during the VBNC phase, special care must be paid when evaluating sterility of drinking water.

  5. Polymerase chain reaction-based discrimination of viable from non-viable Mycoplasma gallisepticum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ching Giap Tan

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available The present study was based on the reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR of the 16S ribosomal nucleic acid (rRNA of Mycoplasma for detection of viable Mycoplasma gallisepticum. To determine the stability of M. gallisepticum 16S rRNA in vitro, three inactivation methods were used and the suspensions were stored at different temperatures. The 16S rRNA of M. gallisepticum was detected up to approximately 20–25 h at 37 °C, 22–25 h at 16 °C, and 23–27 h at 4 °C. The test, therefore, could detect viable or recently dead M. gallisepticum (< 20 h. The RT-PCR method was applied during an in vivo study of drug efficacy under experimental conditions, where commercial broiler-breeder eggs were inoculated with M. gallisepticum into the yolk. Hatched chicks that had been inoculated in ovo were treated with Macrolide 1. The method was then applied in a flock of day 0 chicks with naturally acquired vertical transmission of M. gallisepticum, treated with Macrolide 2. Swabs of the respiratory tract were obtained for PCR and RT-PCR evaluations to determine the viability of M. gallisepticum. This study proved that the combination of both PCR and RT-PCR enables detection and differentiation of viable from non-viable M. gallisepticum.

  6. Enumeration of viable and non-viable larvated Ascaris eggs with quantitative PCR

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aims: The goal of the study was to further develop an incubation-qPCR method for quantifying viable Ascaris eggs. The specific objectives were to characterize the detection limit and number of template copies per egg, determine the specificity of the method, and test the method w...

  7. Marine Anthropogenic Litter

    OpenAIRE

    Bergmann, Melanie; Gutow, Lars; Klages, Michael

    2015-01-01

    This book describes how manmade litter, primarily plastic, has spread into the remotest parts of the oceans and covers all aspects of this pollution problem from the impacts on wildlife and human health to socio-economic and political issues. Marine litter is a prime threat to marine wildlife, habitats and food webs worldwide. The book illustrates how advanced technologies from deep-sea research, microbiology and mathematic modelling as well as classic beach litter counts by volunteers co...

  8. Marine Corps Pay Incentives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marines from 2000 to 2017. The thesis includes a literature review on economic theory related to pay incentives in the Department of Defense, a...The purpose of this thesis to provide the Marine Corps with a comprehensive report on pay incentive programs and special pay that were available to...summarization of pay incentive categories, a data analysis on take-up rates and average annual amounts at the end of each fiscal year, and a program review

  9. Towards a viable and just global nursing ethics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crigger, Nancy J

    2008-01-01

    Globalization, an outgrowth of technology, while informing us about people throughout the world, also raises our awareness of the extreme economic and social disparities that exist among nations. As part of a global discipline, nurses are vitally interested in reducing and eliminating disparities so that better health is achieved for all people. Recent literature in nursing encourages our discipline to engage more actively with social justice issues. Justice in health care is a major commitment of nursing; thus questions in the larger sphere of globalization, justice and ethics, are our discipline's questions also. Global justice, or fairness, is not an issue for some groups or institutions, but a deeper human rights issue that is a responsibility for everyone. What can we do to help reduce or eliminate the social and economic disparities that are so evident? What kind of ethical milieu is needed to address the threat that globalization imposes on justice and fairness? This article enriches the conceptualization of globalization by investigating recent work by Schweiker and Twiss. In addition, I discuss five qualities or characteristics that will facilitate the development of a viable and just global ethic. A global ethic guides all people in their response to human rights and poverty. Technology and business, two major forces in globalization that are generally considered beneficial, are critiqued as barriers to social justice and the common good.

  10. The Conceptual Mechanism for Viable Organizational Learning Based on Complex System Theory and the Viable System Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sung, Dia; You, Yeongmahn; Song, Ji Hoon

    2008-01-01

    The purpose of this research is to explore the possibility of viable learning organizations based on identifying viable organizational learning mechanisms. Two theoretical foundations, complex system theory and viable system theory, have been integrated to provide the rationale for building the sustainable organizational learning mechanism. The…

  11. Deletion of ultraconserved elements yields viable mice

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ahituv, Nadav; Zhu, Yiwen; Visel, Axel; Holt, Amy; Afzal, Veena; Pennacchio, Len A.; Rubin, Edward M.

    2007-07-15

    Ultraconserved elements have been suggested to retainextended perfect sequence identity between the human, mouse, and ratgenomes due to essential functional properties. To investigate thenecessities of these elements in vivo, we removed four non-codingultraconserved elements (ranging in length from 222 to 731 base pairs)from the mouse genome. To maximize the likelihood of observing aphenotype, we chose to delete elements that function as enhancers in amouse transgenic assay and that are near genes that exhibit markedphenotypes both when completely inactivated in the mouse as well as whentheir expression is altered due to other genomic modifications.Remarkably, all four resulting lines of mice lacking these ultraconservedelements were viable and fertile, and failed to reveal any criticalabnormalities when assayed for a variety of phenotypes including growth,longevity, pathology and metabolism. In addition more targeted screens,informed by the abnormalities observed in mice where genes in proximityto the investigated elements had been altered, also failed to revealnotable abnormalities. These results, while not inclusive of all thepossible phenotypic impact of the deleted sequences, indicate thatextreme sequence constraint does not necessarily reflect crucialfunctions required for viability.

  12. Entry of Vibrio harveyi and Vibrio fischeri into the viable but nonculturable state.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramaiah, N; Ravel, J; Straube, W L; Hill, R T; Colwell, R R

    2002-01-01

    Physiological responses of marine luminous bacteria, Vibrio harveyi (ATCC 14216) and V. fischeri (UM1373) to nutrient-limited normal strength (35 ppt iso-osmolarity) and low (10 ppt hypo-osmolarity) salinity conditions were determined. Plate counts, direct viable counts, actively respiring cell counts, nucleoid-containing cell counts, and total counts were determined. Vibrio harveyi incubated at 22 degrees C in nutrient-limited artificial seawater (ASW) became nonculturable after approximately 62 and 45 d in microcosms of 35 ppt and 10 ppt ASW, respectively. In contrast, V. fischeri became nonculturable at approximately 55 and 31 d in similar microcosms. Recovery of both culturability and luminescence of cells in the viable but nonculturable state was achieved by addition of nutrient broth or nutrient broth supplemented with a carbon source, including luminescence-stimulating compounds. Temperature upshift from 22 degrees C to 30 degrees C or 37 degrees C did not result in recovery from nonculturability. The study confirms entry of V. harveyi and V. fischeri into the viable but nonculturable state under low-nutrient conditions and demonstrates nutrient-dependent resuscitation from this state. This study confirms loss of luminescence of V. harveyi and V. fischeri on entry into the viable but nonculturable state and suggests that enumeration of luminescent cells in water samples may be a rapid method to deduce the nutrient status of a water sample.

  13. Parejas viables que perduran en el tiempo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan José Cuervo Rodríguez

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available El presente artículo científico presenta resultados del proceso llevado a cabo en el proyecto de investigación docente "Mecanismos de autorregulación en parejas viables que perduran en el tiempo". Se soporta en una mirada compleja de la psicología basada en una epistemología de la construcción. En el ámbito metodológico, se inscribe en los estudios de terapia familiar desde una perspectiva de la comunicación humana como un todo integrado. Participaron nueve parejas. Los criterios de inclusión fueron: cinco o más años de convivencia, participación voluntaria, no presentar (ni haber presentado problemáticas especiales que ameriten intervención psicoterapéutica y la obtención de un porcentaje significativo en el uso de estrategias de comunicación asertiva en la resolución de conflictos. El método general utilizado fue el análisis de la comunicación en tarea de conversación. Los principales hallazgos señalan una estrecha relación entre el contexto de desarrollo de las parejas, la emergencia de códigos comunicacionales propios y la posibilidad de perdurar en el tiempo; también, se resalta el tipo de comunicación asertiva o constructiva, la construcción de valores como el respeto y la aceptación de las diferencias, y el deseo por vivir y construir bienestar común, como elementos constitutivos de su identidad como pareja.

  14. Separation of viable and non-viable tomato (Solanum lycopersicum L.) seeds using single seed near-infrared spectroscopy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Shrestha, Santosh; Deleuran, Lise Christina; Gislum, René

    2017-01-01

    Single seed near-infrared (NIR) spectroscopy is a non-destructive technology commonly used for predicting lipids, proteins, carbohydrates and water content of agricultural products. The aim of the current study is to investigate the prospects of NIR spectroscopy in classifying viable and non...... identified as important for classification of viable and non-viable tomato seeds by iPLS-DA. The sensitivity i.e. ability to correctly identify the positive samples and specificity i.e. ability to reject the negative samples of the (iPLS-DA) model on identified spectral regions for prediction of viable......-viable tomato seeds of two cultivars using chemometrics. The data exploration were performed by principal component analysis (PCA). Subsequently, viable and non-viable seeds were classified by partial least squares-discriminant analysis (PLS-DA) and interval PLS-DA (iPLS-DA). The indication of clustering...

  15. Seagrasses - The forgotton marine habitat

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Jagtap, T.G.; Rodrigues, R.S.

    Seagrasses, a specialized group of flowering plants, submerged in the marine, estuarine, bay and backwater regions of the world. Though seagrass beds are of great ecological and socio economic importance, they are mostly unknown to Indians. Seagrass...

  16. Radiation disinfestation: A viable technology for developing countries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Loaharanu, P.

    1985-01-01

    Increasing food production in many countries is often offset by spoilage losses that occur at different stages after harvesting, slaughtering, or catching. The situation becomes critical in developing countries as more food is needed to feed the ever-increasing population. One of the major problems of losses of food and agricultural products during storage is insect infestation. This paper reviews some insect infestation problems of valuable crops in developing countries such as cereals, pulses, dried fish and meat, fresh and dried fruits, coffee and cocoa beans, spices, and cured tobacco leaves. Present practices of chemical fumigation to eliminate insect problems in these crops give rise to concern from the points of view of both public health and occupational safety. Irradiation technology has been shown to be as effective as other insect disinfestation methods and could provide a viable alternative for this purpose. Insects do not develop resistance to physical techniques such as heat or irradiation as they do to chemical treatments. Applications of radiation for disinfestation of food and agricultural products of importance to developing countries are discussed. The economics of radiation disinfestation of cereals and pulses, dried fish, and fresh fruits are also discussed

  17. Physiology limits commercially viable photoautotrophic production of microalgal biofuels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kenny, Philip; Flynn, Kevin J

    2017-01-01

    Algal biofuels have been offered as an alternative to fossil fuels, based on claims that microalgae can provide a highly productive source of compounds as feedstocks for sustainable transport fuels. Life cycle analyses identify algal productivity as a critical factor affecting commercial and environmental viability. Here, we use mechanistic modelling of the biological processes driving microalgal growth to explore optimal production scenarios in an industrial setting, enabling us to quantify limits to algal biofuels potential. We demonstrate how physiological and operational trade-offs combine to restrict the potential for solar-powered algal-biodiesel production in open ponds to a ceiling of ca. 8000 L ha -1 year -1 . For industrial-scale operations, practical considerations limit production to ca. 6000 L ha -1 year -1 . According to published economic models and life cycle analyses, such production rates cannot support long-term viable commercialisation of solar-powered cultivation of natural microalgae strains exclusively as feedstock for biofuels. The commercial viability of microalgal biofuels depends critically upon limitations in microalgal physiology (primarily in rates of C-fixation); we discuss the scope for addressing this bottleneck concluding that even deployment of genetically modified microalgae with radically enhanced characteristics would leave a very significant logistical if not financial burden.

  18. Breaking Through Barriers for Participatory Marine Conservation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dustan, P.; Wheeler, L.

    2016-02-01

    Marine scientists and influential members of the diving community are realizing that ecology, like politics, is local and we need to be more proactive to promote conservation where we live and wherever we go in the marine world. Scientists can no longer simply pursue pure "loading dock" science because ocean degradation is accelerating and soon there may be little or nothing to study. This is especially acute in the tropics where fragile terrestrial and marine landscapes are coming under increasing anthropogenic pressures. Clearly it is in everyone's best interests to do what we can to protect and restore tropical ecosystems. We work to create a growing community of eco-divers and land-based members who are actively involved in local watershed and coral reef cleanup dives, international outreach expeditions, and watershed awareness. Our operating principle is based on the concept that people feel connected when they get involved in a cause they are passionate about. The transcending simplicity of active participation, working together for a cause beyond an immediate goal, empowers people to change the world. Our activities strive to inspire K-12 and beyond to become stewards of the ocean, which translates to the planet. We will describe three active projects in Bali, Belize, and Hawaii that blend science and sociology. This fusion of scientific and sport diving for reef conservation based on the tenets that: 1. Local actions can help prevent losses from local threats, which builds resilience to larger scale stress. 2. The action plan must be guided by good scientific knowledge and the Precautionary Principle. 3. There must be clear solutions that are economically viable without depleting the "resource". 4. The knowledge must be shared with locals who can effect real sociological changes. 5. Cultural sustainability means that "progress" cannot destroy culture and intergenerational equity. 6. Allow the ecological infrastructure to function in a near-intact condition.

  19. Large recovery of fish biomass in a no-take marine reserve.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Octavio Aburto-Oropeza

    Full Text Available No-take marine reserves are effective management tools used to restore fish biomass and community structure in areas depleted by overfishing. Cabo Pulmo National Park (CPNP was created in 1995 and is the only well enforced no-take area in the Gulf of California, Mexico, mostly because of widespread support from the local community. In 1999, four years after the establishment of the reserve, there were no significant differences in fish biomass between CPNP (0.75 t ha(-1 on average and other marine protected areas or open access areas in the Gulf of California. By 2009, total fish biomass at CPNP had increased to 4.24 t ha(-1 (absolute biomass increase of 3.49 t ha(-1, or 463%, and the biomass of top predators and carnivores increased by 11 and 4 times, respectively. However, fish biomass did not change significantly in other marine protected areas or open access areas over the same time period. The absolute increase in fish biomass at CPNP within a decade is the largest measured in a marine reserve worldwide, and it is likely due to a combination of social (strong community leadership, social cohesion, effective enforcement and ecological factors. The recovery of fish biomass inside CPNP has resulted in significant economic benefits, indicating that community-managed marine reserves are a viable solution to unsustainable coastal development and fisheries collapse in the Gulf of California and elsewhere.

  20. Marine ecology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1977-01-01

    Studies on marine ecology included marine pollution; distribution patterns of Pu and Am in the marine waters, sediments, and organisms of Bikini Atoll and the influence of physical, chemical, and biological factors on their movements through marine biogeochemical systems; transfer and dispersion of organic pollutants from an oil refinery through coastal waters; transfer of particulate pollutants, including sediments dispersed during construction of offshore power plants; and raft culture of the mangrove oysters

  1. Marine pollution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Albaiges, J.

    1989-01-01

    This book covers the following topics: Transport of marine pollutants; Transformation of pollutants in the marine environment; Biological effects of marine pollutants; Sources and transport of oil pollutants in the Persian Gulf; Trace metals and hydrocarbons in Syrian coastal waters; and Techniques for analysis of trace pollutants

  2. Designing Viable Business Models for Living Labs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bernhard R. Katzy

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Over 300 regions have integrated the concept of living labs into their economic development strategy since 2006, when the former Finnish Prime Minister Esko Aho launched the living lab innovation policy initiative during his term of European presidency. Despite motivating initial results, however, success cases of turning research into usable new products and services remain few and uncertainty remains on what living labs actually do and contribute. This practitioner-oriented article presents a business excellence model that shows processes of idea creation and team mobilization, new product development, user involvement, and entrepreneurship through which living labs deliver high-potential investment opportunities. Customers of living labs are identified as investors such as venture capitalists or industrial firms because living labs can generate revenue from them to create their own sustainable business model. The article concludes that living labs provide extensive support “lab” infrastructure and that it remains a formidable challenge to finance it, which calls for a more intensive debate.

  3. Asouzu's Complementary Ontology as a Foundation for a Viable ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This paper on “Asouzu's Complementary Ontology as a foundation for a viable Ethic of the Environment”, posits that an ethic of the environment can be seen as viable if it considers the whole of reality as ontologically relevant. This point of view would free environmental ethics of anthropocentric bias and its attendant ...

  4. Marine genomics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Oliveira Ribeiro, Ângela Maria; Foote, Andrew David; Kupczok, Anne

    2017-01-01

    Marine ecosystems occupy 71% of the surface of our planet, yet we know little about their diversity. Although the inventory of species is continually increasing, as registered by the Census of Marine Life program, only about 10% of the estimated two million marine species are known. This lag......-throughput sequencing approaches have been helping to improve our knowledge of marine biodiversity, from the rich microbial biota that forms the base of the tree of life to a wealth of plant and animal species. In this review, we present an overview of the applications of genomics to the study of marine life, from...

  5. Improved Marine Waters Monitoring

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palazov, Atanas; Yakushev, Evgeniy; Milkova, Tanya; Slabakova, Violeta; Hristova, Ognyana

    2017-04-01

    IMAMO - Improved Marine Waters Monitoring is a project under the Programme BG02: Improved monitoring of marine waters, managed by Bulgarian Ministry of environment and waters and co-financed by the Financial Mechanism of the European Economic Area (EEA FM) 2009 - 2014. Project Beneficiary is the Institute of oceanology - Bulgarian Academy of Sciences with two partners: Norwegian Institute for Water Research and Bulgarian Black Sea Basin Directorate. The Project aims to improve the monitoring capacity and expertise of the organizations responsible for marine waters monitoring in Bulgaria to meet the requirements of EU and national legislation. The main outcomes are to fill the gaps in information from the Initial assessment of the marine environment and to collect data to assess the current ecological status of marine waters including information as a base for revision of ecological targets established by the monitoring programme prepared in 2014 under Art. 11 of MSFD. Project activities are targeted to ensure data for Descriptors 5, 8 and 9. IMAMO aims to increase the institutional capacity of the Bulgarian partners related to the monitoring and assessment of the Black Sea environment. The main outputs are: establishment of real time monitoring and set up of accredited laboratory facilities for marine waters and sediments chemical analysis to ensure the ability of Bulgarian partners to monitor progress of subsequent measures undertaken.

  6. Viable Techniques, Leontief’s Closed Model, and Sraffa’s Subsistence Economies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alberto Benítez

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available This paper studies the production techniques employed in economies that reproduce themselves. Special attention is paid to the distinction usually made between those that do not produce a surplus and those that do, which are referred to as first and second class economies, respectively. Based on this, we present a new definition of viable economies and show that every viable economy of the second class can be represented as a viable economy of the first class under two different forms, Leontief‘s closed model and Sraffa’s subsistence economies. This allows us to present some remarks concerning the economic interpretation of the two models. On the one hand, we argue that the participation of each good in the production of every good can be considered as a normal characteristic of the first model and, on the other hand, we provide a justification for the same condition to be considered a characteristic of the second model. Furthermore, we discuss three definitions of viable techniques advanced by other authors and show that they differ from ours because they admit economies that do not reproduce themselves completely.

  7. Talons and beaks are viable but underutilized samples for detecting ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Talons and beaks are viable but underutilized samples for detecting organophosphorus and carbamate pesticide poisoning in raptors. Ngaio Richards, Irene Zorrilla, Joseph Lalah, Peter Otieno, Isabel Fernandez, Monica Calvino, Joaquin Garcia ...

  8. Promoting Women Participation in Aquaculture as a Viable Tool for ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Promoting Women Participation in Aquaculture as a Viable Tool for Poverty Alleviation in the Rural Areas of Nigeria. ... Open Access DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT ... a source of income, also the paper focus on the roles of women in aquaculture, ...

  9. Marine biology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thurman, H.V.; Webber, H.H.

    1984-01-01

    This book discusses both taxonomic and ecological topics on marine biology. Full coverage of marine organisms of all five kingdoms is provided, along with interesting and thorough discussion of all major marine habitats. Organization into six major parts allows flexibility. It also provides insight into important topics such as disposal of nuclear waste at sea, the idea that life began on the ocean floor, and how whales, krill, and people interact. A full-color photo chapter reviews questions, and exercises. The contents are: an overview marine biology: fundamental concepts/investigating life in the ocean; the physical ocean, the ocean floor, the nature of water, the nature and motion of ocean water; general ecology, conditions for life in the sea, biological productivity and energy transfer; marine organisms; monera, protista, mycota and metaphyta; the smaller marine animals, the large animals marine habitats, the intertidal zone/benthos of the continental shelf, the photic zone, the deep ocean, the ocean under stress, marine pollution, appendix a: the metric system and conversion factors/ appendix b: prefixes and suffixes/ appendix c: taxonomic classification of common marine organisms, and glossary, and index

  10. Marine-Design Education

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Poul; Birmingham, R.; Sortland, B.

    2006-01-01

    This report addresses Marine-Design Education in view of present and forecasted demands of the maritime industry, determined by a drastically transforming economic and technological maritime environment. In this framework, this report discusses in depth IT-based Marine Design education (par. 4......) and reveals innovative educational concepts and initiatives, such as the EiT (Experts in a Team) concept (par. 3), the SFS (Student Friendly Software) initiative (par. 5), Education Driven Research (EDR, par. 6) and Research Based Education (RBE, par. 6). Nevertheless, the paper stresses the need...... for continuity between traditional and modern ways of teaching (par. 4) and points out that Marine Design education is not only about Design, but should also address project/business administration and decision making issues (par. 7)....

  11. Shallow waters: social science research in South Africa's marine ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Shallow waters: social science research in South Africa's marine ... certain issues and social interactions in the marine environment but this work is limited ... Keywords: coastal development, economics, governance, human dimensions, society

  12. Perspectives of economics – behavioural economics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paula-Elena DIACON

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available The present turning point, accentuated by the crisis, has revitalized the interdisciplinary study of economics and determined the reconsideration of its fundamental bases as a social science. The economists have abandoned the traditional neoclassical sphere and have directed towards understanding the behaviour resorting to psychology and developing in this manner a new field - behavioural economics. This article examines whether this economic sub-discipline is a viable research direction and the extent to which it may increase the explanatory power of science by providing a realistic database for analysis, taking into account the complexity of the human factor.

  13. Marine Science

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Aims and scope: The Western Indian Ocean Journal of Marine Science provides an avenue for the wide dissem- ination of high ... or by any means without permission in writing from the copyright holder. ..... Journal of Chemical Engineering Research and Design 82 ... Indian Ocean Marine Science Association Technical.

  14. Marine Biomedicine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bang, Frederik B.

    1977-01-01

    Describes early scientific research involving marine invertebrate pathologic processes that may have led to new insights into human disease. Discussed are inquiries of Metchnikoff, Loeb, and Cantacuzene (immunolgic responses in sea stars, horseshoe crabs, and marine worms, respectively). Describes current research stemming from these early…

  15. Marine Biology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dewees, Christopher M.; Hooper, Jon K.

    1976-01-01

    A variety of informational material for a course in marine biology or oceanology at the secondary level is presented. Among the topics discussed are: food webs and pyramids, planktonic blooms, marine life, plankton nets, food chains, phytoplankton, zooplankton, larval plankton and filter feeders. (BT)

  16. Marine spatial planning in Cyprus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hadjimitsis, Diofantos; Agapiou, Athos; Mettas, Christodoulos; Themistocleous, Kyriacos; Evagorou, Evagoras; Cuca, Branka; Papoutsa, Christiana; Nisantzi, Argyro; Mamouri, Rodanthi-Elisavet; Soulis, George; Xagoraris, Zafiris; Lysandrou, Vasiliki; Aliouris, Kyriacos; Ioannou, Nicolas; Pavlogeorgatos, Gerasimos

    2015-06-01

    Marine Spatial Planning (MSP), which is in concept similar to land-use planning, is a public process by which the relevant Member State's authorities analyse and organise human activities in marine areas to achieve ecological, economic and social objectives. MSP aims to promote sustainable growth of maritime economies, sustainable development of marine areas and sustainable use of marine resources. This paper highlights the importance of MSP and provides basic outcomes of the main European marine development. The already successful MSP plans can provide useful feedback and guidelines for other countries that are in the process of implementation of an integrated MSP, such as Cyprus. This paper presents part of the MSP project, of which 80% funded by the European Regional Development Fund (ERDF) and 20% from national contribution. An overview of the project is presented, including data acquisition, methodology and preliminary results for the implementation of MSP in Cyprus.

  17. Spatial planning for fisheries in the Northern Adriatic: working toward viable and sustainable fishing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bastardie, Francois; Angelini, Silvia; Bolognini, Luca

    2017-01-01

    fishing vessel is impacted in the same way because some fishing communities experienced different economic opportunities, particularly when a 6-nautical mile buffer zone from the coast was implemented in the vicinity of important fishing grounds. Along this buffer zone, the four stocks were only slightly...... in a unified framework. We contribute to the development of effective science-based inputs to facilitate policy improvement and better governance while evaluating trade-offs in fisheries management and marine spatial planning...

  18. Marine Science

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    between humans and the coastal and marine environment. ... The journal has a new and more modern layout, published online only, and the editorial .... the population structure of Platorchestia fayetta sp. nov. and their interaction with the.

  19. Marine Science

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Aims and scope: The Western Indian Ocean Journal of Marine Science provides an avenue for the ... tidal height and amplitude can influence light penetra- ...... to environmental parameters in cage culture area of Sepanggar Bay, Malaysia.

  20. Marine Science

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Aims and scope: The Western Indian Ocean Journal of Marine Science provides an avenue for the wide dissem- ... consist of special issues on major events or important thematic issues. ... of sources, including plant and animal by- products.

  1. Marine biotoxins

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    2004-01-01

    ... (ciguatera fish poisoning). It discusses in detail the causative toxins produced by marine organisms, chemical structures and analytical methods, habitat and occurrence of the toxin-producing organisms, case studies and existing regulations...

  2. Marine Science

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    pod diversity and distribution are important especially since studies on marine biodiversity are scarce .... Method II –. Zamoum &. Furla (2012) protocol. Method III. – Geist et al (2008) protocol ..... Public Library Of Science One 8: 51273.

  3. Marine pollution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Clark, R.B.

    1992-01-01

    The effects of petroleum, waste materials, halogenated hydrocarbons, radioactivity and heat on the marine ecosystem, the fishing industry and human health are discussed using the example of the North Sea. (orig.) [de

  4. Marine Science

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    No part of this publication may be reproduced, stored in a retrieval system or transmitted in any form ... to optimize nucleic acid extraction protocols from marine gastropods, present an ...... Greenfield., Gomez E, Harvell CD, Sale PF, Edwards.

  5. Marine Science

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Aims and scope: The Western Indian Ocean Journal of Marine Science provides an avenue for the wide dissem- ination of high ..... circulation patterns include the nutrient-rich Somali ...... matical Structures in Computer Science 24: e240311.

  6. Marine insects

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Cheng, Lanna

    1976-01-01

    .... Not only are true insects, such as the Collembola and insect parasites of marine birds and mammals, considered, but also other kinds of intertidal air-breathing arthropods, notably spiders, scorpions...

  7. Marine Science

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Aims and scope: The Western Indian Ocean Journal of Marine Science provides an avenue .... shell growth is adversely affected. ... local stressors in action, such as ocean acidification ..... that the distribution of many intertidal sessile animals.

  8. The search for viable local government system in Nigeria: an ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The history of the Nigerian local government system has been one long episode of trails and errors aimed at achieving viable local government institution without much success. Local government in the country began its long series of reforms from the colonial period when the colonial government attempted to ...

  9. Skills training workshops as a viable strategy for improving ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Skills training workshops as a viable strategy for improving smallholder and cooperative agribusiness management: A case study of Vhembe District, Limpopo Province, South Africa. ... South African Journal of Agricultural Extension ... Empirical evidence from this study shows that six months after attending the workshops, ...

  10. A viable real estate economy with disruption and blockchain

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Veuger, Jan

    2017-01-01

    Two titles in one cover. On page 56-112 there's the English version of the book: 'A viable real estate economy with disruption and blockchain. Does real estate still have the value that it had, or is the valuation of real estate going to change due to surprising products and services, innovative

  11. Socio-economic assessment of the physical and ecological impacts of climate change on the marine environment of the Atlantic region of Canada. Evaluation socio-economic des consequences physiques et ecologiques du changement climatique sur le milieu marin dans la region de l'Atlantique; Phase 1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stokoe, P

    1988-01-01

    A study on the implications of long term climatic change for Atlantic Canada is summarized. The impacts on the marine environment, fisheries, marine transportation, energy development, coastal infrastructure, and tourism or outdoor recreation under a climate warming caused by a doubling of atmospheric carbon dioxide are assessed. The major physical changes projected include a rise in mean sea level, an increase in the average sea surface temperature, and an absence of sea ice south of Labrador for most years. A warmer climate would favor continuing growth of the aquaculture industry, longer fishing seasons, and an extension of summer recreational and tourism activities. Absence of sea ice could reduce costs for ferry services and marine transport in the region and permit extended seasons on some routes. Costs of ice-related downtime in offshore oil and gas operations could be practically eliminated. Changes in precipitation patterns would affect hydroelectric power output in various regions, with corresponding gains or losses in revenue. Heating oil demand in the region would decrease by about 25%.

  12. Cumulative human impacts on marine predators

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Maxwell, Sara M; Hazen, Elliott L; Bograd, Steven J

    2013-01-01

    Stressors associated with human activities interact in complex ways to affect marine ecosystems, yet we lack spatially explicit assessments of cumulative impacts on ecologically and economically key components such as marine predators. Here we develop a metric of cumulative utilization and impact...

  13. National Marine Recreational Fishing Expenditure Survey 2011

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Marine recreational fishing is a popular pastime across the United States that generates significant economic impacts to both local economies and to the nation. In...

  14. National Marine Recreational Fishing Expenditure Survey 2006

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Marine recreational fishing is a popular pastime across the United States that generates significant economic impacts to both local economies and to the nation. In...

  15. Seaweed: A valuable marine plant source

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Dhargalkar, V.K.; Pereira, N.

    Seaweed, one of the components of seashore, is the most unique and important marine living resource. Its multi-ranged applications are of economic as well as ecological importance. These plants have been a source of food, feed and medicine...

  16. Coordinated regulation of nitrogen supply mode and initial cell density for energy storage compounds production with economized nitrogen utilization in a marine microalga Isochrysis zhangjiangensis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chi, Lei; Yao, Changhong; Cao, Xupeng; Xue, Song

    2016-01-01

    Lipids and carbohydrates are main energy storage compounds (ESC) of microalgae under stressed conditions and they are potential feedstock for biofuel production. Yet, the sustainable and commercially successful production of ESC in microalgae needs to consider nitrogen utilization efficiency. Here the impact of different initial cell densities (ICDs) on ESC accumulation in Isochrysis zhangjiangensis under two nitrogen supply modes (an initially equal concentration of nitrogen per-cell in the medium (N1) and an equal total concentration of nitrogen in the culture system (N2)) were investigated. The results demonstrated that the highest ESC yield (1.36gL(-1)) at N1, which included a maximal nitrogen supply in the cultivation system, and the highest ESC content (66.5%) and ESC productivity per mass of nitrogen (3.28gg(-1) (N) day(-1)) at N2, were all obtained under a high ICD of 8.0×10(6)cellsmL(-1). Therefore I. zhangjiangensis qualifies for ESC-enriched biomass production with economized nitrogen utilization. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Otters, Marine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Estes, James A.; Bodkin, James L.; Ben-David, M.; Perrin, William F.; Würsing, Bernd; Thewissen, J.G.M.

    2009-01-01

    The otters (Mustelidae; Lutrinae) provide an exceptional perspective into the evolution of marine living by mammals. Most extant marine mammals (e.g. the cetaceans, pinnipeds, and sirenians) have been so highly modified by long periods of selection for life in the sea that they bear little resemblance to their terrestrial ancestors. Marine otters, in contrast, are more recent expatriates from freshwater habitats and some species still live in both environments. Contrasts among species within the otters, and among the otters, terrestrial mammals, and the more highly adapted pinnipeds and cetaceans provide powerful insights into mammalian adaptations to life in the sea (Estes, 1989). Among the marine mammals, sea otters (Enhydra lutris, Fig. 1) provide the clearest understanding of consumer-induced effects on ecosystem function. This is due in part to opportunities provided by history and in part to the relative ease with which shallow coastal systems where sea otters live can be observed and studied. Although more difficult to study than sea otters, other otter species reveal the connectivity among the marine, freshwater, and terrestrial systems. These three qualities of the otters – their comparative biology, their role as predators, and their role as agents of ecosystem connectivity – are what make them interesting to marine mammalogy.The following account provides a broad overview of the comparative biology and ecology of the otters, with particular emphasis on those species or populations that live in the sea. Sea otters are features prominently, in part because they live exclusively in the sea whereas other otters have obligate associations with freshwater and terrestrial environments (Kenyon, 1969; Riedman and Estes, 1990).

  18. Marine Battlefields

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Harðardóttir, Sara

    as they are an important food source for various marine animals. For both phytoand zooplankton predation is a major cause of mortality, and strategies for protection or avoidance are important for survival. Diatoms of the genera Nitzschia and Pseudo-nitzschia are known to produce a neuro-toxin, domoic acid (DA). Despite......Phytoplankton species are photosynthetic organisms found in most aquatic habitats. In the ocean, phytoplankton are tremendously important because they produce the energy that forms the base of the marine food web. Zooplankton feed on phytoplankton and mediate the energy to higher trophic levels...

  19. Marine Litter, Eutrophication and Noise Assessment Tools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palazov, Atanas; Velcheva, Maya; Milkova, Tanya; Slabakova, Violeta; Marinova, Veselka

    2017-04-01

    MARLEN - Marine Litter, Eutrophication and Noise Assessment Tools is a project under the Programme BG02.03: Increased capacity for assessing and predicting environmental status in marine and inland waters, managed by Bulgarian Ministry of environment and waters and co-financed by the Financial Mechanism of the European Economic Area (EEA FM) 2009 - 2014. Project Beneficiary is the Institute of oceanology - Bulgarian Academy of Sciences with two partners: Burgas municipality and Bulgarian Black Sea Basin Directorate. Initial assessment of ecological state of Bulgarian marine waters showed lack of data for some descriptors of MSFD. The main goal of MARLEN is to build up tools for assessment of marine environment by implementing new technologies and best practices for addressing three main areas of interest with lack of marine data in particular: a) Marine litter detection and classification in coastal areas; b) Regular near real time surface water eutrophication monitoring on large aquatory; c) Underwater noise monitoring. Developed tools are an important source of real time, near real time and delay mode marine data for Bulgarian Black Sea waters. The partnership within the project increased capacity for environmental assessments and training of personnel and enhances collaboration between scientific institutes, regional and local authorities. Project results supported implementation of MSFD in Bulgarian marine waters for the benefit of coastal population, marine industry, tourism, marine research and marine spatial planning.

  20. Analysis of the Effect of a Marine Energy Farm to Protect a Biosphere Reserve

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rusu Eugen

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Sacalin Peninsula in the Black Sea is a new land located south of the Saint George branch of the Danube. Since 1938 this area became a biosphere reserve since many rare species of animals and plants are to be found there. The generation of this new peninsula is due to the sedimentary process induced by the Danube River outflow and it was started more than 150 years ago. In the winter of 2013 this environment was seriously affected by some very strong storms putting in real danger this ecosystem. From this perspective, the objective of the present work is to evaluate the protection that might be offered to this area by a marine energy farm that would be deployed in front of the peninsula. In order to assess the coastal protection offered by the proposed solution, simulations with the SWAN (Simulating Waves Nearshore wave model have been performed for the most relevant storm patterns. The results show that a marine energy farm can provide a real sheltering effect to the ecological reserve. Such approach seems to be also economically viable since this coastal environment represents a real hot spot in the Black Sea from the point of view of marine energy resources.

  1. A Feasibility Study on LPG as Marine Fuel; En foerstudie paa gasol som marint braensle

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kjartansson, Sveinbjoern

    2012-06-15

    With the upcoming stricter emission rules fast approaching and the requirements for higher quality fuel, it is inevitable that there will be a change of fuel from HFO to cleaner options. These changes are driven by the knowledge of the health problems associated with emissions from ships in coastal areas. One viable option for meeting these demands for reduced emission is to utilize LPG as a marine fuel. This thesis investigates the harmful chemicals that are present in the exhaust gases, followed by an introduction on LPG as marine fuel. Transport options for LPG and existing engine technology is presented and the feasibility of LPG as a fuel option on the European / Swedish market is studied. The conclusion from this study is that sufficient infrastructure for distribution of LPG is in place to serve potential marine market demand. Engine technology for using LPG as fuel has been developed for a wide range of power outputs. The economic incentive in the fuel price difference alone is likely to attract ship owners to invest in LPG fueled fleets.

  2. Acupuntura un tratamiento viable para las adicciones en Colombia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hernán López Seuscún

    2013-07-01

    Los tratamientos con auriculoterapia, como el protocolo NADA (National Acupuncture Detoxification Association, son los métodos más usados para las adicciones en el mundo, y aunque no se ha logrado evidenciar su efectividad, por su costo, facilidad y el poco riesgo de efectos adversos se hace viable en un país con pocos recursos económicos como Colombia.

  3. Marine Ecological Environment Management Based on Ecological Compensation Mechanisms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qunzhen Qu

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The level of marine environmental management is a key factor in the successful implementation of marine power strategies. The improvement in management levels of marine environments requires innovation in marine management. In other words, the transformation of marine environmental management into marine ecological environment management must be done in order to achieve sustainable development of the marine economy. As an environmental economic policy that combines both administrative and market measures, ecological compensation mechanisms have significant advantages in marine ecological environment management. Based on the study of the current development of ecological compensation mechanisms in China, through the analysis of the connotation of marine ecological civilization, existing marine ecological protection practices and marine environmental management methods, this paper posits that the current marine ecological environment management in China should be established on the basis of ecological compensation mechanisms. At present, a lack of laws and regulations for overall marine ecological environment management is the key factor restricting the practice of marine ecological environment management. Therefore, it is necessary to explore the current path of marine ecological environment management in China from the perspective of the construction of legal system of ecological compensation law, the establishment of ecological compensation fees, ecological taxes and ecological compensation fund systems, and the clear status for a marine ecological management and supervision body.

  4. Viable Mycobacterium avium ssp. paratuberculosis isolated from calf milk replacer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grant, Irene R; Foddai, Antonio C G; Tarrant, James C; Kunkel, Brenna; Hartmann, Faye A; McGuirk, Sheila; Hansen, Chungyi; Talaat, Adel M; Collins, Michael T

    2017-12-01

    When advising farmers on how to control Johne's disease in an infected herd, one of the main recommendations is to avoid feeding waste milk to calves and instead feed calf milk replacer (CMR). This advice is based on the assumption that CMR is free of viable Mycobacterium avium ssp. paratuberculosis (MAP) cells, an assumption that has not previously been challenged. We tested commercial CMR products (n = 83) obtained from dairy farms around the United States by the peptide-mediated magnetic separation (PMS)-phage assay, PMS followed by liquid culture (PMS-culture), and direct IS900 quantitative PCR (qPCR). Conventional microbiological analyses for total mesophilic bacterial counts, coliforms, Salmonella, coagulase-negative staphylococci, streptococci, nonhemolytic Corynebacterium spp., and Bacillus spp. were also performed to assess the overall microbiological quality of the CMR. Twenty-six (31.3%) of the 83 CMR samples showed evidence of the presence of MAP. Seventeen (20.5%) tested positive for viable MAP by the PMS-phage assay, with plaque counts ranging from 6 to 1,212 pfu/50 mL of reconstituted CMR (average 248.5 pfu/50 mL). Twelve (14.5%) CMR samples tested positive for viable MAP by PMS-culture; isolates from all 12 of these samples were subsequently confirmed by whole-genome sequencing to be different cattle strains of MAP. Seven (8.4%) CMR samples tested positive for MAP DNA by IS900 qPCR. Four CMR samples tested positive by both PMS-based tests and 5 CMR samples tested positive by IS900 qPCR plus one or other of the PMS-based tests, but only one CMR sample tested positive by all 3 MAP detection tests applied. All conventional microbiology results were within current standards for whole milk powders. A significant association existed between higher total bacterial counts and presence of viable MAP indicated by either of the PMS-based assays. This represents the first published report of the isolation of viable MAP from CMR. Our findings raise concerns

  5. Marine Science

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Science. The journal has a new and more modern layout, published online only, and the editorial. Board was increased to include more disciplines pertaining to marine sciences. While important chal- lenges still lie ahead, we are steadily advancing our standard to increase visibility and dissemination throughout the global ...

  6. Marine Mammals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meith, Nikki

    Marine mammals have not only fascinated and inspired human beings for thousands of years, but they also support a big business by providing flesh for sea-borne factories, sustaining Arctic lifestyles and traditions, and attracting tourists to ocean aquaria. While they are being harpooned, bludgeoned, shot, netted, and trained to jump through…

  7. Marine Science

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Mauritius Marine Conservation Society through their. Abstract. While no populations of seals are resident in the tropical Indian Ocean, vagrant animals are occasionally sighted in the region. Here we detail two new sightings of pinnipeds in the Mascarene Islands (Mauritius, Reunion and Rodri- gues) since 1996 and review ...

  8. Marine Science

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    J O U R N A L O F. Marine Science. Coral reefs of Mauritius in a changing global climate ..... in confined aquifers, and a lesser influence in uncon- fined systems. On the ... massive cloud cover during the critical months, some. 70% bleaching ...

  9. Marine Science

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Copy Editor Timothy Andrew. Published ... 2007; Zhou et al., 2009) and they play an important role in the ... At both sites, zonal variation in TMPB was evident with significantly higher C-biomass closer to ... ton is considered to be an essential parameter in eco- systems ...... logical significance of toxic marine dinoflagellates.

  10. Marine Science

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    sustainable coastal development in the region, as well as contributing to the ... between humans and the coastal and marine environment. ... exploitation for timber, fuel wood, aquaculture, urban. Abstract. Given the high dependence of coastal communities on natural resources, mangrove conservation is a challenge in.

  11. Marine Science

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    No part of this publication may be reproduced, stored in a retrieval system or transmitted in any form or by any means ... USA/Norway ... The last couple of years have been a time of change for the Western Indian Ocean Journal of Marine.

  12. Marine Science

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Chief Editor José Paula | Faculty of Sciences of University of Lisbon, Portugal. Copy Editor Timothy Andrew. Published biannually. Aims and scope: The Western Indian Ocean Journal of Marine Science provides an avenue for the wide dissem- ination of high quality research generated in the Western Indian Ocean (WIO) ...

  13. Finger millet (Eleusine coracana) - an economically viable source for antihypercholesterolemic metabolites production by Monascus purpureus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Venkateswaran, V; Vijayalakshmi, G

    2010-08-01

    Rice, parboiled rice, finger millet, germinated finger millet, broken wheat, njavara (medicinal rice), sorghum and maize were used as substrates for solid state fermentation of Monascus purpureus at 28°C for 7 days using 2% seed medium as inoculum for the production of its metabolites. The fungus exhibited good growth in all the substrates. The fermented substrates were dried at 45°C and analysed for antihypercholesterolemic metabolite statins by standardized HPLC method and dietary sterol contents by spectrophotometric method using reference standards of statin (pravastatin and lovastatin) and cholesterol, respectively. Germinated finger millet yielded higher total statin production of 5.2 g/kg dry wt with pravastatin and lovastatin content of 4.9 and 0.37 g/kg dry wt respectively than other substrates which range from 1.04-4.41 g/kg. In addition to statin, monascus fermented germinated finger millet yielded dietary sterol of 0.053 g/kg dry wt which is 7.6 folds higher than the control. The value addition of finger millet by germination and fermentation with Monascus purpureus provides scope for development of functional food.

  14. Nano-sized glass as an economically viable and eco-benign ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Somayeh Zolfagharinia

    2017-09-02

    Sep 2, 2017 ... Abstract. In this work, glass wastes were employed as cost-effective supports for the immobilization of ... benign energy, and high reaction efficiency. Based on ... glass (bottles and jars), flat glass (windows and wind- screens) ...

  15. Renewable Hydrogen-Economically Viable: Integration into the U.S. Transportation Sector

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kurtz, Jennifer; Peters, Mike; Muratori, Matteo; Gearhart, Chris

    2018-03-01

    The U.S. transportation sector is expected to meet numerous goals in differing applications. These goals address security, safety, fuel source, emissions reductions, advanced mobility models, and improvements in quality and accessibility. Solutions to meeting these goals include a variety of alternative-fuel technologies, including batteries, fuel cells, synthetic fuels, and biofuels, as well as modifying how current transportation systems are used and integrating new systems, such as storing renewable energy. Overall, there are many combinations of problems, objectives, and solutions.

  16. Renewal of Collaborative Research: Economically viable Forest Harvesting Practices that Increase Carbon Sequestration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dail, David Bryan [University of Maine

    2012-08-02

    This technical report covers a 3-year cooperative agreement between the University of Maine and the Northeastern Forest Experiment Station that focused on the characterization of forest stands and the assessment of forest carbon storage (see attached for detailed description of the project). The goal of this work was to compare estimates of forest C storage made via remeasurement of FIA-type plots with eddy flux measurements. In addition to relating whole ecosystem estimates of carbon storage to changes in aboveground biomass, we explored methodologies by partitioning growth estimates from periodic inventory measurements into annual estimates. In the final year, we remeasured plots that were subject to a shelterwood harvest over the winter of 2001-02 to assess the production of coarse woody debris by this harvest, to remeasure trees in a long-term stand first established by NASA, to carry out other field activities at Howland, and, to assess the importance of downed and decaying wood as well as standing dead trees to the C inputs to harvested and non harvested plots.

  17. Finestkind: The American Lobster. A Learning Experience for Marine Education. Northern New England Marine Education Project.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maine Univ., Orono. Coll. of Education.

    This interdisciplinary unit is intended for use in the fourth grade. Through discussion of the American Lobster, its economics, history, literature, and biology, the unit describes the effects of the marine environment on human history and culture. Sections deal with how marine organisms have evolved. Detailed descriptions are provided of lobster…

  18. Willingness to Pay for Marine Turtle Conservation in Asia: A Cross-Country Perspective

    OpenAIRE

    Jin Jiangjun; Rodelio Subade; Orapan Nabangchang; Truong Dang Thuy; Anabeth L. Indab

    2009-01-01

    Marine turtles are important, not only for their economic and intrinsic value, but because an adequate population of marine turtles is often an indicator of healthy marine ecosystem. Of the seven species of marine turtles, four are critically endangered, while two are in the next-highest risk category.

  19. Contracting of energy services: often a viable alternative

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Milic, M.; Bruendler, M.

    2001-01-01

    This article discusses the outsourcing of energy services as a viable alternative to the operation of own energy facilities. The advantages of contracting for enterprises wanting to focus on their core competencies and have their energy infrastructure financed, built, maintained and operated by a third party are discussed. Financial aspects are looked at and examples in connection with the calculation of actual energy costs are given. The article is concluded with tips on the evaluation of offers for contracting services and on the definition of ownership aspects and property boundaries

  20. Thermodynamic analysis and performance optimization of an Organic Rankine Cycle (ORC) waste heat recovery system for marine diesel engines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Song, Jian; Song, Yin; Gu, Chun-wei

    2015-01-01

    Escalating fuel prices and imposition of carbon dioxide emission limits are creating renewed interest in methods to increase the thermal efficiency of marine diesel engines. One viable means to achieve such improved thermal efficiency is the conversion of engine waste heat to a more useful form of energy, either mechanical or electrical. Organic Rankine Cycle (ORC) has been demonstrated to be a promising technology to recover waste heat. This paper examines waste heat recovery of a marine diesel engine using ORC technology. Two separated ORC apparatuses for the waste heat from both the jacket cooling water and the engine exhaust gas are designed as the traditional recovery system. The maximum net power output is chosen as the evaluation criterion to select the suitable working fluid and define the optimal system parameters. To simplify the waste heat recovery, an optimized system using the jacket cooling water as the preheating medium and the engine exhaust gas for evaporation is presented. The influence of preheating temperature on the system performance is evaluated to define the optimal operating condition. Economic and off-design analysis of the optimized system is conducted. The simulation results reveal that the optimized system is technically feasible and economically attractive. - Highlights: • ORC is used to recover waste heat from both exhaust gas and jacket cooling water. • Comparative study is conducted for different ORC systems. • Thermal performance, system structure and economic feasibility are considered. • Optimal preheating temperature of the system is selected

  1. Studies on marine oil spills and their ecological damage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mei, Hong; Yin, Yanjie

    2009-09-01

    The sources of marine oil spills are mainly from accidents of marine oil tankers or freighters, marine oil-drilling platforms, marine oil pipelines, marine oilfields, terrestrial pollution, oil-bearing atmosphere, and offshore oil production equipment. It is concluded upon analysis that there are two main reasons for marine oil spills: (I) The motive for huge economic benefits of oil industry owners and oil shipping agents far surpasses their sense of ecological risks. (II) Marine ecological safety has not become the main concern of national security. Oil spills are disasters because humans spare no efforts to get economic benefits from oil. The present paper draws another conclusion that marine ecological damage caused by oil spills can be roughly divided into two categories: damage to marine resource value (direct value) and damage to marine ecosystem service value (indirect value). Marine oil spills cause damage to marine biological, fishery, seawater, tourism and mineral resources to various extents, which contributes to the lower quality and value of marine resources.

  2. Vermicomposting and anaerobic digestion – viable alternative options for terrestrial weed management – A review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Biswanath Saha

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available The management of terrestrial weed is of great concern for the scientific community as these weeds cause adverse effect in different ecosystems like forest, agriculture and urban. The widespread of these weeds by their adaptive capability and morphological advancement is difficult to control. Parthenium hysterophorous, Lantana camara, Saccharum spontaneum, Ageratum conyzoides are the weeds that spread all over the world. There are various management practices employed for the control of this weeds. But all of these practices have some drawbacks those are neither environment friendly nor economical. In this paper a review has been done to evaluate various alternative management practices for these terrestrial weeds and to analyze their feasibility. Vermicomposting and anaerobic digestion can be viable alternative option which is cost effective as well. There are few studies regarding vermicomposting and anaerobic digestions of terrestrial weeds are done.

  3. CONCEIVING AND GENERATING A VIABLE COMPLEXITY MODEL FOR PERSONAL AND/OR ENTREPRENEURIAL CHANGE AND DEVELOPMENT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    George Niculescu

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available This article proposes on the one hand to do research and study – with a genuine approach, inspiredand deep-rooted in the method of the sociological school in Bucharest and creatively renewed and integrating thenewest acquisitions of complexity science – the representative intricate entity “man as an economic actor (resourceand potential within the industrial organization and corporation in mono-industrial area (region in the period inwhich the phenomenon of transition from an industrial society to knowledge society takes place; and on the otherhand our project proposes to conceive a viable model of change and career of the human resources in the ElectricPlant of Rovinari as well as to conceive and accomplish a pilot-model of a platform in order to support the efficientimplement through a research-action approach of the model of personal and/or entrepreneurship change and careerof the human resources in the Electric Plant of Rovinari.

  4. Monitoring of viable airborne SARS virus in ambient air

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agranovski, Igor E.; Safatov, Alexander S.; Pyankov, Oleg V.; Sergeev, Alexander N.; Agafonov, Alexander P.; Ignatiev, Georgy M.; Ryabchikova, Elena I.; Borodulin, Alexander I.; Sergeev, Artemii A.; Doerr, Hans W.; Rabenau, Holger F.; Agranovski, Victoria

    Due to recent SARS related issues (Science 300 (5624) 1394; Nature 423 (2003) 240; Science 300 (5627) 1966), the development of reliable airborne virus monitoring procedures has become galvanized by an exceptional sense of urgency and is presently in a high demand (In: Cox, C.S., Wathers, C.M. (Eds.), Bioaerosols Handbook, Lewis Publishers, Boca Raton, FL, 1995, pp. 247-267). Based on engineering control method (Aerosol Science and Technology 31 (1999) 249; 35 (2001) 852), which was previously applied to the removal of particles from gas carriers, a new personal bioaerosol sampler has been developed. Contaminated air is bubbled through porous medium submerged into liquid and subsequently split into multitude of very small bubbles. The particulates are scavenged by these bubbles, and, thus, effectively removed. The current study explores its feasibility for monitoring of viable airborne SARS virus. It was found that the natural decay of such virus in the collection fluid was around 0.75 and 1.76 lg during 2 and 4 h of continuous operation, respectively. Theoretical microbial recovery rates of higher than 55 and 19% were calculated for 1 and 2 h of operation, respectively. Thus, the new sampling method of direct non-violent collection of viable airborne SARS virus into the appropriate liquid environment was found suitable for monitoring of such stress sensitive virus.

  5. Formas cocoides de Helicobacter pylori: viables o degenerativas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Felipe Cava

    2003-06-01

    Full Text Available De los trabajos presentados acerca de las formas cocoides de Helicobacter pylori se deduce una controversia mucho mayor que la resultante del mero estudio clínico de este microorganismo. Parece claro que existe una conversión tanto in vivo como in vitro de las formas espirales a las formas cocoides inducida por varios motivos, como cultivos prolongados, estrés físico y químico, y agentes antimicrobianos. En esta revisión repasamos los puntos de vista que han dividido a investigadores de esta área en dos grupos bien definidos: Los que consideran a estas formas cocoides como un producto no viable de degeneración celular y los que piensan que estas formas son estructuras viables,durmientes o de resistencia frente a condiciones ambientales adversas. Esta discrepancia conlleva a que interrogantes sobre la relación entre la transmisión de la enfermedad y estas formas cocoides permanezcan sin respuesta todavía.

  6. Separation of viable lactic acid bacteria from fermented milk

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tomohiko Nishino

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Probiotics are live microorganisms that provide health benefits to humans. Some lactic acid bacteria (LAB are probiotic organisms used in the production of fermented foods, such as yogurt, cheese, and pickles. Given their widespread consumption, it is important to understand the physiological state of LAB in foods such as yogurt. However, this analysis is complicated, as it is difficult to separate the LAB from milk components such as solid curds, which prevent cell separation by dilution or centrifugation. In this study, we successfully separated viable LAB from yogurt by density gradient centrifugation. The recovery rate was >90 %, and separation was performed until the stationary phase. Recovered cells were observable by microscopy, meaning that morphological changes and cell viability could be directly detected at the single-cell level. The results indicate that viable LAB can be easily purified from fermented milk. We expect that this method will be a useful tool for the analysis of various aspects of probiotic cells, including their enzyme activity and protein expression. Keywords: Food analysis, Microbiology

  7. Viable cold-tolerant iron-reducing microorganisms in geographically diverse subglacial environments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nixon, Sophie L.; Telling, Jon P.; Wadham, Jemma L.; Cockell, Charles S.

    2017-03-01

    Subglacial environments are known to harbour metabolically diverse microbial communities. These microbial communities drive chemical weathering of underlying bedrock and influence the geochemistry of glacial meltwater. Despite its importance in weathering reactions, the microbial cycling of iron in subglacial environments, in particular the role of microbial iron reduction, is poorly understood. In this study we address the prevalence of viable iron-reducing microorganisms in subglacial sediments from five geographically isolated glaciers. Iron-reducing enrichment cultures were established with sediment from beneath Engabreen (Norway), Finsterwalderbreen (Svalbard), Leverett and Russell glaciers (Greenland), and Lower Wright Glacier (Antarctica). Rates of iron reduction were higher at 4 °C compared with 15 °C in all but one duplicated second-generation enrichment culture, indicative of cold-tolerant and perhaps cold-adapted iron reducers. Analysis of bacterial 16S rRNA genes indicates Desulfosporosinus were the dominant iron-reducing microorganisms in low-temperature Engabreen, Finsterwalderbreen and Lower Wright Glacier enrichments, and Geobacter dominated in Russell and Leverett enrichments. Results from this study suggest microbial iron reduction is widespread in subglacial environments and may have important implications for global biogeochemical iron cycling and export to marine ecosystems.

  8. Social Networking and Smart Technology: Viable Environmental Communication Tools…?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montain, J.; Byrne, J. M.

    2010-12-01

    To what extent do popular social networking channels represent a viable means for disseminating information regarding environmental change to the general public? Are new forms of communication such as YouTube™, Facebook™, MySpace™ and Twitter™ and smart devices such as iPhone™ and BlackBerry™ useful and effective in terms motivating people into social action and behavioural modification; or do they simply pay ‘lip service’ to these pressing environmental issues? This project will explore the background connections between social networking and environmental communication and education; and outline why such tools might be an appropriate way to connect to a broad audience in an efficient and unconventional manner. Further, research will survey the current prevalence of reliable environmental change information on social networking Internet-based media; and finally, suggestions for improved strategies and new directions will be provided.

  9. Dissolvable tattoo sensors: from science fiction to a viable technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Huanyu; Yi, Ning

    2017-01-01

    Early surrealistic painting and science fiction movies have envisioned dissolvable tattoo electronic devices. In this paper, we will review the recent advances that transform that vision into a viable technology, with extended capabilities even beyond the early vision. Specifically, we focus on the discussion of a stretchable design for tattoo sensors and degradable materials for dissolvable sensors, in the form of inorganic devices with a performance comparable to modern electronics. Integration of these two technologies as well as the future developments of bio-integrated devices is also discussed. Many of the appealing ideas behind developments of these devices are drawn from nature and especially biological systems. Thus, bio-inspiration is believed to continue playing a key role in future devices for bio-integration and beyond.

  10. Selection of viable cell subpopulations from murine tumours using FACS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chaplin, D.J.; Durand, R.E.; Olive, P.L.

    1985-01-01

    The authors developed a technique which enables isolation of viable tumour cells subpopulation as a function of their distance from the blood supply. The basis for this separation procedure is that the fluorochrome, Hoechst 33342, as a result of its high avidity for cellular DNA, exhibits a marked diffusion/consumption gradient when it has to pass through several cell layers. As a result intravenous injection of Hoechst 33342 into tumour bearing animals, results in a heterogeneous straining pattern within the tumour with cells close to blood vessels being brightly fluorescent while those more distant are less intensely stained. Since these differences in staining intensity persist after tumour disaggregation, cells can be sorted into subpopulations on the basis of their fluorescence intensity using a fluorescence activated cell sorter. This technique offers the unique possibility of identifying the location of those cell subpopulations resistant to treatment with either radiation or chemotherapeutic drugs

  11. Cummins L10G in Kenworth truck 'viable today'

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1996-01-01

    As the culmination of five years of developmental work by Cummins Engines, BC Research Inc., and BC Gas Utility Ltd., a T800 Kenworth truck was outfitted with a new Cummins L10G natural gas engine, and two lightweight fully -wrapped Dynetek cylinders; it was pronounced to be 'a viable clean truck today'. The L10G spark-ignited engine operates at a relatively high peak efficiency of 37 per cent and is commercially available to meet the current California Air Resources Board heavy duty vehicle emission standards without the use of a catalytic converter. The L10G engine produces no particulate emissions, a very significant advantage, in view of the fact that particulate emissions have been identified as major contributors to respiratory ailments

  12. Dissolvable tattoo sensors: from science fiction to a viable technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cheng, Huanyu; Yi, Ning

    2017-01-01

    Early surrealistic painting and science fiction movies have envisioned dissolvable tattoo electronic devices. In this paper, we will review the recent advances that transform that vision into a viable technology, with extended capabilities even beyond the early vision. Specifically, we focus on the discussion of a stretchable design for tattoo sensors and degradable materials for dissolvable sensors, in the form of inorganic devices with a performance comparable to modern electronics. Integration of these two technologies as well as the future developments of bio-integrated devices is also discussed. Many of the appealing ideas behind developments of these devices are drawn from nature and especially biological systems. Thus, bio-inspiration is believed to continue playing a key role in future devices for bio-integration and beyond. (invited comment)

  13. A viable logarithmic f(R) model for inflation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Amin, M.; Khalil, S. [Center for Fundamental Physics, Zewail City of Science and Technology,6 October City, Giza (Egypt); Salah, M. [Center for Fundamental Physics, Zewail City of Science and Technology,6 October City, Giza (Egypt); Department of Mathematics, Faculty of Science, Cairo University,Giza (Egypt)

    2016-08-18

    Inflation in the framework of f(R) modified gravity is revisited. We study the conditions that f(R) should satisfy in order to lead to a viable inflationary model in the original form and in the Einstein frame. Based on these criteria we propose a new logarithmic model as a potential candidate for f(R) theories aiming to describe inflation consistent with observations from Planck satellite (2015). The model predicts scalar spectral index 0.9615

  14. Biocatalytically active silCoat-composites entrapping viable Escherichia coli.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Findeisen, A; Thum, O; Ansorge-Schumacher, M B

    2014-02-01

    Application of whole cells in industrial processes requires high catalytic activity, manageability, and viability under technical conditions, which can in principle be accomplished by appropriate immobilization. Here, we report the identification of carrier material allowing exceptionally efficient adsorptive binding of Escherichia coli whole cells hosting catalytically active carbonyl reductase from Candida parapsilosis (CPCR2). With the immobilizates, composite formation with both hydrophobic and hydrophilized silicone was achieved, yielding advanced silCoat-material and HYsilCoat-material, respectively. HYsilCoat-whole cells were viable preparations with a cell loading up to 400 mg(E. coli) · g(-1)(carrier) and considerably lower leaching than native immobilizates. SilCoat-whole cells performed particularly well in neat substrate exhibiting distinctly increased catalytic activity.

  15. Active Marine Station Metadata

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The Active Marine Station Metadata is a daily metadata report for active marine bouy and C-MAN (Coastal Marine Automated Network) platforms from the National Data...

  16. Marine Sciences

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1986-01-01

    PNL research in the marine sciences is focused on establishing a basic understanding of the mechanisms of stress and tolerance in marine organisms exposed to contaminants. Several environmental stressors had been investigated in earlier energy-related research. In a landmark study, for example, PNL had established that the severity of fish disease caused by the common infectious agent, Flexobacter columnaris, was seriously aggravated by thermal enhancement and certain ecological factors. Subsequent studies demonstrated that the primary immune response in fish, challenged by columnaris, could be permanently suppressed by comparatively low tritium exposures. The research has suggested that a potential exists for a significant biological impact when an aquatic stressor is added to an ambient background of other stressors, which may include heat, heavy metal ions, radiation or infectious microorganisms. More recently, PNL investigators have shown that in response to heavy metal contaminants, animals synthesize specific proteins (metallothioneins), which bind and sequester metals in the animals, thus decreasing metal mobility and effects. Companion studies with host-specific intracellular pathogens are being used to investigate the effects of heavy metals on the synthesis of immune proteins, which mitigate disease processes. The results of these studies aid in predicting the ecological effects of energy-related contaminants on valued fin and shellfish species

  17. Circular Economy Development Mode of Coastal and Marine Areas in China and its Evaluation Index Research - The Example of Qingdao

    OpenAIRE

    Yan Lu

    2014-01-01

    Marine circular economy development and marine ecological security construction is the solution of seeking sustainable development when human beings are faced with marine ecological crisis in future period. Marine circular economy and ecological security is the subsystem of ecological, social and economic compound system. These two are mutually conditional and have been in collaborative development. Marine circular economy development is the premise and approach of securely constructing marin...

  18. Cumulative human impacts on marine predators.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maxwell, Sara M; Hazen, Elliott L; Bograd, Steven J; Halpern, Benjamin S; Breed, Greg A; Nickel, Barry; Teutschel, Nicole M; Crowder, Larry B; Benson, Scott; Dutton, Peter H; Bailey, Helen; Kappes, Michelle A; Kuhn, Carey E; Weise, Michael J; Mate, Bruce; Shaffer, Scott A; Hassrick, Jason L; Henry, Robert W; Irvine, Ladd; McDonald, Birgitte I; Robinson, Patrick W; Block, Barbara A; Costa, Daniel P

    2013-01-01

    Stressors associated with human activities interact in complex ways to affect marine ecosystems, yet we lack spatially explicit assessments of cumulative impacts on ecologically and economically key components such as marine predators. Here we develop a metric of cumulative utilization and impact (CUI) on marine predators by combining electronic tracking data of eight protected predator species (n=685 individuals) in the California Current Ecosystem with data on 24 anthropogenic stressors. We show significant variation in CUI with some of the highest impacts within US National Marine Sanctuaries. High variation in underlying species and cumulative impact distributions means that neither alone is sufficient for effective spatial management. Instead, comprehensive management approaches accounting for both cumulative human impacts and trade-offs among multiple stressors must be applied in planning the use of marine resources.

  19. Marine debris: global and regional impacts

    OpenAIRE

    Torres N,Daniel; Berguño B,Jorge

    2011-01-01

    A synthesis on the Marine Debris problem is given upon de basis of the general knowledge on the matter as well as that obtained at Cape Shirreff, Livingston Island, South Shetland, Antarctica. It is suggested to improve the database on marine debris through permanent scientific research as well as with monitoring activities. It is necessary to coordinate key groups to apply strategies to identify types, sources, amount, interactions and socio-economic aspects of this global and regional probl...

  20. THE DEVELOPMENT OF MARINE SPATIAL PLANNING AND ITS APPLICATION FOR FLOATING FISH NET CULTURE

    OpenAIRE

    Dewayany Sutrisno

    2017-01-01

    Marine spatial planning has become the crucial issues for an archipelagic state such as Indonesia. The global market demand on marine economic species has been initiated the exploitation of the marine species which will become the hindrance in maintaining the sustainable marine biodiversity. Besides that, the degradation of marine species will also become the problem for traditional fishermen. Therefore, a model has to be employed to spatially manage the coastal waters as the alternative for ...

  1. 9 CFR 113.26 - Detection of viable bacteria and fungi except in live vaccine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Detection of viable bacteria and fungi... VECTORS STANDARD REQUIREMENTS Standard Procedures § 113.26 Detection of viable bacteria and fungi except... required to be free of viable bacteria and fungi, they shall also be tested as prescribed in this section...

  2. Enumeration of Vibrio parahaemolyticus in the viable but nonculturable state using direct plate counts and recognition of individual gene fluorescence in situ hybridization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Griffitt, Kimberly J; Noriea, Nicholas F; Johnson, Crystal N; Grimes, D Jay

    2011-05-01

    Vibrio parahaemolyticus is a gram-negative, halophilic bacterium indigenous to marine and estuarine environments and it is capable of causing food and water-borne illness in humans. It can also cause disease in marine animals, including cultured species. Currently, culture-based techniques are used for quantification of V. parahaemolyticus in environmental samples; however, these can be misleading as they fail to detect V. parahaemolyticus in a viable but nonculturable (VBNC) state which leads to an underestimation of the population density. In this study, we used a novel fluorescence visualization technique, called recognition of individual gene fluorescence in situ hybridization (RING-FISH), which targets chromosomal DNA for enumeration. A polynucleotide probe labeled with Cyanine 3 (Cy3) was created corresponding to the ubiquitous V. parahaemolyticus gene that codes for thermolabile hemolysin (tlh). When coupled with the Kogure method to distinguish viable from dead cells, RING-FISH probes reliably enumerated total, viable V. parahaemolyticus. The probe was tested for sensitivity and specificity against a pure culture of tlh(+), tdh(-), trh(-)V. parahaemolyticus, pure cultures of Vibrio vulnificus, Vibrio harveyi, Vibrio alginolyticus and Vibrio fischeri, and a mixed environmental sample. This research will provide additional tools for a better understanding of the risk these environmental organisms pose to human health. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Marine renewable energies. Stakes and technical solutions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lacroix, Olivier; Macadre, Laura-Mae

    2012-05-01

    Marine renewable energies are able to supply carbon free energy from various ocean resources (tides, waves, currents, winds, salinity and temperature gradients). This sector, currently at an early stage of deployment, has good prospects of development in the coming years. ENEA releases a report on marine renewable energies giving a transversal vision of the associated stakes and prospects of development. Technical and economic characteristics, maturity level and specificities of each marine energy are analyzed. French and European sources of funding, regulatory framework and potential environmental and social impacts are also reported

  4. Inactivation of viable Ascaris eggs by reagents during enumeration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nelson, K L; Darby, J L

    2001-12-01

    Various reagents commonly used to enumerate viable helminth eggs from wastewater and sludge were evaluated for their potential to inactivate Ascaris eggs under typical laboratory conditions. Two methods were used to enumerate indigenous Ascaris eggs from sludge samples. All steps in the methods were the same except that in method I a phase extraction step with acid-alcohol (35% ethanol in 0.1 N H(2)SO(4)) and diethyl ether was used whereas in method II the extraction step was avoided by pouring the sample through a 38-microm-mesh stainless steel sieve that retained the eggs. The concentration of eggs and their viability were lower in the samples processed by method I than in the samples processed by method II by an average of 48 and 70%, respectively. A second set of experiments was performed using pure solutions of Ascaris suum eggs to elucidate the effect of the individual reagents and relevant combination of reagents on the eggs. The percentages of viable eggs in samples treated with acid-alcohol alone and in combination with diethyl ether or ethyl acetate were 52, 27, and 4%, respectively, whereas in the rest of the samples the viability was about 80%. Neither the acid nor the diethyl ether alone caused any decrease in egg viability. Thus, the observed inactivation was attributed primarily to the 35% ethanol content of the acid-alcohol solution. Inactivation of the eggs was prevented by limiting the direct exposure to the extraction reagents to 30 min and diluting the residual concentration of acid-alcohol in the sample by a factor of 100 before incubation. Also, the viability of the eggs was maintained if the acid-alcohol solution was replaced with an acetoacetic buffer. None of the reagents used for the flotation step of the sample cleaning procedure (ZnSO(4), MgSO(4), and NaCl) or during incubation (0.1 N H(2)SO(4) and 0.5% formalin) inactivated the Ascaris eggs under the conditions studied.

  5. Concentrations of viable oil-degrading microorganisms are increased in feces from Calanus finmarchicus feeding in petroleum oil dispersions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Størdal, Ingvild Fladvad; Olsen, Anders Johny; Jenssen, Bjørn Munro; Netzer, Roman; Hansen, Bjørn Henrik; Altin, Dag; Brakstad, Odd Gunnar

    2015-09-15

    Zooplankton are suggested to be biotic contributors to the transport and weathering of oil in marine environments due to their ingestion of oil. In the present experiment, feeding activity and microbial communities in feces from Calanus finmarchicus feeding in oil dispersions were characterized. Feeding activity was significantly reduced in oil dispersions. The microbial communities in clean and oil-containing copepod feces were dominated by Rhodobacteraceae family bacteria (Lesingera, Phaeobacter, Rugeria, and Sulfitobacter), which were suggested to be indigenous to copepod feces. The results also indicated that these bacteria were metabolizing oil compounds, as a significant increase in the concentrations of viable oil degrading microorganisms was observed in oil-containing feces. This study shows that bacteria in feces from copepods feeding in dilute oil dispersions have capacity for degradation of oil. Zooplankton may therefore contribute to weathering of oil by excreting feces with microbial communities already adapted to degradation of oil. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Examination of an indicative tool for rapidly estimating viable organism abundance in ballast water

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vanden Byllaardt, Julie; Adams, Jennifer K.; Casas-Monroy, Oscar; Bailey, Sarah A.

    2018-03-01

    Regulatory discharge standards stipulating a maximum allowable number of viable organisms in ballast water have led to a need for rapid, easy and accurate compliance assessment tools and protocols. Some potential tools presume that organisms present in ballast water samples display the same characteristics of life as the native community (e.g. rates of fluorescence). This presumption may not prove true, particularly when ships' ballast tanks present a harsh environment and long transit times, negatively impacting organism health. Here, we test the accuracy of a handheld pulse amplitude modulated (PAM) fluorometer, the Hach BW680, for detecting photosynthetic protists at concentrations above or below the discharge standard (< 10 cells·ml- 1) in comparison to microscopic counts using fluorescein diacetate as a viability probe. Testing was conducted on serial dilutions of freshwater harbour samples in the lab and in situ untreated ballast water samples originating from marine, freshwater and brackish sources utilizing three preprocessing techniques to target organisms in the size range of ≥ 10 and < 50 μm. The BW680 numeric estimates were in agreement with microscopic counts when analyzing freshly collected harbour water at all but the lowest concentrations (< 38 cells·ml- 1). Chi-square tests determined that error is not independent of preprocessing methods: using the filtrate method or unfiltered water, in addition to refining the conversion factor of raw fluorescence to cell size, can decrease the grey area where exceedance of the discharge standard cannot be measured with certainty (at least for the studied populations). When examining in situ ballast water, the BW680 detected significantly fewer viable organisms than microscopy, possibly due to factors such as organism size or ballast water age. Assuming both the BW680 and microscopy with FDA stain were measuring fluorescence and enzymatic activity/membrane integrity correctly, the observed discrepancy

  7. International Marine Biotechnology Culture Collection (IMBCC)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zaborsky, O.R.; Baker, K. [Univ. of Hawaii at Manoa, Honolulu, HI (United States)

    1996-10-01

    The objective of this project is to establish a premier culture collection of tropical marine microorganisms able to generate hydrogen from water or organic substances. Both eukaryotic and prokaryotic microorganisms will serve as the biological reservoir or {open_quotes}library{close_quotes} for other DOE Hydrogen Program contractors, the biohydrogen research community and industry. This project consists of several tasks: (a) transfer of the Mitsui-Miami strains to Hawaii`s International Marine Biotechnology Culture Collection (IMBCC) housed at the Hawaii Natural Energy Institute (HNEI); (b) maintain and distribute Mitsui-Miami strains; (c) characterize key strains by traditional and advanced biotechnological techniques; (d) expand Hawaii`s IMBCC; and (e) establish and operate an information resource (database). The project was initiated only late in the summer of 1995 but progress has been made on all tasks. Of the 161 cyanobacterial strains imported, 147 survived storage and importation and 145 are viable. with most exhibiting growth. Of the 406 strains of other photosynthetic bacteria imported, 392 survived storage and importation and 353 are viable, with many exhibiting growth. This project is linked to cooperative efforts being supported by the Japanese Ministry of International Trade and Industry (MITI) through its Marine Biotechnology Institute (MBI) and Research Institute of Innovative Technology for the Earth (RITE).

  8. Vertical Electrical Sounding as a Viable Tool for Investigating ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... in the range 0.50m- 180.0m and thicknesses in the range 0.50m-75.0m. Area of probable subsurface lithological formations and their thicknesses have been identified for economical purposes, environmental purposes, engineering purposes, especially for future, mining of industries foundation operations and drilling.

  9. Electric power - a viable export commodity, v. 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1983-01-01

    This volume presents summaries of the addresses given by the chairman and the president of the Canadian Nuclear Association, as well as reports of the CNA economic development, education and manpower, international affairs, leglislative, public affairs, safety and environment, social issues, and technology committees

  10. Is Microcredit a Viable Strategy for Empowering Women?

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    others, that microfinance organizations revise their policies to address the challenges of women and target ... peer exchanges and/or networking opportunities. According to ... promote entrepreneurial or business growth, particularly for women. The critical ... to economic and social development and their role in this regard.

  11. Rural tourism development: a viable formula for poverty alleviation ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The case of rural tourism and community development has been made in general terms with less focus on poverty alleviation and more emphasis on economic modernisation. Recently, a link between rural tourism and poverty alleviation has been emphasised in the contemporary tourism and poverty alleviation literature.

  12. Keeping checkpoint/restart viable for exascale systems.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Riesen, Rolf E.; Bridges, Patrick G. (IBM Research, Ireland, Mulhuddart, Dublin); Stearley, Jon R.; Laros, James H., III; Oldfield, Ron A.; Arnold, Dorian (University of New Mexico, Albuquerque, NM); Pedretti, Kevin Thomas Tauke; Ferreira, Kurt Brian; Brightwell, Ronald Brian

    2011-09-01

    Next-generation exascale systems, those capable of performing a quintillion (10{sup 18}) operations per second, are expected to be delivered in the next 8-10 years. These systems, which will be 1,000 times faster than current systems, will be of unprecedented scale. As these systems continue to grow in size, faults will become increasingly common, even over the course of small calculations. Therefore, issues such as fault tolerance and reliability will limit application scalability. Current techniques to ensure progress across faults like checkpoint/restart, the dominant fault tolerance mechanism for the last 25 years, are increasingly problematic at the scales of future systems due to their excessive overheads. In this work, we evaluate a number of techniques to decrease the overhead of checkpoint/restart and keep this method viable for future exascale systems. More specifically, this work evaluates state-machine replication to dramatically increase the checkpoint interval (the time between successive checkpoint) and hash-based, probabilistic incremental checkpointing using graphics processing units to decrease the checkpoint commit time (the time to save one checkpoint). Using a combination of empirical analysis, modeling, and simulation, we study the costs and benefits of these approaches on a wide range of parameters. These results, which cover of number of high-performance computing capability workloads, different failure distributions, hardware mean time to failures, and I/O bandwidths, show the potential benefits of these techniques for meeting the reliability demands of future exascale platforms.

  13. A combination of direct viable count and fluorescence in situ hybridization for specific enumeration of viable Lactobacillus delbrueckii subsp.bulgaricus and Streptococcus thermophilus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    García-Hernández, J; Moreno, Y; Amorocho, C M; Hernández, M

    2012-03-01

    We have developed a direct viable count (DVC)-FISH procedure for quickly and easily discriminating between viable and nonviable cells of Lactobacillus delbrueckii subsp. bulgaricus and Streptococcus thermophilus strains, the traditional yogurt bacteria. direct viable count method has been modified and adapted for Lact. delbrueckii subsp. bulgaricus and Strep. thermophilus analysis by testing different times of incubation and concentrations of DNA-gyrase inhibitors. DVC procedure has been combined with fluorescent in situ hybridization (FISH) for the specific detection of viable cells of both bacteria with specific rRNA oligonucleotide probes (DVC-FISH). Of the four antibiotics tested (novobiocin, nalidixic acid, pipemidic acid and ciprofloxacin), novobiocin was the most effective for DVC method and the optimum incubation time was 7 h for both bacteria. The number of viable cells was obtained by the enumeration of specific hybridized cells that were elongated at least twice their original length for Lactobacillus and twice their original size for Streptococcus. This technique was successfully applied to detect viable cells in inoculated faeces. Results showed that this DVC-FISH procedure is a quick and culture-independent useful method to specifically detect viable Lact. delbrueckii subsp. bulgaricus and Strep. thermophilus in different samples, being applied for the first time to lactic acid bacteria. © 2011 The Authors. Letters in Applied Microbiology © 2011 The Society for Applied Microbiology.

  14. Antimicrobial peptides in marine invertebrate health and disease

    OpenAIRE

    Destoumieux-Garzón, Delphine; Rosa, Rafael Diego; Schmitt, Paulina; Barreto, Cairé; Vidal-Dupiol, Jeremie; Mitta, Guillaume; Gueguen, Yannick; Bachère, Evelyne

    2016-01-01

    Aquaculture contributes more than one-third of the animal protein from marine sources worldwide. A significant proportion of aquaculture products are derived from marine protostomes that are commonly referred to as ‘marine invertebrates’. Among them, penaeid shrimp (Ecdysozosoa, Arthropoda) and bivalve molluscs (Lophotrochozoa, Mollusca) are economically important. Mass rearing of arthropods and molluscs causes problems with pathogens in aquatic ecosystems that are exploited by humans. Remark...

  15. Vaccines against drugs of abuse: a viable treatment option?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kantak, Kathleen M

    2003-01-01

    Drug addiction is a chronically relapsing brain disorder. There is an urgent need for new treatment options for this disease because the relapse rate among drug abusers seeking treatment is quite high. During the past decade, many groups have explored the feasibility of using vaccines directed against drugs of abuse as a means of eliminating illicit drug use as well as drug overdose and neurotoxicity. Vaccines work by inducing drug-specific antibodies in the bloodstream that bind to the drug of abuse and prevent its entry into the brain. The majority of work in this area has been conducted with vaccines and antibodies directed against cocaine and nicotine. On the basis of preclinical work, vaccines for cocaine and nicotine are now in clinical trials because they can offer long-term protection with minimal treatment compliance. In addition, vaccines and antibodies for phencyclidine, methamphetamine and heroin abuse are currently under development. An underlying theme in this research is the need for high concentrations of circulating drug-specific antibodies to reduce drug-seeking and drug-taking behaviour when the drug is repeatedly available, especially in high doses. Although vaccines against drugs of abuse may become a viable treatment option, there are several drawbacks that need to be considered. These include: a lack of protection against a structurally dissimilar drug that produces the same effects as the drug of choice;a lack of an effect on drug craving that predisposes an addict to relapse; and tremendous individual variability in antibody formation. Forced or coerced vaccination is not likely to work from a scientific perspective, and also carries serious legal and ethical concerns. All things considered, vaccination against a drug of abuse is likely to work best with individuals who are highly motivated to quit using drugs altogether and as part of a comprehensive treatment programme. As such, the medical treatment of drug abuse will not be radically

  16. Coronectomy - A viable alternative to prevent inferior alveolar nerve injury

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alok Sagtani

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Background and Objectives: Coronectomy is a relatively new method to prevent the risk of Inferior Alveolar Nerve (IAN injury during removal of lower third molars with limited scientific literature among Nepalese patients. Thus, a study was designed to evaluate coronectomy regarding its use, outcomes and complications.Materials and Methods: A descriptive study was conducted from December 2012 to December 2013 among patients attending Department of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery, College of Dental Sciences, BP Koirala Institute of Health Sciences, Dharan, Nepal for removal of mandibular third molars. After reviewing the radiograph for proximity of third molar to the IAN, coronectomy was advised. A written informed consent was obtained from the patients and coronectomy was performed. Patients were recalled after one week. The outcome measures in the follow-up visit were primary healing, pain, infection, dry socket, root exposure and IAN injury. The prevalence of IAN proximity of lower third molars and incidence of complications were calculated.Results: A total 300 mandibular third molars were extracted in 278 patients during the study period. Out of 300 impacted mandibular third molar, 41 (13.7% showed close proximity to inferior alveolar nerve . The incidence of complications and failed procedure was 7.4% among the patients who underwent coronectomy. During the follow up visit, persistent pain and root exposure was reported while other complications like inferior alveolar nerve injury, dry socket and infection was not experienced by the study patients.Conclusion: With a success rate of 92.6% among the 41 patients, coronectomy is a viable alternative to conventional total extraction for mandibular third molars who have a higher risk for damage to the inferior alveolar nerve.JCMS Nepal. 2015;11(3:1-5.

  17. Nuclear power a viable energy choice for the future

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Omoto, Akira

    2005-01-01

    Global energy use will most likely increase to more than double by 2050, which is e.g. the medium value of the projection in the Intergovernmentals Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) Special Report on Emissions Scenarios (SRES). How to reconcile the projections with the current nuclear status? In its first fifty years, nuclear power has grown from 5 MWe of power production to an installed worldwide capacity of 360 GWe in 30 countries. Nuclear power provides about 16% of the total electricity in the world and is contributing to the reduction of the emission of greenhouse gases from the power sector. The SRES scenarios identify a gap between the current electricity generation capacity and the capacity requirements in 2050 of 360 GWe and 1 500 GWe. Three key factors will determine the future contribution of nuclear power: - improved economics, - national energy choice and supporting infrastructure as well as institutional arrangement, and - the degree to which advances are implemented in evolutionary and innovative reactor and fuel cycle technologies, to address safety, waste and proliferation concerns, as well as economic competitiveness. The economics of nuclear power are one main topic in industrial countries. A Japanese case study on energy security credit shows that nuclear power will eventually be a winner in the long term perspective due to amortisation and stable fuel prices. Nuclear power is also a part of nuclear technologies to address daunting challenges in the developing countries - hunger, disease, poverty, and shortage of drinking water and electricity. (orig.)

  18. TROPHIC PORTFOLIOS IN MARINE FISHERIES: A STEP TOWARDS ECOSYSTEM MANAGEMENT

    OpenAIRE

    Sanchirico, James N.; Smith, Martin D.

    2003-01-01

    Marine ecologists warn that humans are "fishing down marine food webs." To explore the economic implications of this phenomenon, this paper applies portfolio theory to aggregate fisheries data. It poses two definitions of a sustainable mean-variance catch frontier. It computes a mean-variance frontier for catch using UNFAO historical fisheries data. Finally, the paper discusses the historical trend in inefficiency.

  19. Marine Pollution and the Law of the Sea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paterson, Arthur E., III

    1975-01-01

    Despite a rising tide of contamination, effective controls of marine pollution appear dubious because of conflicting national and economic interests. Since countries can not agree on problems such as national sovereignty, dispute settlement, jurisdiction over oil on the Continental Shelf and international seabed sources, marine pollution will…

  20. Preliminary report on the economics of gas production from natural gas hydrates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Walsh, M.; Wilson, S.; Patil, S.; Moridis, G.; Boswell, R.; Koh, C.; Sloan, D.

    2008-01-01

    Gas hydrates are solid crystalline compounds in which gas molecules reside inside cages that are formed by hydrogen-bonded water molecules in a crystal lattice. At particularly low temperatures and high pressures, a guest molecule will combine with water to form gas hydrates. Gas hydrates are found in two different settings in which the temperature and pressure conditions are suitable for their existence, notably in Arctic permafrost regions and below the seafloor. Because of the size of this possible future resource, if any of the gas in hydrates can be proven to be economically recoverable, then production from gas hydrates could become an important portion of the world's energy portfolio as demand for natural gas increases along with the technology to compress and distribute natural gas to distant markets. This paper presented a compilation of economic research that was conducted on the resource potential of gas hydrates. The paper reported a preliminary estimate of the price of natural gas that may lead to economically-viable production from North American Arctic region hydrates. The paper also discussed the implications of a recent study on the production of class 3 marine hydrate deposits from the Gulf of Mexico. The state of the art technologies and methods in hydrate reservoir modeling and hydrate reservoir production and petrophysical testing were also discussed. It was concluded that the somewhat optimistic results presented in this report should be interpreted with caution, however, the economically-viable gas production from hydrates was not an unreasonable scenario. 23 refs., 2 tabs., 10 figs

  1. Economic response to harvest and effort control in fishery

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hoff, Ayoe; Frost, Hans

    for fisheries management. The report outlines bio-economic models, which are designed to shed light on the efficiency of different management tools in terms of quota or effort restrictions given the objectives of the Common Fisheries Policy about sustainable and economic viable fisheries. The report addresses...... the complexities of biological and economic interaction in a multispecies, multifleet framework and outlines consistent mathematical models....

  2. Linking Marine Ecosystem Services to the North Sea’s Energy Fields in Transnational Marine Spatial Planning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christina Vogel

    2018-06-01

    Full Text Available Marine spatial planning temporally and spatially allocates marine resources to different users. The ecosystem approach aims at optimising the social and economic benefits people derive from marine resources while preserving the ecosystem’s health. Marine ecosystem services are defined as the benefits people obtain from marine ecosystems. The aim of this study is to determine which interrelations between marine ecosystem services and the marine energy industry can be identified for use in transnational marine spatial planning exemplified in the North Sea region. As the North Sea is one of the busiest seas worldwide, the risk of impairing the ecosystems through anthropogenic pressures is high. Drawing on a literature-based review, 23 marine ecosystem services provided by the North Sea region were defined and linked to seven offshore energy fields comprising oil and natural gas, wind, tides and currents, waves, salinity gradients, algal biomass, and geothermal heat. The interactions were divided into four categories: dependence, impact, bidirectional, or no interaction. Oil and natural gas, as well as algae biomass, are the fields with the most relations with marine ecosystem services while waves and salinity gradients exhibit the least. Some marine ecosystem services (Conditions for Infrastructure, Regulation of Water Flows, and Cognitive Development are needed for all fields; Recreation and Tourism, Aesthetic and Cultural Perceptions and Traditions, Cognitive Development, and Sea Scape are impacted by all fields. The results of this research provide an improved basis for an ecosystem approach in transnational marine spatial planning.

  3. Habitat damage, marine reserves, and the value of spatial management

    KAUST Repository

    Moeller, Holly V.; Neubert, Michael G.

    2013-01-01

    The biological benefits of marine reserves have garnered favor in the conservation community, but "no-take" reserve implementation is complicated by the economic interests of fishery stakeholders. There are now a number of studies examining

  4. Kaluza-Klein models: Can we construct a viable example?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eingorn, Maxim; Zhuk, Alexander

    2011-01-01

    candidates for a viable model of astrophysical objects (e.g., Sun) if we can provide a satisfactory explanation of negative tension for particles constituting these objects.

  5. Predictors of viable germ cell tumor in postchemotherapeutic residual retroperitoneal masses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Khalid Al Othman

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: The aim of this study was to identify predictors of viable germ cell tumor (GCT in postchemotherapeutic residual retroperitoneal masses. Materials and Methods: The pertinent clinical and pathologic data of 16 male patients who underwent postchemotherapeutic retroperitoneal lymph node dissection (PC-RPLND at King Faisal Specialist Hospital and Research Centre between 1994 and 2005 were reviewed retrospectively. It was found that all patients received cisplatin-based chemotherapy for advanced testicular GCT. Results: Out of the 16 male patients, 2 (13%, 8 (50%, and 6 (37% had viable GCT, fibrosis, and teratoma, respectively. Ten (10 of the patients with prechemotherapeutic S1 tumor markers did not have viable GCT, and two of the six patients who had prechemotherapeutic S2 tumor markers have viable GCT. All tumor marker levels normalized after chemotherapy even in patients with viable GCT. Four patients had vascular invasion without viable GCT. Furthermore, four patients had more than 60% embryonal elements in the original pathology, but only 1 had viable GCT at PC-RPLND. Four of the five patients with immature teratoma had teratoma at PC-RPLND but no viable GCT; however, out of the four patients with mature teratoma, one had viable GCT and two had teratoma at PC-RPLND. Of the two patients with viable GCT, one had 100% embryonal cancer in the original pathology, prechemotherapeutic S2 tumor markers, history of orchiopexy, and no vascular invasion; the other patient had yolk sac tumor with 25% embryonal elements and 40% teratoma in the original pathology, and prechemotherapeutic S2 tumor markers. Conclusion: None of the clinical or pathological parameters showed a strong correlation with the presence of viable GCT in PC-RPLND. However, patients with ≥S2 may be at higher risk to have viable GCT. Further studies are needed to clarify this.

  6. Circular Economy Development Mode of Coastal and Marine Areas in China and its Evaluation Index Research - The Example of Qingdao

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yan Lu

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Marine circular economy development and marine ecological security construction is the solution of seeking sustainable development when human beings are faced with marine ecological crisis in future period. Marine circular economy and ecological security is the subsystem of ecological, social and economic compound system. These two are mutually conditional and have been in collaborative development. Marine circular economy development is the premise and approach of securely constructing marine ecology. Constructing marine ecological security and building harmonious marine ecological environment is an important goal of developing circular economy. Circular economy is one of the important economic models for managing public resources under the principle of sustainable development, which is the guiding direction of future economic development in China. As important strategic resources, ocean is a crucial component of realizing economic sustainable development, which also needs to take the circular economy concept and basic principles as a guide for development.

  7. Commercializing Biorefinery Technology: A Case for the Multi-Product Pathway to a Viable Biorefinery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shijie Liu

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available While there may be many reasons why very interesting science ideas never reach commercial practice, one of the more prevalent is that the reaction or process, which is scientifically possible, cannot be made efficient enough to achieve economic viability. One pathway to economic viability for many business sectors is the multi-product portfolio. Research, development, and deployment of viable biorefinery technology must meld sound science with engineering and business economics. It is virtually axiomatic that increased value can be generated by isolating relatively pure substances from heterogeneous raw materials. Woody biomass is a heterogeneous raw material consisting of the major structural components, cellulose, lignin, and hemicelluloses, as well as minor components, such as extractives and ash. Cellulose is a linear homopolymer of D-glucopyrano-units with β-D(1®4 connections and is the wood component most resistant to chemical and biological degradation. Lignin is a macromolecule of phenylpropanoid units, second to cellulose in bio-resistance, and is the key component that is sought for removal from woody biomass in chemical pulping. Hemicelluloses are a collection of heteropolysaccharides, comprised mainly of 5- and 6-carbon sugars. Extractives, some of which have high commercial value, are a collection of low molecular weight organic and inorganic woody materials that can be removed, to some extent, under mild conditions. Applied Biorefinery Sciences, LLC (a private, New York, USA based company is commercializing a value-optimization pathway (the ABS Process™ for generating a multi-product portfolio by isolating and recovering homogeneous substances from each of the above mentioned major and minor woody biomass components. The ABS Process™ incorporates the patent pending, core biorefinery technology, “hot water extraction”, as developed at the State University of New York College of Environmental Science and Forestry (SUNY

  8. Maize Residue as a Viable Substrate for Farm Scale Cultivation of Oyster Mushroom (Pleurotus ostreatus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abena O. Adjapong

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available In the search for alternatives to sawdust as growing media in commercial mushroom cultivation, three organic substrates obtainable as crop residue, maize husk, maize cob, and maize stalk, with each being supplemented with rice bran, were evaluated as growth media for the oyster mushroom, Pleurotus ostreatus (Kummer. For the tested alternatives to sawdust, the harvested weight of fruiting bodies that sprouted on a kilogram maize husk media per crop (32.99 g was the highest. Sawdust media supported significantly (P<0.001 heavier fruiting bodies (42.18 than the maize residues. The peak mushroom harvests for the various substrates were obtained between the first and seventh fruiting body flushes. The biological efficiency of the substrates, which measured usable nutrients indicated that maize stalk supplemented with rice bran, was 39% compared to that of the sawdust media (60%. The maize husk media and the maize cob media had biological efficiencies of 32% and 9.5%, respectively. These results indicate that two of the tested growing media (maize stalk or husk produced mushrooms with yield characteristics that were comparable to the well-used sawdust in the cultivation of oyster mushrooms. The environmental and economic parameters involved in the use and carting of sawdust make these on-farm crop residues a viable alternative for mushroom cultivation in especially nonforest zones of Ghana.

  9. Making decentralised systems viable: a guide to managing decentralised assets and risks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Willetts, J; Fane, S; Mitchell, C

    2007-01-01

    Decentralised systems have the potential to provide a viable option for long term sustainable management of household wastewater. Yet, at present, such systems hold an uncertain status and are frequently omitted from consideration. Their potential can only be realised with improved approaches to their management, and improved methods to decision-making in planning of wastewater systems. The aim of this paper is to demonstrate the value of a novel framework to guide the planning of decentralised systems so that asset management and risk management are explicitly considered. The framework was developed through a detailed synthesis of literature and practice in the area of asset management of centralised water and wastewater systems, and risk management in the context of decentralised systems. Key aspects of the framework are attention to socio-economic risks as well as engineering, public health and ecological risks, the central place of communication with multiple stakeholders and establishing a shared asset information system. A case study is used to demonstrate how the framework can guide a different approach and lead to different, more sustainable outcomes, by explicitly considering the needs and perspectives of homeowners, water authorities, relevant government agencies and society as a whole.

  10. Towards Marine Spatial Planning in Southern Taiwan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Meng-Tsung Lee

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Due to population growth, rapid economic development and inadequate marine control, the use of ocean and coastal regions in Taiwan has become more frequent and intense in recent years. However, the lack of comprehensive marine and coastal planning in this island nation has led to many conflicts over space and resources and limited its ability to prepare for and respond to environmental hazards, thus threatening national security as well as the safety and property of its citizens. This study proposes a marine zoning scheme for southern Taiwan. The results show that many important habitats in the southern sea areas have not been properly protected due to the extremely small size of the marine protected area. Furthermore, the majority of the conflicts derive from the exclusive fishing right vs. other uses such as marine conservation. Therefore, it is crucial to establish the marine spatial planning (MSP for the Southern Taiwan to deal with the conflicts of use seas and uncertainties associated with complex, heterogeneous, and dynamic marine system.

  11. Marine Ecological Footprint of Italian Mediterranean Fisheries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Federica de Leo

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available The capacity of marine and coastal ecosystems to sustain seafood production and consumption is seldom accounted for and is not included in the signals that guide economic development. In this article, we review estimates of marine and coastal areas aimed at sustaining catches for seafood consumption. The aim of this paper is the assessment of the interactions between the environment, intended as a set of ecological subsystems in natural equilibrium, including the marine ecosystem, and the process of fisheries systems. In particular we analyze fisheries in Italy, which is the third biggest economy and the greatest consumer of seafood in the Eurozone, conducting an in-depth analysis of the Marine Ecological Footprint (MEF that evaluates the marine ecosystem area exploited by human populations to supply seafood and other marine products and services. The positioning of Italian fisheries shows a level of sustainability next to the threshold value. The analysis in the present study highlights the importance of absolute indicators in providing rough estimates about human dependence on ecological systems and recognizes the importance of those indicators, such as the Marine Footprint (expressed in % of Primary Production Required/Primary Production, in ensuring a high level of precision and accuracy in quantifying human activity impact on the environment.

  12. A General Business Model for Marine Reserves

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sala, Enric; Costello, Christopher; Dougherty, Dawn; Heal, Geoffrey; Kelleher, Kieran; Murray, Jason H.; Rosenberg, Andrew A.; Sumaila, Rashid

    2013-01-01

    Marine reserves are an effective tool for protecting biodiversity locally, with potential economic benefits including enhancement of local fisheries, increased tourism, and maintenance of ecosystem services. However, fishing communities often fear short-term income losses associated with closures, and thus may oppose marine reserves. Here we review empirical data and develop bioeconomic models to show that the value of marine reserves (enhanced adjacent fishing + tourism) may often exceed the pre-reserve value, and that economic benefits can offset the costs in as little as five years. These results suggest the need for a new business model for creating and managing reserves, which could pay for themselves and turn a profit for stakeholder groups. Our model could be expanded to include ecosystem services and other benefits, and it provides a general framework to estimate costs and benefits of reserves and to develop such business models. PMID:23573192

  13. Parameters for viable process combinations; Randbedingungen fuer sinnvolle Verfahrenskombinationen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lahl, U.; Zeschmar-Lahl, B. [BZL Kommunikation und Projektsteuerung GmbH, Oyten (Germany)

    1998-09-01

    The following parameters merit examination in determining the viability of process combinations: conceptual and technical soundness, environmental acceptability, energy balance, flexibility, costs, economic risk potential. The present contribution on this subject is not intended to take the place of or cover the scope of single-case studies. In practice, viability studies on process combinations have to deal with concrete plans involving precisely defined material flow balances, emissions, costs etc. The present paper therefore only presents the basic principles of this type of study. [Deutsch] Folgende Randbedingungen fuer sinnvolle Verfahrenskombinationen sind zu untersuchen: - konzeptionelle und technische Stimmigkeit, - Umweltvertraeglichkeit, - energetische Bilanz, - Flexibilitaet, - Kosten, - oekonomisches Risikopotential. Nun kann dieser Beitrag zum Thema keine Einzelfallbetrachtung ersetzen bzw. abdecken. Im Rahmen einer echten Pruefung auf `Sinnhaftigkeit` einer Kombinationsloesung stehen sich ganz konkrete Planungen gegenueber, die wiederum mit definierten Stoffflussbilanzen, Emissionen, Kosten usw. verbunden sind. Im Rahmen dieser Betrachtung koennen nur die Grundzuege einer derartigen Pruefung dargestellt werden. (orig.)

  14. Photocatalysis: A viable alternative for the elimination of organic compound

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gil Pavas, Edison

    2002-01-01

    The basic idea of this project is to present photo catalysis as a simple, economic, effective and innovative technology, for the treatment of phenolic waters found in the effluents from several industrial processes, by determining the optimum conditions of operation and by identifying the parameters that govern the process. The attractiveness of this technology is based on its profitability, easy of implementation and use. The required capital investment is minimal in comparison with other technologies. The UV radiation from the sun or artificial sources (lamps) is used to activate the catalyst (TiO) to destroy the organic pollutants present in liquids effluent. The process was carried out continuously with using ph, catalyst (TiO 2 ) concentration and recirculation time as variables

  15. Marine animal stings or bites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stings - marine animals; Bites - marine animals ... Things you can do to prevent a marine animal sting or bite include: Swim near a lifeguard. Observe posted signs that may warn of danger from jellyfish or other hazardous marine life. ...

  16. Community Economics

    OpenAIRE

    武藤, 宣道; Nobumichi, MUTOH

    2000-01-01

    This paper examines the new field of community economics with respect to Japan. A number of studies in community economics have already been produced in OECD countries including the United States. Although these are of great interest, each country has its own historical, socioeconomic context and must therefore develop its own approach to community economics. Community-oriented economics is neither macro-nor micro-economics in the standard economics textbook sense. Most community economics st...

  17. Mariners Weather Log

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The Mariners Weather Log (MWL) is a publication containing articles, news and information about marine weather events and phenomena, worldwide environmental impact...

  18. MarineCadastre.gov

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — MarineCadastre.gov is a marine information system that provides authoritative ocean data, offshore planning tools, and technical support to the offshore renewable...

  19. Marine Jurisdiction Boundaries

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Homeland Security — The NOAA Coastal Services Center's Marine Jurisdiction dataset was created to assist in marine spatial planning and offshore alternative energy sitting. This is a...

  20. Tsunamis and marine life

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Rao, D.V.S.; Ingole, B.S.; Tang, D.; Satyanarayan, B.; Zhao, H.

    The 26 December 2004 tsunami in the Indian Ocean exerted far reaching temporal and spatial impacts on marine biota. Our synthesis was based on satellite data acquired by the Laboratory for Tropical Marine Environmental Dynamics (LED) of the South...

  1. Supermarket Marine Biology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colby, Jennifer A.; And Others

    1995-01-01

    Describes a survey used to determine the availability of intact marine vertebrates and live invertebrates in supermarkets. Results shows that local supermarkets frequently provide a variety of intact marine organisms suitable for demonstrations, experiments, or dissections. (ZWH)

  2. Grazing of particle-associated bacteria-an elimination of the non-viable fraction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonsalves, Maria-Judith; Fernandes, Sheryl Oliveira; Priya, Madasamy Lakshmi; LokaBharathi, Ponnapakkam Adikesavan

    Quantification of bacteria being grazed by microzooplankton is gaining importance since they serve as energy subsidies for higher trophic levels which consequently influence fish production. Hence, grazing pressure on viable and non-viable fraction of free and particle-associated bacteria in a tropical estuary controlled mainly by protist grazers was estimated using the seawater dilution technique. In vitro incubations over a period of 42h showed that at the end of 24h, growth coefficient (k) of particle-associated bacteria was 9 times higher at 0.546 than that of free forms. Further, 'k' value of viable cells on particles was double that of free forms at 0.016 and 0.007, respectively. While bacteria associated with particles were grazed (coefficient of removal (g)=0.564), the free forms were relatively less grazed indicating that particle-associated bacteria were exposed to grazers in these waters. Among the viable and non-viable forms, 'g' of non-viable fraction (particle-associated bacteria=0.615, Free=0.0086) was much greater than the viable fraction (particle-associated bacteria=0.056, Free=0.068). Thus, grazing on viable cells was relatively low in both the free and attached states. These observations suggest that non-viable forms of particle-associated bacteria were more prone to grazing and were weeded out leaving the viable cells to replenish the bacterial standing stock. Particle colonization could thus be a temporary refuge for the "persistent variants" where the viable fraction multiply and release their progeny. Copyright © 2016 Sociedade Brasileira de Microbiologia. Published by Elsevier Editora Ltda. All rights reserved.

  3. Grazing of particle-associated bacteria-an elimination of the non-viable fraction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria-Judith Gonsalves

    Full Text Available Abstract Quantification of bacteria being grazed by microzooplankton is gaining importance since they serve as energy subsidies for higher trophic levels which consequently influence fish production. Hence, grazing pressure on viable and non-viable fraction of free and particle-associated bacteria in a tropical estuary controlled mainly by protist grazers was estimated using the seawater dilution technique. In vitro incubations over a period of 42 h showed that at the end of 24 h, growth coefficient (k of particle-associated bacteria was 9 times higher at 0.546 than that of free forms. Further, ‘k’ value of viable cells on particles was double that of free forms at 0.016 and 0.007, respectively. While bacteria associated with particles were grazed (coefficient of removal (g = 0.564, the free forms were relatively less grazed indicating that particle-associated bacteria were exposed to grazers in these waters. Among the viable and non-viable forms, ‘g’ of non-viable fraction (particle-associated bacteria = 0.615, Free = 0.0086 was much greater than the viable fraction (particle-associated bacteria = 0.056, Free = 0.068. Thus, grazing on viable cells was relatively low in both the free and attached states. These observations suggest that non-viable forms of particle-associated bacteria were more prone to grazing and were weeded out leaving the viable cells to replenish the bacterial standing stock. Particle colonization could thus be a temporary refuge for the “persistent variants” where the viable fraction multiply and release their progeny.

  4. Seashore marine table quiz

    OpenAIRE

    Institute, Marine

    2013-01-01

    Develop an increasing awareness of plants and animals that live in local marine environments including the seashore, seas and oceans of Ireland. After learning all about the seashore and other marine related lessons, this quiz can be used to evaluate the student’s knowledge of the marine related living things and natural environments. The table quiz can be used as a guide, highlighting facts about the marine environment and some of the animals that live there.

  5. Carotenoids in Marine Animals

    OpenAIRE

    Maoka, Takashi

    2011-01-01

    Marine animals contain various carotenoids that show structural diversity. These marine animals accumulate carotenoids from foods such as algae and other animals and modify them through metabolic reactions. Many of the carotenoids present in marine animals are metabolites of β-carotene, fucoxanthin, peridinin, diatoxanthin, alloxanthin, and astaxanthin, etc. Carotenoids found in these animals provide the food chain as well as metabolic pathways. In the present review, I will describe marine a...

  6. External Microflora of a Marine Wood-Boring Isopod

    OpenAIRE

    Boyle, Paul J.; Mitchell, Ralph

    1981-01-01

    Bacteria associated with the marine wood-boring isopod Limnoria lignorum were enumerated by acridine orange epifluorescence microscopy and by plate counts on several media; the plate-viable bacteria were isolated and identified. Similar procedures were followed to enumerate and identify bacteria associated with the wood substrate from which the isopods were collected and with the surrounding water from the isopod habitat. Approximately 1.4 × 107 bacterial cells were associated with each indiv...

  7. Free space optics: a viable last-mile alternative

    Science.gov (United States)

    Willebrand, Heinz A.; Clark, Gerald R.

    2001-10-01

    This paper explores Free Space Optics (FSO) as an access technology in the last mile of metropolitan area networks (MANs). These networks are based in part on fiber-optic telecommunications infrastructure, including network architectures of Synchronous Optical Network (commonly referred to as SONET), the North American standard for synchronous data transmission; and Synchronous Digital Hierarchy (commonly referred to as SDH), the international standard and equivalent of SONET. Several converging forces have moved FSO beyond a niche technology for use only in local area networks (LANs) as a bridge connecting two facilities. FSO now allows service providers to cost effectively provide optical bandwidth for access networks and accelerate the extension of metro optical networks bridging what has been termed by industry experts as the optical dead zone. The optical dead zone refers to both the slowdown in capital investment in the short-term future and the actual connectivity gap that exists today between core metro optical networks and the access optical networks. Service providers have built extensive core and minimal metro networks but have not yet provided optical bandwidth to the access market largely due to the non-compelling economics to bridge the dead zone with fiber. Historically, such infrastructure build-out slowdowns have been blamed on a combination of economics, time-to-market constraints and limited technology options. However, new technology developments and market acceptance of FSO give service providers a new cost-effective alternative to provide high-bandwidth services with optical bandwidth in the access networks. Merrill Lynch predicts FSO will grow into a $2 billion market by 2005. The drivers for this market are a mere 5%- 6% penetration of fiber to business buildings; cost effective solution versus RF or fiber; and significant capacity which can only be matched by a physical fiber link, Merrill Lynch reports. This paper will describe FSO

  8. Marine Education Knowledge Inventory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hounshell, Paul B.; Hampton, Carolyn

    This 35-item, multiple-choice Marine Education Knowledge Inventory was developed for use in upper elementary/middle schools to measure a student's knowledge of marine science. Content of test items is drawn from oceanography, ecology, earth science, navigation, and the biological sciences (focusing on marine animals). Steps in the construction of…

  9. Marine polar steroids

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stonik, Valentin A

    2001-01-01

    Structures, taxonomic distribution and biological activities of polar steroids isolated from various marine organisms over the last 8-10 years are considered. The peculiarities of steroid biogenesis in the marine biota and their possible biological functions are discussed. Syntheses of some highly active marine polar steroids are described. The bibliography includes 254 references.

  10. Development of a functionalized coating for inhibition of marine corrosion and biofouling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gittens, Jeanette Elizabeth

    The financial loss incurred by corrosion of metals in the marine environment has led to a need to develop effective, economic and environmentally friendly methods of protection. Traditional methods of counteracting the development of surface biofilms and biofouling within aqueous environments have involved implementing chemical biocides, often with a deleterious effect on non-target organisms. Sol gel coating technology offers a convenient route for immobilizing functional additives, such as inhibitors or, in the case of this study, biologically active microorganisms. Paenibacillus polymyxa biofilms inhibit the corrosion of metal substrates and this strain has the advantage of forming endospores can withstand the solvent and acid concentrations required in sol-gel formulation. Encapsulation of viable P. polymyxa endospores within the sol-gel matrix allowed germination on exposure to nutrients, when germinating endospores and vegetative cells were seen after fluorescence microscopy to be distributed throughout the coating. Laboratory electrochemical impedance tests were used to characterize the corrosion behaviour of the endospore-containing (biotic) sol-gel coating in comparison to an abiotic (no endospores) sol-gel only coating and one containing non-viable (killed) endospores. The technology enabled manipulation of the sol-gel formulation and the method of application to produce biotic sol-gel with enhanced corrosion inhibition properties on aluminium alloy. Field trials in a marine environment confirmed the corrosion protecting properties of the biotic coating and that the biotic coatings inhibited macroscopic biofouling for at least 29 weeks relative to the controls without encapsulated live endospores. Production of polymyxin by the encapsulated bacteria, which was proposed as a mechanism by which they inhibit MIC, was less than 1 mug per ml and below the threshold of detection by liquid chromatography mass spectrometry and antimicrobial bioassay. Microcosm

  11. Natural antifouling compound production by microbes associated with marine macroorganisms — A review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sathianeson Satheesh

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available In the marine environment, all hard surfaces including marine macroorganims are colonized by microorganisms mainly from the surrounding environment. The microorganisms associated with marine macroorganisms offer tremendous potential for exploitation of bioactive metabolites. Biofouling is a continuous problem in marine sectors which needs huge economy for control and cleaning processes. Biotechnological way for searching natural product antifouling compounds gained momentum in recent years because of the environmental pollution associated with the use of toxic chemicals to control biofouling. While, natural product based antifoulants from marine organisms particularly sponges and corals attained significance due to their activities in field assays, collection of larger amount of organisms from the sea is not a viable one. The microorganisms associated with sponges, corals, ascidians, seaweeds and seagrasses showed strong antimicrobial and also antifouling activities. This review highlights the advances in natural product antifoulants research from microbes associated with marine organisms.

  12. Cybernetically sound organizational structures II: Relating de Sitter's design theory to Beer's viable system model

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Achterbergh, J.M.I.M.; Vriens, D.J.

    2011-01-01

    - Purpose – The purpose of this paper is to show how the viable system model (VSM) and de Sitter's design theory can complement each other in the context of the diagnosis and design of viable organizations. - Design/methodology/approach – Key concepts from Beer's model and de Sitter's design theory

  13. Global zero-carbon energy pathways using viable mixes of nuclear and renewables

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hong, Sanghyun; Bradshaw, Corey J.A.; Brook, Barry W.

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • A proper mix of nuclear power and renewables achieves sustainable energy future. • A high nuclear share provides cost and land effectiveness compared to nuclear-free. • Only-renewable mix will increase negative economic and environmental impacts. • A deployment of advanced reactor technologies is essential to overcome limitations. - Abstract: What are the most viable global pathways for a major expansion of zero-carbon emissions electricity sources given the diversity of regional technical, socio-political and economic constraints? We modelled a range of zero-emissions energy scenarios across nations that were designed to meet projected final energy demand in 2060, and optimised to derive the best globally aggregated results in terms of minimising costs and land use (a surrogate for environmental impacts). We found that a delayed energy transition to a zero-emissions pathway will decrease investment costs (−$3,431 billion), but increase cumulative CO 2 emissions (additional 696 Gt). A renewable-only scenario would convert >7.4% of the global land area to energy production, whereas a maximum nuclear scenario would affect <0.4% of land area, including mining, spent-fuel storage, and buffer zones. Moreover, a nuclear-free pathway would involve up to a 50% greater cumulative capital investment compared to a high nuclear penetration scenario ($73.7 trillion). However, for some nations with a high current share of renewables and a low projected future energy demand (e.g., Norway), pursuit of a higher nuclear share is suboptimal. In terms of the time frame for replacement of fossil fuels, achieving a global nuclear share of about 50% by 2060 would be a technically and economically plausible target if progressing at a pace of the average historical growth of nuclear power penetration in France from 1970 to 1986 (0.28 MWh person −1 year -1 ). For effective climate-change mitigation, a high penetration of nuclear in association with a nationally

  14. ¡VAMOS! (Viable Alternative Mine Operating System) - a 'Horizon 2020' project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sword, Cameron; Bodo, Balazs; Kapusniak, Stef; Bosman, Frank; Rainbird, Jenny; Silva, Eduardo

    2017-04-01

    The 42-month ¡VAMOS! project (Viable Alternative Mine Operating System, Grant Agreement 642477, www.vamos-project.eu), funded by the EC H2020 Programme, will enable access to high-grade EU reserves of mineral ore-bodies by developing an innovative clean and low visibility mining technique. The project will demonstrate the technological and economic viability of the underwater extraction of metallic mineral deposits which are currently technologically, economically, and environmentally unobtainable. In doing so, ¡VAMOS! hopes to encourage investment in abandoned open-pit mines and prospective mines, helping to put the EU back on a level playing field with the rest of the world in terms of access to strategically important minerals. The ¡VAMOS! concept is defined by a remotely-operated underwater mining vehicle, adapted and improved from existing subsea mining technology. Operating in tandem with an HROV, the mining vehicle will connect to a flexible riser through which slurried mined material will be pumped from the mudline to onshore dewatering facilities via a floating mobile deployment-module, on which will be fitted a bypass system linked to an LIBS, allowing real-time grade-control. Analysis of European and national regulation and stakeholder assessments found there is significant support for developing the technology among local communities and governments. An initial environmental assessment of the potential impact of the innovative mining operation concluded the project has a smaller environmental footprint than conventional mining operations: this is due to factors including the quieter operation and absence of blasting, zero water-table flux, and the higher stripping ratio enabled by higher fluid pressure acting on the sidewalls of the mine. The prototypes are currently in their construction phase following a final design freeze in October 2016. Work is now underway on the foresight visioning, economic evaluation and policy guidelines for the

  15. Can Malin's gravitational-field equations be modified to obtain a viable theory of gravity to obtain a viable theory of gravity to obtain a viable theory of gravity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smalley, L.L.; Prestage, J.

    1976-01-01

    Malin's gravitational theory, which was recently shown by Lindblom and Nester to be incorrect, is modified by means of a recently proposed method for obtaining viable gravitational theories. The resulting self-consistent theory, which is in effect a Rastall-type modification of the Einstein theory, exhibits nonconservation of momentum, yet agrees with all experimental limits known to date within the PPN framework

  16. Marine Renewable Energy in the Mediterranean Sea: Status and Perspectives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Takvor H. Soukissian

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available In this work, an extended overview of the marine renewable energy in the Mediterranean Sea is provided as regards current status, potential problems, challenges, and perspectives of development. An integrated and holistic approach is necessary for the economic viability and sustainability of marine renewable energy projects; this approach comprises three different frameworks, not always aligned, i.e., geotechnical/engineering, socio-economic, and environmental/ecological frameworks. In this context, the geomorphological, climatological, socio-economic, and environmental/ecological particularities of the Mediterranean basin are discussed, as they constitute key issues of the spatial context in which marine renewable energy projects are to be implemented. General guidelines for the sustainable development of marine renewable energy in the Mediterranean are also provided.

  17. Marine nitrogen cycle

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Naqvi, S.W.A.

    ) such as the Marine nitrogen cycle The marine nitrogen cycle. ‘X’ and ‘Y’ are intra-cellular intermediates that do not accumulate in water column. (Source: Codispoti et al., 2001) Page 1 of 3Marine nitrogen cycle - Encyclopedia of Earth 11/20/2006http://www... and nitrous oxide budgets: Moving targets as we enter the anthropocene?, Sci. Mar., 65, 85-105, 2001. Page 2 of 3Marine nitrogen cycle - Encyclopedia of Earth 11/20/2006http://www.eoearth.org/article/Marine_nitrogen_cycle square6 Gruber, N.: The dynamics...

  18. Carotenoids in Marine Animals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maoka, Takashi

    2011-01-01

    Marine animals contain various carotenoids that show structural diversity. These marine animals accumulate carotenoids from foods such as algae and other animals and modify them through metabolic reactions. Many of the carotenoids present in marine animals are metabolites of β-carotene, fucoxanthin, peridinin, diatoxanthin, alloxanthin, and astaxanthin, etc. Carotenoids found in these animals provide the food chain as well as metabolic pathways. In the present review, I will describe marine animal carotenoids from natural product chemistry, metabolism, food chain, and chemosystematic viewpoints, and also describe new structural carotenoids isolated from marine animals over the last decade. PMID:21566799

  19. Marine Robot Autonomy

    CERN Document Server

    2013-01-01

    Autonomy for Marine Robots provides a timely and insightful overview of intelligent autonomy in marine robots. A brief history of this emerging field is provided, along with a discussion of the challenges unique to the underwater environment and their impact on the level of intelligent autonomy required.  Topics covered at length examine advanced frameworks, path-planning, fault tolerance, machine learning, and cooperation as relevant to marine robots that need intelligent autonomy.  This book also: Discusses and offers solutions for the unique challenges presented by more complex missions and the dynamic underwater environment when operating autonomous marine robots Includes case studies that demonstrate intelligent autonomy in marine robots to perform underwater simultaneous localization and mapping  Autonomy for Marine Robots is an ideal book for researchers and engineers interested in the field of marine robots.      

  20. Nature's Way of Making Audacious Space Projects Viable

    Science.gov (United States)

    Metzger, Philip T.

    2011-01-01

    Building a starship within the next 100 years is an audacious goal. To be successful, we need sustained funding that may be difficult to maintain in the face of economic challenges that are poised to arise during these next 100 years. Our species' civilization has only recently reached the classification as (approximately) Type-I on the Kardashev scale; that is, we have spread out from one small locality to become a global species mastering the energy and resources of an entire planet. In the process we discovered the profound truth that the two-dimensional surface of our world is not flat, but has positive curvature and is closed so that its area and resources are finite. It should come as no surprise to a Type I civilization when its planet's resources dWindle; how could they not? Yet we have gone year by year, government by government, making little investment for the time when civilization becomes violent in the unwelcome contractions that must follow, when we are forced too late into the inevitable choice: to remain and diminish on an unhappy world; or to expand into the only dimension remaining perpendicularly outward from the surface into space. Then some day we may become a Type-II civilization, mastering the resources of an entire solar system. Our species cannot continue as we have on this planet for another 100 years. Doubtless it falls on us today, the very time we intended to start building a starship, to make the late choice. We wished this century to be filled with enlightenment and adventure; it could be an age of desperation and war. What a time to begin an audacious project in space! How will we maintain consistent funding for the next 100 years? Fortunately, saving a civilization, mastering a solar system, and doing other great things like building starships amount to mostly the same set of tasks. Recognizing what we must be about during the next 100 years will make it possible to do them all.

  1. Present status and problems of marine reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1987-01-01

    The activities of the Research Committee on Marine Reactors are summarized, and the present status of marine reactors on the world is reviewed. The characteristics of marine reactors are discussed, and the prospect and problems of the research and development of an advanced marine reactor in Japan are reported. This Committee was established in fiscal year 1983, when the 'Mutsu' project was going to be on the right track, and the project of developing an advanced marine reactor was advanced. During four years since then, it has carried out the investigation and exchanged opinion about the activities and results of the research in foreign countries and Japan and the problems peculiar to marine reactors, that is, making small size and light weight reactors, the rolling and pitching, vibration and impact of ship hulls, the competitive power against conventional ships and so on. The idea of utilizing atomic energy for ship propulsion preceded that of electricity generation, and it was materialized in 1955 by the submarine 'Nautilus'. Now more than 300 nuclear war ships have been commissioned. Also nuclear merchant ships have been built, but the research and development were interrupted because of their economical efficiency. (Kako, I.)

  2. Monitoring of radioactivity in the marine environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bologa, A.S.

    1992-01-01

    The necessity of radioactivity monitoring in the marine environment was imposed by the increasing development of nuclear power and its world-wide use in many different segments of economic and social life. Both natural and artificial radioactivity play an important role in marine ecology and human health. In this respect three major facts continue to prevail in Romania. The fallout, the presence of the Danube river and the expectations for future energy production. Spatial and temporal monitoring of marine radioactivity along the Romanian Black Sea shore has been systematically performed in the Romanian Marine Research Institute in close co-operation with the Institute of Meteorology and Hydrology since 1981. Marine emerged and submerged sediments, coastal and offshore sea water, macroalgae, in vertebrates and fish off the Danube mouths and/or along the coast are monitored for natural and artificial radioactivity by means of beta gross measurements and gamma spectrometry. Concentrations of radionuclides as K-40, Cs-134, Cs-137 in abiotic and biotic samples, environmental distributions coefficients and concentrations factors (CF), as well as experimentally-derived CFs in marine biota as radioecological bioindicators are assessed and stored for a national data base. (author) 3 tabs., 18 refs

  3. Global Priorities for Marine Biodiversity Conservation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Selig, Elizabeth R.; Turner, Will R.; Troëng, Sebastian; Wallace, Bryan P.; Halpern, Benjamin S.; Kaschner, Kristin; Lascelles, Ben G.; Carpenter, Kent E.; Mittermeier, Russell A.

    2014-01-01

    In recent decades, many marine populations have experienced major declines in abundance, but we still know little about where management interventions may help protect the highest levels of marine biodiversity. We used modeled spatial distribution data for nearly 12,500 species to quantify global patterns of species richness and two measures of endemism. By combining these data with spatial information on cumulative human impacts, we identified priority areas where marine biodiversity is most and least impacted by human activities, both within Exclusive Economic Zones (EEZs) and Areas Beyond National Jurisdiction (ABNJ). Our analyses highlighted places that are both accepted priorities for marine conservation like the Coral Triangle, as well as less well-known locations in the southwest Indian Ocean, western Pacific Ocean, Arctic and Antarctic Oceans, and within semi-enclosed seas like the Mediterranean and Baltic Seas. Within highly impacted priority areas, climate and fishing were the biggest stressors. Although new priorities may arise as we continue to improve marine species range datasets, results from this work are an essential first step in guiding limited resources to regions where investment could best sustain marine biodiversity. PMID:24416151

  4. Global priorities for marine biodiversity conservation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elizabeth R Selig

    Full Text Available In recent decades, many marine populations have experienced major declines in abundance, but we still know little about where management interventions may help protect the highest levels of marine biodiversity. We used modeled spatial distribution data for nearly 12,500 species to quantify global patterns of species richness and two measures of endemism. By combining these data with spatial information on cumulative human impacts, we identified priority areas where marine biodiversity is most and least impacted by human activities, both within Exclusive Economic Zones (EEZs and Areas Beyond National Jurisdiction (ABNJ. Our analyses highlighted places that are both accepted priorities for marine conservation like the Coral Triangle, as well as less well-known locations in the southwest Indian Ocean, western Pacific Ocean, Arctic and Antarctic Oceans, and within semi-enclosed seas like the Mediterranean and Baltic Seas. Within highly impacted priority areas, climate and fishing were the biggest stressors. Although new priorities may arise as we continue to improve marine species range datasets, results from this work are an essential first step in guiding limited resources to regions where investment could best sustain marine biodiversity.

  5. Climate sensitivity of marine energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Harrison, G.P.; Wallace, A.R.

    2005-01-01

    Marine energy has a significant role to play in lowering carbon emissions within the energy sector. Paradoxically, it may be susceptible to changes in climate that will result from rising carbon emissions. Wind patterns are expected to change and this will alter wave regimes. Despite a lack of definite proof of a link to global warming, wind and wave conditions have been changing over the past few decades. Changes in the wind and wave climate will affect offshore wind and wave energy conversion: where the resource is constrained, production and economic performance may suffer; alternatively, stormier climates may create survival issues. Here, a relatively simple sensitivity study is used to quantify how changes in mean wind speed - as a proxy for wider climate change - influence wind and wave energy production and economics. (author)

  6. Quantum economics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vukotić Veselin

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The globalization is breaking-down the idea of national state, which was the base for the development of economic theory which is dominant today. Global economic crisis puts emphasis on limited possibilities of national governments in solving economic problems and general problems of society. Does it also mean that globalization and global economic crisis points out the need to think about new economic theory and new understanding of economics? In this paper I will argue that globalization reveals the need to change dominant economic paradigm - from traditional economic theory (mainstream with macroeconomic stability as the goal of economic policy, to the “quantum economics“, which is based on “economic quantum” and immanent to the increase of wealth (material and non-material of every individual in society and promoting set of values immanent to the wealth increase as the goal of economic policy. Practically the question is how we can use global market for our development!

  7. On-Demand Spare Parts for the Marine Industry with Directed Energy Deposition : Propeller Use Case

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ya, Wei; Hamilton, Kelvin; Meboldt, Mirko; Klahn, Christoph

    2017-01-01

    As additive manufacturing (AM) gains greater industrial exposure, there is a drive towards defining practical, high-value processes and products. Defining viable business cases is critical to ensure successful technology adoption. Given the marine industry’s slow uptake of AM, the potential of Wire

  8. Pathways and Microbiology of Thiosulfate Transformations and Sulfate Reduction in a Marine Sediment (Kattegat, Denmark)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    JØRGENSEN, BB; BAK, F.

    1991-01-01

    Reductive and oxidative pathways of the sulfur cycle were studied in a marine sediment by parallel radiotracer experiments with (SO4(2-))-S-35, (H2S)-S-35, and (S2O3(2-))-S-35 injected into undisturbed sediment cores. The distributions of viable populations of sulfate- and thiosulfate-reducing ba...

  9. Non-viable antagonist cells are associated with reduced biocontrol performance by viable cells of the yeast Papiliotrema flavescens against Fusarium head blight of wheat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Microbially-based plant disease control products have achieved commercial market success, but the efficacy of such biocontrol products is sometimes deemed inconsistent. Improper processing of harvested microbial biomass or long-term storage can reduce the proportion of viable cells and necessitate t...

  10. 77 FR 27720 - Takes of Marine Mammals Incidental to Specified Activities; Taking Marine Mammals Incidental to...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-05-11

    ...-injurious) thresholds for underwater sound sources (except explosives and tactical active sonar) based on... this recommendation as a mitigation measure to be impracticable for both economic and practical reasons... vessel activity, Apache will follow NMFS' Marine Mammal Viewing Guidelines and Regulations and will alter...

  11. Marine Environmental History

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Poulsen, Bo

    2012-01-01

    human society and natural marine resources. Within this broad topic, several trends and objectives are discernable. The essay argue that the so-called material marine environmental history has its main focus on trying to reconstruct the presence, development and environmental impact of past fisheries......This essay provides an overview of recent trends in the historiography of marine environmental history, a sub-field of environmental history which has grown tremendously in scope and size over the last c. 15 years. The object of marine environmental history is the changing relationship between...... and whaling operations. This ambition often entails a reconstruction also of how marine life has changed over time. The time frame rages from Paleolithicum to the present era. The field of marine environmental history also includes a more culturally oriented environmental history, which mainly has come...

  12. Mathematical modelling of the viable epidermis: impact of cell shape and vertical arrangement

    KAUST Repository

    Wittum, Rebecca; Naegel, Arne; Heisig, Michael; Wittum, Gabriel

    2017-01-01

    In-silico methods are valuable tools for understanding the barrier function of the skin. The key benefit is that mathematical modelling allows the interplay between cell shape and function to be elucidated. This study focuses on the viable (living

  13. Solar System constraints on a cosmologically viable f(R) theory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bisabr, Yousef, E-mail: y-bisabr@srttu.ed [Department of Physics, Shahid Rajaee Teacher Training University, Lavizan, Tehran 16788 (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

    2010-01-18

    Recently, a model f(R) theory is proposed (Miranda et al. (2009)) which is cosmologically viable and distinguishable from LAMBDACDM. We use chameleon mechanism to investigate viability of the model in terms of Solar System experiments.

  14. Establishment of a Viable Population of Red-Cockaded Woodpeckers at the Savannah River Site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Johnston, P.A.

    2002-01-01

    Report on program's objective to restore viable population of Red-cockaded woodpecker at SRS. Several management strategies were used to promote population expansion of Red-cockaded woodpecker and reduction of interspecific competition with Red-Cockaded woodpecker

  15. Solar System constraints on a cosmologically viable f(R) theory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bisabr, Yousef

    2010-01-01

    Recently, a model f(R) theory is proposed (Miranda et al. (2009)) which is cosmologically viable and distinguishable from ΛCDM. We use chameleon mechanism to investigate viability of the model in terms of Solar System experiments.

  16. Entry of Vibrio harveyi and Vibrio fischeri into the viable but nonculturable state

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Ramaiah, Neelam; Ravel, J.; Straube, W.L.; Hill, R.T.; Colwell, R.R.

    , direct viable counts, actively respiring cell counts, nucleoid-containing cell counts, and total counts were determined. V. harveyi incubated at 22 degrees C nutrient-limited artificial seawater (ASW) became nonculturable after approximately 62 and 45 d...

  17. Immediate natural tooth pontic: A viable yet temporary prosthetic solution: A patient reported outcome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sudhir Bhandari

    2012-01-01

    Conclusion: The concept of immediate pontic placement is surely a viable treatment option and promises an excellent transient esthetic solution for a lost tooth as well as enables good preparation of the extraction site for future prosthetic replacement.

  18. Improved identification of viable myocardium using second harmonic imaging during dobutamine stress echocardiography

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    F. Sozzi (Fabiola); D. Poldermans (Don); J.J. Bax (Jeroen); A. Elhendy (Abdou); E.C. Vourvouri (Eleni); R. Valkema (Roelf); J. de Sutter; A.F.L. Schinkel (Arend); A. Borghetti; J.R.T.C. Roelandt (Jos)

    2001-01-01

    textabstractOBJECTIVE: To determine whether, compared with fundamental imaging, second harmonic imaging can improve the accuracy of dobutamine stress echocardiography for identifying viable myocardium, using nuclear imaging as a reference. PATIENTS: 30 patients with chronic left

  19. Marine electrical practice

    CERN Document Server

    Watson, G O

    1991-01-01

    Marine Engineering Series: Marine Electrical Practice, Sixth Edition focuses on changes in the marine industry, including the application of programmable electronic systems, generators, and motors. The publication first ponders on insulation and temperature ratings of equipment, protection and discrimination, and AC generators. Discussions focus on construction, shaft-drive generators, effect of unbalanced loading, subtransient and transient reactance, protection discrimination, fault current, measurement of ambient air temperature, and basis of machine ratings. The text then examines AC switc

  20. Assessing the Economic and Environmental Prospects of Stand-By ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This paper presents an economic analysis of two stand-by power supply options for a typical Nigerian household namely diesel generator plant and solar powered systems. The analysis reveals that solar systems are the most economically viable. The environmental benefits associated with substituting diesel powered ...

  1. Biosurfactants from marine microorganisms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suppasil Maneerat

    2005-11-01

    Full Text Available Biosurfactants are the surface-active molecules synthesized by microorganisms. With the advantage of environmental compatibility, the demand for biosurfactants has been steadily increasing and may eventually replace their chemically synthesized counterparts. Marine biosurfactants produced by some marine microorganisms have been paid more attention, particularly for the bioremediation of the sea polluted by crude oil. This review describes screening of biosurfactant-producing microorganisms, the determination of biosurfactant activity as well as the recovery of marine surfactant. The uses of marine biosurfactants for bioremediation are also discussed.

  2. Characterizing Marine Soundscapes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erbe, Christine; McCauley, Robert; Gavrilov, Alexander

    2016-01-01

    The study of marine soundscapes is becoming widespread and the amount of data collected is increasing rapidly. Data owners (typically academia, industry, government, and defense) are negotiating data sharing and generating potential for data syntheses, comparative studies, analyses of trends, and large-scale and long-term acoustic ecology research. A problem is the lack of standards and commonly agreed protocols for the recording of marine soundscapes, data analysis, and reporting that make a synthesis and comparison of results difficult. We provide a brief overview of the components in a marine soundscape, the hard- and software tools for recording and analyzing marine soundscapes, and common reporting formats.

  3. Marine energies. Industries are hunting costs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moragues, Manuel

    2015-01-01

    While a map locates various offshore hydro-kinetic energy projects at the vicinity of Scottish and French coasts, offshore wind farms (North Sea and Mediterranean sea) and also temperature differential marine plant in Martinique, this article discusses the technical and therefore economic challenges faced by the development of marine energies. They are related to the marine environment (wind, swell, currents). These strength requirements concern hydro-kinetic machines as well as floating wind turbines which must be balanced to resist to wind and swell (the Nenuphar project is evoked). Issues of performance and efficiency are present in the Nemo project in Martinique which exploits a rather small temperature differential. Other technological challenges concern the transport of this offshore production of electricity to the ground while reducing losses. For all these aspects, the article mentions the main French actors, notably DCNS, Alstom, and the start-up MPrime Innovation

  4. Oil spill response in the marine environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Doerffer, J.W.

    1992-01-01

    The rapid economic development of many countries since World War II has caused a considerable increase in marine transportation of raw materials, especially of crude oils and in offshore activities. However, a significant amount of oil comes into the sea from operational discharges of ships (ballast and bilge water) as well as from incidents such as collisions, groundings and contacts, and offshore exploration and exploitation of oil and gas. These incidents have been the pivotal points in the approach of maritime nations to the protection of the marine environment through international legislation and implementation of rigorous requirements concerning the construction and exploitation of ships and offshore platforms, limiting the possibility and extent of oil spills. A new danger for marine environments has ensued recently though the increasing maritime transport of chemicals. The aim of this book is to introduce these problems, and reflect the level and trends of development in this field. (Author)

  5. How Close We Are to Achieving Commercially Viable Large-Scale Photobiological Hydrogen Production by Cyanobacteria: A Review of the Biological Aspects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sakurai, Hidehiro; Masukawa, Hajime; Kitashima, Masaharu; Inoue, Kazuhito

    2015-01-01

    Photobiological production of H2 by cyanobacteria is considered to be an ideal source of renewable energy because the inputs, water and sunlight, are abundant. The products of photobiological systems are H2 and O2; the H2 can be used as the energy source of fuel cells, etc., which generate electricity at high efficiencies and minimal pollution, as the waste product is H2O. Overall, production of commercially viable algal fuels in any form, including biomass and biodiesel, is challenging, and the very few systems that are operational have yet to be evaluated. In this paper we will: briefly review some of the necessary conditions for economical production, summarize the reports of photobiological H2 production by cyanobacteria, present our schemes for future production, and discuss the necessity for further progress in the research needed to achieve commercially viable large-scale H2 production. PMID:25793279

  6. Alternative Methods for Marine Harpacticoid Copepod, Macrosetella gracilis Production in Marine Fish Larviculture

    OpenAIRE

    N. Jeyaraj; P. Santhanam; P. Raju; S. Ananth; K. Jothiraj

    2014-01-01

    Sustainable aquaculture depends upon eco-friendly, economically and socially viable culture systems. The recycling of organic wastes for plankton culture serves the dual purpose of cleaning the environment and providing economic benefits. There has been no experimentation to measure the effect of organic manure for the aquaculture of copepods, it may be reduced time and labor cost. Hence, the present experiment was conducted to evaluate the mass culture feasibili...

  7. Quantitative assessment of viable Cryptosporidium parvum load in commercial oysters (Crassostrea virginica) in the Chesapeake Bay.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Graczyk, Thaddeus K; Lewis, Earl J; Glass, Gregory; Dasilva, Alexandre J; Tamang, Leena; Girouard, Autumn S; Curriero, Frank C

    2007-01-01

    The epidemiological importance of increasing reports worldwide on Cryptosporidium contamination of oysters remains unknown in relation to foodborne cryptosporidiosis. Thirty market-size oysters (Crassostrea virginica), collected from each of 53 commercial harvesting sites in Chesapeake Bay, MD, were quantitatively tested in groups of six for Cryptosporidium sp. oocysts by immunofluorescent antibody (IFA). After IFA analysis, the samples were retrospectively retested for viable Cryptosporidium parvum oocysts by combined fluorescent in situ hybridization (FISH) and IFA. The mean cumulative numbers of Cryptosporidium sp. oocysts in six oysters (overall, 42.1+/-4.1) were significantly higher than in the numbers of viable C. parvum oocysts (overall, 28.0+/-2.9). Of 265 oyster groups, 221 (83.4%) contained viable C. parvum oocysts, and overall, from 10-32% (mean, 23%) of the total viable oocysts were identified in the hemolymph as distinct from gill washings. The amount of viable C. parvum oocysts was not related to oyster size or to the level of fecal coliforms at the sampling site. This study demonstrated that, although oysters are frequently contaminated with oocysts, the levels of viable oocysts may be too low to cause infection in healthy individuals. FISH assay for identification can be retrospectively applied to properly stored samples.

  8. Spatiotemporal Dynamics of Total Viable Vibrio spp. in a NW Mediterranean Coastal Area.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Girard, Léa; Peuchet, Sébastien; Servais, Pierre; Henry, Annabelle; Charni-Ben-Tabassi, Nadine; Baudart, Julia

    2017-09-27

    A cellular approach combining Direct Viable Counting and Fluorescent In Situ Hybridization using a one-step multiple-probe technique and Solid Phase Cytometry (DVC-FISH-SPC) was developed to monitor total viable vibrios and cover the detection of a large diversity of vibrios. FISH combined three probes in the same assay and targeted sequences located at different positions on the 16S rRNA of Vibrio and Aliivibrio members. We performed a 10-month in situ study to investigate the weekly dynamics of viable vibrios relative to culturable counts at two northwestern Mediterranean coastal sites, and identified the key physicochemical factors for their occurrence in water using a multivariate analysis. Total viable and culturable cell counts showed the same temporal pattern during the warmer season, whereas the ratios between both methods were inverted during the colder seasons (<15°C), indicating that some of the vibrio community had entered into a viable but non-culturable (VBNC) state. We confirmed that Seawater Surface Temperature explained 51-62% of the total variance in culturable counts, and also showed that the occurrence of viable vibrios is controlled by two variables, pheopigment (15%) and phosphate (12%) concentrations, suggesting that other unidentified factors play a role in maintaining viability.

  9. Effectiveness of the Marine Corps’ Junior Enlisted Performance Evaluation System: An Evaluation of Proficiency and Conduct Marks

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-03-01

    courses, college credits received from traditional and vocational educational institutes , and through the College Level Examination Program (CLEP). 4...21 A. LABOR ECONOMIC THEORY : INTERNAL LABOR MARKETS...Corps IRAM Individual Records Administrative Manual MCI Marine Corps Institute MCSF Marine Corps Security Forces MCU Marine Corps University

  10. Public perspective towards marine litter in West Aceh City

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kusumawati, I.; Setyowati, M.; Riana, E.; Prartono, T.

    2018-03-01

    Marine litter or marine debris is a man-made solid material discarded, abandoned or lost in coastline or into the sea. To reduce the amount of marine litter in the ocean, raising public awareness is an important way. One of the contributing factors on marine litter is the lack of understanding within the community, but to identify how people notice the problem is required adequate research literature. The purpose of this study is to examine the awareness of West Aceh community on marine litter along western coastal area. The research objectives; 1) to evaluate societal perception towards marine litter; 2) to examine the urgent indicator of public awareness in West Aceh City. This study will employ a survey approach by distributing questionnaires to 383 respondents. It was found that respondents show low awareness on marine litter according to statistical data, but there are some rooms to manage in order to raise the level of public awareness. It concludes that sense of responsibility could be enhanced by involving public in any activities for preventing and eradicating marine litter. Education aspect is also important to increase public understanding about the threats of marine debris on environment, human health and economic income.

  11. Economic Theory, Economic Reality And Economic Policy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dmitry Evgenievich Sorokin

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available This paper analyzes the opposition between the «liberals» and «statists» in the Russian political and economic thought. It demonstrates that the economic liberalization is an absolute prerequisite for the transition to sustainable socio-economic development. Such development must rely on investment activities of the state, which in the current circumstances is a necessary but not sufficient measure for reversing the negative trends. The negative developments can be prevented only through implementation, along with the institutional changes in the economic area that form a strata of economically independent entrepreneurs-innovators, of no less profound transformation in political institutions aimed at democratization of public life

  12. Marine Enzymes and Microorganisms for Bioethanol Production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swain, M R; Natarajan, V; Krishnan, C

    Bioethanol is a potential alternative fuel to fossil fuels. Bioethanol as a fuel has several economic and environmental benefits. Though bioethanol is produced using starch and sugarcane juice, these materials are in conflict with food availability. To avoid food-fuel conflict, the second-generation bioethanol production by utilizing nonfood lignocellulosic materials has been extensively investigated. However, due to the complexity of lignocellulose architecture, the process is complicated and not economically competitive. The cultivation of lignocellulosic energy crops indirectly affects the food supplies by extensive land use. Marine algae have attracted attention to replace the lignocellulosic feedstock for bioethanol production, since the algae grow fast, do not use land, avoid food-fuel conflict and have several varieties to suit the cultivation environment. The composition of algae is not as complex as lignocellulose due to the absence of lignin, which renders easy hydrolysis of polysaccharides to fermentable sugars. Marine organisms also produce cold-active enzymes for hydrolysis of starch, cellulose, and algal polysaccharides, which can be employed in bioethanol process. Marine microoorganisms are also capable of fermenting sugars under high salt environment. Therefore, marine biocatalysts are promising for development of efficient processes for bioethanol production. © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Internet economics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Henten, Anders; Skouby, Knud Erik; Øst, Alexander Gorm

    1997-01-01

    A paper on the economics of the Internet with respect to end user pricing and pricing og interconnect.......A paper on the economics of the Internet with respect to end user pricing and pricing og interconnect....

  14. Can the social market economy be a viable solution for a future sustainable development of the Romanian economy?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Strat Vasile Alecsandru

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Social market economy (SME is a socio-economic model which attempts to unite the freedom of a competitive market economy with social equilibrium and progress. It is seen as a “third path” besides a purely liberal market economy and an economy which is heavily regulated by the state – in the SME there is an intermediate degree of regulation. Historically, the model corresponds to the real economic policy of the German Federal Republic after the 1950s, thus it is sometimes called Rhine capitalism. According to the Treaty of Lisbon from 2007, the European Union pursues a competitive social market economy with full employment and social progress. On one hand, this model wishes to exploit the advantages of a free market economy, especially its high efficiency in the production of goods, while on the other hand it uses state intervention to correct for potential negative outcomes from market processes. Further characteristics of this model are: ensuring competition, free price formation, private property, motivating performance through profit aspirations as well as guarding personal freedoms. Last but not least, this model encompasses a strong structural policy by encouraging weaker geographical regions or industries. Therefore, it is highly probable that such a socio-economic model might be the appropriate alternative to fuel a sustainable growth of the Romanian economy. Using county level data, from the National Institute of Statistics and from the National Office of the Trade Register, for the year 2015 we show that the Romanian economy is highly polarized with a few growth poles (islands and a large number of underdeveloped units. Thus, it becomes obvious that these important disparities will hinder a future sustainable development and by consequence a clear “road-map” represented by this economic model might prove to be a viable solution for the Romanian economy.

  15. Expression of proposed implantation marker genes CDX2 and HOXB7 in the blastocyst does not distinguish viable from non-viable human embryos

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kirkegaard, Kirstine; Hindkjær, Johnny Juhl; Ingerslev, Hans Jakob

    2012-01-01

    expression differs between viable and non-viable embryos in both human and non-humans, suggesting transcriptome analysis of trophectoderm (TE) as a novel method of improving embryo selection. Potential candidate marker genes have been identified with array studies on animal blastocysts. The aim of this study...... was to investigate the expression of selected genes in human blastocysts in relation to the outcome of implantation. Materials and methods: Embryos from 10 oatients undergoing in vitro fertilization treatment were included in the project. A single blastocyst was chosen for biopsy on the morning of day 5 after oocyte...... of 15 key genes associated with developmental competence in animals were evaluated in high quality human embryos with monogenic or chromosomal disorders from a pre-implantation genetic disorder program. Triplicate cDNA amplifications for quantitative (q) RT-PCR were performed using pre-designed gene...

  16. Hypoxia in the changing marine environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang, J; Cowie, G; Naqvi, S W A

    2013-01-01

    The predicted future of the global marine environment, as a combined result of forcing due to climate change (e.g. warming and acidification) and other anthropogenic perturbation (e.g. eutrophication), presents a challenge to the sustainability of ecosystems from tropics to high latitudes. Among the various associated phenomena of ecosystem deterioration, hypoxia can cause serious problems in coastal areas as well as oxygen minimum zones in the open ocean (Diaz and Rosenberg 2008 Science 321 926–9, Stramma et al 2008 Science 320 655–8). The negative impacts of hypoxia include changes in populations of marine organisms, such as large-scale mortality and behavioral responses, as well as variations of species distributions, biodiversity, physiological stress, and other sub-lethal effects (e.g. growth and reproduction). Social and economic activities that are related to services provided by the marine ecosystems, such as tourism and fisheries, can be negatively affected by the aesthetic outcomes as well as perceived or real impacts on seafood quality (STAP 2011 (Washington, DC: Global Environment Facility) p 88). Moreover, low oxygen concentration in marine waters can have considerable feedbacks to other compartments of the Earth system, like the emission of greenhouse gases to the atmosphere, and can affect the global biogeochemical cycles of nutrients and trace elements. It is of critical importance to prediction and adaptation strategies that the key processes of hypoxia in marine environments be precisely determined and understood (cf Zhang et al 2010 Biogeosciences 7 1–24). (synthesis and review)

  17. Hypoxia in the changing marine environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, J.; Cowie, G.; Naqvi, S. W. A.

    2013-03-01

    The predicted future of the global marine environment, as a combined result of forcing due to climate change (e.g. warming and acidification) and other anthropogenic perturbation (e.g. eutrophication), presents a challenge to the sustainability of ecosystems from tropics to high latitudes. Among the various associated phenomena of ecosystem deterioration, hypoxia can cause serious problems in coastal areas as well as oxygen minimum zones in the open ocean (Diaz and Rosenberg 2008 Science 321 926-9, Stramma et al 2008 Science 320 655-8). The negative impacts of hypoxia include changes in populations of marine organisms, such as large-scale mortality and behavioral responses, as well as variations of species distributions, biodiversity, physiological stress, and other sub-lethal effects (e.g. growth and reproduction). Social and economic activities that are related to services provided by the marine ecosystems, such as tourism and fisheries, can be negatively affected by the aesthetic outcomes as well as perceived or real impacts on seafood quality (STAP 2011 (Washington, DC: Global Environment Facility) p 88). Moreover, low oxygen concentration in marine waters can have considerable feedbacks to other compartments of the Earth system, like the emission of greenhouse gases to the atmosphere, and can affect the global biogeochemical cycles of nutrients and trace elements. It is of critical importance to prediction and adaptation strategies that the key processes of hypoxia in marine environments be precisely determined and understood (cf Zhang et al 2010 Biogeosciences 7 1-24).

  18. Marine Mammal Protection Act

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The Marine Mammal Protection Act (MMPA or Act) prohibits, with certain exceptions, the "take" of marine mammals in U.S. waters and by U.S. citizens on the high seas,...

  19. Marine gamma spectrometric survey

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kostoglodov, V.V.

    1979-01-01

    Presented are theoretical problems physical and geochemical prerequisites and possibilities of practical application of the method of continuous submarine gamma-spectrometric survey and radiometric survey destined for rapid study of the surface layer of marine sediments. Shown is high efficiency and advantages of this method in comparison with traditional and widely spread in marine geology methods of bottom sediments investigation

  20. Marine palynology in progress

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Manten, A.A.

    1966-01-01

    One of the things which the Second International Conference on Palynology (held in Utrecht, August 29-September 3, 1966) revealed, was the rapid expansion which marine palynological research has undergone in recent years. This was the main stimulus to organize this special issue of Marine

  1. Economic Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Recruitment Events Community Commitment Giving Campaigns, Drives Economic Development Employee Funded : Environmental Documents, Reports LANL Home Calendar Search Contacts Community » Economic Development LANL 75th logo Economic Development Los Alamos National Laboratory is committed to investing and partnering in

  2. RAF 7015: Strengthening Regional Capacities for Marine Risk Assessment Using Nuclear and Related Techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Okuku, E.; Mwangi, S.

    2017-01-01

    To develop and implement harmonized and integrated regional sea food safety monitoring in the MS through the application of nuclear techniques for enhanced sustainability of marine resource. Rapid urbanization and industrialization are causing alterations of the characteristics of marine environment thus threatening the ecosystem health and sustainability of marine environment and Affects public health, recreational water quality and economic viability.Threats to marine ecosystem include Over-exploitation, habitat destruction, Global warming- rise in SST, HABs and invasive species, Ocean acidification and Marine pollution

  3. DIRECTION OF MODERNIZATION OF THE ARCTIC MARINE TRANSPORTATION SYSTEM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. I. Komkov

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The article deals with the modern processes of formation and development of the marine transportation system in the Russian Arctic, analyzes its problem areas and reserves growth. Shows the status and prospects of development of cargo specialized fl eet of ice-class and icebreakers. Particular attention is paid to infrastructure, port management, port The possibility of creating special economic zones. Systematized direction of modernization of the Arctic marine transportation system.

  4. High Performance Marine Vessels

    CERN Document Server

    Yun, Liang

    2012-01-01

    High Performance Marine Vessels (HPMVs) range from the Fast Ferries to the latest high speed Navy Craft, including competition power boats and hydroplanes, hydrofoils, hovercraft, catamarans and other multi-hull craft. High Performance Marine Vessels covers the main concepts of HPMVs and discusses historical background, design features, services that have been successful and not so successful, and some sample data of the range of HPMVs to date. Included is a comparison of all HPMVs craft and the differences between them and descriptions of performance (hydrodynamics and aerodynamics). Readers will find a comprehensive overview of the design, development and building of HPMVs. In summary, this book: Focuses on technology at the aero-marine interface Covers the full range of high performance marine vessel concepts Explains the historical development of various HPMVs Discusses ferries, racing and pleasure craft, as well as utility and military missions High Performance Marine Vessels is an ideal book for student...

  5. Experimental Studies on the Hydrotreatment of Kraft Lignin to Aromatics and Alkylphenolics Using Economically Viable Fe-Based Catalysts

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-01-01

    Limonite, a low-cost iron ore, was investigated as a potential hydrotreatment catalyst for kraft lignin without the use of an external solvent (batch reactor, initial H2 pressure of 100 bar, 4 h). The best results were obtained at 450 °C resulting in 34 wt % of liquefied kraft lignin (lignin oil) on lignin intake. The composition of the lignin oil was determined in detail (elemental composition, GC-MS, GC×GC-FID, and GPC). The total GC-detectable monomeric species amounts up to 31 wt % on lignin intake, indicating that 92 wt % of the products in the lignin oil are volatile and thus of low molecular weight. The lignin oil was rich in low-molecular-weight alkylphenolics (17 wt % on lignin) and aromatics (8 wt % on lignin). Performance of the limonite catalyst was compared to other Fe-based catalysts (goethite and iron disulfide) and limonite was shown to give the highest yields of alkylphenolics and aromatics. The limonite catalyst before and after reaction was characterized using XRD, TEM, and nitrogen physisorption to determine changes in structure during reaction. Catalyst recycling tests were performed and show that the catalyst is active after reuse, despite the fact that the morphology changed and that the surface area of the catalyst particles was decreased. Our results clearly reveal that cheap limonite catalysts have the potential to be used for the depolymerization/hydrodeoxygenation of kraft lignin for the production of valuable biobased phenolics and aromatics. PMID:28413733

  6. Experimental Studies on the Hydrotreatment of Kraft Lignin to Aromatics and Alkylphenolics Using Economically Viable Fe-Based Catalysts

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Agarwal, Shilpa; Chowdari, Ramesh Kumar; Hita, Idoia; Heeres, Hero Jan

    Limonite, a low-cost iron ore, was investigated as a potential hydrotreatment catalyst for kraft lignin without the use of an external solvent (batch reactor, initial H-2 pressure of 100 bar, 4 h). The best results were obtained at 450 degrees C resulting in 34 wt % of liquefied kraft lignin (lignin

  7. Two-stage absorber systems - Economically viable combined heat and cold generation; Wirtschaftlicher Kraft-Waerme-Kaelte-Verbund

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Biniossek, H. [Giesecke und Devrient, Muenchen (Germany); Schmid, W. [Technische Gebaeudeausruestung, Muenchen (Germany)

    2008-07-01

    This article takes a look at how the possibilities of optimising power, heat and cold generation for the German Giesecke and Devrient company were examined and implemented. The company, which produces banknotes and chip-cards, chose the combination of a Combined Heat and Power (CHP) Unit and a two-stage absorber refrigeration system. The company's old system is briefly described and the reasons for replacing it are discussed. The careful dimensioning of the new system and the search for appropriate equipment are described. Intelligent power flows and a cooling system with two different temperature levels are described. Costs saved and emergency power generation are also looked at, as are the complex demands placed on the control of the system. The system's functioning is briefly described.

  8. Marine biodiversity of Aotearoa New Zealand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gordon, Dennis P; Beaumont, Jennifer; MacDiarmid, Alison; Robertson, Donald A; Ahyong, Shane T

    2010-08-02

    The marine-biodiversity assessment of New Zealand (Aotearoa as known to Māori) is confined to the 200 nautical-mile boundary of the Exclusive Economic Zone, which, at 4.2 million km(2), is one of the largest in the world. It spans 30 degrees of latitude and includes a high diversity of seafloor relief, including a trench 10 km deep. Much of this region remains unexplored biologically, especially the 50% of the EEZ deeper than 2,000 m. Knowledge of the marine biota is based on more than 200 years of marine exploration in the region. The major oceanographic data repository is the National Institute of Water and Atmospheric Research (NIWA), which is involved in several Census of Marine Life field projects and is the location of the Southwestern Pacific Regional OBIS Node; NIWA is also data manager and custodian for fisheries research data owned by the Ministry of Fisheries. Related data sources cover alien species, environmental measures, and historical information. Museum collections in New Zealand hold more than 800,000 registered lots representing several million specimens. During the past decade, 220 taxonomic specialists (85 marine) from 18 countries have been engaged in a project to review New Zealand's entire biodiversity. The above-mentioned marine information sources, published literature, and reports were scrutinized to give the results summarized here for the first time (current to 2010), including data on endemism and invasive species. There are 17,135 living species in the EEZ. This diversity includes 4,315 known undescribed species in collections. Species diversity for the most intensively studied phylum-level taxa (Porifera, Cnidaria, Mollusca, Brachiopoda, Bryozoa, Kinorhyncha, Echinodermata, Chordata) is more or less equivalent to that in the ERMS (European Register of Marine Species) region, which is 5.5 times larger in area than the New Zealand EEZ. The implication is that, when all other New Zealand phyla are equally well studied, total marine

  9. PMA-Linked Fluorescence for Rapid Detection of Viable Bacterial Endospores

    Science.gov (United States)

    LaDuc, Myron T.; Venkateswaran, Kasthuri; Mohapatra, Bidyut

    2012-01-01

    The most common approach for assessing the abundance of viable bacterial endospores is the culture-based plating method. However, culture-based approaches are heavily biased and oftentimes incompatible with upstream sample processing strategies, which make viable cells/spores uncultivable. This shortcoming highlights the need for rapid molecular diagnostic tools to assess more accurately the abundance of viable spacecraft-associated microbiota, perhaps most importantly bacterial endospores. Propidium monoazide (PMA) has received a great deal of attention due to its ability to differentiate live, viable bacterial cells from dead ones. PMA gains access to the DNA of dead cells through compromised membranes. Once inside the cell, it intercalates and eventually covalently bonds with the double-helix structures upon photoactivation with visible light. The covalently bound DNA is significantly altered, and unavailable to downstream molecular-based manipulations and analyses. Microbiological samples can be treated with appropriate concentrations of PMA and exposed to visible light prior to undergoing total genomic DNA extraction, resulting in an extract comprised solely of DNA arising from viable cells. This ability to extract DNA selectively from living cells is extremely powerful, and bears great relevance to many microbiological arenas.

  10. Investigation of Removal Capacities of Biofilters for Airborne Viable Micro-Organisms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soret, Rémi; Fanlo, Jean-Louis; Malhautier, Luc; Geiger, Philippe; Bayle, Sandrine

    2018-01-01

    New emerging issues appears regarding the possible aerosolization of micro-organisms from biofilters to the ambient air. Traditional bioaerosol sampling and cultural methods used in literature offer relative efficiencies. In this study, a new method revolving around a particle counter capable of detecting total and viable particles in real time was used. This counter (BioTrak 9510-BD) uses laser-induced fluorescence (LIF) technology to determine the biological nature of the particle. The concentration of viable particles was measured on two semi-industrial pilot scale biofilters in order to estimate the Removal Efficiency in viable particles (REvp) in stable conditions and to examine the influence of pollutant feeding and relative humidification of the gaseous effluent on the REvp. The REvp of biofilters reached near 80% and highlighted both the stability of that removal and the statistical equivalence between two identical biofilters. Pollutant deprivation periods of 12 h, 48 h and 30 days were shown to have no influence on the biofilters’ removal capacity, demonstrating the robustness and adaptation capacities of the flora. In contrast, a 90-day famine period turned the biofilters into emitters of viable particles. Finally, the humidification of the effluent was shown to negatively influence the removal capacity for viable particles, as drying off the air was shown to increase the REvp from 60 to 85%. PMID:29562709

  11. Marine Viruses: Key Players in Marine Ecosystems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mathias Middelboe

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Viruses were recognized as the causative agents of fish diseases, such as infectious pancreatic necrosis and Oregon sockeye disease, in the early 1960s [1], and have since been shown to be responsible for diseases in all marine life from bacteria to protists, mollusks, crustaceans, fish and mammals [2].[...

  12. The Australian Integrated Marine Observing System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Proctor, R.; Meyers, G.; Roughan, M.; Operators, I.

    2008-12-01

    The Integrated Marine Observing System (IMOS) is a 92M project established with 50M from the National Collaborative Research Infrastructure Strategy (NCRIS) and co-investments from 10 operators including Universities and government agencies (see below). It is a nationally distributed set of equipment established and maintained at sea, oceanographic data and information services that collectively will contribute to meeting the needs of marine research in both open oceans and over the continental shelf around Australia. In particular, if sustained in the long term, it will permit identification and management of climate change in the marine environment, an area of research that is as yet almost a blank page, studies relevant to conservation of marine biodiversity and research on the role of the oceans in the climate system. While as an NCRIS project IMOS is intended to support research, the data streams are also useful for many societal, environmental and economic applications, such as management of offshore industries, safety at sea, management of marine ecosystems and fisheries and tourism. The infrastructure also contributes to Australia's commitments to international programs of ocean observing and international conventions, such as the 1982 Law of the Sea Convention that established the Australian Exclusive Economic Zone, the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change, the Global Ocean Observing System and the intergovernmental coordinating activity Global Earth Observation System of Systems. IMOS is made up of nine national facilities that collect data, using different components of infrastructure and instruments, and two facilities that manage and provide access to data and enhanced data products, one for in situ data and a second for remotely sensed satellite data. The observing facilities include three for the open (bluewater) ocean (Argo Australia, Enhanced Ships of Opportunity and Southern Ocean Time Series), three facilities for coastal

  13. Development of a Rapid Real-Time PCR Method as a Tool To Quantify Viable Photobacterium phosphoreum Bacteria in Salmon (Salmo salar) Steaks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Macé, Sabrina; Mamlouk, Kelthoum; Chipchakova, Stoyka

    2013-01-01

    A specific real-time PCR quantification method combined with a propidium monoazide sample treatment step was developed to determine quantitatively the viable population of the Photobacterium phosphoreum species group in raw modified-atmosphere-packed salmon. Primers were designed to amplify a 350......-bp fragment of the gyrase subunit B gene (gyrB) of P. phosphoreum. The specificity of the two primers was demonstrated by using purified DNA from 81 strains of 52 different bacterial species. When these primers were used for real-time PCR in pure culture, a good correlation (R2 of 0.99) was obtained...... between this method and conventional enumeration on marine agar (MA). Quantification was linear over 5 log units as confirmed by using inoculated salmon samples. On naturally contaminated fresh salmon, the new real-time PCR method performed successfully with a quantification limit of 3 log CFU...

  14. Troubled waters. The future of the oceans. Human activity is polluting the marine environment and the economic livelihoods of millions who fish the seas. Science can help change the picture

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McIntyre, A.D.

    2003-01-01

    In assessing the state of the ocean today, it is useful to think in terms of its general condition and consider its living resources. The good news is that the waters of the open ocean are in reasonable chemical health. They receive contaminant inputs from two major sources - the atmosphere and shipping. Atmospheric input is a diverse mixture of all the pollutants already mentioned which mingle in the air carried around the world, and eventually fall out by wet or dry deposition. However, due to dilution and the long residence time often associated with atmospheric transport, the oceanic fallout, although measurable, leads to only low concentrations in surface waters so that significant impacts on marine biota are not detected. The shipping input is more concentrated, but is confined to traffic lanes, and tends to be rapidly dispersed and diluted - although persistent materials that float, like plastics and tar balls, can be carried great distances and accumulate on beaches. In contrast to the open ocean, the coastal zones of the world present a very different picture. As most of the polluting inputs come from the continental landmasses, near-shore areas are significantly at risk, and the adjacent shelf seas are also threatened. Degradation is particularly acute in estuaries where industry is concentrated and in coastal areas where major rivers carry wastes from the hinterland to the sea. Semienclosed bays that have extensive urban or farming hinterland, and are poorly flushed by the open ocean, are also highly vulnerable. As for the living resources, in spite of earlier fears, marine pollution has not been the threat that was feared. Indeed, the danger to them is more direct - the impact of excessive exploitation. The decline of catches of the preferred species, and the collapse of important stocks is now all too clear, and fishing communities are under great pressure. Today, of the major fish stocks throughout the world, 47% are fully exploited, 18% are over

  15. Economic Studies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. V. Kholopov

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The establishment of the School of Economic Science at MGIMO was due to the necessity of the world economy research, and the need to prepare highly skilled specialists in international economics. The school is developing a number of areas, which reflect the Faculty structure. - Economic theory is one of the most important research areas, a kind of foundation of the School of Economic Science at MGIMO. Economic theory studies are carried out at the chair of Economic theory. "The course of economic theory" textbook was published in 1991, and later it was reprinted seven times. Over the past few years other textbooks and manuals have been published, including "Economics for Managers" by Professor S.N. Ivashkovskaya, which survived through five editions; "International Economics" - four editions and "History of Economic Thought" - three editions. - International Economic Relations are carried out by the Department of International Economic Relations and Foreign Economic Activity. Its establishment is associated with the prominent economist N.N. Lyubimov. In 1957 he with his colleagues published the first textbook on the subject which went through multiple republications. The editorial team of the textbook subsequently formed the pride of Soviet economic science - S.M. Menshikov, E.P. Pletnev, V.D. Schetinin. Since 2007, the chair of Foreign Economic Activities led by Doctor of Economics, Professor I. Platonova has been investigating the problems of improving the architecture of foreign economic network and the international competitiveness of Russia; - The history of the study of problems of the world economy at MGIMO begins in 1958 at the chair baring the same name. Since 1998, the department has been headed by Professor A. Bulatov; - The study of international monetary relations is based on the chair of International Finance, and is focused on addressing the fundamental scientific and practical problems; - The chair "Banks, monetary circulation

  16. Issues of organizational cybernetics and viability beyond Beer's viable systems model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nechansky, Helmut

    2013-11-01

    The paper starts summarizing the claims of Beer's viable systems model to identify five issues any viable organizations has to deal with in an unequivocal hierarchical structure of five interrelated systems. Then the evidence is introduced for additional issues and related viable structures of organizations, which deviate from Beer's model. These issues are: (1) the establishment and (2) evolution of an organization; (3) systems for independent top-down control (like "Six Sigma"); (4) systems for independent bottom-up correction of performance problems (like "Kaizen"), both working outside a hierarchical structure; (5) pull production systems ("Just in Time") and (6) systems for checks and balances of top-level power (like boards and shareholder meetings). Based on that an evolutionary approach to organizational cybernetics is outlined, addressing the establishment of organizations and possible courses of developments, including recent developments in quality and production engineering, as well as problems of setting and changing goal values determining organizational policies.

  17. A multicenter study of viable PCR using propidium monoazide to detect Legionella in water samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scaturro, Maria; Fontana, Stefano; Dell'eva, Italo; Helfer, Fabrizia; Marchio, Michele; Stefanetti, Maria Vittoria; Cavallaro, Mario; Miglietta, Marilena; Montagna, Maria Teresa; De Giglio, Osvalda; Cuna, Teresa; Chetti, Leonarda; Sabattini, Maria Antonietta Bucci; Carlotti, Michela; Viggiani, Mariagabriella; Stenico, Alberta; Romanin, Elisa; Bonanni, Emma; Ottaviano, Claudio; Franzin, Laura; Avanzini, Claudio; Demarie, Valerio; Corbella, Marta; Cambieri, Patrizia; Marone, Piero; Rota, Maria Cristina; Bella, Antonino; Ricci, Maria Luisa

    2016-07-01

    Legionella quantification in environmental samples is overestimated by qPCR. Combination with a viable dye, such as Propidium monoazide (PMA), could make qPCR (named then vPCR) very reliable. In this multicentre study 717 artificial water samples, spiked with fixed concentrations of Legionella and interfering bacterial flora, were analysed by qPCR, vPCR and culture and data were compared by statistical analysis. A heat-treatment at 55 °C for 10 minutes was also performed to obtain viable and not-viable bacteria. When data of vPCR were compared with those of culture and qPCR, statistical analysis showed significant differences (P 0.05). Overall this study provided a good experimental reproducibility of vPCR but also highlighted limits of PMA in the discriminating capability of dead and live bacteria, making vPCR not completely reliable. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Association of viable Mycobacterium leprae with Type 1 reaction in leprosy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Save, Mrudula Prakash; Dighe, Anju Rajaram; Natrajan, Mohan; Shetty, Vanaja Prabhakaran

    2016-03-01

    The working hypothesis is that, viable Mycobacterium leprae (M. leprae) play a crucial role in the precipitation of Type 1 reaction (T1R) in leprosy. A total of 165 new multibacillary patients were studied. To demonstrate presence of viable M. leprae in reactional lesion (T1R+), three tests were used concurrently viz. growth in the mouse foot pad (MFP), immunohistochemical detection of M. leprae secretory protein Ag85, and 16s rRNA--using in situ RT-PCR. Mirror biopsies and non reactional lesions served as controls (T1R-). A significantly higher proportion of lesion biopsy homogenates obtained at onset, from T1R(+) cases have shown unequivocal growth in MFP, proving the presence of viable bacteria, as compared to T1R(-) (P leprae is a component/prerequisite and the secretory protein Ag 85, might be the trigger for precipitation of T1R.

  19. Seawater and marine sidements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eicke, H.F.

    1985-01-01

    The Deutsches Hydrographisches Institut (DHI) is responsible for monitoring the radioactive substances (such as Cs-137, Cs-134, Sr-90, H-3, Pu-239, Pu-240) in the seawater and marine sediments along the Federal German seacoasts, of the fishing grounds of the Federal German offshore fishery industry, and of marine currents moving towards these fishing grounds. The DHI has been carrying out this task since 1965, activities being placed under the responsibility of the DHI Department for Marine Radioactivity, which since 1960 is a directing centre within the Government's system for environmental radioactivity monitoring. (orig./DG) [de

  20. Marine Mineral Exploration

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    in EEZ areas are fairly unknown; many areas need detailed mapping and mineral exploration, and the majority of coastal or island states with large EEZ areas have little experience in exploration for marine hard minerals. This book describes the systematic steps in marine mineral exploration....... Such exploration requires knowledge of mineral deposits and models of their formation, of geophysical and geochemical exploration methods, and of data evaluation and interpretation methods. These topics are described in detail by an international group of authors. A short description is also given of marine...

  1. Will marine productivity wane?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laufkötter, Charlotte; Gruber, Nicolas

    2018-03-01

    If marine algae are impaired severely by global climate change, the resulting reduction in marine primary production would strongly affect marine life and the ocean's biological pump that sequesters substantial amounts of atmospheric carbon dioxide in the ocean's interior. Most studies, including the latest generation of Earth system models, project only moderate global decreases in biological production until 2100 (1, 2), suggesting that these concerns are unwarranted. But on page 1139 of this issue, Moore et al. (3) show that this conclusion might be shortsighted and that there may be much larger long-term changes in ocean productivity than previously appreciated.

  2. El modelo de sistema viable: un instrumento para la organización efectiva

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Norlando Sánchez Rueda

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available RESUMEN En este ensayo se presenta una interpretación teórica del denominado Modelo de Sistema Viable (MSV, de Stafford Beer y su Potencial Aplicación en Tareas de Diagnóstico  y diseño empresarial, al igual que para Mejorar las capacidades Organizacionales de Auto- Regulación  y Auto- Organización. Se explica como el Modelo del Sistema Viable permite conocer e interpretar  los mecanismos de estabilidad y adaptabilidad de las organizaciones, pilares para el crecimiento de una verdadera organización Efectiva.

  3. 76 FR 76949 - Marine Mammals

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-12-09

    ...-XR52 Marine Mammals AGENCY: National Marine Fisheries Service (NMFS), National Oceanic and Atmospheric.... 14534 is requested under the authority of the Marine Mammal Protection Act of 1972, as amended (16 U.S.C. 1361 et seq.), the regulations governing the taking and importing of marine mammals (50 CFR part 216...

  4. 75 FR 68605 - Marine Mammals

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-11-08

    ...-XX23 Marine Mammals AGENCY: National Marine Fisheries Service (NMFS), National Oceanic and Atmospheric... permit to conduct research on marine mammals. ADDRESSES: The permit and related documents are available... applicant. The requested permit has been issued under the authority of the Marine Mammal Protection Act of...

  5. 77 FR 2512 - Marine Mammals

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-18

    ...-XA905 Marine Mammals AGENCY: National Marine Fisheries Service (NMFS), National Oceanic and Atmospheric... Dorian Houser, Ph.D., National Marine Mammal Foundation, 2240 Shelter Island Drive, 200, San Diego, CA... subject permit is requested under the authority of the Marine Mammal Protection Act of 1972, as amended...

  6. 77 FR 14352 - Marine Mammals

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-03-09

    ...-XB065 Marine Mammals AGENCY: National Marine Fisheries Service (NMFS), National Oceanic and Atmospheric... Marine Mammal Protection Act of 1972, as amended (16 U.S.C. 1361 et seq.), the regulations governing the taking and importing of marine mammals (50 CFR part 216), the Endangered Species Act of 1973, as amended...

  7. 75 FR 77616 - Marine Mammals

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-12-13

    .... 14334] Marine Mammals AGENCY: National Marine Fisheries Service (NMFS), National Oceanic and Atmospheric... Marine Mammal Protection Act of 1972, as amended (16 U.S.C. 1361 et seq.), the regulations governing the taking and importing of marine mammals (50 CFR part 216), the Endangered Species Act of 1973, as amended...

  8. Economic Darwinism

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sloth, Birgitte; Whitta-Jacobsen, Hans Jørgen

    2011-01-01

    We define an evolutionary process of "economic Darwinism" for playing the field, symmetric games. The process captures two forces. One is "economic selection": if current behavior leads to payoff differences, behavior yielding lowest payoff has strictly positive probability of being replaced...... in the literature. Using this result, we demonstrate that generally under positive (negative) externalities, economic Darwinism implies even more under- (over-)activity than does Nash equilibrium....

  9. Economic Darwinism

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sloth, Birgitte; Whitta-Jacobsen, Hans Jørgen

    We define an evolutionary process of “economic Darwinism” for playing-the-field, symmetric games. The process captures two forces. One is “economic selection”: if current behavior leads to payoff differences, behavior yielding lowest payoff has strictly positive probability of being replaced...... in the literature. Using this result, we demonstrate that generally under positive (negative) externalities, economic Darwinism implies even more under- (over-) activity than does Nash equilibrium...

  10. Qualitative Economics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fast, Michael; Clark, Woodrow

    2012-01-01

    the everyday economic life is the central issue and is discussed from the perspective of interactionism. It is a perspective developed from the Lifeworld philosophical traditions, such as symbolic interactionism and phenomenology, seeking to develop the thinking of economics. The argument is that economics...... and the process of thinking, e.g. the ontology and the epistemology. Keywords: qualitative, interaction, process, organizing, thinking, perspective, epistemology....

  11. The neurologic effects of noxious marine creatures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Southcott, R V

    1975-01-01

    The concept of the sea as a source of noxious agents is perhaps not a familiar one to clinical neurologists, judging by the lack of reference to these agents in standard textbooks. Chemical, physiologic, and pharmacologic laboratories are increasingly investigating the properties of marine toxins, finding in them compounds with interesting and novel structures or unusual physiologic effects. Such substances are seen as possible agents for biologic and, more particularly, physiologic research, and as possible sources of new pharmaceuticals. These include hormone-like substances and antiviral or antitumor agents. Despite these specialized developments, which are in large measure a consequence of the technological advances of the present century, the clinician is at times directly concerned with the effects of marine toxic substances. For example, in Japan, puffer fish or tetrodotoxic poisoning is one of the major causes of deaths from food poisoning. Another marine toxin that has caused many explosive outbreaks of food poisoning. with many deaths in various parts of the world, comes from clams or mussels. This toxin, saxitoxin, is produced by species of marine protozoa including Gonyaulax, and is concentrated in filter-feeding molluscs. These two examples were of significant interest in medicine long before the technologic developments of the twentieth century. In the last few decades, entirely new problems of marine intoxication have arisen as a result of marine pollution from the disposal of industrial wastes in the sea. The most striking example of a man-made marine intoxication has been the outbreak of Minamata disease. In Minamata, Japan, the disposal of mercury-contaminated industrial wastes from a plastics factory into an enclosed bay, followed by human consumption of the contaminated fishes, crabs, or shellfish, led to many instances of acute cerebral degeneration. With the increasing exploration of the sea for both pleasure and economic exploitation, which

  12. ECOLOGICAL ECONOMICS VS ECONOMIC(AL ECOLOGY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Kharlamova

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Currently world faces the dilemma – ecological economy or economic(al ecology. The researchers produce hundreds of surveys on the topic. However the analyses of recent most cited simulations had shown the diversity of results. Thus, for some states the Kuznets environmental curve has place, for others – no. Same could be said about different years for the same state. It provokes the necessity of drawing new group analyses to reveal the tendencies and relationships between economic and environmental factors. Most flexible and mirror factor of environmental sustainability is the volume of CO2 emissions. The econometric analysis was used for detecting the economic impact on this indicator at the global level and in the spectra of group of states depending on their income. The hypothesis of the existence of environmental Kuznets curve for the analysed data is rejected. Real GDP per capita impact on carbon dioxide emissions is considered only at the global level. The impact of openness of the economy is weak. Rejection happened also to the hypothesis that for the developed countries there is a reverse dependence between the environmental pollution and economic openness. Indicator “energy consumption per capita” impacts on greenhouse gas emissions only in countries with high income. Whereby it should be noted that the more developed a country is, the more elastic is this influence. These results have a potential usage for environmental policy regulation and climate strategy.

  13. Qualitative Economics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fast, Michael; Clark II, Woodrow W

                         This book is about science -- specifically, the science of economics. Or lack thereof is more accurate. The building of any science, let alone economics, is grounded in the understanding of what is beneath the "surface" of economics. Science, and hence economics, should...... be concerned with formulating ideas that express theories which produce descriptions of how to understand phenomenon and real world experiences.                       Economics must become a science, because the essence of economics in terms of human actions, group interactions and communities are in need...... of scientific inquiry. Academics and scholars need a scientific perspective that can hypothesize, theorize document, understand and analyze human dynamics from the individual to more societal interactions. And that is what qualitative economics does; it can make economics into becoming a science. The economic...

  14. IAEA Monitors Marine Radioactivity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dixit, Aabha; Kaiser, Peter

    2013-01-01

    The IAEA assists Member States in using scientific tools to precisely identify and track nuclear and nonnuclear contaminants, as well as to investigate their biological effects on the marine ecosystem

  15. Permitted Marine Hydrokinetic Projects

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data represents pending or issued preliminary permits or issued licenses for marine hydrokinetic projects that produce energy from waves or directly from the...

  16. The marine cyanobacterium

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pade, N.; Compaoré, J.; Klähn, S.; Stal, L.J.; Hagemann, M.

    2012-01-01

    Compatible solutes are small organic molecules that are involved in the acclimation to various stresses such as temperature and salinity. Marine or moderate halotolerant cyanobacteria accumulate glucosylglycerol, while cyanobacteria with low salt tolerance (freshwater strains) usually accumulate

  17. Foodborne Marine Biotoxins

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Poli, Mark

    2003-01-01

    ...). In addition to human intoxications, they cause massive fish kills, negatively impact coastal tourism and fishery industries, and have been implicated in mass mortalities of birds and marine mammals...

  18. LEGACY - EOP Marine Debris

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — These data contains towed diver surveys of and weights of marine debris removed from the near shore environments of the NWHI.

  19. Biotechnology of marine fungi

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Damare, S.R.; Singh, P.; Raghukumar, S.

    Filamentous fungi are the most widely used eukaryotes in industrial and pharmaceutical applications. Their biotechnological uses include the production of enzymes, vitamins, polysaccharides, pigments, lipids and others. Marine fungi are a still...

  20. WMO Marine Final Reports

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Final reports of the World Meteorological Organization (WMO) Commission for Marine Meteorology, Commission for Synoptic Meteorology, and Commission for Basic...

  1. PIR Marine Turtle Nesting

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Effective management of marine turtle data is essential to maximize their research value and enable timely population assessments and recovery monitoring. To provide...

  2. PIR Marine Turtle Strandings

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Effective management of marine turtle data is essential to maximize their research value and enable timely population assessments and recovery monitoring. To provide...

  3. Marine Mammals :: NOAA Fisheries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Resources Habitat Conservation Science and Technology International Affairs Law Enforcement Aquaculture Application Types Apply Online (APPS) Endangered Species Permits Marine Mammal Permits Public Display of : NMFS Pacific Islands Fisheries Science Center North Atlantic right whales North Atlantic Right whales

  4. Marine Pollution Prevention Act

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The Marine Pollution Prevention Act of 2008 implements the International Convention for the Prevention of Pollution from Ships, including related Protocols (MARPOL)...

  5. Mariner Outreach Data -

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Transportation — This dataset provides MARAD with the ability to determine available personnel and resources in a time of emergency. It also provides a portal for mariners to update...

  6. Marine Sanitation Devices (MSDs)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marine sanitation devices treat or retain sewage from vessels, and have performance standards set by the EPA. This page provides information on MSDs, including who must use an MSD, states' roles, types of MSDs and standards.

  7. Marine Trackline Geophysical Database

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data set contains bathymetry, magnetic, gravity and seismic shot point navigation data collected during marine cruises from 1939 to the present. Coverage is...

  8. Marine medicinal glycomics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vitor Hugo Pomin

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Glycomics is an international initiative aimed to understand the structure and function of the glycans from a given type of cell, tissue, organism, kingdom or even environment, as found under certain conditions. Glycomics is one of the latest areas of intense biological research. Glycans of marine sources are unique in terms of structure and function. They differ considerably from those of terrestrial origin. This review discusses the most known marine glycans of potential therapeutic properties. They are chitin, chitosan, and sulfated polysaccharides named glycosaminoglycans, sulfated fucans and sulfated galactans. Their medical actions are very broad. When certain structural requirements are found, these glycans can exhibit beneficial effects in inflammation, coagulation, thrombosis, cancer growth/metastasis and vascular biology. Both structure and therapeutic mechanisms of action of these marine glycans are discussed here in straight context with the current glycomic age through a project suggestively named Marine Medicinal Glycomics.

  9. Marine prostanoids - a review

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Wahidullah, S.; De

    The occurrence and structure of prostaglandins including clavulones, punaglandins and claviridenones in marine organisms is reviewEd. by comparison of the spectral data reported the identity of 20-acetoxy claviridenones b and c with 20 acetoxy...

  10. Marine cloud brightening

    OpenAIRE

    Latham, John; Bower, Keith; Choularton, Tom; Coe, Hugh; Connolly, Paul; Cooper, Gary; Craft, Tim; Foster, Jack; Gadian, Alan; Galbraith, Lee; Iacovides, Hector; Johnston, David; Launder, Brian; Leslie, Brian; Meyer, John

    2012-01-01

    The idea behind the marine cloud-brightening (MCB) geoengineering technique is that seeding marine stratocumulus clouds with copious quantities of roughly monodisperse sub-micrometre sea water particles might significantly enhance the cloud droplet number concentration, and thereby the cloud albedo and possibly longevity. This would produce a cooling, which general circulation model (GCM) computations suggest could—subject to satisfactory resolution of technical and scientific problems identi...

  11. Marine Pollution and Ecotoxicology

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Sarkar, A.

    . Heavy metals Editorial Guest The special issue of Environment International has come up with selected papers presented in the International workshop on Marine Pollution and Ecotoxicology held at the National Institute of Oceanography, Dona Paula, Goa... presented in this special issue are classified into five sections namely, Coastal water quality, Heavy metals, Trace metals, Persistent organic pollutants and Ecotoxicology. 1. Coastal water quality assessment The pollution of the marine environment has...

  12. Marine Ecosystem Services

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hasler, Berit; Ahtiainen, Heini; Hasselström, Linus

    MARECOS (Marine Ecosystem Services) er et tværfagligt studie, der har haft til formål at tilvejebringe information vedrørende kortlægning og værdisætning af økosystemtjenester, som kan anvendes i forbindelse med udformning af regulering på det marine område såvel nationalt, som regionalt og inter...

  13. Integration at the Round Table: Marine Spatial Planning in Multi-Stakeholder Settings

    OpenAIRE

    Olsen, Erik; Fluharty, David; Hoel, Alf Håkon; Hostens, Kristian; Maes, Frank; Pecceu, Ellen

    2014-01-01

    Marine spatial planning (MSP) is often considered as a pragmatic approach to implement an ecosystem based management in order to manage marine space in a sustainable way. This requires the involvement of multiple actors and stakeholders at various governmental and societal levels. Several factors affect how well the integrated management of marine waters will be achieved, such as different governance settings (division of power between central and local governments), economic activities (and ...

  14. Coherent assessments of Europe’s marine fishes show regional divergence and megafauna loss

    OpenAIRE

    FERNANDES PAUL; RALPH GINA; NIETO ANA; GARCIA CRIADO MARIANA; VASILAKOPOULOS PARASKEVAS; MARAVELIAS CHRISTOS; COOK ROBIN; POLLOM RILEY; KOVACIC MARCELO; POLLARD DAVID; FARRELL EDWARD; FLORIN ANN-BRITT; POLIDORO BETH; LAWSON JULIA; LORANCE PASCAL

    2017-01-01

    Europe has a long tradition of exploiting marine fishes and is promoting marine economic activity through its Blue Growth strategy. This increase in anthropogenic pressure, along with climate change, threatens the biodiversity of fishes and food security. Here, we examine the conservation status of 1,020 species of European marine fishes and identify factors that contribute to their extinction risk. Large fish species (greater than 1.5 m total length) are most at risk; half of these are threa...

  15. "New Economics"?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Jørgen Ulff-Møller

    1999-01-01

    The United States, the United Kingdom and Denmark have all enjoyed a long period of high stable growth and low inflation in the 1990s. Attempts to determine the implications of this have led to the so-called "New Economics", whose advocates claim that the relationship between economic growth...

  16. Modelling the number of viable vegetative cells of Bacillus cereus passing through the stomach

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wijnands, L.M.; Pielaat, A.; Dufrenne, J.B.; Zwietering, M.H.; Leusden, van F.M.

    2009-01-01

    Aims: Model the number of viable vegetative cells of B. cereus surviving the gastric passage after experiments in simulated gastric conditions. Materials and Methods: The inactivation of stationary and exponential phase vegetative cells of twelve different strains of Bacillus cereus, both mesophilic

  17. 9 CFR 113.27 - Detection of extraneous viable bacteria and fungi in live vaccines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... bacteria and fungi in live vaccines. 113.27 Section 113.27 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT... bacteria and fungi in live vaccines. Unless otherwise specified by the Administrator or elsewhere exempted... Seed Bacteria shall be tested for extraneous viable bacteria and fungi as prescribed in this section. A...

  18. 40 CFR 180.1011 - Viable spores of the microorganism Bacillus thuringiensis Berliner; exemption from the...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... EXEMPTIONS FOR PESTICIDE CHEMICAL RESIDUES IN FOOD Exemptions From Tolerances § 180.1011 Viable spores of the... characteristics of the parent strain or contamination by other microorganisms. (3) Each lot of spore preparation... production is a Bacillus thuringiensis strain which does not produce β-exotoxin under standard manufacturing...

  19. The ghost of extinction: Preservation values and minimum viable population in wildlife models

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Eiswerth, M.E.; Kooten, van G.C.

    2009-01-01

    The inclusion of a minimum viable population in bioeconomic modeling creates at least two complications that are not resolved by using a modified logistic growth function. The first complication can be dealt with by choosing a different depensational growth function. The second complication relates

  20. Mapping In Vivo Tumor Oxygenation within Viable Tumor by 19F-MRI and Multispectral Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yunzhou Shi

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Quantifying oxygenation in viable tumor remains a major obstacle toward a better understanding of the tumor microenvironment and improving treatment strategies. Current techniques are often complicated by tumor heterogeneity. Herein, a novel in vivo approach that combines 19F magnetic resonance imaging (19F-MRIR1 mapping with diffusionbased multispectral (MS analysis is introduced. This approach restricts the partial pressure of oxygen (pO2 measurements to viable tumor, the tissue of therapeutic interest. The technique exhibited sufficient sensitivity to detect a breathing gas challenge in a xenograft tumor model, and the hypoxic region measured by MS 19F-MRI was strongly correlated with histologic estimates of hypoxia. This approach was then applied to address the effects of antivascular agents on tumor oxygenation, which is a research question that is still under debate. The technique was used to monitor longitudinal pO2 changes in response to an antibody to vascular endothelial growth factor (B20.4.1.1 and a selective dual phosphoinositide 3-kinase/mammalian target of rapamycin inhibitor (GDC-0980. GDC-0980 reduced viable tumor pO2 during a 3-day treatment period, and a significant reduction was also produced by B20.4.1.1. Overall, this method provides an unprecedented view of viable tumor pO2 and contributes to a greater understanding of the effects of antivascular therapies on the tumor's microenvironment.

  1. Education and the World Ocean: A Partial Bibliography for Marine Educators.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schlenker, Richard M.

    This document is a partial bibliography for marine educators in a truly cross disciplinary sense. It is intended for those who teach art, music, social studies, mathematics, business subjects, home economics and wood shop as well as science. Many marine science curricula guides are included in this bibliography. An introduction which indicates the…

  2. The science of European marine reserves: Status, efficacy, and future needs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fenberg, Phillip B.; Caselle, Jennifer E.; Claudet, Joachim

    2012-01-01

    The ecologically and socio-economically important marine ecosystems of Europe are facing severe threats from a variety of human impacts. To mitigate and potentially reverse some of these impacts, the European Union (EU) has mandated the implementation of the Marine Strategy Framework Directive (M...

  3. A Policy Alternative Analysis and Simplified Scoring Method to Assess Policy Options for Marine Conservation Areas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharuga, S. M.; Reams, M.

    2016-12-01

    Traditional approaches to marine conservation and management are increasingly being found as inadequate; and, consequently, more complex ecosystem-based approaches to protecting marine ecosystems are growing in popularity. Ecosystem-based approaches, however, can be particularly challenging at a local level where resources and knowledge of specific marine conservation components may be limited. Marine conservation areas are known by a variety of names globally, but can be divided into four general types: Marine Protected Areas (MPAs), Marine Reserves, Fishery Reserves, and Ecological Reserves (i.e. "no take zones"). Each type of conservation area involves specific objectives, program elements and likely socioeconomic consequences. As an aid to community stakeholders and decision makers considering establishment of a marine conservation area, a simple method to compare and score the objectives and attributes of these four approaches is presented. A range of evaluation criteria are considered, including conservation of biodiversity and habitat, effective fishery management, overall cost-effectiveness, fairness to current users, enhancement of recreational activities, fairness to taxpayers, and conservation of genetic diversity. Environmental and socioeconomic costs and benefits of each type of conservation area are also considered. When exploring options for managing the marine environment, particular resource conservation needs must be evaluated individually on a case-by-case basis and the type of conservation area established must be tailored accordingly. However, MPAs are often more successful than other conservation areas because they offer a compromise between the needs of society and the environment, and therefore represent a viable option for ecosystem-based management.

  4. Environmental economics of lignin derived transport fuels

    OpenAIRE

    Obydenkova, SV; Kouris, P Panagiotis; Hensen, EJM Emiel; Heeres, Hero J; Boot, MD Michael

    2017-01-01

    This paper explores the environmental and economic aspects of fast pyrolytic conversion of lignin, obtained from 2G ethanol plants, to transport fuels for both the marine and automotive markets. Various scenarios are explored, pertaining to aggregation of lignin from several sites, alternative energy carries to replace lignin, transport modalities, and allocation methodology. The results highlight two critical factors that ultimately determine the economic and/or environmental fuel viability....

  5. Economic models for battery energy storage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reckrodt, R.C.; Anderson, M.D.; Kluczny, R.M.

    1990-01-01

    While the technology required to produce viable Battery Energy Storage System exists, the economic feasibility (cost vs. benefits) of building these systems requires justification. First, a generalized decision diagram was developed to ensure that all of the economic factors were considered and properly related for the customer-side-of-the meter. Next, two economic models that had consistently given differing results were compared. One was the McKinney model developed at UM-Rolla in 1987; the second was the SYSPLAN model developed by Battelle. Differences were resolved on a point by point basis with reference to the current economic environment. The economic model was upgraded to include the best of both models based on the resolution of these differences. The upgrades were implemented as modifications to the original SYSPLAN (1986 version) to preserve user friendliness. In this paper four specific cases are evaluated and compared. The results are as predicted, since comparison was made with two known models

  6. bioSearch : A glimpse into marine biodiversity of Indian coastal waters

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Kakodkar, A.P.; Alornekar, A.; DSouza, R.; Thomas, T.R.A.; Divekar, R.; Nath, I.V.A.; Kavlekar, D.P.; Ingole, B.S.; Bharathi, P.A.L.

    bioSearch is a database application developed to digitize marine biodiversity of Indian coastal waters. A user can obtain information on organism’s binomial and common names, synonyms, taxonomy, morphology, ecology, economic importance, geographical...

  7. Avoiding conflicts and protecting coral reefs: Customary management benefits marine habitats and fish biomass

    KAUST Repository

    Campbell, Stuart J.; Cinner, Joshua E.; Ardiwijaya, Rizya L.; Pardede, Shinta T.; Kartawijaya, Tasrif; Mukmunin, Ahmad; Herdiana, Yudi; Hoey, Andrew; Pratchett, Morgan S.; Baird, Andrew Hamilton

    2012-01-01

    Abstract One of the major goals of coral reef conservation is to determine the most effective means of managing marine resources in regions where economic conditions often limit the options available. For example, no-take fishing areas can

  8. Estuarine Living Marine Resources: Mid-Atlantic Regional Distribution and Abundance (NCEI Accession 0162403)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This is the Mid-Atlantic regional component of NOAA’s Estuarine Living Marine Resources (ELMR) Project, a national database of ecologically and economically...

  9. Estuarine Living Marine Resources: West Coast Regional Distribution and Abundance (NCEI Accession 0161540)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This is the West Coast regional component of NOAA’s Estuarine Living Marine Resources (ELMR) Project, a national database of ecologically and economically...

  10. Durability of precast prestressed concrete piles in marine environment, part 2. Volume 1 : concrete.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-06-01

    The overall purpose of this research was to determine methods which may be applied : economically to mitigate corrosion of reinforcement in precast prestressed concrete piles in : Georgias marine environments. The research was divided into two par...

  11. Estuarine Living Marine Resources: North Atlantic Regional Distribution and Abundance (NCEI Accession 0162402)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This is the North Atlantic regional component of NOAA’s Estuarine Living Marine Resources (ELMR) Project, a national database of ecologically and economically...

  12. Marine renewable energy legislation for Nova Scotia : policy background paper

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2010-07-01

    Marine renewable energy sources can provide Nova Scotia with a large supply of sustainable, non-carbon emitting electricity. One of the largest tidal ranges within the world is contained within the Bay of Fundy, which holds power potential in the form of wind, wave and tidal energy. A strategic environmental assessment (SEA) on the Bay of Fundy's potential marine renewable energy was published in 2008. An assessment of the social, economic, and environmental effects and factors linked with possible development of renewable energy sources in the Bay Fundy was published. Twenty-nine recommendations were offered, including the creation of marine renewable energy legislation incorporating sustainability principles. This discussion paper described the policy drivers and opportunities in Nova Scotia for marine renewable energy sources as well as the challenges and relevant subject areas that should be considered when creating marine renewable energy legislation and policy. Specific challenges that were discussed included a policy approach to development; multiple jurisdictions; Aboriginal issues; economic factors; environmental impacts; occupational and operation safety; allocation of rights; and regulatory issues. It was concluded that if the marine renewable energy resource was going to be created with the possibility of providing commercial electricity generation, a coordinated legislative framework should be established. refs., tabs.

  13. Effects of gelling agent and extracellular signaling molecules on the culturability of marine bacteria

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rygaard, Anita Mac; Schmidt Thøgersen, Mariane; Nielsen, Kristian Fog

    2017-01-01

    Only 1 % of marine bacteria are currently culturable using standard laboratory procedures and this is a major obstacle for our understanding of the biology of marine microorganisms and for the discovery of novel microbial natural products. Therefore, the purpose of the present study was to invest......Only 1 % of marine bacteria are currently culturable using standard laboratory procedures and this is a major obstacle for our understanding of the biology of marine microorganisms and for the discovery of novel microbial natural products. Therefore, the purpose of the present study...... was to investigate if improved cultivation conditions, including the use of an alternative gelling agent, and supplementation with signaling molecules, could improve the culturability of bacteria from seawater. Substituting agar with gellan gum improved viable counts 3 – 40-fold, depending on medium composition...

  14. Methodology for impact assessment in the estuarine/marine environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Haven, K.F.

    1975-01-01

    Impacts on the estuarine/marine environment can be assessed in economic terms by tracing the impact flow out of the economic sector through the marine environment and back into the economic sector as changes in natural resource availability. An impact can then be measured by the changes created in the economic sector by changes in resource availability. Primary emphasis is placed on the development of an appropriate ecological model of the estuarine environment for this purpose. Two types, an ecological input/output model and a dynamic (difference equation) model, are proposed. Acceptability criteria for these models include the ability to track lethal and sublethal, direct and indirect (food web), and short- and long-term effects of a variety of pollutants related to the production and use of various energy resources

  15. Ecological economics and economic growth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Victor, Peter A

    2010-01-01

    Boulding's 1966 paper on the economics of spaceship Earth established the framework for ecological economics and an understanding of economic growth. In ecological economics, economies are conceptualized as open subsystems of the closed biosphere and are subject to biophysical laws and constraints. Economic growth measured as an increase in real gross domestic product (GDP) has generally been associated with increases in the use of energy and materials and the generation of wastes. Scale, composition, and technology are the proximate determinants of environmental impacts. They are often reduced to two: scale (GDP) and intensity (impact per unit GDP). New work described in this paper defines "green" growth as intensity that declines faster than scale increases. Similarly, "brown" growth occurs when intensity declines more slowly than increases in scale, and "black" growth happens when both scale and intensity increase. These concepts are then related to the environmental Kuznets curve, which can be understood as a transition from brown to green growth. Ecological economics provides a macroperspective on economic growth. It offers broad policy principles, and it challenges the primacy of economic growth as a policy objective, but many important questions remain.

  16. Marine outfalls monitoring at the CSIR: Evaluating the impact of wastewater discharge on our marine environment

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Arabi, S

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available is used in coastal cities throughout the world and, if correctly managed, is recognised as an acceptable disposal option from multiple perspectives, including human and environmental health, social acceptability, and economic prudence. However..., wastewater contains contaminants that can affect the ecological functioning of the marine environment and compromise human health. The impact of wastewater discharge therefore requires careful monitoring. The CSIR uses a wide suite of indicators...

  17. Development economics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roebuck, F.

    1992-01-01

    This paper discusses term development economics which refers to the economic evaluation of investment opportunities that occur after the discovery well is drilled and completed. with specific regard to the techniques used and the economic yardsticks available for investment decisions. Three potential situations are considered in this paper: the incorporation of development wells into the outcomes of the original exploration project, mutually exclusive or alternative investment opportunities, and the installation of improved or enhanced recovery projects during or at the end of the primary producing life of a property

  18. Environmental economics of lignin derived transport fuels

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Obydenkova, Svetlana V.; Kouris, Panos D.; Hensen, Emiel J. M.; Heeres, Hero J.; Boot, Michael D.

    2017-01-01

    This paper explores the environmental and economic aspects of fast pyrolytic conversion of lignin, obtained from 2G ethanol plants, to transport fuels for both the marine and automotive markets. Various scenarios are explored, pertaining to aggregation of lignin from several sites, alternative

  19. Are Bundled Payments a Viable Reimbursement Model for Revision Total Joint Arthroplasty?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Courtney, P Maxwell; Ashley, Blair S; Hume, Eric L; Kamath, Atul F

    2016-12-01

    -of-care CMS costs between the two groups (mean USD 38,107 [SD, USD 18,328] versus mean USD 37,851 [SD, USD 17,208]; p = 0.984). There was no difference, with the numbers available, in the total episode-of-care CMS costs between revision hip arthroplasties and revision knee arthroplasties (mean USD 38,627 [SD, USD 18,607] versus mean USD 37,414 [SD, USD 16,884]; p = 0.904). Disposition to rehabilitation (odds ratio [OR], 5.49; 95% CI, 1.97-15.15; p = 0.001), length of stay 4 days or greater (OR, 3.66; 95% CI, 1.60-8.38; p = 0.002), and readmission within 90 days (OR, 6.99; 95% CI, 2.58-18.91; p payments have the potential to be a viable reimbursement model for revision TJA. Owing to the unpredictable nature of the surgical procedures, inherent high risks of complications, and varying degrees of surgical complexity, future studies are needed to determine whether bundling patients having revision TJA will result in improved care and decreased costs. Level IV, economic and decision analysis.

  20. Bioprospecting Marine Plankton

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chris Bowler

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available The ocean dominates the surface of our planet and plays a major role in regulating the biosphere. For example, the microscopic photosynthetic organisms living within provide 50% of the oxygen we breathe, and much of our food and mineral resources are extracted from the ocean. In a time of ecological crisis and major changes in our society, it is essential to turn our attention towards the sea to find additional solutions for a sustainable future. Remarkably, while we are overexploiting many marine resources, particularly the fisheries, the planktonic compartment composed of zooplankton, phytoplankton, bacteria and viruses, represents 95% of marine biomass and yet the extent of its diversity remains largely unknown and underexploited. Consequently, the potential of plankton as a bioresource for humanity is largely untapped. Due to their diverse evolutionary backgrounds, planktonic organisms offer immense opportunities: new resources for medicine, cosmetics and food, renewable energy, and long-term solutions to mitigate climate change. Research programs aiming to exploit culture collections of marine micro-organisms as well as to prospect the huge resources of marine planktonic biodiversity in the oceans are now underway, and several bioactive extracts and purified compounds have already been identified. This review will survey and assess the current state-of-the-art and will propose methodologies to better exploit the potential of marine plankton for drug discovery and for dermocosmetics.

  1. The marine ecosystem services approach in a fisheries management perspective

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Søren Anker; Lassen, Hans; Frost, Hans Staby

    that the concept of marine ecosystem services is not helpful for the two first mentioned types of analysis and that a cost-benefit analysis that is implied by the marine ecosystem services concept is inadequate for the third. We argue that the discussion needs to be divided into two: (1) finding the boundaries......This paper reviews the concepts of marine ecosystem services and their economic valuation in a European fisheries management perspective. We find that the concept is at best cumbersome for advising on how best to regulate fisheries even in an ecosystem context. We propose that operational fisheries...... management must consider three different types of analysis, the yield of and the effect of fishing on the commercial species, the effects of fishing on habitats and non-commercial species and finally an overall analysis of the combined impact of all human activities on the marine ecosystem. We find...

  2. Environmental Economics

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    David Glover, Bhim Adhikari and Isabelle Proulx

    Economy and Environment Program for Southeast Asia. ERF. Economic ... economists can contribute to this work by estimating the monetary value of such environment-related benefits ... One of the few safe places to put money has been land, ...

  3. "New Economics"?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Jørgen Ulff-Møller

    1999-01-01

    The United States, the United Kingdom and Denmark have all enjoyed a long period of high stable growth and low inflation in the 1990s. Attempts to determine the implications of this have led to the so-called "New Economics", whose advocates claim that the relationship between economic growth and ...... and inflation has fundamentally changes. The following article tests this thesis against current data for the USA.......The United States, the United Kingdom and Denmark have all enjoyed a long period of high stable growth and low inflation in the 1990s. Attempts to determine the implications of this have led to the so-called "New Economics", whose advocates claim that the relationship between economic growth...

  4. Exploration economics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mcgill, R.E.

    1992-01-01

    This paper deals with determining the economic viability of the play or prospect. At the outset, one point is important. Preexploration economists are important because they enable geologists to see if their assumptions will prove profitable. Their assumptions must consider the full range of possible outcomes, even if only some portion of that range may contain prospects or plays that are estimated to be profitable. Play economics are preferable to prospect economics because, being the sum of several prospects, they give a broader view of the investment opportunity. Finally, remember that play and prospect economics are always slightly optimistic. They seldom include all of the exploration and overhead changes that must ultimately be borne by the successful prospects

  5. Helping to protect and manage the marine environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mee, L.D.

    1991-01-01

    Thirty years have now passed since the IAEA Marine Environment Laboratory (IAEA-MEL, formerly the International Laboratory for Marine Radioactivity (ILMR)) was founded in the premises of the Musee oceanographique de Monaco. In 1961, at the time the IAEA laboratory was founded, there was indeed very little information on what happens when radionuclides enter the sea and whether their concentration (if any) through the marine food chain would represent a risk to man or to the integrity of the marine environment itself. The awakening of international concern for the marine environment was not restricted to radioactive substances. During the 1960s public attention was turned to the threats of oil spills, bioaccumulation of pesticides in marine and terrestrial birds and poisoning by heavy metals in industrial effluents. The growing concern regarding the deleterious environmental impact of some forms of development and the lack of a co-ordinated international response led to the United Nations Conference on the Environment in Stockholm in June 1972. This international activity, which gave the IAEA-MEL new partners, was important because it would have been virtually impossible to disconnect the study of marine radioactivity from that of other contaminants associated with economic development. Moreover, nuclear techniques (such as neutron activation analysis) had already proven to be invaluable for the study of non-radioactive contaminants and natural and man-made radionuclides were yielding quantitative information on oceanic and sea floor processes which could not be obtained by other means

  6. Behavioral Economics

    OpenAIRE

    Sendhil Mullainathan; Richard H. Thaler

    2000-01-01

    Behavioral Economics is the combination of psychology and economics that investigates what happens in markets in which some of the agents display human limitations and complications. We begin with a preliminary question about relevance. Does some combination of market forces, learning and evolution render these human qualities irrelevant? No. Because of limits of arbitrage less than perfect agents survive and influence market outcomes. We then discuss three important ways in which humans devi...

  7. Building economics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, D.O.(red.)

    Publikationen er på engelsk. Den omfatter alle indlæg på det fjerde internationale symposium om byggeøkonomi, der blev arrangeret af SBI for det internationale byggeforskningsråd CIB. De fem bind omhandler: Methods of Economic Evaluation, Design Optimization, Ressource Utilization, The Building...... Market og Economics and Technological Forecasting in Construction. Et indledende bind bringer statusrapporter for de fem forskningsområder, og det sidste bind sammenfatter debatten på symposiet....

  8. Behavioral economics

    OpenAIRE

    Camerer, Colin F.

    2014-01-01

    Economics, like behavioral psychology, is a science of behavior, albeit highly organized human behavior. The value of economic concepts for behavioral psychology rests on (1) their empirical validity when tested in the laboratory with individual subjects and (2) their uniqueness when compared to established behavioral concepts. Several fundamental concepts are introduced and illustrated by reference to experimental data: open and closed economies, elastic and inelastic demand, and substitutio...

  9. The marine diversity spectrum

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Reuman, Daniel C.; Gislason, Henrik; Barnes, Carolyn

    2014-01-01

    of taxonomy (all the species in a region regardless of clade) are much less studied but are equally important and will illuminate a different set of ecological and evolutionary processes. We develop and test a mechanistic model of how diversity varies with body mass in marine ecosystems. The model predicts...... the form of the diversity spectrum', which quantifies the distribution of species' asymptotic body masses, is a species analogue of the classic size spectrum of individuals, and which we have found to be a new and widely applicable description of diversity patterns. The marine diversity spectrum...... is predicted to be approximately linear across an asymptotic mass range spanning seven orders of magnitude. Slope -0 center dot 5 is predicted for the global marine diversity spectrum for all combined pelagic zones of continental shelf seas, and slopes for large regions are predicted to lie between -0 center...

  10. Marine biodiversity in Colombia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Diaz, Juan Manuel

    2002-01-01

    One decade ago, the seas and oceans were considered biologically less diverse that the terrestrial environment. Now it is known that it is on the contrary; 33 of the 34 categories of animals (phylum), they are represented in the sea, compared with those solely 15 that exist in earth. The investigation about the diversity of life in the sea has been relatively scorned, but there are big benefits that we can wait if this is protected. The captures of fish depend on it; the species captured by the fisheries are sustained of the biodiversity of their trophic chains and habitats. The marine species are probably the biggest reservoir of chemical substances that can be used in pharmaceutical products. The genetic material of some species can be useful in biotechnical applications. The paper treats topics like the current state of the knowledge in marine biodiversity and it is done a diagnostic of the marine biodiversity in Colombia

  11. Marine biosurfaces research program

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Office of Naval Research (ONR) of the U.S. Navy is starting a basic research program to address the initial events that control colonization of surfaces by organisms in marine environments. The program “arises from the Navy's need to understand and ultimately control biofouling and biocorrosion in marine environments,” according to a Navy announcement.The program, “Biological Processes Controlling Surface Modification in the Marine Environment,” will emphasize the application of in situ techniques and modern molecular biological, biochemical, and biophysical approaches; it will also encourage the development of interdisciplinary projects. Specific areas of interest include sensing and response to environmental surface (physiology/physical chemistry), factors controlling movement to and retention at surfaces (behavior/hydrodynamics), genetic regulation of attachment (molecular genetics), and mechanisms of attachment (biochemistry/surface chemistry).

  12. Snellius II as a policy instrument for marine capacity building

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stel, J.H.

    2001-01-01

    Indonesia is the largest archipelago in the world (1.8 million km2 of land, 3.1 million km2 of sea, plus a 200 miles Exclusive Economic Zone covering some 2.7 million km2). Its population, ranking number four on the world list, amounts to more than 216 million people. Marine related programmes are

  13. Marine Invasive Species Management: Adapting in the Arctic

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kaiser, Brooks

    2014-01-01

    The rapid pace of climate change and increased human disturbance of ecosystems in the Arctic is bringing urgency to concern over non-native species introductions and their potential threats to the marine environment and its economic productivity, where before environmental conditions served...

  14. Tourism, Reef Condition and Visitor Satisfaction in Watamu Marine ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Abstract—Reef-based tourism is known to put environmental pressure on reefs but its consequences on the ecological and economic sustainability of Marine. Protected Areas is unknown. Previous research suggests that, if reef conditions decline, then tourism on a reef will also suffer, but is this always the case? This.

  15. Monitoring the abundance of plastic debris in the marine environment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ryan, P.G.; Moore, C.J. C.J.; Franeker, van J.A.; Moloney, C.L.

    2009-01-01

    Plastic debris has significant environmental and economic impacts in marine systems. Monitoring is crucial to assess the efficacy of measures implemented to reduce the abundance of plastic debris, but it is complicated by large spatial and temporal heterogeneity in the amounts of plastic debris and

  16. Viable Intrauterine Pregnancy and Coexisting Molar Pregnancy in a Bicornuate Uterus: A Rare Presentation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kavitha Krishnamoorthy

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available A complete hydatidiform mole with a viable coexisting fetus (CMCF is a rare occurrence. Similarly, Mullerian anomalies such as a bicornuate uterus are uncommon variants of normal anatomy. We report a case of a 40-year-old female with a known bicornuate uterus presenting at 13 weeks gestation with vaginal bleeding. Ultrasound findings showed a healthy viable pregnancy in the right horn with complete molar pregnancy in the left horn. After extensive counseling, the patient desired conservative management, however, was unable to continue due to profuse vaginal bleeding. The patient underwent suction dilation and curettage under general anesthesia and evacuation of the uterine horns. Postoperatively, the patient was followed until serum beta-human chorionic gonadotropin (β-hCG level dropped to <5 mU. This is the first case of a CMCF reported in a bicornuate uterus, diagnosed with the use of ultrasound imaging.

  17. PMA-PhyloChip DNA Microarray to Elucidate Viable Microbial Community Structure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Venkateswaran, Kasthuri J.; Stam, Christina N.; Andersen, Gary L.; DeSantis, Todd

    2011-01-01

    Since the Viking missions in the mid-1970s, traditional culture-based methods have been used for microbial enumeration by various NASA programs. Viable microbes are of particular concern for spacecraft cleanliness, for forward contamination of extraterrestrial bodies (proliferation of microbes), and for crew health/safety (viable pathogenic microbes). However, a "true" estimation of viable microbial population and differentiation from their dead cells using the most sensitive molecular methods is a challenge, because of the stability of DNA from dead cells. The goal of this research is to evaluate a rapid and sensitive microbial detection concept that will selectively estimate viable microbes. Nucleic acid amplification approaches such as the polymerase chain reaction (PCR) have shown promise for reducing time to detection for a wide range of applications. The proposed method is based on the use of a fluorescent DNA intercalating agent, propidium monoazide (PMA), which can only penetrate the membrane of dead cells. The PMA-quenched reaction mixtures can be screened, where only the DNA from live cells will be available for subsequent PCR reaction and microarray detection, and be identified as part of the viable microbial community. An additional advantage of the proposed rapid method is that it will detect viable microbes and differentiate from dead cells in only a few hours, as opposed to less comprehensive culture-based assays, which take days to complete. This novel combination approach is called the PMA-Microarray method. DNA intercalating agents such as PMA have previously been used to selectively distinguish between viable and dead bacterial cells. Once in the cell, the dye intercalates with the DNA and, upon photolysis under visible light, produces stable DNA adducts. DNA cross-linked in this way is unavailable for PCR. Environmental samples suspected of containing a mixture of live and dead microbial cells/spores will be treated with PMA, and then incubated

  18. Enterocolic lymphocytic phlebitis: statistical analysis of histology features in viable and ischemic bowel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Medlicott, Shaun A C; Guggisberg, Kelly A; DesCôteaux, Jean-Gaston; Beck, Paul

    2006-07-01

    Enterocolic lymphocytic phlebitis is a rare cause of segmental ischemic enterocolitis. This artery-sparing transmural vasculitis is classically a circumferential phlebitis with perivenular lymphocyte cuffing and thrombi in the absence of systemic manifestations. Myointimal hyperplasia may represent a chronic phase of enterocolic lymphocytic phlebitis. Subclinical or early stage enterocolic lymphocytic phlebitis is not well delineated. We analyzed 600 submucosal and subserosal veins from both ischemic and intact bowel segments to discern if vascular morphology varied between sites. Crescentic and circumferential lymphocytic phlebitis is more common in viable bowel than in the ischemic segment. A nonsignificant trend was found for increased crescentic morphology between intact bowel remote from the ischemic focus compared with that adjacent to the ischemic focus. Hallmarks of ischemic bowel are necrotizing phlebitis and thrombi formation. Thrombophlebitis morphology is distinctly different in viable and ischemic bowel, changing from the classic lymphocytic to necrotizing lesions respectively.

  19. Viable Bacteria Associated with Red Blood Cells and Plasma in Freshly Drawn Blood Donations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Damgaard, Christian; Magnussen, Karin; Enevold, Christian

    2015-01-01

    ) or blue lactose plates. For identification colony PCR was performed using primers targeting 16S rDNA. SETTING: Blood donors attending Capital Region Blood Bank, Copenhagen University Hospital, Rigshospitalet, Hvidovre, Denmark, October 29th to December 10th 2013. PARTICIPANTS: 60 donors (≥50 years old....... CONCLUSIONS: Viable bacteria are present in blood from donors self-reported as medically healthy, indicating that conventional test systems employed by blood banks insufficiently detect bacteria in plasma. Further investigation is needed to determine whether routine testing for anaerobic bacteria and testing......OBJECTIVES: Infection remains a leading cause of post-transfusion mortality and morbidity. Bacterial contamination is, however, detected in less than 0.1% of blood units tested. The aim of the study was to identify viable bacteria in standard blood-pack units, with particular focus on bacteria from...

  20. Events Calendar: Smithsonian Marine Ecosystems Exhibit: Smithsonian Marine

    Science.gov (United States)

    current Smithsonian research on the plants and animals of the Indian River Lagoon and marine environments Station (SMS) at Fort Pierce Smithsonian Marine Station at Fort Pierce Website Search Box History Modeling Ecosystems Virtual Tour Facebook Instagram Twitter SMS Home › Smithsonian Marine

  1. New Waves in Marine Science Symposium: Marine Animal Communication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allen, Betty, Comp.

    1989-01-01

    Presented are the abstracts from three research projects on marine social systems which were a part of a marine science symposium. Five sets of activities on marine animal communication are included, one each for grades K-2, 3-5, 6-8 and 9-12, and informal education. (CW)

  2. 75 FR 19670 - Marine Highway Projects

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-15

    ... DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION Maritime Administration Marine Highway Projects ACTION: Solicitation of applications for Marine highway projects. SUMMARY: The Department of Transportation is soliciting applications for Marine Highway Projects as specified in the America's Marine Highway Program Final Rule, MARAD...

  3. Current Perspectives on Viable but Non-culturable State in Foodborne Pathogens

    OpenAIRE

    Zhao, Xihong; Zhong, Junliang; Wei, Caijiao; Lin, Chii-Wann; Ding, Tian

    2017-01-01

    The viable but non-culturable (VBNC) state, a unique state in which a number of bacteria respond to adverse circumstances, was first discovered in 1982. Unfortunately, it has been reported that many foodborne pathogens can be induced to enter the VBNC state by the limiting environmental conditions during food processing and preservation, such as extreme temperatures, drying, irradiation, pulsed electric field, and high pressure stress, as well as the addition of preservatives and disinfectant...

  4. Mitochondrial respiration in human viable platelets-Methodology and influence of gender, age and storage

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sjövall, Fredrik; Ehinger, Johannes K H; Marelsson, Sigurður E

    2013-01-01

    Studying whole cell preparations with intact mitochondria and respiratory complexes has a clear benefit compared to isolated or disrupted mitochondria due to the dynamic interplay between mitochondria and other cellular compartments. Platelet mitochondria have a potential to serve as a source...... of human viable mitochondria when studying mitochondrial physiology and pathogenic mechanisms, as well as for the diagnostics of mitochondrial diseases. The objective of the present study was to perform a detailed evaluation of platelet mitochondrial respiration using high-resolution respirometry. Further...

  5. Reduced infectivity of waterborne viable but nonculturable Helicobacter pylori strain SS1 in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boehnke, Kevin F; Eaton, Kathryn A; Fontaine, Clinton; Brewster, Rebecca; Wu, Jianfeng; Eisenberg, Joseph N S; Valdivieso, Manuel; Baker, Laurence H; Xi, Chuanwu

    2017-08-01

    Helicobacter pylori infection has been consistently associated with lack of access to clean water and proper sanitation, but no studies have demonstrated that the transmission of viable but nonculturable (VBNC) H. pylori can occur from drinking contaminated water. In this study, we used a laboratory mouse model to test whether waterborne VBNCH. pylori could cause gastric infection. We performed five mouse experiments to assess the infectivity of VBNCH. pylori in various exposure scenarios. VBNC viability was examined using Live/Dead staining and Biolog phenotype metabolism arrays. High doses of VBNCH. pylori in water were chosen to test the "worst-case" scenario for different periods of time. One experiment also investigated the infectious capabilities of VBNC SS1 using gavage. Further, immunocompromised mice were exposed to examine infectivity among potentially vulnerable groups. After exposure, mice were euthanized and their stomachs were examined for H. pylori infection using culture and PCR methodology. VBNC cells were membrane intact and retained metabolic activity. Mice exposed to VBNCH. pylori via drinking water and gavage were not infected, despite the various exposure scenarios (immunocompromised, high doses) that might have permitted infection with VBNCH. pylori. The positive controls exposed to viable, culturable H. pylori did become infected. While other studies that have used viable, culturable SS1 via gavage or drinking water exposures to successfully infect mice, in our study, waterborne VBNC SS1 failed to colonize mice under all test conditions. Future studies could examine different H. pylori strains in similar exposure scenarios to compare the relative infectivity of the VBNC vs the viable, culturable state, which would help inform future risk assessments of H. pylori in water. © 2017 The Authors. Helicobacter Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  6. Characterization of the Viable but Nonculturable (VBNC State in Saccharomyces cerevisiae.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Salma

    Full Text Available The Viable But Non Culturable (VBNC state has been thoroughly studied in bacteria. In contrast, it has received much less attention in other microorganisms. However, it has been suggested that various yeast species occurring in wine may enter in VBNC following sulfite stress.In order to provide conclusive evidences for the existence of a VBNC state in yeast, the ability of Saccharomyces cerevisiae to enter into a VBNC state by applying sulfite stress was investigated. Viable populations were monitored by flow cytometry while culturable populations were followed by plating on culture medium. Twenty-four hours after the application of the stress, the comparison between the culturable population and the viable population demonstrated the presence of viable cells that were non culturable. In addition, removal of the stress by increasing the pH of the medium at different time intervals into the VBNC state allowed the VBNC S. cerevisiae cells to "resuscitate". The similarity between the cell cycle profiles of VBNC cells and cells exiting the VBNC state together with the generation rate of cells exiting VBNC state demonstrated the absence of cellular multiplication during the exit from the VBNC state. This provides evidence of a true VBNC state. To get further insight into the molecular mechanism pertaining to the VBNC state, we studied the involvement of the SSU1 gene, encoding a sulfite pump in S. cerevisiae. The physiological behavior of wild-type S. cerevisiae was compared to those of a recombinant strain overexpressing SSU1 and null Δssu1 mutant. Our results demonstrated that the SSU1 gene is only implicated in the first stages of sulfite resistance but not per se in the VBNC phenotype. Our study clearly demonstrated the existence of an SO2-induced VBNC state in S. cerevisiae and that the stress removal allows the "resuscitation" of VBNC cells during the VBNC state.

  7. The biology of marine plants

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Dring, M.J

    1982-01-01

    Since over 90% of the species of marine plants are algae, most of the book is devoted to the marine representatives of this group, with examples from all oceans and coasts of the world where detailed work has been done...

  8. Antifouling Compounds from Marine Invertebrates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qi, Shu-Hua; Ma, Xuan

    2017-08-28

    In this review, a comprehensive overview about the antifouling compounds from marine invertebrates is described. In total, more than 198 antifouling compounds have been obtained from marine invertebrates, specifically, sponges, gorgonian and soft corals.

  9. Antifouling Compounds from Marine Invertebrates

    OpenAIRE

    Qi, Shu-Hua; Ma, Xuan

    2017-01-01

    In this review, a comprehensive overview about the antifouling compounds from marine invertebrates is described. In total, more than 198 antifouling compounds have been obtained from marine invertebrates, specifically, sponges, gorgonian and soft corals.

  10. The Danish Marine Monitoring System

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ærtebjerg, G.

    1997-01-01

    Indeholder abstracts fra Workshop on Marine Monitoring Systems and Technology, Risø, 17-18 April 1996.......Indeholder abstracts fra Workshop on Marine Monitoring Systems and Technology, Risø, 17-18 April 1996....

  11. 76 FR 25308 - Marine Mammals

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-05-04

    ...-XA165 Marine Mammals AGENCY: National Marine Fisheries Service (NMFS), National Oceanic and Atmospheric... Jennifer Burns, Ph.D., University of Alaska Anchorage, Biology Department, 3101 Science Circle, Anchorage, AK, has been issued a permit to conduct [[Page 25309

  12. Glioma Surgical Aspirate: A Viable Source of Tumor Tissue for Experimental Research

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Day, Bryan W.; Stringer, Brett W.; Wilson, John; Jeffree, Rosalind L.; Jamieson, Paul R.

    2013-01-01

    Brain cancer research has been hampered by a paucity of viable clinical tissue of sufficient quality and quantity for experimental research. This has driven researchers to rely heavily on long term cultured cells which no longer represent the cancers from which they were derived. Resection of brain tumors, particularly at the interface between normal and tumorigenic tissue, can be carried out using an ultrasonic surgical aspirator (CUSA) that deposits liquid (blood and irrigation fluid) and resected tissue into a sterile bottle for disposal. To determine the utility of CUSA-derived glioma tissue for experimental research, we collected 48 CUSA specimen bottles from glioma patients and analyzed both the solid tissue fragments and dissociated tumor cells suspended in the liquid waste fraction. We investigated if these fractions would be useful for analyzing tumor heterogeneity, using IHC and multi-parameter flow cytometry; we also assessed culture generation and orthotopic xenograft potential. Both cell sources proved to be an abundant, highly viable source of live tumor cells for cytometric analysis, animal studies and in-vitro studies. Our findings demonstrate that CUSA tissue represents an abundant viable source to conduct experimental research and to carry out diagnostic analyses by flow cytometry or other molecular diagnostic procedures

  13. Preliminary applied study of assessment ischemic/viable myocardium by 99Tcm-HL91

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu Gang; Wu Hua

    2004-01-01

    Objective: To investigate the representation of 99 Tc m -HL91 in the ischemic myocardium, evaluate the diagnosis value of 99 Tc m -HL91 on hypoxic but viable myocardium. Methods: Six patients with cardiac infarction all underwent 99 Tc m -MIBI SPECT and 99 Tc m -HL91 SPECT. Average radioactivity of ischemic area and normal area were respectively obtained by ROI (2 x 2 pixels) on heart minor axis of images, And the radioactivity ratios of target (ischemic area)-to-non target(normal area)were calculated. Results: In image of 99 Tc m -HL91 SPECT, two patients who's radioactivity coloboma of 99 Tc m -MIBI image could be filled with 99 Tc m -HL91, four patients were not caught sight of obvious filling up. Conclusion 99 Tc m -HL91 can be selectively uptaken by ischemic and hypoxic but viable myocardium. it combination of 99 Tc m -MIBI SPECT may be good for accurate diagnosis and differentiation of viable myocardium. (authors)

  14. Corporate strategy and viable future land use: Planning for closure from the outset of mining

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Warhurst, A.

    2000-01-01

    This paper provides an overview of the environmental impact of mining on viable future land use and underlines the imperative of improved environmental management and closure planning. It argues that pollution prevention, through planning for closure, can lead to cost-effective strategies for sustainable minerals development and viable future land use. This seems to be most true for greenfield sites since, generally, the earlier closure planning and pollution prevention is built into a project, the more cost-effective and environmentally benign closure will be. Further, for greenfield sites, pollution prevention techniques can be employed from the outset, at the stages of exploration and mine development, and then monitored and improved through the operation stage to closure, and can be kept in place to manage future land use. The paper discusses how global changes in the industry, following the liberalisation of investment regimes, and mergers and strategic alliances between key firms, has, by virtue of the diffusion of new technology, led to further opportunities to prevent pollution and optimise future land use through planning for closure from the outset. The objectives and components of closure plans are also reviewed as the paper draws on case studies to highlight some of the possible constraints and challenges to pollution prevention that may be faced at the level of both public policy and corporate strategy. The article concludes by suggesting a forward-looking approach to integrated environmental management and viable future land-use planning based on a dynamic model for environmental management. (author)

  15. Fate of viable but non-culturable Listeria monocytogenes in pig manure microcosms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jeremy eDesneux

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The fate of two strains of L. monocytogenes and their ability to become viable but non-culturable (VBNC was investigated in microcosms containing piggery effluents (two raw manures and two biologically treated manures stored for two months at 8°C and 20°C. Levels of L. monocytogenes were estimated using the culture method, qPCR, and propidium monoazide treatment combined with qPCR (qPCRPMA. The chemical composition and the microbial community structure of the manures were also analysed. The strains showed similar decline rates and persisted up to 63 days. At day zero, the percentage of VBNC cells among viable cells was higher in raw manures (81.5-94.8% than in treated manures (67.8-79.2%. The changes in their proportion over time depended on the temperature and on the type of effluent: the biggest increase was observed in treated manures at 20°C and the smallest increase in raw manures at 8°C. The chemical parameters had no influence on the behaviour of the strains, but decrease of the persistence of viable cells was associated with an increase in the microbial richness of the manures. This study demonstrated that storing manure altered the culturability of L. monocytogenes, which rapidly entered the VBNC state, and underlines the importance of including VBNC cells when estimating the persistence of the pathogens in farm effluents.

  16. Ecological criteria for evaluating candidate sites for marine reserves

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roberts, Callum M.; Andelman, Sandy; Branch, George; Bustamante, Rodrigo H.; Castilla, Juan Carlos; Dugan, Jenifer; Halpern, Benjamin S.; Lafferty, Kevin D.; Leslie, Heather; Lubchenco, Jane; McArdle, Deborah; Possingham, Hugh P.; Ruckelshaus, Mary; Warner, Robert R.

    2003-01-01

    Several schemes have been developed to help select the locations of marine reserves. All of them combine social, economic, and biological criteria, and few offer any guidance as to how to prioritize among the criteria identified. This can imply that the relative weights given to different criteria are unimportant. Where two sites are of equal value ecologically, then socioeconomic criteria should dominate the choice of which should be protected. However, in many cases, socioeconomic criteria are given equal or greater weight than ecological considerations in the choice of sites. This can lead to selection of reserves with little biological value that fail to meet many of the desired objectives. To avoid such a possibility, we develop a series of criteria that allow preliminary evaluation of candidate sites according to their relative biological values in advance of the application of socioeconomic criteria. We include criteria that, while not strictly biological, have a strong influence on the species present or ecological processes. Our scheme enables sites to be assessed according to their biodiversity, the processes which underpin that diversity, and the processes that support fisheries and provide a spectrum of other services important to people. Criteria that capture biodiversity values include biogeographic representation, habitat representation and heterogeneity, and presence of species or populations of special interest (e.g., threatened species). Criteria that capture sustainability of biodiversity and fishery values include the size of reserves necessary to protect viable habitats, presence of exploitable species, vulnerable life stages, connectivity among reserves, links among ecosystems, and provision of ecosystem services to people. Criteria measuring human and natural threats enable candidate sites to be eliminated from consideration if risks are too great, but also help prioritize among sites where threats can be mitigated by protection. While our

  17. Viral diseases of marine invertebrates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, P. T.

    1984-03-01

    Approximately 40 viruses are known from marine sponges; turbellarian and monogenetic flatworms; cephalopod, bivalve, and gastropod mollusks; nereid polychaetes; and isopod and decapod crustaceans. Most of the viruses can be tentatively assigned to the Herpesviridae, Baculoviridae, Iridoviridae, Adenoviridae, Papovaviridae, Reoviridae, “Birnaviridae”, Bunyaviridae, Rhabdoviridae, and Picornaviridae. Viruslike particles found in oysters might be representatives of the Togaviridae and Retroviridae. Enveloped single-stranded RNA viruses from crustaceans have developmental and morphological characteristics intermediate between families, and some show evidence of relationships to the Paramyxoviridae as well as the Bunyaviridae or Rhabdoviridae. Certain small viruses of shrimp cannot be assigned, even tentatively, to a particular family. Some viruses cause disease in wild and captive hosts, others are associated with disease states but may not be primary instigators, and many occur in apparently normal animals. The frequency of viral disease in natural populations of marine invertebrates is unknown. Several viruses that cause disease in captive animals, with or without experimental intervention, have also been found in diseased wild hosts, including herpeslike viruses of crabs and oysters, iridovirus of octopus, and reolike and bunyalike viruses of crabs. Iridolike viruses have been implicated in massive mortalities of cultured oysters. Baculoviruses, and IHHN virus, which is of uncertain affinities, cause economically damaging diseases in cultured penaeid shrimp. Double or multiple viral infection is common in crabs. For example, a reolike virus and associated rhabdolike virus act synergistically to cause paralytic and fatal disease in Callinectes sapidus. Information on host range, most susceptible stage, and viral latency is available only for viruses of shrimp. One baculovirus attacks five species of New World penaeid shrimp. IHHN virus infects three species of

  18. Voodoo Economics:Voodoo Economics

    OpenAIRE

    Briones Alonso, Elena

    2017-01-01

    This dissertation collects three essays that aim to contribute to the field of cultural economics. There is growing recognition among economists and policy makers that culture matters for economic development, but in many cases this trend has not resulted in a thorough understanding of the role of culture, or a proper integration of existing knowledge in policy. This is particularly true for the area of food security. The second chapter addresses this issue by reviewing existing cross-discipl...

  19. Climate and fishing steer ecosystem regeneration to uncertain economic futures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Blenckner, Thorsten; Llope, Marcos; Möllmann, Christian

    2015-01-01

    Overfishing of large predatory fish populations has resulted in lasting restructurings of entire marine food webs worldwide, with serious socio-economic consequences. Fortunately, some degraded ecosystems show signs of recovery. A key challenge for ecosystem management is to anticipate the degree...... lead to higher economic uncertainty and costs for exploited ecosystems, in particular, under climate change....

  20. Are the Columbia River Basalts, Columbia Plateau, Idaho, Oregon, and Washington, USA, a viable geothermal target? A preliminary analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burns, Erick R.; Williams, Colin F.; Tolan, Terry; Kaven, Joern Ole

    2016-01-01

    The successful development of a geothermal electric power generation facility relies on (1) the identification of sufficiently high temperatures at an economically viable depth and (2) the existence of or potential to create and maintain a permeable zone (permeability >10-14 m2) of sufficient size to allow efficient long-term extraction of heat from the reservoir host rock. If both occur at depth under the Columbia Plateau, development of geothermal resources there has the potential to expand both the magnitude and spatial extent of geothermal energy production. However, a number of scientific and technical issues must be resolved in order to evaluate the likelihood that the Columbia River Basalts, or deeper geologic units under the Columbia Plateau, are viable geothermal targets.Recent research has demonstrated that heat flow beneath the Columbia Plateau Regional Aquifer System may be higher than previously measured in relatively shallow (characteristic of natural hydrothermal reservoirs. From a hydraulic perspective, Columbia River Basalts are typically divided into dense, impermeable flow interiors and interflow zones comprising the top of one flow, the bottom of the overlying flow, and any sedimentary interbed. Interflow zones are highly variable in texture but, at depths 10-14 m2) interflows are documented at depths up to ~1,400 m. If the elevated permeability in these zones persists to greater depths, they may provide natural permeability of sufficient magnitude to allow their exploitation as conventional geothermal reservoirs. Alternatively, if the permeability in these interflow zones is less than 10-14 m2 at depth, it may be possible to use hydraulic and thermal stimulation to enhance the permeability of both the interflow zones and the natural jointing within the low-permeability interior portions of individual basalt flows in order to develop Enhanced/Engineered Geothermal System (EGS) reservoirs. The key challenge for an improved Columbia Plateau

  1. Oceanic processes in marine pollution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baumgartner, D.J.; Duedall, I.W.

    1990-01-01

    This book covers the following areas: bioaccumulation of Polycyclic Aromatic hydrocarbons in marine environments; behavior of drilling fluid discharges off the coast of California; effects of drilling fluids on marine organisms; and the effects of radioactive waste disposal on marine amphipods

  2. JEDI: Jobs and Economic Development Impact Model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2017-06-13

    The Jobs and Economic Development Impact (JEDI) models are user-friendly tools that estimate the economic impacts of constructing and operating power generation and biofuel plants at the local (usually state) level. First developed by NREL's researchers to model wind energy jobs and impacts, JEDI has been expanded to also estimate the economic impacts of biofuels, coal, conventional hydro, concentrating solar power, geothermal, marine and hydrokinetic power, natural gas, photovoltaics, and transmission lines. This fact sheet focuses on JEDI for wind energy projects and is revised with 2017 figures.

  3. Marine Renewable Energies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Azzellino, Arianna; Conley, Daniel; Vicinanza, Diego

    2013-01-01

    Countries with coastlines may have valuable renewable energy resources in the form of tides, currents, waves, and offshorewind.The potential to gather energy from the sea has recently gained interest in several nations, so Marine Renewable Energy Installations (hereinafter MREIs) will likely become...

  4. Marine and Estuarine Pollution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reish, Donald J.

    1978-01-01

    Presents a literature review of the effects of various pollutants on marine and estuarine organisms, covering publications of 1976-77. This review includes: (1) effects of pesticides, dredging, dumping, sludge, and petroleum hydrocarbons; and (2) diseases and tissue abnormalities. A list of 441 references is also presented. (HM)

  5. NWS Marine Forecast Areas

    Science.gov (United States)

    of Commerce Ocean Prediction Center National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration Analysis & Unified Surface Analysis Ocean Ocean Products Ice & Icebergs NIC Ice Products NAIS Iceberg Analysis Social Media Facebook Twitter YouTube Search Search For Go NWS All NOAA NWS Marine Forecast Areas

  6. Marine fog: a review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koračin, Darko; Dorman, Clive E.; Lewis, John M.; Hudson, James G.; Wilcox, Eric M.; Torregrosa, Alicia

    2014-01-01

    The objective of this review is to discuss physical processes over a wide range of spatial scales that govern the formation, evolution, and dissipation of marine fog. We consider marine fog as the collective combination of fog over the open sea along with coastal sea fog and coastal land fog. The review includes a history of sea fog research, field programs, forecasting methods, and detection of sea fog via satellite observations where similarity in radiative properties of fog top and the underlying sea induce further complexity. The main thrust of the study is to provide insight into causality of fog including its initiation, maintenance, and destruction. The interplay between the various physical processes behind the several stages of marine fog is among the most challenging aspects of the problem. An effort is made to identify this interplay between processes that include the microphysics of fog formation and maintenance, the influence of large-scale circulation and precipitation/clouds, radiation, turbulence (air-sea interaction), and advection. The environmental impact of marine fog is also addressed. The study concludes with an assessment of our current knowledge of the phenomenon, our principal areas of ignorance, and future lines of research that hold promise for advances in our understanding.

  7. Marine fungi: A critique

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Raghukumar, S.; Raghukumar, C.

    in the sea have been ignored to a large extent. However, several instances of terrestrial species of fungi, active in marine environment have been reported. The arguments to support the view that terrestrial species of fungi by virtue of their physiological...

  8. Marine complex adaptive systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bigagli, Emanuele

    2017-01-01

    Anthropogenic and climate-related stressors challenge the health of nearly every part of the global oceans. They affect the capacity of oceans to regulate global weather and climate, as well as ocean productivity and food services, and result in the loss or degradation of marine habitats and

  9. Marine and Hydrokinetic Technology (MHK) Instrumentation, Measurement, and Computer Modeling Workshop

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Musial, W.; Lawson, M.; Rooney, S.

    2013-02-01

    The Marine and Hydrokinetic Technology (MHK) Instrumentation, Measurement, and Computer Modeling Workshop was hosted by the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) in Broomfield, Colorado, July 9-10, 2012. The workshop brought together over 60 experts in marine energy technologies to disseminate technical information to the marine energy community and collect information to help identify ways in which the development of a commercially viable marine energy industry can be accelerated. The workshop was comprised of plenary sessions that reviewed the state of the marine energy industry and technical sessions that covered specific topics of relevance. Each session consisted of presentations, followed by facilitated discussions. During the facilitated discussions, the session chairs posed several prepared questions to the presenters and audience to encourage communication and the exchange of ideas between technical experts. Following the workshop, attendees were asked to provide written feedback on their takeaways and their best ideas on how to accelerate the pace of marine energy technology development. The first four sections of this document give a general overview of the workshop format, provide presentation abstracts and discussion session notes, and list responses to the post-workshop questions. The final section presents key findings and conclusions from the workshop that suggest how the U.S. Department of Energy and national laboratory resources can be utilized to most effectively assist the marine energy industry.

  10. Marine and Hydrokinetic Technology (MHK) Instrumentation, Measurement, and Computer Modeling Workshop

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Musial, W. [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Lawson, M. [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Rooney, S. [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)

    2013-02-01

    The Marine and Hydrokinetic Technology (MHK) Instrumentation, Measurement, and Computer Modeling Workshop was hosted by the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) in Broomfield, Colorado, July 9–10, 2012. The workshop brought together over 60 experts in marine energy technologies to disseminate technical information to the marine energy community, and to collect information to help identify ways in which the development of a commercially viable marine energy industry can be accelerated. The workshop was comprised of plenary sessions that reviewed the state of the marine energy industry and technical sessions that covered specific topics of relevance. Each session consisted of presentations, followed by facilitated discussions. During the facilitated discussions, the session chairs posed several prepared questions to the presenters and audience to encourage communication and the exchange of ideas between technical experts. Following the workshop, attendees were asked to provide written feedback on their takeaways from the workshop and their best ideas on how to accelerate the pace of marine energy technology development. The first four sections of this document give a general overview of the workshop format, provide presentation abstracts, supply discussion session notes, and list responses to the post-workshop questions. The final section presents key findings and conclusions from the workshop that suggest what the most pressing MHK technology needs are and how the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) and national laboratory resources can be utilized to assist the marine energy industry in the most effective manner.

  11. Economic fables

    OpenAIRE

    Moran, Shane

    2010-01-01

    I had the good fortune to grow up in a wonderful area of Jerusalem, surrounded by a diverse range of people: Rabbi Meizel, the communist Sala Marcel, my widowed Aunt Hannah, and the intellectual Yaacovson. As far as I'm concerned, the opinion of such people is just as authoritative for making social and economic decisions as the opinion of an expert using a model. Part memoir, part crash-course in economic theory, this deeply engaging book by one of the world's foremost economists looks at ...

  12. Marine Fish Hybridization

    KAUST Repository

    He, Song

    2017-04-01

    Natural hybridization is reproduction (without artificial influence) between two or more species/populations which are distinguishable from each other by heritable characters. Natural hybridizations among marine fishes were highly underappreciated due to limited research effort; it seems that this phenomenon occurs more often than is commonly recognized. As hybridization plays an important role in biodiversity processes in the marine environment, detecting hybridization events and investigating hybridization is important to understand and protect biodiversity. The first chapter sets the framework for this disseration study. The Cohesion Species Concept was selected as the working definition of a species for this study as it can handle marine fish hybridization events. The concept does not require restrictive species boundaries. A general history and background of natural hybridization in marine fishes is reviewed during in chapter as well. Four marine fish hybridization cases were examed and documented in Chapters 2 to 5. In each case study, at least one diagnostic nuclear marker, screened from among ~14 candidate markers, was found to discriminate the putative hybridizing parent species. To further investigate genetic evidence to support the hybrid status for each hybrid offspring in each case, haploweb analysis on diagnostic markers (nuclear and/or mitochondrial) and the DAPC/PCA analysis on microsatellite data were used. By combining the genetic evidences, morphological traits, and ecological observations together, the potential reasons that triggered each hybridization events and the potential genetic/ecology effects could be discussed. In the last chapter, sequences from 82 pairs of hybridizing parents species (for which COI barcoding sequences were available either on GenBank or in our lab) were collected. By comparing the COI fragment p-distance between each hybridizing parent species, some general questions about marine fish hybridization were discussed: Is

  13. More Media for Southern Africa? The Place of Politics, Economics ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In line with global trends, media in Southern Africa in the past decade has been moving slowly towards mergers, partnerships and multi-platform publishing. Driven by politics and facilitated by technology, the process has had to confront the difficulty of establishing viable economic models, the lack of regional integration ...

  14. The economics of producing biodiesel from algae

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gallagher, Brian J. [Ecotonics Environmental Scientists, 1801 Century Park East, Suite 2400, Los Angeles, CA 90067 (United States)

    2011-01-15

    Biodiesel is an alternative fuel for conventional diesel that is made from natural plant oils, animal fats, and waste cooking oils. This paper discusses the economics of producing biodiesel fuel from algae grown in open ponds. There is potential for large-scale production of biodiesel from algal farms on non-arable land; however, previous studies have failed to demonstrate an economically viable process that could be scalable to a commercialized industry. The problems include inconsistent and insufficient algal productivities, uncertain capital and operating costs, volatile market prices and unknown levels of government support. Although intensive work is being done on many technological issues, the economic studies and data are incomplete and out of date. This paper presents an updated financial analysis of the production and economic conditions that could have a profound effect on the success of this important alternative fuel production process. (author)

  15. The economics of producing biodiesel from algae

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gallagher, Brian J.

    2011-01-01

    Biodiesel is an alternative fuel for conventional diesel that is made from natural plant oils, animal fats, and waste cooking oils. This paper discusses the economics of producing biodiesel fuel from algae grown in open ponds. There is potential for large-scale production of biodiesel from algal farms on non-arable land; however, previous studies have failed to demonstrate an economically viable process that could be scalable to a commercialized industry. The problems include inconsistent and insufficient algal productivities, uncertain capital and operating costs, volatile market prices and unknown levels of government support. Although intensive work is being done on many technological issues, the economic studies and data are incomplete and out of date. This paper presents an updated financial analysis of the production and economic conditions that could have a profound effect on the success of this important alternative fuel production process. (author)

  16. Three methods for isolating viable anthozoan endoderm cells with their intracellular symbiotic dinoflagellates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gates, R. D.; Muscatine, L.

    1992-09-01

    Three maceration methods are described for the isolation of single endoderm cells from marine cnidarians. Two are enzymatic treatments suitable for fleshy anthozoans such as sea anemones and zoanthids. The third employs calcium free sea water and is suitable for stony corals. The viability and morphology of the endoderm cells is described using fluorogenic dyes and scanning and transmission electron microscopy.

  17. Economics of Managed Aquifer Recharge

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robert G. Maliva

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Managed aquifer recharge (MAR technologies can provide a variety of water resources management benefits by increasing the volume of stored water and improving water quality through natural aquifer treatment processes. Implementation of MAR is often hampered by the absence of a clear economic case for the investment to construct and operate the systems. Economic feasibility can be evaluated using cost benefit analysis (CBA, with the challenge of monetizing benefits. The value of water stored or treated by MAR systems can be evaluated by direct and indirect measures of willingness to pay including market price, alternative cost, value marginal product, damage cost avoided, and contingent value methods. CBAs need to incorporate potential risks and uncertainties, such as failure to meet performance objectives. MAR projects involving high value uses, such as potable supply, tend to be economically feasible provided that local hydrogeologic conditions are favorable. They need to have low construction and operational costs for lesser value uses, such as some irrigation. Such systems should therefore be financed by project beneficiaries, but dichotomies may exist between beneficiaries and payers. Hence, MAR projects in developing countries may be economically viable, but external support is often required because of limited local financial resources.

  18. Economic viability of biogas technology in a Bangladesh village

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Biswas, W.K.; Lucas, N.J.D.

    1997-01-01

    We estimate energy consumption for domestic cooking and biogas energy resources for 21 clusters of households in a village. Data were analyzed on a cluster basis, with investments shared. Under the present conditions, biogas technology would not be economically viable. Economic analysis involving viability tools including additional benefits of biogas technology indicate that creating a market for local biogas would make such a project feasible. (Author)

  19. The unity of science and economics a new foundation of economic theory

    CERN Document Server

    Chen, Jing

    2016-01-01

    This book presents a new economic theory developed from physical and biological principles. It explains how technology, social systems and economic values are intimately related to resources. Many people have recognized that mainstream (neoclassical) economic theories are not consistent with physical laws and often not consistent with empirical patterns, but most feel that economic activities are too complex to be described by a simple and coherent mathematical theory. While social systems are indeed complex, all life systems, including social systems, satisfy two principles. First, all systems need to extract resources from the external environment to compensate for their consumption. Second, for a system to be viable, the amount of resource extraction has to be no less than the level of consumption. From these two principles, we derive a quantitative theory of major factors in economic activities, such as fixed cost, variable cost, discount rate, uncertainty and duration. The mathematical theory enables us ...

  20. Economic considerations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Burns, W.A. Jr.

    1980-01-01

    A brief qualitative comparison of the technical differences between liquid membranes and three other technologies: biological treatment, ion exchange and solvent extraction is presented. It is shown how the differences can result in substantial economic advantages. For uranium recovery from phosphoric acid a lower organic loss is achieved by the liquid membrane than by the solvent extraction process. (U.K.)

  1. Food economics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Henning Otte

    and issues and such as food security, quality, obesity and health are ever important factors. This book describes the link between food markets and food companies from a theoretical and a business economics perspective. The relationships, trends and impacts on the international food market are presented...

  2. Mystical Economics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marin Dinu

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available The world envisioned by Economics resembles the Garden of Eden, where everything came from God, the pre-primordial sin people having nothing else to do but wait for the natural rhythms, set by the invisible hand, which is moved by the will and the power of the Creator.

  3. Economic impact

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Technology Transfer Department

    2001-06-01

    In federal fiscal year 2000 (FY00), Berkeley Lab had 4,347 full- and part-time employees. In addition, at any given time of the year, there were more than 1,000 Laboratory guests. These guests, who also reside locally, have an important economic impact on the nine-county Bay Area. However, Berkeley Lab's total economic impact transcends the direct effects of payroll and purchasing. The direct dollars paid to the Lab's employees in the form of wages, salaries, and benefits, and payments made to contractors for goods and services, are respent by employees and contractors again and again in the local and greater economy. Further, while Berkeley Lab has a strong reputation for basic scientific research, many of the Lab's scientific discoveries and inventions have had direct application in industry, spawning new businesses and creating new opportunities for existing firms. This analysis updates the Economic Impact Analysis done in 1996, and its purpose is to describe the economic and geographic impact of Laboratory expenditures and to provide a qualitative understanding of how Berkeley Lab impacts and supports the local community. It is intended as a guide for state, local, and national policy makers as well as local community members. Unless otherwise noted, this analysis uses data from FY00, the most recent year for which full data are available.

  4. The role of environmental biotechnology in exploring, exploiting, monitoring, preserving, protecting and decontaminating the marine environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalogerakis, Nicolas; Arff, Johanne; Banat, Ibrahim M; Broch, Ole Jacob; Daffonchio, Daniele; Edvardsen, Torgeir; Eguiraun, Harkaitz; Giuliano, Laura; Handå, Aleksander; López-de-Ipiña, Karmele; Marigomez, Ionan; Martinez, Iciar; Øie, Gunvor; Rojo, Fernando; Skjermo, Jorunn; Zanaroli, Giulio; Fava, Fabio

    2015-01-25

    In light of the Marine Strategy Framework Directive (MSFD) and the EU Thematic Strategy on the Sustainable Use of Natural Resources, environmental biotechnology could make significant contributions in the exploitation of marine resources and addressing key marine environmental problems. In this paper 14 propositions are presented focusing on (i) the contamination of the marine environment, and more particularly how to optimize the use of biotechnology-related tools and strategies for predicting and monitoring contamination and developing mitigation measures; (ii) the exploitation of the marine biological and genetic resources to progress with the sustainable, eco-compatible use of the maritime space (issues are very diversified and include, for example, waste treatment and recycling, anti-biofouling agents; bio-plastics); (iii) environmental/marine biotechnology as a driver for a sustainable economic growth. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Marine oil spill risk mapping for accidental pollution and its application in a coastal city.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lan, Dongdong; Liang, Bin; Bao, Chenguang; Ma, Minghui; Xu, Yan; Yu, Chunyan

    2015-07-15

    Accidental marine oil spill pollution can result in severe environmental, ecological, economic and other consequences. This paper discussed the model of Marine Oil Spill Risk Mapping (MOSRM), which was constructed as follows: (1) proposing a marine oil spill risk system based on the typical marine oil spill pollution accidents and prevailing risk theories; (2) identifying suitable indexes that are supported by quantitative sub-indexes; (3) constructing the risk measuring models according to the actual interactions between the factors in the risk system; and (4) assessing marine oil spill risk on coastal city scale with GIS to map the overall risk. The case study of accidental marine oil spill pollution in the coastal area of Dalian, China was used to demonstrate the effectiveness of the model. The coastal areas of Dalian were divided into three zones with risk degrees of high, medium, and low. And detailed countermeasures were proposed for specific risk zones. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Accounting for tourism benefits in marine reserve design

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-01-01

    Marine reserve design often considers potential benefits to conservation and/or fisheries but typically ignores potential revenues generated through tourism. Since tourism can be the main source of economic benefits for many marine reserves worldwide, ignoring tourism objectives in the design process might lead to sub-optimal outcomes. To incorporate tourism benefits into marine reserve design, we develop a bioeconomic model that tracks tourism and fisheries revenues through time for different management options and location characteristics. Results from the model show that accounting for tourism benefits will ultimately motivate greater ocean protection. Our findings demonstrate that marine reserves are part of the optimal economic solution even in situations with optimal fisheries management and low tourism value relative to fisheries. The extent of optimal protection depends on specific location characteristics, such as tourism potential and other local amenities, and the species recreational divers care about. Additionally, as tourism value increases, optimal reserve area also increases. Finally, we demonstrate how tradeoffs between the two services depend on location attributes and management of the fishery outside marine reserve borders. Understanding when unavoidable tradeoffs will arise helps identify those situations where communities must choose between competing interests. PMID:29267364

  7. Emerging biopharmaceuticals from marine actinobacteria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hassan, Syed Shams Ul; Anjum, Komal; Abbas, Syed Qamar; Akhter, Najeeb; Shagufta, Bibi Ibtesam; Shah, Sayed Asmat Ali; Tasneem, Umber

    2017-01-01

    Actinobacteria are quotidian microorganisms in the marine world, playing a crucial ecological role in the recycling of refractory biomaterials and producing novel secondary metabolites with pharmaceutical applications. Actinobacteria have been isolated from the huge area of marine organisms including sponges, tunicates, corals, mollusks, crabs, mangroves and seaweeds. Natural products investigation of the marine actinobacteria revealed that they can synthesize numerous natural products including alkaloids, polyketides, peptides, isoprenoids, phenazines, sterols, and others. These natural products have a potential to provide future drugs against crucial diseases like cancer, HIV, microbial and protozoal infections and severe inflammations. Therefore, marine actinobacteria portray as a pivotal resource for marine drugs. It is an upcoming field of research to probe a novel and pharmaceutically important secondary metabolites from marine actinobacteria. In this review, we attempt to summarize the present knowledge on the diversity, chemistry and mechanism of action of marine actinobacteria-derived secondary metabolites from 2007 to 2016. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Sorption and precipitation of Mn2+ by viable and autoclaved Shewanella putrefaciens: Effect of contact time

    KAUST Repository

    Chubar, Natalia

    2013-01-01

    The sorption of Mn(II) by viable and inactivated cells of Shewanella putrefaciens, a non-pathogenic, facultative anaerobic, gram-negative bacterium characterised as a Mn(IV) and Fe(III) reducer, was studied under aerobic conditions, as a function of pH, bacterial density and metal loading. During a short contact time (3-24h), the adsorptive behaviour of live and dead bacteria toward Mn(II) was sufficiently similar, an observation that was reflected in the studies on adsorption kinetics at various metal loadings, effects of pH, bacteria density, isotherms and drifting of pH during adsorption. Continuing the experiment for an additional 2-30days demonstrated that the Mn(II) sorption by suspensions of viable and autoclaved cells differed significantly from one another. The sorption to dead cells was characterised by a rapid equilibration and was described by an isotherm. In contrast, the sorption (uptake) to live bacteria exhibited a complex time-dependent uptake. This uptake began as adsorption and ion exchange processes followed by bioprecipitation, and it was accompanied by the formation of polymeric sugars (EPS) and the release of dissolved organic substances. FTIR, EXAFS/XANES and XPS demonstrated that manganese(II) phosphate was the main precipitate formed in 125ml batches, which is the first evidence of the ability of microbes to synthesise manganese phosphates. XPS and XANES spectra did not detect Mn(II) oxidation. Although the release of protein-like compounds by the viable bacteria increased in the presence of Mn2+ (and, by contrast, the release of carbohydrates did not change), electrochemical analyses did not indicate any aqueous complexation of Mn(II) by the organic ligands. © 2012 Elsevier Ltd.

  9. Viable group A streptococci in macrophages during acute soft tissue infection.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pontus Thulin

    2006-03-01

    Full Text Available Group A streptococcal severe soft tissue infections, such as necrotizing fasciitis, are rapidly progressive infections associated with high mortality. Group A streptococcus is typically considered an extracellular pathogen, but has been shown to reside intracellularly in host cells.We characterized in vivo interactions between group A streptococci (GAS and cells involved in innate immune responses, using human biopsies (n = 70 collected from 17 patients with soft tissue infections. Immunostaining and in situ image analysis revealed high amounts of bacteria in the biopsies, even in those collected after prolonged antibiotic therapy. Viability of the streptococci was assessed by use of a bacterial viability stain, which demonstrated viable bacteria in 74% of the biopsies. GAS were present both extracellularly and intracellularly within phagocytic cells, primarily within macrophages. Intracellular GAS were predominantly noted in biopsies from newly involved tissue characterized by lower inflammation and bacterial load, whereas purely extracellular GAS or a combination of intra- and extracellular GAS dominated in severely inflamed tissue. The latter tissue was also associated with a significantly increased amount of the cysteine protease streptococcal pyrogenic exotoxin SpeB. In vitro studies confirmed that macrophages serve as reservoirs for viable GAS, and infection with a speB-deletion mutant produced significantly lower frequencies of cells with viable GAS following infection as compared to the wild-type bacteria.This is the first study to demonstrate that GAS survive intracellularly in macrophages during acute invasive infections. This intracellular presence may have evolved as a mechanism to avoid antibiotic eradication, which may explain our finding that high bacterial load is present even in tissue collected after prolonged intravenous antibiotic therapy. This new insight into the pathogenesis of streptococcal soft tissue infections

  10. Viable Group A Streptococci in Macrophages during Acute Soft Tissue Infection.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Group A streptococcal severe soft tissue infections, such as necrotizing fasciitis, are rapidly progressive infections associated with high mortality. Group A streptococcus is typically considered an extracellular pathogen, but has been shown to reside intracellularly in host cells. METHODS AND FINDINGS: We characterized in vivo interactions between group A streptococci (GAS and cells involved in innate immune responses, using human biopsies (n = 70 collected from 17 patients with soft tissue infections. Immunostaining and in situ image analysis revealed high amounts of bacteria in the biopsies, even in those collected after prolonged antibiotic therapy. Viability of the streptococci was assessed by use of a bacterial viability stain, which demonstrated viable bacteria in 74% of the biopsies. GAS were present both extracellularly and intracellularly within phagocytic cells, primarily within macrophages. Intracellular GAS were predominantly noted in biopsies from newly involved tissue characterized by lower inflammation and bacterial load, whereas purely extracellular GAS or a combination of intra- and extracellular GAS dominated in severely inflamed tissue. The latter tissue was also associated with a significantly increased amount of the cysteine protease streptococcal pyrogenic exotoxin SpeB. In vitro studies confirmed that macrophages serve as reservoirs for viable GAS, and infection with a speB-deletion mutant produced significantly lower frequencies of cells with viable GAS following infection as compared to the wild-type bacteria. CONCLUSIONS: This is the first study to demonstrate that GAS survive intracellularly in macrophages during acute invasive infections. This intracellular presence may have evolved as a mechanism to avoid antibiotic eradication, which may explain our finding that high bacterial load is present even in tissue collected after prolonged intravenous antibiotic therapy. This new insight into the pathogenesis

  11. Finding viable models in SUSY parameter spaces with signal specific discovery potential

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burgess, Thomas; Lindroos, Jan Øye; Lipniacka, Anna; Sandaker, Heidi

    2013-08-01

    Recent results from ATLAS giving a Higgs mass of 125.5 GeV, further constrain already highly constrained supersymmetric models such as pMSSM or CMSSM/mSUGRA. As a consequence, finding potentially discoverable and non-excluded regions of model parameter space is becoming increasingly difficult. Several groups have invested large effort in studying the consequences of Higgs mass bounds, upper limits on rare B-meson decays, and limits on relic dark matter density on constrained models, aiming at predicting superpartner masses, and establishing likelihood of SUSY models compared to that of the Standard Model vis-á-vis experimental data. In this paper a framework for efficient search for discoverable, non-excluded regions of different SUSY spaces giving specific experimental signature of interest is presented. The method employs an improved Markov Chain Monte Carlo (MCMC) scheme exploiting an iteratively updated likelihood function to guide search for viable models. Existing experimental and theoretical bounds as well as the LHC discovery potential are taken into account. This includes recent bounds on relic dark matter density, the Higgs sector and rare B-mesons decays. A clustering algorithm is applied to classify selected models according to expected phenomenology enabling automated choice of experimental benchmarks and regions to be used for optimizing searches. The aim is to provide experimentalist with a viable tool helping to target experimental signatures to search for, once a class of models of interest is established. As an example a search for viable CMSSM models with τ-lepton signatures observable with the 2012 LHC data set is presented. In the search 105209 unique models were probed. From these, ten reference benchmark points covering different ranges of phenomenological observables at the LHC were selected.

  12. High-seas fish wars generate marine reserves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herrera, Guillermo E; Moeller, Holly V; Neubert, Michael G

    2016-04-05

    The effective management of marine fisheries is an ongoing challenge at the intersection of biology, economics, and policy. One way in which fish stocks-and their habitats-can be protected is through the establishment of marine reserves, areas that are closed to fishing. Although the potential economic benefits of such reserves have been shown for single-owner fisheries, their implementation quickly becomes complicated when more than one noncooperating harvester is involved in fishery management, which is the case on the high seas. How do multiple self-interested actors distribute their fishing effort to maximize their individual economic gains in the presence of others? Here, we use a game theoretic model to compare the effort distributions of multiple noncooperating harvesters with the effort distributions in the benchmark sole owner and open access cases. In addition to comparing aggregate rent, stock size, and fishing effort, we focus on the occurrence, size, and location of marine reserves. We show that marine reserves are a component of many noncooperative Cournot-Nash equilibria. Furthermore, as the number of harvesters increases, (i) both total unfished area and the size of binding reserves (those that actually constrain behavior) may increase, although the latter eventually asymptotically decreases; (ii) total rents and stock size both decline; and (iii) aggregate effort used (i.e., employment) can either increase or decrease, perhaps nonmonotonically.

  13. Habitat damage, marine reserves, and the value of spatial management

    KAUST Repository

    Moeller, Holly V.

    2013-07-01

    The biological benefits of marine reserves have garnered favor in the conservation community, but "no-take" reserve implementation is complicated by the economic interests of fishery stakeholders. There are now a number of studies examining the conditions under which marine reserves can provide both economic and ecological benefits. A potentially important reality of fishing that these studies overlook is that fishing can damage the habitat of the target stock. Here, we construct an equilibrium bioeconomic model that incorporates this habitat damage and show that the designation of marine reserves, coupled with the implementation of a tax on fishing effort, becomes both biologically and economically favorable as habitat sensitivity increases. We also study the effects of varied degrees of spatial control on fisheries management. Together, our results provide further evidence for the potential monetary and biological value of spatial management, and the possibility of a mutually beneficial resolution to the fisherman-conservationist marine reserve designation dilemma. © 2013 by the Ecological Society of America.

  14. Fake Journals: Their Features and Some Viable Ways to Distinguishing Them

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hemmat Esfe, Mohammad; Wongwises, Somchai; Asadi, Amin

    2015-01-01

    In this paper, we aim to discuss the fake journals and their advertisement and publication techniques. These types of journals mostly start and continue their activities by using the name of some indexed journals and establishing fake websites. The fake journals and publishers, while asking...... the authors for a significant amount of money for publishing their papers, have no peer-review process, publish the papers without any revision on the fake sites, and put the scientific reputation and prestige of the researchers in jeopardy. In the rest of the paper, we present some viable techniques in order...

  15. Fake Journals: Their Features and Some Viable Ways to Distinguishing Them.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hemmat Esfe, Mohammad; Wongwises, Somchai; Asadi, Amin; Akbari, Mohammad

    2015-08-01

    In this paper, we aim to discuss the fake journals and their advertisement and publication techniques. These types of journals mostly start and continue their activities by using the name of some indexed journals and establishing fake websites. The fake journals and publishers, while asking the authors for a significant amount of money for publishing their papers, have no peer-review process, publish the papers without any revision on the fake sites, and put the scientific reputation and prestige of the researchers in jeopardy. In the rest of the paper, we present some viable techniques in order for researchers and students to identify these journals.

  16. Current progress and challenges in engineering viable artificial leaf for solar water splitting

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Phuc D. Nguyen

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Large scale production of H2, a clean fuel, can be realized with just water and solar light energy by employing a viable energy conversion device called artificial leaf. In this tutorial review, we discuss on advances achieved recently and technical challenges remained toward the creation of such a leaf. Development of key components like catalysts for water electrolysis process and light harvester for harvesting solar energy as well as strategies being developed for assembling these components to create a complete artificial leaf will be highlighted.

  17. Bio-electrosprayed multicellular zebrafish embryos are viable and develop normally

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Clarke, Jonathan D W; Jayasinghe, Suwan N

    2008-01-01

    Bio-electrosprays are rapidly emerging as a viable protocol for directly engineering living cells. This communication reports the bio-electrospraying of multicellular organisms, namely zebrafish embryos. The results demonstrate that the bio-electrospray protocol fails to induce any embryological perturbations. In addition to analysing overall embryo morphology, we use transgenic embryos that express green fluorescent protein in specific brain neurons to determine that neuronal numbers and organization are completely normal. These results demonstrate that the bio-electrospraying protocol does not interfere with the complex gene regulation and cell movements required for the development of a multicellular organism. (communication)

  18. Emergency total thyroidectomy for bleeding anaplastic thyroid carcinoma: A viable option for palliation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sunil Kumar

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Anaplastic thyroid carcinoma (ATC is a rare and highly aggressive thyroid neoplasm. Bleeding from tumor is an uncommon, but potentially life-threatening complication requiring sophisticated intervention facilities which are not usually available at odd hours in emergency. We report the case of a 45-year-old woman who presented with exsanguinating hemorrhage from ATC and was treated by emergency total thyroidectomy. The patient is well three months postoperatively. Emergency total thyroidectomy is a viable option for palliation in ATC presenting with bleeding.

  19. Droplet digital PCR improves absolute quantification of viable lactic acid bacteria in faecal samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gobert, Guillaume; Cotillard, Aurélie; Fourmestraux, Candice; Pruvost, Laurence; Miguet, Jean; Boyer, Mickaël

    2018-03-14

    Analysing correlations between the observed health effects of ingested probiotics and their survival in digestive tract allows adapting their preparations for food. Tracking ingested probiotic in faecal samples requires accurate and specific tools to quantify live vs dead cells at strain level. Traditional culture-based methods are simpler to use but they do not allow quantifying viable but non-cultivable (VBNC) cells and they are poorly discriminant below the species level. We have set up a viable PCR (vPCR) assay combining propidium monoazide (PMA) treatment and either real time quantitative PCR (qPCR) or droplet digital PCR (ddPCR) to quantify a Lactobacillus rhamnosus and two Lactobacillus paracasei subsp. paracasei strains in piglet faeces. Adjustments of the PMA treatment conditions and reduction of the faecal sample size were necessary to obtain accurate discrimination between dead and live cells. The study also revealed differences of PMA efficiency among the two L. paracasei strains. Both PCR methods were able to specifically quantify each strain and provided comparable total bacterial counts. However, quantification of lower numbers of viable cells was best achieved with ddPCR, which was characterized by a reduced lower limit of quantification (improvement of up to 1.76 log 10 compared to qPCR). All three strains were able to survive in the piglets' gut with viability losses between 0.78 and 1.59 log 10 /g faeces. This study shows the applicability of PMA-ddPCR to specific quantification of small numbers of viable bacterial cells in the presence of an important background of unwanted microorganisms, and without the need to set up standard curves. It also illustrates the need to adapt PMA protocols according to the final matrix and target strain, even for closely related strains. The PMA-ddPCR approach provides a new tool to quantify bacterial survival in faecal samples from a preclinical and clinical trial. Copyright © 2018 The Authors. Published by

  20. Evaluation of Bacteriological Quality of Ready-to-eat Chicken Products by Total Viable Count Method

    OpenAIRE

    Ramiz Raja; Asif Iqbal; Yasir Hafiz; Mehboob Willayet; Shakoor Bhat; Mudasir Rather

    2012-01-01

    The present investigation describes the total viable count of ready-to-eat chicken products (chicken patties and chicken rolls) in Srinagar city during two seasons viz. autumn and winter. A total of 120 ready-to-eat chicken products comprising of 60 chicken patties and 60 chicken rolls were tested. The mean bacterial count of 60 chicken patties and 60 chicken rolls was 5.1281 and 4.9395 log10 cfu/g. Bacillus cereus strains were isolated from 25 of chicken patties and 22 of the chicken rolls r...

  1. SALMONELLA SPECIE AND TOTAL VIABLE BACTERIAL LOAD IN ROASTED CHICKENS SOLD IN JOS-NIGERIA

    OpenAIRE

    Carol Okoli; Okonji M.C; Ugoh S.C; Okolo S.N; Okoli A.C; Alu A.J

    2007-01-01

    The study was to investigate for the presence of Salmonella specie and total viable aerobic bacterial load in roasted chickens sold in Jos. The study was carried out on twenty five chicken samples. No salmonella specie was isolated from the samples. However, other bacterial organisms were isolates, viz: 9(36%) of the samples yielded E.coli; 5(20%) yielded Citobacter species; 3(12%) yielded Proteus species and 6(24%) yielded Klebsiella species while 2(8%) showed no growth. An average total via...

  2. Information Warfare: using the viable system model as a framework to attack organisations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bill Hutchinson

    2002-05-01

    Full Text Available Information is the glue in any organization. It is needed for policy, decision-making, control, and co-ordination. If an organisation's information systems are disrupted or destroyed, then damage to the whole inevitably follows. This paper uses a proven systemic, analytic framework the Viable System Model (VSM - in a functionalist mode, to analyse the vulnerabilities of an organisation's information resources to this form of aggression. It examines the tactics available, and where they can be used to effectively attack an organisation.

  3. Intertemporal Choice of Marine Ecosystem Exploitation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ravn-Jonsen, Lars

    Management, however, requires models that can link the ecosystem level to the operation level, so this paper examines an ecosystem production model and shows that it is suitable for applying ground rent theory. This model is the simplest possible that incorporates the principles of size as the main......, it is probably detrimental from an economic point of view. The marine ecosystem therefore requires an ecosystem management for economic reasons; in this context, models like the one presented here can serve as useful planning tools....... determinant of the predator--prey interaction, the inclusion of mass balance in the predator--prey allocation, and mortality and somatic growth as consequences of the predator--prey allocation. The model needs to be parameterized for the specific ecosystem and the price and cost functions must be established...

  4. Economic enterprise during economic dowturn

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eugeniusz Niedzielski

    2015-12-01

    The analysis showed, among others, that after a marked deterioration in the small and medium-sized enterprises sector in 2009 there was a gradual improvement of the financial situation and development of companies. Also, last year the level of optimism of entrepreneurs in the perception of the economic situation increased significantly.

  5. From Whitlam to Economic Rationalism and Beyond: A Conceptual Framework for Political Activism in Children's Services

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sumsion, Jennifer

    2006-01-01

    Thirty years after the dismissal of the Whitlam Government, the Australian political, economic and social landscape is dominated by discourses of economic rationalism. The reification of market forces presents challenges for early childhood professionals seeking to establish a viable future trajectory for children's services that includes…

  6. Exploring variation in economic, environmental and societal performance among Dutch fattening pig farms

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dolman, M.A.; Vrolijk, H.C.J.; Boer, de I.J.M.

    2012-01-01

    Sustainable production of pork requires farms that are economically viable, ecologically sound and socially acceptable, both now and in the future. Promising mitigation options to improve the integrated sustainability of a pig farm can be deduced from variation in their economic, environmental and

  7. Behind Waterlust - Bringing marine science, sport and art together

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rynne, P.; Graham, F.

    2013-12-01

    In today's economic climate, it has become increasingly important for scientists to demonstrate the relevance, societal impact, and value of their work. Combined with this financial driver is the inherent human desire to be creative, a characteristic that is often times suppressed when following the scientific method. Created by three marine science graduate students from the Rosenstiel School of Marine and Atmospheric Science at the University of Miami, Waterlust is an experiment to demonstrate that the pursuit of creative outlets that engage the general public is both valuable and rewarding for the scientific community.

  8. Techno-economic performance of marine capture fisheries

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Tietze, Uwe

    2001-01-01

    .... Most types of vessels, i.e. 92 out of the 108 types of vessels covered by the study, or 85 percent, showed a net profit after deducting the cost of depreciation and prices paid to producers as compared to the previous study period...

  9. Economics of Arctic Fisheries and Marine Invasive Species Part I

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kourantidou, Melina

    Bioeconomics of Red King Crab in the Barents Sea involves the crab’s dual nature as invader and market commodity. We apply a spatial dynamic model to find the optimal joint management of international invasive species threats with historic management of the Red King Crab by Norway and Russia...

  10. Measuring Economic Risk Benefits of USCG Marine Safety Programs

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-07-01

    64. Tortilla mfg 65. Snack food mfg...refining of nonferrous metal (except copper & aluminum) 177. Copper rolling, drawing, extruding & alloying...178. Nonferrous metal (except copper & aluminum) rolling, drawing, extruding & 179. Ferrous metal foundries

  11. Economic analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Owen, P.S.; Parker, M.B.; Omberg, R.P.

    1979-03-01

    The methodology used to arrive at the conclusions in the U.S. papers WG 5A-19 and WG 5A-22 with respect to the economics of fast breeders relative to LWR's is developed in detail in this contribution. In addition, sample calculations of the total levelized power cost of a standard LWR at $40/pound for U 3 O 8 and an FBR at a capital cost of 1.5 times that of an LWR are included. The respective total levalized power costs of the above two examples are 21.29 mills/kwh for the standard LWR and 28.48 mills/kwh for the FBR. It should be noted that the economic data used in these analyses are contained in the U.S. contribution, WG 5A-41

  12. Circulation economics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ingebrigtsen, Stig; Jakobsen, Ove

    2006-01-01

    Purpose - This paper is an attempt to advance the critical discussion regarding environmental and societal responsibility in economics and business. Design/methodology/approach - The paper presents and discusses as a holistic, organic perspective enabling innovative solutions to challenges...... concerning the responsible and efficient use of natural resources and the constructive interplay with culture. To reach the goal of sustainable development, the paper argues that it is necessary to make changes in several dimensions in mainstream economics. This change of perspective is called a turn towards...... sustainability. To illustrate the theoretical discussion, the paper gives some practical examples from the reprocessing industry in Norway. Findings - The paper finds, first, effective and efficient use of natural resources is necessary to implement circular value chains. Second, sustainable development...

  13. Marine Bacterial Genomics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Machado, Henrique

    For decades, terrestrial microorganisms have been used as sources of countless enzymes and chemical compounds that have been produced by pharmaceutical and biotech companies and used by mankind. There is a need for new chemical compounds, including antibiotics,new enzymatic activities and new...... microorganisms to be used as cell factories for production. Therefore exploitation of new microbial niches and use of different strategies is an opportunity to boost discoveries. Even though scientists have started to explore several habitats other than the terrestrial ones, the marine environment stands out...... as a hitherto under-explored niche. This thesis work uses high-throughput sequencing technologies on a collection of marine bacteria established during the Galathea 3 expedition, with the purpose of unraveling new biodiversity and new bioactivities. Several tools were used for genomic analysis in order...

  14. Mariner 9 Michelson interferometer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanel, R.; Schlachman, B.; Rodgers, D.; Breihan, E.; Bywaters, R.; Chapman, F.; Rhodes, M.; Vanous, D.

    1972-01-01

    The Michelson interferometer on Mariner 9 measures the thermal emission spectrum of Mars between 200 and 2000 per cm (between 5 and 50 microns) with a spectral resolution of 2.4 per cm in the apodized mode. A noise equivalent radiance of 0.5 x 10 to the minus 7th W/sq cm/ster/cm is deduced from data recorded in orbit around Mars. The Mariner interferometer deviates in design from the Nimbus 3 and 4 interferometers in several areas, notably, by a cesium iodide beam splitter and certain aspects of the digital information processing. Special attention has been given to the problem of external vibration. The instrument performance is demonstrated by calibration data and samples of Mars spectra.

  15. Integrated economics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bratton, T.J.

    1992-01-01

    This article offers ideas for evaluating integrated solid waste management systems through the use of a conceptual cost overview. The topics of the article include the integrated solid waste management system; making assumptions about community characteristics, waste generation rates, waste collection responsibility, integrated system components, sizing and economic life of system facilities, system implementation schedule, facility ownership, and system administration; integrated system costs; integrated system revenues; system financing; cost projections; and making decisions

  16. Marine cloud brightening

    Science.gov (United States)

    Latham, John; Bower, Keith; Choularton, Tom; Coe, Hugh; Connolly, Paul; Cooper, Gary; Craft, Tim; Foster, Jack; Gadian, Alan; Galbraith, Lee; Iacovides, Hector; Johnston, David; Launder, Brian; Leslie, Brian; Meyer, John; Neukermans, Armand; Ormond, Bob; Parkes, Ben; Rasch, Phillip; Rush, John; Salter, Stephen; Stevenson, Tom; Wang, Hailong; Wang, Qin; Wood, Rob

    2012-01-01

    The idea behind the marine cloud-brightening (MCB) geoengineering technique is that seeding marine stratocumulus clouds with copious quantities of roughly monodisperse sub-micrometre sea water particles might significantly enhance the cloud droplet number concentration, and thereby the cloud albedo and possibly longevity. This would produce a cooling, which general circulation model (GCM) computations suggest could—subject to satisfactory resolution of technical and scientific problems identified herein—have the capacity to balance global warming up to the carbon dioxide-doubling point. We describe herein an account of our recent research on a number of critical issues associated with MCB. This involves (i) GCM studies, which are our primary tools for evaluating globally the effectiveness of MCB, and assessing its climate impacts on rainfall amounts and distribution, and also polar sea-ice cover and thickness; (ii) high-resolution modelling of the effects of seeding on marine stratocumulus, which are required to understand the complex array of interacting processes involved in cloud brightening; (iii) microphysical modelling sensitivity studies, examining the influence of seeding amount, seed-particle salt-mass, air-mass characteristics, updraught speed and other parameters on cloud–albedo change; (iv) sea water spray-production techniques; (v) computational fluid dynamics studies of possible large-scale periodicities in Flettner rotors; and (vi) the planning of a three-stage limited-area field research experiment, with the primary objectives of technology testing and determining to what extent, if any, cloud albedo might be enhanced by seeding marine stratocumulus clouds on a spatial scale of around 100×100 km. We stress that there would be no justification for deployment of MCB unless it was clearly established that no significant adverse consequences would result. There would also need to be an international agreement firmly in favour of such action

  17. Marine Cloud Brightening

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Latham, John; Bower, Keith; Choularton, Tom; Coe, H.; Connolly, P.; Cooper, Gary; Craft, Tim; Foster, Jack; Gadian, Alan; Galbraith, Lee; Iacovides, Hector; Johnston, David; Launder, Brian; Leslie, Brian; Meyer, John; Neukermans, Armand; Ormond, Bob; Parkes, Ben; Rasch, Philip J.; Rush, John; Salter, Stephen; Stevenson, Tom; Wang, Hailong; Wang, Qin; Wood, Robert

    2012-09-07

    The idea behind the marine cloud-brightening (MCB) geoengineering technique is that seeding marine stratocumulus clouds with copious quantities of roughly monodisperse sub-micrometre sea water particles might significantly enhance the cloud droplet number concentration, and thereby the cloud albedo and possibly longevity. This would produce a cooling, which general circulation model (GCM) computations suggest could - subject to satisfactory resolution of technical and scientific problems identified herein - have the capacity to balance global warming up to the carbon dioxide-doubling point. We describe herein an account of our recent research on a number of critical issues associated with MCB. This involves (i) GCM studies, which are our primary tools for evaluating globally the effectiveness of MCB, and assessing its climate impacts on rainfall amounts and distribution, and also polar sea-ice cover and thickness; (ii) high-resolution modelling of the effects of seeding on marine stratocumulus, which are required to understand the complex array of interacting processes involved in cloud brightening; (iii) microphysical modelling sensitivity studies, examining the influence of seeding amount, seedparticle salt-mass, air-mass characteristics, updraught speed and other parameters on cloud-albedo change; (iv) sea water spray-production techniques; (v) computational fluid dynamics studies of possible large-scale periodicities in Flettner rotors; and (vi) the planning of a three-stage limited-area field research experiment, with the primary objectives of technology testing and determining to what extent, if any, cloud albedo might be enhanced by seeding marine stratocumulus clouds on a spatial scale of around 100 km. We stress that there would be no justification for deployment of MCB unless it was clearly established that no significant adverse consequences would result. There would also need to be an international agreement firmly in favour of such action.

  18. Marine Microbiology: Facets & Opportunities

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Ramaiah, N.

    the tropical Mandovi 2 Zuari estuarine system are suggesting that the preponderant particle-colonizing bacteria perform better than their counterparts in free-living format. In their natural environments, microorganisms are exposed to a wide range of physical... Shanta Nair suggests, despite the immense clinical significance of antibiotics in health care, little is understood on the ecology of the organisms that produce them. Since marine environment harbors a wide range of microbes capable of exhibiting...

  19. Chemistry of marine sediments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yen, T.F.

    1977-01-01

    Some topics considered are as follows: characterization of sediments in the vicinity of offshore petroleum production; thermal alteration experiments on organic matter in recent marine sediments as a model for petroleum genesis; composition of polluted bottom sediments in Great Lakes harbors; distribution of heavy metals in sediment fractions; recent deposition of lead off the coast of southern California; release of trace constituents from sediments resuspended during dredging operations; and migration of chemical constituents in sediment-seawater interfaces

  20. Radioactive marine pollution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pontavice, E. du

    1976-01-01

    Certain provision in international law aim to prevent radioactive marine pollution and others concern compensation of damage from nuclear pollution. Prevention requires regulation of the disposal of wastes from nuclear industry from the operation of nuclear powered ships and from transport of fissile materials. As regards damage, if the measures to limit the extent of the damage come under the law of the sea, the priority of nuclear law over maritime law is clear in respect of financial compensation. (Auth) [fr