WorldWideScience

Sample records for economically integrated north

  1. The effects of regional economic integration in Europe of the pattern north-north and north-south

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antevski Miroslav

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper examines the effects of regional economic integration in Europe, especially the North-North and North-South integration patterns, and how the benefits and costs of integration are divided between countries. Outcomes depend on: comparative advantages, factor endowments, factor intensities, competitive advantages, FDI flows, transfers of technology, knowledge spillovers, economies of scale, transport costs, industry/GDP ratios, and agglomeration forces. The North-North integration between high income countries tends to lead to convergence of country incomes. Contrary, the South-South integration between low income countries causes divergence. Low income countries are likely to be better served by the North-South integration.

  2. Ecological economics of North American integration: the reshaping of the economic landscape in the Santiago river basin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Salvador Peniche Camps

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Ecological Economics studies social metabolism; that is, the material and energy flow into and out of the economy. Using the ecological economics perspective, we analyse the transformation of the economic landscape of the Santiago river basin, Mexico. We discuss why the appropriation of water resources is one of the most important drivers of North American economic integration. We argue that the theoretical model of neo-extractivism can explain the dynamics of social metabolism behind the North American Free Trade Agreement (NAFTA.

  3. The economic consequences of the Dutch. Economic integration around the North Sea, 1500-1800

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bochove, C.J. van

    2008-01-01

    Between 1550 and 1800 the Northern Netherlands went through a period of intense economic development. This did not leave the surrounding regions untouched. International trade blossomed, tens of thousands of foreign workers found employment in the Netherlands and many millions of guilders were

  4. Integrated economics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bratton, T.J.

    1992-01-01

    This article offers ideas for evaluating integrated solid waste management systems through the use of a conceptual cost overview. The topics of the article include the integrated solid waste management system; making assumptions about community characteristics, waste generation rates, waste collection responsibility, integrated system components, sizing and economic life of system facilities, system implementation schedule, facility ownership, and system administration; integrated system costs; integrated system revenues; system financing; cost projections; and making decisions

  5. Realization of the international human right to health in an economically integrated North America.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kinney, Eleanor D

    2009-01-01

    With the North American Free Trade Agreement (NAFTA), the health care sectors of the United States, Canada, and Mexico are becoming more economically integrated. NAFTA poses major challenges to the realization of the international human right. These include: (1) Cross Border Trade in Medical Products, (2) Cross Border Trade in Medical Services, and the attendant investment protections, (3) Portability and Comparability of Health Insurance Coverage, and (4) Protection of Public Health Insurance Programs. The United States, Mexico, and Canada all provide public health insurance programs either to the entire population as in Canada or to vulnerable groups as in the United States. In none of these countries have private, for-profit providers and insurers been able to provide universal and affordable health coverage and care in a truly free market. Private insurers and for-profit providers should not profit from the care of the healthy and wealthy in ways that compromise the public programs that serve the poor and seriously ill. Nor should they be allowed to use NAFTA processes to compromise public programs. Policy makers must consider implications of NAFTA and move toward assuring access to affordable health care for all people on the North American continent.

  6. A new and integrated hydro-economic accounting and analytical framework for water resources: a case study for North China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guan, Dabo; Hubacek, Klaus

    2008-09-01

    Water is a critical issue in China for a variety of reasons. China is poor of water resources with 2,300 m(3) of per capita availability, which is less than 13 of the world average. This is exacerbated by regional differences; e.g. North China's water availability is only about 271 m(3) of per capita value, which is only 125 of the world's average. Furthermore, pollution contributes to water scarcity and is a major source for diseases, particularly for the poor. The Ministry of Hydrology [1997. China's Regional Water Bullets. Water Resource and Hydro-power Publishing House, Beijing, China] reports that about 65-80% of rivers in North China no longer support any economic activities. Previous studies have emphasized the amount of water withdrawn but rarely take water quality into consideration. The quality of the return flows usually changes; the water quality being lower than the water flows that entered the production process initially. It is especially important to measure the impacts of wastewater to the hydro-ecosystem. Thus, water consumption should not only account for the amount of water inputs but also the amount of water contaminated in the hydro-ecosystem by the discharged wastewater. In this paper we present a new accounting and analytical approach based on economic input-output modelling combined with a mass balanced hydrological model that links interactions in the economic system with interactions in the hydrological system. We thus follow the tradition of integrated economic-ecologic input-output modelling. Our hydro-economic accounting framework and analysis tool allows tracking water consumption on the input side, water pollution leaving the economic system and water flows passing through the hydrological system thus enabling us to deal with water resources of different qualities. Following this method, the results illustrate that North China requires 96% of its annual available water, including both water inputs for the economy and contaminated

  7. Estimating North Dakota's Economic Base

    OpenAIRE

    Coon, Randal C.; Leistritz, F. Larry

    2009-01-01

    North Dakota’s economic base is comprised of those activities producing a product paid for by nonresidents, or products exported from the state. North Dakota’s economic base activities include agriculture, mining, manufacturing, tourism, and federal government payments for construction and to individuals. Development of the North Dakota economic base data is important because it provides the information to quantify the state’s economic growth, and it creates the final demand sectors for the N...

  8. Many paths to walk: the political and economic integration of nomadic communities in Roman North Africa (I-III cent. A.D.)

    OpenAIRE

    Vanacker, Wouter

    2014-01-01

    The colonial image of endemic political and economic antagonism between nomadic and sedentary groups in the context of Roman North Africa should be discarded. Likewise, the rigid adherence to symbiosis and cooperation in more recent studies is based on a rather one-sided reading of anthropological literature. For the analysis of literary, epigraphic and archaeological sources, supported by insights derived from anthropology, shows that political and economic integration trajectories of nomads...

  9. European Economic Integration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huston, James A.

    1971-01-01

    Recounts the history and problems of European Economic Integration from the first post World War II organization, the OEEC, to the EEC (Common Market) and the EFTA. Suggestions for further reading are included. (JB)

  10. Economic integration in the Americas

    OpenAIRE

    Uitdewilligen, G.

    1997-01-01

    This pioneering study shows that economic integration in the Americas is not simply a matter of removing trade barriers. Economic Integration in the Americas addresses the pervasive effects of economic integration on the economy as a whole.

  11. The economics of marriage in North Africa

    OpenAIRE

    Assaad, Ragui; Krafft, Caroline

    2014-01-01

    Marriage is the single most important economic transaction and social transition in the lives of young people. Yet little is known about the economics of marriage in much of the developing world. This paper examines the economics of marriage in North Africa, where asymmetric rights in marriage create incentives for extensive up-front bargaining and detailed marriage contracts. As well as describing the limited literature on the economics of marriage in North Africa, this paper draws on econom...

  12. Southern (DisComfort?: Latino Population Growth, Economic Integration and Spatial Assimilation in North Carolina Micropolitan Areas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana-María González Wahl

    2007-10-01

    Full Text Available This paper examines more closely the growth and assimilation of the Latino population in non-metropolitan areas across North Carolina. More specifically, the analysis focuses on micropolitan areas. Based on the last decennial census, micropolitan areas were newly defined by the Census Bureau to reflect the growing importance of "urban clusters" located in non-metropolitan counties.

  13. ASEAN: perspectives on economic integration: ASEAN in Asia economic integration

    OpenAIRE

    Shaobang Kang

    2009-01-01

    Asia is one continent which has the most dynamic and the fastest developing economies in the world. But Asia’s economic integration is developing too slowly and stands at the lowest level in the world. Many factors have affected Asia’s economic integration but, in the current global financial and economic crisis, it is necessary to strengthen Asian countries’ cooperation in finance, investment and trade to promote Asia’s economic integration. As the healthiest and most integrated regional org...

  14. North Korea: Economic Leverage and Policy Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-22

    although non- governmental groups do run operations in the DPRK in activities such as goat dairy farming and transportation. North -South Korean...Finance Minister Says “At Least” 34m US Dollars Sent to North Korea. Financial Times Information, Global News Wire—Asia Africa Intelligence Wire. June 6...CRS Report for Congress Prepared for Members and Committees of Congress North Korea: Economic Leverage and Policy Analysis Dick K

  15. Economic impacts of Medicaid in North Carolina.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dumas, Christopher; Hall, William; Garrett, Patricia

    2008-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to provide estimates of the economic impacts of Medicaid program expenditures in North Carolina in state fiscal year (SFY) 2003. The study uses input-output analysis to estimate the economic impacts of Medicaid expenditures. The study uses North Carolina Medicaid program expenditure data for SFY 2003 as submitted by the North Carolina Division of Medical Assistance to the federal Centers for Medicare and Medicaid Services (CMS). Industry structure data from 2002 that are part of the IMPLAN input-output modeling software database are also used in the analysis. In SFY 2003 $6.307 billion in Medicaid program expenditures occurred within the state of North Carolina-$3.941 billion federal dollars, $2.014 billion state dollars, and $351 million in local government funds. Each dollar of state and local government expenditures brought $1.67 in federal Medicaid cost-share to the state. The economic impacts within North Carolina of the 2003 Medicaid expenditures included the following: 182,000 jobs supported (including both full-time and some part-time jobs); $6.1 billion in labor income (wages, salaries, sole proprietorship/partnership profits); and $1.9 billion in capital income (rents, interest payments, corporate dividend payments). If the Medicaid program were shut down and the funds returned to taxpayers who saved/spent the funds according to typical consumer expenditure patterns, employment in North Carolina would fall by an estimated 67,400 jobs, and labor income would fall by $2.83 billion, due to the labor-intensive nature of Medicaid expenditures. Medicaid expenditure and economic impact results do not capture the economic value of the improved health and well-being of Medicaid recipients. Furthermore, the results do not capture the savings to society from increased preventive care and reduced uncompensated care resulting from Medicaid. State and local government expenditures do not fully capture the economic consequences of Medicaid

  16. Regioinal Economic Integration in Africa ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Martha_B_H

    At the third stage of economic integration common market is formed whereby, not only trade ..... Despite the long history of regional integration efforts in the continent, the level of ...... This enhances the feelings and thoughts of belongingness to.

  17. North American Integration after 20 Years

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Galina M. Kostyunina

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Formation of the North American Free Trade Area (NAFTA among the three countries - the U.S., Canada and Mexico is the most striking example of successful development of integration processes in the Western Hemisphere. This year NAFTA marks the 20th anniversary of its foundation (1994. NAFTA covers trade in goods, services and movement of capital, intellectual property rights, environmental cooperation and labor cooperation. Its main advantages for member countries related to the dynamic growth of regional trade and investments, promoting the growth of industrial production (capital-intensive and high-tech industries in the U.S. and Canada, and labor-intensive industries in Mexico, increase the investment attractiveness of the economies of member countries and the promotion of employment. But there are costs, both general and specific to the individual member countries. Common costs are primarily asymmetrical level of economic interdependence, where mutual economic relations are the most developed between the U.S. and Canada, the U.S. and Mexico, and the least developed between Mexico and Canada due to historical conditions. Other costs are the differentiation in the levels of economic development, in volumes of overall GDP and per capita, population and size of the territory. But despite the costs, integration processes are successfully developed and repeatedly raised the issue of deepening economic integration between the U.S., Canada and Mexico. So, in 2000, there was put forward the concept of creating the North American community as an economic and security community by 2010, and in 2005 proposed the idea of a common currency called the Amero. But these proposals did not come true. On the agenda - the possibility of signing a new, more expanded NAFTA+, and even in the last year - the possibility to form a customs union under NAFTA.

  18. A New Approach to the Economic Integration between South and North Korea: A Comparative Study with the Transition Economies in Eastern Europe

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Myoung Chul Cho

    1999-06-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this thesis is to find the enlightenment that the experience of state system transition in Eastern Europe offers to the economic integration of Korea and DPRK if leave DPRK as an independent economic area to seek its economic transition in a certain period, when the political structure breaks down. The transition policies of economic system of Eastern Europe states could be roughly divided into four types, the policies of liberalization, the policies of stabilization of the macro economy, the policies of privatization and financial reform. This thesis is trying to analyze how to use these types of polices in DPRK. According to the situation in Eastern Europe, compared to the fact that whether the speed of the transition of economic system is radical or gradual, the result of the transition of economic system depends on the condition of the preliminary stage of the transition of economic system and how consistently and ardently the states which plan to change their system promote all kinds of reform policy. The way to minimize the side-effect which the Eastern Europe suffered after the transition is to minimize the cost of the unity of Korea as much as possible. Therefore, the following policies coordination must be carried out. First, do not launch the stabilization policy mainly by restraining the aggregate demand as the Eastern Europe states. Appropriate policy adjustment should follow that. Second, the fruit of the economic reform should be distributed to the class or group which has got the acquired right. Third, appropriate income policy is needed in order to allay the controversy between economic growth and stabilization policy.

  19. Cartel Stability and Economic Integration

    OpenAIRE

    Philipp J. H. Schröder

    2004-01-01

    This paper investigates the effect of economic integration on the ability of firms to maintain a collusive understanding about staying out of each other?s markets. The paper distinguishes among different types of trade costs: ad valorem, unit, fixed. It is shown that for a sufficient reduction of ad valorem trade costs, a cartel supported by collusion on either quantities or prices will be weakened, thus integration is pro-competitive. If integration consists of a reductions in unit (fixed) t...

  20. Integrating spatial support tools into strategic planning-SEA of the GMS North-South Economic Corridor Strategy and Action Plan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ramachandran, Pavit; Linde, Lothar

    2011-01-01

    The GMS countries, supported by the Asian Development Bank, have adopted a holistic, multidimensional approach to strengthen infrastructural linkages and facilitate cross border trade through (i) the establishment of a trans-boundary road connecting two economic nodes across marginalised areas, followed by 2) facilitation of environmentally and socially sound investments in these newly connected areas as a means to develop livelihoods. The North-South Economic Corridor is currently in its second phase of development, with investment opportunities to be laid out in the NSEC Strategy and Action Plan (SAP). It targets the ecologically and culturally sensitive border area between PR China's Yunnan Province, Northern Lao PDR, and Thailand. A trans-boundary, cross-sectoral Strategic Environmental Assessment was conducted to support the respective governments in assessing potential environmental and social impacts, developing alternatives and mitigation options, and feeding the findings back into the SAP writing process. Given the spatial dimension of corridor development-both with regard to opportunities and risks-particular emphasis was put in the application of spatial modelling tools to help geographically locate and quantify impacts as a means to guide interventions and set priorities.

  1. Economic Integration and Political Disintegration

    OpenAIRE

    Alberto Alesina; Enrico Spolaore; Romain Wacziarg

    1997-01-01

    Trade liberalization and political separatism go hand in hand. In a world of trade restrictions, large countries enjoy economic benefits because political boundaries determine the size of the market. In a world of free trade and global markets even relatively small cultural, linguistic or ethnic groups can benefit from forming small and homogeneous political jurisdictions that trade peacefully and are economically integrated with others. This paper provides a formal model of the relationship ...

  2. Cartel Stability and Economic Integration

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schröder, Philipp

    2004-01-01

    This paper investigates the effect of economic integration on the ability of firms to maintain a collusive understanding about staying out of each other's markets. The paper distinguishes among different types of trade costs: ad valorem, unit, fixed. It is shown that for a suffcient reduction of ad...

  3. Cartel Stability and Economic Integration

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schröder, Philipp J.H.

    2007-01-01

    This paper revisits the notion that economic integration - modeled as a reduction of trade costs - may be anti-competitive, in the sense that it may reinforce the ability of an international cartel to maintain a collusive understanding about staying out of each other's markets. The paper is novel...

  4. [Economic aspects of integrated care].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lange, A; Braun, S; Greiner, W

    2012-05-01

    For more than 10 years integrated care has been an inherent part of the German healthcare system. The aims of selective contracts are to minimize interface problems between outpatient and inpatient sectors, generalist und specialist care as well as to intensify competition. Despite repeated efforts by the legislator, comprehensive integrated healthcare is still limited to a few flagship projects. This is mainly due to low incentives on the part of both suppliers and customers. Therefore, this article focuses on the economic aspects of integrated care. From a theoretical perspective, integrated care improves efficiency in the healthcare sector by reducing interface problems and asymmetric information as well as by intensifying competition. In practice, however, there are a number of obstacles to implementation. Particularly noteworthy are the financial difficulties in addition to problems regarding sectoral budgeting and the long-term nature of investments. However, the political environment and thus the financial arrangements within the statutory health insurance seem to be more important for further development of integrated care in Germany than the financing issues.

  5. Regional integration, improving women's economic situation, and ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Regional integration, improving women's economic situation, and ... of the West African Economic and Monetary Union on their economic development, the ... production sectors, and commercialization networks affected by regional trade, the ...

  6. North Korea: Economic Leverage and Policy Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-06-04

    human rights is a prominent issue in negotiations between the United States and North Korea, and for other purposes. • H.Res. 309 (Peter King ...the opinion of a North Korean expert at Seoul’s Sejong Institute, “North Korea’s economy had received a death sentence long ago, but it keeps afloat

  7. The Economic Contribution of North Dakota Cooperatives to the North Dakota State Economy

    OpenAIRE

    McKee, Gregory J.

    2011-01-01

    Cooperatives are a vital component of the North Dakota economy. Owned by their customers or by privately-held firms, cooperatives provide a variety of goods and services to North Dakota. Based on data provided by the North Dakota Secretary of State, 332 businesses operating in North Dakota identified themselves as cooperatives in 2010; 256 are headquartered in the state. The economic contribution of the North Dakota cooperatives reaches beyond the local communities where they are headquartere...

  8. European Socio-Economic Integration Challenges, Opportunities and Lessons Learned

    CERN Document Server

    Korres, George

    2013-01-01

    Economic integration is one of the most noteworthy issues in international economic policy at the end of the twentieth century. The recent examples of the European Union (EU) and the North American Free Trade Association (NAFTA) have raised important questions about the economic integration process and the possible establishment of economic unions in other parts of the world.  Against the backdrop of the financial crisis in Europe and prospects of increasing integration in Asia, this volume showcases research from an international array of researchers to provide a basic understanding of the current issues, problems, challenges, and opportunities for achieving integration, addressing both empirical and theoretical aspects of such topics as monetary union, social policy reform and social union, public finance and technology policy.  The chapters in Part 1 are focused primarily on economic issues, while Part 2 covers on social policy, the welfare state, and political reforms, with a particular emphasis on the ...

  9. Skill-based immigration, economic integration, and economic performance

    OpenAIRE

    Aydemir, Abdurrahman

    2014-01-01

    Studies for major immigrant-receiving countries provide evidence on the comparative economic performance of immigrant classes (skill-, kinship-, and humanitarian-based). Developed countries are increasingly competing for high-skilled immigrants, who perform better in the labor market. However, there are serious challenges to their economic integration, which highlights a need for complementary immigration and integration policies.

  10. Institutional economics and economic organisation theory: An integrated approach

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Slangen, L.H.G.; Loucks, L.A.; Slangen, A.H.L.

    2008-01-01

    This publication presents one of the first attempts to integrate two emerging bodies of economic research: institutional economics and organizational theory. It begins within the framework of neoclassical economics, and then extends the boundaries of this framework to offer answers to questions that

  11. Institutional economics and economic organisation theory : an integrated approach

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Slangen, L.H.G.; Loucks, L.; Slangen, A.H.L.

    2008-01-01

    This publication presents one of the first attempts to integrate two emerging bodies of economic research: institutional economics and organizational theory. It begins within the framework of neoclassical economics, and then extends the boundaries of this framework to offer answers to questions that

  12. Asian Economic Integration Monitor July 2012

    OpenAIRE

    Asian Development Bank (ADB); Asian Development Bank (ADB); Asian Development Bank (ADB); Asian Development Bank (ADB)

    2012-01-01

    The Asian Economic Integration Monitor is a semiannual review of Asia’s regional economic cooperation and integration. It covers 48 regional member countries of the Asian Development Bank. This issue includes a special section—Regional Integration: A Balanced View.

  13. Economic Integration and the Civilizing Commerce Hypothesis

    OpenAIRE

    James E. Anderson

    2005-01-01

    Economic integration lowers one form of trade costs, tariffs, and stimulates changes in other trade costs. This paper offers a model in which integration may raise or lower the important trade cost associated with insecurity. The model can help to explain the varied experience with integration and it points to the usefulness of combining enforcement policy integration with trade policy integration.

  14. Economic Performance and North Korean Regime Legitimacy

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-06-01

    As Cha and Anderson note, free markets have become the reliable means of survival in North Korea and these “markets create entrepreneurship , and... entrepreneurship creates an individualist way of thinking alien to the government.”9 If this case is true, the regime’s demise could very well be at...deep sense of guilt, thus giving Kim a tighter psychological control over the North Korea people. Kim Il-sung successfully transformed himself into

  15. Sensitivity of North American agriculture to ENSO-based climate scenarios and their socio-economic consequences: Modeling in an integrated assessment framework

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rosenberg, N.J.; Izaurralde, R.C.; Brown, R.A.; Sands, R.D. [Pacific Northwest National Lab., Richland, WA (United States); Legler, D. [Florida State Univ., Tallahassee, FL (United States). Center for Ocean Atmosphere Prediction Studies; Srinivasan, R. [Texas A and M Univ., College Station, TX (United States). Blacklands Research Center; Tiscareno-Lopez, M.

    1997-09-01

    A group of Canadian, US and Mexican natural resource specialists, organized by the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) under its North American Energy, Environment and Economy (NA3E) Program, has applied a simulation modeling approach to estimating the impact of ENSO-driven climatic variations on the productivity of major crops grown in the three countries. Methodological development is described and results of the simulations presented in this report. EPIC (the Erosion Productivity Impact Calculator) was the agro-ecosystem model selected-for this study. EPIC uses a daily time step to simulate crop growth and yield, water use, runoff and soil erosion among other variables. The model was applied to a set of so-called representative farms parameterized through a specially-assembled Geographic Information System (GIS) to reflect the soils, topography, crop management and weather typical of the regions represented. Fifty one representative farms were developed for Canada, 66 for the US and 23 for Mexico. El Nino-Southern Oscillation (ENSO) scenarios for the EPIC simulations were created using the historic record of sea-surface temperature (SST) prevailing in the eastern tropical Pacific for the period October 1--September 30. Each year between 1960 and 1989 was thus assigned to an ENSO category or state. The ENSO states were defined as El Nino (EN, SST warmer than the long-term mean), Strong El Nino (SEN, much warmer), El Viejo (EV, cooler) and Neutral (within {+-}0.5 C of the long-term mean). Monthly means of temperature and precipitation were then calculated at each farm for the period 1960--1989 and the differences (or anomalies) between the means in Neutral years and EN, SEN and EV years determined. The average monthly anomalies for each ENSO state were then used to create new monthly statistics for each farm and ENSO-state combination. The adjusted monthly statistics characteristic of each ENSO state were then used to drive a stochastic-weather simulator

  16. Integration of the North American energy market

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lapointe, A.

    2002-07-01

    The US energy policy of President Bush administration proposes to develop a North American energy framework with a greater energy integration between Canada, the USA and Mexico in the respect of the sovereignty of each country. This article tries to evaluate the integration status of the energy sector in Northern America with respect to the North American free-exchange agreement and to the deregulation process observed in the natural gas and electric power sectors. The commercial energy fluxes between Canada, Mexico and the US show that the integration is a reality and that it is in constant progress. This integration is particularly important in the case of Canada and the USA while major constraints remain in Mexico where the property and exploitation of natural resources is a government monopoly. For this reason, Mexico could never exploit the full potentialities of its resources and suffers from a chronical under-investment in its energy infrastructures which limits the energy trade. Despite this, there is a strong will from the Mexican authorities to ensure the modernization of its energy sector and to contribute more to the integration process of the north American energy market. A series of reforms, and in particular the fiscal reform started by the government should reduce the excessive dependence of the government incomes with the dividends from the energy sector. This should allow the different government companies to reinvest more its benefits in order to improve the existing infrastructures and to increase the capacities (in particular in the gas and electricity sectors). Finally, the recent will of the government to open the gas sector should allow the development of this energy source. (J.S.)

  17. Economic integration in NAFTA and the EU

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bislev, Sven

    This te×t critically analyzes the institutions of the EU and NAFTA. It covers both the general problems of building new and integrated markets, and several policy areas that are related to economic integration. The institutions established in both Europe and America are seen as deficient in several...... of the market economies institutions upon the integration process itself depends. This te×t analyzes the institutions of the EU and NAFTA. It covers both the general problems of building new and integrated markets, and several policy areas that are related to economic integration. The institutions established...

  18. Economic Impact of the North Dakota University System in 2011

    OpenAIRE

    Coon, Randal C.; Bangsund, Dean A.; Hodur, Nancy M.

    2012-01-01

    The North Dakota University System consists of the North Dakota University System Office and 11 college campuses located throughout the state. In addition to the 11 main campuses, numerous other university facilities, centers, and offices are located throughout the state. Institutions of higher education have an economic effect in their respective areas and across the state as those institutions acquire inputs, purchase services, and provide for payroll and employment at both the local and st...

  19. SOME THEORETICAL ASPECTS OF ECONOMIC INTEGRATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alem Merdić

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available One of the basic links of the process of globalization are economic integrations. The aim of this paper is to systematize theoretical achievements and to review the forms, effects and conditions for connecting countries motivated by economic benefits. In addition to the theoretical review of the conceptual definition of economic integration, the focus is on the levels of economic integration from the free-trade zone to the monetary and fiscal union, explaining the specificity of each of the mentioned levels. Considering that the connection between countries always raises the question of the benefits and costs of connection, the special emphasis in this paper is placed on the potential effects for free trade. Finally, the greatest contribution of this paper is the systematization and theoretical review of the theory of optimal currency area and monetary integration, which is especially significant for the European soil, taking into account the already established European Monetary Union

  20. Economic Integration, Currency Areas, and Macroeconomic Policy

    OpenAIRE

    Douglas D. Purvis

    1992-01-01

    In this essay I explore the implications of regional economic integration for the currency arrangements appropriate within and between regions. This topic is motivated by the recent rekindling of interest in fixed exchange rates which, in turn, has been due in part to disappointment in the performance of the flexible exchange rate system that has evolved over the past two decades, and in part to the increased regional economic integration that the world economy has witnessed in the past decad...

  1. Redistributive taxation, multinational enterprises, and economic integration

    OpenAIRE

    Haufler, Andreas; Klemm, Alexander; Schjelderup, Guttorm

    2008-01-01

    Increased activity of multinational firms exposes national corporate tax bases to cross-country profit shifting, but also leads to rising profitability of the corporate sector. We incorporate these two effects of economic integration into a simple political economy model where the median voter decides on a redistributive income tax rate. In this setting economic integration may raise or lower the equilibrium tax rate, and it is more likely to raise the tax rate of a low-tax country. The impli...

  2. Economic Impact of Higher Education in North Dakota. North Dakota Economic Studies, No. 10.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dobesh, Larry J.; Henry, Mark S.

    Besides their primary mission of providing education to the students of North Dakota, the 11 colleges and universities in the state represent an important "industry" which generates substantial income to the businesses and people of the state. Total college-related spending in North Dakota was $76 million during the 1973-1974 school…

  3. Economic Integration Between China And ASEAN

    OpenAIRE

    Dr James Laurenceson

    2003-01-01

    With the signing in November 2001 of a China-ASEAN free trade agreement due for completion in 2010, the question of the current degree of economic integration between China and ASEAN becomes important. This papers uses international parity conditions to investigate this issue. The results indicate that China is already highly integrated with ASEAN with respect to trade in goods and services. Financial integration however remains significantly incomplete. Given that external bodies such as the...

  4. Economic evaluation of integrated care: an introduction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hindrik Vondeling

    2004-03-01

    Full Text Available Background: Integrated care has emerged in a variety of forms in industrialised countries during the past decade. It is generally assumed that these new arrangements result in increased effectiveness and quality of care, while being cost-effective or even cost-saving at the same time. However, systematic evaluation, including an evaluation of the relative costs and benefits of these arrangements, has largely been lacking. Objectives: To stimulate fruitful dialogue and debate about the need for economic evaluation in integrated care, and to outline possibilities for undertaking economic appraisal studies in this relatively new field. Theory: Key concepts, including e.g. scarcity and opportunity costs, are introduced, followed by a brief overview of the most common methods used in economic evaluation of health care programmes. Then a number of issues that seem particularly relevant for economic evaluation of integrated care arrangements are addressed in more detail, illustrated with examples from the literature. Conclusion and discussion: There is a need for well-designed economic evaluation studies of integrated care arrangements, in particular in order to support decision making on the long-term financing of these programmes. Although relatively few studies have been done to date, the field is challenging from a methodological point of view, offering analysts a wealth of opportunities. Guidance to realise these opportunities is provided by the general principles for economic evaluation, which can be tailored to the requirements of this particular field.

  5. Integrated modelling of climate, water, soil, agricultural and socio-economic processes: A general introduction of the methodology and some exemplary results from the semi-arid north-east of Brazil

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Krol, Martinus S.; Jaeger, Annekathrin; Bronstert, Axel; Güntner, Andreas

    2006-01-01

    Many semi-arid regions are characterised by water scarcity and vulnerability of natural resources, pronounced climatic variability and social stress. Integrated studies including climatology, hydrology, and socio-economic studies are required both for analysing the dynamic natural conditions and to

  6. Integrated economic management. Principal aspects and future

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2004-01-01

    Now that five years have passed (1999-2003) since the Owner Companies decided to merge the Asco and Vandellos-II nuclear power plants, we believe that, for Integrated Management through a single AIE, it is timely and advisable to describe the key issues of the process implemented to optimize economic results, always in accordance with the Policies of Nuclear Safety, Quality and Environment, Prevention, Human Factors and Availability, and we emphasize the following as essential elements: The Corporate Model; strategic/Operating Plans; integrated Economic Management Model SIE; Rationalization of the organizational structure, Continuous Training; Analysis of Processes and Procedures. (Author)

  7. The economic and political integration of Europe

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1992-01-01

    This book covers issues concerning US coal and mineral exports to Europe in the wake of the economic and political integration of Europe. Topics addressed include: The European Energy Charter; the implications of the European Energy Charter for coal companies; and tax issues, coal development and the European Common Market

  8. A critical review of regional economic integration in China

    OpenAIRE

    Wang RUI

    2015-01-01

    Under the circumstances of economic globalization, regional economic integration has become the mainstream of current economic development for each country, so China has to pay more attention to it. The critical review on regional economic integration in China can lay a certain foundation and provide experience for the in-depth research. Main contents of regional economic integration are refined according to the previous studies and realities, including the integration of regional economic re...

  9. Dynamic relationship between CO2 emissions, energy consumption and economic growth in three North African countries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kais, Saidi; Ben Mbarek, Mounir

    2017-10-01

    This paper investigated the causal relationship between energy consumption (EC), carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions and economic growth for three selected North African countries. It uses a panel co-integration analysis to determine this econometric relationship using data during 1980-2012. Recently developed tests for panel unit root and co-integration tests are applied. In order to test the Granger causality, a panel Vector Error Correction Model is used. The conservation hypothesis is found; the short run panel results show that there is a unidirectional relationship from economic growth to EC. In addition, there is a unidirectional causality running from economic growth to CO2 emissions. A unidirectional relationship from EC to CO2 emissions is detected. Findings shown that there is a big interdependence between EC and economic growth in the long run, which indicates the level of economic activity and EC mutually influence each other in that a high level of economic growth leads to a high level of EC and vice versa. Similarly, a unidirectional causal relationship from EC to CO2 emissions is detected. This study opens up new insights for policy-makers to design comprehensive economic, energy and environmental policy to keep the economic green and a sustainable environment, implying that these three variables could play an important role in the adjustment process as the system changes from the long run equilibrium.

  10. European Economics, Update. Another Ten Theses on the Economic Integration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liviu C. ANDREI

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available These theses, in their enunciation and debate sound like:I. There are both “incipient” and “advanced” integration processes; II. Integration changes its outline; III. There is also the „second European economics”; IV. The Communitarz Agricultural Programme (CAP, as a “mettre à l’abîme” of the whole integration process; V. The national economies convergency reads the condition of the Union itself; VI. The EU budget might be a political stake; VII. The European Monetary System (EMS is a... paradox; VIII. The public economy might be a “thorn in the unique market’s eye”; IX, Is the economic integration predestined to an unachieved strategy example?! X. Beyond all skepticism, it would be better out of the (need of integration.All of these above try to describe the picture of a half century process, in Europe. Plus, this tries to explain why Europe is different from the rest of the world, not necessarily more or less developed or well to do, as for a usual pattern.

  11. Economics of Undiscovered Oil and Gas in the North Slope of Alaska: Economic Update and Synthesis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Attanasi, E.D.; Freeman, P.A.

    2009-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) has published assessments by geologists of undiscovered conventional oil and gas accumulations in the North Slope of Alaska; these assessments contain a set of scientifically based estimates of undiscovered, technically recoverable quantities of oil and gas in discrete oil and gas accumulations that can be produced with conventional recovery technology. The assessments do not incorporate economic factors such as recovery costs and product prices. The assessors considered undiscovered conventional oil and gas resources in four areas of the North Slope: (1) the central North Slope, (2) the National Petroleum Reserve in Alaska (NPRA), (3) the 1002 Area of the Arctic National Wildlife Refuge (ANWR), and (4) the area west of the NPRA, called in this report the 'western North Slope'. These analyses were prepared at different times with various minimum assessed oil and gas accumulation sizes and with slightly different assumptions. Results of these past studies were recently supplemented with information by the assessment geologists that allowed adjustments for uniform minimum assessed accumulation sizes and a consistent set of assumptions. The effort permitted the statistical aggregation of the assessments of the four areas composing the study area. This economic analysis is based on undiscovered assessed accumulation distributions represented by the four-area aggregation and incorporates updates of costs and technological and fiscal assumptions used in the initial economic analysis that accompanied the geologic assessment of each study area.

  12. The Economic Integration of ASEAN+3

    OpenAIRE

    Verico, Kiki

    2013-01-01

    The ASEAN wide economic cooperation under the ‘ASEAN umbrella principle’ is fitting the ASEAN’s ‘open and soft regionalism’ character. It helps ASEAN to achieve a comprehensive trade and investment integration in the short to medium-run and financial integration in the long-run. In Southeast Asia, this wide-regionalism has been reflected in the ASEAN Plus framework. Among one of them is the ASEAN+3, which covers ten ASEAN member states and three East Asian countries (China, Japan and South Ko...

  13. Economics of Alaska North Slope gas utilization options

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thomas, C.P.; Doughty, T.C.; Hackworth, J.H.; North, W.B.; Robertson, E.P.

    1996-08-01

    The recoverable natural gas available for sale in the developed and known undeveloped fields on the Alaskan North Slope (ANS) total about 26 trillion cubic feet (TCF), including 22 TCF in the Prudhoe Bay Unit (PBU) and 3 TCF in the undeveloped Point Thomson Unit (PTU). No significant commercial use has been made of this large natural gas resource because there are no facilities in place to transport this gas to current markets. To date the economics have not been favorable to support development of a gas transportation system. However, with the declining trend in ANS oil production, interest in development of this huge gas resource is rising, making it important for the U.S. Department of Energy, industry, and the State of Alaska to evaluate and assess the options for development of this vast gas resource. The purpose of this study was to assess whether gas-to-liquids (GTL) conversion technology would be an economic alternative for the development and sale of the large, remote, and currently unmarketable ANS natural gas resource, and to compare the long term economic impact of a GTL conversion option to that of the more frequently discussed natural gas pipeline/liquefied natural gas (LNG) option. The major components of the study are: an assessment of the ANS oil and gas resources; an analysis of conversion and transportation options; a review of natural gas, LNG, and selected oil product markets; and an economic analysis of the LNG and GTL gas sales options based on publicly available input needed for assumptions of the economic variables. Uncertainties in assumptions are evaluated by determining the sensitivity of project economics to changes in baseline economic variables

  14. Economic Exposure and Integrated Risk Management

    OpenAIRE

    Miller, Kent D.

    1994-01-01

    Most corporate risk management research focuses on particular risk exposures to the exclusion of other interrelated exposures. By contrast, this study models corporate risk exposures using a multivariate approach integrating the distinct exposures of interest to finance and strategy researchers. The paper addresses the implications of multivariate modeling for corporate risk management, some key methodological issues arising in empirical estimation of corporate economic exposrues, and direc...

  15. Infrastructure development for ASEAN economic integration

    OpenAIRE

    Bhattacharyay, Biswa Nath

    2009-01-01

    With a population of 600 million, ASEAN is considered to be one of the most diverse regions in the world. It is also one of the world's fastest growing regions. ASEAN's aim is to evolve into an integrated economic community by 2015. Crucial to achieving this ambitious target is cooperation in infrastructure development for physical connectivity, particularly in cross-border infrastructure. This paper provides an overview of the quantity and quality of existing infrastructure in ASEAN member c...

  16. The integrated North American electricity market : investment in electricity infrastructure and supply : a North American concern

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Egan, T.

    2006-03-01

    Electricity supply and infrastructure solutions for the United States and Canada were discussed along with the availability of fuel supply and the diversity of fuel sources. This document focuses on investment in transmission infrastructure in order to assure sustainable generation sources for both countries while addressing constraints along the border, which will allow for enhanced cross-border trade. The Canadian Electricity Association has proposed 3 areas of bi-national cooperation to promote effective investment in electricity infrastructure and supply in the North American market: (1) cooperation in enhancing electricity supply, (2) cooperation in enhancing transmission infrastructure, and (3) cooperation in addressing air quality issues and climate change. The report discussed electricity generation by fuel source in Canada and the United States; status of restructuring in Canada; as well as the economic and environmental benefits of an integrated market. It also discussed regulatory and policy matters affecting the investment environment. Last, it discussed the need for opportunities for investment in the North American market, distribution and demand side measures, and cooperation in enhancing transmission infrastructure. It was concluded that growing electricity demand in both the United States and Canada requires investment in electricity infrastructure and supply in the future. Resolving electricity infrastructure and supply needs must be an international concern, requiring the full engagement and cooperation of both countries. 1 tab, 2 figs

  17. Payment and economic evaluation of integrated care

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Apostolos Tsiachristas

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Chronic diseases have an increasingly negative impact on (1 population health by increasing morbidity and mortality, (2 society by increasing health inequalities and burden to informal caregivers, and (3 economy by requiring enormous financial resources and jeopardising macro-economic development (e.g. consumption, capital accumulation, labour productivity and labour supply. Integrated care is the most promising concept in redesigning care to tackle the increasing threat of chronic diseases. Several European countries have experimented with models for integrating care, most frequently in the form of disease management programmes. These models were often supported by payment schemes to provide financial incentives to health care providers for implementing integrated care. This thesis aimed to investigate these payment schemes and assess their impact, explore the variability in costs of disease management programmes, and determine the costs and effects of disease management programmes.

  18. North-West Russia in the context of European integration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kochegarova Tamara

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Integration is one of the main consequences of globalization. Elements of microsystems are growing closer, which brings to the foreground problems of interaction and — in a longer perspective — those of close cooperation between different social systems. The article considers the case of North-West Russia, the only territory having a common border with the EU, in order to examine the issue of Russia using the geographical factor, which Otto von Bismarck called the most powerful and intrinsic factor in history. The significance of this factor increased after the Cold War. It was then when the independent Baltic States became a platform for emergence and recognition of the Baltic Sea region. The author focuses on the social and cultural integrity of the region and considers the traditional Nordic countries and the Baltic Sea states as interrelated components of a single region, different from other European regions in terms of economic interests, as well as its natural and sociocultural landscape.

  19. North American energy market : convergence and integration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schlesinger, B.

    1998-01-01

    The paper provides an exposition of supply and demand issues within the natural gas industry in North America. Various aspects of the issue are discussed, including the growth in gas demand and the impact that a price hold of one per cent per year will have on demand. It was predicted that the gas share of U.S. power generation will triple by 2015 and that major pipeline expansions will deliver the new gas to markets. A doubling of eastbound gas deliveries was also predicted. tabs., figs

  20. 1992 North Dakota Economic Impact Study for the Uranium Mill Tailings Remedial Action Project, Belfield and Bowman, North Dakota

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1993-01-01

    The goal of the Uranium Mill Tailings Remedial Action (UMTRA) Project in North Dakota is to improve the environment and reduce the negative health effects associated with residual radioactive material (RRM) from the inactive processing sites at Belfield and Bowman, North Dakota. A secondary benefit of the UMTRA Project is economic gain. The 1992 North Dakota Economic Impact Study (NDEIS) analyzes the impact of the remedial actions at the inactive Belfield and Bowman processing sites and their associated vicinity properties. This analysis is based on the assumption that the state of North Dakota will provide 10 percent of the funding required for remediation. For every dollar the state of North Dakota invests in the Belfield and Bowman onsite portion of the UMTRA Project, it will realize $5.04 in gross labor income (i.e., gross labor income divided by the state's total funding requirement). For every dollar the state of North Dakota invests, it will realize a net return of $3.04 (i.e., net benefit divided by the state's total funding requirement). This reflects only labor expenditure and employment impact. ff state and local non-labor tax benefits were considered in the net economic benefit, North Dakota could receive significantly more than $3.04 for each dollar it invests. The UMTRA Project work at Belfield and Bowman will benefit the state of North Dakota. Benefits include a reduction in the negative health effects caused by low-level RRM, an improvement in the environment, and increased economic growth

  1. DYNAMICS ECONOMIC DISPARITIES IN NORTH-WEST REGION OF ROMANIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Florea Adrian

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Even though over the years has enjoyed wide media coverage, with highlighted aspects, discrepancies and inequalities of economic potential between different regions of the world, or even parts of the same countries always remained topical. Difficulties arising from these differences were always felt, extremely painful by humans. Analyzing distinctly, participation of each county to the GDP of the Northwest Region and the composition of all indicators, we can identify significant discrepancies between counties, regions and municipalities. This is one of the reasons that led us trying to identify the causes that generated the current situation. From the perspective of the contribution of each county in the Northwest Region to Region's domestic product composition, the first place is taken by Cluj county 32.3%, followed by Bihor with 24.3%, Maramures, with 14.9% Satu-Mare, 12.1%, Bistrita-Nasaud, 9.1% and 7.2% Salaj. Consulting of the Regional Operational Programme 2007-2013 indicates that the poorest areas in the Northwest Region are in Maramures and Bistrita-Nasaud. An important part of the active population of North-West Region was employed in public enterprises and an increase of unemployment in the counties of Salaj, Satu Mare and Maramures became predictable, imminent amid restructuring of public enterprises with losses. Studies of employed population by sectors of the economy, shows a high rate of population employed in services in the counties of Cluj and Bihor and high employment in agriculture on other four counties. In a modern market economy, services are most concentrated labors, and how the workforce is distributed in the Northwest region also shows an imbalance. How Northwest Region is participating in international economic cycle has major effects on the population's living standards. Relevant for the inter-district disparities analysis is the human and agents behavior analysis and the savings and loan relationships. How people

  2. Impact Analysis of Economic Linkages of South Korea with North Korea Using a CGE Model

    OpenAIRE

    Kim, Euijune; Shin, Hyewon

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to estimate impacts of core infrastructure investments in North Korea on South and North Koreas. The investment expenditures of core infrastructure projects in North Korea are calibrated as 9.35 billion US$ including highway, railroad and industrial complex. Since South and North Koreas are based on market and planned economies respectively, the Computable General Equilibrium model is applied to the economic analysis of South Korea and an Input-Output Model for th...

  3. Transmission topologies for the integration of renewable power into the electricity systems of North Africa

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brand, Bernhard

    2013-01-01

    A cost-minimizing electricity market model was used to explore optimized infrastructures for the integration of renewable energies in interconnected North African power systems until 2030. The results show that the five countries Morocco, Algeria, Tunisia, Libya and Egypt could together achieve significant economic benefits, reaching up to €3.4 billion, if they increase power system integration, build interconnectors and cooperate on joint utilization of their generation assets. Net electricity exports out of North Africa to Europe or Eastern Mediterranean regions, however, were not observed in the regime of integrated electricity markets until 2030, and could only be realized by much higher levels of renewable energy penetration than currently foreseen by North African governments. - Highlights: • Market model to optimize North Africa's generation and transmission infrastructures until 2030. • Simulations consider existing interconnectors, power plant inventories, as well as national renewable goals. • Savings of up to €3.4 billion can be realized by more cooperation and integrated system planning. • No electricity exports to Europe in a competitive market framework, except for very high renewable penetrations

  4. Integrated North Sea grids: The costs, the benefits and their distribution between countries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Konstantelos, Ioannis; Pudjianto, Danny; Strbac, Goran; De Decker, Jan; Joseph, Pieter; Flament, Aurore; Kreutzkamp, Paul; Genoese, Fabio; Rehfeldt, Leif; Wallasch, Anna-Kathrin; Gerdes, Gerhard; Jafar, Muhammad; Yang, Yongtao; Tidemand, Nicolaj; Jansen, Jaap; Nieuwenhout, Frans; Welle, Adriaan van der; Veum, Karina

    2017-01-01

    A large number of offshore wind farms and interconnectors are expected to be constructed in the North Sea region over the coming decades, creating substantial opportunities for the deployment of integrated network solutions. Creating interconnected offshore grids that combine cross-border links and connections of offshore plants to shore offers multiple economic and environmental advantages for Europe's energy system. However, despite evidence that integrated solutions can be more beneficial than traditional radial connection practices, no such projects have been deployed yet. In this paper we quantify costs and benefits of integrated projects and investigate to which extent the cost-benefit sharing mechanism between participating countries can impede or encourage the development of integrated projects. Three concrete interconnection case studies in the North Sea area are analysed in detail using a national-level power system model. Model outputs are used to compute the net benefit of all involved stakeholders under different allocation schemes. Given the asymmetric distribution of costs and benefits, we recommend to consistently apply the Positive Net Benefit Differential mechanism as a starting point for negotiations on the financial closure of investments in integrated offshore infrastructure. - Highlights: • Three North Sea offshore gird case studies are analysed. • They are shown to have substantial net benefit over non-integrated network designs. • Asymmetric net benefit sharing between countries is shown to be a barrier. • Positive Net Benefit Differential method alleviates asymmetric benefits.

  5. Economic integration in the Middle East

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dobers, Geesche M.; Ihle, Rico; Kachel, Yael; Liebe, Ulf

    2018-01-01

    Violent political conflict results in socioeconomic fragmentation and hampers economic development. In contrast, trade crucially depends on cooperation. The article empirically analyses at the micro-level whether economic interactions affect political attitudes. Trading relations between Israelis

  6. Economics issues - nuclear power generation in North America

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jones, R.; Taylor, J.; Santucci, J.

    1996-01-01

    The structure of the US utility industry is in transition. Political, social, and economic factors are contributing to a rapid shift from a monopoly structure (captive markets, cost-plus prices, negotiated rate of return on capital) to a highly competitive one (choices for customers, prices determined by the market place, earnings based on market price less cost). The rate of change has been accelerating. For example, what just two years ago would have been thought of as highly unlikely -- competition for the individual electric customer -- is now part of the plan in California and other states. In our view, technology is at the root of many of these structural changes with more to come. Yet another round of technological change is afoot, involving even more efficient gas turbines, new methods of utilizing transmission lines, distributed generation, and new opportunities for electricity use and service. It can be argued that the restructuring of the marketplace reflects, in some measure, anticipation for these advances. For the foreseeable future, nuclear energy will continue to play a significant role in the generating grid of North America. However, new nuclear generation will be held to standards of competition that are dictated by market forces, and by advances in competing technologies for base load generation. It is important to understand these forces, and devise a response which ensures that nuclear energy will continue to provide a viable, competitive, and environmentally superior option for generating electricity in the 21st century. The EPRI Nuclear Power program is focused on achieving these goals. (author)

  7. Report from Holland: the economics of North Sea hydrocarbons

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ellman, M

    1977-09-01

    The article describes how, despite huge revenues from North Sea gas, Holland is currently suffering from unemployment and its long-term prospects are poor. In light of this, Mr. Ellman discusses the implications of North Sea oil for the UK economy. He sites three distinguishable policies that the UK government could adopt in the face of the huge import saving and export creation that North Sea hydrocarbons will soon bring--sound finance, demand management, and structural modernization. (MCW)

  8. Study on Chinese Impact on Economic Sanctions against North Korea

    OpenAIRE

    Oh, Jinhwan; Ryu, Jiyong

    2011-01-01

    As the U.S. and South Korea expressed solidarity in blaming North Korea for its attack on the South Korean warship Cheonan and in imposing further sanctions on North Korea, global attention is now focused on China with regard to whether it will cooperate in inflicting punitive measures on its ally. Despite the worsening cleavages between China and North Korea since October 2006 when the latter tested its nuclear weapons, this study shows that their relations has remained robust in the economi...

  9. The Economic Base of North Dakota: A Measure of the State’s Economy in 2012

    OpenAIRE

    Coon, Randal C.; Bangsund, Dean A.; Hodur, Nancy M.

    2014-01-01

    The growth and composition of the North Dakota economy can be measured using economic base analysis. Economic base is defined as the value of goods and services exported from an economic unit. Economic base also can be called a region’s export base because industries (or ‘basic’ sectors) earn income from outside the area. North Dakota’s economic base is comprised of those activities that produce a product or a service purchased by individuals, governments, and businesses located outside of th...

  10. Evolving subsidiary roles and regional economic integration in Europe

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Filippov, S.; Duysters, G.M.

    2012-01-01

    The focus of this paper is on the impact of regional economic integration on chaging roles and strategies of overseas subsidiaries. The literature has acknowledged the positive impact of regional economic integration on the investment attractiveness of member states perticipating a regional bloc and

  11. Economic Efficiency of Maize Production in Yola North Local ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    user

    should include the basic nutrients necessary to meet the needs of the ... economic production and home production, often have damaging ..... economic citizens in Nigeria (Ankroyd and. Doughty, 1984). ... Nutritional Guide. University of.

  12. North West Surrey's locality hubs - delivering integrated care

    OpenAIRE

    Compton, Lisa; Wilkinson, Peter; Lawn, Liz

    2017-01-01

    Introduction: North West Surrey CCG (NWSCCG) is establishing Locality Hubs – physical buildings offering a fully integrated GP-led, multi-disciplinary ‘one-stop-shop’ services in the community for a defined cohort of frail elderly patients with multiple core morbidities. Hubs will ultimately deliver proactive and reactive care, available 24 hours a day, 365 days a year.The key drivers are;Ageing population, people living longer & more people living with chronic conditionsCost & demand...

  13. Costs of integrating economics and conservation planning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arponen, Anni; Cabeza, Mar; Eklund, Johanna; Kujala, Heini; Lehtomäki, Joona

    2010-10-01

    Recent literature on systematic conservation planning has focused strongly on economics. It is a necessary component of efficient conservation planning because the question is about effective resource allocation. Nevertheless, there is an increasing tendency toward economic factors overriding biological considerations. Focusing too narrowly on economic cost may lead us back toward solutions resembling those obtained by opportunistic choice of areas, the avoidance of which was the motivation for development of systematic approaches. Moreover, there are many overlooked difficulties in incorporating economic considerations reliably into conservation planning because available economic data and the free market are complex. For instance, economies based on free markets tend to be shortsighted, whereas biodiversity conservation aims far into the future. Although economic data are necessary, they should not be relied on too heavily or considered separately from other sociopolitical factors. We suggest focusing on development of more-comprehensive ecological-economic modeling, while not forgetting the importance of purely biological analyses that are needed as a point of reference for evaluating conservation outcomes. © 2010 Society for Conservation Biology.

  14. Integration of art and culture to develop the hotel business in North-eastern Thailand

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Supaporn Sereerat

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available This qualitative investigation had three research aims: 1 To study the history and background of the hotel industry in Isan; 2 To study the current situation and problems with using art in order to develop the tourism industry in Thailand; 3 To study the integration of art and culture to develop the hotel business in North-eastern Thailand. Nine hotels were selected from four provinces in North-eastern Thailand as the research population and the research sample was composed of 86 individuals. Tools used for data collection were survey, observation, interview, focus group discussion and workshop. Results show that hoteliers in North-eastern Thailand developed their businesses as a reaction to the economic crisis and failing trade. To attract more tourists to the region, hotel managers integrated traditional Thai art to their businesses, especially local Isan art. This investigation of nine hotels in Isan identified nine areas in which art has been integrated into hotel businesses. These are paintings, sculptures, architecture, literature, music and dance , the four Buddhist necessities of life (food, accommodation, clothing and medicine, beliefs, customs and ceremonies. By integrating elements of each of these categories into their hotels, business owners and managers have been able to generate extra trade.

  15. Integration of art and culture to develop the hotel business in North-eastern Thailand

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Supaporn Sereerat

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available This qualitative investigation had three research aims: 1 To study the history and background of the hotel industry in Isan; 2 To study the current situation and problems with using art in order to develop the tourism industry in Thailand; 3 To study the integration of art and culture to develop the hotel business in North-eastern Thailand. Nine hotels were selected from four provinces in North-eastern Thailand as the research population and the research sample was composed of 86 individuals. Tools used for data collection were survey, observation, interview, focus group discussion and workshop. Results show that hoteliers in North-eastern Thailand developed their businesses as a reaction to the economic crisis and failing trade. To attract more tourists to the region, hotel managers integrated traditional Thai art to their businesses, especially local Isan art. This investigation of nine hotels in Isan identified nine areas in which art has been integrated into hotel businesses. These are paintings, sculptures, architecture, literature, music and dance , the four Buddhist necessities of life (food, accommodation, clothing and medicine, beliefs, customs and ceremonies. By integrating elements of each of these categories into their hotels, business owners and managers have been able to generate extra trade

  16. Interstate Economic Integration - Essential Characteristic of the Contemporary World Economy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ramona Mariana CALINICA

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available After the Second World War, the world economy became more and more characterized by an intensification of economic relations between different countries. The complex and diverse problems that faced the states, have imposed necessity for the identification of appropriate solutions to economic cooperation and economic interstate integration was considered an effective way to development and an answer to all these problems. The purpose of this article is to analyze the integration process of interstate economic integration in all its essential aspects. The study begins with the definition of the concept and continues with the analysis of the forms of interstate economic integration and the main organizations of this kind that existing in the world economy nowadays.

  17. Regional Economic Integration in Africa: Challenges and Prospects ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Africa has witnessed various efforts of economic integration at the continental and regional levels. While the idea of regional integration is as old as the Organization of African Unity now renamed as African Union, recent summits have reaffirmed Africa's commitment toward boosting intra-Africa trade and integration. With the ...

  18. Asia-Pacific Regional Economic Integration: Coopetition vs. Conflict

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    YuJane Chen

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available In the era of economic globalization, promoting regional trade agreements or regional cooperation has become a plausible strategy to attract foreign direct investment and to promote national competitiveness at a global level. Nonetheless, facing the differential national economic interests and the needs of protection of domestic industries, as well as the diverse levels of economic liberalization domestically, the involvement of FTA negotiation in every country is universally in the situation of struggling between securing economic sovereignty and national economic development. Countries in the Asia-Pacific region are in the same situation. This article analyzes how countries balance between securing economic sovereignty and promoting national economic development when they are involved in TPP and RCEP negotiations. By confirming the appropriate linkage between each participating countries’ decision for balancing between domestic economic sovereignty and further integrating into regional economic cooperation institutions the validity of the proposition for this research project can be verified.

  19. Economic and geopolitical dimensions of renewable vs. nuclear energy in North Africa

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marktanner, Marcus; Salman, Lana

    2011-01-01

    Addressing issues of renewable energy in North Africa must incorporate concerns regarding the compatibility of energy mixes with the nature of political regimes, their geopolitical relevance, and their socio-economic effects, in addition to economic cost-benefit deliberations. One important and under-researched aspect of nuclear energy refers to the trade-off between socio-economic development and political power conservation. Competing interests in North Africa's energy market as well as aspects of regional cooperation capacity are important when assessing the choice between renewable and nuclear energy. Therefore, the future course of meeting North Africa's energy needs is subject to a complex political and economic interplay between domestic and geopolitical development interests. The objective of this paper is to explore this complexity in more detail. We argue that the identification of any energy alternative as superior is hardly convincing unless certain standards of inclusive governance are met. We also find that it is important to highlight political-economic differences between energy importers like Morocco and Tunisia and energy exporters like Algeria, Libya, and Egypt. - Research highlights: → North Africa confronted with severe energy supply challenges in near future. → Trade-off between socio-economic development and political power conservation matters. → Economic and geopolitical dimensions of trade-off heterogeneous across North Africa.

  20. Economic Growth, Electricity Consumption, Labor Force and Capital Input: A More Comprehensive Analysis on North China Using Panel Data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Huiru Zhao

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Over the past three decades, China’s economy has witnessed remarkable growth, with an average annual growth rate over 9%. However, China also faces great challenges to balance this spectacular economic growth and continuously increasing energy use like many other economies in the world. With the aim of designing effective energy and environmental policies, policymakers are required to master the relationship between energy consumption and economic growth. Therefore, in the case of North China, a multivariate model employing panel data analysis method based on the Cobb-Douglas production function which introduces electricity consumption as a main factor was established in this paper. The equilibrium relationship and causal relationship between real GDP, electricity consumption, total investment in fixed assets, and the employment were explored using data during the period of 1995–2014 for six provinces in North China, including Beijing City, Tianjin City, Hebei Province, Shanxi Province, Shandong Province and Inner Mongolia. The results of panel co-integration tests clearly state that all variables are co-integrated in the long term. Finally, Granger causality tests were used to examine the causal relationship between economic growth, electricity consumption, labor force and capital. From the Granger causality test results, we can draw the conclusions that: (1 There exist bi-directional causal relationships between electricity consumption and real GDP in six provinces except Hebei; and (2 there is a bi-directional relationship between capital input and economic growth and between labor force input and economic growth except Beijing and Hebei. Therefore, the ways to solve the contradiction of economic growth and energy consumption in North China are to reduce fossil energy consumption, develop renewable and sustainable energy sources, improve energy efficiency, and increase the proportion of the third industry, especially the sectors which

  1. Energy integration: Regional economic integration lever and possible insertion factor in the global economy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lokolo, M.C.

    2001-01-01

    In the 1920s, just after the War, an idea began taking root in the Old Continent, to build what could be described as the United States of Europe. Thirty years later, in 1951, a new source of energy, coal, paved the way for the economic integration of Europe. It culminated into monetary integration in January 2002. Economic integration makes sense in the context of the relatively small size of some national economies and markets, and the judicious utilization of rare resources and their unequal distribution. In this document, the author elaborated on the principles at play in economic integration and argued that the integration of the national energy markets could be the lever for economic integration through the gradual elimination of the various obstacles to trade. The author first presented a brief historical overview of economic integration from the perspective of global economic relationships, covering the period between the two world wars to the General Agreement on Tariffs and Trade (GATT) to the World Trade Organization (WTO). The concept and the forms of economic integration were reviewed. Energy integration as a lever of regional economic integration and as a factor in global economic insertion were discussed. Energy integration is a tool for the improvement of the human condition. 15 refs

  2. The integration of renewable energies into the electricity systems of North Africa

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brand, Bernhard

    2015-01-01

    How can renewable energy sources be efficiently integrated into the North African electricity systems? By using techno-economic modeling methods, this book explores optimized electricity system expansion pathways until the year 2030 for the five North African countries - Morocco, Algeria, Tunisia, Libya and Egypt. The results indicate that renewable energy integration is actually a viable business case for the entire region, if wind and solar capacities are properly planned in conjunction with the conventional generation system and under consideration of the country-specific electricity supply-/demand patterns. Further aspects featured in this publication are the impact of renewable power on the transnational electricity transmission system and the question how decision making processes about renewable energy strategies can be improved in the North African context. The book is a contribution to the scientific literature about energy issues in the Middle East and North Africa (MENA), but also seeks to address political and industrial practitioners concerned with the development of the region's renewable energy future.

  3. The integration of renewable energies into the electricity systems of North Africa

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brand, Bernhard

    2015-11-01

    How can renewable energy sources be efficiently integrated into the North African electricity systems? By using techno-economic modeling methods, this book explores optimized electricity system expansion pathways until the year 2030 for the five North African countries - Morocco, Algeria, Tunisia, Libya and Egypt. The results indicate that renewable energy integration is actually a viable business case for the entire region, if wind and solar capacities are properly planned in conjunction with the conventional generation system and under consideration of the country-specific electricity supply-/demand patterns. Further aspects featured in this publication are the impact of renewable power on the transnational electricity transmission system and the question how decision making processes about renewable energy strategies can be improved in the North African context. The book is a contribution to the scientific literature about energy issues in the Middle East and North Africa (MENA), but also seeks to address political and industrial practitioners concerned with the development of the region's renewable energy future.

  4. Integrated hydrological modelling of the North China Plain

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Shu, Yunqiao; Villholth, Karen G.; Jensen, Karsten Høgh

    2012-01-01

    The integrated hydrological model MIKE SHE was applied to a part of the North China Plain to examine the dynamics of the hydrological system and to assess water management options to restore depleted groundwater resources. The model simulates the spatio-temporal distribution of recharge...... for scenario analysis of the effect of different cropping rotations, irrigation intensity, and other water management options, like the implementation of the South to North Water Transfer (SNWT) project. The model analysis verified that groundwater tables in the region are subject to steep declines (up to 1 m....../yr) due to decades of intensive exploitation of the groundwater resources for crop irrigation, primarily the widespread crop rotation of irrigated winter wheat and mostly rainfed summer maize. The SNWT project mitigates water stress in Shijiazhuang city and areas adjacent to wastewater canals but cannot...

  5. Economic evaluation of tehran-north freeway project with an ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Also, a variety of reports have been presented about Tehran-North Freeway, but since this freeway has shortened the link between the Caspian Sea and the Persian Gulf and plays a major role in the development of transit and tourism activities in the region and due to its significance, the current study examines it with an ...

  6. 78 FR 20137 - Probable Economic Effect of Certain Modifications to the North American Free Trade Agreement...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-04-03

    ... INTERNATIONAL TRADE COMMISSION [Investigation No. TA-103-027] Probable Economic Effect of Certain... investigation No. TA-103-027, Probable Economic Effect of Certain Modifications to the North American Free Trade... reached agreement in principle with representatives of the governments of Canada and Mexico on proposed...

  7. SEMIOTICS- INTEGRAL PART OF THE ECONOMIC HERMENEUTICS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ANDA- LAURA LUNGU

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Although a social science, economy makes use of the tools of numbers and precise data. Should we not include semiotics in the theory of economic interpretation, the axiomatization of the economic science would be impossible and furthermore the capitalization of the advantages of artificial intelligence that eliminates the inconveniences of equivocal meanings and inflation of words would be useless. Interpretation is an endeavor that implies decoding the hidden meaning of the manifestation of economic processes and phenomena. Semantics and pragmatics – by abstracting and axiomatization – help us overcome the intuition limitations’ in the process of interpretation. Our hypothesis is the human existence develops in an universe of signals and signs whom knowledge, interpretation and use conditions the action of society, groups and single human beings. Our main objective is to prove that in order to grasp the meanings of evolution one needs to understand the meaning of signs. We conclude by suggesting a semiotic symbology that includes all its subcategory: the relations between signs, studied by syntax; the relation between signs and object, the field of semantics; the relation between signs and the subjects (interpreters that use them, meaning pragmatics. The finality is to strengthen the concept of hermeneutic economics by including semiotics in its action field

  8. Economic benefits of less restrictive regulation of advanced practice nurses in North Carolina.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conover, Chris; Richards, Robert

    2015-01-01

    With looming provider shortages and increased demand for health care, many states are looking for low-cost ways to alleviate the shortages. The purpose of this study was to assess the economic impact of less restrictive regulations for advanced practice registered nurses (APRNs) in North Carolina. We use economic impact analysis to demonstrate the economic impacts of making state scope-of-practice regulations on APRNs less restrictive in North Carolina. Outcomes include economic output, value-added, payroll compensation, employment, and tax revenue for North Carolina and for various subregions. If North Carolina adopted the same approach to APRN regulation as the least restrictive states, its economy will benefit from substantial increases in economic output and employment. The state will also see increases in tax revenue. In addition to substantially shrinking the size of projected physician shortages, allowing full scope-of-practice for APRNs will bring significant economic benefits to the state of North Carolina. Our analysis should be helpful to policy makers considering ways to deal with provider shortages. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Economic cooperation between Russia and North Korea: New goals and new approaches

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liudmila Zakharova

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available For many years the Soviet Union was the key economic partner of North Korea. After the USSR broke up, Russia has not played such an important role in the DPRK's economic development. In 2013, its share in the foreign trade of North Korea accounted for a mere 1%. However, in the second decade of the 21st century bilateral, contacts have intensified significantly. Judging by the recent developments, the Russian leadership has made a political decision to expand economic cooperation with North Korea and stimulate Russia's business interests with the DPRK. Russia has set a goal of growing the volume of its trade with North Korea by a factor of ten by 2020. Moreover, Moscow is currently developing a number of investment projects in the DPRK and Russian companies are also looking at developing more of them. Another important aim for Russia is the implementation of big infrastructure projects with both Koreas. The article examines the current position and future prospects for economic cooperation between Russia and North Korea and analyses main forms and potential opportunities for developing bilateral economic relations. Particular attention is paid to the expanding cooperation mechanisms and joint economic projects between Russia and the DPRK and also the potential participation of the Republic of Korea.

  10. Critical Analysis of Methods for Integrating Economic and Environmental Indicators

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Huguet Ferran, Pau; Heijungs, Reinout; Vogtländer, Joost G.

    2018-01-01

    The application of environmental strategies requires scoring and evaluation methods that provide an integrated vision of the economic and environmental performance of systems. The vector optimisation, ratio and weighted addition of indicators are the three most prevalent techniques for addressing

  11. Economic and Geopolitical Integration between Morocco and Algeria

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Sanhaji, Hamid

    2005-01-01

    .... Greater integration will achieve two main goals. First, it will help both economies by boosting trade between the two countries and by preventing "political" barriers from undermining economic exchange...

  12. The Current Status and Prospects of the Economic Relationship between North Korea and China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Myoungchul Cho

    1998-06-01

    Full Text Available After the socialist market collapse after 1990s, the economic relationship of North Korea and China is becoming closer. It can be proven by the fact that economic relationship between this two countries are transferring from the national trade model to various models such as border trade, agency trade, the illicit trade and investment aid. In this progress, North Korea rely China more than in 1990. But after 1992, the economic relationship is falling from the political priority as before, blind support and assistance based on the nature of the economic benefits to the rapid changes in relationship. This thesis reviewed economic relations in the world environment which has changed. First it analyzed the national economy and trade policies adopted in the current situation of two countries, and on this basis, it looked forward to the economic relationship between the two countries, and point out the measures regarding the relationship between two countries.

  13. Economic integration and cross-border economic organizations: The case of San Diego-Tijuana

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jorge Eduardo Mendoza Cota

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The economic integration between the United States and Mexico has affected the economic, political and social relations in the border region. The paper seeks to relate the increasing economic integration and business cycles of the economies of San Diego and Tijuana to the development of both national and binational economic organizations in the border region. The methodology of analysis uses both statistical estimations of the economic integration of San Diego and Tijuana and semi-structured interviews of economic organizations to analyze the increasing economic integration and the role and achievements of the cross-border economic organizations. The results showed that cross-border cooperation is predominately controlled by federal and state governments on both sides of the border. However, the main achievements of cross-border economic cooperation have been accomplished by local private organizations. The perspective of further local economic development greatly depends on both the possibility of increased involvement of federal governments and the growing encouragement of regional organizations.

  14. Economics and militarization in North Korea: is the sanctions policy counterproductive?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Clement, Theo

    2017-01-01

    In this paper, the author analyzes the efficiency of the international economic sanctions against North Korea. An historical review shows that sanctions against North Korea have never succeeded in impeding this country to pursue its industrial defense policy, at the expense of its economic development. As a result, North Korea is now able (and wishes) to propose, to any clients in the world, efficient technologies in the nuclear or ballistic domain in order to gain the foreign currencies that are essential for the economic development of its people. According to the author (and other experts), such economic sanctions should be replaced by cooperation and development proposals, with the objective to show that if a nuclear program will never be accepted, reforms will be

  15. Project analysis and integration economic analyses summary

    Science.gov (United States)

    Macomber, H. L.

    1986-01-01

    An economic-analysis summary was presented for the manufacture of crystalline-silicon modules involving silicon ingot/sheet, growth, slicing, cell manufacture, and module assembly. Economic analyses provided: useful quantitative aspects for complex decision-making to the Flat-plate Solar Array (FSA) Project; yardsticks for design and performance to industry; and demonstration of how to evaluate and understand the worth of research and development both to JPL and other government agencies and programs. It was concluded that future research and development funds for photovoltaics must be provided by the Federal Government because the solar industry today does not reap enough profits from its present-day sales of photovoltaic equipment.

  16. INTEGRATION OF ETHICAL DISCOURSE IN ECONOMIC THEORY

    OpenAIRE

    Iulia David Sobolevschi; Monica Aureliana Petcu

    2008-01-01

    Moral doctrines and ethical patterns have a strong historical character, the society taking upon itself certain behaviour values and criteria, depending on the stage of development, on its productive features. The business pattern anchored exclusively in the competition for productivity, profit and market went along with arguments having nothing in common with the principles of ethics, such as „there are no moral responsibilities in business”. The alteration of the economic paradigms through ...

  17. Modes of Innovation and the Prospects for Economic Integration in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This article develops and applies a concept of modes of innovation to the issue of economic development and the integration of African economies. This concept, which is located in the systems of innovation approach to economic dynamics, is first developed in the context of the development of capitalism. It is then applied ...

  18. Regional Economic Integration and the Governance Challenge in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    There exists a growing consensus among scholars and observers that critical issues on governance and development in Africa, which have remained unresolved, continue to pose obstacles to Africa's economic integration efforts. Although the continent has witnessed different stages in the evolution of regional economic ...

  19. Models of Russia's Participation in Regional Economic Integration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Darya I. Ushkalova

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The article analyses models and mechanisms of Russia's participation in integration processes in Post-Soviet space in recent years. The article examines the model of integration of Customs Union Common Economic Space Eurasian Economic Union and particular mechanisms of its realization. It also examines key challenges to further development of integration in the frameworks of Eurasian Economic Union including exhausting of short-term and medium-term integration effects against a background of low level of economic cooperation and the lack of effective mechanism of interest coordination and decisionmaking similar to qualified majority. It concludes that deterioration of mutual trade dynamics in Customs Union is determined by fundamental factors, first of all, exhausting of medium-term integration effects which lead to extension of mutual trade immediately after Customs Union creation but do not change its qualitative characteristics in long-term outlook. The author shows an absence of significant long-term integration effects which were based on increase of domestic market capacity due to a modification of economic structure. It is founded that appearance of such long-term integration effects is possible only in the context of coalescence of national economies at the microlevel based on development of system of communications between enterprises including intrasectoral industrial cooperation. The article also analyses results of realization of Russia's strategy of interaction with states beyond Eurasian Economic Union based on open regionalism concept. The paper presents recommendation on perfection of tools of integration in and outside Eurasian Economic Union. In particular, creation of system of decentralized organizations is proposed, for the implementation of specific cooperation projects in selected areas, taking into account the multiplier effect of such a "point-aimed" action/

  20. Regional economic integration in sub-Saharan Africa

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Konings, P.J.J.; Meilink, H.A.

    1998-01-01

    The issue of regional integration has acquired a new relevance and urgency in Africa due to wide-reaching national and global changes. African leaders' commitment to regional economic integration was clearly expressed during the June 1991 OAU summit meeting in Abuja, Nigeria. On that occasion, they

  1. Economics Of Tomato Production In Yewa North Local Government ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Questions relating to the socio-economic characteristics of the tomato farmers, tomato outputs, output prices and cost of resources viz. labour, seed, fertilizer and land used in production, as well as constraints to tomato production were asked in the questionnaire. Production function analysis was used to show the ...

  2. The economic feasibility of seaweed production in the North Sea

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Burg, van den Sander W.K.; Duijn, van Arie Pieter; Bartelings, Heleen; Krimpen, van Marinus M.; Poelman, Marnix

    2016-01-01

    Seaweeds are increasingly seen as an alternative to land-grown products in food and feed applications. Interest in production of seaweeds in temperate waters is rising, in particular in combination with offshore wind energy generation. This article reports an investigation of the economic

  3. Time-Varying Estimation of Crop Insurance Program in Altering North Dakota Farm Economic Structure

    OpenAIRE

    Coleman, Jane A.; Shaik, Saleem

    2009-01-01

    This study examines how federal farm policies, specifically crop insurance, have affected the farm economic structure of North Dakota’s agriculture sector. The system of derived input demand equations is estimated to quantify the changes in North Dakota farmers’ input use when they purchase crop insurance. Further, the cumulative rolling regression technique is applied to capture the varying effects of the farm policies over time. Empirical results from the system of input demand functions in...

  4. Technology, Political Economy, and Economic Development in the Middle East and North Africa

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brach, Juliane

    2009-01-01

    Comparing the pace and extent of economic development across the developing regions yields that Arab countries have displaced a weak economic performance over the past 20 years, despite their favorable geo-strategic location and a high density of national and international structural adjustment...... efforts. Using cross-country regressions, this paper identifies two binding constraints to economic development in the Arab countries of the Middle East and North Africa (MENA): 1) Most countries are not able to apply or adopt existing technologies efficiently and 2) The economically inefficient...

  5. Economic evaluation of the integrated SMART desalination plant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hwang, Young Dong; Lee, Man Kye; Yeo, Ji Won; Kim, Hee Chul; Chang, Moon Hee

    2001-04-01

    In this study, an economic evaluation methodology of the integrated SMART desalination plant was established and the economic evaluation of SMART was performed. The plant economics was evaluated with electricity generation costs calculated using approximate estimates of SMART cost data and the result was compared with the result calculated using the SMART design data and estimated bulk materials. In addition, a series of sensitivity studies on the power generation cost was performed for the main economic parameters of SMART Power credit method was used for the economic analysis of the integrated SMART desalination plant. Power credit method is a widely used economic analysis method for the cogeneration plant when the major portion of the energy is used for the electricity generation. In the case of using SMART fot power generation only, the result shows that the electricity generation cost of SMART is higher than that of the alternative power options. However, it can be competitive with the other power options in the limited cases, especially with the gas fired combined plant. In addition, an economic analysis of the integrated SMART desalination plant coupled with MED was performed. The calculated water production cost is in the range of 0.56 approx. 0.88($/m{sup 3}) for the plant availability of 80% or higher, which is close to the study results presented by the various other countries. This indicates that SMART can be considered as a competitive choice for desalination among various alternative energy sources.

  6. Economic evaluation of the integrated SMART desalination plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hwang, Young Dong; Lee, Man Kye; Yeo, Ji Won; Kim, Hee Chul; Chang, Moon Hee

    2001-04-01

    In this study, an economic evaluation methodology of the integrated SMART desalination plant was established and the economic evaluation of SMART was performed. The plant economics was evaluated with electricity generation costs calculated using approximate estimates of SMART cost data and the result was compared with the result calculated using the SMART design data and estimated bulk materials. In addition, a series of sensitivity studies on the power generation cost was performed for the main economic parameters of SMART Power credit method was used for the economic analysis of the integrated SMART desalination plant. Power credit method is a widely used economic analysis method for the cogeneration plant when the major portion of the energy is used for the electricity generation. In the case of using SMART fot power generation only, the result shows that the electricity generation cost of SMART is higher than that of the alternative power options. However, it can be competitive with the other power options in the limited cases, especially with the gas fired combined plant. In addition, an economic analysis of the integrated SMART desalination plant coupled with MED was performed. The calculated water production cost is in the range of 0.56 approx. 0.88($/m 3 ) for the plant availability of 80% or higher, which is close to the study results presented by the various other countries. This indicates that SMART can be considered as a competitive choice for desalination among various alternative energy sources

  7. Why Targets of Economic Sanctions React Differently: Reference Point Effects on North Korea and Libya

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jiyoun Park

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available The international community has frequently introduced economic sanctions to curb the proliferation of weapons of mass destruction, to which each target nation has reacted differently. This paper explores the reasons why each target of economic sanctions reacts differently by specif- ically building a model based on reference point effects, and by analyzing the cases of North Korea and Libya. According to the results, when the reference point level increases, as in the case of North Korea, the target resists more firmly; on the other hand, when the reference point decreases, like in the case of Libya, the target resists more subtly.

  8. Integrated approach to economical, reliable, safe nuclear power production

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1982-06-01

    An Integrated Approach to Economical, Reliable, Safe Nuclear Power Production is the latest evolution of a concept which originated with the Defense-in-Depth philosophy of the nuclear industry. As Defense-in-Depth provided a framework for viewing physical barriers and equipment redundancy, the Integrated Approach gives a framework for viewing nuclear power production in terms of functions and institutions. In the Integrated Approach, four plant Goals are defined (Normal Operation, Core and Plant Protection, Containment Integrity and Emergency Preparedness) with the attendant Functional and Institutional Classifications that support them. The Integrated Approach provides a systematic perspective that combines the economic objective of reliable power production with the safety objective of consistent, controlled plant operation

  9. Numerical simulation of the integrated solar/North Benghazi combined power plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aldali, Y.; Morad, K.

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • The thermodynamic and economic evaluation of power plant have been studied. • Saving and boosting modes are considered as the same solar field area. • Two modes of operation have been used and simulated on Libyan climate conditions. • The benefit/cost ratios are 1.74 and 1.30 for fuel saving and power boosting mode. • Fuel saving mode is more economical than power boosting mode. - Abstract: The aim of this paper is to study the thermodynamic performance of a proposed integrated solar/North Benghazi combined power plant under Libyan climatic conditions. The parabolic trough collector field with direct steam generation was considered as solar system. Two modes of operations with the same solar field area are considered: fuel saving mode in which the generated solar steam was used to preheat the combustion air in the gas turbine unit and power boosting mode in which the generated solar steam was added into the steam turbine for boosting the electrical power generated from steam turbine unit. Moreover, the economic impact of solar energy is assessed in the form of benefit/cost ratio to justify the substitution potential of such clean energy. This study shows that, for fuel saving mode: the annual saving of natural gas consumption and CO_2 emission are approximately 3001.56 and 7972.25 tons, respectively, in comparison with the conventional North Benghazi combined cycle power plant. For power boosting mode: the annual solar share of electrical energy is approximately 93.33 GW h. The economic analysis of solar supported plant has indicated that the benefit/cost ratios are 1.74 and 1.30 for fuel saving and power boosting mode, therefore, then fuel saving mode is more economical than power boosting mode for the same solar field area, moreover, it reduces the greenhouse CO_2 emission in order to avoid a collapse of the word climate.

  10. On the Integration and Synchronization of the Economic Development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elena Viktorovna Kurushina

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Modern trends are associated with the integration and globalization. Integration is an immanent property of all systems and is the result of the evolution. Integration has its positive and negative effects. The degree of the progress towards the global economy is measured by the integration level in terms of the market integration indicators and the economic convergence. The latent characteristic of the globalization as a process of a unified system creation is the synchronization assuming the coincidence of the economic development ascending and descending trends in time. The coincidence of the tempo-rhythms is studied on the basis of coefficients of the pair correlation of relative growth rates of GDP for 1995-2010 in 175 countries. The very high degree of synchronization of economic dynamics is revealed in the European Union countries and in the United States. The low level of the tempo-rhythm synchronization is registered on the territory of the CIS countries. Russia occupies 29th position in the world ranking. The study of the dependence of the economic instability in the world during the crisis of 2008-2009 on the level of the tempo-rhythm coincidence shows that the more synchronized economic dynamics is, the greater excess coefficient of the average dynamics is observed during the crisis period. In 2009 it manifested itself in a greater reduction of the GDP growth rates in the European countries relatively the average wave dynamics in the pre-crisis period. The obtained results are of interest from the perspective of the substantiation of the regional economic group creation and in the context of the measures on increasing the economic stability.

  11. The global economic integration has no prospects without global currency

    OpenAIRE

    Sajnoski, Krste; Paceskoski, Vlatko; Davcev, Ljupco

    2013-01-01

    After getting out of the recession as it is, into which the developed countries have fallen, the continuation of the processes of global economic integration becomes a priority task of the contemporary international economic relations. For its accomplishment, there has to be stopped the sharpening of global imbalances, it has to be ceased the taking of protectionist measures in relation to the competing economies, to be eliminated the danger of carrying out competing devaluations of national ...

  12. Economic implications of ASEAN integration for Malaysia's labour market

    OpenAIRE

    Rasiah, Rajah

    2014-01-01

    This paper examines the implications of the formation of the Association of Southeast Asian Nations (ASEAN) Economic Community (AEC) in 2015 on Malaysia’s labour market. The discussion centres on the nature of the structural change that Malaysia has experienced, especially since the 1980s, and how that has impacted on its labour market. Integration into ASEAN markets has obviously helped Malaysia enjoy the synergies of regional coordination. Although Malaysia’s economic growth has been steady...

  13. Overcoming barriers to integrating economic analysis into risk assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoffmann, Sandra

    2011-09-01

    Regulatory risk analysis is designed to provide decisionmakers with a clearer understanding of how policies are likely to affect risk. The systems that produce risk are biological, physical, and social and economic. As a result, risk analysis is an inherently interdisciplinary task. Yet in practice, risk analysis has been interdisciplinary in only limited ways. Risk analysis could provide more accurate assessments of risk if there were better integration of economics and other social sciences into risk assessment itself. This essay examines how discussions about risk analysis policy have influenced the roles of various disciplines in risk analysis. It explores ways in which integrated bio/physical-economic modeling could contribute to more accurate assessments of risk. It reviews examples of the kind of integrated economics-bio/physical modeling that could be used to enhance risk assessment. The essay ends with a discussion of institutional barriers to greater integration of economic modeling into risk assessment and provides suggestions on how these might be overcome. © 2011 Society for Risk Analysis.

  14. Human security paradigms and economic crisis in first year of the North Caucasus Federal District

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tiago Ferreira Lopes

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available The decrease in insecurity in the North Caucasus during the first eight years of the 21st century was achieved with the help of federal money used to amnesty soldiers and to pacify ethnic leaders' ambitions. But circumstances changed after Dmitry Kozak's announcement that the federal budget for the entire region would decrease significantly. As all the republics in the North Caucasus are dependent on federal aid of no less than 50% (in Ingushetia, Chechnya and Dagestan dependence is superior to 80%, such cut represented a politically potential danger. The main goal of the article is to present a deeper understanding of the potential link between the international and regional economic dynamics and the current acceleration of social disruption in the North Caucasus region. The paper explains how ethno-political and transition studies can benefit from the inclusion of the economic dimension into the analysis, and so it clarifies the importance of a bi-level analysis using two concepts: economic society and economic security. The paper employs the concepts of economic security and economic society to perform a richer and innovative analysis.

  15. Integrating scientific, economic, and ecological aspects of global change

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jacoby, H.D.; Yang, Z.

    1994-01-01

    The MIT Joint Program on the Science and Policy of Global Change is conducting research on methods for integrating the science of potential global change with economic analysis of litigation policies and quantification of economic and environmental impacts. The paper describes this work, with a focus on the way that research within the various contributing disciplines, and the design of their associated models, are influenced by the process of inclusion in an integrated framework for policy analysis. The results should contribute new insight into the relative importance of key feedbacks within the economy-climate-ecology system

  16. Convergence and Optimum Currency Area, as Advanced Economic Integration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liviu Catalin Andrei

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available In 1961, in the earlier stage of the European integration, professor Bela Balassa proposed a five successive phase model. Today, the half century experience on integration and corresponding literature issued lets us see rather two big phases (instead of five. The one would be the incipient integration, that came to enlarge the economic openess and internationalization and shaped: (i free trade area (FTA and (ii customs union; the other would be the advanced integration, in which internationalization would be replaced by the unique-common market and other two commandments would replace or just reshape the older FTA and customs union into: (iii economic convergence and (iv optimal currency area. The last two will be emphasized by our paper, as for their current description-analysis in the literature

  17. An Economic Return to Education in Small-scale Fisheries in North ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    investigated amongst small-scale fishing communities in north-east Madagascar. We found that educational level is low in Malagasy fishing ... contribution of education to the economy, society and well-being of humans over the .... of labor education in South Korea from a sociopolitical and economic perspective.

  18. The North Carolina Department of Commerce: a healthy workforce promotes economic security.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Libby; Morck, John

    2012-01-01

    To thrive economically, North Carolina needs a healthy, productive workforce. The public and private sectors should collaborate on the prevention and management of chronic diseases, which significantly impact the state's economy. Evidence-based prevention strategies should be prioritized, and communities should be designed with public health considerations in mind.

  19. Integrating economic parameters into genetic selection for Large White pigs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dube, Bekezela; Mulugeta, Sendros D; Dzama, Kennedy

    2013-08-01

    The objective of the study was to integrate economic parameters into genetic selection for sow productivity, growth performance and carcass characteristics in South African Large White pigs. Simulation models for sow productivity and terminal production systems were performed based on a hypothetical 100-sow herd, to derive economic values for the economically relevant traits. The traits included in the study were number born alive (NBA), 21-day litter size (D21LS), 21-day litter weight (D21LWT), average daily gain (ADG), feed conversion ratio (FCR), age at slaughter (AGES), dressing percentage (DRESS), lean content (LEAN) and backfat thickness (BFAT). Growth of a pig was described by the Gompertz growth function, while feed intake was derived from the nutrient requirements of pigs at the respective ages. Partial budgeting and partial differentiation of the profit function were used to derive economic values, which were defined as the change in profit per unit genetic change in a given trait. The respective economic values (ZAR) were: 61.26, 38.02, 210.15, 33.34, -21.81, -68.18, 5.78, 4.69 and -1.48. These economic values indicated the direction and emphases of selection, and were sensitive to changes in feed prices and marketing prices for carcasses and maiden gilts. Economic values for NBA, D21LS, DRESS and LEAN decreased with increasing feed prices, suggesting a point where genetic improvement would be a loss, if feed prices continued to increase. The economic values for DRESS and LEAN increased as the marketing prices for carcasses increased, while the economic value for BFAT was not sensitive to changes in all prices. Reductions in economic values can be counterbalanced by simultaneous increases in marketing prices of carcasses and maiden gilts. Economic values facilitate genetic improvement by translating it to proportionate profitability. Breeders should, however, continually recalculate economic values to place the most appropriate emphases on the respective

  20. North and South of world (world socio-economics)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Michelini, M.

    1991-01-01

    Whereas the 4.2 billion inhabitants of third word countries are now struggling with a per capita income of roughly $1,030 and an energy consumption of about 0.48 tpe per year, the 1.27 billion people living in industrialized nations earn an average of $15,000 and consume 4.70 tpe of energy per person. The author investigates the underlying reasons for this disparity by making reference to numerous tabled statistical world production and energy supply and demand data, e.g., petroleum trade, production, consumption and price figures; per capita production expressed in dollars; distribution and duration of fossil fuel reserves; etc. Emphasis is placed on an examination of the role that will be played by fossil fuels in determining the future outcome for developed and developing countries in the coming century. Based on current trends, forecasts are prepared for energy consumption, resource depletion and pollution levels. Noting that the continued pursuit of current policies is leading towards disastrous word socio-economic imbalances, the author suggests international policies of rational energy use, reforestation on a global scale, and the increased use of coal with pollution abating gasification systems for greater energy price stability, and thus, political stability. He concurs with the United Nations recommendations for curbs on population dynamics and the opting for tenable growth strategies

  1. Economic development through biomass system integration: Volume 1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    DeLong, M.M. [Northern States Power Co., Minneapolis, MN (United States)

    1995-10-01

    This report documents a feasibility study for an integrated biomass power system, where an energy crop (alfalfa) is the feedstock for a processing plant and a power plant (integrated gasification combined cycle) in a way that benefits the facility owners. Chapters describe alfalfa basics, production risks, production economics, transportation and storage, processing, products, market analysis, business analysis, environmental impact, and policy issues. 69 figs., 63 tabs.

  2. Economic suicides in the Great Recession in Europe and North America.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reeves, Aaron; McKee, Martin; Stuckler, David

    2014-09-01

    There has been a substantial rise in 'economic suicides' in the Great Recessions afflicting Europe and North America. We estimate that the Great Recession is associated with at least 10 000 additional economic suicides between 2008 and 2010. A critical question for policy and psychiatric practice is whether these suicide rises are inevitable. Marked cross-national variations in suicides in the recession offer one clue that they are potentially avoidable. Job loss, debt and foreclosure increase risks of suicidal thinking. A range of interventions, from upstream return-to-work programmes through to antidepressant prescriptions may help mitigate suicide risk during economic downturn. Royal College of Psychiatrists.

  3. Determinants and Economic Impacts of North-South and South-South FDI in ASEAN : Panel Regression Analyses

    OpenAIRE

    Peseth, Seng

    2015-01-01

    This paper uses panel data of 10 ASEAN countries from 1995 to 2008 and studies the cross-country and industrial distribution of North and South FDI, investigates host country-specific determinants of the inflows of total FDI, North FDI and South FDI, and also compares the effects of North and South FDI on economic and industrial growth in the region.

  4. Transforming the Economics Curriculum by Integrating Threshold Concepts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karunaratne, Prashan Shayanka Mendis; Breyer, Yvonne A.; Wood, Leigh N.

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: Economics is catering to a diverse student cohort. This cohort needs to be equipped with transformative concepts that students can integrate beyond university. When a curriculum is content-driven, threshold concepts are a useful tool in guiding curriculum re-design. The paper aims to discuss these issues. Design/Methodology/Approach: The…

  5. France And The Economic Integration Project In Francophone Africa ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    France And The Economic Integration Project In Francophone Africa. Kunle Amuwo. Abstract. No Abstract African Journal of Political Science Vol.4(1) 1999: 1-20. Full Text: EMAIL FULL TEXT EMAIL FULL TEXT · DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT · http://dx.doi.org/10.4314/ajps.v4i1.27343 · AJOL African ...

  6. The West African currency board and economic integration of British ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    WACB) as an economic integration effort in British West Africa. Through a collaborative effort between this public institution and a private company, the Bank of British West Africa, British West African colonies were not only unified but also the way ...

  7. The Integrative Dimension of the Economic Globalization in European Space

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniela Mariana Alexandrache

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available We believe that globalization and its socio-economic implications of the world and world economic crisis is one of the most debated issues from several years. The publication "The Economist’’ named globalization as the most used word of the century. The most relevant dimension of globalization is the economy with the more dynamic factors: technological development, the hegemony of liberal conceptions (closely linked to the triumph of the ideology of market economy and explosive development of countries or regions. Economic globalization has manifested a series of visible effects such as: the emergence of new markets and foreign trade (interconnected at global level, the appearance of: transnational companies, multilateral agreements on trade, broadening the scope of WTO, transformation of multinational companies in transnational companies and the emergence of global economic markets. Regionally, we noticed that the trendof concentration of economic activity is more pronounced and advanced in the European continent. Expanding globalization in Europe was achieved because of the fall of communism, and the neoliberal reformation which took place in Western European countries. Events like the fall of the Berlin Wall, followed by the fall of communism eradicated many political, economic, religious or cultural barriers. There were born new relations between state and market, public and private. European Union is, in our view, a regional office ofglobalization, representing the best performing integrative system in the world (by creating free trade area, customs union, common market, the Economic and Monetary Union. In terms of the European Commission,European model is a third way towards globalization, a middle path between protectionism and uncontrolled economy. To understand why the EU is an advanced approximation of globalization, perhaps a regional model of globalization, we must first understand the link between globalization and regional

  8. Managing the physics of the economics of integrated health care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zismer, Daniel K; Werner, Mark J

    2012-01-01

    The physics metaphor, as applied to the economics (and financial performance) of the integrated health system, seems appropriate when considered together with the nine principles of management framework provided. The nature of the integrated design enhances leaders' management potential as they consider organizational operations and strategy in the markets ahead. One question begged by this argument for the integrated design is the durability, efficiency and ultimate long-term survivability of the more "traditional" community health care delivery models, which, by design, are fragmented, internally competitive and less capital efficient. They also cannot exploit the leverage of teams, optimal access management or the pursuit of revenues made available in many forms. For those who wish to move from the traditional to the more integrated community health system designs (especially those who have not yet started the journey), the path requires: * Sufficient balance sheet capacity to fund the integration process-especially as the model requires physician practice acquisitions and electronic health record implementations * A well-prepared board13, 14 * A functional, durable and sustainable physician services enterprise design * A redesigned organizational and governance structure * Favorable internal financial incentives alignment design * Effective accountable physician leadership * Awareness that the system is not solely a funding strategy for acquired physicians, rather a fully -.. committed clinical and business model, one in which patient-centered integrated care is the core service (and not acute care hospital-based services) A willingness to create and exploit the implied and inherent potential of an integrated design and unified brand Last, it's important to remember that an integrated health system is a tool that creates a "new potential" (a physics metaphor reference, one last time). The design doesn't operate itself. Application of the management principles

  9. Europe's economic integration: Maastricht and Europe. Europas wirtschaftliche Integration: Maastricht und Europa

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jaeggi, U. (DuPont de Nemours International S.A., Genf (Switzerland))

    1994-10-01

    The Maastricht Treaty is a decisive step towards Europe's economic integration, which will ultimately provide an alignment of economic policies and a common currency. Companies wishing to keep abreast of their competitors and contribute to improving the competitivity of Europe's industry are faced with the challenge of changing their traditional ways of business relations. (orig.)

  10. Economic Globalization - a Phenomenon of Global Business Integration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Radu-Marcel Joia

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Tumultuous economic life led scientists to seek explanations to the negative economic events,events that take many forms, and to whom it is a must to find a solution or even a mitigating factor. Thefoundation of the economy has undergone many changes. The recent events manifested in the world economyshow that the underlying fundamentals of this science must be revised because they proved to be wrong. Itnotes several times, mainly due to present economic crisis, that currently the economics have no theoreticaland practical means and no tools of analysis and intervention in the economy, proving that the existing onesare exceeded and insufficient, so that the creation of an unifying principle and of some generalizing conceptsthat could systematize and forecast the current economic phenomena in the microeconomics andmacroeconomics, especially in the transnational companies field, those which are the base of the foreigndirect investment flows, should become the main objective of the new economic science. Through this paper,we tried to illustrate the important aspects of economic globalization, the challenges that this phenomenonposes to economies and the way in which an economy can become globally competitive, under massiveconstraints of the global competition, how a national company can become globally integrated, study basedon representative references.

  11. Regional economic integration in Great East Asia: determinants and barriers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Volodymyr Korol

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The article studies both general trends and peculiar characteristics of processes of economic integration in the Great East Asia, which plays the role of one of the major centers of contemporary global development. The basic determinants and barriers for implementation of regional strategies by China, Japan, ASEAN that will influence the geo-economic policy of Ukraine not only in East Asian, but also European and Eurasian areas. Attention is focused on the basic principles of realized and potential future integration models in the "ASEAN+" format with variable composition of member states that correspond to different extents to strategic objectives of both specified key actors in the region and extra-regional states that have global and transnational interests. Extrapolation of dominant trends in the nature and dynamics of transformation processes of East Asian economic regionalization allowed forming a forecast for the longterm conservation of importance of free trade agreements in the absence of preconditions to create customs unions. At the same time it was stressed out that proper assurance of national interests of international economic relations will be based on contractual instruments at the international level, without creating institutional and legal superstructure similar to the European Union or the Eurasian Economic Union as supranational law and supranational bodies.

  12. SOCIOCULTURAL INTEGRATION AS A TOOL FOR CONSTRUCTIVE CONFLICT RESOLUTION: THE CASE OF THE NORTH CAUCASUS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. E. Popov

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper is devoted to research of sociocultural integration as a tool for resolving regional conflicts. The modern theory of conflict resolution focuses on the ability of the sociocultural integration in the transformation of destructive identity-based conflicts into conflicts of interest. The author considers the systemic factors of the identity-based conflicts and emphasizes destabilizing role of the politicization of ethnicity. Ethnic mobilization, social inequalities, economic polarization and civic identity crisis are structural factors that determine the acuity of ethnic tension and escalation of regional identity conflicts as a result. Contradictions between the modernization system and social disintegration are the primary source of identity conflicts in theNorth Caucasus. Regionalization takes conflictogenic form in this case, i.e. the specifics of regional conflicts is associated with a conflict of static (traditionalization and dynamic (modernization types of social propagation. Structurally, escalation of violence in regional conflicts is determined by the intensity and scope of ethnic mobilization and social dissatisfaction as necessary conditions of a collision. Regional conflicts affect existentially meaningful collective values and group identities, that is why the participants are involved emotionally into identification conflicts; due to their emotional charge and irrationality, identity conflicts are no longer a means of overcoming social frustrations, but a destructive goal in itself, i.e. ethnicity polarization and negative cultural stereotypes in perceiving “the others” play a key role in initiating such conflicts. The following must be considered for discussing anti-conflict mechanisms of sociocultural integration in theNorth Caucasus. First, sociocultural integration is a political project with its content determined to a wide extent by defense challenges of the polyethnic Russian society. Second, development of the

  13. Integrated environmental policy: A review of economic analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wiesmeth, Hans; Häckl, Dennis

    2017-04-01

    Holistic environmental policies, which emerged from a mere combination of technical activities in waste management some 40 years ago, constitute the most advanced level of environmental policies. These approaches to environmental policy, among them the policies in integrated waste management, attempt to guide economic agents to an environment-friendly behaviour. Nevertheless, current holistic policies in waste management, including policies on one-way drinks containers and waste electrical and electronic equipment, and implementations of extended producer responsibility with further applications to waste electrical and electronic equipment, reveal more or less severe deficiencies - despite some positive examples. This article relates these policy failures, which are not necessarily the result of an insufficient compliance with the regulations, to missing constitutive elements of what is going to be called an 'integrated environmental policy'. This article therefore investigates - mostly from a practical point of view - constitutive elements, which are necessary for a holistic policy to serve as a well-functioning allocation mechanism. As these constitutive elements result from a careful 'integration' of the environmental commodities into the economic allocation problems, we refer to these policies as 'integrated environmental policies'. The article also discusses and illustrates the main steps of designing such a policy - for waste electrical and electronic equipment and a (possible) ban of Glyphosat in agriculture. As these policies are dependent on economic and political stability with environmental awareness sufficiently developed, the article addresses mostly waste management policies in highly industrialised countries.

  14. Economic performance and sustainability of a novel intercropping system on the north China plain

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Huang, C.; Liu, Q.; Heerink, N.B.M.; Stomph, T.J.; Li, B.; Liu, R.; Zhang, H.; Wang, C.; Li, X.; Zhang, C.; Werf, van der W.; Zhang, F.

    2015-01-01

    Double cropping of wheat and maize is common on the North China Plain, but it provides limited income to rural households due to the small farm sizes in the region. Local farmers in Quzhou County have therefore innovated their production system by integration of watermelon as a companion cash crop

  15. Is Economic Development Promoting Monetary Integration in East Asia?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kentaro Kawasaki

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available This paper tries to investigate whether there exist international integrated markets among East Asian economies, by employing the Generalized Purchasing Power Parity (G-PPP model, then, it would help to suggest whether the East Asian region is the Optimum Currency Area (OCA or not. The empirical results in this paper suggest that holding the G-PPP among nine Asian countries (China, Indonesia, Japan, Korea, Malaysia, the Philippines, Singapore, Thailand and Vietnam becomes more applicable in 2000–2013 than of that in 1984–1997. In the period of “globalization,” which is characterized by expansion of world trade, increase of international capital flows, and development of information and communications technologies, Asian economic development has been promoting not only economic integrations but also constructing the stable linkages of real exchange rates. Therefore, it would help to adopt regional coordination for monetary policies to assure the feasibility of a possible monetary union.

  16. Integrated environmental and economic assessment of waste management systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Martinez Sanchez, Veronica

    in the “Optimization approach” the scenarios are the results of an optimization process. • The cost approach describes cost principles and level of LCA integration. Conventional and Environmental LCCs are financial assessments, i.e. include marketed goods/services, but while Environmental LCCs include environmental...... assessment of SWM systems alongside environmental impacts assessment to take budget constrains into account. In light of the need for combined environmental and economic assessment of SWM, this PhD thesis developed a consistent and comprehensive method for integrated environmental and economic assessment...... of SWM technologies and systems. The method resulted from developing further the generic Life Cycle Costing (LCC) framework suggested by Hunkeler et al. (2008) and Swarr et al. (2011) to apply it on the field of SWM. The method developed includes: two modelling approaches (Accounting and Optimization...

  17. Hospital-physician collaboration: landscape of economic integration and impact on clinical integration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burns, Lawton Robert; Muller, Ralph W

    2008-09-01

    Hospital-physician relationships (HPRs) are an important area of academic research, given their impact on hospitals' financial success. HPRs also are at the center of several federal policy proposals such as gain sharing, bundled payments, and pay-for-performance (P4P). This article analyzes the HPRs that focus on the economic integration of hospitals and physicians and the goals that HPRs are designed to achieve. It then reviews the literature on the impact of HPRs on cost, quality, and clinical integration. The goals of the two parties in HPRs overlap only partly, and their primary aim is not reducing cost or improving quality. The evidence base for the impact of many models of economic integration is either weak or nonexistent, with only a few models of economic integration having robust effects. The relationship between economic and clinical integration also is weak and inconsistent. There are several possible reasons for this weak linkage and many barriers to further integration between hospitals and physicians. Successful HPRs may require better financial conditions for physicians, internal changes to clinical operations, application of behavioral skills to the management of HPRs, changes in how providers are paid, and systemic changes encompassing several types of integration simultaneously.

  18. Economic competitiveness of fuel cell onsite integrated energy systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bollenbacher, G.

    1983-01-01

    The economic competitiveness of fuel cell onsite integrated energy systems (OS/IES) in residential and commercial buildings is examined. The analysis is carried out for three different buildings with each building assumed to be at three geographic locations spanning a range of climatic conditions. Numerous design options and operating strategies are evaluated and two economic criteria are used to measure economic performance. In general the results show that fuel cell OS/IES's are competitive in most regions of the country if the OS/IES is properly designed. The preferred design is grid connected, makes effective use of the fuel cell's thermal output, and has a fuel cell powerplant sized for the building's base electrical load.

  19. Predicting trends of invasive plants richness using local socio-economic data: An application in North Portugal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Santos, Mario; Freitas, Raul; Crespi, Antonio L.; Hughes, Samantha Jane; Cabral, Joao Alexandre

    2011-01-01

    This study assesses the potential of an integrated methodology for predicting local trends in invasive exotic plant species (invasive richness) using indirect, regional information on human disturbance. The distribution of invasive plants was assessed in North Portugal using herbarium collections and local environmental, geophysical and socio-economic characteristics. Invasive richness response to anthropogenic disturbance was predicted using a dynamic model based on a sequential modeling process (stochastic dynamic methodology-StDM). Derived scenarios showed that invasive richness trends were clearly associated with ongoing socio-economic change. Simulations including scenarios of growing urbanization showed an increase in invasive richness while simulations in municipalities with decreasing populations showed stable or decreasing levels of invasive richness. The model simulations demonstrate the interest and feasibility of using this methodology in disturbance ecology. - Highlights: → Socio-economic data indicate human induced disturbances. → Socio-economic development increase disturbance in ecosystems. → Disturbance promotes opportunities for invasive plants.→ Increased opportunities promote richness of invasive plants.→ Increase in richness of invasive plants change natural ecosystems.

  20. Predicting trends of invasive plants richness using local socio-economic data: An application in North Portugal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Santos, Mario, E-mail: mgsantoss@gmail.com [Laboratory of Applied Ecology, CITAB-Centre for the Research and Technology of Agro-Environment and Biological Sciences, University of Tras-os-Montes e Alto Douro, 5000-911 Vila Real (Portugal); Freitas, Raul, E-mail: raulfreitas@portugalmail.com [Herbarium, UTAD Botanical Garden, CITAB-Centre for the Research and Technology of Agro-Environment and Biological Sciences, University of Tras-os-Montes e Alto Douro, 5000-911 Vila Real (Portugal); Crespi, Antonio L., E-mail: aluis.crespi@gmail.com [Herbarium, UTAD Botanical Garden, CITAB-Centre for the Research and Technology of Agro-Environment and Biological Sciences, University of Tras-os-Montes e Alto Douro, 5000-911 Vila Real (Portugal); Hughes, Samantha Jane, E-mail: shughes@utad.pt [Department of Forest and Landscape, CITAB-Centre for the Research and Technology of Agro-Environment and Biological Sciences, University of Tras-os-Montes e Alto Douro, 5000-911 Vila Real (Portugal); Cabral, Joao Alexandre, E-mail: jcabral@utad.pt [Laboratory of Applied Ecology, CITAB-Centre for the Research and Technology of Agro-Environment and Biological Sciences, University of Tras-os-Montes e Alto Douro, 5000-911 Vila Real (Portugal)

    2011-10-15

    This study assesses the potential of an integrated methodology for predicting local trends in invasive exotic plant species (invasive richness) using indirect, regional information on human disturbance. The distribution of invasive plants was assessed in North Portugal using herbarium collections and local environmental, geophysical and socio-economic characteristics. Invasive richness response to anthropogenic disturbance was predicted using a dynamic model based on a sequential modeling process (stochastic dynamic methodology-StDM). Derived scenarios showed that invasive richness trends were clearly associated with ongoing socio-economic change. Simulations including scenarios of growing urbanization showed an increase in invasive richness while simulations in municipalities with decreasing populations showed stable or decreasing levels of invasive richness. The model simulations demonstrate the interest and feasibility of using this methodology in disturbance ecology. - Highlights: {yields} Socio-economic data indicate human induced disturbances. {yields} Socio-economic development increase disturbance in ecosystems. {yields} Disturbance promotes opportunities for invasive plants.{yields} Increased opportunities promote richness of invasive plants.{yields} Increase in richness of invasive plants change natural ecosystems.

  1. The Balkans: Between Economic Crisis And European Integration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrei RĂDULESCU

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available The Balkans region (also known as the „Powder keg of Europe” has always been an European question, a Western question, as underlined by Arnold Toynbee, in 1922. At present, European Union is confronted with the fifth enlargement, also known as the “post-conflict” enlargement – the integration of Balkan states. Bulgaria joined European Union in 2007. Croatia signed the Accession Treaty in 2011 and is expected to become an EU member in 2013. The other countries encounter in different stages of European integration. However, this process presents several challenges and dilemmas, either for European Union, or for the Balkan enclave. The main challenge in the case of this enlargement is to reconcile the nation-state building and the European integration. From the economic point of view, the Balkans region is underdeveloped. Several factors determined this stance of the region: the poor endowment in terms of natural resources, the political situation over the centuries (the military conflicts – impeding the economic development, the cultural factors. At present, the region is confronted with the consequences of the worst economic and financial crisis o global economy since the end of World War II.

  2. Social and Economic Analysis Branch: integrating policy, social, economic, and natural science

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schuster, Rudy; Walters, Katie D.

    2015-01-01

    The Fort Collins Science Center's Social and Economic Analysis Branch provides unique capabilities in the U.S. Geological Survey by leading projects that integrate social, behavioral, economic, and natural science in the context of human–natural resource interactions. Our research provides scientific understanding and support for the management and conservation of our natural resources in support of multiple agency missions. We focus on meeting the scientific needs of the Department of the Interior natural resource management bureaus in addition to fostering partnerships with other Federal and State managers to protect, restore, and enhance our environment. The Social and Economic Analysis Branch has an interdisciplinary group of scientists whose primary functions are to conduct both theoretical and applied social science research, provide technical assistance, and offer training to support the development of skills in natural resource management activities. Management and research issues associated with human-resource interactions typically occur in a unique context and require knowledge of both natural and social sciences, along with the skill to integrate multiple science disciplines. In response to these challenging contexts, Social and Economic Analysis Branch researchers apply a wide variety of social science concepts and methods which complement our rangeland/agricultural, wildlife, ecology, and biology capabilities. The goal of the Social and Economic Analysis Branch's research is to enhance natural-resource management, agency functions, policies, and decisionmaking.

  3. Integrated Biomass Refining Institute at North Carolina State University

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Peretti, Steven [North Carolina State Univ., Raleigh, NC (United States)

    2013-06-28

    The  overall  objective  of  the  Integrated  Biomass  Refining  Institute  (IBRI)  is  to  advance  the  fundamental  understanding  of  novel  biomass  conversion  technologies  leading  to  the  production  of  biofuels  and  bioproducts,  expanding  the  range  of  feedstock  that  can  be  utilized  and  compounds  produced  from  a  biomass  refinery.  The  outcomes  of  this  project  will  be  new  analytical  facilities  for  biofuels  and  bioproducts  research  at  North  Carolina  State  University  (NCSU),  establishment  of  the  capabilities  of  a  cellulosic  ethanol  screening  pilot  facility  to  monitor  and  control  processes,  and  publications  in  the  open  literature  and  presentations  at  public  conferences  regarding  novel  crops  and  technologies for cost-effective biomass processing.

  4. Conditional economic incentives for reducing HIV risk behaviors: integration of psychology and behavioral economics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Operario, Don; Kuo, Caroline; Sosa-Rubí, Sandra G; Gálarraga, Omar

    2013-09-01

    This article reviews psychology and behavioral economic approaches to HIV prevention, and examines the integration and application of these approaches in conditional economic incentive (CEI) programs for reducing HIV risk behavior. We discuss the history of HIV prevention approaches, highlighting the important insights and limitations of psychological theories. We provide an overview of the theoretical tenets of behavioral economics that are relevant to HIV prevention, and utilize CEIs as an illustrative example of how traditional psychological theories and behavioral economics can be combined into new approaches for HIV prevention. Behavioral economic interventions can complement psychological frameworks for reducing HIV risk by introducing unique theoretical understandings about the conditions under which risky decisions are amenable to intervention. Findings from illustrative CEI programs show mixed but generally promising effects of economic interventions on HIV and sexually transmitted infection (STI) prevalence, HIV testing, HIV medication adherence, and drug use. CEI programs can complement psychological interventions for HIV prevention and behavioral risk reduction. To maximize program effectiveness, CEI programs must be designed according to contextual and population-specific factors that may determine intervention applicability and success. PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2013 APA, all rights reserved.

  5. Conditional Economic Incentives for Reducing HIV Risk Behaviors: Integration of Psychology and Behavioral Economics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Operario, Don; Kuo, Caroline C.; Sosa-Rubí, Sandra G.; Gálarraga, Omar

    2014-01-01

    Objective This paper reviews psychology and behavioral economic approaches to HIV prevention, and examines the integration and application of these approaches in conditional economic incentive (CEI) programs for reducing HIV risk behavior. Methods We discuss the history of HIV prevention approaches, highlighting the important insights and limitations of psychological theories. We provide an overview of the theoretical tenets of behavioral economics that are relevant to HIV prevention, and utilize CEIs as an illustrative example of how traditional psychological theories end behavioral economics can be combined into new approaches for HIV prevention. Results Behavioral economic interventions can complement psychological frameworks for reducing HIV risk by introducing unique theoretical understandings about the conditions under which risky decisions are amenable to intervention. Findings from illustrative CEI programs show mixed but generally promising effects of economic interventions on HIV and STI prevalence, HIV testing, HIV medication adherence, and drug use. Conclusion CEI programs can complement psychological interventions for HIV prevention and behavioral risk reduction. To maximize program effectiveness, CEI programs must be designed according to contextual and population-specific factors that may determine intervention applicability and success. PMID:24001243

  6. Economic viability of a residential building integrated photovoltaic generator in South Africa

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ziuku, Sosten; Meyer, Edson L. [Fort Hare Institute of Technology, University of Fort Hare, Private Bag X1314, Alice 5700 (South Africa)

    2012-07-01

    A photovoltaic (PV) generator was integrated onto the north facing roof of an energy efficient house in South Africa. The building integrated photovoltaic generator (BIPV) supplies power to the household loads and the grid and is also the roof facade. This paper presents an economic evaluation of the viability of the BIPV system using methods of investment analysis. The capital cost and life cycle cost of energy were found to be ZAR 52 631-58/kWp and ZAR 1-94/kWh respectively. The payback period was 8 years and adjusted internal rate of return 9.3%. Parametric sensitivity analysis revealed that a 50% decrease in module price results in a 29% reduction in life cycle cost of energy and more than 50% reduction in payback period.

  7. Thermo-economic assessment of the integration of steam cycles on offshore platforms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nguyen, Tuong-Van; Tock, Laurence; Breuhaus, Peter

    2014-01-01

    thermodynamic and economic performance indicators. The results illustrate the benefits of converting the gas turbines into a combined cycle. Using seawater results in smaller power generation and greater CO2-emissions than using process water, as the additional power generation in the combined cycle......The integration of steam bottoming cycles on oil platforms is often seen as a possible route to mitigate the CO2-emissions offshore. In this paper, a North Sea platform and its energy requirements are systematically analysed. The site-scale integration of steam networks is assessed by using...... is compensated by the significant pumping demand. This work emphasises that energy improvement efforts should be analysed at the scale of the overall site and not solely at the level of the combined cycle....

  8. Free Movement of natural persons: North-South Conflicts of Economic Interests

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saif Uddin Ahammad

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The establishment of the General Agreement on Trade in Service (GATS is one of the major achievements of the Uruguay Round of trade negotiations. All the trades in services fall within the GATS through four modes of delivery under Article I:2 of GATS. Among the modes, the liberalization of mode 4: Movement of Natural Persons which relates the removal of restrictions on workers travelling abroad temporarily, upon which developing countries have comparative advantage, remains one of the least negotiated issues of the WTO, while the other 3 modes upon which the developed countries have dominance have been liberalized substantially. This study elucidates some logical arguments that mode 4 is the victim of the North-South conflict of economic interests. Besides, this study furnishes arguments how liberalization of mode 4 can be economically beneficial for both North and South. The structural weakness in Articles, Schedules and Annexes of GATS entailing mode 4 needs to be restructured so that developing countries are able to participate meaningfully in the world trade in services and see their economic interests are protected equitably with the developed countries so that the economic interests of both developed and developing countries in trade in services can become mutually supportive.

  9. Normalization references for USEtoxTM-based toxic impact categories: North American and European economic systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Laurent, Alexis; Lautier, Anne; Rosenbaum, Ralph K.

    2011-01-01

    economic regions, North America and Europe, to calculate normalization references for the three currently-modelled USEtoxTM-based impact categories, i.e. freshwater ecotoxicity, human toxicity, divided into cancer effects and non-cancer effects. Base years for the references are 2004 for Europe and 2006...... coverage of organics in both the inventory and the CF databases. With respect to the intended global character of the USEtoxTM model, different approaches to determine normalization references of other economic systems (e.g. Asia or world) are discussed in relation to these findings. Overall, we thus...... recommend the use of the provided set of normalization references for USEtoxTM, but we also advocate 1) to perform an update as soon as a more comprehensive inventory can be obtained and as soon as characterization factors for metals are revised; 2) to consider extension to other economic systems in order...

  10. FISCAL EFFECTIVENESS UNDER REGIONAL ECONOMIC INTEGRATION: INDONESIAN AGRICULTURAL PERFORMANCE CASE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nasrudin Nasrudin

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available AbstractThis paper investigates the effectiveness of fiscal policy in boosting agricultural sector performance and seeks the most effective policy in the presence of regional economic integration. It predicts the effectiveness of fiscal policy on the agricultural sector performance in four periods; the new order regime, the economic crisis, and pre and post China Free Trade Area (CAFTA. It also predicts the impact of fiscal policy on agricultural sector performance when CAFTA is fully implemented. It finds that fiscal policy is more effective in the optimum allocation of expenditures. It also finds that the agricultural sector can grow faster when the portion of capital expenditure increases.Keywords: Fiscal effectiveness, economic integration, agricultureJEL Classification Numbers: E62, F15, Q17AbstrakMakalah ini menyelidiki efektivitas kebijakan fiskal dalam mendorong kinerja sektor pertanian dan mencari kebijakan yang paling efektif dengan adanya integrasi ekonomi regional. Makalah ini memprediksi efektivitas kebijakan fiskal dalam meningkatkan kinerja sektor pertanian dalam empat periode; rezim orde baru, krisis ekonomi, sebelum pelaksanaan China Free Trade Area (CAFTA, dan setelah pelaksanaan CAFTA. Makalah ini juga memprediksi dampak kebijakan fiskal terhadap kinerja sektor pertanian saat CAFTA sepenuhnya dilaksanakan. Hasil analisis menemukan bahwa kebijakan fiskal lebih efektif dalam alokasi optimal dari pengeluaran. Analisis juga menemukan bahwa sektor pertanian dapat tumbuh lebih cepat ketika porsi peningkatan belanja modal meningkat.Keywords: Efektivitas fiskal, integrasi ekonomi, pertanianJEL Classification Numbers: E62, F15, Q17

  11. FDI DETERMINANTS IN THE EURASIAN ECONOMIC UNION COUNTRIES AND EURASIAN ECONOMIC INTEGRATION EFFECT ON FDI INFLOWS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yerkezhan Zhumakankyzy Akhmetzaki

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available The paper examines the potential determinants of foreign direct investment inflows into the region of Eurasian Economic Union, as well as incentives for investment into other neighboring countries. In the first model, the authors test a hypothesis on country specific foreign direct investment determinants for the Eurasian Economic Union region. The results of fixed effects estimation show that gross domestic product, infrastructure development and secondary education enrollment have a positive statistically significant effect on the foreign direct investment inflows into the region. Conversely, the impact of Customs Union on foreign direct investment appeared to be negative. Furthermore, in the second model of the natural experiment, the authors empirically test the hypothesis on Customs Union’s effect on foreign direct investment while controlling for both country and time effects. The model includes evaluating the impact of the policy change on foreign investment inflows. The natural experiment outcome also points to the negative effect of Eurasian economic integration on foreign direct investment inflows. Although the countries of Eurasian Economic Union have relatively business friendly regulations, such procedures as enforcing contracts, resolving insolvencies and dealing with construction permits are time-consuming. For attracting foreign investment, it is advisable to facilitate such procedures and make the process of setting up a new business less onerous. The research can be used as an outline for further examining of Eurasian economic integration and apart from that, the study results can be applied for practical purposes of policy elaboration aimed at stimulating foreign direct investment into the Eurasian Economic Union.

  12. Integrated Emergy and Economic Evaluation of Lotus-Root ...

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lotus (Neumbo nucifera, Gaertn) is the most important aquatic vegetable in China, with a cultivation history of over 3000 years. The emergy, energy, material, and money flows of three lotus root cultivation modes in Wanqingsha, Nansha District, Guangzhou, China were examined using Energy Systems Language models and emergy evaluation to better understand their ecological and economic characteristics on multiple spatial and temporal scales. The natural resource foundations, economic characteristics and sustainability of these modes were evaluated and compared. The results showed that although all three modes were highly dependent on purchased emergy inputs, their potential impacts as measured by the local (ELRL) and global (ELRW) environmental loading ratios were less than 1.2 and 0.7, respectively. The lotus-fish mode was the most sustainable with its emergy index of sustainable development (EISD) 2.09 and 2.13 times that of the pure lotus and lotus-shrimp modes, respectively. All three lotus-root production modes had superior economic viability, since their Output/Input ratio ranged from 2.56 to 4.95. The results indicated that agricultural systems may have different environmental impacts and sustainability characteristics at different spatial and temporal scales, and that these impacts and characteristics can be simultaneously explored using integrated emergy and economic evaluations. This study provides some major new insights about agriculture and its potenti

  13. An integrated approach to energy prospects for North America and the rest of the world

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bassi, Andrea M.; Powers, Robert; Schoenberg, William

    2010-01-01

    Many international organizations and research institutions have released recently unequivocal scenarios on energy's future prospects. The peak in global oil production is likely to happen in the next ten to fifteen years, if it hasn't already happened, and decisions to be made in the near future are likely to have large impacts on our quality of life in the coming decades. This study presents an integrated tool for national energy planning customized to North America. The authors analyzed the impact of world oil production on economic, social and environmental indicators. Two cases of global ultimate recoverable oil reserves are considered, a low and medium estimate within current research. Three sets of policy directions were chosen: Business As Usual (Market Based), Maximum Push for Renewables, and Low Carbon Emissions. Results of the simulations show that without restrictions on emissions coal becomes the dominant energy in the longer term. On the other hand, if US policymakers are able to effectively implement the necessary polices, such as a 20% RPS by 2020 and increased CAFE Standards, along with increased energy conservation and efficiency, the medium to longer-term economic impacts of a global peak in oil production can be mitigated, while a sustained reduction in emissions would require a larger effort. (author)

  14. THE INSTITUTIONAL BARRIERS’ IMPACT ON THE ECONOMIC GROWTH IN THE INTERNATIONAL ECONOMIC INTEGRATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iryna Prykhodko

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of the paper. In our study we try to assess the causality link between a number of the international economic integration politico-economic factors, institutions and basic production factors with the growth of the economy. We form a sample of 18 post-socialist countries, including Central and Eastern Europe (CEE countries-members the European Union, and the rest of CEE non-members countries and CIS countries, who have not acquired the membership in the EU, including Ukraine. The time period of our study is 23 years, starting from 1991 – the year of independence of Ukraine till 2013 – the last year for which statistics are published for our group of a corresponding list of indicators that make up our interest. In the estimating equation we use econometric analysis panel data by least squares method with fixed effects transformation to eliminate countries’ heterogeneity. In the study we use such determinant of the institutions quality as the Index of Economic Freedom (Heritage Foundation, and we investigate various components of the Index of Economic Freedom (freedom of ownership, freedom of trade, freedom from corruption, freedom of investment. We assume that institutions towards freedom of foreign trade and reducing corruption will have a greater effect on the economy of the investigated countries. It is advisable to attach to the international economic integration politico-economic factors the indicator of foreign trade taxation as a measure of tariff barriers, international aid programs of the foreign donors and the European institutions to assess their role for the economic growth of the countries surveyed, and we take into account the capital and the labor as the basic factors of production. Methodology. The methods of synthesis, logic, abstraction and analysis are used in the study. On a sample of 18 post-socialist countries (CEE and CIS for the period of 23 years (1991-2013 we had conducted the econometric panel analysis

  15. The impact of the economic downturn on environmental health services and professionals in North Carolina.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weston-Cox, Paula

    2012-06-01

    The objective of the authors' study was to examine the impact of the economic recession on the environmental health profession between budget year (BY) 2006-2007 and BY 2010-2011 in the following areas: (1) environmental health department fees for services; (2) changes in staffing levels, benefits, or pay; (3) changes in staff responsibilities; and (4) the impact to the private environmental sector compared to public environmental health professionals. Data were summarized from the following surveys: North Carolina Environmental Health Supervisors Association Fee and Economic Surveys; University of North Carolina Chapel Hill School of Government Current Salary Index; and a created online survey of private-sector environmental professionals. Total fees in the public sector for services have risen for most environmental health departments, but not enough to offset budget reductions. All of the counties that participated in the survey either have reduced staff, pay, or benefits due to budget cuts, and some counties utilized staff in other areas through cross-training. The private environmental sector also reduced staff in response to a reduced workload. Public sector employers may have difficulties retaining existing employees and recruiting new employees over the long-term in the current economic climate.

  16. ECONOMIC SITUATION OF THE TOURIST ACCOMMODATION CAPACITY ON NORTH-WEST AND CENTER OF ROMANIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniela Aurelia Duma

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available In the present paper we continue the research work that we intended it over the years on regional tourism in recent years, the evolution of certain regions and understanding economic phenomena and disparities between regions. As such, they work in computing capacity and activity status of tourist accommodation in the North West and Centre regions known to me (the author who also develop in terms of tourism quite similar. We used comparative methods to analyze statistical data taken from the Statistical Yearbook of Romania, the study stretching over a period of several years, and last but not least, analysis of land proposed in the two study regions (North-West and Central region.

  17. North Korea's Trade Expansion with Western Countries in the Early 1970's and Its Implications on North Korea's Current Attempts at Economic Rehabilitation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jong-Woon Lee

    2002-12-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study is to provide the analytical background of North Korea's trade expansion with Western countries in the early 1970's and examine in depth the resulting impacts on the North Korean economy. Indeed, this study explores the implications of the mechanism and consequences of North Korea's increased trade with Western countries in the 1970's for the current situation of the country's trade expansion based on the rapid increase in imports and large trade deficit. As a result of researching North Korea's economic trajectory during the 1970's within this focus, this study asserts that, despite some positive aspects, North Korea's rapid increase of foreign trade in recent years possesses the immanent possibility of generating serious obstacles to the process of economic recovery. In this vein, this paper intends to explore some policy options North Korea should choose in order to create conditions conducive to economic rehabilitation and prevent the recurrence of similar situation as experienced in the 1970's.

  18. Economic Benefits of Aerobic Rice Grown Using Integrated Nitrogen Management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nyle A. Pardillo

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available This study focuses in the effect of integrated nitrogen management to the yield and economic benefits of aerobic rice. This will help farmers to identify which of the two management technique to use to save costs while profit is high. A split plot experiment in Randomized Complete Block design is used with two main treatments and four sub treatments. Main treatments are the use of integrated nitrogen management and an application of synthetic nitrogen fertilizer. Sub treatments are the different rates of nitrogen fertilizer from 0 as control, 90, 120 and 150 kg N ha-1 . Data are consolidated and analyzed using the ANOVA of SAS 9.3 statistical tool and comparison means at 5% significance level in Duncan Multiple Range Test. Grain yield, income, costs, profit and return on expenses are the data gathered. There is an increasing yield from control to 120 kg N ha-1 and started to decline at 150 kg N ha-1 because optimum level reached at 120 kg N ha-1 . Significant increased in yield was observed in plants applied with integrated nitrogen management at 120 kg N ha-1 compared to plants applied with synthetic nitrogen due to release of nitrogen that contributed to the yield of aerobic rice. However, plants applied of 90 kg N ha-1 synthetic nitrogen gives significant yield increased compared to plants with integrated nitrogen management. Yield was subjected to economic analysis using gross income, costs and profit and return on expenses. Plants applied with synthetic nitrogen at 90 kg N ha-1 resulted to high income due to lower costs of fertilizer inputs and only treatment that has a positive return on expenses at 3.2% while other treatments have a negative remarks. This will lead to a conclusion that 90 kg N ha-1 is the optimum level of nitrogen that can give high yield and positive return on expenses that farmers will benefited.

  19. Assessment of economic impact of deforestations from north-east development region, romania

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ciobotaru, Ana Maria; Fensholt, Rasmus; Papuc, Razvan Mihail

    2017-01-01

    as construction material and combustible. We investigated the evolution of forest areas in North-East Development Region and the incomes in economy related to forest activities (sylviculture and other forestry activities, logging, sawing and plantation of woods, joinery installations and wholesale of woods......Nowadays, deforestation process in Romania is in a growing trend considering the need for wood in industrial process, the fast rate of illegal logging and the need for lands in agriculture. Forest areas are subject of an increase pressure from socio-economic factors. Wood is used frequently...

  20. Economics of integrated MTBE/TAME/DIPE production

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Denney, R.G.

    1993-01-01

    Because of the 1990 Clean Air Act (CAA), the 1993 demand for oxygenates (i.e. MTBE, TAME, DIPE) for motor gasoline blending in PADD IV and V is estimated to total 166,000 bpd. Existing PADD IV and V oxygenate producers can only supply about 13% of this demand. The shortfall must be supplied from oxygenate producers in PADD III or from Canadian and offshore sources. This paper examines the economics of locating an integrated plant in Southwest Wyoming (PADD IV), to supply approximately 6,800 bpd of the PADD IV and V demand by producing MTBE, TAME, and DIPE from natural gas liquids (NGL). The Southwest Wyoming location offers the advantage of being closer to the PADD IV and V markets than the producers in PADD III and the availability of a relatively inexpensive NGL feedstock that has no other market than the Midwest or US Gulf Coast via MAPCO's NGL pipeline. With these location and feedstock cost advantages, the Southwest Wyoming integrated MTBE, TAME, DIPE plant offers an attractive return on investment and economics comparable to those of a World Scale, 12,500 bpd mixed butane feed MTBE plant in PADD III

  1. Landslide Risk: Economic Valuation in The North-Eastern Zone of Medellin City

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vega, Johnny Alexander; Hidalgo, César Augusto; Johana Marín, Nini

    2017-10-01

    Natural disasters of a geodynamic nature can cause enormous economic and human losses. The economic costs of a landslide disaster include relocation of communities and physical repair of urban infrastructure. However, when performing a quantitative risk analysis, generally, the indirect economic consequences of such an event are not taken into account. A probabilistic approach methodology that considers several scenarios of hazard and vulnerability to measure the magnitude of the landslide and to quantify the economic costs is proposed. With this approach, it is possible to carry out a quantitative evaluation of the risk by landslides, allowing the calculation of the economic losses before a potential disaster in an objective, standardized and reproducible way, taking into account the uncertainty of the building costs in the study zone. The possibility of comparing different scenarios facilitates the urban planning process, the optimization of interventions to reduce risk to acceptable levels and an assessment of economic losses according to the magnitude of the damage. For the development and explanation of the proposed methodology, a simple case study is presented, located in north-eastern zone of the city of Medellín. This area has particular geomorphological characteristics, and it is also characterized by the presence of several buildings in bad structural conditions. The proposed methodology permits to obtain an estimative of the probable economic losses by earthquake-induced landslides, taking into account the uncertainty of the building costs in the study zone. The obtained estimative shows that the structural intervention of the buildings produces a reduction the order of 21 % in the total landslide risk.

  2. Economic Opening of the Hermit Kingdom: Current Status and Future Tasks of the New SEZs in North Korea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jong-Woon Lee

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available Establishing new SEZs, along with improving foreign relationships, is treated as the most important policy measure for opening the North Korean economy. Recently, North Korea has shown its interest in promoting two new SEZs, the Gaeseong industrial park and the Shinuiju special administrative region. Thanks to their locational merits, Gaeseong and Shinuiju have the potential to develop into thriving SEZs through subregional economic cooperation with bordering areas. Although the path toward success for North Korea's new SEZs is full of hurdles, it would result in a major boost to the country's economic rehabilitation and create a spillover effect for the rest of North Korea. In this context, this article examines the issues regarding North Korea's new special economic zones. It presents the recent progress and institutional arrangements of the Shinuiju SEZ and Gaeseong industrial park, while also exploring their potential to facilitate North Korea's economic rehabilitation and inter-Korean cooperation. This article also endeavors to address major problems that North Korea needs to resolve in order to activate its new SEZs.

  3. North America grid segmentation case studies : technical feasibility and economics of implementation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Johnson, A.L. [Bonneville Power Administration, Portland, OR (United States); Clark, H.K.; El-Gasseir, M.M.; Epp, H.D.K.; Woodford, D.A. [DC Interconnect Inc., Vancouver, BC (Canada); Barthold, L.O.; Reppen, N.D.

    2009-07-01

    There continues to be unprecedented demand on power grids. The primary requirement is for a highly resilient grid that includes large transmission capacity reserves. There is increased demand for total transfer capability (TTC) to meet renewables policy targets and improved accommodation of complex market transactions. Some potential components include storage, FACTS controllers, dynamic ACE and other technologies. This presentation proposed segmentation as a different solution in order to meet the same demands more economically and greatly enhance reliability. The presentation described how segmentation works and discussed the benefits of a simple controller. Segmentation benefits in system planning and operation were also outlined. Other topics that were presented included renewable generation; grid security; cascading; adjustments that an operator might make; line converter and high voltage direct current (HVDC) converter options; HVDC line and converter configurations; and segmentation studies in North America. Economic analyses were also discussed. The presentation concluded with a potential application in northern Europe. 3 figs.

  4. Defining Economic Success as It Pertains to Native American Owned Businesses Located on/or Adjacent to North Dakota Reservations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmitt, Barbara Elise

    2013-01-01

    Successful economic development is essential in building and sustaining a healthy community. The purpose of this study was to identify indicators of successful economic development as it pertained to Native American owned businesses located on/or adjacent to North Dakota reservations. More specifically this study sought to explore specific…

  5. A Survey of the Music Integration Practices of North Dakota Elementary Classroom Teachers

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Keefe, KariJo; Dearden, Katherine Norman; West, Robert

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to identify and describe the nature of North Dakota elementary classroom teachers' (NDECT) music integration in the general classroom. The majority of NDECTs integrated music with: the subjects of Language Arts (62.01%), Mathematics (55.00%), and Physical Education (50.89%); the settings of Group Work Time (64.29%),…

  6. The new process of economic integration of America: ALCA. Some implications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carvajal Sanchez, Nohora Ines

    2002-01-01

    The following article presents some aspects of the research; area of free trade of the America. Foundations, evolution and perspectives, advanced by group of work of the ability of economy of the university of la Salle, in which the author of this article takes part as co-investigator. The outlined objective was the one from an approach to the knowledge of the FTAA through the answer to queries about the theoretical sustenance of the project, the asymmetries of the regional economies in this process, the interrelation among the current economic blocks and the negotiation systems, the calendar and the organic structure of the process. Some answers have to do with the suppositions of the theory of the economic integration, especially those of the schools of North American thought: The neorrealism and the neoidealism, to be this the most interested country in the regional integration. The most out standing exponents in these theories are Alexander Wendt and Ruggie (who has worked the theory of the multilateralidad). The answer to the other queries is presented along the article. The used methodology consisted on the development of the following phases. Diagnosis, analysis, evaluation, conclusions and socialization

  7. Economic assessment of a proposed integrated resource recovery facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Burnett, J.S.

    1993-01-01

    This report comprises an initial economic and market appraisal of the proposals made by Materials Recycling Management (MRM) Ltd for a commercial plant engaged in waste treatment and energy recovery. The MRM design is an integrated waste handling system for commercial and industrial non hazardous wastes and civic amenity wastes. After primary separation into three selected broad waste categories, wastes are processed in the plant to recover basic recyclables such as paper, timber, plastics and metals. A quantity of material is directed for composting and the remainder converted into a fuel and combusted on site for energy recovery. Wastes unworthy of processing would be sent for disposal. A basic technical review has been undertaken. The focus of this review has been on the main processing plant where materials are segregated and the fuel and compost produced. (author)

  8. Economic dispatch optimization for system integrating renewable energy sources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jihane, Kartite; Mohamed, Cherkaoui

    2018-05-01

    Nowadays, the use of energy is growing especially in transportation and electricity industries. However this energy is based on conventional sources which pollute the environment. Multi-source system is seen as the best solution to sustainable development. This paper proposes the Economic Dispatch (ED) of hybrid renewable power system. The hybrid system is composed of ten thermal generators, photovoltaic (PV) generator and wind turbine generator. To show the importance of renewable energy sources (RES) in the energy mix we have ran the simulation for system integrated PV only and PV plus wind. The result shows that the system with renewable energy sources (RES) is more compromising than the system without RES in terms of fuel cost.

  9. Techno-Economic Analysis of Integration of Low-Temperature Geothermal Resources for Coal-Fired Power Plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bearden, Mark D.; Davidson, Casie L.; Horner, Jacob A.; Heldebrant, David J.; Freeman, Charles J.

    2016-05-11

    Presented here are the results of a techno-economic (TEA) study of the potential for coupling low-grade geothermal resources to boost the electrical output from coal-fired power plants. This study includes identification of candidate 500 MW subcritical coal-fired power plants in the continental United States, followed by down-selection and characterization of the North Valmy generating station, a Nevada coal-fired plant. Based on site and plant characteristics, ASPEN Plus models were designed to evaluate options to integrate geothermal resources directly into existing processes at North Valmy. Energy outputs and capital costing are presented for numerous hybrid strategies, including integration with Organic Rankine Cycles (ORCs), which currently represent the primary technology for baseload geothermal power generation.

  10. Social Capital and Economic Integration of Migrants in Urban China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Yao; Ruan, Danching; Lai, Gina

    2013-07-01

    Based on data from a 2005 survey conducted in Shanghai, China, this research examines the role of social capital in income inequality between rural migrants and urbanites. We find strong income return on social capital, in particular on social capital from strong ties. We also observe a great disparity in social capital possession between rural migrants and urban local residents. Although social capital from strong ties seems to be more important for rural migrants than for urbanites, local ties and high-status ties do not seem to benefit rural migrants. Hence, migrants not only suffer severe social capital deficits but also capital return deficits. Given the strong income returns on social capital and the substantial differences in access to and return on social capital between migrants and urban residents, social capital is consequently found to explain a large part of the income inequality between the two groups. Overall, our findings reveal macro-structural effects on the role of social capital in labor market stratification. In China, the lack of formal labor market mechanisms continues to create both a strong need for and opportunities for economic actions to be organized around informal channels via social relations. Yet, the long-standing institutional exclusion of migrants caused by the household registration system has resulted in pervasive social exclusion and discrimination which have substantially limited rural migrants' accumulation and mobilization of social capital. Under these conditions, social capital reinforces the economic inequality between migrants and urban residents in China. Such empirical evidence adds to our understanding of the role of social capital in the economic integration of migrants and in shaping intergroup inequality in general.

  11. The integration of renewable energies into the electricity systems of North Africa

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brand, B.A.

    2015-01-01

    The North African electricity systems are in a phase of rapid transformation. The ever-increasing electricity demand - with annual growth rates of more than 6% - is placing great strain on the regional economies, especially in times of economic downturn and political instability in the aftermath of

  12. Canada and the North American Free Trade Agreement: Between globalization and regional integration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Caterina García Segura

    1995-07-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the present article is to analize, from Canada’s perspective, the choice regarding the model of state as well as of economic and commercial policy which the decision to participate in the North American Free Trade Agreement (NAFTA implies. The debatewhich NAFTA provoked in Canada expresses in concrete terms that debate which, in much larger terms, takes place at the international level regarding the multilateralization and/or the regionalization of commercial exchanges. It is a reflection of the tension between theintegrating forces (process of globalization and the fragmenting ones (processes of regionalization which characterize the dynamics of the contemporary international system. The hypothesis of this work is that in spite of being a commercial agreement, the Canadian government’s decision to participate in NAFTA was a decision of a political nature which was not determined exclusively by the reality of the existing commercial exchanges between Canada and Mexico or by the perspectives of improving them inthe short term. The immediate objective of Canada was to avoid that a possible bilateral agreement between its prinicipal economic member, the United States, and Mexico would empty out the contents of the existing Free Trade Agreement (FTA between Canada and the United States. In this sense, NAFTA was the possible remedy to an unwanted situation (the negotiation of a US-Mexico bilateral agreement. The objective in the medium and long term is use the platform of regional integration as a trampoline from where the Canadian economy can be reorientated and driven in order to attain international competitiveness. In this sense, Canada’s true option had already beenrealised with the FTA.

  13. The economics of race and eugenic sterilization in North Carolina: 1958-1968.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Price, Gregory N; Darity, William A

    2010-07-01

    Theoretical justifications for state-sanctioned sterilization of individuals provided by Irving Fisher rationalized its racialization on grounds that certain non-white racial groups, particularly blacks due to their dysgenic biological and behavioral traits, retarded economic growth and should be bred out of existence. Fisher's rationale suggests that national or state level eugenic policies that sterilized the so-called biological and genetically unfit could have been racist in both design and effect by disproportionately targeting black Americans. We empirically explore this with data on eugenic sterilizations in the State of North Carolina between 1958 and 1968. Count data parameter estimates from a cross-county population allocation model of sterilization reveal that the probability of non-institutional and total sterilizations increased with a county's black population share-an effect not found for any other racial group in the population. Our results suggest that in North Carolina, eugenic sterilization policies were racially biased and genocidal. 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Economic Evaluation of the Information Security Levels Achieved by Electric Energy Providers in North Arctic Region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sushko, O. P.; Kaznin, A. A.; Babkin, A. V.; Bogdanov, D. A.

    2017-10-01

    The study we are conducting involves the analysis of information security levels achieved by energy providers operating in the North Arctic Region. We look into whether the energy providers’ current information security levels meet reliability standards and determine what further actions may be needed for upgrading information security in the context of the digital transformation that the world community is undergoing. When developing the information security systems for electric energy providers or selecting the protection means for them, we are governed by the fact that the assets to be protected are process technologies. While information security risk can be assessed using different methods, the evaluation of the economic damage from these risks appears to be a difficult task. The most probable and harmful risks we have identified when evaluating the electric energy providers’ information security will be used by us as variables. To provide the evaluation, it is necessary to calculate the costs relating to elimination of the risks identified. The final stage of the study will involve the development of an operation algorithm for the North Arctic Region’s energy provider’s business information protection security system - a set of information security services, and security software and hardware.

  15. THE EU, APEC AND ASEAN; A COMPARISON IN THE FRAMEWORK OF ECONOMIC INTEGRATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ismet ATES

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Fast developing technology, increased production and the search for market has paved the way for globalization after the industrial revolution. Transnational borders has almost disappeared today’s World which faced with two great wars and a lot more threat during the 20th century. Economic integrations gained speed after the two Great World Wars. Countries started to come together because of advancing technology, transportation facilities, security concerns and increased competition during this period. Thus, political, military and cultural integration movements established and also economic integration movements gained speed. Economic, political, military integrations like EU, APEC, ASEAN, NAFTA, WTO and NATO have showed impact in every region of the World. There are a lot of regional and global integration movements in the World. Globalization leads to act the World as if it had a single center increasingly. This case is important in terms of economic integration of the national economies. The main objective of economic integration is an effort to eliminate all barriers to trade. In this work, the structure of the economic integration process and its effect on the World economy will be examined. APEC, ASEAN and EU can be considered as one of the best samples of the economic integration in the World. General structures, macroeconomic performances and their effects on integration process of these three economic integrations will be discussed. As a result, APEC stands out with its developing large trade volume, ASEAN is noted with its great speed of economic development and, European Union differs with its large gross domestic product per capita. APEC, EU and ASEAN organizations show that both developed and developing countries can not remain outside of integration. Each of the three integration movement has been making great contributions to the World to integrate. World is almost becoming a single country thanks to the economic integration.

  16. Victims of Progress: Economic Integration, Specialization, and Wages for Unskilled Labor

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    J.F. François (Joseph); D.R. Nelson

    2000-01-01

    textabstractIn this paper we demonstrate that intra-industry trade (or FDI) between identical countries could produce the observed deterioration in the relative wages of unskilled workers. This involves a model of North-North integration through either increased trade flows or increased MNE- based

  17. Deepening the economic integration in the Eastern Partnership: from a Free Trade Area to a Neighbourhood Economic Community?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gabriela DRĂGAN

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Different forms of cooperation and regional integration, implying specific institutional agreements and instruments, have been developed in the last decades in the EU neighbourhood. The offer provided by the Eastern Partnership (EaP, which includes both economic and political objectives, has not proven attractive enough for the Eastern Neighbourhood. The region is currently divided between two global powers (EU and Russia and two competing regional integration areas, the Deep and Comprehensive Free Trade Area and the Eurasian Single Economic Space. The paper focuses on the main limits of the economic tools included in the EU’s current offer and proposes several directions for EaP’s reform.

  18. Baseline development, economic risk, and schedule risk: An integrated approach

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tonkinson, J.A.

    1994-01-01

    The economic and schedule risks of Environmental Restoration (ER) projects are commonly analyzed toward the end of the baseline development process. Risk analysis is usually performed as the final element of the scheduling or estimating processes for the purpose of establishing cost and schedule contingency. However, there is an opportunity for earlier assessment of risks, during development of the technical scope and Work Breakdown Structure (WBS). Integrating the processes of risk management and baselining provides for early incorporation of feedback regarding schedule and cost risk into the proposed scope of work. Much of the information necessary to perform risk analysis becomes available during development of the technical baseline, as the scope of work and WBS are being defined. The analysis of risk can actually be initiated early on during development of the technical baseline and continue throughout development of the complete project baseline. Indeed, best business practices suggest that information crucial to the success of a project be analyzed and incorporated into project planning as soon as it is available and usable

  19. The contribution of women entrepreneurs to the economic growth of the North West Province, South Africa / Senye Monica Kedibone

    OpenAIRE

    Senye, Monica Kedibone

    2006-01-01

    This study investigated the contribution of women entrepreneurs to the economic growth of the North West Province. The aim of the study was to identify the contribution of women entrepreneurs in the economic growth, to determine forces driving women to become entrepreneurs. The study also aimed at examining future challenges for women entrepreneurs as well as strategies to advance women entrepreneurs . The Quantitative research method was chosen for the study and the targeted populat...

  20. Financial Liberalization and Economic Growth in the North Africa Region: Cointegration Panel Analysis by DOLS and FMOLS Models

    OpenAIRE

    KHATTAB, Ahmed; IHADIYAN, Abid

    2015-01-01

    Abstract. This article aims at examining the impact of financial liberalization on the economic growth in the North African countries. The econometric study, which covers the period between 1995 and 2013, relies on a sample composed of four Northern African countries and referring to the database of the World Bank data (2013), Heritage Foundation (2013) and Financial Openness of (the Institute for international and development Economics, 2009). The estimate model of cointegration panel reveal...

  1. Thermo-Economic Modelling and Process Integration of CO2-Mitigation Options on Oil and Gas Platforms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nguyen, Tuong-Van; Tock, Laurence; Breuhaus, Peter

    2014-01-01

    recovering CO2 that can be used for enhanced oil recovery. In this paper, a North Sea platform is considered as case study, and the site-scale retrofit integration of these three options is analysed, considering thermodynamic, economic and environmental performance indicators. The results illustrate......The offshore extraction of oil and gas is an energy-intensive process associated with large CO2 and CH4 emissions to the atmosphere and chemicals to the sea. The taxation of these emissions has encouraged the development of more energy-efficient and environmental-friendly solutions, of which three...

  2. Integration of Andrographis paniculata as Potential Medicinal Plant in Chir Pine (Pinus roxburghii Sarg. Plantation of North-Western Himalaya

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chandra Shekher Sanwal

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The integration of Andrographis paniculata under Pinus roxburghii (Chir pine plantation has been studied to evaluate the growth and yield for its economic viability and conservation. It was grown on three topographical aspects, namely, northern, north-western, and western, at a spacing of 30 cm × 30 cm, followed by three tillage depths, namely, minimum (0 cm, medium (up to 10 cm, and deep (up to 15 cm tillage. The growth parameters, namely, plant height and number of branches per plant, were recorded as significantly higher on western aspect and lowest on northern aspect except for leaf area index which was found nonsignificant. However under all tillage practices all the growth parameters in both understorey and open conditions were found to be nonsignificant except for plant height which was found to be significantly highest under deep tillage and lowest under minimum tillage. The study of net returns for Andrographis paniculata revealed that it had positive average annual returns even in understorey conditions which indicate its possible economic viability under integration of Chir pine plantations. Hence net returns can be enhanced by integrating Andrographis paniculata and this silvimedicinal system can be suggested which will help utilizing an unutilized part of land and increase total productivity from such lands besides conservation of the A. paniculata in situ.

  3. Integration of Andrographis paniculata as Potential Medicinal Plant in Chir Pine (Pinus roxburghii Sarg.) Plantation of North-Western Himalaya

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanwal, Chandra Shekher; Bhardwaj, S. D.

    2016-01-01

    The integration of Andrographis paniculata under Pinus roxburghii (Chir pine) plantation has been studied to evaluate the growth and yield for its economic viability and conservation. It was grown on three topographical aspects, namely, northern, north-western, and western, at a spacing of 30 cm × 30 cm, followed by three tillage depths, namely, minimum (0 cm), medium (up to 10 cm), and deep (up to 15 cm) tillage. The growth parameters, namely, plant height and number of branches per plant, were recorded as significantly higher on western aspect and lowest on northern aspect except for leaf area index which was found nonsignificant. However under all tillage practices all the growth parameters in both understorey and open conditions were found to be nonsignificant except for plant height which was found to be significantly highest under deep tillage and lowest under minimum tillage. The study of net returns for Andrographis paniculata revealed that it had positive average annual returns even in understorey conditions which indicate its possible economic viability under integration of Chir pine plantations. Hence net returns can be enhanced by integrating Andrographis paniculata and this silvimedicinal system can be suggested which will help utilizing an unutilized part of land and increase total productivity from such lands besides conservation of the A. paniculata in situ. PMID:27563482

  4. Tropical cyclone-related socio-economic losses in the western North Pacific region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Welker, C.; Faust, E.

    2013-01-01

    The western North Pacific (WNP) is the area of the world most frequently affected by tropical cyclones (TCs). However, little is known about the socio-economic impacts of TCs in this region, probably because of the limited relevant loss data. Here, loss data from Munich RE's NatCatSERVICE database is used, a high-quality and widely consulted database of natural disasters. In the country-level loss normalisation technique we apply, the original loss data are normalised to present-day exposure levels by using the respective country's nominal gross domestic product at purchasing power parity as a proxy for wealth. The main focus of our study is on the question of whether the decadal-scale TC variability observed in the Northwest Pacific region in recent decades can be shown to manifest itself economically in an associated variability in losses. It is shown that since 1980 the frequency of TC-related loss events in the WNP exhibited, apart from seasonal and interannual variations, interdecadal variability with a period of about 22 yr - driven primarily by corresponding variations of Northwest Pacific TCs. Compared to the long-term mean, the number of loss events was found to be higher (lower) by 14% (9%) in the positive (negative) phase of the decadal-scale WNP TC frequency variability. This was identified for the period 1980-2008 by applying a wavelet analysis technique. It was also possible to demonstrate the same low-frequency variability in normalised direct economic losses from TCs in the WNP region. The identification of possible physical mechanisms responsible for the observed decadal-scale Northwest Pacific TC variability will be the subject of future research, even if suggestions have already been made in earlier studies.

  5. Tropical cyclone-related socio-economic losses in the western North Pacific region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. Welker

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The western North Pacific (WNP is the area of the world most frequently affected by tropical cyclones (TCs. However, little is known about the socio-economic impacts of TCs in this region, probably because of the limited relevant loss data. Here, loss data from Munich RE's NatCatSERVICE database is used, a high-quality and widely consulted database of natural disasters. In the country-level loss normalisation technique we apply, the original loss data are normalised to present-day exposure levels by using the respective country's nominal gross domestic product at purchasing power parity as a proxy for wealth. The main focus of our study is on the question of whether the decadal-scale TC variability observed in the Northwest Pacific region in recent decades can be shown to manifest itself economically in an associated variability in losses. It is shown that since 1980 the frequency of TC-related loss events in the WNP exhibited, apart from seasonal and interannual variations, interdecadal variability with a period of about 22 yr – driven primarily by corresponding variations of Northwest Pacific TCs. Compared to the long-term mean, the number of loss events was found to be higher (lower by 14% (9% in the positive (negative phase of the decadal-scale WNP TC frequency variability. This was identified for the period 1980–2008 by applying a wavelet analysis technique. It was also possible to demonstrate the same low-frequency variability in normalised direct economic losses from TCs in the WNP region. The identification of possible physical mechanisms responsible for the observed decadal-scale Northwest Pacific TC variability will be the subject of future research, even if suggestions have already been made in earlier studies.

  6. Welfare Impact of ASEAN Economic Integration: “ASEAN Way” Versus Theory

    OpenAIRE

    Andrista, Safira; Widodo, Tri

    2017-01-01

    The ASEAN Economic Community (AEC) has been implemented since the beginning of 2016 and expected to be completed in 2025. The ASEAN member countries preserve their value and norms highly even in the condition of integrated ASEAN, particularly in state’s sovereignty, resulting “ASEAN Way” of integration. This research is conducted to compare the ASEAN Way of integration and theoretical kinds of economic integration (Balassa, 1961). Using GTAP 9 Migration database with 2007 and 2011 base year, ...

  7. Integrated Scenarios of Regional Development in Two Semi-Arid States of North-Eastern Brazil

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Döll, Petra; Krol, Martinus S.

    2002-01-01

    Scenario analysis of the future is an important tool for supporting sustainability-oriented regional planning. To assist regional planning in two federal states in semi-arid North-eastern Brazil, Ceará and Piauí, we developed integrated qualitative¿quantitative scenarios that show potential

  8. The economic feasibility of sugar beet biofuel production in central North Dakota

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maung, Thein A.; Gustafson, Cole R.

    2011-01-01

    This study examines the financial feasibility of producing ethanol biofuel from sugar beets in central North Dakota. Under the Energy Independence and Security Act (EISA) of 2007, biofuel from sugar beets uniquely qualifies as an 'advanced biofuel'. EISA mandates production of 21 billion gallons of advanced biofuels annually by 2022. A stochastic simulation financial model was calibrated with irrigated sugar beet data from central North Dakota to determine economic feasibility and risks of production for 0.038 hm 3 y -1 (or 10 MGY (Million Gallon per Year) and 0.076 hm 3 y -1 (or 20 MGY) ethanol plants. Study results indicate that feedstock costs, which include sugar beets and beet molasses, account for more than 70 percent of total production expenses. The estimated breakeven ethanol price for the 0.076 hm 3 y -1 plant is $400 m -3 ($1.52 per gallon) and $450 m -3 ($1.71 per gallon) for the 0.038 hm 3 y -1 plant. Breakeven prices for feedstocks are also estimated and show that the 0.076 hm 3 y -1 plant can tolerate greater ethanol and feedstock price risks than the 0.038 hm 3 y -1 plant. Our results also show that one of the most important factors that affect investment success is the price of ethanol. At an ethanol price of $484.21 m -3 ($1.84 per gallon), and assuming other factors remain unchanged, the estimated net present value (NPV) for the 0.076 hm 3 y -1 plant is $41.54 million. By comparison, the estimated NPV for the 0.038 hm 3 y -1 plant is only $8.30 million. Other factors such as changes in prices of co-products and utilities have a relatively minor effect on investment viability. -- Highlights: → Sugar beets and beet molasses costs account for more than 70 percent of total production expenses. → The estimated breakeven ethanol prices for the 0.076 hm 3 y -1 and 0.038 hm 3 y -1 ethanol plants are $400 m -3 and $450 m -3 respectively. → The price of ethanol will be one of the most important factors for determining the future feasibility of a

  9. Economic School Integration: An Update. The Century Foundation Issue Brief Series.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kahlenberg, Richard D.

    In 2000, an Idea Brief asserted that the best way to improve education would be to give every schoolchild the opportunity to attend a middle class public school (economic school integration). This brief reviews recent research and policy developments regarding economic school integration, noting that school segregation based on socioeconomic…

  10. Evolving subsidiary roles and regional economic integration in Europe (special editorial)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Filippov, S.; Duijsters, G.M.

    2012-01-01

    The focus of this paper is on the impact of regional economic integration on changing roles and strategies of overseas subsidiaries. the literature has acknowledged the positive impact of regional economic integration on the investment attractiveness of member states participating in a regional bloc

  11. European Economic Integration and the Fate of Lesser-Used Languages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grin, Francois

    1993-01-01

    The consequences of economic integration for Europe's lesser-used languages are examined. Applying theoretical predictions to a set of 12 minority languages, this paper shows that 5 will likely be in a more favorable position, 4 may lose as a result of economic integration, and no clear effect can be predicted for the remaining 3. (18 references)…

  12. Does Sustainability Affect Corporate Performance and Economic Development? Evidence from the Asia-Pacific region and North America

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kyungbok Kim

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available This paper explores how sustainability influences financial returns and economic development in the Asia-Pacific region and North America, utilizing real data empirically. It is controversial that sustainable activities are related to financial performance. For clarification, we tested hypotheses analyzing sustainability index, seven stock markets, financial data such as ROI, ROIC, and ROA from eleven companies, and GDP/GNI per capita, based on the Asia-Pacific region and North America. The results indicate that both financial return for companies and economic development in the two regions are positively germane to sustainable investment. Besides, we found evidence that sustainable investment impacts economic development based on variance decomposition analysis, depending on GDP per capita between the two regions. This implication will be interesting for both practitioners and researchers regarding the measurement of sustainable performance.

  13. Fuels planning: science synthesis and integration; economic uses fact sheet 03: economic impacts of fuel treatments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rocky Mountain Research Station USDA Forest Service

    2004-01-01

    With increased interest in reducing hazardous fuels in dry inland forests of the American West, agencies and the public will want to know the economic impacts of fuel reduction treatments. This fact sheet discusses the economic impact tool, a component of My Fuel Treatment Planner, for evaluating economic impacts.

  14. Energy consumption, economic growth and CO2 emissions in Middle East and North African countries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arouri, Mohamed El Hedi; Ben Youssef, Adel; M'henni, Hatem; Rault, Christophe

    2012-01-01

    This article extends the recent findings of , , and by implementing recent bootstrap panel unit root tests and cointegration techniques to investigate the relationship between carbon dioxide emissions, energy consumption, and real GDP for 12 Middle East and North African Countries (MENA) over the period 1981–2005. Our results show that in the long-run energy consumption has a positive significant impact on CO 2 emissions. More interestingly, we show that real GDP exhibits a quadratic relationship with CO 2 emissions for the region as a whole. However, although the estimated long-run coefficients of income and its square satisfy the EKC hypothesis in most studied countries, the turning points are very low in some cases and very high in other cases, hence providing poor evidence in support of the EKC hypothesis. CO 2 emission reductions per capita have been achieved in the MENA region, even while the region exhibited economic growth over the period 1981–2005. The econometric relationships derived in this paper suggest that future reductions in CO 2 emissions per capita might be achieved at the same time as GDP per capita in the MENA region continues to grow. - Highlights: ► We study the links between CO 2 emissions, energy consumption and GDP in MENA region. ► Energy consumption has a positive correlation with CO 2 emissions. ► GDP exhibits a quadratic relationship with CO 2 emissions for the region as a whole. ► However, the turning points are low in some cases and high in other cases. ► Thus, not all countries need to sacrifice economic growth to decrease CO 2 emissions.

  15. Integration of the North American energy market; Integration du marche Nord-Americain de l'energie

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lapointe, A

    2002-07-01

    The US energy policy of President Bush administration proposes to develop a North American energy framework with a greater energy integration between Canada, the USA and Mexico in the respect of the sovereignty of each country. This article tries to evaluate the integration status of the energy sector in Northern America with respect to the North American free-exchange agreement and to the deregulation process observed in the natural gas and electric power sectors. The commercial energy fluxes between Canada, Mexico and the US show that the integration is a reality and that it is in constant progress. This integration is particularly important in the case of Canada and the USA while major constraints remain in Mexico where the property and exploitation of natural resources is a government monopoly. For this reason, Mexico could never exploit the full potentialities of its resources and suffers from a chronical under-investment in its energy infrastructures which limits the energy trade. Despite this, there is a strong will from the Mexican authorities to ensure the modernization of its energy sector and to contribute more to the integration process of the north American energy market. A series of reforms, and in particular the fiscal reform started by the government should reduce the excessive dependence of the government incomes with the dividends from the energy sector. This should allow the different government companies to reinvest more its benefits in order to improve the existing infrastructures and to increase the capacities (in particular in the gas and electricity sectors). Finally, the recent will of the government to open the gas sector should allow the development of this energy source. (J.S.)

  16. The integrated North American electricity market : Enhancing opportunities for cross border trading and environmental performance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Egan, T.

    2003-03-01

    The stability of the North American electricity industry has always been recognized, in both Canada and the United States. However, this sector is facing uncertainty mainly due to lack of clarity concerning market rules, environmental challenges, and the very poor investment climate. The principal thesis that was developed for this paper used those three factors as context and justification. The thesis is as follows: the evolving North American market is more and more regionally integrated, and that continued and growing regional integration will lessen uncertainty. All problems cannot be solved simply through increased regional integration, but it represents a step in the right direction in that it leads to greater efficiency, increased reliability, more predictable regulation and policy, lower costs and greater environmental benefits. The result is increased investor confidence and reduced uncertainty in the marketplace. To assist in the strengthening of this integration, the Canadian Electricity Association made seven recommendations. They were: (1) increased focus on harmonizing market rules and increased participation in the Regional Transmission Organizations, (2) development of North American strategy for the management of greenhouse gas emissions resulting from electricity generation, (3) identification of oportunites to further harmonize management of other air emissions, (4) creation of consistent methodology for the measurement of environmental performance, (5) enhancement of cross-border and interprovincial transmission transfer capability, (6) coordination of critical infrastructure protection, and (7) support of self-governing international organization for the development and enforcement of mandatory reliability standards for the evolving electricity industry. 5 figs

  17. Economic integration and corruption: The corrupt soul of the European Union

    OpenAIRE

    Juan J. Ganuza; Esther Hauk

    2000-01-01

    We study the link between corruption and economic integration. We show that if an economic union establishes a common regulation for public procurement, the country more prone to corruption benefits more from integration. However, if the propensities to corruption are too distinct, the less corrupt country will not be willing to join the union. This difference in corruption propensities can be offset by a difference in efficiency. We also show that corruption is lower if integration occurs. A...

  18. Developing the organizational-economic relations during agricultural-industrial integration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Svetlana A. Okladchik

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Objective to substantiate the need for economic integration of agricultural enterprises. Methods abstractlogical monographic. Results economic integration in agriculture is needed due to the destruction of economic relations in the period of economy liberalization and decrease in efficiency and productivity in agriculture. The solution to the problems of financing pricing and marketing of agricultural products lies in the sphere of forming integrative relations between enterprises producing processing and marketing agricultural products. Basing on the analysis of theoretical provisions the main forms of enterprises integration is identified such as contractual relationship without creating new legal entities formation of associations unions holding companies financialindustrial groups. It was found that the most effective are those forms of associations that form a complete closed cycle of production and sales i.e. holdings and financialindustrial groups. Basing on the analysis of the economic integration principles the necessity was determined of implementing the principle of stability of economic relations which will allow to overcome the crisis in the agrarian sector. In addition the author has formulated principles for the implementing the economic mechanism in integrated groups based on equality freedom and integrity of such groups. The key components of economic relations in terms of integration were identified ndash organizational unity of the technological process as well as the transformation of the interests of technologically related actors towards a common result. Scientific novelty the principle of stability of economic links during integration of agricultural enterprises was formulated. The necessity was proved of integrating the enterprises providing comparable levels of capacity utilization and the possibility of complete product sales as well as the necessity of forming integration relations as a single object of ownership

  19. Economic Collaboration and Integration in a TNC-Strategic Perspective

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Olav Jull

    2009-01-01

    The aim of the paper is to discuss the rise of economic China and how this will influence the world economy, notably the EU. The perspective is that of transnational companies and their strategies. Three scenarios are outlined.......The aim of the paper is to discuss the rise of economic China and how this will influence the world economy, notably the EU. The perspective is that of transnational companies and their strategies. Three scenarios are outlined....

  20. Multidisciplinary group performance – measuring integration intensity in the context of the North West London Integrated Care Pilot

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matthew Harris

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Multidisciplinary Group meeting (MDGs are seen as key facilitators of integration, moving from individual to multi-disciplinary decision making, and from a focus on individual patients to a focus on patient groups.  We have developed a method for coding MDG transcripts to identify whether they are or are not vehicles for delivering the anticipated efficiency improvements across various providers and apply it to a test case in the North West London Integrated Care Pilot.  Methods:  We defined 'integrating' as the process within the MDG meeting that enables or promotes an improved collaboration, improved understanding, and improved awareness of self and others within the local healthcare economy such that efficiency improvements could be identified and action taken.  Utterances within the MDGs are coded according to three distinct domains grounded in concepts from communication, group decision-making, and integrated care literatures - the Valence, the Focus, and the Level.  Standardized weighted integrative intensity scores are calculated across ten time deciles in the Case Discussion providing a graphical representation of its integrative intensity. Results: Intra- and Inter-rater reliability of the coding scheme was very good as measured by the Prevalence and Bias-adjusted Kappa Score.  Standardized Weighted Integrative Intensity graph mirrored closely the verbatim transcript and is a convenient representation of complex communication dynamics. Trend in integrative intensity can be calculated and the characteristics of the MDG can be pragmatically described. Conclusion: This is a novel and potentially useful method for researchers, managers and practitioners to better understand MDG dynamics and to identify whether participants are integrating.  The degree to which participants use MDG meetings to develop an integrated way of working is likely to require management, leadership and shared values.

  1. Multidisciplinary group performance – measuring integration intensity in the context of the North West London Integrated Care Pilot

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matthew Harris

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Multidisciplinary Group meeting (MDGs are seen as key facilitators of integration, moving from individual to multi-disciplinary decision making, and from a focus on individual patients to a focus on patient groups.  We have developed a method for coding MDG transcripts to identify whether they are or are not vehicles for delivering the anticipated efficiency improvements across various providers and apply it to a test case in the North West London Integrated Care Pilot. Methods:  We defined 'integrating' as the process within the MDG meeting that enables or promotes an improved collaboration, improved understanding, and improved awareness of self and others within the local healthcare economy such that efficiency improvements could be identified and action taken.  Utterances within the MDGs are coded according to three distinct domains grounded in concepts from communication, group decision-making, and integrated care literatures - the Valence, the Focus, and the Level.  Standardized weighted integrative intensity scores are calculated across ten time deciles in the Case Discussion providing a graphical representation of its integrative intensity.Results: Intra- and Inter-rater reliability of the coding scheme was very good as measured by the Prevalence and Bias-adjusted Kappa Score.  Standardized Weighted Integrative Intensity graph mirrored closely the verbatim transcript and is a convenient representation of complex communication dynamics. Trend in integrative intensity can be calculated and the characteristics of the MDG can be pragmatically described.Conclusion: This is a novel and potentially useful method for researchers, managers and practitioners to better understand MDG dynamics and to identify whether participants are integrating.  The degree to which participants use MDG meetings to develop an integrated way of working is likely to require management, leadership and shared values.

  2. Performing Economic Evaluation of Integrated Care: Highway to Hell or Stairway to Heaven?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stein, K. Viktoria; Evers, Silvia; Rutten-van Mölken, Maureen

    2016-01-01

    Health economists are increasingly interested in integrated care in order to support decision-makers to find cost-effective solutions able to tackle the threat that chronic diseases pose on population health and health and social care budgets. However, economic evaluation in integrated care is still in its early years, facing several difficulties. The aim of this paper is to describe the unique nature of integrated care as a topic for economic evaluation, explore the obstacles to perform economic evaluation, discuss methods and techniques that can be used to address them, and set the basis to develop a research agenda for health economics in integrated care. The paper joins the voices that call health economists to pay more attention to integrated care and argues that there should be no more time wasted for doing it. PMID:28316543

  3. Theoretical Aspects of Cross-border Integration-based Economic Cooperation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bilchak V.

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available In this article the author analyses theoretical aspects of border economy in the conditions of modern processes of integration. The author describes the existing schools and concepts of integration stressing the role of government regulation relating to the deformations in the development of the world economic mechanism. Modern studies focus on the evolution of integration processes, which has largely affected the key elements of the world economic mechanism from classical political economy, monopoly regulation. This resulted in monopolistic competition, imperfect competition, and oligopoly – largely, through all fields and poles of economic growth to certain elements of government regulation and social reproduction on the international scale. The author examines the key elements and stages of economic integration. These stages assume a number of consecutive forms: free trade zone, customs union, common market, complete economic integration, and economic union. The article shows that the transition occurs from the lowest to the highest stages — from the processes of integration involving, firstly, trade market and then capital and labour markets to the integration of social sphere. The theoretical aspects of all these transformations can be easily traced in the case of EU integration processes.

  4. Economic differential of integrated fish, rice cum piggery and fish ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Fish, rice cum piggery and fish, rice cum poultry production integration platforms were set up to perfect the ideas of integrated fish farming in Sierra Leone. Water quality parameters measured biweekly included: dissolved oxygen, water temperature, pH, water hardness, water alkalinity, ammonia, nitrate, BOD and nitrite.

  5. Colorectal cancer screening for average-risk North Americans: an economic evaluation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Steven J Heitman

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Colorectal cancer (CRC fulfills the World Health Organization criteria for mass screening, but screening uptake is low in most countries. CRC screening is resource intensive, and it is unclear if an optimal strategy exists. The objective of this study was to perform an economic evaluation of CRC screening in average risk North American individuals considering all relevant screening modalities and current CRC treatment costs. METHODS AND FINDINGS: An incremental cost-utility analysis using a Markov model was performed comparing guaiac-based fecal occult blood test (FOBT or fecal immunochemical test (FIT annually, fecal DNA every 3 years, flexible sigmoidoscopy or computed tomographic colonography every 5 years, and colonoscopy every 10 years. All strategies were also compared to a no screening natural history arm. Given that different FIT assays and collection methods have been previously tested, three distinct FIT testing strategies were considered, on the basis of studies that have reported "low," "mid," and "high" test performance characteristics for detecting adenomas and CRC. Adenoma and CRC prevalence rates were based on a recent systematic review whereas screening adherence, test performance, and CRC treatment costs were based on publicly available data. The outcome measures included lifetime costs, number of cancers, cancer-related deaths, quality-adjusted life-years gained, and incremental cost-utility ratios. Sensitivity and scenario analyses were performed. Annual FIT, assuming mid-range testing characteristics, was more effective and less costly compared to all strategies (including no screening except FIT-high. Among the lifetimes of 100,000 average-risk patients, the number of cancers could be reduced from 4,857 to 1,393 [corrected] and the number of CRC deaths from 1,782 [corrected] to 457, while saving CAN$68 per person. Although screening patients with FIT became more expensive than a strategy of no screening when the

  6. International market integration for natural gas? A cointegration analysis of prices in Europe, North America and Japan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Siliverstovs, Boriss; L'Hegaret, Guillaume; Neumann, Anne; Hirschlausen, Christian von

    2005-01-01

    This paper investigates the degree of integration of natural gas markets in Europe, North America and Japan in the time period between the early 1990s and 2004. The relationship between international gas market prices and their relation to the oil price are explored through principal components analysis and Johansen likelihood-based cointegration procedure. Both of them show a high level of natural gas market integration within Europe, between the European and Japanese markets as well as within the North American market. At the same time the obtained results suggest that the European (respectively, Japanese) and the North American markets were not integrated. (Author)

  7. Integration of hydrothermal-energy economics: related quantitative studies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1982-08-01

    A comparison of ten models for computing the cost of hydrothermal energy is presented. This comparison involved a detailed examination of a number of technical and economic parameters of the various quantitative models with the objective of identifying the most important parameters in the context of accurate estimates of cost of hydrothermal energy. Important features of various models, such as focus of study, applications, marked sectors covered, methodology, input data requirements, and output are compared in the document. A detailed sensitivity analysis of all the important engineering and economic parameters is carried out to determine the effect of non-consideration of individual parameters.

  8. Towards an Integrated Framework for Special Economic Zones (SEZs)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aggarwal, Aradhna

    tool to achieve a variety of goals. The drivers of success and economic outcomes of SEZs depend on the strategic approach adopted by policy makers towards SEZs. There is no single recipe of their success or development outcomes. Finally, institutions evolve in the process of development. So must......This paper presents a comprehensive conceptual framework for the rationale, success factors and development outcomes of Special Economic Zones (SEZs), and analyses their performance in selected Asian countries within that framework. It draws on the tenets of the literature on ‘dynamics...

  9. [Ethics versus economics in public health? On the integration of economic rationality in a discourse of public health ethics].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rothgang, H; Staber, J

    2009-05-01

    In the course of establishing the discourse of public health ethics in Germany, we discuss whether economic efficiency should be part of public health ethics and, if necessary, how efficiency should be conceptualized. Based on the welfare economics theory, we build a theoretical framework that demands an integration of economic rationality in public health ethics. Furthermore, we consider the possible implementation of welfare efficiency against the background of current practice in an economic evaluation of health care in Germany. The indifference of the welfare efficiency criterion with respect to distribution leads to the conclusion that efficiency must not be the only criteria of public health ethics. Therefore, an ethical approach of principles should be chosen for public health ethics. Possible conflicts between principles of such an approach are outlined.

  10. Economic prospects of the Integral Fast Reactor (IFR) fuel cycle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chang, Y.I.; Till, C.E.

    1991-01-01

    The IFR fuel cycle based on pyroprocessing involves only few operational steps and the batch-oriented process equipment systems are compact. This results in major cost reductions in all of three areas of reprocessing, fabrication, and waste treatment. This document discusses the economic aspects of this fuel cycle

  11. Economic analysis of the structure, Integration and Performance of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The data for the study were collected with the aid of a questionnaire. Statistical tools such as simple descriptive statistics, Gini coefficient, Shepherd-Futrel functional ... Key words: Rice; Market structure; Market integration and Performance.

  12. Thermodynamic and economic analysis on geothermal integrated combined-cycle power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bettocchi, R.; Cantore, G.; Negri di Montenegro, G.; Gadda, E.

    1992-01-01

    This paper considers geothermal integrated power plants obtained matching a geothermal plant with, a two pressure level combined plant. The purpose of the paper is the evaluation of thermodynamic and economic aspects on geothermal integrated combined-cycle power plant and a comparison with conventional solutions. The results show that the integrated combined plant power is greater than the sum of combined cycle and geothermal plant powers considered separately and that the integrated plant can offer economic benefits reaching the 16% of the total capital required

  13. Guidelines for the Economic Evaluation of Building-Integrated Photovoltaic Power Systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eiffert, P.; International Energy Agency (IEA) PVPS Task 7

    2003-01-01

    This report identifies the economic parameters of building-integrated PV (BIPV) systems. The guidelines are structured in three major parts: the investment analysis (methods and ownership issues), benefits, and costs. Measurement and verification are also discussed briefly.

  14. Economic testing of large integrated switching circuits - a challenge to the test engineer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kreinberg, W.

    1978-01-01

    With reference to large integrated switching circuits, one can use an incoming standard programme test or the customer's switching circuits. The author describes the development of suitable, extensive and economical test programmes. (orig.) [de

  15. Optimal fiscal barriers to international economic integration in the presence of tax havens

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Johannesen, Niels

    2012-01-01

    This paper develops a model where firms can shift profits to tax havens by means of intra-firm loans and countries can protect themselves against profit shifting by taxing cross-border interest flows. The model considers two countries with a scope for welfare improving economic integration....... The first-best tax system has two important characteristics: (i) the tax rate on interest flows to the other country is zero to ensure the optimal level of economic integration; (ii) the tax rate on interest flows to tax havens is high enough to deter profit shifting to tax havens. In second......-best environments, countries face a trade-off between economic integration and protection against tax havens, which causes protection to be suboptimally low. The key to the result is that economic integration makes it easier for multinational firms to circumvent taxes on interest payments to tax havens with conduit...

  16. Model integration and the economics of nuclear power

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lundgren, S.

    1985-01-01

    The author proposes and applies a specific approach to model integration, i.e. the merger of two or several independently developed models. The approach is intended for integrations of activity analysis sector models and applied general equilibrium models. Model integration makes it possible to extend the range of applicability of applied general equilibrium models by exploiting the information contained in sector models. It also makes it possible to evaluate the validity of the partial equilibrium analyses in which sector models often are employed. The proposed approach is used to integrate a sector model of electricity and heat production with a general equilibrium model of the Swedish economy. Both models have been constructed within the research programme. The author uses the integrated model to look at two issues concerning the role of nuclear power on the Swedish electricity market: What are the likely consequences of a nuclear power discontinuation and how does the nuclear power investment programme of the 1970's and the early 1980's compare with a socially efficient one. (Author)

  17. NOAA Integrated Ocean and Coastal Mapping (IOCM) orthorectified mosaic image tiles, coastal North Carolina, 2008 (NODC Accession 0074382)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — These data are a NOAA Integrated Ocean and Coastal Mapping (IOCM) Product collected from the coastal North Carolina (Pamlico Sound) region. Imagery products are true...

  18. Integrating global socio-economic influences into a regional land use change model for China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Xia; Gao, Qiong; Peng, Changhui; Cui, Xuefeng; Liu, Yinghui; Jiang, Li

    2014-03-01

    With rapid economic development and urbanization, land use in China has experienced huge changes in recent years; and this will probably continue in the future. Land use problems in China are urgent and need further study. Rapid land-use change and economic development make China an ideal region for integrated land use change studies, particularly the examination of multiple factors and global-regional interactions in the context of global economic integration. This paper presents an integrated modeling approach to examine the impact of global socio-economic processes on land use changes at a regional scale. We develop an integrated model system by coupling a simple global socio-economic model (GLOBFOOD) and regional spatial allocation model (CLUE). The model system is illustrated with an application to land use in China. For a given climate change, population growth, and various socio-economic situations, a global socio-economic model simulates the impact of global market and economy on land use, and quantifies changes of different land use types. The land use spatial distribution model decides the type of land use most appropriate in each spatial grid by employing a weighted suitability index, derived from expert knowledge about the ecosystem state and site conditions. A series of model simulations will be conducted and analyzed to demonstrate the ability of the integrated model to link global socioeconomic factors with regional land use changes in China. The results allow an exploration of the future dynamics of land use and landscapes in China.

  19. Application of Power Systems Economics to Wind and Solar Power Integration

    OpenAIRE

    Mills, Andrew David

    2015-01-01

    The focus of this dissertation is the economic implications of the technical challenges of integrating variable generation, namely wind and solar, into the electric power system. The research is organized around three topics: short-term variability of wind and solar generation, changes in the economic value of wind and solar with increasing penetration, and the effectiveness of different measures at mitigating changes in economic value with increasing penetration levels. Early studies of PV g...

  20. Mapping Ecosystem Services: An Integrated Biophysical and Economic Evaluation

    OpenAIRE

    Hayha, T.

    2014-01-01

    Forests provide a wide range of ecosystem services, from timber and non-wood products (provisioning services) to carbon sequestration, hydrogeological protection (regulating services), and recreation and aesthetic experiences (cultural services). Nonmarketed forest ecosystem services tend to be undervalued due to the lack of a market price and a clear understanding of their vital support to socio-economic systems. Ecosystem services are interlinked, and therefore the optimization of one typol...

  1. East-West European economic integration: Difficult to reach target

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    D'Ermo, V.; Manca, S.

    1993-01-01

    The energy sector of Western Europe is now undergoing a slow growth period due largely to the socio-economic upheavals of East and West German unification and the political-economic restructuring of the countries making up Eastern Europe and the former Soviet Union. This paper evidences this fact by tabling and commenting on 1991-1992 coal, petroleum, natural gas and electric power production/consumption/export statistical data representing energy sector activities in the former COMECON member countries. The poor performance of these countries can be attributed to the effects of energy market liberalization, the restructuring of utility assets, limited production capacities and inflation. It is estimated that the adjustment time to reach economic parity with Western nations will be long but that the waiting period could be shortened through the implementation of technology transfer and financial cooperation programs with the more prosperous countries capable of providing the investment capital and know-how needed for the restructuring of production systems and resource development

  2. Integrating economic analysis and the science of climate instability

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hall, Darwin C.; Behl, Richard J.

    2006-01-01

    Scientific understanding of climate change and climate instability has undergone a revolution in the past decade with the discovery of numerous past climate transitions so rapid, and so unlike the expectation of smooth climate changes, that they would have previously been unbelievable to the scientific community. Models commonly used by economists to assess the wisdom of adapting to human-induced climate change, rather than averting it, lack the ability to incorporate this new scientific knowledge. Here, we identify and explain the nature of recent scientific advances, and describe the key ways in which failure to reflect new knowledge in economic analysis skews the results of that analysis. This includes the understanding that economic optimization models reliant on convexity are inherently unable to determine an 'optimal' policy solution. It is incumbent on economists to understand and to incorporate the new science in their models, and on climatologists and other scientists to understand the basis of economic models so that they can assist in this essential effort. (author)

  3. EVALUATION OF PROSPECTS OF INTEGRATED DEVELOPMENT OF GEOTHERMAL RESOURCES OF THE NORTH CAUCASUS REGION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. B. Alkhasov

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim is to assess the prospects for the integrated development of geothermal resources in the North Caucasus region.Methods. Technological solutions are proposed for integrated development of hightemperature hydrogeothermal resources of the North Caucasus region. The evaluation of the effectiveness of the proposed technologies was carried out with the use of physico-mathematical, thermodynamic and optimization methods of calculation and physico-chemical experimental studies.Findings. Were estimated the prospects of complex processing of highly parametrical geothermal resources of the Eastern Ciscaucasian artesian basin (ECAB with conversion of thermal energy into electric power in a binary GeoPP and subsequent extraction of dissolved chemical compounds. The most promising areas for the development of such resources were indicated. In connection with the exacerbated environmental problems, it was shown the need for the firstpriority integrated development of associated high-mineralized brines of the South Sukhokum group of gas-oil wells in North Dagestan. At present, associated brines with a radioactive background exceeding permissible standards are discharged to surface filtration fields; technological solutions for their decontamination and integrated development were proposed.Conclusions. The comprehensive development of high-temperature hydrogeothermal brines is a new direction in geothermal energy, which will significantly increase the production of hydrogeothermal resources and develop the geothermal industry at a higher level with the implementation of energy-efficient advanced technologies. Large-scale development of brines will solve significant problems of energy supply in the region and import substitution, fully meeting Russia's needs for food and technical salt and other rare elements. 

  4. International Financial Integration and Economic Growth in India: An Empirical Investigation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nayia MAHAJAN

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available This study endeavors to estimate relationship between international financial integration and economic growth in India during 1981-2011. Apart from direct impact of international financial integration on growth, indirect impact (via financial development has also been studied empirically. Models of co-integration and Vector Error Correction Model (VECM have been applied to examine the relationships. The study observes that international financial integration affects the growth of the economy positively; and change in economic growth due to it through financial development is approximately 8.63 percent. The study also suggests that the structural reforms that took place in India in early nineties did not affect the existing relationship of global financial integration and economic growth significantly.

  5. Economic and financial integration in emerging markets: A European policy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Theodoropoulos Theodore E.

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper extends to test if the same short-run increase in cyclical volatility arising from financial integration is observed in this specific sample of "emerging markets". This work finds signs that, contrary to other emerging markets, this does not happen: for the future member states financial integration, similarly to the outcome observed in mature market economies, reduces cyclical volatility both in the short and in the long run. Weak indications are found that this may happen partially due to the anchoring of expectations provided by the EU Accession, and to the more robust institutional framework imposed by this process onto the countries in question.

  6. INTEGRATION OF AN ECONOMIC WITH AN ECOLOGICAL MODEL

    Science.gov (United States)

    We summarize our work on integration of an economy under imperfect competition with a simple Lotka-Volterra type ecological model. Firms and households operate within a single period planning horizon, thus there is no savings or investment. Wages are set by a dominant employer. P...

  7. SUSTAIN:Urban Modeling Systems Integrating Optimization and Economics

    Science.gov (United States)

    The System for Urban Stormwater Treatment and Analysis INtegration (SUSTAIN) was developed by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency to support practitioners in developing cost-effective management plans for municipal storm water programs and evaluating and selecting Best Manag...

  8. Integrating social, economic, and ecological values across large landscapes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jessica E. Halofsky; Megan K. Creutzburg; Miles A. Hemstrom

    2014-01-01

    The Integrated Landscape Assessment Project (ILAP) was a multiyear effort to produce information, maps, and models to help land managers, policymakers, and others conduct mid- to broad-scale (e.g., watersheds to states and larger areas) prioritization of land management actions, perform landscape assessments, and estimate cumulative effects of management actions for...

  9. Techno-economic analysis of ammonia production via integrated biomass gasification

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Andersson, Jim; Lundgren, Joakim

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • Techno-economic results regarding biomass-based ammonia production systems. • Integration of an ammonia production process in a pulp and paper mill. • Integrated ammonia production gains higher system efficiency than stand-alone production. • The economics of an integrated production system is improved compared to stand-alone production. - Abstract: Ammonia (NH 3 ) can be produced by synthesis of nitrogen and hydrogen in the Haber–Bosch process, where the economic challenge is the hydrogen production. Currently, substantial amounts of greenhouse gases are emitted from the ammonia industry since the hydrogen production is almost exclusively based on fossil feedstocks. Hydrogen produced via gasification of lignocellulosic biomass is a more environmentally friendly alternative, but the economic performance is critical. The main objective of this work was to perform a techno-economic evaluation of ammonia production via integrated biomass gasification in an existing pulp and paper mill. The results were compared with a stand-alone production case to find potential technical and economic benefits deriving from the integration. The biomass gasifier and the subsequent NH 3 production were modelled using the commercial software Aspen Plus. A process integration model based on Mixed Integer Linear Programming (MILP) was used to analyze the effects on the overall energy system of the pulp mill. Important modelling constraints were to maintain the pulp production and the steam balance of the mill. The results showed that the process economics and energy performance are favourable for the integrated case compared to stand-alone production. The main conclusion was however that a rather high NH 3 selling price is required to make both production cases economically feasible

  10. Wealth and well-being, economic growth, and integral development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bunge, Mario

    2012-01-01

    This essay tackles a bimillenary problem in psychology, ethics, economics, and political philosophy: that of the relations between wealth and well-being. What are they, and should we live for pleasure, or rather seek to live a full and useful life? This is the ancient dilemma between hedonism, the cult of pleasure, and eudemonism, the search for a good life. Economists, almost without exception, have opted for hedonism, but they have not found out what percentage of the goods that ordinary people want are not merchandises. This gap is currently being filled by psychologists, sociologists, socioeconomists, and other workers in the new "science of happiness". Their main finding, that happiness is not for sale, might surprise the orthodox economists. On the social level, the former problem, concerning individuals, gets translated into the question of national development: what kind of development should we seek, and for whom? In particular, should economic growth be prioritized, or should we promote the simultaneous development of all sectors of society, including the political and cultural? In either case, should development benefit the chosen few or everybody? And should it enhance the well-being of the individual and make that of her offspring possible? This problem, of course, lies at the intersection of three sciences--psychology, economics, and political science--and two chapters of philosophy--ethics and political philosophy. Consequently, anyone daring to propose original solutions to the problem in question will risk being criticized by experts distributed among these five fields, who are not used to talking to one another.

  11. Synergistic Integration of Liner Shipping and Economic Development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edvard Roškar

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available Liner shipping with all its specific features plays an importantrole in the economic development of a country whose portsare involved. In the strategic goals of maritime policy for the period2005-2009 the European Commission stresses the needfor a sustainable environmental development and economicgrowth. Besides, it points out the necessity for the fulfilment ofall maritime potentials. Yet, individual EU member states frequentlycreate the environment, which discourages the developmentof their own national maritime economy. Unfortunately,this applies also to the Republic of Slovenia. The current paperoffers a detailed analysis of the weaknesses and benefits of theclassical liner shipping in present day.

  12. Images of Economic Integration Groups in Russian Political Discourse

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. V. Rudenko

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available In comparison with other countries, Russian citizens watch all the details of everything that happens outside the country, especially if it concerns economic partnerships and Russia’s participation in different organizations and associations. The official view of Russian cooperation with other countries in various formats is presented in nationwide media, though the public opinion is not usually accepted there. However, with the help of images, that are created in the political discourse, one can understand, what kind of support can the government expect, working in a certain direction, which is important, considering the aspiration to raise awareness and civil activity. 

  13. Assessing patients’ experience of integrated care: a survey of patient views in the North West London Integrated Care Pilot

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nikolaos Mastellos

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Despite the importance of continuity of care and patient engagement, few studies have captured patients’ views on integrated care. This study assesses patient experience in the Integrated Care Pilot in North West London with the aim to help clinicians and policy makers understand patients’ acceptability of integrated care and design future initiatives. Methods: A survey was developed, validated and distributed to 2029 randomly selected practice patients identified as having a care plan. Results: A total of 405 questionnaires were included for analysis. Respondents identified a number of benefits associated with the pilot, including increased patient involvement in decision-making, improved patient-provider relationship, better organisation and access to care, and enhanced inter-professional communication. However, only 22.4% were aware of having a care plan, and of these only 37.9% had a copy of the care plan. Knowledge of care plans was significantly associated with a more positive experience. Conclusions: This study reinforces the view that integrated care can improve quality of care and patient experience. However, care planning was a complex and technically challenging process that occurred more slowly than planned with wide variation in quality and time of recruitment to the pilot, making it difficult to assess the sustainability of benefits.

  14. Severo-Zapad Rossii v kontekste obshheevropejskoj integracii [North-West Russia in the context of European integration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kochegarova Tamara

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Integration is one of the main consequences of globalization. Elements of microsystems are growing closer, which brings to the foreground problems of interaction and — in a longer perspective — those of close cooperation between different social systems. The article considers the case of North-West Russia, the only territory having a common border with the EU, in order to examine the issue of Russia using the geographical factor, which Otto von Bismarck called the most powerful and intrinsic factor in history. The significance of this factor increased after the Cold War. It was then when the independent Baltic States became a platform for emergence and recognition of the Baltic Sea region. The author focuses on the social and cultural integrity of the region and considers the traditional Nordic countries and the Baltic Sea states as interrelated components of a single region, different from other European regions in terms of economic interests, as well as its natural and sociocultural landscape.

  15. Fuels planning: science synthesis and integration; economic uses fact sheet 05: NEPA and economics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rocky Mountain Research Station USDA Forest Service

    2004-01-01

    The National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA) is the law that requires Federal agencies to consider the environmental impacts of their actions, involve the public in the decisionmaking process, and disclose information, starting at the initial stages of planning. This fact sheet discusses when you should consider economics in the NEPA process, when to do an analysis,...

  16. Company Tax Integration in the European Union During Economic Crisis – Why and How?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    A. Sting (Anna)

    2014-01-01

    markdownabstract__Abstract__ Company tax integration in the EU is yet to be realised. This article first outlines the main benefits of company tax integration for the Economic and Monetary Union, and also discusses the main legal obstacles the EU Treaties pose for harmonisation of company tax.

  17. Development of economically viable, highly integrated, highly modular SEGIS architecture.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Enslin, Johan (Petra Solar, Inc., South Plainfield, NJ); Hamaoui, Ronald (Petra Solar, Inc., South Plainfield, NJ); Gonzalez, Sigifredo; Haddad, Ghaith (Petra Solar, Inc., South Plainfield, NJ); Rustom, Khalid (Petra Solar, Inc., South Plainfield, NJ); Stuby, Rick (Petra Solar, Inc., South Plainfield, NJ); Kuran, Mohammad (Petra Solar, Inc., South Plainfield, NJ); Mark, Evlyn (Petra Solar, Inc., South Plainfield, NJ); Amarin, Ruba (Petra Solar, Inc., South Plainfield, NJ); Alatrash, Hussam (Petra Solar, Inc., South Plainfield, NJ); Bower, Ward Isaac; Kuszmaul, Scott S.; Sena-Henderson, Lisa; David, Carolyn; Akhil, Abbas Ali

    2012-03-01

    Initiated in 2008, the SEGIS initiative is a partnership involving the U.S. DOE, Sandia National Laboratories, private sector companies, electric utilities, and universities. Projects supported under the initiative have focused on the complete-system development of solar technologies, with the dual goal of expanding renewable PV applications and addressing new challenges of connecting large-scale solar installations in higher penetrations to the electric grid. Petra Solar, Inc., a New Jersey-based company, received SEGIS funds to develop solutions to two of these key challenges: integrating increasing quantities of solar resources into the grid without compromising (and likely improving) power quality and reliability, and moving the design from a concept of intelligent system controls to successful commercialization. The resulting state-of-the art technology now includes a distributed photovoltaic (PV) architecture comprising AC modules that not only feed directly into the electrical grid at distribution levels but are equipped with new functions that improve voltage stability and thus enhance overall grid stability. This integrated PV system technology, known as SunWave, has applications for 'Power on a Pole,' and comes with a suite of technical capabilities, including advanced inverter and system controls, micro-inverters (capable of operating at both the 120V and 240V levels), communication system, network management system, and semiconductor integration. Collectively, these components are poised to reduce total system cost, increase the system's overall value and help mitigate the challenges of solar intermittency. Designed to be strategically located near point of load, the new SunWave technology is suitable for integration directly into the electrical grid but is also suitable for emerging microgrid applications. SunWave was showcased as part of a SEGIS Demonstration Conference at Pepco Holdings, Inc., on September 29, 2011, and is presently

  18. The Economics of Outsourcing in a De-integrating Industry

    OpenAIRE

    Jawaid Abdul Ghani; Arif Iqbal Rana

    2005-01-01

    Many large firms in low scale economy industries are actively considering outsourcing options, in the face of competition from smaller more efficient players. Based on a review of the theoretical literature and a case-study of outsourcing decisions at two large vertically integrated footwear manufacturers in Pakistan, a framework is developed for determining which set of products and activities to outsource and which to keep in-house. The framework suggests activities being considered for out...

  19. Local soil quality assessment of north-central Namibia: integrating farmers' and technical knowledge

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. Prudat

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Soil degradation is a major threat for farmers of semi-arid north-central Namibia. Soil conservation practices can be promoted by the development of soil quality (SQ evaluation toolboxes that provide ways to evaluate soil degradation. However, such toolboxes must be adapted to local conditions to reach farmers. Based on qualitative (interviews and soil descriptions and quantitative (laboratory analyses data, we developed a set of SQ indicators relevant for our study area that integrates farmers' field experiences (FFEs and technical knowledge. We suggest using participatory mapping to delineate soil units (Oshikwanyama soil units, KwSUs based on FFEs, which highlight mostly soil properties that integrate long-term productivity and soil hydrological characteristics (i.e. internal SQ. The actual SQ evaluation of a location depends on the KwSU described and is thereafter assessed by field soil texture (i.e. chemical fertility potential and by soil colour shade (i.e. SOC status. This three-level information aims to reveal SQ improvement potential by comparing, for any location, (a estimated clay content against median clay content (specific to KwSU and (b soil organic status against calculated optimal values (depends on clay content. The combination of farmers' and technical assessment cumulates advantages of both systems of knowledge, namely the integrated long-term knowledge of the farmers and a short- and medium-term SQ status assessment. The toolbox is a suggestion for evaluating SQ and aims to help farmers, rural development planners and researchers from all fields of studies understanding SQ issues in north-central Namibia. This suggested SQ toolbox is adapted to a restricted area of north-central Namibia, but similar tools could be developed in most areas where small-scale agriculture prevails.

  20. Local soil quality assessment of north-central Namibia: integrating farmers' and technical knowledge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prudat, Brice; Bloemertz, Lena; Kuhn, Nikolaus J.

    2018-02-01

    Soil degradation is a major threat for farmers of semi-arid north-central Namibia. Soil conservation practices can be promoted by the development of soil quality (SQ) evaluation toolboxes that provide ways to evaluate soil degradation. However, such toolboxes must be adapted to local conditions to reach farmers. Based on qualitative (interviews and soil descriptions) and quantitative (laboratory analyses) data, we developed a set of SQ indicators relevant for our study area that integrates farmers' field experiences (FFEs) and technical knowledge. We suggest using participatory mapping to delineate soil units (Oshikwanyama soil units, KwSUs) based on FFEs, which highlight mostly soil properties that integrate long-term productivity and soil hydrological characteristics (i.e. internal SQ). The actual SQ evaluation of a location depends on the KwSU described and is thereafter assessed by field soil texture (i.e. chemical fertility potential) and by soil colour shade (i.e. SOC status). This three-level information aims to reveal SQ improvement potential by comparing, for any location, (a) estimated clay content against median clay content (specific to KwSU) and (b) soil organic status against calculated optimal values (depends on clay content). The combination of farmers' and technical assessment cumulates advantages of both systems of knowledge, namely the integrated long-term knowledge of the farmers and a short- and medium-term SQ status assessment. The toolbox is a suggestion for evaluating SQ and aims to help farmers, rural development planners and researchers from all fields of studies understanding SQ issues in north-central Namibia. This suggested SQ toolbox is adapted to a restricted area of north-central Namibia, but similar tools could be developed in most areas where small-scale agriculture prevails.

  1. Practical steps toward integrating economic, social and institutional elements in fisheries policy and management

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stephenson, Robert L.; Benson, Ashleen J.; Brooks, Kate

    2017-01-01

    of explicit social, economic and institutional objectives; a general lack of process (frameworks, governance) for routine integration of all four pillars of sustainability; and a bias towards biological considerations. Practical integration requires a ‘systems’ approach with explicit consideration...... of strategic and operational aspects of management; multidisciplinary or transdisciplinary evaluations; practical objectives for the four pillars of sustainability; appropriate participation; and a governance system that is able to integrate these diverse considerations in management. We challenge all involved...... governance....

  2. Integration Costs Revisited – An economic framework for wind and solar variability

    OpenAIRE

    Hirth, Lion (Prof. Dr.); Ueckerdt, Falko (Dr.); Edenhofer, Ottmar (Prof. Dr.)

    2015-01-01

    The integration of wind and solar generators into power systems causes “integration costs” – for grids, balancing services, more flexible operation of thermal plants, and reduced utilization of the capital stock embodied in infrastructure, among other things. This paper proposes a framework to analyze and quantify these costs. We propose a definition of integration costs based on the marginal economic value of electricity, or market value – as such a definition can be more easily used in econ...

  3. Technical and economic performance of integrated bioenergy systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Toft, A.J.; Bridgwater, A.V.

    1996-01-01

    A comprehensive study of biomass production, conversion and utilisation systems has been carried out to examine complete bioenergy systems from biomass in the forest to electricity delivered to the grid. Spreadsheet models have been derived for all of the key steps in an integrated process and these have been compiled into an overall BioEnergy Assessment Model (BEAM). The model has also been used to investigate both the performance of different technologies and the effect of different configurations of the same basic system by manipulating the interfaces between feed production, feed conversion and electricity generation. Some of the results of these analyses are presented here. (orig.)

  4. Technical and economic performance of integrated bioenergy systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Toft, A.J.; Bridgwater, A.V. [Aston Univ. (United Kingdom). Energy Research Group; Mitchell, C.P.; Watters, M.P. [Aberdeen Univ. (United Kingdom). Wood Supply Research Group; Stevens, D.J. [Cascade Research, Inc. (United States)

    1996-12-31

    A comprehensive study of biomass production, conversion and utilisation systems has been carried out to examine complete bioenergy systems from biomass in the forest to electricity delivered to the grid. Spreadsheet models have been derived for all of the key steps in an integrated process and these have been compiled into an overall BioEnergy Assessment Model (BEAM). The model has also been used to investigate both the performance of different technologies and the effect of different configurations of the same basic system by manipulating the interfaces between feed production, feed conversion and electricity generation. Some of the results of these analyses are presented here. (orig.)

  5. Technical and economic performance of integrated bioenergy systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Toft, A J; Bridgwater, A V [Aston Univ. (United Kingdom). Energy Research Group; Mitchell, C P; Watters, M P [Aberdeen Univ. (United Kingdom). Wood Supply Research Group; Stevens, D J [Cascade Research, Inc. (United States)

    1997-12-31

    A comprehensive study of biomass production, conversion and utilisation systems has been carried out to examine complete bioenergy systems from biomass in the forest to electricity delivered to the grid. Spreadsheet models have been derived for all of the key steps in an integrated process and these have been compiled into an overall BioEnergy Assessment Model (BEAM). The model has also been used to investigate both the performance of different technologies and the effect of different configurations of the same basic system by manipulating the interfaces between feed production, feed conversion and electricity generation. Some of the results of these analyses are presented here. (orig.)

  6. Towards integration of health economics into medical education and clinical practice in Saudi Arabia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Da'ar, Omar B; Al Shehri, Ali M

    2015-04-01

    In an era of expanding health sectors and rising costs, doctors are expected to have a working knowledge of health economics to better use resources and improve outcomes and quality of health care. This article recognizes the dearth of knowledge and application of economic analyses in medical education and clinical practice in Saudi Arabia. In particular, it highlights the desirability of knowledge of health economics in ensuring certain competencies in medical education and the rationale for inviting doctors to apply knowledge of economics in Saudi Arabia. In addition, the article discusses challenges that hinder integrating health economics into clinical practice. Furthermore, the article typifies some of the important economic phenomena that physicians need to discern. Besides, the article provides implications for incorporating economic analysis into medical education and clinical practice in Saudi Arabia. Finally, the article concludes by demonstrating how health economics can enhance doctors' knowledge and recommends the country to move towards integrating health economics into medical education and clinical practice for best practice.

  7. Multidisciplinary integration in the context of integrated care – results from the North West London Integrated Care Pilot

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matthew Harris

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Background: In the context of integrated care, Multidisciplinary Group (MDG meetings involve participants from diverse professional groups and organizations and are potential vehicles to advance efficiency improvements within the local health economy.  We advance a novel method to evaluate the effectiveness of MDGs by measuring the extent to which participants integrate within MDG meetings and whether this integration leads to improved working. Methods: We purposively selected four MDG meetings, and conducted a content analysis of audio-recorded and transcribed case discussions. Two coders independently coded utterances according to their ‘integrative intensity’ which was defined against three a priori independent domains – the Level (i.e. Individual, Collective and Systems; the Valence (Problem, Information and Solution; the Focus (Concrete and Abstract. Inter- and intra-rater reliability was tested with Kappa scores on one randomly selected Case Discussion.  Standardized weighted mean integration scores were calculated for Case Discussions across utterance deciles, indicating how integrative intensity changed during the conversations. Results: Twenty-three Case Discussions in four different MDG groups were transcribed and coded. Inter- and intra-rater reliability was good as shown by the Prevalence and Bias Adjusted Kappa Scores for one randomly selected Case Discussion.  There were differences in the proportion of utterances per participant type (Consultant 14.6%; Presenting GP 38.75%; Chair 7.8%; Non-Presenting GP 2.25%; Allied Health Professional 4.8%. Utterances were predominantly coded at low levels of integrative intensity; however there was a gradual increase (R2=0.66 in integrative intensity during the Case Discussions.  Based on analysis of the minutes and action points arising from the Case Discussions, this improved integration did not translate into actions moving forward. Interpretation: We characterize the MDGs as

  8. Influence of land area and capital strengthening fund of rural economic enterprises toward corn production in North Sumatera province

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rahmanta

    2018-02-01

    Corn is one of the staple food crops. Corn can also be processed into various foods and also as animal feed. The need for corn will continue to increase from year to year so it is necessary to increase production. The government has targeted corn crop self-sufficiency to achieve the corn production standards required by the animal feed industry. The purpose of this study is to analyze the effect of land area and capital strengthening funds to rural economic enterprises on corn production. This study uses secondary data obtained from the Central Statistical Agency of North Sumatra Province. The research method used is panel regression method. The result shows that the area of land has a significant effect on corn production and the capital strengthening fund to the rural economy institution has an insignificant effect on corn production in North Sumatera Province.

  9. Economic analysis of milk production and consumption in the Middle East and North Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mansoor Maitah

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Milk products are considered as the essential food commodities for humans. Milk products contain essential elements for the human body such as protein, glucose, minerals and vitamins. Moreover, milk is considered the cheapest source of animal protein, an important resource for some related transformation industries and provides employment opportunities for a large number of small producers in both rural and urban areas. The aim of this paper is to analyze the factors which determine the supply and demand for liquid milk (henceforth milk in the Middle East and North Africa in order to point out the main problems and constraints obstructing the milk production in this region. The research also attempts to understand the drivers for the development in milk production in the Middle East and North Africa.Total milk production in the Middle East and North Africa increased from about 12.57 million tons in 1990 to about 25.18 millions tons in 2008. This paper attempts to identify the factors which influence the effectiveness of production, consumption and foreign trade of milk in the Middle East and North Africa. The most important factors affecting consumption is the population, per capita income and produced quantity where a 1% increase in all of them results in increasing the quantity consumed by 1.3%, 2.86% and 0.611%, respectively. Milk sector provides employment opportunities for more than 25% of the working force in some Middle East and North Africa countries.

  10. An integrated economic and distributional analysis of energy policies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Labandeira, Xavier; Labeaga, Jose M.; Rodriguez, Miguel

    2009-01-01

    Most public policies, particularly those in the energy sphere, have not only efficiency but also distributional effects. However, there is a trade-off between modelling approaches suitable for calculating those impacts on the economy. For the former most of the studies have been conducted with general equilibrium models, whereas partial equilibrium models represent the main approach for distributional analysis. This paper proposes a methodology to simultaneously carry out an analysis of the distributional and efficiency consequences of changes in energy taxation. In order to do so, we have integrated a microeconomic household demand model and a computable general equilibrium model for the Spanish economy. We illustrate the advantages of this approach by simulating a revenue-neutral reform in Spanish indirect taxation, with a large increase of energy taxes that serve an environmental purpose. The results show that the reforms bring about significant efficiency and distributional effects, in some cases counterintuitive, and demonstrate the academic and social utility of this approximation. (author)

  11. An integrated economic and distributional analysis of energy policies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Labandeira, Xavier [Facultade de CC. Economicas, University of Vigo, 36310 Vigo (Spain); Labeaga, Jose M. [Instituto de Estudios Fiscales, Avda. Cardenal Herrera Oria 378, 28035 Madrid (Spain); Rodriguez, Miguel [Facultade de CC. Empresariais e Turismo, University of Vigo, 32004 Ourense (Spain)

    2009-12-15

    Most public policies, particularly those in the energy sphere, have not only efficiency but also distributional effects. However, there is a trade-off between modelling approaches suitable for calculating those impacts on the economy. For the former most of the studies have been conducted with general equilibrium models, whereas partial equilibrium models represent the main approach for distributional analysis. This paper proposes a methodology to simultaneously carry out an analysis of the distributional and efficiency consequences of changes in energy taxation. In order to do so, we have integrated a microeconomic household demand model and a computable general equilibrium model for the Spanish economy. We illustrate the advantages of this approach by simulating a revenue-neutral reform in Spanish indirect taxation, with a large increase of energy taxes that serve an environmental purpose. The results show that the reforms bring about significant efficiency and distributional effects, in some cases counterintuitive, and demonstrate the academic and social utility of this approximation. (author)

  12. Transition problems in economic reform: agriculture in the North American free trade agreement

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Wijnbergen, S.J.G.

    1995-01-01

    Investigates the effecto of the North American Free Trade Agreement on agriculture in Mexico. Implications on policy design for the absence of efficient capital markets, on the welfare costs of reforming gradually, on incentive problems created by trade adjustement policies and on the redistribution

  13. Economic value of biological control in integrated pest management of managed plant systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naranjo, Steven E; Ellsworth, Peter C; Frisvold, George B

    2015-01-07

    Biological control is an underlying pillar of integrated pest management, yet little focus has been placed on assigning economic value to this key ecosystem service. Setting biological control on a firm economic foundation would help to broaden its utility and adoption for sustainable crop protection. Here we discuss approaches and methods available for valuation of biological control of arthropod pests by arthropod natural enemies and summarize economic evaluations in classical, augmentative, and conservation biological control. Emphasis is placed on valuation of conservation biological control, which has received little attention. We identify some of the challenges of and opportunities for applying economics to biological control to advance integrated pest management. Interaction among diverse scientists and stakeholders will be required to measure the direct and indirect costs and benefits of biological control that will allow farmers and others to internalize the benefits that incentivize and accelerate adoption for private and public good.

  14. Economic integration, poverty and regional inequality in Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joaquim Bento de Souza Ferreira Filho

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available In this paper we address the issue of how trade integration can affect poverty and income distribution in Brazil. The analysis is conducted through a static General Equilibrium and Microsimulation Model of Brazil, calibrated with the PNAD 2001 data. The model comprises 112,055 Brazilian households and 263,938 adults, distinguishing 42 activities, 52 commodities, and 27 regions. The FTAA formation is simulated, and its impacts upon poverty and income distribution in Brazil analyzed. Results point to the fact that even a large shock like the one simulated wouldn't have a strong impact on poverty reduction in Brazil, although the results are concentrated on the poorest households.Este trabalho analisa os efeitos potenciais da formação da ALCA sobre os níveis de pobreza e distribuição de renda no Brasil. A análise é conduzida através de um Modelo Aplicado de Equilíbrio Geral e de Micro-simulação estático, calibrado com os dados da PNAD 2001. O modelo distingue na sua estrutura 112.055 domicílios e 263.938 adultos, 42 atividades produtivas, 52 produtos, e 27 regiões. Os resultados apontam para o fato de que mesmo mudanças tarifárias grandes como as aqui simuladas não trariam um forte impacto sobre a pobreza no Brasil, embora os resultados estejam concentrados nos domicílios mais pobres.

  15. Selfishness, warfare and economics; or integration, cooperation and biology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emiliano Jesus Salvucci

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available The acceptance of Darwin's theory of evolution by natural selection is not complete and it has been pointed out its limitation to explain the complex processes that constitute the transformation of species. The darwinian paradigm had its origin in the free market theories and concepts of Malthus and Spencer. Nature was explained on the basis of market theories moving away from an accurate explanation of natural phenomena. It is common that new discoveries bring about contradictions that are intended to be overcome by adjusting results to the dominant reductionist paradigm using all sorts of gradations and combinations that are admitted for each case. Modern findings represent a challenge to the interpretation of the observations with the Darwinian view of competition and struggle for life as theoretical basis. New holistic interpretations are emerging related with the Net of Life, in which the interconnection of ecosystems constitutes a dynamic and self-regulating biosphere: Viruses are recognized as a macroorganism with a huge collection of genes, most unknown, that constitute the major planet's gene pool with a fundamental role in evolution. The hologenome theory considers an organism and all of its associated symbiotic microbes as a result of symbiopoiesis. Microbes, helmints, that normally are understood as parasites, are cohabitants and they have cohabited with their host and drives the evolution and existence of the partners. Each organism is a result of integration of complex systems. The eukaryotic organism is the result of combination of bacterial, virus and eukaryotic DNA and the interaction of its own genome with the genome of its microbiota resulting in an intertwined metabolism (a superorganism along evolution. These new interpretations are remarkable points to be considered in order to construct a solid theory adjusted to the facts and with less speculations and tortuous semantic traps.

  16. Comparative techno-economic assessment and LCA of selected integrated sugarcane-based biorefineries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gnansounou, Edgard; Vaskan, Pavel; Pachón, Elia Ruiz

    2015-11-01

    This work addresses the economic and environmental performance of integrated biorefineries based on sugarcane juice and residues. Four multiproduct scenarios were considered; two from sugar mills and the others from ethanol distilleries. They are integrated biorefineries producing first (1G) and second (2G) generation ethanol, sugar, molasses (for animal feed) and electricity in the context of Brazil. The scenarios were analysed and compared using techno-economic value-based approach and LCA methodology. The results show that the best economic configuration is provided by a scenario with largest ethanol production while the best environmental performance is presented by a scenario with full integration sugar - 1G2G ethanol production. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Economic Diplomacy in Africa: The Impact of Regional Integration versus Bilateral Diplomacy on Bilateral Trade

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Afesorgbor, Sylvanus Kwaku

    The paper examines the impact of two main instruments of economic diplomacy — regional integration and commercial diplomacy on export flows among African states. We test whether there is any evidence of a trade-off or complementary interaction between these two instruments in trade facilitation. We...... compared to regional integration. We also find a nuanced interaction between these two instruments of economic diplomacy: the trade–stimulating effect of diplomatic exchange is less pronounced among African countries that shared membership of the same regional bloc. Generally, this could mean...... that there exists a trade-off between regional integration and commercial diplomacy in facilitating exports or a lack of complementarity between these two instruments of economic diplomacy....

  18. Practical steps toward integrating economic, social and institutional elements in fisheries policy and management

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stephenson, Robert L.; Benson, Ashleen J.; Brooks, Kate

    2017-01-01

    While international agreements and legislation call for incorporation of four pillars of sustainability, the social (including cultural), economic and institutional aspects (the ‘human dimension’) have been relatively neglected to date. Three key impediments have been identified: a relative lack...... of explicit social, economic and institutional objectives; a general lack of process (frameworks, governance) for routine integration of all four pillars of sustainability; and a bias towards biological considerations. Practical integration requires a ‘systems’ approach with explicit consideration...... in fisheries to immediately take five practical steps toward integrating ecological, economic, social and institutional aspects: (1) Adopt the perspective of the fishery as a ‘system’ with interacting natural, human and management elements; (2) Be aware of both strategic and operational aspects of fisheries...

  19. INTEGRATED DESEASE MANAGEMENT FOR CHILI FARMING IN BREBES AND MAGELANG - CENTRAL JAVA: SOCIAL ECONOMIC IMPACTS

    OpenAIRE

    Joko Mariyono

    2016-01-01

    This study aims to analyze the impact of an integrated disease management (IDM) on chilli. Chili disease control technologies that include crop barrier with corn and Crotalaria, and compost tea have been introduced to farmers in Magelang and Brebes. A qualitative approach was used to assess and estimate the socio-economic impact of agricultural research. The study was conducted in 2011. The results showed that based on land use chili, the net economic benefits generated was relatively low. Th...

  20. NO to ¥E$? Enhancing Economic Integration in East Asia through Closer Monetary Cooperation

    OpenAIRE

    Lamberte, Mario B.; Milo, Melanie S.; Pontines, Victor

    2001-01-01

    This paper has reviewed four major developments in the last 30 years: the collapse of the Bretton Woods arrangements; deepening of economic integration worldwide; the frequency and severity of the crises that affected not only developing economies but developed economies as well; and the formation of the Euroland. Against this background was the increasing intra-regional trade and investment in East Asia. Existing empirical studies generally show that East Asia has satisfied the economic crit...

  1. How can ASEAN and Japan mutually benefit from ASEAN economic integration?

    OpenAIRE

    Sato, Hitoshi

    2014-01-01

    This paper reviews the evolution of the economic and political relationship between the Association of Southeast Asian Nations (ASEAN) Member States and Japan since the 1970s, from the perspectives of trade in goods and services, foreign direct investment (FDI) and international labour movements. ASEAN economic integration is likely to yield mutual benefits for both ASEAN Member States and Japan. The larger ASEAN market will not only attract new Japanese FDI but also encourage Japanese multin...

  2. Is Pan-Asian Economic Integration Moving Forward?: Evidence from Pan-Asian Trade Statistics

    OpenAIRE

    Sapkota, Jeet Bahadur; Shuto, Motoko

    2016-01-01

    Asia is growing economically faster than any other region in the world; this led to the shift of the center of gravity of the global economy from the West to the East. However, it is not clear whether the Asian economy is integrating regionally or globally. In the context of the growing efforts of regional or sub-regional pan-Asian integration, it is worthwhile to explore the pan-Asian trade flows regionally as well as globally. Thus, this paper examines the trend and determinants of economic...

  3. Economic Integration and Foreign Direct Investment: Review of Main Theoretical Concepts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adam MARSZK

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available The objective of the article is to present key theoretical relationships between economic integration and FDI flows. The research method used is a comprehensive literature review. Most influential publications, including books, articles, working papers, etc. contributing to the subject were identified. The review consists of two essential parts: theory of FDI, and theoretical relationships between economic integration and FDI flows. Finally, the outlined publications were discussed and critiqued, including the empirical context, i.e. empirical verification of the presented links.

  4. The Conceptual Framework for Ensuring Economic Safety of Corporate Integration Processes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gutsaliuk Oleksii M.

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available The objective growth of the number of displays and influence of negative factors of threats from the environment actualizes the issue of ensuring economic safety of national economic entities. The article notes that simultaneously with counteracting threats enterprises are working for development, one form of which is the establishment of corporate structures and implementation of integration processes. It is proposed to ensure achieving the desired level of the corporate structure economic safety through optimizing the correlation of resources and competencies, skills and technologies for their use within the integrated logistics value chain. In this case it is the implementation of the integration process that serves as an instrument for achieving this optimal correlation, and the level of economic safety is considered as one of the optimization criteria. The system of authors’ hypotheses is taken as the basis for ensuring economic safety of the corporate integration process. Each of the hypotheses corresponds to a set of conceptual principles aimed at practical implementation of the proposed approaches. Within these conceptual principles the relationship between incentives and benefits of integration and the basis for ensuring their safety is presented, the differences between safety of functioning and safety of development are studied, the use of the methodology of logistics to harmonize the interests of participants of the corporate structure is justified, the relevance of applying the resource approach to manage the integration and development safety is proved. The graphical representation of causal relationships between the proposed conceptual principles allowed formalizing the subject area of studying corporate integration safety

  5. Integration of hydrothermal carbonization and a CHP plant: Part 2 –operational and economic analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saari, Jussi; Sermyagina, Ekaterina; Kaikko, Juha; Vakkilainen, Esa; Sergeev, Vitaly

    2016-01-01

    Wood-fired combined heat and power (CHP) plants are a proven technology for producing domestic, carbon-neutral heat and power in Nordic countries. One drawback of CHP plants is the low capacity factors due to varying heat loads. In the current economic environment, uncertainty over energy prices creates also uncertainty over investment profitability. Hydrothermal carbonization (HTC) is a promising thermochemical conversion technology for producing an improved, more versatile wood-based fuel. Integrating HTC with a CHP plant allows simplifying the HTC process and extending the CHP plant operating time. An integrated polygeneration plant producing three energy products is also less sensitive to price changes in any one product. This study compares three integration cases chosen from the previous paper, and the case of separate stand-alone plants. The best economic performance is obtained using pressurized hot water from the CHP plant boiler drum as HTC process water. This has the poorest efficiency, but allows the greatest cost reduction in the HTC process and longest CHP plant operating time. The result demonstrates the suitability of CHP plants for integration with a HTC process, and the importance of economic and operational analysis considering annual load variations in sufficient detail. - Highlights: • Integration of wood hydrothermal carbonization with a small CHP plant studied. • Operation and economics of three concepts and stand-alone plants are compared. • Sensitivity analysis is performed. • Results show technical and thermodynamic analysis inadequate and misleading alone. • Minimizing HTC investment, extending CHP operating time important for profitability.

  6. How tax incentives affect the economics of solar energy equipment in the state of North Carolina

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McGuffey, B.; Brooks, B.; Shirley, L.

    1998-01-01

    To promote and encourage the use of solar energy, the state of North Carolina has put in place one of the most favorable corporate energy tax credit packages in the country. The capital cost of solar energy systems can be reduced 50 to 70% by state and federal tax incentives. The available incentives for solar equipment installation are (1) a 35% state tax credit, up to a one year maximum of $25,000, from North Carolina; (2) a 10% unlimited federal tax credit; and (3) a 5-year federal accelerated depreciation schedule. To promote residential solar systems, the state has provided a residential credit of 40% up to a one year maximum of $1,500

  7. North-East Asian Super Grid: Renewable energy mix and economics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Breyer, Christian; Bogdanov, Dmitrii; Komoto, Keiichi; Ehara, Tomoki; Song, Jinsoo; Enebish, Namjil

    2015-08-01

    Further development of the North-East Asian energy system is at a crossroads due to severe limitations of the current conventional energy based system. For North-East Asia it is proposed that the excellent solar and wind resources of the Gobi desert could enable the transformation towards a 100% renewable energy system. An hourly resolved model describes an energy system for North-East Asia, subdivided into 14 regions interconnected by high voltage direct current (HVDC) transmission grids. Simulations are made for highly centralized, decentralized and country-wide grids scenarios. The results for total system levelized cost of electricity (LCOE) are 0.065 and 0.081 €/(kW·h) for the centralized and decentralized approaches for 2030 assumptions. The presented results for 100% renewable resources-based energy systems are lower in LCOE by about 30-40% than recent findings in Europe for conventional alternatives. This research clearly indicates that a 100% renewable resources-based energy system is THE real policy option.

  8. 'Take the long way down': Integration of large-scale North Sea wind using HVDC transmission

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Weigt, Hannes; Jeske, Till; Leuthold, Florian; Hirschhausen, Christian von

    2010-01-01

    We analyze the impact of extensive wind development in Germany for the year 2015, focusing on grid extensions and price signals. We apply the electricity generation and network model ELMOD to compare zonal, nodal, and uniform pricing approaches. In addition to a reference case of network extensions recommended by the German Energy Agency (Dena), we develop a scenario to transmit wind energy to major load centers in Western and Southern Germany via high-voltage direct current (HVDC) connections. From an economic-engineering standpoint, our results indicate that these connections are the most economic way to manage the integration of large-scale offshore wind resources, and that nodal pricing is most likely to determine the locales for future investment to eliminate congestion. We conclude with a description of the model's potential limitations.

  9. Need Analysis of Coastal Fisherman empowerment Based on Economics education and Potential Coastal in Minahasa Regency of North Sulawesi

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wantah, Edwin; Djatmika, Ery Tri; Witjaksono, Mit; Wahyono, Hari

    2018-05-01

    This research article aims to describe the need analysis process of coastal fisherman empowerment in North Minahasa Regency of North Sulawesi Province through internalization of economics education and technical training based on potential coastal.This research used descriptive qualitative research design by using survey, field observational interview and Focus Group Discussion (FGD) method. The research subjects were 40 coastal fishermen in North Minahasa Regency spread in two sub-districts, namely Wori Sub-district and Kema Sub-district in North Minahasa Regency, who have capture capacity of 10 gross ton sand below. The results of needs analysis were identified in observation, in-depth interview, and Focus Group Discussion (FGD), which was confirmed by the survey results indicating that 87.5% of the coastal fishermen need knowledge and understanding of characteristics, attitudes and principles to become successful entrepreneurs, which can be implemented in productive business activities on coastal area, while 92.5% of the coastal fishermen require an understanding of creativity and innovation and its implementation, 90% of the coastal fishermen require knowledge of business diversification based on coastal area and marine potentials, 90% of the fishermen stated that they need knowledge and understanding of the process of processed fish products because of the abundant raw materials, 80% of the coastal fishermen said that they need an understanding of the way to establish business partnerships and business networks with other business groups, 90% of the coastal fishermen stated that they need an understanding of the way to form fishermen joint business groups and the way to develop the business group. 92.5% of the coastal fishermen need an understanding of business capital and the way to access business capital, and 85% of the coastal fishermen said that they need to understand money management, the way to plan proper financial allocations, and saving procedures

  10. Integrating Educational, Environmental, and Behavioral Economic Strategies May Improve the Effectiveness of Obesity Interventions

    OpenAIRE

    Joel Gittelsohn; Katherine Lee

    2013-01-01

    Interventions that change the food environment, provide nutrition education, and employ behavioral economics strategies can potentially contribute to healthier diets and reduce the risk of chronic disease, but no attempt has been made to integrate these into the same conceptual framework. We present case studies of three multilevel, integrated interventions implemented by Johns Hopkins University between 2004–2011. We develop a conceptual model based on these case studies. Interventions and p...

  11. FORMATION OF ORGANIZATIONAL AND ECONOMIC INTEGRATED STRUCTURES IN THE ALUMINUM INDUSTRY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. B. Kazbekova

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper reveals the theoretical foundations of economic efficiency of production and integrated structures formation. Their advantages are demonstrated by the example of the formation of vertically integrated structures in the aluminium industry in the framework created by smelting aluminium cluster inKazakhstan. Also examines the valuable experience gained in the organization of such structures in theRussian Federationin recent years

  12. Trends And Economic Assessment Of Integration Processes At The Metal Market

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olga Aleksandrovna Romanova

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The article discussed the integration process from the perspective of three dimensions that characterize the corresponding increase in the number and appearance of new relationships; strength, character, and stability of emerging communications; dynamics and the appropriate form of the process. In the article, trends of development of integration processes in metallurgy are identified, identification of five stages of development in Russian metal trading are justified. We propose a step by step way to implement the integration process, developed a methodical approach to assessing the feasibility of economic integration processes steel producers and steel traders, including three consecutive stages of its implementing respectively, the principles of reflexive control, entropy approach, the traditional assessment of mergers and acquisitions. The algorithm for the practical realization of the author’s approach, which allows to identify the optimal trajectory of the integration process as a series of horizontal and vertical integration steps is developed.

  13. Modelling efficient innovative work: integration of economic and social psychological approaches

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Babanova Yulia

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The article deals with the relevance of integration of economic and social psychological approaches to the solution of enhancing the efficiency of innovation management. The content, features and specifics of the modelling methods within each of approaches are unfolded and options of integration are considered. The economic approach lies in the generation of the integrated matrix concept of management of innovative development of an enterprise in line with the stages of innovative work and the use of the integrated vector method for the evaluation of the innovative enterprise development level. The social psychological approach lies in the development of a system of psychodiagnostic indexes of activity resources within the scope of psychological innovative audit of enterprise management and development of modelling methods for the balance of activity trends. Modelling the activity resources is based on the system of equations accounting for the interaction type of psychodiagnostic indexes. Integration of two approaches includes a methodological level, a level of empirical studies and modelling methods. There are suggested options of integrating the economic and psychological approaches to analyze available material and non-material resources of the enterprises’ innovative work and to forecast an optimal option of development based on the implemented modelling methods.

  14. Techno-economic evaluation for the heat integration of vaporisation cold energy in natural gas processing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koku, Oludolapo; Perry, Simon; Kim, Jin-Kuk

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • Development of thermal integration modelling framework for the utilisation of LNG cold energy. • Feasibility study for various design options for the integration of low-temperature cold energy. • Provision of a design approach for achieving efficient use of cold energy in LNG terminals. • Understanding of techno-economic impacts associated with the thermal integration of LNG cold energy. - Abstract: This paper addresses a conceptual study investigating the techno-economic feasibility for the thermal Integration of LNG cold vaporisation energy in power generation applications. In conventional regasification systems, this valuable LNG cold energy is often being wasted to ambient heat sources, representing a thermodynamic inefficient process with a significant thermal impact on the local environment. A combined facility consisting of a non-integrated Combined Cycle Power Plant (CCPP) and an LNG receiving terminal employing traditional Open Rack Vaporisers (ORV) technology, has been modelled, as a base case. Retrofit strategies for the integration of LNG cold energy have been investigated, and their impacts on power production and system efficiency are systematically compared. Retrofit design options considered in this work include the use of a propane Rankine cycle coupled with the direct expansion of natural gas, the integration of a closed-loop water cycle or open-loop water circuit with a steam Rankine cycle, and the facilitation of integrated air cooling for a gas turbine

  15. Food shopping transition: socio-economic characteristics and motivations associated with use of supermarkets in a North African urban environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tessier, Sophie; Traissac, Pierre; Bricas, Nicolas; Maire, Bernard; Eymard-Duvernay, Sabrina; El Ati, Jalila; Delpeuch, Francis

    2010-09-01

    In the context of the nutrition transition and associated changes in the food retail sector, to examine the socio-economic characteristics and motivations of shoppers using different retail formats (large supermarkets (LSM), medium-sized supermarkets (MSM) or traditional outlets) in Tunisia. Cross-sectional survey (2006). Socio-economic status, type of food retailer and motivations data were collected during house visits. Associations between socio-economic factors and type of retailer were assessed by multinomial regression; correspondence analysis was used to analyse declared motivations. Peri-urban area around Tunis, Tunisia, North Africa. Clustered random sample of 724 households. One-third of the households used LSM, two-thirds used either type of supermarket, but less than 5 % used supermarkets only. Those who shopped for food at supermarkets were of higher socio-economic status; those who used LSM were much wealthier, more often had a steady income or owned a credit card, while MSM users were more urban and had a higher level of education. Most households still frequently used traditional outlets, mostly their neighbourhood grocer. Reasons given for shopping at the different retailers were most markedly leisure for LSM, while for the neighbourhood grocer the reasons were fidelity, proximity and availability of credit (the latter even more for lower-income customers). The results pertain to the transition in food shopping practices in a south Mediterranean country; they should be considered in the context of growing inequalities in health linked to the nutritional transition, as they differentiate use and motivations for the choice of supermarkets v. traditional food retailers according to socio-economic status.

  16. What determines crime rates? An empirical test of integrated economic and sociological theories of criminal behavior

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Engelen, Peter Jan; Lander, Michel W.; van Essen, Marc

    Research on crime has by no means reached a definitive conclusion on which factors are related to crime rates. We contribute to the crime literature by providing an integrated empirical model of economic and sociological theories of criminal behavior and by using a very comprehensive set of

  17. Environmental and economic sustainability of integrated production in bio-refineries : The thistle case in Sardinia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Yazan, Devrim; Mandras, Giovanni; Garau, Giorgio

    2016-01-01

    This paper aims at evaluating the environmental and economic sustainability of bio-refineries that produce multiple products through their supply chains (SCs). A physical enterprise input-output (EIO) model is used to quantify the material/energy/waste flows and integrated to the monetary EIO model

  18. Factors influencing economic profitability of dampling-based integrated management of wheat in country elevators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Integrated pest management provides the potential for better insect management in stored wheat, as well as increased worker safety and reduced environmental concerns. Many country elevators, however, continue to use chemical-based approaches. To determine if this choice is economically justified, to...

  19. Disentangling agronomic and economic yield gaps: An integrated framework and application

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dijk, M. van; Morley, T.; Jongeneel, R.A.; Ittersum, M.K. van; Reidsma, P.; Ruben, R.

    2017-01-01

    Despite its frequent use in policy discussions on future agricultural production, both the concept of the yield gap and its determinants are understood differently by economists and agronomists. This study provides a micro-level framework that disentangles and integrates agronomic and economic

  20. Integrating environmental and economic performance to assess modern silvoarable agroforestry in Europe

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Palma, J.; Graves, A.R.; Burgess, P.J.; Werf, van der W.; Herzog, F.

    2007-01-01

    The environmental and economic performance of silvoarable agroforestry in Europe is highly variable. Multi-criteria analysis, using the PROMETHEE outranking approach, was used to evaluate the integrated performance of silvoarable agroforestry on hypothetical farms in nineteen landscape test sites in

  1. Science and Ecological Economics: Integrating of the Study of Humans and the Rest of Nature

    Science.gov (United States)

    Costanza, Robert

    2009-01-01

    Ecological economics is a transdisciplinary field that seeks to integrate the study of humans and the rest of nature as the basis for the creation of a sustainable and desirable future. It seeks to dissolve the barriers between the traditional disciplines and achieve a true "consilience" of all the sciences and humanities. This consilient,…

  2. Assessing the economic feasibility of flexible integrated gasification Co-generation facilities

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Meerman, J.C.; Ramírez Ramírez, C.A.; Turkenburg, W.C.; Faaij, A.P.C.

    2011-01-01

    This paper evaluated the economic effects of introducing flexibility to state-of-the-art integrated gasification co-generation (IGCG) facilities equipped with CO2 capture. In a previous paper the technical and energetic performances of these flexible IG-CG facilities were evaluated. This paper

  3. Integrated production of sugarcane ethanol and soybean biodiesel: Environmental and economic implications of fossil diesel displacement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Souza, Simone P.; Seabra, Joaquim E.A.

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • Sugarcane sector is responsible for around 4% of the diesel consumption in Brazil. • Soybean biodiesel can reduce the fossil diesel demand in the sugarcane sector. • The local use of biodiesel could reduce logistic problems and environmental burdens. • The sugarcane–soybean integration is likely to improve ethanol life cycle performance. • Fiscal incentives could reduce the economic uncertainties of the integration. - Abstract: The sugarcane industry in Brazil has been considered promising for the production of advanced fuels and bio-based products. However, the sugarcane crop requires high volumes of fossil fuel for cultivation and transport. The use of biodiesel as a diesel substitute could reduce the environmental burdens associated with this high consumption. This work performed a stochastic evaluation of the environmental and economic implications of the integrated production of sugarcane bioethanol and soybean biodiesel, in comparison with the traditional sugarcane-to-ethanol process. The analysis was focused on the states of Goiás, Mato Grosso and São Paulo, where this integration would be particularly attractive. The environmental aspects addressed were the fossil energy use and the GHG emissions in a cradle-to-gate approach. The economic analysis comprised the evaluation of the net present value of an incremental cash flow generated by the soybean production and by the adjacent plants of oil extraction and biodiesel. Results indicate that the integrated system is likely to improve the ethanol environmental performance, especially with regard to the fossil energy use. The integration is economically feasible but highly uncertain; however, it could be significantly improved through fiscal incentives to biodiesel producers, founded on the reduction of fossil energy use and on improvements in logistics. In addition, the proposed model may also assist in the design of other integrated systems applied to the sugarcane sector in Brazil

  4. An energy/emissions/economic analysis resource for north Moravia, upper Silesia, and Kisuca

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Walder, V.

    1995-12-31

    The United States Agency for International Development (USAID) is sponsoring the Technology Transfer Network (TTN) which is centered in Ostrava, Czech Republic. The primary objective of the TTN is to provide a resource for municipalities, industries, and companies interested in reducing air pollution, improving energy efficiency, and implementing projects in North Moravia, Upper Silesia, and Kisuca. The TTN is providing a communications network (newsletters, mailings, and other media), seminars, workshops, software, access to past and ongoing studies, and a database of U.S. vendors supporting the region. Seminars and major communication material of the TTN will be provided in Czech/Slovak, Polish, and English as appropriate.

  5. Interactions of climate, socio-economics, and global mercury pollution in the North Water

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dietz, Rune; Mosbech, Anders; Flora, Janne

    2018-01-01

    Despite the remoteness of the North Water, Northwest Greenland, the local Inughuit population is affected by global anthropogenic pollution and climate change. Using a cross-disciplinary approach combining Mercury (Hg) analysis, catch information, and historical and anthropological perspectives......, this article elucidates how the traditional diet is compromised by Hg pollution originating from lower latitudes. In a new approach we here show how the Inughuits in Avanersuaq are subject to high Hg exposure from the hunted traditional food, consisting of mainly marine seabirds and mammals. Violation...

  6. Economic growth, employment and poverty in the Middle East and North Africa

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    M. Messkoub (Mahmood)

    2008-01-01

    textabstractThis paper  provides an assessment of economic growth, employment and poverty reduction in the Arab MENA region. Considering the high rate of unemployment (especially the youth unemployment) and poverty in most countries in the region employment and poverty impacts of growth are of

  7. Influence of forest and rangeland management on anadromous fish habitat in Western North America: economic considerations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    William R. tech. ed. Meehan

    1985-01-01

    Although many effects of forest and rangeland management on anadromous fisheries are difficult to measure, economic methods for the evaluation of costs and benefits can be helpful. Such methods can be used to address questions of equity as well as efficiency. Evaluations of equity can show who bears the costs and who captures the benefits of management actions, but...

  8. An economic analysis of sweet sorghum cultivation for ethanol production in North China

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Liu, H.; Ren, L.; Spiertz, J.H.J.; Zhu, Y.; Xie, G.H.

    2015-01-01

    Sweet sorghum [Sorghum bicolor (L.) Moench] is a promising non-food energy crop. The objective of this study was to determine the economic costs and input sensitivity of sweet sorghum compared to cotton, maize, and sunflower, at two saline-alkali sites in Shandong (Wudi County) and Inner Mongolia

  9. Oil and the economic geography of the Middle East and North Africa

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kortepeter, C.M.

    1990-01-01

    This book gives us the opportunity to follow the development of the field of economic geography as applied to the Middle East during the past half century. The materials are arranged under the following three headings: Geography and Petroleum: Boundaries and Boundary Disputes: and Social Geography

  10. Economic viability of alternative sources of energy for a typical community of the region north and northeast of Brazil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vanni, Silvia Regina; Sabundjian, Gaiane

    2008-01-01

    A study of viability of alternative energy sources for typical communities of the North or Northeast of Brazil, which do not have access to the electric energy is performed. Brazil presents a great economic and social disparity among its several regions. There are several poor communities, mainly in regions far from big cities, without electrical energy. The Brazilian government has a program known as 'Luz para Todos' (Light for All). The big challenge of this program is to bring electrical energy for everyone using new alternatives energy sources. In this work initially a literature review was made concerning the following alternative energy source: wind, solar and biomass. These energy sources can be used to supply the demand to bring electrical energy for poor communities. For this work it is intended to choose a community that has population between 1,000 and 10,000 and does not have access to electrical energy. For this community an economic viability study will be made to evaluate alternative energy sources. The best energy source resulted from the point of view of the economic viability study will be implemented in that community. A new study will be performed to evaluate cost and environmental impact. In this new study the future social development of the community caused by the installation of electrical energy will be considered. Also, this best energy source will be compared with the new generation of nuclear reactors, for instance , the IRIS reactor. (author)

  11. Economic viability of alternative sources of energy for a typical community of the Region North and Northeast of Brazil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vanni, Silvia Regina; Sabundjian, Gaiane

    2007-01-01

    The objective of this work is to perform a study of viability of alternative energy sources for typical communities of the North or Northeast of Brazil, which do not have access to the electric energy. Brazil presents a great economic and social disparity among its several regions. There are several poor communities, mainly in regions far from big cities, without electrical energy. The Brazilian government has a program known as 'Luz para Todos' (Light for All). The big challenge for this program is to bring electrical energy for everyone using new alternatives energy sources. In this work initially a literature review was made concerning the following alternative energy sources: wind, solar and biomass. These energy sources can be used to supply the demand to bring electrical energy for poor communities. For this work it is intended to choose a community that has population between 1,000 the 10,000 and does not have access to electrical energy. For this community an economic viability study will be made to evaluate alternative energy sources. The best energy source resulted from the point of view of the economic viability study will be implemented in that community. A new study will be performed to evaluate cost and environmental impact. In this new study the future social development of the community caused by the installation of electrical energy will be considered. Also, this best energy source will be compared with the new generation of nuclear reactors, for instance, the IRIS reactor. (author)

  12. Measuring Multi-Membership in Economic Integration and Its Trade Impact

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Afesorgbor, Sylvanus Kwaku; van Bergeijk, Peter A.G.

    2014-01-01

    impact in two major African regional blocs, Economic Community of West Africa States (ECOWAS) and Southern Africa Development Community (SADC). We find that the impact of multi-membership critically depends on the characteristics of the multi-membership of regional integration initiatives. We find...... a positive impact if an additional membership complements the integration process of the original regional integration initiative: overlapping memberships had a much stronger and significant positive effect on bilateral trade within ECOWAS compare with an insignificant impact within the SADC....

  13. Sustainable development and migration policies: their treatment within the Latin American economic integration blocks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marmora, L

    1994-01-01

    Without an equal sharing of costs and benefits of natural and human resources worldwide, imbalances and lack of human development lead to migration within and between countries. Economic integration blocks in Latin America provide a context for shared development: in Central America, in the Andean Region, and in the Southern Cone. Over the past 60 years migration policy was based on national protectionism, labor supply, and/or occupation of territory. When economic conditions changed to market economies and world markets, migration policy was redefined. Each of the economic integration blocks has developed its own strategies. The Andean Agreement on Labor Migrations was established to determine the rules for bilateral and multilateral treatment of problems. In the Southern Cone bilateral agreements have been longstanding. Multilateral efforts were recently underway within the Southern Common Market and throughout the region. The Central American Organization for Migrations has spearheaded the adoption of a multilateral strategy. All three regions have made considerable progress in the last three years in constructing multilateral policies for economic integration. Government awareness has been the primary force in these policy changes. Government has come to an understanding that clear domestic and regional migration policies were lacking and that obsolete migration practices of the 1930s did not meet the needs of the 1990s. Migration policy was considered an instrument of development. Movement of economic factors or goods was considered equally with movement of labor. Migration policies must integrate the human rights of migrants into their definitions. Methods of facilitating the movements of populations need to be constructed within the computerization and modernization of the migration administration. Legalization of illegal immigrants has occurred among a number of countries. PROCAM and PRIMCOS were action programs which aimed to integrate migration and

  14. Integrating Climate and Ecosystem-Response Sciences in Temperate Western North American Mountains: The CIRMOUNT Initiative

    Science.gov (United States)

    Millar, C. I.; Fagre, D. B.

    2004-12-01

    Mountain regions are uniquely sensitive to changes in climate, vulnerable to climate effects on biotic and physical factors of intense social concern, and serve as critical early-warning systems of climate impacts. Escalating demands on western North American (WNA) mountain ecosystems increasingly stress both natural resources and rural community capacities; changes in mountain systems cascade to issues of national concern. Although WNA has long been a focus for climate- and climate-related environmental research, these efforts remain disciplinary and poorly integrated, hindering interpretation into policy and management. Knowledge is further hampered by lack of standardized climate monitoring stations at high-elevations in WNA. An initiative is emerging as the Consortium for Integrated Climate Research in Western Mountains (CIRMOUNT) whose primary goal is to improve knowledge of high-elevation climate systems and to better integrate physical, ecological, and social sciences relevant to climate change, ecosystem response, and natural-resource policy in WNA. CIRMOUNT seeks to focus research on climate variability and ecosystem response (progress in understanding synoptic scale processes) that improves interpretation of linkages between ecosystem functions and human processing (progress in understanding human-environment integration), which in turn would yield applicable information and understanding on key societal issues such as mountains as water towers, biodiversity, carbon forest sinks, and wildland hazards such as fire and forest dieback (progress in understanding ecosystem services and key thresholds). Achieving such integration depends first on implementing a network of high-elevation climate-monitoring stations, and linking these with integrated ecosystem-response studies. Achievements since 2003 include convening the 2004 Mountain Climate Sciences Symposium (1, 2) and several special sessions at technical conferences; initiating a biennial mountain climate

  15. The Economic Implications of Korean Unification

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Schmitz, Jonathan

    2002-01-01

    .... To lessen this burden, South Korea will need to initiate policy reforms that can ease the financial stress and repercussions of unification and create an integrated economic community with North Korea...

  16. The Economic Implications of Korean Unification

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Schmitz, Jonathan

    2002-01-01

    .... At the same time, North Korea will need to create an environment that is conducive to economic integration by accepting and adopting reform measures that can build the foundation for a market economy...

  17. The North American power delivery system: Balancing market restructuring and environmental economics with infrastructure security

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Massoud Amin, S.; Gellings, Clark W.

    2006-01-01

    The North American electric power system was developed over the last 100 years without a conscious awareness and analysis of the system-wide implications of its current evolution under the forces of deregulation, system complexity, power-market impacts, terrorism, and human error. The possibility of power delivery beyond neighboring areas was a distant secondary consideration. Today, the North American power network may realistically be considered to be the largest machine in the world. With the advent of deregulation and competition in the electric power industry, new ways are being sought to improve the efficiency of that network without seriously diminishing its reliability and security. Controlling a heterogeneous, widely dispersed, yet globally interconnected system is a serious technological problem in any case. It is even more complex and difficult to control it for optimal efficiency and maximum benefit to the ultimate consumers while still allowing all its business components to compete fairly and freely. In this paper we present an overview of key issues and the context in which the electricity infrastructure is being operated under the above forces along with a strategic vision extending to a decade, or longer, that would enable more secure and robust systems operation, security monitoring, and efficient energy markets. (author)

  18. The economics of CO2-EOR cluster developments in the UK Central North Sea

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kemp, Alexander G.; Kasim, Sola

    2013-01-01

    Studies to date have generally shown that individual CO 2 -EOR offshore projects are uneconomic except under questionable assumptions. The present study is based on an interconnected cluster of nine oilfields in the Central North Sea linked to an onshore CO 2 collection hub by a set of existing and new pipelines. Monte Carlo simulation modelling was undertaken of the prospective returns to investments in CO 2 -EOR in the fields. Relatively high oil prices were employed for the study period (2020–2050) and two contrasting CO 2 transfer price scenarios, the first being the Carbon Price Floor (CPF) introduced by the UK Government and the second being relatively low negotiated prices reflecting recent and prospective levels under the EU-ETS. At CPF prices the investment returns were all found to be negative, but at prices averaging £10 per tonne positive returns were generally achieved. The study emphasises the importance of CO 2 prices and the taxation system in determining the viability of the investments. - Highlights: • Detailed modelling of CO 2 EOR in nine North Sea oil fields. • Overall investment risks are demonstrated to be very high. • Sharing of pipelines in network and cluster of CO 2 -EOR fields significantly reduces investment costs. • Range of plausible CO 2 prices paid by investor results in very wide range of returns from CO 2 -EOR. • CO 2 pricing and tax arrangements for EOR need further attention by policy makers

  19. Farm Household Economic Model of The Integrated Crop Livestock System: Conceptual and Empirical Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Atien Priyanti

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available An integrated approach to enhance rice production in Indonesia is very prospectus throughout the implementation of adapted and liable integrated program. One of the challenges in rice crop sub sector is the stagnation of its production due to the limitation of organic matter availability. This provides an opportunity for livestock development to overcome the problems on land fertility through the use of manure as the source of organic fertilizer. Ministry of Agriculture had implemented a program on Increasing Integrated Rice Productivity with an Integrated Crop Livestock System as one of the potential components since 2002. Integrated crop livestock system program with special reference to rice field and beef cattle is an alternative to enhance the potential development of agriculture sector in Indonesia. The implementation on this integrated program is to enhance rice production and productivity through a system involving beef cattle with its goal on increasing farmers’ income. Household economic model can be used as one of the analysis to evaluate the success of the implemented crop livestock system program. The specificity of the farmers is that rationality behavior of the role as production and consumption decision making. In this case, farmers perform the production to meet home consumption based on the resources that used directly for its production. The economic analysis of farmers household can be described to anticipate policy options through this model. Factors influencing farmers’ decisions and direct interrelations to production and consumption aspects that have complex implications for the farmers’ welfare of the integrated crop livestock system program.

  20. HARMONIZATION OF TAX SYSTEMS IN THE EAEU COUNTRIES IN THE CONDITIONS OF DEEPENING ECONOMIC INTEGRATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aleksandr V. Ishkhanov

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available The present article analyzes the viewpoints of scientists of different economic directions on the possibility and expediency of tax policy coordination in the countries-participants of economic and monetary associations. The authors assess the role of tax instruments in the regional integration associations, study the differences in the tax systems of the countries of the Eurasian Economic Union, which restrain the integration processes within the union. The influence of the fiscal policy of the EAEU member countries on the state of their economies is studied. The authors of the article believe that, in the context of deepening integration in the EAEU, the deliberate distribution of powers in the field of tax regulation between state and supranational authorities ensuring a consistent approximation of tax systems of the participating countries taking into account the economic situation and interests of all members of the association, gains particular relevance. The measures on ensuring the elimination of double taxation within the union are proposed. The authors come to the conclusion that it is necessary to harmonize the tax policies of the member countries of the association. At the same time, the harmonization of taxation in the countries of the union should become a condition, the observance of which is necessary for the formation of a currency zone in the territory of the Unified Energy System. The article presents a set of measures aimed at ensuring equal conditions for taxing business in the EAEU. Particular attention is paid to the study of the possibility of expanding the revenues and expenditures of the unified budget of the EAEU with a view to providing financial support to projects aimed at accelerating the processes of economic and monetary integration. The authors consider it expedient to redistribute part of the national income of the participating countries to the depressed regions of the association, provided that these measures

  1. Economic Impact Assessment of Wind Power Integration: A Quasi-Public Goods Property Perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Huiru Zhao

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available The integration of wind power into power grid will bring some impacts on the multiple subjects of electric power system. Economic impacts of wind power integration on multiple subjects of China’s electric power system were quantitatively assessed from Quasi-public goods property perspective in this paper. Firstly, the Quasi-public goods property of transmission services provided by power grid corporations was elaborated. Secondly, the multiple subjects of China’s electric power system, which include electricity generation enterprises (EGEs, power grid corporations (PGCs, electricity consumers (ECs, and environment, were detailed analyzed. Thirdly, based on the OPF-based nodal price model and transmission service cost allocation model, the economic impact assessment model of wind power integration was built from Quasi-public goods property perspective. Then, the IEEE-24 bus system employed in this paper was introduced according to current status of China’s electric power system, and the modeling of wind turbine was also introduced. Finally, the simulation analysis was performed, and the economic impacts of wind power integration on EGEs, PGCs, ECs and Environment were calculated. The results indicate, from Quasi-public goods property perspective, the wind power integration will bring positive impacts on EGEs, PGCs and Environment, while negative impacts on ECs. The findings can provide references for power system managers, energy planners, and policy makers.

  2. Economic and Financial Interactions between Brazil and Mexico: ¿Which Degree of Integration?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ma. Esther Morales

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper analyzes trade and financial transactions between Brazil and Mexico in order to evaluate the magnitude of their reciprocal integration. Our results suggest that both countries have successfully got inserted into the international economy, which can be observed in their high volumes of trade, in their receiving foreign direct investment and in the size of their capital markets, as well as in the magnitude of their association with the most important countries and financial centers throughout the world. However, even if their bi-na-tional trade and financial integration has notably increased, especially after the Economic Complementation Agreements came into force in 2003 and due to the "translatinization" of Brazilian and Mexican firms, the magnitude of their reciprocal trade and financial transactions remains at very low relative levels, a situation that may significantly change in the framework of a possible strategic agreement of economic integration between these two countries.

  3. Integrated Worker Health Protection and Promotion Programs: Overview and Perspectives on Health and Economic Outcomes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pronk, Nicolaas P.

    2014-01-01

    Objective To describe integrated worker health protection and promotion (IWHPP) program characteristics, to discuss the rationale for integration of OSH and WHP programs, and to summarize what is known about the impact of these programs on health and economic outcomes. Methods A descriptive assessment of the current state of the IWHPP field and a review of studies on the effectiveness of IWHPP programs on health and economic outcomes. Results Sufficient evidence of effectiveness was found for IWHPP programs when health outcomes are considered. Impact on productivity-related outcomes is considered promising, but inconclusive, whereas insufficient evidence was found for health care expenditures. Conclusions Existing evidence supports an integrated approach in terms of health outcomes but will benefit significantly from research designed to support the business case for employers of various company sizes and industry types. PMID:24284747

  4. Economic Benefit from Progressive Integration of Scheduling and Control for Continuous Chemical Processes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Logan D. R. Beal

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Performance of integrated production scheduling and advanced process control with disturbances is summarized and reviewed with four progressive stages of scheduling and control integration and responsiveness to disturbances: open-loop segregated scheduling and control, closed-loop segregated scheduling and control, open-loop scheduling with consideration of process dynamics, and closed-loop integrated scheduling and control responsive to process disturbances and market fluctuations. Progressive economic benefit from dynamic rescheduling and integrating scheduling and control is shown on a continuously stirred tank reactor (CSTR benchmark application in closed-loop simulations over 24 h. A fixed horizon integrated scheduling and control formulation for multi-product, continuous chemical processes is utilized, in which nonlinear model predictive control (NMPC and continuous-time scheduling are combined.

  5. BUSINESS INTELLIGENCE APPLICATIONS – POSSIBLE INSTRUMENTS FOR ECONOMIC INTEGRATION WITHIN THE EASTERN PARTNERSHIP

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dragos Ovidiu TOFAN

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Eastern Partnership includes, in addition to bilateral components (Association Agreements, Deep and Comprehensive Free Trade Areas/DCFTA, also a multilateral dimension as "economic integration and convergence with EU policies". This stated purpose of the partnership involves the need for adaptability to regional conditions and a differentiated approach to economies in the region in order to establish common objectives. Partner countries have aspirations that vary by geographic location, state of relations with the European Union and Russia, foreign policy objectives in medium and long term, real prospects of joining the European Union, or internal stability in economic and social aspects. Macroeconomic indicators specific to each country must undergo a dynamic analysis aimed on current situations and also on evolution of economic life. Thus, it requires processing a huge volume of historical data, creating possible scenarios based on policies implemented or being implemented to reach comprehensive information to provide a realistic picture of the economic growth at the macro level. Successfully implemented in enterprises, Business Intelligence (BI applications can be used to analyze large volume of data required to be processed to reach full and useful reports for the process of negotiation between the partners involved in the agreements referred and, very importantly, to establish a common language for all bodies and institutions co-opted into negotiations. Differences between the EU and other Eastern Partnership countries are obvious but economic common terms and methods or techniques of similar work can help plan positive developments in the negotiations and the desired convergence of economic policies. Business Intelligence tools simplify the presentation of needed information for discussions and provide a foundation in starting up joint analysis of economic dynamics in the area to reach complete and actual lines of future possible

  6. Market Integration Predicts Human Gut Microbiome Attributes across a Gradient of Economic Development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stagaman, Keaton; Cepon-Robins, Tara J; Liebert, Melissa A; Gildner, Theresa E; Urlacher, Samuel S; Madimenos, Felicia C; Guillemin, Karen; Snodgrass, J Josh; Sugiyama, Lawrence S; Bohannan, Brendan J M

    2018-01-01

    Economic development is marked by dramatic increases in the incidence of microbiome-associated diseases, such as autoimmune diseases and metabolic syndromes, but the lifestyle changes that drive alterations in the human microbiome are not known. We measured market integration as a proxy for economically related lifestyle attributes, such as ownership of specific market goods that index degree of market integration and components of traditional and nontraditional (more modern) house structure and infrastructure, and profiled the fecal microbiomes of 213 participants from a contiguous, indigenous Ecuadorian population. Despite relatively modest differences in lifestyle across the population, greater economic development correlated with significantly lower within-host diversity, higher between-host dissimilarity, and a decrease in the relative abundance of the bacterium Prevotella . These microbiome shifts were most strongly associated with more modern housing, followed by reduced ownership of traditional subsistence lifestyle-associated items. IMPORTANCE Previous research has reported differences in the gut microbiome between populations residing in wealthy versus poorer countries, leading to the assertion that lifestyle changes associated with economic development promote changes in the gut microbiome that promote the proliferation of microbiome-associated diseases. However, a direct relationship between economic development and the gut microbiome has not previously been shown. We surveyed the gut microbiomes of a single indigenous population undergoing economic development and found significant associations between features of the gut microbiome and lifestyle changes associated with economic development. These findings suggest that even the earliest stages of economic development can drive changes in the gut microbiome, which may provide a warning sign for the development of microbiome-associated diseases.

  7. Integrated economic and environmental analysis of agricultural straw reuse in edible fungi industry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wencong Lu

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Background China currently faces severe environmental pollution caused by burning agricultural straw; thus, resource utilization of these straws has become an urgent policy and practical objective for the Chinese government. Methods This study develops a bio-economic model, namely, “straw resource utilization for fungi in China (SRUFIC,” on the basis of a field survey of an edible fungi plant in Zhejiang, China, to investigate an integrated economic and environmental performance of straw reuse in fungi production. Five scenarios, which cover changes in the production scale, wage level, and price fluctuations of the main product and inputs, are simulated. Results Results reveal that (1 the pilot plant potentially provides enhanced economic benefits and disposes added agricultural residues by adjusting its production strategy; (2 the economic performance is most sensitive to fungi price fluctuations, whereas the environmental performance is more sensitive to production scale and price of fungi than other factors; (3 expanding the production scale can be the most efficient means of improving the performance of a plant economically and environmentally. Discussion Overall, agricultural straw reuse in the edible fungi industry can not only reduce the environmental risk derived from burning abandoned straws but also introduce economic benefits. Thus, the straw reuse in the fungi industry should be practiced in China, and specific economic incentive policies, such as price support or subsidies, must be implemented to promote the utilization of agricultural straws in the fungi industry.

  8. A Reassessment of the Integrated Impact of Tropical Cyclones on Surface Chlorophyll in the Western Subtropical North Atlantic

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Foltz, Gregory R.; Balaguru, Karthik; Leung, Lai-Yung R.

    2015-02-28

    The impact of tropical cyclones on surface chlorophyll concentration is assessed in the western subtropical North Atlantic Ocean during 1998–2011. Previous studies in this area focused on individual cyclones and gave mixed results regarding the importance of tropical cyclone-induced mixing for changes in surface chlorophyll. Using a more integrated and comprehensive approach that includes quantification of cyclone-induced changes in mixed layer depth, here it is shown that accumulated cyclone energy explains 22% of the interannual variability in seasonally-averaged (June–November) chlorophyll concentration in the western subtropical North Atlantic, after removing the influence of the North Atlantic Oscillation (NAO). The variance explained by tropical cyclones is thus about 70% of that explained by the NAO, which has well-known impacts in this region. It is therefore likely that tropical cyclones contribute significantly to interannual variations of primary productivity in the western subtropical North Atlantic during the hurricane season.

  9. Integrated care pilot in north west London: a mixed methods evaluation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Natasha Curry

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: This paper provides the results of a year-long evaluation of a large-scale integrated care pilot in North West London. The pilot aimed to integrate care across primary, acute, community, mental health and social care for people with diabetes and those over 75 years through: care planning; multidisciplinary case reviews; information sharing; and project management support.   Methods: The evaluation team conducted qualitative studies of change at organisational, clinician, and patient levels (using interviews, focus groups and a survey; and quantitative analysis of change in service use and patient-level clinical outcomes (using patient-level data sets and a matched control study.  Results: The pilot had successfully engaged provider organisations, created a shared strategic vision and established governance structures. However, engagement of clinicians was variable and there was no evidence to date of significant reductions in emergency admissions. There was some evidence of changes in care processes. Conclusion: Although the pilot has demonstrated the beginnings of large-scale change, it remains in the early stages and faces significant challenges as it seeks to become sustainable for the longer term. It is critical that NHS managers and clinicians have realistic expectations of what can be achieved in a relatively short period of time.

  10. Integrated care pilot in north west London: a mixed methods evaluation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Natasha Curry

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: This paper provides the results of a year-long evaluation of a large-scale integrated care pilot in North West London. The pilot aimed to integrate care across primary, acute, community, mental health and social care for people with diabetes and those over 75 years through: care planning; multidisciplinary case reviews; information sharing; and project management support.    Methods: The evaluation team conducted qualitative studies of change at organisational, clinician, and patient levels (using interviews, focus groups and a survey; and quantitative analysis of change in service use and patient-level clinical outcomes (using patient-level data sets and a matched control study.   Results: The pilot had successfully engaged provider organisations, created a shared strategic vision and established governance structures. However, engagement of clinicians was variable and there was no evidence to date of significant reductions in emergency admissions. There was some evidence of changes in care processes.   Conclusion: Although the pilot has demonstrated the beginnings of large-scale change, it remains in the early stages and faces significant challenges as it seeks to become sustainable for the longer term. It is critical that NHS managers and clinicians have realistic expectations of what can be achieved in a relatively short period of time.

  11. Economic growth, combustible renewables and waste consumption, and CO₂ emissions in North Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ben Jebli, Mehdi; Ben Youssef, Slim

    2015-10-01

    This paper uses panel cointegration techniques and Granger causality tests to examine the dynamic causal link between per capita real gross domestic product (GDP), combustible renewables and waste (CRW) consumption, and CO2 emissions for a panel of five North African countries during the period 1971-2008. Granger causality test results suggest short- and long-run unidirectional causalities running from CO2 emissions and CRW consumption to real GDP and a short-run unidirectional causality running from CRW to CO2 emissions. The results from panel long-run fully modified ordinary least squares (FMOLS) and dynamic ordinary least squares (DOLS) estimates show that CO2 emissions and CRW consumption have a positive and statistically significant impact on GDP. Our policy recommendations are that these countries should use more CRW because this increases their output, reduces their energy dependency on fossil energy, and may decrease their CO2 emissions.

  12. The conflicting economic and environmental logics of North American governance : NAFTA, energy subsidies, and climate change

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roff, R.J.; Krajnc, A.; Clarkson, S.

    2003-01-01

    One of the incentives behind the North America Free Trade Agreement (NAFTA) was to promote a green economy. It offered the hope that environmentally sustainable trade was possible through provisions against downward harmonization, the respect for state autonomy in environmental regulation, and the creation of the Commission for Environmental Co-operation. However, cleaner energy trade has actually been inhibited by subsidies for fossil fuel development, government's inability to regulate the rate of resource depletion, and by favoring the priorities of transnational corporations. The authors reviewed perverse subsidies and recommended a combination of environmentally sensitive policy changes, such as the elimination of perverse subsidies, the subsidization of environmentally friendly energy sources, and the imposition of carbon taxes and demand-side management initiatives. 67 refs., 1 fig

  13. The economic implications of Korean unification

    OpenAIRE

    Schmitz, Jonathan L.

    2002-01-01

    Approved for public release; distribution unlimited A major area of concern for Korean unification is the immense cost it will impose on South Korea. To lessen this burden, South Korea will need to initiate policy reforms that can ease the financial stress and repercussions of unification and create an integrated economic community with North Korea. At the same time, North Korea will need to create an environment that is conducive to economic integration by accepting and adopting reform me...

  14. ASEAN: perspectives on economic integration: ASEAN capital market integration: issues and challenges

    OpenAIRE

    Datuk Ranjit Ajit Singh

    2009-01-01

    I am grateful for the assistance of Kaleon Leong and Chong Wui Jean in the preparation of this paper. The paper draws on the work of the ASEAN Integration plan and other related papers for which the author gratefully acknowledges. The views expressed in the paper do not necessarily reflect the views of the Securities Commission.

  15. Entropy-based analysis and bioinformatics-inspired integration of global economic information transfer.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jinkyu Kim

    Full Text Available The assessment of information transfer in the global economic network helps to understand the current environment and the outlook of an economy. Most approaches on global networks extract information transfer based mainly on a single variable. This paper establishes an entirely new bioinformatics-inspired approach to integrating information transfer derived from multiple variables and develops an international economic network accordingly. In the proposed methodology, we first construct the transfer entropies (TEs between various intra- and inter-country pairs of economic time series variables, test their significances, and then use a weighted sum approach to aggregate information captured in each TE. Through a simulation study, the new method is shown to deliver better information integration compared to existing integration methods in that it can be applied even when intra-country variables are correlated. Empirical investigation with the real world data reveals that Western countries are more influential in the global economic network and that Japan has become less influential following the Asian currency crisis.

  16. Entropy-based analysis and bioinformatics-inspired integration of global economic information transfer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Jinkyu; Kim, Gunn; An, Sungbae; Kwon, Young-Kyun; Yoon, Sungroh

    2013-01-01

    The assessment of information transfer in the global economic network helps to understand the current environment and the outlook of an economy. Most approaches on global networks extract information transfer based mainly on a single variable. This paper establishes an entirely new bioinformatics-inspired approach to integrating information transfer derived from multiple variables and develops an international economic network accordingly. In the proposed methodology, we first construct the transfer entropies (TEs) between various intra- and inter-country pairs of economic time series variables, test their significances, and then use a weighted sum approach to aggregate information captured in each TE. Through a simulation study, the new method is shown to deliver better information integration compared to existing integration methods in that it can be applied even when intra-country variables are correlated. Empirical investigation with the real world data reveals that Western countries are more influential in the global economic network and that Japan has become less influential following the Asian currency crisis.

  17. Ecosystem services and economic theory: integration for policy-relevant research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fisher, Brendan; Turner, Kerry; Zylstra, Matthew; Brouwer, Roy; de Groot, Rudolf; Farber, Stephen; Ferraro, Paul; Green, Rhys; Hadley, David; Harlow, Julian; Jefferiss, Paul; Kirkby, Chris; Morling, Paul; Mowatt, Shaun; Naidoo, Robin; Paavola, Jouni; Strassburg, Bernardo; Yu, Doug; Balmford, Andrew

    2008-12-01

    It has become essential in policy and decision-making circles to think about the economic benefits (in addition to moral and scientific motivations) humans derive from well-functioning ecosystems. The concept of ecosystem services has been developed to address this link between ecosystems and human welfare. Since policy decisions are often evaluated through cost-benefit assessments, an economic analysis can help make ecosystem service research operational. In this paper we provide some simple economic analyses to discuss key concepts involved in formalizing ecosystem service research. These include the distinction between services and benefits, understanding the importance of marginal ecosystem changes, formalizing the idea of a safe minimum standard for ecosystem service provision, and discussing how to capture the public benefits of ecosystem services. We discuss how the integration of economic concepts and ecosystem services can provide policy and decision makers with a fuller spectrum of information for making conservation-conversion trade-offs. We include the results from a survey of the literature and a questionnaire of researchers regarding how ecosystem service research can be integrated into the policy process. We feel this discussion of economic concepts will be a practical aid for ecosystem service research to become more immediately policy relevant.

  18. From Physical Process to Economic Cost - Integrated Approaches of Landslide Risk Assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klose, M.; Damm, B.

    2014-12-01

    The nature of landslides is complex in many respects, with landslide hazard and impact being dependent on a variety of factors. This obviously requires an integrated assessment for fundamental understanding of landslide risk. Integrated risk assessment, according to the approach presented in this contribution, implies combining prediction of future landslide occurrence with analysis of landslide impact in the past. A critical step for assessing landslide risk in integrated perspective is to analyze what types of landslide damage affected people and property in which way and how people contributed and responded to these damage types. In integrated risk assessment, the focus is on systematic identification and monetization of landslide damage, and analytical tools that allow deriving economic costs from physical landslide processes are at the heart of this approach. The broad spectrum of landslide types and process mechanisms as well as nonlinearity between landslide magnitude, damage intensity, and direct costs are some main factors explaining recent challenges in risk assessment. The two prevailing approaches for assessing the impact of landslides in economic terms are cost survey (ex-post) and risk analysis (ex-ante). Both approaches are able to complement each other, but yet a combination of them has not been realized so far. It is common practice today to derive landslide risk without considering landslide process-based cause-effect relationships, since integrated concepts or new modeling tools expanding conventional methods are still widely missing. The approach introduced in this contribution is based on a systematic framework that combines cost survey and GIS-based tools for hazard or cost modeling with methods to assess interactions between land use practices and landslides in historical perspective. Fundamental understanding of landslide risk also requires knowledge about the economic and fiscal relevance of landslide losses, wherefore analysis of their

  19. The Effects of Servant Leader and Integrity of Principal Performance in Catholic Senior High Schools in North Sulawesi, Indonesia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malingkas, Melky; Senduk, Johanis Frans; Simandjuntak, Suddin; Binilang, Benny Blemy

    2018-01-01

    The aim of this research was to examine the effects of servant leader and integrity on principal performance in Catholic senior high schools in North Sulawesi, Indonesia. This quantitative research used questionnaire-gathered data from 75 teachers at 11 schools. The results of research show that the servant leader approach has significant positive…

  20. ANALYSIS OF INFLUENCE FACTORS OF ECONOMIC EFFICIENCY ON THE ECONOMY OF THE INTEGRATED STRUCTURES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. P. Bogomolova

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Currently in Russia, special attention is paid to the food industry, providing a key influence on the state's economy and food security of the country. The food industry not only creates substantial part of the gross domestic product, which is one of the main sources of fillings budgets of all levels, and contributes to the strengthening of the state in world markets. These circum-stances make it necessary to increase the efficiency of industrial structures by mobilizing factors affecting the economy of enterprises, including by shifting emphasis on the integration of food industry enterprises in General competitiveness of the goods produced, the stability of the entire industry, its leading industries and organizations. The article substantiates the expediency of application of integrated structures, discusses the methods and tools of analysis of influence factors of economic efficiency on the economy of inte-grated structures. Evaluation is recommended in two key areas: assessment of the financial condition and evaluation of training and development of staff, taking into account the strategic objectives of integrated structures. The analysis makes it possible to correctly allocate financial resources and to achieve balanced economic performance management through more effective use of credit re-sources, the rational management of economic parameters optimization of the number of employees and production capacity.

  1. Techno-Economic Evaluation of Technologies to Mitigate Greenhouse Gas Emissions at North American Refineries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Motazedi, Kavan; Abella, Jessica P; Bergerson, Joule A

    2017-02-07

    A petroleum refinery model, Petroleum Refinery Life-cycle Inventory Model (PRELIM), that estimates energy use and CO 2 emissions was modified to evaluate the environmental and economic performance of a set of technologies to reduce CO 2 emissions at refineries. Cogeneration of heat and power (CHP), carbon capture at fluid catalytic cracker (FCC) and steam methane reformer (SMR) units, and alternative hydrogen production technologies were considered in the analysis. The results indicate that a 3-44% reduction in total annual refinery CO 2 emissions (2-24% reductions in the CO 2 emissions on a per barrel of crude oil processed) can be achieved in a medium conversion refinery that processes a typical U.S. crude slate obtained by using the technologies considered. A sensitivity analysis of the quality of input crude to a refinery, refinery configuration, and prices of natural gas and electricity revealed how the magnitude of possible CO 2 emissions reductions and the economic performance of the mitigation technologies can vary under different conditions. The analysis can help inform decision making related to investment decisions and CO 2 emissions policy in the refining sector.

  2. Interactions of climate, socio-economics, and global mercury pollution in the North Water.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dietz, Rune; Mosbech, Anders; Flora, Janne; Eulaers, Igor

    2018-04-01

    Despite the remoteness of the North Water, Northwest Greenland, the local Inughuit population is affected by global anthropogenic pollution and climate change. Using a cross-disciplinary approach combining Mercury (Hg) analysis, catch information, and historical and anthropological perspectives, this article elucidates how the traditional diet is compromised by Hg pollution originating from lower latitudes. In a new approach we here show how the Inughuits in Avanersuaq are subject to high Hg exposure from the hunted traditional food, consisting of mainly marine seabirds and mammals. Violation of the provisional tolerably yearly intake of Hg, on average by a factor of 11 (range 7-15) over the last 20 years as well as the provisional tolerably monthly intake by a factor of 6 (range 2-16), raises health concerns. The surplus of Selenium (Se) in wildlife tissues including narwhals showed Se:Hg molar ratios of 1.5, 2.3, and 16.7 in muscle, liver, and mattak, respectively, likely to provide some protection against the high Hg exposure.

  3. Integrated Ecological-Economic Modeling of Regions with the use of GIS Technologies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G.N. Bulatova

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available The paper shows the process of modeling the integrated map “Scheme of the ecological and economic regionalization of the territory of the Russian Federation on the basis of the mineral and raw materials base of natural adsorbents” using GIS technologies. The map is based on three main groups of indicators: natural, economic and environmental. The ecological content of the map is characterized by indicators that are potential or actual sources of pollutant release into the environment (nuclear power plants, nuclear reactors, radioactive waste storage and disposal sites, nuclear test sites, industrial enterprises, railways, operating and under construction oil pipelines, hydrocarbon fields, etc.. The economic component of the map is the reserves estimated by the indicators of study and development, the relationship to the subsoil fund and forecast resources. The natural group of indicators is represented by the mineral and raw material base of natural adsorbents (fields and objects of forecast resources that can be used to prevent harmful emissions and for the ecological and economic rehabilitation of contaminated areas. Based on the analysis of cartographic data, the ecological and economic areas of the territorial distribution of man-caused environmental impacts and the presence of adsorption raw materials are identified. As an example, a description is given of the ecological and economic model of the regionalization of the Privolzhsky Federal District using the GIS “Mineral resource base of natural adsorbents of Russia” developed at the Federal State Unitary Enterprise TsNIIgeolnerud.

  4. Global Integration, Non-Oil Export and Economic Growth in Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ozoemena Stanley Nwodo

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available This study focuses on global integration, non-oil export and economic growth in Nigeria. The direct and interaction effect of the both openness variables and non-oil export on economic growth in Nigeria is investigated using quarterly data from 1986-2014. For analysis, it uses one measures of financial openness: de facto (total capital flow variables following Aizenman and Noy (2009.and a measure of trade openness adopted by Okoh (2004. The study applies the Autoregressive Distributed Lag Model (ARDL. The results show positive impact of non-oil export on economic growth in Nigeria both in the short run and in the long run, negative effect of trade and financial openness on economic growth however, the result recorded a negative effect of the interaction of trade openness and non-oil export on economic growth and a positive effect of the interaction of financial openness and non-oil export on economic growth. Thus, the study recommends among others that government should get the fundamentals right in the economy first that will boost non-oil sector before opening the economy for trade.

  5. Vertical Integration of Hospitals and Physicians: Economic Theory and Empirical Evidence on Spending and Quality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Post, Brady; Buchmueller, Tom; Ryan, Andrew M

    2017-08-01

    Hospital-physician vertical integration is on the rise. While increased efficiencies may be possible, emerging research raises concerns about anticompetitive behavior, spending increases, and uncertain effects on quality. In this review, we bring together several of the key theories of vertical integration that exist in the neoclassical and institutional economics literatures and apply these theories to the hospital-physician relationship. We also conduct a literature review of the effects of vertical integration on prices, spending, and quality in the growing body of evidence ( n = 15) to evaluate which of these frameworks have the strongest empirical support. We find some support for vertical foreclosure as a framework for explaining the observed results. We suggest a conceptual model and identify directions for future research. Based on our analysis, we conclude that vertical integration poses a threat to the affordability of health services and merits special attention from policymakers and antitrust authorities.

  6. Regional trade and economic integration of Ukraine and the EU: update, problems and prospects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrii Honcharuk

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available In terms of strategic Euro-integration choice of Ukraine in the article there has been presented the idea’s conceptualization of enhanced integration: revealed its nature and singled out the main structural elements. A complex assessment of preconditions for the new contract with the EU and results of the two-way interaction based on the cooperation indicates the necessity of medium-term strategic formation of the Euro-integration policy of Ukraine outside the Community seeking the complementarity of corresponding actions of foreign and national economic policy. In the article there is brought up a general format of the Ukrainian integration model and offered recommendations as to particular blocks of the current negotiation process.

  7. Integrating enzyme fermentation in lignocellulosic ethanol production: life-cycle assessment and techno-economic analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olofsson, Johanna; Barta, Zsolt; Börjesson, Pål; Wallberg, Ola

    2017-01-01

    Cellulase enzymes have been reported to contribute with a significant share of the total costs and greenhouse gas emissions of lignocellulosic ethanol production today. A potential future alternative to purchasing enzymes from an off-site manufacturer is to integrate enzyme and ethanol production, using microorganisms and part of the lignocellulosic material as feedstock for enzymes. This study modelled two such integrated process designs for ethanol from logging residues from spruce production, and compared it to an off-site case based on existing data regarding purchased enzymes. Greenhouse gas emissions and primary energy balances were studied in a life-cycle assessment, and cost performance in a techno-economic analysis. The base case scenario suggests that greenhouse gas emissions per MJ of ethanol could be significantly lower in the integrated cases than in the off-site case. However, the difference between the integrated and off-site cases is reduced with alternative assumptions regarding enzyme dosage and the environmental impact of the purchased enzymes. The comparison of primary energy balances did not show any significant difference between the cases. The minimum ethanol selling price, to reach break-even costs, was from 0.568 to 0.622 EUR L -1 for the integrated cases, as compared to 0.581 EUR L -1 for the off-site case. An integrated process design could reduce greenhouse gas emissions from lignocellulose-based ethanol production, and the cost of an integrated process could be comparable to purchasing enzymes produced off-site. This study focused on the environmental and economic assessment of an integrated process, and in order to strengthen the comparison to the off-site case, more detailed and updated data regarding industrial off-site enzyme production are especially important.

  8. Recovery of flue gas energy in heat integrated IGCC power plants using the contact economizer system

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Madzivhandila, V

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Asia Pacific Confederation of APCChE 2010 Chemical Engineering Congress October 5-8, 2010, Taipei � �� Recovery of flue gas energy in heat integrated IGCC power plants using the contact economizer system Vhutshilo Madzivhandilaa, Thokozani... temperature and the thermal efficiency of the plant. The 13th Asia Pacific Confederation of APCChE 2010 Chemical Engineering Congress October 5-8, 2010, Taipei � �� 1. Introduction The IGCC (Integrated Gasification Combined Cycle) is one...

  9. Analysis of carbon mitigation technology to 2050 in Japan through integrated energy economic model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Komiyama, Ryoichi; Suzuki, Kengo; Nagatomi, Yu; Matsuo, Yuji; Suehiro, Shigeru

    2011-01-01

    This paper describes the outline of integrated energy economic model and calculated result concerning the outlook of energy and carbon dioxide emissions in Japan to 2050. The energy model developed in this paper is integrated one which consistently combines econometric model endogenously generating socio-economic outlook and bottom-up type technology model, MARKAL, identifying cost-minimizing optimal mix of various energy technologies. In reference scenario which imposes no carbon emissions constraint, CO 2 emission in 2050 will decrease by approximately 40% from the level of emissions in 2005. In carbon-constraints scenario, imposing emissions cap of 60% reduction by 2050 from the emissions in 2005, natural gas-fired power plant equipped with CCS and renewable energy are expected to expand its portion in power generation mix. In transportation sector on this scenario, clean energy vehicles such as electric vehicle (EV) and hydrogen fuel cell vehicle (FCV) will be deployed and contribute to mitigate CO 2 emissions. (author)

  10. CIM-EARTH: Community integrated model of economic and resource trajectories for humankind.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Elliott, J.; Foster, I.; Judd, K.; Moyer, E.; Munson, T.; Univ. of Chicago; Hoover Inst.

    2010-01-01

    Climate change is a global problem with local climatic and economic impacts. Mitigation policies can be applied on large geographic scales, such as a carbon cap-and-trade program for the entire U.S., on medium geographic scales, such as the NOx program for the northeastern U.S., or on smaller scales, such as statewide renewable portfolio standards and local gasoline taxes. To enable study of the environmental benefits, transition costs, capitalization effects, and other consequences of mitigation policies, we are developing dynamic general equilibrium models capable of incorporating important climate impacts. This report describes the economic framework we have developed and the current Community Integrated Model of Economic and Resource Trajectories for Humankind (CIM-EARTH) instance.

  11. Integrated economic model of waste management: Case study for South Moravia region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jiří Hřebíček

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper introduces and discusses the developed integrated economic model of municipal waste management of the Czech Republic, which was developed by authors as a balanced network model for a set of sources (mostly municipalities of municipal solid waste connected with a set of chosen waste treatment facilities processing their waste. Model is implemented as a combination of several economic submodels including environmental and economic point of view. It enables to formulate the optimisation problem in a concise way and the resulting model is easily scalable. Model involves submodels of waste prevention, collection and transport optimization, submodels of waste energy utilization (incineration and biogas plants and material recycling (composting and submodel of landfilling. Its size (number of sources and facilities depends only upon available data. Its application is used in the case study of the South Moravia region with verification of using time series waste data. The results enable to improve decision making in waste management sector.

  12. Ethanol production in an integrated fermentation/membrane system. Process simulations and economics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Groot, W J; Kraayenbrink, M R; Lans, R.G.J.M. van der; Luyben, K C.A.M. [Delft Univ. of Technology (Netherlands). Dept. of Biochemical Engineering

    1993-01-01

    Four systems comprising of an ethanol fermentation integrated with microfiltration and/or pervaporation, and a conventional continuous culture, were compared with respect to the performance of the fermentation and economics. The processes are compared on the basis of the same kinetic model. It is found that cell retention by microfiltration leads to lower production costs, compared to a conventional continuous culture. Pervaporation becomes profitable at a high selectivity of ethanol/water separation and low membrane prices. (orig.).

  13. ECONOMIC MODEL FOR EVALUATION OF INTEGRAL COMPETITIVENESS OF AUTOMOTIVE ENTERPRISES (AE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. F. Zubritsky

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper considers problems pertaining to evaluation of competitiveness of automotive enterprises in the field of international consignments. An economic model for determination of the integral AE competitiveness is proposed in the paper and the model permits to substitute an expert estimation in respect of some factors by their qualitative calculation on the basis of data on enterprise activity in the international consignment market.

  14. Transport Corridors in the Russian Integration Projects, the Case of the Eurasian Economic Union

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olga A. Podberezkina

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The article discusses the political importance of transport corridors in terms of the development of integration projects in the post-Soviet space. The world is witnessing the formation of a single market and transport and communication infrastructure, which intensifies competition among regional and world leaders, both states and non-state actors, such as businesses, markets over the routes of transporting goods. In the medium and long term the value of the control over the transport routes will increase due to the dynamics of economic development in the Asia-Pacific region. Competition for the development of projects of international transport corridors (ITC between the leading countries in the region will increase, because the ITC entail the formation of a common political space, the reduction of tariff and customs barriers, which provides easy access to the markets of countries linked by ITCs and creates the preconditions for economic integration. The growing political importance of ITC is reflected in the fact that global leaders such as China, the US, the EU, are trying to create their own versions of international land transport corridors connecting Europe and Asia. China is trying to promote their transport project "Economic Belt Silk Road" European countries develop cooperation on ITC TRACECA with other countries of Eurasia. US also embody their interests through the implementation of the project by the ITC in Afghanistan. Transport corridors in Russia are seen as a way to integrate it into the global transportation system and logistics space. To do this, Russia needs to develop Eurasian transport corridors through its territory. As a result of the implementation of transport projects Russia will be able to ensure the transit of goods from China to Europe, which has a positive impact on the economic development of the regions through which they pass. Development of international transportation through Russia will unite many of the

  15. MIGRATION INTEGRATION AS A FACTOR OF ECONOMIC AND REGIONAL DEVELOPMENT IN THE EUROPEAN UNION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Petronela Daniela FERARU

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available International migration, together with economic and financial crisis or the different socio-economic development of Member States, is a serious threat to security in Europe. Population migration as a threatening factor, places the European Union in the face of a decision to establish clear policies for the establishment of a climate of external security, both for the migrant population and for the rest of the population. All in all, this study will centre on the following hypothesis: the better we know the challenges of international migration in the European Union and its Member States the more the European policies to mitigate negative effects of the world will be diminished. The aim is to highlight aspects pertaining to migration integration as a factor of economic, social and regional development in the European Union, and less as a factor of destabilization and insecurity. In other words, a good knowledge of the phenomenon leads to drawing up effective policies to reduce hazards, risks, threats and negative effects that happen today due to the increasing number of immigrants. Finally, the study will present a series of conclusions, including on the work hypothesis verification and some proposals related to migration integration efficiency as a factor of regional and economic development in the European Union.

  16. Integrated hydrological modeling of the North China Plain and implications for sustainable water management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. Qin

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Groundwater overdraft has caused fast water level decline in the North China Plain (NCP since the 1980s. Although many hydrological models have been developed for the NCP in the past few decades, most of them deal only with the groundwater component or only at local scales. In the present study, a coupled surface water–groundwater model using the MIKE SHE code has been developed for the entire alluvial plain of the NCP. All the major processes in the land phase of the hydrological cycle are considered in the integrated modeling approach. The most important parameters of the model are first identified by a sensitivity analysis process and then calibrated for the period 2000–2005. The calibrated model is validated for the period 2006–2008 against daily observations of groundwater heads. The simulation results compare well with the observations where acceptable values of root mean square error (RMSE (most values lie below 4 m and correlation coefficient (R (0.36–0.97 are obtained. The simulated evapotranspiration (ET is then compared with the remote sensing (RS-based ET data to further validate the model simulation. The comparison result with a R2 value of 0.93 between the monthly averaged values of simulated actual evapotranspiration (AET and RS AET for the entire NCP shows a good performance of the model. The water balance results indicate that more than 70% of water leaving the flow system is attributed to the ET component, of which about 0.25% is taken from the saturated zone (SZ; about 29% comes from pumping, including irrigation pumping and non-irrigation pumping (net pumping. Sustainable water management analysis of the NCP is conducted using the simulation results obtained from the integrated model. An effective approach to improve water use efficiency in the NCP is by reducing the actual ET, e.g. by introducing water-saving technologies and changes in cropping.

  17. The Impact of European Economic Integration on Migration in the European Union

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simionescu Mihaela

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available The recent enlargement of the EU (since 2004 and the United Kingdom's decision to leave the European Union have prompted a growing research interest in the political and academic environment because of the causes and consequences of migration between the CEE countries and those in the Western Europe. In this study, the effects of European economic integration on the number of EU-15 immigrants from the newly integrated EU countries were assessed by econometric techniques. According to panel data models, in the period 2000-2015, the number of migrants from the new member states of the EU has increased, in average, with more than 2200 people only due to their EU membership. This result reflects the positive impact of European economic integration on the number of emigrants from the CEE countries that chose the EU-15 states as destination countries. Moreover, according to some ridge Bayesian regressions, during the period 2004-2015, the EU-15 immigrants coming from the EU-13 states did not negatively affect the economic growth of the EU-15 countries.

  18. How EU Economic Integration Advances on the Way of Some Important Unions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    PETRE PRISECARU

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Economic union and monetary union are deeply connected: two dimensions of the third stage of European integration. But achieving monetary union without a complete single market in the field of financial services proved the vulnerability of Eurozone to external shocks and the need to a further economic integration. While banking union has advanced quite fast in the last two years, capital markets union is only a project, also the fiscal union, which is the basic foundation of a true political union. A complete financial union will take a long time to accomplish due to many political, financial and bureaucratic obstacles facing such an ambitious project. Energy Union is another important project meant to remove market fragmentation, to enhance energy security and to reduce environmental impact of energy sector. Finally the political union, the last stage of European integration, the dream of many famous politicians and scholars, will be only possible on the long run as a new type of federation of nation states, provided that all components of economic union will be fully attained.

  19. Techno-economic analysis of solar integrated hydrothermal liquefaction of microalgae

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pearce, Matthew; Shemfe, Mobolaji; Sansom, Christopher

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • Hydrothermal liquefaction and concentrated solar power provide integrated biofuel technology. • Heat kinetics and energy efficiency Aspen plus modelling of CSP and HTL. • Microalgae biofuel minimum fuel sales price of $1.23/kg. - Abstract: Integration of Hydrothermal Liquefaction (HTL) of microalgae biomass with concentrated solar power thermal processing (CSP) for bio-oil production is a potential processing pathway for energy efficient generation of renewable biofuels. Solar HTL infrastructure avoids additional bolt-on components of conventional solar parabolic trough systems used for electricity production including heat transfer fluids, counter current heat exchangers, fluid transfer interconnectivity and electrical power control systems. The absence of such capital intensive additional equipment considerably reduces the production costs of solar HTL biofuels compared to electricity generation from conventional CSP power systems. An economic and market appraisal of variance and system economic resilience is presented. It is hypothesised that the combination of nutrient recycling with HTL/CSP unification has the potential for economically sustainable microalgae bio-oil production. A microalgae biofuel minimum fuel sales price of $1.23/kg has been modelled. Further experimental work would be able to validate this integrated model.

  20. FINANCIAL-ECONOMIC INTEGRATION AS A TOOL FOR INCREASE OF INVESTMENT SUPPORT OF AGRO-INDUSTRIAL PRODUCTION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. R. Zakirova

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The article reveals the essence and systematizes the advantages of financial and economic integration. In the agro-industrial complex, this kind of integration contributes to attracting investments and reducing risks for investors, increasing the competitiveness and economic growth of the region. The relevance of the study is due to insufficiently researched remains many aspects of the functioning of integrated business systems in relation to individual industries, in particular, to agroindustrial production. The aim of the article is to study theoretical approaches to the essence of financial and economic integration in agro-industrial production and analyze the mechanism of investment support for the Russian agrarian sector, taking into account financial and economic integration. In preparing the article, general scientific methods of research were used: analysis and synthesis, generalization, comparison, classification. Results. The interpretation of financial and economic integration in Russian and foreign scientific publications is generalized. Distinctions of financial and economic integration are distinguished from other economic processes. The advantages of financial and economic integration for the economy and business entities are systematized. The importance of integrating industries and business entities in the agro-industrial complex, which is of strategic importance for ensuring Russia's food security, was noted. The branch structure of the agro-industrial complex is analyzed. The scheme of the integrated financial and economic mechanism in the agroindustrial complex is described. The importance of an optimal balance between cooperation and integration was underscored. The insufficiency of the methodological level of studies of agro-industrial integration is grounded. The components of the effect of financial and economic integration are considered. Positive effects of integration processes in the agroindustrial complex are

  1. Considering economic and geological uncertainty in the simulation of realistic investment decisions for CO2-EOR projects in the North Sea

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Welkenhuysen, Kris; Rupert, Jort; Compernolle, Tine; Ramirez, Andrea|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/284852414; Swennen, Rudy; Piessens, Kris

    2017-01-01

    The use of anthropogenic CO2 for enhancing oil recovery from mature oil fields in the North Sea has several potential benefits, and a number of assessments have been conducted. It remains, however, difficult to realistically simulate the economic circumstances and decisions, while including the

  2. Reliable, Economic, Efficient CO2 Heat Pump Water Heater for North America

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Radcliff, Thomas D; Sienel, Tobias; Huff, Hans-Joachim; Thompson, Adrian; Sadegh, Payman; Olsommer, Benoit; Park, Young

    2006-12-31

    Adoption of heat pump water heating technology for commercial hot water could save up to 0.4 quads of energy and 5 million metric tons of CO2 production annually in North America, but industry perception is that this technology does not offer adequate performance or reliability and comes at too high of a cost. Development and demonstration of a CO2 heat pump water heater is proposed to reduce these barriers to adoption. Three major themes are addressed: market analysis to understand barriers to adoption, use of advanced reliability models to design optimum qualification test plans, and field testing of two phases of water heater prototypes. Market experts claim that beyond good performance, market adoption requires 'drop and forget' system reliability and a six month payback of first costs. Performance, reliability and cost targets are determined and reliability models are developed to evaluate the minimum testing required to meet reliability targets. Three phase 1 prototypes are designed and installed in the field. Based on results from these trials a product specification is developed and a second phase of five field trial units are built and installed. These eight units accumulate 11 unit-years of service including 15,650 hours and 25,242 cycles of compressor operation. Performance targets can be met. An availability of 60% is achieved and the capability to achieve >90% is demonstrated, but overall reliability is below target, with an average of 3.6 failures/unit-year on the phase 2 demonstration. Most reliability issues are shown to be common to new HVAC products, giving high confidence in mature product reliability, but the need for further work to minimize leaks and ensure reliability of the electronic expansion valve is clear. First cost is projected to be above target, leading to an expectation of 8-24 month payback when substituted for an electric water heater. Despite not meeting all targets, arguments are made that an industry leader could

  3. Economics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palley, Paul D; Parcero, Miriam E

    2016-10-01

    A review of literature in the calendar year 2015 dedicated to environmental policies and sustainable development, and economic policies. This review is divided into these sections: sustainable development, irrigation, ecosystems and water management, climate change and disaster risk management, economic growth, water supply policies, water consumption, water price regulation, and water price valuation.

  4. Refining sweet sorghum to ethanol and sugar: economic trade-offs in the context of North China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gnansounou, E; Dauriat, A; Wyman, C E

    2005-06-01

    Reducing the use of non-renewable fossil energy reserves together with improving the environment are two important reasons that drive interest in the use of bioethanol as an automotive fuel. Conversion of sugar and starch to ethanol has been proven at an industrial scale in Brazil and the United States, respectively, and this alcohol has been able to compete with conventional gasoline due to various incentives. In this paper, we examined making ethanol from the sugar extracted from the juice of sweet sorghum and/or from the hemicellulose and cellulose in the residual sorghum bagasse versus selling the sugar from the juice or burning the bagasse to make electricity in four scenarios in the context of North China. In general terms, the production of ethanol from the hemicellulose and cellulose in bagasse was more favorable than burning it to make power, but the relative merits of making ethanol or sugar from the juice was very sensitive to the price of sugar in China. This result was confirmed by both process economics and analysis of opportunity costs. Thus, a flexible plant capable of making both sugar and fuel-ethanol from the juice is recommended. Overall, ethanol production from sorghum bagasse appears very favorable, but other agricultural residues such as corn stover and rice hulls would likely provide a more attractive feedstock for making ethanol in the medium and long term due to their extensive availability in North China and their independence from other markets. Furthermore, the process for residue conversion was based on particular design assumptions, and other technologies could enhance competitiveness while considerations such as perceived risk could impede applications.

  5. A Holistic Assessment of Energy Production: Environmental, Economic, and Social Impacts of Hydraulic Fracturing in Williams County, North Dakota

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jagdeo, J.; Ravikumar, A. P.; Grubert, E.; Brandt, A. R.

    2016-12-01

    Unconventional oil and natural gas production in the U.S. has increased tenfold between 2005 and 2014 due to advances in hydraulic fracturing technology. Prior studies of hydraulic fracturing activity have mainly focused on two themes: the environmental impacts related to air and water pollution or the direct and spillover economic benefits resulting from oil booms at the state and local level. However, the impacts of hydraulic fracturing extend beyond these effects. Oil-boom counties have experienced environmental changes in land-use and water supply and witnessed social changes in demographics, crime, and health, factors that are not typically evaluated in regard to hydraulic fracturing. Hence, there is a need to consider the holistic effects of oil production on communities. This study examines the environmental, economic, and social impacts of oil and gas activity in Williams County, North Dakota by comparing its pre-boom ( 2005) and post-boom ( 2014) conditions. Annual oil production in Williams County increased from 3.4 million barrels in 2005 to 56 million barrels in 2014, providing an ideal test-case to study the impact of energy development on surrounding communities. We compared changes in multiple impact categories, attributed directly or indirectly to hydraulic fracturing activity, to trends at the national level. For example, between 2005 and 2014, CO2 and CH4 emissions primarily from oil and gas activity increased by 360 thousand metric tons CO2e, corresponding to a 20-fold increase. Concurrently, national emissions decreased by 10.5%. Over twenty indicators were analyzed across environmental, social and economic impact categories, including land-use change, median household income, and crime rates. The datasets were normalized using federal regulations for upper and lower bounds, or calibrated against national averages. Normalized indicators are then aggregated to provide a single-value `impact-factor'. Such `impact-factor' maps will provide a

  6. Profitability of Integrated Management of Fusarium Head Blight in North Carolina Winter Wheat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cowger, Christina; Weisz, Randy; Arellano, Consuelo; Murphy, Paul

    2016-08-01

    Fusarium head blight (FHB) is one of the most difficult small-grain diseases to manage, due to the partial effectiveness of management techniques and the narrow window of time in which to apply fungicides profitably. The most effective management approach is to integrate cultivar resistance with FHB-specific fungicide applications; yet, when forecasted risk is intermediate, it is often unclear whether such an application will be profitable. To model the profitability of FHB management under varying conditions, we conducted a 2-year split-plot field experiment having as main plots high-yielding soft red winter wheat cultivars, four moderately resistant (MR) and three susceptible (S) to FHB. Subplots were sprayed at flowering with Prosaro or Caramba, or left untreated. The experiment was planted in seven North Carolina environments (location-year combinations); three were irrigated to promote FHB development and four were not irrigated. Response variables were yield, test weight, disease incidence, disease severity, deoxynivalenol (DON), Fusarium-damaged kernels, and percent infected kernels. Partial profits were compared in two ways: first, across low-, medium-, or high-DON environments; and second, across environment-cultivar combinations divided by risk forecast into "do spray" and "do not spray" categories. After surveying DON and test weight dockage among 21 North Carolina wheat purchasers, three typical market scenarios were used for modeling profitability: feed-wheat, flexible (feed or flour), and the flour market. A major finding was that, on average, MR cultivars were at least as profitable as S cultivars, regardless of epidemic severity or market. Fungicides were profitable in the feed-grain and flexible markets when DON was high, with MR cultivars in the flexible or flour markets when DON was intermediate, and on S cultivars aimed at the flexible market. The flour market was only profitable when FHB was present if DON levels were intermediate and cultivar

  7. Economic Evaluation of Three Available Solutions for Promotion of Wind Power Integration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hong-Kun Chen

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The limited operational flexibility of combined heat and power (CHP units is the main cause of wind power curtailment in the thermal-electrical power system of Northern China. Pumped hydrostorage (PHS, heat storage (HS, and electric boiler (EB are investigated as three alternative options for the promotion of wind power integration. On the basis of two linear models that determine the capacities of these three facilities required for integrating the curtailed wind power, economic evaluation in terms of investment costs and environmental benefits is presented. Analysis results show that HS requires the least investment and has a good performance of coal saving when accommodating the same amount of curtailed wind power. And EB has the greatest potential for wind power integration with the huge growth of installed capacity of wind power in the future.

  8. Education and „The New Institutionalism” – The Paradigm of Economic Development within the Context of European Integration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mistreanu (Carstea Laura Maria

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available We shall open this paper with reference to the book “Understanding the Process of Economic Change” by D.C. North being considered ofreference in the issues which are subject to research („there are some fundamental characteristics of successful economic development which arecommon for all the economies but at the same time there is no universal pattern to reach these results”-North. How can poorness be explained inmost of the states of the world where the sources for economic growth are known? The human failure and the institutional framework have a specialcontribution in finding solutions in order to obtain economic growth and implicitly the growth of economic development. The article makesreferences to the institutional framework and its importance for the economic development of a country, to the educational organizations and to theircontribution to the economic development. Viewed from a reactive factor of development, the education has become proactive. This is because theperspective of education has been accentuating more and more, called in to prepare the people for types of societies which have not existed yet. Thegap within the field of education has a fundamental character in maintaining and emphasizing the gaps between the social – economic developmentof different countries.

  9. Integrating social justice concerns into economic evaluation for healthcare and public health: A systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dukhanin, Vadim; Searle, Alexandra; Zwerling, Alice; Dowdy, David W; Taylor, Holly A; Merritt, Maria W

    2018-02-01

    Social justice is the moral imperative to avoid and remediate unfair distributions of societal disadvantage. In priority setting in healthcare and public health, social justice reaches beyond fairness in the distribution of health outcomes and economic impacts to encompass fairness in the distribution of policy impacts upon other dimensions of well-being. There is an emerging awareness of the need for economic evaluation to integrate all such concerns. We performed a systematic review (1) to describe methodological solutions suitable for integrating social justice concerns into economic evaluation, and (2) to describe the challenges that those solutions face. To be included, publications must have captured fairness considerations that (a) involve cross-dimensional subjective personal life experience and (b) can be manifested at the level of subpopulations. We identified relevant publications using an electronic search in EMBASE, PubMed, EconLit, PsycInfo, Philosopher's Index, and Scopus, including publications available in English in the past 20 years. Two reviewers independently appraised candidate publications, extracted data, and synthesized findings in narrative form. Out of 2388 publications reviewed, 26 were included. Solutions sought either to incorporate relevant fairness considerations directly into economic evaluation or to report them alongside cost-effectiveness measures. The majority of reviewed solutions, if adapted to integrate social justice concerns, would require their explicit quantification. Four broad challenges related to the implementation of these solutions were identified: clarifying the normative basis; measuring and determining the relative importance of criteria representing that basis; combining the criteria; and evaluating trade-offs. All included solutions must grapple with an inherent tension: they must either face the normative and operational challenges of quantifying social justice concerns or accede to offering incomplete policy

  10. Indigenous Perspectives on Community Economic Development: A North-South Conversation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gretchen Hernandez

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available This article analyses an online forum on Indigenous Community-Based Economic Development (CED, in which twenty-two participants from Canada and Latin America shared and reflected on experiences ranging from cultural tourism in Bolivia to a food processing co-op in Northern British Columbia. The forum demonstrated that at least some Indigenous peoples in Canada and Latin America share common values that guide the kind of development they want in their territories and communities; and that their orientation toward collective and participatory approaches to development can be grouped together under the concept of CED. The article has two main conclusions. First, that CED can be understood as a potential path to Indigenous-defined development and complement to self-determination movements. Second, that online media is a viable option for creating spaces for learning and exchange between Indigenous peoples across national and language borders, with the potential to contribute to the creation of translocal networks.RÉSUMÉCet article analyse un forum en ligne sur les questions autochtones de développement économique communautaire (DEC, où vingt-deux participants du Canada et de l'Amérique latine partagé et réfléchi sur les expériences allant du tourisme culturel en Bolivie à un traitement coopérative alimentaire dans le Nord de la Colombie-Britannique. Le forum a démontré qu'au moins certains des peuples autochtones du Canada et de l'Amérique latine part des valeurs communs qui guident le type de développement qu'ils veulent dans leurs territoires et les communautés, et que leur orientation vers des approches collectives et participatives de développement peuvent être regroupés sous le concept de DEC. L'article a deux principales conclusions. Tout d'abord, que DEC peut être comprise comme une voie potentielle pour les communautés autochtones défini le développement et un complément de mouvements d'autodétermination. Deuxi

  11. Investigation of connections among physical, social and economic factors in case of optimal Land Use System Planning in the Egri-Bükkalja Foothill Area of North Hungary

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dobos, Anna; Utasi, Zoltán; Tóth, Antal; Csabai Kitti, Edina; Laborczi, Annamária; Takács, Katalin; Hegyi, Balázs; Tamás Hegyi, Péter; Pásztor, László; Mika, János

    2016-04-01

    Nowadays, detailed knowledge of landscape elements and their capabilties, furthermore the probable tendency of climate change play important role in spatial planning of optimal land use system and solving agricultural and social challeges. During our research work, we have investigated three settlements (Cserépfalu, Egerszólát, Kerecsend) based on different landscape factors in the Egri-Bükkalja Fothill Areas of North Hungary. Our aim was to point out the landscape differences along north - south direction inside this microlandscape unit and their effects on land use system, economic developments, social challenges and their changeable tendency in the future We have investigated quantitative and qualitative connections among different landscape factors in suitable GIS environment. Based on the identified relationships thematic maps were compiled. The elaborated GIS integrates digitally processed legacy data, properly selected spatial data infrastructure elements and recently collected field data originating from our geomopholgical and pedological investigations carried out in last three years. We discribed soil features in soil profiles using methods according to FAO (2006) and Novák (2013). Soils were featured by soil type, the thickness of A horizon and the rate of soil erosion. Projected climate changes have also been considered for the region. Besides collection of the available recent OAGCM outputs and outputs by four RCM run in Hungary, an empirical approach has been also included. This is based on empirical regression relationship between relevant grid-point values of the CarpatClim data base and the temperature of the Northern Hemisphere. Land use maps were created based on the 1st, 2nd, 3rd, 4th Military Survey Maps and aerial photographs covering a relatively long period from the 18th century till nowadays. Main social and economic factors and processes were characterized using data of the Hungarian Central Statistical Office, population census and

  12. Integrating uncertainties to the combined environmental and economic assessment of algal biorefineries: A Monte Carlo approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pérez-López, Paula; Montazeri, Mahdokht; Feijoo, Gumersindo; Moreira, María Teresa; Eckelman, Matthew J

    2018-06-01

    The economic and environmental performance of microalgal processes has been widely analyzed in recent years. However, few studies propose an integrated process-based approach to evaluate economic and environmental indicators simultaneously. Biodiesel is usually the single product and the effect of environmental benefits of co-products obtained in the process is rarely discussed. In addition, there is wide variation of the results due to inherent variability of some parameters as well as different assumptions in the models and limited knowledge about the processes. In this study, two standardized models were combined to provide an integrated simulation tool allowing the simultaneous estimation of economic and environmental indicators from a unique set of input parameters. First, a harmonized scenario was assessed to validate the joint environmental and techno-economic model. The findings were consistent with previous assessments. In a second stage, a Monte Carlo simulation was applied to evaluate the influence of variable and uncertain parameters in the model output, as well as the correlations between the different outputs. The simulation showed a high probability of achieving favorable environmental performance for the evaluated categories and a minimum selling price ranging from $11gal -1 to $106gal -1 . Greenhouse gas emissions and minimum selling price were found to have the strongest positive linear relationship, whereas eutrophication showed weak correlations with the other indicators (namely greenhouse gas emissions, cumulative energy demand and minimum selling price). Process parameters (especially biomass productivity and lipid content) were the main source of variation, whereas uncertainties linked to the characterization methods and economic parameters had limited effect on the results. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Towards a Single Market: A 21st Century Vision for Asia Pacific Economic Integration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrew Elek

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available APEC leaders can take pride in progress towards free and open trade. There will always be more to do to integrate Asia Pacific economies. 2010 is the time to look beyond border barriers to trade and adopt a new post-Bogor vision of a single market. Traditional border barriers to trade in some sensitive products remain costly, but affect only a rapidly shrinking part of international commerce. Today, it is more efficient to concentrate on problems of communications and logistics, combined with the lack of efficiency, transparency and sometimes arbitrary implementation of economic policies in different economies. The effective constraint on collective action to deal with these problems is not political will. It is limited capacity to design and implement the necessary policy reform. Creating the necessary capacity needs a unifying vision to deal all obstacles to genuine economic integration, that is, to build a single market. In doing so, Asia Pacific governments can learn from the European Union experience. But they need to promote ever-deeper economic integration without relying on a supra-national authority. Like free and open trade, a single market is a vision which can only be approached, rather than reached by any deadline-it is a point of reference for the many things that need to be done to integrate Asia Pacific economies in a meaningful way. Asia Pacific governments should be encouraged to set their own medium-term targets for progress towards well-defined ingredients of a single market. Strict selection criteria should be used to identify options for cooperation which build on what APEC is already doing and which are in line with the priorities of most member economies. An ambitious program to enhance the efficiency of supply chains could set a successful example and generate the confidence to do more.

  14. O RETORNO MOTIVADO PELA CRISE NA ECONOMIA NORTE AMERICANARETURN MOTIVATED BY ECONOMIC CRISIS IN NORTH AMERICA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sueli Siqueira

    2009-12-01

    capital to invest; and 21% did not know how to survive in Brazil, while 28% intended to migrate to Europe. Keywords: Economic Crisis. Migration.  Return.

  15. Integrated agro-hydrological modelling and economic analysis of BMPs to support decision making and policy design

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maroy, E.; Rousseau, A. N.; Hallema, D. W.

    2012-12-01

    With recent efforts and increasing control over point source pollution of freshwater, agricultural non-point pollution sources have become responsible for most of sediment and nutrient loads in North American water systems. Environmental and agricultural agencies have recognised the need for reducing eutrophication and have developed various policies to compel or encourage producers to best management practices (BMPs). Addressing diffuse pollution is challenging considering the complex and cumulative nature of transport processes, high variability in space and time, and prohibitive costs of distributed water quality monitoring. Many policy options exist to push producers to adopt environmentally desirable behaviour while keeping their activity viable, and ensure equitable costs to consumers and tax payers. On the one hand, economic instruments (subsidies, taxes, water quality markets) are designed to maximize cost-effectiveness, so that farmers optimize their production for maximum profit while implementing BMPs. On the other hand, emission standards or regulation of inputs are often easier and less costly to implement. To study economic and environmental impacts of such policies, a distributed modelling approach is needed to deal with the complexity of the system and the large environmental and socio-economic data requirements. Our objective is to integrate agro-hydrological modelling and economic analysis to support decision and policy making processes of BMP implementation. The integrated modelling system GIBSI was developed in an earlier study within the Canadian WEBs project (Watershed Evaluation of BMPs) to evaluate the influence of BMPs on water quality. The case study involved 30 and 15 year records of discharge and water quality measurements respectively, in the Beaurivage River watershed (Quebec, Canada). GIBSI provided a risk-based overview of the impact of BMPs (including vegetated riparian buffer strips, precision slurry application, conversion to

  16. Economism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Simons

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Modern society is characterised not only by a fascination with scientific technology as a means of solving all problems, especially those that stand in the way of material progress (technicism, but also by an obsessive interest in everything that has to do with money (economism or mammonism. The article discusses the relationship between technicism and economism, on the basis of their relationship to utilitarian thinking: the quest for the greatest happiness for the greatest number of people. Recent major studies of neo-liberalism (seen as an intensification of utilitarianism by Laval and Dardot are used as reference to the development of utilitarianism. It is suggested that the western view of the world, as expressed in economism and technicism, with a utilitarian ethics, features three absolutisations: those of theoretical thinking, technology and economics. In a second part, the article draws on the framework of reformational philosophy to suggest an approach that, in principle, is not marred by such absolutisations.

  17. Landfill mining in Austria: foundations for an integrated ecological and economic assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hermann, Robert; Baumgartner, Rupert J; Sarc, Renato; Ragossnig, Arne; Wolfsberger, Tanja; Eisenberger, Martin; Budischowsky, Andreas; Pomberger, Roland

    2014-09-01

    For the first time, basic technical and economic studies for landfill mining are being carried out in Austria on the basis of a pilot project. An important goal of these studies is the collection of elementary data as the basis for an integrated ecological and economic assessment of landfill mining projects with regard to their feasibility. For this purpose, economic, ecological, technical, organizational, as well as political and legal influencing factors are identified and extensively studied in the article. An important aspect is the mutual influence of the factors on each other, as this can significantly affect the development of an integrated assessment system. In addition to the influencing factors, the definition of the spatial and temporal system boundaries is crucial for further investigations. Among others, the quality and quantity of recovered waste materials, temporal fluctuations or developments in prices of secondary raw material and fuels attainable in the markets, and time and duration of dumping, play a crucial role. Based on the investigations, the spatial system boundary is defined in as much as all the necessary process steps, from landfill mining, preparing and sorting to providing a marketable material/product by the landfill operator, are taken into account. No general accepted definition can be made for the temporal system boundary because the different time-related influencing factors necessitate an individual project-specific determination and adaptation to the facts of the on-site landfill mining project. © The Author(s) 2014.

  18. Designing medical technology for resilience: integrating health economics and human factors approaches.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borsci, Simone; Uchegbu, Ijeoma; Buckle, Peter; Ni, Zhifang; Walne, Simon; Hanna, George B

    2018-01-01

    The slow adoption of innovation into healthcare calls into question the manner of evidence generation for medical technology. This paper identifies potential reasons for this including a lack of attention to human factors, poor evaluation of economic benefits, lack of understanding of the existing healthcare system and a failure to recognise the need to generate resilient products. Areas covered: Recognising a cross-disciplinary need to enhance evidence generation early in a technology's life cycle, the present paper proposes a new approach that integrates human factors and health economic evaluation as part of a wider systems approach to the design of technology. This approach (Human and Economic Resilience Design for Medical Technology or HERD MedTech) supports early stages of product development and is based on the recent experiences of the National Institute for Health Research London Diagnostic Evidence Co-operative in the UK. Expert commentary: HERD MedTech i) proposes a shift from design for usability to design for resilience, ii) aspires to reduce the need for service adaptation to technological constraints iii) ensures value of innovation at the time of product development, and iv) aims to stimulate discussion around the integration of pre- and post-market methods of assessment of medical technology.

  19. Toward an integrated approach to nutritional quality, environmental sustainability, and economic viability: research and measurement gaps.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herforth, Anna; Frongillo, Edward A; Sassi, Franco; Mclean, Mireille Seneclauze; Arabi, Mandana; Tirado, Cristina; Remans, Roseline; Mantilla, Gilma; Thomson, Madeleine; Pingali, Prabhu

    2014-12-01

    Nutrition is affected by numerous environmental and societal causes. This paper starts with a simple framework based on three domains: nutritional quality, economic viability, and environmental sustainability, and calls for an integrated approach in research to simultaneously account for all three. It highlights limitations in the current understanding of each domain, and how they influence one another. Five research topics are identified: measuring the three domains (nutritional quality, economic viability, environmental sustainability); modeling across disciplines; furthering the analysis of food systems in relation to the three domains; connecting climate change and variability to nutritional quality; and increasing attention to inequities among population groups in relation to the three domains. For an integrated approach to be developed, there is a need to identify and disseminate available metrics, modeling techniques, and tools to researchers, practitioners, and policy makers. This is a first step so that a systems approach that takes into account potential environmental and economic trade-offs becomes the norm in analyzing nutrition and food-security patterns. Such an approach will help fill critical knowledge gaps and will guide researchers seeking to define and address specific research questions in nutrition in their wider socioeconomic and environmental contexts. © 2014 New York Academy of Sciences.

  20. Processes of Integration and Fragmentation of Economic Space: The Structure of Settlement Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexander Pavlovich Goryunov

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available This work presents a study of processes of integration and fragmentation caused by the polarization of economic space. Under integration in economic space the authors understand the formation of new and transformation of existing settlement systems, while fragmentation is the dissolution of settlement systems and their transformation into loosely connected settlement networks. The study focuses on the structure of settlement systems. Authors propose a new method for studying the structure of settlement systems, which combines the use of factor analysis, multidimensional scaling, and cluster analysis. The proposed method utilizes the maximum of available information about the social-economic status of settlements to reveal regularities in their spatial organization. The authors test the proposed method on 35 large cities of the Central and Volga federal districts of Russia, which comprise the spatial surroundings of Moscow. The authors find four groups of cities forming the core of the settlement system centered around Moscow, a group of four cities forming a buffer zone around that system, as well as four cities in the studied sample which do not participate in the settlement system

  1. Decision making from economic and signal detection perspectives: development of an integrated framework

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lynn, Spencer K.; Wormwood, Jolie B.; Barrett, Lisa F.; Quigley, Karen S.

    2015-01-01

    Behavior is comprised of decisions made from moment to moment (i.e., to respond one way or another). Often, the decision maker cannot be certain of the value to be accrued from the decision (i.e., the outcome value). Decisions made under outcome value uncertainty form the basis of the economic framework of decision making. Behavior is also based on perception—perception of the external physical world and of the internal bodily milieu, which both provide cues that guide decision making. These perceptual signals are also often uncertain: another person's scowling facial expression may indicate threat or intense concentration, alternatives that require different responses from the perceiver. Decisions made under perceptual uncertainty form the basis of the signals framework of decision making. Traditional behavioral economic approaches to decision making focus on the uncertainty that comes from variability in possible outcome values, and typically ignore the influence of perceptual uncertainty. Conversely, traditional signal detection approaches to decision making focus on the uncertainty that arises from variability in perceptual signals and typically ignore the influence of outcome value uncertainty. Here, we compare and contrast the economic and signals frameworks that guide research in decision making, with the aim of promoting their integration. We show that an integrated framework can expand our ability to understand a wider variety of decision-making behaviors, in particular the complexly determined real-world decisions we all make every day. PMID:26217275

  2. Integrated assessment of CO2 and SO2 policies in North East Asia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chae, Yeora; Hope, Chris

    2003-01-01

    This study quantifies the costs and impacts of six scenarios for carbon dioxide (CO 2 ) and sulphur dioxide (SO 2 ) emissions in North East Asia (NEA) within an integrated probabilistic analysis. The inclusion of the cooling effect of sulphates means that CO 2 control in China would be likely to increase the regional temperature in NEA in the short-term. This is because CO 2 control measures would also automatically control SO 2 emissions, and so reduce their cooling effect. The scenario that involves no control for CO 2 and SO 2 emissions has the lowest mean total cumulative net present cost (NPC) as compared to scenarios with various SO 2 controls or with CO 2 reduced to 5% below year 1990 levels (in China and Japan), or any combination of SO 2 + CO 2 controls at these levels. The mean value of the total cumulative NPC of climate change damage, acid rain damage, CO 2 and SO 2 control cost in China for no CO 2 or SO 2 control is about US$ 0.1 trillion, compared, for instance, to about US$ 1.1 trillion for CO 2 emission stabilisation at 1990 levels and no SO 2 control. SO 2 control also brings more disadvantages than advantages in China and Japan. The higher mean climate change impacts and control costs outweigh the benefit of lower acid rain damage. However, strict SO 2 control brings more benefits than costs in South Korea where there is a large urban population and the sensitivity to acid rain is high. However, the impacts of emissions and valuation of these effects are very uncertain. Uncertainty analysis shows that the key determinants of the total NPC of costs and damages are exported climate change damages, followed by domestic climate change damages, and acid rain damages. The use of other valuation methods would make health damage bigger than this study's estimation and acid rain damage could be a major concern in the future

  3. Spatial divergence of living standards during the economic growth phase in the periphery: A case study of North Karelia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olli Lehtonen

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The advisability of an urban-centred growth strategy in sparsely populated parts of Europe has not been much analysed at micro-levels such as that of the postcode area. This paper investigates how regional disparities in living standards continued to increase during the technology-driven growth phase of 1993−2003, as exemplified by the case of North Karelia in Finland. Urban sprawl conveyed the spread effects of the rise in incomes, and the upsurge of living standards was concentrated in the neighbourhood of the provincial centre, Joensuu. Living standards faced a process of double divergence: between the central district of Joensuu and its commuter belt, and between the provincial core area and its hinterland, the latter consisting of rural areas and small towns dependent largely on natural resources. The spatial outcome of this socio-economic reorganization is a three-zone core-periphery pattern. As the economy grew, geographical shifts in wealth were consequences of the growth and mobility of certain social groups and strata. A wave of high living standards towards the outskirts of the provincial centre was generated by an expansion in commuting. The relative decline in living standards in the periphery was due to long-term rural decline and involved spatial restructuring.

  4. Integrating socio-economic and infrastructural dimension to reveal hazard vulnerability of coastal districts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mazumdar, Jublee; Paul, Saikat

    2015-04-01

    Losses of life and property due to natural hazards have intensified in the past decade, motivating an alteration of disaster management away from simple post event resettlement and rehabilitation. The degree of exposure to hazard for a homogeneous population is not entirely reliant upon nearness to the source of hazard event. Socio-economic factors and infrastructural capability play an important role in determining the vulnerability of a place. This study investigates the vulnerability of eastern coastal states of India from tropical cyclones. The record of past hundred years shows that the physical vulnerability of eastern coastal states is four times as compared to the western coastal states in terms of frequency and intensity of tropical cyclones. Nevertheless, these physical factors played an imperative role in determining the vulnerability of eastern coast. However, the socio-economic and infrastructural factors influence the risk of exposure exponentially. Inclusion of these indicators would provide better insight regarding the preparedness and resilience of settlements to hazard events. In this regard, the present study is an effort to develop an Integrated Vulnerability Model (IVM) based on socio-economic and infrastructural factors for the districts of eastern coastal states of India. A method is proposed for quantifying the socio-economic and infrastructural vulnerability to tropical cyclone in these districts. The variables included in the study are extracted from Census of India, 2011 at district level administrative unit. In the analysis, a large number of variables are reduced to a smaller number of factors by using principal component analysis that represents the socio-economic and infrastructure vulnerability to tropical cyclone. Subsequently, the factor scores in socio-economic Vulnerability Index (SeVI) and Infrastructure Vulnerability Index (InVI) are standardized from 0 to 1, indicating the range from low to high vulnerability. The factor

  5. Strategy. North-Korean nuclear: endgame?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mirandol, Guylain de

    2017-01-01

    As North Korea performed new ballistic missile tests in February 2017, and thus violated UN resolutions, this article proposes an overview of the evolutions from nuclear sanctions to economic sanctions. Initially, UN sanctions aimed at struggling against nuclear programmes and proliferation through embargo on arms and materials. After a nuclear test in 2016, South Korea withdrew from a North Korean industrial complex. International sanctions now aim at economically isolating North Korea, at increasing its trade deficit, and at reducing the sending of currencies by North-Korean expatriates. The author notices that these sanctions do not alter manufacturing activities, and that North Korea thus keeps on developing and being integrated into the international division of labour. The last part briefly discusses how North Korea could be able to get around sanctions

  6. Technical and economic analysis of integrating low-medium temperature solar energy into power plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, Fu; Li, Hailong; Zhao, Jun; Deng, Shuai; Yan, Jinyue

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • Seven configurations were studied regarding the integration of solar thermal energy. • Economic analysis was conducted on new built plants and retrofitted power plants. • Using solar thermal energy to preheat high pressure feedwater shows the best performance. - Abstract: In order to mitigate CO_2 emission and improve the efficiency of the utilization of solar thermal energy (STE), solar thermal energy is proposed to be integrated into a power plant. In this paper, seven configurations were studied regarding the integration of STE. A 300 MWe subcritical coal-fired plant was selected as the reference, chemical absorption using monoethanolamine solvent was employed for CO_2 ​capture, and parabolic trough collectors and evacuated tube collectors were used for STE collection. Both technical analysis and economic evaluation were conducted. Results show that integrating solar energy with post-combustion CO_2​ capture can effectively increase power generation and reduce the electrical efficiency penalty caused by CO_2 capture. Among the different configurations, Config-2 and Config-6, which use medium temperature STE to replace high pressure feedwater without and with CO_2 capture, show the highest net incremental solar efficiency. When building new plants, integrating solar energy can effectively reduce the levelized cost of electricity (LCOE). The lowest LCOE, 99.28 USD/MWh, results from Config-6, with a parabolic trough collector price of 185 USD/m"2. When retrofitting existing power plants, Config-6 also shows the highest net present value (NPV), while Config-2 has the shortest payback time at a carbon tax of 50 USD/ton CO_2. In addition, both LCOE and NPV/payback time are clearly affected by the relative solar load fraction, the price of solar thermal collectors and the carbon tax. Comparatively, the carbon tax can affect the configurations with CO_2 capture more clearly than those without CO_2 capture.

  7. Synthesis of integrated absorption refrigeration systems involving economic and environmental objectives and quantifying social benefits

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lira-Barragán, Luis Fernando; Ponce-Ortega, José María; Serna-González, Medardo; El-Halwagi, Mahmoud M.

    2013-01-01

    This paper presents a new methodology for energy integration of systems that require absorption refrigeration. It allows heat exchange among process hot and cold streams and the integration of excess process heat as well as external utilities provided by solar energy, fossil fuels and biofuels. An optimization formulation is developed to address the multiple objectives of simultaneously minimizing the total annualized cost and the greenhouse gas emissions while the social impact is measured by the number of jobs generated by the project in the entire life cycle. The economic function accounts for the tax credit obtained by the reduction of greenhouse gas emissions when cleaner technologies are used. The proposed model also considers the optimal selection of different types of solar collectors and the optimal time-based usage of solar energy, fossil fuel, and biofuel. Two example problems are presented to show the applicability of the proposed methodology. -- Highlights: ► An approach for the thermal integration of refrigeration processes is proposed. ► Different forms of sustainable energies are considered in the optimization process. ► Economic and environmental objectives are considered quantifying the number of jobs. ► The availability for the different forms of energy is taken into account. ► Results show significant advantages obtained with the proposed approach

  8. Level of damages and economical threshold, decisive aspects in the integrated management of plagues.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rafael Meneses

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available The establishment and application of economical levels demand a procedure to find with precision the insects population in a given moment. In the integrated management of plagues is not allowed the idea that any insect which is feeding from a part of plants requires a control action, that is why it is very important to determine the real effect that this insect population causes to the cultivation. Any decrease in the crop, constitutes a real waste of time; but when the economical level is defined, it is included an additional factor which is the measure cost of the plagues control. The determination of damages of levels is very important for economists, farming experts and specialists; while for producers is very significant its implementation with the objective to count with a sustainable and beneficial agriculture.

  9. Developing integrated performance assessment and forecasting the level of financial and economic enterprise stability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Khudyakova T.A.

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The article deals with the problem of assessing and forecasting the level of financial and economic enterprise stability through the integrated indicators development. Currently, many enterprises operate under variable external environment, which imposes a strict requirement to consider this uncertainty. For the evaluation, analysis and prediction of the sustainability of the enterprise in the conditions of crisis we believe it possible and necessary to use the apparatus of probability theory and mathematical statistics. This problem solution will improve quantitative assessing the financial and economic stability level, forecasting possible scenarios of the enterprise development and, therefore, based on the proactive management principles and adaptation processes will greatly increase their effective functioning, as well as reduce bankruptcy probability.

  10. Decision Support For Digester Algae Integration For Improved Environmental And Economic Sustainability

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2017-06-28

    The Idaho National Laboratory (INL) has teamed with University of Idaho and Boise State University to make the use of ADs more attractive by implementing a two-stage AD and coupling additional processes to the system. The addition of a polyhydroxyalkanoate (PHA) reactor, algae cultivation system, and a biomass treatment system such as fast-pyrolysis or hydrothermal liquefaction (HTL) would further sequester carbon and nutrients, as well as add valuable products that can be sold or used on-site to mitigate costs. The Decision-support for Digester-Algae IntegRation for Improved Environmental and Economic Sustainability (DAIRIEES) technoeconomic model will play a key role in evaluating the effectiveness and viability of this system to achieve economic and environmental sustainability by the dairy industry.

  11. Integrated furfural and first generation bioethanol production: process simulation and techno-economic analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. F. L. Silva

    Full Text Available Abstract Furfural is a base chemical with a wide range of applications and with a great opportunity for market growth in the near term. Derived from biomass, its production may be incorporated to the Brazilian chemical industry using sugarcane bagasse as feedstock. In this context, the integration of a furfural plant to a first generation bioethanol facility, within the biorefinery concept, was simulated considering different scenarios compared to an autonomous bioethanol distillery. The economic analysis of the different scenarios showed that the revenues from furfural commercialization increase the internal rate of return of the project for maximum furfural production (22.0% in comparison to a conventional ethanol distillery (13.5%, despite the decrease in electricity output. Moreover, the economic analysis of the results pointed out the possibility of lowering furfural prices to levels that could lead to its use as a precursor for biofuels.

  12. The integral indicator of socio-economic assessment in regard to resource-oriented territories development in Russia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chuvashova, M. N.; Avramchikova, N. T.; Zelenkov, P. V.; Petrosyan, M. O.

    2016-04-01

    Economic peculiarity of Russian resource-oriented territories are based on a focal type of industrial complex, differentiation of economies within a principle of mining and processing of natural resources. To improve the economic condition and integrate into the world innovative process is essential to solve the problem of eliminating the prevalence of resourse focus in the industrial economic structure that could ensure the overcoming of the existing spa- cial dissociation and market mechanisms development in innovative promotion. The monitoring system, involving the integral indicator of socioeconomic and territorial potential assessment, has suggested by the authors. The integral indicator could guarantee the objective evaluation of economic condition within a territory that is vital for the governmental authorities to design strategies providing the economic development of administrative territories.

  13. Integrated continuous bioprocessing: Economic, operational, and environmental feasibility for clinical and commercial antibody manufacture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pollock, James; Coffman, Jon; Ho, Sa V.

    2017-01-01

    This paper presents a systems approach to evaluating the potential of integrated continuous bioprocessing for monoclonal antibody (mAb) manufacture across a product's lifecycle from preclinical to commercial manufacture. The economic, operational, and environmental feasibility of alternative continuous manufacturing strategies were evaluated holistically using a prototype UCL decisional tool that integrated process economics, discrete‐event simulation, environmental impact analysis, operational risk analysis, and multiattribute decision‐making. The case study focused on comparing whole bioprocesses that used either batch, continuous or a hybrid combination of batch and continuous technologies for cell culture, capture chromatography, and polishing chromatography steps. The cost of goods per gram (COG/g), E‐factor, and operational risk scores of each strategy were established across a matrix of scenarios with differing combinations of clinical development phase and company portfolio size. The tool outputs predict that the optimal strategy for early phase production and small/medium‐sized companies is the integrated continuous strategy (alternating tangential flow filtration (ATF) perfusion, continuous capture, continuous polishing). However, the top ranking strategy changes for commercial production and companies with large portfolios to the hybrid strategy with fed‐batch culture, continuous capture and batch polishing from a COG/g perspective. The multiattribute decision‐making analysis highlighted that if the operational feasibility was considered more important than the economic benefits, the hybrid strategy would be preferred for all company scales. Further considerations outside the scope of this work include the process development costs required to adopt continuous processing. © 2017 The Authors Biotechnology Progress published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. on behalf of American Institute of Chemical Engineers Biotechnol. Prog., 33:854–866, 2017

  14. Simulation, integration, and economic analysis of gas-to-liquid processes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bao, Buping; El-Halwagi, Mahmoud M.; Elbashir, Nimir O.

    2010-01-01

    Gas-to-liquid (GTL) involves the chemical conversion of natural gas into synthetic crude that can be upgraded and separated into different useful hydrocarbon fractions including liquid transportation fuels. Such technology can also be used to convert other abundant natural resources such as coal and biomass to fuels and value added chemicals (referred to as coal-to-liquid (CTL) and biomass-to-liquid (BTL)). A leading GTL technology is the Fischer-Tropsch (FT) process. The objective of this work is to provide a techno-economic analysis of the GTL process and to identify optimization and integration opportunities for cost saving and reduction of energy usage while accounting for the environmental impact. First, a base-case flowsheet is synthesized to include the key processing steps of the plant. Then, a computer-aided process simulation is carried out to determine the key mass and energy flows, performance criteria, and equipment specifications. Next, energy and mass integration studies are performed to address the following items: (a) heating and cooling utilities, (b) combined heat and power (process cogeneration), (c) management of process water, (c) optimization of tail gas allocation, and (d) recovery of catalyst-supporting hydrocarbon solvents. Finally, these integration studies are conducted and the results are documented in terms of conserving energy and mass resources as well as providing economic impact. Finally, an economic analysis is undertaken to determine the plant capacity needed to achieve the break-even point and to estimate the return on investment for the base-case study. (author)

  15. Integrated gasification gas combined cycle plant with membrane reactors: Technological and economical analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Amelio, Mario; Morrone, Pietropaolo; Gallucci, Fausto; Basile, Angelo

    2007-01-01

    In the present work, the capture and storage of carbon dioxide from the fossil fuel power plant have been considered. The main objective was to analyze the thermodynamic performances and the technological aspects of two integrated gasification gas combined cycle plants (IGCC), as well as to give a forecast of the investment costs for the plants and the resulting energy consumptions. The first plant considered is an IGCC* plant (integrated gasification gas combined cycle plant with traditional shift reactors) characterized by the traditional water gas shift reactors and a CO 2 physical adsorption system followed by the power section. The second one is an IGCC M plant (integrated gasification gas combined cycle plant with membrane reactor) where the coal thermal input is the same as the first one, but the traditional shift reactors and the physical adsorption unit are replaced by catalytic palladium membrane reactors (CMR). In the present work, a mono-dimensional computational model of the membrane reactor was proposed to simulate and evaluate the capability of the IGCC M plant to capture carbon dioxide. The energetic performances, efficiency and net power of the IGCC* and IGCC M plants were, thus, compared, assuming as standard a traditional IGCC plant without carbon dioxide capture. The economical aspects of the three plants were compared through an economical analysis. Since the IGCC* and IGCC M plants have additional costs related to the capture and disposal of the carbon dioxide, a Carbon Tax (adopted in some countries like Sweden) proportional to the number of kilograms of carbon dioxide released in the environment was assumed. According to the economical analysis, the IGCC M plant proved to be more convenient than the IGCC* one

  16. Integrated continuous bioprocessing: Economic, operational, and environmental feasibility for clinical and commercial antibody manufacture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pollock, James; Coffman, Jon; Ho, Sa V; Farid, Suzanne S

    2017-07-01

    This paper presents a systems approach to evaluating the potential of integrated continuous bioprocessing for monoclonal antibody (mAb) manufacture across a product's lifecycle from preclinical to commercial manufacture. The economic, operational, and environmental feasibility of alternative continuous manufacturing strategies were evaluated holistically using a prototype UCL decisional tool that integrated process economics, discrete-event simulation, environmental impact analysis, operational risk analysis, and multiattribute decision-making. The case study focused on comparing whole bioprocesses that used either batch, continuous or a hybrid combination of batch and continuous technologies for cell culture, capture chromatography, and polishing chromatography steps. The cost of goods per gram (COG/g), E-factor, and operational risk scores of each strategy were established across a matrix of scenarios with differing combinations of clinical development phase and company portfolio size. The tool outputs predict that the optimal strategy for early phase production and small/medium-sized companies is the integrated continuous strategy (alternating tangential flow filtration (ATF) perfusion, continuous capture, continuous polishing). However, the top ranking strategy changes for commercial production and companies with large portfolios to the hybrid strategy with fed-batch culture, continuous capture and batch polishing from a COG/g perspective. The multiattribute decision-making analysis highlighted that if the operational feasibility was considered more important than the economic benefits, the hybrid strategy would be preferred for all company scales. Further considerations outside the scope of this work include the process development costs required to adopt continuous processing. © 2017 The Authors Biotechnology Progress published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. on behalf of American Institute of Chemical Engineers Biotechnol. Prog., 33:854-866, 2017. © 2017 The

  17. Watershed and Economic Data InterOperability (WEDO): Facilitating Discovery, Evaluation and Integration through the Sharing of Watershed Modeling Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watershed and Economic Data InterOperability (WEDO) is a system of information technologies designed to publish watershed modeling studies for reuse. WEDO facilitates three aspects of interoperability: discovery, evaluation and integration of data. This increased level of interop...

  18. Sustainability as the integration of economics and ethics? Baden, Vienna/Austria

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madsen, Erik Kloppenborg

    2000-01-01

    In this study it is argued that the corporate pursuit of sustainability calls forth attitudes in the business world which seem to integrate economic, political and moral issues. The quest for sustainability calls forth reflection and reorientation in business life concerning visions, goals, role...... in society and practices. Evidence from two cases of corporate communication seems to indicate that the "language of sustainability" implicates a certain reorientation in business life. Whether this reorientation is merely "rhetorical" rather than "real" is not discussed in this paper, but when people use...

  19. Adoption of the Objectives of the Monetary and Economic Union and European Financial Integration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MĂDĂLINA RĂDOI

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available The European concerns, with old traditions in forming multinational financial markets, developed in the integration of the financial markets and of the European banking systems which allowed the investors from any European country to follow the orders on the best market, through the best beneficiary, benefitting from the most effective financial-banking services. This market offers sophisticated and modern financial tools, which cope with the needs of the invertors, portfolio managers, transnational companies and traders, having an impact over the balanced economic development of the European countries and unemployment reduction.

  20. Economic integration of socialist states through the peaceful utilisation of the atom

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Korff, H.J.

    1975-01-01

    The 'Interatominstrument' organisation was set up at the beginning of 1972 by Bulgaria, Hungary, East Germany, Poland, Russia and Czechoslovakia to help co-ordination between, and economic integration of, socialist countries. An account is given of the important and wide role played by the organisation in the co-ordination and rationalisation of research, development and manufacturing capacity on techniques and equipment based on the peaceful uses of atomic energy. Other functions include procurement, dissemination of information and extension of application of nuclear energy. Reference is made to the significant commercial and other successes already achieved by Interatominstrument. (P.G.R.)

  1. Integrating socio-economical dimensions in the ICRP cost-benefit model (a theoretical approach)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lochard, Jacques.

    1981-09-01

    This report aims at analysing, from a methodological point of view, the main problems associated with the integration of socio-economical dimensions in the cost-benefit model recommended by the ICRP in its publication no. 26. After recalling the basic principles of cost-benefit analysis, the elements to be retained in the objective function characterizing the analysis, and the question of the social benefit definitions are discussed. The theory of social surplus with an illustration taken from the radiological protection field is presented [fr

  2. Asian Economic Integration: ASEAN+3+1 or ASEAN+1s?

    OpenAIRE

    Batra, Amita

    2006-01-01

    In this paper an attempt is made to evaluate the most efficient approach to regional economic integration in Asia. For the purpose, Asia is defined as inclusive of ASEAN, the plus three economies of China, Japan, Korea and India that is the ASEAN plus four. Given that ASEAN is an existing regional bloc in Asia, alternative approaches to the alignment of the plus four economies with ASEAN for the formation of the ASEAN+4 trade bloc have been evaluated to determine if there are efficiency costs...

  3. Towards an integrated economic assessment of climate change impacts on agriculture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lotze-Campen, H.; Piontek, F.; Stevanovic, M.; Popp, A.; Bauer, N.; Dietrich, J.; Mueller, C.; Schmitz, C.

    2012-12-01

    For a detailed understanding of the effects of climate change on global agricultural production systems, it is essential to consider the variability of climate change patterns as projected by General Circulation Models (GCMs), their bio-physical impact on crops and the response in land-use patterns and markets. So far, approaches that account for the interaction of bio-physical and economic impacts are largely lacking. We present an integrative analysis by using a soft-coupled system of a biophysical impact model (LPJmL, Bondeau et al. 2007), an economically driven land use model (MAgPIE, Lotze-Campen et al. 2008) and an integrated assessment model (ReMIND-R, Leimbach et al. 2010) to study climate change impacts and economic damages in the agricultural sector. First, the dynamic global vegetation and hydrology model LPJmL is used to derive climate change impacts on crop yields for wheat, maize, soy, rice and other major crops. A range of different climate projections is used, taken from the dataset provided by the Intersectoral Impact Model Intercomparison Project (ISI-MIP, www.isi-mip.org), which bias-corrected the latest CMIP5 climate data (Taylor et al. 2011). Crop yield impacts cover scenarios with and without CO2 fertilization as well as different Representative Concentration Pathways (RCPs) and different GCMs. With increasing temperature towards the end of the century yields generally decrease in tropical and subtropical regions, while they tend to benefit in higher latitudes. LPJmL results have been compared to other global crop models in the Agricultural Model Intercomparison and Improvement Project (AgMIP, www.agmip.org). Second, changes in crop yields are analysed with the spatially explicit agro-economic model MAgPIE, which covers their interaction with economic development and changes in food demand. Changes in prices as well as welfare changes of producer and consumer surplus are taken as economic indicators. Due to climate-change related reductions in

  4. An economic model for energisation and its integration into the urban energy planning process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nissing, Christian; Blottnitz, Harro von

    2010-01-01

    It is widely recognised that access to and supply of modern energy play a key role in poverty alleviation and sustainable development. The emerging concept of energisation seems to capture this idea, and if implemented in its full complexity it should have multiple beneficial effects. To demonstrate this, an economic model is developed for an urban developmental context, drawing on the theory of urban ecosystems and illustrating energy and waste production and consumption issues with current South African data sets. This new understanding of the concept of energisation is then integrated into a local government energy planning process, by means of a checklist for energy planners, covering 18 aspects that between them affect all 7 identifiable tiers of the energy service supply network. A 6-step structured approach is proposed for integrating sustainable energisation into the first four phases of the advanced local energy planning (ALEP) tool.

  5. Economic Analysis of Additive Manufacturing Integration in Injection Molding Process Chain

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Charalambis, Alessandro; Kerbache, Laoucine; Tosello, Guido

    The purpose of this research is to analyze how additive manufacturing can create value when it is utilized as a supportive technology to injection molding by quantifying the cost advantages that can be obtained. Tooling for the product development phase is investigated as pilot integration area...... of additive manufacturing with injection molding. Cost considerations are discussed through the development of a cost estimation model. The study shows that integration of additive manufacturing in the product development phase for fabrication of soft tooling is economically convenient with a cost reduction...... of 79,8% and 89,9%. The cost models on additive manufacturing have been built so far on the idea of substituting injection molding with additive manufacturing. In response to this literature gap, this research addresses the advantages of additive manufacturing utilized in a synergistic rather than...

  6. Economical bridge solutions based on innovative composite dowels and integrated abutments ecobridge

    CERN Document Server

    Băncilă, Radu

    2015-01-01

    This book is an outcome of the research project “ECOBRIDGE – Demonstration of ECOnomical BRIDGE solutions based on innovative composite dowels and integrated abutments – RFCS – CT 2010-00024”, which has been co-funded by the Research Fund for Coal and Steel (R.F.C.S.) of the European Community. The main topics of the book are the following: design of integral bridges, innovative composite dowels for the shear transmission, construction of bridges, structural analysis of bridges and monitoring. The book joins the technical experience and the contributions of the involved research partners. The technical content of all the papers is present-day in the field of the design, construction and monitoring of innovative composite bridges. The efficient design and construction improve and consolidate the market position of steel construction and steel producing industry. In addition, the advanced forms of construction are contributing to savings in material and energy consumption for the structure during prod...

  7. Economic effect of fusion in energy market. Various externalities of energy systems and the integrated evaluation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ito, Keishiro

    2002-01-01

    The primacy of a nuclear fusion reactor in a competitive energy market remarkably depends on to what extent the reactor contributes to reduce the externalities of energy. The reduction effects are classified into two effects, which have quite dissimilar characteristics. One is an effect of environmental dimensions. The other is related to energy security. In this study I took up the results of EC's ExternE project studies as a representative example of the former effect. Concerning the latter effect, I clarified the fundamental characteristics of externalities related to energy security and the conceptual framework for the purpose of evaluation. In the socio-economical evaluation of research into and development investments in nuclear fusions reactors, the public will require the development of integrated evaluation systems to support the cost-effect analysis of how well the reduction effects of externalities have been integrated with the effects of technological innovation, learning, spillover, etc. (author)

  8. Solidarity and its limits for economic integration in the EU’s internal market

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Butler, Graham

    2018-01-01

    Solidarity is applicable to multiple strands of Union law, including in the fostering of an internal market. Whereas the internal market has always held constitutional status, the objects that underlie it came about much later. The question of how solidarity, as a principle, value, and concept...... of the internal market, but also for the purposes of economic integration. The article demonstrates that solidarity in law can be a reason or justification for measures to promote the treaty-based aim of the internal market. Yet simultaneously, it finds that solidarity is not an all-encompassing principle, value......, or concept in absolute terms, and has limits for utilisation in the spirit of European integration. Conclusively, by demonstrating the limits of solidarity as a ‘legal’ principle, value, or concept, the article asks whether it is time to reassess the role that solidarity should play in Union law...

  9. Integrated economic and environmental accounts for forestry in France. Part I

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Montagne, Claire; Niedzwiedz, Alexandra

    2010-01-01

    Integrated economic and environmental accounting allows for a comprehensive description of stocks and flows for the forest and forest-related sector. Forest accounts take into consideration both surface area and standing timber of the forest (forest balance). They integrate goods and services produced by the industries (supply-use tables) and measure the carbon stored by the entire forestry ecosystem (carbon balance). This set of data is available in physical and monetary terms. The harmonization and periodicity of these tables on a European scale contribute to better monitoring of resources and activities. It is an excellent tool for structuring information used in analysing and assessing public and private policies. The methodology for these forest accounts under the European standard (Eurostat) together with the main results for the 2000- 2006 period are detailed in a full report (Niedzwiedz and Montagne, 2009). (authors)

  10. Integrated ecological-economic fisheries models - evaluation, review and challenges for implementation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, J. Rasmus; Thunberg, Eric; Holland, Daniel S.

    2018-01-01

    and comparative evaluation of 35 IESFM´s applied to marine fisheries and marine ecosystem resources to identify the characteristics that determine their usefulness, effectiveness and implementation. The focus is on fully integrated models that allow for feedbacks between ecological and human processes though......Marine ecosystems evolve under many interconnected and area-specific pressures. In order to fulfill society's intensifying and diversifying needs whilst ensuring ecologically sustainable development, more effective marine spatial planning and broader-scope management of marine resources...... is necessary. Integrated ecological–socioeconomic fisheries models (IESFM) of marine systems are nee¬ded to evaluate impacts and sustainability of potential management actions and understand, and anti¬ci¬pate ecological, economic, and social dynamics at a range of scales from local to national and regional...

  11. Integration of Nutrition and Economic Development in Sri Lanka: The Graduation Model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Peiris, Dilka; Fernando, Sisira

    2014-01-01

    Full text: WV Lanka’s Graduation Model integrates economic development and nutrition-specific interventions in order to sustainably reduce childhood growth failure. The Graduation Model identifies families where they are on the economic and nutrition scale to tailor interventions enabling graduation from one living standard segment to the next, as well as enabling improved nutrition. Families with malnourished children are identified and supported with appropriate nutrition interventions, in addition to the tailored economic interventions, which first focus on nutrition rehabilitation through positive deviant Hearth approach and then increasing diet diversity through food security and livelihoods. WV Lanka is implementing an integrated approach to address malnutrition. The components of the Graduation Model focused on families: 1. Participatory Living Standard Ranking (PLSR) to identify the living standards of the families. PLSR leads to a segmentation of all households in to six segments depending on the living standards. They are:, Destitute (DT), Poorest of the poor (PoP), Poor (P), Vulnerable none poor (VNP), Suitable livelihood & Micro Entrepreneur (SL & ME) and Small and Medium Entrepreneur & above (SME & Above). 2. Nutrition assessment/growth monitoring to identify nutritional status of children and their families. 3. Family Development Plan prepared for all households and all members of the family – incorporating the Sustainable Livelihood. 4. The Positive Deviance/Hearth approach is used to identify existing practices which promote good nutrition and these practices later on were shared to caregivers of malnourished children through experiential learning. The Positive Deviance/Hearth sessions are used to promote the caring, feeding, hygienic and health seeking practices among caregivers. Low income families with malnourished children are supported to establish home gardens. Interventions include a combination of home gardens, business training, pre

  12. Process economics of renewable biorefineries: butanol and ethanol production in integrated bioprocesses from lignocellulosics and other industrial by-products

    Science.gov (United States)

    This chapter provides process economic details on production of butanol from lignocellulosic biomass and glycerol in integrated bioreactors where numerous unit operations are combined. In order to compare various processes, economic evaluations were performed using SuperPro Designer Software (versio...

  13. Bamboo vs. crops: An integrated emergy and economic evaluation of using bamboo to replace crops in south Sichuan Province, China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Based on long-term monitoring conducted in Chang-ning county, a pilot site of the ‘Grain for Green Program’ (GFGP), an integrated emergy and economic method was applied to evaluate the dynamic ecological-economic performance of 3 kinds of bamboo systems planted on slo...

  14. Integrated flood damage modelling in the Ebro river basin under hydrodynamic, socio-economic and environmental factors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foudi, S.; Galarraga, I.; Osés, N.

    2012-04-01

    This paper presents a model of flood damage measurement. It studies the socio-economic and environmental potential damage of floods in the Ebro river basin. We estimate the damage to the urban, rural and environmental sectors. In these sectors, we make distinctions between residential, non residential, cultural, agricultural, public facilities and utilities, environmental and human subsectors. We focus on both the direct, indirect, tangible and intangible impacts. The residential damages refer to the damages on housing, costs of repair and cleaning as direct effects and the re-housing costs as an indirect effect. The non residential and agricultural impacts concern the losses to the economic sectors (industry, business, agricultural): production, capital losses, costs of cleaning and repairs for the direct costs and the consequences of the suspension of activities for the indirect costs. For the human sector, we refer to the physical impacts (injuries and death) in the direct tangible effects and to the posttraumatic stress as indirect intangible impact. The environmental impacts focus on a site of Community Interests (pSCIs) in the case study area. The case study is located the Ebro river basin, Spain. The Ebro river basin is the larger river basin in term of surface and water discharge. The Ebro river system is subject to Atlantic and Mediterranean climatic influences. It gathers most of its water from the north of Spain (in the Pyrenees Mountains) and is the most important river basin of Spain in term of water resources. Most of the flooding occurs during the winter period. Between 1900- 2010, the National Catalogue of Historical Floods identifies 372 events: meanly 33 events every 10 years and up to 58 during the 1990-2000. Natural floods have two origins: (i) persistent rainfalls in large sub basins raised up by high temperature giving rise to a rapid thaw in the Pyrenees, (ii) local rainfalls of short duration and high intensity that gives rise to rapid and

  15. Vertical integration and profitability of the agrifood industry in an economic crisis context

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Grau, A.J.; Reig, A.

    2015-07-01

    In a setting of economic and financial crisis, most companies experienced a reduction in their profitability. Thus, our study allows us to identify vertical integration strategies developed by companies to overcome the crisis. This paper is aimed at unveiling the determining factors of the profitability of Spanish agrifood firms, depending on whether they are backwards vertically integrated or not. In order to attain our objective, we implemented a first difference regression model. The main contributions of the article lie in the incorporation of a variable that distinguishes integrated firms from the rest and the separate analysis of the two groups of firms. The results suggest that firms that seek to differentiate themselves, either through offering a specific product or through providing higher quality with a view to maintaining their reputation, are more likely to adopt vertical integration due to the higher transaction costs of relations with suppliers. The grouping carried out in this study is shown to be highly relevant as asset structure implies different strategies for actions aimed at increasing profitability. (Author)

  16. Midlife Family Economic Hardship and Later Life Cardiometabolic Health: The Protective Role of Marital Integration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wickrama, Kandauda A S; O'Neal, Catherine Walker; Neppl, Tricia K

    2018-05-25

    The current study assesses the unique influences of family economic hardship (FEH) in early and late midlife on husbands' and wives' body mass index (BMI) and the influence of BMI on the onset of cardiometabolic (CM) disease in later adulthood. The protective role of marital integration is also considered in relation to the stress-response link between FEH and BMI. Analyses were performed using structural equation modeling with prospective data from 257 husbands and wives in enduring marriages over a period of 25 years beginning when they were approximately 40 years old. A multigroup analysis tested the moderating role of marital integration. The distal influence of FEH in early midlife on BMI in later adulthood remained statistically significant even after controlling for proximal FEH. Proximal FEH in later midlife was influential for wives', but not husbands', BMI. BMI in later midlife was related to the onset of CM disease in their later life. Moderation analysis showed that FEH and subsequent BMI were associated for couples with below average levels of behavioral integration but not for couples with above average levels of integration. Taken together, these findings suggest a family-health process stemming from early FEH and operating cumulatively over the life course. FEH in early midlife is a persistent determinant of physiological dysregulation as reflected by BMI. Findings identify BMI as a modifiable leverage point for the long-term reduction of CM disease risk and highlight the role of spouses as a buffer against the detrimental stress-health association.

  17. Vertical integration and profitability of the agrifood industry in an economic crisis context

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alfredo J. Grau

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available In a setting of economic and financial crisis, most companies experienced a reduction in their profitability. Thus, our study allows us to identify vertical integration strategies developed by companies to overcome the crisis. This paper is aimed at unveiling the determining factors of the profitability of Spanish agrifood firms, depending on whether they are backwards vertically integrated or not. In order to attain our objective, we implemented a first difference regression model. The main contributions of the article lie in the incorporation of a variable that distinguishes integrated firms from the rest and the separate analysis of the two groups of firms. The results suggest that firms that seek to differentiate themselves, either through offering a specific product or through providing higher quality with a view to maintaining their reputation, are more likely to adopt vertical integration due to the higher transaction costs of relations with suppliers. The grouping carried out in this study is shown to be highly relevant as asset structure implies different strategies for actions aimed at increasing profitability.

  18. The Future of the World Economy is an Integrated World Economic Structure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sergey Yurievich Glazyev

    2018-03-01

    the Integrated world economic structure. The authors formulated the main contradiction of our present day — the confrontation of the dying Industrial Civilization in the face of the cumulative West and the emerging Information Society. The authors analyzed the main tendencies, problems and possible alternatives to the development of the world economy. It can ensure the development and adoption of political decisions for the most painless transition of Russia to the emerging forms and institutions of the global economy.

  19. Agro-ecosystem and socio-economic role of homegarden agroforestry in Jabithenan District, North-Western Ethiopia: implication for climate change adaptation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Linger, Ewuketu

    2014-01-01

    Homegarden agroforestry is believed to be more diverse and provide multiple services for household than other monocropping system and this is due to the combination of crops, trees and livestock. The aim of this study was to assess socio-economic and agro-ecological role of homegardens in Jabithenan district, North-western Ethiopia. Two sites purposively and two villages randomly from each site were selected. Totally 96 households; in which 48 from homegarden agroforestry user and 48 from non-tree based garden user were selected for this study. Socio-economic data and potential economic and agro-ecosystem role of homegarden agroforestry over non-tree based garden were collected by using semi-structured and structured questionnaires to the households. Homegarden agroforestry significantly (P agroforestry practice provides good socio-economical and agro-ecological service for farmers which have a higher implication for climate change adaptation than non-tree based garden.

  20. ANALYSIS REGARDING THE INFLUENCE OF THE ECONOMIC ENVIRONMENT ON THE UNEMPLOYMENT VARIETY AMONG THE YOUNG PEOPLE IN THE NORTH-EAST REGION OF ROMANIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iulian CONDRATOV

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available The specialty literature pointed out the fact that the unemployment represents a dysfunction of the labor market and among the main factors of this, a central role is represented by the economic factors. Moreover, especially for the unemployed between 15-24 years old we could identify a more increased influence. In this research we have used statistic data provided by the National Institute of Statistics of Romania among which we have selected a series of relevant variables regarding the characterization of the economic environment in the North-East Region. Their influence on the variation of the unemployment rate and the employment rate concerning the young people in the North-East Region was studied using the method of the statistics regression, undergoing a filtration using the Stepwise procedure, implemented within the informatics program SPSS.

  1. Technical and Economic Potential of Distributed Energy Storages for the Integration of Renewable Energy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sveinbjörnsson, Dadi Þorsteinn; Trier, Daniel; Hansen, Kenneth

    Very high penetration of fluctuating renewable energy sources can lead to new challenges in balancing energy supply and demand in future energy systems. This work, carried out as a part of Annex 28 of the IEA ECES programme, addresses this. The aim of the study is to identify which role decentral...... indicate that sector coupling along with an intelligent choice of distributed energy storage technologies can enable the integration of large shares of fluctuating renewable energy in an energy efficient and cost-effective way.......Very high penetration of fluctuating renewable energy sources can lead to new challenges in balancing energy supply and demand in future energy systems. This work, carried out as a part of Annex 28 of the IEA ECES programme, addresses this. The aim of the study is to identify which role...... decentralised energy storages (DES) should play in integrating fluctuating renewable energy sources. The technical and economic potential for DES solutions is quantified using energy system modelling, and it is identified which DES technologies have the largest total (technical and economic) potential. For this...

  2. INTEGRATED DESEASE MANAGEMENT FOR CHILI FARMING IN BREBES AND MAGELANG - CENTRAL JAVA: SOCIAL ECONOMIC IMPACTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joko Mariyono

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available This study aims to analyze the impact of an integrated disease management (IDM on chilli. Chili disease control technologies that include crop barrier with corn and Crotalaria, and compost tea have been introduced to farmers in Magelang and Brebes. A qualitative approach was used to assess and estimate the socio-economic impact of agricultural research. The study was conducted in 2011. The results showed that based on land use chili, the net economic benefits generated was relatively low. There were only a few farmers who have adopted the technology on chili peppers. Furthermore, the survey also illustrates that three years after its introduction in 2007 the technology status at farm level was just at consciousness phase. Learning of this fact, a thorough evaluation of the technology on chili pepper should be done immediately. Research institutions which have developed the technology should encourage bottom-up initiatives and build a shared commitment to complete the implementation of a clear strategic plan. The adoption of the strategic plan should include the integration of research activities with promotional activities for example by revitalizing participatory approaches to awareness of farmers.

  3. An Integrated Economic-Organizational Model of the Enterprises in the Development of Information Technologies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Polyakov Maxym V.

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available The article is aimed at building an integrated economic-organizational model of the information technologies developing enterprises in order to choose the best technology, production process, production through adjustment or replacement of the business model on the basis of a balanced scorecard, a business model template, and the cognitive model of the IT enterprise development management. The possibility to bind a business model to a strategic goal has been identified, thus providing for quantifying the business model. The article presents a generalized cognitive map of the information technologies developing enterprise, which includes three levels: strategic level, business model level, and development management level. The distribution of the indicators to three levels allows for the consideration of changing the way in which strategic objectives are achieved by changing the business model. However, the indicators, which can be managed by the enterprise itself, remain unchanged. Prospect for further research in this direction is to find indicators for quantifying all levels of the integrated economic-organizational model of the enterprises in the development of information technologies and to substantiate the relationship between them.

  4. Integrating life-cycle environmental and economic assessment with transportation and land use planning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chester, Mikhail V; Nahlik, Matthew J; Fraser, Andrew M; Kimball, Mindy A; Garikapati, Venu M

    2013-01-01

    The environmental outcomes of urban form changes should couple life-cycle and behavioral assessment methods to better understand urban sustainability policy outcomes. Using Phoenix, Arizona light rail as a case study, an integrated transportation and land use life-cycle assessment (ITLU-LCA) framework is developed to assess the changes to energy consumption and air emissions from transit-oriented neighborhood designs. Residential travel, commercial travel, and building energy use are included and the framework integrates household behavior change assessment to explore the environmental and economic outcomes of policies that affect infrastructure. The results show that upfront environmental and economic investments are needed (through more energy-intense building materials for high-density structures) to produce long run benefits in reduced building energy use and automobile travel. The annualized life-cycle benefits of transit-oriented developments in Phoenix can range from 1.7 to 230 Gg CO2e depending on the aggressiveness of residential density. Midpoint impact stressors for respiratory effects and photochemical smog formation are also assessed and can be reduced by 1.2-170 Mg PM10e and 41-5200 Mg O3e annually. These benefits will come at an additional construction cost of up to $410 million resulting in a cost of avoided CO2e at $16-29 and household cost savings.

  5. The geological model calibration - Learnings from integration of reservoir geology and field performance - Example from the upper carboniferous reservoirs of the Southern North Sea

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Moscariello, A.; Hoof, T.B. van; Kunakbayeva, G.; Veen, J.H. ten; Belt, F. van den; Twerda, A.; Peters, L.; Davis, P.; Williams, H.

    2013-01-01

    The Geological Model Calibration - Learnings from Integration of Reservoir Geology and Field Performance: example from the Upper Carboniferous Reservoirs of the Southern North Sea. Copyright © (2012) by the European Association of Geoscientists & Engineers All rights reserved.

  6. Integrating System Dynamic and Fuzzy Logic for Economic Assessment of BOT Projects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Farnad Nasirzadeh

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The selection of the most appropriate project for the investment is one of the most important decisions that should be made by the private investors. This problem is of vital importance in BOT projects, where the total investment as well as the investor's profit should be recovered by the project's income. There are several approaches proposed by the researchers to determine the best economical project in comparison to other projects. The previous researches, however, faced with some major defects. As an example, the effects of various factors affecting the project evaluation process as well as the existing risks and uncertainties are not taken into account. In this research, economic assessment of BOT projects is performed by integrating system dynamic simulation approach and fuzzy logic. For this purpose, first the project's NPV is modeled considering all the influencing factors qualitatively. The relationships that exist between different factors are then determined and the quantitative model is built. Using the developed model, the value of NPV is simulated considering the effects of all the influencing factors and the existing uncertainties. Finally, the value of project's NPV is determined as a triangular fuzzy number. Finally, the best alternative project is selected by comparing the simulated values of NPV. To evaluate the capabilities and performance of the proposed model, the project economical evaluation is performed for two highway projects and the best project is selected.

  7. Integration of Microalgae-Based Bioenergy Production into a Petrochemical Complex: Techno-Economic Assessment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana L. Gonçalves

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The rapid development of modern society has resulted in an increased demand for energy, mainly from fossil fuels. The use of this source of energy has led to the accumulation of carbon dioxide (CO2 in the atmosphere. In this context, microalgae culturing may be an effective solution to reduce the CO2 concentration in the atmosphere, since these microorganisms can capture CO2 and, simultaneously, produce bioenergy. This work consists of a techno-economic assessment of a microalgal production facility integrated in a petrochemical complex, in which established infrastructure allows efficient material and energy transport. Seven different scenarios were considered regarding photosynthetic, lipids extraction and anaerobic digestion efficiencies. This analysis has demonstrated six economically viable scenarios able to: (i reduce CO2 emissions from a thermoelectric power plant; (ii treat domestic wastewaters (which were used as culture medium; and (iii produce lipids and electrical and thermal energy. For a 100-ha facility, considering a photosynthetic efficiency of 3%, a lipids extraction efficiency of 75% and an anaerobic digestion efficiency of 45% (scenario 3, an economically viable process was obtained (net present value of 22.6 million euros, being effective in both CO2 removal (accounting for 1.1 × 104 t per year and energy production (annual energy produced was 1.6 × 107 kWh and annual lipids productivity was 1.9 × 103 m3.

  8. The Innovation Paradigm of New Industrialization in the Conditions of the Integrated World Economic Way

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olga Aleksandrovna Romanova

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available The article emphasizes the importance of the concept of «technical and economic paradigm», which characterizes the certain stage of the world economy development associated with the corresponding technological revolution. The paper reveals the feature of the modern technical and economic paradigm development connected with new concepts determining a priority of general values. The author states the hypothesis that in the conditions of the emergence of the fourth industrial revolution elements (so-called 4.0 industry, it is fair to consider the innovation paradigm of development as the foundation of the new industrialization which preceds this revolution. The author considers new industrialization as the process contributing to the global technological parity of Russia and the countries-technological leaders. The most significant statements from this post of view are allocated: consideration of new industrialization as a process of continuous innovations and distribution of breakthrough technologies, computerization of production, robotization, cross-disciplinary nature of high technologies, the ecology of technologies, intellectualization of the potential of all persons occupied in industrial production, etc. The author analyses strategic documents connected with the development of innovative activities in Russia. The paper emphasizes that the indicators characterizing these activities do not allow to rank Russia as a country having the developed innovative economy. The article reveals the possibilities of the activation of innovative activities in Russia connected to the development of the approved private priorities in the main spheres of activity with the state priorities of social development; with construction of integrated strategy of a scientific and technological, institutional and industrial development of the country; with creation of the system of scientific monitoring allowing to adjust the necessary corrective actions in time. The

  9. Integrated environmental assessment of future energy scenarios based on economic equilibrium models

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Igos, E.; Rugani, B.; Rege, S.; Benetto, E.; Drouet, L.; Zachary, D.; Haas, T.

    2014-01-01

    The future evolution of energy supply technologies strongly depends on (and affects) the economic and environmental systems, due to the high dependency of this sector on the availability and cost of fossil fuels, especially on the small regional scale. This paper aims at presenting the modeling system and preliminary results of a research project conducted on the scale of Luxembourg to assess the environmental impact of future energy scenarios for the country, integrating outputs from partial and computable general equilibrium models within hybrid Life Cycle Assessment (LCA) frameworks. The general equilibrium model for Luxembourg, LUXGEM, is used to evaluate the economic impacts of policy decisions and other economic shocks over the time horizon 2006-2030. A techno-economic (partial equilibrium) model for Luxembourg, ETEM, is used instead to compute operation levels of various technologies to meet the demand for energy services at the least cost along the same timeline. The future energy demand and supply are made consistent by coupling ETEM with LUXGEM so as to have the same macro-economic variables and energy shares driving both models. The coupling results are then implemented within a set of Environmentally-Extended Input-Output (EE-IO) models in historical time series to test the feasibility of the integrated framework and then to assess the environmental impacts of the country. Accordingly, a dis-aggregated energy sector was built with the different ETEM technologies in the EE-IO to allow hybridization with Life Cycle Inventory (LCI) and enrich the process detail. The results show that the environmental impact slightly decreased overall from 2006 to 2009. Most of the impacts come from some imported commodities (natural gas, used to produce electricity, and metalliferous ores and metal scrap). The main energy production technology is the combined-cycle gas turbine plant 'Twinerg', representing almost 80% of the domestic electricity production in Luxembourg

  10. Thermochemical production of liquid fuels from biomass: Thermo-economic modeling, process design and process integration analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tock, Laurence; Gassner, Martin; Marechal, Francois

    2010-01-01

    A detailed thermo-economic model combining thermodynamics with economic analysis and considering different technological alternatives for the thermochemical production of liquid fuels from lignocellulosic biomass is presented. Energetic and economic models for the production of Fischer-Tropsch fuel (FT), methanol (MeOH) and dimethyl ether (DME) by means of biomass drying with steam or flue gas, directly or indirectly heated fluidized bed or entrained flow gasification, hot or cold gas cleaning, fuel synthesis and upgrading are reviewed and developed. The process is integrated and the optimal utility system is computed. The competitiveness of the different process options is compared systematically with regard to energetic, economic and environmental considerations. At several examples, it is highlighted that process integration is a key element that allows for considerably increasing the performance by optimal utility integration and energy conversion. The performance computations of some exemplary technology scenarios of integrated plants yield overall energy efficiencies of 59.8% (crude FT-fuel), 52.5% (MeOH) and 53.5% (DME), and production costs of 89, 128 and 113 Euro MWh -1 on fuel basis. The applied process design approach allows to evaluate the economic competitiveness compared to fossil fuels, to study the influence of the biomass and electricity price and to project for different plant capacities. Process integration reveals in particular potential energy savings and waste heat valorization. Based on this work, the most promising options for the polygeneration of fuel, power and heat will be determined in a future thermo-economic optimization.

  11. Integration of multiple determinants in the neuronal computation of economic values.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raghuraman, Anantha P; Padoa-Schioppa, Camillo

    2014-08-27

    Economic goods may vary on multiple dimensions (determinants). A central conjecture in decision neuroscience is that choices between goods are made by comparing subjective values computed through the integration of all relevant determinants. Previous work identified three groups of neurons in the orbitofrontal cortex (OFC) of monkeys engaged in economic choices: (1) offer value cells, which encode the value of individual offers; (2) chosen value cells, which encode the value of the chosen good; and (3) chosen juice cells, which encode the identity of the chosen good. In principle, these populations could be sufficient to generate a decision. Critically, previous work did not assess whether offer value cells (the putative input to the decision) indeed encode subjective values as opposed to physical properties of the goods, and/or whether offer value cells integrate multiple determinants. To address these issues, we recorded from the OFC while monkeys chose between risky outcomes. Confirming previous observations, three populations of neurons encoded the value of individual offers, the value of the chosen option, and the value-independent choice outcome. The activity of both offer value cells and chosen value cells encoded values defined by the integration of juice quantity and probability. Furthermore, both populations reflected the subjective risk attitude of the animals. We also found additional groups of neurons encoding the risk associated with a particular option, the risky nature of the chosen option, and whether the trial outcome was positive or negative. These results provide substantial support for the conjecture described above and for the involvement of OFC in good-based decisions. Copyright © 2014 the authors 0270-6474/14/3311583-21$15.00/0.

  12. Thermo-economic analysis of an integrated solar power generation system using nanofluids

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alashkar, Adnan; Gadalla, Mohamed

    2017-01-01

    Highlights: • Develop a thermo-economic analysis of an integrated solar-power generation system. • A thermodynamic optimization is proposed to maximize system performance. • Select the optimum nanofluid to replace conventional heating fluids inside a PTSC. • Study the effect of thermal energy storage on performance and cost of the system. • Perform monthly and daily analyses to analyze system behavior using nanofluids. - Abstract: In this paper, a thermo-economic analysis of an Integrated Solar Regenerative Rankine Cycle (ISRRC) is performed. The ISRRC consists of a nanofluid-based Parabolic Trough Solar Collector (PTSC), and a Thermal Energy Storage System (TES) integrated with a Regenerative Rankine Cycle. The effect of dispersing metallic and non-metallic nanoparticles into conventional heating fluids on the output performance and cost of the ISRRC is studied for different volume fractions and for three modes of operation. The first mode assumes no storage, while the second and the third assume a storage system with a storage period of 7.5 h and 10 h respectively. For the modes of operation with the TES, the charging and discharging cycles are explained. The results show that the presence of the nanoparticles leads to an increase in the overall energy produced by the ISRRC for all modes of operation, causing a decrease in the Levelized Cost of Electricity (LEC), and an increase in the net savings of the ISRRC. After comparing the three modes of operation, it is established that the existence of a storage system leads to a higher power generation, and a lower LEC; however, the efficiency of the cycle drops. It is seen that the maximum increase in the annual energy output of the ISRRC caused by the addition of Cu nanoparticles to Syltherm 800 is approximately 3.1%, while the maximum increase in the net savings is about 2.4%.

  13. Process modelling and techno-economic analysis of natural gas combined cycle integrated with calcium looping

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erans María

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Calcium looping (CaL is promising for large-scale CO2 capture in the power generation and industrial sectors due to the cheap sorbent used and the relatively low energy penalties achieved with this process. Because of the high operating temperatures the heat utilisation is a major advantage of the process, since a significant amount of power can be generated from it. However, this increases its complexity and capital costs. Therefore, not only the energy efficiency performance is important for these cycles, but also the capital costs must be taken into account, i.e. techno-economic analyses are required in order to determine which parameters and configurations are optimal to enhance technology viability in different integration scenarios. In this study the integration scenarios of CaL cycles and natural gas combined cycles (NGCC are explored. The process models of the NGCC and CaL capture plant are developed to explore the most promising scenarios for NGCC-CaL integration with regards to efficiency penalties. Two scenarios are analysed in detail, and show that the system with heat recovery steam generator (HRSG before and after the capture plant exhibited better performance of 49.1% efficiency compared with that of 45.7% when only one HRSG is located after the capture plant. However, the techno-economic analyses showed that the more energy efficient case, with two HRSGs, implies relatively higher cost of electricity (COE, 44.1€/MWh, when compared to that of the reference plant system (33.1€/MWh. The predicted cost of CO2 avoided for the case with two HRSGS is 29.3 €/ton CO2.

  14. Economical investigation of an integrated boiler-solar energy saving system in Jordan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Al-Salaymeh, A.; Al-Rawabdeh, I.; Emran, S.

    2010-01-01

    Jordan is relatively poor in conventional energy resources and is basically a non-oil producing country, i.e. its energy supply relies to a very large extent on imports. It is therefore unlikely that any future energy scenario for Jordan will not include a significant proportion of its energy to come from renewable sources such as solar energy. The lack of an integrated energy saving system which utilizes the solar energy for domestic hot water as well as for building space heating was the main motivation for the present study. In Jordan, there is no existing system can provide the integration mechanisms of solar energy and fuel combustion with electrical ones. Also adding new and related products increases sales of current boilers products and can be offered at competitive prices. During our investigations, it has been found that the market demand for boiler-solar integration system in terms of the system acceptability, system feasibility, and system values is very high especially after the increased in oil prices during the last 3 years, i.e. 2006-2008. The market trend shows that even though solar collector is not attractive as an energy source for domestic hot water, but the combined system for space heating and domestic hot water is fully accepted. However, the market demand for such a system is not completely identified yet but the awareness and the discussion of the idea shows a good potential. The economical study about the integration system of boiler and solar energy shows that using solar water heaters to heat space and for domestic water is cost-effective. Payback can be as low as 3 years, and utility bills are much lower than they would be using a conventional heating system. The initial draft and design of a prototype for the boiler-solar-electrical integration system has been carried out.

  15. THE INTEGRATION MODEL ASEAN+1: THE MAIN NORMS OF AGREEMENTS AND EFFECT ON FOREIGN ECONOMIC TIES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Г М Костюнина

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this research is a comparative analysis of the provisions of free trade agreements signed by ASEAN with dialogue countries and the East Asia Summit partners - China, Japan, the Republic of Korea, India, Australia and New Zealand. The author's thesis is that, in our opinion, the final effect of participation in the free trade zone for the national economy depends on such factors as the volume of mutual trade, the degree of economic interde-pendence, the level of customs duties rates at the date of signing the agreement, the volume of the mutual market, geographical proximity. The higher the role of these factors, the greater the effect of trade creation is received by the participating states. The basis of the research methodology is the understanding of regional integration agreements as a multifactor instrument of trade policy in various countries of the world that facilitates the liberalization of international trade in general and the regional trade in particular, enhancing the participation of partner states in the international division of labor and stimulating the dynamics of their economic development. Such agreements are considered as a system that includes a set of elements that interact with elements of other systems. Such interaction is considered taking into account the specific purpose of each of the elements, and also taking into account the factors of the stability of the development of each system. In carry-ing out this study, the author has used such methods as the method of comparative analysis, which makes it possible to identify the specifics of the participation of ASEAN countries in free trade zones; methods of statistical analysis and political forecasting that provide an opportunity to identify legal norms of integra-tion agreements on the ASEAN + 1 model; as well as a logical conceptual analysis that allows to present a full picture of the ASEAN integration policy. The author analyses norms for regulating the

  16. A Hydro-Economic Approach to Representing Water Resources Impacts in Integrated Assessment Models

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kirshen, Paul H.; Strzepek, Kenneth, M.

    2004-01-14

    Grant Number DE-FG02-98ER62665 Office of Energy Research of the U.S. Department of Energy Abstract Many Integrated Assessment Models (IAM) divide the world into a small number of highly aggregated regions. Non-OECD countries are aggregated geographically into continental and multiple-continental regions or economically by development level. Current research suggests that these large scale aggregations cannot accurately represent potential water resources-related climate change impacts. In addition, IAMs do not explicitly model the flow regulation impacts of reservoir and ground water systems, the economics of water supply, or the demand for water in economic activities. Using the International Model for Policy Analysis of Agricultural Commodities and Trade (IMPACT) model of the International Food Policy Research Institute (IFPRI) as a case study, this research implemented a set of methodologies to provide accurate representation of water resource climate change impacts in Integrated Assessment Models. There were also detailed examinations of key issues related to aggregated modeling including: modeling water consumption versus water withdrawals; ground and surface water interactions; development of reservoir cost curves; modeling of surface areas of aggregated reservoirs for estimating evaporation losses; and evaluating the importance of spatial scale in river basin modeling. The major findings include: - Continental or national or even large scale river basin aggregation of water supplies and demands do not accurately capture the impacts of climate change in the water and agricultural sector in IAMs. - Fortunately, there now exist gridden approaches (0.5 X 0.5 degrees) to model streamflows in a global analysis. The gridded approach to hydrologic modeling allows flexibility in aligning basin boundaries with national boundaries. This combined with GIS tools, high speed computers, and the growing availability of socio-economic gridded data bases allows assignment of

  17. Solar Energy Grid Integration Systems (SEGIS): adding functionality while maintaining reliability and economics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bower, Ward

    2011-09-01

    An overview of the activities and progress made during the US DOE Solar Energy Grid Integration Systems (SEGIS) solicitation, while maintaining reliability and economics is provided. The SEGIS R&D opened pathways for interconnecting PV systems to intelligent utility grids and micro-grids of the future. In addition to new capabilities are "value added" features. The new hardware designs resulted in smaller, less material-intensive products that are being viewed by utilities as enabling dispatchable generation and not just unpredictable negative loads. The technical solutions enable "advanced integrated system" concepts and "smart grid" processes to move forward in a faster and focused manner. The advanced integrated inverters/controllers can now incorporate energy management functionality, intelligent electrical grid support features and a multiplicity of communication technologies. Portals for energy flow and two-way communications have been implemented. SEGIS hardware was developed for the utility grid of today, which was designed for one-way power flow, for intermediate grid scenarios, AND for the grid of tomorrow, which will seamlessly accommodate managed two-way power flows as required by large-scale deployment of solar and other distributed generation. The SEGIS hardware and control developed for today meets existing standards and codes AND provides for future connections to a "smart grid" mode that enables utility control and optimized performance.

  18. Integrated Bird Conservation along the Pacific Coast of North America: An Action Agenda

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gregg Elliott; Bob Altman; Wendy Easton; Ricardo Estrella; Geoffrey Geupel; Mary Chase; Ellie Cohen; Ann Chrisney

    2005-01-01

    Scientists and managers representing the continental bird conservation plans explored the status of conservation planning and implementation for birds along the Pacific coast of North America. The theme of the session, "using common currencies to advance bird conservation," emphasized the components of bird conservation shared among the major initiatives,...

  19. Integrated wetland management for waterfowl and shorebirds at Mattamuskeet National Wildlife Refuge, North Carolina

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tavernia, Brian G.; Stanton, John D.; Lyons, James E.

    2017-11-22

    Mattamuskeet National Wildlife Refuge (MNWR) offers a mix of open water, marsh, forest, and cropland habitats on 20,307 hectares in coastal North Carolina. In 1934, Federal legislation (Executive Order 6924) established MNWR to benefit wintering waterfowl and other migratory bird species. On an annual basis, the refuge staff decide how to manage 14 impoundments to benefit not only waterfowl during the nonbreeding season, but also shorebirds during fall and spring migration. In making these decisions, the challenge is to select a portfolio, or collection, of management actions for the impoundments that optimizes use by the three groups of birds while respecting budget constraints. In this study, a decision support tool was developed for these annual management decisions.Within the decision framework, there are three different management objectives: shorebird-use days during fall and spring migrations, and waterfowl-use days during the nonbreeding season. Sixteen potential management actions were identified for impoundments; each action represents a combination of hydroperiod and vegetation manipulation. Example hydroperiods include semi-permanent and seasonal drawdowns, and vegetation manipulations include mechanical-chemical treatment, burning, disking, and no action. Expert elicitation was used to build a Bayesian Belief Network (BBN) model that predicts shorebird- and waterfowl-use days for each potential management action. The BBN was parameterized for a representative impoundment, MI-9, and predictions were re-scaled for this impoundment to predict outcomes at other impoundments on the basis of size. Parameter estimates in the BBN model can be updated using observations from ongoing monitoring that is part of the Integrated Waterbird Management and Monitoring (IWMM) program.The optimal portfolio of management actions depends on the importance, that is, weights, assigned to the three objectives, as well as the budget. Five scenarios with a variety of objective

  20. Seasonal Soil Nitrogen Mineralization within an Integrated Crop and Livestock System in Western North Dakota, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Landblom, Douglas; Senturklu, Songul; Cihacek, Larry; Pfenning, Lauren; Brevik, Eric C.

    2015-04-01

    Protecting natural resources while maintaining or maximizing crop yield potential is of utmost importance for sustainable crop and livestock production systems. Since soil organic matter and its decomposition by soil organisms is at the very foundation of healthy productive soils, systems research at the North Dakota State University Dickinson Research Extension Center is evaluating seasonal soil nitrogen fertility within an integrated crop and livestock production system. The 5-year diverse crop rotation is: sunflower (SF) - hard red spring wheat (HRSW) - fall seeded winter triticale-hairy vetch (THV; spring harvested for hay)/spring seeded 7-species cover crop (CC) - Corn (C) (85-90 day var.) - field pea-barley intercrop (PBY). The HRSW and SF are harvested as cash crops and the PBY, C, and CC are harvested by grazing cattle. In the system, yearling beef steers graze the PBY and C before feedlot entry and after weaning, gestating beef cows graze the CC. Since rotation establishment, four crop years have been harvested from the crop rotation. All crops have been seeded using a JD 1590 no-till drill except C and SF. Corn and SF were planted using a JD 7000 no-till planter. The HRSW, PBY, and CC were seeded at a soil depth of 3.8 cm and a row width of 19.1 cm. Seed placement for the C and SF crops was at a soil depth of 5.1 cm and the row spacing was 0.762 m. The plant population goal/ha for C, SF, and wheat was 7,689, 50,587, and 7,244 p/ha, respectively. During the 3rd cropping year, soil bulk density was measured and during the 4th cropping year, seasonal nitrogen fertility was monitored throughout the growing season from June to October. Seasonal nitrate nitrogen (NO3-N), ammonium nitrogen (NH4-N), total season mineral nitrogen (NO3-N + NH4-N), cropping system NO3-N, and bulk density were measured in 3 replicated non-fertilized field plot areas within each 10.6 ha triple replicated crop fields. Within each plot area, 6 - 20.3 cm x 0.61 m aluminum irrigation

  1. Management of Innovative Projects for Ensuring the Economic Safety in the Conditions of Integration of Economies into the World Economy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. K. Usmanova

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: the aim of the article is to reveal problems and prospects, formulate economic security within the framework of innovation projects management, plan technologies in the context of integrating economies into the world economy, identify opportunities for forming, organizing, financing, managing priority economic directions. The subject is the management of innovative projects to ensure the economic security of Russian regions. The relevance of the chosen topic is due to the study of the features of the current state and the problems of the formation of economic security, the development of innovative design solutions in the context of integrating economies into the world economy. Ensuring the economic security of the regions of Russia directly depends on the introduction of innovative technologies and project management in the sectors of the national economy of Russia. Methods: the methodology of the solution of objectives is based on usage of a method of dialectic research, methods of the economic analysis, forecasting, the situational and systemic analysis, expert evaluations and the analysis of empirical data. Hypothesis. Ensuring an economic safety requires formation of innovative solutions, change of the current legislation within the Strategy of social and economic development in the conditions of integration of economies into the world economy. Results: the practical significance of the work is to identify the interrelationship between the development processes of innovative projects that ensure the economic security of the regions of Russia within the framework of regulating the current legislation, forecasting effective economic activity within the framework of the New Industrialization Strategy, selecting optimal project planning models to ensure the country's economic security and competitiveness in the conditions of integration Economies into the world economy. Conclusions and Relevance: in the conditions of integration of

  2. Applying Benthic Index of Biotic Integrity in a soft bottom ecosystem in North of the Persian Gulf.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doustshenas, B; Savari, A; Nabavi, S M B; Kochanian, P; Sadrinasab, M

    2009-06-15

    In this study, the Chesapeake Bay Benthic Index of Biotic Integrity (B-IBI) was selected in an attempt to describe ecological health of soft bottom channels (Khowr-e Musa) in North of the Persian Gulf. Most of study area was found to be in degraded or severely degraded conditions. B-IBI scores were ranged between 1 and 3.86. Comparison ofmacrobenthos abundance and organic content between two developmental periods showed significant difference (p dredging. Choice of suitable management plans and metric controls could help to the salvage of the largest tidal channel complex in Persian Gulf.

  3. Wildlife underpasses on U.S. 64 in North Carolina: integrating management and science objectives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Mark D.; Van Manen, Frank T.; Wilson, Travis W.; Cox, David R.

    2010-01-01

    This chapter on wildlife underpasses on U.S. Highway 64 in North Carolina is from a book on highways, wildlife, and habitat connectivity. U.S. 64 is an important route in North Carolina connecting major population centers and highways that underwent a major upgrade from a two-lane rural road to a major highway. New routes were proposed for a large portion of the project (28 miles) to improve driver safety and increase speed limits to 70 miles per hour (from the previously posted 55 mph). The authors review the geographical, historical, political, and social setting; the roadway and environmental issues; the rationale for the project; critical factors; outcomes of the project; and lessons learned. The area of the project supports high wildlife densities, including American black bears, white-tailed deer, red wolves, and bobcats. Critical factors to be incorporated into wildlife mitigation measures: driver safety, underpass construction costs, and permitting by the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service and the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers. The U.S. 64 underpasses, completed in 2005, were the first in North Carolina designed specifically for wildlife and according to specifications provided by the North Carolina Wildlife Resources Commission (NCWRC). The authors describe the underpass specifications recommended based on this project, including size, control of public access, fencing, gates, and maintenance (notably vegetation management). The authors conclude that one of the most beneficial outcomes of this project was the fact that, since the completion of the U.S. 64 underpasses, the North Carolina Department of Transportation (NCDOT) routinely considers wildlife passageways for road projects in the state.

  4. Integrating Demand-Side Resources into the Electric Grid: Economic and Environmental Considerations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fisher, Michael J.

    Demand-side resources are taking an increasingly prominent role in providing essential grid services once provided by thermal power plants. This thesis considers the economic feasibility and environmental effects of integrating demand-side resources into the electric grid with consideration given to the diversity of market and environmental conditions that can affect their behavior. Chapter 2 explores the private economics and system-level carbon dioxide reduction when using demand response for spinning reserve. Steady end uses like lighting are more than twice as profitable as seasonal end uses because spinning reserve is needed year-round. Avoided carbon emission damages from using demand response instead of fossil fuel generation for spinning reserve are sufficient to justify incentives for demand response resources. Chapter 3 quantifies the system-level net emissions rate and private economics of behind-the-meter energy storage. Net emission rates are lower than marginal emission rates for power plants and in-line with estimates of net emission rates from grid-level storage. The economics are favorable for many buildings in regions with high demand charges like California and New York, even without subsidies. Future penetration into regions with average charges like Pennsylvania will depend greatly on installation cost reductions and wholesale prices for ancillary services. Chapter 4 outlines a novel econometric model to quantify potential revenues from energy storage that reduces demand charges. The model is based on a novel predictive metric that is derived from the building's load profile. Normalized revenue estimates are independent of the power capacity of the battery holding other performance characteristics equal, which can be used to calculate the profit-maximizing storage size. Chapter 5 analyzes the economic feasibility of flow batteries in the commercial and industrial market. Flow batteries at a 4-hour duration must be less expensive on a dollar per

  5. EPRI 25kW high concentration photovoltaic integrated array concept and associated economics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gunn, J.A.; Dostalek, F.J.

    1993-01-01

    This paper describes a cost effective photovoltaic array design for the high concentration technology being developed by the Electric Power Research Institute for utility scale applications. The concept of an ''integrated array'' is to attach Fresnel lens parquets directly to the front of the tracker structure and PV panels directly to the back of the structure thereby eliminating redundant structural components. The concept also incorporates the maximum use of automated manufacturing techniques for all components thereby minimizing material waste, fabrication and assembly labor. This paper also describes the results of a first approach cost and economic study for the technology which shows the potential for levelized energy cost below $0.10/kWh for a 50 MW ac plant given a mature technology

  6. Economical, environmental and technical analysis of building integrated photovoltaic systems in Malaysia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Seng, Lim Yun [Department of Physical Science, Electrical and Electronic Engineering, Tunku Abdul Rahman University, 53300 Setapak, Kuala Lumpur (Malaysia); Lalchand, G.; Sow Lin, Gladys Mak [Malaysia Energy Centre, Building Integrated Photovoltaic Project (Malaysia)

    2008-06-15

    Malaysia has identified photovoltaic systems as one of the most promising renewable sources. A great deal of efforts has been undertaken to promote the wide applications of PV systems. With the recent launch of a PV market induction programme known as SURIA 1000 in conjunction with other relevant activities undertaken under the national project of Malaysia Building Integrated Photovoltaic (MBIPV), the market of PV systems begins to be stimulated in the country. As a result, a wide range of technical, environmental and economic issues with regard to the connection of PV systems to local distribution networks becomes apparent. Numerous studies were therefore carried out in collaboration with Malaysian Energy Centre to address a number of those important issues. The findings of the studies are presented in the paper and can be served as supplementary information to parties who are directly and indirectly involved in the PV sector in Malaysia. (author)

  7. Economical, environmental and technical analysis of building integrated photovoltaic systems in Malaysia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Seng, Lim Yun; Lalchand, G.; Sow Lin, Gladys Mak

    2008-01-01

    Malaysia has identified photovoltaic systems as one of the most promising renewable sources. A great deal of efforts has been undertaken to promote the wide applications of PV systems. With the recent launch of a PV market induction programme known as SURIA 1000 in conjunction with other relevant activities undertaken under the national project of Malaysia Building Integrated Photovoltaic (MBIPV), the market of PV systems begins to be stimulated in the country. As a result, a wide range of technical, environmental and economic issues with regard to the connection of PV systems to local distribution networks becomes apparent. Numerous studies were therefore carried out in collaboration with Malaysian Energy Centre to address a number of those important issues. The findings of the studies are presented in the paper and can be served as supplementary information to parties who are directly and indirectly involved in the PV sector in Malaysia. (author)

  8. Financial Integration and Tax Efficiency –Premises of Antitrust Policy and Economic Growth

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mihai Mărginean

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The aims of this paper is to highlight the relationship between financial integration, taxation and anti-monopoly policy.We will focus on the arguments that come to strengthen that the effectiveness of anti-monopoly policy depends on effective measures in the area of taxation and hence the effects of taxation. Basically, in our analysis, we built a research that stressed the importance of interplay between the variables involved and the objective of economic growth. Noting that the public income and expeenditures (item that showing the importance of administration sector in the economy, depends on effective antitrust policy. For this analysis, we used data between 2008 and 2014 from the Competition Council and Eurostat.

  9. Whole systems appraisal of a UK Building Integrated Photovoltaic (BIPV) system: Energy, environmental, and economic evaluations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hammond, Geoffrey P.; Harajli, Hassan A.; Jones, Craig I.; Winnett, Adrian B.

    2012-01-01

    Energy analysis, environmental life-cycle assessment (LCA) and economic appraisals have been utilised to study the performance of a domestic building integrated photovoltaic (BIPV) system on a ‘whole systems’ basis. Energy analysis determined that the system paid back its embodied energy in just 4.5 years. LCA revealed that the embodied impacts were offset by the electricity generated to provide a net environmental benefit in most categories. Only carcinogens, ecotoxicity and minerals had a small net lifetime burden. A financial analysis was undertaken from the householder's perspective, alongside cost-benefit analysis from a societal perspective. The results of both indicated that the systems are unlikely to pay back their investment over the 25 year lifetime. However, the UK is in an important period (2010/11) of policy transition with a move away from the ‘technology subsidies’ of the Low Carbon Buildings Programme (LCBP) and towards a ‘market development policy’ of feed-in tariffs. Representing the next stage on an innovation S-curve this is expected to facilitate rapid PV uptake, as experienced in countries such as Germany, Denmark, and Spain. The results of the present study clearly demonstrate the importance of the new government support scheme to the future uptake of BIPV. - Highlights: ► LCA and economic appraisals of a UK domestic building integrated PV system. ► Energy analysis determined that the system paid back its embodied energy in 4.5 years. ► UK moved towards a market development policy of feed-in tariffs. ► Financial analysis shows the importance of the new FiT scheme to the uptake of PV.

  10. Integrated well-to-wheel assessment on biofuels, analysing energy, emission and welfare economic consequences

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Slentoe, E.; Moeller, F.; Frederiksen, P.; Jepsen, M.R.

    2011-07-15

    Various biofuel evaluation methods exist, with different analytical framework setup and different scopes. The scope of this study is to develop an integrated method to evaluate the consequences of producing biofuels. The consequences should include energy consumption, emission and welfare economic changes within the well-to-wheel (WTW) flow chain focusing on the production of biomass, and the subsequent conversion into bio fuel and combustion in vehicles. This method (Moeller and Slentoe, 2010) is applied to a Danish case, implementing policy targets for biofuel use in the transport sector and also developing an alternative scenario of higher biofuel shares. This paper presents the results of three interlinked parallel running analyses, of energy consumption, emissions and welfare economics (Slentoe, Moeller and Winther, 2010), and discusses the feasibility of those analyses, which are based on the same consequential analysis method, comparing a scenario situation to a reference situation. As will be shown, the results are not univocal; example given, what is an energy gain is not necessarily a welfare economic gain. The study is conducted as part of the Danish REBECa project. Within this, two main scenarios, HS1 and HS2, for biofuel mixture in fossil diesel fuel and gasoline are established. The biofuel rape diesel (RME) stems from rape seeds and bioethanol stems from either wheat grains (1st generation) or straw (2nd generation) - all cultivated in Denmark. The share of 2nd generation bioethanol exceeds 1st generation bioethanol towards 2030. Both scenarios initiate at a 5.75% mixture in 2010 and reach 10% and 25% in 2030 for HS1 and HS2, such that the low mixture scenario reflects the Danish Act on sustainable biofuels (June 2009), implementing the EU renewable energy directive (2009/29/EC), using biofuels as energy carrier. The two scenarios are computed in two variants each, reflecting oil prices at 65$ and 100$ per barrel. (Author)

  11. Integrating remediation and resource recovery: On the economic conditions of landfill mining

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Frändegård, Per; Krook, Joakim; Svensson, Niclas

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • We compare two remediation scenarios; one with resource recovery and one without. • Economic analysis includes relevant direct costs and revenues for the landfill owner. • High degrees of metal and/or combustible contents are important economic factors. • Landfill tax and the access to a CHP can have a large impact on the result. • Combining landfill mining and remediation may decrease the project cost. - Abstract: This article analyzes the economic potential of integrating material separation and resource recovery into a landfill remediation project, and discusses the result and the largest impact factors. The analysis is done using a direct costs/revenues approach and the stochastic uncertainties are handled using Monte Carlo simulation. Two remediation scenarios are applied to a hypothetical landfill. One scenario includes only remediation, while the second scenario adds resource recovery to the remediation project. Moreover, the second scenario is divided into two cases, case A and B. In case A, the landfill tax needs to be paid for re-deposited material and the landfill holder does not own a combined heat and power plant (CHP), which leads to disposal costs in the form of gate fees. In case B, the landfill tax is waived on the re-deposited material and the landfill holder owns its own CHP. Results show that the remediation project in the first scenario costs about €23/ton. Adding resource recovery as in case A worsens the result to −€36/ton, while for case B the result improves to −€14/ton. This shows the importance of landfill tax and the access to a CHP. Other important factors for the result are the material composition in the landfill, the efficiency of the separation technology used, and the price of the saleable material

  12. Fossil fuel depletion and socio-economic scenarios: An integrated approach

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Capellán-Pérez, Iñigo; Mediavilla, Margarita; Castro, Carlos de; Carpintero, Óscar; Miguel, Luis Javier

    2014-01-01

    The progressive reduction of high-quality-easy-to-extract energy is a widely recognized and already ongoing process. Although depletion studies for individual fuels are relatively abundant, few of them offer a global perspective of all energy sources and their potential future developments, and even fewer include the demand of the socio-economic system. This paper presents an Economy-Energy-Environment model based on System Dynamics which integrates all those aspects: the physical restrictions (with peak estimations for oil, gas, coal and uranium), the techno-sustainable potential of renewable energy estimated by a novel top-down methodology, the socio-economic energy demands, the development of alternative technologies and the net CO 2 emissions. We confront our model with the basic assumptions of previous Global Environmental Assessment (GEA) studies. The results show that demand-driven evolution, as performed in the past, might be unfeasible: strong energy-supply scarcity is found in the next two decades, especially in the transportation sector before 2020. Electricity generation is unable to fulfill its demand in 2025–2040, and a large expansion of electric renewable energies move us close to their limits. In order to find achievable scenarios, we are obliged to set hypotheses which are hardly used in GEA scenarios, such as zero or negative economic growth. - Highlights: • The paper presents and describes a new Energy–Economy–Environment global model. • GEA scenario dynamics have the potential to lead us to energy resource scarcity in the next 2 decades. • Global forecasts of international agencies show inconsistency in energy constraints. • Renewable energies are only partially able to replace fossil fuels depletion. • Climate change still reaches dangerous dimensions

  13. Integrating remediation and resource recovery: On the economic conditions of landfill mining

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Frändegård, Per, E-mail: per.frandegard@liu.se; Krook, Joakim; Svensson, Niclas

    2015-08-15

    Highlights: • We compare two remediation scenarios; one with resource recovery and one without. • Economic analysis includes relevant direct costs and revenues for the landfill owner. • High degrees of metal and/or combustible contents are important economic factors. • Landfill tax and the access to a CHP can have a large impact on the result. • Combining landfill mining and remediation may decrease the project cost. - Abstract: This article analyzes the economic potential of integrating material separation and resource recovery into a landfill remediation project, and discusses the result and the largest impact factors. The analysis is done using a direct costs/revenues approach and the stochastic uncertainties are handled using Monte Carlo simulation. Two remediation scenarios are applied to a hypothetical landfill. One scenario includes only remediation, while the second scenario adds resource recovery to the remediation project. Moreover, the second scenario is divided into two cases, case A and B. In case A, the landfill tax needs to be paid for re-deposited material and the landfill holder does not own a combined heat and power plant (CHP), which leads to disposal costs in the form of gate fees. In case B, the landfill tax is waived on the re-deposited material and the landfill holder owns its own CHP. Results show that the remediation project in the first scenario costs about €23/ton. Adding resource recovery as in case A worsens the result to −€36/ton, while for case B the result improves to −€14/ton. This shows the importance of landfill tax and the access to a CHP. Other important factors for the result are the material composition in the landfill, the efficiency of the separation technology used, and the price of the saleable material.

  14. Mars Colony in situ resource utilization: An integrated architecture and economics model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shishko, Robert; Fradet, René; Do, Sydney; Saydam, Serkan; Tapia-Cortez, Carlos; Dempster, Andrew G.; Coulton, Jeff

    2017-09-01

    This paper reports on our effort to develop an ensemble of specialized models to explore the commercial potential of mining water/ice on Mars in support of a Mars Colony. This ensemble starts with a formal systems architecting framework to describe a Mars Colony and capture its artifacts' parameters and technical attributes. The resulting database is then linked to a variety of ;downstream; analytic models. In particular, we integrated an extraction process (i.e., ;mining;) model, a simulation of the colony's environmental control and life support infrastructure known as HabNet, and a risk-based economics model. The mining model focuses on the technologies associated with in situ resource extraction, processing, storage and handling, and delivery. This model computes the production rate as a function of the systems' technical parameters and the local Mars environment. HabNet simulates the fundamental sustainability relationships associated with establishing and maintaining the colony's population. The economics model brings together market information, investment and operating costs, along with measures of market uncertainty and Monte Carlo techniques, with the objective of determining the profitability of commercial water/ice in situ mining operations. All told, over 50 market and technical parameters can be varied in order to address ;what-if; questions, including colony location.

  15. State Policy of Stimulation of Industrial Competitiveness under Conditions of Economic Integration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kovalchuk Viacheslav H.

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available The article is devoted to problems of state regulatory policy of stimulation of economic growth, increase of efficiency of activity of industrial branches of the country. It considers examples of foreign experience in the part of state support of domestic manufacturers. It shows possible variants of integration of co-operation between CIS countries on the basis of specialisation, co-operation and joint activity for achieving economic growth of economies. It demonstrates an automated system of mass servicing of customers, which is offered to be used in the structure of associations of trade enterprises. It offers ways of achievement of competitive advantages of domestic enterprises under conditions of globalisation by means of introduction of clusters of the consumer market enterprises. The article reveals their shortcomings and possibilities of development in the territory of Ukraine under conditions of limited financial resources. It acknowledges that measures of the fiscal policy should be directed, first of all, at support of creation of associations of medium enterprises of the light and other branches of industry and agriculture, which have development potential. It identifies main elements of creation of state programmes of support and development of the cluster form of organisation of the light and other branches of industry, agriculture and trade.

  16. Enhancing forest carbon sequestration in China: toward an integration of scientific and socio-economic perspectives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, J M; Thomas, S C; Yin, Y; Maclaren, V; Liu, J; Pan, J; Liu, G; Tian, Q; Zhu, Q; Pan, J-J; Shi, X; Xue, J; Kang, E

    2007-11-01

    This article serves as an introduction to this special issue, "China's Forest Carbon Sequestration", representing major results of a project sponsored by the Canadian International Development Agency and the Chinese Academy of Sciences. China occupies a pivotal position globally as a principle emitter of carbon dioxide, as host to some of the world's largest reforestation efforts, and as a key player in international negotiations aimed at reducing global greenhouse gas emission. The goals of this project are to develop remote sensing approaches for quantifying forest carbon balance in China in a transparent manner, and information and tools to support land-use decisions for enhanced carbon sequestration (CS) that are science based and economically and socially viable. The project consists of three components: (i) remote sensing and carbon modeling, (ii) forest and soil assessment, and (iii) integrated assessment of the socio-economic implications of CS via forest management. Articles included in this special issue are highlights of the results of each of these components.

  17. Decoupling reconsidered: Does world society integration influence the relationship between the environment and economic development?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Longhofer, Wesley; Jorgenson, Andrew

    2017-07-01

    This study advances scholarship on environment and development by examining whether nations more embedded in the pro-environmental world society are more or less likely to experience a relative decoupling between economic development and carbon emissions over time. The authors calculate a network centrality measure using national-level membership data on environmental international nongovernmental organizations (INGOs), and then employ the measure to create four subsamples of nations that are relatively more or less integrated in the environmental world society. The authors use interactions between measures of economic development and time in two-way fixed effects models to estimate the potentially changing effects of development on carbon emissions for the four subsamples of nations from 1970 to 2009. Results indicate that nations that are the most embedded in the environmental world society experienced a moderate decrease through time in the effect of development on carbon emissions, while the effect of development on emissions increased through time in the most peripheral nations. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. The "Asia-Pacific Dream": Is China Using Economic Integration Initiatives as Ideological Weapons?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anke Berndzen

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available This article examines the function and role of the "Asia-Pacific Dream" (including the FTAAP in China's foreign policy strategy by analysing the speech in which Xi Jinping promoted this dream, and creating a link between China's push for regional economic integration, soft power strategy and "universal values". While China is promoting this concept and the FTAAP to increase its influence in the region, the U.S. have also been rebalancing to Asia through different means, such as its push for the TPP. These two free trade agreements (FTA, though not mutually exclusive, are considered to be directed against each other, indicating a struggle for influence in the region, and also seem to entail an ideological agenda. As both the "Asia-Pacific Dream" and the U.S. "pivot to Asia" are connected to major FTA's, this paper argues that the motives for promoting these FTAs go far beyond economic interests; the research suggests that they are used to increase soft power in the region as well as to influence the discourse on "universal values".

  19. Implications of Water Budget Deficits on Socio-Economic Stability and Food Security in the Arabian Peninsula and in North Africa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mazzoni, A.; Heggy, E.; Scabbia, G.

    2017-12-01

    Water scarcity in the Arabian Peninsula and North Africa is accentuated by forecasted climatic variability, decreasing precipitation volumes and projected population growth, urbanization and economic development, increasing water demand. These factors impose uncertainties on food security and socio-economic stability in the region. We develop a water-budget model combining hydrologic, climatic and economic data to quantify water deficit volumes and groundwater depletion rates for the main aquifer systems in the area, taking into account three different climatic scenarios, and calculated from the precipitation forecast elaborated in the CSIRO, ECHAM4 and HADCM3 global circulation models from 2016 to 2050 over 1-year intervals. Water demand comprises water requirements for each economic sector, derived from data such as population, GDP, cropland cover and electricity production, and is based upon the five different SSPs. Conventional and non-conventional water resource supply data are retrieved from FAO Aquastat and institutional databases. Our results suggest that in the next 35 years, in North Africa, only Egypt and Libya will exhibit severe water deficits with respectively 44% and 89.7% of their current water budgets by 2050 (SSP2-AVG climatic scenario), while all the countries in the Arabian Peninsula will be subjected to water stress; the majority of small-size aquifers in the Arabian Peninsula will reach full depletion by 2050. In North Africa, the fossil aquifers' volume loss will be 1-15% by 2050, and total depletion within 200-300 years. Our study suggests that (1) anthropogenic drivers on water resources are harsher than projected climatic variability; (2) the estimated water deficit will induce substantial rise in domestic food production's costs, causing higher dependency on food imports; and (3) projected water deficits will most strongly impact the nations with the lowest GDPP, namely Egypt, Yemen and Libya.

  20. Economic aspects for South America energy integration; Aspectos economicos para a integracao energetica da America do Sul

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vela, Jorge Alberto Alcala; Cardozo, Fernando Simoes [ELETROBRAS, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)

    2008-07-01

    Expansion of the internal market and external, production on a large scale and more dynamic economic growth would be the consequences of a regional integration in South America. However, due to the specific characteristics of South America this process did not occur. Many attempts were made through the years with the creation of institutions that tried to promote the integration of different forms of South America. This article analyses the current economic conditions in which this initiative is to achieve an energy integration, which seems feasible given the provision expresses the presidents of South American countries before a possible rationing of energy. Through analysis of the results it may be concluded that there is a growing demand for energy in all countries, which should be resolved first in order not to cut the development of South America. The main economic aspects which affect the process of integrating energy are the commercial structures of energy, the energy complementarities, the degree of development of infrastructure for interconnection, the industrial structure and conformation electric business. However, an immediate solution would be to boost bilateral integration energy projects and construction of transmission lines that interconnect the regional stations for the supply of electric energy. Moreover, as the conditions are not improved political and economic and there is no compatible models between technical institutions and legal and administrative, will not be achieved significant progress in the process of regional energy integration of South America. (author)

  1. Scenarios to prioritize observing activities on the North Slope, Alaska in the context of resource development, climate change and socio-economic uncertainties

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, O. A.; Eicken, H.; Payne, J. F.; Lassuy, D.

    2014-12-01

    The North Slope of Alaska is experiencing rapid changes in response to interacting climate and socioeconomic drivers. The North Slope Science Initiative (NSSI) is using scenarios as a tool to identify plausible, spatially explicit future states of resource extraction activities on the North Slope and adjacent seas through the year 2040. The objective of the scenarios process is to strategically assess research and monitoring needs on the North Slope. The participatory scenarios process involved stakeholder input (including Federal, State, local, academic, industry and non-profit representatives) to identify key drivers of change related to resource extraction activities on the North Slope. While climate change was identified as a key driver in the biophysical system, economic drivers related to oil and gas development were also important. Expert-reviewed informational materials were developed to help stakeholders obtain baseline knowledge and stimulate discussions about interactions between drivers, knowledge gaps and uncertainties. Map-based scenario products will allow mission-oriented agencies to jointly explore where to prioritize research investments and address risk in a complex, changing environment. Scenarios consider multidecadal timescales. However, tracking of indicator variables derived from scenarios can lead to important insights about the trajectory of the North Slope social-environmental system and inform management decisions to reduce risk on much shorter timescales. The inclusion of stakeholders helps provide a broad spectrum of expert viewpoints necessary for considering the range of plausible scenarios. A well-defined focal question, transparency in the participation process and continued outreach about the utility and limitations of scenarios are also important components of the scenarios process.

  2. Methanol production via pressurized entrained flow biomass gasification – Techno-economic comparison of integrated vs. stand-alone production

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Andersson, Jim; Lundgren, Joakim; Marklund, Magnus

    2014-01-01

    The main objective with this work was to investigate techno-economically the opportunity for integrated gasification-based biomass-to-methanol production in an existing chemical pulp and paper mill. Three different system configurations using the pressurized entrained flow biomass gasification (PEBG) technology were studied, one stand-alone plant, one where the bark boiler in the mill was replaced by a PEBG unit and one with a co-integration of a black liquor gasifier operated in parallel with a PEBG unit. The cases were analysed in terms of overall energy efficiency (calculated as electricity-equivalents) and process economics. The economics was assessed under the current as well as possible future energy market conditions. An economic policy support was found to be necessary to make the methanol production competitive under all market scenarios. In a future energy market, integrating a PEBG unit to replace the bark boiler was the most beneficial case from an economic point of view. In this case the methanol production cost was reduced in the range of 11–18 Euro per MWh compared to the stand-alone case. The overall plant efficiency increased approximately 7%-units compared to the original operation of the mill and the non-integrated stand-alone case. In the case with co-integration of the two parallel gasifiers, an equal increase of the system efficiency was achieved, but the economic benefit was not as apparent. Under similar conditions as the current market and when methanol was sold to replace fossil gasoline, co-integration of the two parallel gasifiers was the best alternative based on received IRR. - Highlights: • Techno-economic results regarding integration of methanol synthesis processes in a pulp and paper mill are presented. • The overall energy efficiency increases in integrated methanol production systems compared to stand-alone production units. • The economics of the integrated system improves compared to stand-alone alternatives. • Tax

  3. Decision-Making Under Risk: Integrating Perspectives From Biology, Economics, and Psychology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mishra, Sandeep

    2014-08-01

    Decision-making under risk has been variably characterized and examined in many different disciplines. However, interdisciplinary integration has not been forthcoming. Classic theories of decision-making have not been amply revised in light of greater empirical data on actual patterns of decision-making behavior. Furthermore, the meta-theoretical framework of evolution by natural selection has been largely ignored in theories of decision-making under risk in the human behavioral sciences. In this review, I critically examine four of the most influential theories of decision-making from economics, psychology, and biology: expected utility theory, prospect theory, risk-sensitivity theory, and heuristic approaches. I focus especially on risk-sensitivity theory, which offers a framework for understanding decision-making under risk that explicitly involves evolutionary considerations. I also review robust empirical evidence for individual differences and environmental/situational factors that predict actual risky decision-making that any general theory must account for. Finally, I offer steps toward integrating various theoretical perspectives and empirical findings on risky decision-making. © 2014 by the Society for Personality and Social Psychology, Inc.

  4. Economics of Renewable Energy Integration and Energy Storage via Low Load Diesel Application

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    James Hamilton

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available One-quarter of the world’s population lives without access to electricity. Unfortunately, the generation technology most commonly employed to advance rural electrification, diesel generation, carries considerable commercial and ecological risks. One approach used to address both the cost and pollution of diesel generation is renewable energy (RE integration. However, to successfully integrate RE, both the stochastic nature of the RE resource and the operating characteristics of diesel generation require careful consideration. Typically, diesel generation is configured to run heavily loaded, achieving peak efficiencies within 70–80% of rated capacity. Diesel generation is also commonly sized to peak demand. These characteristics serve to constrain the possible RE penetration. While energy storage can relieve the constraint, this adds cost and complexity to the system. This paper identifies an alternative approach, redefining the low load capability of diesel generation. Low load diesel (LLD allows a diesel engine to operate across its full capacity in support of improved RE utilization. LLD uses existing diesel assets, resulting in a reduced-cost, low-complexity substitute. This paper presents an economic analysis of LLD, with results compared to conventional energy storage applications. The results identify a novel pathway for consumers to transition from low to medium levels of RE penetration, without additional cost or system complexity.

  5. The Economic Determinants of Bioenergy Trade Intensity in the EU-28: A Co-Integration Approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohd Alsaleh

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available This paper examines the dynamic effect of the economic determinants on bilateral trade intensity of the European Union (EU region’s bioenergy industry outputs. The authors adopt the panel co-integration model approach to estimate annual trade intensity data of the EU-28 countries’ bioenergy industry outputs from 1990 to 2013. This study investigated the long-term influence of the rate of real exchange, gross domestic product (GDP, and export price on the trade intensity of bioenergy industry applying fully modified oriented least square (FMOLS, dummy oriented least square (DOLS, and pooled mean group (PMG models. In the current study, the findings boost the empirical validity of the panel co-integration model through FMOLS, indicating that depreciation has improved the trade intensity. This study has further investigated, through the causality test, a distinct set of countries. FMOLS estimation does find proof of the long run improvement of trade intensity. Thus, the result shows that the gross domestic product (GDP and the real exchange rate have a positive and noteworthy influence on the EU-28 region trade intensity of the bioenergy industry. Moreover, the export price affects negatively and significantly the trade intensity of the bioenergy industry in the EU-28 countries.

  6. Integrative taxonomy and species delimitation in harvestmen: a revision of the western North American genus Sclerobunus (Opiliones: Laniatores: Travunioidea.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shahan Derkarabetian

    Full Text Available Alpha taxonomy, and specifically the delimitation of species, is becoming increasingly objective and integrative. The use of coalescent-based methods applied to genetic data is providing new tools for the discovery and delimitation of species. Here, we use an integrative approach via a combination of discovery-based multivariate morphological analyses to detect potential new species. These potential species are then used as a priori species in hypothesis-driven validation analyses with genetic data. This research focuses on the harvestmen genus Sclerobunus found throughout the mountainous regions of western North America. Based on our analyses, we conduct a revision of Sclerobunus resulting in synonymy of Cyptobunus with Sclerobunus including transfer of S. cavicolens comb. nov. and elevation of both subspecies of S. ungulatus: S. ungulatus comb. nov. and S. madhousensis comb. nov., stat. nov. The three subspecies of S. robustus are elevated, S. robustus, S. glorietus stat. nov., and S. idahoensis stat. nov. Additionally, five new species of Sclerobunus are described from New Mexico and Colorado, including S. jemez sp. nov., S. klomax sp. nov., S. skywalkeri sp. nov., S. speoventus sp. nov., and S. steinmanni sp. nov. Several of the newly described species are single-cave endemics, and our findings suggest that further exploration of western North American cave habitats will likely yield additional new species.

  7. INTEGRATED REMOTE SENSING AND GIS FOR MODELING ECONOMIC REHABILITATION DEVELOPMENT OF EX-MINE SITES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Junaidi Junaidi

    2017-11-01

    economic development of ex-mine sites. The aim of this research is to quantify, model and map the economic potential of the ex-mine sites for built up areas such as housing and other urban infrastructures. Land cover classes were interpreted into maps and the accuracy of the maps were validated to reference data and actual ground scenarios. The study for validation of the proposed modeling tool was carried out using the large prominent mining area in Malaysia namely the Kinta District. Results from the validation study carried out indicate that the correlation of the results obtained from this Integrated Remote Sensing and GIS tool for modeling to field data is in the range of 0.87-0.92 which is acceptable and close to reality.

  8. Partial valuation of the goods and services that it provides the mangrove ecosystem: An integrated ecological-economic analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Castiblanco R, Carmenza

    2002-01-01

    The article presents a methodology to value the economic benefits of the use of some goods and services that provides the mangrove ecosystem, located in the municipality of Tumaco. An ecological analysis is developed integrated to an economic evaluation that allows expressing in monetary terms some values of use of the mangrove; this value are compared with the profitability that reports the Camaroniculture, productive activity that is constituted at the moment, in the most profitable alternative use

  9. An Integrated Decision Support System with Hydrological Processes and Socio-economic Assessments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Yang; Disse, Markus; Yu, Ruide

    2017-04-01

    The debate over the effectiveness of Integrated Water Resources Management (IWRM) in practice has lasted for years. As the complexity and scope of IWRM increases, the difficulties of hydrological modeling is shifting from the model itself into the links with other cognate sciences, to understand the interactions among water, earth, ecosystem and humans. This work presents the design and development of a decision support system (DSS) that links the outputs of hydrological models with real-time decision making on social-economic assessments and land use changes. Discharge and glacier geometry changes were simulated with hydrological model WASA. Irrigation and ecological water were simulated by a new commercial software MIKE HYDRO. Groundwater was simulated by MODFLOW. All the outputs of theses hydrological models were integrated as inputs into the DSS in three types of links: regression equations, stationary data inputs, or dynamic data inputs into DSS as the models running parallel in the simulation periods. Within DSS, three types of logics were established: equations, conditional statements and fuzzy logics. The programming was realized in C++. The implementation of DSS takes place in the Tarim River Basin. With the mainstream of 1,321km and located in an arid area in northwest China, the Tarim River is China's longest inland river. The Tarim basin on the northern edge of the Taklamakan desert is an extremely arid region. In this region, agricultural water consumption and allocation management are crucial to address the conflicts among irrigation water users from upstream to downstream. Since 2011, the German Ministry of Science and Education BMBF established the Sino-German SuMaRiO project, for the sustainable management of river oases along the Tarim River. Project SuMaRiO focus on realizable management strategies, considering social, economic and ecological criteria. This will have positive effects for nearly 10 million inhabitants of different ethnic groups

  10. The integrated North American electricity market : assuring an adequate supply of electricity through cross-border cooperation and trade

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Egan, T.

    2005-03-01

    The purpose of this paper is to support cooperation and discussion of the long-term sufficiency of the electricity trading system between Canada and the United States. It discusses the integrated electricity market including details on exports and imports of electricity, major transmission interconnections, the economic and environmental benefits of an integrated market and electricity generation statistics by fuel source. The paper also discusses several areas of cooperation and presents several recommendations including: greater dialogue on regional supply requirements; mandatory reliability standards; coordinated regulatory approaches to new cross-border transmission; the role of emerging generation and transmission technologies; opportunities to exchange experience and learning on demand-side measures; coordinated strategies to manage greenhouse gas and other air pollutants; and, critical infrastructure protection. The paper concludes that the integration between Canada and the United States will only increase as energy demand and trade continue to grow, making close cooperation between the two countries a necessity. 6 figs

  11. Cost assessment and ecological effectiveness of nutrient reduction options for mitigating Phaeocystis colony blooms in the Southern North Sea: an integrated modeling approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lancelot, Christiane; Thieu, Vincent; Polard, Audrey; Garnier, Josette; Billen, Gilles; Hecq, Walter; Gypens, Nathalie

    2011-05-01

    Nutrient reduction measures have been already taken by wealthier countries to decrease nutrient loads to coastal waters, in most cases however, prior to having properly assessed their ecological effectiveness and their economic costs. In this paper we describe an original integrated impact assessment methodology to estimate the direct cost and the ecological performance of realistic nutrient reduction options to be applied in the Southern North Sea watershed to decrease eutrophication, visible as Phaeocystis blooms and foam deposits on the beaches. The mathematical tool couples the idealized biogeochemical GIS-based model of the river system (SENEQUE-RIVERSTRAHLER) implemented in the Eastern Channel/Southern North Sea watershed to the biogeochemical MIRO model describing Phaeocystis blooms in the marine domain. Model simulations explore how nutrient reduction options regarding diffuse and/or point sources in the watershed would affect the Phaeocystis colony spreading in the coastal area. The reference and prospective simulations are performed for the year 2000 characterized by mean meteorological conditions, and nutrient reduction scenarios include and compare upgrading of wastewater treatment plants and changes in agricultural practices including an idealized shift towards organic farming. A direct cost assessment is performed for each realistic nutrient reduction scenario. Further the reduction obtained for Phaeocystis blooms is assessed by comparison with ecological indicators (bloom magnitude and duration) and the cost for reducing foam events on the beaches is estimated. Uncertainty brought by the added effect of meteorological conditions (rainfall) on coastal eutrophication is discussed. It is concluded that the reduction obtained by implementing realistic environmental measures on the short-term is costly and insufficient to restore well-balanced nutrient conditions in the coastal area while the replacement of conventional agriculture by organic farming

  12. Integration tendencies and potential of North in problem of radioactive waste isolation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Komlev, V.N.; Bichuk, N.I.; Zajtsev, V.G.; Melikhova, G.S.; Pavlov, V.A.

    2001-01-01

    Problems of underground solid radioactive waste disposal construction in Kola peninsula (Russian Federation) are considered. Several disposal sites are proposed. Special NUCRUS 95410 project was created in 1996 which reflects complex comparative investigations of the most prospective sites. Economic, political, social and scientific aspects are studied

  13. Canada-Korea Free Trade: A Watershed in Economic Integration with Asia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eugene Beaulieu

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available If there is one thing to question about the recently signed free-trade deal between Canada and South Korea, it is this: What took us so long? South Korea is a long-time trading partner with Canada, with a democratic political system and a rapidly expanding free-market economy offering strong protections for commercial rights. The country is an excellent place for Canada to begin a deeper economic integration with the larger Asian market. The details of the deal itself are certainly worth celebrating. Certainly Canadian consumers will save money on Korean-made products, such as cars. But Canadian companies exporting to South Korea have also, in recent years, found themselves increasingly unable to compete with exporters from the E.U. and U.S., who have already established free-trade deals with Seoul. Since the Americans signed their deal, U.S. exports to South Korea have soared, while the value of Canada’s exports to the same market have dropped by 30 per cent, as Canadians were left facing tariffs as high as 269 per cent. The Canada-Korea Free Trade Agreement levels that playing field for Canada, something that will especially benefit firms exporting agricultural products (tariffs on Canadian beef, for example, were a punitive 72 per cent and professional services. Even automakers may find that whatever increased competition comes from cheaper Korean car imports are offset by the opportunity to more easily sell Canadian-made vehicles in the much-larger Asian marketplace. There is a wealth of economic opportunity waiting in that burgeoning market; this free-trade deal is a pivotal first step for Canada to start fully capitalizing on it.

  14. Serbia between isolation and integration: "Economic culture" and action determined by interest

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tripković Milan

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available The basic goal of this paper is an attempt to offer relatively complete and rational sociological answer to the question of why the transition in Serbia has been so long, painful, unsuccessful and with an uncertain outcome, in other words, why Serbia has been hesitating between isolation from the rest of the world and integration with it. In order to achieve that, the first step is questioning the role of cultural factor, especially cultural dimension of economic life (Francis Fukuyama, or the so called "economic culture" (Peter Berger in modern important social changes, such is transition. Transition is an important change of basic structural and functional aspects of the former "socialist society", in a relatively limited period of time, and it is directed towards permanent establishing of consolidated democracy and developed social agreement market. Not diminishing the value or the role of cultural factor, authors came to the conclusion that it is neither the only nor crucial for explaining poverty, instability, conflicts and transitional changes, slowdowns and wanderings through certain post socialist societies, just like the Serbian. Relying on the concept of "polyarchy" of Robert Dahl, as well as on the theory of collective action of Mancur Olson, they think that for that kind of outcome, what is far more important is the influence of inherited and newly created institutional frame and a set of real interests of social figures, both internal and external, as well as their fight for power determined by their interests, which always occurs under the veil of ideological confrontations and justifies itself by them. That is why on the surface we get the impression that in fact cultural-valuable confrontations are major cause of conflicts and blockades and that they created social disintegrations, social stagnation and social regression.

  15. CIM-EARTH: Community Integrated Model of Economic and Resource Trajectories for Humankind

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foster, I.; Elliott, J.; Munson, T.; Judd, K.; Moyer, E. J.; Sanstad, A. H.

    2010-12-01

    We report here on the development of an open source software framework termed CIM-EARTH that is intended to aid decision-making in climate and energy policy. Numerical modeling in support of evaluating policies to address climate change is difficult not only because of inherent uncertainties but because of the differences in scale and modeling approach required for various subcomponents of the system. Economic and climate models are structured quite differently, and while climate forcing can be assumed to be roughly global, climate impacts and the human response to them occur on small spatial scales. Mitigation policies likewise can be applied on scales ranging from the better part of a continent (e.g. a carbon cap-and-trade program for the entire U.S.) to a few hundred km (e.g. statewide renewable portfolio standards and local gasoline taxes). Both spatial and time resolution requirements can be challenging for global economic models. CIM-EARTH is a modular framework based around dynamic general equilibrium models. It is designed as a community tool that will enable study of the environmental benefits, transition costs, capitalization effects, and other consequences of both mitigation policies and unchecked climate change. Modularity enables both integration of highly resolved component sub-models for energy and other key systems and also user-directed choice of tradeoffs between e.g. spatial, sectoral, and time resolution. This poster describes the framework architecture, the current realized version, and plans for future releases. As with other open-source models familiar to the climate community (e.g. CCSM), deliverables will be made publicly available on a regular schedule, and community input is solicited for development of new features and modules.

  16. An Integrated Economics Model for ISRU in Support of a Mars Colony - Initial Status Report

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shishko, Robert; Fradet, Rene; Saydam, Serkan; Tapia-Cortez, Carlos; Dempster, Andrew G.; Coulton, Jeff

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this effort is to develop an integrated set of risk-based financial and technical models to evaluate multiple Off-Earth Mining (OEM) scenarios. This quantitative, scenario- and simulation-based tool will help identify combinations of market variables, technical parameters, and policy levers that will enable the expansion of the global economy into the solar system and return economic benefits. Human ventures in space are entering a new phase in which missions formerly driven by government agencies are now being replaced by those led by commercial enterprises - in launch, satellite deployment, resupply of the International Space Station, and space tourism. In the not-too-distant future, commercial opportunities will also include the mining of asteroids, the Moon, and Mars. This investigation will examine the role of OEM in a growing space economy. (In this investigation, the term 'mining' is taken to embrace minerals, ice/water, and other in situ resources.) OEM can be the engine that drives the space economy, so it would be useful to understand what OEM market conditions and technology requirements are needed for that economy to prosper. These specific elements will be studied in the wider context of creating an economy that could ultimately support a sustainable Mars Colony. Such a colony will need in situ resources not only for its own survival, but to prosper and grow, it must create viable business ventures, essentially by fulfilling the demand for in situ resources from and on Mars. This investigation will focus on understanding the role and economic prospect for OEM associated with the Human Colonization of Mars (HCM).

  17. Fast Growing Plantations for Wood Production - Integration of Ecological Effects and Economic Perspectives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bredemeier, Michael; Busch, Gerald; Hartmann, Linda; Jansen, Martin; Richter, Falk; Lamersdorf, Norbert P

    2015-01-01

    offer viable and attractive economic perspectives to farmers and other land managers besides of the potential ecological benefits of SRCs. For this reason, an integrated tool for scenario analysis was developed within the BEST project ("BEAST - Bio-Energy Allocation and Scenario Tool"). It combines ecological assessments with calculations of economic revenue as a basis for a participative regional dialog on sustainable land use and climate protection goals. Results show a substantial capacity for providing renewable energy from economically competitive arable SRC sites while generating ecological synergies.

  18. Optimal Renewable Energy Integration into Refinery with CO2 Emissions Consideration: An Economic Feasibility Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alnifro, M.; Taqvi, S. T.; Ahmad, M. S.; Bensaida, K.; Elkamel, A.

    2017-08-01

    With increasing global energy demand and declining energy return on energy invested (EROEI) of crude oil, global energy consumption by the O&G industry has increased drastically over the past few years. In addition, this energy increase has led to an increase GHG emissions, resulting in adverse environmental effects. On the other hand, electricity generation through renewable resources have become relatively cost competitive to fossil based energy sources in a much ‘cleaner’ way. In this study, renewable energy is integrated optimally into a refinery considering costs and CO2 emissions. Using Aspen HYSYS, a refinery in the Middle East was simulated to estimate the energy demand by different processing units. An LP problem was formulated based on existing solar energy systems and wind potential in the region. The multi-objective function, minimizing cost as well as CO2 emissions, was solved using GAMS to determine optimal energy distribution from each energy source to units within the refinery. Additionally, an economic feasibility study was carried out to determine the viability of renewable energy technology project implementation to overcome energy requirement of the refinery. Electricity generation through all renewable energy sources considered (i.e. solar PV, solar CSP and wind) were found feasible based on their low levelized cost of electricity (LCOE). The payback period for a Solar CSP project, with an annual capacity of about 411 GWh and a lifetime of 30 years, was found to be 10 years. In contrast, the payback period for Solar PV and Wind were calculated to be 7 and 6 years, respectively. This opens up possibilities for integrating renewables into the refining sector as well as optimizing multiple energy carrier systems within the crude oil industry

  19. Integrating socio-economic and biophysical data to enhance watershed management and planning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pirani, Farshad Jalili; Mousavi, Seyed Alireza

    2016-09-01

    Sustainability has always been considered as one of the main aspects of watershed management plans. In many developing countries, watershed management practices and planning are usually performed by integrating biophysical layers, and other existing layers which cannot be identified as geographic layers are ignored. We introduce an approach to consider some socioeconomic parameters which are important for watershed management decisions. Ganj basin in Chaharmahal-Bakhtiari Province was selected as the case study area, which includes three traditional sanctums: Ganj, Shiremard and Gerdabe Olya. Socioeconomic data including net agricultural income, net ranching income, population and household number, literacy rate, unemployment rate, population growth rate and active population were mapped within traditional sanctums and then were integrated into other biophysical layers. After overlaying and processing these data to determine management units, different quantitative and qualitative approaches were adopted to achieve a practical framework for watershed management planning and relevant plans for homogeneous units were afterwards proposed. Comparing the results with current plans, the area of allocated lands to different proposed operations considering both qualitative and quantitative approaches were the same in many cases and there was a meaningful difference with current plans; e.g., 3820 ha of lands are currently managed under an enclosure plan, while qualitative and quantitative approaches in this study suggest 1388 and 1428 ha to be allocated to this operation type, respectively. Findings show that despite the ambiguities and complexities, different techniques could be adopted to incorporate socioeconomic conditions in watershed management plans. This introductory approach will help to enhance watershed management decisions with more attention to societal background and economic conditions, which will presumably motivate local communities to participate in

  20. Integrating forest ecosystem services into the farming landscape: A stochastic economic assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monge, Juan J; Parker, Warren J; Richardson, James W

    2016-06-01

    The objective of this study was to assess how payments for ecosystem services could assist plantation forestry's integration into pastoral dairy farming in order to improve environmental outcomes and increase business resilience to both price uncertainty and production limits imposed by environmental policies. Stochastic Dominance (SD) criteria and portfolio analysis, accounting for farmers' risk aversion levels, were used to rank different land-use alternatives and landscapes with different levels of plantation forestry integration. The study was focused on a modal 200-ha dairy farm in the Lake Rotorua Catchment of the Central North Island region of New Zealand, where national environmental policies are being implemented to improve water quality and reduce greenhouse gas emissions. Nitrogen and carbon payments would help farmers improve early cash flows for forestry, provide financial leverage to undertake afforestation projects and contribute to improved environmental outcomes for the catchment. The SD criteria demonstrated that although dairy farming generates the highest returns, plantation forestry with nitrogen and carbon payments would be a preferred alternative for landowners with relatively low risk aversion levels who consider return volatility and environmental limits within their land-use change criteria. Using the confidence premium concept, environmental payments to encourage plantation forestry into the landscape were shown to be lower when the majority of landowners are risk averse. The certainty equivalence approach helped to identify the optimal dairy-forestry portfolio arrangements for landowners of different levels of risk aversion, intensities of dairy farming (status quo and intensified) and nitrogen prices. At low nitrogen prices, risk neutral farmers would choose to afforest less than half of the farm and operate at the maximum nitrogen allowance, because dairy farming at both intensities provides the highest return among the different land

  1. An Analysis of Integrated Child Development Scheme Performance in Contributing to Alleviation of Malnutrition in Two Economically Resurgent States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruia, Aparna; Gupta, Rajul Kumar; Bandyopadhyay, Gargi; Gupta, Rajshree R

    2018-01-01

    Good economic growth is considered synonymous with good nutrition. In recent past, some states (like Bihar and Gujarat) have seen unprecedented economic growth. Despite this and introducing plethora of programs (including integrated child development scheme [ICDS]) to reduce malnutrition, one state might be performing well in reducing malnutrition whereas other with equally high economic growth rate might lag behind. Is mere economic growth good enough to alleviate malnutrition? The aim of the article is to document a critical comparative analysis of malnutrition with special emphasis on ICDS (with respect to finances, infrastructure, training, performance) in the two economically resurgent states of Gujarat and Bihar. An exploratory study using secondary data sources (for ICDS performance) to critically analyze malnutrition status in Bihar and Gujarat. Gujarat, which was criticized for placing excessive emphasis on economic growth, has shown sharp improvement in combating malnutrition. Undernourished children declined from 73.04% in 2007 to 25.09% in 2013, with just 1.6% being severely malnourished. On the other hand, Bihar too exhibited an impressive economic growth but still languishes at bottom with malnutrition rate of 82%. A high economic growth does not have automatic immediate positive gains on malnutrition alleviation.

  2. Economic evaluation of an area-wide integrated pest management program to control the Asian tiger mosquito in New Jersey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aedes albopictus is the most invasive mosquito in the world, an important disease vector, and a biting nuisance that limits outdoor activities. Area-wide integrated pest management (AW-IPM) is the recommended control strategy. We conducted an economic evaluation of the AW-IPM project in Mercer and ...

  3. Integrating watershed hydrology and economics to establish a local market for water quality improvement: A field experiment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Innovative market mechanisms are being increasingly recognized as effective decision-making institutions to incorporate the value of ecosystem services into the economy. We present a field experiment that integrates an economic auction and a biophysical water flux model to develo...

  4. VISUAL-SEVEIF, a tool for integrating fire behavior simulation and economic evaluation of the impact of Wildfires

    Science.gov (United States)

    Francisco Rodríguez y Silva; Juan Ramón Molina Martínez; Miguel Ángel Herrera Machuca; Jesús Mª Rodríguez Leal

    2013-01-01

    Progress made in recent years in fire science, particularly as applied to forest fire protection, coupled with the increased power offered by mathematical processors integrated into computers, has led to important developments in the field of dynamic and static simulation of forest fires. Furthermore, and similarly, econometric models applied to economic...

  5. Thermodynamic and economic analysis of integrating lignocellulosic bioethanol production in a Danish combined heat and power unit

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lythcke-Jørgensen, Christoffer Ernst; Haglind, Fredrik; Clausen, Lasse Røngaard

    bioethanol production in the Danish CHP unit Avedøreværket 1. Numerical models of the plants were developed, and feasible integration solutions were identified and optimised using exergy analysis. Hour-wise production simulations were run over a reference year, and market prices and economic parameters from...

  6. An Integrated Approach to Explore the Relationship Among Economic, Construction Land Use, and Ecology Subsystems in Zhejiang Province, China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chuyu Xia

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Zhejiang Province, China is experiencing rapid urbanization, facing the challenge of coupling socioeconomic development and ecological conservation. This paper establishes a comprehensive index system to assess coordinating development of economic, construction land use (CLU, and ecology subsystems. A Granger test and a coupling coordination model were applied to explore the causal relationship and the coordinated development state among the three subsystems from 2000 to 2012. The results showed that: (1 changes in the integrated value of the economic subsystem were the Granger cause of changes in the ecology and CLU subsystems, and the changes in the integrated values of ecology and CLU was each other’s Granger cause; (2 the coupling coordination relationship of the integrated value for economic–CLU–ecology was constrained by the relationship between the economic and the CLU subsystems from 2000 to 2004, and that between the ecology and the economic subsystems was the impediment of the sustainable development of economic–CLU–ecology from 2004 to 2012. This research helps to identify approach to sustainable development through analyzing synergistic effects, interdependencies, and trade-offs among the integrated economic–CLU–ecology values, and to make significant contribution to urban planning policies in rapid urbanization region.

  7. Welfare state attitudes and economic integration in the EU, 1992-2002: a multilevel investigation across 24 countries

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Koster, F.

    2010-01-01

    This study continues earlier research efforts that investigated the impact of the European Union (EU) on welfare states by examining the relationship between the welfare state attitudes of citizens and the economic dimension of European integration. Two waves from the European and World Values Study

  8. Welfare state attitudes and economic integration in the EU, 1992-2002: a multilevel investigation across 24 countries

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Koster, F.

    2009-01-01

    This study continues earlier research efforts that investigated the impact of the European Union (EU) on welfare states by examining the relationship between the welfare state attitudes of citizens and the economic dimension of European integration. Two waves from the European and World Values Study

  9. Fiscal consequences of monetary integration within the common economic area: the case of Belarus, Kazakhstan and Russia

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Uzagalieva, Ainura

    -, č. 254 (2005), s. 1-46 ISSN 1211-3298 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z70850503 Keywords : seigniorage * monetary integration * transition economies Subject RIV: AH - Economics http://www.cerge-ei.cz/pdf/wp/Wp254.pdf

  10. Fiscal consequences of monetary integration within a common economic area: the case of Belarus, Kazakhstan and Russia

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Uzagalieva, Ainura

    2005-01-01

    Roč. 17, č. 4 (2005), s. 399-424 ISSN 1463-1377 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z70850503 Keywords : monetary integration * public sector revenue s * Belarus, Kazakhstan, Russia Subject RIV: AH - Economics Impact factor: 0.276, year: 2005

  11. Global Economic Integration and Local Community Resilience: Road Paving and Rural Demographic Change in the Southwestern Amazon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perz, Stephen G.; Cabrera, Liliana; Carvalho, Lucas Araujo; Castillo, Jorge; Barnes, Grenville

    2010-01-01

    Recent years have witnessed an expansion in international investment in large-scale infrastructure projects with the goal of achieving global economic integration. We focus on one such project, the Inter-Oceanic Highway in the "MAP" region, a trinational frontier where Bolivia, Brazil, and Peru meet in the southwestern Amazon. We adopt a…

  12. Modeling, simulation, parametric study and economic assessment of reciprocating internal combustion engine integrated with multi-effect desalination unit

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Salimi, Mohsen; Amidpour, Majid

    2017-01-01

    Highlights: • Integration of small MED unit with gas engine power cycle is studied in this paper. • Modeling, simulation, parametric study and sensitivity analysis were performed. • A thermodynamic model for heat recovery and power generation of the gas engine has been presented. • Annualized Cost of System (ACS) has been employed for economic assessment. • Economic feasibilty dependence of integrated system on natural gas and water prices has been investigated. - Abstract: Due to thermal nature of multi-effect desalination (MED), its integration with a suitable power cycle is highly desirable for waste heat recovery. One of the proper power cycle for proposed integration is internal combustion engine (ICE). The exhaust gas heat of ICE is used to produce motive steam for the required heat for the first effect of MED system. Also, the water jacket heat is utilized in a heat exchanger to pre-heat the seawater. This paper studies a thermodynamic model for a tri-generation system composed of ICE integrated with MED. The ICE thermodynamic model has been used in place of different empirical efficiency relations to estimate performance – load curves reasonably. The entire system performance has been coded in MATLAB, and the results of proposed thermodynamic model for the engine have been verified by manufacturer catalogue. By increasing the engine load from 40% to 100%, the water production of MED unit will increase from 4.38 cubic meters per day to 26.78 cubic meters per day and the tri-generation efficiency from 31% to 56%. Economic analyses of the MED unit integrated with ICE was performed based on Annualized Cost of System method. This integration makes the system more economical. It has been determined that in higher market prices for fresh water (more than 7 US$ per cubic meter), the increase in effects number is more significant to the period of return decrement.

  13. Integrated Economic and Financial Analysis of China’s Sponge City Program for Water-resilient Urban Development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiao Liang

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available To improve Chinese cities’ resilience to climate change, the Sponge City Program, which was designed to tackle water pollution, storm water management, and flooding, was initiated in 2014. Being a major policy initiative, the Sponge City Program raises heated discussions among Chinese academics; however, no relevant extensive economic or financial analysis has been conducted. The research carries out an integrated economic and financial analysis on the Sponge City Program from the perspectives of two stakeholders: the government and the project manager. Different stakeholders have unique perspectives on the management of water projects. This study has two parts: economic analysis and financial analysis. The economic analysis is from the government perspective, and considers all the economic, environmental, and social effects. The financial analysis is from the project manager’s perspective, and judges the financial feasibility of projects. Changde city, one of the demo cities of Sponge City Program, is chosen for the research. The results show that from the perspective of the government, the Sponge City Program should be promoted, because most water projects are economically feasible. From the perspective of the project manager, the program should not be invested in, because the water projects are financially infeasible. A more comprehensive and integrated plan for developing and managing the water projects of the Sponge City Program is required. Otherwise, the private sector may not be interested in investing in the water projects, and the water projects may not be operational in the long term.

  14. Mapping the EU–Republic of Moldova Trajectory: Roadblocks on the Way to Economic Integration with the EU

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gabrielle G. Bulgari

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available This article focuses on EU–Republic of Moldova relations by taking an in-depth look at the Association Agreement and Deep and Comprehensive Free Trade Agreement’s provisions. Specific attention is given to both the political and economic integration aspects, benefits for the agriculture sector and an assessment of risk factors. Within the European Neighbourhood Policy instrument and the policy of Eastern Partnership, the Republic of Moldova has gained a crucial importance over the past 10 years. Having been positioned between two political and economic strong poles, many times it had to decide on which side to be. Moreover, the Association Agreement signed in June 2014 has updated the EU-Moldova relations and gave it a boost towards European integration, economic and commercial development, encouraging the Republic of Moldova to finally break from its Soviet past and move forward.

  15. Lithospheric Structure, Crustal Kinematics, and Earthquakes in North China: An Integrated Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, M.; Yang, Y.; Sandvol, E.; Chen, Y.; Wang, L.; Zhou, S.; Shen, Z.; Wang, Q.

    2007-12-01

    The North China block (NCB) is geologically part of the Archaean Sino-Korean craton. But unusual for a craton, it was thermally rejuvenated since late Mesozoic, and experienced widespread extension and volcanism through much of the Cenozoic. Today, the NCB is characterized by strong internal deformation and seismicity, including the 1976 Tangshan earthquake that killed ~250,000 people. We have started a multidisciplinary study to image the lithospheric and upper mantle structure using seismological methods, to delineate crustal kinematics and deformation via studies of neotectonics and space geodesy, and to investigate the driving forces, the stress states and evolution, and seismicity using geodynamic modeling. Both seismic imaging and GPS results indicate that the Ordos plateau, which is the western part of the NCB and a relic of the Sino-Korean craton, has been encroached around its southern margins by mantle flow and thus is experiencing active cratonic destruction. Some of the mantle flow may be driven by the Indo-Asian collision, although the cause of the broad mantle upwelling responsible for the Mesozoic thinning of the NCB lithosphere remains uncertain. At present, crustal deformation in the NCB is largely driven by gravitational spreading of the expanding Tibetan Plateau. Internal deformation within the NCB is further facilitated by the particular tectonic boundary conditions around the NCB, and the large lateral contrasts of lithospheric strength and rheology. Based on the crustal kinematics and lithospheric structure, we have developed a preliminary geodynamic model for stress states and strain energy in the crust of the NCB. The predicted long-term strain energy distribution is comparable with the spatial pattern of seismic energy release in the past 2000 years. We are exploring the cause of the spatiotemporal occurrence of large earthquakes in the NCB, especially the apparent migration of seismicity from the Weihe-Shanxi grabens around the Ordos to

  16. Hydro-economic modeling of integrated solutions for the water-energy-land nexus in Africa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parkinson, S.; Kahil, M.; Wada, Y.; Krey, V.; Byers, E.; Johnson, N. A.; Burek, P.; Satoh, Y.; Willaarts, B.; Langan, S.; Riahi, K.

    2017-12-01

    This study focused on the development of the Extended Continental-scale Hydro-economic Optimization model (ECHO) and its application to the analysis of long-term water, energy and land use pathways for Africa. The framework is important because it integrates multi-decadal decisions surrounding investments into new water infrastructure, electric power generation and irrigation technologies. The improved linkages in ECHO reveal synergies between water allocation strategies across sectors and the greenhouse gas emissions resulting from electricity supply. The African case study features a reduced-form transboundary river network and associated environmental flow constraints covering surface and groundwater withdrawals. Interactions between local water constraints and the continental-scale economy are captured in the model through the combination of regional electricity markets. Spatially-explicit analysis of land availability is used to restrict future reservoir expansion. The analysis demonstrates the massive investments required to ensure rapidly expanding water, energy and food demands in Africa aligned with human development objectives are met in a sustainable way. Modeled constraints on environmental flows in line with presumptive ecological guidelines trigger diffusion of energy-intensive water supply technologies in water-stressed regions, with implications for the cost and speed of the electricity sector decarbonization required to achieve climate targets.

  17. Of Iron or Wax? The Effect of Economic Integration on the Reliability of Military Alliances***

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vobolevičius Vincentas

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available In this paper we analyze what determines if a military alliance represents a credible commitment. More precisely, we verify if economic integration of military allies increases the deterrent capability of an alliance, and its effectiveness in the case of third-party aggression. We propose that growing intra-alliance trade creates audience costs and sunk costs for political leaders who venture to violate conditions of an alliance treaty. Therefore, intensive trade can be regarded as a signal of allies’ determination to aid one another in the case of third party aggression, and a deterrent of such aggression. Regression analysis of bilateral fixed-term mutual defense agreements concluded between 1945 and 2003 reveals that large trade volumes among military allies indeed reduce the likelihood that their political leaders will breach alliance commitments. Intra-alliance trade also displays a number of interesting interaction effects with the other common predictors of military alliance reliability such as shared allies’ interests and values, symmetry of their military capabilities, their geographic location and domestic political institutions.

  18. Transforming Healthcare Delivery: Integrating Dynamic Simulation Modelling and Big Data in Health Economics and Outcomes Research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marshall, Deborah A; Burgos-Liz, Lina; Pasupathy, Kalyan S; Padula, William V; IJzerman, Maarten J; Wong, Peter K; Higashi, Mitchell K; Engbers, Jordan; Wiebe, Samuel; Crown, William; Osgood, Nathaniel D

    2016-02-01

    In the era of the Information Age and personalized medicine, healthcare delivery systems need to be efficient and patient-centred. The health system must be responsive to individual patient choices and preferences about their care, while considering the system consequences. While dynamic simulation modelling (DSM) and big data share characteristics, they present distinct and complementary value in healthcare. Big data and DSM are synergistic-big data offer support to enhance the application of dynamic models, but DSM also can greatly enhance the value conferred by big data. Big data can inform patient-centred care with its high velocity, volume, and variety (the three Vs) over traditional data analytics; however, big data are not sufficient to extract meaningful insights to inform approaches to improve healthcare delivery. DSM can serve as a natural bridge between the wealth of evidence offered by big data and informed decision making as a means of faster, deeper, more consistent learning from that evidence. We discuss the synergies between big data and DSM, practical considerations and challenges, and how integrating big data and DSM can be useful to decision makers to address complex, systemic health economics and outcomes questions and to transform healthcare delivery.

  19. Techno-economic analysis of an autonomous power system integrating hydrogen technology as energy storage medium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tzamalis, G. [Center for Renewable Energy Sources (CRES), RES and Hydrogen Technologies, 19th km Marathon Avenue, GR 19009 Pikermi (Greece); Laboratory of Fuels and Lubricants Technology, School of Chemical Engineering, National Technical University of Athens, 9 Iroon Polytechniou Street, Zografou Campus, 157 80 Athens (Greece); Zoulias, E.I.; Stamatakis, E.; Varkaraki, E. [Center for Renewable Energy Sources (CRES), RES and Hydrogen Technologies, 19th km Marathon Avenue, GR 19009 Pikermi (Greece); Lois, E.; Zannikos, F. [Laboratory of Fuels and Lubricants Technology, School of Chemical Engineering, National Technical University of Athens, 9 Iroon Polytechniou Street, Zografou Campus, 157 80 Athens (Greece)

    2011-01-15

    Two different options for the autonomous power supply of rural or/and remote buildings are examined in this study. The first one involves a PV - diesel based power system, while the second one integrates RES and hydrogen technologies for the development of a self - sustained power system. The main objective is the replacement of the diesel generator and a comparison between these two options for autonomous power supply. Model simulations of the two power systems before and after the replacement, an optimization of the component sizes and a techno - economic analysis have been performed for the purpose of this study. A sensitivity analysis taking into account future cost scenarios for hydrogen technologies is also presented. The results clearly show that the Cost of Energy Produced (COE) from the PV - hydrogen technologies power system is extremely higher than the PV - diesel power system. However, the adopted PV - hydrogen technologies power system reduces to zero the Green - House Gas (GHG) emissions. Moreover, the sensitivity analysis indicates that COE for the latter system can be further reduced by approximately 50% compared to its initial value. This could be achieved by reducing critical COE's parameters, such as PEM electrolyser and fuel cell capital costs. Hence, a possible reduction on the capital costs of hydrogen energy equipment in combination with emissions reduction mentioned above could make hydrogen - based power systems more competitive. (author)

  20. Technical and economic assessment of the integrated solar combined cycle power plants in Iran

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Soltani Hosseini, M.; Hosseini, R.; Valizadeh, G.H.

    2002-01-01

    Thermal efficiency, capacity factor, environmental considerations, investment cost, fuel and O and M costs are the main parameters for technical and economic assessment of solar power plants. This analysis has shown that the Integrated Solar Combined Cycle System with 67 MW e solar field(ISCCS-67) is the most suitable plan for the first solar power plant in Iran. The Levelized Energy Costs of combined cycle and ISCCS-67 power plants would be equal if 49 million dollars of ISCCS-67 capital cost supplied by the international environmental organizations such as Global Environmental Facilities and World Bank. This study shows that an ISCCS-67 saves 59 million dollars in fuel consumption and reduces about 2.4 million ton in CO 2 emission during 30 years operating period. Increasing of steam turbine capacity by 50%, and 4% improvement in overall efficiency are other advantages of iSCCS-67 power plant. The LEC of ISCCS-67 is 10% and so 33% lower than the combined cycle and gas turbine, respectively, at the same capacity factor with consideration of environmental costs

  1. Bayesian maximum entropy integration of ozone observations and model predictions: an application for attainment demonstration in North Carolina.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Nazelle, Audrey; Arunachalam, Saravanan; Serre, Marc L

    2010-08-01

    States in the USA are required to demonstrate future compliance of criteria air pollutant standards by using both air quality monitors and model outputs. In the case of ozone, the demonstration tests aim at relying heavily on measured values, due to their perceived objectivity and enforceable quality. Weight given to numerical models is diminished by integrating them in the calculations only in a relative sense. For unmonitored locations, the EPA has suggested the use of a spatial interpolation technique to assign current values. We demonstrate that this approach may lead to erroneous assignments of nonattainment and may make it difficult for States to establish future compliance. We propose a method that combines different sources of information to map air pollution, using the Bayesian Maximum Entropy (BME) Framework. The approach gives precedence to measured values and integrates modeled data as a function of model performance. We demonstrate this approach in North Carolina, using the State's ozone monitoring network in combination with outputs from the Multiscale Air Quality Simulation Platform (MAQSIP) modeling system. We show that the BME data integration approach, compared to a spatial interpolation of measured data, improves the accuracy and the precision of ozone estimations across the state.

  2. Participatory integrated watershed management in the north-western highlands of Rwanda

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kagabo, M.D.

    2013-01-01

    This thesis is the result of assessments on the extent of existing resource use and management practices using a Participatory Integrated Watershed Management (PIWM) as a viable approach to promote best soil water conservation (SWC) measures towards more sustainable land use. The study was

  3. Environmental pressures from European consumption and production. A study in integrated environmental and economic analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Watson, D. [Copenhagen Resource Institute, Copenhagen (Denmark); Fernandez, J.A.; Wittmer, D. [Wuppertal Institute, Wuppertal (Germany); Gravgaerd Pedersen, O. [Statistics Denmark, Copenhagen (Denmark); European Topic Centre on Sustainable Consumption and Production, Copenhagen (Denmark)

    2013-03-15

    Environmental pressures from European consumption and production shows how economic and environmental data can be integrated to analyse environmental performance and material efficiency of whole economies as well as their individual elements. The analyses presented in the report provide policy makers with a tool to target economic incentives and information campaigns, encouraging a shift to more sustainable production and consumption patterns in order to reduce Europe's global footprint. The report discusses two analytical approaches. The production-based method considers direct environmental pressures caused by European industries and service providers - for example, the extraction of material resources by the mining and quarrying sector, air pollutants from power stations, greenhouse gas emissions from agriculture and so on. The consumption-based method focuses on the indirect environmental pressures caused by European consumers. In this approach, the direct production-related pressures are attributed to broad groups of products and services, also taking into account pressures that are embodied in goods imported into the EU. Using Environmentally Extended Input Output Analysis (EE-IOA) it is possible to estimate the environmental pressures ultimately generated by individual product groups and also by European consumption as a whole. Four types of environmental pressures are considered by the report: raw material use, greenhouse gas emissions, acidifying air emissions, and air pollutants leading to harmful ground-level ozone. However, the method has the potential to assess many other types of environmental pressure including land use, water use, waste generation and energy use. Thanks to the conceptual consistency between the system of national economic accounts and environmental accounts, data on environmental pressures is directly comparable to economic expenditure. Policy makers can thus see which sectors have been most successful in decoupling

  4. The Economic Integration Of The EU13 Regions Into EU Economy During The 2004–2013 Period

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kabát Libor

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this paper is to study and to highlight the applicative and interpretive limits of the GDP per capita indicators, when regional economics of the new member countries (EU13, particularly the process of integration of their regions into EU economy is examined in terms of the beta and sigma convergence. The growth of gross domestic product has long been pursued as the main objective of the economic activities of countries and regions. Its growth is seen as almost a guarantee of the proper functioning of the economy. The governments of individual countries, in the event of a decline in GDP, take measures for its recovery. Small attention, however, is given to the fact, whether such an economic development copes with the parameters of sustainable economic growth. Also, little attention is paid to the study of how the previous growth is reflected in the standard of living of the population and households in respective countries and regions.

  5. Influence of large-scale deployment of concentrated solar power on North African countries: Socio-economic aspects (Conference Paper)

    OpenAIRE

    Komendantova, N.; Patt, A.

    2010-01-01

    To prevent catastrophic results of climate change, the stabilization of atmospheric concentrations of CO2 below 450 or even 350 parts per million is necessary. The large-scale electricity generation from renewable energy sources is one of possible options to satisfy the world's growing energy demand and to reduce green house gas emissions from electricity generation. Several studies show technical viability of large-scale deployment of concentrated solar power in North African countries and i...

  6. Evaluation of complex integrated care programmes: the approach in North West London

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greaves, Felix; Pappas, Yannis; Bardsley, Martin; Harris, Matthew; Curry, Natasha; Holder, Holly; Blunt, Ian; Soljak, Michael; Gunn, Laura; Majeed, Azeem; Car, Josip

    2013-01-01

    Background Several local attempts to introduce integrated care in the English National Health Service have been tried, with limited success. The Northwest London Integrated Care Pilot attempts to improve the quality of care of the elderly and people with diabetes by providing a novel integration process across primary, secondary and social care organisations. It involves predictive risk modelling, care planning, multidisciplinary management of complex cases and an information technology tool to support information sharing. This paper sets out the evaluation approach adopted to measure its effect. Study design We present a mixed methods evaluation methodology. It includes a quantitative approach measuring changes in service utilization, costs, clinical outcomes and quality of care using routine primary and secondary data sources. It also contains a qualitative component, involving observations, interviews and focus groups with patients and professionals, to understand participant experiences and to understand the pilot within the national policy context. Theory and discussion This study considers the complexity of evaluating a large, multi-organisational intervention in a changing healthcare economy. We locate the evaluation within the theory of evaluation of complex interventions. We present the specific challenges faced by evaluating an intervention of this sort, and the responses made to mitigate against them. Conclusions We hope this broad, dynamic and responsive evaluation will allow us to clarify the contribution of the pilot, and provide a potential model for evaluation of other similar interventions. Because of the priority given to the integrated agenda by governments internationally, the need to develop and improve strong evaluation methodologies remains strikingly important. PMID:23687478

  7. Evaluation of complex integrated care programmes: the approach in North West London

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Felix Greaves

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Background: Several local attempts to introduce integrated care in the English National Health Service have been tried, with limited success. The Northwest London Integrated Care Pilot attempts to improve the quality of care of the elderly and people with diabetes by providing a novel integration process across primary, secondary and social care organisations. It involves predictive risk modelling, care planning, multidisciplinary management of complex cases and an information technology tool to support information sharing. This paper sets out the evaluation approach adopted to measure its effect. Study design: We present a mixed methods evaluation methodology. It includes a quantitative approach measuring changes in service utilization, costs, clinical outcomes and quality of care using routine primary and secondary data sources. It also contains a qualitative component, involving observations, interviews and focus groups with patients and professionals, to understand participant experiences and to understand the pilot within the national policy context. Theory and discussion: This study considers the complexity of evaluating a large, multi-organisational intervention in a changing healthcare economy. We locate the evaluation within the theory of evaluation of complex interventions. We present the specific challenges faced by evaluating an intervention of this sort, and the responses made to mitigate against them. Conclusions: We hope this broad, dynamic and responsive evaluation will allow us to clarify the contribution of the pilot, and provide a potential model for evaluation of other similar interventions. Because of the priority given to the integrated agenda by governments internationally, the need to develop and improve strong evaluation methodologies remains strikingly important

  8. Evaluation of complex integrated care programmes: the approach in North West London

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Felix Greaves

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Background: Several local attempts to introduce integrated care in the English National Health Service have been tried, with limited success. The Northwest London Integrated Care Pilot attempts to improve the quality of care of the elderly and people with diabetes by providing a novel integration process across primary, secondary and social care organisations. It involves predictive risk modelling, care planning, multidisciplinary management of complex cases and an information technology tool to support information sharing. This paper sets out the evaluation approach adopted to measure its effect.Study design: We present a mixed methods evaluation methodology. It includes a quantitative approach measuring changes in service utilization, costs, clinical outcomes and quality of care using routine primary and secondary data sources. It also contains a qualitative component, involving observations, interviews and focus groups with patients and professionals, to understand participant experiences and to understand the pilot within the national policy context.Theory and discussion: This study considers the complexity of evaluating a large, multi-organisational intervention in a changing healthcare economy. We locate the evaluation within the theory of evaluation of complex interventions. We present the specific challenges faced by evaluating an intervention of this sort, and the responses made to mitigate against them.Conclusions: We hope this broad, dynamic and responsive evaluation will allow us to clarify the contribution of the pilot, and provide a potential model for evaluation of other similar interventions. Because of the priority given to the integrated agenda by governments internationally, the need to develop and improve strong evaluation methodologies remains strikingly important

  9. The development of integrated service centre system for professional teachers empowerment in North Sumatera

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gultom, S.; Simanjorang, M. M.; Muchtar, Z.; Mansyur, A.

    2018-03-01

    Based on Act number 12 in year 2012 the function of higher education is related to individual, social community, knowledge and technology development. Hence, higher education providers need to think and develop policies in order to improve their service and fulfil the higher education function. As part of the effort to fulfil its function Universitas Negeri Medan (Unimed), which historically was a pre-service teacher training institute, should has a special interest on improving teachers’ professionalism. The Act number 14 in year 2005 described requirements for professional teacher, including academic qualification and set of competencies possessed by the teacher. The Act also guaranties teachers’ right to have opportunities for improving their competencies and academic qualification through training and other professionalism development programme. The question is how this guarantee can be implemented. In order to answer this question a developmental study has been done which aimed on developing an integrated service centre system for professional teachers empowerment. As the name implies, this integrated service centre system is expected to be a real manifestation of Unimed’s support towards the improvement of professional teachers quality, which in the end will boils down to the improvement of national education services quality. The result of this study is an integrated service centre system for professional teachers empowerment that fulfils the professionalism principles described in the Act number 14 in year 2005, which has been developed by considering problems faced by and also supports needed by teachers post certification programme.

  10. Techno-economic feasibility study of the integration of a commercial small-scale ORC in a real case study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cavazzini, G.; Dal Toso, P.

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • The integration of a small-scale commercial ORC in a real case study was analyzed. • The possibility of recovering the waste heat produced by an ICE was considered. • A semi-empirical steady-state model of the commercial small scale ORC was created. • Both direct and indirect costs was considered in the business model. • The ORC integration was not economically feasible due to increased indirect costs. - Abstract: The ORC certainly represents a promising solution for recovering low-grade waste heat in industries. However, the efficiency of commercial small-scale ORC solutions is still too low in comparison with the high initial costs of the machine and the lack of simulation models specifically developed for commercial ORC systems prevents industries from defining an accurate business model to correctly evaluate the ORC integration in real industrial processes. This paper presents a techno-economic feasibility analysis of the integration of a small-scale commercial ORC in a real case study, represented by a highly-efficient industrial distillery. The integration is aimed at maximizing the electricity auto-production by exploiting the heat produced by an internal combustion engine, already partially recovered in internal thermal processes. To analyze the influence of the ORC integration on the industrial processes, a semi-empirical steady-state model of the commercial small scale ORC was created. The model made it possible to simulate the performance of the commercial ORC within a hypothetical scenario involving the use of the heat from the cooling water and from the exhaust gases of the internal combustion engine. A detailed thermo-dynamic analysis has been carried out to study the effects of the ORC integration on the plant’s energy system with particular focus on the two processes directly affected by ORC integration, namely vapor production and the drying process of the grape marc. The analysis highlighted the great importance in the

  11. The Integration of Socio-Economic Indicators in the CASBEE-UD Evaluation System: A Case Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francesco Cappai

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available The use of tools to measure the degree of sustainability of cities is the approach that receives the most attention in developed countries. However, studies of evaluation tools at the neighborhood level reveal that there are many weaknesses in the most widely-used evaluation systems (LEED-ND, BREEAM Communities, CASBEE-UD. There are ambiguities and gaps in weighting and in scoring and in most cases, there is no mechanism for local adaptability and participation. The purpose of this study is to provide an overview of the current situation by highlighting the strengths and weaknesses of these evaluation tools in order to integrate social and economic aspects for the improvement of the CASBEE-UD (neighborhood level evaluation tool. The selection of socio-economic aspects was made through the use of a multi criteria Analysis Hierarchical Process (AHP and a Geographic Integration System (GIS. The results of this case study indicate that most evaluation tools need to be revised because most do not include socio-economic aspects. We have demonstrated that applying the CASBEE-UD assessment tool integrated with socio-economic aspects to four boroughs in the City of Montreal can measure success by addressing the objectives of sustainable development.

  12. Integrating Economic Models with Biophysical Models in the Willamette Water 2100 Project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaeger, W. K.; Plantinga, A.

    2013-12-01

    This paper highlights the human system modeling components for Willamette Water 2100, a comprehensive, highly integrated study of hydrological, ecological, and human factors affecting water scarcity in the Willamette River Basin (WRB). The project is developing a spatiotemporal simulation model to predict future trajectories of water scarcity, and to evaluate mitigation policies. Economic models of land use and water use are the main human system models in WW2100. Water scarcity depends on both supply and demand for water, and varies greatly across time and space (Jaeger et al., 2013). Thus, the locations of human water use can have enormous influence on where and when water is used, and hence where water scarcity may arise. Modeling the locations of human uses of water (e.g., urban versus agricultural) as well as human values and choices, are the principal quantitative ways that social science can contribute to research of this kind. Our models are empirically-based models of human resource allocation. Each model reflects private behavior (choices by households, farms, firms), institutions (property rights, laws, markets, regulations), public infrastructure (dams, canals, highways), and also 'external drivers' that influence the local economy (migration, population growth, national markets and policies). This paper describes the main model components, emphasizing similarities between human and biophysical components of the overall project, and the model's linkages and feedbacks relevant to our predictions of changes in water scarcity between now and 2100. Results presented include new insights from individual model components as well as available results from the integrated system model. Issues include water scarcity and water quality (temperature) for out-of-stream and instream uses, the impact of urban expansion on water use and potential flood damage. Changes in timing and variability of spring discharge with climate change, as well as changes in human uses of

  13. Economic analysis of a supercritical coal-fired CHP plant integrated with an absorption carbon capture installation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bartela, Łukasz; Skorek-Osikowska, Anna; Kotowicz, Janusz

    2014-01-01

    Energy investments in Poland are currently focused on supercritical coal-fired unit technology. It is likely, that in the future, these units are to be integrated with carbon capture and storage (CCS) installations, which enable a significant reduction of greenhouse gas emissions into the atmosphere. A significant share of the energy market in Poland is constituted by coal-fired combined heat and power (CHP) plants. The integration of these units with CCS installation can be economically inefficient. However, the lack of such integration enhances the investment risk due to the possibility of appearing on the market in the near future high prices of emission allowances. The aforementioned factors and additional favorable conditions for the development of cogeneration can cause one to consider investing in large supercritical CHP plants. This paper presents the results of an economic analysis aimed at comparing three cases of CHP plants, one without an integrated CCS installation and two with such installations. The same steam cycle structure for all variants was adopted. The cases of integrated CHP plants differ from each other in the manner in which they recover heat. For the evaluation of the respective solutions, the break-even price of electricity and avoided emission cost were used. - Highlights: • The simulations of operation of CHP plants under changing load have been realized. • For analyzed cases sensitivity analyses of economic indices have been conducted. • Conditions of competitiveness for integration with CCS units have been identified. • Integration can be profitable if prices of allowance will reach high values, exceeding 50 €/MgCO 2 . • Others important factors are the investment costs and operation and maintenance costs

  14. Valuing fire planning alternatives in forest restoration: using derived demand to integrate economics with ecological restoration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rideout, Douglas B; Ziesler, Pamela S; Kernohan, Nicole J

    2014-08-01

    Assessing the value of fire planning alternatives is challenging because fire affects a wide array of ecosystem, market, and social values. Wildland fire management is increasingly used to address forest restoration while pragmatic approaches to assessing the value of fire management have yet to be developed. Earlier approaches to assessing the value of forest management relied on connecting site valuation with management variables. While sound, such analysis is too narrow to account for a broad range of ecosystem services. The metric fire regime condition class (FRCC) was developed from ecosystem management philosophy, but it is entirely biophysical. Its lack of economic information cripples its utility to support decision-making. We present a means of defining and assessing the deviation of a landscape from its desired fire management condition by re-framing the fire management problem as one of derived demand. This valued deviation establishes a performance metric for wildland fire management. Using a case study, we display the deviation across a landscape and sum the deviations to produce a summary metric. This summary metric is used to assess the value of alternative fire management strategies on improving the fire management condition toward its desired state. It enables us to identify which sites are most valuable to restore, even when they are in the same fire regime condition class. The case study site exemplifies how a wide range of disparate values, such as watershed, wildlife, property and timber, can be incorporated into a single landscape assessment. The analysis presented here leverages previous research on environmental capital value and non-market valuation by integrating ecosystem management, restoration, and microeconomics. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Labour Market Integration and Public Perceptions of Immigrants: A Comparison between Germany and Spain During the Economic Crisis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dirk Godenau

    2012-06-01

    The economic crisis has made parts of the population more sceptical about immigration in both countries. However, there appear to be no links between the severity of the crisis and public debates on migration. Although Spain was definitely hit harder by the crisis than Germany, and immigrants were affected more severely, public debates on migration and integration issues seem to be at least as fierce in Germany as in Spain. The legacy of past migrations and migration policies exerts a more significant influence on the public perception of migration as a risk than economic factors do.

  16. Challenges in integrative approaches to modelling the marine ecosystems of the North Atlantic: Physics to fish and coasts to ocean

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holt, Jason; Icarus Allen, J.; Anderson, Thomas R.; Brewin, Robert; Butenschön, Momme; Harle, James; Huse, Geir; Lehodey, Patrick; Lindemann, Christian; Memery, Laurent; Salihoglu, Baris; Senina, Inna; Yool, Andrew

    2014-12-01

    It has long been recognised that there are strong interactions and feedbacks between climate, upper ocean biogeochemistry and marine food webs, and also that food web structure and phytoplankton community distribution are important determinants of variability in carbon production and export from the euphotic zone. Numerical models provide a vital tool to explore these interactions, given their capability to investigate multiple connected components of the system and the sensitivity to multiple drivers, including potential future conditions. A major driver for ecosystem model development is the demand for quantitative tools to support ecosystem-based management initiatives. The purpose of this paper is to review approaches to the modelling of marine ecosystems with a focus on the North Atlantic Ocean and its adjacent shelf seas, and to highlight the challenges they face and suggest ways forward. We consider the state of the art in simulating oceans and shelf sea physics, planktonic and higher trophic level ecosystems, and look towards building an integrative approach with these existing tools. We note how the different approaches have evolved historically and that many of the previous obstacles to harmonisation may no longer be present. We illustrate this with examples from the on-going and planned modelling effort in the Integrative Modelling Work Package of the EURO-BASIN programme.

  17. Case study of developing an integrated water and nitrogen scheme for agricultural systems on the North China Plain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Y.; Tao, F.; Luo, Y.; Ma, J.

    2013-12-01

    Appropriate irrigation and nitrogen fertilization, along with suitable crop management strategies, are essential prerequisites for optimum yields in agricultural systems. This research attempts to provide a scientific basis for sustainable agricultural production management for the North China Plain and other semi-arid regions. Based on a series of 72 treatments over 2003-2008, an optimized water and nitrogen scheme for winter wheat/summer maize cropping system was developed. Integrated systems incorporating 120 mm of water with 80 kg N ha-1 N fertilizer were used to simulate winter wheat yields in Hebei and 120 mm of water with 120 kg N ha-1 were used to simulate winter wheat yields in Shandong and Henan provinces in 2000-2007. Similarly, integrated treatments of 40 kg N ha-1 N fertilizer were used to simulate summer maize yields in Hebei, and 80 kg N ha-1 was used to simulate summer maize yields in Shandong and Henan provinces in 2000-2007. Under the optimized scheme, 341.74 107 mm ha-1 of water and 575.79 104 Mg of urea fertilizer could be saved per year under the wheat/maize rotation system. Despite slight drops in the yields of wheat and maize in some areas, water and fertilizer saving has tremendous long-term eco-environmental benefits.

  18. Increasing efficiency in ethanol production: Water footprint and economic productivity of sugarcane ethanol under nine different water regimes in north-eastern Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel Chico

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Ethanol production in Brazil has grown by 219% between 2001 and 2012, increasing the use of land and water resources. In the semi-arid north-eastern Brazil, irrigation is the main way for improving sugarcane production. This study aimed at quantifying water consumed in ethanol production from sugarcane in this region using the water footprint (WF indicator and complementing it with an evaluation of the water apparent productivity (WAP. This way we were able to provide a measure of the crop´s physical and economic water productivity using, respectively, the WF and WAP concepts. We studied sugarcane cultivation under nine different water regimes, including rainfed and full irrigation. Data from a mill of the state of Alagoas for three production seasons were used. Irrigation influenced sugarcane yield increasing total profit per hectare and economic water productivity. Full irrigation showed the lowest WF, 1229 litres of water per litre of ethanol (L/L, whereas rainfed production showed the highest WF, 1646 L/L. However, the lower WF in full irrigation as compared to the rest of the water regimes implied the use of higher volumes of blue water per cultivated hectare. Lower water regimes yielded the lowest economic productivity, 0.72 US$/m3 for rainfed production as compared to 1.11 US$/m3 for full irrigation. Since economic revenues are increased with higher water regimes, there are incentives for the development of these higher water regimes. This will lead to higher general crop water and economic productivity at field level, as green water is replaced by blue water consumption.

  19. Increasing efficiency in ethanol production: Water footprint and economic productivity of sugarcane ethanol under nine different water regimes in north-eastern Brazil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chico, D.; Santiago, A. D.; Garrido, A.

    2015-07-01

    Ethanol production in Brazil has grown by 219% between 2001 and 2012, increasing the use of land and water resources. In the semi-arid north-eastern Brazil, irrigation is the main way for improving sugarcane production. This study aimed at quantifying water consumed in ethanol production from sugarcane in this region using the water footprint (WF) indicator and complementing it with an evaluation of the water apparent productivity (WAP). This way we were able to provide a measure of the crop´s physical and economic water productivity using, respectively, the WF and WAP concepts. We studied sugarcane cultivation under nine different water regimes, including rainfed and full irrigation. Data from a mill of the state of Alagoas for three production seasons were used. Irrigation influenced sugarcane yield increasing total profit per hectare and economic water productivity. Full irrigation showed the lowest WF, 1229 litres of water per litre of ethanol (L/L), whereas rainfed production showed the highest WF, 1646 L/L. However, the lower WF in full irrigation as compared to the rest of the water regimes implied the use of higher volumes of blue water per cultivated hectare. Lower water regimes yielded the lowest economic productivity, 0.72 US$/m3 for rainfed production as compared to 1.11 US$/m3 for full irrigation. Since economic revenues are increased with higher water regimes, there are incentives for the development of these higher water regimes. This will lead to higher general crop water and economic productivity at field level, as green water is replaced by blue water consumption. (Author)

  20. Total integrated performance excellence system (TIPES): A true north direction for a clinical trial support center.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sather, Mike R; Parsons, Sherry; Boardman, Kathy D; Warren, Stuart R; Davis-Karim, Anne; Griffin, Kevin; Betterton, Jane A; Jones, Mark S; Johnson, Stanley H; Vertrees, Julia E; Hickey, Jan H; Salazar, Thelma P; Huang, Grant D

    2018-03-01

    This paper presents the quality journey taken by a Federal organization over more than 20 years. These efforts have resulted in the implementation of a Total Integrated Performance Excellence System (TIPES) that combines key principles and practices of established quality systems. The Center has progressively integrated quality system frameworks including the Malcom Baldrige National Quality Award (MBNQA) Framework and Criteria for Performance Excellence, ISO 9001, and the Organizational Project Management Maturity Model (OPM3), as well as supplemental quality systems of ISO 15378 (packaging for medicinal products) and ISO 21500 (guide to project management) to systematically improve all areas of operations. These frameworks were selected for applicability to Center processes and systems, consistency and reinforcement of complimentary approaches, and international acceptance. External validations include the MBNQA, the highest quality award in the US, continued registration and conformance to ISO standards and guidelines, and multiple VA and state awards. With a focus on a holistic approach to quality involving processes, systems and personnel, this paper presents activities and lessons that were critical to building TIPES and establishing the quality environment for conducting clinical research in support of Veterans and national health care.