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Sample records for economically important insect

  1. Application of radiation and radioisotopes for the management of insect pests of economic importance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dongre, T.K.

    2001-01-01

    This article gives brief account of radiation and radioisotope applications in the field of insect pest management. Radiation has a direct application in controlling insect pests, through sterile insect techniques (SIT) and radiation disinfestations of food grains, whereas radioisotopes can be used in basic as well as applied studies in the field of insect physiology, ecology and metabolism. The successful implementation of SIT against New world screwworm fly and different fruit fly species has clearly demonstrated the usefulness of radiation in agriculture. Over the past 35 years, the joint FAO/IAEA committee has played a critical role in supporting member states in the development and application of SIT for the management of various economically important insect pests. BARC has developed SIT for the management of red palm weevil, Rhynchophorus ferrugineus Oliv, the most serious pest of coconut in India and date palms in Arabian countries. Now, through thematic BRNS project this technique is being evaluated under field conditions in collaboration with three Indian agricultural universities. Present status and future prospects of sterile insect technique for the area wide control of different insect species will be discussed in detail. (author)

  2. Phylogeny of economically important insect pests that infesting several crops species in Malaysia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghazali, Siti Zafirah; Zain, Badrul Munir Md.; Yaakop, Salmah

    2014-09-01

    This paper reported molecular data on insect pests of commercial crops in Peninsular Malaysia. Fifteen insect pests (Metisa plana, Calliteara horsefeldii, Cotesia vestalis, Bactrocera papayae, Bactrocera carambolae, Bactrocera latifrons, Conopomorpha cramella, Sesamia inferens, Chilo polychrysa, Rhynchophorus vulneratus, and Rhynchophorus ferrugineus) of nine crops were sampled (oil palm, coconut, paddy, cocoa, starfruit, angled loofah, guava, chili and mustard) and also four species that belong to the fern's pest (Herpetogramma platycapna) and storage and rice pests (Tribolium castaneum, Oryzaephilus surinamensis and Cadra cautella). The presented phylogeny summarized the initial phylogenetic hypothesis, which concerning by implementation of the economically important insect pests. In this paper, phylogenetic relationships among 39 individuals of 15 species that belonging to three orders under 12 genera were inferred from DNA sequences of mitochondrial marker, cytochrome oxidase subunit I (COI) and nuclear marker, ribosomal DNA 28S D2 region. The phylogenies resulted from the phylogenetic analyses of both genes are relatively similar, but differ in the sequence of evolution. Interestingly, this most recent molecular data of COI sequences data by using Bayesian Inference analysis resulted a more-resolved phylogeny that corroborated with traditional hypotheses of holometabolan relationships based on traditional hypotheses of holometabolan relationships and most of recently molecular study compared to 28S sequences. This finding provides the information on relationships of pests species, which infested several crops in Malaysia and also estimation on Holometabola's order relationships. The identification of the larval stages of insect pests could be done accurately, without waiting the emergence of adults and supported by the phylogenetic tree.

  3. Electrohydrodynamic effects on two species of insects with economic importance to stored food products

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shayesteh, N.; Barthakur, N. N.

    1996-09-01

    An electrohydrodynamic (EHD) system which generated air ions within a strong electric field was used to study responses of stored-product insects Tribolium confusum (du Val) and Plodia interpunctella (Hübner). Larval mortality of both species generally increased with increased exposure time to ions of either polarity. The larvae and pupae of T. confusum suffered a higher mortality rate than the adults. The insects initially exhibited distinct avoiding motions away from regions of high towards low fluxes of air ions of both polarity. Insects moved vigorously, tumbled, flipped, curled up, and aggregated when the EHD system was turned on. The control insects not exposed to air ions survived and showed a total absence of such behaviour. For bipolar exposures, the insects occupied the neutral zone where the effects were minimal due to cancellation of the fields. Prolonged exposures of more than 20 min produced a quiescent state. EHD-enhanced mass transfer of the liquid component from physical objects established in fluid mechanics was invoked as a possible cause for insect mortality and avoiding behaviour to ions. Body fluid losses increased linearly with time of exposure ( R 2≥0.97) for all biological stages of insect growth. The larvae and pupae of T. confusum lost 12 and 15% of their body fluids, respectively, after 80 min of exposure to negative air ions. Fluid losses of such a magnitude are likely to have contributed to insect fatality.

  4. Species delimitation in asexual insects of economic importance: The case of black scale (Parasaissetia nigra, a cosmopolitan parthenogenetic pest scale insect.

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    Yen-Po Lin

    Full Text Available Asexual lineages provide a challenge to species delimitation because species concepts either have little biological meaning for them or are arbitrary, since every individual is monophyletic and reproductively isolated from all other individuals. However, recognition and naming of asexual species is important to conservation and economic applications. Some scale insects are widespread and polyphagous pests of plants, and several species have been found to comprise cryptic species complexes. Parasaissetia nigra (Nietner, 1861 (Hemiptera: Coccidae is a parthenogenetic, cosmopolitan and polyphagous pest that feeds on plant species from more than 80 families. Here, we implement multiple approaches to assess the species status of P. nigra, including coalescence-based analyses of mitochondrial and nuclear genes, and ecological niche modelling. Our results indicate that the sampled specimens of P. nigra should be considered to comprise at least two ecotypes (or "species" that are ecologically differentiated, particularly in relation to temperature and moisture. The presence of more than one ecotype under the current concept of P. nigra has implications for biosecurity because the geographic extent of each type is not fully known: some countries may currently have only one of the biotypes. Introduction of additional lineages could expand the geographic extent of damage by the pest in some countries.

  5. Area-wide control of fruit flies and other insect pests. Joint proceedings of the international conference on area-wide control of insect pests and the fifth international symposium on fruit flies of economic importance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tan, Keng-Hong

    2000-01-01

    With the world population attaining the six billion mark, the urgency of increasing quality food production and reducing the spread of diseases transmitted by insects, without affecting our fragile environment, will be of paramount importance. Losses currently experienced in agricultural production, due to insect pests and through diseases transmitted by insect vectors, are very high especially in developing and poor countries. Many insect pests and vectors are of economic importance, and several such as fruit flies, mosquitoes and tsetse flies have attracted international concerns. Most pests are traditionally controlled through heavy reliance on pesticides which can cause environmental pollution, pesticide resistance, and pest resurgence. The control, management or eradication of insect pests and vectors with minimal adverse impact on our food quality, environment, health and well-being should be of great concern to many agriculturists, biological and physical scientists as well as to national and international agencies responsible for pest control. Steps taken by the various concerned agencies to improve and implement the area-wide control will hopefully lead us into the next millennium free from major insect pests and vectors while at the same time protect our precarious global environment. This volume is the culmination of proceedings conducted in two recent international meetings, FAO/IAEA International Conference on Area-Wide Control of Insect Pests, 28 May - 2 June 1998, and the Fifth International Symposium on Fruit Flies of Economic Importance, 1-5 June 1998, held in Penang, Malaysia. Over three hundred papers (both oral contributions and posters) were presented at the two meetings. The manuscripts submitted by authors are divided according to broad topics into eighteen sections originally defined by the organisers as corresponding to the sessions of the meetings. The organisers identified one to several individuals in each of the sessions to deliver an

  6. Forest habitat conservation in Africa using commercially important insects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raina, Suresh Kumar; Kioko, Esther; Zethner, Ole; Wren, Susie

    2011-01-01

    African forests, which host some of the world's richest biodiversity, are rapidly diminishing. The loss of flora and fauna includes economically and socially important insects. Honey bees and silk moths, grouped under commercial insects, are the source for insect-based enterprises that provide income to forest-edge communities to manage the ecosystem. However, to date, research output does not adequately quantify the impact of such enterprises on buffering forest ecosystems and communities from climate change effects. Although diseases/pests of honey bees and silk moths in Africa have risen to epidemic levels, there is a dearth of practical research that can be utilized in developing effective control mechanisms that support the proliferation of these commercial insects as pollinators of agricultural and forest ecosystems. This review highlights the critical role of commercial insects within the environmental complexity of African forest ecosystems, in modern agroindustry, and with respect to its potential contribution to poverty alleviation and pollination services. It identifies significant research gaps that exist in understanding how insects can be utilized as ecosystem health indicators and nurtured as integral tools for important socioeconomic and industrial gains.

  7. Development of a universal double-digest RAD sequencing approach for a group of nonmodel, ecologically and economically important insect and fish taxa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burford Reiskind, M O; Coyle, K; Daniels, H V; Labadie, P; Reiskind, M H; Roberts, N B; Roberts, R B; Schaff, J; Vargo, E L

    2016-11-01

    The generation of genome-scale data is critical for a wide range of questions in basic biology using model organisms, but also in questions of applied biology in nonmodel organisms (agriculture, natural resources, conservation and public health biology). Using a genome-scale approach on a diverse group of nonmodel organisms and with the goal of lowering costs of the method, we modified a multiplexed, high-throughput genomic scan technique utilizing two restriction enzymes. We analysed several pairs of restriction enzymes and completed double-digestion RAD sequencing libraries for nine different species and five genera of insects and fish. We found one particular enzyme pair produced consistently higher number of sequence-able fragments across all nine species. Building libraries off this enzyme pair, we found a range of usable SNPs between 4000 and 37 000 SNPS per species and we found a greater number of usable SNPs using reference genomes than de novo pipelines in STACKS. We also found fewer reads in the Read 2 fragments from the paired-end Illumina Hiseq run. Overall, the results of this study provide empirical evidence of the utility of this method for producing consistent data for diverse nonmodel species and suggest specific considerations for sequencing analysis strategies. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  8. Ecological Importance of Insects in Selenium Biogenic Cycling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nadezhda Golubkina

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Selenium is an essential trace element for animal and human beings. Despite the importance of insects in most ecosystems and their significant contribution to the biological cycling of trace elements due to high abundance, population productivity, and diverse ecosystem functions, surprisingly little information is available on selenium bioaccumulation by these arthropods. This review considers selenium essentiality and toxicity to insects as well as insects’ contribution to selenium trophic transfer through the food chains. Data on Se accumulation by insects of the Dniester River Valley with no anthropogenic Se loading reveal typically low Se content in necrophagous insects compared to predators and herbivores and seasonal variations in Se accumulation.

  9. Economic Impacts of Non-Native Forest Insects in the Continental United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Juliann E. Aukema; Brian. Leung; Kent Kovacs; Corey Chivers; Jeffrey Englin; Susan J. Frankel; Robert G. Haight; Thomas P. Holmes; Andrew M. Liebhold; Deborah G. McCullough; Betsy. Von Holle

    2011-01-01

    Reliable estimates of the impacts and costs of biological invasions are critical to developing credible management, trade and regulatory policies. Worldwide, forests and urban trees provide important ecosystem services as well as economic and social benefits, but are threatened by non-native insects. More than 450 non-native forest insects are established in the United...

  10. Economic importance of bats in agriculture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boyles, Justin G.; Cryan, Paul M.; McCracken, Gary F.; Kunz, Thomas H.

    2011-01-01

    White-nose syndrome (WNS) and the increased development of wind-power facilities are threatening populations of insectivorous bats in North America. Bats are voracious predators of nocturnal insects, including many crop and forest pests. We present here analyses suggesting that loss of bats in North America could lead to agricultural losses estimated at more than $3.7 billion/year. Urgent efforts are needed to educate the public and policy-makers about the ecological and economic importance of insectivorous bats and to provide practical conservation solutions.

  11. Global compositional variation among native and non-native regional insect assemblages emphasizes the importance of pathways

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andrew M. Liebhold; Takehiko Yamanaka; Alain Roques; Sylvie Augustin; Steven L. Chown; Eckehard G. Brockerhoff; Petr Pysek

    2016-01-01

    Insects are among the world's most ecologically and economically important invasive species. Here we assemble inventories of native and nonnative species from 20 world regions and contrast relative numbers among these species assemblages. Multivariate ordination indicates that the distribution of species among insect orders is completely different between native...

  12. Economic impacts of non-native forest insects in the continental United States.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juliann E Aukema

    Full Text Available Reliable estimates of the impacts and costs of biological invasions are critical to developing credible management, trade and regulatory policies. Worldwide, forests and urban trees provide important ecosystem services as well as economic and social benefits, but are threatened by non-native insects. More than 450 non-native forest insects are established in the United States but estimates of broad-scale economic impacts associated with these species are largely unavailable. We developed a novel modeling approach that maximizes the use of available data, accounts for multiple sources of uncertainty, and provides cost estimates for three major feeding guilds of non-native forest insects. For each guild, we calculated the economic damages for five cost categories and we estimated the probability of future introductions of damaging pests. We found that costs are largely borne by homeowners and municipal governments. Wood- and phloem-boring insects are anticipated to cause the largest economic impacts by annually inducing nearly $1.7 billion in local government expenditures and approximately $830 million in lost residential property values. Given observations of new species, there is a 32% chance that another highly destructive borer species will invade the U.S. in the next 10 years. Our damage estimates provide a crucial but previously missing component of cost-benefit analyses to evaluate policies and management options intended to reduce species introductions. The modeling approach we developed is highly flexible and could be similarly employed to estimate damages in other countries or natural resource sectors.

  13. Non-bee insects are important contributors to global crop pollination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rader, Romina; Bartomeus, Ignasi; Garibaldi, Lucas A; Garratt, Michael P D; Howlett, Brad G; Winfree, Rachael; Cunningham, Saul A; Mayfield, Margaret M; Arthur, Anthony D; Andersson, Georg K S; Bommarco, Riccardo; Brittain, Claire; Carvalheiro, Luísa G; Chacoff, Natacha P; Entling, Martin H; Foully, Benjamin; Freitas, Breno M; Gemmill-Herren, Barbara; Ghazoul, Jaboury; Griffin, Sean R; Gross, Caroline L; Herbertsson, Lina; Herzog, Felix; Hipólito, Juliana; Jaggar, Sue; Jauker, Frank; Klein, Alexandra-Maria; Kleijn, David; Krishnan, Smitha; Lemos, Camila Q; Lindström, Sandra A M; Mandelik, Yael; Monteiro, Victor M; Nelson, Warrick; Nilsson, Lovisa; Pattemore, David E; Pereira, Natália de O; Pisanty, Gideon; Potts, Simon G; Reemer, Menno; Rundlöf, Maj; Sheffield, Cory S; Scheper, Jeroen; Schüepp, Christof; Smith, Henrik G; Stanley, Dara A; Stout, Jane C; Szentgyörgyi, Hajnalka; Taki, Hisatomo; Vergara, Carlos H; Viana, Blandina F; Woyciechowski, Michal

    2016-01-05

    Wild and managed bees are well documented as effective pollinators of global crops of economic importance. However, the contributions by pollinators other than bees have been little explored despite their potential to contribute to crop production and stability in the face of environmental change. Non-bee pollinators include flies, beetles, moths, butterflies, wasps, ants, birds, and bats, among others. Here we focus on non-bee insects and synthesize 39 field studies from five continents that directly measured the crop pollination services provided by non-bees, honey bees, and other bees to compare the relative contributions of these taxa. Non-bees performed 25-50% of the total number of flower visits. Although non-bees were less effective pollinators than bees per flower visit, they made more visits; thus these two factors compensated for each other, resulting in pollination services rendered by non-bees that were similar to those provided by bees. In the subset of studies that measured fruit set, fruit set increased with non-bee insect visits independently of bee visitation rates, indicating that non-bee insects provide a unique benefit that is not provided by bees. We also show that non-bee insects are not as reliant as bees on the presence of remnant natural or seminatural habitat in the surrounding landscape. These results strongly suggest that non-bee insect pollinators play a significant role in global crop production and respond differently than bees to landscape structure, probably making their crop pollination services more robust to changes in land use. Non-bee insects provide a valuable service and provide potential insurance against bee population declines.

  14. The stock of invasive insect species and its economic determinants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hlasny, Vladimir

    2011-06-01

    Invasions of nonindigenous organisms have long been linked to trade, but the contribution of individual trade pathways remains poorly understood, because species are not observed immediately upon arrival and the number of species arriving annually is unknown. Species interception records may count both new arrivals and species long introduced. Furthermore, the stock of invasive insect species already present is unknown. In this study, a state-space model is used to infer the stock of detected as well as undetected invasive insect species established in the United States. A system of equations is estimated jointly to distinguish the patterns of introduction, identification, and eradication. Introductions of invasive species are modeled as dependent on the volume of trade and arrival of people. Identifications depend on the public efforts at invasive species research, as well as on the established stock of invasive species that remain undetected. Eradications of both detected and undetected invasive species depend on containment and quarantine efforts, as well as on the stock of all established invasive species. These patterns are estimated by fitting the predicted number of invasive species detections to the observed record in the North American Non-Indigenous Arthropod Database. The results indicate that agricultural imports are the most important pathway of introduction, followed by immigration of people. Expenditures by the U.S. Department of Agriculture and the Agricultural Research Service are found to explain the species identification record well. Between three and 38 invasive insect species are estimated to be established in the United States undetected.

  15. Avoiding a bad apple: Insect pollination enhances fruit quality and economic value☆

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garratt, M.P.D.; Breeze, T.D.; Jenner, N.; Polce, C.; Biesmeijer, J.C.; Potts, S.G.

    2014-01-01

    Insect pollination is important for food production globally and apples are one of the major fruit crops which are reliant on this ecosystem service. It is fundamentally important that the full range of benefits of insect pollination to crop production are understood, if the costs of interventions aiming to enhance pollination are to be compared against the costs of the interventions themselves. Most previous studies have simply assessed the benefits of pollination to crop yield and ignored quality benefits and how these translate through to economic values. In the present study we examine the influence of insect pollination services on farmgate output of two important UK apple varieties; Gala and Cox. Using field experiments, we quantify the influence of insect pollination on yield and importantly quality and whether either may be limited by sub-optimal insect pollination. Using an expanded bioeconomic model we value insect pollination to UK apple production and establish the potential for improvement through pollination service management. We show that insects are essential in the production of both varieties of apple in the UK and contribute a total of £36.7 million per annum, over £6 million more than the value calculated using more conventional dependence ratio methods. Insect pollination not only affects the quantity of production but can also have marked impacts on the quality of apples, influencing size, shape and effecting their classification for market. These effects are variety specific however. Due to the influence of pollination on both yield and quality in Gala, there is potential for insect pollination services to improve UK output by up to £5.7 million per annum. Our research shows that continued pollinator decline could have serious financial implications for the apple industry but there is considerable scope through management of wild pollinators or using managed pollinator augmentation, to improve the quality of production. Furthermore, we

  16. Avoiding a bad apple: Insect pollination enhances fruit quality and economic value.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garratt, M P D; Breeze, T D; Jenner, N; Polce, C; Biesmeijer, J C; Potts, S G

    2014-02-01

    Insect pollination is important for food production globally and apples are one of the major fruit crops which are reliant on this ecosystem service. It is fundamentally important that the full range of benefits of insect pollination to crop production are understood, if the costs of interventions aiming to enhance pollination are to be compared against the costs of the interventions themselves. Most previous studies have simply assessed the benefits of pollination to crop yield and ignored quality benefits and how these translate through to economic values. In the present study we examine the influence of insect pollination services on farmgate output of two important UK apple varieties; Gala and Cox. Using field experiments, we quantify the influence of insect pollination on yield and importantly quality and whether either may be limited by sub-optimal insect pollination. Using an expanded bioeconomic model we value insect pollination to UK apple production and establish the potential for improvement through pollination service management. We show that insects are essential in the production of both varieties of apple in the UK and contribute a total of £36.7 million per annum, over £6 million more than the value calculated using more conventional dependence ratio methods. Insect pollination not only affects the quantity of production but can also have marked impacts on the quality of apples, influencing size, shape and effecting their classification for market. These effects are variety specific however. Due to the influence of pollination on both yield and quality in Gala, there is potential for insect pollination services to improve UK output by up to £5.7 million per annum. Our research shows that continued pollinator decline could have serious financial implications for the apple industry but there is considerable scope through management of wild pollinators or using managed pollinator augmentation, to improve the quality of production. Furthermore, we

  17. Insect nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (nAChRs): Important amino ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    STORAGESEVER

    2008-12-29

    Dec 29, 2008 ... nAChRs within the insect central nervous system has led to the development of insecticides targeting .... binding protein (AChBP), a homopentameric structural and functional homolog of ..... of the honey bee, Apis mellifera.

  18. Health economic evaluation: important principles and methodology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rudmik, Luke; Drummond, Michael

    2013-06-01

    To discuss health economic evaluation and improve the understanding of common methodology. This article discusses the methodology for the following types of economic evaluations: cost-minimization, cost-effectiveness, cost-utility, cost-benefit, and economic modeling. Topics include health-state utility measures, the quality-adjusted life year (QALY), uncertainty analysis, discounting, decision tree analysis, and Markov modeling. Economic evaluation is the comparative analysis of alternative courses of action in terms of both their costs and consequences. With increasing health care expenditure and limited resources, it is important for physicians to consider the economic impact of their interventions. Understanding common methodology involved in health economic evaluation will improve critical appraisal of the literature and optimize future economic evaluations. Copyright © 2012 The American Laryngological, Rhinological and Otological Society, Inc.

  19. The Importance of Insects in Australian Aboriginal Society: A Dictionary Survey

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    Aung Si

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Insects and their products have long been used in Indigenous Australian societies as food, medicine and construction material, and given prominent roles in myths, traditional songs and ceremonies. However, much of the available information on the uses of insects in Australia remains anecdotal. In this essay, we review published dictionaries of Aboriginal languages spoken in many parts of Australia, to provide an overview of the Indigenous names and knowledge of insects and their products. We find that that native honeybees and insect larvae (particularly of Lepidoptera and Coleoptera are the most highly prized insects, and should be recognized as cultural keystone species. Many insects mentioned in dictionaries lack scientific identifications, however, and we urge documentary linguists to address this important issue.

  20. The economic importance of migrant entrepreneurship: An ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The economic importance of migrant entrepreneurship: An application of data ... as an interesting focus for the city's Small and Medium Enterprise (SME) policy. ... and provide a positive stimulus for creative business-making in modern cities.

  1. ECONOMIC AND SOCIAL IMPORTANCE OF TOURISM

    OpenAIRE

    Ștefan-Dragoș CÎRSTEA; Andreea CÎRSTEA

    2015-01-01

    Tourism is a sector with a significant share in the economies of many countries. There are nations whose GDP consists of 40% of the total contribution of tourism to this indicator. One such segment requires permanent research of its economic, social and sustainability dimensions and their importance. This study outlines an overview of the main aspects related to economic and social importance of tourism and how tourism relates to the concept of sustainable development. The total contribution ...

  2. Global epidemiology of phytoplasma diseases of economic importance in Southeast Europe

    OpenAIRE

    Mitrev, Sasa

    2007-01-01

    The network ‘Global epidemiology of phytoplasma diseases of economic importance in Southeast Europe’ will coordinate the efforts of plant pathologists, microbiologists and entomologists of Southeast European countries to better monitor phytoplasma strains propagation through nurseries and insect vectors, at the European scale. This will be investigated both in plants and insects using up to date molecular typing tools and real-time PCR detection technology. In addition, the network will initi...

  3. Importance of basophil activation testing in insect venom allergy

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    Kosnik Mitja

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Venom immunotherapy (VIT is the only effective treatment for prevention of serious allergic reactions to bee and wasp stings in sensitized individuals. However, there are still many questions and controversies regarding immunotherapy, like selection of the appropriate allergen, safety and long term efficacy. Methods Literature review was performed to address the role of basophil activation test (BAT in diagnosis of venom allergy. Results In patients with positive skin tests or specific IgE to both honeybee and wasp venom, IgE inhibition test can identify sensitizing allergen only in around 15% and basophil activation test increases the identification rate to around one third of double positive patients. BAT is also diagnostic in majority of patients with systemic reactions after insect stings and no detectable IgE. High basophil sensitivity to allergen is associated with a risk of side effects during VIT. Persistence of high basophil sensitivity also predicts a treatment failure of VIT. Conclusion BAT is a useful tool for better selection of allergen for immunotherapy, for identification of patients prone to side effects and patients who might be treatment failures. However, long term studies are needed to evaluate the accuracy of the test.

  4. Pollination services mapping and economic valuation from insect communities: a case study in the Azores (Terceira Island

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    Ana Picanço

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Insect pollinators provide vital ecosystem services through its maintenance of plant biological diversity and its role in food production. Indeed, adequate pollination services can increase the production and quality of fruit and vegetable crops. This service is currently challenged by land use intensification and expanding human population growth. Hence, this study aims: (1 to assess the pollination services in different land uses with different levels of disturbance through GIS mapping technique using insect pollinators abundance and richness as indicators, and (2 estimate the economic value of pollination by insects in agricultural crops. Our study takes place in a small oceanic island, Terceira (Azores, Portugal. Our results showed, remarkably, that not only the pristine vegetation areas, but also the orchards and agricultural areas have relatively high values of pollination services, even though both land uses have opposite disturbance levels. For the economic valuation, we analyzed 24 crops in the island and found that 18 depend on pollinators with one-third of these crops having 65% or 95% dependence on pollinators. The economic contribution of pollinators totals 36.2% of the total mean annual agricultural income of the dependent crops, highlighting the importance of insect pollinators in agricultural production and consequent economic gain productions.

  5. Copepoda parasites in economically important fish, Mugilidae ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    FUNMILAYO

    of economically important fish, both from the wild and fish farms, thus making them difficult to market. In this study ... Sakiti, 1997; Gbankoto et al., 2003) but no work has been carried out on ... digital weighing balance and recorded. ..... Life Sci. J. 9(3):733-737. Paperna I, Lahav M (1971). New records and further data on fish.

  6. The Identification, Types, Taxonomic Orders, Biodiversity and Importance of Aquatic Insects

    OpenAIRE

    J.F.N. Abowei; B.R. Ukoroije

    2012-01-01

    The identification, types, taxonomic orders, biodiversity and importance of aquatic insects was reviewed to facilitate sustainable culture fisheries management and practice. Aquatic insects contribute significantly to fresh water ecosystems, one of many groups of organisms that, together, must be considered in the study of aquatic ecology. As such their study may be a significant part of understanding the ecological state of a given ecosystem and in gauging how that ecosystem will respond to ...

  7. First survey of forensically important insects from human corpses in Shiraz, Iran.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moemenbellah-Fard, Mohammad D; Keshavarzi, Davood; Fereidooni, Mehran; Soltani, Aboozar

    2018-02-01

    The presence of insects on human cadavers has potential judicial value in medicolegal cases. This research emphasized the important role of insects in postmortem decomposition. It was conducted to investigate the composition and abundance of insects from human corpses during autopsies in legal medicine. It was implemented in the city of Shiraz, south Iran. Insects associated with human corpses were carefully collected and put into labelled vials. They were then identified using valid taxonomic keys. Fifteen outdoor (67%) and indoor discovered cadavers were examined. All but one was covered at the time of discovery. From these several species of entomofauna played important roles in the minimum postmortem interval (minPMI) estimate. Insects included the orders of Diptera and Coleoptera. Overall, 14 different species of arthropods were identified. Within Diptera, 2 families of Sarcophagidae and Calliphoridae were present in 73% of the cases with Calliphora vicina Robineau-Desvoidy and Chrysomya albiceps Wiedemann accounting for about half of the cases. The latter family members, Calliphoridae, were more frequently (52%) collected in autumn and winter. Only 4/15 outdoor cadavers had beetles. Four species of Coleopterans; namely Dermestes frischii Kugelann, Nitidula flavomaculata Rossi, Creophilus maxillosus Linnaeus and Saprinus chalcites Illiger; were recorded for the first time from 3 corpses in Iran. The presence and diversity of different insects on human corpses could contribute to the advancement of forensic entomology knowledge and the refined estimates of minPMI in medicolegal cases. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  8. Insect pests of sweetpotato in Uganda: farmers' perceptions of their importance and control practices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okonya, Joshua Sikhu; Mwanga, Robert Om; Syndikus, Katja; Kroschel, Jürgen

    2014-01-01

    Insect pests are among the most important constraints limiting sweetpotato (Ipomoea batatas) production in Africa. However, there is inadequate information about farmers' knowledge, perceptions and practices in the management of key insect pests. This has hindered development of effective pest management approaches for smallholder farmers. A standard questionnaire was used to interview individual sweetpotato farmers (n = 192) about their perception and management practices regarding insect pests in six major sweetpotato producing districts of Uganda. The majority (93%) of farmers perceived insect pests to be a very serious problem. With the exception of Masindi and Wakiso districts where the sweetpotato butterfly (Acraea acerata) was the number one constraint, sweetpotato weevils (Cylas puncticollis and C. brunneus) were ranked as the most important insect pests. Insecticide use in sweetpotato fields was very low being highest (28-38% of households) in districts where A. acerata infestation is the biggest problem. On average, 65% and 87% of the farmers took no action to control A. acerata and Cylas spp., respectively. Farmers were more conversant with the presence of and damage by A. acerata than of Cylas spp. as they thought that Cylas spp. root damage was brought about by a prolonged dry season. Different levels of field resistance (ability of a variety to tolerate damage) of sweetpotato landraces to A. acerata (eight landraces) and Cylas spp. (six landraces) were reported by farmers in all the six districts. This perceived level of resistance to insect damage by landraces needs to be investigated. To improve farmers' capabilities for sweetpotato insect pest management, it is crucial to train them in the basic knowledge of insect pest biology and control.

  9. ECONOMIC AND SOCIAL IMPORTANCE OF TOURISM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ștefan-Dragoș CÎRSTEA

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Tourism is a sector with a significant share in the economies of many countries. There are nations whose GDP consists of 40% of the total contribution of tourism to this indicator. One such segment requires permanent research of its economic, social and sustainability dimensions and their importance. This study outlines an overview of the main aspects related to economic and social importance of tourism and how tourism relates to the concept of sustainable development. The total contribution and the direct contribution of tourism to GDP are elements studied within this research. It is also studied the direct contribution of tourism to employment, and the main positive and negative effects of tourism on social life.

  10. The promise of insect genomics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grimmelikhuijzen, Cornelis J P; Cazzamali, Giuseppe; Williamson, Michael

    2007-01-01

    Insects are the largest animal group in the world and are ecologically and economically extremely important. This importance of insects is reflected by the existence of currently 24 insect genome projects. Our perspective discusses the state-of-the-art of these genome projects and the impacts...

  11. Economics of power generation from imported biomass

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lako, P.; Van Rooijen, S.N.M.

    1998-02-01

    Attention is paid to the economics of import of biomass to the Netherlands, and subsequent utilisation for power generation, as a means to reduce dependence on (imported) fossil fuels and to reduce CO2 emission. Import of wood to the extent of 40 PJ or more from Baltic and South American states seems to be readily achievable. Import of biomass has various advantages, not only for the European Union (reduced CO2 emissions) but also for the countries of origin (employment creation). However, possible disadvantages or risks should be taken into account. With that in mind, import of biomass from Baltic states seems very interesting, although it should be noted that in some of those countries the alternative of fuel-switching to biomass seems to be more cost-effective than import of biomass from those countries. Given the expected increase in inland biomass consumption in the Baltic countries and the potential substantial future demand for biomass in other Western European countries it is expected that the biomass supply from Baltic countries will not be sufficient to fulfill the demand. An early focus on import from other countries seems advisable. Several power generation options are available with short to medium term potential and long term potential. The margin between costs of biomass-fuelled power and of coal fired power will be smaller, due to substantial improvements in power generating efficiency and reductions of investment costs of options for power generation from biomass, notably Biomass Gasification Combined Cycle. 18 refs

  12. Nonmarket economic values of forest insect pests: An updated literature review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Randall S. Rosenberger; Lauren A. Bell; Patricia A. Champ; Eric. L. Smith

    2012-01-01

    This report updates the literature review and synthesis of economic valuation studies on the impacts of forest insect pests by Rosenberger and Smith (1997). A conceptual framework is presented to establish context for the studies. This report also discusses the concept of ecosystem services; identifies key elements of each study; examines areas of future research; and...

  13. Economic importance of non-destructive testing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Loebert, P.

    1979-01-01

    On May 21 to 23, 1979, the annual meeting of the Deutsche Gesellschaft fuer Zerstoerungsfreie Pruefung took place in Lindau near the Bodensee lake. About 600 experts from Germany and abroad participated in the meeting, whose general subject was 'The Economic Importance of Non-Destructive Testing'. Theoretical problems and practical investigations were discussed in a number of papers on special subjects. Apart from the 33 papers, there was also a poster show with 53 stands with texts, drawings, diagrams, and figures where the authors informed those interested on the latest state of knowledge in testing. The short papers were read in six sessions under the headings of rentability of non-destructive testing, X-ray methods, electromagnetic methods, and ultrasonic methods 1 and 2. (orig.) [de

  14. Insects associated with hospital environment in Egypt with special reference to the medically important species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kenawy, Mohamed A; Amer, Hanan S; Lotfy, Nadia M; Khamis, Nagwa; Abdel-Hamid, Yousrya M

    2014-12-01

    A study was planned to examine the insect fauna associated with two hospitals: urban (A) in Cairo and rural (B) in Banha, Egypt with varying hygienic levels and their adjacent residential areas (AC) and (BC), respectively and to investigate the effect of hygienic level on species composition and relative abundance. A total of 22 species belonging to 7 orders and 15 families were reported in the four study areas of which, Dipterous flies were the most common (8/22, 36.36% species). A total of 5257 adults were collected of which Dipterous flies were the abundant (3800, 72.28% insect) and Musca domestica was the most abundant species (3535, 67.24% insect) which was present in all areas where it was more common / predominant species (21.94%-90.91% insect). Moreover, higher densities of M domestica were in (B) and BC than in (A) or (AC). The heavily infested area was AC (54.55% species) followed by (A), (BC) and (B) however, the total number of the collected insects was higher in (BC) and (B) than in (AC) and (A). This was confirmed by finding maximum diversity indices in (AC) and minimum ones in B. In all areas, means of M domestica was more common during summer/autumn and spring than in the winter. Periplaneta americana collected oily during autumn in AC and was more common in autumn in (BC) while Blatella germanica collected only during summer in (AC) and was more common in autumn in (B). The prevalence and higher abundance of the medically important species mainly M domestica, P. americana and B. germanica in rural hospital than in urban one attribute mainly to the lower hygienic level of rural hospital This require a control program based mainly on sanitation supplemented by other measures to overcome the risk of disease transmission by such insects

  15. Economic feasibility of radiation insect disinfestation of foods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Urbain, W.M.

    1985-01-01

    Little actual experience is available today to provide proved data on costs for the irradiation of foods. The various cost factors for food irradiation have been identified, however, and ordinary costing procedures are applicable. As is customary, costs can be divided into capital or fixed costs and operating or variable costs. Particularly with regard to capital costs, appropriate inputs in the domain of irradiation technology are needed. Some of these represent a balancing of technical factors and options in order to minimize costs. One commercial food irradiation application has provided actual cost data on the operation of an irradiator. To determine economic feasibility of a particular planned usage of radiation disinfestation, it is suggested that a cost analysis is outlined in this paper and in accord with ordinary business practices be made

  16. Forests of Indiana: Their Economic Importance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stephen Bratkovich; Joey Gallion; Earl Leatherberry; William Hoover; William Reading; Glenn Durham

    2007-01-01

    Mental images of Indiana often range from corn, soybeans, and hogs, to high school basketball. The average Hoosier has little knowledge, however, of the scope, productivity, and economic impact of Indiana's forestland. The State's best-kept secret is that its beautiful forests that draw many visitors are also economically vital to the State's economy....

  17. Feeding the insect industry

    Science.gov (United States)

    This article reports the use of insect colloidal artificial diets suitable for the rearing of economically important arthropods, such as Lygus lineolaris, Lygus hesperus, Coleomegilla maculata, and Phytoseiulus persimilis The different diets contain key nutrients such as proteins, carbohydrates, vit...

  18. In Conversation: Celia Reyes on the importance of timely economic ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    2011-02-03

    Feb 3, 2011 ... In Conversation: Celia Reyes on the importance of timely economic ... in particular, assessing the impact of policies and programs on poverty and equity. .... Tourism is an important driver of economic growth throughout ...

  19. Role of oil imports in economic development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Madduri, V.B.N.S.; Radhika, G.

    1990-01-01

    This paper reports that energy has a vital role to play in a developing economy. The process of industrialization calls for continuous increase in energy use. In general, the greater the use of energy, the higher the economy is placed in the order of developed countries. Countries with high per-capita income have a high consumption level of energy too. On a per-capita basis, energy consumed in U.S.A. is 51.7 barrels of oil equivalent per year while in India, it is 0.9 barrels of oil equivalent only. Therefore, energy consumption, industrial development and economic growth are interlinked. Energy became a significant part in the process of development. In the case of developing countries, any change in the price of oil has a negative effect on economic growth. It was stated in one of the Oil and Natural Gas Commission reports that a fivefold increase in the international price of oil, in real terms, over the past 15 years has had profound effects on balance of payments and growth prospects in developing countries

  20. Introduced and invasive insect species in the Czech Republic and their economic and ecological impact (Insecta

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hana Šefrová

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available A total of 383 alien insect species were registered in the Czech Republic, which represents 1.4% of local fauna. The most numerous taxonomic groups are Homoptera (116 species, 30.3%, Coleoptera (110; 28.7% and Lepidoptera (37; 9.7%. The occurrence of 200 species (52.2% are limited to closed heated spaces, casual aliens (28; 7.3% infiltrate the outdoor environment for a short term only, 36 (9.4% naturalized non-invasive species do not spread from the location of introduction, 50 (13.1% species are post-invasive and 69 (18.0% invasive. From the species registered, 61 (15.9% are stored product pests (especially Coleoptera 36 species, Psocoptera 11, and Lepidoptera 9, 50 (13.1% are plant pests indoors (especially Coccinea 33 species, Aphidinea 7, and Thysanoptera 6, 25 (i.e. 6.5% of aliens are pests in agriculture, forestry, and in ornamental cultures, 15 species (3.9% are important animal parasites, and 5 species (1.3% can affect biodiversity. Of the remaining 227 species (59.3%, no economic or ecological effects were found. The origin of most of the species living eusynanthropically is in the tropics and subtropics; of the 155 naturalized (non-invasive, post-invasive, and invasive species, 42 (27.1% originate from the Mediterranean, 36 (23.2% from North America, 28 (18.1% from Central to Southwest Asia, 14 (9.0% from East Asia, 13 (8.4% from South and Southeast Asia, with the remaining 22 species (14.2% coming from other areas.

  1. Economic significance of noxious insects in pine stands under the permanent impact of the industrial air pollution

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sierpinski, Z

    1970-01-01

    Studies revealed that numerous species of noxious insects, particularly those from the group of so-called harassing and secondary pests, found favorable conditions for their development in areas under permanent impact of industrial air pollution. The most numerous and most important species in pine stands is Exoteleia dodecella L., the larvae of which at first mine needles, then destroy the buds. Feeding by this pest causes deformations as a result of which younger trees acquire a shrubby form, while older ones are umbrella-shaped. Among the primary pests, Acantholyda nemoralis Thoms. and sometimes Lymantria monacha L., may occur more abundantly in the areas containing little industrial emissions. In older stands secondary pests which could be divided into two groups were of great economic importance. The first group includes Phaenops cyanea F., Pissodes piniphilus Hbst., and Paururus juvencus L. which infest trees in gappy stands, strongly thinned ones, and those adjoining industrial plants.

  2. The MrCYP52 cytochrome P450 monoxygenase gene of Metarhizium robertsii is important for utilizing insect epicuticular hydrocarbons.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liangcai Lin

    Full Text Available Fungal pathogens of plants and insects infect their hosts by direct penetration of the cuticle. Plant and insect cuticles are covered by a hydrocarbon-rich waxy outer layer that represents the first barrier against infection. However, the fungal genes that underlie insect waxy layer degradation have received little attention. Here we characterize the single cytochrome P450 monoxygenase family 52 (MrCYP52 gene of the insect pathogen Metarhizium robertsii, and demonstrate that it encodes an enzyme required for efficient utilization of host hydrocarbons. Expressing a green florescent protein gene under control of the MrCYP52 promoter confirmed that MrCYP52 is up regulated on insect cuticle as well as by artificial media containing decane (C10, extracted cuticle hydrocarbons, and to a lesser extent long chain alkanes. Disrupting MrCYP52 resulted in reduced growth on epicuticular hydrocarbons and delayed developmental processes on insect cuticle, including germination and production of appressoria (infection structures. Extraction of alkanes from cuticle prevented induction of MrCYP52 and reduced growth. Insect bioassays against caterpillars (Galleria mellonella confirmed that disruption of MrCYP52 significantly reduces virulence. However, MrCYP52 was dispensable for normal germination and appressorial formation in vitro when the fungus was supplied with nitrogenous nutrients. We conclude therefore that MrCYP52 mediates degradation of epicuticular hydrocarbons and these are an important nutrient source, but not a source of chemical signals that trigger infection processes.

  3. Recent trends on sterile insect technique and area-wide integrated pest management. Economic feasibility, control projects, farmer organization and Bactrocera dorsalis complex control study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2003-03-01

    We have invited professional papers from over the world, including Okinawa, for compilation of recent trends on Sterile Insect Techniques and Area-Wide Integrated Pest Management to further pursue environment friendly pest insects control measures in agricultural production in the Asia-Pacific region. Pest insects such as the tephritid fruit flies have long been and are still today causing serious damage to agricultural products in the Asia-Pacific region and farmers in the region apply such insecticides that are no longer allowed or being subjected to strict usage control in Japan. This, in return, may endanger the health of the very farmers, food safety and the ecosystem itself. The purpose of this report is, therefore, to clarify keys for technology transfer of so called SIT/AWIPM to potential recipients engaged in agricultural production in the region. This report focused on several topics, which make up important parts for the effective Sterile Insect Technique and Area-Wide Integrated Pest Management: economic feasibility; pest insects control projects; farmers' education; research progress in Bactrocera dorsalis complex issues specific to the Asia-Pacific region. The 12 of the papers are indexed individually. (J.P.N.)

  4. Non-bee insects are important contributors to global crop pollination

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rader, Romina; Bartomeus, Ignasi; Garibaldi, Lucas A.; Kleijn, David; Scheper, Jeroen

    2016-01-01

    Wild andmanaged bees arewell documented as effective pollinators of global crops of economic importance. However, the contributions by pollinators other than bees have been little explored despite their potential to contribute to crop production and stability in the face of environmental change.

  5. The Study of Importance of the Balance Space Food with Insects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katayama, Naomi; Yoshimura, Tuyoshi; Baba, Keiichi; Space Agriculture Task Force, J.

    Providing foods to space crew is the important requirements to support long term manned space exploration. We designed joyful and healthy recipe with materials (plants, insects, fish and et.cet.), which can be produced by the bio-regenerative agricultural system operated at limited resources available in spaceship or on Moon and Mars. The fundamental composition of our recipe is unpolished rice, barley, soybean, sweat potato and green-yellow vegetables. Supplement food materials to fulfill the nutritional requirements we chose are loach, silkworm pupa, termite, snail, mud snail, bee, locust, cassava, quinoa and et. cet. And the space foods were made by using IH cooking heater and vacuum cooking machine. Nutritional analysis on the basic vegetable menu consisting of rice, barley, soybean, sweet potato cassava, quinoa and green reveals a shortage of vitamins D and B12, cholesterol and sodium salt. Since vitamin D deficiency results in demineralization of bone. Vitamin B12 is essential to prevent pernicious anemia.Fish contains both vitamins D and B12. The pupa of the silkworm becomes the impor-tant nourishment source as protein and lipid. The silk thread uses it as clothing and cosmetics and medical supplies. However, we can use the silk thread as food as protein after finish to use. A law of nature shakes high quality oils and fats included in termite for cooking. I use the bee as food after having used it for the pollination of the plant. Of course the honey becomes the important food, too. The snail and mud snail become the food as protein. We decided to use the menu consisting of the basic vegetarian menu plus insect and loach for further conceptual design of space agriculture. We succeeded to develop joyful and nutritious space recipe at the end. Because of less need of agricultural resources at choosing ecological members from the lower ladder of the food chain, our space recipe could be a proposal to solve the food problem on Earth.In addition, as for these

  6. Environment and Spatial Influences on Aquatic Insect Communities in Cerrado Streams: the Relative Importance of Conductivity, Altitude, and Conservation Areas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Godoy, B S; Queiroz, L L; Lodi, S; Oliveira, L G

    2017-04-01

    The aquatic insect community is an important element for stream functionality and diversity, but the effects of altitude and conservation areas on the aquatic insect community have been poorly explored in neotropical ecozone. The lack of studies about the relative importance of space and environment on community structure is another obstacle within aquatic insect ecology, which precludes the inclusion of these studies in more current frameworks, like the metacommunity dynamics. We evaluated the relationship between the aquatic insect community structure at 19 streams in the Brazilian Cerrado and spatial and environmental variables, namely geographical distance among sites, stream altitude, chemical variables, and environmental protection areas. We partitioned the variance explained by spatial and environmental components using a partial redundancy analysis. The environment exhibited a strong spatial structure for abundance and number of genera, increasing these community parameters with elevated water conductivity. Only community composition had a large unexplained portion of variance, with a small portion constrained by environmental (altitude and conductivity) and spatial factors. A relevant point in the result was the streams with high conductivity were located outside of the conservation areas. These results suggest that the relationship between number of genera and abundance with environmental conditions is always associated with spatial configuration of streams. Our study shows that altitude is an important determinant of community structure, as it exerts indirect influences, and electrical conductivity directly determines community composition, and that some national parks may be inefficient in maintaining the diversity of aquatic insects in the Cerrado region.

  7. Where is the UK's pollinator biodiversity? The importance of urban areas for flower-visiting insects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baldock, Katherine C R; Goddard, Mark A; Hicks, Damien M; Kunin, William E; Mitschunas, Nadine; Osgathorpe, Lynne M; Potts, Simon G; Robertson, Kirsty M; Scott, Anna V; Stone, Graham N; Vaughan, Ian P; Memmott, Jane

    2015-03-22

    Insect pollinators provide a crucial ecosystem service, but are under threat. Urban areas could be important for pollinators, though their value relative to other habitats is poorly known. We compared pollinator communities using quantified flower-visitation networks in 36 sites (each 1 km(2)) in three landscapes: urban, farmland and nature reserves. Overall, flower-visitor abundance and species richness did not differ significantly between the three landscape types. Bee abundance did not differ between landscapes, but bee species richness was higher in urban areas than farmland. Hoverfly abundance was higher in farmland and nature reserves than urban sites, but species richness did not differ significantly. While urban pollinator assemblages were more homogeneous across space than those in farmland or nature reserves, there was no significant difference in the numbers of rarer species between the three landscapes. Network-level specialization was higher in farmland than urban sites. Relative to other habitats, urban visitors foraged from a greater number of plant species (higher generality) but also visited a lower proportion of available plant species (higher specialization), both possibly driven by higher urban plant richness. Urban areas are growing, and improving their value for pollinators should be part of any national strategy to conserve and restore pollinators.

  8. the economic importance of microorganism in food processing

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    BSN

    This paper attempts to highlight the Economic Importance of microorganisms in food processing and manufacturing; it goes further to differentiate between the desirable ... Desirable importance are those cost saving and revenue generating activities ... Microorganism (yeast) play very useful role in the Bakery industries.

  9. An economic comparison of biological and conventional control strategies for insect pests in cashew and mango plantations in Tanzania

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    George, William Juma; Hella, Joseph; Esbjerg, Lars

    2013-01-01

    This study was undertaken to compare alternative methods of pest control for insect pests in order to determine which methods has the highest efficacy against insect pests and the least detrimental side effects, while maintaining production and profits. The analysis was based on the experimental......-test analyses show that weaver ant treatment is superior over conventional agricultural practices. The study concludes that weaver ant treatment was economically feasible and financially undertaking. Further field experimental trials will be repeated in the next two growing seasons to confirm results obtained...

  10. Economic evaluation of damage caused by, and methods of control of, the Mediterranean fruit fly in the Maghreb. An analysis covering three control options, including the sterile insect technique. Report of an expert group

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-10-01

    Fruit and vegetable production is an important agricultural sector throughout the Mediterranean Basin, which is dependent on aerial or ground insecticide applications to protect commercial crops against the Mediterranean fruit fly. Pesticide applications are required up to twelve times a year, costing large sums of money. This study assesses for the four North African countries the economics of different pest control/eradication alternatives: insecticide application and the more environmentally friendly alternatives based on the Sterile Insect Technique. It is concluded that Sterile Insect Technique, not only very attractive from environmental point of view, but is also a feasible option from economic point of view. 40 refs, 3 figs, 37 tabs.

  11. Economic evaluation of damage caused by, and methods of control of, the Mediterranean fruit fly in the Maghreb. An analysis covering three control options, including the sterile insect technique. Report of an expert group

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1995-10-01

    Fruit and vegetable production is an important agricultural sector throughout the Mediterranean Basin, which is dependent on aerial or ground insecticide applications to protect commercial crops against the Mediterranean fruit fly. Pesticide applications are required up to twelve times a year, costing large sums of money. This study assesses for the four North African countries the economics of different pest control/eradication alternatives: insecticide application and the more environmentally friendly alternatives based on the Sterile Insect Technique. It is concluded that Sterile Insect Technique, not only very attractive from environmental point of view, but is also a feasible option from economic point of view. 40 refs, 3 figs, 37 tabs

  12. Lucifensins, the Insect Defensins of Biomedical Importance: The Story behind Maggot Therapy

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Čeřovský, Václav; Bém, R.

    2014-01-01

    Roč. 7, č. 3 (2014), s. 251-264 ISSN 1424-8247 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA203/08/0536 Institutional support: RVO:61388963 Keywords : antimicrobial peptide * insect defensin * lucifensin * maggot therapy * Lucilia sericata * Lucilia cuprina * peptide isolation * peptide identification Subject RIV: CC - Organic Chemistry http://www.mdpi.com/1424-8247/7/3/251

  13. Economic importance and GIS mapping of medicinal plants in Iran ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study identified the economic importance of medicinal plants and evaluated with Geographical Information System (GIS) tool to develop spatial maps covering medicinal plants prevalent in Darkesh area, Northern Khorasan, Iran. Then provide the coordinates of the identified area as your results. 10 medicinal plants ...

  14. The Economic Importance of Forest Products in Enugu State, Nigeria

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The Economic Importance of Forest Products in Enugu State, Nigeria. ... International Journal of Tropical Agriculture and Food Systems ... The regression results, showed that access to modern forest products harvesting/processing technology (Te) and relative contribution of forest output in total household economy (Ro) ...

  15. Local knowledge and economic importance of Mondia whitei ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Local knowledge of many medicinal lianas that support rural people health in Africa remains poorly documented leaving incomplete understanding of their pharmacological and economic importance. This information is however critical to conserve target species and design formal management strategies. This study aimed ...

  16. Economic Analysis for Commingling Effects of Insect Activity in the Elevator Boot Area.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tilley, Dennis R; Casada, Mark E; Langemeier, Michael R; Subramanyam, Bhadriraju; Arthur, Frank H

    2015-12-01

    Boot areas in commercial grain elevators and feed mills contribute to commingling of insects with grain that moves through the elevator leg. A partial budget and stochastic dominance model were developed to improve pest management decision-making and risk analysis assessment from commingling effects of insect activity in the boot area. Modified pilot-scale bucket elevator legs, containing residual wheat or corn, were infested with varying insect pest densities prior to clean grain transfers. Appropriate grain discounts were applied to grain samples obtained from clean grain transfers over either: 1) insect-free and untreated boots, 2) infested and untreated boots, or 3) infested and chemical-treated (β-cyfluthrin) boots. The insect-free boots simulated performing clean-out of the boot area. Partial budget analysis and stochastic dominance modeling indicated that boot sanitation (cleanout) about every 30 d, avoiding costly grain discounts from insect commingling, is the preferred choice. Although chemical spray treatments of the empty boot may reduce insect populations of some boot residual grains, boot cleanout always had lower and usually zero insect pest populations in the boot residual grain, providing higher facility operational net income without the use of chemicals. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Entomological Society of America 2015. This work is written by US Government employees and is in the public domain in the US.

  17. [Strategic planning: an important economic action for German hospitals].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wiese, Christoph H R; Zink, Wolfgang; Russo, Sebastian G

    2011-11-01

    In medical systems, economic issues and means of action are in the course of dwindling human (physicians and nurses) and financial resources are more important. For this reason, physicians must understand basic economic principles. Only in this way, there may be medical autonomy from social systems and hospital administrators. The current work is an approach to present a model for strategic planning of an anesthesia department. For this, a "strengths", "weaknesses", "opportunities", and "threats" (SWOT) analysis is used. This display is an example of an exemplary anaesthetic department. © Georg Thieme Verlag Stuttgart · New York.

  18. Rapid evolution in insect pests: the importance of space and time in population genomics studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pélissié, Benjamin; Crossley, Michael S; Cohen, Zachary Paul; Schoville, Sean D

    2018-04-01

    Pest species in agroecosystems often exhibit patterns of rapid evolution to environmental and human-imposed selection pressures. Although the role of adaptive processes is well accepted, few insect pests have been studied in detail and most research has focused on selection at insecticide resistance candidate genes. Emerging genomic datasets provide opportunities to detect and quantify selection in insect pest populations, and address long-standing questions about mechanisms underlying rapid evolutionary change. We examine the strengths of recent studies that stratify population samples both in space (along environmental gradients and comparing ancestral vs. derived populations) and in time (using chronological sampling, museum specimens and comparative phylogenomics), resulting in critical insights on evolutionary processes, and providing new directions for studying pests in agroecosystems. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Importance of juvenile hormone signaling arises with competence of insect larvae to metamorphose

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Smýkal, Vlastimil; Daimon, T.; Kayukawa, T.; Takaki, Keiko; Shinoda, T.; Jindra, Marek

    2014-01-01

    Roč. 390, č. 2 (2014), s. 221-230 ISSN 0012-1606 R&D Projects: GA AV ČR IAA500960906 Grant - others:Marie Curie Fellowship Award(CZ) GA 276569; Japan Society for the Promotion of Science(JP) 25252059 Institutional support: RVO:60077344 Keywords : insect metamorphosis * hormonal signaling * juvenile hormone Subject RIV: ED - Physiology Impact factor: 3.547, year: 2014 http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0012160614001419

  20. Establishment of the cytoplasmic incompatibility-inducing Wolbachia strain wMel in an important agricultural pest insect.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Xiao-Fei; Li, Zheng-Xi

    2016-12-16

    The wMel Wolbachia strain was known for cytoplasmic incompatibility (CI)-induction and blocking the transmission of dengue. However, it is unknown whether it can establish and induce CI in a non-dipteran host insect. Here we artificially transferred wMel from Drosophila melanogaster into the whitefly Bemisia tabaci. Fluorescence in situ hybridisation demonstrated that wMel had successfully transfected the new host. Reciprocal crossing was conducted with wMel-transfected and wild-type isofemale lines, indicating that wMel could induce a strong CI without imposing significant cost on host fecundity. We then determined the maternal transmission efficiency of wMel in the offspring generations, showing a fluctuating trend over a period of 12 generations. We thus detected the titre of wMel during different developmental stages and in different generations by using real-time quantitative PCR, revealing a similar fluctuating mode, but it was not significantly correlated with the dynamics of transmission efficiency. These results suggest that wMel can be established in B.tabaci, a distantly related pest insect of agricultural importance; moreover, it can induce a strong CI phenotype in the recipient host insect, suggesting a potential for its use in biological control of B. tabaci.

  1. The Economic Importance of Financial Literacy: Theory and Evidence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lusardi, Annamaria; Mitchell, Olivia S

    2014-03-01

    This paper undertakes an assessment of a rapidly growing body of economic research on financial literacy. We start with an overview of theoretical research which casts financial knowledge as a form of investment in human capital. Endogenizing financial knowledge has important implications for welfare as well as policies intended to enhance levels of financial knowledge in the larger population. Next, we draw on recent surveys to establish how much (or how little) people know and identify the least financially savvy population subgroups. This is followed by an examination of the impact of financial literacy on economic decision-making in the United States and elsewhere. While the literature is still young, conclusions may be drawn about the effects and consequences of financial illiteracy and what works to remedy these gaps. A final section offers thoughts on what remains to be learned if researchers are to better inform theoretical and empirical models as well as public policy.

  2. ECONOMIC IMPORTANCE OF THE PREVENTIVE MEASURES IN DENTISTRY.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deljo, Emsudina; Sijercic, Zinaida; Mulaosmanovic, Amina; Musanovic, Alma; Prses, Nedim

    2016-10-01

    Previous studies have shown that the state of oral health in the area of Podrinje Canton is really poor. Taking into account that in the last five years are implemented two projects in the municipality it is necessary to examine the impact of preventive measures in dentistry on the oral health. a) To evaluate the impact of continuing education and local fluoridation on the state of oral health; b) To analyze the economic importance of preventive measures. For the purpose of the research on activities of continuing education on the importance of oral health and local fluoridation of teeth and to determine the economic aspects of the application of preventive measures is tested and reviewed 900 students from fourth to ninth grade. The children were divided into three groups of 300 students in each group: a) In the first group of children is carried out continuous education about proper tooth brushing and the importance of oral hygiene and local fluoridation twice a year during the last three years, b) In the second group children carried out local fluoridation twice a year during the last three years while in the third group, there were no continuous prevention measures; c) Used is a single questionnaire for all respondents. Data obtained in this study were analyzed by descriptive and inferential statistical methods. The importance of continuing education and local fluoridation is clearly reflected in the different values DMF-index, which was the subject of research. In the first group, in which is carried out continuous education and local fluoridation value of DMF index was 2.7, in the second group with local fluorination this value was 3.56, while in the third group, in which is not implemented preventive measures, the value DMF- index was 5.93. From an economic point the preventive measures are the cheapest, most effective and the best solution in order to maintain oral health.

  3. Global patterns and determinants of the economic importance of bushmeat

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Martin Reinhardt; Pouliot, Mariéve; Meilby, Henrik

    2017-01-01

    to analyse the economic importance of bushmeat to rural households in sites selected with no consideration of the level of bushmeat hunting. Data were gathered from 7978 households in 333 communities across 24 tropical and sub-tropical countries in Latin America, Asia, and Sub-Saharan Africa. We report......, focusing on six general hypothesis identified from the literature. Hunting is more prevalent than generally assumed (39%) but contributes less to rural household income than expected (2%) and mainly through own consumption (87%). Bushmeat is more important in smaller and more remote communities......, in communities in the middle of the cash income distribution, communities with few domestic animals, in countries characterised by poor governance, and with rising costs of living. We argue that bushmeat is likely to be most important to rural households as a source of protein and micronutrients unavailable...

  4. Radon monitoring in sites of economical importance in Jamaica

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grant, C.N.; Lalor, G.C.; Balcázar, M.

    2012-01-01

    The main task was to evaluate possible radon risk to the public and workers in four caves of economical importance. Green Grotto Cave is a large labyrinthine limestone cave, open to the tourism; kept Rn concentration in the range 30–40 Bq m −3 . Xtabil a coral limestone sea cave is part of a beach resort resulted in very low radon concentration of 10 Bq m −3 . Windsor is an intricate limestone cave system showed Rn concentration in the range 250–350 Bq m −3 . Whereas the Oxford caves, is situated in a region of high radioactivity in soil due to the bauxite mines, reached a maximum of 2592 Bq m −3 . - Highlights: ► Touristic caves of economical importance shown no radon risk for workers and visitors. ► Maximum permanence time due to abnormal radon is given for caves used by speleologist. ► Despite high Rn and U in soil in bauxite areas no risk is determined in houses.

  5. Venom immunotherapy for preventing allergic reactions to insect stings : a systematic review and health economic analysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boyle, R.; Elremeli, M.; Cherry, M.; Oude Elberink, J.N.G.; Bulsara, M.; Mahon, J.; Daniels, M.; Hockenhull, J.

    2012-01-01

    Background Venom immunotherapy (VIT) is commonly used for preventing further allergic reactions to insect stings in people who have had a sting reaction. The efficacy and safety of this treatment has not previously been assessed by a high-quality systematic review. Objectives To assess the effects

  6. Marketing insects

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schiemer, Carolin; Halloran, Afton Marina Szasz; Jespersen, Kristjan

    2018-01-01

    In entering Western markets, edible insects are typically framed as the ‘solution’ to a number of challenges caused by unsustainable global food systems, such as climate change and global health issues. In addition, some media outlets also frame insects as the next ‘superfood’. Superfood is a mar......In entering Western markets, edible insects are typically framed as the ‘solution’ to a number of challenges caused by unsustainable global food systems, such as climate change and global health issues. In addition, some media outlets also frame insects as the next ‘superfood’. Superfood...... is a marketing term for nutrient-packed foods, which are successfully promoted to Western consumers with the promises of health, well-being and beauty. However, the increase in the demand in the West is argued to cause negative social, environmental, economic and cultural consequences – externalities – felt...

  7. The importance of capital cost reduction in improving nuclear economics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Langmo, A.; Braun, C.

    1996-01-01

    In the developed countries having existing nuclear programs, the situation necessitates lower total power generation cost. The restructuring of utility industry due to the deregulation causes to reorganize the ownership of some nuclear plants, and the overall economics of nuclear plants in relation to their local competition is reexamined. The reluctance to make any new long term capital cost commitment arises, and it makes new plant construction less likely in near future, and plant upgrading and improvement to be put to intense scrutiny. The capital cost recovery in existing nuclear plants in USA is discussed. It is important to recognize that there is very little that can be done to affect already expended capital, and only that can be done is to improve plant capacity factors, besides write-off. The roles of architects and engineers in improved plant economics are now evaluated by the various organizations which are interested in the participation in new nuclear industry reorganization and restructuring. The reduction of operation and maintenance costs and capital investment, and the improvement of capacity factor are reported. In new ALWR construction program, architects and engineers can significantly support the control of plant capital costs by the selection of the plant design and the sites, and the strategies of procurement and contract, construction schedule and others. (K.I.)

  8. Presence and Distribution of Economically Important Potato Viruses in Montenegro

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jelena Zindović

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The research was carried out, in the period 2002-2004 in order to determine the presence and distribution of potato viruses at 12 different locations and on 9 different potato varieties grown in Montenegro. The research included collecting of samples in seed potato crops and testing of six economically important potato viruses: Potato leaf roll virus (PLRV, Potato virus Y (PVY, Potato virus X (PVX, Potato virus S (PVS, Potato virus A (PVA i Potato virus M (PVM. Using the direct enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (DAS-ELISA and commercial antisera specific for six potato viruses, it was found that PVY was the most frequent virus during the three-year research period. The second frequent virus was PVS, followed by PVA, PLRV, PVM and PVX. Single and mixed infections were detected, and the most prevalent were the single infections of PVY. Also, in the period 2002-2004, PVY had the highest distribution and the number of present viruses was different at different localities and on different potato varieties. Further investigations were related to detailed characterization of the most prevalent virus (PVY, which is at the same time economically the most important one. Serological characterization of PVY was performed utilizing DAS-ELISA kit with commercial monoclonal antibodies specific for detection of the three strain groups of PVY, and the two straingroups - necrotic (PVYN/PVYNTN and common (PVYO, were identified. Necrotic strains were prevalent in 2002 and 2004, while in 2003 PVYO was the most frequent strain in virus population. The presence of stipple streak strain (PVYC was not detected in any of the testedsamples.

  9. A Preliminary Analysis of Insects of Medico-legal Importance in Curitiba, State of Paraná

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mauricio Osvaldo Moura

    1997-03-01

    Full Text Available A survey of the carrion fauna was made at two sites in Curitiba, State of Paraná, with the objective of describing the insects associated with carrion and setting up a preliminary data-base for medico-legal purposes in south Brazil. Vertebrate exclusion experiments were carried out in each season between 1994 and 1995 with a 250 g laboratory-bred rat (Rattus norvegicus. Five stages of decomposition were identified: fresh, bloated, decaying, dry and adipocere-like. Some species showed seasonal and site preference and so could be used to identify the probable place and season where death took place. Sarconesia chlorogaster (Diptera, Calliphoridae was restricted to an open field site and to cooler months. Hemilucilia semidiaphana (Diptera, Calliphoridae and Pattonella resona (Diptera, Sarcophagidae were restricted to the forest site and warmer months. Phaenicia eximia (Diptera, Calliphoridae and Oxyletrum discicolle (Coleoptera, Silphidae were present at both sites throughout the year and could be useful for population level analysis. Dissochaetus murray (Coleoptera, Cholevidae was present throughout the year at the forest site and was associated with the adipocere-like stage. Ants played an important role producing post-mortem injuries to the carcasses. Insects of 32 species are reported as being useful in community level approaches

  10. THE IMPORTANCE OF ECONOMIC PROMOTION FOR A SMALL OPEN ECONOMY – THE CASE OF SLOVENIA

    OpenAIRE

    DEJAN ROMIH

    2014-01-01

    This paper discusses the importance of economic promotion for Slovenia and certain other European countries affected by the current economic crisis. For a small open economy like Slovenia, economic promotion is particularly important for several reasons. One of them is its contribution to Slovenia’s overall economic performance (in terms of achieving certain economic goals such as reducing unemployment).

  11. Economic Importance of Camel: A Unique Alternative under Crisis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Ahmad*, M. Yaqoob, N. Hashmi1, S. Ahmad2, M. A. Zaman3 and M. Tariq

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Increasing human population in the world has arisen the issue of food security. In order to combat with this issue, there is need to explore a new world of resources. Camel can serve the best useful addition to the food supply chain in terms of milk, meat and other products. Dromedary camel is found in Pakistan and its population is highest in Baluchistan (41%. In Pakistan, there are 21 breeds of camel. The main two types are riverine and mountainous. Camels are of vital socio-economic importance in the country as people use it for drawing water from wells, ploughing and leveling land, working mini-mills for oil extraction, grinding wheat, corn and other grains and for crushing sugarcane, and pulling carts for the transportation of goods as well as people. Well-fed camel can yield 10-15L milk per day. Camel milk can also be used for making yogurt, kurth, butter, ghee, rabbri and khoa. Meat, hides and hair are useful by-products of camel. Camel farming will be beneficial for farmers when proper marketing infrastructure is established. Also, standard procedures for the classification and identification of camel breeds for different purposes need more attention. Camel ranching schemes and collaborative research approach are need of the hour. These measures can lead us to utilize this novel animal as a natural resource for coping food demand of ever increasing population.

  12. Evidence for the Higher Importance of Signal Size Over Body Size in Aposematic Signaling in Insects

    OpenAIRE

    Remmel, Triinu; Tammarub, Toomas

    2011-01-01

    To understand the evolution of warning coloration, it is important to distinguish between different aspects of conspicuous color patterns. As an example, both pattern element size and body size of prey have been shown to enhance the effectiveness of warning signals. However, it is unclear whether the effect of body size is merely a side effect of proportionally increasing pattern elements, or if there is an effect of body size per se. These possibilities were evaluated by offering different s...

  13. Importance of Economic Evaluation in Health Care: An Indian Perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dang, Amit; Likhar, Nishkarsh; Alok, Utkarsh

    2016-05-01

    Health economic studies provide information to decision makers for efficient use of available resources for maximizing health benefits. Economic evaluation is one part of health economics, and it is a tool for comparing costs and consequences of different interventions. Health technology assessment is a technique for economic evaluation that is well adapted by developed countries. The traditional classification of economic evaluation includes cost-minimization, cost-effectiveness analysis, cost-utility analysis, and cost-benefit analysis. There has been uncertainty in the conduct of such economic evaluations in India, due to some hesitancy with respect to the adoption of their guidelines. The biggest challenge in this evolutionary method is lack of understanding of methods in current use by all those involved in the provision and purchasing of health care. In some countries, different methods of economic evaluation have been adopted for decision making, most commonly to address the question of public subsidies for the purchase of medicines. There is limited evidence on the impact of health insurance on the health and economic well-being of beneficiaries in developing countries. India is currently pursuing several strategies to improve health services for its population, including investing in government-provided services as well as purchasing services from public and private providers through various schemes. Prospects for future growth and development in this field are required in India because rapid health care inflation, increasing rates of chronic conditions, aging population, and increasing technology diffusion will require greater economic efficiency into health care systems. Copyright © 2016 International Society for Pharmacoeconomics and Outcomes Research (ISPOR). Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. [The acerola fruit: composition, productive characteristics and economic importance].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mezadri, Tatiana; Fernández-Pachón, Ma Soledad; Villaño, Débora; García-Parrilla, Ma Carmen; Troncoso, Ana M

    2006-06-01

    The acerola (Malpighia emarginata Sessé y Mociño ex DC) is a wild plant grown in zones of tropical and subtropical climate. Acerola is origin from South of Mexico, Central America and Septentrional area of South America. Its scientific name was adopted in 1986 by the International Council of Vegetable Genetic Resources. Malpighia emarginata has a subglobulose drupa fruit with three seeds which account between the 19 - 25% of the total weight. The diameter and weight of the fruit varies between 1 - 4 cm and 2 - 15 g, respectively. The fruit shows green color when it is developing, which changes to yellow and red tones when it is mature. Each plant produces annually 20 - 30 kg of fruits. This fruit contents macro and micronutrients: proteins (0.21-0.80 g/100 g), fats (0.23-0.80 g/100 g), carbohydrates (3.6-7.80 g/100 g), mineral salts (iron 0.24, calcium 11.7, phosphorus 17.1 mg/100 g) and vitamins (thiamine 0.02, riboflavine 0.07, piridoxine 8.7 mg/100 g). Its high content in vitamin C (695 a 4827 mg/100 g) is remarkable, therefore acerola has an increasing economic value by its great consume during last years. Acerola also presents carotenoids and bioflavonoids which provide important nutritive value and its potential use as antioxidant. Brazil has a climate and soil appropriate for the culture of acerola, thus this country is the main mundial productor. Acerola is commercialised as juices, jams, ices, gelatins, sweets or liquors. Bibliographical data have been mainly supplied by Electronic Resources of the University of Seville and the University do Vale do Itajaí (Santa Catarina, Brazil).

  15. Montane and coastal species diversification in the economically important Mexican grasshopper genus Sphenarium (Orthoptera: Pyrgomorphidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pedraza-Lara, Carlos; Barrientos-Lozano, Ludivina; Rocha-Sánchez, Aurora Y; Zaldívar-Riverón, Alejandro

    2015-03-01

    The genus Sphenarium (Pyrgomorphidae) is a small group of grasshoppers endemic to México and Guatemala that are economically and culturally important both as a food source and as agricultural pests. However, its taxonomy has been largely neglected mainly due to its conserved interspecific external morphology and the considerable intraspecific variation in colour pattern of some taxa. Here we examined morphological as well as mitochondrial and nuclear DNA sequence data to assess the species boundaries and evolutionary history in Sphenarium. Our morphological identification and DNA sequence-based species delimitation, carried out with three different approaches (DNA barcoding, general mixed Yule-coalescent model, Bayesian species delimitation), all recovered a higher number of putative species of Sphenarium than previously recognised. We unambiguously delimit seven species, and between five and ten additional species depending on the data/method analysed. Phylogenetic relationships within the genus strongly support two main clades, one exclusively montane, the other coastal. Divergence time estimates suggest late Miocene to Pliocene ages for the origin and most of the early diversification events in the genus, which were probably influenced by the formation of the Trans-Mexican Volcanic Belt. A series of Pleistocene events could have led to the current species diversification in both montane and coastal regions. This study not only reveals an overlooked species richness for the most popular edible insect in Mexico, but also highlights the influence of the dynamic geological and climatic history of the region in shaping its current diversity. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Culturally and economically important nontimber forest products of northern Maine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michelle J. Baumflek; Marla R. Emery; Clare. Ginger

    2010-01-01

    Nontimber forest products (NTFPs) gathered for food, medicine, craft, spiritual, aesthetic, and utilitarian purposes make substantial contributions to the economic viability and cultural vitality of communities. In the St. John River watershed of northern Maine, people identifying with cultural groups including Acadian, Maliseet, Mi'kmaq, Scotch-Irish, and Swedish...

  17. Insects of forensic importance from Rio Grande do Sul state in southern Brazil Insetos de importância forense do Rio Grande do Sul, sul do Brasil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alex Sandro Barros de Souza

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available The experiment was conducted throughout the year 2005, at the Universidade Federal de Pelotas campus. The objectives of the study were to analyze the decomposition of rabbit (Oryctolagus cunniculus L. with mean weight 2.67 Kg carcass and describe the interaction of insects acting on it, as well as the insect's potential use in legal medicine. We collected 5.239 insect specimens; 1.827 of them were obtained from larvae collected from carcasses and reared. The specimens were identified and 20 species were of forensic importance. The species Lucilia eximia (Wiedemann, 1819 and Chrysomya albiceps (Wiedemann, 1819 (Diptera, Calliphoridae were better indicators of post-mortem interval (PMI because they occurred in all seasons and were the first to reach the carcass. Hemilucilia semidiaphana (Rondani, 1850, H. segmentaria (Fabricius, 1805 (Diptera, Calliphoridae, Muscina stabulans (Fallén, 1817 and Synthesiomyia nudiseta (Wulp, 1883 (Diptera, Muscidae can disclose death time because they occur only in certain months of the year. Oxyletrum discicolle (Brullé, 1840 (Coleoptera, Silphidae and Dermestes maculates De Geer, 1774 (Coleoptera, Desmestidae were found in advanced stages of decomposition.Durante todas as estações do ano de 2005 foi conduzido um experimento em uma área do campus da Universidade Federal de Pelotas. O objetivo do estudo foi analisar a decomposição de carcaças de coelho (Oryctolagus cunniculus L. pesando 2,67 Kg em média e descrever como os insetos atuam na decomposição e seu possível uso na medicina-legal. Foram coletados 5.239 espécimes; 1.827 foram obtidos a partir da criação de imaturos coletados na carcaça. Foram identificadas 20 espécies com importância forense. As espécies mais propícias para serem usadas com indicadoras de intervalo post-mortem (IPM são Lucilia eximia (Wiedemann, 1819 e Chrysomya albiceps (Wiedemann, 1819 (Diptera, Calliphoridae por terem sido encontradas em todas as estações de coleta

  18. Ecosystem Services from Edible Insects in Agricultural Systems: A Review

    OpenAIRE

    Payne, Charlotte L. R.; Van Itterbeeck, Joost

    2017-01-01

    Many of the most nutritionally and economically important edible insects are those that are harvested from existing agricultural systems. Current strategies of agricultural intensification focus predominantly on increasing crop yields, with no or little consideration of the repercussions this may have for the additional harvest and ecology of accompanying food insects. Yet such insects provide many valuable ecosystem services, and their sustainable management could be crucial to ensuring futu...

  19. The Plant Ribosome-Inactivating Proteins Play Important Roles in Defense against Pathogens and Insect Pest Attacks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Feng Zhu

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Ribosome-inactivating proteins (RIPs are toxic N-glycosidases that depurinate eukaryotic and prokaryotic rRNAs, thereby arresting protein synthesis during translation. RIPs are widely found in various plant species and within different tissues. It is demonstrated in vitro and in transgenic plants that RIPs have been connected to defense by antifungal, antibacterial, antiviral, and insecticidal activities. However, the mechanism of these effects is still not completely clear. There are a number of reviews of RIPs. However, there are no reviews on the biological functions of RIPs in defense against pathogens and insect pests. Therefore, in this report, we focused on the effect of RIPs from plants in defense against pathogens and insect pest attacks. First, we summarize the three different types of RIPs based on their physical properties. RIPs are generally distributed in plants. Then, we discuss the distribution of RIPs that are found in various plant species and in fungi, bacteria, algae, and animals. Various RIPs have shown unique bioactive properties including antibacterial, antifungal, antiviral, and insecticidal activity. Finally, we divided the discussion into the biological roles of RIPs in defense against bacteria, fungi, viruses, and insects. This review is focused on the role of plant RIPs in defense against bacteria, fungi, viruses, and insect attacks. The role of plant RIPs in defense against pathogens and insects is being comprehended currently. Future study utilizing transgenic technology approaches to study the mechanisms of RIPs will undoubtedly generate a better comprehending of the role of plant RIPs in defense against pathogens and insects. Discovering additional crosstalk mechanisms between RIPs and phytohormones or reactive oxygen species (ROS against pathogen and insect infections will be a significant subject in the field of biotic stress study. These studies are helpful in revealing significance of genetic control that can

  20. 158 economic importance of farmed parkland products to livelihood

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Tersor

    42.5% opined that contribution of parkland products was high to their livelihood sustenance. The other ..... mg/kg, which also helps inlow blood pressure, enhance immunity ... social importance as alkaloids, essential oils and phenolics derived ...

  1. THE IMPORTANCE OF LAW AND ECONOMICS IN THE CONTEMPORARY ECONOMIC REALITY

    OpenAIRE

    Pomaskow, Joanna

    2015-01-01

    The law and economics movement can improve the functioning of companies doing business in the contemporary, rapidly changing, reality. The tensions between the idea of efficiency and the idea of justice cause difficulties in the application of tools which are proposed by the representatives of the law and economics movement in legal solutions. Economics proposes a new, fresh look at the law, which makes it easier to assess and influence the growth of its transparency. Perspective can therefor...

  2. ULUDAĞ WINTER TOURISM and ITS IMPORTANCE IN THE ECONOMIC DEVELOPMENT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sema AY

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Tourism that is a regional means of development is closely related with the local economic development. Winter tourism is a set of activities and relationships composed of trips made to the regions which are located in the heart of ski sports and accordingly with slopes and snow, accommodations and other services. Since winter tourism mainly consists of a number of activities depending on snowy environments, it requires locations with certain height and slope which will also allow the execution of other nature sports such as walking, climbing etc. besides skiing and snowboarding. Uludağ, the most popular winter sports center that is 30 km away from the Bursa city center has significant natural advantages in terms of winter tourism. However, with the recently changing tourism demands in winter tourism, developments have been taking place in the types of tourism. Uludağ having natural advantages have not been able to sufficiently benefit from these advantages and cannot make use of its existing potential. Besides the countries having sucessful snow resorts of Europe such as Austria, France, Switzerland, Italy and Andorra, Romania and Bulgaria are also increasing their competitiveness in the international markets in recent years with ambitious investments. When Uludağ that is in the location of the largest snow resort in Turkey is compared with these resorts, it is thought that there is a way to go in the field of winter tourism. Starting from this idea, in the research, it is aimed to identify the contribution of Uludağ to the local economic development and the potentials for increasing this contribution. Towards the mentioned aim, the study will be carried out based on field research. In the conclusion of the study, it is planned to submit the proposals focused on policy and strategy to be followed in terms of having Uludağ use its potential in the most efficient way and provide more contribution to the local economy. In addition, its

  3. Connections and economic importance of agriculture and rural tourism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Petrović Gordana

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available In recent years, is often heard that Serbia has very favorable conditions for the development of rural tourism. We are constantly talking about the revival of Serbian villages. However, Serbia has a large number of villages ask questions on how to survive and how to improve the conditions of life in them. Since the creation of adequate conditions for life in the country depends on whether it will be and how it continues to evolve. Recommendations of the World Tourism Organization is the development of rural tourism. The reason for this is the favorable geographical position, varied relief, a pleasant climate, rich flora and fauna, interesting history, traditions, folklore ... should be taken of the fact that the Republic of Serbia has a predominantly rural characteristics, because 85% of the territory consists of rural areas inhabited by some 45-55% of the population. The main activity of the population in rural areas is agriculture, where 23% of the working population works in agriculture and generates about 40% of the total gross national income. Between agriculture and rural tourism there are a lot of permeation and solid connections. This cross-sectoral exchange of the common village. Tourism needed agricultural products throughout the year, and agriculture are required consumers. Rural tourism should be the backbone of economic development to raise living standards in the rural community.

  4. Steam sources in El Salvador and their economic importance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Grebe, W H [Geologisches Staatsinstitut Hamburg, DE

    1957-01-01

    A geographical survey is provided of important steam and hot water sources (temperature greater than 60/sup 0/C) in El Salvador. These sources are tabulated and are described in the text. They appear as fumaroles, solfatarae, mudpots, mud fields, and hot springs. A series of calorimetric measurements was made in 1955. For electrical power production, development will probably be restricted to those fields located within the young volcanic areas, as these areas correspond to those of greatest population density. As of 1957, the use of these resources was limited to the production of sulfur and kaolinite from a few small-scale boreholes.

  5. Global compositional variation among native and non-native regional insect species assemblages emphasizes the importance of pathways

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Liebhold, A. M.; Yamanaka, T.; Roques, A.; Augustin, S.; Chown, S.L.; Brockerhoff, E. G.; Pyšek, Petr

    2016-01-01

    Roč. 18, č. 4 (2016), s. 893-905 ISSN 1387-3547 Grant - others:AV ČR(CZ) AP1002 Program:Akademická prémie - Praemium Academiae Institutional support: RVO:67985939 Keywords : global pattern * invasions * insects Subject RIV: EH - Ecology, Behaviour Impact factor: 2.473, year: 2016

  6. Insect barcode information system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pratheepa, Maria; Jalali, Sushil Kumar; Arokiaraj, Robinson Silvester; Venkatesan, Thiruvengadam; Nagesh, Mandadi; Panda, Madhusmita; Pattar, Sharath

    2014-01-01

    Insect Barcode Information System called as Insect Barcode Informática (IBIn) is an online database resource developed by the National Bureau of Agriculturally Important Insects, Bangalore. This database provides acquisition, storage, analysis and publication of DNA barcode records of agriculturally important insects, for researchers specifically in India and other countries. It bridges a gap in bioinformatics by integrating molecular, morphological and distribution details of agriculturally important insects. IBIn was developed using PHP/My SQL by using relational database management concept. This database is based on the client- server architecture, where many clients can access data simultaneously. IBIn is freely available on-line and is user-friendly. IBIn allows the registered users to input new information, search and view information related to DNA barcode of agriculturally important insects.This paper provides a current status of insect barcode in India and brief introduction about the database IBIn. http://www.nabg-nbaii.res.in/barcode.

  7. Importance of industrial classification of economic activities for teaching merchandising

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Radmila Presová

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Business subjects in any national economy perform activities results of which are products, services or goods directly distributed to the market network. Volume of products differs according to the level of operational facilities, number of producers and the level of their facilities. Based on the development of information technology, there arise new specialization fields and new ranges of goods. Classification criteria are developed to qualify level of production and for enlistment of a firm to a particular branch. Currently the criteria of production classification are being developed. The understanding of these principles is particularly important on the bachelor level of the specialization Trade Management, where students are getting acquainted with the characteristics of goods, creative and degradation influences on utility, etc. Students are encouraged to understand how the quality and criteria mentioned above influence market prices. Teaching emphasis is put on the complexity of food assortment and the knowledge of Czech and EU legalislation relating to hygienic aspects and health quality of production, processing, and selling of food products. This complex procedure enables to obtain an overall survey of the origin of particular products, their catering, and sales. This means that the students obtain an idea about the complexity of relations existing among the origin of products, their sales and their consumption.

  8. The economic impact and the distribution of benefits and risk from the adoption of insect resistant (Bt) cotton in West Africa:

    OpenAIRE

    Falck-Zepeda, Jose; Horna, Daniela; Smale, Melinda

    2007-01-01

    "Cotton is the largest source of export receipts of several West African countries. Statistics however show a decreasing tendency in cotton yields and an increasing tendency in pesticide use. Under this circumstances there appear to be potential payoffs from the use of biotechnology products in the farming systems of the region. In this study we estimate different scenarios for the potential deployment of insect resistant cotton in selected countries in West Africa (WA). We use an economic su...

  9. The efficient importation and distribution of radioisotopes. Suggestions for the most economic importation of radioisotopes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1963-01-01

    In the course of their work in many Member States, IAEA technical assistance experts have sometimes encountered difficulties in connection with the importation of radioactive isotopes. In some countries they have been consulted as to the possible improvement of import procedures. The purpose of this publication is to summarize the experience that has been gained in the hope that it may be useful both to scientists who wish to import radioisotopes for their work and to public officials who are concerned with the administrative and financial aspects of the problem. This question is of considerable importance because many countries have only limited resources of scientific man-power and foreign exchange and hence it is essential, if these resources are to be utilized fully, that efficient importing procedures be established. Furthermore, the success or failure of technical assistance activities may depend on whether radioisotopes needed for the project can be efficiently imported. Although the data summarized in this publication are based mainly on the experience of medical users of radioisotopes, they are equally applicable to their uses in other fields such as agriculture and hydrology. This publication covers the subject of importation and distribution of radioisotopes, and concludes with a brief section on the domestic production of short-lived radioisotopes in research reactors

  10. The efficient importation and distribution of radioisotopes. Suggestions for the most economic importation of radioisotopes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1963-08-01

    In the course of their work in many Member States, IAEA technical assistance experts have sometimes encountered difficulties in connection with the importation of radioactive isotopes. In some countries they have been consulted as to the possible improvement of import procedures. The purpose of this publication is to summarize the experience that has been gained in the hope that it may be useful both to scientists who wish to import radioisotopes for their work and to public officials who are concerned with the administrative and financial aspects of the problem. This question is of considerable importance because many countries have only limited resources of scientific man-power and foreign exchange and hence it is essential, if these resources are to be utilized fully, that efficient importing procedures be established. Furthermore, the success or failure of technical assistance activities may depend on whether radioisotopes needed for the project can be efficiently imported. Although the data summarized in this publication are based mainly on the experience of medical users of radioisotopes, they are equally applicable to their uses in other fields such as agriculture and hydrology. This publication covers the subject of importation and distribution of radioisotopes, and concludes with a brief section on the domestic production of short-lived radioisotopes in research reactors.

  11. Diversity in protein glycosylation among insect species.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gianni Vandenborre

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: A very common protein modification in multicellular organisms is protein glycosylation or the addition of carbohydrate structures to the peptide backbone. Although the Class of the Insecta is the largest animal taxon on Earth, almost all information concerning glycosylation in insects is derived from studies with only one species, namely the fruit fly Drosophila melanogaster. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: In this report, the differences in glycoproteomes between insects belonging to several economically important insect orders were studied. Using GNA (Galanthus nivalis agglutinin affinity chromatography, different sets of glycoproteins with mannosyl-containing glycan structures were purified from the flour beetle (Tribolium castaneum, the silkworm (Bombyx mori, the honeybee (Apis mellifera, the fruit fly (D. melanogaster and the pea aphid (Acyrthosiphon pisum. To identify and characterize the purified glycoproteins, LC-MS/MS analysis was performed. For all insect species, it was demonstrated that glycoproteins were related to a broad range of biological processes and molecular functions. Moreover, the majority of glycoproteins retained on the GNA column were unique to one particular insect species and only a few glycoproteins were present in the five different glycoprotein sets. Furthermore, these data support the hypothesis that insect glycoproteins can be decorated with mannosylated O-glycans. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: The results presented here demonstrate that oligomannose N-glycosylation events are highly specific depending on the insect species. In addition, we also demonstrated that protein O-mannosylation in insect species may occur more frequently than currently believed.

  12. Harnessing Insect-Microbe Chemical Communications To Control Insect Pests of Agricultural Systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beck, John J; Vannette, Rachel L

    2017-01-11

    Insect pests cause serious economic, yield, and food safety problems to managed crops worldwide. Compounding these problems, insect pests often vector pathogenic or toxigenic microbes to plants. Previous work has considered plant-insect and plant-microbe interactions separately. Although insects are well-understood to use plant volatiles to locate hosts, microorganisms can produce distinct and abundant volatile compounds that in some cases strongly attract insects. In this paper, we focus on the microbial contribution to plant volatile blends, highlighting the compounds emitted and the potential for variation in microbial emission. We suggest that these aspects of microbial volatile emission may make these compounds ideal for use in agricultural applications, as they may be more specific or enhance methods currently used in insect control or monitoring. Our survey of microbial volatiles in insect-plant interactions suggests that these emissions not only signal host suitability but may indicate a distinctive time frame for optimal conditions for both insect and microbe. Exploitation of these host-specific microbe semiochemicals may provide important microbe- and host-based attractants and a basis for future plant-insect-microbe chemical ecology investigations.

  13. Beneficial Insects and Insect Pollinators on Milkweed in South Georgia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Insect pollinators are essential for the reproduction of more than two-thirds of the world’s crops, and beneficial insects play an important role in managing pest insects in agricultural farmscapes. These insects depend on nectar for their survival in these farmscapes. The flowers of tropical milkwe...

  14. Measuring socio-economic position in dietary research: is choice of socio-economic indicator important?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turrell, Gavin; Hewitt, Belinda; Patterson, Carla; Oldenburg, Brian

    2003-04-01

    To examine the association between socio-economic position (SEP) and diet, by assessing the unadjusted and simultaneously adjusted (independent) contributions of education, occupation and household income to food purchasing behaviour. The sample was randomly selected using a stratified two-stage cluster design, and the response rate was 66.4%. Data were collected by face-to-face interview. Food purchasing was examined on the basis of three composite indices that reflected a household's choice of grocery items (including meat and chicken), fruit and vegetables. Brisbane City, Australia, 2000. : Non-institutionalised residents of private dwellings located in 50 small areas (Census Collectors Districts). When shopping, respondents in lower socio-economic groups were less likely to purchase grocery foods that were high in fibre and low in fat, salt and sugar. Disadvantaged groups purchased fewer types of fresh fruits and vegetables, and less often, than their counterparts from more advantaged backgrounds. When the relationship between SEP and food purchasing was examined using each indicator separately, education and household income made an unadjusted contribution to purchasing behaviour for all three food indices; however, occupation was significantly related only with the purchase of grocery foods. When education and occupation were simultaneously adjusted for each other, the socio-economic patterning with food purchase remained largely unchanged, although the strength of the associations was attenuated. When household income was introduced into the analysis, the association between education, occupation and food purchasing behaviour was diminished or became non-significant; income, however, showed a strong, graded association with food choice. The food purchasing behaviours of socio-economically disadvantaged groups were least in accord with dietary guideline recommendations, and hence are more consistent with greater risk for the development of diet

  15. The effectiveness of habitat modification schemes for enhancing beneficial insects: Assessing the importance of trap cropping management approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trisnawati, Indah; Azis, Abdul

    2017-06-01

    Many farms in regions of intensive crop production lack the habitats that historically provided resources to beneficial insects, and this lack has compromised the ability of farmers to rely on natural enemies for pest control. One of the strategies to boost populations of existing or naturally occurring beneficial insects is to supply them with appropriate habitat and alternative food sources, such as diversifying trap crop systems and plant populations in or around fields include perennials and flowering plants. Trap cropping using insectary plant that attracts beneficial insects as natural enemies, especially flowering plants, made for provision of habitat for predators or parasitoids that are useful for biological control. Perimeter trap cropping (PTC) is a method of integrated pest management in which the main crop is surrounded with a perimeter trap crop that is more attractive to pests. We observed PTC habitat modification and conventionaly-managed tobacco farms in Purwosari Village, Pasuruan (East Java) to evaluate the effectiveness of habitat modification management prescription (perimeter trap crop using flowering plant Crotalaria juncea) on agroecosystem natural enemies. Field tests were conducted in natural enemies (predator and parasitoid) abundance dynamic and diversity on tobacco field in Purwoasri, Pasuruan. Yellow pan trap, sweep net and hand collecting methods were applied in each 10 days during tobacco growth stage (vegetative, generative until reproductive/harvesting. The results showed that application perimeter trap crop with C. juncea in tobacco fields able to help arthropod conservation of natural enemies on all tobacco growth stages. These results were evidenced the increase in abundance of predators and parasitoids and the increased value of the Diversity Index (H') and Evenness Index (EH) in all tobacco growth phases. Composition of predator and parasitoid in the habitat modification field were more diverse than in the conventional field

  16. Evolving Importance of Securities Market to Ensure Economic Growth: Evidence from Armenia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Salnazaryan Ashot

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available This research aims to reveal the importance of securities market in ensuring economic growth in Armenia. In order to make the research more substantial, we also examined the impact of other financial market segments, such as insurance market and credit market, on the economic growth. To estimate the relationship between financial market segments and economic growth, an empirical research was conducted using correlation and regression techniques. The research reveals that the most significant impact on the economic growth among Armenian financial market segments has the credit market of Armenia. There is no significant relationship between economic growth and insurance, as well as corporate securities market. It is pointed out in the research, that the evolving importance of the role of securities market in the economic growth is not yet demonstrated in Armenia, which, perhaps, results from the absence of interaction between securities market and economy in Armenia.

  17. Relative Importance of Political Instability and Economic Variables on Perceived Country Creditworthiness

    OpenAIRE

    Suk Hun Lee

    1993-01-01

    This paper examines the relative importance of political instability and economic variables on perceived country creditworthiness. Our results indicate that both political instability and economic variables are taken into account in evaluating country creditworthiness; however, it appears that bankers assign larger weight to economic performances, which we except of reflect longer term political stability. In addition, the frequency of changes in the regime and armed conflict, both proxying f...

  18. Consultants Group Meeting on Production System Analysis and Economics for Tsetse Fly Mass-Rearing and the Use of the Sterile Insect Technique in Eradication Programmes in Africa

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1991-07-01

    A consultants' group met in Vienna from 23 September - 3 October 1991 to explore 'Production System Analysis and Economics for Tsetse Fly Mass-rearing and the Use of the Sterile Insect Technique in Eradication Programmes in Africa'. This report is based on their observations during working visits to the Entomology Unit of the IAEA Agricultural Laboratory at Seibersdorf, and on information supplied by the tsetse team and staff of the Joint FAO/IAEA Division's Insect and Pest Control Section. The consultants conducted a technical, operational and financial review of present rearing methods, equipment, philosophies and production capacities, taking into account one of the recommendations made at the 6th Session of the ''FAO Commission on African Animal Trypanosomiasis'' held in June 1991 in Harare, Zimbabwe. This recommendation, related to the use of the Sterile Insect Technique (SIT), states that {sup F}AO, through the Joint FAO/IAEA Division, should further investigate and improve the use of sterile insects to strengthen the efficacy of tsetse surveys and, where applicable, consider teh use of the SIT to support eradication campaigns where other techniques on their own will not achieve this objective''. In investigating the potential for improved tsetse mass-rearing and analyzing the present costs of pupa/distributable sterile fly production, the consultants noted that: 1. The Seibersdorf Tsetse Unit is conducting an effective research and development programme which strives to emulate a production facility while continuing to pursue R and D. The capacity of the present facility in Seibersdorf is practically limited to a colony size of about 150,000 breeding females. The release of sterile males in an eradication campaign of economical relevance would require a colony containing more than 500,000 female flies. Such a population can only be maintained in an organizational, operational and financially justifiable manner if the rearing technology is transferred from an

  19. A perspective on the importance of within-tree variation in mortality risk for a leaf-mining insect

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. Low

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Within-tree variation in abiotic conditions can create a mosaic of fitness gradients for herbivorous insects. To explore these effects, we quantified the patterns of mortality of the solitary oak leafminer, Cameraria hamadryadella (Lepidoptera: Gracillariidae, which lives within leaves of white oak, Quercus alba. We found differential patterns of survival and larval feeding rate within the tree and in association with several abiotic factors: light levels, leaf nitrogen content, and canopy height. We suggest that the leaf scale microhabitat conditions are fundamental to plant-herbivore-enemy interactions because of the differential fitness effects on herbivores. Such effects would be missed by studies that average effects by whole plants. Our study population of C. hamadryadella is located within the Orland E. White State Arboretum of Virginia in Boyce, Virginia, USA.

  20. An economic approach to efficient isotope labeling in insect cells using homemade {sup 15}N-, {sup 13}C- and {sup 2}H-labeled yeast extracts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Opitz, Christian; Isogai, Shin; Grzesiek, Stephan, E-mail: Stephan.Grzesiek@unibas.ch [University of Basel, Focal Area Structural Biology and Biophysics, Biozentrum (Switzerland)

    2015-07-15

    Heterologous expression of proteins in insect cells is frequently used for crystallographic structural studies due to the high yields even for challenging proteins requiring the eukaryotic protein processing capabilities of the host. However for NMR studies, the need for isotope labeling poses extreme challenges in eukaryotic hosts. Here, we describe a robust method to achieve uniform protein {sup 15}N and {sup 13}C labeling of up to 90 % in baculovirus-infected insect cells. The approach is based on the production of labeled yeast extract, which is subsequently supplemented to insect cell growth media. The method also allows deuteration at levels of >60 % without decrease in expression yield. The economic implementation of the labeling procedures into a standard structural biology laboratory environment is described in a step-by-step protocol. Applications are demonstrated for a variety of NMR experiments using the Abelson kinase domain, GFP, and the beta-1 adrenergic receptor as examples. Deuterated expression of the latter provides spectra of very high quality of a eukaryotic G-protein coupled receptor.

  1. An economic approach to efficient isotope labeling in insect cells using homemade 15N-, 13C- and 2H-labeled yeast extracts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Opitz, Christian; Isogai, Shin; Grzesiek, Stephan

    2015-01-01

    Heterologous expression of proteins in insect cells is frequently used for crystallographic structural studies due to the high yields even for challenging proteins requiring the eukaryotic protein processing capabilities of the host. However for NMR studies, the need for isotope labeling poses extreme challenges in eukaryotic hosts. Here, we describe a robust method to achieve uniform protein 15 N and 13 C labeling of up to 90 % in baculovirus-infected insect cells. The approach is based on the production of labeled yeast extract, which is subsequently supplemented to insect cell growth media. The method also allows deuteration at levels of >60 % without decrease in expression yield. The economic implementation of the labeling procedures into a standard structural biology laboratory environment is described in a step-by-step protocol. Applications are demonstrated for a variety of NMR experiments using the Abelson kinase domain, GFP, and the beta-1 adrenergic receptor as examples. Deuterated expression of the latter provides spectra of very high quality of a eukaryotic G-protein coupled receptor

  2. The first complete mitochondrial genome of a Belostomatidae species, Lethocerus indicus, the giant water bug: An important edible insect.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Devi, Kshetrimayum Miranda; Shantibala, Tourangbam; Debaraj, Hajarimayum

    2016-10-10

    Lethocerus indicus of the family Belostomatidae is one of the most preferred and delicious edible insects in different parts of South-East Asia including North-East, India. The mitogenome of L. indicus represents the first complete mitogenome sequence of a Belostomatidae species in Heteroptera order. The mitogenome of L. indicus is 16,251bp and contains 37 genes including 13 protein coding genes (PCGs), 22 tRNA genes, two rRNA genes, and a large non-coding region. The genome has a typical gene order which is identical to other Heteroptera species. All tRNAs exhibit the classic cloverleaf secondary structure except tRNASer (AGN). All the PCGs employ a complete translation termination codon either TAA or TAG except COII. The nucleotide composition showed heavy biased toward AT accounting to 70.9% of total mitogenome. The overall A+T content of L. indicus mitogenome was comparatively lower than some other Heteropteran bugs mitogenomes. The control region is divided into seven different parts which includes the putative stem loop, repeats, tandem repeats, GC and AT rich regions. The phylogenetic relationship based on maximum-likelihood method using all protein coding genes was congruent with the traditional morphological classification that Belostomatidae is closely related to Nepidae. The complete mitogenome sequence of L. indicus provides fundamental data useful in conservation genetics and aquaculture diversification. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  3. Environmental Adaptations, Ecological Filtering, and Dispersal Central to Insect Invasions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Renault, David; Laparie, Mathieu; McCauley, Shannon J; Bonte, Dries

    2018-01-07

    Insect invasions, the establishment and spread of nonnative insects in new regions, can have extensive economic and environmental consequences. Increased global connectivity accelerates rates of introductions, while climate change may decrease the barriers to invader species' spread. We follow an individual-level insect- and arachnid-centered perspective to assess how the process of invasion is influenced by phenotypic heterogeneity associated with dispersal and stress resistance, and their coupling, across the multiple steps of the invasion process. We also provide an overview and synthesis on the importance of environmental filters during the entire invasion process for the facilitation or inhibition of invasive insect population spread. Finally, we highlight important research gaps and the relevance and applicability of ongoing natural range expansions in the context of climate change to gain essential mechanistic insights into insect invasions.

  4. Advances in organic insect pest management in pecan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pecans are economically the most important native nut crop in the USA. The market for organic pecans has been growing. However, in the Southeastern USA, there are a number of insect pests and plant diseases that challenge the ability of growers to produce organic pecans in an economically sound ma...

  5. A conserved aspartic acid is important for agonist (VUAA1 and odorant/tuning receptor-dependent activation of the insect odorant co-receptor (Orco.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brijesh N Kumar

    Full Text Available Insect odorant receptors function as heteromeric odorant-gated cation channels comprising a conventional odorant-sensitive tuning receptor, and a conserved co-receptor (Orco. An Orco agonist, VUAA1, is able to activate both heteromeric and homomeric Orco-containing channels. Very little is known about specific residues in Orco that contribute to cation permeability and gating. We investigated the importance of two conserved Asp residues, one in each of transmembrane domains 5 and 7, for channel function by mutagenesis. Drosophila melanogaster Orco and its substitution mutants were expressed in HEK cells and VUAA1-stimulated channel activity was determined by Ca(2+ influx and whole-cell patch clamp electrophysiology. Substitution of D466 in transmembrane 7 with amino acids other than glutamic acid resulted in a substantial reduction in channel activity. The D466E Orco substitution mutant was ~2 times more sensitive to VUAA1. The permeability of the D466E Orco mutant to cations was unchanged relative to wild-type Orco. When D466E Orco is co-expressed with a conventional tuning odorant receptor, the heteromeric complex also shows increased sensitivity to an odorant. Thus, the effect of the D466E mutation is not specific to VUAA1 agonism or dependent on homomeric Orco assembly. We suggest the gain-of-activation characteristic of the D466E mutant identifies an amino acid that is likely to be important for activation of both heteromeric and homomeric insect odorant receptor channels.

  6. Predictors of the Perceived Importance of Food Skills of Home Economics Teachers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fordyce-Voorham, Sandra P.

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to test an hypothesis that teachers' personal orientations toward food preparation, nutrition and environmental issues would be related to their perceived importance of food skills. Design/methodology/approach: Little research has been conducted on home economics teachers' views on the importance of the food…

  7. Import demand of crude oil and economic growth. Evidence from India

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ghosh, Sajal

    2009-01-01

    This study establishes a long-run equilibrium relationship among quantity of crude oil import, income and price of the imported crude in India for the time span 1970-1971 to 2005-2006 using autoregressive distributed lag (ARDL) bounds testing approach of cointegration. Empirical results show that the long-term income elasticity of imported crude in India is 1.97 and there exists a unidirectional long-run causality running from economic growth to crude oil import. So reduction of crude oil import will not affect the future economic growth in India in the long-run. India should take various energy efficiency and demand side management measures in transport sector along with other measures like expanding and strengthening indigenous resource-base, substituting imported fuels by domestic fuels and de-controlling the price of petroleum products to reduce its import dependence. (author)

  8. The economic importance of meetings and conferences: A satellite account approach

    OpenAIRE

    Jones, C; Li, S

    2015-01-01

    Meetings and conventions (MICE) visitation is often considered an important element of the travel economy, and destinations target such activities to encourage their growth. It has hitherto been difficult to measure the economic significance of such activity at any spatial scale. Latterly, the development and codification of tourism satellite account (TSA) approaches to the economic measurement of tourism offers an opportunity to develop a parallel approach to understanding the MICE economy. ...

  9. Recombinant DNA technology and insect control

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Seawright, J.A.; Cockburn, Andrew F.

    1989-01-01

    In the past, the most successful avenue for the use of genetics in insect control has been the employment of the sterile insect technique, in which huge numbers of a species are produced in a factory, sterilized by exposure to ionizing radiation and released into the native habitat. this method is suitable for some species, but for logistical, economical, and biological reasons this control technique is not suitable for many economically important species. Our ability to use genetic approaches to cope with the myriad of insect pests will improve in the near future because of progress in the biochemical manipulation of genes. Molecular geneticists have created bacteria, plants, animals, and fungi that have useful new properties, and many of these are being used or tested for commercial use. A reasonable forecast is that a virtual revolution will occur in the way that we currently practice and perceive the genetic control of insects. Using genetic engineering manipulations to develop control techniques for insects of agricultural and public health importance is an exciting prospect and a highly desirable goal

  10. Recombinant DNA technology and insect control

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Seawright, J A; Cockburn, Andrew F [Insects Affecting Man and Animals Laboratory, Agric. Res. Serv., U.S. Department of Agriculture, Gainesville, FL (United States)

    1989-08-01

    In the past, the most successful avenue for the use of genetics in insect control has been the employment of the sterile insect technique, in which huge numbers of a species are produced in a factory, sterilized by exposure to ionizing radiation and released into the native habitat. this method is suitable for some species, but for logistical, economical, and biological reasons this control technique is not suitable for many economically important species. Our ability to use genetic approaches to cope with the myriad of insect pests will improve in the near future because of progress in the biochemical manipulation of genes. Molecular geneticists have created bacteria, plants, animals, and fungi that have useful new properties, and many of these are being used or tested for commercial use. A reasonable forecast is that a virtual revolution will occur in the way that we currently practice and perceive the genetic control of insects. Using genetic engineering manipulations to develop control techniques for insects of agricultural and public health importance is an exciting prospect and a highly desirable goal.

  11. Marine insects

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Cheng, Lanna

    1976-01-01

    .... Not only are true insects, such as the Collembola and insect parasites of marine birds and mammals, considered, but also other kinds of intertidal air-breathing arthropods, notably spiders, scorpions...

  12. [Economic determinants of the demand for importation of pharmacochemical and pharmaceutical products].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santos, Anderson Moreira Aristides Dos; Tejada, César Augusto Oviedo; Jacinto, Paulo de Andrade

    2017-09-28

    : This article analyzes the relationship between the demand for importation of pharmacochemical and pharmaceutical products and economic variables (exchange rate, import prices, and aggregate income) in Brazil, using monthly data from 1997-2014. The main results showed that increases in aggregate income and price reductions in imports have a positive and significant impact (elastic and inelastic, respectively) on imports. Exchange rate was only significant in the more aggregate model. Thus, aggregate income was a robust variable with strong impact on the importation of pharmacochemical and pharmaceutical products. The arguments in the literature that this industry's international trade deficit is related to a deficit in knowledge and technology and the current study's results provide evidence that as economic activity grows, there is a greater demand for this type of product. Additionally, if domestic production is insufficient, there is a need for imports, which can generate pressure on the trade deficit in the industry and contribute to Brazil's dependence on other countries.

  13. Edible Insects

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Huis, van A.; Dunkel, F.V.

    2016-01-01

    The interest in insects as human food in the Western world is increasingly considered as a viable alternative to other protein sources. In tropical countries it is common practice and about 2000 insect species are eaten. Insects emit low levels of greenhouse gases, need little water, and require

  14. Consuming insects

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Roos, N.; Huis, van A.

    2017-01-01

    How healthy are insects? This is a highly relevant question in view of the global interest in the potential of insects as a sustainable food source in food systems and diets. Edible insects, like other foods, can provide nutrients and dietary energy to meet the requirements of the human body as a

  15. The Role and Importance of Local Economic Development in Urban Development: A Case of Harare

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gladys Mandisvika

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The study assessed the role and importance of Local Economic Development as a means of enhancing urban development paying particular attention to the regulators of Local Economic Development in Harare. Local Economic Development is a process which encourages partners from the community, public sector, private sector and non-governmental sectors to work collectively to create better conditions for economic growth and employment generation with the aim of improving the locality economic future and the quality of life for all citizens. The study was premised on the theory of competitive advantage which puts up that prosperity and wealth creation is determined by microeconomic factors and that prosperity means increasing the standards of living for the local people and ultimately their quality of life. Primary data for the research was gathered through observation and key informant interviews. Data on key stakeholders understanding on the concept of Local Economic Development, how it is being practised and how the current regulatory framework enhance or impinge on local people’s participation in Local Economic Development was collected. Secondary data was also collected from Harare’s 2014 budget, census and existing forward plans. The study revealed that the practice of Local Economic Development in Harare is biased towards the setting aside of land zoned for industrial and commercial uses and implementation of development control parameters. Small to Medium Enterprises and the informal sector have also been identified as the major forms of Local Economic Development that citizens are involved in. However, the study revealed that proper policy frameworks which guide practice of Local Economic Development initiatives were missing

  16. Import dependence of industrial enterprises in the region as an economic security hazard

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. N. Makarov

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Import is traditionally considered as a source for saturation of a home market with scarce commodities or goods non-manufactured in an importing country. However, the larger is the share of import in the total volume of deliveries, the greater is the hazard for economic security of the region and for the state upon the whole. The analysis has revealed the fact that in the regional industry there is a real situation of absolute import dependence. It means that enterprises have been functioning only based on import deliveries to manufacture some single components for products of production-technical purposes.

  17. MEIMAN: Database exploring Medicinal and Edible insects of Manipur.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shantibala, Tourangbam; Lokeshwari, Rajkumari; Thingnam, Gourshyam; Somkuwar, Bharat Gopalrao

    2012-01-01

    We have developed MEIMAN, a unique database on medicinal and edible insects of Manipur which comprises 51 insects species collected through extensive survey and questionnaire for two years. MEIMAN provides integrated access to insect species thorough sophisticated web interface which has following capabilities a) Graphical interface of seasonality, b) Method of preparation, c) Form of use - edible and medicinal, d) habitat, e) medicinal uses, f) commercial importance and g) economic status. This database will be useful for scientific validations and updating of traditional wisdom in bioprospecting aspects. It will be useful in analyzing the insect biodiversity for the development of virgin resources and their industrialization. Further, the features will be suited for detailed investigation on potential medicinal and edible insects that make MEIMAN a powerful tool for sustainable management. The database is available for free at www.ibsd.gov.in/meiman.

  18. Foreign Remittances, Foreign Direct Investment, Foreign Imports and Economic Growth in Pakistan: A Time Series Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhammad Tahir

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available This empirical research paper focuses on establishing a relationship between external determinants and economic growth of Pakistan economy. Empirical analyses are carried out with time series econometric techniques using data over the period of 1977-2013. The main finding is that external determinants such as foreign remittances, foreign direct investment, and foreign imports matter from a growth perspective. Foreign remittances and foreign direct investment have a significant positive role in the growth process of Pakistan economy. Furthermore, it is found that foreign imports have adversely influenced the economic growth of Pakistan. The study recommends that policy makers shall take appropriate steps to increase the inflow of both foreign remittances and foreign direct investment in order to achieve the long run economic growth.

  19. Trees of Laos and Vietnam: a field guide to 100 economically or ecologically important species

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sam, Hoang Van; Nanthavong, Khamseng; Keßler, P.J.A.

    2004-01-01

    This field guide to 100 economically or ecologically important tree species from Laos and Vietnam enables the user to identify the included taxa with user-friendly keys. It includes scientific names, botanical descriptions of families, genera, and species. Specific information on distribution,

  20. Vegetation status and socio-economic importance of gum and resin ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Ethiopian Journal of Biological Sciences ... Abstract. Study on population status, socio-economic importance and threats of gum- and resin-producing plant species was made in Borena, South Wollo, (Ethiopia). ... A total of 14 gum- and resin-bearing plant species representing seven families were recorded. Five of them ...

  1. Trees of Laos and Vietnam: a field guide to 100 economically or ecologically important species

    OpenAIRE

    Sam, Hoang Van; Nanthavong, Khamseng; Keßler, P.J.A.

    2004-01-01

    This field guide to 100 economically or ecologically important tree species from Laos and Vietnam enables the user to identify the included taxa with user-friendly keys. It includes scientific names, botanical descriptions of families, genera, and species. Specific information on distribution, habitat, ecology, and uses has been compiled. All specimens examined have been listed.

  2. Mathematics in Finance and Economics: Importance of Teaching Higher Order Mathematical Thinking Skills in Finance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tularam, Gurudeo Anand

    2013-01-01

    This paper addresses the importance of teaching mathematics in business and finance schools of tertiary institutions of Australia. The paper explores the nature of thinking and reasoning required for advancement financial or economic studies involves the use of higher order thinking and creativity skills (HOTS) for teaching in mathematics classes.…

  3. EFFECTS OF HIGH ECONOMIC IMPORTANCE OF INDUSTRIAL BRANCHES ON HUMAN LIFE QUALITY AND ENVIRONMENT

    OpenAIRE

    Özarslan, Doguş Deniz; Cumbul Altay, Melek; Arabaci, Aliye; Altay, H. Fatih; Sivri, Nüket

    2012-01-01

    Importance of industrialization which has a role in determination of the civilization levels of societies is increasing everyday due to meet rapidly increasing demands. However this process has led up to environmental problems with time and thus effects on quality of human life also brought along. In this study, three sectors were selected among different branches of industry according to their economical importance in Turkey. These sectors are paper, metal and construction chemicals industry...

  4. The role and importance of diversified farming enterprises in socio-economic development of rural areas

    OpenAIRE

    Askarov N.

    2018-01-01

    In this article considered the necessity of the organization and development of diversified farming enterprises, their role and importance in the practical solution of socio-economic problems of rural areas. The issues of the development of farms are important in increasing the employment and income of the rural population, as well as in addressing the social problems associated with them. For the period 2013-2016. 352,015 new jobs were created. Today one of the most effective factors...

  5. Studies and research concerning BNFP. Identification and simplified modeling of economically important radwaste variables

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ebel, P.E.; Godfrey, W.L.; Henry, J.L.; Postles, R.L.

    1983-09-01

    An extensive computer model describing the mass balance and economic characteristics of radioactive waste disposal systems was exercised in a series of runs designed using linear statistical methods. The most economically important variables were identified, their behavior characterized, and a simplified computer model prepared which runs on desk-top minicomputers. This simplified model allows the investigation of the effects of the seven most significant variables in each of four waste areas: Liquid Waste Storage, Liquid Waste Solidification, General Process Trash Handling, and Hulls Handling. 8 references, 1 figure, 12 tables

  6. EFFECTS OF HIGH ECONOMIC IMPORTANCE OF INDUSTRIAL BRANCHES ON HUMAN LIFE QUALITY AND ENVIRONMENT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Doguş Deniz Özarslan

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Importance of industrialization which has a role in determination of the civilization levels of societies is increasing everyday due to meet rapidly increasing demands. However this process has led up to environmental problems with time and thus effects on quality of human life also brought along. In this study, three sectors were selected among different branches of industry according to their economical importance in Turkey. These sectors are paper, metal and construction chemicals industry. Production processes of selected sectors were examined and effects of production stages on the environment and human health as well as their contribution to sustainable development were investigated. Well known Turkish companies from each industrial branch were evaluated in detail. These industrial sectors having economic importance are compared to each other according to their effects on quality of human life and environment and the results are evaluated accordingly.

  7. Oligarchic forests of economic plants in amazonia: utilization and conservation of an important tropical resource.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peters, C M; Balick, M J; Kahn, F; Anderson, A B

    1989-12-01

    Tropical forests dominated by only one or two tree species occupy tens of millions of hectares in Ammonia In many cases, the dominant species produce fruits, seeds, or oils of economic importance. Oligarchic (Gr. oligo = few, archic = dominated or ruled by) forests of six economic species, i. e., Euterpe oleracea, Grias peruviana, Jessenia bataua, Mauritia flexuosa, Myrciaria dubia, and Orbignya phalerata, were studied in Brazil and Peru Natural populations of these species contain from 100 to 3,000 conspecific adult trees/ha and produce up to 11.1 metric tons of fruit/hd/yr. These plant populations are utilized and occasionally managed, by rural inhabitants in the region. Periodic fruit harvests, if properly controlled have only a minimal impact on forest structure and function, yet can generate substantial economic returns Market-oriented extraction of the fruits produced by oligarchic forests appears to represent a promising alternative for reconciling the development and conservation of Amazonian forests.

  8. Economically important species dominate aboveground carbon storage in forests of southwestern Amazonia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. Galia Selaya

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Tree species in tropical forests provide economically important goods and ecosystem services. In submontane forests of southwestern Amazonia, we investigated the degree to which tree species important for subsistence and trade contribute to aboveground carbon storage (AGC. We used 41 1-hectare plots to determine the species abundance, basal area, and AGC of stems > 10 cm diameter at breast height (dbh. Economically important taxa were classified using ethnobotanical studies and according to their stem density. These taxa (n = 263 accounted for 45% of total stems, 53% of total basal area, and 56% of total AGC, significantly more than taxa with minor or unknown uses (Welch test at p 40 cm and few stems in regeneration classes of dbh < 10 to 20 cm (e.g., Bertholletia excelsa, Cariniana spp., Cedrelinga spp., Ceiba spp., Dipteryx spp., whereas dominant Tetragastris spp., and Pseudolmedia spp. had most stems in low diameter classes and a median diameter of < 30 cm. Bertholletia excelsa, with 1.5 stems per hectare, showed the highest basal area of any species and accounted for 9% of AGC (11 Mg/ha, twice that of the second-ranking species. Our study shows that economic importance and carbon stocks in trees are closely linked in southwestern Amazonia. Unplanned harvests can disrupt synergistic dual roles altering carbon stocks temporally or permanently. Precautionary measures based on species ecology, demography, and regeneration traits should be at the forefront of REDD+ to reconcile maximum harvesting limits, biodiversity conservation, and sustainable forest management.

  9. Human capital demand in Brazil: The effects of adjustment cost, economic growth, exports and imports

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joilson Dias

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this paper is to learn about the effects of the adjustment costs, economic growth, imports and exports on human capital labor demand. The dynamic model proposed by Sargent (1978 was adjusted to consider three types of human capital: (a one with fundamental education (1–8 years of schooling; (b one with secondary education level (9–11 years of education; (c and one with tertiary education level (12 years or more of schooling. Using state level panel data, the dynamic econometrics estimates showed the following results: (i the labor market adjustment costs are very higher; (ii the adjustment cost for the human capital with intermediary education level is the highest one compared to the others; (iii the states’ economic growth favor those with superior education; (iv the imports seems to favor the demand for those with intermediate education levels; (v the degree of openness does show some weak effect on the demand for human capitals with intermediate education. In sum, the growing demand for human capital with some superior education seems to be more associated to its lower adjustment cost and economic growth; the non-significance of real wage elasticity and high adjustment cost seems to indicate that the human capital with intermediate knowledge is in short supply; hence, economic education policy that increases supply of such human capital are in need.

  10. Ecosystem Services from Edible Insects in Agricultural Systems: A Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Charlotte L. R. Payne

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Many of the most nutritionally and economically important edible insects are those that are harvested from existing agricultural systems. Current strategies of agricultural intensification focus predominantly on increasing crop yields, with no or little consideration of the repercussions this may have for the additional harvest and ecology of accompanying food insects. Yet such insects provide many valuable ecosystem services, and their sustainable management could be crucial to ensuring future food security. This review considers the multiple ecosystem services provided by edible insects in existing agricultural systems worldwide. Directly and indirectly, edible insects contribute to all four categories of ecosystem services as outlined by the Millennium Ecosystem Services definition: provisioning, regulating, maintaining, and cultural services. They are also responsible for ecosystem disservices, most notably significant crop damage. We argue that it is crucial for decision-makers to evaluate the costs and benefits of the presence of food insects in agricultural systems. We recommend that a key priority for further research is the quantification of the economic and environmental contribution of services and disservices from edible insects in agricultural systems.

  11. Ecosystem Services from Edible Insects in Agricultural Systems: A Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Payne, Charlotte L. R.; Van Itterbeeck, Joost

    2017-01-01

    Many of the most nutritionally and economically important edible insects are those that are harvested from existing agricultural systems. Current strategies of agricultural intensification focus predominantly on increasing crop yields, with no or little consideration of the repercussions this may have for the additional harvest and ecology of accompanying food insects. Yet such insects provide many valuable ecosystem services, and their sustainable management could be crucial to ensuring future food security. This review considers the multiple ecosystem services provided by edible insects in existing agricultural systems worldwide. Directly and indirectly, edible insects contribute to all four categories of ecosystem services as outlined by the Millennium Ecosystem Services definition: provisioning, regulating, maintaining, and cultural services. They are also responsible for ecosystem disservices, most notably significant crop damage. We argue that it is crucial for decision-makers to evaluate the costs and benefits of the presence of food insects in agricultural systems. We recommend that a key priority for further research is the quantification of the economic and environmental contribution of services and disservices from edible insects in agricultural systems. PMID:28218635

  12. Ecosystem Services from Edible Insects in Agricultural Systems: A Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Payne, Charlotte L R; Van Itterbeeck, Joost

    2017-02-17

    Many of the most nutritionally and economically important edible insects are those that are harvested from existing agricultural systems. Current strategies of agricultural intensification focus predominantly on increasing crop yields, with no or little consideration of the repercussions this may have for the additional harvest and ecology of accompanying food insects. Yet such insects provide many valuable ecosystem services, and their sustainable management could be crucial to ensuring future food security. This review considers the multiple ecosystem services provided by edible insects in existing agricultural systems worldwide. Directly and indirectly, edible insects contribute to all four categories of ecosystem services as outlined by the Millennium Ecosystem Services definition: provisioning, regulating, maintaining, and cultural services. They are also responsible for ecosystem disservices, most notably significant crop damage. We argue that it is crucial for decision-makers to evaluate the costs and benefits of the presence of food insects in agricultural systems. We recommend that a key priority for further research is the quantification of the economic and environmental contribution of services and disservices from edible insects in agricultural systems.

  13. The role and importance of ECB's monetary policy in the global economic crisis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stakić Nikola

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents the role and importance of the European Central Bank (ECB in the context of measures and effects that are being taken to repair the consequences of the current economic crisis. The ECB, together with the European single currency, the euro, symbolizes long-lasting monetary integration of the EU states. Such form of integration has created the possibility of a supranational action of ECB in the banking sector and financial markets in general. Along with the other most important central banks in the world, the ECB applies various unconventional instruments of monetary policy to stimulate economic growth and development. In this context, the paper explains the nature and mechanism of such measures in order to influence on the insufficient liquidity in the financial markets.

  14. The importance of economic theory in the regulation of the economy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nusratullin Vil Kasimovich

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available The author proposes to pay more attention to the scientific results of local authors, their recommendations, including its development in the framework of non-equilibrium economics. In particular, he stressed the importance of the ideological interpretation of nonequilibrium profits and justify its source - intelligence and its carriers; formulated to them the law of large numbers, which proves that there is no special law of value separately for rent and nerentnyh industries etc.

  15. Radiation and Radioisotopes Applied to Insects of Agricultural Importance. Proceedings of the Symposium on the Use and Application of Radioisotopes and Radiation in the Control of Plant and Animal Insect Pests

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1963-09-15

    Since the pioneer work of the United States Department of Agriculture in the application of radiation and radioisotopes in the control of insect pests to cattle, many countries and organizations have pursued the advantages which might be gained in this field. Two years ago the IAEA organized the first international symposium in Bombay to study this problem, since when a considerable amount of basic research on the application of nuclear science in entomology and insect pest control has been undertaken. The potential gain of these studies, which would be in the form of an increased output of better food, is obvious to all Governments; hence the extensive international interest in the subject of this present Symposium, which was attended by 100 participants from 26 countries and 5 international organizations. The proceedings consist of 37 papers presented by experts from 10 countries, together with a record of the discussions, and cover the use of radioisotopes in the study of the ecology of insects, such as their dispersal, migration and life-cycle. The application of radioisotopes to insecticides covers such subjects as labelling, application, uptake, translocation, metabolism, mode of action, and the determination' of residues in plants and animals. The present position on the effects of radiation on insects is dealt with, including mutation, sterilization and the use of the sterile-male technique for the control and eradication of insect pests, and the need is emphasized for integration of chemical, biological, radiation and other methods of insect control. The emphasis of this Symposium has been mainly on aspects of crop protection and it is hoped that the next symposium will also deal with aspects of livestock protection.

  16. Insect Detectives

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    2002-08-01

    Aug 1, 2002 ... all life stages of insects from and around the corpse. The collected specimens are subjected to further analysis either in the field itself or in the laboratory. A forensic entomologist has three main objectives in his mind while analyzing the insect data: determination of place, time and mode of death, each of.

  17. Insect Keepers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, Virginia J.; Chessin, Debby A.; Theobald, Becky

    2010-01-01

    Insects are fascinating creatures--especially when you and your students get up close and personal with them! To that end, the authors facilitated an inquiry-based investigation with an emphasis on identification of the different types of insects found in the school yard, their characteristics, their habitat, and what they eat, while engaging the…

  18. Edible insects

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Huis, van A.

    2017-01-01

    Is it an impossible task to convince consumers to eat insects? This does not only apply to western consumers who are less familiar with this food habit than consumers in tropical countries. In the tropics too, many people do not consume insects, even though they are easier to collect as food than

  19. Eating insects

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tan, Hui Shan Grace

    2017-01-01

    In recent years, edible insects have gained global attention due to their nutritional and environmental advantages over conventional meat. While numerous species of edible insects are enjoyed in various cultures around the world, most Western consumers react with disgust and aversion towards

  20. THE SUSTAINABLE IMPORTANCE OF REMITTANCES AND THEIR ROLE IN ECONOMIC DEVELOPMENT. THE CASE OF ROMANIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liana SON

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available The increasing amplitude of migrants and remittences in the last years, especially toward the developing countries has positive effects on development in the countries of origin. Empiric research outline the potentially significant effect of remittances on the economy of a country in various ways, as a source of external financing, contributing to the growth and economic development, to the increase of the national income and stimulation of consumption, and at the same time, important in financing households, contributing to poverty decrease. These challenges are a priority for Romania, an emigration country that receives every year un important volume of remittances, but, at present with a preponderant role in the consumption.

  1. Insect (food) allergy and allergens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Gier, Steffie; Verhoeckx, Kitty

    2018-05-03

    Insects represent an alternative for meat and fish in satisfying the increasing demand for sustainable sources of nutrition. Approximately two billion people globally consume insects. They are particularly popular in Asia, Latin America, and Africa. Most research on insect allergy has focussed on occupational or inhalation allergy. Research on insect food safety, including allergenicity, is therefore of great importance. The objective of this review is to provide an overview of cases reporting allergy following insect ingestion, studies on food allergy to insects, proteins involved in insect allergy including cross-reactive proteins, and the possibility to alter the allergenic potential of insects by food processing and digestion. Food allergy to insects has been described for silkworm, mealworm, caterpillars, Bruchus lentis, sago worm, locust, grasshopper, cicada, bee, Clanis bilineata, and the food additive carmine, which is derived from female Dactylopius coccus insects. For cockroaches, which are also edible insects, only studies on inhalation allergy have been described. Various insect allergens have been identified including tropomyosin and arginine kinase, which are both pan-allergens known for their cross-reactivity with homologous proteins in crustaceans and house dust mite. Cross-reactivity and/or co-sensitization of insect tropomyosin and arginine kinase has been demonstrated in house dust mite and seafood (e.g. prawn, shrimp) allergic patients. In addition, many other (allergenic) species (various non-edible insects, arachnids, mites, seafoods, mammals, nematoda, trematoda, plants, and fungi) have been identified with sequence alignment analysis to show potential cross-reactivity with allergens of edible insects. It was also shown that thermal processing and digestion did not eliminate insect protein allergenicity. Although purified natural allergens are scarce and yields are low, recombinant allergens from cockroach, silkworm, and Indian mealmoth are

  2. Indonesia Export, Import, and Demand for Domestic Commodities under Economics Liberalisation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andi Irawan

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this research is to identify the behaviour of export, import and domestic commoditiesdemand in liberalization era both in the long run and the short run. This researchapplies the Vector Error Correction Model, Johansen Cointegration Test, Impulse ResponseAnalysis and Granger Causality Test. The data range from 1993:01 to 2002:12. The resultshows that in the long run the cross-price elasticity of imported non agricultural goods withrespect to demand for domestically produced goods have lower magnitudes than own priceelasticity of domestically produced goods. The demand elasticity of import commodities iselastic but that of domestic commodities is inelastic.Keywords: Import, Export, Economic Liberalization, Vector Error Correction Model

  3. Impact of the Sugar Import Reduction on Iran Economic Value Added (Input- Output Approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fateme Hayatgheibi

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The present study aimed at understanding interactions and linkages between the sugar sector with other economic sectors, and the influence of sugar import reduction on the economic value added. To achieve the purpose, the Input-Output table of Iran for the year 2006, Leontief inverse matrix and hypothetical extraction method were used. Based on the results, sugar industry has the most forward linkages with “Manufacture of food products and beverages,…”, “husbandry, aviculture,…”, “cultivation, horticulture”, “bakery products” and “restaurants”. This sector has also strong backward linkages with “cultivation, horticulture”, “chemicals and chemical products”, “other services”, “transport and telecommunication” and “financial services, insurance and bank”. Furthermore, either one unit increase in the final demand of sugar or one unit decrease in the sugar import increases the output of whole economic, agricultural and fishing, industry and mining, and services sectors by 2.3060, 0.6019, 1.4331, and 0.2710 unit, respectively. The increasing coefficients of the value added for the above sectors are 0.4308, 0.3700, and 0.1992 unit, respectively.

  4. ANALYSIS IMPORT POLICY OF SOYBEAN ON ECONOMICS PERFORMANCE OF INDONESIAN SOYBEAN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muthiah Abda Azizah

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Trade liberalization is closely related to the opening of market access for Indonesian products to the world and vice versa. Since the soybean trade out of BULOG control began in 1998, soybean imports increased very rapidly (Sudaryanto and Swastika, 2007. This research aims to determine the general picture of soybean economy, factors analyses that influence the economic performance of Indonesian soybean and findings the alternative of policies that can reduce soybean imports in Indonesia. Methods of data analysis are descriptive analysis, 2SLS simultaneous equations, and simulation of policy alternatives. Results of the analysis of the factors that affect the economic performance of Indonesian soybean, consists of 1 The area of soybean harvest is influenced significantly by the price of domestic soybean and domestic prices of corn, 2 Productivity soybean influenced significantly by the domestic prices of soybean and fertilizer prices, 3 soybean demand influenced significantly by population, domestic prices of soybean, 4 domestic prices of soybean significantly affected by world prices of soybean, exchange rates, and soybean supply, 5 Imports of soybean influenced significantly by the domestic demand of soybean and soybean production. Therefore, policy scenarios should be made to reduce soybean imports, including by carrying out the expansion of soybean harvest policy, the policy of increasing the productivity of soybean, the policy of subsidizing the price of fertilizer.

  5. The Priority Importance of Economic Motivation Factors Against Risks for Green Building Development in Malaysia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohamed Ghazali Farid Ezanee

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Green building development is an emerging paradigm for the construction industry practice all around the world. The establishement of Green Building rating tool helps to assess the whole life cycle process in planning to operation in a building. The Malaysian construction industry recognizes buildings that have been assessed using established green building tool such Green Building Index, Green RE or My CREST. Eventhough these rating tools provide motivation factors in its criteria and sub-criteria to promote sustainability in Malaysia buildings, there is still a major doubt to developers in terms of risks that may hinder their investments in green buildings. This paper highlights the priority importance of economic motivation factors against risks in the green building development in Malaysia. The data presented in this paper have been mainly derived from responses received through questionnaires completed by building stakeholders involved in green building developments. In order to determine the priority importance of economic motivation factors and risks identified for green building development, the questionnaire outcomes have been thoroughly assessed using the Analytical Hierarchy Process (AHP method. As a result, lack of government incentive and high capital cost, which classified under green building risks, are the two key factors with highest priority importance that influenced most of the decision making for green building development in Malaysia. The results show green buildings have proliferated as governmental support and incentives with more exampler of higher profit return of investment in enhancing developers preference for green building development.

  6. Ethno-botanical studies of economically important plants from mountainous region of gilgit-baltistan, pakistan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Awan, M.R.; Khan, A.; Jamal, Z.

    2013-01-01

    Ethno botanical studies of economically important plants from Gilgit-Baltistan were conducted during 2003-2006. Extensive field trips were conducted for collection of plants according to their flowering and fruiting period and ethno-botanical data obtained during field trips. This area has many ecological zones, lies between 3000ft to 29000ft above sea level. Due to difference in soil, climate, moisture contents, latitude, longitude, altitude and topography, great diversity of plants of economic importance were found in these areas. Locals belonging to different ethnic groups, like, sayed, Gujjar, Mughal, Sheen, Yaskuin, Wakhi, Tajik, Khowar, etc., are settled there. They have distinct life styles, beliefs, traditions, life style and culture. There is a great shortage medical treatment therefore locals use indigenous plants for treatment of various diseases at local level. Folklore treatment is considered the cheapest source of curing diseases at local level. Information regarding ethno-medicinal importance was obtained from local inhabitants of old age. These plants have been utilised over many generations by various ethnic groups. It was found that indigenous medicinal flora of the area is quite rich and is diverse, due to the difference in altitude, climate and other topographic conditions. It is expected that this paper will be beneficial for locals, students, researchers, farmers, foresters and general public alike. (author)

  7. Institutional delivery in rural India: the relative importance of accessibility and economic status.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kesterton, Amy J; Cleland, John; Sloggett, Andy; Ronsmans, Carine

    2010-06-06

    Skilled attendance at delivery is an important indicator in monitoring progress towards Millennium Development Goal 5 to reduce the maternal mortality ratio by three quarters between 1990 and 2015. In addition to professional attention, it is important that mothers deliver their babies in an appropriate setting, where life saving equipment and hygienic conditions can also help reduce the risk of complications that may cause death or illness to mother and child. Over the past decade interest has grown in examining influences on care-seeking behavior and this study investigates the determinants of place of delivery in rural India, with a particular focus on assessing the relative importance of community access and economic status. A descriptive analysis of trends in place of delivery using data from two national representative sample surveys in 1992 and 1998 is followed by a two-level (child/mother and community) random-effects logistical regression model using the second survey to investigate the determinants. In this investigation of institutional care seeking for child birth in rural India, economic status emerges as a more crucial determinant than access. Economic status is also the strongest influence on the choice between a private-for-profit or public facility amongst institutional births. Greater availability of obstetric services will not alone solve the problem of low institutional delivery rates. This is particularly true for the use of private-for-profit institutions, in which the distance to services does not have a significant adjusted effect. In the light of these findings a focus on increasing demand for existing services seems the most rational action. In particular, financial constraints need to be addressed, and results support current trials of demand side financing in India.

  8. Stephanitis takeyai and S. rhododendri (Heteroptera: Tingidae in Slovakia: first record and economic importance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Barta Marek

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available This is the first report on the occurrence of andromeda lace bug, Stephanitis (Stephanitis takeyai Drake and Maa, 1955, and rhododendron lace bug, Stephanitis (Stephanitis rhododendri Horvath, 1905, in Slovakia. Syntopic colonies of both species were found on rhododendron shrubs (Rhododendron sp. in south-western Slovakia in 2015. The feeding of the lace bugs resulted in damage to infested rhododendrons. Leaves turned yellow and brown, prematurely dropped what led to continuous drying up of twigs and the whole plants. Details on morphology of adult stages of the two species, description of damage symptoms and economic importance of these pests are presented and discussed.

  9. Importance of low-temperature distillation of coal for German fuel economics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rosendahl, F

    1942-01-01

    Improved processes are available to give low-temperature distillation products economic importance. Low-temperature distillation is limited to the utilization of high-volatile nut coals and briquets. The coke formed can be used as a smokeless fuel, and the tar directly as a fuel oil. Phenols can be extracted, in order to work up the residue into fuel oil and motor fuel. Large deposits of coal in Upper Silesia and in the Saar District are suitable for low-temperature distillation.

  10. Breeding programs for the main economically important traits of zebu dairy cattle

    OpenAIRE

    Ariosto Ardila Silva

    2010-01-01

    In tropical regions, Gyr and Guzerat breeds (Bos indicus) are most explored for dairy industry and are much more adapted to climate. Gyr and Guzerat are Zebu breeds very common in Brazil and they are being used to generate Bos taurus x Bos indicus crosses in order to combine good production, heat and parasite tolerance on the tropics. Breeding programs for the main economically important traits of Zebu dairy cattle have been recently introduced in Brazil and is based on the use of genetically...

  11. THE SOCIO-ECONOMIC IMPORTANCE OF PROGRAMS FOR THE FINANCING OF CROSS-BORDER COOPERATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mioara BORZA

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The topic of European funding shows a great interest for present and, especially, for the future. The common problems of areas implied in the cross-border programs are correlated to socio-economic development of communities. By this paper we propose an analysis, by inventory type, descriptive and qualitative, of implemented projects and of the perspectives for projects in 2014-2020 period. The results of paper consist in identification of solid arguments about the importance and necessity of these programmes and projects.

  12. How EU Economic Integration Advances on the Way of Some Important Unions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    PETRE PRISECARU

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Economic union and monetary union are deeply connected: two dimensions of the third stage of European integration. But achieving monetary union without a complete single market in the field of financial services proved the vulnerability of Eurozone to external shocks and the need to a further economic integration. While banking union has advanced quite fast in the last two years, capital markets union is only a project, also the fiscal union, which is the basic foundation of a true political union. A complete financial union will take a long time to accomplish due to many political, financial and bureaucratic obstacles facing such an ambitious project. Energy Union is another important project meant to remove market fragmentation, to enhance energy security and to reduce environmental impact of energy sector. Finally the political union, the last stage of European integration, the dream of many famous politicians and scholars, will be only possible on the long run as a new type of federation of nation states, provided that all components of economic union will be fully attained.

  13. An Integrated Molecular Database on Indian Insects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pratheepa, Maria; Venkatesan, Thiruvengadam; Gracy, Gandhi; Jalali, Sushil Kumar; Rangheswaran, Rajagopal; Antony, Jomin Cruz; Rai, Anil

    2018-01-01

    MOlecular Database on Indian Insects (MODII) is an online database linking several databases like Insect Pest Info, Insect Barcode Information System (IBIn), Insect Whole Genome sequence, Other Genomic Resources of National Bureau of Agricultural Insect Resources (NBAIR), Whole Genome sequencing of Honey bee viruses, Insecticide resistance gene database and Genomic tools. This database was developed with a holistic approach for collecting information about phenomic and genomic information of agriculturally important insects. This insect resource database is available online for free at http://cib.res.in. http://cib.res.in/.

  14. Insect Data

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Records of past temperature and environment derived from beetle and other insect fossils. Parameter keywords describe what was measured in this data set. Additional...

  15. Insect Detectives

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    2002-08-01

    Aug 1, 2002 ... He writes popular science articles in ... science, English poetry is his area of ... A fascinating branch of insect science (ento- ... Methods in Forensic Entomology .... bullet wound to the right temple, and a substantial pooling of.

  16. Eating insects

    OpenAIRE

    Tan, Hui Shan Grace

    2017-01-01

    In recent years, edible insects have gained global attention due to their nutritional and environmental advantages over conventional meat. While numerous species of edible insects are enjoyed in various cultures around the world, most Western consumers react with disgust and aversion towards eating creatures that are not regarded as food. The low consumer acceptance of this culturally inappropriate food is currently considered to be one of the key barriers to attaining the benefits of this po...

  17. The Sterile Insect Technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kiragu, J.

    2006-01-01

    Insect pests have caused an increasing problem in agriculture and human health through crop losses and disease transmission to man and livestock. Intervention to ensure food security and human health has relied on Integrated Pest Management (IPM) strategies to keep the pests population below economic injury levels. IPM integrate a variety of methods, but there has been over-reliance on chemical control following the discovery of insecticidal properties of DDT. It is now realized that, maintaining pest populations at controlled levels is unsustainable and eradication options is now being considered. Although the Sterile Insect Technique(SIT) could be used for insect suppression, it is gaining favour in the elimination (eradication) of the target pest population through Areawide-based IPM (Author)

  18. Farmers' breeding practices and traits of economic importance for indigenous chicken in RWANDA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahoro, J; Muasya, T K; Mbuza, F; Mbuthia, J; Kahi, A K

    2018-01-01

    Data on breeding practices and traits of economic importance for the indigenous chicken (IC) were collected through personal interviews using structured questionnaires and direct observations of chicken management practices. The study was conducted from November 2015 to January 2016 in Rwamagana, Rulindo, Ruhango, Kicukiro and Muhanga districts of Rwanda. Data were collected and analysed through computation of indices, which represented a weighted average of all rankings of a specific trait. Spearman's non-parametric rank correlation was calculated for ranking of traits of economic importance to indicate the directional effects. The results on chicken ecotypes and their attributes showed that prolificacy, mature weight, disease tolerance, egg number and heat tolerance were highly preferred. The dwarf ecotype was most abundantly reared (38.84%) and considered to be significantly smaller and to have poorer growth rate, but to have better prolificacy than other indigenous chicken ecotypes. Selection of breeding cock and hen was based on disease tolerance, body weight at sexual maturity, body size and growth rate. In addition, for hen, mothering ability and egg fertility (Fer) were considered. Indices for the traits perceived by farmers as of primary economic importance were egg yield (0.093), disease tolerance (0.091), high growth rate (0.089), prolificacy (0.088), high body weight (0.087) and egg fertility (0.083). The most important traits considered by the marketers were body weight (BW), disease tolerance (Dtol), plumage colour (Pcol), egg yolk colour (EYC), meat quality (MQ), growth rate (GR) and egg yield (EY) whereas for consumers, meat quality, egg yolk colour, egg yield, body weight and growth rate were considered. Among traits perceived as important by farmers, a positive and significant correlation was found between BW and GR and Fer. Correlation was moderate for BW and prolificacy, drought tolerance (Drtol), Dtol and EYC. BW was negatively correlated with

  19. Economic indicators of the production of important fruit-specific species in Vojvodina

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lukač-Bulatović Mirjana

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper discusses the basic economic and production results of important fruit species (apple, pear, peach, sour cherry and plum on agricultural farms of Vojvodina. The aim of the research is to evaluate the most important parameters of cost-effectiveness of these productions, and propose measures to improve the existing situation. Comparative analysis clearly shows that the most cost-effective is pears production, followed by apple, cherry, peach and plum. Pear production gives the largest coverage margin per unit capacity (1,261,786 din /ha, which is 16.5% better than in apple production (1,083,160 din /ha, or about 7.8 times better in relation to plums production (161,796 din /ha. The highest coefficient of economy (3.19 is, also, recorded in the production of pear (for apples 2.94, cherry 2.27, peach 2.17 and plum 1.44. Further development of fruit production in Vojvodina involves raising intensive farms with quality fruit varieties, firmer vertical linking of producers and processors, ensurement of economic safety of producers in the long run, making of fruit producing regions, etc.

  20. Economic foundation and importance of non-state security sector within the national security system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anđelković Slobodan

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The main purpose of this paper was to present the causes (for, role (played by and the growing importance of the non-state actors within the national security sector, while analyzing the economic interest of individuals, organizations and the state itself that were favoring such a development. In the course of our research we established how, as the state narrowed its activities down to more vital and more dangerous fields of work, this opened up space for independent contractors to enter those fields which carried less systemic risk. Such change was made possible in the post-Cold War context, when many of the former service members were hired by private companies. The economic motive had a role to play as well, given the need for additional security going beyond what state offered to its citizens, as many doubted the ability (efficiency of state to provide it in the first place; and private sector's willingness to provide it for a price. In Serbia, position of non-state security sector is still very much limited by the traditional notion of security as well as the division of competences, both left-overs from socialist times. This goes against positive tendencies within the sector itself (improvement of types and specialization of the security as service; strengthening of legal regulation; flexibility of services being offered. By conducting its basic service and improving the security of its clients, representatives of non-state security sector are - indirectly - improving the security of society as a whole, ensuring economic stability, which presents one of key national interests.

  1. Socio-economic status plays important roles in childhood cancer treatment outcome in Indonesia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mostert, Saskia; Gunawan, Stefanus; Wolters, Emma; van de Ven, Peter; Sitaresmi, Mei; Dongen, Josephine van; Veerman, Anjo; Mantik, Max; Kaspers, Gertjan

    2012-01-01

    The influence of parental socio-economic status on childhood cancer treatment outcome in low-income countries has not been sufficiently investigated. Our study examined this influence and explored parental experiences during cancer treatment of their children in an Indonesian academic hospital. Medical charts of 145 children diagnosed with cancer between 1999 and 2009 were reviewed retrospectively. From October 2011 until January 2012, 40 caretakers were interviewed using semi-structured questionnaires. Of all patients, 48% abandoned treatment, 34% experienced death, 9% had progressive/ relapsed disease, and 9% overall event-free survival. Prosperous patients had better treatment outcome than poor patients (Pfate or God (55%). Causes of cancer were thought to be destiny (35%) or God's punishment (23%). Alternative treatment could (18%) or might (50%) cure cancer. Most parents (95%) would like more information about cancer and treatment. More contact with doctors was desired (98%). Income decreased during treatment (55%). Parents lost employment (48% fathers, 10% mothers), most of whom stated this loss was caused by their child's cancer (84% fathers, 100% mothers). Loss of income led to financial difficulties (63%) and debts (55%). Treatment abandonment was most important reason for treatment failure. Treatment outcome was determined by parental socio-economic status. Childhood cancer survival could improve if financial constraints and provision of information and guidance are better addressed.

  2. Edible insects are the future?

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Huis, Arnold

    2016-08-01

    The global increase in demand for meat and the limited land area available prompt the search for alternative protein sources. Also the sustainability of meat production has been questioned. Edible insects as an alternative protein source for human food and animal feed are interesting in terms of low greenhouse gas emissions, high feed conversion efficiency, low land use, and their ability to transform low value organic side streams into high value protein products. More than 2000 insect species are eaten mainly in tropical regions. The role of edible insects in the livelihoods and nutrition of people in tropical countries is discussed, but this food source is threatened. In the Western world, there is an increasing interest in edible insects, and examples are given. Insects as feed, in particular as aquafeed, have a large potential. Edible insects have about the same protein content as conventional meat and more PUFA. They may also have some beneficial health effects. Edible insects need to be processed and turned into palatable dishes. Food safety may be affected by toxicity of insects, contamination with pathogens, spoilage during conservation and allergies. Consumer attitude is a major issue in the Western world and a number of strategies are proposed to encourage insect consumption. We discuss research pathways to make insects a viable sector in food and agriculture: an appropriate disciplinary focus, quantifying its importance, comparing its nutritional value to conventional protein sources, environmental benefits, safeguarding food safety, optimising farming, consumer acceptance and gastronomy.

  3. Breeding programs for the main economically important traits of zebu dairy cattle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ariosto Ardila Silva

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available In tropical regions, Gyr and Guzerat breeds (Bos indicus are most explored for dairy industry and are much more adapted to climate. Gyr and Guzerat are Zebu breeds very common in Brazil and they are being used to generate Bos taurus x Bos indicus crosses in order to combine good production, heat and parasite tolerance on the tropics. Breeding programs for the main economically important traits of Zebu dairy cattle have been recently introduced in Brazil and is based on the use of genetically superior sires in the herds. A major objective of QTL (Quantitative Trait Loci and candidate genes is to find genes and markers that can be implemented in breeding programs across marker assisted selection (MAS. In Zebu dairy cattle MAS could be used to pre-select young candidate bulls to progeny testing, thus increasing selection differentials, shortening generation interval and increasing genetic gain

  4. Importance of physical infrastructure in the economic growth of municipalities in the northern border

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Héctor Alonso Barajas Bustillos

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper evaluates the importance of infrastructure on economic growth for the Mexican northern border municipalities. From the growth literature, we know that infrastructure, besides other factors, has been pointed out as a key factor in the long run perspectives of regional growth. Nevertheless, and within this thematic context, works that use a disaggregated analysis down to the level of the municipality are still scarce, which in the case of the northern border constitutes a scenario of much relevance given the development model adopted by the Mexican economy in recent decades. Empirical models results indicate that the municipalities of Piedras Negras, Nogales and Torreon maintain a positive relationship between physical infrastructure and growth. In the case of other municipalities like Tijuana, its elevated population growth inhibits a proper infrastructure allocation, although the positive effect induced by infrastructure on growth remains.

  5. Impact of mine waste dumps on growth and biomass of economically important crops.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mathiyazhagan, Narayanan; Natarajan, Devarajan

    2012-11-01

    The present study aimed to investigate the effect of magnesite and bauxite waste dumps on growth and biochemical parameters of some edible and economically important plants such as Vigna radiata, V. mungo, V. unguiculata, Eleusine coracana, Cajanus cajan, Pennisetum glaucum, Macrotyloma uniflorum, Oryza sativa, Sorghum bicolour, Sesamum indicum, Ricinus communis, Brassica juncea, Gossypium hirsutum and Jatropha curcas. The growth rate of all the crops was observed in the range of 75 to 100% in magnesite and 15 to 100% in bauxite mine soil. The moisture content of roots and shoots of all the crops were in the range of 24 to 77, 20 to 88% and 42 to 87, 59 to 88% respectively. The height of the crops was in the range of 2.6 to 48 cm in magnesite soil and 3 to 33 cm in bauxite soil. Thus the study shows that both mine soils reflects some physical and biomolecule impact on selected crops.

  6. In Vitro Conservation of Some Threatened and Economically Important Ferns Belonging to the Indian Subcontinent

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shastri P. Shukla

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This study was undertaken to identify methods of mass multiplication for five ornamental, economically important ferns (Nephrolepis biserrata (Sw. Schott., N. cordifolia cv. ‘‘duffii’’ (L. Presl., N. exaltata cv. bostoniensis (L. Schott., Pteris vittata L., and Cyclosorus dentatus Link., and three threatened ferns, namely, Cyathea spinulosa Wall. ex. Hook, Pityrogramma calomelanos (L. Link., and Microsorum punctatum (L. Schott., through in vitro techniques. Collections were made from different biodiversity zones of India including Northeast Himalayas, Kumaon Himalayas, and Western Ghat and successfully introduced and grown in a fern-house. Aseptic cultures were raised at the morphogenic level of callus, axillary shoot, multiple shoot, and rooted plants. An optimized medium is described for each fern species. Plantlets were also produced from spore culture of Cyathea spinulosa and successfully hardened under fern house conditions.

  7. The Sterile Insect Technique:Current and Future Prospects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    ALRubeai, H.F.

    2004-01-01

    Considering the importance of the Key insect pests and their potential for economic and environmental impact, such species are the targets for area-wide approaches including in some cases the use of SIT. At the heart of the SIT is genetic sterility that is introduced into the target population by releasing large numbers of sterile insects . The development of an SIT package for a Key pest, involving mass rearing and aerial dispersion, as well as field monitoring and a suppression system. Losses caused by insect pests throughout the developing world will continue to be unacceptably high in the foreseeable future. Therefore, the economic feasibility of non-chemical pest control tools, including biologically -based methods such as SIT, will become increasingly apparent . This study include an overview of the basic scientific principles of SIT , is successful applications and related mass rearing and irradiation facilities over the world. (author)

  8. Hospital-physician relations: the relative importance of economic, relational and professional attributes to organizational attractiveness

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-01-01

    Background Belgian hospitals face a growing shortage of physicians and increasingly competitive market conditions. In this challenging environment hospitals are struggling to build effective hospital-physician relationships which are considered to be a critical determinant of organizational success. Methods Employed physicians of a University hospital were surveyed. Organizational attributes were identified through the literature and two focus groups. Variables were measured using validated questionnaires. Descriptive analyses and linear regression were used to test the model and relative importance analyses were performed. Results The selected attributes predict hospital attractiveness significantly (79.3%). The relative importance analysis revealed that hospital attractiveness is most strongly predicted by professional attributes (35.3%) and relational attributes (29.7%). In particular, professional development opportunities (18.8%), hospital prestige (16.5%), organizational support (17.2%) and leader support (9.3%) were found to be most important. Besides these non-economic aspects, the employed physicians indicated pay and financial benefits (7.4%) as a significant predictor of hospital attractiveness. Work-life balance and job security were not significantly related to hospital attractiveness. Conclusions This study shows that initiatives aimed at strengthening physicians’ positive perceptions of professional and relational aspects of practicing medicine in hospitals, while assuring satisfactory financial conditions, may offer useful avenues for increasing the level of perceived hospital attractiveness. Overall, hospitals are advised to use a differentiated approach to increase their attractiveness to physicians. PMID:24884491

  9. Hospital-physician relations: the relative importance of economic, relational and professional attributes to organizational attractiveness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trybou, Jeroen; Gemmel, Paul; Van Vaerenbergh, Yves; Annemans, Lieven

    2014-05-21

    Belgian hospitals face a growing shortage of physicians and increasingly competitive market conditions. In this challenging environment hospitals are struggling to build effective hospital-physician relationships which are considered to be a critical determinant of organizational success. Employed physicians of a University hospital were surveyed. Organizational attributes were identified through the literature and two focus groups. Variables were measured using validated questionnaires. Descriptive analyses and linear regression were used to test the model and relative importance analyses were performed. The selected attributes predict hospital attractiveness significantly (79.3%). The relative importance analysis revealed that hospital attractiveness is most strongly predicted by professional attributes (35.3%) and relational attributes (29.7%). In particular, professional development opportunities (18.8%), hospital prestige (16.5%), organizational support (17.2%) and leader support (9.3%) were found to be most important. Besides these non-economic aspects, the employed physicians indicated pay and financial benefits (7.4%) as a significant predictor of hospital attractiveness. Work-life balance and job security were not significantly related to hospital attractiveness. This study shows that initiatives aimed at strengthening physicians' positive perceptions of professional and relational aspects of practicing medicine in hospitals, while assuring satisfactory financial conditions, may offer useful avenues for increasing the level of perceived hospital attractiveness. Overall, hospitals are advised to use a differentiated approach to increase their attractiveness to physicians.

  10. The Importance of Being Colorful and Able to Fly: Interpretation and Implications of Children's Statements on Selected Insects and Other Invertebrates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Breuer, Gabriele B.; Schlegel, Jürg; Kauf, Peter; Rupf, Reto

    2015-01-01

    Children have served as research subjects in several surveys on attitudes to insects and invertebrates. Most of the studies have used quantitative scoring methods to draw conclusions. This paper takes a different approach as it analyzes children's free-text comments to gain an understanding of their viewpoints. A total of 246 children aged 9-13…

  11. Consuming insects

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Roos, Nanna; van Huis, A.

    2017-01-01

    as a part of a varied diet. They also have the potential to provide bioactive compounds that have health benefits beyond simple nutritional values, as is the case for other food groups such as fruits and vegetables. Various recent studies have indicated such bioactivity in different insect species....... The enormous number of edible insect species may be a source of novel bioactive compounds with health benefits addressing global health challenges. However, any identified health benefits need to be confirmed in human studies or in standardised assays accepted in health research prior to making health claims....

  12. Insect Capital

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrew Pilsch

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available In this note, Pilsch address William Gibson’s use of insect imagery in to trouble the common understanding of the novel Neuromancer, its commentary on corporate culture, and its relationship to a then-emergent posthumanism. Further, he concludes by suggesting that, for Gibson, the insect hive as an image for the corporate body shows that corporate culture is, in contrast to the banal image the term brings to mind, a set of nefarious cultural techniques derived for interfacing human bodies with the corporation’s native environment in the postmodern era: the abstractions of data.

  13. Insights into the Importance of Economic Concepts to Other Introductory Business Courses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prenshaw, Penelope J.; Taylor, Susan Washburn

    2007-01-01

    Economics is a building block for additional business knowledge. In most business curricula, the principles of economics sequence is a prerequisite for further business study. Economists have their own ideas of which economic concepts are most valued by business peers, but the authors are unaware of any published study which specifically asks…

  14. The social, economic, and environmental importance of inland fish and fisheries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lynch, Abigail J.; Cooke, Steven J.; Deines, Andrew M.; Bower, Shannon D.; Bunnell, David B.; Cowx, Ian G.; Nguyen, Vivian M.; Nohner, Joel K.; Phouthavong, Kaviphone; Riley, Betsy; Rogers, Mark W.; Taylor, William W.; Woelmer, Whitney; Youn, So-Jung; Beard, T. Douglas

    2016-01-01

    Though reported capture fisheries are dominated by marine production, inland fish and fisheries make substantial contributions to meeting the challenges faced by individuals, society, and the environment in a changing global landscape. Inland capture fisheries and aquaculture contribute over 40% to the world’s reported finfish production from less than 0.01% of the total volume of water on earth. These fisheries provide food for billions and livelihoods for millions of people worldwide. Herein, using supporting evidence from the literature, we review 10 reasons why inland fish and fisheries are important to the individual (food security, economic security, empowerment), to society (cultural services, recreational services, human health and well-being, knowledge transfer and capacity building), and to the environment (ecosystem function and biodiversity, as aquatic “canaries”, the “green food” movement). However, the current limitations to valuing the services provided by inland fish and fisheries make comparison with other water resource users extremely difficult. This list can serve to demonstrate the importance of inland fish and fisheries, a necessary first step to better incorporating them into agriculture, land-use, and water resource planning, where they are currently often underappreciated or ignored.

  15. Importance of using roller compacted concrete in techno-economic investigation and design of small dams

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rouissat, Bouchrit; Smail, N.; Zenagui, S.

    2017-12-01

    In recent years, and under constraints caused by persistent drought, Algeria has launched a new mobilization strategy for surface water resources from small and medium dams. However, by making a review of the studies and achievements of twenty small dams in the west of Algeria, some deficiencies appeared. In addition to reservoir siltation assessment, operation spillways have been the major constraint on the reliability of these types of dams. The objective of this paper is to use the roller compacted concrete (RCC) for small dams' design for the benefit it offers and its ability to incorporate spillways. The development of this reflection was applied to the Khneg Azir earth dam situated in southwest of Algeria. Its uncontrolled lateral spillway has registered significant damage following the flood of October 2005, amounted, at that time, to more than 100 million Algerian dinars (1 million US Dollars). The present research encompasses a technical and economical comparative analysis concerning multiple criteria dam design types coupled with the conjugation of the spillways. Thus, on the basis of financial estimates calculated for all design types, the variant RCC remains competitive with that of the earth dam's spillway isolated (Less than 40% of the cost). To assess the mechanical behavior of the foundations for both types of dams, (earth and RCC dams), numerical modeling has been undertaken, according to the comparative analysis of deformations in the foundations. Analysis of deformations showed that the average foundation deformations was between (0.052-0.85) m for earth dam and (0.023-0.373) m for RCC dam. These economical and technical considerations open up important prospects for the use of RCC in the design of small dams.

  16. Insect bite reactions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sanjay Singh

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Insects are a class of living creatures within the arthropods. Insect bite reactions are commonly seen in clinical practice. The present review touches upon the medically important insects and their places in the classification, the sparse literature on the epidemiology of insect bites in India, and different variables influencing the susceptibility of an individual to insect bites. Clinical features of mosquito bites, hypersensitivity to mosquito bites Epstein-Barr virus NK (HMB-EBV-NK disease, eruptive pseudoangiomatosis, Skeeter syndrome, papular pruritic eruption of HIV/AIDS, and clinical features produced by bed bugs, Mexican chicken bugs, assassin bugs, kissing bugs, fleas, black flies, Blandford flies, louse flies, tsetse flies, midges, and thrips are discussed. Brief account is presented of the immunogenic components of mosquito and bed bug saliva. Papular urticaria is discussed including its epidemiology, the 5 stages of skin reaction, the SCRATCH principle as an aid in diagnosis, and the recent evidence supporting participation of types I, III, and IV hypersensitivity reactions in its causation is summarized. Recent developments in the treatment of pediculosis capitis including spinosad 0.9% suspension, benzyl alcohol 5% lotion, dimethicone 4% lotion, isopropyl myristate 50% rinse, and other suffocants are discussed within the context of evidence derived from randomized controlled trials and key findings of a recent systematic review. We also touch upon a non-chemical treatment of head lice and the ineffectiveness of egg-loosening products. Knockdown resistance (kdr as the genetic mechanism making the lice nerves insensitive to permethrin is discussed along with the surprising contrary clinical evidence from Europe about efficacy of permethrin in children with head lice carrying kdr-like gene. The review also presents a brief account of insects as vectors of diseases and ends with discussion of prevention of insect bites and some

  17. Stinging Insect Matching Game

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... for Kids ▸ Stinging Insect Matching Game Share | Stinging Insect Matching Game Stinging insects can ruin summer fun for those who are ... the difference between the different kinds of stinging insects in order to keep your summer safe and ...

  18. IMPORTANCE OF REGIONAL DEVELOPMENT PROGRAMS FOR THE ECONOMIC GROWTH OF RURAL AREAS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dorosh A.

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Article determine the essence of the definition of "region", defined types of regions. In general, we can distinguish four types of regions, formed to implement the tasks under different direction: a homogeneous regions (formed on the basis of common characteristics – mountain region, economically developed / underdeveloped region and so on.. b functional regions (formed by determining the basic type of economic activity – touristic region, agricultural region, etc.. c administrative regions (formed by pre-defined criteria for performing administrative functions in a particular area – district, local council, etc.. d personal perception regions (based on personal values – Homeland and so on.. The focus of this publication focuses on the study of rural regions. As a result of studies is found that the population of Ukraine decreased by about 7 million Inhabitants. In 1993 there was 52.2 million of people, and in 2016 dropped to 42.7 million (temporary occupied territories excluded. Determined that the most influential factors are the degradation of rural region’s economic and demographic crisis (can be both a cause and consequence of each other. In this regard, the worsening of demographic situation is the biggest problem, because without human resources economic growth can’t be achieved. For more profound understanding of the problem we used the spiral of negative developed of communities/regions proposed by Austrian scientists G. Weber and T. Fisher. It indicates the relationship between adverse events and their sequence. This choice is not accidental, because the spiral indicates that this is a progressive movement that eventually accelerated and the difficulty of stopping the negative processes increases not arithmetically but geometrically. Therefore, developing regional programs of rural development moderators (selected and trained specialists who work in the region cooperate with the heads of communities and local residents

  19. Study of a simplified method of evaluating the economic maintenance importance of components in nuclear power plant system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aoki, Takayuki; Takagi, Toshiyuki; Kodama, Noriko

    2014-01-01

    Safety risk importance of components in nuclear power plants has been evaluated based on the probabilistic risk assessment and used for the decisions in various plant managements. But economic risk importance of the components has not been discussed very much. Therefore, this paper discusses risk importance of the components from the viewpoint of plant economic efficiency and proposes a simplified evaluation method of the economic risk importance (or economic maintenance importance). As a result of consideration, the followings were obtained. (1) A unit cost of power generation is selected as a performance indicator and can be related to a failure rate of components in nuclear power plant which is a result of maintenance. (2) The economic maintenance importance has to major factors, i.e. repair cost at component failure and production loss associated with plant outage due to component failure. (3) The developed method enables easy understanding of economic impacts of plant shutdown or power reduction due to component failures on the plane which adopts the repair cost in vertical axis and the production loss in horizontal axis. (author)

  20. THE IMPORTANCE OF FOREIGN DIRECT INVESTMENTS ON ECONOMIC DEVELOPMENT OF KOSOVA

    OpenAIRE

    Myrvete Badivuku Pantina; Mihane Berisha Namani

    2008-01-01

    Kosova, in the period of nine years, has gone from a post-conflict environment into a state which is considered to be under transition. It has passed the reconstruction period by orienting itself toward the economic development and European Integrations. Yet, an economic development is not enough to be able to address the challenges Kosova is facing, such as high unemployment and high trade deficit rate. The unemployment rate in Kosova is one the highest economic concerns. The unemployment ra...

  1. Economic importance of the small miner and small mining businesses in Alaska

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hawley, C.C.; Whitney, J.W.; Wobber, F.J.

    1977-11-01

    This study documents the economic characteristics of the small mining industry in Alaska, including both mine production and mineral deposit discovery. Economic effects on business activities in Alaska are considered. The study is largely qualitative in nature. It is based on state economic statistics, data obtained from state and federal government agencies, interviews, and indirect evaluation. Direct and indirect effects on employment, purchase and maintenance of heavy equipment, fuels, other consumables, and transportation are identified.

  2. The Importance of Being Colorful and Able to Fly: Interpretation and implications of children's statements on selected insects and other invertebrates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Breuer, Gabriele B.; Schlegel, Jürg; Kauf, Peter; Rupf, Reto

    2015-11-01

    Children have served as research subjects in several surveys on attitudes to insects and invertebrates. Most of the studies have used quantitative scoring methods to draw conclusions. This paper takes a different approach as it analyzes children's free-text comments to gain an understanding of their viewpoints. A total of 246 children aged 9-13 completed a standard questionnaire regarding their attitudes toward 18 invertebrates indigenous to Switzerland. Fourteen insect species and four other invertebrates were individually presented in a color photograph without any further background information. The children were given the opportunity to provide comments on each animal to explain the attitude score they had awarded. Nearly 5,000 comments were coded and categorized into 7 positive and 9 negative categories. A significant correlation between fear and disgust was not detected. Based on a hierarchical cluster analysis, we concluded that flying in the air versus crawling on the ground was a major differentiator for attitude and underlying reasons, only being trumped by the fear of getting stung. The visualization of our findings in a cluster heat map provided further insights into shared statement categories by species. Our analysis establishes that fear and disgust are separate emotions with regard to insects and other invertebrates. Based on our findings, we believe that prejudice-based fear and culturally evolved revulsion can be overcome. We suggest promoting environmental education programs, especially if they allow for personal experience, provide information in emotion-activating formats, and include content that resolves existing misinformation and myths.

  3. Tracking cashew economically important diseases in the West African region using metagenomics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monteiro, Filipa; Romeiras, Maria M.; Figueiredo, Andreia; Sebastiana, Mónica; Baldé, Aladje; Catarino, Luís; Batista, Dora

    2015-01-01

    During the last decades, agricultural land-uses in West Africa were marked by dramatic shifts in the coverage of individual crops. Nowadays, cashew (Anacardium occidentale L.) is one of the most export-oriented horticulture crops, notably in Guinea-Bissau. Relying heavily on agriculture to increase their income, developing countries have been following a strong trend of moving on from traditional farming systems toward commercial production. Emerging infectious diseases, driven either by adaptation to local conditions or inadvertent importation of plant pathogens, are able to cause tremendous cashew production losses, with economic and social impact of which, in developing countries is often underestimated. Presently, plant genomics with metagenomics as an emergent tool, presents an enormous potential to better characterize diseases by providing extensive knowledge on plant pathogens at a large scale. In this perspective, we address metagenomics as a promising genomic tool to identify cashew fungal associated diseases as well as to discriminate the causal pathogens, aiming at obtaining tools to help design effective strategies for disease control and thus promote the sustainable production of cashew in West African Region. PMID:26175748

  4. Tracking cashew economically important diseases in the West African region using metagenomics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Filipa eMonteiro

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available During the last decades, agricultural land-uses in West Africa were marked by dramatic shifts in the coverage of individual crops. Nowadays, cashew (Anacardium occidentale L. is one of the most export-oriented horticulture crops, notably in Guinea-Bissau. Relying heavily on agriculture to increase their income, developing countries have been following a strong trend of moving on from traditional farming systems towards commercial production. Emerging infectious diseases, driven either by adaptation to local conditions or inadvertent importation of plant pathogens, are able to cause tremendous cashew production losses, with economic and social impact of which, in developing countries is often underestimated. Presently, plant genomics with metagenomics as an emergent tool, presents an enormous potential to better characterize diseases by providing extensive knowledge on plant pathogens at a large scale. In this perspective, we address metagenomics as a promising genomic tool to identify cashew fungal associated diseases as well as to discriminate the causal pathogens, aiming at obtaining tools to help design effective strategies for disease control and thus promote the sustainable production of cashew in West African region.

  5. Sensitivity of promising cherry hybrids and new cultivars to economically important fungal diseases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. Vasileva

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract. As a result of years of developing the breeding programme for creating novel sweet cherry cultivars in the Fruit Growing Institute (FGI, Plovdiv, a reach hybrid fund from first and second hybrid generation is created. Of the selected and propagated hybrids at a more advanced stage of testing are 11 hybrids along with three new cultivars of the FGI Plovdiv ('Kossara', 'Rosalina' and 'Trakiiska hrushtyalka' grafted on three rootstocks were tested for sensitivity to causers of economically important fungal diseases in sweet cherry - cherry leaf spot (Blumeriella jaapii (Rehm Arx, shothole blight (Stigmina carpophila (Lev. Ellis and brown rot (Monilinia fructigena (G. Wint Honey. The degree of infestation under field conditions is reported by determining the index of attack on leaves and fruit, using the formula of McKinney. As the most sensitive elites are outlined elite El.17-31 (to cherry leaf spot and elite El.17-136 (to shothole blight. The cultivars 'Kossara' and 'Trakiiska hrushtyalka' exhibit an average resistance to the three diseases, as the values for the index of infestation are lower or similar to those of standard cultivars 'Van' and 'Bing', while 'Rosalina' demonstrated sensitivity to shothole blight and brown rot. Interesting is the elite El.17- 37 demonstrating the least infestation of Blumeriella jaapii - 7.33% and Monilinia fructigena - 6.67%. The same has a set of valuable qualities as late maturing date and very large fruits with excellent sensory profile, making it a potential candidate cultivar.

  6. PCR-RFLP Method to Identify Salmonid Species of Economic Importance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andreea Dudu

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available The identification of different fish species by molecular methods has become necessary to avoid both the incorrect labelling of individuals involved in repopulation programmes and the commercial frauds on the fish market. Different fish species of great economical importance, like the salmonids, which are very much requested for their meat, can be identified using molecular techniques such as PCR-RFLP. The method is based on the amplification of a target region from the genome by PCR reaction followed by endonucleases digestion to detect the polymorphism of restriction fragments. In our study we analysed the following salmonid species from Romania: Salmo trutta fario, Salmo labrax, Salvelinus fontinalis, Onchorhynchus mykiss, Thymallus thymallus and Hucho hucho. In order to discriminate between the analysed species we amplified a fragment of mitochondrial genome comprising tRNAGlu/ cytochrome b/ tRNAThr/ tRNAPro/ D-loop/ tRNAPhe, followed by digestion with a specific restriction enzyme. The direct digestion of unpurified PCR products generated species-specific restriction patterns and proved to be a simple, reliable, inexpensive and fast method. Thus, it may be successfully utilized in specialized laboratories for the correct identification of the fish species for multiple purposes, including the traceability of fish food products.

  7. Insects: A nutritional alternative

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dufour, P. A.

    1981-01-01

    Insects are considered as potential food sources in space. Types of insects consumed are discussed. Hazards of insect ingestion are considered. Insect reproduction, requirements, and raw materials conversion are discussed. Nutrition properties and composition of insects are considered. Preparation of insects as human food is discussed.

  8. Socio-economic importance of environmentally sustainable nature tourism in Pakistan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Siddiqui, S.

    2005-01-01

    The research paper deals with the nature tourism which is defined as unremunerated visits by local and foreign mountaineers, trekkers and rock climbers to the mountainous areas in Gilgit, Skardu and Chitral. Pakistan is gifted with one of the richest and unique collection of high mountains with three spectacular mountain ranges of the world Karakoram, Hindukush and Himalayas located in the Northern Areas. These ranges have more than 700 peaks above 6000 meters, with as many as 160 peaks rising above 7000 meters. Five out of the total fourteen peaks rising above eight thousand meters, namely K-2, Nanga Parbat, the Hidden Peak Gasherbrum-I, the Broad peak and the Gasherbrum-ll, situated within 20 Kms radius around famous glacial junction-Concordia in Karakoram. Nature Tourism besides being of importance to Federal Government as a source of foreign exchange earnings through royalty and trekking fees, tt is of particular importance for the local economy in the Northern Areas where nature tourists generate considerable economic activities. The Research Paper intends to study and analyze prospects and scope of Nature Tourism in Pakistan with a view to highlight dangers of environmental degradation and suggest balanced set of measures for promoting nature tourism with minimal negative environmental impact. The Research study is primarily based on secondary data collected by Ministry of Tourism during debriefing of mountaineers and trekkers, supplemented with primary data collected through self completion questionnaire and structured interview of Adventure and participants of International Conference on sustainable Tourism -New Vision and the Moving Force for Poverty Alleviation, held in Lahore on April 12 -13, 2005 Tour Operators. The analysis shows that owing to relatively small size of nature tourism environmental condition in Pakistan is not as bad as it might be in other comparable countries. Nevertheless with the growing volume of nature tourism there is a need to

  9. Economic losses due to important diseases of bovines in central India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dhananjay Singh

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Aim: To analyze the factors associated with morbidity and mortality rates as well as to evaluate economic losses due to important diseases of bovines, viz. mastitis, HS and surra in Purvanchal Region of Uttar Pradesh. Materials and Methods: A sample of 300 livestock owners were selected from each of five divisions of Purvanchal region of the state of Uttar Pradesh using multistage stratified sampling with simple random sampling without replacement at village level. The morbidity, mortality and case fatality rates due to different diseases were determined using standard statistical indices. Association between cattle morbidity and mortality rates and different factors was calculated by χ2 Test. The total economic loss due to diseases in bovines was worked out as sum of mortality loss, loss in milk yield and cost of treatment of affected animals. Results: The overall morbidity rates of mastitis, HS and surra in cattle and buffaloes were 15.5%, 7.1% and 5.3%, respectively. The mortality and case fatality due to HS was found higher in the young calves as compared to the adults in case of both buffaloes and cattle. Mortality and case fatality due to surra was greater in the adult animals as compared to the younger ones in case of both buffaloes and cattle. Total losses due to mastitis per lactation in ND cow, CB cow and buffalo were INR 868.34, INR 1, 314.10 and INR 1, 272.36, respectively. Total losses due to HS per animal in ND cows, CB cows and buffaloes were INR 2, 355.78, INR 3, 228.52 and INR 4, 262.57, respectively. Total losses due to surra per animal in ND cow, CB cow and buffalo were INR 3, 328.18, INR 6, 193 and INR 9, 872.33, respectively. Conclusion: The study thus revealed significant losses due to diseases in large ruminants on. There is thus ample scope for preventive measures to control the disease bovines.

  10. Importance of bio-medical and socio-economic factors for increase of life expectancy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Radivojević Biljana M.

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper analyzes the connection between life expectancy according to sex and numerous factors on which its level depends on. Statistical analysis understood application of correlation and regression analysis for determining the connection strength of life expectancy and researched factors separately and then all factors together, as well as separately groups of health-medical and socio-economic factors. The analysis was carried out for a group of developed countries, medium developed, mixed group and Yugoslavia (now SCG on available data for the second half of the 20th century. Analysis results for Yugoslavia showed that the greatest influence on life expectancy of all factors together were setting aside funds for social security (p<0.05. If only health-medical factors are observed, then child mortality up to 5 years and tumor mortality are in question. With women, the greatest influence is with child mortality up to five years old among all factors (importance of certain factors analysis showed that the influence of socio-economic factors on life expectancy was very strong in present conditions of mortality, not only in positive, but in negative direction as well, and that their influence in that second half of the 20th century was greater than the influence of health

  11. Homegrown or imported? Frugal innovation and local economic development in Zambia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pesa, I.

    2015-01-01

    Innovation and entrepreneurship have the potential to stimulate economic growth. Yet it remains unclear whether top-down or bottom-up innovations are more likely to lead to local economic development. By looking at three cases of frugal innovation on the Zambian Copperbelt, in the spheres of

  12. Radiations: tool for insect pest management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Swami, Kailash Kumar; Kiradoo, M.M.; Srivastava, Meera

    2012-01-01

    The discovery that X-rays or gamma radiation could cause sufficient genetic damage to insect reproductive systems to induce sterility resulted from work conducted by H.J. Muller starting in the 1920s. The sterilizing effect of radiation was noted by scientists of the US Department of Agriculture who had been seeking a method to sterilize insects for many years. These scientists had theorized that if large numbers of the target insect species were reared, sterilized, and released into the field, the sterile insects would mate with the wild insects. These mating would result in no offspring and thus a decline in the population would be obtained. They calculated that if sufficient numbers of sterile insects were released, reproductive rate for the wild population would rapidly decline and reach zero. In simple language, birth control of insects. Radiation sterilization was the answer. In a SIT operation, radiation is used to sexually sterilize insects. Since the SIT is species specific, the selection the insect pest or group of pests on which to work is of primary importance. The Joint Division of the IAEA Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO) has been involved in the use of isotopes and radiation in insect control since 1964. Isotopes are used as tags or markers, for instance, of chemical molecules, insects, or plants. For example, with these tags one can follow the fate of insecticides within insects and the environment; the incorporation of nutrients into the insect; and the movements of insects under field conditions. They also can plants on which insects feed so that the quantity of consumed food can be measured and directly correlated with plant resistance. They can be used as well to follow parasites and predators of insects - for example, their movements, numbers, and ability to help control insect pests. Radiations therefore have come as a novel tool to combat insect pest problem and in future could be very helpful in various other ways, of be it be cost

  13. Micropropagation of Cyclopia genistoides, an endemic South African plant of economic importance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kokotkiewicz, Adam; Luczkiewicz, Maria; Hering, Anna; Ochocka, Renata; Gorynski, Krzysztof; Bucinski, Adam; Sowinski, Pawel

    2012-01-01

    An efficient micropropagation protocol of Cyclopia genistoides (L.) Vent., an indigenous South African shrub of economic importance, was established. In vitro shoot cultures were obtained from shoot tip fragments of sterile seedlings cultured on solid Schenk and Hildebrandt (SH) medium supplemented with 9.84 microM 6-(gamma,gamma-dimethylallylamino)purine (2iP) and 1.0 microM thidiazuron (TDZ). Maximum shoot multiplication rate [(8.2 +/- 1.3) microshoots/explant)] was observed on this medium composition. Prior to rooting, the multiplied shoots were elongated for 60 days (two 30-days passages) on SH medium with one-half sucrose concentration, supplemented with 4.92 microM indole-3-butyric acid (IBA). The rooting of explants was only possible in the case of the elongated shoots. The highest root induction rate (54.8%) was achieved on solid SH medium with one-half sucrose and one-half potassium nitrate and ammonium nitrate concentration, respectively, supplemented with 28.54 microM indole-3-acetic acid (IAA) and 260.25 microM citric acid. The plantlets were acclimatized for 30 days in the glasshouse, with the use of peat/gravel/perlite substrate (1:1:1). The highest acclimatization rate (80%) was obtained for explants rooted with the use of IAA-supplemented medium. The phytochemical profile of the regenerated plants was similar to that of the reference intact plant material. HPLC analyses showed that C. genistoides plantlets obtained by the micropropagation procedure kept the ability to produce xanthones (mangiferin and isomangiferin) and the flavanone hesperidin, characteristic of wild-growing shrubs.

  14. Assessment of oil content and fatty acid composition variability in two economically important Hibiscus species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Ming Li; Morris, Brad; Tonnis, Brandon; Davis, Jerry; Pederson, Gary A

    2012-07-04

    The Hibiscus genus encompasses more than 300 species, but kenaf (Hibiscus cannabinus L.) and roselle (Hibiscus sabdariffa L.) are the two most economically important species within the genus. Seeds from these two Hibiscus species contain a relatively high amount of oil with two unusual fatty acids: dihydrosterculic and vernolic acids. The fatty acid composition in the oil can directly affect oil quality and its utilization. However, the variability in oil content and fatty acid composition for these two species is unclear. For these two species, 329 available accessions were acquired from the USDA germplasm collection. Their oil content and fatty acid composition were determined by nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) and gas chromatography (GC), respectively. Using NMR and GC analyses, we found that Hibiscus seeds on average contained 18% oil and seed oil was composed of six major fatty acids (each >1%) and seven minor fatty acids (each Hibiscus cannabinus seeds contained significantly higher amounts of oil (18.14%), palmitic (20.75%), oleic (28.91%), vernolic acids (VA, 4.16%), and significantly lower amounts of stearic (3.96%), linoleic (39.49%), and dihydrosterculic acids (DHSA, 1.08%) than H. sabdariffa seeds (17.35%, 18.52%, 25.16%, 3.52%, 4.31%, 44.72%, and 1.57%, respectively). For edible oils, a higher oleic/linoleic (O/L) ratio and lower level of DHSA are preferred, and for industrial oils a high level of VA is preferred. Our results indicate that seeds from H. cannabinus may be of higher quality than H. sabdariffa seeds for these reasons. Significant variability in oil content and major fatty acids was also detected within both species. The variability in oil content and fatty acid composition revealed from this study will be useful for exploring seed utilization and developing new cultivars in these Hibiscus species.

  15. The impact and importance of new technologies in business development in context of economic diversity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ciobanu Oana-Georgiana

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available In a globalized world, led and connected by and through technology, gadgets and perpetual and intense technological development, the business environment and the trajectory travelled by entrepreneurs in the process of creation and development of a business, becomes more and more challenging and complex. Continuous innovation has become mandatory and „adaptability” became the keyword for the success of any entrepreneurial actions. In this socio-economic context, an organization must find, through entrepreneurs or managers, the courage to face the uncertainty and be always prepared to adopt radical solutions, so that, can provide sustainability of the business through competitiveness. The purpose of this research started from the need for adaptability and flexibility of the Romanian entrepreneurial environment to the trends in the digital era, in order to maintain the level of competitiveness and to develop sustainably. The objective of this scientific approach is to conduct a qualitative comparative analysis relating to the importance and the impact of new technologies in the development and sustainability of a business. The comparison will be made through the eyes of two main categories of actors in the creation and development of a business namely entrepreneurs and managers from two consecutive generations - generation X (born between 1965 and 1980 and generation Y (born between 1980 and 1995. The methodology used in this study is qualitative research through focus group method, and it aims to be highlighted the changes occurred in leadership and management style of a business/organization, by observing and comparing the two generations' attitudes towards change, towards new, towards the digital component, and the intent of the use of new technologies, and more than that, their impact on the management style.

  16. Genetic Linkage Mapping of Economically Important Traits in Cultivated Tetraploid Potato (Solanum tuberosum L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Massa, Alicia N; Manrique-Carpintero, Norma C; Coombs, Joseph J; Zarka, Daniel G; Boone, Anne E; Kirk, William W; Hackett, Christine A; Bryan, Glenn J; Douches, David S

    2015-09-14

    The objective of this study was to construct a single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP)-based genetic map at the cultivated tetraploid level to locate quantitative trait loci (QTL) contributing to economically important traits in potato (Solanum tuberosum L.). The 156 F1 progeny and parents of a cross (MSL603) between "Jacqueline Lee" and "MSG227-2" were genotyped using the Infinium 8303 Potato Array. Furthermore, the progeny and parents were evaluated for foliar late blight reaction to isolates of the US-8 genotype of Phytophthora infestans (Mont.) de Bary and vine maturity. Linkage analyses and QTL mapping were performed using a novel approach that incorporates allele dosage information. The resulting genetic maps contained 1972 SNP markers with an average density of 1.36 marker per cM. QTL mapping identified the major source of late blight resistance in "Jacqueline Lee." The best SNP marker mapped ~0.54 Mb from a resistance hotspot on the long arm of chromosome 9. For vine maturity, the major-effect QTL was located on chromosome 5 with allelic effects from both parents. A candidate SNP marker for this trait mapped ~0.25 Mb from the StCDF1 gene, which is a candidate gene for the maturity trait. The identification of markers for P. infestans resistance will enable the introgression of multiple sources of resistance through marker-assisted selection. Moreover, the discovery of a QTL for late blight resistance not linked to the QTL for vine maturity provides the opportunity to use marker-assisted selection for resistance independent of the selection for vine maturity classifications. Copyright © 2015 Massa et al.

  17. Homegrown or imported? Frugal innovation and local economic development in Zambia

    OpenAIRE

    Pesa, I.

    2015-01-01

    Innovation and entrepreneurship have the potential to stimulate economic growth. Yet it remains unclear whether top-down or bottom-up innovations are more likely to lead to local economic development. By looking at three cases of frugal innovation on the Zambian Copperbelt, in the spheres of housing, water and energy, it will be argued that polycentric innovation (which connects local and international actors) is most likely to generate inclusive development. Yet even a polycentric approach d...

  18. Advances on polyphenism in insects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xue, Xian-Ci; Yu, Li

    2017-09-20

    Polyphenism denotes that one genome produces two or more distinct phenotypes due to environmental inductions. Many cases have been reported in insects, for example, metamorphosis, seasonal polyphenism, the caste of eusocial insects and so on. Polyphenism is one of the most important reasons for insects to survive and thrive, because insects can adapt and use the environmental cues around them in order to avoid predators and reproduce by changing their phenotypes. Polyphenism has received growing attentions, ranging from the earlier description of this phenomenon to the exploration of possible inducing factors. With the recent advent of the genomic era, more and more studies based on next generation sequencing, gene knockout and RNA interference have been reported to reveal the molecular mechanism of polyphenism. In this review, we summarize the progresses of the polyphenism in insects and envision prospects of future researches.

  19. Economic and Social Models in Europe and the Importance of Reform

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martin Heipertz

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available This paper contributes to the ongoing debate on European economic and social models. It provides a comparative assessment of fiscal and regulatory policies in 17 industrialised countries (the EU15, US and Japan and presents the records of these countries in attaining key economic and social objectives. Social and economic systems that feature efficient public sectors and flexible market structures tend to experience reasonably sustainable public finances, high economic growth, education standards and employment, and well-functioning markets. Anglo-Saxon countries broadly fit this mould, albeit, seemingly, at some cost of income equality. A more pronounced emphasis on welfare state policies and the corresponding relatively high levels of public spending bring benefit to income distribution in the Nordic countries while the resulting inefficiencies in their economies are counterbalanced by flexibility in labour and particularly product markets. Also, a number of reform-minded European countries have improved their fiscal and regulatory policies while significantly enhancing the functioning of markets, fiscal sustainability and economic performance. This was generally attained without jeopardising social objectives. On the other hand, those continental and Mediterranean countries that maintain market inefficiencies and at the same time sustain expensive and inefficient welfare states generally suffer from low growth and employment and less well-functioning markets and face serious risks to their economies’ fiscal sustainability. The findings of this note support calls for the comprehensive reform of fiscal policies, as well as of product and labour markets.

  20. IMPORTANCE OF AGRO-ECOLOGICAL AND ECONOMIC STRATEGIC MANAGEMENT WITHIN THE TERTIARY SECTOR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    SLOBODAN POPOVIĆ

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this paper is to emphasize the importance of eco-agro-tourism within the tertiary sector economy countries, primarily in terms of the overall development of society as a whole. This question is particularly evident in terms of the Great Depression and every attempt to find out through improvement of business according to the author deserves attention. The authors make conclusions that agro significantly affects the rural areas in the states that are struggling to achieve development in all spheres of economy. In addition, the authors conclude that there is the impact of eco-agro-tourism and environmental and natural environment in which people live. The impact it has on the following levels such as: general, cultural, demographic, social, and economic, and others. Based on that clearly stands out as a multidisciplinary focus and the basis of observation of eco-agro-tourism. Race for financial gain often overlooked and natural environment in which BITIS people. Eco-agro-tourism includes a range of activities, services and additional facilities organized by the population mainly lives in the countryside or on family farms that have potential chances of developing structural attract tourists and generate income that are not standard. The authors conclude that organic agriculture can affect the development of the economy especially in rural areas, with it can to promote the concept of farm to be a new view to promote the development of approaches, such as: organic production, traditional crafts in order to increase the total supply, product sales to tourists that are manufactured on farm and more. Consequently, 159 Annals of the „Constantin Brâncuşi” University of Târgu Jiu, Economy Series, Issue 6/2015 „ACADEMICA BRÂNCUŞI” PUBLISHER, ISSN 2344 – 3685/ISSN-L 1844 - 7007 the authors' conclusion would be that the agro-tourism and eco-tourism have a chance to create a more substantial income people BITIS in the countryside

  1. Potential economic impact of introduction and spread of the red imported fire ant, Solenopsis invicta, in Hawaii

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gutrich, J.J.; VanGelder, E.; Loope, L.

    2007-01-01

    Globally, many invasive alien species have caused extensive ecological and economic damage from either accidental or intentional introduction. The red imported fire ant, Solenopsis invicta, has created billions of dollars in costs annually, spreading as an invasive species across the southern United States. In 1998, the red imported fire ant spread into California creating a highly probable future introduction via shipped products to Hawaii. This paper presents the estimation of potential economic impacts of the red imported fire ant (RIFA) to the state of Hawaii. Evaluation of impacts focuses on the economic sectors of (1) households, (2) agriculture (cattle and crop production), (3) infrastructure (cemeteries, churches, cities, electrical, telephone, and cable services, highways, hospitals and schools), (4) recreation, tourism and business (hotels/resort areas, golf courses, commercial businesses and tourists), and (5) government expenditures (with minimal intervention). The full annual economic costs of the red imported fire ant to Hawaii are estimated (in US$ 2006) to be $211 million/year, comprised of $77 million in damages and expenditures and $134 million in foregone outdoor opportunities to households and tourists. The present value of the projected costs of RIFA over a 20-year period after introduction total $2.5 billion. RIFA invasions across the globe indicate that economic cost-effective action in Hawaii entails implementation of prevention, early detection and rapid response treatment programs for RIFA. ?? 2007 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Arms and technology transfers: Security and economic considerations among importing and exporting states

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lodgaard, S.; Pfaltzgraff, R.L. Jr.

    1995-01-01

    The issues of technology and armament transfers are increasingly at the forefront of problems of international security and disarmament. Three major reasons could explain this. First, the disarmament process has been very successful in the last few years, especially in the field of nuclear, as well chemical and conventional, weapons. Second the disarmament effort underway concerns primarily the old partners of the East-West confrontation. Last, the general context, characterized by the opening and widening of exchanges, the increasingly open and transparent circulation of techniques and material, and the globalization of economic relations, must be taken into account. This report, prepared by UNIDIR comprises the following subjects: General trends in defense related transfers; Political/military factors associated with the diffusion of advanced technology; economic and technological consideration; and facilitation of economic growth/maximization of regional security and stability

  3. Value Added Tax Impacton Economic Activity: Importance, Implication and Assessment –The Romanian Experience

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mariana MUREȘAN

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper studies the impact of VAT upon the economic activity in Romania. By developing a new mathematical model we offer several dy-namic and effcient possibilities for observing the modifcations caused by the temporary reduc-tion of taxes upon the personal incomes which suggest that the resulting additional incomes are often saved and less consumed. Analyzing several temporary reductions in incomes, the model describes also a scheme regarding the developments of economic growth. Based on this scheme, are revealed the different arrangements in which a present economic activity infuences a future one. According to the proposed model, it is highlighted that the national income increases as a response to the aggregated demand.

  4. Methodology in structural determination and synthesis of insect pheromone

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guo-Qiang Lin

    1991-01-01

    Full Text Available By means of ethereal washing of insect pheromone glands of female moths, GC-MS detection along with microchemical reactions and electroantennogram (EAG survey, six economically important insect species were targeted for pheromone identification. The discovery of a natural pheromone inhibitor, chemo-selectivity and species isolation by pheromone will be described. The modified triple bond migration and triethylamine liganded vinyl cuprate were applied for achiral pheromone synthesis in double bond formation. Some optically active pheromones and their stereoisomers were synthesized through chiral pool or asymmetric synthesis. Some examples of chiral recognition of insects towards their chiral pheromones will be discussed. A CaH2 and silica gel catalyzed Sharpless Expoxidation Reaction was found in shortening the reaction time.

  5. Management of insect pests using semiochemical traps

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Baroffio, C. A.; Guibert, V.; Richoz, P.

    2016-01-01

    multitrap for the economical management of both of these pests at the same time. This is one of the first approaches to pest management of non-lepidopteran insect pests of horticultural crops using semiochemicals in the EU, and probably the first to target multiple species from different insect orders...

  6. Insect Cell Culture

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Oers, van M.M.; Lynn, D.E.

    2010-01-01

    Insect cell cultures are widely used in studies on insect cell physiology, developmental biology and microbial pathology. In particular, insect cell culture is an indispensable tool for the study of insect viruses. The first continuously growing insect cell cultures were established from

  7. Socio-economic Status Plays Important Roles in Childhood Cancer Treatment Outcome in Indonesia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mostert, S.; Gunawan, S.; Wolters, E.; van de Ven, P.M.; Sitaresmi, M.N.; van Dongen, J.; Veerman, A.J.P.; Mantik, M.F.J.; Kaspers, G.J.L.

    2012-01-01

    Background: The influence of parental socio-economic status on childhood cancer treatment outcome in low-income countries has not been sufficiently investigated. Our study examined this influence and explored parental experiences during cancer treatment of their children in an Indonesian academic

  8. How important is homeland education for refugees' economic position in the Netherlands?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hartog, J.; Zorlu, A.

    2009-01-01

    We use data on refugees admitted to The Netherlands that include registration of education in their homeland by immigration officers. Such data are seldom available. We investigate the quality and reliability of the registrations and then use them to assess effects on refugees’ economic position

  9. Health economic data in reimbursement of new medical technologies: importance of the socio-economic burden as a decision-making criterion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Georgi Iskrov

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Background: Assessment and appraisal of new medical technologies require a balance between the interests of different stakeholders. Final decision should take into account the societal value of new therapies.Objective: This perspective paper discusses the socio-economic burden of disease as a specific reimbursement decision-making criterion and calls for the inclusion of it as a counterbalance to the cost-effectiveness and budget impact criteria.Results/Conclusions: Socio-economic burden is a decision-making criterion, accounting for diseases, for which the assessed medical technology is indicated. This indicator is usually researched through cost-of-illness studies that systematically quantify the socio-economic burden of diseases on the individual and on the society. This is a very important consideration as it illustrates direct budgetary consequences of diseases in the health system and indirect costs associated with patient or carer productivity losses. By measuring and comparing the socio-economic burden of different diseases to society, health authorities and payers could benefit in optimizing priority setting and resource allocation.New medical technologies, especially innovative therapies, present an excellent case study for the inclusion of socio-economic burden in reimbursement decision-making. Assessment and appraisal have been greatly concentrated so far on cost-effectiveness and budget impact, marginalizing all other considerations. In this context, data on disease burden and inclusion of explicit criterion of socio-economic burden in reimbursement decision-making may be highly beneficial. Realizing the magnitude of the lost socio-economic contribution resulting from diseases in question could be a reasonable way for policy makers to accept a higher valuation of innovative therapies.

  10. Health Economic Data in Reimbursement of New Medical Technologies: Importance of the Socio-Economic Burden as a Decision-Making Criterion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iskrov, Georgi; Dermendzhiev, Svetlan; Miteva-Katrandzhieva, Tsonka; Stefanov, Rumen

    2016-01-01

    Assessment and appraisal of new medical technologies require a balance between the interests of different stakeholders. Final decision should take into account the societal value of new therapies. This perspective paper discusses the socio-economic burden of disease as a specific reimbursement decision-making criterion and calls for the inclusion of it as a counterbalance to the cost-effectiveness and budget impact criteria. Socio-economic burden is a decision-making criterion, accounting for diseases, for which the assessed medical technology is indicated. This indicator is usually researched through cost-of-illness studies that systematically quantify the socio-economic burden of diseases on the individual and on the society. This is a very important consideration as it illustrates direct budgetary consequences of diseases in the health system and indirect costs associated with patient or carer productivity losses. By measuring and comparing the socio-economic burden of different diseases to society, health authorities and payers could benefit in optimizing priority setting and resource allocation. New medical technologies, especially innovative therapies, present an excellent case study for the inclusion of socio-economic burden in reimbursement decision-making. Assessment and appraisal have been greatly concentrated so far on cost-effectiveness and budget impact, marginalizing all other considerations. In this context, data on disease burden and inclusion of explicit criterion of socio-economic burden in reimbursement decision-making may be highly beneficial. Realizing the magnitude of the lost socio-economic contribution resulting from diseases in question could be a reasonable way for policy makers to accept a higher valuation of innovative therapies.

  11. Mother's education is the most important factor in socio-economic inequality of child stunting in Iran.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Emamian, Mohammad Hassan; Fateh, Mansooreh; Gorgani, Neman; Fotouhi, Akbar

    2014-09-01

    Malnutrition is one of the most important health problems, especially in developing countries. The present study aimed to describe the socio-economic inequality in stunting and its determinants in Iran for the first time. Cross-sectional, population-based survey, carried out in 2009. Using randomized cluster sampling, weight and height of children were measured and anthropometric indices were calculated based on child growth standards given by the WHO. Socio-economic status of families was determined using principal component analysis on household assets and social specifications of families. The concentration index was used to calculate socio-economic inequality in stunting and its determinants were measured by decomposition of this index. Factors affecting the gap between socio-economic groups were recognized by using the Oaxaca-Blinder decomposition method. Shahroud District in north-eastern Iran. Children (n 1395) aged economic inequality in stunting was -0·1913. Mother's education contributed 70 % in decomposition of this index. Mean height-for-age Z-score was -0·544 and -0·335 for low and high socio-economic groups, respectively. Mother's education was the factor contributing most to the gap between these two groups. There was a significant socio-economic inequality in the studied children. If mother's education is distributed equally in all the different groups of Iranian society, one can expect to eliminate 70 % of the socio-economic inequalities. Even in high socio-economic groups, the mean height-for-age Z-score was lower than the international standards. These issues emphasize the necessity of applying new interventions especially for the improvement of maternal education.

  12. Insect anaphylaxis: addressing clinical challenges.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tracy, James M; Lewis, Elena J; Demain, Jeffrey G

    2011-08-01

    Few allergic reactions are as potentially life-threatening, or frightening to the patient, as anaphylaxis. Food, medications, and insect stings are the three most common triggers of anaphylaxis, but insect allergy provides the best opportunity to understand the biology of anaphylaxis. If the physician can establish a diagnosis of insect allergy, treatment with nearly 98% effectiveness can be initiated. However, sometimes patients have a compelling history of insect sting anaphylaxis, but negative skin and blood tests. This situation presents us with a fascinating opportunity to understand the biology of insect anaphylaxis. Recent and ongoing work shows that occult mast cell disease may be critical in insect anaphylaxis. Mastocytosis, serum tryptase and basophil biology are key elements; genetic markers may potentially help us diagnose at-risk individuals and determine proper treatment. Understanding basophil activation may play an additional role both in diagnosis and knowing when therapy might be terminated. Mast cell disease, serum tryptase and basophil biology are providing an opportunity to better understand and manage insect allergy. This evolving understanding should improve long-term management of insect anaphylaxis and help us to better understand the clinical dilemma of appropriate management of the history-positive patient in which testing is unable to detect venom-specific IgE. Furthermore, omalizumab's immunomodulatory effects may play a role in difficult-to-treat insect allergy and mastocytosis. Finally, unrelated to these, but still important as an ongoing risk factor, is the continued underutilization of epinephrine for both acute and long-term management of insect anaphylaxis.

  13. THE IMPORTANCE OF THE BANKING FINANCIAL EDUCATION COMPONENT IN ECONOMIC PERSPECTIVE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lucian-Ion MEDAR

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Economy and civil society has gone through an unprecedented financial crisis determined by an acute shortage of financial education among the large community of individuals and legal persons. Thus, the low level of economic and financial knowledge from society contributed to the amplification of economic crisis. In 2008, in the midst of financial crisis in the European Union was created Expert Group on Financial Education (EGFE, aimed at supporting a new financial education order. Breaking the vicious circle of banks debt and sovereign one, improvement of supervision European banking system, solving the financial problems of some banks through the mechanism of bank resolution, without recourse to public resources, strengthening the trust of potential customers in the financial market, in the first process of finalizing the Union European banking, can be achieved and by a new order of financial education

  14. Insects and Scorpions

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... insects or scorpions can be hazardous to outdoor workers. Stinging or biting insects include bees, wasps, hornets, and fire ants. The health effects of stinging or biting insects or scorpions range ...

  15. THE IMPORTANCE OF DIFFERENT TYPES OF COMPANIES WITH FOREIGN CAPITAL FOR ECONOMIC DEVELOPMENT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    CEAUSESCU IONUȚ

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available The process of globalization of economic relations international, in particular capital investments, it is accompanied by a multitude of forms of cooperation technology between firms. Globalization means, first of all, communications, computer science, economy based on information and knowledge, innovations, free circulation of capital flows and the expansion of markets. The answer of a firm or of the economy in the global competition requires flexibility, innovation and learning continue, networking (in the network and the investment in the image of the brand. The response of a state to the demands of the global market, consists in transferring technology and attracting foreign investment by creating a favorable business climate. An attractive business environment for investors requires a consistent system of facilities on which to base a medium to long-term business plan. We propose that, within this short study, we should carry out a radiography of the main types of foreignowned companies that contribute to the economic growth process and, implicitly, long-term to the economic development.

  16. The Importance of Broadband for Socio-Economic Development: A Perspective from Rural Australia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julie Freeman

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Advanced connectivity offers rural communities prospects for socio-economic development. Despite Australia’s national broadband infrastructure plans, inferior availability and quality of rural Internet connections remain persistent issues. This article examines the impact of limited connectivity on rural socio-economic opportunities, drawing from the views of twelve citizens from the Boorowa local government area in New South Wales. The available fixed wireless and satellite connections in Boorowa are slow and unreliable, and remote regions in the municipality are still without any Internet access. Participants identified four key areas in their everyday lives that are impacted by insufficient connectivity: business development, education, emergency communication, and health. Rural citizens often already face challenges in these areas, and infrastructure advancements in urban spaces can exacerbate rural-urban disparities. Participants’ comments demonstrated apprehension that failure to improve connectivity would result in adverse long-term consequences for the municipality. This article suggests that current broadband policy frameworks require strategic adaptations to account for the socio-economic and geographic contexts of rural communities. In order to narrow Australia’s rural-urban digital divide, infrastructure developments should be prioritised in the most underserved regions.

  17. Personality Type and Student Performance in Upper-Level Economics Courses: The Importance of Race and Gender.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borg, Mary O.; Stranahan, Harriet A.

    2002-01-01

    Demonstrates that personality type is an important explanatory variable in student performance in upper level economics courses. Finds that certain personality types, combined with race and gender effects, produce students who outperform other students. Introverts and those with the Keirsey-Bates temperament combination of sensing/judging…

  18. The Importance of Socio-Economic Versus Environmental Risk Factors for Reported Dengue Cases in Java, Indonesia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wijayanti, Siwi P M; Porphyre, Thibaud; Chase-Topping, Margo; Rainey, Stephanie M; McFarlane, Melanie; Schnettler, Esther; Biek, Roman; Kohl, Alain

    2016-09-01

    Dengue is a major mosquito-borne viral disease and an important public health problem. Identifying which factors are important determinants in the risk of dengue infection is critical in supporting and guiding preventive measures. In South-East Asia, half of all reported fatal infections are recorded in Indonesia, yet little is known about the epidemiology of dengue in this country. Hospital-reported dengue cases in Banyumas regency, Central Java were examined to build Bayesian spatial and spatio-temporal models assessing the influence of climatic, demographic and socio-economic factors on the risk of dengue infection. A socio-economic factor linking employment type and economic status was the most influential on the risk of dengue infection in the Regency. Other factors such as access to healthcare facilities and night-time temperature were also found to be associated with higher risk of reported dengue infection but had limited explanatory power. Our data suggest that dengue infections are triggered by indoor transmission events linked to socio-economic factors (employment type, economic status). Preventive measures in this area should therefore target also specific environments such as schools and work areas to attempt and reduce dengue burden in this community. Although our analysis did not account for factors such as variations in immunity which need further investigation, this study can advise preventive measures in areas with similar patterns of reported dengue cases and environment.

  19. Breeding and maintaining high-quality insects

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Kim; Kristensen, Torsten Nygård; Heckmann, Lars-Henrik

    2017-01-01

    Insects have a large potential for sustainably enhancing global food and feed production, and commercial insect production is a rising industry of high economic value. Insects suitable for production typically have fast growth, short generation time, efficient nutrient utilization, high...... reproductive potential, and thrive at high density. Insects may cost-efficiently convert agricultural and industrial food by-products into valuable protein once the technology is finetuned. However, since insect mass production is a new industry, the technology needed to efficiently farm these animals is still...... in a starting phase. Here, we discuss the challenges and precautions that need to be considered when breeding and maintaining high-quality insect populations for food and feed. This involves techniques typically used in domestic animal breeding programs including maintaining genetically healthy populations...

  20. Atomic war on insects intensified

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1967-06-15

    Intensive research work in many countries using nuclear methods aimed at reducing the immense food losses caused by insects have led to a number of important trial operations this year. Some are now in progress in Capri, the famous Italian tourist island, and in Central America. Both are directed against the Mediterranean fruit fly, which attacks most fruit in tropical and sub-tropical countries. Similar methods are also developing to combat other insect pests

  1. Dynamic role and importance of surrogate species for assessing potential adverse environmental impacts of genetically engineered insect-resistant plants on non-target organisms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wach, Michael; Hellmich, Richard L; Layton, Raymond; Romeis, Jörg; Gadaleta, Patricia G

    2016-08-01

    Surrogate species have a long history of use in research and regulatory settings to understand the potentially harmful effects of toxic substances including pesticides. More recently, surrogate species have been used to evaluate the potential effects of proteins contained in genetically engineered insect resistant (GEIR) crops. Species commonly used in GEIR crop testing include beneficial organisms such as honeybees, arthropod predators, and parasitoids. The choice of appropriate surrogates is influenced by scientific factors such as the knowledge of the mode of action and the spectrum of activity as well as societal factors such as protection goals that assign value to certain ecosystem services such as pollination or pest control. The primary reasons for using surrogates include the inability to test all possible organisms, the restrictions on using certain organisms in testing (e.g., rare, threatened, or endangered species), and the ability to achieve greater sensitivity and statistical power by using laboratory testing of certain species. The acceptance of surrogate species data can allow results from one region to be applied or "transported" for use in another region. On the basis of over a decade of using surrogate species to evaluate potential effects of GEIR crops, it appears that the current surrogates have worked well to predict effects of GEIR crops that have been developed (Carstens et al. GM Crops Food 5:1-5, 2014), and it is expected that they should work well to predict effects of future GEIR crops based on similar technologies.

  2. Ecobiology and Fisheries of an Economically Important Estuarine Fish, Sillago sihama (Forsskal)

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Shamsan, E.F.S.

    % of the population (Ansari, 2004). S. sihama is a highly esteemed fish, due to which it commands high price in the local market. It forms a minor but important fishery from both marine and inland waters in Goa. In view of its importance in the fishery and absence...

  3. IMPORTANCE OF ECONOMIC KNOWLEDGE TRANSFER FOR SUPPORTING OF TOTAL ABSORTION GRANTS BY SEMI SUBSISTENCE FARMS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Camelia TOMA

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available In Romania semi-subsistence agriculture prevails and is rich in rural human resources, in terms of numbers, butstill poor in terms of their quality and professionalism. Therefore, increasing the competitiveness of semisubsistencefarms may be achieved also through the educational enhancement (technological, economic andmanagerial of the small farmers. Measure 141 "Supporting semi – subsistence farms" aims to increase theproduction volume for marketing and diversification of the production according to market requirements and, aswell, to introduce new products, in the endeavors for semi-subsistence farms to become economically viable. Thisresearch study is based on a brief analysis of the official data on the progress of Measure 141, as well as on aquantitative and qualitative analysis of a sample of over 1,000 farmers involved in semi-subsistence farming, whoare carrying out projects under this measure and have attended lectures on information and professional training ineconomics. The sample was stratified by various socio-professional criteria and selected by statistical step,representing 30% of the studied population segment. All these criteria were correlated and analyzed according tothe minimum initial knowledge of farmers at the beginning of the course, in the single-entry bookkeeping, after aperiod of at least two years after implementation. Due to the highly heterogeneous level of education, in many casesnon-agricultural and without economic knowledge, small authorized farmers were forced by the newly createdcircumstances to adapt and cope on-going, more or less correctly and thoroughly, to the new accounting, tax andmanagement requirements. For many farmers, information and professional training, especially in the single-entrybookkeeping, were provided often too late, in the third year of the project, so they it marked the proper use of the financial support and the quality of the farm management and marketing of agricultural products

  4. Economic and Social Importance of Modern SMART Technologies of Budgeting at the Local Level

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kotina Hanna M.

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the article is to study the main SMART technologies of budgeting in terms of their economic and social aspects, consider the risks and prospects of their implementation at the local level in Ukraine. The article is dedicated to description of modern SMART technologies of budgeting. The essence of the concept of infrastructure gap is defined, the necessity of its overcoming through increasing capital expenditures is substantiated. The main methods of financing capital investments are disclosed, the advantages and disadvantages of public-private partnership are determined. The technology of participative budget, its history, features of its introduction and functioning in Poland, Germany and Ukraine are described. The necessity of implementing the Public Finance Management Strategy for 2017-2021 in Ukraine is justified, and risks related to it are investigated.

  5. Technical, institutional and economic factors important for developing a multinational radioactive waste repository

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1998-06-01

    Countries planning and implementing nuclear energy programmes should assume responsibility for the safe management and final disposal of radioactive waste from their programmes. However, there are countries whose radioactive waste volumes do not easily justify a national repository, and/or countries which do not have the resources or favorable natural conditions for waste disposal to dedicate to a national repository project. These countries would benefit from multinational co-operation for the disposal. Interest in the concept of a multinational repository for radioactive waste has been expressed by several Member States and the waste management community in the light of the potential benefit to the partner countries from the safety, technical and economic standpoints. However, such an approach involves many political and public acceptance issues and therefore a consensus among countries or regions concerned is a prerequisite. In this context, it was deemed appropriate that the IAEA access the technical, institutional, ethical and economic factors to be taken into account in the process of such consensus building. This report is intended to provide an assessment which can serve as a general basis for establishing a waste management policy and/or further assessing specific issues such as ownership and liability, institutional aspects and problems related to long term commitments. This report is divided into five sections where the first section gives background, objectives, scope and structure of the report. Section 2 discusses multinational repository concept in terms of needs and the role of a multinational repository, interaction between host and partner countries and formulation of a multinational repository. Section 3 identifies basic issues to be considered for establishing a multinational repository, and some specific issues relating to specific waste categories. Section 4 analyses potential benefits and challenges to be addresses in establishing a

  6. Import of renewable energy from biomass from Sweden by The Netherlands. Costs and macro-economic effects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Agterberg, A.E.

    1997-12-01

    Import of renewable energy from biomass by the Netherlands is expected to be necessary to meet the objective for renewable energy set by the Dutch government. However, this import does not take place yet and there are many possibilities for import because several countries may serve as a supplier of biomass, there are several types of biomass available in these countries and this biomass can be transported to the Netherlands in many ways. Analysis is necessary to find out what are the best possibilities for import of renewable energy from biomass by the Netherlands. In this study the import of energy, produced in Sweden from biomass, by the Netherlands is analyzed. Sweden is selected as the biomass supplying country because it is expected to have a large potential of biomass. The aspects studied are costs and macro-economic effects (increase in employment and value added caused by the import operation). The objectives are: (1) Selection of likely export chains based on the different sources of biomass for energy in Sweden and the different energy carriers that can be exported; (1) Calculation of the costs for the delivery of 1 kWh of electricity to the main grid in the Netherlands for each chain, for the present and for the year 2010; (3) Calculation of macro-economic effects (changes in employment and value added) in Sweden and the Netherlands for the import of 10 PJ of energy from biomass per year for each chain; (4) Comparison of the chains based on both costs and macro-economic effects; and (5) Discussion of the method and recommendations for simplifications for application in situations with a lower data quality. 45 refs

  7. Economic impacts of changes in wheat’s import tariff on the Sudanese economy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Omer Elgaili Elsheikh

    2015-01-01

    Domestic production of wheat is highly variable over time, and falls short of satisfying the demand, whereas wheat consumption is increasing over time. Encouraging innovation of convenient and fast food industry using domestic traditional grains is recommended to curb wheat consumption. Furthermore, wheat imports should be conditioned on availability of hard currency, domestic production capacity, and food gap, while maintaining stable exchange rate that strikes a balance between encouraging sorghum exports and wheat imports. This should be associated with increased investment in stabilizing and increasing wheat production, and remedy the predicaments facing agriculture.

  8. Economic analysis and costing of animal health: a literature review of methods and importance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dehove, A; Commault, J; Petitclerc, M; Teissier, M; Macé, J

    2012-08-01

    Myriads of data, a host of methods, but no single universal indicator. The Performance of Veterinary Services (PVS) Gap Analysis helps to quantify the needs of national Veterinary Services. In a world of scarce public financial resources and heightened transparency and accountability, official Veterinary Services (national Veterinary Authorities) must be able to justify their needs in economic and budgetary terms to their line minister, national parliament and the public at large, or in negotiations with donors. Animal health and Veterinary Service activities are a global public good. It is the responsibility of governments to maintain animal health systems, including networks for the surveillance and control of animal diseases to ensure the early detection of suspected animal disease outbreaks, a rapid response and, where possible, eradication of animal disease outbreaks 'at source'. The establishment of animal health systems is a core responsibility of the State, and it requires the use of public funds, although it does not preclude public-private partnerships and strategies for ensuring complementarity between the partners concerned. The PVS Gap Analysis mission of the World Organisation for Animal Health (OIE) is a method for analysing and quantifying disparities between a baseline situation (determined by PVS Evaluation using the OIE PVS Tool) and the target levels set by the country itself in accordance with its priorities. An added advantage is that the method can be used for training and awareness raising.

  9. THE IMPORTANCE OF ENERGY FOR THE ECONOMY, SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT AND ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION - AN ECONOMIC ASPECT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ljiljana Stošić Mihajlović

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available In the area of modern economy and environmental protection there are no significant changes: the old problems are not solved, and the existing ones are deepening. Humanity is still struggling with three existential problems: lack of food, lack of drinking water and insufficiently energized energy. They are also associated with the dangers of further degradation of the environment, the general fear and fear of terrorism and wars, the emergence of diseases for which modern medicine simply has no solution and which threatens to overcome the challenge of pandemic. Energy is still a mood of economic development, with at the same time a disastrous effect on the environment, when traditional sources of fossil resources are used as sources of energy. The paper explores the phenomenon of the impact of energy on the sustainable development of the economy, with a key focus on environmental protection, as well as the possibilities for adaptation to mitigate the consequences of this global phenomenon. In this regard, special attention has been devoted to researching the role and significance of energy from renewable sources as a possible response to current or expected climate stimuli or their consequences in natural and humanism systems. Particular emphasis is placed on the principle of adaptation, which includes mitigation of damages or the exploitation of effective opportunities; understanding how climate can change, what can be impacts, and capacity building and action on these impacts

  10. Report: the current situation of sanitary landfills in Brazil and the importance of the application of economic models

    OpenAIRE

    Oliveira Neto, Raúl; Otávio Petter, Carlos; Cortina Pallás, José Luís

    2009-01-01

    We present the development stage of the sanitary landfills in Brazil in the context of urban solid residue management, demonstrating the necessity and importance of the employment of economic models. In the article, a cost estimate model is proposed as the basis for studies to be applied by sector management, including the city council, companies, consultants and engineers, contributing to the choice of new areas, public bids, municipal consortia and private public partnerships. Peer Re...

  11. Renewable and non-renewable energy consumption and economic growth: Evidence from MENA Net Oil Importing Countries

    OpenAIRE

    Kahia, Montassar; Ben Aissa, Mohamed Safouane

    2014-01-01

    In this paper, we use panel cointegration techniques to explore the relationship between renewable and non-renewable energy consumption and economic growth in a sample of 11 MENA Net Oil Importing Countries covering the period 1980–2012. The Pedroni (1999, 2004), Kao(1999) as well as Westerlund(2007) panel cointegration tests indicate that there is a long-run equilibrium relationship between real GDP, renewable energy consumption, non-renewable energy consumption, real gross fixed capital for...

  12. Social and economic importance of textile reuse and recycling in Brazil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baruque-Ramos, J.; Amaral, M. C.; Laktim, M. C.; Santos, H. N.; Araujo, F. B.; Zonatti, W. F.

    2017-10-01

    Brazil is an important world producer of textiles. However, this industrial activity, combined with additional import and trade, generates millions of tons of textile scraps, unsold clothing and discarded post-consumption garments. There is a great potential for the recycling and reuse industry in the context of solidarity and circular economy. The present study aimed to present examples in Brazil related to waste reduction, reuse and recycling of textiles in the context of solidary economy. In this way, some representative initiatives, from Sao Paulo, Minas Gerais and Rio de Janeiro states are presented and discussed based on these principles and approaching responsible lifestyles and environmental awareness and the refusal to waste resources in general. The main socioenvironmental benefits are related to the training of labor and local income generation, the population’s awareness of consumption patterns, saving of natural resources and raw materials, and mitigation of environmental impacts.

  13. Insects, isotopes and radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lindquist, D.A.

    1987-01-01

    The article describes the increased use of nuclear techniques in controlling harmful insects. The sterile insect technique (SIT), which uses radiation to sexually sterilize insects and prevent reproduction, is particularly effective in eradication programmes. At the present time, there are approximately 10 species of insect pests being attacked by the SIT. Research and development is being conducted on other insect species and it is anticipated that the technology will be more widely used in the future

  14. The hydrological and economic importance of the Rhine, from its sources to its entry into the Rhenish Slate Mountains

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Calvis, H.

    1981-01-01

    Using example of Europe's most important river, investigations are carried out on the conditions and problems occurring where water- and energy economy are interacting, as well as on the different characteristics they assume in the various sections of the river. The influence of the hydroelectric power plants, the conventional thermal power plants and the nuclear power plants upon the water economy is reviewed. Moreover, the importance of these power plants within the total energy economy of the individual adjacent countries as well as the economic effects they cause to their site areas are considered. (HSCH) [de

  15. Economics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palley, Paul D; Parcero, Miriam E

    2016-10-01

    A review of literature in the calendar year 2015 dedicated to environmental policies and sustainable development, and economic policies. This review is divided into these sections: sustainable development, irrigation, ecosystems and water management, climate change and disaster risk management, economic growth, water supply policies, water consumption, water price regulation, and water price valuation.

  16. Herbivory increases diversification across insect clades.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wiens, John J; Lapoint, Richard T; Whiteman, Noah K

    2015-09-24

    Insects contain more than half of all living species, but the causes of their remarkable diversity remain poorly understood. Many authors have suggested that herbivory has accelerated diversification in many insect clades. However, others have questioned the role of herbivory in insect diversification. Here, we test the relationships between herbivory and insect diversification across multiple scales. We find a strong, positive relationship between herbivory and diversification among insect orders. However, herbivory explains less variation in diversification within some orders (Diptera, Hemiptera) or shows no significant relationship with diversification in others (Coleoptera, Hymenoptera, Orthoptera). Thus, we support the overall importance of herbivory for insect diversification, but also show that its impacts can vary across scales and clades. In summary, our results illuminate the causes of species richness patterns in a group containing most living species, and show the importance of ecological impacts on diversification in explaining the diversity of life.

  17. Economical comparison of imported energy sources in terms of long-term production planning

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gungor, Z.

    1999-01-01

    In this paper, the Turkish energy production sector is studied and power plants fueled by natural gas, imported coal and nuclear power are compared in terms of long-term (1996-2010) production economy. A net present value is used for comparing nuclear, coal and natural gas power plants. A scenario approach is utilized in establishing the effects of different factors, such as inflation rate, unit of investment costs, load factor change, discount rate and fuel price changes. Six different scenarios of interest are developed and discussed. The study ends with conclusions and recommendations based on a study of a reference scenario and alternative scenarios. (author)

  18. DNA barcodes for bio-surveillance: regulated and economically important arthropod plant pests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ashfaq, Muhammad; Hebert, Paul D N

    2016-11-01

    Many of the arthropod species that are important pests of agriculture and forestry are impossible to discriminate morphologically throughout all of their life stages. Some cannot be differentiated at any life stage. Over the past decade, DNA barcoding has gained increasing adoption as a tool to both identify known species and to reveal cryptic taxa. Although there has not been a focused effort to develop a barcode library for them, reference sequences are now available for 77% of the 409 species of arthropods documented on major pest databases. Aside from developing the reference library needed to guide specimen identifications, past barcode studies have revealed that a significant fraction of arthropod pests are a complex of allied taxa. Because of their importance as pests and disease vectors impacting global agriculture and forestry, DNA barcode results on these arthropods have significant implications for quarantine detection, regulation, and management. The current review discusses these implications in light of the presence of cryptic species in plant pests exposed by DNA barcoding.

  19. Algae of economic importance that accumulate cadmium and lead: a review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Priscila O. Souza

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Currently, algae and algae products are extensively applied in the pharmaceutical, cosmetic and food industries. Algae are the main organisms that take up and store heavy metals. Therefore, the use of compounds derived from algae by the pharmaceutical industry should be closely monitored for possible contamination. The pollution generated by heavy metals released by industrial and domestic sources causes serious changes in the aquatic ecosystem, resulting in a loss of biological diversity and a magnification and bioaccumulation of toxic agents in the food chain. Since algae are at the bottom of the aquatic food chain, they are the most important vector for transfer of pollution to upper levels of the trophic chain in aquatic environments. Moreover, microalgae are also used for the bioremediation of wastewater, a process that does not produce secondary pollution, that enables efficient recycling of nutrients and that generates biomass useful for the production of bioactive compounds and biofuel.

  20. Algae of economic importance that accumulate cadmium and lead: a review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Priscila O. Souza

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Currently, algae and algae products are extensively applied in the pharmaceutical, cosmetic and food industries. Algae are the main organisms that take up and store heavy metals. Therefore, the use of compounds derived from algae by the pharmaceutical industry should be closely monitored for possible contamination. The pollution generated by heavy metals released by industrial and domestic sources causes serious changes in the aquatic ecosystem, resulting in a loss of biological diversity and a magnification and bioaccumulation of toxic agents in the food chain. Since algae are at the bottom of the aquatic food chain, they are the most important vector for transfer of pollution to upper levels of the trophic chain in aquatic environments. Moreover, microalgae are also used for the bioremediation of wastewater, a process that does not produce secondary pollution, that enables efficient recycling of nutrients and that generates biomass useful for the production of bioactive compounds and biofuel.

  1. Economic importance of oleoresin (Dipterocarpus alatus) to forest-adjacent households in Cambodia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dyrmose, Anne-Mette Hüls; Turreira Garcia, Nerea; Theilade, Ida

    2017-01-01

    interviewed and 100 resin trees were measured to examine factors affecting resin productivity. Forest-adjacent households were highly dependent on resin extraction for cash income. Households spent an average of 105 days annually on resin extraction. The mean annual household gross-income derived from liquid...... resin was USD 3,236. Solid resin contributed only a small part of household incomes except for the most remote and isolated village, Spong, in which solid resin contributed significantly to the gross-income. Resin trees yielded an average of 18 liters of oleoresin per year according to interview......The genus Dipterocarpus is the main source of marketable liquid oleoresin, which is important as a source of income for forest communities in Southeast Asia. However, deforestation and illegal as well as legal logging pose a threat to resin yielding species (Dipterocarpus spp.). There is still more...

  2. Seasonal Effects on Bioactive Compounds and Antioxidant Capacity of Six Economically Important Brassica Vegetables

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eduardo A.S. Rosa

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Research on natural and bioactive compounds is increasingly focused on their effects on human health, but there are unexpectedly few studies evaluating the relationship between climate and natural antioxidants. The aim of this study was analyze the biological role of six different Brassica vegetables (Brassica oleracea L. and Brassica rapa L. as a natural source of antioxidant compounds. The antioxidant activity may be assigned to high levels of L-ascorbic acid, total phenolics and total flavonoids of each sample. The climate seasons affected directly the concentration of bioactive components and the antioxidant activity. Broccoli inflorescences and Portuguese kale showed high antioxidant activity in Spring-Summer whilst turnip leaves did so in Summer-Winter. The Brassica vegetables can provide considerable amounts of bioactive compounds and thus may constitute an important natural source of dietary antioxidants.

  3. Development of Microsatellites in Labisia pumila (Myrsinaceae, an Economically Important Malaysian Herb

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lee Hong Tnah

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Premise of the study: The exploitation of Labisia pumila for commercial demand is gradually increasing. It is therefore important that conservation is prioritized to ensure sustainable utilization. We developed microsatellites for L. pumila var. alata and evaluated their polymorphism across var. alata, var. pumila, and var. lanceolata. Methods and Results: Ten polymorphic microsatellites of L. pumila were developed using the magnetic bead hybridization selection approach. A total of 84, 48, and 66 alleles were observed in L. pumila var. alata, var. pumila, and var. lanceolata, respectively. The species is likely a tetraploid, with the majority of the loci exhibiting up to four alleles per individual. Conclusions: This is the first report on the development of microsatellites in L. pumila. The microsatellites will provide a good basis for investigating the population genetics of the species and will serve as a useful tool for DNA profiling.

  4. Environmental RNAi in herbivorous insects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ivashuta, Sergey; Zhang, Yuanji; Wiggins, B Elizabeth; Ramaseshadri, Partha; Segers, Gerrit C; Johnson, Steven; Meyer, Steve E; Kerstetter, Randy A; McNulty, Brian C; Bolognesi, Renata; Heck, Gregory R

    2015-05-01

    Environmental RNAi (eRNAi) is a sequence-specific regulation of endogenous gene expression in a receptive organism by exogenous double-stranded RNA (dsRNA). Although demonstrated under artificial dietary conditions and via transgenic plant presentations in several herbivorous insects, the magnitude and consequence of exogenous dsRNA uptake and the role of eRNAi remains unknown under natural insect living conditions. Our analysis of coleopteran insects sensitive to eRNAi fed on wild-type plants revealed uptake of plant endogenous long dsRNAs, but not small RNAs. Subsequently, the dsRNAs were processed into 21 nt siRNAs by insects and accumulated in high quantities in insect cells. No accumulation of host plant-derived siRNAs was observed in lepidopteran larvae that are recalcitrant to eRNAi. Stability of ingested dsRNA in coleopteran larval gut followed by uptake and transport from the gut to distal tissues appeared to be enabling factors for eRNAi. Although a relatively large number of distinct coleopteran insect-processed plant-derived siRNAs had sequence complementarity to insect transcripts, the vast majority of the siRNAs were present in relatively low abundance, and RNA-seq analysis did not detect a significant effect of plant-derived siRNAs on insect transcriptome. In summary, we observed a broad genome-wide uptake of plant endogenous dsRNA and subsequent processing of ingested dsRNA into 21 nt siRNAs in eRNAi-sensitive insects under natural feeding conditions. In addition to dsRNA stability in gut lumen and uptake, dosage of siRNAs targeting a given insect transcript is likely an important factor in order to achieve measurable eRNAi-based regulation in eRNAi-competent insects that lack an apparent silencing amplification mechanism. © 2015 Ivashuta et al.; Published by Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory Press for the RNA Society.

  5. The importance of counting cows: Social and economic effects of a high-level nuclear waste repository in Texas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fleishman, J.; Brody, J.; Galavotti, C.

    1987-01-01

    Impact assessments that rely on existing records and extrapolation from broad geographic areas provide inadequate information about social and economic conditions important in siting a high-level nuclear waste repository. Texas has used an alternative approach, involving systematic surveys of representative samples of local residents, farm operators and businesses in the proposed site counties and comparison areas. Results show that this technique is useful in describing current economic conditions, including characteristics of key sectors of the economy, changes related to the siting process, and expectations that may influence investment. In addition, the surveys are useful in assessing the degree of consensus in local communities and in identifying possible differential effects of a repository on particular groups. They also provide a baseline for long-term monitoring of repository effects and contribute to their understanding of the underlying processes that shape public response to the nuclear waste program

  6. Economism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Simons

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Modern society is characterised not only by a fascination with scientific technology as a means of solving all problems, especially those that stand in the way of material progress (technicism, but also by an obsessive interest in everything that has to do with money (economism or mammonism. The article discusses the relationship between technicism and economism, on the basis of their relationship to utilitarian thinking: the quest for the greatest happiness for the greatest number of people. Recent major studies of neo-liberalism (seen as an intensification of utilitarianism by Laval and Dardot are used as reference to the development of utilitarianism. It is suggested that the western view of the world, as expressed in economism and technicism, with a utilitarian ethics, features three absolutisations: those of theoretical thinking, technology and economics. In a second part, the article draws on the framework of reformational philosophy to suggest an approach that, in principle, is not marred by such absolutisations.

  7. The economics of managing Verticillium wilt, an imported disease in California lettuce

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christine L. Carroll

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Verticillium dahliae is a soilborne fungus that is introduced to the soil via infested spinach seeds and that causes lettuce to be afflicted with Verticillium wilt. This disease has spread rapidly through the Salinas Valley, the prime lettuce production region of California. Verticillium wilt can be prevented or controlled by the grower by fumigating, planting broccoli, or not planting spinach. Because these control options require long-term investment for future gain, renters might not take the steps needed to control Verticillium wilt. Verticillium wilt can also be prevented or controlled by a spinach seed company through testing and cleaning the spinach seeds. However, seed companies are unwilling to test or clean spinach seeds, as they are not affected by this disease. We discuss our research on the externalities that arise with renters, and between seed companies and growers, due to Verticillium wilt. These externalities have important implications for the management of Verticillium wilt in particular, and for the management of diseases in agriculture in general.

  8. A nuclear insect appears

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shin, Gi Hwal

    1989-06-01

    This book is dairy of a nuclear insect in A. F. era. It consists of 6 parts, which have fun pictures and titles. The contents are the letter that is sent the Homo sapiens by insect, exodus of nuclear insect F 100 years latter. The time that a nuclear insect is attacked in F 101, the time that a nuclear dinosaur is beat in AF 102, the time that a nuclear insect struggles in AF 104 and the time that a nuclear insect drifts in AF 104.

  9. Local knowledge of traditional fishermen on economically important crabs (Decapoda: Brachyura) in the city of Conde, Bahia State, Northeastern Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Magalhães, Henrique Fernandes; Costa Neto, Eraldo Medeiros; Schiavetti, Alexandre

    2012-07-02

    This article records the traditional knowledge of crab gatherers in the city of Conde, in the North Coast Region of Bahia State, Northeastern Brazil. Data on biological and ecological aspects of economically important brachyuran crustaceans have been obtained from semi-structured interviews and in loco observations conducted from September 2007 to December 2009. A total of 57 fishermen of both genders, aged between 10 and 78 years have been interviewed (individually or collectively) in different contexts; interviewees were asked about aspects such as external morphology, life cycle, trophic ecology, and spatial and temporal distribution of the major economically important brachyuran crustaceans in the region. Seven fishing communities were visited: Siribinha, Sítio do Conde, Poças, Ilha das Ostras, Cobó, Buri and Sempre Viva. Data were analyzed by comparing the information provided by participants with those from the specialized academic literature. The results show that artisanal fishermen have a wide ranging and well-grounded knowledge on the ecological and biological aspects of crustaceans. Crab gatherers of Conde know about growth and reproductive behavior of the animals they interact with, especially with regard to the three major biological aspects: "molt", "walking dance" and "spawning". This knowledge constitutes an important source of information that should be considered in studies of management and sustainable use of fishery resources in the North Coast Region of Bahia State.

  10. Local knowledge of traditional fishermen on economically important crabs (Decapoda: Brachyura in the city of Conde, Bahia State, Northeastern Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    de Magalhães Henrique

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background This article records the traditional knowledge of crab gatherers in the city of Conde, in the North Coast Region of Bahia State, Northeastern Brazil. Methods Data on biological and ecological aspects of economically important brachyuran crustaceans have been obtained from semi-structured interviews and in loco observations conducted from September 2007 to December 2009. A total of 57 fishermen of both genders, aged between 10 and 78 years have been interviewed (individually or collectively in different contexts; interviewees were asked about aspects such as external morphology, life cycle, trophic ecology, and spatial and temporal distribution of the major economically important brachyuran crustaceans in the region. Seven fishing communities were visited: Siribinha, Sítio do Conde, Poças, Ilha das Ostras, Cobó, Buri and Sempre Viva. Data were analyzed by comparing the information provided by participants with those from the specialized academic literature. Results The results show that artisanal fishermen have a wide ranging and well-grounded knowledge on the ecological and biological aspects of crustaceans. Crab gatherers of Conde know about growth and reproductive behavior of the animals they interact with, especially with regard to the three major biological aspects: “molt”, “walking dance” and “spawning”. Conclusion This knowledge constitutes an important source of information that should be considered in studies of management and sustainable use of fishery resources in the North Coast Region of Bahia State.

  11. The importance of actions and the worth of an object: dissociable neural systems representing core value and economic value

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coppin, Géraldine; Schwartz, Sophie; Sander, David

    2012-01-01

    Neuroeconomic research has delineated neural regions involved in the computation of value, referring to a currency for concrete choices and decisions (‘economic value’). Research in psychology and sociology, on the other hand, uses the term ‘value’ to describe motivational constructs that guide choices and behaviors across situations (‘core value’). As a first step towards an integration of these literatures, we compared the neural regions computing economic value and core value. Replicating previous work, economic value computations activated a network centered on medial orbitofrontal cortex. Core value computations activated medial prefrontal cortex, a region involved in the processing of self-relevant information and dorsal striatum, involved in action selection. Core value ratings correlated with activity in precuneus and anterior prefrontal cortex, potentially reflecting the degree to which a core value is perceived as internalized part of one’s self-concept. Distributed activation pattern in insula and ACC allowed differentiating individual core value types. These patterns may represent evaluation profiles reflecting prototypical fundamental concerns expressed in the core value types. Our findings suggest mechanisms by which core values, as motivationally important long-term goals anchored in the self-schema, may have the behavioral power to drive decisions and behaviors in the absence of immediately rewarding behavioral options. PMID:21642352

  12. Use of sterile male technique for insects to eradicate red palm weevil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Al-Turaihi, E.H.

    2012-01-01

    The date palm plantations in the Middle East countries are infested by a devastating insect which is called red palm weevil originally from India and spread firstly into the Arab Gulf countries through imported palm trees. Red palm weevil is mainly controlled by using synthetic chemical pesticides and aggregative pheromone traps. Use of chemical pesticides has dramatically increased during recent years and posed many poisoning cases, pollution of environment, killed beneficial and non-target insects. The aim of this study is to highlight the application of Sterile Insect Technique to suppress or eradicate red palm weevil. The results revealed that the application of Sterile Insect Technique to control cotton boll weevil (Anthonomus grandis) in USA could be considered as an ideal example to apply the Sterile Insect Technique against red palm weevil because both species have similarities such as : both are exotic pests; have protected larval and pupal stages; have limited hosts; have economic importance; have an aggregative pheromone that attracts males and females; that can be used for detection and survey; and finally both insects are Coleopterans belonging to the same family.

  13. Processing insect abundance: trading and fishing of zazamushi in Central Japan (Nagano Prefecture, Honshū Island).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Césard, Nicolas; Komatsu, Seiji; Iwata, Akihisa

    2015-11-11

    This article presents the links between technique, commerce and consumption in fishing for zazamushi, a mixture of aquatic insect larvae sold as food souvenirs in Japan. Since zazamushi are mainly collected for economic reasons, we suggest that demand for them has incited technical development among collectors in order to fish more insects. Several fishermen and traders were interviewed in semi-directed interviews about their practices and knowledge. To understand the passage from a faunal composition to a commercial composition, our research follows a fishing session closely, as well as the selection of insects that follows it. The insects collected were separated from inanimate matter, then identified, counted and weighed at each stage of the process. Our results suggest that the current technique corresponds to an evolution in subsistence and recreational collecting towards a more systematic fishing of the insects, the aim of which is commercial. In their response to trade issues, the collectors have moved away from the banks to fish the insects in the river current, thus increasing the amount of one species captured compared to another. Although the technique is efficient (and similar to other harvesting techniques), it requires the thorough sorting of organic debris and insects (in our example, the catch contains approximately 78 % of inanimate matter and 22 % of insects, of which 3.29 % are retained for consumption, i.e., less than 2 out of 100 insects). The selection of insects to be consumed takes place mainly during cleaning. This stage depends on traders and reflects the different compositions sold as souvenirs. Our research shows that the consumption of insects is not explained just by ecological factors that are favourable or unfavourable, but also by technological and economic factors related to their commerce. It suggests that the traders have gradually established the insects that are currently sold as zazamushi and that this commercial development

  14. Monitoring the agricultural landscape for insect resistance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Casas, Joseph; Glaser, J. A.; Copenhaver, Ken

    Farmers in 25 countries on six continents are using plant biotechnology to solve difficult crop production challenges and conserve the environment. In fact, 13.3 million farmers, which include 90 percent of the farming in developing countries, choose to plant biotech crops. Over the past decade, farmers increased area planted in genetically modified (GM) crops by more than 10 percent each year, thus increasing their farm income by more than 44 billion US dollars (1996-2007), and achieved economic, environmental and social benefits in crops such as soybeans, canola, corn and cotton. To date, total acres of biotech crops harvested exceed more than 2 billion with a proven 13-year history of safe use. Over the next decade, expanded adoption combined with current research on 57 crops in 63 countries will broaden the advantages of genetically modified foods for growers, consumers and the environment. Genetically modified (GM) crops with the ability to produce toxins lethal to specific insect pests are covering a larger percentage of the agricultural landscape every year. The United States department of Agriculture (USDA) estimated that 63 percent of corn and 65 percent of cotton contained these specific genetic traits in 2009. The toxins could protect billions of dollars of loss from insect damage for crops valued at greater than 165 billion US dollars in 2008. The stable and efficient production of these crops has taken on even more importance in recent years with their use, not only as a food source, but now also a source of fuel. It is in the best interest of the United States Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA) to ensure the continued efficacy of toxin producing GM crops as their use reduces pesticides harmful to humans and animals. However, population genetics models have indicated the risk of insect pests developing resistance to these toxins if a high percentage of acreage is grown in these crops. The USEPA is developing methods to monitor the agricultural

  15. Respiration in Aquatic Insects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    MacFarland, John

    1985-01-01

    This article: (1) explains the respiratory patterns of several freshwater insects; (2) describes the differences and mechanisms of spiracular cutaneous, and gill respiration; and (3) discusses behavioral aspects of selected aquatic insects. (ML)

  16. Insect Bites and Stings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Most insect bites are harmless, though they sometimes cause discomfort. Bee, wasp, and hornet stings and fire ant bites usually hurt. Mosquito and flea bites usually itch. Insects can also spread diseases. In the United States, ...

  17. Insects: An Interdisciplinary Unit

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leger, Heather

    2007-01-01

    The author talks about an interdisciplinary unit on insects, and presents activities that can help students practice communication skills (interpersonal, interpretive, and presentational) and learn about insects with hands-on activities.

  18. Insects of the riparian

    Science.gov (United States)

    Terrence J. Rogers

    1996-01-01

    This paper describes life histories, defoliation problems and other activities of insects associated with forest tree species growing along high elevation streams and river banks. In addition, examples of insects and diseases associated with lower elevation riparian areas are given.

  19. Radioactive labelling of insects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thygesen, Th.

    Experiments are described with the internal contamination of insects with phosphorus 32 introduced previously in plants of the brassica type using three different techniques. The intake of radioactivity from the plants to the insects is shown. (L.O.)

  20. THE IMPORTANCE OF COLLECTING ECONOMIC AND OTHER GENERAL FACTORS’ INFLUENCE ON THE VALUE OF PUBLIC COMPANIES IN SERBIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    SLOBODAN POPOVIĆ

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available To make the right decision in regard to the expression of the value of property, equipment or something else, first for appraiser it is necessary to examine the general economic and other factors that may affect the expression of the value of the company. Especially there is a need to pay attention to devote to the expression value of a public company, because the public companies manage property that stems in part by funds from the budget. This is especially important in the case of a country that aspires to become an EU member. The Republic of Serbia signed the first two chapters with the EU in December 2015. Chapter 32 imperatively requires that the Republic of Serbia begins important application of fair expression of value of the property of public enterprises, because it is a section that requires audit activities of the entire public users, and therefore the company.

  1. Notes on collecting flower-visiting insects

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Willemstein, S.C.

    1974-01-01

    Flower-visiting insects may play a role in the pollination of the flowers they visit. An important indication for this is the pollen they carry on their body. The transport of pollen does not prove pollination without observations of the behaviour of the insects on the flowers, but at least it

  2. Edible Insects in Sustainable Food Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Halloran, Afton; Flore, Roberto; Vantomme, Paul

    This text provides an important overview of the contributions of edible insects to ecological sustainability, livelihoods, nutrition and health, food culture and food systems around the world. While insect farming for both food and feed is rapidly increasing in popularity around the world, the ro...

  3. Exploring Sound with Insects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robertson, Laura; Meyer, John R.

    2010-01-01

    Differences in insect morphology and movement during singing provide a fascinating opportunity for students to investigate insects while learning about the characteristics of sound. In the activities described here, students use a free online computer software program to explore the songs of the major singing insects and experiment with making…

  4. Insects and human nutrition

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Roos, Nanna

    2018-01-01

    Despite high diversity in species as well as metamorphological life-­stages, edible insects are essentially an animal-source food contributing high quality protein and fat when viewed in the context of human nutrition. The nutritional contribution of insects to diets in populations where insects ...

  5. Green Algae from Coal Bed Methane Ponds as a Source of Fertilizer for Economically Important Plants of Montana

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ogunsakin, O. R.; Apple, M. E.; Zhou, X.; Peyton, B.

    2016-12-01

    The Tongue River Basin of northeastern Wyoming and southeastern Montana is the location of natural gas reserves and coal bed methane (CBM) acreage. Although the water that emanates from CBM extraction varies with site, it is generally of higher quality than the waters produced by conventional oil and gas wells, in part because it is low in volatile organic compounds. However, since CBM water contains dissolved solids, including sodium (Na), bicarbonate (HCO3) and chloride (Cl) ions, the water must be treated before it can be discharged into the river or wetlands, or used for stock ponds or irrigation. Several ponds have been constructed to serve as a holding facility for CBM water. Algae from the CBM ponds of the Tongue River Basin have the potential to be utilized as fertilizer on economically important plants of Montana. Two very important crop plants of Montana are wheat, Triticum aestivum, and potatoes, Solanum tuberosum. To explore this potential, isolates of unicellular green algae (Chlorella sp.) from the CBM ponds were cultured in aerated vessels with Bold's Basic Growth Medium and natural and/or supplemental light. Algal biomass was condensed in and collected from a valved funnel, after which cell density was determined via light microscopy and a hemacytometer. Algal/water slurries with known nutrient contents were added to seedlings of hard winter wheat, T.aestivum, grown in a greenhouse for three months before harves. When compared to wheat provided with just water, or with water and a commercially available fertilizer, the wheat fertilized with algae had a higher chlorophyll content, more tillers (side shoots), and a higher ratio of influorescences (groups of flowers) per stem. In a related experiment, Ranger Russet seed potatoes, S. tuberosum were given just water, water and Hoagland's nutrient solution, or water with algae in order to compare aboveground growth and potato production among the treatments. The results of this study suggest that

  6. The Importance of Economic Perspective and Quantitative Approaches in Oncology Value Frameworks of Drug Selection and Shared Decision Making.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waldeck, A Reginald; Botteman, Marc F; White, Richard E; van Hout, Ben A

    2017-06-01

    The debate around value in oncology drug selection has been prominent in recent years, and several professional bodies have furthered this debate by advocating for so-called value frameworks. Herein, we provide a viewpoint on these value frameworks, emphasizing the need to consider 4 key aspects: (1) the economic underpinnings of value; (2) the importance of the perspective adopted in the valuation; (3) the importance of the difference between absolute and relative measures of risk and measuring patient preferences; and (4) the recognition of multiple quality-of-life (QoL) domains, and the aggregation and valuation of those domains, through utilities within a multicriteria decision analysis, may allow prioritization of QoL above the tallying of safety events, particularly in a value framework focusing on the individual patient. While several frameworks exist, they incorporate different attributes and-importantly-assess value from alternative perspectives, including those of patients, regulators, payers, and society. The various perspectives necessarily lead to potentially different, if not sometimes divergent, conclusions about the valuation. We show that the perspective of the valuation affects the framing of the risk/benefit question and the methodology to measure the individual patient choice, or preference, as opposed to the collective, or population, choice. We focus specifically on the American Society of Clinical Oncology (ASCO) Value Framework. We argue that its laudable intent to assist in shared clinician-patient decision making can be augmented by more formally adopting methodology underpinned by micro- and health economic concepts, as well as application of formal quantitative approaches. Our recommendations for value frameworks focusing on the individual patient, such as the ASCO Value Framework, are 3-fold: (1) ensure that stakeholders understand the importance of the adopted (economic) perspective; (2) consider using exclusively absolute measures of

  7. Imported fire ants near the edge of their range: disturbance and moisture determine prevalence and impact of an invasive social insect.

    Science.gov (United States)

    LeBrun, Edward G; Plowes, Robert M; Gilbert, Lawrence E

    2012-07-01

    1. Habitat disturbance and species invasions interact in natural systems, making it difficult to isolate the primary cause of ecosystem degradation. A general understanding requires case studies of how disturbance and invasion interact across a variety of ecosystem - invasive species combinations. 2. Dramatic losses in ant diversity followed the invasion of central Texas by red imported fire ants (Solenopsis invicta). However, recent manipulative studies in Florida revealed no effect on ant diversity following the removal of S. invicta from a disturbed pasture habitat, but moderate loss of diversity associated with their introduction into undisturbed habitat and no invasion occurred without disturbance. Thus, the importance of S. invicta in driving diversity loss and its ability to invade undisturbed systems is unresolved. 3. We examine the distribution and abundance of a large monogyne S. invicta population and its association with the co-occurring ant assemblage at a site in south Texas close to the aridity tolerance limit of S. invicta. 4. We document that moisture modulates S. invicta densities. Further, soil disturbing habitat manipulations greatly increase S. invicta population densities. However, S. invicta penetrates all habitats regardless of soil disturbance history. In contrast, controlled burns depress S. invicta densities. 5. In habitats where S. invicta is prevalent, it completely replaces native fire ants. However, S. invicta impacts native ants as a whole less strongly. Intriguingly, native ants responded distinctly to S. invicta in different environments. In wet, undisturbed environments, high S. invicta abundance disrupts the spatial structure of the ant assemblage by increasing clumping and is associated with reduced species density, while in dry-disturbed habitats, sites with high S. invicta abundance possess high numbers of native species. Analyses of co-occurrence indicate that reduced species density in wet

  8. Characterization of potent odorants in male giant water bug (Lethocerus indicus Lep. and Serv.), an important edible insect of Southeast Asia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kiatbenjakul, Patthamawadi; Intarapichet, Kanok-Orn; Cadwallader, Keith R

    2015-02-01

    Potent odorants in frozen fresh (FFB) and salted boiled (SBB) male giant water bugs (Lethocerus indicus), or 'Maengdana' in Thai, were characterized by application of direct solvent extraction/solvent-assisted flavour evaporation (SAFE), gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS), gas chromatography-olfactometry (GC-O), aroma extract dilution analysis (AEDA) and stable isotope dilution assays (SIDA). Twenty and 27 potent odorants were detected in FFB and SBB, respectively. Most odorants were lipid-derived compounds, including the two most abundant volatile components (E)-2-hexenyl acetate and (E)-2-hexenyl butanoate, which contributed banana-like odours. 2-Acetyl-1-pyrroline and 2-acetyl-2-thiazoline, responsible for popcorn-like odours, were detected in SBB only. An aroma reconstitution model of SBB was constructed in an oil-in-water emulsion matrix using 12 selected potent odorants based on the results of AEDA, accurate compound quantification and the calculated odour-activity values (OAV). Omission studies were carried out to verify the significance of esters, particularly (E)-2-hexenyl acetate was determined to be an important character-impact odorant in male giant water bug aroma. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Insect Peptides - Perspectives in Human Diseases Treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chowanski, Szymon; Adamski, Zbigniew; Lubawy, Jan; Marciniak, Pawel; Pacholska-Bogalska, Joanna; Slocinska, Malgorzata; Spochacz, Marta; Szymczak, Monika; Urbanski, Arkadiusz; Walkowiak-Nowicka, Karolina; Rosinski, Grzegorz

    2017-01-01

    Insects are the largest and the most widely distributed group of animals in the world. Their diversity is a source of incredible variety of different mechanisms of life processes regulation. There are many agents that regulate immunology, reproduction, growth and development or metabolism. Hence, it seems that insects may be a source of numerous substances useful in human diseases treatment. Especially important in the regulation of insect physiology are peptides, like neuropeptides, peptide hormones or antimicrobial peptides. There are two main aspects where they can be helpful, 1) Peptides isolated from insects may become potential drugs in therapy of different diseases, 2) A lot of insect peptide hormones show structural or functional homology to mammalian peptide hormones and the comparative studies may give a new look on human disorders. In our review we focused on three group of insect derived peptides: 1) immune-active peptides, 2) peptide hormones and 3) peptides present in venoms. In our review we try to show the considerable potential of insect peptides in searching for new solutions for mammalian diseases treatment. We summarise the knowledge about properties of insect peptides against different virulent agents, anti-inflammatory or anti-nociceptive properties as well as compare insect and mammalian/vertebrate peptide endocrine system to indicate usefulness of knowledge about insect peptide hormones in drug design. The field of possible using of insect delivered peptide to therapy of various human diseases is still not sufficiently explored. Undoubtedly, more attention should be paid to insects due to searching new drugs. Copyright© Bentham Science Publishers; For any queries, please email at epub@benthamscience.org.

  10. Synthetic analogues of natural semiochemicals as promising insect control agents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ujvary, Istvan; Toth, Miklos; Guerin, Patrick

    2000-01-01

    After decades of research and development, insect pheromones and other semiochemicals became indispensable tools of ecologically based agricultural pest and disease vector management programmes with main uses as: 1) detection and population monitoring of emerging and migrating insects, 2) mass trapping of insects, 3) combined formulation of semiochemicals and insecticides ('lure-and-kill'), and 4) mating disruption with specially formulated pheromone components. In spite of their demonstrated safety and biodegradability, the direct application of these semiochemicals for pest control has not fulfilled initial expectations. Nonetheless considerable field experience has been accumulated (Carde and Minks 1995). Evidently, two important factors limit the practical potential of these substances: 1) inherent in their particular mode of action, semiochemicals, especially pheromones, are effectively cleared by specific enzymes in the insect antennae, and 2) some of these compounds contain labile functional moieties that are prone to degradation (oxidation, isomerisation and polymerisation) under field conditions. Appropriate chemical modifications of these natural compounds, however, can circumvent these problems by providing synthetic analogues (sometimes also called parapheromones or antipheromones; for early studies, see Roelofs and Comeau 1971, Payne et al. 1973) which in ideal cases are not only more potent and environmentally acceptable but more economical as well. It should also be mentioned that many effective attractants have been discovered through the empirical screening of synthetic chemicals, some of which have actually turned out to be structural relatives of natural semiochemicals of the particular insect. In this paper, selected case studies of analogues of sex pheromones and kairomones will be presented. The examples from our work include nitrile bioisosteres of labile aldehyde pheromone components of the cranberry girdler moth, Chrysoteuchia topiaria

  11. CRISPR/Cas9 in insects: Applications, best practices and biosafety concerns.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taning, Clauvis Nji Tizi; Van Eynde, Benigna; Yu, Na; Ma, Sanyuan; Smagghe, Guy

    2017-04-01

    Discovered as a bacterial adaptive immune system, CRISPR/Cas9 (clustered, regularly interspaced, short palindromic repeat/CRISPR associated) is being developed as an attractive tool in genome editing. Due to its high specificity and applicability, CRISPR/Cas9-mediated gene editing has been employed in a multitude of organisms and cells, including insects, for not only fundamental research such as gene function studies, but also applied research such as modification of organisms of economic importance. Despite the rapid increase in the use of CRISPR in insect genome editing, results still differ from each study, principally due to existing differences in experimental parameters, such as the Cas9 and guide RNA form, the delivery method, the target gene and off-target effects. Here, we review current reports on the successes of CRISPR/Cas9 applications in diverse insects and insect cells. We furthermore summarize several best practices to give a useful checklist of CRISPR/Cas9 experimental setup in insects for beginners. Lastly, we discuss the biosafety concerns related to the release of CRISPR/Cas9-edited insects into the environment. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. A Review of Eight High-Priority, Economically Important Viral Pathogens of Poultry within the Caribbean Region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gongora, Victor; Hartley, Dane; Oura, Christopher

    2018-01-01

    Viral pathogens cause devastating economic losses in poultry industries worldwide. The Caribbean region, which boasts some of the highest rates of poultry consumption in the world, is no exception. This review summarizes evidence for the circulation and spread of eight high-priority, economically important poultry viruses across the Caribbean region. Avian influenza virus (AIV), infectious bronchitis virus (IBV), Newcastle disease virus (NDV), infectious laryngotracheitis virus (ILTV), avian metapneumovirus (aMPV), infectious bursal disease virus (IBDV), fowl adenovirus group 1 (FADV Gp1), and egg drop syndrome virus (EDSV) were selected for review. This review of serological, molecular, and phylogenetic studies across Caribbean countries reveals evidence for sporadic outbreaks of respiratory disease caused by notifiable viral pathogens (AIV, IBV, NDV, and ILTV), as well as outbreaks of diseases caused by immunosuppressive viral pathogens (IBDV and FADV Gp1). This review highlights the need to strengthen current levels of surveillance and reporting for poultry diseases in domestic and wild bird populations across the Caribbean, as well as the need to strengthen the diagnostic capacity and capability of Caribbean national veterinary diagnostic laboratories. PMID:29373488

  13. APPLING REMOTE SENSING TECHNIQUE TO MONITORING SPATIAL EXPANSION OF IMPORTANT CITIES IN CHINA-INDOCHINA PENINSULA ECONOMIC CORRIDOR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Li

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Since twentieth Century, the process of economic globalization has made great progress, and Southeast Asia has developed rapidly under the background of international industrial transferring. In this paper, the 6 important nodes cities in China - Indochina Peninsula along the economic corridor are took as study area. The main data is time series Landsat data. The method of object-oriented random forest classification was used to extract the classification results of study area from 2000 to 2015. The urban expansion of the node cities was evaluated by calculating the expansion speed of the impervious surface and the landscape pattern metrics. The results indicated that the method of object oriented random forest classification can effectively extract the urban impervious surface. the overall accuracy is over 81 %, and the Kappa coefficient is over 0.82. In the past 15 years, the expansion speed of Vientiane city was fastest in 6 countries. The area of urban impervious surface expanded 8 times than that of 2000.The pattern of expansion is summarized as “gather first-diffuse then”, “diffuse first-gather then” and “gather”. Overall, the process of urbanization of these cities are still in the rising period.

  14. A Review of Eight High-Priority, Economically Important Viral Pathogens of Poultry within the Caribbean Region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arianne Brown Jordan

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Viral pathogens cause devastating economic losses in poultry industries worldwide. The Caribbean region, which boasts some of the highest rates of poultry consumption in the world, is no exception. This review summarizes evidence for the circulation and spread of eight high-priority, economically important poultry viruses across the Caribbean region. Avian influenza virus (AIV, infectious bronchitis virus (IBV, Newcastle disease virus (NDV, infectious laryngotracheitis virus (ILTV, avian metapneumovirus (aMPV, infectious bursal disease virus (IBDV, fowl adenovirus group 1 (FADV Gp1, and egg drop syndrome virus (EDSV were selected for review. This review of serological, molecular, and phylogenetic studies across Caribbean countries reveals evidence for sporadic outbreaks of respiratory disease caused by notifiable viral pathogens (AIV, IBV, NDV, and ILTV, as well as outbreaks of diseases caused by immunosuppressive viral pathogens (IBDV and FADV Gp1. This review highlights the need to strengthen current levels of surveillance and reporting for poultry diseases in domestic and wild bird populations across the Caribbean, as well as the need to strengthen the diagnostic capacity and capability of Caribbean national veterinary diagnostic laboratories.

  15. Development and characterization of 38 polymorphic microsatellite markers from an economically important fruit tree, the Indian jujube.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiou, Chu-Ying; Chiang, Yu-Chung; Chen, Chih-Hsiung; Yen, Chung-Ruey; Lee, Sheue-Ru; Lin, Yu-Shium; Tsai, Chi-Chu

    2012-05-01

    A total of 38 polymorphic microsatellite loci of the Indian jujube (Ziziphus mauritiana), an economically important fruit tree, were developed to evaluate genetic diversity and aid in the identification of cultivars. The 38 microsatellite markers were isolated from the Indian jujube using a magnetic bead enrichment method, and polymorphisms were identified in 24 Indian jujube cultivars. The number of alleles ranged from two to 13, with expected heterozygosity ranging from 0.261 to 0.898. The polymorphism information content ranged from 0.248 to 0.889, with a mean of 0.616. Of these 38 simple sequence repeat loci, 20 loci from Z. jujuba (Chinese jujube) were successfully amplified using the simple sequence repeat primer sets. These polymorphic loci should be useful in further studies of the genetic diversity and the identification of cultivars of both the Indian jujube and the Chinese jujube.

  16. Economic and social importance of dam reservoirs – a study of the Soła River cascade

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrzej Jaguś

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available The paper is devoted to the functions of dam reservoirs in terms of their socioeconomic usefulness. Three dam reservoirs of the Soła cascade were chosen (Tresna, Porąbka, Czaniec as the example that are located in the southern part of Silesian Provence. The cascade is an integrated retention system, but particular reservoirs have different functions. The role of reservoirs in flood protection (Tresna, Porąbka, drinking water supply (Czaniec, electricity production (Porąbka/Porąbka-Żar, recreation (Porąbka, Tresna, supply of rock aggregate (Tresna was depicted as well. The high importance of the cascade for economic development of the region was demonstrated. Finally, the controversies about the construction and utility of dam reservoirs were discussed.

  17. Hydrodynamics of insect spermatozoa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pak, On Shun; Lauga, Eric

    2010-11-01

    Microorganism motility plays important roles in many biological processes including reproduction. Many microorganisms propel themselves by propagating traveling waves along their flagella. Depending on the species, propagation of planar waves (e.g. Ceratium) and helical waves (e.g. Trichomonas) were observed in eukaryotic flagellar motion, and hydrodynamic models for both were proposed in the past. However, the motility of insect spermatozoa remains largely unexplored. An interesting morphological feature of such cells, first observed in Tenebrio molitor and Bacillus rossius, is the double helical deformation pattern along the flagella, which is characterized by the presence of two superimposed helical flagellar waves (one with a large amplitude and low frequency, and the other with a small amplitude and high frequency). Here we present the first hydrodynamic investigation of the locomotion of insect spermatozoa. The swimming kinematics, trajectories and hydrodynamic efficiency of the swimmer are computed based on the prescribed double helical deformation pattern. We then compare our theoretical predictions with experimental measurements, and explore the dependence of the swimming performance on the geometric and dynamical parameters.

  18. TRADITIONAL USE OF THREE EDIBLE INSECTS IN COFFEE AGROECOSYSTEMS IN THE STATE OF VERACRUZ

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Esteban Escamilla Prado

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Coffee (Coffea arabica L. is one of the most economically, socioculturally and environmentally important crops in Veracruz. Shade-grown coffee plantations provide environmental services and play a key role in biodiversity conservation. In coffee farms in Veracruz insects are an abundant natural resource, and part of the use of this resource is the consumption of some edible insects in certain coffee regions. The objective of this study was to know the traditional use of three species of edible insects in the coffee agroecosystem of Veracruz. During the period 2007-2012, an ethnoentomological study was conducted in coffee regions from central Veracruz. The insect species identified were the ants chicatanas (Atta mexicana Smith and Atta cephalotes Latreille in the municipality of Huatusco, the larva gusano del jonote (Arsenura armida armida Cramer in the municipalities of Zongolica, Tequila and Tezonapa, and the larva gusanillo (Phassus triangularis H.E. in the municipalities of Córdoba, Ixhuatlán del Café, Tepatlaxco, Chocamán and Zongolica. The results showed the traditional knowledge held by coffee growers related to these edible species which are a valuable natural resource in their coffee plantations. Knowledge on agroecological relationships, collection, consumption and marketing was rescued. In conclusion, the insect species studied are used for local consumption and have great economic potential due to their high sell price during the harvest season.

  19. Entomopathogenic Fungi Associated with Exotic Invasive Insect Pests in Northeastern Forests of the USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gouli, Vladimir; Gouli, Svetlana; Marcelino, José A. P.; Skinner, Margaret; Parker, Bruce L.

    2013-01-01

    Mycopathogens of economically important exotic invasive insects in forests of northeastern USA have been the subject of research at the Entomology Research Laboratory, University of Vermont, for the last 20 years. Elongate hemlock scale, European fruit lecanium, hemlock woolly adelgid and pear thrips were analyzed for the presence of mycopathogens, in order to consider the potential for managing these pests with biological control. Fungal cultures isolated from insects with signs of fungal infection were identified based on morphological characters and DNA profiling. Mycopathogens recovered from infected insects were subdivided into three groups, i.e., specialized entomopathogenic; facultative entomopathogens; ubiquitous opportunistic contaminants. Epizootics were caused by fungi in the specialized group with the exception of M. microspora, P. marquandii and I. farinosa. Inoculation of insects in laboratory and field conditions with B. bassiana, L. muscarium and Myriangium sp. caused insect mortality of 45 to 95%. Although pest populations in the field seemed severely compromised after treatment, the remnant populations re-established themselves after the winter. Although capable of inducing high mortality, a single localized aerial application of a soil-dwelling fungus does not maintain long-time suppression of pests. However, it can halt their range expansion and maintain populations below the economic threshold level without the use of expensive insecticides which have a negative impact on the environment. PMID:26462527

  20. Geosciences: an important tool for the ethical advancement and the economic and cultural development of our society

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vito Graziano, Gian

    2013-04-01

    The development of a society in economic, cultural and ethical terms is always linked to the growth of the scientific and technical knowledge. It follows that the downsizing of the scientific research brings to a slower growth or even, as it is happening these days in Italy, a real cultural decay. The consequences of the economic crisis are evident to everyone, but it is precisely in times of crisis that the best strategies to restart the economy and give new cultural perspectives to society are studied. The crisis is also contrasted with ideas and ability to put them into practice. This, however, also presupposes a different cultural approach, which has to also include a review of values and beliefs, and a redefinition of the objectives to be pursued. This approach is modeled on the basis of several positive experiences that a country can boast. Among these experiences, there are those arising from the scientific culture: geology, for example, such as chemistry, biology or other sciences, can help to change vision. The research and practice of Earth sciences have important implications on the life and activities of the population and therefore the geoscientists, as active subjects in the society, should question their role and responsibilities. They should be at the service of society, especially in the fields of prevention from natural hazards and valorization of georesources. In this sense they can give important indications for economy and development of their country. The Italian Council of Geologists (Consiglio Nazionale dei Geologi - CNG) acts with the aim of highlighting the social role of geoscientists, hoping for a new cultural Renaissance, which leads to new researches, without obscurantism or prejudices. In an authoritative way, the CNG intends to put this social role before any demand from the professional category. Therefore, it has recently presented its political Manifesto, geared essentially to the good governance of the territory, to all the

  1. Improvement of non-key traits in radiata pine breeding programme when long-term economic importance is uncertain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yongjun; Dungey, Heidi; Yanchuk, Alvin; Apiolaza, Luis A

    2017-01-01

    Diameter at breast height (DBH), wood density (DEN) and predicted modulus of elasticity (PME) are considered as 'key traits' (KT) in the improvement in radiata pine breeding programmes in New Zealand. Any other traits which are also of interest to radiata pine breeders and forest growers are called 'non-key traits' (NKTs). External resin bleeding (ERB), internal checking (IC), number of heartwood rings (NHR) are three such non-key traits which affect wood quality of radiata pine timber. Economic importance of the KTs and NKTs is hard to define in radiata pine breeding programmes due to long rotation period. Desired-gain index (DGIs) and robust selection were proposed to incorporate NKTs into radiata pine breeding programme in order to deal with the uncertainty of economic importance. Four desired-gain indices A-D were proposed in this study. The desired-gain index A (DGI-A) emphasized growth and led to small decrease in ERB and small increase in IC and NHR. The expected genetic gains of all traits in the desired-gain index B (DGI-B) were in the favourable directions (positive genetic gains in the key traits and negative genetic gains in the non-key traits). The desired-gain index C (DGI-C) placed emphasis on wood density, leading to favourable genetic gain in the NKTs but reduced genetic gains for DBH and PME. The desired-gain index D (DGI-D) exerted a bit more emphasis on the non-key traits, leading large favourable reduction in the non-key traits and lower increase in the key traits compared with the other DGIs. When selecting both the key traits and the non-key traits, the average EBVs of six traits were all in the same directions as the expected genetic gains except for DBH in the DGI-D. When the key traits were measured and selected, internal checking always had a negative (favourable) genetic gain but ERB and NHR had unfavourable genetic gain in the most of time. After removing some individuals with high sensitivity to the change of economic weights, robust

  2. Improvement of non-key traits in radiata pine breeding programme when long-term economic importance is uncertain.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yongjun Li

    Full Text Available Diameter at breast height (DBH, wood density (DEN and predicted modulus of elasticity (PME are considered as 'key traits' (KT in the improvement in radiata pine breeding programmes in New Zealand. Any other traits which are also of interest to radiata pine breeders and forest growers are called 'non-key traits' (NKTs. External resin bleeding (ERB, internal checking (IC, number of heartwood rings (NHR are three such non-key traits which affect wood quality of radiata pine timber. Economic importance of the KTs and NKTs is hard to define in radiata pine breeding programmes due to long rotation period. Desired-gain index (DGIs and robust selection were proposed to incorporate NKTs into radiata pine breeding programme in order to deal with the uncertainty of economic importance. Four desired-gain indices A-D were proposed in this study. The desired-gain index A (DGI-A emphasized growth and led to small decrease in ERB and small increase in IC and NHR. The expected genetic gains of all traits in the desired-gain index B (DGI-B were in the favourable directions (positive genetic gains in the key traits and negative genetic gains in the non-key traits. The desired-gain index C (DGI-C placed emphasis on wood density, leading to favourable genetic gain in the NKTs but reduced genetic gains for DBH and PME. The desired-gain index D (DGI-D exerted a bit more emphasis on the non-key traits, leading large favourable reduction in the non-key traits and lower increase in the key traits compared with the other DGIs. When selecting both the key traits and the non-key traits, the average EBVs of six traits were all in the same directions as the expected genetic gains except for DBH in the DGI-D. When the key traits were measured and selected, internal checking always had a negative (favourable genetic gain but ERB and NHR had unfavourable genetic gain in the most of time. After removing some individuals with high sensitivity to the change of economic weights

  3. The importance and role of theoretical economics in contemporary higher educational process with a review of the situation in Bosnia and Herzegovina

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Slijepčević Đoko

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available After pointing out the importance and role of theoretical economics in contemporary higher education and in creation of a long-term stable and successful economic and general social development, the authors analyze in this paper the status of theoretical economics and representation of theoretical economics courses (Political economy, Economic Doctrines, Macroeconomics, Microeconomics... in the Curricula of the Faculties of Economics and other Faculties in Bosnia and Herzegovina (BiH (Law, Political Science. Thereby it is ascertained that Neo-Liberal School and its concepts still dominate in both, economic politics of transition, and in creation of Curricula within the Bologna System of Higher Education in BiH and its entities. However, the Neo-Liberal School has been undergoing a crisis for a long time, as it is not able to explain properly neither the global financial crisis, nor the transitional processes and crisis in BiH. Therefore, the knowledge of Keynesian, Marxist, and other schools of economic thought and learning, should be used more in creating the Curricula of general education courses. In analyzing the representation and role of courses of theoretical character in current high education of economists, lawyers and political scientists in BiH, the authors highlight the thesis that 'Political Economics' and other disciplines of theoretical economics have been repressed, while business and specialist disciplines, which study the skills and techniques of business management, are more and more present. The authors consider that this state of affairs is unacceptable and that it should be changed in direction of reaffirmation of 'Political Economics' and other general education disciplines from theoretical economics domain, since only these disciplines provide fundamental knowledge for creation of economic system, economic policy and achievement of a successful economic and general development of every socio-political community.

  4. Policosanol fabrication from insect wax and optimization by response surface methodology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Jinju; Ma, Liyi; Zhang, Hong; Zhang, Zhongquan; Wang, Youqiong; Li, Kai; Chen, Xiaoming

    2018-01-01

    Insect wax is a famous biological resource for the role in economic production in China. Insect wax is a good source of policosanol, which may is a candidate supplement in foodstuff and pharmaceuticals that has important physiological activities. Therefore, this work aims to investigate a high-yield and rapid method for policosanol fabrication from insect wax. The conditions for policosanol fabrication were optimized as follows: an oil bath temperature of 112.7°C and reductant dosage of 0.97 g (used for the reduction of 10.00 g of insect wax). The yield of policosanol reached 83.20%, which was 4 times greater than that of existing methods, such as saponification. The total content of policosanol obtained under the optimal conditions reached 87%. In other words, a high yield of policosanol was obtained from insect wax (723.84 mg/g), that was 55 times higher than that generated from beeswax-brown via saponification. The concentrations of metal residues in policosanol were within the limits of the European Union regulations and EFSA stipulation. The LD50 values for oral doses of insect wax and policosanol were both > 5 g/kg. Policosanol was fabricated via solvent-free reduction from insect wax using LiAlH4 at a high yield. The fabrication conditions were optimized. Policosanol and insect wax showed high security, which made them potential candidates as supplements in foods, pharmaceuticals and cosmetics. The rapid and high-yield method has great potential for commercial manufacturing of policosanol.

  5. Diseases in insects produced for food and feed

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Eilenberg, Jørgen; Vlak, J.M.; Nielsen-Leroux, C.

    2015-01-01

    Increased production of insects on a large scale for food and feed will likely lead to many novel challenges, including problems with diseases. We provide an overview of important groups of insect pathogens, which can cause disease in insects produced for food and feed. Main characteristics of each...... pathogen group (viruses, bacteria, fungi, protists and nematodes) are described and illustrated, with a selection of examples from the most commonly produced insect species for food and feed. Honeybee and silkworm are mostly produced for other reasons than as human food, yet we can still use them...... as examples to learn about emergence of new diseases in production insects. Results from a 2014 survey about insect diseases in current insect production systems are presented for the first time. Finally, we give some recommendations for the prevention and control of insect diseases. Key words: disease...

  6. Potential applications of insect symbionts in biotechnology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berasategui, Aileen; Shukla, Shantanu; Salem, Hassan; Kaltenpoth, Martin

    2016-02-01

    Symbiotic interactions between insects and microorganisms are widespread in nature and are often the source of ecological innovations. In addition to supplementing their host with essential nutrients, microbial symbionts can produce enzymes that help degrade their food source as well as small molecules that defend against pathogens, parasites, and predators. As such, the study of insect ecology and symbiosis represents an important source of chemical compounds and enzymes with potential biotechnological value. In addition, the knowledge on insect symbiosis can provide novel avenues for the control of agricultural pest insects and vectors of human diseases, through targeted manipulation of the symbionts or the host-symbiont associations. Here, we discuss different insect-microbe interactions that can be exploited for insect pest and human disease control, as well as in human medicine and industrial processes. Our aim is to raise awareness that insect symbionts can be interesting sources of biotechnological applications and that knowledge on insect ecology can guide targeted efforts to discover microorganisms of applied value.

  7. Endocrinology of insects

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Downer, Roger G. H; Laufer, Hans

    1983-01-01

    Contents: Organization of the neuroendocrine system - Chemistry of insect hormones and neurohormones - Regulation of metamorphosis - Regulation of reproduction - Regulation of growth and development...

  8. Australian Consumers' Awareness and Acceptance of Insects as Food.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilkinson, Kerry; Muhlhausler, Beverly; Motley, Crystal; Crump, Anna; Bray, Heather; Ankeny, Rachel

    2018-04-19

    Insects have long been consumed as part of the diets of many Asian, African, and South American cultures. However, despite international agencies such as the Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations advocating the nutritional, environmental, and economic benefits of entomophagy, attitudinal barriers persist in Western societies. In Australia, the indigenous ‘bush tucker’ diet comprising witchetty grubs, honey ants, and Bogong moths is quite well known; however, in most Australian locales, the consumption of insects tends to occur only as a novelty. Therefore, this study aimed to investigate the awareness and acceptance of insects as food. An online survey of 820 consumers found that 68% of participants had heard of entomophagy, but only 21% had previously eaten insects; witchetty grubs, ants, grasshoppers, and crickets were the most commonly tasted insects. Taste, appearance, safety, and quality were identified as the factors that were most likely to influence consumer willingness to try eating insects, but consumer attitudes towards entomophagy were underpinned by both food neophobia (i.e., reluctance to eat new or novel foods) and prior consumption of insects. Neophobic consumers were far less accepting of entomophagy than neophilic consumers, while consumers who had previously eaten insects were most accepting of insects as food. Incorporating insects into familiar products (e.g., biscuits) or cooked meals also improved their appeal. Collectively, these findings can be used by the food industry to devise production and/or marketing strategies that overcome barriers to insect consumption in Australia.

  9. Australian Consumers’ Awareness and Acceptance of Insects as Food

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kerry Wilkinson

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Insects have long been consumed as part of the diets of many Asian, African, and South American cultures. However, despite international agencies such as the Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations advocating the nutritional, environmental, and economic benefits of entomophagy, attitudinal barriers persist in Western societies. In Australia, the indigenous ‘bush tucker’ diet comprising witchetty grubs, honey ants, and Bogong moths is quite well known; however, in most Australian locales, the consumption of insects tends to occur only as a novelty. Therefore, this study aimed to investigate the awareness and acceptance of insects as food. An online survey of 820 consumers found that 68% of participants had heard of entomophagy, but only 21% had previously eaten insects; witchetty grubs, ants, grasshoppers, and crickets were the most commonly tasted insects. Taste, appearance, safety, and quality were identified as the factors that were most likely to influence consumer willingness to try eating insects, but consumer attitudes towards entomophagy were underpinned by both food neophobia (i.e., reluctance to eat new or novel foods and prior consumption of insects. Neophobic consumers were far less accepting of entomophagy than neophilic consumers, while consumers who had previously eaten insects were most accepting of insects as food. Incorporating insects into familiar products (e.g., biscuits or cooked meals also improved their appeal. Collectively, these findings can be used by the food industry to devise production and/or marketing strategies that overcome barriers to insect consumption in Australia.

  10. EFSA Panel on Genetically Modified Organisms (GMO); Scientific Opinion on application (EFSAGMO- NL-2007-39) for the placing on the market of insect resistant and herbicide tolerant genetically modified maize MON89034 x MON88017 for food and feed uses, import and processing under Regulation (EC

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Ilona Kryspin

    This opinion reports on an evaluation of a risk assessment for placing on the market the genetically modified herbicide tolerant and insect resistant maize MON89034 x MON88017 for food and feed uses, import and processing. Conventional breeding methods were used in the production of maize MON89034...

  11. The mineral composition of five insects as sold for human ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Edible insects have been proposed as an alternative protein source that is economically and environmentally preferable to livestock, and certain species may be high in nutrients that benefit human health. We present data describing the mineral content of five edible insects as sold in South Africa and Zimbabwe. We report ...

  12. Bioactive potential of some economically important marine gastropods along the Gulf of Mannar region, southeast coast of India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    JayanthiGovindarajalu

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To analyse the economically important gastropods for prospective antimicrobial, antioxidant and cytotoxic activities from the Gulf of Mannar region, southeast coast of India. Methods: The bioactive potential of some gastropods i.e. Babylonia spirata (B. spirata, Phalium glaucum, Tonna dolium, Hemifusus pugilinus, Xancus pyrum, Chicoreus ramosus (C. ramosus, Harpa articularis, Ficus ficus and Babylonia zeylanica were analysed. Antimicrobial activity was carried out against 8 human pathogenic bacteria and 3 fungal strains by well diffusion method. Antioxidant and cytotoxic activities were analyzed by standard methods. Results: In antibacterial and antifungal activities, methanolic extract of B. spirata significantly showed the highest inhibition zone against Aeromonas hydrophila and Fusarium spp. (P > 0.05. In the total antioxidant activity, the maximum activity was observed in B. spirata (510 µg/mg and in the 1.1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl scavenging activity, B. spirata showed the highest percentage of inhibition (76.7%. In the case of cytotoxicity i.e. brine shrimp lethality tests the methanolic extract of C. ramosus showed the lowest percentage of mortality and the LC50 values were found to be 523.9 µg/mL. Conclusions: The results revealed that all the gastropods in the present study possessed antimicrobial, antioxidant and cytotoxic effects. However, species like B. spirata and C. ramosus exhibited potent activity and can be used for further clinical studies.

  13. Quantifying the economic importance of irrigation water reuse in a Chilean watershed using an integrated agent-based model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arnold, R. T.; Troost, Christian; Berger, Thomas

    2015-01-01

    Irrigation with surface water enables Chilean agricultural producers to generate one of the country's most important economic exports. The Chilean water code established tradable water rights as a mechanism to allocate water amongst farmers and other water-use sectors. It remains contested whether this mechanism is effective and many authors have raised equity concerns regarding its impact on water users. For example, speculative hoarding of water rights in expectations of their increasing value has been described. This paper demonstrates how farmers can hoard water rights as a risk management strategy for variable water supply, for example, due to the cycles of El Niño or as consequence of climate change. While farmers with insufficient water rights can rely on unclaimed water during conditions of normal water availability, drought years overproportionally impact on their supply of irrigation water and thereby farm profitability. This study uses a simulation model that consists of a hydrological balance model component and a multiagent farm decision and production component. Both model components are parameterized with empirical data, while uncertain parameters are calibrated. The study demonstrates a thorough quantification of parameter uncertainty, using global sensitivity analysis and multiple behavioral parameter scenarios.

  14. The socio-economic impact of important camel diseases as perceived by a pastoralist community in Kenya.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mochabo, M O K; Kitala, P M; Gathura, P B; Ogara, W O; Eregae, E M; Kaitho, T D; Catley, A

    2006-12-01

    This paper presents the results of a study conducted in a pastoral community in Kenya using participatory appraisal approaches. The objective of the study was to assess the socio-economic impact of camel trypanosomosis (surra) according to the perceptions of the pastoralists. Four livestock grazing units were conveniently selected and in each of them, three groups of key informants comprising five to eight persons were selected for the participatory exercises. Five camel diseases were listed in order of importance according to their severity and frequency of occurrence including trypanosomosis, mange, non-specific diarrhoea, tick infestations and haemorrhagic septicaemia. The losses listed as incurred due to the five diseases were: losses in milk, meat, blood, fats and hides, dowry payments, and depreciation in sale of animals, losses due to infertility and abortions, and losses due to the cost of treatment. There was good agreement (P impact. There is a need for veterinary and policy decision-makers to focus more attention on the control of surra in this arid and semi-arid area of Kenya.

  15. Genome Editing with Engineered Nucleases in Economically Important Animals and Plants: State of the Art in the Research Pipeline.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sovová, Tereza; Kerins, Gerard; Demnerová, Kateřina; Ovesná, Jaroslava

    2017-01-01

    After induced mutagenesis and transgenesis, genome editing is the next step in the development of breeding techniques. Genome editing using site-directed nucleases - including meganucleases, zinc-finger nucleases (ZFNs), transcription activator-like effector nucleases (TALENs), and the CRISPR/Cas9 system - is based on the mechanism of double strand breaks. The nuclease is directed to cleave the DNA at a specific place of the genome which is then repaired by natural repair mechanisms. Changes are introduced during the repair that are either accidental or can be targeted if a DNA template with the desirable sequence is provided. These techniques allow making virtually any change to the genome including specific DNA sequence changes, gene insertion, replacements or deletions with unprecedented precision and specificity while being less laborious and more straightforward compared to traditional breeding techniques or transgenesis. Therefore, the research in this field is developing quickly and, apart from model species, multiple studies have focused on economically important species and agronomically important traits that were the key subjects of this review. In plants, studies have been undertaken on disease resistance, herbicide tolerance, nutrient metabolism and nutritional value. In animals, the studies have mainly focused on disease resistance, meat production and allergenicity of milk. However, none of the promising studies has led to commercialization despite several patent applications. The uncertain legal status of genome-editing methods is one of the reasons for poor commercial development, as it is not clear whether the products would fall under the GMO regulation. We believe this issue should be clarified soon in order to allow promising methods to reach their full potential.

  16. Developmental constraint of insect audition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Strauß Johannes

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Insect ears contain very different numbers of sensory cells, from only one sensory cell in some moths to thousands of sensory cells, e.g. in cicadas. These differences still await functional explanation and especially the large numbers in cicadas remain puzzling. Insects of the different orders have distinct developmental sequences for the generation of auditory organs. These sensory cells might have different functions depending on the developmental stages. Here we propose that constraints arising during development are also important for the design of insect ears and might influence cell numbers of the adults. Presentation of the hypothesis We propose that the functional requirements of the subadult stages determine the adult complement of sensory units in the auditory system of cicadas. The hypothetical larval sensory organ should function as a vibration receiver, representing a functional caenogenesis. Testing the hypothesis Experiments at different levels have to be designed to test the hypothesis. Firstly, the neuroanatomy of the larval sense organ should be analyzed to detail. Secondly, the function should be unraveled neurophysiologically and behaviorally. Thirdly, the persistence of the sensory cells and the rebuilding of the sensory organ to the adult should be investigated. Implications of the hypothesis Usually, the evolution of insect ears is viewed with respect to physiological and neuronal mechanisms of sound perception. This view should be extended to the development of sense organs. Functional requirements during postembryonic development may act as constraints for the evolution of adult organs, as exemplified with the auditory system of cicadas.

  17. Spatial Patterns of Aflatoxin Levels in Relation to Ear-Feeding Insect Damage in Pre-Harvest Corn

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alisa Huffaker

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Key impediments to increased corn yield and quality in the southeastern US coastal plain region are damage by ear-feeding insects and aflatoxin contamination caused by infection of Aspergillus flavus. Key ear-feeding insects are corn earworm, Helicoverpa zea, fall armyworm, Spodoptera frugiperda, maize weevil, Sitophilus zeamais, and brown stink bug, Euschistus servus. In 2006 and 2007, aflatoxin contamination and insect damage were sampled before harvest in three 0.4-hectare corn fields using a grid sampling method. The feeding damage by each of ear/kernel-feeding insects (i.e., corn earworm/fall armyworm damage on the silk/cob, and discoloration of corn kernels by stink bugs, and maize weevil population were assessed at each grid point with five ears. The spatial distribution pattern of aflatoxin contamination was also assessed using the corn samples collected at each sampling point. Aflatoxin level was correlated to the number of maize weevils and stink bug-discolored kernels, but not closely correlated to either husk coverage or corn earworm damage. Contour maps of the maize weevil populations, stink bug-damaged kernels, and aflatoxin levels exhibited an aggregated distribution pattern with a strong edge effect on all three parameters. The separation of silk- and cob-feeding insects from kernel-feeding insects, as well as chewing (i.e., the corn earworm and maize weevil and piercing-sucking insects (i.e., the stink bugs and their damage in relation to aflatoxin accumulation is economically important. Both theoretic and applied ramifications of this study were discussed by proposing a hypothesis on the underlying mechanisms of the aggregated distribution patterns and strong edge effect of insect damage and aflatoxin contamination, and by discussing possible management tactics for aflatoxin reduction by proper management of kernel-feeding insects. Future directions on basic and applied research related to aflatoxin contamination are also

  18. Spatial patterns of aflatoxin levels in relation to ear-feeding insect damage in pre-harvest corn.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ni, Xinzhi; Wilson, Jeffrey P; Buntin, G David; Guo, Baozhu; Krakowsky, Matthew D; Lee, R Dewey; Cottrell, Ted E; Scully, Brian T; Huffaker, Alisa; Schmelz, Eric A

    2011-07-01

    Key impediments to increased corn yield and quality in the southeastern US coastal plain region are damage by ear-feeding insects and aflatoxin contamination caused by infection of Aspergillus flavus. Key ear-feeding insects are corn earworm, Helicoverpa zea, fall armyworm, Spodoptera frugiperda, maize weevil, Sitophilus zeamais, and brown stink bug, Euschistus servus. In 2006 and 2007, aflatoxin contamination and insect damage were sampled before harvest in three 0.4-hectare corn fields using a grid sampling method. The feeding damage by each of ear/kernel-feeding insects (i.e., corn earworm/fall armyworm damage on the silk/cob, and discoloration of corn kernels by stink bugs), and maize weevil population were assessed at each grid point with five ears. The spatial distribution pattern of aflatoxin contamination was also assessed using the corn samples collected at each sampling point. Aflatoxin level was correlated to the number of maize weevils and stink bug-discolored kernels, but not closely correlated to either husk coverage or corn earworm damage. Contour maps of the maize weevil populations, stink bug-damaged kernels, and aflatoxin levels exhibited an aggregated distribution pattern with a strong edge effect on all three parameters. The separation of silk- and cob-feeding insects from kernel-feeding insects, as well as chewing (i.e., the corn earworm and maize weevil) and piercing-sucking insects (i.e., the stink bugs) and their damage in relation to aflatoxin accumulation is economically important. Both theoretic and applied ramifications of this study were discussed by proposing a hypothesis on the underlying mechanisms of the aggregated distribution patterns and strong edge effect of insect damage and aflatoxin contamination, and by discussing possible management tactics for aflatoxin reduction by proper management of kernel-feeding insects. Future directions on basic and applied research related to aflatoxin contamination are also discussed.

  19. Spatial Patterns of Aflatoxin Levels in Relation to Ear-Feeding Insect Damage in Pre-Harvest Corn

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ni, Xinzhi; Wilson, Jeffrey P.; Buntin, G. David; Guo, Baozhu; Krakowsky, Matthew D.; Lee, R. Dewey; Cottrell, Ted E.; Scully, Brian T.; Huffaker, Alisa; Schmelz, Eric A.

    2011-01-01

    Key impediments to increased corn yield and quality in the southeastern US coastal plain region are damage by ear-feeding insects and aflatoxin contamination caused by infection of Aspergillus flavus. Key ear-feeding insects are corn earworm, Helicoverpa zea, fall armyworm, Spodoptera frugiperda, maize weevil, Sitophilus zeamais, and brown stink bug, Euschistus servus. In 2006 and 2007, aflatoxin contamination and insect damage were sampled before harvest in three 0.4-hectare corn fields using a grid sampling method. The feeding damage by each of ear/kernel-feeding insects (i.e., corn earworm/fall armyworm damage on the silk/cob, and discoloration of corn kernels by stink bugs), and maize weevil population were assessed at each grid point with five ears. The spatial distribution pattern of aflatoxin contamination was also assessed using the corn samples collected at each sampling point. Aflatoxin level was correlated to the number of maize weevils and stink bug-discolored kernels, but not closely correlated to either husk coverage or corn earworm damage. Contour maps of the maize weevil populations, stink bug-damaged kernels, and aflatoxin levels exhibited an aggregated distribution pattern with a strong edge effect on all three parameters. The separation of silk- and cob-feeding insects from kernel-feeding insects, as well as chewing (i.e., the corn earworm and maize weevil) and piercing-sucking insects (i.e., the stink bugs) and their damage in relation to aflatoxin accumulation is economically important. Both theoretic and applied ramifications of this study were discussed by proposing a hypothesis on the underlying mechanisms of the aggregated distribution patterns and strong edge effect of insect damage and aflatoxin contamination, and by discussing possible management tactics for aflatoxin reduction by proper management of kernel-feeding insects. Future directions on basic and applied research related to aflatoxin contamination are also discussed. PMID

  20. Insects and diseases

    Science.gov (United States)

    John W. Couston

    2009-01-01

    Insects and diseases are a natural part of forested ecosystems. Their activity is partially regulated by biotic factors, e.g., host abundance, host quality; physical factors, e.g., soil, climate; and disturbances (Berryman 1986). Insects and diseases can influence both forest patterns and forest processes by causing, for example, defoliation and mortality. These...

  1. Insects: Bugged Out!

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piehl, Kathy

    2011-01-01

    Insects really need no introduction. They have lived on earth much longer than humans and vastly outnumber people and all other animal species combined. People encounter them daily in their houses and yards. Yet, when children want to investigate insects, books can help them start their explorations. "Paleo Bugs" carries readers back to the time…

  2. Insects and Bugs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sutherland, Karen

    2009-01-01

    They have been around for centuries. They sting, they bite. They cause intense itching or painful sores. They even cause allergic reactions and sometimes death. There are two types of insects that are pests to humans--those that sting and those that bite. The insects that bite do so with their mouths and include mosquitoes, chiggers, and ticks.…

  3. Insect pests of Eucalyptus and their control

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sen-Sarma, P K; Thakur, M L

    1983-12-01

    In India, about sixty odd species of insects have so far been recorded to be associated with Eucalyptus. Important pests are some xylophagous insects, sap suckers, defoliators and termites. Of these, stem and root borer, Celostrna scabrator Fabr, and some species of termites have been recognised as key pests, whereas Apogonia coriaces Waterhouse, Mimeta mundissima Walker (Coleoptera: Scarabaeidae), Agrotis ipsilon Hufnagel (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae), Brachytrypus portenosus Lichtenstein and Gymmogryllus humeralis Walker (Orthoptera: Gryllidae) are likely to become potential pests in Eucalyptus nurseries. In this paper available information on insect pests of Eucalyptus, their bioecology and control measures have been presented.

  4. Effects of temperature on development, survival and reproduction of insects: Experimental design, data analysis and modeling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacques Regniere; James Powell; Barbara Bentz; Vincent Nealis

    2012-01-01

    The developmental response of insects to temperature is important in understanding the ecology of insect life histories. Temperature-dependent phenology models permit examination of the impacts of temperature on the geographical distributions, population dynamics and management of insects. The measurement of insect developmental, survival and reproductive responses to...

  5. Applying the sterile insect technique to the control of insect pests

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    LaChance, L.E.; Klassen, W.

    1991-01-01

    The sterile insect technique (SIT) is basically a novel twentieth century approach to insect birth control. It is species specific and exploits the mate seeking behaviour of the insect. The basic principle is simple. Insects are mass reared in 'factories' and sexually sterilized by gamma rays from a 60 Co source. The sterile insects are then released in a controlled fashion into nature. Matings between the sterile insects released and native insects produced no progeny. If enough of these matings take place, reproduction of the pest population decreases. With continued release, the pest population can be controlled and in some cases eradicated. In the light of the many important applications of the SIT worldwide and the great potential that SIT concepts hold for insect and pest control in developing countries, two special benefits should be stressed. Of greatest significance is the fact that the SIT permits suppression and eradication of insect pests in an environmentally harmless manner. It combines nuclear techniques with genetic approaches and, in effect, replaces intensive use of chemicals in pest control. Although chemicals are used sparingly at the outset in some SIT programmes to reduce the size of the pest population before releases of sterilized insects are started, the total amount of chemicals used in an SIT programme is a mere fraction of what would be used without the SIT. It is also of great importance that the SIT is not designed strictly for the eradication of pest species but can readily be used in the suppression of insect populations. In fact, the SIT is ideally suited for use in conjunction with other agricultural pest control practices such as the use of parasites and predators, attractants and cultural controls (e.g. ploughing under or destruction of crop residues) in integrated pest management programmes to achieve control at the lowest possible price and with a minimum of chemical contamination of the environment

  6. Applying the sterile insect technique to the control of insect pests

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    LaChance, L E; Klassen, W [Joint FAO/IAEA Division of Nuclear Techniques in Food and Agriculture, Vienna (Austria)

    1991-09-01

    The sterile insect technique (SIT) is basically a novel twentieth century approach to insect birth control. It is species specific and exploits the mate seeking behaviour of the insect. The basic principle is simple. Insects are mass reared in 'factories' and sexually sterilized by gamma rays from a {sup 60}Co source. The sterile insects are then released in a controlled fashion into nature. Matings between the sterile insects released and native insects produced no progeny. If enough of these matings take place, reproduction of the pest population decreases. With continued release, the pest population can be controlled and in some cases eradicated. In the light of the many important applications of the SIT worldwide and the great potential that SIT concepts hold for insect and pest control in developing countries, two special benefits should be stressed. Of greatest significance is the fact that the SIT permits suppression and eradication of insect pests in an environmentally harmless manner. It combines nuclear techniques with genetic approaches and, in effect, replaces intensive use of chemicals in pest control. Although chemicals are used sparingly at the outset in some SIT programmes to reduce the size of the pest population before releases of sterilized insects are started, the total amount of chemicals used in an SIT programme is a mere fraction of what would be used without the SIT. It is also of great importance that the SIT is not designed strictly for the eradication of pest species but can readily be used in the suppression of insect populations. In fact, the SIT is ideally suited for use in conjunction with other agricultural pest control practices such as the use of parasites and predators, attractants and cultural controls (e.g. ploughing under or destruction of crop residues) in integrated pest management programmes to achieve control at the lowest possible price and with a minimum of chemical contamination of the environment.

  7. ECONOMIC AND LEGAL ASPECTS OF CREATION OF AN INTERNATIONAL FINANCIAL CENTER AS IMPORTANT CIS AND EVRASES COUNTRIES INTERGATION FACTOR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. S. Balabanov

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The process of forming in Moscow a regional (to be in future transformed into a global international Single Economic Space (SES financial center should become for the Commonwealth of Independent States (CIS and Euroasian Economic Community (EvrAsES countries an universal integration instrument to be used to create their common economic and commercial space. The international center along with SES national financial centers will form an internationally competitive polycentric financial network with single institutional (regulatory, law, customs, etc.agreements. A mechanism should be formed to attract countries outside Customs Union to participate in creation of the international financial center.

  8. Complete sequence and analysis of plastid genomes of two economically important red algae: Pyropia haitanensis and Pyropia yezoensis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Li Wang

    Full Text Available Pyropia haitanensis and P. yezoensis are two economically important marine crops that are also considered to be research models to study the physiological ecology of intertidal seaweed communities, evolutionary biology of plastids, and the origins of sexual reproduction. This plastid genome information will facilitate study of breeding, population genetics and phylogenetics.We have fully sequenced using next-generation sequencing the circular plastid genomes of P. hatanensis (195,597 bp and P. yezoensis (191,975 bp, the largest of all the plastid genomes of the red lineage sequenced to date. Organization and gene contents of the two plastids were similar, with 211-213 protein-coding genes (including 29-31 unknown-function ORFs, 37 tRNA genes, and 6 ribosomal RNA genes, suggesting a largest coding capacity in the red lineage. In each genome, 14 protein genes overlapped and no interrupted genes were found, indicating a high degree of genomic condensation. Pyropia maintain an ancient gene content and conserved gene clusters in their plastid genomes, containing nearly complete repertoires of the plastid genes known in photosynthetic eukaryotes. Similarity analysis based on the whole plastid genome sequences showed the distance between P. haitanensis and P. yezoensis (0.146 was much smaller than that of Porphyra purpurea and P. haitanensis (0.250, and P. yezoensis (0.251; this supports re-grouping the two species in a resurrected genus Pyropia while maintaining P. purpurea in genus Porphyra. Phylogenetic analysis supports a sister relationship between Bangiophyceae and Florideophyceae, though precise phylogenetic relationships between multicellular red alage and chromists were not fully resolved.These results indicate that Pyropia have compact plastid genomes. Large coding capacity and long intergenic regions contribute to the size of the largest plastid genomes reported for the red lineage. Possessing the largest coding capacity and ancient gene

  9. Successes against insects and parasites

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1967-10-15

    With more and more answers being found to intricate problems which have entailed years of research in many parts of the world, some successes can now be claimed in the fight to control insect threats to crops, animals and human beings. Nuclear techniques are playing an important part in world efforts, and recent reports show that they have been effective in pioneer work against crop pests as well as in finding an answer to some diseases caused by parasites

  10. Forest Insect Pest Management and Forest Management in China: An Overview

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ji, Lanzhu; Wang, Zhen; Wang, Xiaowei; An, Linli

    2011-12-01

    According to the Seventh National Forest Inventory (2004-2008), China's forests cover an area of 195.45 million ha, or 20.36% of the total land area. China has the most rapidly increasing forest resources in the world. However, China is also a country with serious forest pest problems. There are more than 8,000 species of potential forest pests in China, including insects, plant diseases, rodents and lagomorphs, and hazardous plants. Among them, 300 species are considered as economically or ecologically important, and half of these are serious pests, including 86 species of insects. Forest management and utilization have a considerable influence on the stability and sustainability of forest ecosystems. At the national level, forestry policies always play a major role in forest resource management and forest health protection. In this paper, we present a comprehensive overview of both achievements and challenges in forest management and insect pest control in China. First, we summarize the current status of forest resources and their pests in China. Second, we address the theories, policies, practices and major national actions on forestry and forest insect pest management, including the Engineering Pest Management of China, the National Key Forestry Programs, the Classified Forest Management system, and the Collective Forest Tenure Reform. We analyze and discuss three representative plantations— Eucalyptus, poplar and Masson pine plantations—with respect to their insect diversity, pest problems and pest management measures.

  11. Forest insect pest management and forest management in China: an overview.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ji, Lanzhu; Wang, Zhen; Wang, Xiaowei; An, Linli

    2011-12-01

    According to the Seventh National Forest Inventory (2004-2008), China's forests cover an area of 195.45 million ha, or 20.36% of the total land area. China has the most rapidly increasing forest resources in the world. However, China is also a country with serious forest pest problems. There are more than 8,000 species of potential forest pests in China, including insects, plant diseases, rodents and lagomorphs, and hazardous plants. Among them, 300 species are considered as economically or ecologically important, and half of these are serious pests, including 86 species of insects. Forest management and utilization have a considerable influence on the stability and sustainability of forest ecosystems. At the national level, forestry policies always play a major role in forest resource management and forest health protection. In this paper, we present a comprehensive overview of both achievements and challenges in forest management and insect pest control in China. First, we summarize the current status of forest resources and their pests in China. Second, we address the theories, policies, practices and major national actions on forestry and forest insect pest management, including the Engineering Pest Management of China, the National Key Forestry Programs, the Classified Forest Management system, and the Collective Forest Tenure Reform. We analyze and discuss three representative plantations-Eucalyptus, poplar and Masson pine plantations-with respect to their insect diversity, pest problems and pest management measures.

  12. Determining putative vectors of the Bogia Coconut Syndrome phytoplasma using loop-mediated isothermal amplification of single-insect feeding media

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Hengyu; Wilson, Bree A. L.; Ash, Gavin J.; Woruba, Sharon B.; Fletcher, Murray J.; You, Minsheng; Yang, Guang; Gurr, Geoff M.

    2016-01-01

    Phytoplasmas are insect vectored mollicutes responsible for disease in many economically important crops. Determining which insect species are vectors of a given phytoplasma is important for managing disease but is methodologically challenging because disease-free plants need to be exposed to large numbers of insects, often over many months. A relatively new method to detect likely transmission involves molecular testing for phytoplasma DNA in sucrose solution that insects have fed upon. In this study we combined this feeding medium method with a loop-mediated isothermal amplification (LAMP) assay to study 627 insect specimens of 11 Hemiptera taxa sampled from sites in Papua New Guinea affected by Bogia coconut syndrome (BCS). The LAMP assay detected phytoplasma DNA from the feeding solution and head tissue of insects from six taxa belonging to four families: Derbidae, Lophopidae, Flatidae and Ricaniidae. Two other taxa yielded positives only from the heads and the remainder tested negative. These results demonstrate the utility of combining single-insect feeding medium tests with LAMP assays to identify putative vectors that can be the subject of transmission tests and to better understand phytoplasma pathosystems. PMID:27786249

  13. Attention-like processes in insects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nityananda, Vivek

    2016-11-16

    Attention is fundamentally important for sensory systems to focus on behaviourally relevant stimuli. It has therefore been an important field of study in human psychology and neuroscience. Primates, however, are not the only animals that might benefit from attention-like processes. Other animals, including insects, also have to use their senses and select one among many stimuli to forage, avoid predators and find mates. They have evolved different mechanisms to reduce the information processed by their brains to focus on only relevant stimuli. What are the mechanisms used by insects to selectively attend to visual and auditory stimuli? Do these attention-like mechanisms achieve the same functions as they do in primates? To investigate these questions, I use an established framework for investigating attention in non-human animals that proposes four fundamental components of attention: salience filters, competitive selection, top-down sensitivity control and working memory. I discuss evidence for each of these component processes in insects and compare the characteristics of these processes in insects to what we know from primates. Finally, I highlight important outstanding questions about insect attention that need to be addressed for us to understand the differences and similarities between vertebrate and insect attention. © 2016 The Author(s).

  14. New fossil insect order Permopsocida elucidates major radiation and evolution of suction feeding in hemimetabolous insects (Hexapoda: Acercaria).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Di-Ying; Bechly, Günter; Nel, Patricia; Engel, Michael S; Prokop, Jakub; Azar, Dany; Cai, Chen-Yang; van de Kamp, Thomas; Staniczek, Arnold H; Garrouste, Romain; Krogmann, Lars; Dos Santos Rolo, Tomy; Baumbach, Tilo; Ohlhoff, Rainer; Shmakov, Alexey S; Bourgoin, Thierry; Nel, André

    2016-03-10

    With nearly 100,000 species, the Acercaria (lice, plant lices, thrips, bugs) including number of economically important species is one of the most successful insect lineages. However, its phylogeny and evolution of mouthparts among other issues remain debatable. Here new methods of preparation permitted the comprehensive anatomical description of insect inclusions from mid-Cretaceous Burmese amber in astonishing detail. These "missing links" fossils, attributed to a new order Permopsocida, provide crucial evidence for reconstructing the phylogenetic relationships in the Acercaria, supporting its monophyly, and questioning the position of Psocodea as sister group of holometabolans in the most recent phylogenomic study. Permopsocida resolves as sister group of Thripida + Hemiptera and represents an evolutionary link documenting the transition from chewing to piercing mouthparts in relation to suction feeding. Identification of gut contents as angiosperm pollen documents an ecological role of Permopsocida as early pollen feeders with relatively unspecialized mouthparts. This group existed for 185 million years, but has never been diverse and was superseded by new pollenivorous pollinators during the Cretaceous co-evolution of insects and flowers. The key innovation of suction feeding with piercing mouthparts is identified as main event that triggered the huge post-Carboniferous radiation of hemipterans, and facilitated the spreading of pathogenic vectors.

  15. Emerging strategies for RNA interference (RNAi) applications in insects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nandety, Raja Sekhar; Kuo, Yen-Wen; Nouri, Shahideh; Falk, Bryce W

    2015-01-01

    RNA interference (RNAi) in insects is a gene regulatory process that also plays a vital role in the maintenance and in the regulation of host defenses against invading viruses. Small RNAs determine the specificity of the RNAi through precise recognition of their targets. These small RNAs in insects comprise small interfering RNAs (siRNAs), micro RNAs (miRNAs) and Piwi interacting RNAs (piRNAs) of various lengths. In this review, we have explored different forms of the RNAi inducers that are presently in use, and their applications for an effective and efficient fundamental and practical RNAi research with insects. Further, we reviewed trends in next generation sequencing (NGS) technologies and their importance for insect RNAi, including the identification of novel insect targets as well as insect viruses. Here we also describe a rapidly emerging trend of using plant viruses to deliver the RNAi inducer molecules into insects for an efficient RNAi response.

  16. Prostaglandins and their receptors in insect biology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David eStanley

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available We treat the biological significance of prostaglandins (PGs and their known receptors in insect biology. PGs and related eicosanoids are oxygenated derivatives of arachidonic acid (AA and two other C20 polyunsaturated fatty acids. PGs are mostly appreciated in the context of biomedicine, but a growing body of literature indicates the biological significance of these compounds extends throughout the animal kingdom, and possibly beyond. PGs act in several crucial areas of insect biology. In reproduction, a specific PG, PGE2, releases oviposition behavior in most crickets and a few other insect species; PGs also mediate events in egg development in some species, which may represent all insects. PGs play major roles in modulating fluid secretion in Malpighian tubules, rectum and salivary glands, although, again, this has been studied in only a few insect species that may represent the Class. Insect immunity is a very complex defense system. PGs and other eicosanoids mediate a large number of immune reactions to infection and invasion. The actions of most PGs are mediated by specific receptors. Biomedical research has discovered a great deal of knowledge about PG receptors in mammals, including their structures, pharmacology, molecular biology and cellular locations. Studies of PG receptors in insects lag behind the biomedical background, however, recent results hold the promise of accelerated research in this area. A PG receptor has been identified in a class of lepidopteran hemocytes and experimentally linked to the release of prophenoloxidase. We conclude that research into PGs and their receptors in insects will lead to important advances in our understanding of insect biology.

  17. Construction, implementation and testing of an image identification system using computer vision methods for fruit flies with economic importance (Diptera: Tephritidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Jiang-Ning; Chen, Xiao-Lin; Hou, Xin-Wen; Zhou, Li-Bing; Zhu, Chao-Dong; Ji, Li-Qiang

    2017-07-01

    Many species of Tephritidae are damaging to fruit, which might negatively impact international fruit trade. Automatic or semi-automatic identification of fruit flies are greatly needed for diagnosing causes of damage and quarantine protocols for economically relevant insects. A fruit fly image identification system named AFIS1.0 has been developed using 74 species belonging to six genera, which include the majority of pests in the Tephritidae. The system combines automated image identification and manual verification, balancing operability and accuracy. AFIS1.0 integrates image analysis and expert system into a content-based image retrieval framework. In the the automatic identification module, AFIS1.0 gives candidate identification results. Afterwards users can do manual selection based on comparing unidentified images with a subset of images corresponding to the automatic identification result. The system uses Gabor surface features in automated identification and yielded an overall classification success rate of 87% to the species level by Independent Multi-part Image Automatic Identification Test. The system is useful for users with or without specific expertise on Tephritidae in the task of rapid and effective identification of fruit flies. It makes the application of computer vision technology to fruit fly recognition much closer to production level. © 2016 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2016 Society of Chemical Industry.

  18. Learning in Insect Pollinators and Herbivores.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Patricia L; Agrawal, Anurag A

    2017-01-31

    The relationship between plants and insects is influenced by insects' behavioral decisions during foraging and oviposition. In mutualistic pollinators and antagonistic herbivores, past experience (learning) affects such decisions, which ultimately can impact plant fitness. The higher levels of dietary generalism in pollinators than in herbivores may be an explanation for the differences in learning seen between these two groups. Generalist pollinators experience a high level of environmental variation, which we suggest favors associative learning. Larval herbivores employ habituation and sensitization-strategies useful in their less variable environments. Exceptions to these patterns based on habitats, mobility, and life history provide critical tests of current theory. Relevant plant traits should be under selection to be easily learned and remembered in pollinators and difficult to learn in herbivores. Insect learning thereby has the potential to have an important, yet largely unexplored, role in plant-insect coevolution.

  19. Genetic Engineering of Insects

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    wild-type DNA resulted in the production of adults with wing ... using conventional method of breeding and selection. .... insects, birds, and other animals .... used to derive the expression of the antibiotic, tetracycline repressible transactivator.

  20. Allergies to Insect Venom

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... insects (as might be the case when a nest is disturbed, or when Africanized honeybees are involved); ... test with the five commercially available venoms; honey bee, paper wasp, yellow jacket, yellow hornet and white- ...

  1. Evolution of the Insects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grimaldi, David; Engel, Michael S.

    2005-05-01

    This book chronicles the complete evolutionary history of insects--their living diversity and relationships as well as 400 million years of fossils. Introductory sections cover the living species diversity of insects, methods of reconstructing evolutionary relationships, basic insect structure, and the diverse modes of insect fossilization and major fossil deposits. Major sections then explore the relationships and evolution of each order of hexapods. The volume also chronicles major episodes in the evolutionary history of insects from their modest beginnings in the Devonian and the origin of wings hundreds of millions of years before pterosaurs and birds to the impact of mass extinctions and the explosive radiation of angiosperms on insects, and how they evolved into the most complex societies in nature. Whereas other volumes focus on either living species or fossils, this is the first comprehensive synthesis of all aspects of insect evolution. Illustrated with 955 photo- and electron- micrographs, drawings, diagrams, and field photos, many in full color and virtually all of them original, this reference will appeal to anyone engaged with insect diversity--professional entomologists and students, insect and fossil collectors, and naturalists. David Grimaldi and Michael S. Engel have collectively published over 200 scientific articles and monographs on the relationships and fossil record of insects, including 10 articles in the journals Science, Nature, and Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences. David Grimaldi is curator in the Division of Invertebrate Zoology, American Museum of Natural History and adjunct professor at Cornell University, Columbia University, and the City University of New York. David Grimaldi has traveled in 40 countries on 6 continents, collecting and studying recent species of insects and conducting fossil excavations. He is the author of Amber: Window to the Past (Abrams, 2003). Michael S. Engel is an assistant professor in the

  2. Insects and other invertebrates

    Science.gov (United States)

    John R. Jones; Norbert V. DeByle; Diane M. Bowers

    1985-01-01

    Quaking aspen throughout its range appears to be host to several insect and other invertebrate pests (fig. 1). It is a short-lived species that is palatable to a large variety of animals. Furniss and Carolin (1977) listed 33 insect species that use aspen as a food source. Some are quite damaging and may kill otherwise healthy stands of aspen; others feed on weakened or...

  3. Insect immunology and hematopoiesis

    OpenAIRE

    Hillyer, Julián F.

    2015-01-01

    Insects combat infection by mounting powerful immune responses that are mediated by hemocytes, the fat body, the midgut, the salivary glands and other tissues. Foreign organisms that have entered the body of an insect are recognized by the immune system when pathogen-associated molecular patterns bind host-derived pattern recognition receptors. This, in turn, activates immune signaling pathways that amplify the immune response, induce the production of factors with antimicrobial activity, and...

  4. Beneficial Insects: Beetles

    OpenAIRE

    Hodgson, Erin W.; Patterson, Ron

    2007-01-01

    There are many beneficial beetles in Utah besides lady beetles or ladybugs. Beetles can significantly reduce common insect and weed problems and in some cases eliminate the need for chemical control. Examples of beneficial beetles include: ground beetles, rove beetles, tiger beetles and tortoise beetles. Many of these beetles are native to Utah, while others have been purposely introduced to help control damage from exotic insect and weed pests.

  5. Insect immunology and hematopoiesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hillyer, Julián F

    2016-05-01

    Insects combat infection by mounting powerful immune responses that are mediated by hemocytes, the fat body, the midgut, the salivary glands and other tissues. Foreign organisms that have entered the body of an insect are recognized by the immune system when pathogen-associated molecular patterns bind host-derived pattern recognition receptors. This, in turn, activates immune signaling pathways that amplify the immune response, induce the production of factors with antimicrobial activity, and activate effector pathways. Among the immune signaling pathways are the Toll, Imd, Jak/Stat, JNK, and insulin pathways. Activation of these and other pathways leads to pathogen killing via phagocytosis, melanization, cellular encapsulation, nodulation, lysis, RNAi-mediated virus destruction, autophagy and apoptosis. This review details these and other aspects of immunity in insects, and discusses how the immune and circulatory systems have co-adapted to combat infection, how hemocyte replication and differentiation takes place (hematopoiesis), how an infection prepares an insect for a subsequent infection (immune priming), how environmental factors such as temperature and the age of the insect impact the immune response, and how social immunity protects entire groups. Finally, this review highlights some underexplored areas in the field of insect immunobiology. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. THE ECONOMIC IMPORTANCE OF THE EPIGEAL FAUNA IN THE CORN AGRICULTURAL ECOSYSTEM IN OCNA SIBIU (SIBIU COUNTY IN 2012

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iuliana ANTONIE

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The arthropods have the role of biologic indicators, of diagnosis instruments regarding the negative effects of the human intervention in the structure and functioning of the agricultural ecosystems. Their presence or absence, the growth or lowering of their populations in the agricultural ecosystems can indicate the state of health of these systems and their good functioning. The aim of our researches is establishing the fauna structure of the community of arthropods at the soil level in the corn agricultural ecosystem in Ocna Sibiu, (Sibiu County; the characterization of the communities of invertebrates under the aspect of numerical abundance and of that of relative one; framing the entomologic fauna into a beneficial or pest one, the identification of the culture technology for the researched area. Regarding the applied researched methods, they were as follows: the using of pitfall traps (Barber traps that were at the level of the soil as well as the method of direct collecting of the fauna from the plants. As a result of our researches there was established the taxonomic and quantitative structure of the collected fauna through the methods of pitfall traps (Barber traps in Ocna Sibiu during 2012; there were identified 13 taxonomic groups. From the total of the collected agricultural fauna gathered by the help of pitfall traps in Ocna Sibiu locality there were identified 51 species of insects from which 30 were beneficial ones and 21 pest ones, the dominating order being Coleopteron with 35 species. The establishment of the group of arthropods, especially of the entomologic fauna, beneficial or pest indicates the equilibrium or the disequilibrium state from the researched corn three field systems. The ratio between the two types of fauna permits choosing the optimum method of maintaining the equilibrium between the species of the system and applying those measures of management in order to affect less the system in its assembly and to

  7. Insect pest control newsletter. No. 62

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2004-01-01

    The year 2003 has again been a very intense period for all of us working at the Insect Pest Control Sub-programme of the Joint FAO/IAEA Agriculture Programme. This issue reports normative activities, and the application of area-wide control and SIT. One that stands out during 2003 is the recent publication of 'Trapping Guidelines for Area-wide Fruit Fly Programmes', which responds to the request by Member States to harmonize internationally trapping procedures for Tephritid fruit flies of economic importance. These pest insects have a major impact on the international trade of fresh fruits and vegetables, and the guidelines provide strategic guidance and direction to NPPOs, RPPOs and industry on where and how to implement fruit fl y surveys. Using these guidelines in the implementation of surveys will support FAO and IAEA Member States in obtaining international recognition of their fruit fly control and quarantine activities. A new project is a world-directory of fruit fly workers. A tremendous amount of information is made available each year on Tephritid fruit flies: new technologies developed, new information on their biology and ecology; new control methods made available, new species identified, new outbreaks recorded and new operational control programmes launched. This site will attempt to collate this information and allow Tephritid fruit fly workers worldwide to keep up-to-date on the most recent developments. Another activity has been the development of more scientific methods for determining when an area achieves a pest-free status. A consultants meeting focused on this topic and a generic procedure has been developed for declaring an area to be 'pest-free' following an eradication campaign against an insect pest. This involves a probability model to deal with null trapping results and also a growth model to help verify that pest specimen were not present when control was stopped. Other normative and promotional activities under development include

  8. Circadian organization in hemimetabolous insects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tomioka, Kenji; Abdelsalam, Salaheldin

    2004-12-01

    The circadian system of hemimetabolous insects is reviewed in respect to the locus of the circadian clock and multioscillatory organization. Because of relatively easy access to the nervous system, the neuronal organization of the clock system in hemimetabolous insects has been studied, yielding identification of the compound eye as the major photoreceptor for entrainment and the optic lobe for the circadian clock locus. The clock site within the optic lobe is inconsistent among reported species; in cockroaches the lobula was previously thought to be a most likely clock locus but accessory medulla is recently stressed to be a clock center, while more distal part of the optic lobe including the lamina and the outer medulla area for the cricket. Identification of the clock cells needs further critical studies. Although each optic lobe clock seems functionally identical, in respect to photic entrainment and generation of the rhythm, the bilaterally paired clocks form a functional unit. They interact to produce a stable time structure within individual insects by exchanging photic and temporal information through neural pathways, in which serotonin and pigment-dispersing factor (PDF) are involved as chemical messengers. The mutual interaction also plays an important role in seasonal adaptation of the rhythm.

  9. Three-way interaction among plants, bacteria, and coleopteran insects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wielkopolan, Beata; Obrępalska-Stęplowska, Aleksandra

    2016-08-01

    Coleoptera, the largest and the most diverse Insecta order, is characterized by multiple adaptations to plant feeding. Insect-associated microorganisms can be important mediators and modulators of interactions between insects and plants. Interactions between plants and insects are highly complex and involve multiple factors. There are various defense mechanisms initiated by plants upon attack by herbivorous insects, including the development of morphological structures and the synthesis of toxic secondary metabolites and volatiles. In turn, herbivores have adapted to feeding on plants and further sophisticated adaptations to overcome plant responses may continue to evolve. Herbivorous insects may detoxify toxic phytocompounds, sequester poisonous plant factors, and alter their own overall gene expression pattern. Moreover, insects are associated with microbes, which not only considerably affect insects, but can also modify plant defense responses to the benefit of their host. Plants are also frequently associated with endophytes, which may act as bioinsecticides. Therefore, it is very important to consider the factors influencing the interaction between plants and insects. Herbivorous insects cause considerable damage to global crop production. Coleoptera is the largest and the most diverse order in the class Insecta. In this review, various aspects of the interactions among insects, microbes, and plants are described with a focus on coleopteran species, their bacterial symbionts, and their plant hosts to demonstrate that many factors contribute to the success of coleopteran herbivory.

  10. Insect anaphylaxis: where are we? The stinging facts 2012.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tracy, James M; Khan, Fatima S; Demain, Jeffrey G

    2012-08-01

    Insect allergy remains an important cause of morbidity and mortality in the United States. In 2011, the third iteration of the stinging insect hypersensitivity practice parameter was published, the first being published in 1999 and the second in 2004. Since the 2004 edition, our understanding of insect hypersensitivity has continued to expand and has been incorporated into the 2011 edition. This work will review the relevant changes in the management of insect hypersensitivity occurring since 2004 and present our current understanding of the insect hypersensitivity diagnosis and management. Since the 2004 commissioning by the Joint Task Force (JTF) on Practice Parameters of 'Stinging insect hypersensitivity: a practice parameter update', there have been important contributions to our understanding of insect allergy. These contributions were incorporated into the 2011 iteration. Similar efforts were made by the European Allergy Asthma and Clinical Immunology Interest Group in 2005 and most recently in 2011 by the British Society of Allergy and Clinical Immunology. Our understanding of insect allergy, including the natural history, epidemiology, diagnostic testing, and risk factors, has greatly expanded. This evolution of knowledge should provide improved long-term management of stinging insect hypersensitivity. This review will focus primarily on the changes between the 2004 and 2011 stinging insect practice parameter commissioned by the JTF on Practice Parameters, but will, where appropriate, highlight the differences between working groups.

  11. Impact of methodology on the results of economic evaluations of varicella vaccination programs: is it important for decision-making?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patrícia Coelho de Soárez

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available This study aims to review the literature on economic evaluation of childhood varicella vaccination programs and to discuss how heterogeneity in methodological aspects and estimation of parameters can affect the studies' results. After applying the inclusion criteria, 27 studies published from 1980 to 2008 were analyzed in relation to methodological differences. There was great heterogeneity in the perspective adopted, evaluation of indirect costs, type of model used, modeling of the effect on herpes zoster, and estimation of vaccine price and efficacy parameters. The factor with the greatest impact on results was the inclusion of indirect costs, followed by the perspective adopted and vaccine price. The choice of a particular methodological aspect or parameter affected the studies' results and conclusions. It is essential that authors present these choices transparently so that users of economic evaluations understand the implications of such choices and the direction in which the results of the analysis were conducted.

  12. Role of radioisotopes in the study of insect pests

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mansour, M.

    2013-01-01

    Although the use of nuclear techniques, particularly radioisotopes, in entomological research is less than a century old, the contribution of radioisotopes to the science of studying insects (Entomology) is indispensable. In fact, radioisotopes provided a very important and sometimes a unique tool for solving many research problems in entomology. This article discusses the most important and widely used applications of radioisotopes in studying insect pests. In particular, it concentrates on the subject of radioisotopes used in entomological research, methods of labeling insect with radioisotopes, half life of radioisotopes, and the role of radioisotopes in physiological, ecological, biological and behavioral studies of insects. (author)

  13. THE SOCIO-ECONOMIC IMPORTANCE OF TOURISM AND ITS IMPACT ON THE LIVELIHOOD IN SOUTH ASIA : Case Rangamati, Bangladesh

    OpenAIRE

    Rhaman, M Rezaur

    2016-01-01

    South Asia offers the world’s best places for vacations and chilling out. From beautiful beaches to incredible hill stations, fabulous backwaters, intricately carved temples and gorgeous heritage and culture but the situation of practicing tourism is not fully satisfied. The aim of this thesis was to identify the social and economic impacts of tourism on the livelihood and describe the ways to the development of tourism in Bangladesh and south Asian countries. This thesis also evaluated the p...

  14. BARTER AS AN ALTERNATIVE TRADING AND FINANCING TOOL AND ITS IMPORTANCE FOR BUSINESSES IN TIMES OF ECONOMIC CRISIS

    OpenAIRE

    Uyan, Ozgul

    2017-01-01

    Purpose-Today, growing commercial and financialintegration between countries with globalization leads to intense competitionand global economic crises. Due to these developments, the companies have somedifficulties carrying on their business and managing the crises withtraditional marketing and financing techniques. So they are turning alternativemethods. One of them is barter system meaning buying and selling goods andservices without using money. Barter is an innovated form of exchange syst...

  15. Biological basis of the sterile insect technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lance, D.R.; McInnis, D.O.

    2005-01-01

    In principle, the sterile insect technique (SIT) is applicable to controlling a wide variety of insect pests, but biological factors, interacting with socio-economic and political forces, restrict its practical use to a narrower set of pest species and situations. This chapter reviews how the biology and ecology of a given pest affect the feasibility and logistics of developing and using the SIT against that pest insect. The subjects of pest abundance, distribution, and population dynamics are discussed in relation to producing and delivering sufficient sterile insects to control target populations. Pest movement and distribution are considered as factors that influence the feasibility and design of SIT projects, including the need for population- or area-wide management approaches. Biological characteristics, that affect the ability of sterile insects to interact with wild populations, are presented, including the nature of mating systems of pests, behavioural and physiological consequences of mass production and sterilization, and mechanisms that males use to block a female's acquisition and/or use of sperm from other males. An adequate knowledge of the biology of the pest species and potential target populations is needed, both for making sound decisions on whether integration of the SIT into an area-wide integrated pest management (AW-IPM) programme is appropriate, and for the efficient and effective application of the technique. (author)

  16. A Phylogenetic Analysis of Chloroplast Genomes Elucidates the Relationships of the Six Economically Important Brassica Species Comprising the Triangle of U

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Li, Peirong; Zhang, Shujiang; Li, Fei; Zhang, Shifan; Zhang, Hui; Wang, Xiaowu; Sun, Rifei; Bonnema, Guusje; Borm, Theo J.A.

    2017-01-01

    The Brassica genus comprises many economically important worldwide cultivated crops. The well-established model of the Brassica genus, U’s triangle, consists of three basic diploid plant species (Brassica rapa, Brassica oleracea, and Brassica nigra) and three amphidiploid species (Brassica napus,

  17. A Study of the Relative Importance of Communication and Economic Variables in Diffusion: Dwarf Wheats on Unirrigated Small Holdings in Pakistan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rochin, Refugio I.

    The purpose of this paper is twofold: (1) it presents some empirical findings of the relative importance of both "economic" and "communication" variables in the diffusion of an innovation (dwarf wheats) in an unirrigated region of Pakistan which is densely populated by smallholders. The sample of farmers reported are…

  18. Preliminary study and Identification of insects' species of forensic ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The proper identification of the insect and arthropod species of forensic importance is the most crucial element in the field of forensic entomology. The main objective in this study was the identification of insects' species of forensic importance in Urmia (37°, 33 N. and 45°, 4, 45 E.) and establishment of a preliminary ...

  19. The evolutionary development of plant-feeding insects and their nutritional endosymbionts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skidmore, Isabel H; Hansen, Allison K

    2017-12-01

    Herbivorous insects have evolved diverse mechanisms enabling them to feed on plants with suboptimal nutrient availability. Low nutrient availability negatively impacts insect herbivore development and fitness. To overcome this obstacle numerous insect lineages have evolved intimate associations with nutritional endosymbionts. This is especially true for insects that specialize on nitrogen-poor substrates, as these insects are highly dependent on intracellular symbionts to provide nitrogen lacking in their insect host's diet. Emerging evidence in these systems suggest that the symbiont's and/or the insect's biosynthetic pathways are dynamically regulated throughout the insect's development to potentially cope with the insect's changing nutritional demands. In this review, we evaluate the evolutionary development of symbiotic insect cells (bacteriocytes) by comparing and contrasting genes and mechanisms involved in maintaining and regulating the nutritional symbiosis throughout insect development in a diversity of insect herbivore-endosymbiont associations. With new advances in genome sequencing and functional genomics, we evaluate to what extent nutritional symbioses are shaped by (i) the regulation of symbiont titer, (ii) the regulation of insect symbiosis genes, and (iii) the regulation of symbiont genes. We discuss how important these mechanisms are for the biosynthesis of essential amino acids and vitamins across insect life stages in divergent insect-symbiont systems. We conclude by suggesting future directions of research to further elucidate the evolutionary development of bacteriocytes and the impact of these nutritional symbioses on insect-plant interactions. © 2017 Institute of Zoology, Chinese Academy of Sciences.

  20. A Review on the Fascinating World of Insect Resources: Reason for Thoughts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. K. Lokeshwari

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Insect resources are vast and diverse due to their enormous diversity. The exploitation and utilization of insect resources is broadly classified into four different categories. The first category is the insects of industrial resources. This level includes the utilization of silk worm, honeybee, lac insect, dye insect, and aesthetic insect. The second category is the utilization of insects for edible and therapeutic purposes. Insects are high in protein and many are rich sources of vitamins and minerals. The third category is the use of insects in forensic investigation. By analyzing the stages of succession of insects at first, rough estimation of the postmortem intervals can be done. The fourth category is the insects of ecological importance. Many insect species act as potential predators and parasites of destructive pests of insect order Lepidoptera, Diptera, and Orthoptera. Insects are also used as bioindicator to assess the cumulative effects of environmental stressors such as pollutants. Despites these fascinating benefits, insect resources are often neglected in India due to lack of proper documentation, less expertise, and advance enterprises in these fields. Hence, the paper reviews the different fascinating facets of insect resources in order to explore and utilize it in a sustainable way with reference to Indian region.

  1. The role and importance of economic evaluation of traditional herbal medicine use for chronic non-communicable diseases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hughes GD

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Gail D Hughes,1 Oluwaseyi M Aboyade,1 John D Hill,2 Rafia S Rasu3 1South African Herbal Science and Medicine Institute, University of the Western Cape, Western Cape, South Africa; 2Department of Pharmacy, Cleveland Clinic, Cleveland, OH, 3School of Pharmacy, University of Kansas, Lawrence, KS, USA Background: Non-communicable diseases (NCD constitute major public health problems globally, with an impact on morbidity and mortality ranking high and second to HIV/AIDS. Existing studies conducted in South Africa have demonstrated that people living with NCD rely on traditional herbal medicine (THM primarily or in combination with conventional drugs. The primary research focus has been on the clinical and experimental aspects of THM use for NCD, with limited data on the economic impact of health care delivery. Therefore, the purpose of this study will be to determine the cost and utilization of resources on THM in South Africa for NCD. Materials and methods: Study describes the methods toward incorporating cost estimations and economic evaluation illustrated with the Prospective Urban and rural Epidemiological (PURE study in South Africa. The South African PURE cohort is investigating the geographic and socioeconomic influence of THM spending and utilization, variations in spending based on perceived health status, marital status, and whether spending patterns have any impact on hospitalizations and disability. Data collection and evaluation plan: Since the individual costs of THM are not regulated nor do they have a standardized price value, information obtained through this study can be utilized to assess differences and determine underlying factors contributing to spending. This insight into THM spending patterns can aid in the development and implementation of guidelines or standardized legislation governing THM use and distribution. An economic evaluation and cost estimation model has been proposed, while the data collection is still ongoing

  2. The Justiciability Of Socio-Economic Rights In Indonesia: The Importance Of Ratifying The Optional Protocol To The Icescr

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erna Dyah Kusumawati

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract This article aims to analyse how the Indonesian government complies with obligations enshrined in the International Covenant on Economic, Social, and Cultural Rights (ICESCR. Furthermore, this study will assess how the national law provides justiciability as well as redress if the violations of socio-economic rights occur. The protection of socio-economic rights in Indonesia is enshrined in the Constitution, the Human Rights Law Act, and other thematic acts; such as the Children Protection Act, Labour Act, etc. However, some violations have occurred these days both by commission and omission of the government, such as in the Lapindo and Mesuji case. These two cases show that the rights to adequate housing, work, health, healthy environment, and rights to land have been severely violated. In the case of Lapindo, the decision of the court regarding the violations of socio-economic rights was unreasonable; they did not even put the element of tort into consideration for their decision concerning the human rights norm. For the second case, the process of legal settlement is still ongoing. Thus, the government has to establish a comprehensive policy to redress the violation of the socio-economic rights as these rights are not justiciable before the national law. If national law does not provide enforcing element, citizens will have no place to file a complaint for the violation of socio-economic rights. The Optional Protocol to the (OP to the ICESCR provides individual communication to the Committee (CESCR. Reflecting from the cases of Lapindo and Mesuji, this paper will elaborate how the OP to the ICESCR guarantees the justiciability of socio-economic rights. Abstrak Artikel ini bertujuan untuk menganalisis kepatuhan pemerintah Indonesia terhadap kewajiban memenuhi hak ekonomi, sosial dan budaya (ekosob. Selain itu artikel ini akan menguji bagaimana hukum nasional menyediakan justisiabilitas termasuk ganti rugi jika pelanggaran terjadi

  3. The evolution of plant-insect mutualisms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bronstein, Judith L; Alarcón, Ruben; Geber, Monica

    2006-01-01

    Mutualisms (cooperative interactions between species) have had a central role in the generation and maintenance of life on earth. Insects and plants are involved in diverse forms of mutualism. Here we review evolutionary features of three prominent insect-plant mutualisms: pollination, protection and seed dispersal. We focus on addressing five central phenomena: evolutionary origins and maintenance of mutualism; the evolution of mutualistic traits; the evolution of specialization and generalization; coevolutionary processes; and the existence of cheating. Several features uniting very diverse insect-plant mutualisms are identified and their evolutionary implications are discussed: the involvement of one mobile and one sedentary partner; natural selection on plant rewards; the existence of a continuum from specialization to generalization; and the ubiquity of cheating, particularly on the part of insects. Plant-insect mutualisms have apparently both arisen and been lost repeatedly. Many adaptive hypotheses have been proposed to explain these transitions, and it is unlikely that any one of them dominates across interactions differing so widely in natural history. Evolutionary theory has a potentially important, but as yet largely unfilled, role to play in explaining the origins, maintenance, breakdown and evolution of insect-plant mutualisms.

  4. IAEA/FAO interregional training course on use of radiation in insect control and entomology with special emphasis on the sterile insect technique. Final report, May 4 - June 15, 1994

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1994-01-01

    The principal focus of the course was the application of Radiation in Entomology to achieve Area Wide Pest Suppression or Eradication. To achieve this objective formal lectures, discussion groups, laboratory exercises and field trips were held covering the details of: (1) principles, programs and research of all aspects of the Sterile Insect Technique; (2) insect biology and control; (3) integrated pest management; (4) population dynamics and models related to the development of SIT and insect population suppression; (5) fundamentals of computers for helping in development of SIT; (6) the importance of economic considerations in formulating area wide pest management programs. The course included tours of local laboratories of the University, USDA, and the State Division of Plant Industry (DPI), and a site visit to a citrus production area in which the pest-free zone concept of pest management for fruit export is utilized

  5. RNA Interference in Insect Vectors for Plant Viruses

    OpenAIRE

    Kanakala, Surapathrudu; Ghanim, Murad

    2016-01-01

    Insects and other arthropods are the most important vectors of plant pathogens. The majority of plant pathogens are disseminated by arthropod vectors such as aphids, beetles, leafhoppers, planthoppers, thrips and whiteflies. Transmission of plant pathogens and the challenges in managing insect vectors due to insecticide resistance are factors that contribute to major food losses in agriculture. RNA interference (RNAi) was recently suggested as a promising strategy for controlling insect pests...

  6. The large uranium deposits, their position in the geological cycle, their distribution in the world and their economic importance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cuney, M.; Cathelineau, M.; Nguyen Trung, C.; Pagel, M.; Poty, B.; Aumaitre, R.; Leroy, J.; Ruhlman, F.

    1994-01-01

    The nine types of geological formations with uranium deposits (superficial, precambrian conglomerates, sandstones...) are reviewed. U ore deposits are generally the product of successive enrichments during the geological cycle. Two main mechanisms control U fractionation during the cycle: partial melting followed or not by fractional crystallization and redox reactions. Most of the U ore deposits were formed in relation with major geodynamic events. The most interesting deposits from an economical point of view are the Proterozoic unconformity related deposits which contain very large reserves at a much higher grade than in other deposits

  7. Intercropping for Management of Insect Pests of Castor, Ricinus communis, in the Semi—Arid Tropics of India

    Science.gov (United States)

    Srinivasa Rao, M.; Venkateswarlu, B.

    2012-01-01

    Intercropping is one of the important cultural practices in pest management and is based on the principle of reducing insect pests by increasing the diversity of an ecosystem. On—farm experiments were conducted in villages of semi—arid tropical (SAT) India to identify the appropriate combination of castor (Ricinus communis L.) (Malpighiales: Euphorbiaceae) and intercropping in relation to pest incidence. The diversity created by introducing cluster bean, cowpea, black gram, or groundnut as intercrops in castor (1:2 ratio proportions) resulted in reduction of incidence of insect pests, namely semilooper (Achaea janata L.), leaf hopper (Empoasca flavescens Fabricius), and shoot and capsule borer (Conogethes punctiferalis Guenee). A buildup of natural enemies (Microplitis, coccinellids, and spiders) of the major pests of castor was also observed in these intercropping systems and resulted in the reduction of insect pests. Further, these systems were more efficient agronomically and economically, and were thus more profitable than a castor monocrop. PMID:22934569

  8. Economical utilization of hot water - an important precondition for an efficient utilization of waste heat in milk cooling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kaiser, E; Pflug, C

    1985-01-01

    Indispensable both in the field of hydroecological and energy policies is the economical utilization of hot water. Hydroecological process analyses in specialized dairy cattle plants have shown that the specific mean annual abstraction of hot water (50/sup 0/C) may be reduced to 14 l per cow and per day. The proportionate contribution of different operational sectors and methods to arrive at the standards are pointed out. Economizing dairy cattly plants reducing hot water consumption as indicated and reaching average milking outputs of >= 1 l per cow and per day may thus bridge the summer season by heat recovery processes producing a sufficient quantity of hot water and allowing a shutdown of all heating units. At present the majority of dairy cattle plants cannot yet dispense with supplementary water during the remaining months. The hot water consumption rate is highest at the end of shifts. In double-shifted dairy cattle plants the estimated maximum hourly consumption amounts to 12 per cent of the average daily consumption. (orig.).

  9. Insect pest control newsletter. No. 61

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2003-07-01

    this sexing system, which could be a model for other moth pest insects. Germ-line transformation is quite efficient in the codling moth and the appropriate Notch allele has already been shown by Lisa Neven at ARS/USDA in Wapato, Washington State to express correctly in transformed codling moth lines. If such a sexing system could be developed in codling moth then it would have several advantages, a) only the females would be transgenic, the sterile males to be released as part of SIT operations would carry a completely normal genome, b) as the Notch gene is dominant, any recombinant individuals would also be killed by the temperature treatment and not be accidentally released, c) the fluorescent marker would be very tightly linked to Notch, resulting in strain stability, d) stockpiles of diapausing mass reared males would require only half the storage space, and e) the system should probably be easily transferable to other economically important lepidopteran pests. I would also like to report developments related to medfly control in Europe. Currently, medfly control requires intensive insecticide applications during the whole fruit maturation period. This is also the case of southern Spain, where the largest citrus production areas in Europe are located. Nevertheless, as a result of the detection of medfly-infested cargo at US ports of entry over a year ago, the US phytosanitary authorities banned temporarily the large citrus exports from Valencia, Spain. As the US has expensive programmes in operation to remain medly-free, including various preventive SIT programmes, it cannot tolerate the import of infested fruit. In view of these developments, and in order to reduce insecticide use to protect the environment, the authorities of the Autonomous Province of Valencia decided in 2002 to gradually shift their medfly control strategy from conventional large scale aerial insecticide spraying to an integrated pest control approach including the SIT. In March 2002, FAO

  10. Stinging insect allergy: state of the art 2015.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tankersley, Michael S; Ledford, Dennis K

    2015-01-01

    Stinging insect allergy is responsible for more than 10% of all cases of anaphylaxis. The potential culprit insects are diverse and vary with geography. The incidence of insect allergy is declining in some areas and increasing in others, possibly due to effects of climate change, introduction of species into new areas, outdoor recreational activities, and movement of human populations that brings insects into contact with a greater number of people. Flying Hymenoptera and imported fire ant stings are responsible for the majority of patients evaluated for insect anaphylaxis. The most efficient means of identifying allergy to insects is skin testing although falsely positive and negative results occur. The limitations of testing coupled with the natural temporal variability of allergic sensitivity complicate the interpretation of test results. The clinical history is of paramount importance to be certain that the test results are relevant; therefore, screening or testing before a history of a sting reaction is not advisable. Mast cell disorders are associated with severe anaphylaxis from insect stings and should be considered in affected subjects. Insect immunotherapy, using venoms for most insects and whole-body extracts for imported fire ants, is proven effective in reducing the likelihood of anaphylaxis due to subsequent stings from 40%-60% to less than 5%. Future clinical application of component testing or in vitro cellular tests, such as the basophil activation test, may improve optimal choices for immunotherapy. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  11. Allergic risks of consuming edible insects: A systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ribeiro, José Carlos; Cunha, Luís Miguel; Sousa-Pinto, Bernardo; Fonseca, João

    2018-01-01

    The expected future demand for food and animal-derived protein will require environment-friendly novel food sources with high nutritional value. Insects may be one of such novel food sources. However, there needs to be an assessment of the risks associated with their consumption, including allergic risks. Therefore, we performed a systematic review aiming to analyse current data available regarding the allergic risks of consuming insects. We reviewed all reported cases of food allergy to insects, and studied the possibility of cross-reactivity and co-sensitisation between edible insects, crustaceans and house dust mites. We analysed a total of 25 articles - eight assessing the cross-reactivity/co-sensitisation between edible insects, crustaceans and house dust mites; three characterizing allergens in edible insects and 14 case reports, describing case series or prevalence studies of food allergy caused by insects. Cross-reactivity/co-sensitisation between edible insects and crustaceans seems to be clinically relevant, while it is still unknown if co-sensitisation between house dust mites and edible insects can lead to a food allergy. Additionally, more information is also needed about the molecular mechanisms underlying food allergy to insects, although current data suggest that an important role is played by arthropod pan-allergens such as tropomyosin or arginine kinase. © 2017 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  12. Toxicological characteristics of edible insects in China: A historical review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Yu; Wang, Di; Xu, Meng-Lei; Shi, Shu-Sen; Xiong, Jin-Feng

    2018-04-10

    Edible insects are ideal food sources, which contain important nutrients and health-promoting compounds. With a rapid development of industrial insect farming, insect-derived food is a novel and emerging food industry. Edible insects have been traditionally consumed in various communities, while continuously gaining relevance in today's society; however, they currently remain underutilized. Although there are a large number of literature on edible insects, these literature primarily focus on the nutritional value edible insects. The toxicity assessment data of edible insects remain incomprehensive, especially for the new national standard that is currently in effect; and many data and conclusions are not accurately specified/reported. Therefore, we performed a literature review and summarized the data on the toxicological assessment of edible insects in China. The review first describes the research progress on safety toxicological assessment, and then offers references regarding the development of 34 edible insect species in China. These data can be a platform for the development of future toxicological assessment strategies, which can be carried out by a multidisciplinary team, possibly consisting of food engineers, agronomists, farmers, and so on, to improve the acceptability of edible insects. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. The Importance of using Discounted Cash Flow Methodology in Techno-economic Analyses of Energy and Chemical Production Plants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zorka Novak Pintarič

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper demonstrates the correct application of discounted cash flow methodology forevaluating and designing energy and chemical production plants. Such processes usuallycorrespond to capital intensive long-term projects. Simple economic criteria, like theprofit or production cost are insufficient for this type of decision making because they donot take into account the time value of money and underestimate the profitabilities of theevaluated plants. This paper shows that some of those criteria based on the discountedcash flows establish suitable compromises between long-term cash flow generation andprofitability. As several alternative options are usually evaluated in parallel, it is shownhow to rank mutually exclusive alternatives properly and how to select the best optionfrom among them. Two large-scale case studies demonstrate that using discounted cashflow methodology can result in substantially different decisions than non-discountedcriteria, however, these decisions are affected by several input parameters.

  14. Insect and Pest Control Newsletter, No. 86, January 2016

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2016-01-01

    In 2015 we concluded the six-year Coordinated Research Project (CRP) on “Resolution of Cryptic Species Complexes of Tephritid Pests to Overcome Constraints to SIT Application and International Trade”. The objective of the CRP was to undertake targeted research into the systematics and diagnostics of taxonomically challenging fruit fly groups of economic importance. Close to 50 researchers from over 20 countries participated in the CRP, conducting coordinated, multidisciplinary research to address, with an integrative taxonomic framework, cryptic species complexes of major tephritid pests. One of the scientific outputs of the CRP was the accurate alignment of some biological species with taxonomic names. The resolution of some of these controversial issues has important applied implications for FAO and IAEA Member States, both in overcoming technical constraints to the application of the Sterile Insect Technique (SIT) against pest fruit flies and in facilitating international agricultural trade

  15. Insect Repellents: Protect Your Child from Insect Bites

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Español Text Size Email Print Share Choosing an Insect Repellent for Your Child Page Content Mosquitoes, biting ... sunscreen needs to be reapplied often. Reactions to Insect Repellents If you suspect that your child is ...

  16. 76 FR 46209 - Importation of Tomatoes From the Economic Community of West African States Into the Continental...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-08-02

    ...-2908. List of Subjects in 7 CFR Part 319 Coffee, Cotton, Fruits, Imports, Logs, Nursery stock, Plant diseases and pests, Quarantine, Reporting and recordkeeping requirements, Rice, Vegetables. Accordingly, we...

  17. 77 FR 34781 - Importation of Tomatoes From the Economic Community of West African States Into the Continental...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-06-12

    .... List of Subjects in 7 CFR Part 319 Coffee, Cotton, Fruits, Imports, Logs, Nursery stock, Plant diseases..., and other articles to prevent the introduction of harmful agricultural pests and diseases. Services to...

  18. Notes on some insect galls associated with Solanum plants in South ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    1990-12-18

    . Received 10 ... in press) related to the biological control of Solanum weed species. During ... in the Albany Museum (Natural History) and the National ..... identifying insect specimens. MJ. ... insects imported for weed control.

  19. Sterile insect technique and radiation in insect control

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1982-01-01

    Out of 39 papers and 6 summaries of the poster presentations published in this proceeding series, 23 respectively fall within the INIS subject scope. Four main topics were covered: a review of the sterile insect technique against various insect pests; its application to tsetse flies in eradication programmes; quality control of mass-reared insects for release; and the development of genetic approaches to insect mass rearing and control. Other topics emphasized integrated pest management, computer models and radioisotope labelling

  20. The Importance of Planting Pot Marigolds (Calendula officinalis L. in Degraded Public Spaces from the Agroecological and Economic Perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Popović Slobodan

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this paper is to analyse the introduction of certain plant species such as pot marigolds (Calendula officinalis L. into neglected and predominantly urban spaces in the Republic of Serbia. The research was based on the results obtained in a two-year experiment conducted in the vicinity of the Novi Sad-Backa Palanka road. The primary objective of the experiment was to examine the behaviour of pot marigolds in poor-quality and neglected soils, with minimum cultural practices, in order to obtain novel plants in such adverse environments, which could be subsequently marketed in Serbia. The experiment commenced in 2014 by planting pot marigolds in plots previously cleared of weeds by mechanical tilling. In the spring of 2015, pot marigold seedlings, i.e. the first generation of plants obtained from the plots created in 2014, were planted in weed-free plots. The measurements were performed in three replicates from 10 October to 10 December 2015 in order to determine the number of volunteer plants, which could be further improved in nursery production and subsequently marketed in Serbia. The results obtained indubitably indicate that this and prospective studies exert positive ecological, agricultural and economic effects on a vast range of potential users.

  1. Optimised synthesis of ZnO-nano-fertiliser through green chemistry: boosted growth dynamics of economically important L. esculentum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jabeen, Nyla; Maqbool, Qaisar; Bibi, Tahira; Nazar, Mudassar; Hussain, Syed Z; Hussain, Talib; Jan, Tariq; Ahmad, Ishaq; Maaza, Malik; Anwaar, Sadaf

    2018-06-01

    Mounting-up economic losses to annual crops yield due to micronutrient deficiency, fertiliser inefficiency and increasing microbial invasions (e.g. Xanthomonas cempestri attack on tomatoes) are needed to be solved via nano-biotechnology. So keeping this in view, the authors' current study presents the new horizon in the field of nano-fertiliser with highly nutritive and preservative effect of green fabricated zinc oxide-nanostructures (ZnO-NSs) during Lycopersicum esculentum (tomato) growth dynamics. ZnO-NS prepared via green chemistry possesses highly homogenous crystalline structures well-characterised through ultraviolet and visible spectroscopy, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, X-ray diffraction and scanning electron microscope. The ZnO-NS average size was found as small as 18 nm having a crystallite size of 5 nm. L. esculentum were grown in different concentrations of ZnO-NS to examine the different morphological parameters includes time of seed germination, germination percentage, the number of plant leaves, the height of the plant, average number of branches, days count for flowering and fruiting time period along with fruit quantity. Promising results clearly predict that bio-fabricated ZnO-NS at optimum concentration resulted as growth booster and dramatically triggered the plant yield.

  2. An integrative mating system assessment of a nonmodel, economically important Pacific rockfish (Sebastes melanops) reveals nonterritorial polygamy and conservation implications for a large species flock

    OpenAIRE

    Karageorge, Kurt W.; Wilson, Raymond R.

    2017-01-01

    Abstract Characterizing the mating systems of long‐lived, economically important Pacific rockfishes comprising the viviparous Sebastes species flock is crucial for their conservation. However, direct assignment of mating success to sires is precluded by open, offshore populations and high female fecundity. We addressed this challenge by integrating paternity‐assigned mating success of females with the adult sex ratio (ASR) of the population, male evolutionary responses to receptive females, a...

  3. Flying insects and Campylobacter

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hald, Birthe; Sommer, Helle Mølgaard; Skovgård, Henrik

    Campylobacter in flies Flies of the Muscidae family forage on all kind of faeces – various fly species have different preferences. M domestica prefer pigs, horses and cattle faeces, animals which are all known to frequently excrete Campylobacter. As a result, the insects pick up pathogenic micro...

  4. Insects and sex

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Beukeboom, Leo

    2005-01-01

    Most organisms reproduce sexually, but the evolution of sexual reproduction is not yet well understood. Sexual reproduction leads to new variation and adaptations to the environment, but sex is also costly. Some insects reproduce without sex through parthenogenesis or paedogenesis. Almost all sexual

  5. Dispersal of forest insects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mcmanus, M. L.

    1979-01-01

    Dispersal flights of selected species of forest insects which are associated with periodic outbreaks of pests that occur over large contiguous forested areas are discussed. Gypsy moths, spruce budworms, and forest tent caterpillars were studied for their massive migrations in forested areas. Results indicate that large dispersals into forested areas are due to the females, except in the case of the gypsy moth.

  6. Investigation--Insects!

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fay, Janice

    2000-01-01

    Presents activities on insects for second grade students. In the first activity, students build a butterfly garden. In the second activity, students observe stimuli reactions with mealworms in the larval stage. Describes the assessment process and discusses the effects of pollution on living things. (YDS)

  7. Insect flight muscle metabolism

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Horst, D.J. van der; Beenakkers, A.M.Th.; Marrewijk, W.J.A. van

    1984-01-01

    The flight of an insect is of a very complicated and extremely energy-demanding nature. Wingbeat frequency may differ between various species but values up to 1000 Hz have been measured. Consequently metabolic activity may be very high during flight and the transition from rest to flight is

  8. Insects, isotopes and radiations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lingkvist, D.A.

    1987-01-01

    The IAEA activity on coordinating the IAEA member-state efforts in the field of pest control is considered. A complex program of agricultural pest control (IPM), applied in many parts of the world is developed. The program provides for the use of natural means of control and cases of critical pest numbers-the use of insecticides. When controlling certain types of insects it is advisable to apply the 'large area control' methods which provide for the insect destruction in places of their concentration prior to migration. Methods of pest control over large areas also include radiation sexual sterilization method (SSM), application of insect phoromons (sexual attractants) to prevent mating, other types of chemical attractants, traps, mass cultivation and reproduction of parasite plants and animals, destroying insects, as well as improvement of host-plant resistance. A great attention is paid to isotope and radiation application in pest control (labelling, sexual sterilization using ionising radiation, radiation application in genetic engineering, mutant plant cultivation)

  9. Anaphylaxis and insect allergy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Demain, Jeffrey G; Minaei, Ashley A; Tracy, James M

    2010-08-01

    Anaphylaxis is an acute-onset and potentially life-threatening allergic reaction that can be caused by numerous allergic triggers including stinging insects. This review focuses on recent advances, natural history, risk factors and therapeutic considerations. Recent work suggests that concerns over insect allergy diagnosis continue to exist. This is especially true with individuals who have a convincing history of a serious life-threatening anaphylactic event, but lack the necessary diagnostic criteria of venom-specific IgE by skin test or in-vitro diagnostic methods to confirm the diagnosis. The role of occult mastocytosis or increased basophile reactivity may play a role in this subset population. Additionally, epinephrine continues to be underutilized as the primary acute intervention for an anaphylactic reaction in the emergent setting. The incidence of anaphylaxis continues to rise across all demographic groups, especially those less than 20 years of age. Fortunately, the fatalities related to anaphylaxis appear to have decreased over the past decades. Our understanding of various triggers, associated risk factors, as well as an improved understanding and utilization of biological markers such as serum tryptase have improved. Our ability to treat insect anaphylaxis by venom immunotherapy is highly effective. Unfortunately, anaphylaxis continues to be underappreciated and undertreated especially in regard to insect sting anaphylaxis. This includes the appropriate use of injectable epinephrine as the primary acute management tool. These findings suggest that continued education of the general population, primary care healthcare providers and emergency departments is required.

  10. Broadening insect gastronomy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Halloran, Afton Marina Szasz; Münke, Christopher; Vantomme, Paul

    2015-01-01

    In recent years there has been a trend among chefs to diversify their ingredients and techniques, drawing inspiration from other cultures and creating new foods by blending this knowledge with the flavours of their local region. Edible insects, with their plethora of taste, aromatic, textural and...

  11. Culture of insect tissues

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cestari, A.N.; Simoes, L.C.G.

    1978-01-01

    Several aspects are discussed related to the behavior of politenic chromosomes from Rhyncosciara salivary glands kept in culture during different periods of time, without interference of insect hormones. Nucleic acid-and protein synthesis in isolated nuclei and chromosomes are also investigated. Autoradiographic techniques and radioactive precursors for nucleic acids and proteins are used in the research. (M.A.) [pt

  12. Banana Xanthomonas wilt in Ethiopia: Occurrence and insect vector ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Bacterial wilt caused by Xanthomonas vasicola pv. musacearum (Xvm) is an important disease of enset and banana in south and south-western Ethiopia where, the diversity of the insect fauna on banana inflorescences was unknown and the role of insects as vectors of the disease had not been studied. The objectives of ...

  13. Affordable Bimodal Optical Sensors to Spread the Use of Automated Insect Monitoring

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ilyas Potamitis

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available We present a novel bimodal optoelectronic sensor based on Fresnel lenses and the associated stereo-recording device that records the wingbeat event of an insect in flight as backscattered and extinction light. We investigate the complementary information of these two sources of biometric evidence and we finally embed part of this technology in an electronic e-trap for fruit flies. The e-trap examines the spectral content of the wingbeat of the insect flying in and reports wirelessly counts and species identity. We design our devices so that they are optimized in terms of detection accuracy and power consumption, but above all, we ensure that they are affordable. Our aim is to make more widespread the use of electronic insect traps that report in virtually real time the level of the pest population from the field straight to a human controlled agency. We have the vision to establish remote automated monitoring for all insects of economic and hygienic importance at large spatial scales, using their wingbeat as biometric evidence. To this end, we provide open access to the implementation details, recordings, and classification code we developed.

  14. Advanced technologies for genetically manipulating the silkworm Bombyx mori, a model Lepidopteran insect

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Hanfu; O'Brochta, David A.

    2015-01-01

    Genetic technologies based on transposon-mediated transgenesis along with several recently developed genome-editing technologies have become the preferred methods of choice for genetically manipulating many organisms. The silkworm, Bombyx mori, is a Lepidopteran insect of great economic importance because of its use in silk production and because it is a valuable model insect that has greatly enhanced our understanding of the biology of insects, including many agricultural pests. In the past 10 years, great advances have been achieved in the development of genetic technologies in B. mori, including transposon-based technologies that rely on piggyBac-mediated transgenesis and genome-editing technologies that rely on protein- or RNA-guided modification of chromosomes. The successful development and application of these technologies has not only facilitated a better understanding of B. mori and its use as a silk production system, but also provided valuable experiences that have contributed to the development of similar technologies in non-model insects. This review summarizes the technologies currently available for use in B. mori, their application to the study of gene function and their use in genetically modifying B. mori for biotechnology applications. The challenges, solutions and future prospects associated with the development and application of genetic technologies in B. mori are also discussed. PMID:26108630

  15. Diversity and role of cave-dwelling hematophagous insects in pathogen transmission in the Afrotropical region.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Obame-Nkoghe, Judicaël; Leroy, Eric-Maurice; Paupy, Christophe

    2017-04-12

    The progressive anthropization of caves for food resources or economic purposes increases human exposure to pathogens that naturally infect cave-dwelling animals. The presence of wild or domestic animals in the immediate surroundings of caves also may contribute to increasing the risk of emergence of such pathogens. Some zoonotic pathogens are transmitted through direct contact, but many others require arthropod vectors, such as blood-feeding insects. In Africa, hematophagous insects often play a key role in the epidemiology of many pathogens; however, their ecology in cave habitats remains poorly known. During the last decades, several investigations carried out in Afrotropical caves suggested the medical and veterinary importance particularly of insect taxa of the Diptera order. Therefore, the role of some of these insects as vectors of pathogens that infect cave-dwelling vertebrates has been studied. The present review summarizes these findings, brings insights into the diversity of cave-dwelling hematophagous Diptera and their involvement in pathogen transmission, and finally discusses new challenges and future research directions.

  16. Edible insects of Northern Angola

    OpenAIRE

    Lautenschläger,Thea; Neinhuis,Christoph; Monizi,Mawunu; Mandombe,José Lau; Förster,Anke; Henle,Thomas; Nuss,Matthias

    2017-01-01

    From 2013–2017, we accompanied and interviewed local people harvesting edible insects in the Northern Angolan province of Uíge. Insect and host plant samples were collected for species identification and nutritive analyses. Additionally, live caterpillars were taken to feed and keep until pupation and eclosion of the imago, necessary for morphological species identification. Altogether, 18 insect species eaten by humans were recorded. Twenty four edible insect species were formerly known from...

  17. Pathogen avoidance by insect predators

    OpenAIRE

    Meyling, Nicolai V.; Ormond, Emma; Roy, Helen E.; Pell, Judith K.

    2008-01-01

    Insects can detect cues related to the risk of attack by their natural enemies. Pathogens are among the natural enemies of insects and entomopathogenic fungi attack a wide array of host species. Evidence documents that social insects in particular have adapted behavioural mechanisms to avoid infection by fungal pathogens. These mechanisms are referred to as 'behavioural resistance'. However, there is little evidence for similar adaptations in non-social insects. We have conducted experime...

  18. THE IMPORTANCE OF THE TOWN GALATZ IN THE ECONOMIC DEVELOPMENT OF MOLDAVIA DURING THE FIRST HALF OF THE NINETEENTH CENTURY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    CHEŞCU Ana-Maria

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this paper is to present the activity of foreigners in the port city of Galatz, during the first half of the 19th century. Consulted material included documentary sources, monographs, and historical synthesis. Through the correlation of data extracted from historiographical sources and documentary sources, we were able to bring completions to the existing material, regarding the importance of foreigner’s activities in the port-city Galatz.

  19. The Importance of the Online Business Models on the Internet Businesses Evolution, in Romania, in Economic Crisis Conditions

    OpenAIRE

    NEGOI Eugen-Remus; SION Beatrice

    2010-01-01

    In managing a business online, it was given crucial importance to research business and increase the visibility of offered products or services, through online social media. Promotional expenses compared to the online business model to those of a traditional business model, decreased significantly. Visibility, as equal opportunity, given the size of a business and lift them in time. A contemporary Romanian online business success is based even so on visibility and social environments on the I...

  20. The importance of micro-structural approach and peace formations in dealing with socio-economic inequalities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Džuverović Nemanja

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Increasingly, inequality is becoming one of the most important phenomena of our time. Recent protests (Spain, the UK, the U.S., violent confrontations (Brazil, Israel or even armed conflicts (India, Tunisia are a direct consequence of polarization, which has increased significantly since the 1980s when the global dominance of neoliberal model was established. So far, mainstream one-fit-all (socioeconomic solutions proved ineffective in tackling not only high levels of income inequality, but, more importantly, its multidimensional character visible in the prevalence of social exclusion (access to education, health, and social services, etc. which is seriously constraining human capital and creating conflict potential among the 'have-nots'. In this context, diversity should be considered as a strength, although this contradicts the universality principle imposed by the liberal state and the neoliberal model, often by applying pressure, isolation or violent force. This is why micro-structural approach must emphasize the importance of local peace formations which, depending on the context, could be dramatically different but still achieve similar results in reducing deep rooted inequalities which are predominantly socially conditioned. It's only by 'going local' that the roots of contemporary inequality can be fully understood and 'prevention' (Burton achieved.

  1. Protecting Yourself from Stinging Insects

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... from St ing in g In sect s Flying Insects Outdoor workers are at risk of being stung by flying insects (bees, wasps, and hornets) and fire ants. While ... If a worker is stung by a stinging insect: ■■ Have someone stay with the worker to be ...

  2. Made for Each Other: Ascomycete Yeasts and Insects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blackwell, Meredith

    2017-06-01

    Fungi and insects live together in the same habitats, and many species of both groups rely on each other for success. Insects, the most successful animals on Earth, cannot produce sterols, essential vitamins, and many enzymes; fungi, often yeast-like in growth form, make up for these deficits. Fungi, however, require constantly replenished substrates because they consume the previous ones, and insects, sometimes lured by volatile fungal compounds, carry fungi directly to a similar, but fresh, habitat. Yeasts associated with insects include Ascomycota (Saccharomycotina, Pezizomycotina) and a few Basidiomycota. Beetles, homopterans, and flies are important associates of fungi, and in turn the insects carry yeasts in pits, specialized external pouches, and modified gut pockets. Some yeasts undergo sexual reproduction within the insect gut, where the genetic diversity of the population is increased, while others, well suited to their stable environment, may never mate. The range of interactions extends from dispersal of yeasts on the surface of insects (e.g., cactus- Drosophila -yeast and ephemeral flower communities, ambrosia beetles, yeasts with holdfasts) to extremely specialized associations of organisms that can no longer exist independently, as in the case of yeast-like symbionts of planthoppers. In a few cases yeast-like fungus-insect associations threaten butterflies and other species with extinction. Technical advances improve discovery and identification of the fungi but also inform our understanding of the evolution of yeast-insect symbioses, although there is much more to learn.

  3. Tyrosine metabolic enzymes from insects and mammals: a comparative perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vavricka, Christopher John; Han, Qian; Mehere, Prajwalini; Ding, Haizhen; Christensen, Bruce M; Li, Jianyong

    2014-02-01

    Differences in the metabolism of tyrosine between insects and mammals present an interesting example of molecular evolution. Both insects and mammals possess fine-tuned systems of enzymes to meet their specific demands for tyrosine metabolites; however, more homologous enzymes involved in tyrosine metabolism have emerged in many insect species. Without knowledge of modern genomics, one might suppose that mammals, which are generally more complex than insects and require tyrosine as a precursor for important catecholamine neurotransmitters and for melanin, should possess more enzymes to control tyrosine metabolism. Therefore, the question of why insects actually possess more tyrosine metabolic enzymes is quite interesting. It has long been known that insects rely heavily on tyrosine metabolism for cuticle hardening and for innate immune responses, and these evolutionary constraints are likely the key answers to this question. In terms of melanogenesis, mammals also possess a high level of regulation; yet mammalian systems possess more mechanisms for detoxification whereas insects accelerate pathways like melanogenesis and therefore must bear increased oxidative pressure. Our research group has had the opportunity to characterize the structure and function of many key proteins involved in tyrosine metabolism from both insects and mammals. In this mini review we will give a brief overview of our research on tyrosine metabolic enzymes in the scope of an evolutionary perspective of mammals in comparison to insects. © 2013 Institute of Zoology, Chinese Academy of Sciences.

  4. Insects: Little Things That Run the World

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tilley, Luke

    2014-01-01

    Insects are easily the most abundant and diverse group of animals, with over 24,000 species in the UK alone. They can be found in almost every habitat on Earth and are fundamentally important to ecology, conservation, food production, animal and human health, and biodiversity. They are a prominent feature of almost every food web in the UK and…

  5. STATUS OF INSECT DIVERSITY CONSERVATION IN NIGERIA

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Timothy Ademakinwa

    With a rapid surge in human population, there has been concomitant increase in anthropogenic threats to biodiversity, especially for ecologically-important groups such as insects. With the loss of about 79% of its forest cover, Nigeria ranked as the nation with the highest rate of forest loss in 2005. How these and other.

  6. Remote sensing of forest insect disturbances: Current state and future directions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Senf, Cornelius; Seidl, Rupert; Hostert, Patrick

    2017-08-01

    Insect disturbance are important agents of change in forest ecosystems around the globe, yet their spatial and temporal distribution and dynamics are not well understood. Remote sensing has gained much attention in mapping and understanding insect outbreak dynamics. Consequently, we here review the current literature on the remote sensing of insect disturbances. We suggest to group studies into three insect types: bark beetles, broadleaved defoliators, and coniferous defoliators. By so doing, we systematically compare the sensors and methods used for mapping insect disturbances within and across insect types. Results suggest that there are substantial differences between methods used for mapping bark beetles and defoliators, and between methods used for mapping broadleaved and coniferous defoliators. Following from this, we highlight approaches that are particularly suited for each insect type. Finally, we conclude by highlighting future research directions for remote sensing of insect disturbances. In particular, we suggest to: 1) Separate insect disturbances from other agents; 2) Extend the spatial and temporal domain of analysis; 3) Make use of dense time series; 4) Operationalize near-real time monitoring of insect disturbances; 5) Identify insect disturbances in the context of coupled human-natural systems; and 6) Improve reference data for assessing insect disturbances. Since the remote sensing of insect disturbances has gained much interest beyond the remote sensing community recently, the future developments identified here will help integrating remote sensing products into operational forest management. Furthermore, an improved spatiotemporal quantification of insect disturbances will support an inclusion of these processes into regional to global ecosystem models.

  7. Insect pollination: commodity values, trade and policy considerations using coffee as an example

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vernon George Thomas

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Science has shown the importance of animal pollinators to human food security, economy, and biodiversity conservation. Science continues to identify various factors causing pollinator declines and their implications. However, translation of the understanding of pollinators’ roles into current policy and regulation is weak and requires attention, both in developed and developing nations. The national and international trade of commodities generated via insect pollination is large. Trade in those crops could be a means of influencing regulations to promote the local existence of pollinating species, apart from their contributions to biodiversity conservation. This paper, using the example of international coffee production, reviews the value of pollinating species, and relates them to simple economics of commodity production. Recommendations are made that could influence policy and decision-making to promote coffee production, trade, and pollinators’ existence. Assumptions and considerations are raised and addressed. Although the role of insect pollinators in promoting fruit set and quality is accepted, implementing pollination conservation in forest habitats may require assured higher prices for coffee, and direct subsidies for forest conservation to prevent conversion to other crop lands. Exporting and importing governments and trade organizations could establish policy that requires insect pollination in the coffee certification process. The European Parliament and the North American Free Trade Agreement could be instrumental in creating policy and regulation that promotes insect pollination services in coffee production. The reciprocity between the services of insect pollinators in certified coffee production and their services in forest biodiversity production should be implicit in future policy negotiations to enhance both systems.

  8. ENTOMOLOGY - INSECTS AND OTHER PESTS IN FIELD CROPS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marija Ivezić

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available The academic textbook Entomology - Insects and other pests in field crops, describes the most important pests of field crops supported by many photographs. The textbook encompasses 15 chapters. Importance of entomology in intensive plant production is discussed in introductory chapter, in terms of increased threat of insects and other pests. Morphology, anatomy and physiology are given in the second and third chapter, while ways and phases of insect development are elaborated in the fourth chapter. The fifth chapter, overview of insect systematic is given. Polyphagous insects are described from the sixth to fourteenth chapter, as follows: pests of cereals, maize, sugar beet, sunflower, oil seed rape, soybean, forage crops and stored products. In the last chapter, principles of integrated pest management are described due to proper application of all control measures to obtain healthier food production.

  9. Stinging insect allergy: current perspectives on venom immunotherapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ludman SW

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Sian W Ludman,1 Robert J Boyle2 1Paediatric Allergy Department, St Mary's Hospital, Imperial Healthcare NHS Trust, London, UK; 2Department of Paediatrics, Imperial College London, London, UKAbstract: Systemic allergic reactions to insect stings affect up to 5% of the population during their lifetime, and up to 32% of beekeepers. Such reactions can be fatal, albeit very rarely, and fear of a further systemic reaction (SR can lead to significant anxiety and quality of life impairment. A recent Cochrane systematic review confirmed that venom immunotherapy (VIT is an effective treatment for people who have had a systemic allergic reaction to an insect sting. VIT reduces risk of a further SR (relative risk 0.10, 95% confidence interval 0.03–0.28, but VIT also reduces risk of a future large local reaction, and significantly improves disease-specific quality of life. However, health economic analysis showed that VIT is generally not cost effective for preventing future SRs; most people are stung infrequently, most SRs resolve without long-term consequences, and a fatal outcome is extremely rare. VIT only becomes cost effective if one is stung frequently (eg, beekeepers or if quality of life improvement is considered. Thus, for most people with insect sting allergy, anxiety and quality of life impairment should be the overriding consideration when making treatment decisions, highlighting the importance of a patient-centered approach. Areas which need to be explored in future research include efforts to improve the safety and convenience of VIT such as the use of sublingual immunotherapy; quality of life effects of venom allergy in children and adolescents as well as their parents; and the optimal duration of treatment.Keywords: anaphylaxis, quality of life

  10. Gut microbes may facilitate insect herbivory of chemically defended plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hammer, Tobin J; Bowers, M Deane

    2015-09-01

    The majority of insect species consume plants, many of which produce chemical toxins that defend their tissues from attack. How then are herbivorous insects able to develop on a potentially poisonous diet? While numerous studies have focused on the biochemical counter-adaptations to plant toxins rooted in the insect genome, a separate body of research has recently emphasized the role of microbial symbionts, particularly those inhabiting the gut, in plant-insect interactions. Here we outline the "gut microbial facilitation hypothesis," which proposes that variation among herbivores in their ability to consume chemically defended plants can be due, in part, to variation in their associated microbial communities. More specifically, different microbes may be differentially able to detoxify compounds toxic to the insect, or be differentially resistant to the potential antimicrobial effects of some compounds. Studies directly addressing this hypothesis are relatively few, but microbe-plant allelochemical interactions have been frequently documented from non-insect systems-such as soil and the human gut-and thus illustrate their potential importance for insect herbivory. We discuss the implications of this hypothesis for insect diversification and coevolution with plants; for example, evolutionary transitions to host plant groups with novel allelochemicals could be initiated by heritable changes to the insect microbiome. Furthermore, the ecological implications extend beyond the plant and insect herbivore to higher trophic levels. Although the hidden nature of microbes and plant allelochemicals make their interactions difficult to detect, recent molecular and experimental techniques should enable research on this neglected, but likely important, aspect of insect-plant biology.

  11. IS IT IMPORTANT THE ACCOUNTING MODEL USED BY THE ECONOMIC ENTITY IN MAKING DECISIONS BY THE USERS OF THE INFORMATION? POINTS OF VIEW.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luminita Rus

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Nowadays it is vital to stay informed. But why is the information so important? The following will present the role and the importance of accounting information in decision-making regarding economic entity. Is accounting information a want or a need? Can accounting information be interpreted correctly indifferent of the accounting model used? Decisions made by the consumers of accounting information would be the same in terms of using the "cash" or "accrual" method? Based on these questions, this paper presents data as a whole for everyone and from where each consumer of information can extract only the part that they are interested in and which is useful for them. This paper follows the interests of users of accounting information regarding the interest, the need for information and the decisions they may take as a result of the information received, and also of the accounting model used by the entity from which the information is expected. This paper does not include all users of the accounting information that have interest in the economic entity, nor does it take into account all the information that are affected by the use of a model of accounting or the other one of the economic entity, but we can conclude that there are situations in which users ' decisions are influenced by the accounting model used, and others where there is no influence. We can't rule on any model to be the best; it is good that provides useful information showing the true reality of the economic entity.

  12. The importance of socio-economic context for social marketing models for improving reproductive health: Evidence from 555 years of program experience

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rahaim Stephen

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Over the past two decades, social marketing programs have become an important element of the national family planning and HIV prevention strategy in several developing countries. As yet, there has not been any comprehensive empirical assessment to determine which of several social marketing models is most effective for a given socio-economic context. Such an assessment is urgently needed to inform the design of future social marketing programs, and to avoid that programs are designed using an ineffective model. Methods This study addresses this issue using a database of annual statistics about reproductive health oriented social marketing programs in over 70 countries. In total, the database covers 555 years of program experience with social marketing programs that distribute and promote the use of oral contraceptives and condoms. Specifically, our analysis assesses to what extent the model used by different reproductive health social marketing programs has varied across different socio-economic contexts. We then use random effects regression to test in which socio-economic context each of the models is most successful at increasing use of socially marketed oral contraceptives and condoms. Results The results show that there has been a tendency to design reproductive health social marketing program with a management structure that matches the local context. However, the evidence also shows that this has not always been the case. While socio-economic context clearly influences the effectiveness of some of the social marketing models, program maturity and the size of the target population appear equally important. Conclusions To maximize the effectiveness of future social marketing programs, it is essential that more effort is devoted to ensuring that such programs are designed using the model or approach that is most suitable for the local context.

  13. The importance of socio-economic context for social marketing models for improving reproductive health: evidence from 555 years of program experience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meekers, Dominique; Rahaim, Stephen

    2005-01-27

    Over the past two decades, social marketing programs have become an important element of the national family planning and HIV prevention strategy in several developing countries. As yet, there has not been any comprehensive empirical assessment to determine which of several social marketing models is most effective for a given socio-economic context. Such an assessment is urgently needed to inform the design of future social marketing programs, and to avoid that programs are designed using an ineffective model. This study addresses this issue using a database of annual statistics about reproductive health oriented social marketing programs in over 70 countries. In total, the database covers 555 years of program experience with social marketing programs that distribute and promote the use of oral contraceptives and condoms. Specifically, our analysis assesses to what extent the model used by different reproductive health social marketing programs has varied across different socio-economic contexts. We then use random effects regression to test in which socio-economic context each of the models is most successful at increasing use of socially marketed oral contraceptives and condoms. The results show that there has been a tendency to design reproductive health social marketing program with a management structure that matches the local context. However, the evidence also shows that this has not always been the case. While socio-economic context clearly influences the effectiveness of some of the social marketing models, program maturity and the size of the target population appear equally important. To maximize the effectiveness of future social marketing programs, it is essential that more effort is devoted to ensuring that such programs are designed using the model or approach that is most suitable for the local context.

  14. Seasonal change in main alkaloids of jaborandi (Pilocarpus microphyllus Stapf ex Wardleworth, an economically important species from the Brazilian flora.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David Fernandes Lima

    Full Text Available Pilocarpus microphyllus Stapf ex Wardleworth (jaborandi, Rutaceae is one of the most important Brazilian medicinal species owing to its content of pilocarpine (PIL, an alkaloid used for treating glaucoma and xerostomia. This species contains another alkaloid, epiisopiloturine (EPI, which has demonstrated effectiveness against schistosomiasis. The aim of this work was to assess seasonal changes of PIL and EPI in three populations of cultivated P. microphyllus from northeastern Brazil over one year, including the dry and rainy seasons. Alkaloid profiles were correlated to phenotypic and genetic patterns in the morphological and molecular characterizations. PIL was the primary alkaloid and its levels differed among populations in all months except September. The S01 population (green line showed an especially high PIL content compared to populations S02 and S03 (traditional line, which had similar alkaloid contents. PIL content gradually decreased in the three populations in the rainy season.EPI content was significantly different between the green line (S01 and the traditional line (S02 and S03.S01 had a significantly lower EPI content in all months, demonstrating that it was not the best source for EPI extraction. Inter simple sequence repeat (ISSR markers and morphological analyses clearly separated S01 from S02 and S03, in agreement with the alkaloid results. This study shows the first correlation between the chemical, morphological, and molecular markers of P. microphyllus and highlights the potential benefits of a multidisciplinary research approach aimed at supporting both industry and conservation of natural resources.

  15. Seasonal change in main alkaloids of jaborandi (Pilocarpus microphyllus Stapf ex Wardleworth), an economically important species from the Brazilian flora

    Science.gov (United States)

    Véras, Leiz Maria Costa; Azevedo, Iábita Fabiana Sousa; Biase, Adriele Giaretta; Costa, Joana; Oliveira, Maria Beatriz P. P.; Mafra, Isabel

    2017-01-01

    Pilocarpus microphyllus Stapf ex Wardleworth (jaborandi, Rutaceae) is one of the most important Brazilian medicinal species owing to its content of pilocarpine (PIL), an alkaloid used for treating glaucoma and xerostomia. This species contains another alkaloid, epiisopiloturine (EPI), which has demonstrated effectiveness against schistosomiasis. The aim of this work was to assess seasonal changes of PIL and EPI in three populations of cultivated P. microphyllus from northeastern Brazil over one year, including the dry and rainy seasons. Alkaloid profiles were correlated to phenotypic and genetic patterns in the morphological and molecular characterizations. PIL was the primary alkaloid and its levels differed among populations in all months except September. The S01 population (green line) showed an especially high PIL content compared to populations S02 and S03 (traditional line), which had similar alkaloid contents. PIL content gradually decreased in the three populations in the rainy season.EPI content was significantly different between the green line (S01) and the traditional line (S02 and S03).S01 had a significantly lower EPI content in all months, demonstrating that it was not the best source for EPI extraction. Inter simple sequence repeat (ISSR) markers and morphological analyses clearly separated S01 from S02 and S03, in agreement with the alkaloid results. This study shows the first correlation between the chemical, morphological, and molecular markers of P. microphyllus and highlights the potential benefits of a multidisciplinary research approach aimed at supporting both industry and conservation of natural resources. PMID:28151972

  16. Medical and economic impact of extraintestinal infections due to Escherichia coli: focus on an increasingly important endemic problem.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Russo, Thomas A; Johnson, James R

    2003-04-01

    Escherichia coli is probably the best-known bacterial species and one of the most frequently isolated organisms from clinical specimens. Despite this, underappreciation and misunderstandings exist among medical professionals and the lay public alike regarding E. coli as an extraintestinal pathogen. Underappreciated features include (i) the wide variety of extraintestinal infections E. coli can cause, (ii) the high incidence and associated morbidity, mortality, and costs of these diverse clinical syndromes, (iii) the pathogenic potential of different groups of E. coli strains for causing intestinal versus extraintestinal disease, and (iv) increasing antimicrobial resistance. In this era in which health news often sensationalizes uncommon infection syndromes or pathogens, the strains of E. coli that cause extraintestinal infection are an increasingly important endemic problem and underappreciated "killers". Billions of health care dollars, millions of work days, and hundreds of thousands of lives are lost each year to extraintestinal infections due to E. coli. New treatments and prevention measures will be needed for improved outcomes and a diminished disease burden.

  17. Monitoring sterile and wild insects in area-wide integrated pest management programmes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vreysen, M.J.B.

    2005-01-01

    Insect pest control programmes, which integrate the release of sterile insects, can be efficient only if the released insects have an optimal biological quality. Frequent monitoring of the quality of reared insects after being released in the field is an important but often neglected component of area-wide integrated pest management (AW-IPM) programmes that integrate the sterile insect technique (SIT). Parameters of sterile insects, which should be monitored regularly, are sexual competitiveness of the released insects, and related components, e.g. survival, mobility, dispersal characteristics, and spatial occupation of the habitat. A well-balanced monitoring programme will, at any given time, provide essential feedback on the progress being made. This information is prerequisite to efficient implementation of the release and cost-efficient use of sterile insects. The type of monitoring to be done will be determined largely by the particular biology of the target insect species. The most important parameter in relation to the release of sterile insects is the rate of sterility induced in the wild insect pest population; it will provide the best evidence that any observed changes, e.g. in the density of the target insect, are caused by the release of sterile insects. (author)

  18. Cleptobiosis in Social Insects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael D. Breed

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available In this review of cleptobiosis, we not only focus on social insects, but also consider broader issues and concepts relating to the theft of food among animals. Cleptobiosis occurs when members of a species steal food, or sometimes nesting materials or other items of value, either from members of the same or a different species. This simple definition is not universally used, and there is some terminological confusion among cleptobiosis, cleptoparasitism, brood parasitism, and inquilinism. We first discuss the definitions of these terms and the confusion that arises from varying usage of the words. We consider that cleptobiosis usually is derived evolutionarily from established foraging behaviors. Cleptobionts can succeed by deception or by force, and we review the literature on cleptobiosis by deception or force in social insects. We focus on the best known examples of cleptobiosis, the ectatommine ant Ectatomma ruidum, the harvester ant Messor capitatus, and the stingless bee Lestrimellita limão. Cleptobiosis is facilitated either by deception or physical force, and we discuss both mechanisms. Part of this discussion is an analysis of the ecological implications (competition by interference and the evolutionary effects of cleptobiosis. We conclude with a comment on how cleptobiosis can increase the risk of disease or parasite spread among colonies of social insects.

  19. Insects and their life cycle: Steps to take to assess threats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alicia M. Bray; Jason B. Oliver

    2013-01-01

    This paper provides a brief overview of the importance of wood-boring insects to the forest nursery industry. Descriptions of the major insect groups are provided with special attention to the life stages that are most problematic within each group. Steps are provided to guide individuals to mitigate potential threats if a new insect is detected causing damage to trees...

  20. Worst-Case Scenario Tsunami Hazard Assessment in Two Historically and Economically Important Districts in Eastern Sicily (Italy)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Armigliato, A.; Tinti, S.; Pagnoni, G.; Zaniboni, F.; Paparo, M. A.

    2015-12-01

    The portion of the eastern Sicily coastline (southern Italy), ranging from the southern part of the Catania Gulf (to the north) down to the southern-eastern end of the island, represents a very important geographical domain from the industrial, commercial, military, historical and cultural points of view. Here the two major cities of Augusta and Siracusa are found. In particular, the Augusta bay hosts one of the largest petrochemical poles in the Mediterranean, and Siracusa is listed among the UNESCO World Heritage Sites since 2005. This area was hit by at least seven tsunamis in the approximate time interval from 1600 BC to present, the most famous being the 365, 1169, 1693 and 1908 tsunamis. The choice of this area as one of the sites for the testing of innovative methods for tsunami hazard, vulnerability and risk assessment and reduction is then fully justified. This is being developed in the frame of the EU Project called ASTARTE - Assessment, STrategy And Risk Reduction for Tsunamis in Europe (Grant 603839, 7th FP, ENV.2013.6.4-3). We assess the tsunami hazard for the Augusta-Siracusa area through the worst-case credible scenario technique, which can be schematically divided into the following steps: 1) Selection of five main source areas, both in the near- and in the far-field (Hyblaean-Malta escarpment, Messina Straits, Ionian subduction zone, Calabria offshore, western Hellenic Trench); 2) Choice of potential and credible tsunamigenic faults in each area: 38 faults were selected, with properly assigned magnitude, geometry and focal mechanism; 3) Computation of the maximum tsunami wave elevations along the eastern Sicily coast on a coarse grid (by means of the in-house code UBO-TSUFD) and extraction of the 9 scenarios that produce the largest effects in the target areas of Augusta and Siracusa; 4) For each of the 9 scenarios we run numerical UBO-TSUFD simulations over a set of five nested grids, with grid cells size decreasing from 3 km in the open Ionian

  1. A comprehensive look at the possibilities of edible insects as food in Europe - A Review

    OpenAIRE

    Mlček, Jiří; Rop, Otakar; Borkovcová, Marie; Bednářová, Martina

    2014-01-01

    Possibilities of edible insects use in European countries, are now an increasingly debated issue. Insects in Asian, African, Central American and South Central American cultures are mainly nutritional components. This review mainly describes the species of insects that are suitable as food in Europe and other developed countries. This comprehensive work addresses the issue of eating insects, especially considering the nutritionally important factors. Risks are also mentioned, as well as aller...

  2. When Eggs Don't Hatch. The Benefits of the Sterile Insect Technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kilian, Lizette

    2012-01-01

    Insect pests, such as the medfly, tsetse flies and carob moth can devastate crops and infect herds, causing severe economic hardship. To suppress the insect pest population and protect their livestock and crops, farmers usually use large quantities of pesticides. However, these pesticides are expensive, a risk to public health and cause environmental damage. Another technique, however, can reduce the insect pest population using natural means that do not require toxic chemicals: the sterile insect technique, or SIT. When female insect pests mate with male partners that have been radiation sterilized, the insemination produces eggs that cannot hatch. Since mating does not produce offspring, the insect population decreases naturally. The pest population can be suppressed with little or no use of pesticides. With the help of the IAEA, farmers have applied SIT successfully in over 20 countries on five continents, for over 15 insect species worldwide.

  3. Identification and conservation of important plant areas (IPAS) for the distribution of medicinal, aromatic and economic plants in the Hindukush-Himalaya mountain range

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sher, H.; Ali, H.; Rehman, S.

    2012-01-01

    Study on the identification of Important Plant Areas (IPAs) was conducted in seven valleys of Hindukush-Himalayas mountainous ranges of Pakistan during 2005 and 2006. The principal aim of the study is to search new avenues for the conservation and sustainable utilization of threatened medicinal and economic plants and their habitats in IPAs. IPAs are sites of tremendous ecological and economic values that still exist in the world and are being managed on specific sites to study wild plant diversity. Several of such plants are used in the traditional medicines that are being used since the dawn of history to provide basic healthcare to people the world over. According to WHO, 80% of the human population of Africa still use medicinal plants in their primary healthcare. The popularity of herbal drugs is on the constant rise in many developed countries of the world, while in developing countries like Pakistan; medicinal plants contribute significantly to the income sources of people living in remote areas. Keeping such importance in view, the World Health Organization (WHO) launched a global vision in the form of 'Global Strategy for Plant Conservation' having various targets and mile stones. Target 5 of the strategy required for the global integration of the herbal medicine in health care system with proper identification of medicinal plants and the conservation of sites where such plants are found naturally, as its basic elements. In order to contribute to the specified target, WHO advised the relevant institutions to develop research plans and conservation programmes that are focused on the Global strategy in general and target 5 in specific. While complementing the appeal and contributing to its vision, a study was conducted in various eco-systems of the Pakistan's Hindukush-Himalayas region, identifying Important Plant Areas (IPAs) for their subsequent conservation and uses for scientific purposes. Site selection for the study was based on: 1). Exceptional

  4. Level of damages and economical threshold, decisive aspects in the integrated management of plagues.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rafael Meneses

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available The establishment and application of economical levels demand a procedure to find with precision the insects population in a given moment. In the integrated management of plagues is not allowed the idea that any insect which is feeding from a part of plants requires a control action, that is why it is very important to determine the real effect that this insect population causes to the cultivation. Any decrease in the crop, constitutes a real waste of time; but when the economical level is defined, it is included an additional factor which is the measure cost of the plagues control. The determination of damages of levels is very important for economists, farming experts and specialists; while for producers is very significant its implementation with the objective to count with a sustainable and beneficial agriculture.

  5. Predictors of severe systemic anaphylactic reactions in patients with Hymenoptera venom allergy: importance of baseline serum tryptase-a study of the European Academy of Allergology and Clinical Immunology Interest Group on Insect Venom Hypersensitivity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruëff, Franziska; Przybilla, Bernhard; Biló, Maria Beatrice; Müller, Ulrich; Scheipl, Fabian; Aberer, Werner; Birnbaum, Joëlle; Bodzenta-Lukaszyk, Anna; Bonifazi, Floriano; Bucher, Christoph; Campi, Paolo; Darsow, Ulf; Egger, Cornelia; Haeberli, Gabrielle; Hawranek, Thomas; Körner, Michael; Kucharewicz, Iwona; Küchenhoff, Helmut; Lang, Roland; Quercia, Oliviero; Reider, Norbert; Severino, Maurizio; Sticherling, Michael; Sturm, Gunter Johannes; Wüthrich, Brunello

    2009-11-01

    Severe anaphylaxis to honeybee or vespid stings is associated with a variety of risk factors, which are poorly defined. Our aim was to evaluate the association of baseline serum tryptase concentrations and other variables routinely recorded during patient evaluation with the frequency of past severe anaphylaxis after a field sting. In this observational multicenter study, we enrolled 962 patients with established bee or vespid venom allergy who had a systemic reaction after a field sting. Data were collected on tryptase concentration, age, sex, culprit insect, cardiovascular medication, and the number of preceding minor systemic reactions before the index field sting. A severe reaction was defined as anaphylactic shock, loss of consciousness, or cardiopulmonary arrest. The index sting was defined as the hitherto first, most severe systemic field-sting reaction. Relative rates were calculated with generalized additive models. Two hundred six (21.4%) patients had a severe anaphylactic reaction after a field sting. The frequency of this event increased significantly with higher tryptase concentrations (nonlinear association). Other factors significantly associated with severe reactions after a field sting were vespid venom allergy, older age, male sex, angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitor medication, and 1 or more preceding field stings with a less severe systemic reaction. In patients with honeybee or vespid venom allergy, baseline serum tryptase concentrations are associated with the risk for severe anaphylactic reactions. Preventive measures should include substitution of angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors.

  6. ORAL INSECT REPELLENTS - INSECT TASTE RECEPTORS AND THEIR ACTION,

    Science.gov (United States)

    CULICIDAE, * CHEMORECEPTORS ), INSECT REPELLENTS, ELECTROPHYSIOLOGY, STIMULATION(PHYSIOLOGY), ELECTROLYTES(PHYSIOLOGY), BLOOD, INGESTION(PHYSIOLOGY), REPRODUCTION(PHYSIOLOGY), NUTRITION, ENTOMOLOGY, AEDES, MOUTH

  7. Genetic basis of triatomine behavior: lessons from available insect genomes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jose Manuel Latorre-Estivalis

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Triatomines have been important model organisms for behavioural research. Diverse reports about triatomine host search, pheromone communication in the sexual, shelter and alarm contexts, daily cycles of activity, refuge choice and behavioural plasticity have been published in the last two decades. In recent times, a variety of molecular genetics techniques has allowed researchers to investigate elaborate and complex questions about the genetic bases of the physiology of insects. This, together with the current characterisation of the genome sequence of Rhodnius prolixus allows the resurgence of this excellent insect physiology model in the omics era. In the present revision, we suggest that studying the molecular basis of behaviour and sensory ecology in triatomines will promote a deeper understanding of fundamental aspects of insect and, particularly, vector biology. This will allow uncovering unknown features of essential insect physiology questions for a hemimetabolous model organism, promoting more robust comparative studies of insect sensory function and cognition.

  8. Why Care About Aquatic Insects: Uses, Benefits, and Services

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mayflies and other aquatic insects are common subjects of ecological research, and environmental monitoring and assessment. However, their important role in protecting and restoring aquatic ecosystems is often challenged, because their benefits and services to humans are not obv...

  9. From Fossil Parasitoids to Vectors: Insects as Parasites and Hosts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagler, Christina; Haug, Joachim T

    2015-01-01

    Within Metazoa, it has been proposed that as many as two-thirds of all species are parasitic. This propensity towards parasitism is also reflected within insects, where several lineages independently evolved a parasitic lifestyle. Parasitic behaviour ranges from parasitic habits in the strict sense, but also includes parasitoid, phoretic or kleptoparasitic behaviour. Numerous insects are also the host for other parasitic insects or metazoans. Insects can also serve as vectors for numerous metazoan, protistan, bacterial and viral diseases. The fossil record can report this behaviour with direct (parasite associated with its host) or indirect evidence (insect with parasitic larva, isolated parasitic insect, pathological changes of host). The high abundance of parasitism in the fossil record of insects can reveal important aspects of parasitic lifestyles in various evolutionary lineages. For a comprehensive view on fossil parasitic insects, we discuss here different aspects, including phylogenetic systematics, functional morphology and a direct comparison of fossil and extant species. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Fungi with multifunctional lifestyles: endophytic insect pathogenic fungi.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barelli, Larissa; Moonjely, Soumya; Behie, Scott W; Bidochka, Michael J

    2016-04-01

    This review examines the symbiotic, evolutionary, proteomic and genetic basis for a group of fungi that occupy a specialized niche as insect pathogens as well as endophytes. We focus primarily on species in the genera Metarhizium and Beauveria, traditionally recognized as insect pathogenic fungi but are also found as plant symbionts. Phylogenetic evidence suggests that these fungi are more closely related to grass endophytes and diverged from that lineage ca. 100 MYA. We explore how the dual life cycles of these fungi as insect pathogens and endophytes are coupled. We discuss the evolution of insect pathogenesis while maintaining an endophytic lifestyle and provide examples of genes that may be involved in the transition toward insect pathogenicity. That is, some genes for insect pathogenesis may have been co-opted from genes involved in endophytic colonization. Other genes may be multifunctional and serve in both lifestyle capacities. We suggest that their evolution as insect pathogens allowed them to effectively barter a specialized nitrogen source (i.e. insects) with host plants for photosynthate. These ubiquitous fungi may play an important role as plant growth promoters and have a potential reservoir of secondary metabolites.

  11. Important Value of Economic Potency Mangrove Using NDVI Satellite High Resolution Image To Support Eco Tourism Of Pamurbaya Area (Case Study: East Cost of Surabaya)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sukojo, B. M.; Hidayat, H.; Ratnasari, D.

    2017-12-01

    Indonesia is a vast maritime country; many mangrove conservations is found around coastal areas of Indonesia. Mangroves support the life of a large number of animal species by providing breeding, spawning and feeding. Mangrove forests as one of the unique ecosystems are potential natural resources, supporting the diversity of flora and fauna of terrestrial aquatic communities that directly or indirectly play an important role for human life in economic, social and environmental terms. East Coast Surabaya is an area with the most extensive and diverse mangrove ecosystems along the coast of Surabaya. Currently Pamurbaya used as a recreational object or nature tourism called eco tours. Utilization of mangrove ecosystem as a place of this eco tour bring positive impact on economic potency around pamurbaya area. So, to know the value of the economic potential of mangrove ecosystems for support of nature tourism Pamurbaya region needs to study mapping mangrove ecosystem conditions in the East Coast area of Surabaya. Mapping of mangrove conditions can use remote sensing technology by utilizing satellite image data with high resolution. Data used for mapping mangrove ecosystem conditions on the east coast of Surabaya are high resolution satellite image data of Pleiades 1A and field observation data such as Ground Control Point, soil spectral parameters and water quality. From satellite image data will be classification of mangrove vegetation canopy classification using NDVI vegetation index method using algorithm formula which then will be tested correlation with field observation data on reflectant value of field and water quality parameter. The purpose of this research is to know the condition of mangrove ecosystem to know the economic potential of mangrove ecosystem in supporting Pamurbaya nature tourism. The expected result of this research is the existence of basic geospatial information in the form of mangrove ecosystem condition map. So that can be used as decision

  12. Insects vis a vis radiations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Srivastava, Meera

    2014-01-01

    Insects have turned out to be much more radiation resistant. For most insects a dose of about 500-700 Gy is required to kill them within a few weeks of exposure; although cockroaches require 900-1000 Gy. Killing insects in less than a few days requires much higher doses. These doses are for mature insects, the immature stages of some insects can be killed by doses as low as 40 Gy. Some insects can be sterilized at even lower doses, and this has application in insect control. Screw-worms, for example, can be sterilized with doses of 25-50 Gy. By contrast, doses as low as 3 Gy caused death of humans in Hiroshima and Nagasaki and doses of about 6 Gy caused death of fire fighters in the Chernobyl accident. It is not exactly certain what the basis is for the resistance of insects to ionizing radiation. It is not animal size by itself, nor lack of penetration. It is also not because of few dividing cells as these are more radiosensitive than non-dividing ones. The speculation that insects might have lower oxygen tensions, and the lack of oxygen is known to protect cells from radiation also does not work. Insect cells might have an enhanced capacity to repair radiation damage also could not be proven. The number of chromosomes influenced radio-sensitivity, and that insects had fewer chromosomes could be true. The radiation resistance is inherent to the cells, since cells derived from insects are also radiation resistant when grown in cell culture. For example, a dose of 60 Gy is required to produce a 80% kill of insect cells, while doses of 1-2 Gy are sufficient to generate this level of killing in mammalian cells. But, nevertheless, according to recent researches, radiation from Japan's leaking Fukushima nuclear plant has caused mutations in some butterflies. It is therefore clear that insects are resistant to ionizing radiation and that this resistance is an inherent property of their cells. But it is not clear exactly what the basis of this cellular resistance is

  13. Sterilizing insects with ionizing radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bakri, A.; Mehta, K.; Lance, D.R.

    2005-01-01

    Exposure to ionizing radiation is currently the method of choice for rendering insects reproductively sterile for area-wide integrated pest management (AW-IPM) programmes that integrate the sterile insect technique (SIT). Gamma radiation from isotopic sources (cobalt-60 or caesium-137) is most often used, but high-energy electrons and X-rays are other practical options. Insect irradiation is safe and reliable when established safety and quality-assurance guidelines are followed. The key processing parameter is absorbed dose, which must be tightly controlled to ensure that treated insects are sufficiently sterile in their reproductive cells and yet able to compete for mates with wild insects. To that end, accurate dosimetry (measurement of absorbed dose) is critical. Irradiation data generated since the 1950s, covering over 300 arthropod species, indicate that the dose needed for sterilization of arthropods varies from less than 5 Gy for blaberid cockroaches to 300 Gy or more for some arctiid and pyralid moths. Factors such as oxygen level, and insect age and stage during irradiation, and many others, influence both the absorbed dose required for sterilization and the viability of irradiated insects. Consideration of these factors in the design of irradiation protocols can help to find a balance between the sterility and competitiveness of insects produced for programmes that release sterile insects. Many programmes apply 'precautionary' radiation doses to increase the security margin of sterilization, but this overdosing often lowers competitiveness to the point where the overall induced sterility in the wild population is reduced significantly. (author)

  14. Characterization and functional assay of a fatty acyl-CoA reductase gene in the scale insect, Ericerus pela Chavannes (Hemiptera: Coccoidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Yan-Hong; Chen, Xiao-Ming; Yang, Pu; Ding, Wei-Feng

    2018-04-01

    Ericerus pela Chavannes (Hemiptera: Coccoidae) is an economically important scale insect because the second instar males secrete a harvestable wax-like substance. In this study, we report the molecular cloning of a fatty acyl-CoA reductase gene (EpFAR) of E. pela. We predicted a 520-aa protein with the FAR family features from the deduced amino acid sequence. The EpFAR mRNA was expressed in five tested tissues, testis, alimentary canal, fat body, Malpighian tubules, and mostly in cuticle. The EpFAR protein was localized by immunofluorescence only in the wax glands and testis. EpFAR expression in High Five insect cells documented the recombinant EpFAR reduced 26-0:(S) CoA and to its corresponding alcohol. The data illuminate the molecular mechanism for fatty alcohol biosynthesis in a beneficial insect, E. pela. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  15. Can Prunus serotina be genetically engineered for reproductive sterility and insect pest resistance?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ying Wang; Paula M. Pijut

    2014-01-01

    Black cherry (Prunus serotina) is a valuable hardwood timber species, and its value highly depends on the wood quality which is often threatened by insect pests. Transgenic black cherry plants that are more resistant to cambial-mining insects may reduce the occurrence of gummosis and have great economic benefits to landowners and the forest products...

  16. The economic importance of acaricides in the control of phytophagous mites and an update on recent acaricide mode of action research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Leeuwen, Thomas; Tirry, Luc; Yamamoto, Atsushi; Nauen, Ralf; Dermauw, Wannes

    2015-06-01

    Acaricides are one of the cornerstones of an efficient control program for phytophagous mites. An analysis of the global acaricide market reveals that spider mites such as Tetranychus urticae, Panonychus citri and Panonychus ulmi are by far the most economically important species, representing more than 80% of the market. Other relevant mite groups are false spider mites (mainly Brevipalpus), rust and gall mites and tarsonemid mites. Acaricides are most frequently used in vegetables and fruits (74% of the market), including grape vines and citrus. However, their use is increasing in major crops where spider mites are becoming more important, such as soybean, cotton and corn. As revealed by a detailed case study of the Japanese market, major shifts in acaricide use are partially driven by resistance development and the commercial availability of compounds with novel mode of action. The importance of the latter cannot be underestimated, although some compounds are successfully used for more than 30 years. A review of recent developments in mode of action research is presented, as such knowledge is important for devising resistance management programs. This includes spirocyclic keto-enols as inhibitors of acetyl-CoA carboxylase, the carbazate bifenazate as a mitochondrial complex III inhibitor, a novel class of complex II inhibitors, and the mite growth inhibitors hexythiazox, clofentezine and etoxazole that interact with chitin synthase I. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Surface area-volume ratios in insects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kühsel, Sara; Brückner, Adrian; Schmelzle, Sebastian; Heethoff, Michael; Blüthgen, Nico

    2017-10-01

    Body mass, volume and surface area are important for many aspects of the physiology and performance of species. Whereas body mass scaling received a lot of attention in the literature, surface areas of animals have not been measured explicitly in this context. We quantified surface area-volume (SA/V) ratios for the first time using 3D surface models based on a structured light scanning method for 126 species of pollinating insects from 4 orders (Diptera, Hymenoptera, Lepidoptera, and Coleoptera). Water loss of 67 species was measured gravimetrically at very dry conditions for 2 h at 15 and 30 °C to demonstrate the applicability of the new 3D surface measurements and relevance for predicting the performance of insects. Quantified SA/V ratios significantly explained the variation in water loss across species, both directly or after accounting for isometric scaling (residuals of the SA/V ∼ mass 2/3 relationship). Small insects with a proportionally larger surface area had the highest water loss rates. Surface scans of insects to quantify allometric SA/V ratios thus provide a promising method to predict physiological responses, improving the potential of body mass isometry alone that assume geometric similarity. © 2016 Institute of Zoology, Chinese Academy of Sciences.

  18. Measuring Asymmetry in Insect-Plant Networks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cruz, Claudia P T [Programa de Pos-Graduacao em Fisica, Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Norte, UFRN - Campus Universitario, Lagoa Nova, CEP 59078 972, Natal, RN (Brazil); De Almeida, Adriana M [Departamento de Botanica, Ecologia e Zoologia, Centro de Biociencias, Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Norte, UFRN - Campus Universitario, Lagoa Nova, CEP 59078 972, Natal, RN (Brazil); Corso, Gilberto, E-mail: claudia@dfte.ufrn.br, E-mail: adrianam@ufrn.br, E-mail: corso@cb.ufrn.br [Departamento de Biofisica e Farmacologia, Centro de Biociencias, Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Norte, UFRN - Campus Universitario, Lagoa Nova, CEP 59078 972, Natal, RN (Brazil)

    2011-03-01

    In this work we focus on interaction networks between insects and plants and in the characterization of insect plant asymmetry, an important issue in coevolution and evolutionary biology. We analyze in particular the asymmetry in the interaction matrix of animals (herbivorous insects) and plants (food resource for the insects). Instead of driving our attention to the interaction matrix itself we derive two networks associated to the bipartite network: the animal network, D{sub 1}, and the plant network, D{sub 2}. These networks are constructed according to the following recipe: two animal species are linked once if they interact with the same plant. In a similar way, in the plant network, two plants are linked if they interact with the same animal. To explore the asymmetry between D{sub 2} and D{sub 1} we test for a set of 23 networks from the ecologic literature networks: the difference in size, {Delta}L, clustering coefficient difference, {Delta}C, and mean connectivity difference, {Delta}. We used a nonparametric statistical test to check the differences in {Delta}L, {Delta}C and {Delta}. Our results indicate that {Delta}L and {Delta} show a significative asymmetry.

  19. Insect pest control newsletter. No. 65

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2005-07-01

    incompatibility and other alternatives to sterilization. Area-wide insect pest control programmes are logistically complex and managerially intensive. They require an effective management and a broad coalition of stakeholders committed to ensure success. These critical, but largely non-technical, operational issues, often determine success or failure of area-wide programmes: whereas the integration of various technologies is effective in some countries, it runs into major problems when implemented against the same pest insect in others. Therefore the main focus of this second conference was to review lessons learned in implementation, addressing both the technical and managerial components of operational AW-IPM programmes. Thus, in addition to oral and poster presentations on programmes and new technologies relevant to improving the implementation of operational programmes, managers, scientists and decision-makers at the conference debated a number of relevant questions during eight discussion sessions and four discussion panels. It is hoped that a third conference on this theme can be held in ca. 5-6 years. Another major development we would like to share relates to the 7th Session of the Interim Commission for Phytosanitary Measures (ICPM) for the International Plant Protection Convention (IPPC), held in April 2005 at FAO headquarters in Rome. The IPPC is the international treaty under which the international standards for phytosanitary measures (ISPM) that protect plant health are agreed. These standards are recognized by the WTO's Agreement on Sanitary and Phytosanitary Measures (SPS). The use and transboundary shipments of sterile insects was previously outside the scope of ISPM No.3 entitled Code of Conduct for the Import and Release of Exotic Biological Control Agents. Since the implementation of the SIT was largely dominated by the public sector, this did not represent a problem for the transboundary shipment of sterile insects. However, the lack of an international

  20. Insect pest control newsletter. No. 65

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2005-07-01

    incompatibility and other alternatives to sterilization. Area-wide insect pest control programmes are logistically complex and managerially intensive. They require an effective management and a broad coalition of stakeholders committed to ensure success. These critical, but largely non-technical, operational issues, often determine success or failure of area-wide programmes: whereas the integration of various technologies is effective in some countries, it runs into major problems when implemented against the same pest insect in others. Therefore the main focus of this second conference was to review lessons learned in implementation, addressing both the technical and managerial components of operational AW-IPM programmes. Thus, in addition to oral and poster presentations on programmes and new technologies relevant to improving the implementation of operational programmes, managers, scientists and decision-makers at the conference debated a number of relevant questions during eight discussion sessions and four discussion panels. It is hoped that a third conference on this theme can be held in ca. 5-6 years. Another major development we would like to share relates to the 7th Session of the Interim Commission for Phytosanitary Measures (ICPM) for the International Plant Protection Convention (IPPC), held in April 2005 at FAO headquarters in Rome. The IPPC is the international treaty under which the international standards for phytosanitary measures (ISPM) that protect plant health are agreed. These standards are recognized by the WTO's Agreement on Sanitary and Phytosanitary Measures (SPS). The use and transboundary shipments of sterile insects was previously outside the scope of ISPM No.3 entitled Code of Conduct for the Import and Release of Exotic Biological Control Agents. Since the implementation of the SIT was largely dominated by the public sector, this did not represent a problem for the transboundary shipment of sterile insects. However, the lack of an international

  1. RNA Interference in Insect Vectors for Plant Viruses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Surapathrudu Kanakala

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Insects and other arthropods are the most important vectors of plant pathogens. The majority of plant pathogens are disseminated by arthropod vectors such as aphids, beetles, leafhoppers, planthoppers, thrips and whiteflies. Transmission of plant pathogens and the challenges in managing insect vectors due to insecticide resistance are factors that contribute to major food losses in agriculture. RNA interference (RNAi was recently suggested as a promising strategy for controlling insect pests, including those that serve as important vectors for plant pathogens. The last decade has witnessed a dramatic increase in the functional analysis of insect genes, especially those whose silencing results in mortality or interference with pathogen transmission. The identification of such candidates poses a major challenge for increasing the role of RNAi in pest control. Another challenge is to understand the RNAi machinery in insect cells and whether components that were identified in other organisms are also present in insect. This review will focus on summarizing success cases in which RNAi was used for silencing genes in insect vector for plant pathogens, and will be particularly helpful for vector biologists.

  2. Insect pest control newsletter. No. 63

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2004-07-01

    focusing research to solving practical problems of action programmes and the industry. Poster presentations are key components of the meeting with moderated plenary discussions being held at the conclusion of each poster session. Based on these discussions a prioritized list of research needs is identified. The opening address for the meeting was given by Don Lindquist who, although officially retired for some time from SIT activities, presented a stimulating paper on the future perspectives of SIT. As recognition of Don's major contributions to SIT programmes throughout his working career a special memorial plaque was handed to him at the end of his plenary lecture. The next meeting of the WGFFWH will take place in Salvador, Bahia, Brazil, from 10 to 15 September 2006 in conjunction with the Seventh International Symposium on Fruit Flies of Economic Importance. The development and implementation of tsetse SIT remains a major component of the sub-programme activities as well as requiring major support and input from other Agency divisions. To aid the Agency in this collaborative endeavour a group of three external experts has undertaken an evaluation of all tsetse activities including visits to various African countries. This involved extensive input in both time and effort from the subprogramme and a series of presentations was held for the group both in Headquarters and at Seibersdorf. A report has now been produced by the group that includes many recommendations to the Agency as to how the delivery of the tsetse SIT programmes to Member States can be improved. For the past two months, the sub-programme has been involved in the development of its activities for the biennium 2006-2007. It has been agreed that several changes in emphasis will take place to reflect both completion of some activities through effective technology transfer and the changing demands of Member States. Included in the changes will be the development of e-learning modules for several components of

  3. Putative recombination events and evolutionary history of five economically important viruses of fruit trees based on coat protein-encoding gene sequence analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boulila, Moncef

    2010-06-01

    To enhance the knowledge of recombination as an evolutionary process, 267 accessions retrieved from GenBank were investigated, all belonging to five economically important viruses infecting fruit crops (Plum pox, Apple chlorotic leaf spot, Apple mosaic, Prune dwarf, and Prunus necrotic ringspot viruses). Putative recombinational events were detected in the coat protein (CP)-encoding gene using RECCO and RDP version 3.31beta algorithms. Based on RECCO results, all five viruses were shown to contain potential recombination signals in the CP gene. Reconstructed trees with modified topologies were proposed. Furthermore, RECCO performed better than the RDP package in detecting recombination events and exhibiting their evolution rate along the sequences of the five viruses. RDP, however, provided the possible major and minor parents of the recombinants. Thus, the two methods should be considered complementary.

  4. The Importance of Authorized Economic Operator Institution for the Security of Supply Chain in the International Goods Turnover of Polish Enterprises

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miroslawa Laszuk

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Together with the growth of international exchange of goods also the number of threats increases that potentially may influence the security of functioning international supply chains. Currently, there is a need of developing solutions which aim at facilitating flow of goods, simultaneously ensuring security against the increasing number of threats related to e.g. terrorist attacks, illegal smuggling, thefts and tax frauds. The article presents institution of an authorized operator – Authorized Economic Operator (AEO, introduced on the territory of the European Union in 2008. The discourse demonstrates influence of functioning AEO certificates on security of international supply chains with the particular attention drawn on the importance of AEO institution for Polish operators.

  5. A Comprehensive Look at the Possibilities of Edible Insects as Food in Europe – a Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mlcek Jiri

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Possibilities of edible insects use in European countries, are now an increasingly debated issue. Insects in Asian, African, Central American and South Central American cultures are mainly nutritional components. This review mainly describes the species of insects that are suitable as food in Europe and other developed countries. This comprehensive work addresses the issue of eating insects, especially considering the nutritionally important factors. Risks are also mentioned, as well as allergies, toxicity, and other aspects of the breeding and use of edible insects. Insects play and will play important roles in the future in various fields of research, exploitation, breeding, etc. This review provides a comprehensive current and future view of insects as a valuable foodstuff.

  6. Love Games that Insects Play

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Resonance – Journal of Science Education; Volume 3; Issue 1. Love Games that Insects Play - The Evolution of Sexual Behaviours in Insects ... Author Affiliations. K N Ganeshaiah1. Department of Genetics & Plant Breeding University of Agricultural Sciences, GKVK Bangalore 560 065, India ...

  7. Field guide to diseases & insects of the Rocky Mountain Region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forest Health Protection. Rocky Mountain Region

    2010-01-01

    This field guide is a forest management tool for field identification of biotic and abiotic agents that damage native trees in Colorado, Kansas, Nebraska, South Dakota, and Wyoming, which constitute the USDA Forest Service's Rocky Mountain Region. The guide focuses only on tree diseases and forest insects that have significant economic, ecological, and/ or...

  8. Plant defense against insect herbivores

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fürstenberg-Hägg, Joel; Zagrobelny, Mika; Bak, Søren

    2013-01-01

    , defense compounds. These bioactive specialized plant defense compounds may repel or intoxicate insects, while defense proteins often interfere with their digestion. Volatiles are released upon herbivory to repel herbivores, attract predators or for communication between leaves or plants, and to induce......Plants have been interacting with insects for several hundred million years, leading to complex defense approaches against various insect feeding strategies. Some defenses are constitutive while others are induced, although the insecticidal defense compound or protein classes are often similar...... defense responses. Plants also apply morphological features like waxes, trichomes and latices to make the feeding more difficult for the insects. Extrafloral nectar, food bodies and nesting or refuge sites are produced to accommodate and feed the predators of the herbivores. Meanwhile, herbivorous insects...

  9. Integrating insects in poultry and fish feeds in Kenya and Uganda ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    growing agricultural businesses. ... Researchers want to ensure long-term food and nutritional security by using insects as a reliable, sustainable, safe, and economical source of protein and other nutrients. ... Financement total. CAD$ 2,349,600 ...

  10. Management of Insect Sting Hypersensitivity: An Update

    OpenAIRE

    Pesek, Robert D.; Lockey, Richard F.

    2013-01-01

    Reactions to Hymenoptera insect stings are common. While most are self-limited, some induce systemic allergic reactions or anaphylaxis. Prompt recognition, diagnosis, and treatment of these reactions are important for improving quality-of-life and reducing the risk of future sting reactions. This review summarizes the current recommendations to diagnose and treat Hymenoptera sting induced allergic reactions and highlights considerations for various populations throughout the world.

  11. Understanding perceived availability and importance of tobacco control interventions to inform European adoption of a UK economic model: a cross-sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kulchaitanaroaj, Puttarin; Kaló, Zoltán; West, Robert; Cheung, Kei Long; Evers, Silvia; Vokó, Zoltán; Hiligsmann, Mickael; de Vries, Hein; Owen, Lesley; Trapero-Bertran, Marta; Leidl, Reiner; Pokhrel, Subhash

    2018-02-14

    availability and importance rankings for stage-based interventions. The importance ranking was not statistically concordant with the ranking based on published cost-effectiveness data (Kendall rank correlation coefficient = 0.40; p-value = 0.11; 95% CI = [- 0.09, 0.89]). The intrinsic differences in stakeholder views must be addressed while transferring economic evidence Europe-wide. Strong engagement with stakeholders, focussing on better communication, has a potential to mitigate this challenge.

  12. A review of chemosensation and related behavior in aquatic insects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crespo, José G

    2011-01-01

    Insects that are secondarily adapted to aquatic environments are able to sense odors from a diverse array of sources. The antenna of these insects, as in all insects, is the main chemosensory structure and its input to the brain allows for integration of sensory information that ultimately ends in behavioral responses. Only a fraction of the aquatic insect orders have been studied with respect to their sensory biology and most of the work has centered either on the description of the different types of sensilla, or on the behavior of the insect as a whole. In this paper, the literature is exhaustively reviewed and ways in which antennal morphology, brain structure, and associated behavior can advance better understanding of the neurobiology involved in processing of chemosensory information are discussed. Moreover, the importance of studying such group of insects is stated, and at the same time it is shown that many interesting questions regarding olfactory processing can be addressed by looking into the changes that aquatic insects undergo when leaving their aquatic environment.

  13. Debris-carrying camouflage among diverse lineages of Cretaceous insects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Bo; Xia, Fangyuan; Engel, Michael S; Perrichot, Vincent; Shi, Gongle; Zhang, Haichun; Chen, Jun; Jarzembowski, Edmund A; Wappler, Torsten; Rust, Jes

    2016-06-01

    Insects have evolved diverse methods of camouflage that have played an important role in their evolutionary success. Debris-carrying, a behavior of actively harvesting and carrying exogenous materials, is among the most fascinating and complex behaviors because it requires not only an ability to recognize, collect, and carry materials but also evolutionary adaptations in related morphological characteristics. However, the fossil record of such behavior is extremely scarce, and only a single Mesozoic example from Spanish amber has been recorded; therefore, little is known about the early evolution of this complicated behavior and its underlying anatomy. We report a diverse insect assemblage of exceptionally preserved debris carriers from Cretaceous Burmese, French, and Lebanese ambers, including the earliest known chrysopoid larvae (green lacewings), myrmeleontoid larvae (split-footed lacewings and owlflies), and reduviids (assassin bugs). These ancient insects used a variety of debris material, including insect exoskeletons, sand grains, soil dust, leaf trichomes of gleicheniacean ferns, wood fibers, and other vegetal debris. They convergently evolved their debris-carrying behavior through multiple pathways, which expressed a high degree of evolutionary plasticity. We demonstrate that the behavioral repertoire, which is associated with considerable morphological adaptations, was already widespread among insects by at least the Mid-Cretaceous. Together with the previously known Spanish specimen, these fossils are the oldest direct evidence of camouflaging behavior in the fossil record. Our findings provide a novel insight into early evolution of camouflage in insects and ancient ecological associations among plants and insects.

  14. Molecular Genetics of Beauveria bassiana Infection of Insects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ortiz-Urquiza, A; Keyhani, N O

    2016-01-01

    Research on the insect pathogenic filamentous fungus, Beauveria bassiana has witnessed significant growth in recent years from mainly physiological studies related to its insect biological control potential, to addressing fundamental questions regarding the underlying molecular mechanisms of fungal development and virulence. This has been in part due to a confluence of robust genetic tools and genomic resources for the fungus, and recognition of expanded ecological interactions with which the fungus engages. Beauveria bassiana is a broad host range insect pathogen that has the ability to form intimate symbiotic relationships with plants. Indeed, there is an increasing realization that the latter may be the predominant environmental interaction in which the fungus participates, and that insect parasitism may be an opportunist lifestyle evolved due to the carbon- and nitrogen-rich resources present in insect bodies. Here, we will review progress on the molecular genetics of B. bassiana, which has largely been directed toward identifying genetic pathways involved in stress response and virulence assumed to have practical applications in improving the insect control potential of the fungus. Important strides have also been made in understanding aspects of B. bassiana development. Finally, although increasingly apparent in a number of studies, there is a need for progressing beyond phenotypic mutant characterization to sufficiently investigate the molecular mechanisms underlying B. bassiana's unique and diverse lifestyles as saprophyte, insect pathogen, and plant mutualist. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Sustaining America's Aquatic Biodiversity. Aquatic Insect Biodiversity and Conservation

    OpenAIRE

    Voshell, J. Reese

    2005-01-01

    Provides a description of the structure and appearance of aquatic insects, how they live and reproduce, the habitats they live in, how to collect them, why they are of importance, and threats to their survival; document also includes a brief illustrated summary of the eight major groups of aquatic insects and web links to more information. Part of a 12 part series on sustaining aquatic biodiversity in America.

  16. First High-Density Linkage Map and Single Nucleotide Polymorphisms Significantly Associated With Traits of Economic Importance in Yellowtail Kingfish Seriola lalandi

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nguyen H. Nguyen

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available The genetic resources available for the commercially important fish species Yellowtail kingfish (YTK (Seriola lalandi are relative sparse. To overcome this, we aimed (1 to develop a linkage map for this species, and (2 to identify markers/variants associated with economically important traits in kingfish (with an emphasis on body weight. Genetic and genomic analyses were conducted using 13,898 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs generated from a new high-throughput genotyping by sequencing platform, Diversity Arrays Technology (DArTseqTM in a pedigreed population comprising 752 animals. The linkage analysis enabled to map about 4,000 markers to 24 linkage groups (LGs, with an average density of 3.4 SNPs per cM. The linkage map was integrated into a genome-wide association study (GWAS and identified six variants/SNPs associated with body weight (P < 5e-8 when a multi-locus mixed model was used. Two out of the six significant markers were mapped to LGs 17 and 23, and collectively they explained 5.8% of the total genetic variance. It is concluded that the newly developed linkage map and the significantly associated markers with body weight provide fundamental information to characterize genetic architecture of growth-related traits in this population of YTK S. lalandi.

  17. First High-Density Linkage Map and Single Nucleotide Polymorphisms Significantly Associated With Traits of Economic Importance in Yellowtail Kingfish Seriola lalandi.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguyen, Nguyen H; Rastas, Pasi M A; Premachandra, H K A; Knibb, Wayne

    2018-01-01

    The genetic resources available for the commercially important fish species Yellowtail kingfish (YTK) ( Seriola lalandi) are relative sparse. To overcome this, we aimed (1) to develop a linkage map for this species, and (2) to identify markers/variants associated with economically important traits in kingfish (with an emphasis on body weight). Genetic and genomic analyses were conducted using 13,898 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) generated from a new high-throughput genotyping by sequencing platform, Diversity Arrays Technology (DArTseq TM ) in a pedigreed population comprising 752 animals. The linkage analysis enabled to map about 4,000 markers to 24 linkage groups (LGs), with an average density of 3.4 SNPs per cM. The linkage map was integrated into a genome-wide association study (GWAS) and identified six variants/SNPs associated with body weight ( P 5e -8 ) when a multi-locus mixed model was used. Two out of the six significant markers were mapped to LGs 17 and 23, and collectively they explained 5.8% of the total genetic variance. It is concluded that the newly developed linkage map and the significantly associated markers with body weight provide fundamental information to characterize genetic architecture of growth-related traits in this population of YTK S. lalandi .

  18. Accumulation patterns of lipophilic organic contaminants in surface sediments and in economic important mussel and fish species from Jakarta Bay, Indonesia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dwiyitno; Dsikowitzky, Larissa; Nordhaus, Inga; Andarwulan, Nuri; Irianto, Hari Eko; Lioe, Hanifah Nuryani; Ariyani, Farida; Kleinertz, Sonja

    2016-01-01

    Non-target screening analyses were conducted in order to identify a wide range of organic contaminants in sediment and animal tissue samples from Jakarta Bay. High concentrations of di-iso-propylnaphthalenes (DIPNs), linear alkylbenzenes (LABs) and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) were detected in all samples, whereas phenylmethoxynaphthalene (PMN), DDT and DDT metabolites (DDX) were detected at lower concentrations. In order to evaluate the uptake and accumulation by economic important mussel (Perna viridis) and fish species, contaminant patterns of DIPNs, LABs and PAHs in different compartments were compared. Different patterns of these contaminant groups were found in sediment and animal tissue samples, suggesting compound-specific accumulation and metabolism processes. Significantly higher concentrations of these three contaminant groups in mussel tissue as compared to fish tissue from Jakarta Bay were found. Because P. viridis is an important aquaculture species in Asia, this result is relevant for food safety. - Highlights: • Analyses of surface sediment and animal tissue samples from a tropical coastal system • Non-target screening enabled identification of a wide range of organic contaminants. • Comparison of contaminant patterns in surface sediments and animal tissue samples • Results illustrate compound-specific accumulation and metabolism processes. • Higher concentrations of all contaminants in mussel tissue as compared to fish tissue

  19. Identifying obstacles and ranking common biological control research priorities for Europe to manage most economically important pests in arable, vegetable and perennial crops.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lamichhane, Jay Ram; Bischoff-Schaefer, Monika; Bluemel, Sylvia; Dachbrodt-Saaydeh, Silke; Dreux, Laure; Jansen, Jean-Pierre; Kiss, Jozsef; Köhl, Jürgen; Kudsk, Per; Malausa, Thibaut; Messéan, Antoine; Nicot, Philippe C; Ricci, Pierre; Thibierge, Jérôme; Villeneuve, François

    2017-01-01

    EU agriculture is currently in transition from conventional crop protection to integrated pest management (IPM). Because biocontrol is a key component of IPM, many European countries recently have intensified their national efforts on biocontrol research and innovation (R&I), although such initiatives are often fragmented. The operational outputs of national efforts would benefit from closer collaboration among stakeholders via transnationally coordinated approaches, as most economically important pests are similar across Europe. This paper proposes a common European framework on biocontrol R&I. It identifies generic R&I bottlenecks and needs as well as priorities for three crop types (arable, vegetable and perennial crops). The existing gap between the market offers of biocontrol solutions and the demand of growers, the lengthy and expensive registration process for biocontrol solutions and their varying effectiveness due to variable climatic conditions and site-specific factors across Europe are key obstacles hindering the development and adoption of biocontrol solutions in Europe. Considering arable, vegetable and perennial crops, a dozen common target pests are identified for each type of crop and ranked by order of importance at European level. Such a ranked list indicates numerous topics on which future joint transnational efforts would be justified. © 2016 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2016 Society of Chemical Industry.

  20. Absorption of metals and characterization of chemical elements present in three species of Gracilaria (Gracilariaceae Greville: a genus of economical importance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Angela P. Tonon

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Gracilaria Greville is a genus of seaweed that is economically explored by the cosmetic, pharmaceutical and food industries. One of the biggest problems associated with growing Gracilaria is the discharge of heavy metals into the marine environment. The absorption of heavy metals was investigated with the macroalga Gracilaria tenuistipitata Zhang et Xia, cultivated in a medium containing copper (Cu and cadmium (Cd. In biological samples, EC50 concentrations of 1 ppm for cadmium and 0.95 ppm for copper were used. These concentrations were based on seaweed growth curves obtained over a period of six days in previous studies. ICP-AES was used to determine the amount of metal that seaweeds absorbed during this period. G. tenuistipitata was able to bioaccumulate both metals, about 17% of copper and 9% of cadmium. Basal natural levels of Cu were found in control seaweeds and in G. tenuistipitata exposed to Cd. In addition, the repertoire of other important chemical elements, as well as their concentrations, was determined for G. tenuistipitata and two other important seaweeds, G. birdiae Plastino & Oliveira and G. domingensis (Kützing Sonder ex Dickie, collected in natural environments on the Brazilian shore.

  1. Short Analysis of the Essential Elements of the Typical Employment Contract and of its Importance in Maintaining it within the Current Social and Economic Context

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carmen Constantina Nenu

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Nowadays, the typical individual employment contract is the main source of individual legal labor relations, but is important to find the road of this instrument in the future. It is a result of the fact that labor market dynamics should be reflected in the new meanings of rights and obligations of the parties, which cannot be covered by legal acts, with their general and impersonal character. The purpose of the legal work relationship is a special one, connected to the personality of human beings, and, as people are different, we need individual legal acts which materialize working conditions in which each of the employees provides work. Given the ongoing flexibilization of labor relations and the emergence of new types of contracts, an essential question arises. The question is whether the classic employment contract will maintain its importance in the future, whether it will be a response to the interests of employers and employees in a world characterized by economic instability, on the one hand, and by lack of skilled labor force on the other hand. Therefore, this study aims to identify the characteristics of the typical employment contract, as they were highlighted at international and national levels and the extent to which they will be maintained in the future.

  2. Convergent bacterial microbiotas in the fungal agricultural systems of insects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aylward, Frank O; Suen, Garret; Biedermann, Peter H W; Adams, Aaron S; Scott, Jarrod J; Malfatti, Stephanie A; Glavina del Rio, Tijana; Tringe, Susannah G; Poulsen, Michael; Raffa, Kenneth F; Klepzig, Kier D; Currie, Cameron R

    2014-11-18

    The ability to cultivate food is an innovation that has produced some of the most successful ecological strategies on the planet. Although most well recognized in humans, where agriculture represents a defining feature of civilization, species of ants, beetles, and termites have also independently evolved symbioses with fungi that they cultivate for food. Despite occurring across divergent insect and fungal lineages, the fungivorous niches of these insects are remarkably similar, indicating convergent evolution toward this successful ecological strategy. Here, we characterize the microbiota of ants, beetles, and termites engaged in nutritional symbioses with fungi to define the bacterial groups associated with these prominent herbivores and forest pests. Using culture-independent techniques and the in silico reconstruction of 37 composite genomes of dominant community members, we demonstrate that different insect-fungal symbioses that collectively shape ecosystems worldwide have highly similar bacterial microbiotas comprised primarily of the genera Enterobacter, Rahnella, and Pseudomonas. Although these symbioses span three orders of insects and two phyla of fungi, we show that they are associated with bacteria sharing high whole-genome nucleotide identity. Due to the fine-scale correspondence of the bacterial microbiotas of insects engaged in fungal symbioses, our findings indicate that this represents an example of convergence of entire host-microbe complexes. The cultivation of fungi for food is a behavior that has evolved independently in ants, beetles, and termites and has enabled many species of these insects to become ecologically important and widely distributed herbivores and forest pests. Although the primary fungal cultivars of these insects have been studied for decades, comparatively little is known of their bacterial microbiota. In this study, we show that diverse fungus-growing insects are associated with a common bacterial community composed of the

  3. Insect-induced tree mortality of boreal forests in eastern Canada under a changing climate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Xiongqing; Lei, Yuancai; Ma, Zhihai; Kneeshaw, Dan; Peng, Changhui

    2014-06-01

    Forest insects are major disturbances that induce tree mortality in eastern coniferous (or fir-spruce) forests in eastern North America. The spruce budworm (SBW) (Choristoneura fumiferana [Clemens]) is the most devastating insect causing tree mortality. However, the relative importance of insect-caused mortality versus tree mortality caused by other agents and how this relationship will change with climate change is not known. Based on permanent sample plots across eastern Canada, we combined a logistic model with a negative model to estimate tree mortality. The results showed that tree mortality increased mainly due to forest insects. The mean difference in annual tree mortality between plots disturbed by insects and those without insect disturbance was 0.0680 per year (P eastern Canada but that tree mortality induced by insect outbreaks will decrease in eastern Canada under warming climate.

  4. The relative importance of managerial competencies for predicting the perceived job performance of Broad-Based Black Economic Empowerment verification practitioners

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Barbara M. Seate

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Orientation: There is a need for the growing Broad-Based Black Economic Empowerment (B-BBEE verification industry to assess competencies and determine skills gaps for the management of the verification practitioners’ perceived job performance. Knowing which managerial competencies are important for different managerial functions is vital for developing and improving training and development programmes. Research purpose: The purpose of this study was to determine the managerial capabilities that are required of the B-BBEE verification practitioners, in order to improve their perceived job performance. Motivation for the study: The growing number of the B-BBEE verification practitioners calls for more focused training and development. Generating such a training and development programme demands empirical research into the relative importance of managerial competencies. Research approach, design and method: A quantitative design using the survey approach was adopted. A questionnaire was administered to a stratified sample of 87 B-BBEE verification practitioners. Data were analysed using the Statistical Package for Social Sciences (version 22.0 and Smart Partial Least Squares software. Main findings: The results of the correlation analysis revealed that there were strong and positive associations between technical skills, interpersonal skills, compliance to standards and ethics, managerial skills and perceived job performance. Results of the regression analysis showed that managerial skills, compliance to standards and ethics and interpersonal skills were statistically significant in predicting perceived job performance. However, technical skills were insignificant in predicting perceived job performance. Practical/managerial implications: The study has shown that the B-BBEE verification industry, insofar as the technical skills of the practitioners are concerned, does have suitably qualified staff with the requisite educational qualifications. At

  5. Interactions between parasites and insects vectors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hilary Hurd

    1994-01-01

    Full Text Available This review stresses the importance of studies that will provide a basic understanding of the pathology of parasite-infected vector insects. This knowledge should be a vital component of the very focussed initiatives currently being funded in the areas of vector control. Vector fecundity reduction is discussed as an example of such pathology. Underlying mechanisms are being investigated in a model system, Hymenolepis diminuta-infected Tenebrio molitor and in Onchocerca-infected blackflies and Plasmodium-infected Anopheles stephensi. In all cases, host vitellogenesis is disrupted by the parasite and, in the tapeworm/beetle model, interaction between the parasite and the endocrine control of the insect's reproductive physiology has been demonstrated.

  6. Velocity correlations in laboratory insect swarms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ni, R.; Ouellette, N. T.

    2015-12-01

    In contrast to animal groups such as bird flocks or migratory herds that display net, directed motion, insect swarms do not possess global order. Without such order, it is difficult to define and characterize the transition to collective behavior in swarms; nevertheless, visual observation of swarms strongly suggests that swarming insects do behave collectively. It has recently been suggested that correlation rather than order is the hallmark of emergent collective behavior. Here, we report measurements of spatial velocity correlation functions in laboratory mating swarms of the non-biting midge Chironomus riparius. Although we find some correlation at short distances, our swarms are in general only weakly correlated, in contrast to what has been observed in field studies. Our results hint at the potentially important role of environmental conditions on collective behavior, and suggest that general indicators of the collective nature of swarming are still needed.

  7. Biosafety risk assessment approaches for insect-resistant genetically modified crops

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Inaam Ullah

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Background: Environmental risk assessment (ERA is imperative for commercial release of insect resistant, genetically modified crops (IR-GMCs.An insect specific, spider venom peptideω-HXTX-Hv1a (Hvt was successfully expressed in cotton plants. The cotton plants producing Hvt protein have demonstrated resistance against economically important insect pest species. The study was performed to assess the effects of Hvt producing cotton plants on Honey bees (Apis mellifera. Methods: Three approaches were used to evaluate the effects of Hvt protein on adults of honeybees; whole plant assays in flight cages, in vitro assays with pollen of Hvt-cotton, and assays with elevated levels of purified Hvt protein. Pollens of Bt cotton or purified Bt proteins were used as control. Results: The field experiments did not yield any meaningful data due to high rate of mortality in all treatments including the control. However, the laboratory experiments provided conclusive results in which Hvt, purified or in pollens, did not affect the survival or longevity of the bees compared to the control. During the course of study we were able to compare the quality, effectiveness and economics of different experiments. Conclusions: We conclude that Hvt either purified or produced in cotton plants do not affect the survival or longevity of honey bees. We are also of the view that starting at laboratory level assays not only gives meaningful data but also saves a lot of time and money that can be spent on other important questions regarding safety of a particular transgenic crop. Hence, a purpose-based, tiered approach could be the best choice for pre-release ERA of IR-GMCs.

  8. Inherited sterility in insects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carpenter, J.E.; Marec, F.; Bloem, S.

    2005-01-01

    The unique genetic phenomena responsible for inherited sterility (IS) in Lepidoptera and some other arthropods, as compared with full sterility, provide advantages for pest control. Lepidopteran females are usually more sensitive to radiation than males of the same species. This allows the radiation dose to be adjusted to suit programme requirements. When partially sterile males mate with wild females, the radiation-induced deleterious effects are inherited by the F 1 generation. As a result, egg hatch is reduced and the resulting offspring are both highly sterile and predominately male. Compared with the high radiation required to achieve full sterility in Lepidoptera, the lower dose of radiation used to induce F 1 sterility increases the quality and competitiveness of the released insects as measured by improved dispersal after release, increased mating ability, and superior sperm competition. F 1 sterile progeny produced in the field enhance the efficacy of released partially sterile males, and improve compatibility with other pest control strategies. In addition, F 1 sterile progeny can be used to increase the production of natural enemies, and to study the potential host and geographical ranges of exotic lepidopteran pests. (author)

  9. Photorhabdus luminescens genes induced upon insect infection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jung Kirsten

    2008-05-01

    to regulate the expression of toxin genes, including tccC1 (encoding an insecticidal toxin complex, and others encoding putative toxins. A comparably high number of metabolic genes or operons were observed to be induced upon infection; among these were eutABC, hutUH, and agaZSVCD, which encode proteins involved in ethanolamine, histidine and tagatose degradation, respectively. The results reflect rearrangements in metabolism and the use of other metabolites available from the insect. Furthermore, enhanced activity of promoters controlling the expression of genes encoding enzymes linked to antibiotic production and/or resistance was observed. Antibiotic production and resistance may influence competition with other bacteria, and thus might be important for a successful infection. Lastly, several genes of unknown function were identified that may represent novel pathogenicity factors. Conclusion We show that a DFI screen is useful for identifying genes or operons induced by chemical stimuli, such as diluted insect homogenate. A bioinformatics comparison of motifs similar to known promoters is a powerful tool for identifying regulated genes or operons. We conclude that signals for the regulation of those genes or operons induced in P. luminescens upon insect infection may represent a wide variety of compounds that make up the insect host. Our results provide insight into the complex response to the host that occurs in a bacterial pathogen, particularly reflecting the potential for metabolic shifts and other specific changes associated with virulence.

  10. Insect neuropeptides regulating substrate mobilisation

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    1997-09-25

    Sep 25, 1997 ... Insect flight muscles perform their work completely aerobically, and working flight musdes are ... locusts where they are involved in the control of carbohydrate ... the vertebrate hypothalamo/hypophyseal system, and it can.

  11. Chitin utilization by the insect-transmitted bacterium Xylella fastidiosa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Killiny, Nabil; Prado, Simone S; Almeida, Rodrigo P P

    2010-09-01

    Xylella fastidiosa is an insect-borne bacterium that colonizes xylem vessels of a large number of host plants, including several crops of economic importance. Chitin is a polysaccharide present in the cuticle of leafhopper vectors of X. fastidiosa and may serve as a carbon source for this bacterium. Biological assays showed that X. fastidiosa reached larger populations in the presence of chitin. Additionally, chitin induced phenotypic changes in this bacterium, notably increasing adhesiveness. Quantitative PCR assays indicated transcriptional changes in the presence of chitin, and an enzymatic assay demonstrated chitinolytic activity by X. fastidiosa. An ortholog of the chitinase A gene (chiA) was identified in the X. fastidiosa genome. The in silico analysis revealed that the open reading frame of chiA encodes a protein of 351 amino acids with an estimated molecular mass of 40 kDa. chiA is in a locus that consists of genes implicated in polysaccharide degradation. Moreover, this locus was also found in the genomes of closely related bacteria in the genus Xanthomonas, which are plant but not insect associated. X. fastidiosa degraded chitin when grown on a solid chitin-yeast extract-agar medium and grew in liquid medium with chitin as the sole carbon source; ChiA was also determined to be secreted. The gene encoding ChiA was cloned into Escherichia coli, and endochitinase activity was detected in the transformant, showing that the gene is functional and involved in chitin degradation. The results suggest that X. fastidiosa may use its vectors' foregut surface as a carbon source. In addition, chitin may trigger X. fastidiosa's gene regulation and biofilm formation within vectors. Further work is necessary to characterize the role of chitin and its utilization in X. fastidiosa.

  12. Social insects inspire human design

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holbrook, C. Tate; Clark, Rebecca M.; Moore, Dani; Overson, Rick P.; Penick, Clint A.; Smith, Adrian A.

    2010-01-01

    The international conference ‘Social Biomimicry: Insect Societies and Human Design’, hosted by Arizona State University, USA, 18–20 February 2010, explored how the collective behaviour and nest architecture of social insects can inspire innovative and effective solutions to human design challenges. It brought together biologists, designers, engineers, computer scientists, architects and businesspeople, with the dual aims of enriching biology and advancing biomimetic design. PMID:20392721

  13. Edible insects are the future?

    OpenAIRE

    Huis, van, Arnold

    2016-01-01

    The global increase in demand for meat and the limited land area available prompt the search for alternative protein sources. Also the sustainability of meat production has been questioned. Edible insects as an alternative protein source for human food and animal feed are interesting in terms of low greenhouse gas emissions, high feed conversion efficiency, low land use, and their ability to transform low value organic side streams into high value protein products. More than 2000 insect speci...

  14. Insect Pest Control Newsletter, No. 82, January 2014

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2014-01-01

    Microbes have been the dominating forms of life, almost since the birth of our planet about 4.5 billion years ago. Being masters of chemical reactions, they regulate the recycling of all major chemicals relevant to life; manage energy sources and the production of fuels; determine the aerobic conditions of our atmosphere and influence our climate; are the catalytic factors of soil fertility, thus affecting agricultural production; and have also been of paramount importance for the health of ecosystems and of all living organisms including humans. Last, but not least, they have been the driving force of the on-going 'biotechnological revolution', which promises to produce more and healthier food, drugs and 'green' fuels. Because of all their unique metabolic properties, microbes have been driving the evolution of life on earth, either by being free-living or by establishing symbiotic associations with diverse organisms including insects. Insects are the most abundant and species-rich animal group on earth, occupying most available ecological niches. Conservative estimates suggest that about 85% of all described animal species are insects; estimates range between 2-30 million insect species and about 10 quintillion (1018) individual insects being alive at any given time (http://www.si.edu/Encyclopedia_SI/nmnh/ buginfo/bugnos.htm). During recent years it has become evident that the ecological and evolutionarily success of insects greatly depends on the sophisticated symbiotic associations they have established with diverse microorganisms, which influence all aspects of their biology, physiology, ecology and evolution. The few examples presented below aim to underline the importance of these symbiotic associations and indicate that the characterization, exploitation and management of insect-bacterial symbiotic associations can significantly contribute to the support and enhancement of sterile insect technique (SIT) programmes against agricultural pests and disease

  15. Insect Pest Control Newsletter, No. 82, January 2014

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2014-01-15

    Microbes have been the dominating forms of life, almost since the birth of our planet about 4.5 billion years ago. Being masters of chemical reactions, they regulate the recycling of all major chemicals relevant to life; manage energy sources and the production of fuels; determine the aerobic conditions of our atmosphere and influence our climate; are the catalytic factors of soil fertility, thus affecting agricultural production; and have also been of paramount importance for the health of ecosystems and of all living organisms including humans. Last, but not least, they have been the driving force of the on-going 'biotechnological revolution', which promises to produce more and healthier food, drugs and 'green' fuels. Because of all their unique metabolic properties, microbes have been driving the evolution of life on earth, either by being free-living or by establishing symbiotic associations with diverse organisms including insects. Insects are the most abundant and species-rich animal group on earth, occupying most available ecological niches. Conservative estimates suggest that about 85% of all described animal species are insects; estimates range between 2-30 million insect species and about 10 quintillion (1018) individual insects being alive at any given time (http://www.si.edu/Encyclopedia{sub S}I/nmnh/ buginfo/bugnos.htm). During recent years it has become evident that the ecological and evolutionarily success of insects greatly depends on the sophisticated symbiotic associations they have established with diverse microorganisms, which influence all aspects of their biology, physiology, ecology and evolution. The few examples presented below aim to underline the importance of these symbiotic associations and indicate that the characterization, exploitation and management of insect-bacterial symbiotic associations can significantly contribute to the support and enhancement of sterile insect technique (SIT) programmes against agricultural pests and disease

  16. Patterning and predicting aquatic insect richness in four West-African coastal rivers using artificial neural networks

    OpenAIRE

    Edia E.O.; Gevrey M.; Ouattara A.; Brosse S.; Gourène G.; Lek S.

    2010-01-01

    Despite their importance in stream management, the aquatic insect assemblages are still little known in West Africa. This is particularly true in South-Eastern Ivory Coast, where aquatic insect assemblages were hardly studied. We therefore aimed at characterising aquatic insect assemblages on four coastal rivers in South-Eastern Ivory Coast. Patterning aquatic insect assemblages was achieved using a Self-Organizing Map (SOM), an unsupervised Artificial Neural Networks (ANN) method. This metho...

  17. Anatomy of adult Megaphragma (Hymenoptera: Trichogrammatidae, one of the smallest insects, and new insight into insect miniaturization.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexey A Polilov

    Full Text Available The body size, especially in cases of extreme reduction, is an important characteristic that strongly determines the morphology, physiology, and biology of animals. Miniaturization is a widespread trend in animal evolution and one of the principal directions of evolution in insects. Miniaturization-related features of insect morphology have been subject to intensive studies during the last few years, but the structure of the smallest insects remains insufficiently known. It is especially important to study hymenopterans of the genus Megaphragma, which include the smallest flying insects and a species in which an almost anucleate nervous system was recently discovered. This article is the first detailed study of the external and internal morphology of adults of Megaphragma mymaripenne and M. amalphitanum using histological methods, 3D computer modeling and other techniques. It is shown that in spite of the extremely small size the organization of Megaphragma retains a considerkable level of structural complexity. On the other hand, miniaturization leads to re-organizations of several organ systems. Unique structural features related to miniaturization have been found in both species: lysis of cell bodies and nuclei of neurons at late stages of pupal development, absence of the heart, and considerable reductions in the set of muscles. Comparative analysis of structure in the smallest insects representing different taxa has revealed common features of the evolutionary process of miniaturization in insects.

  18. Evidence for inhibition of cholinesterases in insect and mammalian nervous systems by the insect repellent deet

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dimitrov Mitko

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background N,N-Diethyl-3-methylbenzamide (deet remains the gold standard for insect repellents. About 200 million people use it every year and over 8 billion doses have been applied over the past 50 years. Despite the widespread and increased interest in the use of deet in public health programmes, controversies remain concerning both the identification of its target sites at the olfactory system and its mechanism of toxicity in insects, mammals and humans. Here, we investigated the molecular target site for deet and the consequences of its interactions with carbamate insecticides on the cholinergic system. Results By using toxicological, biochemical and electrophysiological techniques, we show that deet is not simply a behaviour-modifying chemical but that it also inhibits cholinesterase activity, in both insect and mammalian neuronal preparations. Deet is commonly used in combination with insecticides and we show that deet has the capacity to strengthen the toxicity of carbamates, a class of insecticides known to block acetylcholinesterase. Conclusion These findings question the safety of deet, particularly in combination with other chemicals, and they highlight the importance of a multidisciplinary approach to the development of safer insect repellents for use in public health.

  19. Detection of insect damage in almonds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Soowon; Schatzki, Thomas F.

    1999-01-01

    Pinhole insect damage in natural almonds is very difficult to detect on-line. Further, evidence exists relating insect damage to aflatoxin contamination. Hence, for quality and health reasons, methods to detect and remove such damaged nuts are of great importance in this study, we explored the possibility of using x-ray imaging to detect pinhole damage in almonds by insects. X-ray film images of about 2000 almonds and x-ray linescan images of only 522 pinhole damaged almonds were obtained. The pinhole damaged region appeared slightly darker than non-damaged region in x-ray negative images. A machine recognition algorithm was developed to detect these darker regions. The algorithm used the first order and the second order information to identify the damaged region. To reduce the possibility of false positive results due to germ region in high resolution images, germ detection and removal routines were also included. With film images, the algorithm showed approximately an 81 percent correct recognition ratio with only 1 percent false positives whereas line scan images correctly recognized 65 percent of pinholes with about 9 percent false positives. The algorithms was very fast and efficient requiring only minimal computation time. If implemented on line, theoretical throughput of this recognition system would be 66 nuts/second.

  20. Insect and pest control newsletter. No. 58

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2002-01-01

    This issue of the Newsletter announces the development of a draft international standard to facilitate the transboundary shipment of sterile insects stands out. This was developed in response to requests from Member States and the private sector for regulation of the shipping of sterile insects. The draft standard will be considered, reviewed and hopefully endorsed over the next years by the Interim Commission on Phytosanitary Measures (ICPM), the governing body of the International Plant protection Convention (IPPC). Also of significance are the Fruit Fly Trapping Guidelines that have been developed to support the harmonization of monitoring procedures for these pest insects in view of the increasing fruit fly related transboundary interactions resulting from the rapidly growing trade in agricultural commodities, as well as travel, transport and tourism. An upcoming event also in the normative area is an FAO/IAEA Expert Meeting on 'Risk Assessment of Transgenic Arthropods' to be held at FAO, Rome from 8-12 April, 2002. The objective of the meeting are to a) assess current status of transgenesis in pest arthropods; b) to assess biosafety concerns for transgenic arthropod release; c) to provide guidance for future risk assessment protocols for case by case analysis; and d) to assess the possibility of establishing a working group under IPPC for setting guidelines for development and use of transgenic insect technology. An important event at the end of 2001 was the Resolution on the Pan African Tsetse and Trypanosomosis Eradication Campaign (PATTEC) adopted by the FAO Conference held in Rome, 2-13 November 2001 (for the full text of the resolution see page 39).. The resolution acknowledges the severity of the trypanosomosis problem in sub-Saharan Africa, and the potential benefits of tsetse elimination, and calls upon affected member nations to include tsetse eradication in their Poverty Reduction Strategy Papers and for the FAO to support them in their efforts to

  1. Minor lipophilic compounds in edible insects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Monika Sabolová

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Contemporary society is faced with the question how to ensure suffiecient nutrition (quantity and quality for rapidly growing population. One solution can be consumption of edible insect, which can have very good nutritional value (dietary energy, protein, fatty acids, fibers, dietary minerals and vitamins composition. Some edible insects species, which contains a relatively large amount of fat, can have a potential to be a „good" (interesting, new source of minor lipophilic compounds such as sterols (cholesterol and phytosterols and tocopherols in our diet. For this reason, the objective of this work was to characterize the sterols and tocopherols composition of fat from larvae of edible insect Zophobas morio L. and Tenebrio mollitor L. Cholesterol and three phytosterols (campesterol, stigmasterol and β-sitosterol were reliably identified and quantified after hot saponification and derivatization by GC-MS. Other steroid compounds, including 5,6-trans-cholecalciferol were identified only according to the NIST library. Cholesterol was the predominant sterol in all analysed samples. Both types of larvae also contained high amount of phytosterols. Different region of origin had a no significant impact on sterols composition, while the effect of beetle genus was crucial. Tocopherols were analysed by reverse phase HPLC coupled with amperometric detection. Tocopherols content in mealworm larvae was lower than content in edible oils, but important from the nutritional point of view. Change of tocopherols composition was not observed during the storage under different conditions. Larvae of edible insect can be a potential good dietary source of cholesterol, but also vitamin D3 isomers, phytosterols and tocopherols.  

  2. Accessory gland as a site for prothoracicotropic hormone controlled ecdysone synthesis in adult male insects

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hentze, Julie Lilith; Møller, Morten Erik; Jørgensen, Anne

    2013-01-01

    Insect steroid hormones (ecdysteroids) are important for female reproduction in many insect species and are required for the initiation and coordination of vital developmental processes. Ecdysteroids are also important for adult male physiology and behavior, but their exact function and site of s...

  3. Recent advances in the cryopreservation of shoot-derived germplasm of economically important fruit trees of Actinidia, Diospyros, Malus, Olea, Prunus, Pyrus and Vitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benelli, Carla; De Carlo, Anna; Engelmann, Florent

    2013-01-01

    This paper presents the advances made over the last decade in cryopreservation of economically important vegetatively propagated fruit trees. Cryopreservation protocols have been established using both dormant buds sampled on field-grown plants and shoot tips sampled on in vitro plantlets. In the case of dormant buds, scions are partially dehydrated by storage at -5 °C, and then cooled slowly to -30 °C using low cooling rates (c.a. 1 °C/h) before immersion in liquid nitrogen. After slow rewarming and rehydration of samples, regrowth takes place either through grafting of buds on rootstocks or excision of apices and inoculation in vitro. In the case of shoot tips of in vitro plantlets, the cryopreservation techniques employed are the following: controlled rate cooling procedures involving slow prefreezing followed by immersion in liquid nitrogen or vitrification-based procedures including encapsulation-dehydration, vitrification, encapsulation-vitrification and droplet-vitrification. The current status of cryopreservation for a series of fruit tree species including Actinidia, Diospyros, Malus, Olea, Prunus, Pyrus and Vitis is presented. Routine application of cryopreservation for long-term germplasm storage in genebanks is currently limited to apple and pear, for which large cryopreserved collections have been established at NCGRP, Fort Collins (USA), using dormant buds and in vitro shoot tips, respectively. However, there are a growing number of examples of pilot scale testing experiments under way for different species in various countries. Progress in the further development and application of cryopreservation techniques will be made through a better understanding of the mechanisms involved in the induction of tolerance to dehydration and cryopreservation in frozen explants. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. An integrative mating system assessment of a nonmodel, economically important Pacific rockfish (Sebastes melanops) reveals nonterritorial polygamy and conservation implications for a large species flock.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karageorge, Kurt W; Wilson, Raymond R

    2017-12-01

    Characterizing the mating systems of long-lived, economically important Pacific rockfishes comprising the viviparous Sebastes species flock is crucial for their conservation. However, direct assignment of mating success to sires is precluded by open, offshore populations and high female fecundity. We addressed this challenge by integrating paternity-assigned mating success of females with the adult sex ratio (ASR) of the population, male evolutionary responses to receptive females, and reproductive life history traits-in the framework of sexual selection theory-to assess the mating system of Sebastes melanops . Microsatellite parentage analysis of 17 pregnant females, 1,256 of their progeny, and 106 adults from the population yielded one to four sires per brood, a mean of two sires, and a female mate frequency distribution with a truncated normal (random) pattern. The 11 multiple paternity broods all contained higher median allele richness than the six single paternity broods (Wilcoxon test: W  = 0, p  distributions that distinguish polygynandry and polyandrogyny mating systems, that is, variations of polygamy, but not polyandry. Inference for polygamy is consistent with weak premating sexual selection on males, expected in mid-water, schooling S. melanops , owing to polyandrous mating, moderately aggregated receptive females, an even ASR, and no territories and nests used for reproduction. Each of these characteristics facilitates more mating males and erodes conspicuous sexual dimorphism. Evaluation of male evolutionary responses of demersal congeners that express reproductively territorial behavior revealed they have more potential mechanisms for producing premating sexual selection, greater variation in reproductive success, and a reduced breeding effective population size of adults and annual effective size of a cohort, compared to S. melanops modeled with two mates per adult. Such divergence in behavior and mating system by territorial species may

  5. Phylogenies of symbiotic genes of Bradyrhizobium symbionts of legumes of economic and environmental importance in Brazil support the definition of the new symbiovars pachyrhizi and sojae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delamuta, Jakeline Renata Marçon; Menna, Pâmela; Ribeiro, Renan Augusto; Hungria, Mariangela

    2017-07-01

    Bradyrhizobium comprises most tropical symbiotic nitrogen-fixing strains, but the correlation between symbiotic and core genes with host specificity is still unclear. In this study, the phylogenies of the nodY/K and nifH genes of 45 Bradyrhizobium strains isolated from legumes of economic and environmental importance in Brazil (Arachis hypogaea, Acacia auriculiformis, Glycine max, Lespedeza striata, Lupinus albus, Stylosanthes sp. and Vigna unguiculata) were compared to 16S rRNA gene phylogeny and genetic diversity by rep-PCR. In the 16S rRNA tree, strains were distributed into two superclades-B. japonicum and B. elkanii-with several strains being very similar within each clade. The rep-PCR analysis also revealed high intra-species diversity. Clustering of strains in the nodY/K and nifH trees was identical: 39 strains isolated from soybean grouped with Bradyrhizobium type species symbionts of soybean, whereas five others occupied isolated positions. Only one strain isolated from Stylosanthes sp. showed similar nodY/K and nifH sequences to soybean strains, and it also nodulated soybean. Twenty-one representative strains of the 16S rRNA phylogram were selected and taxonomically classified using a concatenated glnII-recA phylogeny; nodC sequences were also compared and revealed the same clusters as observed in the nodY/K and nifH phylograms. The analyses of symbiotic genes indicated that a large group of strains from the B. elkanii superclade comprised the novel symbiovar sojae, whereas for another group, including B. pachyrhizi, the symbiovar pachyrhizi could be proposed. Other potential new symbiovars were also detected. The co-evolution hypotheses is discussed and it is suggested that nodY/K analysis would be useful for investigating the symbiotic diversity of the genus Bradyrhizobium. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  6. Nonadaptive radiation: Pervasive diet specialization by drift in scale insects?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hardy, Nate B; Peterson, Daniel A; Normark, Benjamin B

    2016-10-01

    At least half of metazoan species are herbivorous insects. Why are they so diverse? Most herbivorous insects feed on few plant species, and adaptive host specialization is often invoked to explain their diversification. Nevertheless, it is possible that the narrow host ranges of many herbivorous insects are nonadaptive. Here, we test predictions of this hypothesis with comparative phylogenetic analyses of scale insects, a group for which there appear to be few host-use trade-offs that would select against polyphagy, and for which passive wind-dispersal should make host specificity costly. We infer a strong positive relationship between host range and diversification rate, and a marked asymmetry in cladogenetic changes in diet breadth. These results are consonant with a system of pervasive nonadaptive host specialization in which small, drift- and extinction-prone populations are frequently isolated from persistent and polyphagous source populations. They also contrast with the negative relationship between diet breadth and taxonomic diversification that has been estimated in butterflies, a disparity that likely stems from differences in the average costs and benefits of host specificity and generalism in scale insects versus butterflies. Our results indicate the potential for nonadaptive processes to be important to diet-breadth evolution and taxonomic diversification across herbivorous insects. © 2016 The Author(s). Evolution © 2016 The Society for the Study of Evolution.

  7. Diversity and functions of protein glycosylation in insects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walski, Tomasz; De Schutter, Kristof; Van Damme, Els J M; Smagghe, Guy

    2017-04-01

    The majority of proteins is modified with carbohydrate structures. This modification, called glycosylation, was shown to be crucial for protein folding, stability and subcellular location, as well as protein-protein interactions, recognition and signaling. Protein glycosylation is involved in multiple physiological processes, including embryonic development, growth, circadian rhythms, cell attachment as well as maintenance of organ structure, immunity and fertility. Although the general principles of glycosylation are similar among eukaryotic organisms, insects synthesize a distinct repertoire of glycan structures compared to plants and vertebrates. Consequently, a number of unique insect glycans mediate functions specific to this class of invertebrates. For instance, the core α1,3-fucosylation of N-glycans is absent in vertebrates, while in insects this modification is crucial for the development of wings and the nervous system. At present, most of the data on insect glycobiology comes from research in Drosophila. Yet, progressively more information on the glycan structures and the importance of glycosylation in other insects like beetles, caterpillars, aphids and bees is becoming available. This review gives a summary of the current knowledge and recent progress related to glycan diversity and function(s) of protein glycosylation in insects. We focus on N- and O-glycosylation, their synthesis, physiological role(s), as well as the molecular and biochemical basis of these processes. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. A lightweight, inexpensive robotic system for insect vision.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sabo, Chelsea; Chisholm, Robert; Petterson, Adam; Cope, Alex

    2017-09-01

    Designing hardware for miniaturized robotics which mimics the capabilities of flying insects is of interest, because they share similar constraints (i.e. small size, low weight, and low energy consumption). Research in this area aims to enable robots with similarly efficient flight and cognitive abilities. Visual processing is important to flying insects' impressive flight capabilities, but currently, embodiment of insect-like visual systems is limited by the hardware systems available. Suitable hardware is either prohibitively expensive, difficult to reproduce, cannot accurately simulate insect vision characteristics, and/or is too heavy for small robotic platforms. These limitations hamper the development of platforms for embodiment which in turn hampers the progress on understanding of how biological systems fundamentally work. To address this gap, this paper proposes an inexpensive, lightweight robotic system for modelling insect vision. The system is mounted and tested on a robotic platform for mobile applications, and then the camera and insect vision models are evaluated. We analyse the potential of the system for use in embodiment of higher-level visual processes (i.e. motion detection) and also for development of navigation based on vision for robotics in general. Optic flow from sample camera data is calculated and compared to a perfect, simulated bee world showing an excellent resemblance. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  9. Usefulness of the insect food in the long-term space stay

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katayama, Naomi; Yamashita, Masamichi

    2016-07-01

    The meal is important in life in the space. The importance of space foods is not only health maintenance. The space foods are one of the Life-support system for a space trip. Time for meal is time of the relaxation of home life of the astronaut. However, the breeding of the large animal is still impossible in the spaceship now narrowly. If it is fish and an insect, the breeding in the spaceship is possible. We recognize an insect as ingredients on the earth. As for the insect, possibility to save a food shortage of the earth is expected in future. We suggested the space foods using the insect for 12 years. The cultivation of the insect is pushed forward now in Europe. We suggest a menu to have you know the space foods which took in an insect more. The insect which we used for this menu is silkworm-pupa, a grasshopper, a larva of a wasp and apple snail. The Japanese foods were registered with world's cultural heritage. Therefore we used an insect to make our Japanese foods. Space foods must be universal food. This is because the astronauts are recruited from the whole world. Space foods that a world astronaut eats and thinks to be delicious are necessary. We want to take in an insect in world cooking in future. The insect food includes essential amino acids and essential fatty acid. The insect is superior nutritionally. We will think that insect food is necessary more and more on both the space and the earth in future. The insect is precious ingredients relieving a food shortage for the human.

  10. An integrated genetic map based on four mapping populations and quantitative trait loci associated with economically important traits in watermelon (Citrullus lanatus)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-01-01

    Background Modern watermelon (Citrullus lanatus L.) cultivars share a narrow genetic base due to many years of selection for desirable horticultural qualities. Wild subspecies within C. lanatus are important potential sources of novel alleles for watermelon breeding, but successful trait introgression into elite cultivars has had limited success. The application of marker assisted selection (MAS) in watermelon is yet to be realized, mainly due to the past lack of high quality genetic maps. Recently, a number of useful maps have become available, however these maps have few common markers, and were constructed using different marker sets, thus, making integration and comparative analysis among maps difficult. The objective of this research was to use single-nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) anchor markers to construct an integrated genetic map for C. lanatus. Results Under the framework of the high density genetic map, an integrated genetic map was constructed by merging data from four independent mapping experiments using a genetically diverse array of parental lines, which included three subspecies of watermelon. The 698 simple sequence repeat (SSR), 219 insertion-deletion (InDel), 36 structure variation (SV) and 386 SNP markers from the four maps were used to construct an integrated map. This integrated map contained 1339 markers, spanning 798 cM with an average marker interval of 0.6 cM. Fifty-eight previously reported quantitative trait loci (QTL) for 12 traits in these populations were also integrated into the map. In addition, new QTL identified for brix, fructose, glucose and sucrose were added. Some QTL associated with economically important traits detected in different genetic backgrounds mapped to similar genomic regions of the integrated map, suggesting that such QTL are responsible for the phenotypic variability observed in a broad array of watermelon germplasm. Conclusions The integrated map described herein enhances the utility of genomic tools over

  11. An integrated genetic map based on four mapping populations and quantitative trait loci associated with economically important traits in watermelon (Citrullus lanatus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ren, Yi; McGregor, Cecilia; Zhang, Yan; Gong, Guoyi; Zhang, Haiying; Guo, Shaogui; Sun, Honghe; Cai, Wantao; Zhang, Jie; Xu, Yong

    2014-01-20

    Modern watermelon (Citrullus lanatus L.) cultivars share a narrow genetic base due to many years of selection for desirable horticultural qualities. Wild subspecies within C. lanatus are important potential sources of novel alleles for watermelon breeding, but successful trait introgression into elite cultivars has had limited success. The application of marker assisted selection (MAS) in watermelon is yet to be realized, mainly due to the past lack of high quality genetic maps. Recently, a number of useful maps have become available, however these maps have few common markers, and were constructed using different marker sets, thus, making integration and comparative analysis among maps difficult. The objective of this research was to use single-nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) anchor markers to construct an integrated genetic map for C. lanatus. Under the framework of the high density genetic map, an integrated genetic map was constructed by merging data from four independent mapping experiments using a genetically diverse array of parental lines, which included three subspecies of watermelon. The 698 simple sequence repeat (SSR), 219 insertion-deletion (InDel), 36 structure variation (SV) and 386 SNP markers from the four maps were used to construct an integrated map. This integrated map contained 1339 markers, spanning 798 cM with an average marker interval of 0.6 cM. Fifty-eight previously reported quantitative trait loci (QTL) for 12 traits in these populations were also integrated into the map. In addition, new QTL identified for brix, fructose, glucose and sucrose were added. Some QTL associated with economically important traits detected in different genetic backgrounds mapped to similar genomic regions of the integrated map, suggesting that such QTL are responsible for the phenotypic variability observed in a broad array of watermelon germplasm. The integrated map described herein enhances the utility of genomic tools over previous watermelon genetic maps. A

  12. Regulating edible insects: the challenge of adressing food security, nature conservation, and the erosion of traditional food culture

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Halloran, Afton Marina Szasz; Vantomme, Paul; Hanboonsong, Y.

    2015-01-01

    Entomophagy is a common practice in many regions of the world but there are few examples of national regulations that govern insects for human consumption. Where entomophagy is not common, the current regulatory discourse focuses primarily on food safety and consumer protection. In countries where...... species, they do not appear explicitly in dietary guidelines. Although food safety is a major concern, it can undermine the importance of nature conservation, traditional food culture, food security, and potential economic development. Thus, entomophagy should be viewed holistically and development...

  13. Evidence for Widespread Associations between Neotropical Hymenopteran Insects and Actinobacteria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bernal Matarrita-Carranza

    2017-10-01

    taxa and ranging from the American temperate to the Neotropical region. Our work thus provides important insights into the widespread distribution of Actinobacteria and hymenopteran insects associations, while also pointing at novel resources that could be targeted for the discovery of active natural products with great potential in medical and biotechnological applications.

  14. Evidence for Widespread Associations between Neotropical Hymenopteran Insects and Actinobacteria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matarrita-Carranza, Bernal; Moreira-Soto, Rolando D.; Murillo-Cruz, Catalina; Mora, Marielos; Currie, Cameron R.; Pinto-Tomas, Adrián A.

    2017-01-01

    ranging from the American temperate to the Neotropical region. Our work thus provides important insights into the widespread distribution of Actinobacteria and hymenopteran insects associations, while also pointing at novel resources that could be targeted for the discovery of active natural products with great potential in medical and biotechnological applications. PMID:29089938

  15. All insects are equal, but some insects are more equal than others

    OpenAIRE

    Fischer, Arnout R.H.; Steenbekkers, L.P.A.

    2018-01-01

    Purpose: Lack of acceptance of insects as food is considered a barrier against societal adoption of the potentially valuable contribution of insects to human foods. An underlying barrier may be that insects are lumped together as one group, while consumers typically try specific insects. The purpose of this paper is to investigate the ways in which Dutch consumers, with and without insect tasting experience, are more or less willing to eat different insects. Design/methodology/approach: In a ...

  16. Sterile insect supply, emergence, and release

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dowell, R.V.; Worley, J.; Gomes, P.J.

    2005-01-01

    Insect mass-rearing for a sterile insect technique (SIT) programme is designed to move beyond the large-scale rearing of insects in a laboratory to the industrial production of consistently high-quality insects for sterilization and release. Each facility reflects the unique biology of the insect reared within it, but there are some generalities for all rearing facilities. Rearing insects in self-contained modules offers flexibility, and increased safety from catastrophic occurrences, compared with using a single building which houses all facets of the rearing process. Although mechanizing certain aspects of the rearing steps helps provide a consistently high-quality insect, successful mass-rearing and delivery depends largely upon the human component. Besides production in centralized facilities, insects can be produced from purchased eggs, or nowadays, adult insects are often obtained from specialized satellite emergence/collection facilities. Interest in commercializing insect production and release is increasing. Shipping sterile insects, sometimes over long distances, is now common practice. Procedures for handling and chilling adult insects, and providing food and water prior to release, are continually being improved. Sterile insects are released via static-release receptacles, ground-release systems, or most commonly from the air. The aerial release of chilled sterile insects is the most efficient method of release, especially when aircraft flight paths are guided by a Global Positioning System (GPS) linked to a computer-controlled release mechanism. (author)

  17. Biodiversity of Aquatic Insects of Zayandeh Roud River and Its Branches, Isfahan Province, Iran.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mansoreh Shayeghi

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Aquatic insects are the major groups of arthropods that spend some parts of their life cycle in the water. These insects play an important role for transmission of some human and animal diseases. There is few information about the aquatic insects fauna of Iran.To study the aquatic insects fauna, adult, nymphal and larval collections were carried out from different habitats using the standard technique in Zayandeh Roud River, Isfahan Province,central Iran, during summer 2011.In total, 741 speimens of aquatic insects were collected and morphologically identified. They include 7 families and 12 genera representing 2 Orders. The order of Diptera (92.31% and Coleoptera (7.69%. The families Culicidae, Syrphidae and Chironomidae from Diptera order, Gyrinidae, Dytiscidae, Haliplidae, Hydrophilidae from Coleoptera order were identified.Some aquatic insects play an important role for transmission of human and animal diseases. These insects also are important for biological control. Therefore ecological study on aquatic insects can provide information about ecology of insects in an area for any decision making.

  18. Double strand RNA oral delivery methods to induce RNA interference in phloem and plant-sap-feeding insects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phloem and plant sap feeding insect pests invade the integrity of crops and fruits to retrieve nutrients in the process damaging food productivity. Hemipteran insects account for a number of economically substantial pests of plants that cause damage to crops by feeding on phloem sap. Halyomorpha hal...

  19. Insects in fluctuating thermal environments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colinet, Hervé; Sinclair, Brent J; Vernon, Philippe; Renault, David

    2015-01-07

    All climate change scenarios predict an increase in both global temperature means and the magnitude of seasonal and diel temperature variation. The nonlinear relationship between temperature and biological processes means that fluctuating temperatures lead to physiological, life history, and ecological consequences for ectothermic insects that diverge from those predicted from constant temperatures. Fluctuating temperatures that remain within permissive temperature ranges generally improve performance. By contrast, those which extend to stressful temperatures may have either positive impacts, allowing repair of damage accrued during exposure to thermal extremes, or negative impacts from cumulative damage during successive exposures. We discuss the mechanisms underlying these differing effects. Fluctuating temperatures could be used to enhance or weaken insects in applied rearing programs, and any prediction of insect performance in the field-including models of climate change or population performance-must account for the effect of fluctuating temperatures.

  20. Spatial distribution of aquatic insects

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Iversen, Lars Lønsmann

    (time since glacial disturbance and habitat stability) and question the generality of these processes for the understanding of species richness gradients in European rivers. Using regional distributions of European mayflies, stoneflies, and caddisflies this chapter demonstrates that differences...... and shape the habitat requirements and distribution of one of the most affected groups of freshwater species: aquatic insects. It comprises four chapters each addressing different spatial factors in relation to the occurrence of aquatic insects in Europe. Chapter I examine two spatial ecological processes...... niche is derived from local distribution patterns, without incorporating landscape history it can lead to an erroneous niche definition. Chapter III provides some of the first evidence for differences in dispersal phenology related to flight potential in aquatic insects. The chapter highlights...

  1. Biogenic Amines in Insect Antennae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marianna I. Zhukovskaya

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Insect antenna is a multisensory organ, each modality of which can be modulated by biogenic amines. Octopamine (OA and its metabolic precursor tyramine (TA affect activity of antennal olfactory receptor neurons. There is some evidence that dopamine (DA modulates gustatory neurons. Serotonin can serve as a neurotransmitter in some afferent mechanosensory neurons and both as a neurotransmitter and neurohormone in efferent fibers targeted at the antennal vessel and mechanosensory organs. As a neurohormone, serotonin affects the generation of the transepithelial potential by sensillar accessory cells. Other possible targets of biogenic amines in insect antennae are hygro- and thermosensory neurons and epithelial cells. We suggest that the insect antenna is partially autonomous in the sense that biologically active substances entering its hemolymph may exert their effects and be cleared from this compartment without affecting other body parts.

  2. Importance of basophil activation testing in insect venom allergy

    OpenAIRE

    Kosnik Mitja; Korosec Peter

    2009-01-01

    Abstract Background Venom immunotherapy (VIT) is the only effective treatment for prevention of serious allergic reactions to bee and wasp stings in sensitized individuals. However, there are still many questions and controversies regarding immunotherapy, like selection of the appropriate allergen, safety and long term efficacy. Methods Literature review was performed to address the role of basophil activation test (BAT) in diagnosis of venom allergy. Results In patients with positive skin te...

  3. A consensus linkage map for molecular markers and Quantitative Trait Loci associated with economically important traits in melon (Cucumis melo L.)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-01

    Background A number of molecular marker linkage maps have been developed for melon (Cucumis melo L.) over the last two decades. However, these maps were constructed using different marker sets, thus, making comparative analysis among maps difficult. In order to solve this problem, a consensus genetic map in melon was constructed using primarily highly transferable anchor markers that have broad potential use for mapping, synteny, and comparative quantitative trait loci (QTL) analysis, increasing breeding effectiveness and efficiency via marker-assisted selection (MAS). Results Under the framework of the International Cucurbit Genomics Initiative (ICuGI, http://www.icugi.org), an integrated genetic map has been constructed by merging data from eight independent mapping experiments using a genetically diverse array of parental lines. The consensus map spans 1150 cM across the 12 melon linkage groups and is composed of 1592 markers (640 SSRs, 330 SNPs, 252 AFLPs, 239 RFLPs, 89 RAPDs, 15 IMAs, 16 indels and 11 morphological traits) with a mean marker density of 0.72 cM/marker. One hundred and ninety-six of these markers (157 SSRs, 32 SNPs, 6 indels and 1 RAPD) were newly developed, mapped or provided by industry representatives as released markers, including 27 SNPs and 5 indels from genes involved in the organic acid metabolism and transport, and 58 EST-SSRs. Additionally, 85 of 822 SSR markers contributed by Syngenta Seeds were included in the integrated map. In addition, 370 QTL controlling 62 traits from 18 previously reported mapping experiments using genetically diverse parental genotypes were also integrated into the consensus map. Some QTL associated with economically important traits detected in separate studies mapped to similar genomic positions. For example, independently identified QTL controlling fruit shape were mapped on similar genomic positions, suggesting that such QTL are possibly responsible for the phenotypic variability observed for this trait in

  4. A consensus linkage map for molecular markers and Quantitative Trait Loci associated with economically important traits in melon (Cucumis melo L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Schaffer Arthur

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background A number of molecular marker linkage maps have been developed for melon (Cucumis melo L. over the last two decades. However, these maps were constructed using different marker sets, thus, making comparative analysis among maps difficult. In order to solve this problem, a consensus genetic map in melon was constructed using primarily highly transferable anchor markers that have broad potential use for mapping, synteny, and comparative quantitative trait loci (QTL analysis, increasing breeding effectiveness and efficiency via marker-assisted selection (MAS. Results Under the framework of the International Cucurbit Genomics Initiative (ICuGI, http://www.icugi.org, an integrated genetic map has been constructed by merging data from eight independent mapping experiments using a genetically diverse array of parental lines. The consensus map spans 1150 cM across the 12 melon linkage groups and is composed of 1592 markers (640 SSRs, 330 SNPs, 252 AFLPs, 239 RFLPs, 89 RAPDs, 15 IMAs, 16 indels and 11 morphological traits with a mean marker density of 0.72 cM/marker. One hundred and ninety-six of these markers (157 SSRs, 32 SNPs, 6 indels and 1 RAPD were newly developed, mapped or provided by industry representatives as released markers, including 27 SNPs and 5 indels from genes involved in the organic acid metabolism and transport, and 58 EST-SSRs. Additionally, 85 of 822 SSR markers contributed by Syngenta Seeds were included in the integrated map. In addition, 370 QTL controlling 62 traits from 18 previously reported mapping experiments using genetically diverse parental genotypes were also integrated into the consensus map. Some QTL associated with economically important traits detected in separate studies mapped to similar genomic positions. For example, independently identified QTL controlling fruit shape were mapped on similar genomic positions, suggesting that such QTL are possibly responsible for the phenotypic variability

  5. Insects control in soybean flour by irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alvarez, M.; Fraga, R.; Andújar, G.

    1996-01-01

    The effect of irradiation with the doses 0.5 and 1.0 kGy on disinfestation of soy meal and on important chemical compounds of this product, and the organoleptic quality of hamburgers made with irradiated soy meal were studied in this paper. The results showed that the effectiveness of applied doses in the control of insect pests of soy meal during its storage and total proteins, fat, and moisture of product did not change by irradiation. The organoleptic quality of hamburgers with irradiated soy meal was the same as the quality of the product made with untreatment meal [es

  6. Ionizing radiation perception by insects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Campanhola, C.

    1980-04-01

    The proof of the existence of a perception for ionizing radiation by insects was aimed at, as well as the determination of its processing mechanism. It was tried also to check if such perception induces the insects to keep away from the radiation source, proving therefore a protection against the harms caused by ionizing radiation, or else the stimulus for such behaviour is similar to that caused by light radiations. 60 Co and 241 Am were used as gamma radiation sources, the 60 Co source of 0.435mCi and the 241 Am of 99.68mCi activity. Adult insects were used with the following treatments : exposure to 60 Co and 241 Am radiation and non-exposure (control). A total of approximately 50 insects per replication was released in the central region of an opaque white wooden barrier divided into 3 sections with the same area - 60.0 cm diameter and 7.5 cm height - covered with a nylon screen. 5 replications per treatment were made and the distribution of the insects was evaluated by photographs taken at 15, 30, 45, and 60 minutes after release. Sitophilus oryzae (l., 1763) and Ephestia cautella (Walker, 1864) showed some response to 241 Am gamma radiation, i.e. negative tactism. It was concluded that ionizing radiations can be detected by insects through direct visual stimulus or by visual stimulus reslting from interaction of radiation-Cerenkov radiation - with some other occular component with a refraction index greater than water. Also, the activity of the radioactive source with regard to perception for ionizing radiation, is of relevance in comparison with the energy of the radiation emitted by same, or in other words, what really matters is the radiation dose absorbed. (Author) [pt

  7. Respiratory symptoms in insect breeders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harris-Roberts, J; Fishwick, D; Tate, P; Rawbone, R; Stagg, S; Barber, C M; Adisesh, A

    2011-08-01

    A number of specialist food suppliers in the UK breed and distribute insects and insect larvae as food for exotic pets, such as reptiles, amphibians and invertebrates. To investigate the extent of work-related (WR) symptoms and workplace-specific serum IgE in workers potentially exposed to a variety of biological contaminants, including insect and insect larvae allergens, endotoxin and cereal allergens at a UK specialist insect breeding facility. We undertook a study of respiratory symptoms and exposures at the facility, with subsequent detailed clinical assessment of one worker. All 32 workers were assessed clinically using a respiratory questionnaire and lung function. Eighteen workers consented to provide serum for determination of specific IgE to workplace allergens. Thirty-four per cent (11/32) of insect workers reported WR respiratory symptoms. Sensitization, as judged by specific IgE, was found in 29% (4/14) of currently exposed workers. Total inhalable dust levels ranged from 1.2 to 17.9 mg/m(3) [mean 4.3 mg/m(3) (SD 4.4 mg/m(3)), median 2.0 mg/m(3)] and endotoxin levels of up to 29435 EU/m(3) were recorded. Exposure to organic dusts below the levels for which there are UK workplace exposure limits can result in respiratory symptoms and sensitization. The results should alert those responsible for the health of similarly exposed workers to the potential for respiratory ill-health and the need to provide a suitable health surveillance programme.

  8. Phenoptosis in arthropods and immortality of social insects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kartsev, V M

    2014-10-01

    In general, there are no drastic differences in phenoptosis patterns in plant and animal organisms. However, there are some specific features characteristic for insects and other arthropods: 1) their development includes metamorphosis with different biochemical laws at consecutive developmental stages; 2) arthropods can reduce or stop development and aging when in a state of diapause or temporal cold immobility; 3) their life cycle often correlates with seasonal changes of surroundings; 4) polymorphism is widespread - conspecifics differ by their lifespans and phenoptosis features; 5) lifespan-related sexual dimorphism is common; 6) significant situational plasticity of life cycle organization is an important feature; for example, the German wasp (Paravespula germanica) is obligatorily univoltine in the temperate zone, while in tropical regions its lifespan increases and leads to repeated reproduction; 7) life cycles of closely related species may differ significantly, for example, in contrast to German wasp, some tropical hornets (Vespa) have only one reproduction period. Surprisingly, many insect species have been shown to be subjected to gradual aging and phenoptosis, like the highest mammals. However, queens of social insects and some long-lived arachnids can apparently be considered non-aging organisms. In some species, lifespan is limited to one season, while others live much longer or shorter. Cases of one-time reproduction are rather rare. Aphagia is common in insects (over 10,000 species). Cannibalism is an important mortality factor in insects as well as in spiders. In social insects, which exist only in colonies (families), the lifetime of a colony can be virtually unlimited. However, in case of some species the developmental cycle and death of a colony after its completion are predetermined. Most likely, natural selection in insects does not lengthen individual lifespan, but favors increase in reproduction efficiency based on fast succession of

  9. Nutritional contributions of insects to primate diets: implications for primate evolution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rothman, Jessica M; Raubenheimer, David; Bryer, Margaret A H; Takahashi, Maressa; Gilbert, Christopher C

    2014-06-01

    Insects and other invertebrates form a portion of many living and extinct primate diets. We review the nutritional profiles of insects in comparison with other dietary items, and discuss insect nutrients in relation to the nutritional needs of living primates. We find that insects are incorporated into some primate diets as staple foods whereby they are the majority of food intake. They can also be incorporated as complements to other foods in the diet, providing protein in a diet otherwise dominated by gums and/or fruits, or be incorporated as supplements to likely provide an essential nutrient that is not available in the typical diet. During times when they are very abundant, such as in insect outbreaks, insects can serve as replacements to the usual foods eaten by primates. Nutritionally, insects are high in protein and fat compared with typical dietary items like fruit and vegetation. However, insects are small in size and for larger primates (>1 kg) it is usually nutritionally profitable only to consume insects when they are available in large quantities. In small quantities, they may serve to provide important vitamins and fatty acids typically unavailable in primate diets. In a brief analysis, we found that soft-bodied insects are higher in fat though similar in chitin and protein than hard-bodied insects. In the fossil record, primates can be defined as soft- or hard-bodied insect feeders based on dental morphology. The differences in the nutritional composition of insects may have implications for understanding early primate evolution and ecology. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Ecological turmoil in evolutionary dynamics of plant-insect interactions: defense to offence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mishra, Manasi; Lomate, Purushottam R; Joshi, Rakesh S; Punekar, Sachin A; Gupta, Vidya S; Giri, Ashok P

    2015-10-01

    Available history manifests contemporary diversity that exists in plant-insect interactions. A radical thinking is necessary for developing strategies that can co-opt natural insect-plant mutualism, ecology and environmental safety for crop protection since current agricultural practices can reduce species richness and evenness. The global environmental changes, such as increased temperature, CO₂ and ozone levels, biological invasions, land-use change and habitat fragmentation together play a significant role in re-shaping the plant-insect multi-trophic interactions. Diverse natural products need to be studied and explored for their biological functions as insect pest control agents. In order to assure the success of an integrated pest management strategy, human activities need to be harmonized to minimize the global climate changes. Plant-insect interaction is one of the most primitive and co-evolved associations, often influenced by surrounding changes. In this review, we account the persistence and evolution of plant-insect interactions, with particular focus on the effect of climate change and human interference on these interactions. Plants and insects have been maintaining their existence through a mutual service-resource relationship while defending themselves. We provide a comprehensive catalog of various defense strategies employed by the plants and/or insects. Furthermore, several important factors such as accelerated diversification, imbalance in the mutualism, and chemical arms race between plants and insects as indirect consequences of human practices are highlighted. Inappropriate implementation of several modern agricultural practices has resulted in (i) endangered mutualisms, (ii) pest status and resistance in insects and (iii) ecological instability. Moreover, altered environmental conditions eventually triggered the resetting of plant-insect interactions. Hence, multitrophic approaches that can harmonize human activities and minimize their

  11. NIR detects, destroys insect pests

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McGraw, L.C.

    1998-01-01

    What’s good for Georgia peanuts may also be good for Kansas wheat. An electric eye that scans all food-grade peanuts for visual defects could one day do the same for wheat kernels. For peanuts, it’s a proven method for monitoring quality. In wheat, scanning with near-infrared (NIR) energy can reveal hidden insect infestations that lower wheat quality. ARS entomologists James E. Throne and James E. Baker and ARS agricultural engineer Floyd E. Dowell are the first to combine NIR with an automated grain-handling system to rapidly detect insects hidden in single wheat kernels

  12. ESR signals of irradiated insects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ukai, Mitsuko; Kameya, Hiromi; Imamura, Taro; Miyanoshita, Akihiro; Todoriki, Setsuko; Shimoyama, Yuhei

    2009-01-01

    Analysis of irradiated insects using Electron Spin Resonance (ESR) spectroscopy was reported. The insects were maize weevil, red flour beetle, Indian meal moth and cigarette beetle that are hazardous to crops. The ESR spectra were consisted of a singlet at g=2 and a sextet centered at the similar g-value. The singlet signal is due to an organic free radical. The sextet signal is attributable to the hyperfine interactions from Mn 2+ ions. Upon irradiation, new signals were not detected. The relaxation times, T 1 and T 2 , showed no variations before and after irradiation. (author)

  13. THE ECONOMIC IMPORTANCE OF THE BIODIVERSITY OF THE INVERTEBRATES FAUNA IN THE CORN CULTURE SOIL IN COPSA MICA (SIBIU COUNTY ROMANIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iuliana ANTONIE

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available The goal of our researches is in bringing the scientific arguments of the necessity of including the biologic parameters, mainly of the invertebrates in the soil, in the evaluation studies of the impact upon the environment and the national strategies of monitoring of the soils quality. If the chemical analysis measure the quantity of the polluters, the invertebrates in the soil, especially the insects, reflect intensively the anthropologic influences, emphasizing the intensifications or inhibitions of their activity under the stress conditions. The study upon the invertebrates’ fauna was carried on in Copsa Mica area (Sibiu County in the corn agricultural ecosystem. The properties of the soil in this area are strongly changed by the industrial activity as a result of an accumulation of great quantities of heavy metals (lead, cadmium. The researches in this area are a part of a greater study upon the invertebrates’ fauna in the corn culture soil of the Sibiu County, researches that took place during 2011-2013. The technology applied in this area is a semi intensive one. For collecting the invertebrates there were used two methods: drilling the soil and pitfall traps. There were identified invertebrates belonging to 4 classes (Annelida, Arachnida, Chilopoda, Insecta and 11 orders (Haplotaxida, Aranea, Acari, Lithobiomorpha, Geophilomorpha, Collembola, Orthoptera, Heteroptera, Hymenoptera, Coleoptera, Diptera.

  14. Resistance to sap-sucking insects in modern-day agriculture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martin eDe Vos

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Plants and herbivores have co-evolved in their natural habitats for about 350 million years, but since the domestication of crops, plant resistance against insects has taken a different turn. With the onset of monoculture-driven modern agriculture, selective pressure on insects to overcome resistances has dramatically increased. Therefore plant breeders have resorted to high-tech tools to continuously create new insect-resistant crops. Efforts in the past 30 years have resulted in elucidation of mechanisms of many effective plant defenses against insect herbivores. Here, we critically appraise these efforts and - with a focus on sap-sucking insects - discuss how these findings have contributed to herbivore-resistant crops. Moreover, in this review we try to assess where future challenges and opportunities lay ahead. Of particular importance will be a mandatory reduction in systemic pesticide usage and thus a greater reliance on alternative methods, such as improved plant genetics for plant resistance to insect herbivores.

  15. Stinging Insect Allergy

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... it is important to identify them. Yellow jackets' nests are made of a paper-maché material and ... hollow trees or cavities of buildings. Paper wasps' nests are usually made of a paper-like material ...

  16. Insects as a Nitrogen Source for Plants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael J. Bidochka

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Many plants have evolved adaptations in order to survive in low nitrogen environments. One of the best-known adaptations is that of plant symbiosis with nitrogen-fixing bacteria; this is the major route by which nitrogen is incorporated into plant biomass. A portion of this plant-associated nitrogen is then lost to insects through herbivory, and insects represent a nitrogen reservoir that is generally overlooked in nitrogen cycles. In this review we show three specialized plant adaptations that allow for the recovery of insect nitrogen; that is, plants gaining nitrogen from insects. First, we show specialized adaptations by carnivorous plants in low nitrogen habitats. Insect carnivorous plants such as pitcher plants and sundews (Nepenthaceae/Sarraceniaceae and Drosera respectively are able to obtain substantial amounts of nitrogen from the insects that they capture. Secondly, numerous plants form associations with mycorrhizal fungi that can provide soluble nitrogen from the soil, some of which may be insect-derived nitrogen, obtained from decaying insects or insect frass. Finally, a specialized group of endophytic, insect-pathogenic fungi (EIPF provide host plants with insect-derived nitrogen. These soil-inhabiting fungi form a remarkable symbiosis with certain plant species. They can infect a wide range of insect hosts and also form endophytic associations in which they transfer insect-derived nitrogen to the plant. Root colonizing fungi are found in disparate fungal phylogenetic lineages, indicating possible convergent evolutionary strategies between taxa, evolution potentially driven by access to carbon-containing root exudates.

  17. Edible insects in China: Utilization and prospects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feng, Ying; Chen, Xiao-Ming; Zhao, Min; He, Zhao; Sun, Long; Wang, Cheng-Ye; Ding, Wei-Feng

    2018-04-01

    The use of edible insects has a long history in China, where they have been consumed for more than 2000 years. In general, the level of acceptance is high for the consumption of insects in China. Many studies on edible insects have been conducted in the last 20 years, and the scope of the research includes the culture of entomophagy and the identification, nutritional value, farming and breeding of edible insects, in addition to food production and safety. Currently, 324 species of insects from 11 orders are documented that are either edible or associated with entomophagy in China, which include the common edible species, some less commonly consumed species and some medicinal insects. However, only approximately 10 to 20 types of insects are regularly consumed. The nutritional values for 174 species are available in China, including edible, feed and medicinal species. Although the nutritional values vary among species, all the insects examined contain protein, fat, vitamins and minerals at levels that meet human nutritional requirements. Edible insects were, and continue to be, consumed by different ethnic groups in many parts of China. People directly consume insects or food products made from insects. The processing of products from insect protein powder, oil and chitin, and the development of healthcare foods has been studied in China. People also consume insects indirectly by eating livestock that were fed insects, which may be a more acceptable pathway to use insects in human diets. Although limited, the data on the food safety of insects indicate that insects are safe for food or feed. Incidences of allergic reactions after consuming silkworm pupae, cicadas and crickets have been reported in China. Insect farming is a unique breeding industry in rural China and is a source of income for local people. Insects are reared and bred for human food, medicine and animal feed using two approaches in China: the insects are either fully domesticated and reared

  18. Note to Budget Cutters: The Arts Are Good Business--Multiple Studies Point to Arts Education as an Important Economic Engine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olson, Catherine Applefeld

    2009-01-01

    They say desperate times call for desperate measures. But in this time of economic uncertainty, the desperate cutting of budgets for arts funding and, by extension, all types of arts education, including music, is not prudent. That is the consensus of several national and local studies, which converge on a single point--that the arts actually can…

  19. The atmospheric corrosion: an important technical-economic and nuclear safety factor during storage in the construction of nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rodriguez, R.; Rodriguez, J.; Diaz, J.; Gomez, J.; Galeano, N.

    1993-01-01

    The purpose of this work is to show the results of the research performed to determine the atmospheric corrosion in the region of Juragua nuclear power plant and to offer some practical recommendations to increase the efficiency during the storage of materials, considering technical-economic and nuclear safety aspects

  20. Preliminary list of the lepidopterous insects in the Arizona State University Hasbrouck Insect Collection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sangmi Lee

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available The Arizona State University Hasbrouck Insect Collection (ASUHIC is one of the vital Southwest Arthropod collections in America North of Mexico, providing important biological information. The principal objective of the Catalog is to give a complete list of the lepidopterous insects held in the ASUHIC. Furthermore, it will be an online catalog of the Lepidoptera of Arizona. The preliminary Lepidoptera checklist is presented, consisting of 1983 species and 175 subspecies of 55 families in approximately 60,000 holdings at the ASUHIC. This article follows the recent classification and nomenclature (Hodges RW. 1983. Check list of the Lepidoptera of America north of Mexico. London, UK: E.W. Classey Ltd. and the Wedge Entomological Research Foundation; Moth Photographers Group (MPG. 2014. http://mothphotographersgroup.msstate.edu/MainMenu.shtml.