WorldWideScience

Sample records for economically efficient online

  1. Economic efficiency substantiation of information products practical online promotion on the mechanical engineering plants

    OpenAIRE

    Roman Oksentyuk

    2015-01-01

    The profitability ratio ROI and its adaptation to calculate the economic efficiency of online advertising campaign has been analyzed. Investment profitability factor enables to estimate to what extent the advertising costs in the global network are justified and profitable for your business. The ratio use on the Ternopil mechanical engineering plants websites as a case study has been investigated by the author of the article. Such indices as the number...

  2. The Economics of Online Dating: A Course in Economic Modeling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monaco, Andrew J.

    2018-01-01

    The author discusses the development of a unique course, The Economics of Online Dating. The course is an upper-level undergraduate course that combines intensive discussion, peer review, and economic theory to teach modeling skills to undergraduates. The course uses the framework of "online dating," interpreted broadly, as a point of…

  3. Economics of appliance efficiency

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tiedemann, K.H.

    2009-01-01

    Several significant developments occurred in 2001 that affect the impact of market transformation programs. This paper presented and applied an econometric approach to the identification and estimation of market models for refrigerators, clothes washers, dishwashers and room air conditioners. The purpose of the paper was to understand the impact of energy conservation policy developments on sales of energy efficient appliances. The paper discussed the approach with particular reference to building a database of sales and drivers of sales using publicly available information; estimation of the determinants of sales using econometric models; and estimation of the individual impacts of prices, gross domestic product (GDP) and energy conservation policies on sales using regression results. Market and policy developments were also presented, such as change a light, save the world promotion; the California energy crisis; and the Pacific Northwest drought induced hydro power shortage. It was concluded that an increase in GDP increased the sales of both more efficient and less efficient refrigerators, clothes washers, dishwashers, and room air conditioners. An increase in electricity price increased sales of Energy Star refrigerators, clothes washers, dishwashers, and room air conditioners. 4 refs., 8 tabs.

  4. Online social activity reflects economic status

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Jin-Hu; Wang, Jun; Shao, Junming; Zhou, Tao

    2016-09-01

    To characterize economic development and diagnose the economic health condition, several popular indices such as gross domestic product (GDP), industrial structure and income growth are widely applied. However, computing these indices based on traditional economic census is usually costly and resources consuming, and more importantly, following a long time delay. In this paper, we analyzed nearly 200 million users' activities for four consecutive years in the largest social network (Sina Microblog) in China, aiming at exploring latent relationships between the online social activities and local economic status. Results indicate that online social activity has a strong correlation with local economic development and industrial structure, and more interestingly, allows revealing the macro-economic structure instantaneously with nearly no cost. Beyond, this work also provides a new venue to identify risky signal in local economic structure.

  5. Socio-economic database online

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T Tamisier

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available The SEDO project develops a flexible and reusable platform combining fast access, user freedom, and coherence of the results for presenting socio-economic data. Its first aim is to deliver on the Net the results of longitudinal surveys about the life in Luxemburg. Several search methods are available: hierarchical browsing, engine query, and top down navigation with minimal clicks for quick access to the main trends. Without the use of statistical tools nor expertise in the domain the user can perform advanced statistical calculations. Last, a modular architecture guarantees the portability of the application.

  6. Effective, Efficient Online Training in Cooperative Extension

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jane Chin Young

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available In order to keep pace with media and communications trends in education, Cooperative Extension (CE faces the need to shift from traditional face-to-face delivery to online alternatives. This exploratory study focused on evaluating the effectiveness of on-demand, interactive online training compared to its face-to-face counterpart. Targeted for CE staff and volunteers whose work impacts youth, families and communities, the design centered on the university’s cost-effective in-house technology tools. The study results make the case for online delivery as effective and efficient. Strategies for developing a process for online delivery in CE are also offered.

  7. Efficiency of economic development models

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oana Camelia Iacob

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available The world economy is becoming increasingly integrated. Integrating emerging economies of Asia, such as China and India increase competition on the world stage, putting pressure on the "actors" already existing. These developments have raised questions about the effectiveness of European development model, which focuses on a high level of equity, insurance and social protection. According to analysts, the world today faces three models of economic development with significant weight in the world: the European, American and Asian. This study will focus on analyzing European development model, and a brief comparison with the United States. In addition, this study aims to highlight the relationship between efficiency and social equity that occurs in each submodel in part of the European model, given that social and economic performance in the EU are not homogeneous. To achieve this, it is necessary to analyze different indicators related to social equity and efficiency respectively, to observe the performance of each submodel individually. The article analyzes data to determine submodel performance according to social equity and economic efficiency.

  8. Urban liveability versus economic efficiency

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Farné Fratini, Chiara; Jensen, Jens Stissing

    2013-01-01

    development. Against this agenda a national strategy is currently being enforced which addresses water as a context-independent functional sector. This agenda operates with a narrow definition of economic efficiency in service provision through a benchmarking system focusing only on technical performances...... addresses the infrastructure as a discrete system - thus pushing for one-way influence of the infrastructure to the cityscape - the place based innovation agenda has traditionally been more inclusive towards the context specific priorities of urban planners. In this paper we apply the arena of development...

  9. Selected Banks Economic Efficiency Indicators

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adam Szafarczyk

    2007-04-01

    Full Text Available There are a lot of economic efficiency indicators in theory. It is necessary to choice some of them for concrete purposes. ROA, ROE and C/I play important role due to last experience of polish banks.Cost to Income Ratio plays very important role affecting not only efficiency monitoring process in the banks but also becoming a very important target in strategy or finance plan. There are several methodological approaches to construct this index in detail. Results are differing due to implementing methodology. This article describes trends C/I concerning both polish and foreign banks. It is difficult to compare banks in emerging country and real giants in finance mature economies.

  10. Frontiers in the economics of energy efficiency

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miguel, Carlos de; Labandeira, Xavier; Löschel, Andreas

    2015-01-01

    Energy efficiency has become an essential instrument to obtain effective greenhouse gas mitigation and reduced energy dependence. This introductory article contextualizes the contributions of the supplemental issue by showing the new setting for energy efficiency economics and policy; discussing the role of price instruments to promote energy savings; presenting new approaches for energy efficiency policies; and placing energy efficiency within a wider energy and environmental framework.

  11. Quantum entanglement helps in improving economic efficiency

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Du Jiangfeng; Ju Chenyong; Li Hui

    2005-01-01

    We propose an economic regulation approach based on quantum game theory for the government to reduce the abuses of oligopolistic competition. Theoretical analysis shows that this approach can help government improve the economic efficiency of the oligopolistic market, and help prevent monopoly due to incorrect information. These advantages are completely attributed to the quantum entanglement, a unique quantum mechanical character

  12. Quantum entanglement helps in improving economic efficiency

    Science.gov (United States)

    Du, Jiangfeng; Ju, Chenyong; Li, Hui

    2005-02-01

    We propose an economic regulation approach based on quantum game theory for the government to reduce the abuses of oligopolistic competition. Theoretical analysis shows that this approach can help government improve the economic efficiency of the oligopolistic market, and help prevent monopoly due to incorrect information. These advantages are completely attributed to the quantum entanglement, a unique quantum mechanical character.

  13. Online solving of economic dispatch problem using neural network approach and comparing it with classical method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mohammadi, A.; Varahram, M.H.

    2007-01-01

    In this study, two methods for solving economic dispatch problems, namely Hopfield neural network and lambda iteration method are compared. Three sample of power system with 3, 6 and 20 units have been considered. The time required for CPU, for solving economic dispatch of these two systems has been calculated. It has been Shown that for on-line economic dispatch, Hopfield neural network is more efficient and the time required for Convergence is considerably smaller compared to classical methods. (author)

  14. Student Migration to Online Education: An Economic Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eisenhauer, Joseph G.

    2013-01-01

    The popularity of distance education has increasingly led universities to consider expanding their online offerings. Remarkably few financial models have been presented for online courses, however, and fewer still have investigated the economic consequences of the migration, or cross-over, of students from traditional classes within the…

  15. SUSTAINABLE ECONOMIC GROWTH AND ECO-EFFICIENCY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mariana\tLUPAN

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The current economic and social contexts have brought forth the issues regarding growth and sustainability. The concept of growth has always been linked to an increase in consumption levels, and this inevitably led to pressures on the environment and on the resources that support human activity. Given these circumstances, the question whether we can avoid an environmental disaster while maintaining economic growth, has become more stringent. We chose to approach this aspect by examining the concept of eco-efficiency, a concept that embodies aspects of both economic efficiency and environmental efficiency. Eco-efficiency can be regarded as the effectiveness with which resources are used in order to create products and services that satisfy human needs. Based on this idea, the last decade has produced an increasing number of studies on eco-efficiency and how it can be measured and implemented in the production of goods and services, but also in the field regarding demand patterns. An analysis regarding the aspects of eco-efficiency at the macro level of the Romanian economy is in line with the current environmental concerns, thus I have chosen to cover these questions, as well as the evolution of the locale economy towards a more sustainable development. The outcome of the examined aspects shows that, in spite of an increase in eco-efficiency levels, energy and material consumption and emissions have increased. This raises the question if measuring economic and environmental efficiency by reporting to the GDP value is becoming obsolete and if there is a need to revaluate eco-efficiency indicators in order to measure the transition to a greener and more sustainable development from different points of view.

  16. ECONOMIC EFFICIENCY - DETERMINED ELEMENT IN INVESTMENT DECISION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claudia MUNGIU-PUPAZAN

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Economic activity of a country are conducted by industry, under branches and production sectors, each with special characteristics and conditions of work, which, of course, put their imprint on the organization manner of the production process By an analysis of the concept of economic efficiency of investment is found that this is an amount of qualitative factors, which gives the latter a complex character, aimed to improving activity in the area where are taking place to the putting into service of such investment, which can be modernization, bringing new equipments, reconstruction and development. Study the economic efficiency of investment involves, as a base, an analysis of causal factors that determine the decision in the afferent medium of risk. Corresponding to peculiarities of the production process, it requires a proper methodology of assessment the economic efficiency of investment, with specification to maintain the general principles for calculating the economic efficiency indicators and specific indicators come only to complete the picture of indicators of general, basic and supplementary already calculated in order to provide additional clues, afferent to branch, under-branch or sector of activity.

  17. ECONOMIC AND SOCIAL EFFICIENCY OF PROPERTY INVESTMENTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Florina Oana Virlanuta

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Investments play a key part within the goods and services industry, consumerism and community as well. The effects generated by any investment project substantiate this statement, regardless the sector of activity in which they are implemented. In the current market economy, economic efficiency indicators are playing an important role in assessing and analyzing an investment project since due to these indicators, the investor can become aware of the most important aspects they need to respond promptly. In this respect, we conducted a market analysis of real estate investments in Romania, highlighting economic and social efficiency of property investments.

  18. An Economics-Based Second Law Efficiency

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John H. Lienhard

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Second Law efficiency is a useful parameter for characterizing the energy requirements of a system in relation to the limits of performance prescribed by the Laws of Thermodynamics. However, since energy costs typically represent less than 50% of the overall cost of product for many large-scale plants (and, in particular, for desalination plants, it is useful to have a parameter that can characterize both energetic and economic effects. In this paper, an economics-based Second Law efficiency is defined by analogy to the exergetic Second Law efficiency and is applied to several desalination systems. It is defined as the ratio of the minimum cost of producing a product divided by the actual cost of production. The minimum cost of producing the product is equal to the cost of the primary source of energy times the minimum amount of energy required, as governed by the Second Law. The analogy is used to show that thermodynamic irreversibilities can be assigned costs and compared directly to non-energetic costs, such as capital expenses, labor and other operating costs. The economics-based Second Law efficiency identifies costly sources of irreversibility and places these irreversibilities in context with the overall system costs. These principles are illustrated through three case studies. First, a simple analysis of multistage flash and multiple effect distillation systems is performed using available data. Second, a complete energetic and economic model of a reverse osmosis plant is developed to show how economic costs are influenced by energetics. Third, a complete energetic and economic model of a solar powered direct contact membrane distillation system is developed to illustrate the true costs associated with so-called free energy sources.

  19. Massive Open Online Courses and economic sustainability

    OpenAIRE

    Liyanagunawardena, Tharindu R.; Lundqvist, Karsten O.; Williams, Shirley A.

    2015-01-01

    Millions of users around the world have registered on Massive Open Online Courses (MOOCs) offered by hundreds of universities (and other organizations) worldwide. Creating and offering these courses costs thousands of pounds. However, at present, revenue generated by MOOCs is not sufficient to offset these costs. The sustainability of MOOCs is a pressing concern as they incur not only upfront creation costs but also maintenance costs to keep content relevant, as well as on-going facilitation ...

  20. Efficient Online Processing for Advanced Analytics

    OpenAIRE

    El Seidy, Mohamed Elsayed Mohamed Ahmed

    2017-01-01

    With the advent of emerging technologies and the Internet of Things, the importance of online data analytics has become more pronounced. Businesses and companies are adopting approaches that provide responsive analytics to stay competitive in the global marketplace. Online analytics allow data analysts to promptly react to patterns or to gain preliminary insights from early results that aid in research, decision making, and effective strategy planning. The growth of data-velocity in a variety...

  1. Economic efficiency of application of solar window

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shapoval, Stepan

    2017-12-01

    Priority and qualitatively new direction in the fuel and energy sector is renewable energy. This paper describes a feasibility study of using solar window in the system of solar heat supply. The article presents literature data about the effectiveness of the use of solar systems in other countries. The results confirm a sufficient efficiency of solar heat supply with using solar Windows. Insights based on practical experience and mathematical calculations, which are aimed at a detailed explanation of economic efficiency of the proposed construction.

  2. The economic impacts of energy efficiency

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jean, R.

    1990-01-01

    Energy efficiency programs add to the costs incurred by electricity users in the short term and generate significant economic benefits in the medium and long term. Using the example of programs in development at Hydro-Quebec, it is shown that the net economic benefits surpass, in present value terms, the sums invested by the electric utility and the customer, corresponding to yields of over 100%. This benefit is the principal impact of energy conservation programs which also provide employment, for every dollar invested, of the same order as that provided by hydroelectric production (i.e. costs associated with construction of generating plants, transmission lines, and distribution facilities). This evaluation takes account of the structure of purchases of goods and services brought about by energy efficiency programs and their large import component. This result may be surprising since the hydroelectric industry is strongly integrated into the Quebec economy, but it is understandable when one takes into account the importance of distribution costs to small-scale users, which causes significant local activity even when imported products are involved, and the very intensive labor requirement for certain energy efficiency measures. In addition, the employment generated by energy efficiency investments is very diversified in terms of the range of skills used and its geographic dispersion. 2 figs., 4 tabs

  3. The economic impacts of energy efficiency

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jean, R.

    1990-01-01

    Hydro Quebec's energy efficiency initiatives are reviewed and the economic benefits it expects to garner from such programs are described. Energy efficiency programs affect the cost of supplying electricity, and rates usually rise during the early years and are subsequently offset by the benefits the program generates. Energy efficiency programs should allow Hydro Quebec to avoid $6 billion in expenditures for electricity supply, while entailing contributions of $1.4 billion for the efficiency measures. Evaluation of the potential for efficiency has allowed Hydro Quebec to set a target of 12.9 TWh/y in 1999 on a potential estimated at 18% of regular sales in Quebec in 1989, namely 23.3 TWh. Customers, who contribute $1.4 billion of their own funds to efficiency programs will realize savings of $3.2 billion. Hydro Quebec programs insist strongly on replacement of appliances and motors of all sorts, and in the residential sector, purchases of slightly less than $0.5 billion will consist of electric lamps (3%), water heaters (2.4%), insulation products (32%), hardware (2.5%), and various electric appliances (33%). In the commercial sector, expenditures will be higher, reaching ca $650 million. These are allocated to purchases of electric lamps (18%), heating equipment (12%), insulation products (24%), street lighting (4%), and various electric devices such as controls (39%). 2 figs., 4 tabs

  4. Energy efficiency, sustainability and economic growth

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ayres, Robert U.; Turton, Hal; Casten, Tom

    2007-01-01

    This paper explores two linked theses related to the role energy in economic development, and potential sources of increased energy efficiency for continued growth with reduced greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions. The first thesis is that, while reduced GHG emissions are essential for long-term global sustainability, the usual policy recommendation of increasing energy costs by introducing a carbon tax may be relatively ineffective under current market structures and have an unnecessarily adverse impact on economic growth. Our second thesis is that there exists a practical near-term strategy for reducing GHG emissions while simultaneously encouraging continued technology-driven economic growth. Moreover, this strategy does not require radical new technologies, but rather improved regulation or-more precisely-better deregulation of the electric power sector. In respect to the first of our two theses, this paper addresses a deficiency in neoclassical economic growth theory, in which growth is assumed to be automatic, inevitable and cost-free. We challenge both the assumption that growth will continue in the future at essentially the same rate ('the trend') as it has in the past, and the corollary that our children's children will inevitably be richer and better able to afford the cost of repairing the environmental damages caused by current generations [Simon et al., The state of humanity. Cambridge MA: Blackwell Publishers Ltd.; 1995

  5. Efficiency and economics of hydrogen delivery

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu, Y.; Bharadwaj, R.; Balan, C.; Garces, L.; Smith, D.

    2003-01-01

    The viability and penetration of fuel cell based electricity production will be mainly determined by the efficient, cost effective production and delivery of hydrogen. This study focuses on the transportation efficiency and cost of hydrogen delivery for both centrally produced hydrogen as well as electricity scenarios. The efficiency and economics of energy delivery depend on the quantity of energy to be transported and transportation distance. Energy delivery models were developed for Hydrogen delivery as compressed gas or cryogenic liquid using truck or pipeline. For comparison, models were also developed for high voltage AC electricity transmission. Major parameters that influence the performance of the energy transmission systems under normal operating conditions were modeled. The models use energy transported and delivery distance as independent variables. The results were validated against similar reports, government surveys and other publications. Energy delivery efficiency and costs were used to compare and evaluate the different delivery options. Effect of uncertainty and sensitivity of parameters on modeling results were also studied. The systems were compared on an equivalent basis. The analysis also identifies the trade-offs for electricity transmission and electrolysis application at the point of use for Hydrogen delivery. These results provide a consistent framework for evaluation of delivery options on energy efficiency basis. (author)

  6. Online Quiz Time Limits and Learning Outcomes in Economics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evans, Brent; Culp, Robert

    2015-01-01

    In an effort to better understand the impact of timing limits, the authors compare the learning outcomes of students who completed timed quizzes with students who took untimed quizzes in economics principles courses. Students were assigned two online quizzes--one timed and one untimed--and re-tested on the material the following class day. Our…

  7. The Economic Efficiency of Financial Markets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yougui

    In this paper, we investigate the economic efficiency of markets and specify its applicability to financial markets. The statistical expressions of supply and demand of a market are formulated in terms of willingness prices. By introducing probability of realized exchange, we also formulate the realized market surplus. It can be proved that only when the market is in equilibrium the realized surplus can reach its maximum value. The market efficiency can be measured by the ratio of realized surplus to its maximum value. For a financial market, the market participants are composed of two groups: producers and speculators. The former brings the surplus into the market and the latter provides liquidity to make them realized.

  8. ECONOMIC EFFICIENCY IN TOMATOES PRODUCTION IN GREENHOUSES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A POPESCU

    2003-07-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to appreciate the evolution of economic efficiency in tomatoes production in greenhouses within a private firm situated next to the capital. The firm owns 4 ha greenhouses and the weight of tomatoes crop in the cultivated area is just 38.75 %. In fact, during the last three years, the tomatoes cultivated surface has been diminished in favour of flowers production which, like tomatoes production is an important income source for any producer. The reduction of the tomatoes cultivated area was compensated by the increase of intensification grade using new high performance hybrids and modern technologies. Thus, the scientific production management has been looking for maintaining the total production at the same level from a year to another by an increased average tomatoes yield by 53.33 % . The continuous increase of farm input price has doubled the cost per surface unit and increased the cost per tomatoes kilogram by 33 %. The increase of tomatoes demand and of market price by 31 % have had a positive influence on the farm incomes which has doubled during the last three years. In the year 2000, the company has obtained USD 41,818 income/ha of which subtracting the related production cost we can easily get USD 4,815 profit/ha. The average profit rate recorded by the firm is 13 % in the period 2000-2002, when the study was made. As a conclusion, tomatoes production in greenhouses is a good deal. To keep a high economic efficiency, under the diminishing of the cultivated area, the producers have to increase average tomatoes production by using high performance technology based on high economic value hybrids.

  9. Economic Analysis of Factors Affecting Technical Efficiency of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Economic Analysis of Factors Affecting Technical Efficiency of Smallholders ... socio-economic characteristics which influence technical efficiency in maize production. ... Ministry of Agriculture and livestock, records, books, reports and internet.

  10. Nuclear liability, nuclear safety, and economic efficiency

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wood, W.C.

    1980-01-01

    This dissertation applies the methods of economic analysis to nuclear liability and Price-Anderson. First the legislative history is reviewed; in that history the economic role of liability in affecting safety and allocating risk was virtually ignored. Succeeding chapters reformulate issues from the policy debate and subject them to economic analysis. A persistent issue is whether nuclear utilities respond to their limited liability by allowing a higher probability of serious accident. Comparative-static analysis shows that limited liability does lead to a higher chance of accidents, though the effect may be small. The analysis also shows that safety is achieved in a more capital-intensive manner than is cost-minimizing and that limited liability causes reactor owners to favor more heavily populated sites for plants. Therefore, the siting decision makes potential loss greater even if there is no change in the probability of an accident. Citizens' preferences on nuclear liability are examined next, starting with the nature of coverage that would be just in the sense of contraction theories such as John Rawls' Theory of Justice. Citizens behind Rawls' veil of ignorance, forced to be fair because of their ignorance of whether they will be harmed, unanimously choose a high level of coverage. The just level of coverage is greater than the existing $560 million. Second, the nature of economically efficient liability coverage is determined and contrasted with coverage that would emerge from a democratic system of public choice. Population and expected damage profiles indicate that majorities could easily be formed among groups of citizens expecting to suffer little of the damage of a nuclear accident. Thus, majority voting on liability arrangements is likely to produce an inefficiently low level of coverage

  11. A Method for Efficient Searching at Online Shopping

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanjo, Tomomi; Nagata, Moiro

    In recent years, online shopping has been popularized. However, the users can not find efficiently their items at on-line markets. This paper proposes an engine to find items easily at the online market. This engine has the following facilities. First, it presents information in a fixed format. Second, the user can find items by selected keywords. Third, it presents only necessary information by using his/her history. Finally, it has a customize function for each user. Moreover, the system asks the users to down load a page of recommended items. We show the effectives of our proposal with some experiments.

  12. ANALYSIS OF ECONOMIC EFFICIENCY IN BROILERS FATTENING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. SABAU

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available The paper aimed to analyze economic efficiency in broilers fattening . In this purpose , the study was carried out at Breading Prod Commercial Company, Giarmata, Timis County . The economic and financial results of two series of broilers fattening have been comparatively analyzed based on the following specific indicators variable costs ( one day chicken supply , medicines, disinfectants , veterinary services , straw bed, feeding, fuels, electricity , watering , labor force , fixed costs ( rent, interest, fixed assets depreciation , communication and other taxes , total production costs , cost per marketed broiler, cost per square meter , cost per kg live weight , gross margin , incomes ( incomes coming from marketed broilers and subsidies , profit, profit rate , profit per marketed broiler, profit per square meter, profit per kg live weight , costs to 1,000 incomes and incomes to 1,000 costs. This comparison proved that the higher the chickens series size , the higher costs and incomes . The both fatenning series have profitable but the series S2 registered lower financial performances .

  13. Is Municipal Solid Waste Recycling Economically Efficient?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lavee, Doron

    2007-12-01

    It has traditionally been argued that recycling municipal solid waste (MSW) is usually not economically viable and that only when externalities, long-term dynamic considerations, and/or the entire product life cycle are taken into account, recycling becomes worthwhile from a social point of view. This article explores the results of a wide study conducted in Israel in the years 2000 2004. Our results reveal that recycling is optimal more often than usually claimed, even when externality considerations are ignored. The study is unique in the tools it uses to explore the efficiency of recycling: a computer-based simulation applied to an extensive database. We developed a simulation for assessing the costs of handling and treating MSW under different waste-management systems and used this simulation to explore possible cost reductions obtained by designating some of the waste (otherwise sent to landfill) to recycling. We ran the simulation on data from 79 municipalities in Israel that produce over 60% of MSW in Israel. For each municipality, we were able to arrive at an optimal method of waste management and compare the costs associated with 100% landfilling to the costs born by the municipality when some of the waste is recycled. Our results indicate that for 51% of the municipalities, it would be efficient to adopt recycling, even without accounting for externality costs. We found that by adopting recycling, municipalities would be able to reduce direct costs by an average of 11%. Through interviews conducted with representatives of municipalities, we were also able to identify obstacles to the utilization of recycling, answering in part the question of why actual recycling levels in Israel are lower than our model predicts they should be.

  14. Economic efficiency, independent power producers and wheeling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fytche, E.L.

    1991-01-01

    Traditionally, electric utilities have sought to decrease the cost of production by such means as merit order running of machines, by improving equipment efficiency, by fuel mix, by interconnection and exchange of cheap energy, and by unit participation and firm purchase and sale contracts for long term savings. In the ''new look'', it was suggested that financial and technical competition is not enough, and that economic gains could be achieved through fostering independent power producers, i.e., non-utility generators (NUG's), greater exchanges of economy energy, unrestricted access to the transmission network for moving cheap energy through facilities of third parties, and by bidding to supply energy to non-generators, etc. Naturally, the proposals to change the comfortable and time-hallowed practices by which utility business had been carried out in the past has created an ongoing debate both pro and con, much of it acrimonious, and, unfortunately, some of it ill-informed. The turmoil in the political context impacts on a utility's technical and financial planners, and on their managements, all of whom contribute to justifying and maintaining the flow of capital to the industry and energy to the customer. They must now seek new ways to implement both short- and long-term planning of power supply. Some of the factors that were neglected in the past will demand more attention in the future. This paper discusses some of the costs that, under the anticipated modus operandi, must be integrated into the planning process while meeting the new challenges. The costs are those relating to third-parties, costs of transmission constraints, and costs of wheeling. The opinion is ventured that much of the efficiency improvement anticipated during the debate has already been achieved by conscientious utility managements. (author)

  15. Efficient and secure comparison for on-line auctions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Damgard, Ivan; Geisler, M.; Kroigaard, M.; Pieprzyk, J.; Ghodosi, H.; Dawson, E.

    2007-01-01

    We propose a protocol for secure comparison of integers based on homomorphic encryption. We also propose a homomorphic encryption scheme that can be used in our protocol and makes it more efficient than previous solutions. Our protocol is well-suited for application in on-line auctions, both with

  16. Economics of Distance and Online Learning Theory, Practice and Research

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    reviewed by TOJDE

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available Economics of Distance and Online LearningTheory, Practice and ResearchBy William Bramble & Santosh PandaPrice: $125.00ISBN: 978-0-415-96388-6, Binding: Hardback, Publishedby: Routledge, New York, Publication Date: March 2008, Pages: 312TOJDEABOUT THE BOOKThis book provides a comprehensive overview of theorganizational models of distance and online learning froman international perspective and from the point of view ofeconomic planning, costing and management decisionmaking.The book points to directions for the further research anddevelopment in this area, and will promote furtherunderstanding and critical reflection on the part ofadministrators, practitioners and researchers of distanceeducation.The experiences and perspectives in distance education inthe US are balanced with those in other areas of the world.Table of ContentsPrefaceSECTION ONE: INTRODUCTIONChapter 1: Organizational and Cost Structures for Distanceand Online Learning, William J. Bramble and Santosh PandaSECTION TWO: PLANNING AND MANAGEMENTChapter 2: Changing Distance Education andChanging Organizational Issues, D. Randy Garrison and Heather KanukaChapter 3: Online Learning and the University, Chris Curran217Chapter 4: Virtual Schooling and Basic Education, Thomas ClarkChapter 5: Historical Perspectives on Distance Education in the United States, Paul J.Edelson and Von PittmanSECTION THREE: FUNDINGChapter 6: Funding of Distance and Online Learning in the United States, Mark J. Smithand William J. BrambleChapter 7: Funding Distance Education: A Regional Perspective, Santosh Panda andAshok GabaSECTION FOUR: COST STRUCTURES AND MODELSChapter 8: Costs and Quality of Online Learning, Alistair InglisChapter 9: Costing Virtual University Education, Insung JungChapter 10: Cost-Benefit of Student Retention Policies and Practices, Ormond SimpsonSECTION FIVE: DISTANCE TRAININGChapter 11: Cost Benefit of Online Learning, Zane Berge and Charlotte DonaldsonChapter 12: Transforming Workplace

  17. Life cycle and economic efficiency analysis: durable pavement markings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-07-01

    This project examined the life cycle and economic efficiency of two pavement marking : materials inlaid tape and thermoplastic to find the most economical product for specific : traffic and weather conditions. Six locations in the state of Ma...

  18. The Measurement and Determinants of Economic Efficiency of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The Measurement and Determinants of Economic Efficiency of Microfinance Institutions ... players in socio-economic development especially in developing countries. ... savings products to improve on portfolio quality and ensure sustainability; ...

  19. NEW APPROACHES TO EFFICIENCY OF MASSIVE ONLINE COURSE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liubov S. Lysitsina

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available This paper is focused on efficiency of e-learning, in general, and massive online course in programming and information technology, in particular. Several innovative approaches and scenarios have been proposed, developed, implemented and verified by the authors, including 1 a new approach to organize and use automatic immediate feedback that significantly helps a learner to verify developed code and increases an efficiency of learning, 2 a new approach to construct learning interfaces – it is based on “develop a code – get a result – validate a code” technique, 3 three scenarios of visualization and verification of developed code, 4 a new multi-stage approach to solve complex programming assignments, 5 a new implementation of “perfectionism” game mechanics in a massive online course. Overall, due to implementation of proposed and developed approaches, the efficiency of massive online course has been considerably increased, particularly 1 the additional 27.9 % of students were able to complete successfully “Web design and development using HTML5 and CSS3” massive online course at ITMO University, and 2 based on feedback from 5588 students a “perfectionism” game mechanics noticeably improves students’ involvement into course activities and retention factor.

  20. Online Graphing Activity for Principles of Economics Courses

    OpenAIRE

    Oskar R. Harmon; James Lambrinos

    2010-01-01

    This paper describes how an online drawing program and bulletin board are used to create active learning activities for a principles of economics class. In the activity the student downloads an initial diagram that sets up a textbook principles scenario. The student uses an image-editing program to complete the diagram, so that it represents the outcome predicted in the textbook and posts it to a bulletin board. The tools for the activity: SumoPaint.com, and WikiSpaces.com; are free and avail...

  1. ECONOMIC THEORY OF LOBBYING: EVALUATION OF ECONOMIC EFFICIENCY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Павел Александрович Толстых

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available In this article the author continues to analyze lobbying with regards to economic paradigm. [The author has started discussing lobbying in terms of economic theory in the article Politico-economic theory of lobbying / / Historical, philosophical, political and legal sciences, culture and art. Theory and practice. Tambov: Gramota, 2013. No 1. Part 2. p. 177-189.] Researcher evaluates the cost effectiveness of the lobbying function. Lobbying is understood as activity of specifically authorized employees of corporations and lobbying firms representing their interests, trade associations. This activity is aimed at improving the profitability of integrated and sustainable business development by representing  long-term, comfortable, predictable system of relationships with the relevant field-specific political stakeholders of the federal and regional levels. The article presents an in-depth analysis of economic concepts of lobbying function.DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.12731/2218-7405-2013-1-3

  2. ECONOMIC THEORY OF LOBBYING: EVALUATION OF ECONOMIC EFFICIENCY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tolstyh Pavel Aleksandrovich

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available In this article the author continues to analyze lobbying with regards to economic paradigm. [The author has started discussing lobbying in terms of economic theory in the article Politico-economic theory of lobbying / / Historical, philosophical, political and legal sciences, culture and art. Theory and practice. Tambov: Gramota, 2013. No 1. Part 2. p. 177-189.] Researcher evaluates the cost effectiveness of the lobbying function. Lobbying is understood as activity of specifically authorized employees of corporations and lobbying firms representing their interests, trade associations. This activity is aimed at improving the profitability of integrated and sustainable business development by representing long-term, comfortable, predictable system of relationships with the relevant field-specific political stakeholders of the federal and regional levels. The article presents an in-depth analysis of economic concepts of lobbying function.

  3. Decentralized Economic Dispatch Scheme With Online Power Reserve for Microgrids

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nutkani, I. U.; Loh, Poh Chiang; Wang, P.

    2017-01-01

    Decentralized economic operation schemes have several advantages when compared with the traditional centralized management system for microgrids. Specifically, decentralized schemes are more flexible, less computationally intensive, and easier to implement without relying on communication...... costs, their power ratings, and other necessary constraints, before deciding the DG dispatch priorities and droop characteristics. The proposed scheme also allows online power reserve to be set and regulated within the microgrid. This, together with the generation cost saved, has been verified...... infrastructure. Economic operation of existing decentralized schemes is also usually achieved by either tuning the droop characteristics of distributed generators (DGs) or prioritizing their dispatch order. For the latter, an earlier scheme has tried to prioritize the DG dispatch based on their no...

  4. Economic efficiency analysis of electron accelerator for irradiation processing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shi Huidong; Chen Ronghui

    2003-01-01

    The fixed assets, running cost and economic efficiency were discussed in this paper. For building electron accelerator of 10 MeV and 3 kW, the running cost is one time higher than building cobalt source at 2.22 x 10 15 Bq, but economic efficiency of building a electron accelerator is much higher than building a cobalt source

  5. Efficient and Secure Comparison for On-Line Auctions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Damgård, Ivan Bjerre; Krøigaard, Mikkel; Geisler, Martin Joakim

    2007-01-01

    We propose a protocol for secure comparison of integers based on homomorphic encryption. We also propose a homomorphic encryption scheme that can be used in our protocol and makes it more efficient than previous solutions. Our protocol is well-suited for application in on-line auctions, both...... with respect to functionality and performance. It minimizes the amount of information bidders need to send, and for comparison of 16 bit numbers with security based on 1024 bit RSA (executed by two parties), our implementation takes 0.28 seconds including all computation and communication. Using precomputation...

  6. Energy efficiency and economic fallacies: a reply; and reply

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brookes, L.G.; Grubb, M.

    1992-01-01

    The claim that a programme of energy efficiency improvements has nothing to offer to the solution of any problem of global warming is discussed. Some very important points not previously conceded by supporters of energy efficiency solutions to economic and environmental problems are considered, namely: first that when energy supply/price is the constraint on the level of economic activity, using energy more efficiently does not help to reduce total energy demand; and, second, that it has in practice been true that when energy supply/price is not the macroeconomic constraint, once again demand for energy is not reduced by more efficient use. (author)

  7. The economic efficiency of allowing longer combination vehicles in Texas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-08-01

    This paper shows the economic efficiency of allowing longer combination vehicles in Texas. First, an : overview of the truck size and weight policies is explained, with an emphasis on those that affect : Texas. Next, LCV operations in other countries...

  8. On-line efficiency optimization of a synchronous reluctance motor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lubin, Thierry; Razik, Hubert; Rezzoug, Abderrezak [Groupe de Recherche en Electrotechnique et Electronique de Nancy, GREEN, CNRS-UMR 7037, Universite Henri Poincare, BP 239, 54506 Vandoeuvre-les-Nancy Cedex (France)

    2007-04-15

    This paper deals with an on-line optimum-efficiency control of a synchronous reluctance motor drive. The input power minimization control is implemented with a search controller using Fibonacci search algorithm. It searches the optimal reference value of the d-axis stator current for which the input power is minimum. The input power is calculated from the measured dc-bus current and dc-bus voltage of the inverter. A rotor-oriented vector control of the synchronous reluctance machine with the optimization efficiency controller is achieved with a DSP board (TMS302C31). Experimental results are presented to validate the proposed control methods. It is shown that stability problems can appear during the search process. (author)

  9. Efficient Online Learning Algorithms Based on LSTM Neural Networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ergen, Tolga; Kozat, Suleyman Serdar

    2017-09-13

    We investigate online nonlinear regression and introduce novel regression structures based on the long short term memory (LSTM) networks. For the introduced structures, we also provide highly efficient and effective online training methods. To train these novel LSTM-based structures, we put the underlying architecture in a state space form and introduce highly efficient and effective particle filtering (PF)-based updates. We also provide stochastic gradient descent and extended Kalman filter-based updates. Our PF-based training method guarantees convergence to the optimal parameter estimation in the mean square error sense provided that we have a sufficient number of particles and satisfy certain technical conditions. More importantly, we achieve this performance with a computational complexity in the order of the first-order gradient-based methods by controlling the number of particles. Since our approach is generic, we also introduce a gated recurrent unit (GRU)-based approach by directly replacing the LSTM architecture with the GRU architecture, where we demonstrate the superiority of our LSTM-based approach in the sequential prediction task via different real life data sets. In addition, the experimental results illustrate significant performance improvements achieved by the introduced algorithms with respect to the conventional methods over several different benchmark real life data sets.

  10. Economic efficiency of brownfield regeneration: study of South Moravian projects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jana Korytárová

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available The objective of brownfield regeneration is to increase the attractiveness and value of individual sites to a level where they can compete directly with the construction of a greenfi eld project. The aim of this paper is to examine the economic efficiency of brownfield regeneration. By using CBA outputs, the contribution of socio-economic efficiency to the total efficiency of individual projects based on EBCR was investigated on the basis of a sample of 14 projects located in the South Moravian Region. Furthermore, the expected value of EBCR was simulated by using the Monte Carlo method. The results reveal that socio-economic efficiency contributes significantly to the overall efficiency of these projects and therefore cannot be neglected during their evaluation. At the end of the paper, future research directions in this area are outlined.

  11. Air conditioning with methane: Efficiency and economics optimization parameters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mastrullo, R.; Sasso, M.; Sibilio, S.; Vanoli, R.

    1992-01-01

    This paper presents an efficiency and economics evaluation method for methane fired cooling systems. Focus is on direct flame two staged absorption systems and alternative engine driven compressor sets. Comparisons are made with conventional vapour compression plants powered by electricity supplied by the national grid. A first and second law based thermodynamics analysis is made in which fuel use coefficients and exergy yields are determined. The economics analysis establishes annual energy savings, unit cooling energy production costs, payback periods and economics/efficiency optimization curves useful for preliminary feasibility studies

  12. Economic efficiency among small scale poultry farmers in Imo State ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... household size and extension, were found to be the significant factors that account for the observed variation in efficiency among the small scale poultry farmers. Keywords: economic efficiency, small scale poultry farmers, stochastic frontier production model. International Journal of Agriculture and Rural Development Vol.

  13. The Essence and Efficiency Criteria of the Contemporary Economic Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Demydiuk Olga O

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available The article generalizes and systematizes the basic scientific approaches to the definition of the category of «economic system». The author’s own definition of the contemporary economic systems as highly complex dynamic structures, characterized by the organizational heterogeneous integrity, ability to selforganization and self-development, which occur under the influence of both external and internal factors, has been proposed. The basic efficiency criteria of functioning and development of the contemporary economic systems were generalized and systematized. Some practical recommendations for improving efficiency of the economic system of Ukraine have been elaborated. In particular, the emphasis was made on the need to pay special attention to countering corruption, the illegal economic manifestations of the shadow economy, overcoming resistance by the special interest groups, which are not interested in any radical market-oriented transformations, since they lose their quasi-rent received as a result of activities of the inefficient institutions.

  14. Economic Efficiency of Selected Financial System Institutions of Local Government

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Urszula Rabiej

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Functioning of local government units, as for as the economic sphere is concerned, is based on the financial law regulations. Those regulations aim at solving economic and social problems. The analysis of economic efficiency concerning implemented regulations is of particular importance for changing the EU’s attitude towards the influence, which EU has on functioning of the local governments. Implementing the local budgets, based on regulations which economic efficiency hasn’t been evaluated on the stage of legislation, may have a negative impact on local community and the economic situation of the country. Frequent changes of financial law cause actions, which financial effects cannot be predicted. What is more, those unstable regulations make it impossible to plan essential parts of a budget in a right way. That has a great importance in terms of correctness of long-term financial perspectives of the local government units.

  15. Vacuum boilers developed heating surfaces technic and economic efficiency evaluation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slobodina, E. N.; Mikhailov, A. G.; Semenov, B. A.

    2018-01-01

    The vacuum boilers as manufacturing proto types application analysis was carried out, the possible directions for the heating surfaces development are identified with a view to improving the energy efficiency. Economic characteristics to evaluate the vacuum boilers application efficiency (Net Discounted Income (NDI), Internal Rate of Return (IRR), Profitability Index (PI) and Payback Period) are represented. The given type boilers application technic and economic efficiency criteria were established. NDI changing curves depending on the finning coefficient and operating pressure were obtained as a result of the conducted calculation studies.

  16. Energy technologies and energy efficiency in economic modelling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Klinge Jacobsen, Henrik

    1998-01-01

    This paper discusses different approaches to incorporating energy technologies and technological development in energy-economic models. Technological development is a very important issue in long-term energy demand projections and in environmental analyses. Different assumptions on technological ...... of renewable energy and especially wind power will increase the rate of efficiency improvement. A technologically based model in this case indirectly makes the energy efficiency endogenous in the aggregate energy-economy model....... technological development. This paper examines the effect on aggregate energy efficiency of using technological models to describe a number of specific technologies and of incorporating these models in an economic model. Different effects from the technology representation are illustrated. Vintage effects...... illustrates the dependence of average efficiencies and productivity on capacity utilisation rates. In the long run regulation induced by environmental policies are also very important for the improvement of aggregate energy efficiency in the energy supply sector. A Danish policy to increase the share...

  17. Economic and environmental efficiency using a social accounting matrix

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Morilla, Carmen Rodriguez; Diaz-Salazar, Gaspar Llanes; Cardenete, M. Alejandro

    2007-01-01

    This paper aims to show the utility of the so-called Social Accounting Matrix and Environmental Accounts (SAMEA) for economic and environmental efficiency analysis. The article uses the SAMEA for Spain in 2000, applied to water resources and greenhouse gas emissions. This matrix is used as a central core of a multisectorial model of economic and environmental performance, and it calculates the denominated 'domestics SAMEA multipliers' and their decomposition into characteristic, direct, indirect and induced effects. These multipliers show some evaluation of economic and environmental efficiency. Also, we present an application of these multipliers that demonstrates that there is no causal interrelation between those sectors with higher economic backward linkages and those with higher environmental deterioration backward linkages. (author)

  18. Measurement of energy efficiency based on economic foundations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Filippini, Massimo; Hunt, Lester C.

    2015-01-01

    Energy efficiency policy is seen as a very important activity by almost all policy makers. In practical energy policy analysis, the typical indicator used as a proxy for energy efficiency is energy intensity. However, this simple indicator is not necessarily an accurate measure given changes in energy intensity are a function of changes in several factors as well as ‘true’ energy efficiency; hence, it is difficult to make conclusions for energy policy based upon simple energy intensity measures. Related to this, some published academic papers over the last few years have attempted to use empirical methods to measure the efficient use of energy based on the economic theory of production. However, these studies do not generally provide a systematic discussion of the theoretical basis nor the possible parametric empirical approaches that are available for estimating the level of energy efficiency. The objective of this paper, therefore, is to sketch out and explain from an economic perspective the theoretical framework as well as the empirical methods for measuring the level of energy efficiency. Additionally, in the second part of the paper, some of the empirical studies that have attempted to measure energy efficiency using such an economics approach are summarized and discussed.

  19. DYNAMIC ECONOMIC EFFICIENCY IN THE SOUTH-WEST OLTENIA REGION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laura Mariana Cismaş

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available The structure of an economy is not and has never been permanent, it does not have a static character, but only a moment of stability of a system whose internal organization is, is therefore a dynamic process. In this sense, the ultimate goal of the analysis of structural changes is to highlight the phenomenon of economic efficiency in the complex process of economic growth during the cross in our country since 1990.Lisbon agenda have targeted the European Union to become the most competitive region until 2010.Ulterior this target strategy was complemented by growth and job creation, becoming the main way of creating a European competitiveness . In this context, public policy challenges identified in the national economies have become energy market liberalization, efficiency and diversification, regulation of the economic environment, innovation and technology transfer policies that contribute to a strategy of market leadership.Besides gross value added, labor productivity is also the medium of efficient use of labor.Growth achieved both national and regional level, may be related, in terms of human resource, or increase the number of employees, or a better use of existing employees work. That aecest aspect of a better use of existing staff employee makes labor productivity is a key element in the expression efficiency of economic performance. Understanding the forces governing labor productivity, and especially the accumulation of fixed capital, improving the institutional infrastructure to generate new technologies, is objectively necessary for the formulation of policies for economic growth.

  20. Online crowdsourcing for efficient rating of speech: a validation study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McAllister Byun, Tara; Halpin, Peter F; Szeredi, Daniel

    2015-01-01

    Blinded listener ratings are essential for valid assessment of interventions for speech disorders, but collecting these ratings can be time-intensive and costly. This study evaluated the validity of speech ratings obtained through online crowdsourcing, a potentially more efficient approach. 100 words from children with /r/ misarticulation were electronically presented for binary rating by 35 phonetically trained listeners and 205 naïve listeners recruited through the Amazon Mechanical Turk (AMT) crowdsourcing platform. Bootstrapping was used to compare different-sized samples of AMT listeners against a "gold standard" (mode across all trained listeners) and an "industry standard" (mode across bootstrapped samples of three trained listeners). There was strong overall agreement between trained and AMT listeners. The "industry standard" level of performance was matched by bootstrapped samples with n = 9 AMT listeners. These results support the hypothesis that valid ratings of speech data can be obtained in an efficient manner through AMT. Researchers in communication disorders could benefit from increased awareness of this method. Readers will be able to (a) discuss advantages and disadvantages of data collection through the crowdsourcing platform Amazon Mechanical Turk (AMT), (b) describe the results of a validity study comparing samples of AMT listeners versus phonetically trained listeners in a speech-rating task. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. QUEST : Eliminating online supervised learning for efficient classification algorithms

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zwartjes, Ardjan; Havinga, Paul J.M.; Smit, Gerard J.M.; Hurink, Johann L.

    2016-01-01

    In this work, we introduce QUEST (QUantile Estimation after Supervised Training), an adaptive classification algorithm for Wireless Sensor Networks (WSNs) that eliminates the necessity for online supervised learning. Online processing is important for many sensor network applications. Transmitting

  2. Methods of Use of an Online Economics Textbook

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Jon R.; Baker-Eveleth, Lori

    2010-01-01

    The rising cost of college textbooks over the last decade provides an opportunity for alternatives. Electronic or online textbooks are an effective substitute to the traditional paper-based textbooks, although students have been slow to transition to the new method. A custom, professor-written online textbook not only addresses the reduction in…

  3. Measuring energy efficiency in economics: Shadow value approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khademvatani, Asgar

    For decades, academic scholars and policy makers have commonly applied a simple average measure, energy intensity, for studying energy efficiency. In contrast, we introduce a distinctive marginal measure called energy shadow value (SV) for modeling energy efficiency drawn on economic theory. This thesis demonstrates energy SV advantages, conceptually and empirically, over the average measure recognizing marginal technical energy efficiency and unveiling allocative energy efficiency (energy SV to energy price). Using a dual profit function, the study illustrates how treating energy as quasi-fixed factor called quasi-fixed approach offers modeling advantages and is appropriate in developing an explicit model for energy efficiency. We address fallacies and misleading results using average measure and demonstrate energy SV advantage in inter- and intra-country energy efficiency comparison. Energy efficiency dynamics and determination of efficient allocation of energy use are shown through factors impacting energy SV: capital, technology, and environmental obligations. To validate the energy SV, we applied a dual restricted cost model using KLEM dataset for the 35 US sectors stretching from 1958 to 2000 and selected a sample of the four sectors. Following the empirical results, predicted wedges between energy price and the SV growth indicate a misallocation of energy use in stone, clay and glass (SCG) and communications (Com) sectors with more evidence in the SCG compared to the Com sector, showing overshoot in energy use relative to optimal paths and cost increases from sub-optimal energy use. The results show that energy productivity is a measure of technical efficiency and is void of information on the economic efficiency of energy use. Decomposing energy SV reveals that energy, capital and technology played key roles in energy SV increases helping to consider and analyze policy implications of energy efficiency improvement. Applying the marginal measure, we also

  4. Student Outcomes in Economics Principles: Online vs. Face-to-Face Delivery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Birkeland, Kathryn; Weinandt, Mandie; Carr, David L.

    2015-01-01

    This study looks at the performance of students in an online and face-to-face section of economic principles with the same instructor. After controlling for the bias of students selecting the online section and observable characteristics, we did not find any statistical difference in the exam performance of students across delivery modes of the…

  5. Resource values in analyzing fire management programs for economic efficiency

    Science.gov (United States)

    Irene A. Althaus; Thomas J. Mills

    1982-01-01

    In analyzing fire management programs for their economic efficiency, it is necessary to assign monetary values to the changes in resource outputs caused by, fire. The derivation of resource values is complicated by imperfect or nonexistent commercial market structures. The valuation concept recommended for fire program analyses is willingness-to-pay because it permits...

  6. Analysis of economic efficiency in cocoa production in Ghana ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The main purpose of this study was to analyze the economic efficiency of resource utilization in cocoa production of the cocoa farmers in Ghana to provide information for effective application and management of farm inputs on cocoa farms and policy recommendation. A random sample of 300 farmers in the Eastern, Ashanti ...

  7. Gender and Relative Economic Efficiency in Sweet Potato Farms of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study employed the stochastic frontier cost function to measure the level of economic efficiency and its determinants in small-scale sweet potato production in Imo State, Nigeria on gender basis. A multi-stage random sampling technique was used to select 120 sweet potato farmers (64 females and 56 males) in the ...

  8. Government expenditure, efficiency and economic growth: a panel ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Finally Generalized Methods of Moments (GMM) is applied to answer the two research questions. The results demonstrate that increasing government expenditure accelerates economic growth of low income countries in Sub Saharan Africa. However, when government expenditure is interacted with government efficiency ...

  9. Economic Reforms and Cost Efficiency of Coffee Farmers in Central ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    We, therefore, conclude that small-holder-based agricultural development policy is still relevant and an efficient mode of organising production in Kenya, even after the major institutional and economic changes brought about market liberalisation. The pursuit of small-holder-based agricultural development, however, calls ...

  10. Economic efficiency of cocoa production in Ghana | Aneani | Journal ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The main purpose of this study was to analyze the economic efficiency of resource utilization in cocoa production among cocoa farmers in Ghana to provide information for effective application and management of farm input on cocoa farms. A random sample of 300 farmers was selected in six cocoa growing districts in ...

  11. Complexity Triggered by Economic Globalisation— The Issue of On-Line Betting-Related Match Fixing

    OpenAIRE

    Wladimir Andreff

    2017-01-01

    Complexity in mainstream economics consists in high intermediary consumption of mathematics. A new approach to complexity economics dwells upon path-dependent global systems; their emergence and evolving organisation. The focus here is on the complexity of the real economic world due to globalisation. On-line betting related match-fixing is a case in point about which the article presents non-exhaustive empirical evidence and shows how it is analysed with the standard model of the economics o...

  12. Economic Efficiency and Investment Implementation in Energy Saving Projects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Venelin Terziev

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Investment in building thermoinsulation is a subject to appraisal for efficiency from the position of discounted cash flows taken specifically by energy saving. The appraisal of investment as optimal is attended by achieving the shortest term for investment implementation, the lowest investment outlays, the maximum total net value of energy savings, the shortest investment payback period. The complex application of the dynamic methods for appraising economic efficiency of an investment – net present value, internal rate of return, profitability index and discounted payback period, involves drawing of particular values which comparison definitely will show if this kind of investment is practically “attractive”. However, the question for significance weight of each of these indicators above in decision making for implementation a particular real investment still remains unsolved. This requires working out a system of criteria, priorities that can determine which of the indicators for economic efficiency of specific investment project will have the highest significance.

  13. Economic-efficiency considerations in restructuring electric markets

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hill, L.J.

    1996-12-01

    In response to the Energy Policy Act of 1992 and the Federal Energy Regulatory Commission`s subsequent rulemaking on transmission access, many states are exploring options to restructure their electric industries. In their deliberations on restructuring, policymakers should consider (1) the reliability of the electric system; (2) income-distribution effects on ratepayers and utilities; (3) social consequences such as effects on energy conservation, renewable energy, and the environment; and (4) economic efficiency. We address economic-efficiency considerations in this study. Economic efficiency is important because it is one of the primary reasons that policymakers should consider restructuring in the first place: improving the electric-industry`s efficiency lowers costs and, hence, electric prices. In this study, we look at the sources of (in)efficiency in existing and proposed electric markets with the objective of guiding policymakers to design efficient electric markets. The advantages of a competitive market are well known: it leads to lower costs for the utility, lower prices for consumers, more product choices, better customer service, and often the need for less regulation by federal and state agencies. In the short run, firms who cannot produce at the market-clearing price are forced to leave the industry, ensuring that customers have the lowest price possible. In the long run, competition promotes innovation and lower costs. The physical and institutional characteristics of the U.S. electric industry, however, could be impediments to attaining efficiently run, competitive markets. Because of these characteristics, there are multiple sources of efficiencies and inefficiencies in existing electric markets, and there will be multiple sources in restructured ones. The objective of policymakers should not be to trade one set of inefficiencies in existing electric markets for another set in restructured markets.

  14. Economic-efficiency considerations in restructuring electric markets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hill, L.J.

    1996-12-01

    In response to the Energy Policy Act of 1992 and the Federal Energy Regulatory Commission's subsequent rulemaking on transmission access, many states are exploring options to restructure their electric industries. In their deliberations on restructuring, policymakers should consider (1) the reliability of the electric system; (2) income-distribution effects on ratepayers and utilities; (3) social consequences such as effects on energy conservation, renewable energy, and the environment; and (4) economic efficiency. We address economic-efficiency considerations in this study. Economic efficiency is important because it is one of the primary reasons that policymakers should consider restructuring in the first place: improving the electric-industry's efficiency lowers costs and, hence, electric prices. In this study, we look at the sources of (in)efficiency in existing and proposed electric markets with the objective of guiding policymakers to design efficient electric markets. The advantages of a competitive market are well known: it leads to lower costs for the utility, lower prices for consumers, more product choices, better customer service, and often the need for less regulation by federal and state agencies. In the short run, firms who cannot produce at the market-clearing price are forced to leave the industry, ensuring that customers have the lowest price possible. In the long run, competition promotes innovation and lower costs. The physical and institutional characteristics of the U.S. electric industry, however, could be impediments to attaining efficiently run, competitive markets. Because of these characteristics, there are multiple sources of efficiencies and inefficiencies in existing electric markets, and there will be multiple sources in restructured ones. The objective of policymakers should not be to trade one set of inefficiencies in existing electric markets for another set in restructured markets

  15. Influences of economic development in the Brazilian energy efficiency projects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Javier Cárcel Carrasco

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available This work has as main goal to present some of the issues regarding the effects of the Brazilian economy in the effectiveness of national energy efficiency projects in order to provide some guidelines for optimizing the energy saving actions. The replacement of traditional electric motors with high efficiency motors has been considered, or that brings innovation and increases the need to search for new technologies for Brazilian industries. We must consider whether this new paradigm requires a strong federal government's investment in Brazil in order to allow the implementation of energy efficiency programs, mainly in small and medium industries. This document is divided into three main parts. The first part deals with some aspects of the economic crisis. The second presents the most important data of the National Electricity Conservation (PROCEL and Energy Efficiency Program of the ANEEL (National Electric Energy Agency. The third shows data on Small and Medium Industries and how their energy efficiency programs were affected.

  16. ON THE ECONOMIC EFFICIENCY OF ORGANIZATIONS: TOWARD A SOLUTION OF THE EFFICIENT GOVERNMENT ENTERPRISE PARADOX

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robert E. Wright

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available The modern widely-held joint-stock corporation appears to epitomize the economically efficient large-scale organization. Some scholars observe, however, that other types of organizations, including government-owned enterprises, have also achieved high degrees of efficiency and that some joint stock corporations have been inefficient. It is here argued that the economic efficiency of organizations is largely a function of two major variables—markets tructure and incentives within the organization—and not organizational form or ownership structure per se. Case studies of two business firms: a mutual life insurer and a family-controlled publisher, and two industries: higher education and custom construction, demonstrate the importance of internal incentives and market structures to organizational economic efficiency.

  17. ECONOMIC EFFICIENCY OF DIFFERENT PROTECTION TREATMENTS IN APPLE PRODUCTION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vesna Tomaš

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Apple is the most represented fruit species in Croatia. Codling moth, Cydia pomonella L, is one of the most important apple pests whose population is growing from year to year. The aim of this study was to determine the economic effectiveness of four treatments against codling moth (1 - based on baculovirus; 2 - based on the group of synthetic pyrethroid; 3 - based on kaolin, 4 - control treatment, on the three apple varieties. The experiment was performed at the Agricultural Institute Osijek, Croatia, during three years (2012-2014. In order to analyze the results of apple production it was necessary to calculate production efficiency, labor productivity, and profitability of production. The results of the research of economic efficiency according to market prices treatment 1 and treatment 2 had economic coefficient above 1 with tendency of significant growth, while treatment 3 and 4 were uneconomical. The treatment 1showed advantage over the treatment 2 because of its positive effects on human health and biodiversity, as well as satisfactory economic efficiency.

  18. Economic analysis of Brazilian policies for energy efficient electric motors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Andrade, Cássio Tersandro de Castro; Pontes, Ricardo Silva Thé

    2017-01-01

    Brazil is leading several energy efficiency initiatives and has ambitious goals for 2030, according to the Brazilian National Energy Plan 2030. One of the main initiatives is the minimum efficiency performance standards (MEPS) program for energy-driven equipment and the electric motors appear as the most significant one (49% share of the total electricity consumption). The MEPS levels set new grades for efficiency, and then manufacturers and consumers have to conform to the new products and costs. Policy makers have to economically assess the effects of these MEPS in order to maintain the market stability. Since the benefits of this program come from future energy savings, this cost-effective analysis has to consider the parameters uncertainty and the results should reinforce the market players’ confidence. Thus, the goal of this work is, first, to analyze the economic viability of the MEPS transitions in Brazil considering the uncertainty of the parameters involved and then, to estimate the effects of this program on the energy savings goals for 2030. At the end, we also verify whether this investment in energy efficiency is competitive with other forms of investments in energy. - Highlights: • A cost-effectiveness method with uncertainty for efficiency program is presented. • Savings from electric motors MEPS program makes the 2030 Brazilian goals possible. • Electric motors MEPS program cost-effectiveness in Brazil is confirmed. • Saved energy cost from efficiency improvement is a competitive energy investment.

  19. Quantifying Users' Interconnectedness in Online Social Networks - An Indispensible Step for Economic Valuation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gneiser, Martin; Heidemann, Julia; Klier, Mathias; Landherr, Andrea; Probst, Florian

    Online social networks have been gaining increasing economic importance in light of the rising number of their users. Numerous recent acquisitions priced at enormous amounts have illustrated this development and revealed the need for adequate business valuation models. The value of an online social network is largely determined by the value of its users, the relationships between these users, and the resulting network effects. Therefore, the interconnectedness of a user within the network has to be considered explicitly to get a reasonable estimate for the economic value. Established standard business valuation models, however, do not sufficiently take these aspects into account. Thus, we propose a measure based on the PageRank-algorithm to quantify users’ interconnectedness in an online social network. This is a first but indispensible step towards an adequate economic valuation of online social networks.

  20. "No Significant Distance" between Face-to-Face and Online Instruction: Evidence from Principles of Economics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coates, Dennis; Humphreys, Brad, R.; Kane, John; Vachris, Michelle, A.

    2004-01-01

    This paper describes an experiment focused on measuring and explaining differences in students learning between online and face-to-face modes of instruction in college level principles of economics courses. Our results indicate that students in face-to-face sections scored better on the Test of Understanding College Economics (TUCE) than students…

  1. Energy efficiency: Key to solving economic, environmental problems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Flanigan, T.

    1991-01-01

    Energy efficiency can boost economic development and competitiveness, maximize capital productivity, improve environmental quality, and guarantee lasting energy security. Each of these benefits is reason enough, but collectively they form an imperative for action. The energy future must be based on cultural development, not the wanton growth that has served as an indicator of success in the past. Energy efficiency provides not only technical fixes, regulatory innovation, and a host of new financing methods, it also provides a template - a model - for a resource-efficiency ethic congruent with the notion of respecting the rights of future citizens. The good news is that the authors now know how to check environmental despoliation caused by an unquenchable thirst for energy resources. Existing energy-efficiency opportunities allow them to redefine the national energy strategy and take account of the environment and the future

  2. Economic efficiency of extensive livestock production in the European Union

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nastić Lana

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Various types of extensive livestock production are present worldwide, primarily in regions where natural resources such as pastures and meadows could be used. Extensive livestock production is common in the EU, as well. Therefore the goal of this research was to establish economic efficiency of extensive livestock production types and to compare their efficiency with some intensive livestock production types. In order to achieve that goal FADN (Farm Accountancy Data Network methodology was used. Source of information was FADN database as well as appropriate sector analysis and publications of European commission. It has been determined that sheep and goat production is competitive with intensive production types (dairy and granivores - pigs and poultry. Cattle production (other than dairy production proved to be economically inefficient due to low output level.

  3. Analysis of remote working practice AND CALCULATION OF ECONOMIC EFFICIENCY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. S. Ermakov

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The article is devoted to description of working from home practice at Allianz Insurance UK и Ernst & Young, UK & Ireland. It fulfilled the analysis of the best practices in the use of new forms of social and labor relations - remote work. The characteristics of using types of distance work, the policy of implementation and realization of such work in the company, the criteria for the transfer of employees to work remotely, the possibility of a flexible approach to workflow are given. The calculation of the economic efficiency of technology telecommuting at an aviation company of the Russian Federation is done. The method of calculating the cost-effectiveness based on several factors, such as costs for the organization and content of the workplace, change in labor productivity and others, was proposed by the authors. The calculation of economic efficiency by using the number of working hours, the impact on capital inputs and the impact on quit rates is considered.

  4. Economic efficiency of solar hot water policy in New Zealand

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gillingham, Kenneth

    2009-01-01

    New Zealand has recently followed the path of several other countries in promoting solar hot water (SHW) systems in the effort to reduce greenhouse gas emissions, yet the economic efficiency of large-scale policies to encourage SHW remains a pressing question for policymakers. This paper develops an economic framework to examine policies to promote SHW in New Zealand, including the current information, training, and subsidy policy. The economic framework points to environmental, energy security, and average-cost electricity retail pricing market failures as motivation for SHW policy, with the global climate change externality the most important of these. The results indicate that domestic SHW systems are close to being financially attractive from a consumer perspective, but a more substantial subsidy policy would be necessary for SHW to appeal to a wider audience. Such a policy is far more likely to have positive net benefits than a policy of mandating SHW on all homes or all new homes in New Zealand, and could be justified on economic efficiency grounds under reasonable assumptions. However, this result reverses under an economy-wide carbon trading system that internalizes the environmental externality.

  5. On the economics of technology diffusion and energy efficiency

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mulder, P.

    2003-01-01

    Energy is an essential factor that fuels economic growth and serves human well-being. World energy use has grown enormously since the middle of the 19th century. This increase in the scale of energy demand comes at a certain price, including environmental externalities, such as the enhanced greenhouse effect. Notwithstanding the need for renewable energy sources, these environmental problems also necessitate further improvements in energy efficiency. Technological change plays a crucial role in realizing energy efficiency improvements and, hence, in ameliorating the conflict between economic growth and environmental quality. At the same time, it is known that not only innovation, but also diffusion of new technologies is a costly and lengthy process, and that many firms do not invest in best-practice technologies. This study aims to contribute to a better understanding of the inter. play between economic growth, energy use and technological change, with much emphasis on the adoption and diffusion of energy-saving technologies. The thesis presents a mix of theoretical and empirical analyses inspired by recent developments in economic theorizing on technological change that stress the role of accumulation and distribution of knowledge (learning), uncertainty, path dependency and irreversibility. The theoretical part of the study examines how several characteristics of technological change as well as environmental policy affect the dynamics of technology choice. The empirical part of the study explores long-run trends in energy- and labour productivity performance across a range of OECD countries at a detailed sectoral level

  6. Interaction between Financial Intermediation Efficiency and Economic Growth

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Milka Grbic

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Financial intermediaries have the key role in making a connection between savings and investments. Given the fact that an efficient transfer of savings into investments is made more difficult by transaction and information costs, financial intermediaries are specialized in minimizing the said costs per unit of invested capital. They are also trained to identify productive and innovative investment endeavors which contribute to the growth of real output. Real output growth is the basis for increasing the financial potential, which creates the basis for the development of financial intermediaries. In connection with that, apart from the analysis of the relevant factors making the process of the mobilization and transfer of savings more difficult, the theoretical models that put an emphasis on the relationship between the efficiency of financial intermediation and economic growth are discussed in the paper. The research results are indicative of the fact that the improvement in financial intermediaries’ business doing enables faster economic growth. Simultaneously, the growth of the economic activity increases the scope of the business operations conducted by financial intermediaries. Thanks to the effects of the economies of scale that contribute to a reduction in transaction and information costs, the efficiency of financial intermediations grows.

  7. Theoretical Grounds of Formation of the Efficient State Economic Policy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Semyrak Oksana S.

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The article conducts historical and analytical analysis of views on the role of state administration in the sphere of economic relations by various economic directions in order to allocate traditional and newest essential reference points of the modern theory of state regulation of economy. It identifies specific features of modern models of economic policy that envisage setting goals by the state, selection of relevant efficient tools and mathematic function, which would describe dependencies between them. It considers the concept of the basic theory of economic policy of Jan Tinbergen, its advantages and shortcomings. It studies prerequisites and conducts analysis of the modern concept of the role of state in economy as a subject of the market. It considers the modern concept of economic socio-dynamics, pursuant to which the main task of the state is maximisation of social usefulness and permanent improvement of the Pareto-optimal. It considers the “socio-dynamic multiplicator” notion, which envisages availability of three main components: social effect from activity of the state, yearning of individuals for creation of something new and availability of formal and informal institutions that united first two elements.

  8. EFFICIENCY OF CREDIT PORTFOLIO MANAGEMENT IN CONDITIONS OF ECONOMIC INSTABILITY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Koshel H.

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. The active development of integration processes causes the necessity of applying high-level approaches to management of the banking system, which is an essential part of the financial sector. Due to the importance of credit operations in the portfolio of banking assets, development of efficient and flexible credit management system is the basis for financial and market stability of banks. Purpose. Analyze the condition of the credit portfolio of banking institutions under the influence of economic processes and make conclusions and recommendations about the effectiveness of managing the bank’s credit portfolio and generalize ways of improving the structure and quality of the bank’s credit portfolio. Results. Over the last six years, the quality of the credit portfolio has become worse because of the bad debts growing and, as a result, decreasing in revenues. The calculated coefficient of management efficiency of a credit portfolio shows the dependence of this indicator on the value of risk and yield. In order to confirm the dependence and determine the degree of influence of these indicators on the efficiency of management of a loan portfolio, an economic-mathematical model was constructed on the example of both individual banks and the banking system as a whole. Detected dependence of factors is quite logical, therefore, the model can be recommended for practical use. Conclusion. Using this method of determining the management efficiency of a credit portfolio will allow the management of the bank to make reasonable decisions. It will allow the possibility of forming a more justified credit portfolio, taking into account not only the profitability, but also the real level of risk of credit operations.

  9. Efficiency improvement for a sustainable agriculture : the integration of agronomic and farm economics approaches

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Koeijer, de T.J.

    2002-01-01

    Keywords: Sustainable farming systems, Agronomic efficiency, Economic efficiency, Environmental efficiency, Sustainability index, Interdisciplinary analysis.

    The objective of the research described in this thesis was to determine what role improved agronomic efficiency can play in

  10. ECONOMIC EFFICIENCY OF VARIOUS QUEEN BEES MAINTENANCE SYSTEMS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A POPESCU

    2003-10-01

    Full Text Available The modern queens maintenance systems are based on the use of artificial insemination, queens’ maintenance in the so called „queens bank” , in this way assuring an increased economic efficiency in beekeeping. This study aimed to compare the economic efficiency of the implementation of A.I. to various queen bees maintenance systems. Three alternatives have been taken into account: V1-a queen bee in a cage together with her bees, V2- a queen bank system and V3 – a queen bee in a nucleus. For each queen bee maintenance alternative have been evaluated the most important indicators such as: expenses, incomes, profit, number of marketable inseminated and selected queen bees, honey production, cost/queen, revenue/queen, profit/queen, profit rate. The most effective alternative was the queen bank system assuring 2,400 marketable queen bees and 20 kg honey delivered yearly, USD 12,442 incomes, USD 3,400 expenses, USD 9,042 profit, that is USD 3.77/queen bee and 265.72 % profit rate under the condition as A.I. costs are just USD 1,058, representing 31.1 % of total queen bees maintenance costs.

  11. TESTING OF ONLINE ESP COURSE FOR STUDENTS OF ECONOMIC SCHOOLS. FIRST FINDINGS ANALYSIS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nina V. Vasilchenko

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The article provides a detailed analysis of the Russian course-books for students of Economic Schools. The authoress exposes the discrepancies along with proposing the solutions. In the second part, the article possesses a brief description as well as highlights the advantages of the new online ESP course on Economics, Banking and Insurance for colleges. In conclusion, the authoress contemplates over the first findings the course appraisal suggests. 

  12. Economic efficiency of environmental management system operation in industrial companies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dukmasova, N.; Ershova, I.; Plastinina, I.; Boyarinov, A.

    2017-06-01

    The article examines the issue of the efficiency of the environmental management system (EMS) implementation in the Russian machine-building companies. The analysis showed that Russia clearly lags behind other developed and developing countries in terms of the number of ISO 14001 certified companies. According to the authors, the main cause of weak system implementation activity is attributed to the lack of interest in ISO 14001 certification on the Russian market. Five-year primary (field) research aimed at the analysis of the environmental priorities of the civilians suggests that the image component of the economic benefits ensures the increase in economic and financial performance of the company due to the increase in customers’ loyalty to the products of the EMS adopter. To quantify economic benefits obtained from EMS implementation, a methodological approach with regard to the image component and the decrease in semi-fixed costs due to the increase in the production scale has been developed. This approach has been tested in a machine-building electrical equipment manufacturer in Ekaterinburg. This approach applied to data processing yields the conclusion that EMS gives a good additional competitive advantage to its adopters.

  13. Learning Online: A Case Study Exploring Student Perceptions and Experience of a Course in Economic Evaluation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skordis-Worrall, Jolene; Haghparast-Bidgoli, Hassan; Batura, Neha; Hughes, Jane

    2015-01-01

    This study explored the perceptions and experiences of a group of students enrolled in an online course in Economic Evaluation. A mixed methods approach was adopted for the data collection, and thematic analysis was used to synthesize the data collected and highlight key findings. The participants identified several positive and negative perceived…

  14. QUEST: Eliminating Online Supervised Learning for Efficient Classification Algorithms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ardjan Zwartjes

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available In this work, we introduce QUEST (QUantile Estimation after Supervised Training, an adaptive classification algorithm for Wireless Sensor Networks (WSNs that eliminates the necessity for online supervised learning. Online processing is important for many sensor network applications. Transmitting raw sensor data puts high demands on the battery, reducing network life time. By merely transmitting partial results or classifications based on the sampled data, the amount of traffic on the network can be significantly reduced. Such classifications can be made by learning based algorithms using sampled data. An important issue, however, is the training phase of these learning based algorithms. Training a deployed sensor network requires a lot of communication and an impractical amount of human involvement. QUEST is a hybrid algorithm that combines supervised learning in a controlled environment with unsupervised learning on the location of deployment. Using the SITEX02 dataset, we demonstrate that the presented solution works with a performance penalty of less than 10% in 90% of the tests. Under some circumstances, it even outperforms a network of classifiers completely trained with supervised learning. As a result, the need for on-site supervised learning and communication for training is completely eliminated by our solution.

  15. QUEST: Eliminating Online Supervised Learning for Efficient Classification Algorithms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zwartjes, Ardjan; Havinga, Paul J M; Smit, Gerard J M; Hurink, Johann L

    2016-10-01

    In this work, we introduce QUEST (QUantile Estimation after Supervised Training), an adaptive classification algorithm for Wireless Sensor Networks (WSNs) that eliminates the necessity for online supervised learning. Online processing is important for many sensor network applications. Transmitting raw sensor data puts high demands on the battery, reducing network life time. By merely transmitting partial results or classifications based on the sampled data, the amount of traffic on the network can be significantly reduced. Such classifications can be made by learning based algorithms using sampled data. An important issue, however, is the training phase of these learning based algorithms. Training a deployed sensor network requires a lot of communication and an impractical amount of human involvement. QUEST is a hybrid algorithm that combines supervised learning in a controlled environment with unsupervised learning on the location of deployment. Using the SITEX02 dataset, we demonstrate that the presented solution works with a performance penalty of less than 10% in 90% of the tests. Under some circumstances, it even outperforms a network of classifiers completely trained with supervised learning. As a result, the need for on-site supervised learning and communication for training is completely eliminated by our solution.

  16. Health economics, equity, and efficiency: are we almost there?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferraz, Marcos Bosi

    2015-01-01

    Health care is a highly complex, dynamic, and creative sector of the economy. While health economics has to continue its efforts to improve its methods and tools to better inform decisions, the application needs to be aligned with the insights and models of other social sciences disciplines. Decisions may be guided by four concept models based on ethical and distributive justice: libertarian, communitarian, egalitarian, and utilitarian. The societal agreement on one model or a defined mix of models is critical to avoid inequity and unfair decisions in a public and/or private insurance-based health care system. The excess use of methods and tools without fully defining the basic goals and philosophical principles of the health care system and without evaluating the fitness of these measures to reaching these goals may not contribute to an efficient improvement of population health.

  17. TRENDS IN TAX DEVELOPMENT - EFFICIENCY AND ECONOMIC GROWTH

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tanya Todorova

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The discussion on the role of the state and the amount of public revenue to maintain a balance between economic stability and social justice lasts for decades. The need for active state participation in the economy and the use of public revenue as a fiscal instrument is tangible. Delayed economic growth rates on global, regional and national level are a challenge to budget stability. In this article, the object of research is taxation, the subject - the trends and challenges to its effectiveness. The aim is to clarify whether there is a clear strategy on the marginal and implicit tax rate on the income of the population by comparing Bulgaria and other newly admitted countries in the EU (Cyprus, Czech Republic, Estonia, Hungary, Latvia, Lithuania, Malta, Slovakia, Slovenia and Romania. The main task is to justify the need to build a long-term strategy to increase the efficiency of labor taxation in order to achieve optimal distribution and redistribution of income.

  18. Economic Efficiency of Innovative Materials for Sectors of Economy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miroshnikova Tatyana

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper proposes an approach to the assessment of the economic efficiency of innovative anti-corrosion coatings for sectors of the national economy of the Russia on the basis of a synthesis of strategic sectoral and cost analysis. According to the authors, a comparative analysis of composite polymeric anticorrosion protecting coatings with similar products, estimating of direct and indirect economic effect and prognosis of implementation, forms a deeper understanding of the role of innovative technologies in the Russian state development of import substitution, the investment attractiveness of Russian industries in the new part technologies, applied research activities of private companies. Metal consumption sectors of the economy were chosen as an object of research, as they are characterized by the use of the following products: industrial construction and reconstruction, nuclear and thermal power, chemical, oil and gas, utilities, food processing, automotive, shipbuilding, aviation and rocket science, other industry. Basic modeling of implementation of anticorrosion protecting coatings in industrial enterprises was carried out on the basis of generating energy enterprises as one of the main end-users of anti-corrosive materials that also issue accurate statements.

  19. Health economics, equity, and efficiency: are we almost there?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ferraz MB

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Marcos Bosi Ferraz1,21Department of Medicine, Escola Paulista de Medicina, Federal University of São Paulo, São Paulo, Brazil; 2São Paulo Center for Health Economics (GRIDES, Escola Paulista de Medicina, Federal University of São Paulo, São Paulo, Brazil Abstract: Health care is a highly complex, dynamic, and creative sector of the economy. While health economics has to continue its efforts to improve its methods and tools to better inform decisions, the application needs to be aligned with the insights and models of other social sciences disciplines. Decisions may be guided by four concept models based on ethical and distributive justice: libertarian, communitarian, egalitarian, and utilitarian. The societal agreement on one model or a defined mix of models is critical to avoid inequity and unfair decisions in a public and/or private insurance-based health care system. The excess use of methods and tools without fully defining the basic goals and philosophical principles of the health care system and without evaluating the fitness of these measures to reaching these goals may not contribute to an efficient improvement of population health. Keywords: health care, health care system, population health

  20. Costs and Efficiency of Online and Offline Recruitment Methods: A Web-Based Cohort Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christensen, Tina; Riis, Anders H; Hatch, Elizabeth E; Wise, Lauren A; Nielsen, Marie G; Rothman, Kenneth J; Toft Sørensen, Henrik; Mikkelsen, Ellen M

    2017-03-01

    The Internet is widely used to conduct research studies on health issues. Many different methods are used to recruit participants for such studies, but little is known about how various recruitment methods compare in terms of efficiency and costs. The aim of our study was to compare online and offline recruitment methods for Internet-based studies in terms of efficiency (number of recruited participants) and costs per participant. We employed several online and offline recruitment methods to enroll 18- to 45-year-old women in an Internet-based Danish prospective cohort study on fertility. Offline methods included press releases, posters, and flyers. Online methods comprised advertisements placed on five different websites, including Facebook and Netdoktor.dk. We defined seven categories of mutually exclusive recruitment methods and used electronic tracking via unique Uniform Resource Locator (URL) and self-reported data to identify the recruitment method for each participant. For each method, we calculated the average cost per participant and efficiency, that is, the total number of recruited participants. We recruited 8252 study participants. Of these, 534 were excluded as they could not be assigned to a specific recruitment method. The final study population included 7724 participants, of whom 803 (10.4%) were recruited by offline methods, 3985 (51.6%) by online methods, 2382 (30.8%) by online methods not initiated by us, and 554 (7.2%) by other methods. Overall, the average cost per participant was €6.22 for online methods initiated by us versus €9.06 for offline methods. Costs per participant ranged from €2.74 to €105.53 for online methods and from €0 to €67.50 for offline methods. Lowest average costs per participant were for those recruited from Netdoktor.dk (€2.99) and from Facebook (€3.44). In our Internet-based cohort study, online recruitment methods were superior to offline methods in terms of efficiency (total number of participants

  1. Costs and Efficiency of Online and Offline Recruitment Methods: A Web-Based Cohort Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riis, Anders H; Hatch, Elizabeth E; Wise, Lauren A; Nielsen, Marie G; Rothman, Kenneth J; Toft Sørensen, Henrik; Mikkelsen, Ellen M

    2017-01-01

    Background The Internet is widely used to conduct research studies on health issues. Many different methods are used to recruit participants for such studies, but little is known about how various recruitment methods compare in terms of efficiency and costs. Objective The aim of our study was to compare online and offline recruitment methods for Internet-based studies in terms of efficiency (number of recruited participants) and costs per participant. Methods We employed several online and offline recruitment methods to enroll 18- to 45-year-old women in an Internet-based Danish prospective cohort study on fertility. Offline methods included press releases, posters, and flyers. Online methods comprised advertisements placed on five different websites, including Facebook and Netdoktor.dk. We defined seven categories of mutually exclusive recruitment methods and used electronic tracking via unique Uniform Resource Locator (URL) and self-reported data to identify the recruitment method for each participant. For each method, we calculated the average cost per participant and efficiency, that is, the total number of recruited participants. Results We recruited 8252 study participants. Of these, 534 were excluded as they could not be assigned to a specific recruitment method. The final study population included 7724 participants, of whom 803 (10.4%) were recruited by offline methods, 3985 (51.6%) by online methods, 2382 (30.8%) by online methods not initiated by us, and 554 (7.2%) by other methods. Overall, the average cost per participant was €6.22 for online methods initiated by us versus €9.06 for offline methods. Costs per participant ranged from €2.74 to €105.53 for online methods and from €0 to €67.50 for offline methods. Lowest average costs per participant were for those recruited from Netdoktor.dk (€2.99) and from Facebook (€3.44). Conclusions In our Internet-based cohort study, online recruitment methods were superior to offline methods in terms

  2. Reviewing the economic efficiency of disaster risk management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mechler, Reinhard

    2013-04-01

    There is a lot of rhetoric suggesting that disaster risk management (DRM) pays, yet surprisingly little in the way of hard facts. Cost-benefit analysis (CBA) is one major tool that can provide quantitative information about the prioritization of disaster risk management (DRM) (and climate adaptation) based on economic principles. Yet, on a global scale, there has been surprisingly little robust evidence on the economic efficiency and benefits of risk management measures. This review shows that for the limited evidence reported the economic case for DRM across a range of hazards is strong and that the benefits of investing in DRM outweigh the costs of doing so, on average, by about four times the cost in terms of avoided and reduced losses. Most studies using a CBA approach focus on structural DRM and most information has been made available on physical flood prevention. There have been some limited studies on preparedness and risk financing. The global evidence base is limited and estimates appear not very solid, and overall, in line with the conclusion of the recent IPCC SREX report, there is limited evidence and medium agreement across the literature. Some of the factors behind the limited robustness are inherent to CBA more widely: these challenges comprise the inability to price intangibles, evaluating strategies rather than single projects, difficulties in assessing softer rather than infrastructure-related options, choices regarding a proper discount rate, lack of accounting for the distribution of benefits and costs and difficulties with assessing nonmarket values such as those related to health, the environment, or public goods. Although techniques exist to address some of these challenges, they are not very likely to easily go away. Other challenges associated specifically with DRM, such as the need and difficulty to undertake risk -based analysis can be overcome, and there have been manuals and reports providing a way forward. In an age of austerity, cost

  3. OPTICAL FIBER SENSOR TECHNOLOGIES FOR EFFICIENT AND ECONOMICAL OIL RECOVERY

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    A. Wang; H. Xiao; R. May

    1999-10-29

    Efficient and complete recovery of petroleum reserves from existing oil wells has proven difficult due to a lack of robust instrumentation that can monitor processes in the downhole environment. Commercially available sensors for measurement of pressure, temperature, and fluid flow exhibit shortened lifetimes in the harsh downhole conditions, which are characterized by high pressures (up to 20 kpsi), temperatures up to 250 C, and exposure to chemically reactive fluids. Development of robust sensors that deliver continuous, real-time data on reservoir performance and petroleum flow pathways will facilitate application of advanced recovery technologies, including horizontal and multi-lateral wells. The main objective of the research program is to develop cost-effective, reliable fiber sensor instrumentation for real-time monitoring and /or control of various key parameters crucial to efficient and economical oil production. This report presents the detailed research work and technical progress from October 1, 1998 to September 30, 1999. The research performed over the first year of the program has followed the schedule as proposed, and solid research progress has been made in specification of the technical requirements, design and fabrication of the SCIIB sensor probes, development of the sensor systems, development of DSP-based signal processing techniques, and construction of the test systems. These technical achievements will significantly help to advance continued research on sensor tests and evaluation during the second year of the program.

  4. OPTICAL FIBER SENSOR TECHNOLOGIES FOR EFFICIENT AND ECONOMICAL OIL RECOVERY

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anbo Wang; Kristie L. Cooper; Gary R. Pickrell

    2003-06-01

    Efficient recovery of petroleum reserves from existing oil wells has been proven to be difficult due to the lack of robust instrumentation that can accurately and reliably monitor processes in the downhole environment. Commercially available sensors for measurement of pressure, temperature, and fluid flow exhibit shortened lifetimes in the harsh downhole conditions, which are characterized by high pressures (up to 20 kpsi), temperatures up to 250 C, and exposure to chemically reactive fluids. Development of robust sensors that deliver continuous, real-time data on reservoir performance and petroleum flow pathways will facilitate application of advanced recovery technologies, including horizontal and multilateral wells. This is the final report for the four-year program ''Optical Fiber Sensor Technologies for Efficient and Economical Oil Recovery'', funded by the National Petroleum Technology Office of the U.S. Department of Energy, and performed by the Center for Photonics Technology of the Bradley Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering at Virginia Tech from October 1, 1999 to March 31, 2003. The main objective of this research program was to develop cost-effective, reliable optical fiber sensor instrumentation for real-time monitoring of various key parameters crucial to efficient and economical oil production. During the program, optical fiber sensors were demonstrated for the measurement of temperature, pressure, flow, and acoustic waves, including three successful field tests in the Chevron/Texaco oil fields in Coalinga, California, and at the world-class oil flow simulation facilities in Tulsa, Oklahoma. Research efforts included the design and fabrication of sensor probes, development of signal processing algorithms, construction of test systems, development and testing of strategies for the protection of optical fibers and sensors in the downhole environment, development of remote monitoring capabilities allowing real

  5. Build, renovate and invest economically - Efficiency and economic viability in harmony

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Meier, R.; Beck, M.; Previdoli, P.

    2002-01-01

    This book presents 13 papers that provide the latest know-how on energy economics in the building area. The authors show the importance of information and knowledge transfer when using new energy technologies. The topics covered include the role of the Swiss research programme on energy economy fundamentals, indicator systems for sustainability factors and energy characteristics of buildings. Also a discussion of the question 'rebuild or renovate', as well a series of articles about low-flow mechanical ventilation and the marketing of low-energy consumption building concepts are presented. Further articles cover the marketing of thermal solar systems as well as technology dissemination and monitoring. Also, the marginal costs of energy efficiency measures and the potential for energy savings and environmental management in trade and industry are discussed. Finally, two papers deal with the application of Swiss SIA building standards as well as technical developments and energy efficiency in the building and renovation areas

  6. Effects of online marketing on Iranian ecotourism industry: Economic, sociological, and cultural aspects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arash Riasi

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available This study intends to evaluate the impacts of implementing online marketing strategies on Iranian ecotourism industry. The study had eight hypotheses which were designed based on economic, sociological, and cultural aspects of Iranian ecotourism industry. The results indicate that the expansion of online marketing increased the number of foreign tourists who visited Iran’s natural tourist attractions, while it had no significant impact on the number of domestic tourists who visited these tourist attractions. The results also indicated that online marketing did not increase the amount of investment in Iranian ecotourism industry. Additionally, online ecotourism marketing did not have a significant influence on the total number of travels to Iran’s historical tourist attractions. Respondents believe implementing online marketing strategies in Iranian ecotourism industry helps Iran expand its cultural tourism in rural areas and it expands its hospitality industry; they also believe that online marketing helps to create more jobs in Iranian ecotourism industry and to improve working conditions in this industry.

  7. An Efficient Authentication Method For Smart Card Verification In Online

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kanamarlapudi Venkata Srinivasa Rao

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available The great cards are getting a charge out of a critical part inside the on-line managing wherever we have tendency to can’t check the cardholder up close and personal. The phishing sites may parody the data in the middle of the customer website and along these lines the common webpage. To protect the data and managing here we have tendency to are presenting the three level confirmations. In arranged approach there are two stages i.e. Enlistment and login. All through enlistment part control the word which can figure and separated into two segments i.e. parcel one can keep inside the client or customer viewpoint, segment a couple of can keep in server perspective. Next level is to exchange the client icon which can figure and split into two shares each are keep severally. In the end zero information code will be get refreshed and it’s furthermore get keep as two components. All through the login part before starting the managing the client and server ought to uncover their three-genuine data offers if each stacked data got coordinate then the client is legitimate and server isn’t a phishing site.

  8. Active load sharing technique for on-line efficiency optimization in DC microgrids

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sanseverino, E. Riva; Zizzo, G.; Boscaino, V.

    2017-01-01

    Recently, DC power distribution is gaining more and more importance over its AC counterpart achieving increased efficiency, greater flexibility, reduced volumes and capital cost. In this paper, a 24-120-325V two-level DC distribution system for home appliances, each including three parallel DC......-DC converters, is modeled. An active load sharing technique is proposed for the on-line optimization of the global efficiency of the DC distribution network. The algorithm aims at the instantaneous efficiency optimization of the whole DC network, based on the on-line load current sampling. A Look Up Table......, is created to store the real efficiencies of the converters taking into account components tolerances. A MATLAB/Simulink model of the DC distribution network has been set up and a Genetic Algorithm has been employed for the global efficiency optimization. Simulation results are shown to validate the proposed...

  9. Online optimization of a multi-conversion-level DC home microgrid for system efficiency enhancement

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Boscaino, V.; Guerrero, J. M.; Ciornei, I.

    2017-01-01

    stages, three paralleled DC/DC converters are implemented. A Genetic Algorithm performs the on-line optimization of the DC network’s global efficiency, generating the optimal current sharing ratios of the concurrent power converters. The overall DC/DC conversion system including the optimization section......In this paper, an on-line management system for the optimal efficiency operation of a multi-bus DC home distribution system is proposed. The operation of the system is discussed with reference to a distribution system with two conversion stages and three voltage levels. In each of the conversion...

  10. A dynamic optimization on economic energy efficiency in development: A numerical case of China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, Dong

    2014-01-01

    This paper is based on dynamic optimization methodology to investigate the economic energy efficiency issues in developing countries. The paper introduces some definitions about energy efficiency both in economics and physics, and establishes a quantitative way for measuring the economic energy efficiency. The linkage between economic energy efficiency, energy consumption and other macroeconomic variables is demonstrated primarily. Using the methodology of dynamic optimization, a maximum problem of economic energy efficiency over time, which is subjected to the extended Solow growth model and instantaneous investment rate, is modelled. In this model, the energy consumption is set as a control variable and the capital is regarded as a state variable. The analytic solutions can be derived and the diagrammatic analysis provides saddle-point equilibrium. A numerical simulation based on China is also presented; meanwhile, the optimal paths of investment and energy consumption can be drawn. The dynamic optimization encourages governments in developing countries to pursue higher economic energy efficiency by controlling the energy consumption and regulating the investment state as it can conserve energy without influencing the achievement of steady state in terms of Solow model. If that, a sustainable development will be achieved. - Highlights: • A new definition on economic energy efficiency is proposed mathematically. • A dynamic optimization modelling links economic energy efficiency with other macroeconomic variables in long run. • Economic energy efficiency is determined by capital stock level and energy consumption. • Energy saving is a key solution for improving economic energy efficiency

  11. Economic Efficiency of Maize Production in Yola North Local ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    user

    should include the basic nutrients necessary to meet the needs of the ... economic production and home production, often have damaging ..... economic citizens in Nigeria (Ankroyd and. Doughty, 1984). ... Nutritional Guide. University of.

  12. Efficiency improvement for a sustainable agriculture : the integration of agronomic and farm economics approaches

    OpenAIRE

    Koeijer, de, T.J.

    2002-01-01

    Keywords: Sustainable farming systems, Agronomic efficiency, Economic efficiency, Environmental efficiency, Sustainability index, Interdisciplinary analysis.

    The objective of the research described in this thesis was to determine what role improved agronomic efficiency can play in the transition towards more sustainable production systems. Agronomic efficiency measures the technical performance. If it could be improved, environmental damage could be reduced while, at the sam...

  13. Loads of green washing—can behavioural economics increase willingness-to-pay for efficient washing machines in the UK?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bull, Joe

    2012-01-01

    The EU energy efficiency labelling scheme has successfully increased demand for efficient appliances by providing a prominent letter rating to consumers during their product search. Behavioural economics (BE) suggests the adoption of efficient appliances could be accelerated further by: (i) monetising efficiency, (ii) directly communicating the link between efficiency and carbon emissions, (iii) communicating the long-term (e.g., operational life) financial and environmental impact of product choices, and, (iv) framing the information as avoided losses (‘extra’) rather than gains (‘savings’). This study tested these hypotheses via an online, stated preference survey of 465 UK residents using actual market pricing and efficiency data for washing machines. The provision of information about either running costs or running emissions did encourage selection of more expensive and efficient products (strongly correlated variables in the choice set and actual market) (p<.001, r=.30–.41) with no statistically significant difference between their impact. Providing lifetime running cost information also nudged respondents towards more expensive, efficient products than annual information (p=.006–.027, r=.15–.18). Finally, loss-framed running emissions information encouraged selection of more expensive, efficient products than gain-framed information (p<.05, r=.13–.16). The EU label is an impracticable means of communication, but digital communication channels (e.g., price comparison websites) may offer potential for inexpensive localisation and personalisation of the information. The results suggest that successful communication could benefit the private sector whilst making a contribution to reducing carbon emissions. - Highlights: ► 465 UK residents made a hypothetical washing machine purchase via an online survey. ► Respondents were exposed to either running cost or running emissions information. ► Running cost information increased willingness

  14. Complexity Triggered by Economic Globalisation— The Issue of On-Line Betting-Related Match Fixing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wladimir Andreff

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Complexity in mainstream economics consists in high intermediary consumption of mathematics. A new approach to complexity economics dwells upon path-dependent global systems; their emergence and evolving organisation. The focus here is on the complexity of the real economic world due to globalisation. On-line betting related match-fixing is a case in point about which the article presents non-exhaustive empirical evidence and shows how it is analysed with the standard model of the economics of crime. There is no room for complexity in such an individualistic approach to corrupt behaviour applied to bet-related fixes. A more complex model is sketched based on interactions between a global (though underground market for fixes and the actual partly legal, partly illegal global sport betting market. These interactions exhibit how complex is the issue of combating betting-related match fixing. Reviewing those major policies envisaged for containing the latter—prohibition; sanctions; regulation; privatisation (betting rights—the article opts for a global ‘Sportbettobin’ tax on sport betting gains; in the same vein as the famous Tobin tax on international capital transfers. The novelty in this approach is a variable (increasing rate applied to increasing tranches of taxation (gains which should dry up the worst cases of on-line bettingrelated match fixing.

  15. Methodical Approach to Diagnostics of Efficiency of Production Economic Activity of an Enterprise

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhukov Andrii V.

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available The article offers developments of a methodical approach to diagnostics of efficiency of production economic activity of an enterprise, which, unlike the existing ones, is realised through the following stages: analysis of the enterprise external environment; analysis of the enterprise internal environment; identification of components of efficiency of production economic activity for carrying out complex diagnostics by the following directions: efficiency of subsystems of the enterprise production economic activity, efficiency of use of separate types of resources and socio-economic efficiency; scorecard formation; study of tendencies of change of indicators; identification of cause-effect dependencies between the main components of efficiency for diagnosing reasons of its level; diagnosing deviations of indicator values from their optimal values; development of a managerial decision on preserving and increasing efficiency of production economic activity of the enterprise.

  16. An efficient technique to solve combined economic and emission ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    2016-08-26

    Aug 26, 2016 ... Economic load dispatch is one of the vital purposes in electrical power system operation, management and planning. Economic dispatch problem is one of the most important problems in electric power system operation. In large scale system, the problem is more complex and difficult to find out optimal ...

  17. The economic value of corporate eco-efficiency

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Guenster, N.; Bauer, R.; Derwall, J.M.M.; Koedijk, C.G.

    2011-01-01

    This study adds new insights to the long-running corporate environmental-financial performance debate by focusing on the concept of eco-efficiency. Using a new database of eco-efficiency scores, we analyse the relation between eco-efficiency and financial performance from 1997 to 2004. We report

  18. Evaluation of economic efficiency of process improvement in food packaging

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jana Hron

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available In general, we make gains in process by the three fundamental ways. First, we define or redefine our process in a strategic sense. Second, once defined or redefined, we commence process operations and use process control methods to target and stabilize our process. Third, we use process improvement methods, as described in this paper, along with process control to fully exploit our process management and/or technology. Process improvement is focused primarily in our subprocesses and sub-subprocesses. Process leverage is the key to process improvement initiatives. This means that small improvements of the basic manufacturing operations can have (with the assumption of mass repetition of the operation a big impact on the functioning of the whole production unit. The complexity within even small organizations, in people, products, and processes, creates significant challenges in effectively and efficiently using these initiatives tools. In this paper we are going to place process purposes in the foreground and initiatives and tools in the background as facilitator to help accomplish process purpose. Initiatives and tools are not the ends we are seeking; result/outcomes in physical, economics, timeliness, and customer service performance matter. In the paper process boundaries (in a generic sense are set by our process purpose and our process definition. Process improvement is initiated within our existing process boundaries. For example, in a fast-food restaurant, if we define our cooking process around a frying technology, then we provide process improvements within our frying technology. On the other hand, if we are considering changing to a broiling technology, then we are likely faced with extensive change, impacting our external customers, and a process redefinition may be required. The result / aim of the paper are based on the example of the process improving of a food packaging quality. Specifically, the integration of two approaches

  19. An efficient technique to solve combined economic and emission ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Sadhana; Volume 38; Issue 4 ... Combined economic emission dispatch (CEED); optimization algorithms; power demand; Ant ... and at the same time the necessary equality and inequality constraints should also be fulfilled.

  20. Government Expenditure, Efficiency and Economic Growth: A Panel ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Choong Chee Keong. 6 and Lau Lin Sea. 7 ... Corresponding Author, Department of Economics, Faculty of Business and Finance, UTAR, Malaysia. .... the taxation system and assert that if country's government expenditure is greater than.

  1. An efficient technique to solve combined economic and emission ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    GPSO was a derivative of the Standard Particle Swarm Optimization (SPSO) and .... ing path which makes it more attractive for future ants to follow. ..... algorithm applied to power economic dispatch of generators with multiple fuel options.

  2. Energy efficiency and economic value in affordable housing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chegut, Andrea; Eichholtz, Piet; Holtermans, Rogier

    2016-01-01

    Strong rental protection in the affordable housing market often prohibits landlords from charging rental premiums for energy-efficient dwellings. This may impede (re)development of energy efficient affordable housing. In the Netherlands, affordable housing institutions regularly sell dwellings from their housing stock to individual households. If they can sell energy efficient dwellings at a premium, this may stimulate investments in the environmental performance of homes. We analyze the value effects of energy efficiency in the affordable housing market, by using a sample of 17,835 homes sold by Dutch affordable housing institutions in the period between 2008 and 2013. We use Energy Performance Certificates to determine the value of energy efficiency in these transactions. We document that dwellings with high energy efficiency sell for 2.0–6.3% more compared to otherwise similar dwellings with low energy efficiency. This implies a premium of some EUR 3,000 to EUR 9,700 for highly energy efficient affordable housing. - Highlights: • Dutch affordable housing suppliers recoup sustainability investment by selling dwellings. • Energy-efficient affordable dwellings sell at a premium. • A-labeled dwellings are 6.3% – 9,300 euros – more valuable than C-labeled ones. • The combined value effect of refurbishing an affordable housing dwelling, including improving the energy efficiency, of 20% would more than pay for the retrofit.

  3. Adoption of Online Purchasing Methods in Communities and its Socio-Economic Implications in Regional Central Queensland, Australia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    W. J. Taylor

    2004-05-01

    Full Text Available This paper analyses the general trends of online purchasing in Central Queensland (CQ communities during 1999-2002 and identifies the socio-economic factors affecting online purchasing activities. The Online Purchasing Indicator, defined as a combination of percentages of online purchasers and of regular purchasers (>one item/month within a group, is applied to compare these activities between these two groups. The study identifies that four factors, namely ‘personal attributes’, ‘knowledge’, ‘trust’ and ‘need’ may play important roles in online purchasing decisions. The research found that regional economic bleeding associated with low local adoption failing to provide justification for local business to adopt electronic purchasing support has not yet reached significant levels.

  4. Power Versus Bandwidth Efficiency in Wireless Communication: The Economic Perspective

    OpenAIRE

    Akhtman, Jos; Hanzo, Lajos

    2009-01-01

    We carry out a comprehensive analysis of a range of wireless network efficiency considerations. Firstly, we explore the properties and the implications of the power- versus bandwidth-efficiency criteria. Secondly, we perform a detailed top-down analysis of a typical commercial wireless network, which emphasizes the inherent differences between the aforementioned two efficiency metrics, while demonstrating that the appropriate choice of the network optimization criterion can have a profound ef...

  5. The economic crisis and the energy efficiency programs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Naturesa, Jim Silva; Mariotoni, Carlos Alberto

    2010-01-01

    This paper presents some data from the Brazilian economy (2009 and 2010) and their impact on energy efficiency programs. It is also shown the main results of the National Electricity Conservation Program (PROCEL) and PROCEL INFO, which aims to gather and make available information on the rational and efficient use of energy. At the end, we present information showing that MSMEs (Micro, Small and Medium Companies) should be the main focus of the technological innovation programs aimed to energy efficiency. (author)

  6. ECONOMIC AND ACCOUNTING INFORMATION AND STOCK MARKET EFFICIENCY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simona – Florina SĂLIȘTEANU

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this paper is to explore and to analyse the relations between financial accounting information and stock market efficiency. As we know, accounting contributes to the efficiency of the stock market by producing primordial information for the investors. On the other side, an efficient market facilitates the role of accounting by providing a reliable estimate of the value of many assets that needs to be evaluated. This article examines the importance of the financial accounting information for the efficiency of stock market, and also analyses whether and how the structure, the characteristics and publication of the information, impacts the prices and transactions volumes.

  7. The Institutional Component of the Efficient Economic Policy of the State

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mykytas Viktoriia V

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The article substantiates the necessity of institutional accompanying the economic policy of the State, establishing an efficient system of institutions. Challenges of the contemporary globalization require changes in the State influence on economy, redefining quality parameters and principles of an efficient economic policy. Complexity of the State policy in a global environment is determined not only by importance of the tasks of establishing an efficient market against the background of increasing influences of exogenous uncertainty, but also by seeking ways of entering the global space, thus implementing the best interests of national economic development. The article deduces parameters of the concept of «efficient institution». The author believes that institutions precisely should act as the link through which social and economic development would become unseparated in order to form a stable efficient socio-economic development

  8. The Economics of Independent Living: Efficiency, Equity and Ethics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Shea, E.; Kennelly, B.

    1996-01-01

    This article explores the meaning of efficiency and equity in the context of independent living programs for people with disabilities. Conflicts in costs and trade-offs in various scenarios of the efficiency/equity equation are examined in terms of theories of utilitarianism, contractarianism, justice and mutual advantage, and justice as…

  9. The Economic Value of Corporate Eco-Efficiency

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guenster, N.; Derwall, J.; Bauer, R.; Koedijk, K.

    2006-08-01

    This study adds new insights to the long-running corporate environmental-financial performance debate by focusing on the concept of eco-efficiency. Using a new database of eco-efficiency ratings, we analyze the relation between eco-efficiency and financial performance from 1997 to 2004. We report that eco-efficiency relates positively to operating performance and market value. Moreover, our results suggest that the market's valuation of environmental performance has been time variant, which may indicate that the market incorporates environmental information with a drift. Although environmental leaders initially did not sell at a premium relative to laggards, the valuation differential increased significantly over time. Our results have implications for company managers, who evidently do not have to overcome a tradeoff between eco-efficiency and financial performance, and for investors, who can exploit environmental information for investment decisions

  10. The Efficiency of Improvement of the Economic Security System of Ukraine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Klunko Nataliya S.

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available An analysis of approaches to the formation of efficiency of ensuring economic security was carried out. The essence of economic security has been defined and its material base has been described. Threats to the economic security of Ukraine have been systematized and their structure analyzed. Both internal and external measures to prevent threats to the economic security of Ukraine have been allocated. Dynamics of the factors on which the economic security of Ukraine depends has been considered. It has been determined that the socio-economic development strategy formulated makes the country’s economic security system efficient. Two approaches to the strategic development of the Ukrainian economy have been allocated: enhancing competitiveness and integration into the international economic associations.

  11. Economic Efficiency of Establishing Domestic Production of Synthetic Liquid Fuel

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kyzym Mykola O.

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available The article notes a stable tendency to increasing the oil dependence of Ukraine, which creates a threat to the national economic security, and proves an expediency of establishing domestic production of synthetic liquid fuel. The technical, organizational and economic features of establishing synthetic liquid fuel production in Ukraine are presented. There proved a hypothesis on the expediency of organizing the production of synthetic liquid fuels based on steam-plasma coal gasification technology. The forecast resource cycle of the country until 2020 under conditions of developing this technology is modeled.

  12. THE MAIN APPROACHES TO THE DEFINITION OF ECONOMIC EFFICIENCY OF ENTERPRISES OF CONSTRUCTION INDUSTRY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. V. Dolgova

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The problem of ambiguous interpretation of the category of "efficiency". Taking into account the fact that economic efficiency is quite complex and multifaceted category, coupled with the economic laws and applies to all activities of the enterprise this figure is one of the essential characteristics of the processes occurring in industrial organizations. The lack of a generally accepted view among domestic and foreign economists regarding the essential part of the index of efficiency of activity of the industrial enterprise leads to the impossibility of its use for the management of processes. In the conditions of market economy, the task of economic evaluation res ults of the economic entity remains an important element of the research aspects of the company. Each new refinement of recorded knowledge acts as a stimulus for the development of fundamental knowledge categories. One of the Central in the system of economic categories, in our opinion, is indicated for the effective functioning of the enterprise." Precise formulation of the conceptual framework, criteria-based composition have important theoretical value to justify the subject of any research conducted in the conditions of modern economic development of the global space. The definition of criteria and performance indicators, as well as developing sound economic policies of improving the economic mechanism of enterprise depend on a comprehensive study of the essence of economic efficiency of industrial enterprises of the industry. The article examines the main approaches to the definition of economic efficiency, as well as identify the degree of relation of the category of "efficiency" with other economic categories. The author suggested that the characteristics of the essence of economic efficiency, adequate to the task of functioning and development of enterprises in the construction industry.

  13. Production efficiency and economic potential of different soil fertility ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This paper provides the economic evaluation of different soil fertility replenishing technologies (use of inorganic fertilizers, organic manure, and rhizobium inoculant) that were tested during field studies and recommended to groundnut farmers. Data on soil fertility technologies used by households, groundnut yields, and ...

  14. Computational Efficiency of Economic MPC for Power Systems Operation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Standardi, Laura; Poulsen, Niels Kjølstad; Jørgensen, John Bagterp

    2013-01-01

    In this work, we propose an Economic Model Predictive Control (MPC) strategy to operate power systems that consist of independent power units. The controller balances the power supply and demand, minimizing production costs. The control problem is formulated as a linear program that is solved...

  15. The Efficiency Opportunity Impact of Information Systems in an Organizational Economics Framework of Informatics

    OpenAIRE

    Kühn Pedersen, Mogens; Holm Larsen, Michael

    2004-01-01

    Information systems (IS) have a record of raising efficiency and effectiveness in business operations. In the modern economy, ongoing efficiency improvements through innovation play a decisive role. A new theory of distributed relations refocuses innovations comptence from core to distributed competence, raising new efficiency opportunities. The paper suggest an economic model of the efficiency op-portunities of information processing revealing the efficiency form of distributed relations, a ...

  16. A critique of non-parametric efficiency analysis in energy economics studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen, Chien-Ming

    2013-01-01

    The paper reexamines non-additive environmental efficiency models with weakly-disposable undesirable outputs appeared in the literature of energy economics. These efficiency models are used in numerous studies published in this journal and other energy-related outlets. Recent studies, however, have found key limitations of the weak-disposability assumption in its application to environmental efficiency analysis. It is found that efficiency scores obtained from non-additive efficiency models can be non-monotonic in pollution quantities under the weak-disposability assumption — which is against common intuition and the principle of environmental economics. In this paper, I present taxonomy of efficiency models found in the energy economics literature and illustrate the above limitations and discuss implications of monotonicity from a practical viewpoint. Finally, I review the formulations for a variable returns-to-scale technology with weakly-disposable undesirable outputs, which has been misused in a number of papers in the energy economics literature. An application to evaluating the energy efficiencies of 23 European Union states is presented to illustrate the problem. - Highlights: • Review different environmental efficiency model used in energy economics studies • Highlight limitations of these environmental efficiency models • These limitations have not been recognized in the existing energy economics literature. • Data from 23 European Union states are used to illustrate the methodological consequences

  17. Energy efficiency and economic feasibility of CCHP driven by stirling engine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kong, X.Q.; Wang, R.Z.; Huang, X.H.

    2004-01-01

    This paper deals with the problem of energy efficiency evaluation and economic feasibility analysis of a small scale trigeneration system for combined cooling, heating and power generation (CCHP) with an available Stirling engine. Trigeneration systems have a large potential of energy saving and economical efficiency. The decisive values for energetic efficiency evaluation of such systems are the primary energy rate and comparative primary energy saving (Δq), while the economic feasibility analysis of such systems relates the avoided cost, the total annual saving and payback period. The investigation calculates and compares the energy saving and economic efficiency of trigeneration system with Stirling engine against contemporary conventional independent cooling, heating and power, showing that a CCHP system saves fuel resources and has the assurance of economic benefits

  18. Efficient energy management measures in steel industry for economic utilization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gurinderbir Singh Grewal

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available The application of energy efficient Induction Machines (IM is explained in reference to power consumption savings. In energy efficient IM, losses for various Horse Power (HP ratings are summarized for bringing effective changes in design. Emphasis is laid on how load factor, speed & power quality affect machine’s efficiency. Replacement of conventional IM of higher power rating is done with required energy efficient Doubly Fed Induction Machine (DFIM to enhance the performance at variable speeds near rated power outputs. Results of the proposed approach will give substantial savings in energy & loss reduction. The field data of Jindal Steel Rolling Mill (JSRM at Hisar, Haryana (India is taken into consideration. This paper proposes a non-intrusive air gap torque method for efficiency estimation of in-service IMs. This approach gives results considering stray-load and friction-windage loss according to IEC standard and IEEE112-B standard. The proposed method is validated experimentally whose effectiveness is witnessed using MATLAB/SIMULINK.

  19. Social Responsibility and Economic Efficiency: aspects of estimation

    OpenAIRE

    Filippova, Irina

    2014-01-01

    The article discusses the concept of social responsibility of state and business in terms of effectiveness of social production system. In this perspective the traditional approaches to determining the effectiveness of the economic system were critically reviewed. Not only new approach to assessing the effectiveness being proposed in this paper, but also the link between effectiveness of public production system and social responsibility of core subjects is substantiated. Conventional approac...

  20. CONTRIBUTIONS OF MICROFINANCE INSTITUTIONS TO ECONOMIC EFFICIENCY OF CASSAVA FARMERS IN ABIA STATE, NIGERIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kingsley Chukwuemeka OBIKE

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available The study examined contributions of microfinance institutions to economic efficiency of cassava farmers in Abia state, Nigeria. A multistage random sampling technique was adopted in collecting cross sectional data on a sample size of 240 respondents (120 MFI beneficiaries and 120 non beneficiaries. Primary Data was collected by administering questionnaire on cassava farmers. The result showed that economic efficiency of MFI beneficiaries was influenced by wage rate, price of fertilizer and adjusted Y (output, while wage rate, price of fertilizer and price of cassava cutting s are variables that influenced economic efficiency of non beneficiaries. The t – test analysis confirmed that MFI beneficiaries had higher economic efficiency advantage compared with non beneficiaries. It is recommended that government agricultural policy should take positive steps to reduce interest rate to encourage MFI efforts in providing the necessary platform to encourage higher efficiency in cassava production in Abia state, Nigeria.

  1. Increasing the Economical Efficiency and Sustainability of Indoor Fish Farming by Means of Aquaponics - Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Flavius Blidariu

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available This review focuses on increasing economical efficiency and sustainability of indoor fish farming. Aspects like sustainability and economical efficiency were reviewed. In order to improve man`s health we must reconsider the agricultural sciences, by this we understand that we must develop technologies friendly for the environment. Sustainable indoor fish farming is the farming of the new millennium. Combining aquaculture with hydroponics we obtain a new innovation named aquaponics which respects principles of sustainable agriculture (wastewater biofiltration by plants and gives us the possibility to increase economical efficiency with an additional production (organic vegetables.

  2. Economic efficiency of maize production in Yola North Local ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Similarly, the efficiency ratio computed showed that land, seed and fertilizer had MVP/MFC ratio greater than unity implying that the inputs were underutilized and output could be increased by increasing the levels of their utilization. The elasticity of production was greater than 1.00 which implied increasing return to scale.

  3. Assessing the Economic Efficiency of Maize Production in Northern ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2017-05-01

    May 1, 2017 ... successes of the green revolution in Asia brought to the fore agriculture's ... Maize is a very important staple food in Ghana accounting for more than 50% of total .... The cost efficiency function is specified by changing the error from the to ..... A Guide to Frontier Version 4.1: A computer program for Frontier.

  4. Economic and health efficiency of education funding policy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Curtin, T R; Nelson, E A

    1999-06-01

    Public spending programmes to reduce poverty, expand primary education and improve the economic status of women are recommended priorities of aid agencies and are now gradually being reflected in third world governments' policies, in response to aid conditions imposed by the World Bank and OECD countries. However outcomes fall short of aspiration. This paper shows that donors' lending policies, especially those restricting public spending on education to the primary level, (1) perpetuate poverty, (2) minimise socio-economic impact of public health programmes and (3) prevent significant improvement in the economic status of women. These effects are the result of fundamental flaws in donors' education policy model. Evidence is presented to show that health status in developing countries will be significantly enhanced by increasing the proportion of the population which has at least post-primary education. Heads of households with just primary education have much the same probability of experiencing poverty and high mortality of their children as those with no education at all. Aid donors' policies, which require governments of developing countries to limit public funding of education to the primary level, have their roots in what is contended here to be an erroneous interpretation of human capital theory. This interpretation focuses only on the declining marginal internal rates of return on public investments in successive levels of schooling and ignores the opposite message of the increasing marginal net present values of those investments. Cars do not travel fastest in their lowest gear despite its fastest acceleration, life's long journey is not most comfortable for those with only primary schooling.

  5. Economic and environmental efficiency of district heating plants

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Agrell, Per J.; Bogetoft, Peter

    2005-01-01

    heat, have arbitrary valuation.This study concerns the most developed European district heating and cogeneration system, the Danish.By assessing environmental and economic ef¿ciency, the impact of governmental, market and managerial imperfections are estimated.The principal methodological base......District heating, the conversion of primary energy into distributed thermal energy and possible electric energy, is a challenge to regulate.In addition to the ever present asymmetric information in any suf¿ciently complex activity, some of the inputs for district heating, such as excess process...

  6. UBIQUITOUS, FREE, AND EFFICIENT ONLINE COLLABORATION TOOLS FOR TEACHING AND LEARNING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jace HARGIS

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available This article provides an overview of free, online tools that make collaboration effective, efficient, and engaging. Each tool is available world-wide wherever there is access to the internet. These tools help create a more collaborative environment because they allow for voice, video, text, simultaneous editing, and immediate feedback. The tools presented are easy to use, user friendly, and have online support available if needed. Methods for using the tools are suggested, and examples of how they have been used by the authors are discussed. Professional presentations, instructional activities, meetings, and preparing manuscripts or other collaborative documents can all be developed in collaborative online meetings using Skype, Google tools including Talk, Chat, Calendar, Docs, and Notebooks, and Second Life. These may also be used to enhance education in distance learning or on campus classes. The features, functionality, and intuitive ease of use promote collaborative efforts, increasing the effective and efficient use of time while decreasing costs. Hyperlinks are provided for tools so users can determine technology specifications, download necessary files, learn more about their capabilities, and locate help or support information.

  7. Investing in Early Human Development: Timing and Economic Efficiency

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doyle, Orla; Harmon, Colm P.; Heckman, James J.; Tremblay, Richard E.

    2010-01-01

    Policy discussions to ameliorate socioeconomic (SES) inequalities are increasingly focused on investments in early childhood. Yet such interventions are costly to implement, and clear evidence on the optimal time to intervene to yield a high economic and social return in the future is meagre. The majority of successful early childhood interventions start in the preschool years. However socioeconomic gradients in cognitive skills, socio-emotional functioning and health can be observed by age three, suggesting that preventative programmes starting earlier in childhood may be even more effective. We discuss the optimal timing of early childhood intervention with reference to recent research in developmental neuroscience. We motivate the need for early intervention by providing an overview of the impact of adverse risk factors during the antenatal and early childhood periods on outcomes later in life. We provide a brief review of the economic rationale for investing early in life and propose the “antenatal investment hypothesis”. We conclude by discussing a suite of new European interventions that will inform this optimal timing debate. PMID:19213617

  8. Rebuilding Romania. Energy, efficiency and the economic transition

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Patterson, W [Royal Inst. of International Affairs, London (United Kingdom)

    1994-12-31

    Energy will be a crucial factor in the successful recreation of a democratic society based on a market economy in Romania, following the overthrow in 1989 of the Ceausescu dictatorship. This study focuses on energy efficiency and end-use, rather than the supply of fuels and electricity, and is written by a team of senior Romanian energy specialists, who describe the country`s existing energy systems, and their potential for improved use, including international cooperation for mutual benefit. (UK)

  9. On the efficiency of a randomized mirror descent algorithm in online optimization problems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gasnikov, A. V.; Nesterov, Yu. E.; Spokoiny, V. G.

    2015-04-01

    A randomized online version of the mirror descent method is proposed. It differs from the existing versions by the randomization method. Randomization is performed at the stage of the projection of a subgradient of the function being optimized onto the unit simplex rather than at the stage of the computation of a subgradient, which is common practice. As a result, a componentwise subgradient descent with a randomly chosen component is obtained, which admits an online interpretation. This observation, for example, has made it possible to uniformly interpret results on weighting expert decisions and propose the most efficient method for searching for an equilibrium in a zero-sum two-person matrix game with sparse matrix.

  10. Which Are the Determinants of Online Students' Efficiency in Higher Education?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castillo-Merino, David; Serradell-Lopez, Enric; González-González, Inés

    International literature shows that the positive effect on students performance from the adoption of innovations in the technology of teaching and learning do not affect all teaching methods and learning styles equally, as it depends on university strategy and policy towards Information and Communication Technologies (ICT) adoption, students abilities, technology uses in the educational process by teachers and students, or the selection of a methodology that matches with digital uses. This paper provides empirical answers to these questions with data from online students at the Open University of Catalonia (UOC). An empirical model based on structural equations has been defined to explain complex relationships between variables. Our results show that motivation is the main variable affecting online students' performance. It appears as a latent variable influenced by students' perception of efficiency, a driver for indirect positive and significant effect on students' performance from students' ability in ICT uses.

  11. Flexible and Cost Efficient Power Consumption using Economic MPC

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hovgaard, Tobias Gybel; Larsen, Lars F.S.; Jørgensen, John Bagterp

    2011-01-01

    the formulation of a new cost function for our proposed power management. Hereby the refrigeration system is enabled to contribute with ancillary services to the balancing power market. Since significant amounts of regulating power is needed for a higher penetration of intermittent renewable energy sources...... such as wind turbines this feature is in high demand in a future intelligent power grid (Smart Grid). Our perspective is seen from the refrigeration system but as it is demonstrated the involvement in the balancing market can be economically beneficial for the system itself while delivering crucial services...... that reduces operation costs by utilizing the thermal storage capabilities. In the study we specifically address advantages coming from daily variations in outdoor temperature and electricity prices but other aims such as peak load reduction are also considered. An important contribution of this paper is also...

  12. The effect of lignite quality variation on the efficiency of on-line ash analyzers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Galetakis, Michael J. [Technical University of Crete, Dept. of Mineral Resources Engineering, University Campus, 73 100 Hania (Greece); Pavloudakis, Francis F. [Public Power Corporation SA, General Division of Mines, Kifisou and Dyrrahiou 89, 104 43 Athens (Greece)

    2009-12-01

    A sustainable coal industry needs to achieve a number of objectives including improvements in utilization of deposits, energy efficiency, and environmental performance during combustion. The ''Clean Coal Concept'' promises to combine the secure and low cost electricity supply offered by hard coal and lignite with adequate environmental precautions. In this context, modern quality control systems, which are greatly based on the on-line analyzers, play an important role in achieving sustainability targets. This paper examines the possibility of using commercial on-line analysis systems for monitoring the mineral matter content of low quality lignite mined from the lignite basin of Megalopolis, Peloponnese, Greece. The effect of the accuracy of the on-line analyzers to process control, when used for the characterization of low rank coals with complex and variable composition, is investigated by carrying out numerous bench- and pilot-scale trials. Pilot-scale trials were based on a dual energy gamma-ray transmission analyzer, which was installed on the conveyor belt that transports lignite from the mine pit to the homogenization stockyard. All measurement data were compared to data gathered during the realisation of similar trials in the lignite mines of Ptolemais Basin, Northern Greece. Results indicated that the accuracy of the on-line measurements was not satisfactory and did not allow lignite quality monitoring in real time. The achieved inferior accuracy of the on-line measurement's accuracy, compared to previous applications at other mining sites, was related to the intense variation of the mineral matter content of lignite and lignite composition, which distorted the calibration of the analyzer. The latter is based on certain assumptions regarding the average mass absorption coefficient of the organic and mineral matter contained in the lignite. Further experimental work is needed to investigate solutions for successful implementation of

  13. The assessment of risk management system’s economic efficiency in retail banking

    OpenAIRE

    Cvilikas, Aurelijus; Paužuolis, Vaidas

    2014-01-01

    The banking risk management is always a relevant topic in financial sector’s academic literature, but the detailed analysis of current studies showed that there is a lack of studies in risk management’s economic efficiency assessment in retail banking, where the risk management system’s administration cost may be a significant part of total credit institution’s cost. The scientific problem of this article is: how the economic efficiency of retail banking risk management system could be ...

  14. Measuring industrial energy efficiency: Physical volume versus economic value

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Freeman, S.L.; Niefer, M.J.; Roop, J.M.

    1996-12-01

    This report examines several different measures of industrial output for use in constructing estimates of industrial energy efficiency and discusses some reasons for differences between the measures. Estimates of volume-based measures of output, as well as 3 value-based measures of output (value of production, value of shipments, and value added), are evaluated for 15 separate 4-digit industries. Volatility, simple growth rate, and trend growth rate estimates are made for each industry and each measure of output. Correlations are made between the volume- and value-based measures of output. Historical energy use data are collected for 5 of the industries for making energy- intensity estimates. Growth rates in energy use, energy intensity, and correlations between volume- and value-based measures of energy intensity are computed. There is large variability in growth trend estimates both long term and from year to year. While there is a high correlation between volume- and value-based measures of output for a few industries, typically the correlation is low, and this is exacerbated for estimates of energy intensity. Analysis revealed reasons for these low correlations. It appears that substantial work must be done before reliable measures of trends in the energy efficiency of industry can be accurately characterized.

  15. Policies and measures for economic efficiency, energy security and environment protection in India

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Venkaiah, M.; Kaushik, S.C.; Dewangan, M.L.

    2007-01-01

    India needs to sustain 8-10% economic growth to meet energy needs of people below poverty line. India would, at least, need to grow its primary energy supply (3-4 times) of present consumption to deliver a sustained growth of 8% by 2031. This paper discusses India's policies and measures for economic efficiency, environment protection and energy security (3-E). (author)

  16. How to measure the economic impacts of changes in growth, feed efficiency and survival in aquaculture

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kankainen, M.; Setala, J.; Berrill, I.K.; Ruohonen, K.; Noble, C.; Schneider, O.

    2012-01-01

    In this article we introduce a variety of bio-economic models that can be used to calculate the economic benefits associated with improved productivity in aquaculture. In the aquaculture industry, three important biological productivity factors are growth, survival and feed efficiency. The

  17. Economic and environmental impacts of community-based residential building energy efficiency investment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Choi, Jun-Ki; Morrison, Drew; Hallinan, Kevin P.; Brecha, Robert J.

    2014-01-01

    A systematic framework for evaluating the local economic and environmental impacts of investment in building energy efficiency is developed. Historical residential building energy data, community-wide economic input–output data, and emission intensity data are utilized. The aim of this study is to show the comprehensive insights and connection among achieving variable target reductions for a residential building energy use, economic and environmental impacts. Central to this approach for the building energy reduction goal is the creation of individual energy models for each building based upon historical energy data and available building data. From these models, savings estimates and cost implications can be estimated for various conservation measures. A ‘worst to first’ (WF) energy efficient investment strategy is adopted to optimize the level of various direct, indirect, and induced economic impacts on the local community. This evaluation helps to illumine opportunities to establish specific energy reduction targets having greatest economic impact in the community. From an environmental perspective, short term economy-wide CO 2 emissions increase because of the increased community-wide economic activities spurred by the production and installation of energy efficiency measures, however the resulting energy savings provide continuous CO 2 reduction for various target savings. - Highlights: • WF energy efficient strategy helps to optimize various level of economic impacts. • Greatest community benefits are achieved from specific energy reduction targets. • Community-wide economic impacts vary for different energy conservation measures

  18. The Economics of Ecosystems: Efficiency, Sustainability and Equity in Ecosystem Management

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hein, L.G.

    2010-01-01

    The Economics of Ecosystems demonstrates how the concepts of economic efficiency, sustainability and equity can be applied in ecosystem management. The book presents an overview of these three key concepts, a framework for their analysis and modelling and three case studies. Specific attention is

  19. Life cycle and economic efficiency analysis phase II : durable pavement markings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-04-01

    This report details the Phase II analysis of the life cycle and economic efficiency of inlaid tape : and thermoplastic. Waterborne paint was included as a non-durable for comparison purposes : only. In order to find the most economical product for sp...

  20. Energy Efficient Power Allocation in Multi-tier 5G Networks Using Enhanced Online Learning

    KAUST Repository

    Alqerm, Ismail

    2017-07-25

    The multi-tier heterogeneous structure of 5G with dense small cells deployment, relays, and device-to-device (D2D) communications operating in an underlay fashion is envisioned as a potential solution to satisfy the future demand for cellular services. However, efficient power allocation among dense secondary transmitters that maintains quality of service (QoS) for macro (primary) cell users and secondary cell users is a critical challenge for operating such radio. In this paper, we focus on the power allocation problem in the multi-tier 5G network structure using a non-cooperative methodology with energy efficiency consideration. Therefore, we propose a distributive intuition-based online learning scheme for power allocation in the downlink of the 5G systems, where each transmitter surmises other transmitters power allocation strategies without information exchange. The proposed learning model exploits a brief state representation to account for the problem of dimensionality in online learning and expedite the convergence. The convergence of the proposed scheme is proved and numerical results demonstrate its capability to achieve fast convergence with QoS guarantee and significant improvement in system energy efficiency.

  1. CH2 Energy Harvesting Systems: Economic Use and Efficiency

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chun Cheung

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available This paper looks at the City of Melbourne's new office development CH2 as a case study of world class energy performance. In particular, the integrated design of conventionally independent systems has led to the potential to deliver significant savings to the Council and to deliver better environmental conditions to building occupants that in turn may contribute to satisfaction, well-being and productivity. It is concluded that this project has the potential to be an iconic example of effective implementation of ESD (environmental sustainable design principles and therefore act as a demonstration project to others. Energy efficiency of more than 50% of current benchmarks for Melbourne is effected. Energy harvesting is defined as arising from squander, waste and nature, which is a new concept introduced in this paper to better describe the design decision process.

  2. Estimation of Economic Efficiency of Regional Touristic Complex

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kurchenkov Vladimir Viktorovich

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The article describes the features of the development of the regional touristic complex in modern conditions and determines the direction of realizing the potential of the regional market of tourist services. The authors reveal the multiplicative interrelation for analyzing the interaction of the primary and secondary sectors of the regional market of tourist services. The key indicators of efficiency are outlined, the extent of their relevance for assessing the potential of international tourism in the region is revealed. The authors calculate the relative indicators reflecting the dynamics of incomes from inbound, outbound and domestic tourism in relation to the total income from tourism activities in the region during the reporting period, usually for one calendar year. On the basis of these parameters, the classification of the regions of the Southern Federal District in terms of tourist attraction is carried out. The authors determine the reasons of the low tourist attractiveness of the Volgograd region in comparison with other regions of the Southern Federal District. It is substantiated that the potential of expanding tourism activity is not fully realized today in the Volgograd region. The technique of analysis and evaluation of the effectiveness of regional touristic complex on the basis of cluster approach is suggested. For analyzing the effectiveness of regional tourism cluster the authors propose to use indicators that reflect the overall performance of the regional tourism cluster, characterizing the impact of cluster development of the area, or the regional market, as well as evaluating the performance of each of the companies cooperating in the framework of the cluster. The article contains recommendations to the regional authorities on improving the efficiency of regional touristic complex in the short- and long-term prospects.

  3. Economic innovation and efficiency gains as the driving force for accelerating carbon dioxide emissions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garrett, T. J.

    2012-12-01

    It is normally assumed that gains in energy efficiency are one of the best routes that society has available to it for stabilizing future carbon dioxide emissions. For a given degree of economic productivity less energy is consumed and a smaller quantity of fossil fuels is required. While certainly this observation is true in the instant, it ignores feedbacks in the economic system such that efficiency gains ultimately lead to greater energy consumption: taken as a global whole, they permit civilization to accelerate its expansion into the energy reserves that sustain it. Here this argument is formalized from a general thermodynamic perspective. The core result is that there exists a fixed, time-independent link between a very general representation of global inflation-adjusted economic wealth (units currency) and civilization's total capacity to consume power (units energy per time). Based on 40 years of available statistics covering more than a tripling of global GDP and a doubling of wealth, this constant has a value of 7.1 +/- 0.01 Watts per one thousand 2005 US dollars. Essentially, wealth is power. Civilization grows by dissipating power in order to sustain all its current activities and to incorporate more raw material into its existing structure. Growth of its structure is related to economic production, so more energy efficient economic production facilitates growth. Growth is into the reserves that sustain civilization, in which case there is a positive feedback in the economic system whereby energy efficiency gains ultimately "backfire" if their intended purpose is to reduce energy consumption and carbon dioxide emissions. The analogy that can be made is to a growing child: a healthy child who efficiently incorporates food into her structure grows quickly and is able to consume more in following years. Economically, an argument is made that, for a range of reasons, there are good reasons to refer to efficiency gains as economic "innovation", both for

  4. Enabling online studies of conceptual relationships between medical terms: developing an efficient web platform.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Albin, Aaron; Ji, Xiaonan; Borlawsky, Tara B; Ye, Zhan; Lin, Simon; Payne, Philip Ro; Huang, Kun; Xiang, Yang

    2014-10-07

    The Unified Medical Language System (UMLS) contains many important ontologies in which terms are connected by semantic relations. For many studies on the relationships between biomedical concepts, the use of transitively associated information from ontologies and the UMLS has been shown to be effective. Although there are a few tools and methods available for extracting transitive relationships from the UMLS, they usually have major restrictions on the length of transitive relations or on the number of data sources. Our goal was to design an efficient online platform that enables efficient studies on the conceptual relationships between any medical terms. To overcome the restrictions of available methods and to facilitate studies on the conceptual relationships between medical terms, we developed a Web platform, onGrid, that supports efficient transitive queries and conceptual relationship studies using the UMLS. This framework uses the latest technique in converting natural language queries into UMLS concepts, performs efficient transitive queries, and visualizes the result paths. It also dynamically builds a relationship matrix for two sets of input biomedical terms. We are thus able to perform effective studies on conceptual relationships between medical terms based on their relationship matrix. The advantage of onGrid is that it can be applied to study any two sets of biomedical concept relations and the relations within one set of biomedical concepts. We use onGrid to study the disease-disease relationships in the Online Mendelian Inheritance in Man (OMIM). By crossvalidating our results with an external database, the Comparative Toxicogenomics Database (CTD), we demonstrated that onGrid is effective for the study of conceptual relationships between medical terms. onGrid is an efficient tool for querying the UMLS for transitive relations, studying the relationship between medical terms, and generating hypotheses.

  5. Modelling of Efficiency Change as a Source of Economic Growth in Agriculture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bezat-Jarzębowska Agnieszka

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available In the paper, the subject of economic growth in agriculture was raised. One of the determinants of this process, namely an efficiency change was under the assessment. The aim of the paper was to evaluate the changes of efficiency in the Polish agriculture. In the study, a stochastic parametric production function was used.

  6. Economic efficiency and risk character of fire management programs, Northern Rocky Mountains

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas J. Mills; Frederick W. Bratten

    1988-01-01

    Economic efficiency and risk have long been considered during the selection of fire management programs and the design of fire management polices. The risk considerations was largely subjective, however, and efficiency has only recently been calculated for selected portions of the fire management program. The highly stochastic behavior of the fire system and the high...

  7. The Economic Efficiency of European Football Clubs--Data Envelopment Analysis (DEA) Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pyatunin, Aleksey V.; Vishnyakova, Angelina B.; Sherstneva, Natalia L.; Mironova, Svetlana P.; Dneprov, Sergey A.; Grabozdin, Yuriy P.

    2016-01-01

    The relevance of this paper lies in the fact that football business has grown significantly in the past 20 years and football clubs have become large companies, which in an effort to be profitable and successful on the field need to improve the efficiency of their business. The aim of this article is to measure economic efficiency of 48 big…

  8. Defining the economic essence of definition «providing efficiency»

    OpenAIRE

    Kovalchyk, Olena Arnoldivna

    2011-01-01

    In paper the main approaches to defining the economic essence of the category of «efficiency» is analyzed. The existing conceptual approach to the term «providing» is investigated. The own point of view on the interpretation of definition «providing efficiency» is given.

  9. Discussion on Boiler Efficiency Correction Method with Low Temperature Economizer-Air Heater System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ke, Liu; Xing-sen, Yang; Fan-jun, Hou; Zhi-hong, Hu

    2017-05-01

    This paper pointed out that it is wrong to take the outlet flue gas temperature of low temperature economizer as exhaust gas temperature in boiler efficiency calculation based on GB10184-1988. What’s more, this paper proposed a new correction method, which decomposed low temperature economizer-air heater system into two hypothetical parts of air preheater and pre condensed water heater and take the outlet equivalent gas temperature of air preheater as exhaust gas temperature in boiler efficiency calculation. This method makes the boiler efficiency calculation more concise, with no air heater correction. It has a positive reference value to deal with this kind of problem correctly.

  10. Use of Online Information Resources by RMIT University Economics, Finance, and Marketing Students Participating in a Cooperative Education Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Costa, Cathy

    2009-01-01

    This paper examines the use of online information resources by Economics, Finance, and Marketing 3rd year students in a cooperative education program and explores some possible factors and issues that influence how students use these resources. The nature of Work Integrated Learning (WIL) programs, the business information environment, and the…

  11. Online professional development conferences: An effective, economical and eco-friendly option

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lynn Anderson

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available In order to stay current within their field, many professionals regularly attend conferences and training events in distant locales. Travel to these conferences costs professionals, and their sponsor organizations, both time and money. In the past the benefits afforded by these conferences, and the lack of comparable alternatives, have provided justification for these expenditures. However, recent studies have shown that the cost of travel extends beyond the pocketbook. Transportation is a major contributor of carbon dioxide (CO2 emissions, a key suspect in the argument for the negative impact of global climate change. This paper examines the potential effects of travel to these conferences on the environment and promotes online conferences as a comparable alternative to face-to-face events. A successful online conference is used to demonstrate the magnitude of the environmental and economical benefits of online conferences. The authors posit that online conferencing technologies have evolved such that they now offer another option for professional development that is effective, economical and environmentally friendly. Résumé : Afin de rester à jour dans leur domaine, de nombreux professionnels participent régulièrement à des colloques et à des activités de formation dans des endroits éloignés. Se déplacer pour assister à de tels congrès ou colloques demande des investissements à la fois en temps et en argent de la part des professionnels et de leurs établissements parrains. Si, par le passé, les bénéfices que procuraient ces colloques et l’absence de solutions de rechange comparables justifiaient de telles dépenses, des études récentes ont toutefois montré que les frais de déplacement s’étendent au-delà des coûts financiers. Les transports constituent une source majeure des émissions de dioxyde de carbone (CO2, un composé soupçonné d’être l’un des facteurs clés de l’impact négatif de l’humain sur le

  12. Unitary assessment of economical efficiency of the energy resources for electricity production in Romania

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Luca, Gheorghe

    2004-01-01

    In our country, within the studies, on which the development strategies of power output are based on, the assessment of the economical efficiency of the use of two main energetic resources, the fuel used in cogeneration thermal power plants and the water used in hydropower plants respectively, was made in compliance with non-unitary specific norms. In contradiction with the degree of utilization of hydroelectric resources, realized all over the world in the developed countries (80-90%) resulted that in our country, where the degree of utilization is only 40%, the use of hydroelectric potential is not yet justified from technical-economical point of view. This anomaly was determined by the cause of non-unitary assessment of the economic efficiency for the cogeneration thermo-power plants and hydropower plants. This paper presents comparatively the elements, which were to the basis of the assessment of the economic efficiency for two types of electrical power plants, and one presents a proposal in the aim to perform a unitary assessment of the economical efficiency by applying efficiently the laws in force. (author)

  13. Efficient on-line setup correction strategies using plan-intent functions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Keller, Harry; Jaffray, David A.; Rosewall, Tara; White, Elizabeth

    2006-01-01

    With the introduction of image-guided radiation therapy (IGRT) delivery systems on-line set-up correction strategies have gained in popularity. Usually, the correction workload of these strategies is high compared to off-line strategies as daily setup corrections have to be performed based on a predefined action level. In this work, it is proposed that on-line strategies must not only be judged in terms of workload but also in terms of efficacy. While workload can be easily predicted for such strategies, the efficacy must ultimately reflect the efficiency with which the original treatment plan intent is met. The purpose of this work is to investigate the tradeoff between workload and efficacy of three different on-line set-up correction strategies: The common fixed action level strategy and two novel on-line setup correction strategies, i.e., a dose-volume histogram (DVH) constraint and an equivalent uniform dose (EUD) score strategy that aim directly for better compliance with original treatment plan intent. All strategies were reformulated in terms of a score function that reflected treatment plan intent. A retrospective study was conducted on 5 prostate patients (7-field conformal, 79.8 Gy, 42 fractions). PTV margins were 10 mm except in the posterior direction (7 mm). The original treatment plan intent for these patients was defined using a set of DVH constraints. The results show that the on-line setup correction strategy based on a fixed action level of 3 mm resulted in a considerable correction workload. For larger action levels, a dose benefit (in terms of EUD) in the rectum and bladder was observed for all patients which is clinically ''fortuitous'' but difficult to take advantage of. In contrast, the application of the two novel strategies generally resulted in a controlled decrease of the dose to the rectum and the bladder with a smaller workload. It is concluded that using information about target anatomy and the planned dose distribution allows the

  14. Efficient Online Aggregates in Dense-Region-Based Data Cube Representations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haddadin, Kais; Lauer, Tobias

    In-memory OLAP systems require a space-efficient representation of sparse data cubes in order to accommodate large data sets. On the other hand, most efficient online aggregation techniques, such as prefix sums, are built on dense array-based representations. These are often not applicable to real-world data due to the size of the arrays which usually cannot be compressed well, as most sparsity is removed during pre-processing. A possible solution is to identify dense regions in a sparse cube and only represent those using arrays, while storing sparse data separately, e.g. in a spatial index structure. Previous dense-region-based approaches have concentrated mainly on the effectiveness of the dense-region detection (i.e. on the space-efficiency of the result). However, especially in higher-dimensional cubes, data is usually more cluttered, resulting in a potentially large number of small dense regions, which negatively affects query performance on such a structure. In this paper, our focus is not only on space-efficiency but also on time-efficiency, both for the initial dense-region extraction and for queries carried out in the resulting hybrid data structure. We describe two methods to trade available memory for increased aggregate query performance. In addition, optimizations in our approach significantly reduce the time to build the initial data structure compared to former systems. Also, we present a straightforward adaptation of our approach to support multi-core or multi-processor architectures, which can further enhance query performance. Experiments with different real-world data sets show how various parameter settings can be used to adjust the efficiency and effectiveness of our algorithms.

  15. Economic efficiency in fish farming: hope for agro-allied industries in Niagara

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kareem, R. O.; Dipeolu, A. O.; Aromolaran, A. B.; Williams, S. B.

    2008-02-01

    The challenge to increase the efficiency in food production level in Nigeria appears to be more urgent now than it has ever been in the history of the country. This is in view of the rapidly increasing population, the imminent decline in international economic and food aid and the need to conserve foreign exchange earnings through the production of raw materials to feed the growing industrial sector calls for urgent attention. The study was carried out in Ogun State. The descriptive statistics was used to determine the socio-economic characteristics of the respondents. The stochastic frontiers production analysis was applied to estimate the technical, allocative efficiency and economic efficiency among the fish farmers in the state. The results of economic efficiency revealed that fish farming is economically efficient with a range of between 55% and 84% efficiency level suggesting a favourable hope for the agro-allied industry such as poultry and cottage industries etc in the state. The result of hypothesis of inefficiency sources models showed that years of experience of fish farmers is significant at 1% probability level indicating the factor contributing to the fish farming experience in the state. Thus, the efficiency is due to the fact that farmers are experienced and fairly educated. On the basis of findings, policy is suggested to be directed towards the encouragement of entrepreneurs in fish farming in the state by providing enabling environment like credit facilities, public enlightenment programme and provision of social amenities like feeder roads, pipe-born water etc and given the fact that an increase in the level of formal education variable leads to less inefficiency, government policy should be focused on adopting the best technology (e.g. fast growing species and equipment) so as to improve the level of efficiency and investment which shall eventually lead to growth in output of fish farming and a lead to the establishment of agro

  16. Practical Validation of Economic Efficiency Modelling Method for Multi-Boiler Heating System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aleksejs Jurenoks

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available In up-to-date conditions information technology is frequently associated with the modelling process, using computer technology as well as information networks. Statistical modelling is one of the most widespread methods of research of economic systems. The selection of methods of modelling of the economic systems depends on a great number of conditions of the researched system. Modelling is frequently associated with the factor of uncertainty (or risk, who’s description goes outside the confines of the traditional statistical modelling, which, in its turn, complicates the modelling which, in its turn, complicates the modelling process. This article describes the modelling process of assessing the economic efficiency of a multi-boiler adaptive heating system in real-time systems which allows for dynamic change in the operation scenarios of system service installations while enhancing the economic efficiency of the system in consideration.

  17. Economic Efficiency, Allen / Uzama and Morishima Elasticities of Smallholder Agriculture In Dedza District, Malawi

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Assa MAGANGA

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper is an attempt to measure the economic efficiency of Dedza smallholder Irish potato (Solanum tuberosum farmers in Malawi using a translog cost frontier, inefficiency effect model and input Elasticities from Seeming Unrelated Regression Model for asystem of cost share equations for labour, fertilizer, seed and land. A sample of 200 farmers has been considered from Dedza district in Malawi. Results indicate that the mean economic efficiency of Irish potato production in Dedza District is 0.61 with scores ranging between 0.12 and 0.94. The economic efficiency differences are significantly explained by non-farm employment, education, credit access, farm experience, degree of specialization, household size and frequency of weeding. The highest input substitution existed between labour and fertilizer, followed by seedfertilizer.

  18. Water Market-scale Agricultural Planning: Promoting Competing Water Resource Use Efficiency Through Agro-Economics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delorit, J. D.; Block, P. J.

    2017-12-01

    Where strong water rights law and corresponding markets exist as a coupled econo-legal mechanism, water rights holders are permitted to trade allocations to promote economic water resource use efficiency. In locations where hydrologic uncertainty drives the assignment of annual per-water right allocation values by water resource managers, collaborative water resource decision making by water rights holders, specifically those involved in agricultural production, can result in both resource and economic Pareto efficiency. Such is the case in semi-arid North Chile, where interactions between representative farmer groups, treated as competitive bilateral monopolies, and modeled at water market-scale, can provide both price and water right allocation distribution signals for unregulated, temporary water right leasing markets. For the range of feasible per-water right allocation values, a coupled agricultural-economic model is developed to describe the equilibrium distribution of water, the corresponding market price of water rights and the net surplus generated by collaboration between competing agricultural uses. Further, this research describes a per-water right inflection point for allocations where economic efficiency is not possible, and where price negotiation among competing agricultural uses is required. An investigation of the effects of water right supply and demand inequality at the market-scale is completed to characterize optimal market performance under existing water rights law. The broader insights of this research suggest that water rights holders engaged in agriculture can achieve economic benefits from forming crop-type cooperatives and by accurately assessing the economic value of allocation.

  19. Energy efficiency, human behavior, and economic growth: Challenges to cutting energy demand to sustainable levels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santarius, Tilman

    2015-03-01

    Increasing energy efficiency in households, transportation, industries, and services is an important strategy to reduce energy service demand to levels that allow the steep reduction of greenhouse gases, and a full fledged switch of energy systems to a renewable basis. Yet, technological efficiency improvements may generate so-called rebound effects, which may `eat up' parts of the technical savings potential. This article provides a comprehensive review of existing research on these effects, raises critiques, and points out open questions. It introduces micro-economic rebound effect and suggests extending consumer-side analysis to incorporate potential `psychological rebound effects.' It then discusses meso-economic rebound effects, i.e. producer-side and market-level rebounds, which so far have achieved little attention in the literature. Finally, the article critically reviews evidence for macro-economic rebound effects as energy efficiency-induced economic growth impacts. For all three categories, the article summarizes assessments of their potential quantitative scope, while pointing out remaining methodological weaknesses and open questions. As a rough "rule of thumb", in the long term and on gross average, only half the technical savings potential of across-the-board efficiency improvements may actually be achieved in the real world. Policies that aim at cutting energy service demand to sustainable levels are well advised to take due note of detrimental behavioral and economic growth impacts, and should foster policies and measures that can contain them.

  20. Energy efficiency, human behavior, and economic growth: Challenges to cutting energy demand to sustainable levels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Santarius, Tilman, E-mail: tilman@santarius.de [Visiting Scholar, Institute of European Studies and Energy and Resources Group, University of California, Berkeley, 310 Barrows Hall, Berkeley, CA 94720-3050 (United States)

    2015-03-30

    Increasing energy efficiency in households, transportation, industries, and services is an important strategy to reduce energy service demand to levels that allow the steep reduction of greenhouse gases, and a full fledged switch of energy systems to a renewable basis. Yet, technological efficiency improvements may generate so-called rebound effects, which may ‘eat up’ parts of the technical savings potential. This article provides a comprehensive review of existing research on these effects, raises critiques, and points out open questions. It introduces micro-economic rebound effect and suggests extending consumer-side analysis to incorporate potential ‘psychological rebound effects.’ It then discusses meso-economic rebound effects, i.e. producer-side and market-level rebounds, which so far have achieved little attention in the literature. Finally, the article critically reviews evidence for macro-economic rebound effects as energy efficiency-induced economic growth impacts. For all three categories, the article summarizes assessments of their potential quantitative scope, while pointing out remaining methodological weaknesses and open questions. As a rough “rule of thumb”, in the long term and on gross average, only half the technical savings potential of across-the-board efficiency improvements may actually be achieved in the real world. Policies that aim at cutting energy service demand to sustainable levels are well advised to take due note of detrimental behavioral and economic growth impacts, and should foster policies and measures that can contain them.

  1. Studies Concerning the Economic Efficiency and Quality of the Vegetal Sausages

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claudiu Dan Salagean

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of performed research aimed to establish the influence of protein supplements on the quality and economic efficiency in the processing of a certain semi-smoked sausage assortment using two experimental processing technologies: with 3% soy protein derivatives as supplements and 100% soy protein derivatives as vegetal raw materials. The results revealed that, from an economical point of view, the vegetal processing technology (with exclusively vegetal raw materials was more efficiently than the supplemented processing technology (with protein derivatives as supplements and from qualitatively point of view, the obtained values have been in accordance with the in force STAS-es.

  2. Technical Efficiency and Port Competition: Revisiting the Bohai Economic Rim, China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Grace Wang

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The Bohai Economic Rim plays an important role in supporting China’s economic growth. For this research, we selected nine main ports in the region to study whether intra-port competition or corporatization would improve efficiency. Using a panel fixed effect model and stochastic frontier model, we found that the technical efficiency of selected ports is significantly influenced by the time of the initial public offering than by regional competition. The results are supportive and encouraging for policy makers to move toward the decentralized port governance in China.

  3. Economic efficiency of application of innovative materials and structures in high-rise construction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Golov, Roman; Dikareva, Varvara; Gorshkov, Roman; Agarkov, Anatoly

    2018-03-01

    The article is devoted to the analysis of technical and economic efficiency of application of tube confined concrete structures in high-rise construction. The study of comparative costs of materials with the use of different supporting columns was carried out. The main design, operational, technological and economic advantages of the tube confined concrete technology were evaluated, conclusions were drawn about the high strength and deformation properties of axial compression of steel tubes filled with high-strength concrete. The efficiency of the tube confined concrete use is substantiated, which depends mainly on the scale factor and percentage of reinforcement affecting its load-bearing capacity.

  4. EVALUATION OF ECOLOGICAL AND ECONOMIC EFFICIENCY OF STEEL-MAKING SLAG IN ROAD CONSTRUCTION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. K. Коstenkо

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper provides an estimation of ecological and economic efficiency of utilization of the electric steel-melting slag of the Belarussian Steel Works in the road construction. The obtained results  give us a reason to consider that involvement of this type of industrial waste into economic turnover is an economically expedient and ecologically justified measure that will allow road-construction enterprises to reduce the cost of installation and construction works and enlarge their resource potential as well as to help the producer of wastes to release funds for innovation development and solve the problem of waste accumulation in the near future.

  5. The Waldo County project: A partnership for energy efficient economic development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baston, D.C.

    1990-01-01

    In April 1988, the state of Maine designated four economically disadvantaged areas as Job Opportunity Zones. An interministerial initiative was put into place to improve the economic situation of these regions and to attract high quality jobs. One of these, Waldo County, formed part of the service territory of Central Maine Power. In May 1988, that utility asked the Alliance to Save Energy to recommend means for aligning its energy efficiency program with the state's economic improvement program in order to bring about effective economic growth in Waldo County. The utility is in the process of adopting all of the energy efficiency measures recommended by the Alliance. The utility's program in this respect is focused on support for existing small businesses in the county. In most of these businesses, the largest component of their electric bill is for lighting. A pilot program to retrofit modern energy-efficient lighting will install state-of-the-art equipment such as electronic ballasts and compact fluorescents without cost to the customer. This program will provide substantial savings to existing businesses and provide efficiency savings to the utility. Marketing of commercial and residential energy management programs is also being intensified. Energy management assistance is also given to new businesses; this assistance includes financial incentives to install energy efficient equipment

  6. Efficiency Optimization Control of IPM Synchronous Motor Drives with Online Parameter Estimation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sadegh Vaez-Zadeh

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available This paper describes an efficiency optimization control method for high performance interior permanent magnet synchronous motor drives with online estimation of motor parameters. The control system is based on an input-output feedback linearization method which provides high performance control and simultaneously ensures the minimization of the motor losses. The controllable electrical loss can be minimized by the optimal control of the armature current vector. It is shown that parameter variations except at near the nominal conditions have undesirable effect on the controller performance. Therefore, a parameter estimation method based on the second method of Lyapunov is presented which guarantees the stability and convergence of the estimation. The extensive simulation results show the feasibility of the proposed controller and observer and their desirable performances.

  7. The Development of the Guide to Economic Analysis and Research (GEAR) Online Resource for Low- and Middle-Income Countries' Health Economics Practitioners: A Commentary.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adeagbo, Chiaki Urai; Rattanavipapong, Waranya; Guinness, Lorna; Teerawattananon, Yot

    2018-05-01

    Public health authorities around the world are increasingly using economic evaluation to set priorities and inform decision making in health policy, especially in the development of health benefit packages. Nevertheless, researchers in low- and middle-income countries (LMICs) encounter many barriers when conducting economic evaluations. In 2015, the Health Intervention and Technology Assessment Program identified key technical and context-specific challenges faced in conducting and using health economic evaluations in LMICs. On the basis of these research findings, the Guide to Economic Analysis and Research (GEAR) online resource (www.gear4health.com) was developed as a reliable aid to researchers in LMICs that would help overcome those challenges. Funded by the Thailand Research Fund and the Bill and Melinda Gates Foundation, GEAR is a free online resource that provides a visual aid tool for planning economic evaluation studies (GEAR mind maps), a repository of national and international economic evaluation guidelines (GEAR guideline comparison), and an active link to a network of volunteer international experts (GEAR: Ask an expert). GEAR will evolve over time to provide relevant, reliable, and up-to-date information through inputs from its users (e.g., periodic survey on methodological challenges) and experts (e.g., in responding to users' questions). The objective of this commentary was to give a brief description of the development and key features of this unique collective information hub aimed at facilitating high-quality research and empowering health care decision makers and stakeholders to use economic evaluation evidence. Copyright © 2017 International Society for Pharmacoeconomics and Outcomes Research (ISPOR). Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. The economics of energy efficiency for the poor--a South African case study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Spalding-Fecher, Randall; Clark, Alix; Davis, Mark; Simmonds, Gillian

    2002-01-01

    South Africa's Reconstruction and Development Programme set ambitious goals for providing basic services to all, including housing and electrification. More efficient use of energy has the potential to socially and politically support these goals, particularly when it is targeted at low-income communities lacking adequate energy services. This paper examines the economics of energy efficiency for the urban poor from the perspective of society, utilities and poor consumers, using five example programmes. While the five energy efficiency programmes generally have significant economic and environmental benefits from a social perspective, they may not be as attractive to utilities and consumers. Also examined are the policy options for overcoming the significant barriers to energy efficiency, and ways government can bridge the gap between what is good for society and what is good for the electricity industry

  9. Is the Economic andTesting the Efficient Markets Hypothesis on the Romanian Capital Market

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dragoș Mînjină

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Informational efficiency of capital markets has been the subject of numerous empirical studies. Intensive research of the field is justified by the important implications of the knowledge of the of informational efficiency level in the financial practice. Empirical studies that have tested the efficient markets hypothesis on the Romanian capital market revealed mostly that this market is not characterised by the weak form of the efficient markets hypothesis. However, recent empirical studies have obtained results for the weak form of the efficient markets hypothesis. The present decline period of the Romanian capital market, recorded on the background of adverse economic developments internally and externally, will be an important test for the continuation of recent positive developments, manifested the level of informational efficiency too.

  10. The technical and economic efficiency in the mineral processing for lead-zinc and copper ores by Microsoft excel

    OpenAIRE

    Krstev, Aleksandar; Krstev, Boris; Krstev, Dejan; Vuckovski, Zoran

    2012-01-01

    The comparisons between economical and technical efficiency for lead flotation indicators, zinc flotation indicators in Sasa mine, Toranica and Zletovo mine. The comparisons for economic and technical efficiency for copper flotation indicators in Bucim mine. The possibility of equaled between both efficiencies for flotation indicators from mentioned mines using Microsoft Excel 2010.

  11. EVALUATION OF ECONOMIC EFFICIENCY PERTAINING TO USAGE OF AUTOMOTIVE TRANSPORT FACILITIES WHILE EXECUTING INTERNATIONAL CARGO TRANSPORTATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. B. Ivut

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents a methodology for evaluation of economic efficiency pertaining to usage of automotive transport facilities while executing international cargo transportation on the basis of average internal norm calculation of automotive operational profitability of a specific model under conditions which are typical for the given market by an average carrier.

  12. Economic rationalism and the cost efficiency of hospital chaplaincy: an Australian study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Newell, C; Carey, L B

    2000-01-01

    Health care reform is also occurring in Australia and effects hospital chaplaincy programs. "Economic rationalism" is the philosophic foundation of this effort and its contrast with the values inherit in hospital chaplaincy are highlighted. Selected research results from the Australian system are described and the authors offer a perspective on the cost efficiency of hospital chaplaincy.

  13. Economic efficiency of the use of the bush vegetation from slopes of the ameliorative canals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Titov, V.N.

    2009-01-01

    The results of calculations of the economic efficiency of the use of the bush vegetation from slopes of the ameliorative canals for fuel and energy purposes has been presented. The two variants of disposal of bushes are considered burning and conversion into fuel chips. (authors)

  14. Does energy efficiency improve technological change and economic growth in developing countries?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cantore, Nicola; Calì, Massimiliano; Velde, Dirk Willem te

    2016-01-01

    Does a trade-off exist between energy efficiency and economic growth? This question underlies some of the tensions between economic and environmental policies, especially in developing countries that often need to expand their industrial base to grow. This paper contributes to the debate by analyzing the relationship between energy efficiency and economic performance at the micro- (total factor productivity) and macro-level (countries' economic growth). It uses data on a large sample of manufacturing firms across 29 developing countries to find that lower levels of energy intensity are associated with higher total factor productivity for the majority of these countries. The results are robust to a variety of checks. Suggestive cross-country evidence points towards the same relation measured at the macro-level as well. - Highlights: •Total factor productivity is an accurate proxy of technological change. •Energy efficiency triggers total factor productivity especially in manufacturing. •Technological change via energy efficiency in manufacturing is an engine of growth.

  15. Production System of Peranakan Etawah Goat under Application of Feed Technology: Productivity and Economic Efficiency

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Akhmad Sodiq

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Feed resources are the major constraint in increasing goat production in the village. The main constraints to goat raising are related to feeds (i the high cost of transport of crop residues and grass to the homesteads, (ii the low nutritive value of feeds used, particularly in the dry period. This research was design to evaluate goat productivity and economic efficiency of goat farming under application of feed technology production system in Peranakan Etawah goat farmer group of Gumelar Banyumas Central Java. All farmers were taken as respondents using census methods. On farm research with participative focused group discussion, indepth interview, and farm observation. Descriptive analysis and independent t test methods were used to analyze the data. Results of this study showed that there was a significant improvement goat productivity on production system with the application of feed technology. Body weight at weaning, survival rate till weaning, and doe productivity were increased 7%, 2% and 5%, respectively. There was no evidence of significant different of farmers income and economic efficiency before and after the applied feed technology (P>0.05. The calculation was based on cash flow. Before application, farmers income per year and economic efficiency were Rp14.404.520,00 and 1.21, then insignificantly improve into Rp16.487.100,00 and 1.27, respectively. (Animal Production 11(3: 202-208 (2009 Key Words: Livestock production system, Peranakan Etawah goat, feed technology aplication, productivity and economic efficiency

  16. Estimation of the economical and ecological efficiency of the solar heat supply in Russia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marchenko, O.V.; Solomin, S.V.

    2001-01-01

    One carried out numerical study of application efficiency of solar heat supply systems in the climatic conditions of Russia with regard to their economical competitiveness with organic fuel heat conventional sources and role in reduction of greenhouse gas releases. One defined the regions where (under certain conditions) application of solar energy to generate low-potential heat may be reasonable [ru

  17. Methodological approach to simulation and choice of ecologically efficient and energetically economic wind turbines (WT)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bespalov, Vadim; Udina, Natalya; Samarskaya, Natalya

    2017-10-01

    Use of wind energy is related to one of the prospective directions among renewed energy sources. A methodological approach is reviewed in the article to simulation and choice of ecologically efficient and energetically economic wind turbines on the designing stage taking into account characteristics of natural-territorial complex and peculiarities of anthropogenic load in the territory of WT location.

  18. Finance-economical indexes of efficiency of development of railway transport

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Chekhovska

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Because of formation of public joint-stock company of railway transport of the common use, by an author it is suggested to carry out the analysis of efficiency of subsequent development of railway transport, leaning against indexes which represent the finance-economical constituent of results of activity of corporate enterprises.

  19. Energy efficiency / economic in agroecosystems; Eficiencia energetica/economica em agroecossistemas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Almeida, Luis Carlos Ferreira de; Bueno, Osmar de Carvalho; Esperancini, Maura Seiko Tsutui [Universidade Estadual Paulista Julio de Mesquita Filho (FCA/UNESP), Botucatu, SP (Brazil). Fac. de Ciencias Agronomicas

    2010-07-01

    The energy and economic evaluation of agroecosystems is important in the sense of appraise as maintainable these can be so much of the point of view energy as economic. The objective of the present paper was to show, starting from a case study, the construction of an indicator of energy/economic efficiency, whose results for four existent systems of corn production in the study area presented indexes that varied between 22.4 and 31.6. Of the reading of those values was possible to evaluate that all of the appraised systems show sustainability of long and short term. The proposed indicator if it shows solid in the agroecosystems appreciation concerning the analysis of your energy/economic sustainability. (author)

  20. Efficiency, equity or disagreement? The economics of international carbon abatement negotiations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mabey, N.; Smith, C.

    1995-01-01

    The current international effort to reduce greenhouse gas emissions, as embodied in the Framework Convention on Climate Change, is often criticized as inefficient by economists because it uses uniform targets instead of more theoretically efficient instruments such as international taxes. However, the effectiveness of any international treaty in producing environmental benefits is not wholly dependent on its economic efficiency but also on its political stability and the ability to accurately monitor and enforce its conditions. Stability depends on the magnitude and distribution of costs and benefits between countries which have heterogeneous economies, environmental damages, trading partners and abatement costs. The distribution of costs between countries will also depend on the type of policy instrument used to coordinate international abatement efforts. This paper analyses trade-offs that must be made when negotiating international agreements in order to balance the need for administrative convenience and economic efficiency with the realization that any agreement is better than no agreement

  1. Determining Factors for Economic Efficiency in the Organic Olive Oil Sector

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Enrique Bernal Jurado

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Spain looms large worldwide in organic olive oil production. However, this productive potential contrasts with the low internal consumption of the product. This situation makes Spain a world leader in its export. Companies in this sector have clear deficiencies, which must be corrected to ensure their survival over time. In this context, the aim of this study is to analyse the level of efficiency, in economic terms, of organic olive oil producers and to identify the factors explaining the best organizational practices. To do so, Data Envelopment Analysis (DEA and Qualitative Comparative Analysis (QCA have been used. The results reveal low levels of economic efficiency and the variables determining said efficiency.

  2. Online sorting of recovered wood waste by automated XRF-technology: part II. Sorting efficiencies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hasan, A Rasem; Solo-Gabriele, Helena; Townsend, Timothy

    2011-04-01

    Sorting of waste wood is an important process practiced at recycling facilities in order to detect and divert contaminants from recycled wood products. Contaminants of concern include arsenic, chromium and copper found in chemically preserved wood. The objective of this research was to evaluate the sorting efficiencies of both treated and untreated parts of the wood waste stream, and metal (As, Cr and Cu) mass recoveries by the use of automated X-ray fluorescence (XRF) systems. A full-scale system was used for experimentation. This unit consisted of an XRF-detection chamber mounted on the top of a conveyor and a pneumatic slide-way diverter which sorted wood into presumed treated and presumed untreated piles. A randomized block design was used to evaluate the operational conveyance parameters of the system, including wood feed rate and conveyor belt speed. Results indicated that online sorting efficiencies of waste wood by XRF technology were high based on number and weight of pieces (70-87% and 75-92% for treated wood and 66-97% and 68-96% for untreated wood, respectively). These sorting efficiencies achieved mass recovery for metals of 81-99% for As, 75-95% for Cu and 82-99% of Cr. The incorrect sorting of wood was attributed almost equally to deficiencies in the detection and conveyance/diversion systems. Even with its deficiencies, the system was capable of producing a recyclable portion that met residential soil quality levels established for Florida, for an infeed that contained 5% of treated wood. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Industrial policy, production efficiency improvement and the Chinese county economic growth

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wang Zhenhua

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available This study aims at analyzing the difference in the level of economic development between China’s counties from the two perspectives of industrial policy and production efficiency. Based on panel data of 1830 Chinese counties, this study employs the new classical economic growth theory framework to analyze the counties’ economic growth by the perpetual inventory method, Malmquist index, among others. The results show that the economy of the counties exhibits δ convergence since 2004, and the absolute differences in the different counties are expanding. Industrial policy ensures the additional deepening of the level of capital in the county. Additionally, a substantial difference was observed between the agricultural sector and the non-agricultural sector, whereby the total factor productivity and the technical efficiency are on the rise, resulting in the phenomenon of dual paths of technological progress. In summary, the capital deepening difference between the sectors, production efficiency, and dual paths of technological progress owing to the counties’ industrial policy are the basic reasons for the regional differences in the level of economic development in China.

  4. Economic feasibility of an energy efficiency project for a steam distribution system in a chemical industry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Flavia Melo Menezes

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The burning of fossil fuels majorly contributes to the increase in global warming, and it represents 93% of greenhouse gases emissions in the chemical industry. Most of the energy demand in this sector is associated with steam systems, where 1/3 of the energy efficiency opportunities are located in its distribution system. However, most of the literature focuses on the design of new systems. Those that deal with existing systems, not always use simple and available methods. Furthermore, they address energy losses of steam systems only due to thermal insulation, ignoring those due to leakages of traps. Given this context, the purpose of this paper is to determine the economic feasibility of an energy efficiency project for a steam distribution system in a chemical industry, located in the metropolitan region of Salvador, Brazil. First, the energy lost in the steam distribution system through heat insulation and steam traps was estimated by applying thermodynamic principles, and technic consulting, respectively. Then, investments were estimated using commercial prices for new thermal insulation and steam traps. Finally, an economic evaluation of the improvement project was made, through the construction of a cash flow, and calculation of economic indicators: payback time, net present value (NPV, and internal rate of return (IRR. Economic indicators showed that the project is economically viable. The NPV and IRR reached approximately 5 million reais, and 66% per year, respectively. Additionally, this project also had social and environmental benefits, such as a reduction in greenhouse gases emissions, and increased local water availability.

  5. Influence of cable losses on the economic analysis of efficient and sustainable electrical equipment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lobão, J.A.; Devezas, T.; Catalão, J.P.S.

    2014-01-01

    Increasing energy needs are accompanied by environmental responsibilities, since nowadays electricity companies operate in a competitive and sustainable energy framework. In this context, any proposal for action on energy efficiency becomes important for consumers to minimize operational costs. In electrical installations, electricity consumption can be decreased by reducing losses in the cables, associated with the overall efficiency of the equipment, allowing a better use of the installed power. The losses must be analysed in conjunction with all loads that contribute to the currents in the sections of an electrical installation. When replacing equipment in output distribution boxes with more efficient ones, the current in those sections is reduced in association with the decrease in power losses. This decrease, often forgotten, is taken into account in this work for the economic analysis of efficiency and sustainable electrical equipment. This paper presents a new software application that compares and chooses the best investment in the acquisition of electrical equipment. Simulation results obtained with the new software application are provided and are then validated with experimental results from a real electrical installation. - Highlights: • Any proposal for action on energy efficiency is important for consumers. • Electricity consumption can be decreased by reducing losses in the cables. • A new software application that compares and chooses the best investment is provided. • The economic analysis of efficiency and sustainable electrical equipment is carried out. • Simulation results are validated with experimental results from a real electrical installation

  6. On the complex analysis of the reliability, safety, and economic efficiency of atomic electric power stations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Emel'yanov, I.Ya.; Klemin, A.I.; Polyakov, E.F.

    1977-01-01

    The problem is posed of effectively increasing the engineering performance of nuclear electric power stations (APS). The principal components of the engineering performance of modern large APS are considered: economic efficiency, radiation safety, reliability, and their interrelationship. A nomenclature is proposed for the quantitative indices which most completely characterize the enumerated properties and are convenient for the analysis of the engineering performance. The urgent problem of developing a methodology for the complex analysis and optimization of the principal performance components is considered; this methodology is designed to increase the efficiency of the work on high-performance competitive APS. The principle of complex optimization of the reliability, safety, and economic-efficiency indices is formulated; specific recommendations are made for the practical realization of this principle. The structure of the complex quantiative analysis of the enumerated performance components is given. The urgency and promise of the complex approach to solving the problem of APS optimization is demonstrated, i.e., the solution of the problem of creating optimally reliable, fairly safe, and maximally economically efficient stations

  7. Ecological and economical efficiency of monitoring systems for oil and gas production on the shelf

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kurakin, A. L.; Lobkovsky, L. I.

    2014-02-01

    Requirements for signals' reliability of monitoring systems (with respect to the errors of the 1st and 2nd kinds, i.e., false alarms and skipping of danger) are deduced from the ratio of expenditures of different kinds (of exploitation expenses and losses due to accidents). The expressions obtained in the research may be used for economic foundations (and optimization) of specifications for monitoring systems. In cases when optimal parameters are not available, the sufficient condition of monitoring systems economical efficiency is presented.

  8. Efficient Use of Terrestrial Economic Services: A Case Study in South Korea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguyen, T. T.; Tenhunen, J.; Hoang, V. N.; Koellner, T.; Shin, H.; Pham, V. D.; Seo, B.

    2012-04-01

    Understanding the linkages between social and ecological systems is crucial for managing potential responses to global change. Agricultural production requires resources, is determined by ecological processes, and results in economic goods and services for society. However, production leads at the same time to both positive and negative externalities. The externalities can be enhanced or mitigated by human behavior in management, which is mainly driven by expectations related to economic gains and losses. Ecological and economic processes are interrelated, and continuously interact in a complex manner. Therefore, understanding potential economic gains and losses in response to global change is a fundamental consideration in order to carry out well-informed decision-making. The International Research and Training Group TERRECO at the University of Bayreuth has intensively investigated ecological systems and processes in forested and agricultural landscapes as well as at regional scale in South Korea. These ongoing efforts provide a unique opportunity to examine the economic gains, losses and trade-offs that may occur with future climate and land-use change. Within this framework, we first investigated the environmental and economic efficiency of rice farms in Kangwon Province of South Korea, since rice is the most important food crop in this country. We then expanded our analysis to include dry farm highland vegetable crops in an intensively farmed region of the country, Haean Catchment. Our main objectives are (1) to categorize different types of farms, (2) determine their economic and environmental efficiency, and (3) to determine the trade-offs that occur in economic and environmental efficiencies under alternative management schemes and alternative climate regimes. Our preliminary analysis for rice farms yielded several important findings. First, both the production cost and environmental pollution by rice farms could be reduced significantly. Improvements in

  9. Improving the ecohydrological and economic efficiency of Small Hydropower Plants with water diversion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Razurel, Pierre; Gorla, Lorenzo; Tron, Stefania; Niayifar, Amin; Crouzy, Benoît; Perona, Paolo

    2018-03-01

    Water exploitation for energy production from Small Hydropower Plant (SHP) is increasing despite human pressure on freshwater already being very intense in several countries. Preserving natural rivers thus requires deeper understanding of the global (i.e., ecological and economic) efficiency of flow-diversion practice. In this work, we show that the global efficiency of SHP river intakes can be improved by non-proportional flow-redistribution policies. This innovative dynamic water allocation defines the fraction of water released to the river as a nonlinear function of river runoff. Three swiss SHP case studies are considered to systematically test the global performance of such policies, under both present and future hydroclimatic regimes. The environmental efficiency is plotted versus the economic efficiency showing that efficient solutions align along a (Pareto) frontier, which is entirely formed by non-proportional policies. On the contrary, other commonly used distribution policies generally lie below the Pareto frontier. This confirms the existence of better policies based on non-proportional redistribution, which should be considered in relation to implementation and operational costs. Our results recommend abandoning static (e.g., constant-minimal-flow) policies in favour of non-proportional dynamic ones towards a more sustainable use of the water resource, also considering changing hydroclimatic scenarios.

  10. Green My Place: Evaluation of a Serious Social Online Game Designed to Promote Energy Efficient Behaviour Change

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Benjamin Ultan Cowley

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The pressing problems of climate change and energy insecurity can both, to a degree, be addressed by improving efficiency and conservation of energy use. A key driver of energy conservation is the consumer market, illustrating the important need to educate citizens towards adopting more sustainable practices. This form of education has several requirements: it must be cost-efficient, scalable, optional or non-intrusive, and self-motivating. We argue that one format that meets these requirements is serious social online games. We describe one such game, Green My Place, which was deployed in the context of the energy-efficiency promotion EU project SAVE ENERGY. We describe two studies evaluating the game, which showed limited positive effects. Analysing the results, we argue that although observable effects might be limited, the format bonuses such as low cost and scalability imply the value of serious social online games, given a large enough population.

  11. Efficiency and economic benefits of skipjack pole and line (huhate) in central Moluccas, Indonesia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siahainenia, Stevanus M.; Hiariey, Johanis; Baskoro, Mulyono S.; Waeleruny, Wellem

    2017-10-01

    Excess fishing capacity is a crucial problem in marine capture fisheries. This phenomenon needed to be investigated regarding sustainability and development of the fishery. This research was aimed at analyzing technical efficiency (TE) and computing financial aspects of the skipjack pole and line. Primary data were collected from the owners of the fishing units at the different size of gross boat tonnage (GT), while secondary data were gathered from official publications relating to this research. Data envelopment analysis (DEA) approach was applied to estimate technical efficiency whereas a selected financial analysis was utilized to calculate economic benefits of the skipjack pole and line business. The fishing units with a size of 26-30 GT provided a higher TE value, and also achieved larger economic benefit values than that of the other fishing units. The empirical results indicate that skipjack pole and line in the size of 26-30 GT is a good fishing gear for the business development in central Moluccas.

  12. Standardization and Green Economic Change - the Case of Energy Efficiency in Buildings

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Maj Munch; Faria, Lourenco

    2015-01-01

    This paper investigates the role of standardization for green economic change using energy efficiency in buildings as a case. Innovation research on standards tends to focus on the competition between competing emerging standards as well as the economic impacts of these. The idea pursued here...... energy efficiency becomes an issue in standardization work using buildings as a case. The paper seeks more specifically to investigate the rise of building related standards generally over time as well as in different technical areas and geographic regions. The hypothesis pursued in this paper...... is that the rise of the green economy can only take place accompanied by considerable institution formation in the form of standards. In this sense, the presence of standards may be seen as an important indicator on the maturity of the greening of the economy. The paper presents early empirical work...

  13. THE ROLE OF ECONOMIC EFFICIENCY OF ACCOMMODATION UNITS IN DETERMINATION OF PURCHASE INTENTIONS OF TOURIST SERVICES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simona Cristina Martin

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available The indicators of demand distribution for various types of accommodation provide information regarding changing tourist preferences for different ways of tourist accommodation. Appreciation of economic efficiency for hotels activity is done through quantitative results obtained in accommodation units. For this purpose it uses, currently, a partial or synthetic indicators system. Taking into account the fact that, in appreciation of hotel business, it must start from the premise that it may not be fully reflected only in terms of economic results, but also through social results, appear obvious the need to maintain costs at a level that satisfies both requirements at the same time. Achieving superior social-financial indicators, remains one of the main goals also in hotel activities, but do not be overlooked the fact that it is necessary that these indicators must be obtained by ensuring a higher level of satisfaction of consumers requirements. Only simultaneous achievement of these two objectives can provide raising efficiency in accommodation sector.

  14. Political and Economic Decisions and Competition – What is the Efficient Antimonopoly Policy?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Irakli Lekvinadze

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available This article discusses the influence of economic decisions which affect the antitrust and competition support policies. Many countries provide governmental initiatives for improving antirust legislation. There is an effort to develop efficient legislation, to define market boundaries, to identify dominating companies, and to prevent cartel development. A review of the literature has shown that refined legislation does not work. Qualified and non-politicized economic decisions are required to provide fair and equitable competition in the marketplace. The discussions of various researchers are profiled on the economic issues. This article analyzes The Republic of Georgia’s 20 year unique market experiences in Eastern Europe. Recommendations have been proposed to increase the effectiveness of an anti-monopoly policy. Normal 0 false false false EN-US X-NONE X-NONE MicrosoftInternetExplorer4

  15. India's economic growth and energy consumption: scope for efficiency and conservation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yadav, S.S.

    2000-01-01

    Like all developing countries in general, India has very low per capita consumption of energy. But the consumption pattern per unit of economic output is high. There is a need to make efforts and evolve mechanism so that energy consumption growth rate decelerates while the desired economic growth takes place. In case of India, large imports of petroleum products impact very adversely on trade balance and consequently on economic growth itself. This paper enumerates various ways - legal, financial and technological - that should be adopted to increase energy efficiency and conservation effort. No single method or tool in isolation may be effective but an integrated approach involving several tools and mechanisms is sure to yield desired results. (author)

  16. Emission Trading and the Kyoto protocol: Are they efficient economic instruments?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ibanez Londono, Ana Maria

    1998-02-01

    The Kyoto Protocol establishes a tradeable permits market for green house gases -GHG- emissions to reduce the costs of meeting the Protocol obligations. Economic theory provides the arguments to support the creation of GHG tradeable permits. Several economic researches have shown that vis-a-vis command and control regulations, tradeable permits induce economic agents to achieve environmental goals at a minimum cost. However, the conditions to minimize costs through tradeable permits are stringent. Tradeable permits require well functioning markets, e.g. perfect competition and perfect information. The tradeable permits market created by the Kyoto Protocol hardly meet these necessary conditions. Some countries like Japan, Great Britain and the United Stated are large emitters and thus may exert market power. Price manipulation may have implications over the static and dynamic efficiency of the permits. This paper takes a first look to the consequences of imperfect markets on the tradeable permit system of the Kyoto Protocol

  17. On the economic analysis of problems in energy efficiency: Market barriers, market failures, and policy implications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sanstad, A.H.; Koomey, J.G.; Levine, M.D.

    1993-01-01

    In his recent paper in The Energy Journal, Ronald Sutherland argues that several so-called ''market barriers'' to energy efficiency frequently cited in the literature are not market failures in the conventional sense and are thus irrelevant for energy policy. We argue that Sutherland has inadequately analyzed the idea of market barrier and misrepresented the policy implications of microeconomics. We find that economic theory, correctly interpreted, does not provide for the categorical dismissal of market barriers. We explore important methodological issues underlying the debate over market barriers, and discuss the importance of reconciling the findings of non-economic social sciences with the economic analysis of energy demand and consumer decision-making. We also scrutinize Sutherland's attempt to apply finance theory to rationalize high implicit discount rates observed in energy-related choices, and find this use of finance theory to be inappropriate

  18. On the economic analysis of problems in energy efficiency: Market barriers, market failures, and policy implications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sanstad, A.H.; Koomey, J.G.; Levine, M.D.

    1993-01-01

    In his recent paper in The Energy Journal, Ronald Sutherland argues that several so-called ``market barriers`` to energy efficiency frequently cited in the literature are not market failures in the conventional sense and are thus irrelevant for energy policy. We argue that Sutherland has inadequately analyzed the idea of market barrier and misrepresented the policy implications of microeconomics. We find that economic theory, correctly interpreted, does not provide for the categorical dismissal of market barriers. We explore important methodological issues underlying the debate over market barriers, and discuss the importance of reconciling the findings of non-economic social sciences with the economic analysis of energy demand and consumer decision-making. We also scrutinize Sutherland`s attempt to apply finance theory to rationalize high implicit discount rates observed in energy-related choices, and find this use of finance theory to be inappropriate.

  19. On the economic analysis of problems in energy efficiency: Market barriers, market failures, and policy implications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sanstad, A.H.; Koomey, J.G.; Levine, M.D.

    1993-01-01

    In his recent paper in The Energy Journal, Ronald Sutherland argues that several so-called market barriers'' to energy efficiency frequently cited in the literature are not market failures in the conventional sense and are thus irrelevant for energy policy. We argue that Sutherland has inadequately analyzed the idea of market barrier and misrepresented the policy implications of microeconomics. We find that economic theory, correctly interpreted, does not provide for the categorical dismissal of market barriers. We explore important methodological issues underlying the debate over market barriers, and discuss the importance of reconciling the findings of non-economic social sciences with the economic analysis of energy demand and consumer decision-making. We also scrutinize Sutherland's attempt to apply finance theory to rationalize high implicit discount rates observed in energy-related choices, and find this use of finance theory to be inappropriate.

  20. Breaking out of the economic box: energy efficiency, social rationality and non-economic drivers of behavioral change

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ehrhardt-Martinez, Karen; Laitner, John A. ' Skip' (ACEEE, American Council for an Energy-Efficient Economy, Washington, D.C. (United States))

    2009-07-01

    Energy concerns are increasingly on people's minds. According to a recent Gallup poll, nearly 30 percent of American's reported that energy prices were the most important financial problem facing their families today. But are these new concerns likely to translate into long-term behavioral changes and more energy-efficient behavior? Research suggests that it will take more than high prices to achieve maximum energy savings. People may like to think of themselves as rational economic actors, but a variety of studies by social-psychologists and behavioral economists reveal that people often act in ways that may be better described as 'socially-rational' and 'predictably irrational'. Despite these findings, many residential energy programs and most policy assessments continue to model potential energy savings as a function of existing technologies and the cost of those energy resources. This paper explores the ways in which individual behavior is shaped by the social context within which people operate and presents an alternative framework for modeling efficiency behavior. The alternative model recognizes that while individuals may not always behave in economically-rational ways, their behavior may be entirely rational from other vantage points. In fact, individuals often behave as rational social actors, determining what is and isn't 'appropriate' behavior by gleaning information from their own observations, from their peers, and from interactions within their sphere of social influence. As such, this paper explores the ways in which social rules, resources and context shape individual patterns of energy consumption. This alternative approach has important implications for program designs and policy recommendations.

  1. International Comparison of Water Resources Utilization Efficiency in the Silk Road Economic Belt

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, Long; Ma, Jing; Deng, Wei; Wang, Yong

    2018-03-01

    In order to get knowledge of the standard of water utilization of the Silk Road Economic Belt from international point of view, the paper analyzes the annual variation of water resources utilization in the Silk Road Economic Belt, and compares with other typical countries. The study shows that Water resources utilization efficiency has been greatly improved in recent 20 years and the water consumption per USD 10000 of GDP has been declined 87.97%. the improvement of industrial water consumption efficiency is the key driving factors for substantial decrease in water consumption.The comparison of water utilization and human development shows that the higher HDI the country is, the more efficient water utilization the country has. water consumption per USD 10000 of GDP in country with HDI>0.9 is 194m³, being 8.5% of that in country with HDI from 0.5 to 0.6. On the premise of maintaining the stable economic and social development of the Silk Road Economic Belt, the realization of the control target of total water consumption must depend on the strict control over the disorderly expansion of irrigated area, the change in the mode of economic growth, the implementation of the development strategy for new industrialization and urbanization, vigorous development of the processing industry with low water consumption as well as the high-tech and high value-added industry. Only in this way, the control target of total water consumption can be realized in the process of completing the industrialization task.

  2. The effect of online gambling on gambling problems and resulting economic health costs in Germany.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Effertz, Tobias; Bischof, Anja; Rumpf, Hans-Jürgen; Meyer, Christian; John, Ulrich

    2018-01-23

    Problematic and pathological gambling have emerged as substantial problems in many countries. One potential accelerating factor for this phenomenon during recent years is the Internet, which offers different kinds of games and online applications for gambling that are faster, more attractive due to a variety of design and marketing options, less costly and potentially more addictive than terrestrial gambling opportunities. However, the contributing role of the Internet for problematic gambling has not been analyzed sufficiently so far and remains inconclusive. The current study is based on a representative sample with 15,023 individuals from Germany. With a new concept of assessing online gambling with its relative fraction of total gambling activities and a control-function approach to account for possible endogeneity of online gambling, we estimate the impact of online gambling on gambling behavior while additionally controlling for a rich set of important covariates, like education, employment situation and family status. The results show that, on average, replacing 10% of offline gambling with online gambling increases the likelihood of being a problematic gambler by 8.8-12.6%. This increase is equivalent to 139,322 problematic gamblers and 27.24 million € per year of additional expenditures in the German health sector. Our findings underpin the necessity to keep online gambling restricted to prevent further developments of problematic and pathological gambling in Germany.

  3. A Methodology for the Estimation of the Wind Generator Economic Efficiency

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zaleskis, G.

    2017-12-01

    Integration of renewable energy sources and the improvement of the technological base may not only reduce the consumption of fossil fuel and environmental load, but also ensure the power supply in regions with difficult fuel delivery or power failures. The main goal of the research is to develop the methodology of evaluation of the wind turbine economic efficiency. The research has demonstrated that the electricity produced from renewable sources may be much more expensive than the electricity purchased from the conventional grid.

  4. After-installation service, a contribution to enhanced economic efficiency of reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bilger, H.

    1996-01-01

    After-installation service agreements are concluded in general for the following plant systems or tasks: power operation, inspection and repair during outages, plant enhancements (retrofitting), instrumentation and control (software). The paper gives various examples selected from power plant practice in Germany, showing that service contracts are a major factor contributing to maintaining economic efficiency, or enhancing it. Examples of nuclear power plant management abroad relying on service contracts are also given (USA, France, Japan). (orig./HP) [de

  5. Industrial energy efficiency: Interdisciplinary perspectives on the thermodynamic, technical and economic constraints

    OpenAIRE

    McKenna, Russell

    2009-01-01

    Overreliance on energy from fossil fuels is unsustainable because of their regional depletion and associated environmental impacts. The British industrial sector accounts for around one fifth of final energy demand and one third of carbon emissions nationally. This thesis attempts to quantify the potential for industrial energy efficiency from the current baseline, by adopting thermodynamic and economic perspectives. The methodology involves a top-down analysis of energy trends within the man...

  6. Efficiency Assessment of Economic International Cooperation in Development of Arctic Offshore Oil and Gas Resources

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Polina V. Beresneva

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The research is focused on efficiency assessment of economic cooperation in development of Arctic offshore oil and gas resources. The author developed an economic model based on cost-benefit analysis (CBA. CBA is used in some countries (EU, USA, Australia as an analytic tool to make public policy decisions. CBA is based on the method of discounting cash flows associated with costs and benefits of public policy. It is assumed that all public goals are equally important inter alia, hence public bodies should opt for those initiatives that maximize public benefits for every dollar spent from the state budget. There are five stages of economic modeling: 1 the definition of public benefits and costs associated with the public initiative; 2 monetary valuation of costs and benefits; 3 the definition of discounting period and discounting rate; 4 the calculation of net present value of cash flows; 5 the comparison of initiatives' net present values. The model is built with a number of hypotheses assumed. It allows making evaluation of investments into the technology to decrease the cost of Arctic offshore oil and gas development. Moreover, the model has two scenarios describing a public policy to support technology development with international economic cooperation and without it. Under given hypotheses both scenarios return positive net present value of policies which proves that governmental initiative to support Arctic technology development is economically justified. Also the model sows that the scenario with international cooperation is more efficient from economic point of view. It is explained by two factors: the higher speed of technology transfer (due W international cooperation and the opportunity to use financial leverage (attracting the funds from foreign partners. The model allows closing the existing scientific gap between the theory of CBA method and its practical use in public decision making.

  7. Analysis of extreme values of the economic efficiency indicators of transport infrastructure projects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Korytárová, J.; Vaňková, L.

    2017-10-01

    Paper builds on previous research of the authors into the evaluation of economic efficiency of transport infrastructure projects evaluated by the economic efficiency ratio - NPV, IRR and BCR. Values of indicators and subsequent outputs of the sensitivity analysis show extremely favourable values in some cases. The authors dealt with the analysis of these indicators down to the level of the input variables and examined which inputs have a larger share of these extreme values. NCF for the calculation of above mentioned ratios is created by benefits that arise as the difference between zero and investment options of the project (savings in travel and operating costs, savings in travel time costs, reduction in accident costs and savings in exogenous costs) as well as total agency costs. Savings in travel time costs which contribute to the overall utility of projects by more than 70% appear to be the most important benefits in the long term horizon. This is the reason why this benefit emphasized. The outcome of the article has resulted how the particular basic variables contributed to the total robustness of economic efficiency of these project.

  8. Operational safety performance and economical efficiency evaluation for nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu Yachun; Zou Shuliang

    2012-01-01

    The economical efficiency of nuclear power includes a series of environmental parameters, for example, cleanliness. Nuclear security is the precondition and guarantee for its economy, and both are the direct embodiment of the social benefits of nuclear power. Through analyzing the supervision and management system on the effective operation of nuclear power plants, which has been put forward by the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA), the World Association of Nuclear Operators (WANO), the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC), and other organizations, a set of indexs on the safety performance and economical efficiency of nuclear power are explored and established; Based on data envelopment analysis, a DEA approach is employed to evaluate the efficiency of the operation performance of several nuclear power plants, Some primary conclusion are achieved on the basis of analyzing the threshold parameter's sensitivity and relativity which affected operational performance. To address the conflicts between certain security and economical indicators, a multi-objective programming model is established, where top priority is given to nuclear safety, and the investment behavior of nuclear power plant is thereby optimized. (authors)

  9. Economic efficiency of e-learning in higher education: An industrial approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jordi Vilaseca

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available Little work has been yet done to analyse if e-learning is an efficiency way in economic terms to produce higher education, especially because there are not available data in official statistics. Despite of these important constrains, this paper aims to contribute to the study of economic efficiency of e-learning through the analysis of a sample of e-learning universities during a period of time (1997-2002. We have wanted to obtain some empirical evidence to understand if e-learning is a feasible model of providing education for universities and which are the variables that allow for feasibility attainment. The main findings are: 1 that the rise of the number of students enrolled is consistent with increasing labour productivity rates; 2 that cost labour savings are explained by the improvement of universities’ economic efficiency (or total factor productivity; and 3 that improvement of total factor productivity in e-learning production is due to the attainment of scale economies, but also to two organisational innovations: outsourcing processes that leads to the increase of variable costs consistent with decreasing marginal costs, and the sharing of assets’ control and use that allow for a rise in assets rotation.

  10. Problems of Development and Increase of Economic Efficiency of Sugar Beet Production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tomashevska Olga A.

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the article is the studying of the trends of development and economic efficiency of sugar beet production (using the example of agricultural enterprises of Rokytne district of Kyiv region and an attempt to outline the directions for improvement of the situation in the sugar beet industry. As a result of the research, the dynamics of development and economic efficiency of sugar beet production at farms of Rokytne district of Kyiv region is analyzed, and the break-even volume of sugar beet production by agrarian enterprises of Kiev region and an individual enterprise of Rokytne district is determined. Particular attention is paid to the dynamics of profitability of sugar beet production in the period from 2011 to 2015. The main problems hindering the development of sugar beet production are identified, namely, the lack of sales channels and high production costs. Prospects for further research in this area are to increase the economic efficiency of sugar beet production and find ways to develop this sector, provided that the production is properly organized, the manufacturing process is followed, the fertilizers are properly used, the seeds are chosen correctly, advanced technologies and high-performance equipment are applied, etc.

  11. Economic values for health and feed efficiency traits of dual-purpose cattle in marginal areas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krupová, Z; Krupa, E; Michaličková, M; Wolfová, M; Kasarda, R

    2016-01-01

    Economic values of clinical mastitis, claw disease, and feed efficiency traits along with 16 additional production and functional traits were estimated for the dairy population of the Slovak Pinzgau breed using a bioeconomic approach. In the cow-calf population (suckler cow population) of the same breed, the economic values of feed efficiency traits along with 15 further production and functional traits were calculated. The marginal economic values of clinical mastitis and claw disease incidence in the dairy system were -€ 70.65 and -€ 26.73 per case per cow and year, respectively. The marginal economic values for residual feed intake were -€ 55.15 and -€ 54.64/kg of dry matter per day for cows and breeding heifers in the dairy system and -€ 20.45, -€ 11.30, and -€ 6.04/kg of dry matter per day for cows, breeding heifers, and fattened animals in the cow-calf system, respectively, all expressed per cow and year. The sums of the relative economic values for the 2 new health traits in the dairy system and for residual feed intake across all cattle categories in both systems were 1.4 and 8%, respectively. Within the dairy production system, the highest relative economic values were for milk yield (20%), daily gain of calves (20%), productive lifetime (10%), and cow conception rate (8%). In the cow-calf system, the most important traits were weight gain of calves from 120 to 210 d and from birth to 120 d (19 and 14%, respectively), productive lifetime (17%), and cow conception rate (13%). Based on the calculation of economic values for traits in the dual-purpose Pinzgau breed, milk production and growth traits remain highly important in the breeding goal, but their relative importance should be adapted to new production and economic conditions. The economic importance of functional traits (especially of cow productive lifetime and fertility) was sufficiently high to make the inclusion of these traits into the breeding goal necessary. An increased interest

  12. ECONOMIC AND SOCIAL OPERATIONAL EFFICIENCY OF MARKET DISTRIBUTION OF INCOME: APPROACHES TO EVALUATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Z. Halushka

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available This article provides a comparison between scientific approaches to understanding the economic and social efficiency of market income distribution. Based on multidisciplinary approaches the essence of the concepts of fairness and efficiency in the distribution; explored approaches to combining efficiency and equity used in policy income distribution at different levels of management; the possible social and economic consequences of ineffective regulation of income in today’s economy. The analysis is based on comparing the four concepts of justice that are considered socially efficient. Considered: utilitarian, formulated by J. Bentham; egalitarian, which provides for equal distribution; market (liberal approach – to polar egalitarian and roulzianskyy that treats justice as fairness, approaches. Based on the generalization of existing approaches analyzed method of estimating social justice in the distribution and the possibility of its application. The structure of the article includes the following sections: 1.Views on terms of efficiency and equity in the distribution of resources and income; 2. Classical and modern approaches to combining efficiency and equity in the distribution; 3. Conflicts combination of the principles of fairness and efficiency in the distribution of incomes policy. The authors also noted that the uneven distribution of income acts as an objective reality, and the question is to prevent dangerous indicators of this unevenness. Market income distribution does not guarantee every person an acceptable level of income. The causes of irregularity are: differences in abilities, mental as well as physical; differences in possession of the property, in the educational level and group reasons associated with luck, chance, surprise win more. This is a definite social injustice market. State, taking a significant share of responsibility for maintaining a basic human right to a dignified life, organizes redistribution.

  13. A data envelope analysis to assess factors affecting technical and economic efficiency of individual broiler breeder hens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romero, L F; Zuidhof, M J; Jeffrey, S R; Naeima, A; Renema, R A; Robinson, F E

    2010-08-01

    This study evaluated the effect of feed allocation and energetic efficiency on technical and economic efficiency of broiler breeder hens using the data envelope analysis methodology and quantified the effect of variables affecting technical efficiency. A total of 288 Ross 708 pullets were placed in individual cages at 16 wk of age and assigned to 1 of 4 feed allocation groups. Three of them had feed allocated on a group basis with divergent BW targets: standard, high (standard x 1.1), and low (standard x 0.9). The fourth group had feed allocated on an individual bird basis following the standard BW target. Birds were classified in 3 energetic efficiency categories: low, average, and high, based on estimated maintenance requirements. Technical efficiency considered saleable chicks as output and cumulative ME intake and time as inputs. Economic efficiency of feed allocation treatments was analyzed under different cost scenarios. Birds with low feed allocation exhibited a lower technical efficiency (69.4%) than standard (72.1%), which reflected a reduced egg production rate. Feed allocation of the high treatment could have been reduced by 10% with the same chick production as the standard treatment. The low treatment exhibited reduced economic efficiency at greater capital costs, whereas high had reduced economic efficiency at greater feed costs. The average energetic efficiency hens had a lower technical efficiency in the low compared with the standard feed allocation. A 1% increment in estimated maintenance requirement changed technical efficiency by -0.23%, whereas a 1% increment in ME intake had a -0.47% effect. The negative relationship between technical efficiency and ME intake was counterbalanced by a positive correlation of ME intake and egg production. The negative relationship of technical efficiency and maintenance requirements was synergized by a negative correlation of hen maintenance and egg production. Economic efficiency methodologies are effective

  14. Promoting Practices: How Activists Employ Online Tactics to Promote Energy Efficiency

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Renkema, Maarten; van den Broek, Tijs Adriaan

    2014-01-01

    This research combines institutional and social movement theory to explore and describe how social movement organizations use online tactics to promote new institutional norms. The research setting for the current research is the Dutch environmental movement. The process of an online campaign of the

  15. Efficient management of data center resources for massively multiplayer online games

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nae, V.; Iosup, A.; Podlipnig, S.; Prodan, R.; Epema, D.H.J.; Fahringer, T.

    2008-01-01

    Today's massively multiplayer online games (MMOGs) can include millions of concurrent players spread across the world. To keep these highly-interactive virtual environments online, a MMOG operator may need to provision tens of thousands of computing resources from various data centers. Faced with

  16. Relative Efficiency of Field and Online Strategies in the Recruitment of HIV-Positive Men Who Have Sex With Men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vial, Andrea C; Starks, Tyrel J; Parsons, Jeffrey T

    2015-04-01

    Efforts to reach HIV-positive men who have sex with men (MSM) and link them to care must be expanded; however, finding and recruiting them remains a challenge. We compared the efficiency of three recruitment sources in reaching self-identified HIV-positive MSM with various characteristics. Relative to recruitment online and at clubs and bars, AIDS Service Organizations (ASOs) were significantly more efficient in reaching HIV-positive MSM in general. This was also true for those with specific characteristics of interest such as substance/stimulant use, and HIV-positive MSM who were racial/ethnic minorities. Both ASOs and online recruitment were more efficient than clubs and bars in reaching HIV-positive MSM not taking HIV medication. This was also the case for White HIV-positive MSM in general, and White HIV-positive MSM who used substances and stimulants. Online recruitment was also more efficient than clubs and bars in reaching HIV-positive MSM who were young across the board.

  17. ECONOMIC EFFICIENCY ANALYSIS OF ORGANIC CROP AND ANIMAL FARMS IN ROMANIA. COMPARATIVE EVOLUTIONS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexandra MUSCĂNESCU

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available The organic sector in our country, although as shown in continuous development, faces a multitude of problems: the climatic conditions of our country, characterized by periods of drought in many parts of the country, high input prices, the majority of which are imported; difficulties in identifying markets for products, reduced subsidies, standardized conditions difficult to meet, etc. The problems the sector is facing reflect in the organization of the production activity and hence the economic performance of farm production. Accordingly, the aim of this paper was to analyze on the basis of annual financial and accounting information collected in the two vegetable farms and the two animal breeding farms, their efficiency / inefficiency, and the results were compared to identify the causes of the differences obtained in the efficiency at a farm level. The results obtained reveal a higher level of return on integrated vegetable farm in a joint recovery and a high efficiency for chain integrated animal farms.

  18. Essays in economics of energy efficiency in residential buildings - An empirical analysis[Dissertation 17157

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jakob, M.

    2007-07-01

    Energy efficiency in the building sector is a key element of cost-effective climate change and energy policies in most countries throughout the world. (...) However, a gap between the cost-effectiveness of energy efficiency measures, their benefits, the necessities from a societal point of view on the one hand and the actual investments in the building stock - particularly in the moment of re-investment and refurbishing - on the other hand became more and more evident. The research questions that arose against this background were whether this gap and the low energy efficiency levels and rates could be confirmed empirically and if yes, how the gap could be explained and how it could be overcome by adequate policy measures. To address these questions, the multi-functional character of buildings (i.e. well conditioned and quiet living rooms and working space) had to be considered. Associated benefits arise on the societal level (ancillary benefits) and on the private level (co-benefits), the latter being increasingly addressed by different building labels such as 'Minergie', 'Passive House', and others. It was assumed that these co-benefits are of economic relevance, but empirical evidence regarding their economic value was missing. Thus, putting these benefits into an appropriate economic appraisal framework was at stake to make use of them in market information and policy instruments, preventing uninformed and biased cost benefit analyses and decisions on the private and on the societal level. The research presented in this PhD thesis had the goal to provide a sound empirical basis about costs and benefits of energy efficiency investments in residential buildings, with a special emphasis on the economic valuation of their co-benefits from a building user perspective (owner-occupiers, purchasers and tenants). In view of long time-horizons in the building sector, the techno-economic dynamics should also be addressed. The results should be useful

  19. EFFICIENCY OF EDUCATIONAL INNOVATIVE TECHNIQUES IN TEACHING FINANCIAL AND ECONOMIC DISCIPLINES (BASED ON SOCIAL RESEARCH

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Irina Konstantinovna Bitkina

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Importance of the presented study consists in need of the introduction innovation educational technology when teaching in high educational institutions. Objectivity specified need you-is the Russian system of the higher education called by turning on standards within the framework of Bolognaagreement. Existing in persisting time scientific studies and practical developments in incomplete measure touch in-ask, concerning using educational innovation technology in the field of teaching social-humanitarian sciences, including coursesfinancial-economic profile. Considering aforesaid, purpose persisting studies is a development of the methodical approach to estimation of efficiency of the using educational innovation and proving of the directions on improvement of their use in high school thrifty persons of the profile when learning student discipline to specialization. In the course of undertaking the study were used methods of the collection and processing statistical and sociological information, summeries and groups got data, quantitative estimation to efficiency applicable technology. The Results of the study touch the methodical questions of the estimation to efficiency educational innovation in high school financial-economic profile and practical aspects of their use when teaching of discipline to specialization beside student.Purpose: development methodical approach educational innovation estimation and proving ways of improving using educational innovation in the economical universities.Methodology: statistical summary, statistical grouping, sociological questioning, effectivity estimation, comparative analyses.Results:1 ways of effectivity estimation educational innovation using were revealed;2 the practical recommendation for improving using educational innovation  were proved.Practical implications: educational activity in the socio-economical higher institutions.DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.12731/2218-7405-2013-8-37

  20. Economic efficiency versus social equality? The U.S. liberal model versus the European social model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Navarro, Vicente; Schmitt, John

    2005-01-01

    This article begins by challenging the widely held view in neoliberal discourse that there is a necessary trade-off between higher efficiency and lower reduction of inequalities: the article empirically shows that the liberal, U.S. model has been less efficient economically (slower economic growth, higher unemployment) than the social model in existence in the European Union and in the majority of its member states. Based on the data presented, the authors criticize the adoption of features of the liberal model (such as deregulation of their labor markets, reduction of public social expenditures) by some European governments. The second section analyzes the causes for the slowdown of economic growth and the increase of unemployment in the European Union--that is, the application of monetarist and neoliberal policies in the institutional frame of the European Union, including the Stability Pact, the objectives and modus operandi of the European Central Bank, and the very limited resources available to the European Commission for stimulating and distributive functions. The third section details the reasons for these developments, including (besides historical considerations) the enormous influence of financial capital in the E.U. institutions and the very limited democracy. Proposals for change are included.

  1. The economical efficiency of private investments in higher education in Russia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elena Maksyutina

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available The article investigates the economical efficiency of investments in higher education in modern conditions of Russia. The beginning of the article includes a characteristic of the existing empiric research concerning the efficiency of investments in human capital assets. Further the author of the article introduces the results of pay off calculation of private investments in higher education. The result of the research was that in modern conditions of Russia investments in higher education are exceedingly advantageous. High norms of higher education feedback and short period of pay off of these investments explain the reasons of continuously growing demand for it on the part of the population, especially young people. The article proves that the level of population education in Russia is quite high, however accumulated human capital asset is used insufficiently effective. Many people with higher education are forced to take jobs not requiring higher education.  Sharp shift in educational behavior of Russian people raises new demands to labor market. Graduates of higher educational institutions, appearing on a labor market, form qualitatively different demands towards it. But tempo of Russian economics development today can not provide job positions for all graduates of higher educational institutions. That is why structural change of economics is needed.

  2. ANALYSIS OF INFLUENCE FACTORS OF ECONOMIC EFFICIENCY ON THE ECONOMY OF THE INTEGRATED STRUCTURES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. P. Bogomolova

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Currently in Russia, special attention is paid to the food industry, providing a key influence on the state's economy and food security of the country. The food industry not only creates substantial part of the gross domestic product, which is one of the main sources of fillings budgets of all levels, and contributes to the strengthening of the state in world markets. These circum-stances make it necessary to increase the efficiency of industrial structures by mobilizing factors affecting the economy of enterprises, including by shifting emphasis on the integration of food industry enterprises in General competitiveness of the goods produced, the stability of the entire industry, its leading industries and organizations. The article substantiates the expediency of application of integrated structures, discusses the methods and tools of analysis of influence factors of economic efficiency on the economy of inte-grated structures. Evaluation is recommended in two key areas: assessment of the financial condition and evaluation of training and development of staff, taking into account the strategic objectives of integrated structures. The analysis makes it possible to correctly allocate financial resources and to achieve balanced economic performance management through more effective use of credit re-sources, the rational management of economic parameters optimization of the number of employees and production capacity.

  3. Economic Efficiency Assessment of Autonomous Wind/Diesel/Hydrogen Systems in Russia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O. V. Marchenko

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The economic efficiency of harnessing wind energy in the autonomous power systems of Russia is analyzed. Wind turbines are shown to be competitive for many considered variants (groups of consumers, placement areas, and climatic and meteorological conditions. The authors study the possibility of storing energy in the form of hydrogen in the autonomous wind/diesel/hydrogen power systems that include wind turbines, diesel generator, electrolyzer, hydrogen tank, and fuel cells. The paper presents the zones of economic efficiency of the system (set of parameters that provide its competitiveness depending on load, fuel price, and long-term average annual wind speed. At low wind speed and low price of fuel, it is reasonable to use only diesel generator to supply power to consumers. When the fuel price and wind speed increase, first it becomes more economical to use a wind-diesel system and then wind turbines with a hydrogen system. In the latter case, according to the optimization results, diesel generator is excluded from the system.

  4. EXPRESSION OF THE TRANSPORT SECTOR OPERATIONAL EFFICIENCY EVALUATION METHODOLOGY (TRENDS AT DIFFERENT STAGES OF THE ECONOMIC CYCLE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Deimena KIYAK

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available It is important to evaluate the impact of economic fluctuations on the transport sector operational efficiency, since such an analysis is a source of economic information which contributes to the identification of the sector's potential and advantages, the establishment of the risky areas of activity, and the exploration of the opportunities to increase its effectiveness. The aim of the study was to apply mathematical evaluation methods to the exploration of the operational efficiency of the Lithuanian transport sector companies and, based on the outcomes, to validate the opportunity of predicting a potential change of the economic cycle. The operational efficiency of the Lithuanian transport sector was analysed in the context of the cyclical national economy, and not in individual economic boom or recession periods, as that allowed for more detailed evaluation of the specific activities of the sector and its impact on Lithuanian economy. To achieve the aim, three different stages of the economic cycle in Lithuania were identified, and calculations were made during them. Based on the aggregate financial data, four different economic efficiency indicators were developed that reflected the efficiency level of the entire transport sector, and the sensitivity of the transport sector to economic fluctuations was identified. The comparison of the changes in the transport sector and in Lithuanian economy made it obvious that the level of the sector's operational efficiency could be regarded as a leading indicator of the economic cycle.

  5. The economic efficiency of conservation measures for amphibians in organic farming--results from bio-economic modelling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schuler, Johannes; Sattler, Claudia; Helmecke, Angela; Zander, Peter; Uthes, Sandra; Bachinger, Johann; Stein-Bachinger, Karin

    2013-01-15

    This paper presents a whole farm bio-economic modelling approach for the assessment and optimisation of amphibian conservation conditions applied at the example of a large scale organic farm in North-Eastern Germany. The assessment focuses mainly on the habitat quality as affected by conservation measures such as through specific adapted crop production activities (CPA) and in-field buffer strips for the European tree frog (Hyla arborea), considering also interrelations with other amphibian species (i.e. common spadefoot toad (Pelobates fuscus), fire-bellied toad (Bombina bombina)). The aim of the approach is to understand, analyse and optimize the relationships between the ecological and economic performance of an organic farming system, based on the expectation that amphibians are differently impacted by different CPAs. The modelling system consists of a set of different sub-models that generate a farm model on the basis of environmentally evaluated CPAs. A crop-rotation sub-model provides a set of agronomically sustainable crop rotations that ensures overall sufficient nitrogen supply and controls weed, pest and disease infestations. An economic sub-model calculates the gross margins for each possible CPA including costs of inputs such as labour and machinery. The conservation effects of the CPAs are assessed with an ecological sub-model evaluates the potential negative or positive effect that each work step of a CPA has on amphibians. A mathematical programming sub-model calculates the optimal farm organization taking into account the limited factors of the farm (e.g. labour, land) as well as ecological improvements. In sequential model runs, the habitat quality is to be improved by the model, while the highest possible gross margin is still to be achieved. The results indicate that the model can be used to show the scope of action that a farmer has to improve habitat quality by reducing damage to amphibian population on its land during agricultural activities

  6. Social Media Use of Cooperative Extension Family Economics Educators: Online Survey Results and Implications

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Neill, Barbara; Zumwalt, Andrew; Bechman, Janet

    2011-01-01

    This article describes results of an online survey conducted by the eXtension Financial Security for All (FSA) Community of Practice (CoP) to determine the social media capacity and activity of its members. The survey was conducted to inform two subsequent FSA CoP programs: an archived webinar on social media programs and impact evaluation methods…

  7. Engaging Health Professionals in Health Economics: A Human Capital Informed Approach for Adults Learning Online

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lieberthal, Robert D.; Leon, Juan

    2015-01-01

    The authors describe a Wikipedia-based project designed for a graduate course introducing health economics to experienced healthcare professionals. The project allows such students to successfully write articles on niche topics in rapidly evolving health economics subspecialties. These students are given the opportunity to publish their completed…

  8. Economic effects of energy efficiency improvements in the Finnish building stock

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tuominen, Pekka; Forsström, Juha; Honkatukia, Juha

    2013-01-01

    This study estimates the economic effects of investing in energy efficiency in buildings on a national level. First conservation potentials in space heating for two different scenarios with different levels of investment in energy efficiency are quantified. This was done relying on statistical data and future projections of the development of the building stock. Then economic modeling was used to estimate the effects on energy sector and the economy at large. The results show that a rather modest increase resulting in a few percent rise in annual construction and renovation investments can decrease total primary energy consumption 3.8–5.3% by 2020 and 4.7–6.8% by 2050 compared to a baseline scenario. On the short term a slight decrease in the level of GDP and employment is expected. On the medium to long term, however, the effects on both would be positive. Furthermore, a significant drop in harmful emissions and hence external costs is anticipated. Overall, a clear net benefit is expected from improving energy efficiency. - Highlights: ► The possible cut in energy consumption: 3.8–5.3% by 2020 and 4.7–6.8% by 2050. ► Short term negative effects to GDP and long term positive effects are expected. ► A significant drop in harmful emissions and hence external costs is anticipated.

  9. The Rethinking of the Economic Activity Based on Principles of Eco-Efficiency

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniela VÎRJAN

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Drought, floods, damaging storms, heat waves, acid rain, climate changes are but a few of the consequences of human action upon the environment. Can we possibly live against the environment? The answer is NO, and as such we must run an economy which respects the principles of eco-efficiency because only so can economic progress go on. Green economy is a great opportunity for all of the world’s countries, and is a real economy which keeps the resource-needs and environment relation in balance, aims towards quality and not quantity, lays emphasis on regeneration, recycling, reuse and creativity. Eco-efficiency implies both innovation towards a high degree of product dematerialization, services and systems, alongside with greatly changing current production and consumption practices. If we produce based on the principle of eco-efficiency we can reduce the effects of the profound economic, ecological, socio-political and cultural-spiritual crisis which marks our planet and countries.

  10. Factors that are influencing the economical efficiency of the CHP plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ruieneanu, Liviu; Ion, Mircea

    2004-01-01

    This paper presents some factors that might influence the economical efficiency of a cogeneration plant. These factors are: the understanding of the fuel economy at consumers; - the influence of the electricity production efficiency; - the influence of exergy losses. The statistical data for different countries of Europe show that under the conditions of a deregulated liberalized market of energy the cogeneration plants have numerous financial difficulties. Even if the use of cogeneration ensures a fuel saving, if this economy it is not obvious for the consumers, those consumers might prefer for the production of heat the use of a heat only generating plant. This trend might spread rapidly if the increase of the electricity will not be present immediately in the bill of the consumers that renounce to the heat produced by the CHP plant. The method used for cost allocation on both types of energy has also a great importance, because it might facilitate the rehabilitation measures and doing so it might allow lower prices for both types of energy. Perhaps the most important factor for the economical efficiency of the plant are the exergy losses. The analysis presented above shows two things, namely: - that the electricity production has a very high price, and this cost might be lowered down by some rehabilitation measures (for example repowering); - and that the heat only plants (boilers) are not affected by the exergy losses and that's why if we analyse only the heat production, the use of cogeneration might seem inappropriate

  11. The effect of economic factors and energy efficiency programs on residential electricity consumption

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sakai, Mihoko

    Many countries have implemented policies to correct market and behavioral failures that lead to inefficient energy use. It is important to know what factors and policies can effectively overcome such failures and improve energy efficiency; however, a comprehensive analysis has been difficult because of data limitations. Using state scores compiled by American organizations recently, and adopting fixed-effects regression models, I analyze the joint impacts of relevant factors and policy programs on residential electricity consumption in each U.S. state. The empirical results reveal that increases in electricity price have small and negative effects, and increases in personal income have positive effects on residential electricity sales per capita (a measure of energy efficiency). The results suggest that it may take time for economic factors to affect electricity sales. The effects of personal income suggest the difficulty of controlling residential electricity consumption; however, they also imply that there is some room in households to reduce electricity use. The study also finds that programs and budgets of several policies seem to be associated with electricity sales. The estimates from a model including interaction terms suggest the importance of including multiple policies when analyzing and designing policies to address electricity efficiency. The results also imply the possibility of rebound effects of some policies, whereby improvements in energy efficiency lead to increases in energy consumption due to the associated lower per unit cost. Future studies should analyze both short-term and long-term effects of economic factors and policies, based on improved and accumulated time series and panel data, in order to design more effective policies for improving residential electricity efficiency.

  12. Energy Efficient Power Allocation in Multi-tier 5G Networks Using Enhanced Online Learning

    KAUST Repository

    Alqerm, Ismail; Shihada, Basem

    2017-01-01

    of the 5G systems, where each transmitter surmises other transmitters power allocation strategies without information exchange. The proposed learning model exploits a brief state representation to account for the problem of dimensionality in online learning

  13. A Reliable, Efficient, Affordable and User-friendly Approach for Online Assessment in Distance Education

    OpenAIRE

    Mardanian, Haleh; Mozelius, Peter

    2011-01-01

    In the assessment of the students in higher education, cheating and plagiarism have always been of major problem. This problem is also a rapidly growing phenomenon in Sweden. The number of students suspended from courses in tertiary education increased by 56% in 2010 and the plagiarism has been the most common violation. Online distance courses with students spread out geographically need online assessment approaches to save time and avoid travel expenses. E-learning and distance education ha...

  14. EVALUATION OF ECONOMIC EFFICIENCY OF INVESTMENT IN THE INDUSTRIAL LOGISTICS PARK OF THE NOVOSIBIRSK REGION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kogan A. B.

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The author describes a method for estimation the economic efficiency, based on the input-output model. The proposed method develops the author of well-known methods of cost-benefits analysis. The method is used to assess the effectiveness of budget financing the establishment of Industrial logistics Park (PLP in the Novosibirsk region (NSO. The estimation is based on the input-output model developed for the NSO. Economic benefits are assessed on the basis of growth in gross value added (GVA. This takes into account a number of losses GVA, for example, losses due to the displacement of existing producers, losses due to the purchase of imported resources, etc. Economiccosts is estimated as a fulloutput of the economy, necessary for the establishment and operation of the investment project.

  15. Online decision support based on modeling with the aim of increased irrigation efficiency

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dövényi-Nagy, Tamás; Bakó, Károly; Molnár, Krisztina; Rácz, Csaba; Vasvári, Gyula; Nagy, János; Dobos, Attila

    2015-04-01

    The significant changes in the structure of ownership and control of irrigation infrastructure in the past decades resultted in the decrease of total irrigable and irrigated area (Szilárd, 1999). In this paper, the development of a model-based online service is described whose aim is to aid reasonable irrigation practice and increase water use efficiency. In order to establish a scientific background for irrigation, an agrometeorological station network has been built up by the Agrometeorological and Agroecological Monitoring Centre. A website has been launched in order to provide direct access for local agricultural producers to both the measured weather parameters and results of model based calculations. The public site provides information for general use, registered partners get a handy model based toolkit for decision support at the plot level concerning irrigation, plant protection or frost forecast. The agrometeorological reference station network was established in the recent years by the Agrometeorological and Agroecological Monitoring Centre and is distributed to cover most of the irrigated cropland areas of Hungary. From the spatial aspect, the stations have been deployed mainly in Eastern Hungary with concentrated irrigation infrastructure. The meteorological stations' locations have been carefully chosen to represent their environment in terms of soil, climatic and topographic factors, thereby assuring relevant and up-to-date input data for the models. The measured parameters range from classic meteorological data (air temperature, relative humidity, solar irradiation, wind speed etc.) to specific data which are not available from other services in the region, such as soil temperature, soil water content in multiple depths and leaf wetness. In addition to the basic grid of reference stations, specific stations under irrigated conditions have been deployed to calibrate and validate the models. A specific modeling framework (MetAgro) has been developed

  16. Technical and economic assessment of design efficiency of information and measuring systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yurov, V. M.; Eremin, E. N.; Baisagov, Ya Zh; Arkhipov, V. V.

    2018-01-01

    A thermodynamic approach to the analysis of information-measuring systems (IMS) is developed in the work. Expressions for efficiency of IMS are obtained. The connection between the amount of processor memory and the amount of incoming information and the accuracy of the IMS is obtained. It is shown that the probability of information loss in IMS decreases with the increase in the amount of information from the object. Using the analogy method, economic aspects of IMS design are considered. The innate ability of IMS and Moore’s law are considered. The proposed approach and the resulting formulas will be useful in the design of new IMS.

  17. The economic and environmental consequences of implementing nitrogen-efficient technologies and management practices in agriculture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Xin; Mauzerall, Denise L; Davidson, Eric A; Kanter, David R; Cai, Ruohong

    2015-03-01

    Technologies and management practices (TMPs) that reduce the application of nitrogen (N) fertilizer while maintaining crop yields can improve N use efficiency (NUE) and are important tools for meeting the dual challenges of increasing food production and reducing N pollution. However, because farmers operate to maximize their profits, incentives to implement TMPs are limited, and TMP implementation will not always reduce N pollution. Therefore, we have developed the NUE Economic and Environmental impact analytical framework (NUE) to examine the economic and environmental consequences of implementing TMPs in agriculture, with a specific focus on farmer profits, N fertilizer consumption, N losses, and cropland demand. Our analytical analyses show that impact of TMPs on farmers' economic decision-making and the environment is affected by how TMPs change the yield ceiling and the N fertilization rate at the ceiling and by how the prices of TMPs, fertilizer, and crops vary. Technologies and management practices that increase the yield ceiling appear to create a greater economic incentive for farmers than TMPs that do not but may result in higher N application rates and excess N losses. Nevertheless, the negative environmental impacts of certain TMPs could be avoided if their price stays within a range determined by TMP yield response, fertilizer price, and crop price. We use a case study on corn production in the midwestern United States to demonstrate how NUE can be applied to farmers' economic decision-making and policy analysis. Our NUE framework provides an important tool for policymakers to understand how combinations of fertilizer, crop, and TMP prices affect the possibility of achieving win-win outcomes for farmers and the environment. Copyright © by the American Society of Agronomy, Crop Science Society of America, and Soil Science Society of America, Inc.

  18. Performance, Economics of Production and Carcass Characteristics ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    %, T50% and ... in terms of reduced cost of feeding per weight gain, commensurate revenue generation, gross margin ... Hence for better economic efficiency of broiler production and adoption of feed restriction ... AJOL African Journals Online.

  19. The efficiency frontier approach to economic evaluation of health-care interventions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caro, J Jaime; Nord, Erik; Siebert, Uwe; McGuire, Alistair; McGregor, Maurice; Henry, David; de Pouvourville, Gérard; Atella, Vincenzo; Kolominsky-Rabas, Peter

    2010-10-01

    IQWiG commissioned an international panel of experts to develop methods for the assessment of the relation of benefits to costs in the German statutory health-care system. The panel recommended that IQWiG inform German decision makers of the net costs and value of additional benefits of an intervention in the context of relevant other interventions in that indication. To facilitate guidance regarding maximum reimbursement, this information is presented in an efficiency plot with costs on the horizontal axis and value of benefits on the vertical. The efficiency frontier links the interventions that are not dominated and provides guidance. A technology that places on the frontier or to the left is reasonably efficient, while one falling to the right requires further justification for reimbursement at that price. This information does not automatically give the maximum reimbursement, as other considerations may be relevant. Given that the estimates are for a specific indication, they do not address priority setting across the health-care system. This approach informs decision makers about efficiency of interventions, conforms to the mandate and is consistent with basic economic principles. Empirical testing of its feasibility and usefulness is required.

  20. Accuracy, precision, and economic efficiency for three methods of thrips (Thysanoptera: Thripidae) population density assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sutherland, Andrew M; Parrella, Michael P

    2011-08-01

    Western flower thrips, Frankliniella occidentalis (Pergande) (Thysanoptera: Thripidae), is a major horticultural pest and an important vector of plant viruses in many parts of the world. Methods for assessing thrips population density for pest management decision support are often inaccurate or imprecise due to thrips' positive thigmotaxis, small size, and naturally aggregated populations. Two established methods, flower tapping and an alcohol wash, were compared with a novel method, plant desiccation coupled with passive trapping, using accuracy, precision and economic efficiency as comparative variables. Observed accuracy was statistically similar and low (37.8-53.6%) for all three methods. Flower tapping was the least expensive method, in terms of person-hours, whereas the alcohol wash method was the most expensive. Precision, expressed by relative variation, depended on location within the greenhouse, location on greenhouse benches, and the sampling week, but it was generally highest for the flower tapping and desiccation methods. Economic efficiency, expressed by relative net precision, was highest for the flower tapping method and lowest for the alcohol wash method. Advantages and disadvantages are discussed for all three methods used. If relative density assessment methods such as these can all be assumed to accurately estimate a constant proportion of absolute density, then high precision becomes the methodological goal in terms of measuring insect population density, decision making for pest management, and pesticide efficacy assessments.

  1. Optimization model for school transportation design based on economic and social efficiency

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Heddebaut, O.; Ciommo, F. di

    2016-07-01

    The purpose of this paper is to design a model that allows to suggest new planning proposals on school transport, so that greater efficiency operational will be achieved. It is a multi-objective optimization problem including the minimization of the cost of busing and minimizes the total travel time of all students. The foundation of the model is the planning routes made by bus due to changes in the starting time in schools, so the buses are able to perform more than one route. The methodology is based on the School Bus Routing Problem, so that routes from different schools within a given time window are connected, and within the restrictions of the problem, the system costs are minimized. The proposed model is programmed to be applied in any generic case. This is a multi-objective problem, in which there will be several possible solutions, depending on the weight to be assigned to each of the variables involved, economic point of view versus social point of view. Therefore, the proposed model is helpful for policy planning school transportation, supporting the decision making under conditions of economic and social efficiency. The model has been applied in some schools located in an area of Cantabria (Spain), resulting in 71 possible optimal options that minimize the cost of school transport between 2,7% and 35,1% regarding to the current routes of school transport, with different school start time and minimum travel time for students. (Author)

  2. Towards a more efficient environmental policy. A socio-economic analysis of four persistent environmental problems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2000-11-01

    For the benefit of the National Environmental Policy Plan that will be published in 2001, the Netherlands Bureau for Economic Policy Analysis analysed four persistent environmental problems. These problems are the environmental effects of the manure surplus in the agricultural sector; the climate problem; the acidification by traffic and the air traffic noise around the airport Schiphol. This study not only looks ahead, but also looks back on 30 years of environmental policy. From a welfare economic perspective an analysis is made of the efficiency and effectiveness of that policy. Several questions are answered,e.g.: how could the manure problem of such a small sector as the livestock breeding persist for so many years?; how effective were the agreements with the industry and other sectors on energy efficiency improvement?; what made the acidification policy directed on traffic so successful?; why is the noise production of air traffic still a problem whereas the number of seriously bothered houses is decreased? The answers on these questions provide information which can be useful for the formulation of the future environmental policy. This information refers to the conditions for formulating adequate policy goals, the relation between those goals and policy instruments and the differences between direct versus indirect steering. This report also gives some points of interest for tackling complex international environmental problems. refs

  3. Hardware-Efficient On-line Learning through Pipelined Truncated-Error Backpropagation in Binary-State Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hesham Mostafa

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Artificial neural networks (ANNs trained using backpropagation are powerful learning architectures that have achieved state-of-the-art performance in various benchmarks. Significant effort has been devoted to developing custom silicon devices to accelerate inference in ANNs. Accelerating the training phase, however, has attracted relatively little attention. In this paper, we describe a hardware-efficient on-line learning technique for feedforward multi-layer ANNs that is based on pipelined backpropagation. Learning is performed in parallel with inference in the forward pass, removing the need for an explicit backward pass and requiring no extra weight lookup. By using binary state variables in the feedforward network and ternary errors in truncated-error backpropagation, the need for any multiplications in the forward and backward passes is removed, and memory requirements for the pipelining are drastically reduced. Further reduction in addition operations owing to the sparsity in the forward neural and backpropagating error signal paths contributes to highly efficient hardware implementation. For proof-of-concept validation, we demonstrate on-line learning of MNIST handwritten digit classification on a Spartan 6 FPGA interfacing with an external 1Gb DDR2 DRAM, that shows small degradation in test error performance compared to an equivalently sized binary ANN trained off-line using standard back-propagation and exact errors. Our results highlight an attractive synergy between pipelined backpropagation and binary-state networks in substantially reducing computation and memory requirements, making pipelined on-line learning practical in deep networks.

  4. Hardware-Efficient On-line Learning through Pipelined Truncated-Error Backpropagation in Binary-State Networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mostafa, Hesham; Pedroni, Bruno; Sheik, Sadique; Cauwenberghs, Gert

    2017-01-01

    Artificial neural networks (ANNs) trained using backpropagation are powerful learning architectures that have achieved state-of-the-art performance in various benchmarks. Significant effort has been devoted to developing custom silicon devices to accelerate inference in ANNs. Accelerating the training phase, however, has attracted relatively little attention. In this paper, we describe a hardware-efficient on-line learning technique for feedforward multi-layer ANNs that is based on pipelined backpropagation. Learning is performed in parallel with inference in the forward pass, removing the need for an explicit backward pass and requiring no extra weight lookup. By using binary state variables in the feedforward network and ternary errors in truncated-error backpropagation, the need for any multiplications in the forward and backward passes is removed, and memory requirements for the pipelining are drastically reduced. Further reduction in addition operations owing to the sparsity in the forward neural and backpropagating error signal paths contributes to highly efficient hardware implementation. For proof-of-concept validation, we demonstrate on-line learning of MNIST handwritten digit classification on a Spartan 6 FPGA interfacing with an external 1Gb DDR2 DRAM, that shows small degradation in test error performance compared to an equivalently sized binary ANN trained off-line using standard back-propagation and exact errors. Our results highlight an attractive synergy between pipelined backpropagation and binary-state networks in substantially reducing computation and memory requirements, making pipelined on-line learning practical in deep networks.

  5. Modelling efficient innovative work: integration of economic and social psychological approaches

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Babanova Yulia

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The article deals with the relevance of integration of economic and social psychological approaches to the solution of enhancing the efficiency of innovation management. The content, features and specifics of the modelling methods within each of approaches are unfolded and options of integration are considered. The economic approach lies in the generation of the integrated matrix concept of management of innovative development of an enterprise in line with the stages of innovative work and the use of the integrated vector method for the evaluation of the innovative enterprise development level. The social psychological approach lies in the development of a system of psychodiagnostic indexes of activity resources within the scope of psychological innovative audit of enterprise management and development of modelling methods for the balance of activity trends. Modelling the activity resources is based on the system of equations accounting for the interaction type of psychodiagnostic indexes. Integration of two approaches includes a methodological level, a level of empirical studies and modelling methods. There are suggested options of integrating the economic and psychological approaches to analyze available material and non-material resources of the enterprises’ innovative work and to forecast an optimal option of development based on the implemented modelling methods.

  6. The Economic Aspects of Improving the Efficiency of Activities of Ukrainian Enterprises

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Naboka Serhii O.

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The only possibility to ensure a high rate of growth of economic efficiency of production is a result of transition to a predominantly intensive type of development, especially for domestic enterprises in current conditions. The article considers, which concrete factors of the external environment of enterprise impact its activity in the present time and on the territory of Ukraine, and also substantiates the necessity of transition to the mode of «intensification». Scientific novelty consists in approbation of the method of research of the degree of intensification of activity on the example of one of the enterprises of Kharkiv, carrying out foreign economic activity. The system of the scientific and special methods was used: system approach; methods of analysis and synthesis of grouping; economic-mathematical method – the method of analysis of production intensification – to determine the degree of intensity/extensiveness of production at the researched enterprise. The calculations allowed to determine that the relative saving of the aggregate resources at the researched enterprise, using this method, amounted to more than 16 million UAH. Thus, it is possible to speak about expediency of use of the presented method in practice, especially in view of the current condition of enterprises of Ukraine.

  7. [Grounding public health policies in ethics and economic efficiency. SESPAS report 2010].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramiro Avilés, Miguel A; Lobo, Félix

    2010-12-01

    In recent times, various voices in Spain have questioned public health policies as an assault to personal freedom. The present article aims to respond to these voices with ethical and economic arguments. The scope and characteristics of this current of opinion are described. Then, starting with John Stuart Mill, the ethical principles of non-maleficence, beneficence, personal autonomy and justice, as well as related concepts taken from economic efficiency, such as externalities, monopoly, incomplete and asymmetric information, agency relationship, public goods and adverse selection, are discussed. A short mention is made of equity in economics, the welfare state and public health systems. The justification for paternalist actions by the state, as well as limits to these actions, are briefly discussed. Respect for individual freedom does not exclude the implementation of public health actions but rather demands the adoption of such policies. If these actions comply with certain conditions, they do not limit individual freedom but rather serve to protect it. Copyright © 2010 SESPAS. Published by Elsevier Espana. All rights reserved.

  8. Can Artificial Intelligence and Online Dispute Resolution enhance efficiency and effectiveness in Courts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John Zeleznikow

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available The growing rise in the number of self-represented litigants has negative implications for both the court system and access to justice. The expanding use of Artificial Intelligence and the World Wide Web has led to the development and use of Online Dispute Resolution. In this article we investigate a number of systems in Australian Family Law that enhance Alternative Dispute Resolution and Access to Justice. We discuss how a hybrid system that incorporates advice about BATNAs and potential trade-offs as well as allowing online communication can enhance access to justice.

  9. Triple Helix Model as an Efficient Mechanism of Food Security Provision in Regional Economic Entities and the Economic System as a Whole

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mihail N. Dudin

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available The leading countries of the world consider food security the important condition of internal political and social-economic stability of the state and its external independence. The topic of the article is crucial due to the fact that the problem of food security is rather complicated and multilevel and should be considered at different interrelated hierarchical levels. In this context the efficient model of food security is the result of the permanent dialogue between the representatives of the state government, business entities, social organizations and scientific institutions. The article justifies the fact that the model of innovation development, known as ‘the triple helix model’ should be applied at the modern stage of economic development as an efficient tool for the food security provision, which can be implemented in the activity of regional economic entities and the whole economic system of the Russian Federation.

  10. Efficient STEP (solar thermal electrochemical photo) production of hydrogen - an economic assessment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Licht, Stuart [Department of Chemistry, George Washington University, Ashburn, VA 20147 (United States); Solar Institute, George Washington University, Washington, DC 20052 (United States); Chitayat, Olivia; Bergmann, Harry; Dick, Andrew; Ayub, Hina [Solar Institute, George Washington University, Washington, DC 20052 (United States); Ghosh, Susanta [Department of Chemistry, George Washington University, Ashburn, VA 20147 (United States); Department of Chemistry, Visva-Bharati, Santiniketan (India)

    2010-10-15

    A consideration of the economic viability of hydrogen fuel production is important in the STEP (Solar Thermal Electrochemical Photo) production of hydrogen fuel. STEP is an innovative way to decrease costs and increase the efficiency of hydrogen fuel production, which is a synergistic process that can use concentrating photovoltaics (CPV) and solar thermal energy to drive a high temperature, low voltage, electrolysis (water-splitting), resulting in H{sub 2} at decreased energy and higher solar efficiency. This study provides evidence that the STEP system is an economically viable solution for the production of hydrogen. STEP occurs at both higher electrolysis and solar conversion efficiencies than conventional room temperature photovoltaic (PV) generation of hydrogen. This paper probes the economic viability of this process, by comparing four different systems: (1) 10% or (2) 14% flat plate PV driven aqueous alkaline electrolysis H{sub 2} production, (3) 25% CPV driven molten electrolysis H{sub 2} production, and (4) 35% CPV driven solid oxide electrolysis H{sub 2} production. The molten and solid oxide electrolysers are high temperature systems that can make use of light, normally discarded, for heating. This significantly increases system efficiency. Using levelized cost analysis, this study shows significant cost reduction using the STEP system. The total price per kg of hydrogen is shown to decrease from 5.74 to 4.96 to 3.01 to 2.61 with the four alternative systems. The advanced STEP plant requires less than one seventh of the land area of the 10% flat cell plant. To generate the 216 million kg H{sub 2}/year required by 1 million fuel cell vehicles, the 35% CPV driven solid oxide electrolysis requires a plant only 9.6 mi{sup 2} in area. While PV and electrolysis components dominate the cost of conventional PV generated hydrogen, they do not dominate the cost of the STEP-generated hydrogen. The lower cost of STEP hydrogen is driven by residual distribution and

  11. An economic analysis of online streaming: How the music industry can generate revenues from cloud computing

    OpenAIRE

    Thomes, Tim Paul

    2011-01-01

    This paper investigates the upcoming business model of online streaming services allowing music consumers either to subscribe to a service which provides free-of-charge access to streaming music and which is funded by advertising, or to pay a monthly flat fee in order to get ad-free access to the content of the service accompanied with additional benefits. Both businesses will be launched by a single provider of streaming music. By imposing a two-sided market model on the one hand combined wi...

  12. Implementing energy efficient pavements: A socio-economic analysis of the development and implementation of energy efficient pavements with low rolling resistance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Axelsen, Christian; Pettinari, Matteo; Schmidt, Bjarne

    2017-01-01

    for the transportation sector is to make road networks more energy efficient by implementing pavements with low rolling resistance, leading to lower fuel consumption. Through a series of projects focusing on reducing rolling resistance conducted since 2010, the Danish Road Directorate (DRD) has developed a durable......, energy-efficient asphalt pavement. Socio-economic analyses conducted to quantify the benefit to society associated with implementing these asphalt pavements have demonstrated very high benefits. The demonstrated results in terms of durability, energy efficiency and socio-economics have resulted...... in substantial government funding being provided for demonstration trials on 50 kilometers of energy-efficient pavement in 2018. The implementation of energy-efficient pavements will enable Denmark to contribute to the out-of-quota 2030-emission cuts in line with EU regulations....

  13. A manual for the economic evaluation of energy efficiency and renewable energy technologies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Short, W.; Packey, D.J.; Holt, T.

    1995-03-01

    This manual is a guide for analyzing the economics of energy efficiency and renewable energy (EE) technologies and projects. It is intended (1) to help analysts determine the appropriate approach or type of analysis and the appropriate level of detail and (2) to assist EE analysts in completing consistent analyses using standard assumptions and bases, when appropriate. Included are analytical techniques that are commonly required for the economic analysis of EE technologies and projects. The manual consists of six sections: Introduction, Fundamentals, Selection Criteria Guide, Economic Measures, Special Considerations for Conservation and Renewable Energy Systems, and References. A glossary and eight appendices are also included. Each section has a brief introductory statement, a presentation of necessary formulae, a discussion, and when appropriate, examples and descriptions of data and data availability. The objective of an economic analysis is to provide the information needed to make a judgment or a decision. The most complete analysis of an investment in a technology or a project requires the analysis of each year of the life of the investment, taking into account relevant direct costs, indirect and overhead costs, taxes, and returns on investment, plus any externalities, such as environmental impacts, that are relevant to the decision to be made. However, it is important to consider the purpose and scope of a particular analysis at the outset because this will prescribe the course to follow. The perspective of the analysis is important, often dictating the approach to be used. Also, the ultimate use of the results of an analysis will influence the level of detail undertaken. The decision-making criteria of the potential investor must also be considered.

  14. Efficient Online Subspace Learning With an Indefinite Kernel for Visual Tracking and Recognition

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Liwicki, Stephan; Zafeiriou, Stefanos; Tzimiropoulos, Georgios; Pantic, Maja

    2012-01-01

    We propose an exact framework for online learning with a family of indefinite (not positive) kernels. As we study the case of nonpositive kernels, we first show how to extend kernel principal component analysis (KPCA) from a reproducing kernel Hilbert space to Krein space. We then formulate an

  15. Impact of energy efficiency measures on the economic value of buildings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Popescu, Daniela; Bienert, Sven; Schuetzenhofer, Christian; Boazu, Rodica

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: → Market driven reasons can strengthen implementation of energy policies in buildings. → Methods that quantify the added value due to energy performance are developed. → Recommendations on how they can be incorporated in the financial analysis are presented. → Case studies on some existing condominiums from Romania are analyzed. → The market sensitivity to energy efficiency measures is also in the focus. -- Abstract: A main objective of energy policies is to make all levels of the society, from governments to citizen, interested in increasing the energy efficiency of buildings. One of the most important barriers in implementation of energy policies is that the cost of potential energy savings, typically considered being the only financial benefit, does not sufficiently motivate investments. The target is therefore to identify further possible drivers pushing positive reaction according to energy saving action. The paper discusses whether a market-based instrument, capturing the increase of the economic value of energy efficient buildings, can be also used. Methods that quantify the added value due to energy performance, including recommendations on how they can be incorporated in the financial analysis of investments in weatherization, are developed. By applying the proposed methods, the payback period of investments in energy efficiency measures depends on two factors: potential energy savings and the added value to the property. Case studies on some existing condominiums from Romania are analyzed and provide evidence to the research question. The market sensitivity to energy efficiency measures, the possibility of an intangible added value as well as the impact to financial investment decisions is subsequently in the focus.

  16. Technical efficiency of economic systems of EU-15 countries based on energy consumption

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bampatsou, Christina; Papadopoulos, Savas; Zervas, Efthimios

    2013-01-01

    In the present study, Data Envelopment Analysis is used to determine the Technical Efficiency index of EU-15 countries from 1980 to 2008, using cross-country comparison. Technical Efficiency index represents the capacity of an economy to produce a higher level of Gross Domestic Product for a given level of total energy input. The level of the Technical Efficiency index is determined from the energy mix (fossil fuels, non-fossil fuels, nuclear energy) of each country and depends on the maximization level of the production of the Gross Domestic Product of the economic system, without waste of energy resources. The current study is applied in the case of the EU15 countries. Its scope is to highlight the differentiations of country classifications before and after the integration of nuclear energy in the energy mix of each country. The main result is that the integration of nuclear energy as an additional input in the energy mixture affects negatively the Technical Efficiency of countries. Also, when an economy achieves a decrease of the energy consumption produced from fossil fuels, and a better exploitation of renewable energy sources, clearly improves its capacity to produce more output with the given levels of inputs. - Highlights: ► Technical efficiency index of EU-15 countries is determined through the DEA method. ► Level of the TE index is determined from the energy mix used in each country. ► TE level depends on the maximization level of GDP without waste of energy resources. ► Capacity of an economy to produce more GDP for a given energy input is determined. ► TE differentiation before and after the integration of nuclear energy is performed

  17. Can market oriented economic reforms contribute to energy efficiency improvement? Evidence from China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fan Ying; Liao Hua; Wei Yiming

    2007-01-01

    Since China accelerated its market oriented economic reforms at the end of 1992, its energy intensity has declined 3.6% annually over 1993-2005. However, its energy intensity declined 4.2% annually during its first reform period 1979-1992. Therefore, can we conclude that the accelerated marketization since the end of 1992 has made no contribution to its energy efficiency improvement? In order to answer this challenging question, we examine the changes of energy own-price elasticity, as well as the elasticities of substitution between energy and non-energy (capital and labor) in China during the periods of 1979-1992 and 1993-2003. Generally, in transition or developing economies, holding the technology and output level fixed, if the energy own-price elasticity (algebraic value) declines or the substitution elasticity between factors rises, they will contribute to energy efficiency improvement. Our empirical study finds that: (1) during 1979-1992, the energy own-price elasticity is positive (0.285), and capital-energy, labor-energy are both Morishima complementary; which indicates a distorted energy price and inefficient allocation; and (2) during 1993-2003, the own-price elasticity for energy is negative (-1.236), and capital-energy and labor-energy are both Morishima substitute. All factor demands become more elastic, and all elasticities of substitution increase. The implication is that the accelerated marketization contributes substantially to energy efficiency improvement since 1993

  18. Dividing wall column: Improving thermal efficiency, energy savings and economic performance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aurangzeb, Md; Jana, Amiya K.

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • A rigorous model is developed for a dividing wall column. • Heat transfer model for metal wall is proposed. • Performance improvement is quantified for a ternary system. • Thermal efficiency, energy savings and cost are three used indices. - Abstract: This work aims at investigating the performance improvement of a dividing wall column (DWC) for the separation of a ternary system. It is true that for fractionating a ternary mixture, at least a sequence of two conventional distillation columns is required. To improve energetic and economic potential, and reduce space requirement, two columns are proposed to merge into one shell with a dividing wall. For developing the mathematical model of a distillation column, we consider the effect of heat transfer through the metal wall placed at an intermediated position inside the cylindrical column. The simulated DWC model is verified using the Aspen Plus flowsheet simulator with a wide variety of phase equilibrium models. The superiority of this proposed heat integrated configuration is shown for a ternary hydrocarbon system over a conventional distillation sequence (CDS) in terms of mainly three performance indexes, namely thermal efficiency, energy savings and total annual cost (TAC). It is investigated that the dividing wall distillation scheme can secure a 37.5% energy efficiency, and a 22.6% savings in energy consumption and 23.23% in TAC. The promising performance can also be quantified in terms of a reasonably low payback period of 2.11 years.

  19. ERWIN2: User's manual for a computer model to calculate the economic efficiency of wind energy systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Van Wees, F.G.H.

    1992-01-01

    During the last few years the Business Unit ESC-Energy Studies of the Netherlands Energy Research Foundation (ECN) developed calculation programs to determine the economic efficiency of energy technologies, which programs support several studies for the Dutch Ministry of Economic Affairs. All these programs form the so-called BRET programs. One of these programs is ERWIN (Economische Rentabiliteit WINdenergiesystemen or in English: Economic Efficiency of Wind Energy Systems) of which an updated manual (ERWIN2) is presented in this report. An outline is given of the possibilities and limitations to carry out calculations with the model

  20. Expansion of environmental impact assessment for eco-efficiency evaluation of China's economic sectors: An economic input-output based frontier approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xing, Zhencheng; Wang, Jigan; Zhang, Jie

    2018-09-01

    Due to the increasing environmental burdens caused by dramatic economic expansion, eco-efficiency indicating how efficient the economic activity is with respect to its environmental impacts has become a topic of considerable interest in China. In this context, Economic Input-output Life Cycle Assessment (EIO-LCA) and Data Envelopment Analysis (DEA) are combined to assess the environmental impacts and eco-efficiency of China's 26 economic sectors. The EIO-LCA results indicate that Electricity Production and Supply sector is the largest net exporter in energy usage, CO 2 emission and exhaust emission categories, while Construction sector is the largest net importer for five impact categories except for water withdrawal. Moreover, Construction sector is found to be the destination of the largest sector-to-sector environmental impact flows for the five impact categories and make the most contributions to the total environmental impacts. Another key finding is that Agriculture sector is both the largest net exporter and the greatest contributor for water withdrawal category. DEA results indicate that seven sectors are eco-efficient while over 70% of China's economic sectors are inefficient and require significant improvements. The average target improvements range between 23.30% and 35.06% depending on the impact category. Further sensitivity analysis reveals that the average sensitivity ratios vary from 7.7% to 15.7% among the six impact categories, which are found to be negatively correlated with their improvement potentials. Finally, several policy recommendations are made to mitigate environmental impacts of China's economic sectors and improve their eco-efficiency levels. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. On-line infrared heavy-water instruments: status, economics and prospects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lynch, G.F.

    1978-06-01

    An intensive program to rehabilitate and establish the reliability of on-line heavy-water monitors is now showing tangible results. After determining the operating specifications and characteristics of the infrared D 2 O analyzers manufactured by Barringer Research Limited, monitoring systems based on these instruments were installed and commissioned at reactors and heavy-water plants. Ten such systems are currently operating reliably in the field. Laboratory tests and field experience have identified design features which would make the analyzers more convenient to use and less sensitive to environmental conditions. The conceptual design of a new instrument which is less dependent on station services and more tolerant of plant conditions has been completed

  2. The influence of population on the economic efficiency of the metropolitan governance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuriy V. Pavlov

    2017-01-01

    the expected value when implementing different metropolitan governance model. If the comparison showed the non-optimality of the implemented model for some index of the economic growth, then the values of the economic growth in the metropolitan area and the national average were compared. As a result, a recommendationwas given for the metropolitan area on the degree of need for the management reform and an optimal metropolitan governance model was selected.Results. Based on the revealed regularities, we have created a methodical approach to choose the optimal model of metropolitan governance according to the population size. It can be used as a tool to justify metropolitan governance reform. The advantage of the approach is the use of real quantitative data that reduces the degree of subjectivity in decision-making Conclusion. The methodical approach is tested on the example of eightmetropolitan areas (Lublin, Palermo, Krakow, Paris, Stuttgart, Madrid, Geneva, and Linz. It was revealed that there is no metropolitan governance model, which is always more efficient for all objects. As the result of the analysis for Geneva, the degree of need for management reforms was described as “high” with a recommendation for a transition to a decentralized metropolitan governance model. For Linz, Stuttgart and Madrid, the degree of need for reform is characterized as “low” with a recommendation for a transition to decentralization (Stuttgart and centralization (Linz and Madrid. The rest of the metropolitan areas of the sample do not need reforms.

  3. Efficiency of an on-line isotope separator system employing cooled and NaCl-loaded He-jet methods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aeystoe, J.; Rantala, V.; Valli, K.; Hillebrand, S.; Kortelahti, M.; Eskola, K.; Raunemaa, T.

    1976-01-01

    A pure helium-jet at liquid nitrogen temperature coupled to a Nielsen type ion source, and a NaCl-loaded helium-jet coupled to a hollow-cathode ion source have been investigated as means to connect a cyclotron target chamber on-line to a mass separator. Technical details and performances of some critical parts of the system are described. Total separation efficiencies measured under various experimental conditions for several nuclides vary between 0.01 and 1.0%. (Auth.)

  4. METHODS OF EVALUATING THE ECONOMIC EFFICIENCY OF FORMATION OF CORPORATE ENTITIES IN THE FOOD INDUSTRY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. V. Grishchenko

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Summary: One of the most important issues of improving the management of corporate entities in the food industry is a unified methodological approach to the assessment of economic efficiency. To further improve this methodology approaches evaluation of the efficiency of the creation and development of organizational systems, as well as experience the calculations of estimated figures. Evaluation of the effectiveness of the formation of corporate entities in the food industry should be carried out depending on the stage of the formation of corporate education, which leads to the allocation of the following stages: preliminary calculations, allowing to obtain projections at the stage of idea generation, validation and design of corporate education; calculation of performance indicators corporate education; clarifying the calculations performed on the stage of functioning of corporate education, allowing to take into account not only the main directions of effect due to the formation of corporate structures, but also new sources of savings associated with the possibility of obtaining a formed structure of the system benefits; determination the effectiveness of the organization management corporate education; calculating the integral of the coefficient of efficiency of corporate education. The technique of an estimation of efficiency of formation of corporate entities, subject to practical implementation for analytical purposes, a different set of metrics and indicators calculated differentially depending on the phase (phase corporate improvement that allows you to get an objective view of the intermediate output and outcome effectiveness of the formation of corporate entities in the food industry. The purpose of this technique is to identify the internal resources of improving the formation of corporate education and management. Users of this technique can be leaders and specialists of the corporate entities interested in an objective assessment of

  5. Economic efficiency of Nuclear Cell Mars with reference to different regions with the account cogenerating production

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alekseev, P. N.; Kucharkin, N. E.; Udjanskiy, Y. N.; Schepetina, T. D.; Subbotin, S. A.

    2004-01-01

    The popular belief in a low economic efficiency NPP with nuclear reactors of small capacity (SNPP) is stipulated by the stereotyped approach to their role as a power source (PS) and absence of a system approach to an estimation of their role and place in economy of regions. Actually, the specific expenses of installed capacity for SNPP can be some times higher than those for ones with high-power reactors. As a rule, pay back of the SNPP projects is justified proceeding from only the income of sale produced electric power and heat. Poor economic efficiency of such variant of use forces the developers to consider variants cogeneration of useful production, for example, power-desalination complexes. But thus it is not taken into account, that only nuclear power source (NPS), due to quality of long-term autonomy can ensure in hard-to-reach regions ecologically safe, practically unbounded on time, reliable energy provision of unique production manufacture, which can be yielded only in a sectional place and due to presence of reliable and ecologically acceptable power supply. Examples of such exclusive symbiosis of technologies can be enough, especially taking into account the factor of an ecological acceptability, which acquires the increasing weight at definition of competitiveness of the projects. The factor of uniqueness at technologies combination in a sectional context does not contradict the strategy of seriality small capacity NPS application, as they are irreplaceable for long-time and reliable power supply of the independent removed or hard-to-reach consumers. In this their special applicability and their specific energy niche, which not busy while by any another PS. On land their role is similar nuclear submarines, which thanking NPS have got completely other quality of autonomy in the discharge of underwater kettles.The territory of Russia on the area both variety of resources and manufactures allows to implement different variants and combinations of

  6. On economic efficiency of nuclear power unit life extension using steam-gas topping plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kuznetsov, Y.N.; Lisitsa, F.D.; Smirnov, V.G.

    2001-01-01

    The different options for life extension of the operating nuclear power units have been analyzed in the report with regard for their economic efficiency. A particular attention is given to the option envisaging the reduction of reactor power output and its subsequent compensation with a steam-gas topping plant. Steam generated at its heat-recovery boilers is proposed to be used for the additional loading of the nuclear plant turbine so as to reach its nominal output. It would be demonstrated that the implementation of this option allows to reduce total costs in the period of power plant life extension by 24-29% as compared with the alternative use of the replacing steam-gas unit and the saved resources could be directed, for instance, for decommissioning of a reactor facility. (authors)

  7. Costs and economic efficiency of the drying of sewage sludges; Kosten und Wirtschaftlichkeit der Klaerschlammtrocknung

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jacobs, Ulrich [Haarslev Industries A/S, Herlev (Denmark). Marketing and Business Development

    2013-03-01

    New methods of the thermal utilization have to be created due to the fact that agricultural utilisation of sewage sludge and the use in the reclamation due to stringent limit values and enhanced quality criteria are available restricted in future. The incineration of mechanically dewatered and dried sewage sludge is performed in mono-combustion plants as well as in coal-fired power plants. The author of the contribution under consideration reports on the costs and economic efficiency of the drying of sewage sludge. The drying of sewage sludge may perform an important and reasonable contribution to the utilization of municipal sewage sludge. The selection of a suitable drying process should ever depend on the local realities. Proved and suitable technologies are available for every application. Before the decision for a certain provider, one should examine reference plants and consider specific experiences of the operator among the decision-making.

  8. Positioning matrix of economic efficiency and complexity: a case study in a university hospital.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ippolito, Adelaide; Viggiani, Vincenzo

    2014-01-01

    At the end of 2010, the Federico II University Hospital in Naples, Italy, initiated a series of discussions aimed at designing and applying a positioning matrix to its departments. This analysis was developed to create a tool able to extract meaningful information both to increase knowledge about individual departments and to inform the choices of general management during strategic planning. The name given to this tool was the positioning matrix of economic efficiency and complexity. In the matrix, the x-axis measures the ratio between revenues and costs, whereas the y-axis measures the index of complexity, thus showing "profitability" while bearing in mind the complexity of activities. By using the positioning matrix, it was possible to conduct a critical analysis of the characteristics of the Federico II University Hospital and to extract useful information for general management to use during strategic planning at the end of 2010 when defining medium-term objectives. Copyright © 2013 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  9. Power grid operation in a market environment economic efficiency and risk mitigation

    CERN Document Server

    2017-01-01

    This book examines both system operation and market operation perspectives, focusing on the interaction between the two. It incorporates up-to-date field experiences, presents challenges, and summarizes the latest theoretic advancements to address those challenges. The book is divided into four parts. The first part deals with the fundamentals of integrated system and market operations, including market power mitigation, market efficiency evaluation, and the implications of operation practices in energy markets. The second part discusses developing technologies to strengthen the use of the grid in energy markets. System volatility and economic impact introduced by the intermittency of wind and solar generation are also addressed. The third part focuses on stochastic applications, exploring new approaches of handling uncerta nty in Security Constrained Unit Commitment (SCUC) as well as the reserves needed for power system operation. The fourth part provides ongoing efforts of utilizing transmission facilities ...

  10. Efficient stocks administration in the frame of the present economic crisis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mihai Deju

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available The economic-financial crisis made its presence felt through more or less shy signals. All companies from the international and national market started to feel the crisis’s negative effects, several declaring bankruptcy, or diminishing temporary their activity. The consequences are multiples: the unemployment’s rate increase, the decreasing of the purchase power and reducing the goods demand from the luxury ones up to the one for consumption etc. Under these circumstances, companies have to avoid the immobilization of financial resources in products stocks that cannot be sold in the near future period, because otherwise would attract the danger of costs increasing, cashing decrease and generation of loses that may endanger the companies capacity of surpassing the present crisis. Therefore, all companies, no matter their size, should find during this period means of efficient stocks administration.

  11. Fast breeder reactor expected to soon overtake LWRs in terms of economic efficiency

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eitz, A.W.; Theisen, G.; Wolff, U.; Riethmueller, R.

    1986-01-01

    On the basis of current knowledge, the authors try to comparatively assess the fuel cycle costs of the SNR and the LWR, and to establish a prognosis of the competibility of the SNR in terms of fuel expenditure. The result is that already today, the fast breeder would achieve the economic efficiency of the LWR-type reactor, and in future would offer clear advantages. For their assessments, the authors made a few cost estimates, as e.g. with regard to the fuel reprocessing plant, which deserve close attention, and power discussion. As to the next project to follow, a large-scale European fast breeder reactor power plant, the authors state that the fuel cycle cost will not present a special economic risk, if an option for interim fuel storage is ensured. Determination of the right and adequate time to start construction of a commercial fuel reprocessing plant is no point in current discussions, and should anyhow be made with great care and the least time pressure possible. Cooperation among European states, however, is indispensable for this project. (orig.) [de

  12. Economic efficiency of high-rise construction in the Moscow program of renovation of housing stock

    Science.gov (United States)

    Misailovov, Andrey

    2018-03-01

    The article considers a new initiative of the regional authorities of updating the housing stock designated as the renovation of housing. Its main aspects are analyzed, including the nature of program, economic efficiency of its implementation due to high-rise construction and the regulatory and legislative framework, the procedure for implementing the program, and the time frame for its implementation. The role of the program for regions in which high depreciation of the housing stock is combined with a limited number of sites for a new housing construction is disclosed. The high-rise construction in the renovation program is presented as a variant of a successful solution not only of the tasks of renovating the housing stock, but also of filling the regional budget. The social and economic orientation of the high-rise construction and the involvement of residents in the process of making town-planning decisions in the field of high-rise construction at all stages of implementing the program are shown.

  13. Low-capacity wind power systems. Technology, legal aspects, economic efficiency; Kleine Windenergieanlagen. Technik - Recht - Wirtschaftlichkeit

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eggersgluess, Walter [Landwirtschaftskammer Schleswig-Holstein, Rendsburg (Germany); Eckel, Henning; Hartmann, Stefan [Kuratorium fuer Technik und Bauwesen in der Landwirtschaft e.V. (KTBL), Darmstadt (Germany)

    2012-07-01

    In what conditions will investments in a low-capacity wind power plant be profitable? This leaflet intends to provide a decision aid for farmers and other land owners interested in thes subject. It outlines the technology of low-capacity wind power systems, goes into site selection, expected yields and legal boundary conditions. The most important economic data are defined, and the economic efficiency of wind power plants of 7.5 to 25 kW is discussed. The text is supplemented by useful internet links. [German] Unter welchen Bedingungen rechnet sich die Investition in eine kleine Windenergieanlage? Das Heft hilft Landwirten sowie allen anderen investitionswilligen Grundstueckseigentuemern fuer sich Antworten auf diese Fragen zu finden und die richtigen Entscheidungen zu treffen. Es gibt einen Ueberblick ueber die Technik kleiner Windenergieanlagen, beschreibt was den richtigen Standort auszeichnet, mit welchen Energieertraegen gerechnet werden kann und welchen rechtlichen Rahmenbedingungen Bau und Betrieb der Anlagen unterliegen. Die wichtigsten wirtschaftlichen Kenngroessen werden definiert und die Wirtschaftlichkeit kleiner Windenergieanlagen anhand von Beispielanlagen im Leistungsbereich von 7,5 bis 25 kW diskutiert. Nuetzliche Internetadressen zum Thema Windenergie runden das Informationsangebot ab.

  14. Economical Efficiency of Combined Cooling Heating and Power Systems Based on an Enthalpy Method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yan Xu

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available As the living standards of Chinese people have been improving, the energy demand for cooling and heating, mainly in the form of electricity, has also expanded. Since an integrated cooling, heating and power supply system (CCHP will serve this demand better, the government is now attaching more importance to the application of CCHP energy systems. Based on the characteristics of the combined cooling heating and power supply system, and the method of levelized cost of energy, two calculation methods for the evaluation of the economical efficiency of the system are employed when the energy production in the system is dealt with from the perspective of exergy. According to the first method, fuel costs account for about 75% of the total cost. In the second method, the profits from heating and cooling are converted to fuel costs, resulting in a significant reduction of fuel costs, accounting for 60% of the total cost. Then the heating and cooling parameters of gas turbine exhaust, heat recovery boiler, lithium-bromide heat-cooler and commercial tariff of provincial capitals were set as benchmark based on geographic differences among provinces, and the economical efficiency of combined cooling heating and power systems in each province were evaluated. The results shows that the combined cooling heating and power system is economical in the developed areas of central and eastern China, especially in Hubei and Zhejiang provinces, while in other regions it is not. The sensitivity analysis was also made on related influencing factors of fuel cost, demand intensity in heating and cooling energy, and bank loans ratio. The analysis shows that the levelized cost of energy of combined cooling heating and power systems is very sensitive to exergy consumption and fuel costs. When the consumption of heating and cooling energy increases, the unit cost decreases by 0.1 yuan/kWh, and when the on-grid power ratio decreases by 20%, the cost may increase by 0.1 yuan

  15. Economic incentives for evidence generation: promoting an efficient path to personalized medicine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Towse, Adrian; Garrison, Louis P

    2013-01-01

    The preceding articles in this volume have identified and discussed a wide range of methodological and practical issues in the development of personalized medicine. This concluding article uses the resulting insights to identify implications for the economic incentives for evidence generation. It argues that promoting an efficient path to personalized medicine is going to require appropriate incentives for evidence generation including: 1) a greater willingness on the part of payers to accept prices that reflect value; 2) consideration of some form of intellectual property protection (e.g., data exclusivity) for diagnostics to incentivize generation of evidence of clinical utility; 3) realistic expectations around the standards for evidence; and 4) public investment in evidence collection to complement the efforts of payers and manufacturers. It concludes that such incentives could build and maintain a balance among: 1) realistic thresholds for evidence and the need for payers to have confidence in the clinical utility of the drugs and tests they use; 2) payment for value, with prices that ensure cost-effectiveness for health systems; and 3) levels of intellectual property protection for evidence generation that provide a return for those financing research and development, while encouraging competition to produce both better and more efficient tests. Copyright © 2013, International Society for Pharmacoeconomics and Outcomes Research (ISPOR). Published by Elsevier Inc.

  16. The economic efficiency of forest energy wood chip production in regional use – A case study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dalibor Šafařík

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available This regional project case study deals with the limiting factors of economic efficiency in the production of forest energy wood chips. The evaluation of production efficiency made use of data obtained from the Lesy města Brna, a.s. (Forest of the City of Brno, Corp., which were subjected to two static methods of investment evaluation: an analysis of the tipping point and determination of the limit of variable costs and a dynamic modified tipping point analysis using cash flow (i.e. cash break even analysis. The results have confirmed an established hypothesis, namely that the decisive factor in the profitability of the production of forest energy wood chips hinges on the costs incurred in the gathering of raw material and the distribution of the produced chips. The results include a further limiting factor: transportation costs to the final consumption location. The output of the study is a recommendation that the concentration of residual forest materials not exceed a distance of 250 m from the place of production to the point of disintegration and that the transport distance of energy chips not exceed 50 km from the place of disintegration to the final consumption point. These limiting values help quantify the full internal costs per cost unit, full internal cost profitability, total revenue profitability and annual profitability expressed in terms of fixed assets depreciation without factoring in financial aid.

  17. An Efficient Meta Heuristic Algorithm to Solve Economic Load Dispatch Problems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R Subramanian

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The Economic Load Dispatch (ELD problems in power generation systems are to reduce the fuel cost by reducing the total cost for the generation of electric power. This paper presents an efficient Modified Firefly Algorithm (MFA, for solving ELD Problem. The main objective of the problems is to minimize the total fuel cost of the generating units having quadratic cost functions subjected to limits on generator true power output and transmission losses. The MFA is a stochastic, Meta heuristic approach based on the idealized behaviour of the flashing characteristics of fireflies. This paper presents an application of MFA to ELD for six generator test case system. MFA is applied to ELD problem and compared its solution quality and computation efficiency to Genetic algorithm (GA, Differential Evolution (DE, Particle swarm optimization (PSO, Artificial Bee Colony optimization (ABC, Biogeography-Based Optimization (BBO, Bacterial Foraging optimization (BFO, Firefly Algorithm (FA techniques. The simulation result shows that the proposed algorithm outperforms previous optimization methods.

  18. Effect of pea intercropping on biological efficiencies and economics of some non-legume winter vegetables

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Qasim, S.A.; Anjum, M.A.; Hussain, S.; Ahmad, S.

    2013-01-01

    Intercropping with legumes makes effective use of land and other resources and results in reduced cost of production. Increased agricultural production through intercropping with minimal cost is need of time to feed increasing population. The reported work evaluates the biological efficiencies and economics of pea, garlic, turnip and cauliflower grown as sole crops and when pea intercropped in garlic, turnip and cauliflower during 2010-12. All the vegetables generally yielded more when grown as single crop compared with when pea was intercropped in these vegetables. In peas in garlic intercropping, pea yield was not significantly affected; however, garlic yield was significantly reduced (65.8%). Pea intercropping in turnip or cauliflower resulted in significantly lower yields of both crops (29.1 and 28.0%, respectively) as compared with their sole cropping. All other characteristics (plant growth and yield components) of all the four crops which indicate biological efficiency generally were greater when grown as single crops and decreased in intercropping combinations. Analysis of intercropping treatments revealed that pea intercropping in turnip resulted in the highest marginal rate of return (8,875%), followed by pea intercropping in cauliflower (6,977%), due to lower input costs incurred per hectare. However, net benefit to the growers was higher (Rs. 327,925) in case of pea intercropping in cauliflower, followed by pea intercropping in garlic (Rs. 213,425). (author)

  19. METHOD OF DETERMINING ECONOMICAL EFFICIENCY OF HOUSING STOCK RECONSTRUCTION IN A CITY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Petreneva Ol’ga Vladimirovna

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available RECONSTRUCTION IN A CITY The demand in comfortable housing has always been very high. The building density is not the same in different regions and sometimes there is no land for new housing construction, especially in the central regions of cities. Moreover, in many cities cultural and historical centers remain, which create the historical appearance of the city, that’s why new construction is impossible in these regions. Though taking into account the depreciation and obsolescence, the operation life of many buildings come to an end, they fall into disrepair. In these cases there arises a question on the reconstruction of the existing residential, public and industrial buildings. The aim of the reconstruction is bringing the existing worn-out building stock into correspondence with technical, social and sanitary requirements and living standards and conditions. The authors consider the currency and reasons for reconstruction of residential buildings. They attempt to answer the question, what is more economical efficient: new construction or reconstruction of residential buildings. The article offers a method to calculate the efficiency of residential buildings reconstruction.

  20. RESEARCHES CONCERNING THE ECONOMIC EFFICIENCY ACHIEVED SUCCESSIVE TO THE APPLICATION OF BIOLOGICALLY-ACTIVE PRODUCTS IN SMOOTH BROME CROP

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ELENA PEł

    2008-05-01

    Full Text Available Within any branch of material production, the supervision of the economic effects caused by the applied technologies is an essential requirement. Not only related to the productive activity, but also related to scientific research, designing and other fields of activity, the final goal is represented by the achievement of immediate or far off economic effects. The introduction and generalization into production of the newest technologies of forage production must rely upon calculations of economic efficiency, too. The objective of these calculations is to offer to any producer the possibility to choose among the optimal technologic variants, with great productions per surface unit, of high quality and low costs. The calculations of economic efficiency were carried out during the three years of experimentation. The economic efficiency obtained after the application of biostimulants in smooth brome during the first year of production is expressed through the achievement of a profit per surface unit of 75.85 – 127.00 €/ha. Successive to the calculations of economic efficiency, during the second year of production, the profit per surface unit recorded values between 79.10 – 153.10 €/ha depending upon the applied biostimulant, and during the third year of production the profit obtained per surface unit was 211.05 – 270.70 €/ha.

  1. Evaluating the Economic Performance of High-Technology Industry and Energy Efficiency: A Case Study of Science Parks in Taiwan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Min-Ren Yan

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available High-technology industries provide opportunities for economic growth, but also raise concerns because of their energy-demanding nature. This paper provides an integrated evaluation of both economic benefits and energy efficiency of high-technology industries based on the real data from one of the globally recognized high-technology industrial clusters, the national science parks in Taiwan. A nation-wide industrial Input-Output Analysis is conducted to demonstrate the positive effects of science parks on national economic developments and industrial upgrades. The concept of energy intensity and an energy-efficient economy index are applied to an integrated assessment of the relationship between economic growth and energy consumption. The proposed case study suggests that economic and energy efficiency objectives can be simultaneously achieved by the development of high-technology industries, while three energy policy implications are considered. First, a nation-wide macro viewpoint is needed and high-technology industries should be considered as parts of the national/regional economies by governmental agencies. Second, a proper industrial clustering mechanism and the shared environmental facilities supported by the government, such as planned land and road usage, electricity and water supply, telecommunications system, sewerage system and wastewater treatments, can improve energy efficiency of high-technology industries. Third, the governmental policies on the taxing and management system in science parks would also direct energy-efficient economy of high-technology industries.

  2. Dielectrophoresis microsystem with integrated flow cytometers for on-line monitoring of sorting efficiency

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wang, Zhenyu; Hansen, Ole; Petersen, Peter Kalsen

    2006-01-01

    Dielectrophoresis (DEP) and flow cytometry are powerful technologies and widely applied in microfluidic systems for handling and measuring cells and particles. Here, we present a novel microchip with a DEP selective filter integrated with two microchip flow cytometers (FCs) for on-line monitoring...... of cell sorting processes. On the microchip, the DEP filter is integrated in a microfluidic channel network to sort yeast cells by positive DER The two FCs detection windows are set upstream and downstream of the DEP filter. When a cell passes through the detection windows, the light scattered by the cell...

  3. Analysis of the influence of external factors on efficiency of use of resource potential and economic growth of the region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. P. Vasiliev

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available In the article are described and analyzed the influence of factors of external and internal environments on maintaining the planned economic growth, efficient use of the resource potential of the regional economic complex. Are provided methods of analysis and comprehensive measures to maintain the planned pace of economic growth of the region, expansion of competitive advantages. Enlargement and generalization determine the impact of economic environmental factors, in accordance with the duration of optimization and changes in the business cycle, provide a high level of confidence in the estimates of the impact of the macro environment on the process of achieving economic success, efficient use of the resource potential of the regional economic complex. Analysis of the internal conditions of region is carried out by management on the basis of establishing the optimal values of the distribution of the resource potential for high-priority, economically viable, and socially important areas of efficient use of logistical, labor, information, and natural resources, analysis of the current or having a tendency to the formation of informal communities in the sectoral components of economic activities, industrial complexes and social services. The possibilities of the availability and abilities of the region to influence the structural components in achieving the economic and financial goals of the activity are considered, including ensuring sustainable dynamics in increasing the efficiency of regional production, providing competitive advantages in the use of consumed resources. The factors proposed for consideration, different management of the regional economy, contribute to the creation of both formal and informal organizational and economic communities, taking into account the interests of all its participants. In addition, mechanisms and tools are proposed that facilitate the creation of favorable conditions for participants in informal clusters

  4. The Efficiency of Different Online Learning Media--An Empirical Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Köbler, Franziska J.; Nitzschner, Marco M.

    2014-01-01

    In the current study, it was examined whether successful learning is related to using different types of media. We compared the comprehension of an economic concept in novices (N = 82) under three conditions: a Wikipedia article, a funny, and a serious YouTube video. The media were presented in English which is a foreign language to most of the…

  5. Economic efficiency of legume-cereal intercrops in conditions of organic farming

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jaroslav Jánský

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents economic analysis of growing of legume-cereal intercropping in conditions of organic farming. Results of the analysis are based on data monitoring in chosen organic farms that grow LCI. In the paper there is also compared economic efficiency of LCI grown in organic and conventional farming system. Methodological solution results from costingness and earnings monitoring of LCI production in five chosen organic farms in the period 2007–2008.When evaluating costs existing in individual variants of LCI growing it is necessary to say that the selection of individual machines and machine aggregations represents the most important factor of influencing direct costs, namely with regard to the size of organic farms and to the area of individual field blocks. Under conditions of organic farms, the LCI production is also significantly influenced also by agrotechnical (tillage operations. As compared with conventional farms, the final yield of both green fodder and grain is lower by 14–38%. Total direct costs per hectare of harvested LCI acreage ranged in case of fodder production from 9.249 CZK to 11.620 CZK per hectare. In case of grain production, the corresponding costs ranged from 8.848 to 9.970 CZK per hectare. In case of LCI, the direct costs of organic farms per unit of production of both fodder and grain consist mainly of material costs, which represent 63–76% and 61–68% of total expenses associated with production of fodder and grain, respectively. These direct costs are influenced also by higher prices of inputs.

  6. CANDU fuel cycle economic efficiency assessments using the IAEA-MESSAGE-V code

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Prodea, Iosif; Margeanu, Cristina Alice; Aioanei, Corina; Prisecaru, Ilie; Danila, Nicolae

    2007-01-01

    The main goal of the paper is to evaluate different electricity generation costs in a CANDU Nuclear Power Plant (NPP) using different nuclear fuel cycles. The IAEA-MESSAGE code (Model for Energy Supply Strategy Alternatives and their General Environmental Impacts) will be used to accomplish these assessments. This complex tool was supplied by International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) in 2002 at 'IAEA-Regional Training Course on Development and Evaluation of Alternative Energy Strategies in Support of Sustainable Development' held in Institute for Nuclear Research Pitesti. It is worthy to remind that the sustainable development requires satisfying the energy demand of present generations without compromising the possibility of future generations to meet their own needs. Based on the latest public information in the next 10-15 years four CANDU-6 based NPP could be in operation in Romania. Two of them will have some enhancements not clearly specified, yet. Therefore we consider being necessary to investigate possibility to enhance the economic efficiency of existing in-service CANDU-6 power reactors. The MESSAGE program can satisfy these requirements if appropriate input models will be built. As it is mentioned in the dedicated issues, a major inherent feature of CANDU is its fuel cycle flexibility. Keeping this in mind, some proposed CANDU fuel cycles will be analyzed in the paper: Natural Uranium (NU), Slightly Enriched Uranium (SEU), Recovered Uranium (RU) with and without reprocessing. Finally, based on optimization of the MESSAGE objective function an economic hierarchy of CANDU fuel cycles will be proposed. The authors used mainly public information on different costs required by analysis. (authors)

  7. Economic feasibility of a novel energy efficient middle vessel batch distillation to reduce energy use

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Babu, G. Uday Bhaskar; Aditya, R.; Jana, Amiya K.

    2012-01-01

    It has long been recognized that the highly irreversible operation of batch distillation involves more wastage of energy compared to continuous flow distillation. For boosting its energy efficiency, the middle vessel batch distillation (MVBD) column has been invented. In this paper, a rigorous model for an MVBD process for the separation of a ternary hydrocarbon system is developed to simulate its transient behavior. In order to obtain the products at their maximum achievable purities, we device the two operating policies for the representative configuration. This contribution introduces a heat pumping system in the MVBD aiming to further improve its energetic and economic potentials. This novel heat integration technique is operated with a variable speed compressor for pressurizing the overhead vapor before thermally coupling it with the reboiler liquid. Interestingly, along with the compression ratio (CR), the other two manipulated variables are the inflow rate of overhead vapor to the compressor and that of an external medium (here, steam) that provides makeup heat to the reboiler. The operation of this adaptive heat pump assisted column originally involves the simultaneous adaptation of two variables throughout the entire batch processing. The simulation results show that a cost savings predicted in the heat integrated MVBD scheme can be achieved along with a substantial reduction in energy consumption. -- Highlights: ► The two operating policies have been derived for middle vessel batch distillation operation. ► This contribution introduces an adaptive heat pumping system for the middle vessel column. ► The heat integrated column shows better energetic and economic potentials over its conventional counterpart.

  8. Environmental policy and economic efficiency: tradable permits versus regulatory instrument to control air pollution: a comparative approach USA/France

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cros, Ch.

    1998-12-01

    The key issue of the thesis paradox of the weak implementation of economic instruments whereas 1) they are theoretically and also empirically considered as efficient; 2) the market imposes itself as the central reference to modem economies; and 3) economic efficiency is nowadays a legitimacy measure of public policies. Two different answers can be given: either theoretical analysis does not enable to explain the real economic efficiency of a political instrument, or environmental policies do not have economic efficiency as their main objective. The analysis take place in a context of a limited rationality and an inter-temporal consistency of public policies. The purpose is to understand the role of economic efficiency criteria during the adoption, building, and evolution of an environmental policy with an analytical point of view, and not a normative one. The institutional analysis of the American and the French pollution control policies, representative of the implementation of a trading permit system for the first, and of a regulatory instrument for the second, prove that the theoretical analysis of an instrument can not explain a real coordination, but only one organizational form among others. An institutional trajectory is the interpretation of policy instruments of policy instruments from 5 fundamental elements: the nature of the legitimacy of the policy; the nature of the regulator hypothesis on the information; the nature of the decision-making basis; the nature of the collective action. A coordination changes when the occurrence of an event moves one of the fundamental elements, and disorganizes the satisfying equilibrium of the agents. Then, the economic efficiency becomes a negotiation point. A political instrument is adopted for its own ability to solve a dysfunction without disrupting the coordination. (author)

  9. Chapter 4. Economic Considerations: Cost-Effective and Efficient Climate Policies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maximilian Auffhammer

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available In this chapter we discuss the economics of climate change. We begin with a discussion of economic considerations that are important to take into account when designing and evaluating climate policy, including cost effectiveness and efficiency. We then discuss specific policies at the state, national, and international level in light of these economic considerations.  We have several recommendations for the path forward for climate policy. First, the goal of climate policy should be to reduce the damages caused by greenhouse gases. In addition to mitigation policy to reduce greenhouse gas concentrations in the atmosphere, one can also reduce the damages causes by greenhouse gases by adaptation measures that reduce our vulnerability to climate change impacts.  Second, policy-makers should use incentive- (or market- based instruments as opposed to command and control policies (including quantity-based mandates whenever possible. Whenever unpriced emissions are the sole market failure, incentive-based instruments such as a carbon tax or cap and trade program are more likely to achieve the social optimum and maximize social net benefits [1, 2]. Lin and Prince [3] calculate that the optimal gasoline tax for the state of California is $1.37 per gallon.  Our third recommendation is to address the risk of emissions leakage, which arises when only one jurisdiction (e.g., California imposes climate policy, but not the entire world. One way to reduce emissions leakage is to use the strategic distribution of emissions allowances to local producers. This method, known as “output-based allocation” or benchmarking, effectively subsidizes local producers and at least partially offsets the increase in their costs caused by an emissions cap [4]. Importantly, only local production is eligible for an allocation of valuable allowances, providing a counterweight to the incentive for emission leakage. Our fourth recommendation is that if they are used instead

  10. Final Technical Report on Development of an Economic and Efficient Biodiesel production Process (NC)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tirla, Cornelia [Univ. of North Carolina, Pembroke, NC (United States); Dooling, Thomas A. [Univ. of North Carolina, Pembroke, NC (United States); Smith, Rachel B. [Univ. of North Carolina, Pembroke, NC (United States); Shi, Xinyan [Univ. of North Carolina, Pembroke, NC (United States); Shahbazi, Abolghasem [North Carolina Agricultural and Technical State Univ., Greensboro, NC (United States)

    2014-03-19

    The Biofuels Team at The University of North Carolina at Pembroke and North Carolina A&T State University carried out a joint research project aimed at developing an efficient process to produce biodiesel. In this project, the team developed and tested various types of homogeneous and heterogeneous catalysts which could replace the conventionally used soluble potassium hydroxide catalyst which, traditionally, must be separated and disposed of at the end of the process. As a result of this screening, the homogeneous catalyst choline hydroxide was identified as a potential replacement for the traditional catalyst used in this process, potassium hydroxide, due to its decreased corrosiveness and toxicity. A large number of heterogeneous catalysts were produced and tested in order to determine the scaffold, ion type and ion concentration which would produce optimum yield of biodiesel. The catalyst with 12% calcium on Zeolite β was identified as being highly effective and optimal reaction conditions were identified. Furthermore, a packed bed reactor utilizing this type of catalyst was designed, constructed and tested in order to further optimize the process. An economic analysis of the viability of the project showed that the cost of an independent farmer to produce the fuelstock required to produce biodiesel exceeds the cost of petroleum diesel under current conditions and that therefore without incentives, farmers would not be able to benefit economically from producing their own fuel. An educational website on biodiesel production and analysis was produced and a laboratory experiment demonstrating the production of biodiesel was developed and implemented into the Organic Chemistry II laboratory curriculum at UNCP. Five workshops for local farmers and agricultural agents were held in order to inform the broader community about the various fuelstock available, their cultivation and the process and advantages of biodiesel use and production. This project fits both

  11. Technical efficiency and economic viability of different cattle identification methods allowed by the Brazilian traceability system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcos Aurelio Lopes

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available We aimed to evaluate the technical efficiency and economic viability of the implementation and use of four cattle identification methods allowed by the Brazilian traceability system. The study was conducted in a beef cattle production system located in the State of Mato Grosso, from January to June 2012. Four identification methods (treatments were compared: T1: ear tag in one ear and ear button in the other ear (eabu; T2: ear tag and iron brand on the right leg (eaib; T3: ear tag in one ear and tattoo on the other ear (eata; and T4: ear tag in one ear and electronic ear tag (eael on the other. Each treatment was applied to 60 Nelore animals, totaling 240 animals, divided equally into three life stages (calves, young cattle, adult cattle. The study had two phases: implementation (phase 1 and reading and transfer of identification numbers to an electronic database (phase 2. All operating expenses related to the two phases of the study were determined. The database was constructed, and the statistical analyses were performed using SPSS® 17.0 software. Regarding the time spent on implementation (phase 1, conventional ear tags and electronic ear tags produced similar results, which were lower than those of hot iron and tattoo methods, which differed from each other. Regarding the time required for reading the numbers on animals and their transcription into a database (phase 2, electronic ear-tagging was the fastest method, followed by conventional ear tag, hot iron and tattoo. Among the methods analyzed, the electronic ear tag had the highest technical efficiency because it required less time to implement identifiers and to complete the process of reading and transcription to an electronic database and because it did not exhibit any errors. However, the cost of using the electronic ear-tagging method was higher primarily due to the cost of the device.

  12. Evaluation of economic and technical efficiency of diesel engines operation on the basis of volume combustion rate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    І. О. Берестовой

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available The article deals with a new approach to evaluation of complex efficiency of diesel engines. Traditionally, cylinder’s capacity, rotation frequency, average efficient pressure inside cylinder, piston’s stroke, average piston’s velocity, fuel specific consumption and other indices are used as generalizing criteria, characterizing diesel engine’s efficiency, but they do not reflect interrelation between engine’s complex efficiency and a set of economic, mass-dimensional, operational and ecological efficiency. The approach applied in the article makes it possible to reveal the existing and modify the existing methods of solving the problem of improving diesel engine’s efficiency with due regard to interrelation of the parameters, characterizing efficiency of their operation. Statistic analyses were carried out, on the basis of which an assumption regarding the existence of interrelation between specific fuel consumption and the analyzed engine’s parameters was made. Processing of statistical data for various analyzed functions of diesel engines helped offer a function, illustrating the link between volume combustion rate, piston’s area and nominal theoretical specific fuel consumption. Interrelation between volume combustion rate, nominal parameters of diesel operation and efficiency indices, obtained by processing statistical data of more than 500 models of diesels of different series was evaluated, the main feature of it being a mathematical trend. The analysis of the obtained function makes it possible to establish an interrelation between economic efficiency of a diesel, its main index being specific fuel consumption and volume combustion rate and design peculiarities

  13. The Biobank Economic Modeling Tool (BEMT): Online Financial Planning to Facilitate Biobank Sustainability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Odeh, Hana; Miranda, Lisa; Rao, Abhi; Vaught, Jim; Greenman, Howard; McLean, Jeffrey; Reed, Daniel; Memon, Sarfraz; Fombonne, Benjamin; Guan, Ping

    2015-01-01

    Background: Biospecimens are essential resources for advancing basic and translational research. However, there are little data available regarding the costs associated with operating a biobank, and few resources to enable their long-term sustainability. To support the research community in this effort, the National Institutes of Health, National Cancer Institute's Biorepositories and Biospecimen Research Branch has developed the Biobank Economic Modeling Tool (BEMT). The tool is accessible at http://biospecimens.cancer.gov/resources/bemt.asp. Methods: To obtain market-based cost information and to inform the development of the tool, a survey was designed and sent to 423 biobank managers and directors across the world. The survey contained questions regarding infrastructure investments, salary costs, funding options, types of biospecimen resources and services offered, as well as biospecimen pricing and service-related costs. Results: A total of 106 responses were received. The data were anonymized, aggregated, and used to create a comprehensive database of cost and pricing information that was integrated into the web-based tool, the BEMT. The BEMT was built to allow the user to input cost and pricing data through a seven-step process to build a cost profile for their biobank, define direct and indirect costs, determine cost recovery fees, perform financial forecasting, and query the anonymized survey data from comparable biobanks. Conclusion: A survey was conducted to obtain a greater understanding of the costs involved in operating a biobank. The anonymized survey data was then used to develop the BEMT, a cost modeling tool for biobanks. Users of the tool will be able to create a cost profile for their biobanks' specimens, products and services, establish pricing, and allocate costs for biospecimens based on percent cost recovered, and perform project-specific cost analyses and financial forecasting. PMID:26697911

  14. The Biobank Economic Modeling Tool (BEMT): Online Financial Planning to Facilitate Biobank Sustainability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Odeh, Hana; Miranda, Lisa; Rao, Abhi; Vaught, Jim; Greenman, Howard; McLean, Jeffrey; Reed, Daniel; Memon, Sarfraz; Fombonne, Benjamin; Guan, Ping; Moore, Helen M

    2015-12-01

    Biospecimens are essential resources for advancing basic and translational research. However, there are little data available regarding the costs associated with operating a biobank, and few resources to enable their long-term sustainability. To support the research community in this effort, the National Institutes of Health, National Cancer Institute's Biorepositories and Biospecimen Research Branch has developed the Biobank Economic Modeling Tool (BEMT). The tool is accessible at http://biospecimens.cancer.gov/resources/bemt.asp. To obtain market-based cost information and to inform the development of the tool, a survey was designed and sent to 423 biobank managers and directors across the world. The survey contained questions regarding infrastructure investments, salary costs, funding options, types of biospecimen resources and services offered, as well as biospecimen pricing and service-related costs. A total of 106 responses were received. The data were anonymized, aggregated, and used to create a comprehensive database of cost and pricing information that was integrated into the web-based tool, the BEMT. The BEMT was built to allow the user to input cost and pricing data through a seven-step process to build a cost profile for their biobank, define direct and indirect costs, determine cost recovery fees, perform financial forecasting, and query the anonymized survey data from comparable biobanks. A survey was conducted to obtain a greater understanding of the costs involved in operating a biobank. The anonymized survey data was then used to develop the BEMT, a cost modeling tool for biobanks. Users of the tool will be able to create a cost profile for their biobanks' specimens, products and services, establish pricing, and allocate costs for biospecimens based on percent cost recovered, and perform project-specific cost analyses and financial forecasting.

  15. Economics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palley, Paul D; Parcero, Miriam E

    2016-10-01

    A review of literature in the calendar year 2015 dedicated to environmental policies and sustainable development, and economic policies. This review is divided into these sections: sustainable development, irrigation, ecosystems and water management, climate change and disaster risk management, economic growth, water supply policies, water consumption, water price regulation, and water price valuation.

  16. Available online Efficiency potential of indirectly heated solar reforming with different types of solar air receivers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Storch, Henrik von; Roeb, Martin; Stadler, Hannes; Sattler, Christian; Hoffschmidt, Bernhard

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • A process for indirectly heated solar reforming of natural gas with air as heat transfer fluid is proposed. • Different solar receivers are modeled and implemented into the reforming process. • The overall efficiency of the process with different solar receivers is determined. • Optimum solar receiver characteristics for application in a solar reforming process are determined. - Abstract: In solar reforming, the heating value of natural gas is increased by utilization of concentrated solar radiation. Hence, it is a process for storing solar energy in a stable and transportable form that also permits further conversion into liquid fuels like methanol. This process has the potential to significantly decrease the natural gas consumption and the associated CO_2-emissions of methanol production with only few open questions to be addressed prior to commercialization. In the medium and long term, it has the potential to generate methanol as an environmentally friendly fuel for both transport as well as flexible electricity production in combined cycle gas turbines, when biogas is used as reactant. In a previous study the high potential of indirectly heated solar reforming with solar air receivers was shown; however, the efficiency is limited when using state of the art open volumetric receivers. Therefore, different types of air receivers are implemented into an indirectly heated solar reforming process and the overall efficiency potential is assessed in the present study. The implemented receivers are an open volumetric cavity receiver, a closed volumetric cavity receiver and a tubular cavity receiver. The open volumetric cavity receiver and tubular cavity receiver achieve the best results due to their capability of operating efficiently at temperatures well above 700 °C. For these receivers peak efficiencies up to 29% and 27% respectively are predicted. As the utilization of an open volumetric cavity receiver constitutes an open heat transfer

  17. The Importance of the Online Business Models on the Internet Businesses Evolution, in Romania, in Economic Crisis Conditions

    OpenAIRE

    NEGOI Eugen-Remus; SION Beatrice

    2010-01-01

    In managing a business online, it was given crucial importance to research business and increase the visibility of offered products or services, through online social media. Promotional expenses compared to the online business model to those of a traditional business model, decreased significantly. Visibility, as equal opportunity, given the size of a business and lift them in time. A contemporary Romanian online business success is based even so on visibility and social environments on the I...

  18. Efficient production and economics of the clean fuel hydrogen. Paper no. IGEC-1-Keynote-Elnashaie

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Elnashaie, S.

    2005-01-01

    This paper/plenary lecture to this green energy conference briefly discusses six main issues: 1) The future of hydrogen economy; 2) Thermo-chemistry of hydrogen production for different techniques of autothermic operation using different feedstocks; 3) Improvement of the hydrogen yield and minimization of reformer size through combining fast fluidization with hydrogen and oxygen membranes together with CO 2 sequestration; 4) Efficient production of hydrogen using novel Autothermal Circulating Fluidized Bed Membrane Reformer (ACFBMR); 5) Economics of hydrogen production; and, 6) Novel gasification process for hydrogen production from biomass. It is shown that hydrogen economy is not a Myth as some people advocate, and that with well-directed research it will represent a bright future for humanity utilizing such a clean, everlasting fuel, which is also free of deadly conflicts for the control of energy sources. It is shown that autothermic production of hydrogen using novel reformers configurations and wide range of feedstocks is a very promising route towards achieving a successful hydrogen economy. A novel process for the production of hydrogen from different renewable biomass sources is presented and discussed. The process combines the principles of pyrolysis with the simultaneous use of catalyst, membranes and CO 2 sequestration to produce pure hydrogen directly from the unit. Some of the novel processes presented are essential components of modern bio-refineries. (author)

  19. Design of an economically efficient feed-in tariff structure for renewable energy development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lesser, Jonathan A.; Su Xuejuan

    2008-01-01

    Evidence suggests, albeit tentatively, that feed-in tariffs (FITs) are more effective than alternative support schemes in promoting renewable energy technologies (RETs). FITs provide long-term financial stability for investors in RETs, which, at the prevailing market price of electricity, are not currently cost-efficient enough to compete with traditional fossil fuel technologies. On the other hand, if not properly designed, FITs can be economically inefficient, as is widely regarded to have been the case under the Public Utility Regulatory Policies Act of 1978 (PURPA). Under PURPA, too high a guaranteed price led to the creation of so-called 'PURPA machines'-poorly performing generating units that could survive financially only because of heavy subsidies that came at the expense of retail customers. Similarly, because of their adverse impacts on retail electricity rates, German FITs have been subject to increasing political pressure from utilities and customers. In this paper, we propose an innovative two-part FIT, consisting of both a capacity payment and a market-based energy payment, which can be used to meet the renewables policy goals of regulators. Our two-part tariff design draws on the strengths of traditional FITs, relies on market mechanisms, is easy to implement, and avoids the problems caused by distorting wholesale energy markets through above-market energy payments. The approach is modeled on forward capacity market designs that have been recently implemented by several regional transmission organizations in the USA to address needs for new generating capacity to ensure system reliability

  20. Applicability and economic efficiency of earthquake retrofit measures on existing buildings in Bucharest, Romania

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bostenaru, M.

    2009-04-01

    The research discussed in this contribution contains two aspects: on one side the economic efficiency of seismic retrofit measures, and on the other their applicability. The research was limited to housing buildings. Bucharest, the capital of Romania, was the object of the research. Strong earthquakes affect Bucharest about three times in a century, the damaging earthquakes of the 20th century being in 1940 and 1977. Other strong earthquakes occurred in 1986 and 1990. Since it is a broad topic, first the building type was determined, which should serve further research. For this scope the building types of the 20th century, which are common in Bucharest, Romania, were investigated. For each building type reports have been written, which comprised the earthquake resilient features, the seismic defficiencies, the damage patterns and the retrofit measures. Each of these features was listed for elements of the building. A first result of the research was an integrated system in order to include latter aspects in the planning in the first steps. So already at the building survey attention has to be paid on how a building is subdivided in order to be able to determine the economic efficiency of the planned action. So were defined the `retrofit elements`. In a first step the characteristics were defined, through which these retrofit elements (for example column, wall part between two windows) can be recognised in the building survey. In a further one, which retrofit measures can be connected to these. Diagrams were built, in order to visualise these findings. For each retrofit element and the corresponding measure the costs were calculated. Also, these retrofit elements and the measures connected to them were modelled for the simulation with the structural software, so that the benefit of the measures could be determined. In the part which regarded the economic efficiency, benefits and costs of retrofit measures had to be compared, so the improvement in the rigidity

  1. Stagnating energy efficiency in the Swedish building sector-Economic and organisational explanations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Naessen, Jonas; Sprei, Frances; Holmberg, John

    2008-01-01

    The development towards higher energy efficiency in the Swedish building sector stagnated in the late 1980s and 1990s. In new buildings the average specific energy use for heating is twice as high as in the best performing buildings 20 years ago. By combining econometric studies and interviews with actors in the building sector we analyse the underlying economic and organisational causes for this development. In the stock of buildings, specific energy use for heating (kWh/m 2 /yr) has a high correlation with increasing energy prices and price elasticities have not changed markedly over time. This implies that the stagnation to a large extent can be explained by energy price trends. On the contrary, in new buildings the correlation between energy prices and specific energy use is much weaker. One important cause of low sensitivity to price changes is that information about the life cycle cost (LCC) of different investment alternatives is often not available to the involved actors. The most common investment criterion is instead the requirements of the national building energy standard which has developed into a norm rather than a minimum for energy performance. In this paper we also discuss potential improvements in the learning processes within the sector

  2. Assesment criteria improvement for operational economical efficiency of NPP with WWER typr reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abagyan, A.A.; Matveev, A.A.; Ignatenko, E.I.; Pshechenkova, T.V.

    1983-01-01

    A new technique for calculating fuel component of the cost of NPP electric power generation is suggested. To calculate the variable part of fuel component it is suggested to consider the acquisition cost of fuel assemblies, unloaded from the reactor on fuel cycle completion instead of acquisition cost of fresh fuel assemblies, loaded into the reactor for organization of this cycle; it is also suggested to include the acquisition cost of fuel assemblies, remaining in reactop core on completion of the last fuel cycle+ in constant fuel expenses. The fuel component of the cost of WWER-440 reactor electric power generation for desigh operating conditions with 700 full power days period of steady-state fuel cycle was calculated. The suggested technique enables to reveal the deviation of the real fuel cycling conditions from the standard ones and calculate the value of this deviation, establish the reasons, disturbing the economical conditions of reactor operation, to approximate the real conditions of fuel cycling to the optimal ones by influencing on technological process, resulting in the change of factors, determining the fuel cycling efficiency during electric power generation and refueling in considered cycle

  3. Fixing Saskatchewan’s Potash Royalty Mess: A New Approach for Economic Efficiency and Simplicity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Duanjie Chen

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available For a government’s fiscal program to best serve the public interest, while also ensuring sufficient public revenue collection, it has to meet three criteria: efficiency, simplicity and fairness. Unfortunately, the royalty and tax system currently in place for Saskatchewan’s robust potash-mining industry is none of these three things; it has actually reached the point of incoherence and absurdity, or a mess. Under the current royalty and tax regime for potash producers, the tangled thicket of royalties, taxes and credits can differ between commencement dates for production, projects of different sizes, or even projects of similar size but with different profitability; it also has potash producers generally enjoying a much lighter tax burden on marginal investments than that borne by the oil and gas industry and most other non-resource industries. The result is distortions and inefficiencies, resulting in subpar investment activity, which can only stand in the way of Saskatchewan reaching its full economic potential. That needs to change. The Saskatchewan government can implement a simpler and properly structured rent-based tax and a revenue-based royalty as minimum payment (where the royalty can be credited against the rent tax, each with a single rate and an identical tax base for all tax and royalty payers. Such a properly structured royalty and tax system can deliver improved productivity, without reducing investment incentives, resulting in a better partnership for both Saskatchewan’s industry and government in the long run.

  4. Implementation of energy efficiency standards of household refrigerator/freezer in China: Potential environmental and economic impacts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tao, Jing; Yu, Suiran

    2011-01-01

    Due to the rapid economic development, living standards in China are improving fast. Chinese families are having more household electrical appliances, among which refrigerators are indispensable. Energy consumption of refrigerators is huge in China and causes environmental concerns. China has issued the national energy efficiency standards of household refrigerators, GB12021.2-2003 and GB12021.2-2008 to promote high-efficiency refrigerator production and use. This study evaluated the impacts of the standards on the environment, manufacturers and consumers over a long-term period of 2003-2023. It first evaluated the potential electricity conservation and GHG emission reduction resulting from energy efficiency improvements driven by the standards. Next, manufacturers' technological and economic concerns about complying with the standards were discussed. Some efficiency improving design options were considered and the resulting increases in manufacturing cost and retail price were estimated. The return of consumers from invest in efficiency was analyzed based on lifecycle cost saving of the improved models. The economical viability of the standards was then evaluated by national consumer costs and benefits. Results showed that the considered efficiency standards will potentially save a cumulative total of 588-1180 TWh electricity, and reduce emission of 629-1260 million tons of CO 2 , 4.00-8.04 million tons of SO x and 2.37-4.76 million tons of NO x by 2023, depending on sale share of models by efficiency. In a more environmentally optimal case (75% sale share of high-efficiency models), the national consumer benefits are 121 billion RMB (discounted), with the benefit/cost ratio of consumer's expenditure being 1.45:1. However, the preference to high-efficiency models is substantial influenced by consumer's expectation on return from the additional cost on efficiency.

  5. A capillary monolithic trypsin reactor for efficient protein digestion in online and offline coupling to ESI and MALDI mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spross, Jens; Sinz, Andrea

    2010-02-15

    We describe the preparation of a capillary trypsin immobilized monolithic enzyme reactor (IMER) for a rapid and efficient digestion of proteins down to the femtomole level. Trypsin was immobilized on a poly(glycidyl methacrylate-co-acrylamide-co-ethylene glycol dimethycrylate) monolith using the glutaraldehyde technique. Digestion efficiencies of the IMER were evaluated using model proteins and protein mixtures as well as chemically cross-linked lysozyme regarding the addition of denaturants and increasing digestion temperature. The trypsin IMER described herein is applicable for the digestion of protein mixtures. Even at a 1000-fold molar excess of one protein, low-abundance proteins are readily identified, in combination with MS/MS analysis. An online setup of the IMER with reversed phase nano-HPLC separation and nano-ESI-MS/MS analysis was established. The great potential of the trypsin IMER for proteomics applications comprise short digestion times in the range of seconds to minutes, in addition to improved digestion efficiencies, compared to in-solution digestion.

  6. State policy as a driver of innovation to support economic growth: California energy-efficiency policy (1975-2005)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klementich, Eloisa Y.

    2011-12-01

    Purpose. The purpose of this research was to identify whether a relationship exists between state energy-efficiency policy and innovation in the State of California and to shed light on the impact that energy-efficiency policy can have on supporting statewide economic development goals. Theoretical Framework. The theoretical framework drew from foundations in neoclassical economic theory, technology change theory, and new growth theory. Together these theories formed the basis to describe the impacts caused by the innovations within the market economy. Under this framework, policy-generated innovations are viewed to be translated into efficiency and productivity that propel economic benefits. Methodological Considerations. This study examined various economic indices and efficiency attainment indices affecting four home appliances regulated under Title 20's energy-efficiency standard established by the California Energy Commission, Warren Alquist Act. The multiple regression analysis performed provided an understanding of the relationship between the products regulated, the regulation standard, and the policy as it relates to energy-efficiency regulation. Findings. There is enough evidence to show that strategies embedded in the Warren Alquist Act, Title 20 do drive innovation. Three of the four product categories tested showed statistical significance in the policy standard resulting in an industry efficiency improvement. Conclusively, the consumption of electricity per capita in California has positively diverged over a 35-year period from national trends, even though California had mirrored the nation in income and family size during the same period, the only clear case of divergence is the state's action toward a different energy policy. Conclusions and Recommendations. California's regulations propelled manufacturers to reach higher efficiency levels not otherwise pursued by market forces. The California effort included alliances all working together to make

  7. The retrieval efficiency test of descriptors and free vocabulary terms in INIS on-line search

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ebinuma, Yukio; Takahashi, Satoko

    1981-01-01

    The test was done for 1) search topics with appropriate descriptors, 2) search topics with considerably broader descriptors, 3) search topics with no appropriate descriptors. As to (1) and (2) the retrieval efficiency was the same both on descriptor system and on keyword system (descriptors + free terms), and the search formulas were easily constructed. As to (3) the descriptor system ensured the recall ratio but decreased the precision ratio. On the other hand the keyword system made the construction of search formulas easy and resulted in good retrieval efficiency. The search system which is available both for full match method of descriptors and truncation method of keywords is desirable because each method can be selected according to the searcher's strategy and search topics. Free-term system seems unnecessary. (author)

  8. Economism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Simons

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Modern society is characterised not only by a fascination with scientific technology as a means of solving all problems, especially those that stand in the way of material progress (technicism, but also by an obsessive interest in everything that has to do with money (economism or mammonism. The article discusses the relationship between technicism and economism, on the basis of their relationship to utilitarian thinking: the quest for the greatest happiness for the greatest number of people. Recent major studies of neo-liberalism (seen as an intensification of utilitarianism by Laval and Dardot are used as reference to the development of utilitarianism. It is suggested that the western view of the world, as expressed in economism and technicism, with a utilitarian ethics, features three absolutisations: those of theoretical thinking, technology and economics. In a second part, the article draws on the framework of reformational philosophy to suggest an approach that, in principle, is not marred by such absolutisations.

  9. Performance and economic analysis of a plug and play regenerative brake for improving energy efficiency for traction elevators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeraputra, Chuttchaval; Tiptipakorn, Supun

    2017-05-01

    This paper presents performance and economic analysis of a plug and play regenerative brake for improving energy efficiency for traction elevators. The proposed regenerative brake recycles the energy loss of a dynamic brake and feeds into the grid while an elevator inverter is operating in the braking mode. According to field measurement of energy consumption, it reveals that the efficiency can be improved as much as 18%. The prototype of a regenerative brake 12 kW, 400V, 3ϕ is developed and tested on an elevator simulator. It is shown that it can transfer energy out of a DC capacitor before the dynamic brake kicks in. Further, an economic analysis is provided to carry out the payback period and the present worth equivalent to confirm economic feasibility.

  10. Economic potentials of CHP connected to district heat systems in Germany. Implementation of the EU Efficiency Directive

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eikmeier, Bernd

    2015-01-01

    The EU Efficiency Directive (2012/27/EU) is requiring all member states to carry out an evaluation of the potential for highly efficient CHP and the efficient use of district heating and cooling by December 2015. The German Federal Ministry of Economic Affairs and Energy appointed this task to the Fraunhofer Institute for Manufacturing and Advanced Materials, division for Energy Systems Analysis (formerly Bremer Energie Institut) in conjunction with other partners. The results for the sector district- and communal heating with CHP, sub-sectors private households, trade and services industry, are presented in this article.

  11. How technological potentials are undermined by economic and behavioural responses. The treatment effect of endogenous energy efficiency measures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Meier, Helena; Tode, Christian; Koeln Univ.

    2015-01-01

    Governments worldwide spend increasing amounts of money on policy schemes to reduce energy consumption and related carbon emissions. We investigate the actual treatment effect of energy efficiency measures and therein compare actual demand responses to technological potentials. Based on a demand system analysis of household data and by approximating unobserved energy awareness, we find economic and behavioural responses that counteract expected savings from energy efficiency. Results show strong rebound and even back ring effects but also suggest heterogeneity of the effectiveness driven by behavioural concepts, such as sunk cost fallacy or habit formation. Understanding these can contribute to target-oriented policy designs and increased effectiveness and efficiency of policies.

  12. How technological potentials are undermined by economic and behavioural responses. The treatment effect of endogenous energy efficiency measures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Meier, Helena; Tode, Christian [Koeln Univ. (Germany). Energiewirtschaftliches Inst.; Koeln Univ. (Germany). Dept. of Economics

    2015-06-15

    Governments worldwide spend increasing amounts of money on policy schemes to reduce energy consumption and related carbon emissions. We investigate the actual treatment effect of energy efficiency measures and therein compare actual demand responses to technological potentials. Based on a demand system analysis of household data and by approximating unobserved energy awareness, we find economic and behavioural responses that counteract expected savings from energy efficiency. Results show strong rebound and even back ring effects but also suggest heterogeneity of the effectiveness driven by behavioural concepts, such as sunk cost fallacy or habit formation. Understanding these can contribute to target-oriented policy designs and increased effectiveness and efficiency of policies.

  13. E-recruiting Platforms: Features that Influence the Efficiency of Online Recruitment Systems

    OpenAIRE

    Ondina ROSOIU; Cristian POPESCU

    2016-01-01

    Twenty active e-recruitment platform users took part in this study for discovering the most asked for features in a web based hiring process. The respondents were chosen based on their history on such recruitment platforms. With the help of our Internet users we narrowed down the number of platforms, to research for outstanding features and tool efficiency, to five most impressive ones (e-jobs, hipo, bestjobs, LinkedIn, Freelancer). The results were as useful as we expected when we proposed a...

  14. The impact of economic growth on environmental efficiency of the electricity sector: A hybrid window DEA methodology for the USA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Halkos, George E; Polemis, Michael L

    2018-04-01

    This paper estimates the efficiency of the power generation sector in the USA by using Window Data Envelopment Analysis (W-DEA). We integrate radial and non-radial efficiency measurements in DEA using the hybrid measure while we extend the proposed model by considering good and undesirable outputs as separable and non separable. Then in the second stage, we perform parametric and non-parametric econometric techniques in order to model the relationship between the calculated environmental efficiencies and economic growth in attaining sustainability. Our empirical findings indicate a stable N-shape relationship between environmental efficiency and regional economic growth in the case of global and total pollutants but an inverted N-shape in the case of local pollutants. This implies that attention is required when considering local and global pollutants and the extracted environmental efficiency scores. A clear message to policy makers and government officials is that climate change which calls for economic, environmental and social concern should be analyzed according to its dispersion and regional dimension. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. HE CONVERSION OF THE EFFICIENCY OF LABOR, RESPECTIVELY OF LABOR PRODUCTIVITY IN THE ECONOMIC AND COMMERCIAL RATE OF RETURN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Constantin CĂRUNTU

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Generally, an activity is considered to be efficient if the production implies low costs or if the revenues from selling the products on the market outweigh the expenditures that were made to achieve them. Labor productivity as an efficiency indicator of a production process represents an expression of the relationship between effect (products, services and effort (work means, labor force, work items. Through the labor productivity conversion in rates of return (economic and commercial is determined an evolution and an influence on these rates, driving the company’s own efforts to innovate, produce and harness goods, works and services with maximum utility, efficiency and competitiveness services. The aim of this paper is to highlight the work efficiency, respectively the labor productivity detached from the factorial context in the trade and economic rates of return. The introduction presents some general aspects referring to labor productivity, then it will be presented and discussed the analytical methods used in the process of reflecting the labor productivity in the rates of return, the results analysis, and at the end of this paper it will be presented some conclusions based on the study case. The expected results consist in identifying the mechanisms by which labor efficiency is converted into the company’s economic and financial performance.

  16. ROLE OF TRANSPORT INFRASTRUCTURE IN EFFICIENCY IMPROVEMENT OF SPATIAL SOCIO-ECONOMIC DEVELOPMENT OF THE REGION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ekaterina C. Chimitdorzhieva

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The problems of spatial socio-economic development of the region are considered in this article. Special attention is given to transport infrastructure. The authors propose methodical instruments for evaluating the influence of transport infrastructure on spatial development of region based on research of theoretic-methodical aspects of economic growth theory, location of economic activity and development concepts of infrastructural provision.

  17. Relationship among performance, carcass, and feed efficiency characteristics, and their ability to predict economic value in the feedlot.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Retallick, K M; Faulkner, D B; Rodriguez-Zas, S L; Nkrumah, J D; Shike, D W

    2013-12-01

    A 4-yr study was conducted using 736 steers of known Angus, Simmental, or Simmental × Angus genetics to determine performance, carcass, and feed efficiency factors that explained variation in economic performance. Steers were pen fed and individual DMI was recorded using a GrowSafe automated feeding system (GrowSafe Systems Ltd., Airdrie, Alberta, Canada). Steers consumed a similar diet and received similar management each year. The objectives of this study were to: 1) determine current economic value of feed efficiency and 2) identify performance, carcass, and feed efficiency characteristics that predict: carcass value, profit, cost of gain, and feed costs. Economic data used were from 2011 values. Feed efficiency values investigated were: feed conversion ratio (FCR; feed to gain), residual feed intake (RFI), residual BW gain (RG), and residual intake and BW gain (RIG). Dependent variables were carcass value ($/steer), profit ($/steer), feed costs ($/steer • d(-1)), and cost of gain ($/kg). Independent variables were year, DMI, ADG, HCW, LM area, marbling, yield grade, dam breed, and sire breed. A 10% improvement in RG (P Profit increased with a 10% improvement in feed efficiency (P profit. Eighty-five percent of the variation in cost of gain was explained by ADG, DMI, HCW, and year. Prediction equations were developed that excluded ADG and DMI, and included feed efficiency values. Using these equations, cost of gain was explained primarily by FCR (R(2) = 0.71). Seventy-three percent of profitability was explained, with 55% being accounted for by RG and marbling. These prediction equations represent the relative importance of factors contributing to economic success in feedlot cattle based on current prices.

  18. An efficient ASIC implementation of 16-channel on-line recursive ICA processor for real-time EEG system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fang, Wai-Chi; Huang, Kuan-Ju; Chou, Chia-Ching; Chang, Jui-Chung; Cauwenberghs, Gert; Jung, Tzyy-Ping

    2014-01-01

    This is a proposal for an efficient very-large-scale integration (VLSI) design, 16-channel on-line recursive independent component analysis (ORICA) processor ASIC for real-time EEG system, implemented with TSMC 40 nm CMOS technology. ORICA is appropriate to be used in real-time EEG system to separate artifacts because of its highly efficient and real-time process features. The proposed ORICA processor is composed of an ORICA processing unit and a singular value decomposition (SVD) processing unit. Compared with previous work [1], this proposed ORICA processor has enhanced effectiveness and reduced hardware complexity by utilizing a deeper pipeline architecture, shared arithmetic processing unit, and shared registers. The 16-channel random signals which contain 8-channel super-Gaussian and 8-channel sub-Gaussian components are used to analyze the dependence of the source components, and the average correlation coefficient is 0.95452 between the original source signals and extracted ORICA signals. Finally, the proposed ORICA processor ASIC is implemented with TSMC 40 nm CMOS technology, and it consumes 15.72 mW at 100 MHz operating frequency.

  19. E-recruiting Platforms: Features that Influence the Efficiency of Online Recruitment Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ondina ROSOIU

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Twenty active e-recruitment platform users took part in this study for discovering the most asked for features in a web based hiring process. The respondents were chosen based on their history on such recruitment platforms. With the help of our Internet users we narrowed down the number of platforms, to research for outstanding features and tool efficiency, to five most impressive ones (e-jobs, hipo, bestjobs, LinkedIn, Freelancer. The results were as useful as we expected when we proposed an investigation related to the future of web recruiting platforms. They underlined in a specific manner that most of such web platform users need to have a professional and fully functional environment where they can list their accomplishments and experience and receive direct feedback from employers or employees. The study also shows in detail how much and why do users like to have certain functionalities when they are searching for a new job.

  20. Undergraduate Economics Journals: Learning by Doing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leekley, Robert M.; Davis-Kahl, Stephanie; Seeborg, Michael C.

    2013-01-01

    Although there are currently only a few undergraduate journals in economics, we expect their numbers to increase substantially in the future because of several developments: (1) research and writing activity is increasing in economics programs, (2) online publication is now more feasible and cost efficient than ever, and (3) students are…

  1. Green Taxation in Question: Politics and Economic Efficiency in Environmental Regulation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Daugbjerg, Carsten; Svendsen, Gert Tinggaard

    these policy recommendations are second best in strict economic terms, they are the best economic designs given that they must be politically feasible. Understanding the politics of green taxation is the prerequisite for the development of effective green taxation models which have a chance of being...

  2. Efficiency of Emission Control Measures on Particulate Matter-Related Health Impacts and Economic Cost during the 2014 Asia-Pacific Economic Cooperation Meeting in Beijing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qichen Liu

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: The Asia-Pacific Economic Cooperation (APEC meeting was held from 5 November to 11 November 2014 in Beijing, and comprehensive emission control measures were implemented. The efficiency of these measures on particulate matter-related health impacts and economic cost need to be evaluated. Methods: The influences of emission control measures during APEC on particulate matter were evaluated, and health economic effects were assessed. Results: Average concentrations of PM2.5 and PM10 during APEC were reduced by 57.0%, and 50.6% respectively, compared with pre-APEC period. However, the concentrations of particulate matter rebounded after APEC. Compared with the pre-APEC and post-APEC periods, the estimated number of deaths caused by non-accidental, cardiovascular and respiratory diseases that could be attributed to PM2.5 and PM10 during the APEC were the lowest. The economic cost associated with mortality caused by PM2.5 and PM10 during the APEC were reduced by (61.3% and 66.6% and (50.3% and 60.8% respectively, compared with pre-APEC and post-APEC. Conclusions: The emission control measures were effective in improving short term air quality and reducing health risks and medical expenses during 2014 APEC, but more efforts is needed for long term and continuous air quality improvement and health protection.

  3. Efficiency of Emission Control Measures on Particulate Matter-Related Health Impacts and Economic Cost during the 2014 Asia-Pacific Economic Cooperation Meeting in Beijing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Qichen; Huang, Jing; Guo, Bin; Guo, Xinbiao

    2016-12-28

    Background : The Asia-Pacific Economic Cooperation (APEC) meeting was held from 5 November to 11 November 2014 in Beijing, and comprehensive emission control measures were implemented. The efficiency of these measures on particulate matter-related health impacts and economic cost need to be evaluated. Methods : The influences of emission control measures during APEC on particulate matter were evaluated, and health economic effects were assessed. Results : Average concentrations of PM 2.5 and PM 10 during APEC were reduced by 57.0%, and 50.6% respectively, compared with pre-APEC period. However, the concentrations of particulate matter rebounded after APEC. Compared with the pre-APEC and post-APEC periods, the estimated number of deaths caused by non-accidental, cardiovascular and respiratory diseases that could be attributed to PM 2.5 and PM 10 during the APEC were the lowest. The economic cost associated with mortality caused by PM 2.5 and PM 10 during the APEC were reduced by (61.3% and 66.6%) and (50.3% and 60.8%) respectively, compared with pre-APEC and post-APEC. Conclusions : The emission control measures were effective in improving short term air quality and reducing health risks and medical expenses during 2014 APEC, but more efforts is needed for long term and continuous air quality improvement and health protection.

  4. Efficient Digital Signage-Based Online Store Layout: An Experimental Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhammad Fazal Ijaz

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available In today’s era of information technology, human computer interaction and interface design are critical factors for a successful retail business. In a virtual world, the purpose of store layout is to create an environment that fascinates customers, entices them to spend more time in the store and encourages them to purchase from the store. The accomplishment of a successful retail business relies on a quick response and the adoption of new technologies that simplify the customer’s shopping experience. Virtual stores play a vital role in enhancing the success of a retail business. Nowadays, digital signage is widely used to publicize different store contents. The aim of this paper is to select a distinct layout that can be used in digital signage. To enhance Customer Relationship Management (CRM, digital signage can be installed in various contexts, such as metro stations, shopping centers, airplane terminals, and so on. The proposed system scans the Quick Response (QR code of a product, and the product then arrives at the user end. The tree, pipeline and guiding pathway layouts are employed in the context of digital signage. A questionnaire is used to determine customers’ opinions on the most efficient layout. The statistical results show that layout significantly affects customer’s behavior. Moreover, human computer interaction can help understand more about the customer’s interaction with digital signage.

  5. Time and Memory Efficient Online Piecewise Linear Approximation of Sensor Signals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grützmacher, Florian; Beichler, Benjamin; Hein, Albert; Kirste, Thomas; Haubelt, Christian

    2018-05-23

    Piecewise linear approximation of sensor signals is a well-known technique in the fields of Data Mining and Activity Recognition. In this context, several algorithms have been developed, some of them with the purpose to be performed on resource constrained microcontroller architectures of wireless sensor nodes. While microcontrollers are usually constrained in computational power and memory resources, all state-of-the-art piecewise linear approximation techniques either need to buffer sensor data or have an execution time depending on the segment’s length. In the paper at hand, we propose a novel piecewise linear approximation algorithm, with a constant computational complexity as well as a constant memory complexity. Our proposed algorithm’s worst-case execution time is one to three orders of magnitude smaller and its average execution time is three to seventy times smaller compared to the state-of-the-art Piecewise Linear Approximation (PLA) algorithms in our experiments. In our evaluations, we show that our algorithm is time and memory efficient without sacrificing the approximation quality compared to other state-of-the-art piecewise linear approximation techniques, while providing a maximum error guarantee per segment, a small parameter space of only one parameter, and a maximum latency of one sample period plus its worst-case execution time.

  6. Investigating water productivity and economic efficiency of wheat-crop under different sowing methods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mirani, A.A.; Dahri, Z.H.

    2011-01-01

    This study was conducted at PARC's research station Kala Shah Kaku, Lahore, in order to calculate the water productivity and economic efficiency of wheat-crop under different sowing methods in a combined harvested paddy filed. The sowing methods were direct drilling with FMI Seeder, Zero tillage and conventional method. Data were collected during 2008-09. Wheat-yield was 2750 kg/ha, 2665 kg/ha and 2610 kg/ha for direct drilling with F MI Seeder, Zero tillage and conventional method, respectively. The direct drilling in heavy residue gave 5.4 % more yield than the conventional method and 3.2 % more yield than zero tillage. The zero tillage ensured 2.1% more yield than the conventional method. The net water applied as 323, 354, and 380 mm for direct drilling with FMI seeder, zero tillage and conventional methods respectively against the potential crop evapotranspiration of 383 mm. This indicates that the direct drilling of wheat-crop in heave rice stubbles saves 15% irrigation water as compared to conventional method and 8.8% over zero tillage. The zero tillage method saves 6.8 % of irrigation water over the conventional method. The water productivity was found to be 0.851 kg/m3. 0.753 kg/m/sup 3/ and 0.687 kg/m/sup 3/ for direct drilling with FMI Seeder, Zero tillage and conventional method respectively. This indicates that the direct drilling ensures 23.9% increase in water productivity over conventional method and 13.01% over zero tillage. The zero tillage gave 9.6% more water productivity than the conventional method. The costs of production for the three sowing methods were Rs. 39123/ha, Rs.43737/ha and Rs. 53047/ha for direct drilling, zero tillage and conventional method respectively. This indicates an overall saving of Rs. 13924/ha (26.2 %) by the direct drilling method as compared to the conventional method and Rs. 4613/ha (10.5%) over zero tillage method. The zero tillage saves Rs. 9319/ha (17.6 %) over the conventional method. Thus, the resource

  7. THE ECONOMIC EFFICIENCY OF THE INTEGRATED SYSTEM OF PROTECTION OF WHITE CABBAGE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. U. Misrieva

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The climatic conditions of the Derbent district of the Republic of Dagestan are favorable for seed-growing cabbage of white-cabbage and other varieties by a nonstop method. In the complex of measures to increase the efficiency of production of cabbage seeds, pest and disease control  plays an important  role. The article proves the application of a new approach to the protection system of testes of white cabbage. On the basis of long-term phytosanitary   monitoring   and   biocenotic   principles, which  allow differentiating  the use of  protective  equipment in each specific case, an integrated system of protection of testes of cabbage from the main pests in the conditions  of the south of Russia has been developed. New progressive methods in the implementation of basic technological  processes are economically justified.  The introduction of the system ensured a significant increase in the yield of testes of white cabbage and the profitability of  seed production.  For each ruble of  expenses for crop protection, 8.1 rubles of additional income was received. Applied in FIC VNIIR AES testicles of cabbage allowed  to  harvest 190 kg of  additional  yield of  hybrid seeds from each hectare. The amount of realization of the additional harvest was 114,000 rubles. The recoupment of  costs  in  terms  of  the  ruble  costs  is  29.5  rubles. Reducing the  pesticide  load on  agrocenosis, yielded a yield with good quality characteristics. The difference in germination was 5-6% higher when using satellites. The fulfillment of the seeds also depended on the protection system. Thus, the mass of 1000 seeds when using the AES of testes of cabbage in the F1 Hybrid Extra was 4.68 g, while the schedule of treatment was 3.83 g.

  8. ITC SOLUTIONS TO ACHIEVE PERFORMANCE AND EFFICIENCY OF HEALTH SERVICES: ONLINE VIRTUAL CLINIC

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adina BĂLAN

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The digital era modified the way people work, how the information and the informational resources are defined and organized. The organization which holds, uses and correctly reproduces the piece of information, the knowledge, the intellectual capital, becomes a leader in the proper field of activity. Following the actual tendencies in the digital era connected to the exchange of professional information, I can say that the exchange and sharing of digital information in a global multitude of interconnected computers are essential instruments that can contribute to the development and consolidation of the intellectual potential of the organization. This is why, the access of the individuals to information is an actual requirement of the development of the Romanian society in the context of globalization and world implication o contemporary processes and phenomena. The Digital integration eliminates the barriers that traditionally suppress the circuit of the medical information, lets the goods and services circulate to and from Romania by promoting efficiency as final purpose. Performance is needed in the health system, the transformation of the system of medical services by bringing the benefits of the medical science and technology to all individuals from every community. In order to accomplish these expectations it is needed that all the components that form the health system look at it as a whole and subscribe to modern solutions for improvement so that the quality of health should raise to an unprecedented level. Even if health systems differ from country to country from the organizational and financial point of view, they face the same challenges and problems, respectively the supply of medical care of better quality and keeping under control the health expenses. The use of information and communication technology in the field of medical assistance in order to stock, share, transmit and analyze clinical data and knowledge is more necessary

  9. Ranking Business and Economics Journals in South America Using the Scientific Electronic Library Online (SciELO)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alexander, Jennifer K.; Pradenas, Lorena; Parada, Victor; Scherer, Robert F.

    2012-01-01

    Access to published research for knowledge creation and education in the administrative science disciplines in South America has been enhanced since the introduction of the Scientific Electronic Library Online (SciELO). Although SciELO has been available as an online journal indexing and publication service since 1998, there have been no…

  10. Methodology of economic efficiency assessment and its application to radioactive waste management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Petr, J.

    1988-01-01

    The share of the radioactive waste treatment process in the total economic balance of nuclear power plants is assessed. Only liquid wastes are considered for simplification. The amount, specific activity and concentration are the basic parameters significant from the economic point of view. The solution of problems associated with the radioactive waste formation (its minimization, e.g., by improving leakproofness, limiting the number of rinsings, optimization of chemical operation regimens) and sorting exhibits an economic effect several times higher (as much as an order of magnitude) than it is theoretically attainable by improving the disposal process. (M.D.). 2 figs

  11. Maximizing transportation efficiencies and economic impact of the Southwest Missouri foreign-trade zone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-07-01

    Overview of Foreign-Trade Zones (FTZ or Zone) and their impact on economic development, goods : movement jobs creation and retention. Zones provide a competitive advantage for multi-national : manufacturing and distribution firms resulting in the ret...

  12. Strategies for carbon dioxide emissions reductions: Residential natural gas efficiency, economic, and ancillary health impacts in Maryland

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ruth, Matthias; Blohm, Andrew; Mauer, Joanna; Gabriel, Steven A.; Kesana, Vijay G.; Chen Yihsu; Hobbs, Benjamin F.; Irani, Daraius

    2010-01-01

    As part of its commitments to the Regional Greenhouse Gas Initiative (RGGI), the State of Maryland, USA, auctions emission permits to electric utilities, creating revenue that can be used to benefit consumers and the environment. This paper explores the CO 2 emissions reductions that may be possible by allocating some of that revenue to foster efficiency improvements in the residential sector's use of natural gas. Since these improvements will require changes to the capital stock of houses and end use equipment, efficiency improvements may be accompanied by economic and ancillary health impacts, both of which are quantified in this paper.

  13. Economic efficiency of brown coal mine ''Konin'' in market economy conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jeruzel, M.

    1995-01-01

    The economic situation of ''Konin'' brown coal mine located in Central Poland is analysed. The main problem of the mine is the coal price which is still regulated despite market economy. It causes many difficulties and therefore a change of energy policy is postulated. The basic economic results for 1993 as well as prognosis of investment costs up to 2020 are given. The changes of management system and the strategy planning training are also described. 2 ills, 1 tab

  14. The Economic Problem: Can Islam Play an Effective Role in Solving it Efficiently as well as Equitably?

    OpenAIRE

    Chapra, M. Umer

    2015-01-01

    The generally recognized economic problem of mankind is how best to satisfy the basic needs of all people around the world in spite of the prevailing scarcity of resources. Since this is not happening, the paper argues that the primary reason is the secular worldview which has weakened the social and ethical foundations of human life and placed primary reliance on the market mechanism to ensure efficiency as well as justice in the use of resources. This has inadvertently ended up providing sa...

  15. Evaluating the impact of the carbon dioxide capturing process on the indices of economic efficiency in thermal power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marukhyan, V.Z.; Elbakyan, S.H.

    2017-01-01

    Taking into account the input of carbon dioxide as a greenhouse gas in the global warming process, the technological solutions of its capturing, and the implementation possibilities in environmentally safe thermal power plants are considered. In power plants equipped with effective systems for cleaning the fuel gas and the coal gasification, the influence of the CO 2 reduction and realization of quotes on the indices of economic efficiency is estimated

  16. Research on the Sensorial Quality and Economic Efficiency in Obtaining of a certain Raw Meat Product - Mici Paste

    OpenAIRE

    Claudiu-Dan Salagean; Dorin Tibulca; Radu Marin

    2013-01-01

    Research aimed the sensorial quality connected with the economic efficiency to obtain a certain raw meat product (mici paste) in 4 experimental variants: 1 and 3 variants, with animal raw materials (meat + bacon) and mix of natural spices - fine grinding variant (1) and coarse grinding variant (3) - chopping at the volf through the sieve of 3-4 mm; 2 and 4 variants, with animal raw materials (meat + bacon) + vegetable protein supplements (textured soy protein) + binder (protein + fiber) + add...

  17. Determining the Players’ Efficiency in NBA: Some Economic and Managerial Results

    OpenAIRE

    Ensar Yesilyurt

    2014-01-01

    Player efficiency is estimated by using Data Envelopment Analysis (DEA) and data of 401 players in NBA at 2006 in this study. Three approaches are generally used when measuring the efficiency of basketball players. In the first, which is frequently used in the literature, a variety of payments and fees are used as inputs. The second is used by basketball associations that correspond closely to the theoretical definition of efficiency because it tries to measure players’ contribution to their ...

  18. Study on degrading graphene oxide in wastewater under different conditions for developing an efficient and economical degradation method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Ting; Zhang, Chao-Zhi; Gu, Chengyue

    2017-12-01

    With popular application of graphene and graphene oxide (GO), they have been discharged into water. Graphene and GO harm organisms. However, an efficient and economical method for removing graphene and GO in wastewater has seldom been reported. Graphene can be oxidized by hydrogen peroxide to give GO; therefore, degradation of graphene oxide is an important step in the procedure of removal of graphene from water. In this paper, GO degradation via photo-Fenton reaction under different conditions was carried out. Experimental results suggested that GO in wastewater can be efficiently and economically degraded into carbon dioxide and H 2 O when pH value is 3, concentration of H 2 O 2 and FeCl 3 are 35 mM and 5 ppm, respectively. Degradation mechanism of GO was suggested based on UV-vis absorption spectra, scanning electron microscopy, X-ray diffraction and liquid chromatography-mass spectra data of degradation intermediates. This paper suggests an efficient and economical degradation way of GO in wastewater.

  19. Evaluation method of economic efficiency of industrial scale research based on an example of coking blend pre-drying technology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Żarczyński Piotr

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The research on new and innovative solutions, technologies and products carried out on an industrial scale is the most reliable method of verifying the validity of their implementation. The results obtained in this research method give almost one hundred percent certainty although, at the same time, the research on an industrial scale requires the expenditure of the highest amount of money. Therefore, this method is not commonly applied in the industrial practices. In the case of the decision to implement new and innovative technologies, it is reasonable to carry out industrial research, both because of the cognitive values and its economic efficiency. Research on an industrial scale may prevent investment failure as well as lead to an improvement of technologies, which is the source of economic efficiency. In this paper, an evaluation model of economic efficiency of the industrial scale research has been presented. This model is based on the discount method and the decision tree model. A practical application of this proposed evaluation model has been presented based on an example of the coal charge pre-drying technology before coke making in a coke oven battery, which may be preceded by industrial scale research on a new type of coal charge dryer.

  20. Higher energy efficiency in administrative and office buildings. Optimisation of primary energy consumption and economic efficiency; Energieeffiziente Buero- und Verwaltungsgebaeude. Hinweise zur primaerenergetischen und wirtschaftlichen Optimierung

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Knissel, J.

    1999-12-15

    The study investigates measures to reduce primary energy consumption in administrative and office buildings and their effects in terms of economic efficiency. An exemplary office building is modernised step by step while recording the changes in the primary energy consumption coefficient. [German] In der vorliegenden Studie wird untersucht, wie weit und mit welchen Massnahmen der Primaerenergiebedarf von Buero- und Verwaltungsgebaeuden gesenkt werden kann und welche Auswirkungen dies auf die Wirtschaftlichkeit hat. Hierzu wird die energetische Ausfuehrungsqualitaet eines einfachen Beispielgebaeudes schrittweise verbessert und die Veraenderung des Primaerenergiekennwertes ermittelt. (orig.)

  1. Econometric analysis of economic and environmental efficiency of Dutch dairy farms

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Reinhard, S.

    1999-01-01

    The Dutch government aims for competitive and sustainable farms, that use marketable inputs efficiently as well as apply environmentally detrimental variables efficiently in the production process. The objective of this research is to define, to estimate and to evaluate environmental

  2. Economic Reforms and Cost Efficiency of Coffee Farmers in Central Kenya: A Stochastic-Translog Approach

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Karanja, A.M.; Kuyvenhoven, A.; Moll, H.A.J.

    2007-01-01

    Work reported in this paper analyses the cost efficiency levels of small-holder coffee farmers in four districts in Central Province, Kenya. The level of efficiency is analysed using a stochastic cost frontier model based on household cross-sectional data collected in 1999 and 2000. The 200 surveyed

  3. COMPARATIVE ANALYSIS OF ECONOMIC AND SOCIAL EFFICIENCY. CUSTOMIZE ON HEALTHCARE SECTOR

    OpenAIRE

    CLAUDIU CICEA

    2011-01-01

    Efficiency in health service sector is very important because the health sector is a major consumer of resources (especially financial). In this paper the author aims to analyze the efficiency in a social sector (healthcare system) based on cost-benefit analysis.

  4. The use of efficiency frontiers to evaluate the optimal land cover and irrigation practices for economic returns and ecosystem services

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kovacs, Kent; West, Grant; Xu, Ying

    2017-04-01

    Efficiency frontiers are a useful tool for governmental agencies that balance the protection of ecosystem services with the economic returns from an agricultural landscape because the tool illustrates that a compromise of objectives generates greater value to society than optimizing a sole objective. Policy makers facing the problem of groundwater overdraft on an agricultural landscape want to know if regulations or irrigation technology adoption will enhance both economic and ecosystem service benefits. Conjunctive water management with on-farm reservoirs and tail water recovery system is frequently suggested to alleviate groundwater and surface water quality problems in the Lower Mississippi River Basin of the United States, and this study evaluates the consequence of the adoption of this technology for the balance of ecosystem service and economic objectives. A compromise of objectives that maximizes the value to society provides 76% more value to society without reservoirs and 66% more value to society with reservoirs than the sole objective of economic returns. The reservoirs help an agricultural landscape maximizing economic returns to align more closely with a landscape maximizing the value to society, although there are still significant gains possible from finding a landscape that directly compromises on the objectives.

  5. The efficiency of emerging Europe’s banking sector before and after the recent economic crisis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    George Anayiotos

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available This paper provides estimates for the relative efficiency of banks in emerging Europe before the recent boom, just before the crisis, and right after the crisis, using a Data Envelopment Analysis (DEA. The results suggest that DEA efficiency scores before the recent crisis were strongly linked to the host country’s level of development; were higher for foreign-owned banks; but did not stand out for bank groups with a presence in more than one country. The results also suggest that bank efficiency increased during the precrisis boom, but fell during the crisis. Finally, foreign-owned banks in emerging Europe seem to be less efficient than their mother banks, suggesting that although they may bring some efficiency benefits to their host country, they are highly affected by the local business and operational environment.

  6. Efficiency assessment of wastewater treatment plants: A data envelopment analysis approach integrating technical, economic, and environmental issues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castellet, Lledó; Molinos-Senante, María

    2016-02-01

    The assessment of the efficiency of wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs) is essential to compare their performance and consequently to identify the best operational practices that can contribute to the reduction of operational costs. Previous studies have evaluated the efficiency of WWTPs using conventional data envelopment analysis (DEA) models. Most of these studies have considered the operational costs of the WWTPs as inputs, while the pollutants removed from wastewater are treated as outputs. However, they have ignored the fact that each pollutant removed by a WWTP involves a different environmental impact. To overcome this limitation, this paper evaluates for the first time the efficiency of a sample of WWTPs by applying the weighted slacks-based measure model. It is a non-radial DEA model which allows assigning weights to the inputs and outputs according their importance. Thus, the assessment carried out integrates environmental issues with the traditional "techno-economic" efficiency assessment of WWTPs. Moreover, the potential economic savings for each cost item have been quantified at a plant level. It is illustrated that the WWTPs analyzed have significant room to save staff and energy costs. Several managerial implications to help WWTPs' operators make informed decisions were drawn from the methodology and empirical application carried out. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Energy efficiency : an economic stimulator; Efficacite energetique : un moteur economique vert

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Contant, A.

    2009-04-01

    In an effort to meet Quebec's energy requirements projected for 2015, Hydro-Quebec along with its partners and clients will invest $3 billion in energy efficiency. Quebec's Energy Efficiency Agency, Canada's Office of Energy Efficiency and the Federation of Canadian Municipalities (FCM) green municipal fund have all contributed to energy efficiency projects to stimulate the economy. These measures are expected to create nearly 4000 jobs in Quebec for electricians, heating contractors, plumbers and building professionals. This investment will also benefit the suppliers and distributors of electrical materials as well as the forestry industry, cement manufacturers, and specialized engineers. Since the benefits of energy efficiency upgrades are already well established, projects can get underway without further studies. The proposed energy efficiency projects can be applied anywhere in the province of Quebec and are not intended for any specific region. To name a few, the projects have included energy upgrades in an arena in Riviere du Loup, the Montreal Health Institute's head office building, and traffic light upgrades in Levis, Quebec. The article noted that energy efficiency upgrades made in the office buildings of Alcan, IBM, Molson and Bombardier have all resulted in at least a 5 per cent reduction in electricity use. All these changes have been good for the environment, even though Quebec's electricity is generated almost entirely from renewable energy sources. 6 figs.

  8. Development of an economic solar heating system with cost efficient flat plate collectors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eder-Milchgeisser, W.; Burkart, R.

    1980-10-01

    Mass produced flat plate solar collectors were worked into the design of a system for heating a swimming pool and/or providing domestic hot water. The collector characteristics, including physical and mechanical data as well as theoretical energy conversion efficiency, are presented. The collector was tested and service life efficiency was determined. The mounting of the collector, depending on roof type, is explained. Both in service and laboratory test results demonstrate the cost effectiveness of the system. Further improvement of efficiency is envisaged with automatic flow control in the solar collector and hot water circuits.

  9. Agroforestry versus farm mosaic systems - Comparing land-use efficiency, economic returns and risks under climate change effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paul, Carola; Weber, Michael; Knoke, Thomas

    2017-06-01

    Increasing land-use conflicts call for the development of land-use systems that reconcile agricultural production with the provisioning of multiple ecosystem services, including climate change mitigation. Agroforestry has been suggested as a global solution to increase land-use efficiency, while reducing environmental impacts and economic risks for farmers. Past research has often focused on comparing tree-crop combinations with agricultural monocultures, but agroforestry has seldom been systematically compared to other forms of land-use diversification, including a farm mosaic. This form of diversification mixes separate parcels of different land uses within the farm. The objective of this study was to develop a modelling approach to compare the performance of the agroforestry and farm mosaic diversification strategies, accounting for tree-crop interaction effects and economic and climate uncertainty. For this purpose, Modern Portfolio Theory and risk simulation were coupled with the process-based biophysical simulation model WaNuLCAS 4.0. For an example application, we used data from a field trial in Panama. The results show that the simulated agroforestry systems (Taungya, alley cropping and border planting) could outperform a farm mosaic approach in terms of cumulative production and return. Considering market and climate uncertainty, agroforestry showed an up to 21% higher economic return at the same risk level (i.e. standard deviation of economic returns). Farm compositions with large shares of land allocated to maize cultivation were also more severely affected by an increasing drought frequency in terms of both risks and returns. Our study demonstrates that agroforestry can be an economically efficient diversification strategy, but only if the design allows for economies of scope, beneficial interactions between trees and crops and higher income diversification compared to a farm mosaic. The modelling approach can make an important contribution to support

  10. THE PRACTICE OF EVALUATING THE ECONOMIC EFFICIENCY OF THE INNOVATIVE PROJECT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. A. Vorobiev

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available At the present stage of development of the society of scientific and technical activities is the most important factor in the intensification of production and the growth of its economic performance. It is therefore important now gets to determine the effectiveness of research and development activities, improving the measurement methods of economic evaluation of innovative projects and innovation. For informed decision-making requires a deep study and objective assessment of the real situation. This is due to changes in economic relations between the producers and consumers of scientific and technical products. Earlier in this activity involved only state scientific institution and the enterprise, then now they are gradually joining financial institutions, commercial and non-profit organizations. The adoption of innovative solutions should be preceded by thorough and comprehensive analysis of the economic feasibility of the innovative project. In this paper we propose to consider how business is costing innovative projects and determine their effectiveness for the enterprise business hotel.

  11. Economical efficiency estimation of the power system with an accelerator breeder

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rublev, O.V.; Komin, A.V.

    1990-01-01

    The review deals with economical indices of nuclear power system with an accelerator breeder producing secondary nuclear fuel. Electric power cost was estimated by the method of discounted cost. Power system with accelerator breeder compares unfavourably with traditional nuclear power systems with respect to its capitalized cost

  12. SMART-KKS. Chances and economic efficiency; SMART-KKS. Chancen und Wirtschaftlichkeit

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Deiss, Rainer [EnBW Regional AG, Stuttgart (Germany); Buechler, Markus [Schweizerische Gesellschaft fuer Korrosionsschutz, Zuerich (Switzerland); Naleppa, Stefan [RBS wave GmbH, Stuttgart (Germany)

    2011-07-01

    Future demands on KKS cannot be met by the current remote monitoring technology. New remote monitoring concepts and smart protective current concepts will be required to make KKS more economical and more reliable. The contribution presents new findings on AC corrosion in order to show how future KKS technology may be designed.

  13. 78 FR 18374 - Promoting Economic Efficiency in Spectrum Use: WSRD SSG Workshop IV

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-03-26

    ... AGENCY: The National Coordination Office (NCO) for Networking and Information Technology Research and... industry, and academia will identify economic and policy R&D that will promote progress toward more... the National Coordination Office for the Networking and Information Technology Research and...

  14. Energy-efficient buildings are environmentally friendly, architecturally attractive and economically compelling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wafa, Latifa Mohamed

    2006-01-01

    Standard building construction is wasteful, toxic, and is destroying the environment. It produced buildings that operate independently of its natural surrounding and depended heavily on mechanical systems that run with fossil fuel to create comfortable indoor environment. These buildings caused a wide range of health and environmental problems. The concern about the consequences of standard building construction have prompted countless experiments and design improvements to make built environment more energy efficient, less reliant on potentially limited fossil fuels and more reliant on renewable energy resources. The application of energy efficient technologies can make significant contribution to meeting the building and construction sector's energy demand, while at the same time providing better built environment, offering more comfortable living and working conditions for the users, cleaner and healthier in-outdoor environment, and cost no more to build. The proposes of the paper are to: 1-Promote the implementation of Energy-Efficient buildings through vigorous efforts, by engaging government agencies, design professions, engineers, and construction industry in the task of radically improving the performance of our buildings, neighborhoods, and cities. 2-Educate the general public (the consumers) that Energy-Efficient Building is good for their well-being, to their pocket and to the environment.3-Demonstrate that Energy-efficient Building are with highest standards of architecture design, the highest quality living and working environment and within a reasonable budget. The paper describes the technological options available for dealing sensibly with energy and focuses on the important areas of new building constructions and building refurbishment together with its specific energy requirements. The approach presented in this paper is just one of many methods of planning energy efficient buildings.This paper is part of the effort to promote Energy-efficient

  15. Technical and Economic Efficiency of Palm Oil Marketing in the Niger Delta Region of Southern Nigeria

    OpenAIRE

    Nkasiobi Silas Oguzor

    2013-01-01

    This study examined the structural performance and productive efficiency of palm oil marketing in some selected States in Southern Nigeria. Eighty districts were selected in the Niger Delta Area and data were collected from 1000 palm oil sellers randomly selected in these towns. The tools of analysis were marketing margin, Lorenz curve and Gini coefficient to measure the structural performance while the productive efficiency was measured with the use of the production function analysis using ...

  16. Economic efficiency or self-sufficiency: alternative strategies for oil consumers?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Heal, D.W.

    1992-01-01

    The ideal energy source is low cost (efficient) and reliable (secure). The high price and perceived political unreliability of Middle East oil supplies prompted a nearly worldwide trend towards energy self-sufficiency. Gains in energy efficiency, which have been most marked in the OECD, are permanent and, prompted by environmental concern, probably progressive. But the opportunity that is still available to low cost oil suppliers to regain lost markets will only be realized if those supplies are demonstrably reliable. (author)

  17. IMPROVED METHOD OF DETERMINATION OF ECONOMIC EFFICIENCY OF CONSTRUCTION AND OPERATION OF HIGH SPEED MAINLINE IN UKRAINE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    YU. S. Barash

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. To develop an advanced methodology and formulate the measures concerning the definition of economic efficiency of high-speed movement organization taking into account the operating experience of rapid transportations in Ukraine, travel time, number of stops on the route, schedule and the demand for these transportations. Methodology. The economic feasibility for appropriateness of high-speed movement organization in Ukraine is an investment project, which involves step-by-step money investment to the construction. To solve such problems one uses net present value, which UZ or newly created companies can get during the project realization and after its completion. Findings. On the basis of obtained studies one can state that the methodology of complex determination of construction efficiency and high-speed passenger trains operation taking into account the cost of infrastructure, rolling stock, impact of environmental factors, etc. was developed in the article. Originality. We propose a scientific approach to determine the economic efficiency of the construction and high-speed main lines operation. This approach, unlike the existing one, includes the improved principles of determining the passenger traffic, the cost of high-speed mainline construction, the number of rolling stock; optimizes income and expenditure calculations in the context of competitive advantages and impact of the external factors on the company. For the first time it was taken into account the transit flow of passengers departing from CIS countries to the vacation in the Crimea, the Carpathians, Odessa and Lviv regions. The account of these factors increases the feasibility of administrative decisions concerning ensuring the efficiency of high-speed traffic functioning. Practical value. The proposed methodology and the research results allowed determining the construction reasonability of high-speed mainline for the passenger trains with a speed at least250 km/h in

  18. Economic and Environmental Assessment of a 1 MW Grid Connected Rooftop Solar PV System for Energy Efficient Building in Bangladesh

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chakraborty, Sanjib; Hosain, Rubayet; Rahman, Toufiqur; Rabbi, Ahmead Fazle

    This paper evaluates the potentiality of a 1 MW grid connected rooftop solar PV system for an Energy Efficient Building in Bangladesh, which was estimated by utilizing NASA SSE solar radiation data, PVsyst simulation software and RETScreen simulation software. Economic and environmental viability for a ten-storied building with roof area of 6,500 m2 in the Capital City of Bangladesh, Dhaka was assessed by using the RETScreen simulation software. The yearly electricity production of the proposed system was 1,581 MWh estimated by PVsyst where the technical prospective of gird-connected solar PV in Bangladesh was calculated as about 50,174 MW. The economic assessments were determined the simple payback in such a way that the generated electricity first fulfills the demand of the building, and then the rest of the energy is supplied to the grid. The result indicates that the roof top solar PV system for an Energy efficient building in Dhaka city has a favorable condition for development both in economic and environmental point of view.

  19. Procedures for Efficient and Economic Recovery of Heat for Reuse in Batch Processes for Cleaning

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Qvale, Einar Bjørn

    2005-01-01

    The expenditure of primary energy can be reduced and the economics of process plants in the food industry can be improved by intelligent application of Process Integration (PI). Since a greater part of the products in the food industry is processed in batches, the use of Thermal- Energy Storage...... are often encountered in the food industry. However, the extent to which PI is utilized is much smaller than the number of potential applications. The present paper will address this topic, give some reasons for the underuse of PI, and indicate some principles, methods, and directions that, when applied......, could increase the use and usefulness of PI by incorporating TES, thus fulfilling PI’s promises of improved operation, reduced energy consumption, reduced environmental impact, and improved economics. The application of these procedures is illustrated through the description of two cases. Keywords: Heat...

  20. Economic structure and environmental quality and their impact on changing land use efficiency in China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peng, Chong; Xiao, Hao; Liu, Yu; Zhang, Jingjing

    2017-06-01

    Extensive urban land expansion and heavy industrialization have increased energy consumption and caused environmental problems, both of which present serious threats to humans. Consequently, improved land use efficiency and realization of green development are imperative. Based on a detailed analysis of spatialtemporal evolution of urban land use efficiency, this paper analyzes the synergistic effect of industrial structure and city size, as well as the effect of environmental quality, by using panel data from 283 cities at or above prefecturelevel in China from 2003 to 2012. It was concluded that 1) environmental quality has an obvious "crowding out effect" on urban land use efficiency and 2) urban land use efficiency shows a significant spatial auto-correlation. The effect of industrial structure is dependent on population size of the city. It has been found that a threshold population size of more than 108.45 (10,000 persons) is needed for an optimized benefit from industrial linkages. The urban population size presents an inverted-U shape against the urban land use efficiency, and the marginal benefit of urban size increases when the industrial structure shifts from secondary industry to tertiary industry. Additionally we found that the actual urban size of 98.2% is less than the cities' optimal sizes.

  1. Technical and Economic Aspects of Designing an Efficient Room Air-Conditioner Program in India

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Abhyankar, Nikit [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States). Energy Analysis and Environmental Impacts Div.; Shah, Nihar [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States). Energy Analysis and Environmental Impacts Div.; Phadke, Amol [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States). Energy Analysis and Environmental Impacts Div.; Park, Won Young [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States). Energy Analysis and Environmental Impacts Div.

    2017-09-05

    Several studies have projected a massive increase in the demand for air conditioners (ACs) over the next two decades in India. By 2030, room ACs could add 140 GW to the peak load, equivalent to over 30% of the total projected peak load. Therefore, there is significant interest among policymakers, regulators, and utilities in managing room AC demand by enhancing energy efficiency. Building on the historical success of the Indian Bureau of Energy Efficiency’s star-labeling program, Energy Efficiency Services Limited recently announced a program to accelerate the sale of efficient room ACs using bulk procurement, similar to their successful UJALA light-emitting diode (LED) bulk procurement program. This report discusses some of the key considerations in designing a bulk procurement or financial incentive program for enhancing room AC efficiency in India. We draw upon our previous research to demonstrate the overall technical potential and price impact of room AC efficiency improvement and its technical feasibility in India. We also discuss the importance of using low global warming potential (GWP) refrigerants and smart AC equipment that is demand response (DR) ready.

  2. Dissemination of statistical information for purposes of efficiency management of socio-economic development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gerasimenko S.

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The questions connected with the facilitation of the access of the people to the information about the living standard are considered. In particular it is suggested to use the information of the System of National Accounts and statistic methods. It is stressed that the information about living standard should be amplified with the characteristics of the effectiveness of the management of the social-economic development.

  3. Genome-wide data-mining of candidate human splice translational efficiency polymorphisms (STEPs and an online database.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christopher A Raistrick

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Variation in pre-mRNA splicing is common and in some cases caused by genetic variants in intronic splicing motifs. Recent studies into the insulin gene (INS discovered a polymorphism in a 5' non-coding intron that influences the likelihood of intron retention in the final mRNA, extending the 5' untranslated region and maintaining protein quality. Retention was also associated with increased insulin levels, suggesting that such variants--splice translational efficiency polymorphisms (STEPs--may relate to disease phenotypes through differential protein expression. We set out to explore the prevalence of STEPs in the human genome and validate this new category of protein quantitative trait loci (pQTL using publicly available data.Gene transcript and variant data were collected and mined for candidate STEPs in motif regions. Sequences from transcripts containing potential STEPs were analysed for evidence of splice site recognition and an effect in expressed sequence tags (ESTs. 16 publicly released genome-wide association data sets of common diseases were searched for association to candidate polymorphisms with HapMap frequency data. Our study found 3324 candidate STEPs lying in motif sequences of 5' non-coding introns and further mining revealed 170 with transcript evidence of intron retention. 21 potential STEPs had EST evidence of intron retention or exon extension, as well as population frequency data for comparison.Results suggest that the insulin STEP was not a unique example and that many STEPs may occur genome-wide with potentially causal effects in complex disease. An online database of STEPs is freely accessible at http://dbstep.genes.org.uk/.

  4. Energy researchers - 1. Energy efficiency: Energy efficiency is driving innovation; No economic crisis for energy efficiency; How can we change our energy habits?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Minster, Jean-Francois; Appert, Olivier; Moisan, Francois; Salha, Bernard; Tardieu, Bernard; Ghidaglia, Jean-Michel; Viterbo, Jerome

    2011-01-01

    A first article comments how the race to achieve energy efficiency is driving the emergence of new technologies in transportation and construction (hybrid cars, phase change material, digital mock-ups, and so on). The example of the AGV is evoked, a new version of the TGV developed by Alstom which will run faster and consume less energy. A second article outlines that, due to the support from public authorities and to an increased awareness of energy costs and environmental challenges, the energy savings market is booming. Then, in an interview, a sociologist of the ADEME comments the difficulty of changing habits in terms of energy savings

  5. Assessing Cross-disciplinary Efficiency of Soil Amendments for Agro-biologically, Economically, and Ecologically Integrated Soil Health Management

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    Preventive and/or manipulative practices will be needed to maintain soil's biological, physiochemical, nutritional, and structural health in natural, managed, and disturbed ecosystems as a foundation for food security and global ecosystem sustainability. While there is a substantial body of interdisciplinary science on understanding function and structure of soil ecosystems, key gaps must be bridged in assessing integrated agro-biological, ecological, economical, and environmental efficiency of soil manipulation practices in time and space across ecosystems. This presentation discusses the application of a fertilizer use efficiency (FUE) model for assessing agronomic, economic, ecological, environmental, and nematode (pest) management efficiency of soil amendments. FUE is defined as increase in host productivity and/or decrease in plant-parasitic nematode population density in response to a given fertilizer treatment. Using the effects of nutrient amendment on Heterodera glycines population density and normalized difference vegetative index (indicator of physiological activities) of a soybean cultivar ‘CX 252’, how the FUE model recognizes variable responses and separates nutrient deficiency and toxicity from nematode parasitism as well as suitability of treatments designed to achieve desired biological and physiochemical soil health conditions is demonstrated. As part of bridging gaps between agricultural and ecological approaches to integrated understanding and management of soil health, modifications of the FUE model for analyzing the relationships amongst nematode community structure, soil parameters (eg. pH, nutrients, %OM), and plant response to soil amendment is discussed. PMID:22736840

  6. Assessment of gender differentials in economic and technical efficiency of poultry egg, a case study in Lagos State, Nigeria.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hafis Odunlami

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Gender has been seen as an important factor in the distribution and utilization of productive resources worldwide. In the agricultural sector, gender differential could influence the sourcing and efficient utilization of factors of production, particularly in the livestock sub-sector of the economy. This study assessed the gender differentials in economic and technical efficiency of poultry eggs production in Lagos State, Nigeria. Multistage sampling technique was used to select respondent poultry farmers. The first and second stages were the purposive selection of five Local Government Areas (LGAs reputed for poultry production and farm settlements in the state. The third stage involved a simple random sampling of 150 poultry farms consisting of 75 farms each managed by a male and a female Stochastic Frontier Analysis (SFA. The SFA revealed that for male management of poultry egg farms, labour input (p<0.01 and cost of medications (p<0.05 increased the poultry egg output. On the other hand, for female management, stock of birds (p<0.01, labour input (p<0.01 and feed cost (p<0.01 were the factors that increased poultry eggs output. The inefficiency model revealed that male farmers were more technically efficient (p<0.01 than female counterparts. Female managed poultry farms had less productivity (0.90 compared to males(1.22. However, 88.1% of male farms compared to 86.7% of female farms had economic efficiency ratios between 0.29 and 0.79. The study concluded that gender had impact on poultry farmers’ efficiency in the study area. The study therefore recommended that training should be organised for female managed farms while male managed farms should utilize less of cost intensive capital input.

  7. CO2 taxes as economic tool for energy efficiency analysis of CO2 tax impact on energy efficiency projects in Latvia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Blumberga, D.; Blumberga, M.; Veidenbergs, I.

    2005-01-01

    The intended purpose of the carbon tax is to reduce CO 2 emissions. This tax can play a significant role in the implementation of energy saving projects. The paper evaluates three market mechanisms for reducing greenhouse gas emissions: joint implementation, emissions trading and CO 2 taxes. The first market mechanism - pilot phase of joint implementation (Activities Implemented Jointly) opened the minds of specialists to the GHG emission reduction potential of energy efficiency projects. The second mechanism was implemented after Latvia had accepted the National Allocation Plan to start emission trading. The third mechanism is based on the introduction of a carbon tax, which will come into force in Latvia in July 2005. This paper describes the potential impact of this tax that could promote development of energy efficiency projects. The authors worked out an evaluation methodology to calculate the impact of CO 2 taxes on emissions levels and the potential value of such taxes. The proposed methodology is applicable to district heating companies and governmental institutions, defining links between the energy efficiency and CO 2 taxes and showing ways of justifying these taxes both economically and environmentally. (authors)

  8. ECONOMIC AND POWER EFFICIENCY OF CULTIVATION OF DIFFERENT GRADES AND GIBRIDOV CORN SUGAR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. A. Didukh

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The results of study of the variety structure of sugar corn in the Left-bank Forest'steppe of Ukraine are presented in the article. In the group of early-maturing varieties, the hybrid Spirit was found to be the most productive (5,4 t/hectare and profitable (113,0 % with energy efficiency ratio 2,9. The mild'ripening hybrids Bold F1 and Bonus F1 showed the productivity – 4,8-5,7 t/hectare, the profitability – 101,8-124,9 %, and the energy efficiency ratio – 2,60-3,06, respectively.

  9. Technical-and-Economic Efficiency of Draft Enriched with Oxygen in Small-Capacity Heating Boilers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Ratnikov

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Data on complex experimental and theoretical investigations pertaining to efficiency of oxygen-enriched draft in the small-capacity heating boilers as exemplified by the plant HEIZA (HW-S-10/K have been presented in the paper. The paper provides a calculation model of heating processes in heat generator burner (as exemplified by HEIZA plant. Simulation of heating processes in the operational zone has been executed in paper. The experimental data have proved model adequacy. The calculation scheme of the plant will be used in future for determination of power and ecological efficiency of draft enrichment with oxygen.

  10. A Rapid, Highly Efficient and Economical Method of Agrobacterium-Mediated In planta Transient Transformation in Living Onion Epidermis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Kedong; Huang, Xiaohui; Wu, Manman; Wang, Yan; Chang, Yunxia; Liu, Kun; Zhang, Ju; Zhang, Yi; Zhang, Fuli; Yi, Liming; Li, Tingting; Wang, Ruiyue; Tan, Guangxuan; Li, Chengwei

    2014-01-01

    Transient transformation is simpler, more efficient and economical in analyzing protein subcellular localization than stable transformation. Fluorescent fusion proteins were often used in transient transformation to follow the in vivo behavior of proteins. Onion epidermis, which has large, living and transparent cells in a monolayer, is suitable to visualize fluorescent fusion proteins. The often used transient transformation methods included particle bombardment, protoplast transfection and Agrobacterium-mediated transformation. Particle bombardment in onion epidermis was successfully established, however, it was expensive, biolistic equipment dependent and with low transformation efficiency. We developed a highly efficient in planta transient transformation method in onion epidermis by using a special agroinfiltration method, which could be fulfilled within 5 days from the pretreatment of onion bulb to the best time-point for analyzing gene expression. The transformation conditions were optimized to achieve 43.87% transformation efficiency in living onion epidermis. The developed method has advantages in cost, time-consuming, equipment dependency and transformation efficiency in contrast with those methods of particle bombardment in onion epidermal cells, protoplast transfection and Agrobacterium-mediated transient transformation in leaf epidermal cells of other plants. It will facilitate the analysis of protein subcellular localization on a large scale. PMID:24416168

  11. Analysis of Economic Efficiency of Production of Low-Concentrated Sodium Hypochlorite by Direct Electrolysis of Natural Waters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fesenko, L. N.; Pchelnikov, I. V.; Fedotov, R. V.

    2017-11-01

    The study presents the economic efficiency of direct electrolysis of natural waters in comparison with the waters artificially prepared by electrolysis of the 3% sodium salt solution. The study used sea water (Black sea water); mineral water (underground water of the Melikhovskaya station, “Ognennaya” hole); brackish water (underground water from the Grushevskaya station of the Aksai district); 3% solution of sodium salt. As a result, the dependences characterizing the direct electrolysis of natural waters with different mineralization, economic, and energy parties are shown. The rational area of the electrolysis for each of the investigated solution is determined. The cost of a kilogram of active chlorine obtained by the direct water electrolysis: Black sea from 17.2 to 18.3 RUB/kg; the Melikhovskaya station “Ognennaya” hole - 14.3 to 15.0 Rubles/kg; 3% solution of NaCl - 30 Rubles./kg; Grushevskogo St. - 63,0-73,0 Rubles/kg.

  12. CHARACTERISTICS OF MANAGEMENT AND LEADERSHIP IN ORDER TO EFFICIENTLY ACHIEVE THE ORGANIZATIONAL CHANGES PRODUCED BY THE ECONOMIC CRISIS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iuliana Talmaciu

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Change has become the watchword of the present times. The dynamism of economic, social and political life is becoming more pronounced and it determines numerous organizational changes. In times of crisis and during the following periods, companies face major challenges, changes becoming even harder to anticipate and plan. The economic difficulties encountered by the business environment can be a decisive test for the leaders of companies. The main purpose of this article is to analyze the leadership characteristics which are necessary to efficiently manage and implement organizational changes during crisis. The research method used in this paper was based on the content analysis of works by both Romanian and foreign authors and on some studies conducted by different specialized companies. This paper is structured as follows: introduction, aspects regarding managers' role in change management, characteristics needed by the leaders involved in the change process, conclusions and biography.

  13. A demonstration of the improved efficiency of the canonical coordinates method using nonlinear combined heat and power economic dispatch problems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Hung-Chieh; Lin, Pei-Chun

    2014-02-01

    Economic dispatch is the short-term determination of the optimal output from a number of electricity generation facilities to meet the system load while providing power. As such, it represents one of the main optimization problems in the operation of electrical power systems. This article presents techniques to substantially improve the efficiency of the canonical coordinates method (CCM) algorithm when applied to nonlinear combined heat and power economic dispatch (CHPED) problems. The improvement is to eliminate the need to solve a system of nonlinear differential equations, which appears in the line search process in the CCM algorithm. The modified algorithm was tested and the analytical solution was verified using nonlinear CHPED optimization problems, thereby demonstrating the effectiveness of the algorithm. The CCM methods proved numerically stable and, in the case of nonlinear programs, produced solutions with unprecedented accuracy within a reasonable time.

  14. Plug-in hybrid electric vehicles: Economic efficiency and market chances of different business models; Plug-in Hybridfahrzeuge: Wirtschaftlichkeit und Marktchancen verschiedener Geschaeftsmodelle

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hackbarth, Andre; Schuermann, Gregor [RWTH Aachen (Germany). Lehrstuhl fuer Wirtschaftswissenschaften insb. Energieoekonomik,; RWTH Aachen (DE). E.ON Energy Research Center, Institut fuer Future Energy Consumer Needs and Behavior (FCN); Madlener, Reinhard [Technische Hochschule Aachen (DE). Lehrstuhl fuer Verbrennungskraftmaschinen (VKA)

    2009-07-15

    The German traffic sector is strongly dependent on fossil fuels. Electric vehicles could reduce this dependence and also help to keep CO2 emissions low. Plug-in hybrid electric vehicles (PHEV) are a technology option that may facilitate the transition to electromobility. The authors investigate the economic efficiencies and amortisation periods of PHEV on the basis of two different business models, i.e. passenger cars (compact and medium-sized) and light vans. It is shown that under the assumed boundary conditions PHEV are not economically efficient at present. The influence of various parameters on economic efficiency and amortisation period is investigated by means of a sensitivity analysis. (orig.)

  15. Evolution of farm management, nitrogen efficiency and economic performance on Dutch dairy farms reducing external inputs

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Groot, J.C.J.; Rossing, W.A.H.; Lantinga, E.A.

    2006-01-01

    The implementation of the statutory Mineral Accounting System (MINAS) in the Netherlands in the period 1998¿2003 required large reductions in nutrient inputs of dairy farms. Patterns in farm management adjustments throughout 6 years and their effectiveness in terms of nitrogen use efficiency (NUE)

  16. Economic evaluation of current conditions of competition and efficiency of automotive and rail systems in Colombia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vasco Correa, Carlos Andrés

    2012-01-01

    This study uses microeconomic data from the transportation systems of land cargo in Colombia: rail and trucking, to determine their degree of allocative efficiency through the non-parametric method Data Envelopment Analysis DEA. The average overall efficiency found was 74.4% for trains and 20.56% for trucks. These figures indicate that rail is more efficient in the allocation of resources. This means that trains in Colombia use their input better than trucks to maximize their production, given the costs and technological characteristics of each system. This is a signal for the design of a public policy for investment in transportation infrastructure that seeks to raise the competitiveness of Colombian exports, investing not only in roads but in complementary systems such as railways too. - Highlights: ► Colombia is currently undergoing a backlog of transport infrastructure and high export costs. ► We perform a microeconomic study of transportation systems in Colombia: rail and trucking. ► As a result we found that the rail is much more efficient than the automotive system. ► As policy recommendation the government should consider the investment in railways. ► It is necessary to take into account the strategic value that investment in railways would bring.

  17. White certificates for energy efficiency improvement with energy taxes : A theoretical economic model

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Oikonomou, V.; Jepma, C.J.; Becchis, F.; Russolillo, D.

    2008-01-01

    In this paper we analyze interactions of two energy policy instruments, namely a White Certificates (WhC) scheme as an innovative policy instrument for energy efficiency improvement and energy taxation. These policy instruments differ in terms of objectives and final impacts on the price of

  18. Eco-efficiency Among Dairy Farmers: The Importance of Socio-economic Characteristics and Farmer Attitudes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Perez Urdiales, M.; Oude Lansink, A.G.J.M.; Wall, A.

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this paper is to assess the eco-efficiency of dairy farms in Spain. To do so, we use data from a survey carried out in 2010 for the specific purpose of analysing the environmental performance of 50 dairy farms in the Spanish region of Asturias. The survey contains information on nutrients

  19. Economic efficiency of underground natural gas storage: The case of Canada

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Charette, Y.

    1990-01-01

    The paper describes the current situation of natural gas storage in Canada and attempts to provide valuable information and analytical tools so that the key players, including government and industry, will be in a better position to make enlightened choices for future investments in natural gas storage. Central to the analysis of the efficiency of storage is the notion of efficient peak-load pricing. It is usually recognized that storage may be efficient or welfare increasing because, with fixed consumption, it may allow the substitution of cheaper off-peak production for more costly production. The theoretical conclusions are used of a number of static peak-load pricing models, as well as investment decision models, to analyze the various costs and benefits of storage. The main conclusion is made that, when storage is possible, the welfare maximizing peak/off-peak price differential can be reduced, and therefore, storage can increase the efficiency of the gas transmission system. 10 refs, 2 figs, 5 tabs

  20. Efficient ecologic and economic operational rules for dammed systems by means of nondominated sorting genetic algorithm II

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niayifar, A.; Perona, P.

    2015-12-01

    River impoundment by dams is known to strongly affect the natural flow regime and in turn the river attributes and the related ecosystem biodiversity. Making hydropower sustainable implies to seek for innovative operational policies able to generate dynamic environmental flows while maintaining economic efficiency. For dammed systems, we build the ecological and economical efficiency plot for non-proportional flow redistribution operational rules compared to minimal flow operational. As for the case of small hydropower plants (e.g., see the companion paper by Gorla et al., this session), we use a four parameters Fermi-Dirac statistical distribution to mathematically formulate non-proportional redistribution rules. These rules allocate a fraction of water to the riverine environment depending on current reservoir inflows and storage. Riverine ecological benefits associated to dynamic environmental flows are computed by integrating the Weighted Usable Area (WUA) for fishes with Richter's hydrological indicators. Then, we apply nondominated sorting genetic algorithm II (NSGA-II) to an ensemble of non-proportional and minimal flow redistribution rules in order to generate the Pareto frontier showing the system performances in the ecologic and economic space. This fast and elitist multiobjective optimization method is eventually applied to a case study. It is found that non-proportional dynamic flow releases ensure maximal power production on the one hand, while conciliating ecological sustainability on the other hand. Much of the improvement in the environmental indicator is seen to arise from a better use of the reservoir storage dynamics, which allows to capture, and laminate flood events while recovering part of them for energy production. In conclusion, adopting such new operational policies would unravel a spectrum of globally-efficient performances of the dammed system when compared with those resulting from policies based on constant minimum flow releases.

  1. On the question of economic efficiency and how to assess it

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petrosyan, M. O.; Kovalev, I. V.; Zelenkov, P. V.; Chuvashova, M. N.; Grishina, I. A.; Pershakova, K. K.

    2016-04-01

    Over the years, since the world moved to a system of market-based economic relations scientists and businessmen worldwide wonder how to ease and modernize the process of analyzing business performance. During this time, a variety of methods and tools have been developed to deal with this problem. After all, the productivity of the company is directly related to it’s competitive qualities, so the managers are interested in the quality of evaluation of their companies. The article deals with the traditional methods of evaluating the performance of enterprises and some of the tools used in order to improve its quality.

  2. Value of Lost Load: An Efficient Economic Indicator for Power Supply Security? A Literature Review

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schröder, Thomas, E-mail: t.schroeder@fz-juelich.de; Kuckshinrichs, Wilhelm [Institute of Energy and Climate Research – Systems Analysis and Technology Evaluation (IEK-STE), Forschungszentrum Jülich GmbH, Jülich (Germany)

    2015-12-24

    Security of electricity supply has become a fundamental requirement for well-functioning modern societies. Because of its central position in all sections of society, the present paper considers the economic consequences of a power supply interruption. The value of lost load (VoLL) is a monetary indicator expressing the costs associated with an interruption of electricity supply. This paper reviews different methods for calculating VoLL, provides an overview of recently published studies, and presents suggestions to increase the explanatory power and international comparability of VoLL.

  3. Energy efficiency clauses in charter party agreements legal and economic perspectives and their application to ocean grain transport

    CERN Document Server

    Psarros, George Adamantios

    2017-01-01

    This book provides practical solutions for addressing energy efficiency as a clause term within a charter party contract. For this, upon a reflection of the regulatory craft, it analyzes key concepts of case law, and discusses them together with commercial and economic principles. In this way, the book aims at offering a comprehensive, interdisciplinary view of the chartering process, together with a new approach for safeguarding energy efficiency investments. A special emphasis is given to the maritime industry. Here, the newly developed framework, based on game theory, has been successfully applied to demonstrate the importance of including a clause term in contract negotiation to achieve protection against both an uncertain market and an even more challenging shipping environment. The book not only fills a gap in the literature, covering a topic that has been largely neglected to date, yet it offers researchers and practitioners extensive information to change the chartering process radically.

  4. The effectiveness of absorption heat pumps application for the increase of economic efficiency of CHP operation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luzhkovoy Dmitriy S.

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The article deals with a comparative analysis of CHP operational efficiency in various working modes before and after the absorption heat pumps installation. The calculation was performed using a mathematical model of the extraction turbine PT- 80/100-130/13. Absorption heat pumps of LLC “OKB Teplosibmash” were used as AHP models for the analysis. The most effective way of absorption lithium-bromide heat pumps application as a part of the turbine PT-80/100-130/13 turned out to be their usage in a heat-producing mode during a non-heating season with a load of hot water supply. For this mode the dependence of the turbine heat efficiency on the heat load of the external consumer at a given throttle flow was analyzed.

  5. Energy conservation, energy efficiency and energy savings regulatory hypotheses - taxation, subsidies and underlying economics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Trumpy, T. [International Legal Counsel, Brussels (Belgium)

    1995-12-01

    More efficient use of energy resources can be promoted by various regulatory means, i.e., taxation, subsidies, and pricing. Various incentives can be provided by income and revenue tax breaks-deductible energy audit fees, energy saving investment credits, breaks for energy saving entrepreneurs, and energy savings accounts run through utility accounts. Value added and excise taxes can also be adjusted to reward energy saving investments and energy saving entrepreneurial activity. Incentives can be provided in the form of cash refunds, including trade-in-and-scrap programs and reimbursements or subsidies on audit costs and liability insurance. Pricing incentives include lower rates for less energy use, prepayment of deposit related to peak load use, electronically dispatched multiple tariffs, savings credits based on prior peak use, and subsidized {open_quotes}leasing{close_quotes} of more efficient appliances and lights. Credits, with an emphasis on pooling small loans, and 5-year energy savings contracts are also discussed.

  6. Resource Efficiency. Economics and Outlook for Asia and the Pacific. Key Messages and Highlights

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2011-09-15

    The key messages are: Global sustainability depends on the creation and implementation of effective policies to support the dynamic Asia-Pacific region to transition to a new sustainable industrial system; This will be instrumental to deal with the dual objectives of increasing the material standard of living of people and reducing poverty, to ensure the integrity of resources and the environment; Resource efficient infrastructure associated with transport, energy and housing is critical, and massive amounts of new infrastructure are currently being planned. There is a twenty to thirty year window of opportunity for this transformation; The challenge for public policy is to achieve a sustainability transition, enabled by resource efficiency and systems innovation despite the inherent growth dynamic of the industrial transformation. What is required is a new 'industrial revolution' that provides food, housing, mobility, energy, and water with only about 20% of the per-capita resource use and emissions found in current systems.

  7. The importance of servicing for the safety and economic efficiency of nuclear installations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wild, E.

    1991-01-01

    Experience-oriented preventive maintenance is the central and decisive instrument for plant safety. Preventive maintenance, in the overriding sense of the entire system consisting of man and machine, is identical with service. Such service must be readily available, efficient, purposeful, innovative and of high quality. The high quality of German nuclear power plants and their reliability are the result of a constructive cooperation between producer, supplier, service enterprise and operator. (DG) [de

  8. Three essays of economics and policy on renewable energy and energy efficiency

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meng, Yuxi

    In face of the crisis in energy security, environmental contamination, and climate change, energy saving and carbon emission reduction have become the top concerns of the whole human world. To address those concerns, renewable energy and energy efficiency are the two fields that many countries are paying attention to, which are also my research focus. The dissertation consists of three papers, including the innovation behavior of renewable energy producers, the impact of renewable energy policy on renewable innovation, and the market feedback to energy efficient building benchmarking ordinance. Here are the main conclusions I have reached in this dissertation. First, through the study on foreign patenting intention with the case study of Chinese solar PV industry, I looked at the patenting behaviors of 15 non-Chinese solar PV producers in solar PV technologies in China, and pointed out that foreign firms may file patents in the home country or production base of their competitors in order to earn the competitive edge in the global market. The second study is about the "Innovation by Generating" process. I specifically focused on Renewable Portfolio Standard (RPS) in the United States and the innovation performance within each state, and found out that wind power generation in RPS states has developed rapidly after the adoption of RPS, while the "Innovating by Generating" effect is more significant in solar PV technologies. In general, the innovations of the two technology groups are not prominently encouraged by RPS. My last study is about the benchmarking law and market response in the scenario of Philadelphia Benchmarking Law. By comparing the rental rate of LEED/EnergyStar buildings and ordinary buildings in the city of Philadelphia before and after the adoption of the building energy efficiency benchmarking law, I believe that the passage of Philadelphia Benchmarking Law may be helpful in improving the public awareness and understanding of energy efficiency

  9. Thermoelectric generators for efficiency improvement of power generation by motor generators – Environmental and economic perspectives

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Patyk, Andreas

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: ► TEGs can save costs and reduce environmental burden in a wide range of conditions. ► Reduction of the environmental burden is still possible under worse conditions. ► Under the same conditions steam expanders produce bigger amounts of electricity. ► Steam expanders are more eco-efficient in the upper performance range. ► TEG production plays only a small role for the overall assessment. -- Abstract: The use of waste heat from exhaust gas of internal combustion engines in power plants and CHP plants is considered a promising application field for thermoelectrics (TE). Some recent studies have provided important knowledge on the energy efficiency of current and future thermoelectric generators (TEGs). The focus of these studies has been primarily on the precise modelling of power units and their operation, i.e., the quantification of power production by TEGs. One of the studies additionally assessed the costs and the CO 2 emissions of fuel combustion, without equipment and fuel supply. Until now, there was no life cycle-related analysis considering TEG and power unit manufacture, environmental impacts beyond climate change and competing technologies for waste heat utilisation. In order to fill this gap, the present study applies the life cycle approach, takes account of a variety of environmental impacts and costs and compares TEGs with the competing steam expander technology. The results show that, under many conditions, TEGs in power units can save energy costs and reduce the environmental burden, i.e., they are eco-efficient. With additional expenditure, energy savings and environmental benefits can be achieved even under disadvantageous conditions. However, in the upper power range the performance of steam expanders in terms of electricity production and eco-efficiency is better. The reduction costs of greenhouse gas emissions and environmental impacts as eco-efficiency indicators show identical patterns. Under reasonable operating

  10. Coke oven gas to methanol process integrated with CO_2 recycle for high energy efficiency, economic benefits and low emissions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gong, Min-hui; Yi, Qun; Huang, Yi; Wu, Guo-sheng; Hao, Yan-hong; Feng, Jie; Li, Wen-ying

    2017-01-01

    Highlights: • CO_2 recycle assistance with COG to CH_3OH with dry reforming is proposed. • New process with dry reforming improves H_2 utilization and energy saving. • Process with H_2 separation (CWHS) is more preferable to CH_3OH output. • CWHS shows an excellent performance in energy, economy and CO_2 emission reduction. - Abstract: A process of CO_2 recycle to supply carbon for assisting with coke oven gas to methanol process is proposed to realize clean and efficient coke oven gas utilization. Two CO_2 recycle schemes with respect to coke oven gas, namely with and without H_2 separation before reforming, are developed. It is revealed that the process with H_2 separation is more beneficial to element and energy efficiency improvement, and it also presents a better techno-economic performance in comparison with the conventional coke oven gas to methanol process. The exergy efficiency, direct CO_2 emission, and internal rate of return of the process with H_2 separation are 73.9%, 0.69 t/t-methanol, and 35.1%, respectively. This excellent performance implies that reforming technology selection, H_2 utilization efficiency, and CO_2 recycle ways have important influences on the performance of the coke oven gas to methanol process. The findings of this study represent significant progress for future improvements of the coke oven gas to methanol process, especially CO_2 conversion integrated with coke oven gas utilization in the coking industry.

  11. The Factors Influencing Economic Efficiency of the Hospital Bed Care in Terms of the Regional Allowance Organizations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vaňková Ivana

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available This paper aims to provide an efficiency evaluation of selected hospital bed care providers during years 2010 -2012 with respect to selected factors: The size of the hospital establishment according to number of beds, number of hospitalized patients, the average length of stay per a patient in care, total staff cost calculated per bed, total revenues calculated per bed, and total costs calculated per bed. For this purpose, hospitals providing primarily acute bed care were chosen. From the legal point of view, they are allowance organizations of a particular region. The evaluation concerns both allocative efficiency and technical efficiency. The allocative efficiency is treated from the proper algorithm point of view and it compares total costs calculated per bed with total revenues calculated per bed. A method denominated Data Envelopment Analysis was applied for the calculation of the technical efficiency of units. To be more specific, it was input-oriented model with constant returns to scale (CCR. The input parameters involve the number of beds, the average length of stay and costs per day of stay. Output parameters were as follows: Bed occupancy in days and the number of hospitalized patients. The data published by the Institute of Health Information and Statistic of the Czech Republic and by ÚFIS system (the Data Base of Ministry of Finance of the Czech Republic were used as the source of data. The evaluation implies that only three hospitals were economically-effective: Silesian Hospital in Opava, Hospital Jihlava, and TGM Hospital Hodonín. The most significant factor influencing the efficiency was determined - the average length of stay.

  12. Energy demand, economic growth, and energy efficiency - the Bakun dam-induced sustainable energy policy revisited

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Keong, C.Y.

    2005-01-01

    In embarking on a dynamic course of economic development and industrial modernism, Malaysia sees the need to increase its electricity generation capacity through the development of a mega-dam project - the Bakun dam. Although hydroelectricity generation offers one of the benign options in accommodating the increasing energy consumption per capita in Malaysia, it is argued that the construction of Bakun's dam which involves a complete and irreversible destruction of 69,640 ha of old forest ecosystem remains a difficult and uncertain endeavour. It is further argued that apart from mega-dam technology, there are also other means to orchestrate a sustainable energy system in Malaysia. These include the implementation of demand and supply initiatives, such as the deployment of energy saving technology or influencing behavioral change towards a sustainable energy consumption pattern

  13. Infectious mononucleosis in children: clinical and laboratory rationale and economic efficiency of application of immunocorrectors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shvedova N.M.

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Objective: to select the optimal, clinically and economacally effective immunocorrector for the treatment of immune-EBV — mononucleosis in children. Materials: 400 patients with primary Epstein — Barr virus infection aged 1 to 14 years. Results. The therapy by cycloferon of primary Epstein — Barr virus infection observed a statistically significant reduction in the length of stay of patients in hospital, on average, 3 bed-days. Inclusion of cycloferon, viferon in the treatment of infectious mononucleosis, reduces the severity and duration of symptoms of intoxication, the temperature reaction, hepatotoxicity, splenomegaly, lymphoproliferative syndrome. Against the background of cycloferon lower incidence of post-infection anemia was observed. Conclusion. The inclusion of immunocorrectors into therapeutic interventions in primary Epstein — Barr virus infection has been clinically and economically proved.

  14. Financial Integration and Tax Efficiency –Premises of Antitrust Policy and Economic Growth

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mihai Mărginean

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The aims of this paper is to highlight the relationship between financial integration, taxation and anti-monopoly policy.We will focus on the arguments that come to strengthen that the effectiveness of anti-monopoly policy depends on effective measures in the area of taxation and hence the effects of taxation. Basically, in our analysis, we built a research that stressed the importance of interplay between the variables involved and the objective of economic growth. Noting that the public income and expeenditures (item that showing the importance of administration sector in the economy, depends on effective antitrust policy. For this analysis, we used data between 2008 and 2014 from the Competition Council and Eurostat.

  15. Clinical efficacy and economic evaluation of online cognitive behavioral therapy for major depressive disorder: a systematic review and meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahern, Elayne; Kinsella, Stephen; Semkovska, Maria

    2018-02-01

    Leading cause of disability worldwide, depression is the most prevalent mental disorder with growing societal costs. As mental health services demand often outweighs provision, accessible treatment options are needed. Our systematic review and meta-analysis evaluated the clinical efficacy and economic evidence for the use of online cognitive behavioral therapy (oCBT) as an accessible treatment solution for depression. Areas covered: Electronic databases were searched for controlled trials published between 2006 and 2016. Of the reviewed 3,324 studies, 29 met the criteria for inclusion in the efficacy meta-analysis. The systematic review identified five oCBT economic evaluations. Therapist-supported oCBT was equivalent to face-to-face CBT at improving depressive symptoms and superior to treatment-as-usual, waitlist control, and attention control. Depression severity, number of sessions, or support did not affect efficacy. From a healthcare provider perspective, oCBT tended to show greater costs with greater benefits in the short term, relative to comparator treatments. Expert commentary: Although efficacious, further economic evidence is required to support the provision of oCBT as a cost-effective treatment for depression. Economic evaluations that incorporate a societal perspective will better account for direct and indirect treatment costs. Nevertheless, oCBT shows promise of effectively improving depressive symptoms, considering limited mental healthcare resources.

  16. Evaluation of economical efficiency of the Osaki large hydroponic facilities; Osaki ogata suiko shisetsu no keizaisei hyoka

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yonezawa, K [Chugoku Electric Power Co. Inc., Hiroshima (Japan)

    1996-03-25

    A demonstrative test was conducted to verify economical efficiency of practical scale hydroponic horticulture under structure making use of a part of the Osaki thermal power plant to be constructed. In the test, the hydroponic culture of leek and tomatoes was carried out for six years starting 1989 to study its economical efficiency. Using the M-type hydroponic culture facilities, the structures are 1200m wide, 29m long, and 21 tons in the culture liquid level in case of leek, and 350m wide, 29m long, and 10 tons in the culture liquid level in case of tomatoes. The evaluation was made estimating the crop amount of leek as about 35 tons and that of tomatoes as about 60 tons and regarding that the sales amount is equal to the crop amount. The sales amount of leek is 28 million yen, and when seeking income/expenditure from expenses, deficit of 1 million yen per 30 a cannot be avoided excluding the equipment depreciation cost. As to tomatoes, the shipment cost is approximately 14 million yen without the equipment depreciation cost, but the sales amount is approximately 13-19 million yen largely affected by the unit price. A study on the sale method is needed. 7 figs., 11 tabs.

  17. A rapid, efficient, and economic device and method for the isolation and purification of mouse islet cells.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yin Zongyi

    Full Text Available Rapid, efficient, and economic method for the isolation and purification of islets has been pursued by numerous islet-related researchers. In this study, we compared the advantages and disadvantages of our developed patented method with those of commonly used conventional methods (Ficoll-400, 1077, and handpicking methods. Cell viability was assayed using Trypan blue, cell purity and yield were assayed using diphenylthiocarbazone, and islet function was assayed using acridine orange/ethidium bromide staining and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay-glucose stimulation testing 4 days after cultivation. The results showed that our islet isolation and purification method required 12 ± 3 min, which was significantly shorter than the time required in Ficoll-400, 1077, and HPU groups (34 ± 3, 41 ± 4, and 30 ± 4 min, respectively; P 1000 islets. In summary, the MCT method is a rapid, efficient, and economic method for isolating and purifying murine islet cell clumps. This method overcomes some of the shortcomings of conventional methods, showing a relatively higher quality and yield of islets within a shorter duration at a lower cost. Therefore, the current method provides researchers with an alternative option for islet isolation and should be widely generalized.

  18. Economic Efficiency of Artisanal Fishing Households under Oil Pollution Environment in the Niger Delta Region of Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gbigbi, TM.

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Fish supplies more than 87% of the animal protein in Nigeria, and more than 90% of coastal communities depend solely on fishing and fisheries related activities for their survival. Available information however, shows that Nigeria's inland water bodies are producing less than 13% of their estimated fishery potential. And domestic demand for fish has never been met by dependence on output from available aquatic sources. Nigeria therefore imports over US$ 200 million worth of frozen fish per annum. The capacity of artisanal fisheries to play its role of bridging this food gap, providing employment and generating income, particularly for the coastal communities in Nigeria, will largely depend on the adoption of appropriate management strategies that will ensure efficiency and sustainability given their debilitating oil pollution environment. This study employed a Cobb- Douglas stochastic frontier cost function to measure the level of economic efficiency and its determinants among these households. A multi-stage random sampling technique was used to select 160 respondents from whom input-output data, prices and socioeconomic characteristics were obtained. The results of the analysis showed that individual levels of economic efficiency ranged from 0.10 - 0.96 with a mean of 0.68. While age, household size and number of fishing trips made in a week decreased, access to credit, membership of co-operative society, and oil spill increased, significantly, the respondents' level of economic inefficiency. These observations particularly suggest that the farmers were yet to harness the potentials of farm credit and membership of cooperative societies in their farm business, perhaps as a result of poverty. We recommend training workshops and seminars to remedy this. There is also the need for policies that could compel oil companies to minimize oil spill within the farmers' fishing environment. The adverse effects of oil spill on the environment and the

  19. Economic efficiency of coal gasification in Poland in reference to the price of CO2 emission rights

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kopacz Michał

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The article presents the impact of prices of carbon dioxide on the economic efficiency of 14 coal gasification technologies employed for producing electricity, hydrogen and methanol measured with the use of NPV method. All technical, technological and economic assumptions in the assessment have been made for Polish conditions. The impact of CO2 prices were examined in the range of 30-200 PLN/Mg. The production capacity of the base technology corresponds with the fuel consumption of indicative coal having the calorific value of 20.5 GJ/Mg, used in the amount of 100 Mg/h. On the basis of the conducted research, with respect to all technical and economic assumptions, it can be stated that for the base scale there is a clear impact of prices of CO2 emission allowances above the 90 PLN/Mg CO2. Such a level of carbon dioxide prices makes the decision concerning construction of geological sequestration systems (CCS, carbon capture and storage worthwhile. This applies in particular to the production of electric energy. For the variants focused on hydrogen production there is a dominance of variants with CCS system only at the price exceeding 120 PLN/Mg CO2, and in the case of methanol such a situation occurs above 150 PLN/Mg CO2.

  20. Transmission prices in the electric system. Technical constraints and economic efficiency

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Polidori, P.

    1999-01-01

    This article analyses the two main models at the core of today's theoretical discussion on transmission pricing in electricity sectors under competition. The first aim of the paper is showing how technical constraints that characterise transmission systems may affect energy production and transmission and therefore the definition of the price system for using the electric grid. The second aim of the paper is showing how it is possible to suggest solutions, although not free from limitations, that can be used for an efficient management of electric systems characterised by generation and consumption sectors under competition [it

  1. The economics of controlling stock pollutants: An efficient strategy for greenhouse gases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Falk, I.; Mendelsohn, R.

    1993-01-01

    Optimal control theory is applied to develop an efficient strategy to control stock pollutants such as greenhouse gases and hazardous waste. The optimal strategy suggests that, at any time, the marginal costs of abatement should be equated with the present value of the marginal damage of timely unabated emission. The optimal strategy calls for increasingly tight abatement over time as the pollutant stock accumulates. The optimal policy applied to greenhouse gases suggest moderate abatement efforts, at present, with the potential for much greater future efforts. 15 refs., 2 tabs

  2. Potential and economic efficiency of using reduced tillage to mitigate climate effects in Danish agriculture

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zandersen, Marianne; Jørgensen, Sisse Liv; Nainggolan, Doan

    2016-01-01

    , research also suggests that soil carbon stocks are declining. The scope of Payment for Ecosystem Service (PES) approaches to effectively and efficiently address climate regulation will depend on the spatial distribution of the carbon assimilation capacity, current land use, the value of avoided emissions...... and compare these to the marginal abatement costs curve used in Danish climate policy. The cost effectiveness of reduced tillage as a climate mitigation PES scheme critically depends on the current debate on the net effects of carbon sequestration in reduced tillage practices. Based on existing IPCC...

  3. Prime costs and economic efficiency of deep drilling in Chechen-Ingush ASSR

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Umanskii, L.M.

    1982-04-01

    The possibilities of reducing the prime costs of deep well drilling and improving the efficiency of drilling are considered. The dynamics of performance over the last two five-year plan (FYP) periods is analyzed and it is shown that the performance in the 10th FYP did not improve as compared to the 9th FYP. This is due to geological conditions and shortcomings in the technology and organization of drilling. It is shown that the speed and depth of drilling are decisive factors influencing costs.

  4. The efficient importation and distribution of radioisotopes. Suggestions for the most economic importation of radioisotopes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1963-01-01

    In the course of their work in many Member States, IAEA technical assistance experts have sometimes encountered difficulties in connection with the importation of radioactive isotopes. In some countries they have been consulted as to the possible improvement of import procedures. The purpose of this publication is to summarize the experience that has been gained in the hope that it may be useful both to scientists who wish to import radioisotopes for their work and to public officials who are concerned with the administrative and financial aspects of the problem. This question is of considerable importance because many countries have only limited resources of scientific man-power and foreign exchange and hence it is essential, if these resources are to be utilized fully, that efficient importing procedures be established. Furthermore, the success or failure of technical assistance activities may depend on whether radioisotopes needed for the project can be efficiently imported. Although the data summarized in this publication are based mainly on the experience of medical users of radioisotopes, they are equally applicable to their uses in other fields such as agriculture and hydrology. This publication covers the subject of importation and distribution of radioisotopes, and concludes with a brief section on the domestic production of short-lived radioisotopes in research reactors

  5. Electrical efficiency and renewable energy - Economical alternatives to large-scale power generation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oettli, B.; Hammer, S.; Moret, F.; Iten, R.; Nordmann, T.

    2010-05-01

    This final report for WWF Switzerland, Greenpeace Switzerland, the Swiss Energy Foundation SES, Pro Natura and the Swiss Cantons of Basel City and Geneva takes a look at the energy-relevant effects of the propositions made by Swiss electricity utilities for large-scale power generation. These proposals are compared with a strategy that proposes investments in energy-efficiency and the use of renewable sources of energy. The effects of both scenarios on the environment and the risks involved are discussed, as are the investments involved. The associated effects on the Swiss national economy are also discussed. For the efficiency and renewables scenario, two implementation variants are discussed: Inland investments and production are examined as are foreign production options and/or import from foreign countries. The methods used in the study are introduced and discussed. Investment and cost considerations, earnings and effects on employment are also reviewed. The report is completed with an extensive appendix which, amongst other things, includes potential reviews, cost estimates and a discussion on 'smart grids'

  6. The efficient importation and distribution of radioisotopes. Suggestions for the most economic importation of radioisotopes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1963-08-01

    In the course of their work in many Member States, IAEA technical assistance experts have sometimes encountered difficulties in connection with the importation of radioactive isotopes. In some countries they have been consulted as to the possible improvement of import procedures. The purpose of this publication is to summarize the experience that has been gained in the hope that it may be useful both to scientists who wish to import radioisotopes for their work and to public officials who are concerned with the administrative and financial aspects of the problem. This question is of considerable importance because many countries have only limited resources of scientific man-power and foreign exchange and hence it is essential, if these resources are to be utilized fully, that efficient importing procedures be established. Furthermore, the success or failure of technical assistance activities may depend on whether radioisotopes needed for the project can be efficiently imported. Although the data summarized in this publication are based mainly on the experience of medical users of radioisotopes, they are equally applicable to their uses in other fields such as agriculture and hydrology. This publication covers the subject of importation and distribution of radioisotopes, and concludes with a brief section on the domestic production of short-lived radioisotopes in research reactors.

  7. Combined cycle versus one thousand diesel power plants: pollutant emissions, ecological efficiency and economic analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Silveira, Jose Luz; de Carvalho, Joao Andrade; de Castro Villela, Iraides Aparecida

    2007-01-01

    The increase in the use of natural gas in Brazil has stimulated public and private sectors to analyse the possibility of using combined cycle systems for generation of electrical energy. Gas turbine combined cycle power plants are becoming increasingly common due to their high efficiency, short lead times, and ability to meet environmental standards. Power is produced in a generator linked directly to the gas turbine. The gas turbine exhaust gases are sent to a heat recovery steam generator to produce superheated steam that can be used in a steam turbine to produce additional power. In this paper a comparative study between a 1000 MW combined cycle power plant and 1000kW diesel power plant is presented. In first step, the energetic situation in Brazil, the needs of the electric sector modification and the needs of demand management and integrated means planning are clarified. In another step the characteristics of large and small thermoelectric power plants that use natural gas and diesel fuel, respectively, are presented. The ecological efficiency levels of each type of power plant is considered in the discussion, presenting the emissions of particulate material, sulphur dioxide (SO 2 ), carbon dioxide (CO 2 ) and nitrogen oxides (NO x ). (author)

  8. Efficient Operation of a Multi-purpose Reservoir in Chile: Integration of Economic Water Value for Irrigation and Hydropower

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olivares, M. A.; Gonzalez Cabrera, J. M., Sr.; Moreno, R.

    2016-12-01

    Operation of hydropower reservoirs in Chile is prescribed by an Independent Power System Operator. This study proposes a methodology that integrates power grid operations planning with basin-scale multi-use reservoir operations planning. The aim is to efficiently manage a multi-purpose reservoir, in which hydroelectric generation is competing with other water uses, most notably irrigation. Hydropower and irrigation are competing water uses due to a seasonality mismatch. Currently, the operation of multi-purpose reservoirs with substantial power capacity is prescribed as the result of a grid-wide cost-minimization model which takes irrigation requirements as constraints. We propose advancing in the economic co-optimization of reservoir water use for irrigation and hydropower at the basin level, by explicitly introducing the economic value of water for irrigation represented by a demand function for irrigation water. The proposed methodology uses the solution of a long-term grid-wide operations planning model, a stochastic dual dynamic program (SDDP), to obtain the marginal benefit function for water use in hydropower. This marginal benefit corresponds to the energy price in the power grid as a function of the water availability in the reservoir and the hydrologic scenarios. This function allows capture technical and economic aspects to the operation of hydropower reservoir in the power grid and is generated with the dual variable of the power-balance constraint, the optimal reservoir operation and the hydrologic scenarios used in SDDP. The economic value of water for irrigation and hydropower are then integrated into a basin scale stochastic dynamic program, from which stored water value functions are derived. These value functions are then used to re-optimize reservoir operations under several inflow scenarios.

  9. [Economic efficiency of renal denervation in patients with resistant hypertension: results of Markov modeling].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kontsevaia, A V; Suvorova, E I; Khudiakov, M B

    2014-01-01

    Aim of this study was to evaluate the cost-effectiveness of renal denervation (RD) in resistant arterial hypertension (AH) in Russia. Modeling of Markov conducted economic impact of RD on the Russian population of patients with resistant hypertension in combination with optimal medical therapy (OMT) compared with OMT using a model developed by American researchers based on the results of international research. The model contains data on Russian mortality, and costs of major complications of hypertension. The simulation results showed a significant reduction in relative risk reduction of adverse outcomes in patients with resistant hypertension for 10 years (risk of stroke is reduced by 30%, myocardial infarction - 32%). RD saves 0.9 years of quality-adjusted life (QALY) by an average of 1 patient with resistant hypertension. Costs for 1 year stored in the application of quality of life amounted to RD 203 791.6 rubles. Which is below the 1 gross domestic product and therefore indicates the feasibility of this method in Russia.

  10. Bio-economic efficiency of supplementation for steers in Marandu Grass pasture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel Marino Guedes de Carvalho

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available The objective was to evaluate the effect of mineral salt (MS, multiple (MS, energy (ES and protein supplements (PS on performance, behavior and production cost of the cattle in Marandu grass pasture. The experiment lasted 84 days, conducted in the experimental area consists of four paddocks of 1.45 ha. Twenty steers were used with age and initial body weight of 172 kg and 10 months, respectively. It used a completely randomized design with four treatments and five replicate. The energy, multiple and protein supplements was supplied on 1.0 kg day-1. The animals were weighed at the beginning and end of the experiment, to determine the average daily gain (ADG. The weight gain of animals was 0.380, 0.600, 0.750 and 0.730 kg/day, respectively, for treatments MS, ES, MS and PS, have been verified statistical difference between supplemented animals and animals than received only mineral salt. The multiple supplement produced ADG 49.33% and 20.00% higher than the mineral salt. The multiple and protein supplements permitted average performance 18.92% higher than the energy supplement. There was no difference in behavior of grazing (P> 0.05. Animals receiving the mineral mixture had time to 8.40 hours of grazing animal day-1. The multiple supplement provided better economic performance considering the sale of animals to 350 kg body weight.

  11. Analyzing the Kyoto Protocol under the Marrakesh Accords. Economic efficiency and environmental effectiveness

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Den Elzen, Michel G.J.; De Moor, Andre P.G.

    2002-01-01

    This article evaluates the environmental effectiveness and economic implications of the Kyoto Protocol (KP) after the Bonn agreement and the Marrakesh Accords. We will break it down into several components that correspond with major steps in the international process: pre-COP 6 version of the KP, with unrestricted international emissions trading but without sinks; withdrawal of the USA; and decisions on sinks in Bonn and Marrakesh. The Marrakesh Accords bring Annex-I emissions in 2010 without the USA at 0.5% under base-year levels; this corresponds to nearly 2% above the 1990-levels. The US withdrawal has by far the greatest impact in reducing the environmental effectiveness of the KP, whereas the impact of the decision on sinks is comparatively small. The US withdrawal also substantially reduces the permit demand and permit prices will drop dramatically. Hot air becomes increasingly dominant and may threaten the viability of the Kyoto Mechanisms (KM), especially in lower baseline (business-as-usual (BaU)) scenarios. Therefore, banking of hot air is of absolute importance to improve the environmental effectiveness of the protocol at moderately higher costs, while enhancing the development of a viable emission trading market. A strategy of curtailing and banking permit supply is also in the interest of the dominant seller, Russia

  12. Economic analysis of the influence of milk market concentration on procurement efficiency in the defense system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mihajlović Milan

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Increasing efficiency during realization of procurements in the defence system imposes the requirement to analyze the market, in order to detect all of its characteristics and to make conclusions which would benefit during planning of budgetary assets by one comprehensive process. Procuring milk and milk products represents a significant part of defence system's procurements which represents that a significant segment of the consumer standard of the Serbian Army, which implies the interest of authors to point to the significance of the concentration of the supply branch on the realization of procurements on the example of this market. The aim of this paper is to display the state and actual trends on the market of production and processing of milk, define methodological framework and point to the intensity and terms of competition and their influence on procurement criteria, especially price in the defence system of the Republic of Serbia.

  13. Energy efficiency monitoring and economic analysis for energy saving potential in UNITEN

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khan, M Reyasudin Basir; Jidin, Razali; Yew, Kang Chin; Shaaya, Sharifah Azwa; Pasupuleti, Jagadeesh

    2013-01-01

    This paper discusses on energy efficiency survey for typical buildings in Universiti Tenaga Nasional (UNITEN). Undeniably, wastage of energy will cause the increase of operation cost and depletion of fossil fuel resources which contributes to the climate change issue in the world. UNITEN was commenced in the late 1990s and most of the buildings in this university are not equipped with energy management system. Such system is the solution to reduce energy use while maximizing the comfort levels of the occupants. Disregard to the energy management system, the implementation of other energy saving measures is the main objective of this paper. By taking the right measures, the energy wastage in the buildings of this university can be reduced.

  14. Growth and Efficiency of Small Scale Industry and its Impact on Economic Development of Sindh

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mumtaz Ali Junejo

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study is to analyze the growth, efficiency, causes of sickness of small scale industry, emergence of entrepreneur and competencies of entrepreneurs at Larkana estate area of Sindh Province. The study examines the educational background of the entrepreneurs of small scale industry who are the helm of affairs and its impact on the growth of sales of the every year. Strong evidence emerges that owners of small industrial units are family concern and having a low educational background, lack of managerial knowledge and conservation-oriented attitude results in under utilization of capacity and low growth of units established every year. This research paper provides a survey of the theoretical and empirical literature relating to promote the small scale industry in the Larkana region. This study indicates effective policy measures to promote the small scale industry particularly in Larkana region and generally in Pakistan.

  15. Cogeneration systems in district heating. Dimensioning and economic efficiency; BHKW in der Nahwaermeversorgung. Dimensionierung und Wirtschaftlichkeit

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stadtmueller, H. [Isar-Amperwerke AG, Muenchen (Germany)

    1999-07-01

    Even operators of industrial-scale power stations have good reasons to look into combined heat and power generation. CHP systems have a high thermal and electric efficiency, especially in case of optimized integration into the existing power station park of a public utility. Utilities can supply heat as well as electricity and thus improve customer loyalty by full-scale coverage of a locally limited market. The author presents activities for gaining strategic advances in the (niche) market for combined heat and power generation systems. [German] Auch fuer ein EVU, das Grosskraftwerke betreibt, gibt es gute Gruende sich mit BHKW zu beschaeftigen. Diese sind ein hoher energetischer Gesamtnutzungsgrad fuer Strom- und Waermeauskopplung, besonders bei optimierter Integration in den bestehenden Kraftwerkspark des EVU, Erweiterung des Kerngeschaeftes Stromversorgung durch Waermelieferung, dadurch auch verstaerkte Kundenbindung. Systemfuehrerschaft Energie bei moeglichst vollstaendiger Praesenz im lokal begrenzten Markt. Dargestellt werden Aktivitaeten, um den (Nischen-)Markt KWK im Wettbewerb erfolgreich zu besetzen (orig./RHM)

  16. Novel fungal consortium pretreatment of waste oat straw to enhance economic and efficient biohydrogen production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lirong Zhou

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Bio-pretreatment using a fungal consortium to enhance the efficiency of lignocellulosic biohydrogen production was explored.  A fungal consortium comprised of T. viride and P. chrysosporium as microbial inoculum was compared with untreated and single-species-inoculated samples. Fungal bio-pretreatment was carried out at atmospheric conditions with limited external energy input.  The effectiveness of the pretreatment is evaluated according to its lignin removal and digestibility. Enhancement of biohydrogen production is observed through scanning electron microscopy (SEM analysis. Fungal consortium pretreatment effectively degraded oat straw lignin (by >47% in 7 days leading to decomposition of cell-wall structure as revealed in SEM images, increasing biohydrogen yield. The hydrogen produced from the fungal consortium pretreated straw increased by 165% 6 days later, and was more than produced from either a single fungi species of T. viride or P. chrysosponium pretreated straw (94% and 106%, respectively. No inhibitory effect on hydrogen production was observed.

  17. Business Case for Energy Efficiency in Support of Climate Change Mitigation, Economic and Societal Benefits in India

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McNeil, Michael A.; Ke, Jing; Can, Stephane de la Rue du; Letschert, Virginie E.; McMahon, James E.

    2011-12-02

    This study seeks to provide policymakers and other stakeholders with actionable information towards a road map for reducing energy consumption cost-effectively. We focus on individual end use equipment types (hereafter referred to as appliance groups) that might be the subject of policies - such as labels, energy performance standards, and incentives - to affect market transformation in the short term, and on high-efficiency technology options that are available today. the high efficiency or Business Case scenario is constructed around a model of cost-effective efficiency improvement. Our analysis demonstrates that a significant reduction in energy consumption and emissions is achievable at net negative cost, that is, as a profitable investment for consumers. Net savings are calculated assuming no additional costs to energy consumption such as carbon taxes. Savings relative to the base case as calculated in this way is often referred to as “economic savings potential”. So far, the Indian market has responded favorably to government efficiency initiatives, with Indian manufacturers producing a higher fraction of high-efficiency equipment than before program implementation. This study highlights both the financial benefit and the scope of potential impact for adopting this equipment, all of which is already readily available on the market. The approach of the study is to assess the impact of short-term actions on long-term impacts. “Short-term” market transformation is assumed to occur by 2015, while “long-term” energy demand reduction impacts are assessed in 2030. In the intervening years, most but not all of the equipment studied will turn over completely. The Business Case concentrates on technologies for which cost-effectiveness can be clearly demonstrated.

  18. White Certificates for energy efficiency improvement with energy taxes: A theoretical economic model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oikonomou, Vlasis; Jepma, Catrinus; Becchis, Franco; Russolillo, Daniele

    2008-01-01

    In this paper we analyze interactions of two energy policy instruments, namely a White Certificates (WhC) scheme as an innovative policy instrument for energy efficiency improvement and energy taxation. These policy instruments differ in terms of objectives and final impacts on the price of electricity. We examine the effect of these policy instruments in the electricity sector, focusing on electricity producers and suppliers in a competitive market. Using microeconomic theory, we identify synergies between market players and demonstrate the total effect on the electricity price when suppliers internalize the behaviour of producers in their decisions. This model refers to an ideal market situation of full liberalization. The cases we examine consist of electricity producers with and without a carbon tax, electricity suppliers with and without an electricity tax, and with WhC obligations. Furthermore, we present a parallel implementation of WhC for electricity suppliers with carbon tax on electricity producers and an electricity tax with WhC obligations to electricity suppliers. We demonstrate differences in optimization behaviour of producers and suppliers. Based on a couple of cases of WhC with carbon and electricity taxes, various positive and negative effects of both schemes in terms of target achievement and efficiency are present, which can lead to an added value of such schemes in the policy mix, although uncertainties of outcomes are quite high. A basic finding is that in a merit order several parameters can increase final electricity price after the implementation of different policies: demand for electricity and electricity supply cost at a large scale and then follow the level of level of obligation for energy saving, level of penalty, and price of WhC (representing the marginal costs of energy saving projects). The impact magnitude of parameters depends on the values chosen and on the initial position of suppliers (i.e. if their actual behaviour deviates

  19. Design of thermoelectrically highly efficient Heusler compounds using phase separations and nano-composites under an economic point of view

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balke, Benjamin

    Half-Heusler (HH) compounds are one of the most promising candidates for thermoelectric materials for automotive and industrial waste heat recovery applications. In this talk, I will give an overview about our recent investigations of phase separations in HH thermoelectrics, focusing on the ternary system TiNiSn-ZrNiSn-HfNiSn. I will show how we adapted this knowledge to design a p-type HH compound which exhibits a ZT that is increased by 130% compared to the best published bulk p-type Heusler. I will also present how we used the phase separation to design thermoelectric highly efficient nano-composites of different single-phase materials. Since the price for Hafnium doubled within the last year, our research focused on the design of HH compounds without Hafnium. I will present a very recent calculation on ZT per Euro and efficiency per Euro for various materials followed by our latest very promising results for n-type Heusler compunds without Hafnium resulting in 20 times higher ZT/Euro values. These results strongly underline the importance of phase separations as a powerful tool for designing highly efficient materials for thermoelectric applications that fulfill the industrial demands for a thermoelectric converter. The author gratefully acknowledges financial support by the thermoHEUSLER2 Project (Project No. 19U15006F) of the German Federal Ministry of Economics and Technology (BMWi).

  20. Public Policy and Economic Efficiency in Ontario's Electricity Market: 2002 to 2011

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olmstead, Derek E. H.

    A competitive wholesale electricity market began operation in Ontario in 2002. The institutional features and development process are described, and the outcomes associated with certain features are assessed. First, a six-equation model of the market is specified and estimated. The results are used to undertake analysis of the province's renewable energy program. The impacts of the program on consumers' and producers' surplus, as well as the resulting degree of carbon dioxide (CO2) emission-abatement, are estimated. These results are used to infer the per-unit cost of CO 2 abatement resulting from the program. Under the assumption that the renewable-fuelled energy displaces coal-fuelled energy from the market, the estimated cost is approximately 93/tonne of CO2; under the alternative assumption that natural gas-fuelled generation is displaced, the estimated cost is 207/tonne of CO2. Comparison to costs observed in other markets and jurisdictions reveals the program to cost approximately one order of magnitude greater than elsewhere. It is concluded that Ontario pays substantially more for emission abatement than is necessary or, alternatively, that Ontario achieves substantially less abatement than is feasible for each dollar of economic resources expended. Second, the market model is also used to assess the treatment of electricity exports with respect to the so-called global adjustment charge. The analysis reveals that the current practise of exempting exports from the charge is not socially optimal from a total surplus-maximisation standpoint. That objective would be achieved if global adjustment was allocated to exports at approximately 32% of the rate at which it is applied to Ontario-based consumers, a result consistent with a Ramsey-type inverse elasticity rule. Third, the forward market unbiasedness hypothesis is assessed in the context of the market for financial transmission rights (FTR). Issues related to left-censoring of payouts at $0 and overlapping

  1. Economic efficiency of countries' clinical review processes and competitiveness on the market of human experimentation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ippoliti, Roberto

    2013-01-01

    Clinical research is a specific phase of pharmaceutical industry's production process in which companies test candidate drugs on patients to collect clinical evidence about safety and effectiveness. Information is essential to obtain manufacturing authorization from the national drug agency and, in this way, make profits on the market. Considering this activity, however, the public stakeholder has to face a conflict of interests. On the one side, there is society's necessity to make advances in medicine and, of course, to promote pharmaceutical companies' investments in this specific phase (new generation). On the other side, there is the duty to protect patients involved in these experimental treatments (old generation). To abide by this moral duty, a protection system was developed through the years, based on two legal institutions: informed consent and institutional review board. How should an efficient protection system that would take human experimentation into account be shaped? Would it be possible for the national protection system of patients' rights to affect the choice of whether to develop a clinical trial in a given country or not? Looking at Europe and considering a protection system that is shaped around institutional review boards, this article is an empirical work that tries to give answers to these open questions. It shows how a protection system that can minimize the time necessary to start a trial can positively affect pharmaceutical clinical research, that is, the choice of pharmaceutical companies to start innovative medical treatments in a given country. Copyright © 2013 International Society for Pharmacoeconomics and Outcomes Research (ISPOR). Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Inventory of on-line efficiency control software for coal-fired power plants; Inventarisatie on-line rendementsbewakingspakketten voor kolengestookte centrales

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hulshof, H; Tim, R [KEMA Fossiele Opwekking, Arnhem (Netherlands)

    1994-12-31

    Based on the results of a literature study and the assessment of currently applied and operational systems an overview is given of existing, commercially available, efficiency control computer programs for coal-fired electric power plants. The programs Siemens, Kaye Plant Monitoring Analyses, Plant Monitoring Workstations (EPRI), and the Langerlo Method are specified and compared for speed, flexibility, accuracy, the required own efforts to apply the program, and the estimated costs for acquisition

  3. A Preliminary Investigation of Wastewater Treatment Efficiency and Economic Cost of Subsurface Flow Oyster-Shell-Bedded Constructed Wetland Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chia-Chuan Hsu

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available We conducted a preliminary investigation of wastewater treatment efficiency and economic cost of the oyster-shell-bedded constructed wetlands (CWs compared to the conventional gravel-bedded CW based on field monitoring data of water quality and numerical modeling. Four study subsurface (SSF CWs were built to receive wastewater from Taipei, Taiwan. Among these sites, two are vertical wetlands, filled with bagged- (VA and scattered- (VB oyster shells, and the other two horizontal wetlands were filled with scattered-oyster shells (HA and gravels (HB. The BOD, NO3−, DO and SS treatment efficiency of VA and VB were higher than HA and HB. However, VA was determined as the best option of CW design due to its highest cost-effectiveness in term of BOD removal (only 6.56 US$/kg as compared to VB, HA and HB (10.88–25.01 US$/kg. The results confirmed that oyster shells were an effective adsorption medium in CWs. Hydraulic design and arrangement of oyster shells could be important in determining their treatment efficiency and cost-effectiveness. A dynamic model was developed to simulate substance transmissions in different treatment processes in the CWS using AQUASIM 2.1 based on the water quality data. Feasible ranges of biomedical parameters involved were determined for characterizing the importance of different biochemical treatment processes in SSF CWs. Future work will involve extending the experimental period to confirm the treatment efficiency of the oyster-shell-bedded CW systems in long-term operation and provide more field data for the simulated model instead of the literature values.

  4. Template-Directed Instrumentation Reduces Cost and Improves Efficiency for Total Knee Arthroplasty: An Economic Decision Analysis and Pilot Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McLawhorn, Alexander S; Carroll, Kaitlin M; Blevins, Jason L; DeNegre, Scott T; Mayman, David J; Jerabek, Seth A

    2015-10-01

    Template-directed instrumentation (TDI) for total knee arthroplasty (TKA) may streamline operating room (OR) workflow and reduce costs by preselecting implants and minimizing instrument tray burden. A decision model simulated the economics of TDI. Sensitivity analyses determined thresholds for model variables to ensure TDI success. A clinical pilot was reviewed. The accuracy of preoperative templates was validated, and 20 consecutive primary TKAs were performed using TDI. The model determined that preoperative component size estimation should be accurate to ±1 implant size for 50% of TKAs to implement TDI. The pilot showed that preoperative template accuracy exceeded 97%. There were statistically significant improvements in OR turnover time and in-room time for TDI compared to an historical cohort of TKAs. TDI reduces costs and improves OR efficiency. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. The German 2020 Energy Turnaround Index featuring a special focus on economic efficiency; Energiewende-Index Deutschland 2020. Fokusthema Wirtschaftlichkeit

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vahlenkamp, Thomas [McKinsey and Company, Duesseldorf (Germany); Gohl, Matthias [McKinsey and Company, Berlin (Germany)

    2012-12-15

    The decision to raise the levy imposed by the Renewable Energies Law has kindled the discussion as to how the energy turnaround can best be implemented and made affordable in the first place. The search for solutions should be founded on as full a picture of the situation as possible as well as a fact base shared by all. The aspiration and purpose of the German 2020 Energy Turnaround Index created by McKinsey and Company is to create precisely such a fact base. Every 3 months the index gives an update on the status of the energy turnaround based on 15 indicators. The present update additionally takes a closer look at the aspect of economic efficiency, which together with climate and environment protection and security of supply forms the triad of imperatives driving the energy turnaround.

  6. Potential energy efficiency and conservation, economic, and environmental benefits from the implementation of superconducting magnetic energy storage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baumann, P.D.

    1992-01-01

    This paper reports on Superconducting Magnetic Energy Storage (SMES) which is a recent technology that has the capability to significantly improve electrical system operations within electric utility systems. The technology has already been demonstrated by Bonneville Power Administration in a 30-MJ SMES test demonstration unit. Savings in utility operations from improved system efficiency, increased reliability, and reduced maintenance requirements contribute to the economic justification of SMES. Beyond these benefits, there are additional benefits which in the long run may equal or outweigh the electrical operational benefits. These benefits are the energy conservation and environmental benefits. The technology has the capability of reducing fuel consumption which can in turn reduce emissions. In a regional setting it can shift emissions both in volumes and in physical. With its capability to strategically shift generation and significantly affect emissions and air quality it can stretch clean energy generation options, thus SMES can be seen as an energy and environmental management technology and tool

  7. Political economy constraints on carbon pricing policies: What are the implications for economic efficiency, environmental efficacy, and climate policy design?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jenkins, Jesse D.

    2014-01-01

    Economists traditionally view a Pigouvian fee on carbon dioxide and other greenhouse gas emissions, either via carbon taxes or emissions caps and permit trading (“cap-and-trade”), as the economically optimal or “first-best” policy to address climate change-related externalities. Yet several political economy factors can severely constrain the implementation of these carbon pricing policies, including opposition of industrial sectors with a concentration of assets that would lose considerable value under such policies; the collective action nature of climate mitigation efforts; principal agent failures; and a low willingness-to-pay for climate mitigation by citizens. Real-world implementations of carbon pricing policies can thus fall short of the economically optimal outcomes envisioned in theory. Consistent with the general theory of the second-best, the presence of binding political economy constraints opens a significant “opportunity space” for the design of creative climate policy instruments with superior political feasibility, economic efficiency, and environmental efficacy relative to the constrained implementation of carbon pricing policies. This paper presents theoretical political economy frameworks relevant to climate policy design and provides corroborating evidence from the United States context. It concludes with a series of implications for climate policy making and argues for the creative pursuit of a mix of second-best policy instruments. - Highlights: • Political economy constraints can bind carbon pricing policies. • These constraints can prevent implementation of theoretically optimal carbon prices. • U.S. household willingness-to-pay for climate policy likely falls in the range of $80–$200 per year. • U.S. carbon prices may be politically constrained to as low as $2–$8 per ton of CO 2 . • An opportunity space exists for improvements in climate policy design and outcomes

  8. Energy production, distribution, and pollution controls: Combining engineering and economic analysis to enhance efficiency and policy design

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perkis, David F.

    Three published articles are presented which focus on enhancing various aspects of the energy supply chain. While each paper adopts a different methodology, all three combine engineering data and/or techniques with economic analysis to improve efficiency or policy design within energy markets. The first paper combines a chemical engineering plant design model with an economic assessment of product enhancements within an ethanol production facility. While a new chemical process is shown to achieve greater ethanol yields, the animal feed by-products are denatured and decrease in value due to the degradation of a key nutritional amino acid. Overall, yield increases outweigh any costs, providing additional value to firms adopting this process. The second paper uses a mixed integer linear model to assess the optimal location of cellulosic ethanol production facilities within the state of Indiana. Desired locations with low costs are linked to regions with high yield corn growth, as these areas provide an abundance of corn stover, a by-product of corn and a cellulosic source of ethanol. The third paper implements experimental economic methods to assess the effectiveness of policies intended to control prices in emissions permit markets. When utilizing reserve permit auctions as an alternative to setting explicit maximum prices, prices are elevated beyond the theoretical predictions of the model within the conditions of the experiment. The most likely cause of higher prices is the negotiating power provided to sellers by grandfathering permits as evidenced by higher than expected welfare gains to sellers. Before presenting the articles, a discussion is introduced regarding the role of assumptions used by economists. For each article, a key assumption is highlighted and the consequences of making a different assumption are provided. Whether the consequences are large or small, the benefits of elucidating our models with assumptions based on real world behaviors are clearly

  9. An economic perspective on the reliability of lighting systems in building with highly efficient energy: A case study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Salata, F.; Lieto Vollaro, A. de; Ferraro, A.

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • Proper design of efficient lighting systems. • The reliability and durability of the light sources. • Maintenance of lighting systems. • Quality standards of LED lamps. • Optimum economic choice of light sources. - Abstract: The performance of lighting system must be calculated in order to determine the energy requirements of the building. In the normative [EN 12464-1] are established lighting requirements which have effects on energy needs. The European standard [EN 15193] provides guidance on that evaluation. The easiest way to comply with reduction of energy requirements leads to the replacement of traditional lamps with LED ones, but if we calculate also the reliability parameters, the economic return is not guaranteed. Using bibliographic data, we have compared lighting’s results for a museum (LED lamps versus CFL and halogen lamps). The objective function of the study is to optimize the energy consumption of lighting systems, but at the same time to assess the reliability (MTTF of the lamps) of these systems. Without accurate information about this last parameters, the right choice of the lamps cannot be done successfully

  10. Soil bioengineering measures for disaster mitigation and environmental restoration in Central America: authochtonal cuttings suitability and economic efficiency

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petrone, A.; Preti, F.

    2009-04-01

    The use of Soil Bio-Engineering techniques in Developing countries is a relevant issue for Disaster mitigation, environmental restoration and poverty reduction. Research on authochtonal plants suitable for this kind of works and on economic efficiency is essential for the divulgation of this Discipline. The present paper is focused on this two issues related to the realization of various typologies of Soil Bio-engineering works in the Humid tropic of Nicaragua. In the area of Río Blanco, located in the Department of Matagalpa, Soil bio-engineering installations were built in several sites. The particular structures built were: drainages with live fascine mattress, a live palisade, a vegetated live crib wall for riverbank protection, a vegetative covering made of a metallic net and biotextile coupled with a live palisade made of bamboo. In order to evaluate the suitability of the various plants used in the works, monitorings were performed, one in the live palisade alongside an unpaved road and the other on the live crib wall along a riverbank, collecting survival rate and morphological parameters data. Concerning the economic efficiency we proceed to a financial analysis of the works and once the unit price was obtained, we converted the amount in EPP Dollars (Equal Purchasing Power) in order to compare the Nicaraguan context with the Italian one. Among the used species we found that Madero negro (Gliricidia sepium) and Roble macuelizo (Tabebuia rosea) are adequate for Soil-bioengineering measure on slopes while Helequeme (Erythrina fusca) reported a successful behaviour only in the crib wall for riverbank protection. In the comparison of the costs in Nicaragua and in Italy, the unit price reduction for the central American country ranges between 1.5 times (for the vegetative covering) and almost 4 times (for the fascine mattress) if it's used the EPP dollar exchange rate. Thus, a conclusion can be reached with regard to hydrological-risk mitigating actions

  11. Experimental analysis of fuzzy controlled energy efficient demand controlled ventilation economizer cycle variable air volume air conditioning system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rajagopalan Parameshwaran

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available In the quest for energy conservative building design, there is now a great opportunity for a flexible and sophisticated air conditioning system capable of addressing better thermal comfort, indoor air quality, and energy efficiency, that are strongly desired. The variable refrigerant volume air conditioning system provides considerable energy savings, cost effectiveness and reduced space requirements. Applications of intelligent control like fuzzy logic controller, especially adapted to variable air volume air conditioning systems, have drawn more interest in recent years than classical control systems. An experimental analysis was performed to investigate the inherent operational characteristics of the combined variable refrigerant volume and variable air volume air conditioning systems under fixed ventilation, demand controlled ventilation, and combined demand controlled ventilation and economizer cycle techniques for two seasonal conditions. The test results of the variable refrigerant volume and variable air volume air conditioning system for each techniques are presented. The test results infer that the system controlled by fuzzy logic methodology and operated under the CO2 based mechanical ventilation scheme, effectively yields 37% and 56% per day of average energy-saving in summer and winter conditions, respectively. Based on the experimental results, the fuzzy based combined system can be considered to be an alternative energy efficient air conditioning scheme, having significant energy-saving potential compared to the conventional constant air volume air conditioning system.

  12. Research on the Sensorial Quality and Economic Efficiency in Obtaining of a certain Raw Meat Product - Mici Paste

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claudiu-Dan Salagean

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Research aimed the sensorial quality connected with the economic efficiency to obtain a certain raw meat product (mici paste in 4 experimental variants: 1 and 3 variants, with animal raw materials (meat + bacon and mix of natural spices - fine grinding variant (1 and coarse grinding variant (3 - chopping at the volf through the sieve of 3-4 mm; 2 and 4 variants, with animal raw materials (meat + bacon + vegetable protein supplements (textured soy protein + binder (protein + fiber + additive mix - fine grinding variant (2 and coarse grinding variant (4 - chopping at the volf through the sieve of 3 - 4 mm. In this respect organoleptic analyzes were performed on appearance (exterior and section, color, smell, texture and taste of the finished product (after roasting, the results highlighting that, in terms of organoleptic, sample 1 obtained the highest score (on a scale of 1-poor to 5-very good quality (average 21.83, followed by sample 3 (average 19.22, the very small difference in the case of sample 2 (average 19.19 and finally, sample 4 (average 18.75. It was noted that sample 1 obtained the highest score (average of all analyzed organoleptic indicators: appearance (4.33, color (4.39, smell (4.67, texture (4.33 and taste (4.11 being favorite by all volunteer subjects who participated at the analysis. The same thing was found in sensory analysis of mici paste in fresh/chilled condition: 65% of subjects preferred variant 1 followed by variant 3 (19.2%, variant 2 (11.5% and finally, variant 4 (3.8%. In terms of economic the highest efficiency was found in 2 (specific consumption 0.73 and 4 (specific consumption 0.77 variants compared to 1 (specific consumption 0.80 and 3 (specific consumption 0.82 variants, which translates into a reduction in the cost of products manufactured in the variants 2 and 4 (with protein supplements and additive mix by about 25-20% (with importance for the manufacturer. Also, thermal processing (roasting revealed the

  13. Exploring experiential value in online mobile gaming adoption

    OpenAIRE

    Okazaki, Shintaro

    2008-01-01

    Despite the growing importance of the online mobile gaming industry, little research has been undertaken to explain why consumers engage in this ubiquitous entertainment. This study attempts to develop an instrument to measure experiential value in online mobile gaming adoption. The proposed scale consists of seven first-order factors of experiential value: intrinsic enjoyment, escapism, efficiency, economic value, visual appeal, perceived novelty, and perceived risklessness. The ...

  14. Techno-Economic Feasibility of Highly Efficient Cost-Effective Thermoelectric-SOFC Hybrid Power Generation Systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jifeng Zhang; Jean Yamanis

    2007-09-30

    Solid oxide fuel cell (SOFC) systems have the potential to generate exhaust gas streams of high temperature, ranging from 400 to 800 C. These high temperature gas streams can be used for additional power generation with bottoming cycle technologies to achieve higher system power efficiency. One of the potential candidate bottoming cycles is power generation by means of thermoelectric (TE) devices, which have the inherent advantages of low noise, low maintenance and long life. This study was to analyze the feasibility of combining coal gas based SOFC and TE through system performance and cost techno-economic modeling in the context of multi-MW power plants, with 200 kW SOFC-TE module as building blocks. System and component concepts were generated for combining SOFC and TE covering electro-thermo-chemical system integration, power conditioning system (PCS) and component designs. SOFC cost and performance models previously developed at United Technologies Research Center were modified and used in overall system analysis. The TE model was validated and provided by BSST. The optimum system in terms of energy conversion efficiency was found to be a pressurized SOFC-TE, with system efficiency of 65.3% and cost of $390/kW of manufacturing cost. The pressurization ratio was approximately 4 and the assumed ZT of the TE was 2.5. System and component specifications were generated based on the modeling study. The major technology and cost barriers for maturing the system include pressurized SOFC stack using coal gas, the high temperature recycle blowers, and system control design. Finally, a 4-step development roadmap is proposed for future technology development, the first step being a 1 kW proof-of-concept demonstration unit.

  15. High-Efficiency On-Line Solid-Phase Extraction Coupling to 15-150 um I.D. Column Liquid Chromatography for Proteomic Analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shen, Yufeng; Moore, Ronald J.; Zhao, Rui; Blonder, Josip; Auberry, Deanna L.; Masselon, Christophe D.; Pasa Tolic, Ljiljana; Hixson, Kim K.; Auberry, Kenneth J.; Smith, Richard D.

    2003-01-01

    Flexible manipulation of various properties of proteomic samples is important for proteomic analyses, but it has been little explored for newly developed approaches based on liquid chromatography (LC) in combination with mass spectrometry (MS). With miniaturization of the LC column inner diameter dimensions (required for improving the analysis sensitivity), this issue becomes more challenging due to the small flow rates and the increasing effects of extra column volume on the separation quality and its use for resolving complex proteomic mixtures. In this study, we used commercial switching valves (150-mm channels) to implement the on-line coupling of capillary LC columns with relatively large solid phase extraction (SPE) columns operated at 10,000 psi. With optimized column connections, switching modes, and SPE column dimensions, high-efficiency on-line SPE-capillary and nanoscale LC separations were obtained with peak capacities of ∼1000 for capillaries having inner diameters between 15 to 150 mm. The on-line coupled SPE columns increased the sample processing capabilities by ∼400-fold for sample solution volume and ∼10-fold for sample mass. The proteomic applications of this on-line SPE-capillary LC system were evaluated for analysis of both soluble and membrane protein tryptic digests. Used with an ion trap tandem MS we could typically identify 1100-1500 peptides for analyses in a single 5-hour run. Peptides extracted on the SPE column and eluted from the LC column covered a hydrophilicity/hydrophobicity range that include an estimated ∼98% of all the tryptic peptides. The present implementation also facilitates automation and enables use of both disposable SPE columns and electrospray emitters, providing a robust basis for routine proteomic analyses.

  16. Sustainability Efficiency Factor: Measuring Sustainability in Advanced Energy Systems through Exergy, Exergoeconomic, Life Cycle, and Economic Analyses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boldon, Lauren

    The Encyclopedia of Life Support Systems defines sustainability or industrial ecology as "the wise use of resources through critical attention to policy, social, economic, technological, and ecological management of natural and human engineered capital so as to promote innovations that assure a higher degree of human needs fulfilment, or life support, across all regions of the world, while at the same time ensuring intergenerational equity" (Encyclopedia of Life Support Systems 1998). Developing and integrating sustainable energy systems to meet growing energy demands is a daunting task. Although the technology to utilize renewable energies is well understood, there are limited locations which are ideally suited for renewable energy development. Even in areas with significant wind or solar availability, backup or redundant energy supplies are still required during periods of low renewable generation. This is precisely why it would be difficult to make the switch directly from fossil fuel to renewable energy generation. A transition period in which a base-load generation supports renewables is required, and nuclear energy suits this need well with its limited life cycle emissions and fuel price stability. Sustainability is achieved by balancing environmental, economic, and social considerations, such that energy is produced without detriment to future generations through loss of resources, harm to the environment, etcetera. In essence, the goal is to provide future generations with the same opportunities to produce energy that the current generation has. This research explores sustainability metrics as they apply to a small modular reactor (SMR)-hydrogen production plant coupled with wind energy and storage technologies to develop a new quantitative sustainability metric, the Sustainability Efficiency Factor (SEF), for comparison of energy systems. The SEF incorporates the three fundamental aspects of sustainability and provides SMR or nuclear hybrid energy system

  17. Carbon dioxide utilization in a microalga-based biorefinery: Efficiency of carbon removal and economic performance under carbon taxation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wiesberg, Igor Lapenda; Brigagão, George Victor; de Medeiros, José Luiz; de Queiroz Fernandes Araújo, Ofélia

    2017-12-01

    Coal-fired power plants are major stationary sources of carbon dioxide and environmental constraints demand technologies for abatement. Although Carbon Capture and Storage is the most mature route, it poses severe economic penalty to power generation. Alternatively, this penalty is potentially reduced by Carbon Capture and Utilization, which converts carbon dioxide to valuable products, monetizing it. This work evaluates a route consisting of carbon dioxide bio-capture by Chlorella pyrenoidosa and use of the resulting biomass as feedstock to a microalgae-based biorefinery; Carbon Capture and Storage route is evaluated as a reference technology. The integrated arrangement comprises: (a) carbon dioxide biocapture in a photobioreactor, (b) oil extraction from part of the produced biomass, (b) gasification of remaining biomass to obtain bio-syngas, and (c) conversion of bio-syngas to methanol. Calculation of capital and operational expenditures are estimated based on mass and energy balances obtained by process simulation for both routes (Carbon Capture and Storage and the biorefinery). Capital expenditure for the biorefinery is higher by a factor of 6.7, while operational expenditure is lower by a factor of 0.45 and revenues occur only for this route, with a ratio revenue/operational expenditure of 1.6. The photobioreactor is responsible for one fifth of the biorefinery capital expenditure, with footprint of about 1000 ha, posing the most significant barrier for technical and economic feasibility of the proposed biorefinery. The Biorefinery and Carbon Capture and Storage routes show carbon dioxide capture efficiency of 73% and 48%, respectively, with capture cost of 139$/t and 304$/t. Additionally, the biorefinery has superior performance in all evaluated metrics of environmental impacts. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Evaluation of the influence of economic groups on the efficiency and quality of service of water companies: an empirical approach for Chile.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Molinos-Senante, María; Farías, Rodrigo

    2018-06-04

    The privatization of water and sewerage services (WSS) has led to the foundation of water economic groups, which integrate several water companies and have gained notable importance at the global level. In the framework of benchmarking studies, there are no prior studies exploring the impact that economic groups have on the efficiency and quality of service provided by water companies. This study investigates, for the first time, whether the membership of water companies in an economic group influences their performance. Quantity- and quality-adjusted efficiency scores were computed using data envelopment analysis models. An empirical application was developed for the Chilean water industry since most of their water companies are private and belong to an economic group. The results show that independent water companies provide WSS with better quality than do water companies that belong to an economic group. From a statistical point of view, it was evident that membership in an economic group impacts both the quantity- and quality-adjusted efficiency scores of water companies. The results of this study illustrate that applying the model-firm regulation to the Chilean water industry has significant drawbacks that should be addressed by the water regulator to promote the long-term sustainability of the water industry.

  19. Experimental economics for web mining

    OpenAIRE

    Tagiew, Rustam; Ignatov, Dmitry I.; Amroush, Fadi

    2014-01-01

    This paper offers a step towards research infrastructure, which makes data from experimental economics efficiently usable for analysis of web data. We believe that regularities of human behavior found in experimental data also emerge in real world web data. A format for data from experiments is suggested, which enables its publication as open data. Once standardized datasets of experiments are available on-line, web mining can take advantages from this data. Further, the questions about the o...

  20. Contribution of Online Trading of Used Goods to Resource Efficiency: An Empirical Study of eBay Users

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jens Clausen

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper discusses the sustainability impact (contribution to sustainability, reduction of adverse environmental impacts of online second-hand trading. A survey of eBay users shows that a relationship between the trading of used goods and the protection of natural resources is hardly realized. Secondly, the environmental motivation and the willingness to act in a sustainable manner differ widely between groups of consumers. Given these results from a user perspective, the paper tries to find some objective hints of online second-hand trading’s environmental impact. The greenhouse gas emissions resulting from the energy used for the trading transactions seem to be considerably lower than the emissions due to the (avoided production of new goods. The paper concludes with a set of recommendations for second-hand trade and consumer policy. Information about the sustainability benefits of purchasing second-hand goods should be included in general consumer information, and arguments for changes in behavior should be targeted to different groups of consumers.

  1. Business Case for Energy Efficiency in Support of Climate Change Mitigation, Economic and Societal Benefits in the United States

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bojda, Nicholas; Ke, Jing; de la Rue du Can, Stephane; E. Letschert, Virginie; E. McMahon, James; McNeil, Michael A.

    2011-06-01

    This study seeks to provide policymakers and other stakeholders with actionable information towards a road map for reducing energy consumption in the most cost-effective way. A major difference between the current study and some others is that we focus on individual equipment types that might be the subject of policies - such as labels, energy performance standards, and incentives - to affect market transformation in the short term, and on high-efficiency technology options that are available today. The approach of the study is to assess the impact of short-term actions on long-term impacts. “Short term” market transformation is assumed to occur by 2015, while “long-term” energy demand reduction impacts are assessed in 2030. In the intervening years, most but not all of the equipment studied will turn over completely. The 15-year time frame is significant for many products however, indicating that delay of implementation postpones impacts such as net economic savings and mitigation of emissions of carbon dioxide. Such delays would result in putting in place energy-wasting technologies, postponing improvement until the end of their service life, or potentially resulting in expensive investment either in additional energy supplies or in early replacement to achieve future energy or emissions reduction targets.

  2. Contributions to accelerating atmospheric CO2 growth from economic activity, carbon intensity, and efficiency of natural sinks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Canadella, J.G.; Raupacha, M.R.; Le Quere, C.; Buitenhuis, E.T.; Gillett, N.P.; Field, C.B.; Ciais, P.; Conway, T.J.; Houghton, R.A.; Marland, G.

    2007-01-01

    The growth rate of atmospheric carbon dioxide (CO2), the largest human contributor to human-induced climate change, is increasing rapidly. Three processes contribute to this rapid increase. Two of these processes concern emissions. Recent growth of the world economy combined with an increase in its carbon intensity have led to rapid growth in fossil fuel CO2 emissions since 2000: comparing the 1990s with 2000-2006, the emissions growth rate increased from 1.3% to 3.3%/y. The third process is indicated by increasing evidence (P 0.89) for a long-term (50-year) increase in the airborne fraction (AF) of CO2 emissions, implying a decline in the efficiency of CO2 sinks on land and oceans in absorbing anthropogenic emissions. Since 2000, the contributions of these three factors to the increase in the atmospheric CO2 growth rate have been ∼65 ± 16% from increasing global economic activity, 17 ± 6% from the increasing carbon intensity of the global economy, and 18 ± 15% from the increase in AF. An increasing AF is consistent with results of climate-carbon cycle models, but the magnitude of the observed signal appears larger than that estimated by models. All of these changes characterize a carbon cycle that is generating stronger-than-expected and sooner-than-expected climate forcing. airborne fraction anthropogenic carbon emissions carbon-climate feedback terrestrial and ocean carbon emissions vulnerabilities of the carbon cycle

  3. Effect of simplified feeding based only on wheat bran and brewer’s grain on rabbit performance and economic efficiency

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zakia Cherifi

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Simplified diets are based on maximum incorporation of fodder and/or by-products into animal feed, thus minimizing the formulation and the costs. This study aimed to evaluate the possibility of feeding fattening rabbits with a simplified diet composed of only two agro-industrial by-products inexpensive and locally available: brewer’s grain and wheat bran. At weaning (35 days, 68 rabbits were divided into two identical groups (mean weight = 833 g and housed in individual cages until slaughter (77 days. Each of the two groups (B0 and SF was fed ad libitum either a commercial pelleted feed (control, or a simplified pelleted  experimental diet "SF" containing 72% wheat bran and 27% brewer’s grain. The feed conversion was within the standards and similar in the two groups (3.55 on average. The growth rate and feed intake of B0 group were 12% higher (P <0.001 than that of the SF group (35.2g vs 31.2 and 128.3 vs 113 g/d. The cold carcass yield and the carcass weight were respectively higher (P <0.001 by 4 units and by 9% in the control group. The carcass of SF group was less fatty (perirenal fat: -23%, inguinal fat: -41% and scapular fat:-14%. The economic efficiency was 40% better for SF diet with almost 50 Algerian Dinar more benefit (/kg of meat.

  4. Online Resources

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Journal of Genetics; Online Resources. Journal of Genetics. Online Resources. Volume 97. 2018 | Online resources. Volume 96. 2017 | Online resources. Volume 95. 2016 | Online resources. Volume 94. 2015 | Online resources. Volume 93. 2014 | Online resources. Volume 92. 2013 | Online resources ...

  5. An Economic Optimization Model for Improving the Efficiency of Vitamin A Interventions: An Application to Young Children in Cameroon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vosti, Stephen A; Kagin, Justin; Engle-Stone, Reina; Brown, Kennth H

    2015-09-01

    Vitamin A (VA) intervention programs in developing countries do not generally consider spatial differences in needs or in intervention costs. New data from Cameroon reveal nonuniform spatial distributions of VA deficiency among young children and of costs of some of the programs designed to address them. We develop a spatially explicit, intertemporal economic optimization tool that makes use of subnational dietary intake data and VA intervention program costs to identify more efficient sets of interventions to improve VA nutrition among young children aged 6 to 59 months in Cameroon. The model suggests substantial changes in the composition and geographic foci of VA intervention programs vis-à-vis a business-as-usual scenario. National VA-fortified edible oil and bouillon cube programs are cost-effective, even when start-up costs are considered. High-dosage VA supplementation delivered via Child Health Days is most cost-effective in the North macro-region, where needs are greatest and the cost per child effectively covered is lowest. Overall, the VA intervention programs suggested by the optimization model are approximately 44% less expensive, with no change in the total number of children effectively covered nationwide. The VA intervention programs should consider spatial and temporal differences in needs and in the expected benefits and costs of alternative VA interventions. Doing so will require spatially disaggregated strategies and the data and political will to support them, longer planning time horizons than are currently used in most developing countries, and long-term funding commitments. © The Author(s) 2015.

  6. Energy Efficiency Evaluation and Economical Analysis of Onion(Allium Cepa L. Production in Khorasan Razavi Province of Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. Hassanzadeh Aval

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Current conventional agricultural systems using intensive energy have to be revitalized through new integrated approaches relying on renewable energy resources, which can allow farmers to stop dependence on fossil resources. The aim of this study was determining the amount of input–output energy used in onion (Allium cepa L. production in Khorasan Razavi province. For this purpose, the data was collected from 55 onion farm workers in Khorasan Razavi. Inquiries were conducted in face-to-face interviews in April-May 2011. Farm workers were selected based on random sampling method. The results indicated that total energy input was 98479 MJ.ha-1. The share of electricity and nitrogen fertilizer was 50.9 and 14.7%, respectively out of total energy input. The average onion yield under normal conditions was 73227 kg.ha-1 on irrigated farms. The net energy and energy productivity values were estimated to be 18684 MJ.ha-1 and 0.74 kg.MJ-1, respectively, and the ratio of energy output to energy input was found to be 1.19. This indicated an intensive use of input in onion production, which is not parallel to the increase in the final yield. Approximately 77.3% of the total energy input used in onion production was non-renewable (machinery, diesel, fertilizers, chemicals and electricity and only 22.7% was renewable energy form (human labor, manure, water for irrigation, seeds. Cost analysis revealed that total cost of onion production for one hectare was 79262908 Rials. Benefit–cost ratio was calculated as 1.65. Although energy efficiency of onion production in Khorasan Razavi province is low, it is economically justified.

  7. Economic evaluation. Evaluation of the economic potentials of energy efficient plants and machines. Brief study; Wirtschaftlichkeitsbewertung. Bewertung der wirtschaftlichen Potenziale von energieeffizienten Anlagen und Maschinen. Kurzstudie

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mattes, Katharina; Schroeter, Marcus

    2011-08-15

    Energy efficiency and resource efficiency is a strategically important issue for the industry, economy and science. This issue is stimulated especially by political objectives and regulations for efficiency measures, shortage and increases in prices of raw materials as well as the demand for low costs of production in order to obtain the compatibility. In light of the increasing costs it is important to know which potentials of energy saving in the production do exist, how these potentials can be determined, and which measures for the evaluation do exist in the exploration of the potentials. The contribution under consideration is applied to these questions.

  8. Business Case for Energy Efficiency in Support of Climate Change Mitigation, Economic and Societal Benefits in China

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McNeil, Michael A.; Bojda, Nicholas; Ke, Jing; Qin, Yining; de la Rue du Can, Stephane; Fridley, David; Letschert, Virginie E.; McMahon, James E.

    2011-08-18

    This study seeks to provide policymakers and other stakeholders with actionable information towards a road map for reducing energy consumption cost-effectively. We focus on individual end use equipment types (hereafter referred to as appliance groups) that might be the subject of policies - such as labels, energy performance standards, and incentives - to affect market transformation in the short term, and on high-efficiency technology options that are available today. As the study title suggests, the high efficiency or Business Case scenario is constructed around a model of cost-effective efficiency improvement. Our analysis demonstrates that a significant reduction in energy consumption and emissions is achievable at net negative cost, that is, as a profitable investment for consumers. Net savings are calculated assuming no additional costs to energy consumption such as carbon taxes. Savings relative to the base case as calculated in this way is often referred to as 'economic savings potential'. Chinese energy demand has grown dramatically over the last few decades. While heavy industry still plays a dominant role in greenhouse gas emissions, demand from residential and commercial buildings has also seen rapid growth in percentage terms. In the residential sector this growth is driven by internal migration from the countryside to cities. Meanwhile, income in both urban and rural subsectors allows ownership of major appliances. While residences are still relatively small by U.S. or European standards, nearly all households own a refrigerator, a television and an air conditioner. In the future, ownership rates are not expected to grow as much as in other developing countries, because they are already close to saturation. However, the gradual turnover of equipment in the world's largest consumer market provides a huge opportunity for greenhouse gas mitigation. In addition to residences, commercial floor space has expanded rapidly in recent years, and

  9. Influence of the Operational Wear of the Stator Parts of Shroud Seals on the Economic Efficiency of the Steam Turbines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kostyuk, A. G.; Dmitriev, S. S.; Petrunin, B. N.; Gusev, A. A.

    2018-01-01

    increase approximately 1.7 times slower than under the similar wear of the ridges of conventional straight-through seals with smooth stator parts. However, this gain in efficiency achieved by replacing the standard smooth-wall seals with the honeycomb seals must be necessarily correlated with the measurement data on the nonconservative shroud forces in conventional axial-radial seals with smooth stator surfaces with a radial clearance of 4 mm, which is almost seven times lower than that in the honeycomb seals with a radial clearance of 0.5 mm. From the results obtained in the work, it follows that the installation of honeycomb shroud seals instead of traditional ridge seals in the high-pressure cylinders (HPCs) of the steam turbines for subcritical steam parameters with high-vibration-resistance rotors that have a sufficient margin of resistance to self-oscillations is undoubtedly advisable from the point of view of increasing the economic efficiency of the turbines. However, the use of honeycomb shroud seals with reduced radial clearances in the HPC parts of the steam turbines for supercritical steam parameters requires special cautiousness, since it is in the area of small clearances that the maximum nonconservative shroud forces capable of causing auto-oscillations of the shafting are observed and these forces are maximal precisely at high pressures.

  10. High-Throughput Proteomics Using High Efficiency Multiple-Capillary Liquid Chromatography With On-Line High-Performance ESI FTICR Mass Spectrometry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shen, Yufeng (BATTELLE (PACIFIC NW LAB)); Tolic, Nikola (BATTELLE (PACIFIC NW LAB)); Zhao, Rui (ASSOC WESTERN UNIVERSITY); Pasa Tolic, Ljiljana (BATTELLE (PACIFIC NW LAB)); Li, Lingjun (Illinois Univ Of-Urbana/Champa); Berger, Scott J.(ASSOC WESTERN UNIVERSITY); Harkewicz, Richard (BATTELLE (PACIFIC NW LAB)); Anderson, Gordon A.(BATTELLE (PACIFIC NW LAB)); Belov, Mikhail E.(BATTELLE (PACIFIC NW LAB)); Smith, Richard D.(BATTELLE (PACIFIC NW LAB))

    2000-12-01

    We report on the design and application of a high-efficiency multiple-capillary liquid chromatography (LC) system for high-throughput proteome analysis. The multiple-capillary LC system was operated at the pressure of 10,000 psi using commercial LC pumps to deliver the mobile phase and newly developed passive feedback valves to switch the mobile phase flow and introduce samples. The multiple-capillary LC system was composed of several serially connected dual-capillary column devices. The dual-capillary column approach was designed to eliminate the time delay for regeneration (or equilibrium) of the capillary column after its use under the mobile phase gradient condition (i.e. one capillary column was used in separation and the other was washed using mobile phase A). The serially connected dual-capillary columns and ESI sources were operated independently, and could be used for either''backup'' operation or with other mass spectrometer(s). This high-efficiency multiple-capillary LC system uses switching valves for all operations and is highly amenable to automation. The separations efficiency of dual-capillary column device, optimal capillary dimensions (column length and packed particle size), suitable mobile phases for electrospray, and the capillary re-generation were investigated. A high magnetic field (11.5 tesla) Fourier transform ion cyclotron resonance (FTICR) mass spectrometer was coupled on-line with this high-efficiency multiple-capillary LC system through an electrospray ionization source. The capillary LC provided a peak capacity of {approx}600, and the 2-D capillary LC-FTICR provided a combined resolving power of > 6 x 10 7 polypeptide isotopic distributions. For yeast cellular tryptic digests, > 100,000 polypeptides were typically detected, and {approx}1,000 proteins can be characterized in a single run.

  11. Assessing energy projects from the viewpoint of individual economic branches and total economy. The role of economic efficiency analysis, cost-benefit analysis and multicriteria methods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sell, A.

    1992-01-01

    Energy is an extremely important good and means of production not only for the individual branches of economy but, due to its essential meaning to the development of a region or a national economy and its external effects connected with production and consumption, also of great interest to all economic branches. This article deals with the relation of analyses in individual economical branches and those in total economy and with the question of what the importance of cost-benefit analyses and other methods is in the analysis in total economy. The author also mentions the planning as in the special literature the planning and evaluation phases are not analytically separated which is seen especially in the discussion about the multi-criteria methods. (orig.) [de

  12. Determining the Efficiency of Adaptation of Foreign Economic Activity of Machine-Building Enterprises in Conditions of Deepening the European Integration Process of Ukraine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Semeniuk Iryna Yu.

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available The article determines that introduction and implementation of the mechanism for foreign economic adaptation of machine-building enterprises to the conditions of the European integration processes requires constant monitoring of the processes of export-import operations and the adaptation activities to identify current problems and avoid risks. It has been found that one of the monitoring instruments is the system of indicators, which provides to evaluate the efficiency of use of the mechanism for foreign economic adaptation of a machine-building enterprise by comparing the values of the obtained indicators after accomplishing adaptation changes with the values of the indicators of previous periods. It is suggested to determine efficiency of adaptation of foreign economic activity of machine-building enterprises to conditions of deepening of the European integration process of Ukraine by means of: index of change of volume of exported production of a machine-building enterprise to the EU countries; weighted average of the change in the share of the European market, which is covered by the enterprise’s products; indicator of efficiency of exports of production of a machine-building enterprise to the European Union countries; indicator of the index of changes in the volume of permanent orders from European partners; integral indicator of efficiency of use of adaptive potential of a machine-building enterprise in conditions of integration processes.

  13. Biomass for energy production. Economic evaluation, efficiency comparison and optimal utilization of biomass; Biomasse zur Energiegewinnung. Oekonomische Bewertung, Effizienzvergleich und optimale Biomassenutzung

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zeddies, Juergen [Hohenheim Univ., Stuttgart (Germany). Inst. fuer Landwirtschaftliche Betriebslehre; Schoenleber, Nicole

    2015-07-01

    An optimized and/or goal-oriented use of available biomass feedstock for energetic conversion requires a detailed analysis of bioenergy production lines according to technical and economic efficiency indicators. Accordingly, relevant parameters of selected production lines supplying heat, electricity and fuel have been studied and used as data base for an optimization model. Most favorable combination of bioenergy lines considering political and economic objectives are analyzed by applying a specifically designed linear optimization model. Modeling results shall allow evaluation of political courses of action.

  14. Productivity and efficiency of economic activity of the Lower Silesia's large area farms in comparison with other large area farms in Poland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stanisław Minta

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper shows economical and financial situation of the agricultural companies which have most of the grounds in lease. Analysed objects were settled on Lower Silesia (the province in the south – west Poland. The main part of the results of research was about productivity and efficiency of economic resources in these objects. The research was made in years 2000-2002. The results of research in analyzed Lower Silesia’s companies were compared with the best Polish large area farms in order of law and organisation forms: leased farms, private farms and partnerships of Polish public agency AWRSP.

  15. Assessing efficiency and economic viability of rainwater harvesting systems for meeting non-potable water demands in four climatic zones of China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, S.; Jing, X.

    2017-12-01

    Rainwater harvesting is now increasingly used to manage urban flood and alleviate water scarcity crisis. In this study, a computational tool based on water balance equation is developed to assess stormwater capture and water saving efficiency and economic viability of rainwater harvesting systems (RHS) in eight cities across four climatic zones of China. It requires daily rainfall, contributing area, runoff losses, first flush volume, storage capacity, daily water demand and economic parameters as inputs. Three non-potable water demand scenarios (i.e., toilet flushing, lawn irrigation, and combination of them) are considered. The water demand for lawn irrigation is estimated using the Cropwat 8.0 and Climwat 2.0. Results indicate that higher water saving efficiency and water supply time reliability can be achieved for RHS with larger storage capacities, for lower water demand scenarios and located in more humid regions, while higher stormwater capture efficiency is associated with larger storage capacity, higher water demand scenarios and less rainfall. For instance, a 40 m3 RHS in Shanghai (humid climate) for lawn irrigation can capture 17% of stormwater, while its water saving efficiency and time reliability can reach 96 % and 98%, respectively. The water saving efficiency and time reliability of a 20 m3 RHS in Xining (semi-arid climate) for toilet flushing are 19% and 16%, respectively, but it can capture 63% of stormwater. With the current values of economic parameters, economic viability of RHS can be achieved in humid and semi-humid regions for reasonably designed RHS; however, it is not financially viable to install RHS in arid regions as the benefit-cost ratio is much smaller than 1.0.

  16. Plastic-Film Mulching for Enhanced Water-Use Efficiency and Economic Returns from Maize Fields in Semiarid China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Peng; Wei, Ting; Cai, Tie; Ali, Shahzad; Han, Qingfang; Ren, Xiaolong; Jia, Zhikuan

    2017-01-01

    Film mulch has gradually been popularized to increase water availability to crops for improving and stabilizing agricultural production in the semiarid areas of Northwest China. To find more sustainable and economic film mulch methods for alleviating drought stress in semiarid region, it is necessary to test optimum planting methods in same cultivation conditions. A field experiment was conducted during 2013 and 2014 to evaluate the effects of different plastic film mulch methods on soil water, soil temperature, water use efficiency (WUE), yield and revenue. The treatments included: (i) the control, conventional flat planting without plastic film mulch (CK); (ii) flat planting with maize rows (60 cm spacing) on plastic film mulch (70 cm wide); (iii) furrow planting of maize (60 cm spacing), separated by consecutive plastic film-mulched ridges (each 50 cm wide and 15 cm tall); (iv) furrow planting of maize (60 cm spacing), separated by alternating large and small plastic film-mulched ridges (large ridges: 70 cm wide and 15 cm tall, small ridges 50 cm wide and 10 cm tall); and (v) furrow-flat planting of maize (60 cm spacing) with a large plastic film-mulched ridge (60 cm wide and 15 cm tall) alternating with a flat without plastic film-mulched space (60 cm wide). Topsoil temperature (5-25 cm) was significantly ( p plastic film mulch than the control (CK), and resulted in greater soil water storage (0-200 cm) up to 40 days after planting. Maize grain yield and WUE were significantly ( p < 0.05) higher with the furrow planting methods (consecutive film-mulched ridges and alternating film-mulched ridges) than the check in both years. Maize yield was, on average, 29% ( p < 0.05) greater and 28% ( p < 0.05) greater with these furrow planting methods, while the average WUE increased by 22.8% ( p < 0.05) with consecutive film-mulched ridges and 21.1% ( p < 0.05) with alternating film-mulched ridges. The 2-year average net income increased by 1559, 528, and 350 Chinese Yuan

  17. Energy management in the patrimonial buildings of European territorial organizations in the framework of markets liberalization. Economic study of financial incentive mechanisms in favor of energy efficiency investment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gayral, L.

    2005-12-01

    The territorial and patrimonial components of energy savings are not well developed because many barriers - political, organisational and financial - prevent investments in energy efficiency. Although investing in the improvement of the energy efficiency of their public buildings is a rational process, the local authorities are far from systematically carrying out this type of investment. Their limited investment capacity, associated to the lack of spare capital to finance their projects leads them to a 'vicious circle of energy wasting'. Our thesis analyzes the economic and financial tools a local authority can use to invest and enter a 'virtuous circle of energy efficiency'. Our topic deals with the financing of energy efficiency investments at a local level. We describe with details the functioning of each financial mechanism indexed. We illustrate their implementation within European municipalities through many case studies. Finally, we suggest recommendations for their broad reproducibility within French local authorities. (author)

  18. Spatial-Temporal Dynamics of the Economic Efficiency of Construction Land in the Pearl River Delta Megalopolis from 1998 to 2012

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuyao Ye

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Since the 1980s, the rapid, extensive, and dispersed urban expansion in the Pearl River Delta megalopolis (PRDM has led to landscape fragmentation and the inefficient use of construction land. Like other developed regions in China that are subject to the dual challenges of shortages of construction land and deterioration of the ecological environment, it is becoming increasingly important in the PRDM to improve the land-use efficiency of urban construction. However, current methods for assessing land-use efficiency do not meet the emerging needs of land-use planning and policymaking. Therefore, using the American Defense Meteorological Satellite Program (DMSP/Operational Linescan System (OLS nighttime light imagery and Landsat TM data, this study aims to develop a timely and efficient approach to model the high-resolution economic efficiency of construction land (EECL. With this approach, we mapped the reliable EECL of the PRDM at township level and with a one-kilometer grid. Next, the study compared the temporal changes and revealed the spatial-temporal dynamics in order to provide a scientific reference for informed land-use planning and policymaking. The results show that since 1998, the economic efficiency of construction land in the PRDM increased in general but varied significantly throughout the area. Further, these disparities widened from 1998 to 2012 between the PRDM’s inner and peripheral circles. Only one-fifth of the towns and subdistricts were categorized as fast-growth or ultrafast-growth, with the majority located in the most developed areas of the PRDM’s inner circle. In order to improve the efficiency of construction land in the PRDM and realize sustainable development, differentiated land-use policies for the inner and peripheral circles were proposed. The inner circle should focus on promoting the efficiency of existing construction land and encourage urban renewal, while the peripheral circle should enhance the control

  19. Economic efficiency simulation for optimized management of pressure electrolysers in hybrid power plant systems. Prognosis and hydrogen production

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Krueger, P.; Ziems, C.; Tannert, D.; Voigt, A.; Fischer, U.; Krautz, H.J.

    2014-01-01

    As part of the research at the H 2 Research Centre of BTU Cottbus-Senftenberg feasibility studies are carried out on the use of electrolysis technology in conjunction with fluctuating wind power fed to a pressure electrolysis apparatus. The aim of the analysis is an economically optimized operating strategy of the system consisting of wind farm, alkaline pressure electrolyser, hydrogen storage and reconversion. For this purpose, an energy economics tool was created. [de

  20. Improving the economic efficiency of PV plants through own consumption - risks and opportunities; Erhoehung der Wirtschaftlichkeit von PV-Anlagen durch Eigenverbrauch. Chancen und Risiken

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carr, Luis; Corradini, Roger [FfE Forschungsstelle fuer Energiewirtschaft e.V., Muenchen (Germany); Roon, Serafin von [Forschungsgesellschaft fuer Energiewirtschaft mbH, Muenchen (Germany)

    2012-04-15

    The own-consumption regulation introduced in 2009 has led to an improved economic efficiency of PV plants. Even if the remuneration paid for own supply should be abolished, rising electricity prices will nevertheless strengthen the incentive for operators to increase their rate of own consumption. This scenario applies for the currently existing total of around 9 GW in installed PV capacity. A high rate of own consumption will continue to offer benefits for plants to be installed in future as well, and this will be further amplified if the scheduled cuts in feed-in compensation are moved forward in time. However, the promotion of own consumption of PV electricity can only provide relief to local electricity networks if these have a suitable load management in place. In spite of the compensation paid for own consumption it will further be necessary to find mechanisms that secure the economic effectiveness of efficiency technologies.

  1. An eco-efficient and economical optimum evaluation technique for the forest road networks: the case of the mountainous forest of Metsovo, Greece.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tampekis, Stergios; Samara, Fani; Sakellariou, Stavros; Sfougaris, Athanassios; Christopoulou, Olga

    2018-02-12

    The sustainable forest management can be achieved only through environmentally sound and economically efficient and feasible forest road networks and transportation systems that can potentially improve the multi-functional use of forest resources. However, road network planning and construction suggest long-term finance that require a capital investment (cash outflow), which would be equal to the value of the total revenue flow (cash inflow) over the whole lifecycle project. This paper emphasizes in an eco-efficient and economical optimum evaluation method for the forest road networks in the mountainous forest of Metsovo, Greece. More specifically, with the use of this technique, we evaluated the forest roads' (a) total construction costs, (b) annual maintenance cost, and (c) log skidding cost. In addition, we estimated the total economic value of forest goods and services that are lost from the forest roads' construction. Finally, we assessed the optimum eco-efficient and economical forest roads densities based on linear equations that stem from the internal rate of return method (IRR) and have been presented graphically. Data analysis and its presentation are achieved with the contribution of geographic information systems (GIS). The technique which is described in this study can be for the decision makers an attractive and useful implement in order to select the most eco-friendly and economical optimum solution to plan forest road network or to evaluate the existing forest transportation systems. Hence, with the use of this method, we can combine not only the multi-objective utilization of natural resources but also the environmental protection of forest ecosystems.

  2. African Journals Online: Economics & Development

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Items 1 - 47 of 47 ... Topics and themes appropriate for African Journal of Management Research will come ... Papers arising from original research and case studies or forming .... adoption of innovations; extension communication models and strategies; ... discuss the concept of development from an interdisciplinary viewpoint.

  3. Technical-economic study of energy efficiency in offshore industrial electrical systems; Estudio tecnico economico de eficiencia energetica en sistemas electricos industriales costa afuera

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fiscal Escalante, Raul [Instituto de Investigaciones Electricas, Temixco, Morelos (Mexico)

    2001-07-01

    In this work the methodology of analysis and the results obtained are presented in an technical-economic study for the application of power efficiency measures for a marine platform. The methodology is considered in the following steps: 1) Technical evaluation of the installation 2) Technical analyses of the optimization alternatives 3) Economic evaluation of the selected optimization alternatives graphs of the thermal regime of the variation with respect to the generation, variation of the efficiency with respect to the generation, efficiency curve of the motor and the designed curve of the pump are presented. A table of general reference parameters and another one of particular reference is given. Also a table of the economic evaluation when changing the electrical motor by one more efficient is presented. It is concluded that a potential of energy saving exists in their processes, generating an opportunity to perform a technical-economic feasibility study in these facilities. [Spanish] En este trabajo se presenta la metodologia de analisis y los resultados obtenidos en un estudio tecnico-economico para la aplicacion de medidas de eficiencia energetica para una plataforma marina. Se plantea la metodologia en los siguientes pasos: 1) Evaluacion tecnica de la instalacion 2) Analisis tecnico de las alternativas de optimizacion 3) Evaluacion economica de las alternativas de optimizacion seleccionadas. Se muestran graficas de la variacion del regimen termico respecto a la generacion, variacion de la eficiencia respecto a la generacion, curva de eficiencia del motor y curva de diseno de la bomba. Se da una tabla de parametros de referencia generales y otra de referencia particulares. Tambien se presenta una tabla de la evaluacion economica al cambiar el motor electrico por uno mas eficiente. Se concluye que existe un potencial de ahorro de energia en sus procesos, generando una oportunidad para realizar estudios de factibilidad tecnica economica en dichas instalaciones.

  4. Energy Efficiency Evaluation and Economic Feasibility Analysis of a Geothermal Heating and Cooling System with a Vapor-Compression Chiller System

    OpenAIRE

    Imal, Muharrem; Yılmaz, Koray; Pınarbaşı, Ahmet

    2015-01-01

    Increasing attention has been given to energy utilization in Turkey. In this report, we present an energy efficiency evaluation and economic feasibility analysis of a geothermal heating and cooling system (GSHP) and a mechanical compression water chiller system (ACHP) to improve the energy utilization efficiency and reduce the primary energy demand for industrial use. Analyses of a mechanical water chiller unit, GSW 180, and geothermal heating and cooling system, EAR 431 SK, were conducted in ...

  5. Survey of the Economic Efficiency of Agricultural Cooperatives in the Buinzahra City and Prioritization of Their Problems Faced in the Management Process and the Marketing System

    OpenAIRE

    Mohammad Mahdi Mozaffari

    2016-01-01

    In this study Stochastic Data Envelopment Analysis method was used in order to estimate the economic efficiency of agricultural cooperatives in the Buinzahra city. Moreover, the Analytical Hierarchy Process method and Entropy criteria were used in order to prioritizate the agricultural cooperatives problems of this city in management and marketing system. The required dates were related to the years 2012-2013 during which data were collected by interviewing and completing questionnaires for 4...

  6. Thermodynamic and economic studies of two new high efficient power-cooling cogeneration systems based on Kalina and absorption refrigeration cycles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rashidi, Jouan; Ifaei, Pouya; Esfahani, Iman Janghorban; Ataei, Abtin; Yoo, Chang Kyoo

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • Proposing two new power and cooling cogeneration systems based on absorption chillers and Kalina cycles. • Model-based comparison through thermodynamic and economic standpoints. • Investigating sensitivity of system performance and costs to the key parameters. • Reducing total annual costs of the base system up to 8% by cogeneration. • Increasing thermal efficiency up to 4.9% despite of cooling generation. - Abstract: Two new power and cooling cogeneration systems based on Kalina cycle (KC) and absorption refrigeration cycle (AC) are proposed and studied from thermodynamic and economic viewpoints. The first proposed system, Kalina power-cooling cycle (KPCC), combines the refrigerant loop of the water-ammonia absorption chiller, consisting of an evaporator and two throttling valves with the KC. A portion of the KC mass flow enters the evaporator to generate cooling after being condensed in the KPCC system. KPCC is a flexible system adapting power and cooling cogeneration to the demand. The second proposed system, Kalina lithium bromide absorption chiller cycle (KLACC), consists of the KC and a single effect lithium bromide-water absorption chiller (AC_L_i_B_r_-_w_a_t_e_r). The KC subsystem discharges heat to the AC_L_i_B_r_-_w_a_t_e_r desorber before condensing in the condenser. The performance and economic aspects of both proposed systems are analyzed and compared with the stand alone KC. A parametric analysis is conducted to evaluate the sensitivity of efficiencies and the generated power and cooling quantities to the key operating variables. The results showed that, thermal efficiency and total annual costs decreased by 5.6% and 8% for KPCC system but increased 4.9% and 58% for KLACC system, respectively. Since the power-cooling efficiency of KLACC is 42% higher than KPCC it can be applied where the aim is cooling generation without considering economic aspects.

  7. The economic crisis and the energy efficiency programs; A crise economica e os programas de eficiencia energetica

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Naturesa, Jim Silva; Mariotoni, Carlos Alberto [Universidade Estadual de Campinas (GPESE/FEC/UNICAMP), SP (Brazil). Fac. de Engenharia Civil, Arquitetura e Urbanismo. Grupo de Planejamento Energetico e Sistemas Eletricos; Gomes, Marcio H. de Avelar [Universidade de Brasilia (UnB), Gama, DF (Brazil)

    2010-07-01

    This paper presents some data from the Brazilian economy (2009 and 2010) and their impact on energy efficiency programs. It is also shown the main results of the National Electricity Conservation Program (PROCEL) and PROCEL INFO, which aims to gather and make available information on the rational and efficient use of energy. At the end, we present information showing that MSMEs (Micro, Small and Medium Companies) should be the main focus of the technological innovation programs aimed to energy efficiency. (author)

  8. Economic impacts from energy efficiency programs - Variations in multiplier effects by program type and region. Volume 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gardner, John; Skumatz, Lisa

    2007-01-01

    Research indicates that the value of omitted program effects - specifically non-energy benefits (NEBs) - represent a significant share of overall program impacts. One of the largest components of societal benefits is the direct and indirect economic and job creation effects stimulated by the investment in conservation on behalf of the program. The literature has indicated that the valuations assigned to this category of these categories can be large, but much of the literature overstates the impact of economic NEBs. We conducted extensive research to develop reliable and defensible estimates of these benefits categories. This study used input-output analysis to update the economic multipliers for NEBs in several ways. Net: Developed 'net' estimates of the multipliers (rather than 'gross' factors)Variations by Region: Estimated multipliers for multiple states and for the entire US; Variations by Program Type: Developed estimates based on different types or categories of programs (e.g weatherization vs. new construction vs. appliance programs, etc.), Variations in Baseline Assumptions: Different assumptions about where the expenditures are transferred 'from' for the net analysis (e.g. from 'generation', from a mixed market basket, etc.); and Variations over Time: Used data from multiple time periods to examine changes in the size of multipliers over time. We examined the results by state, by program type, and over time and found dramatic differences in the economic impacts by program type and territory under consideration. The results provide estimates of the economic impacts derived from the program; however, for communities or utilities with economic development goals, the results can be used to help select between program alternatives. The results are new, and the revised figures have been used to compute more reliable and tailored estimates of economic non-energy benefits that can be applied in regulatory tests

  9. Energy efficiency

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2010-01-01

    After a speech of the CEA's (Commissariat a l'Energie Atomique) general administrator about energy efficiency as a first rank challenge for the planet and for France, this publications proposes several contributions: a discussion of the efficiency of nuclear energy, an economic analysis of R and D's value in the field of fourth generation fast reactors, discussions about biofuels and the relationship between energy efficiency and economic competitiveness, and a discussion about solar photovoltaic efficiency

  10. Economic efficiency and cost implications of habitat conservation: An example in the context of the Edwards Aquifer region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gillig, Dhazn; McCarl, Bruce A.; Jones, Lonnie L.; Boadu, Frederick

    2004-04-01

    Groundwater management in the Edwards Aquifer in Texas is in the process of moving away from a traditional right of capture economic regime toward a more environmentally sensitive scheme designed to preserve endangered species habitats. This study explores economic and environmental implications of proposed groundwater management and water development strategies under a proposed regional Habitat Conservation Plan. Results show that enhancing the habitat by augmenting water flow costs $109-1427 per acre-foot and that regional water development would be accelerated by the more extreme possibilities under the Habitat Conservation Plan. The findings also indicate that a water market would improve regional welfare and lower water development but worsen environmental attributes.

  11. Fuel cell-based CHP system modelling using Artificial Neural Networks aimed at developing techno-economic efficiency maximization control systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Asensio, F.J.; San Martín, J.I.; Zamora, I.; Garcia-Villalobos, J.

    2017-01-01

    This paper focuses on the modelling of the performance of a Polymer Electrolyte Membrane Fuel Cell (PEMFC)-based cogeneration system to integrate it in hybrid and/or connected to grid systems and enable the optimization of the techno-economic efficiency of the system in which it is integrated. To this end, experimental tests on a PEMFC-based cogeneration system of 600 W of electrical power have been performed to train an Artificial Neural Network (ANN). Once the learning of the ANN, it has been able to emulate real operating conditions, such as the cooling water out temperature and the hydrogen consumption of the PEMFC depending on several variables, such as the electric power demanded, temperature of the inlet water flow to the cooling circuit, cooling water flow and the heat demanded to the CHP system. After analysing the results, it is concluded that the presented model reproduces with enough accuracy and precision the performance of the experimented PEMFC, thus enabling the use of the model and the ANN learning methodology to model other PEMFC-based cogeneration systems and integrate them in techno-economic efficiency optimization control systems. - Highlights: • The effect of the energy demand variation on the PEMFC's efficiency is predicted. • The model relies on experimental data obtained from a 600 W PEMFC. • It provides the temperature and the hydrogen consumption with good accuracy. • The range in which the global energy efficiency could be improved is provided.

  12. Comparative economic efficiency, operating costs and fuel consumption rates of freight transport modes between the largest industrial cities and seaports in South Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    W J (Wessel Pienaar

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available The paper deals with aspects of efficiency within the five modes of freight transport, with special reference to the operating cost and fuel consumption rates between South Africa’s largest industrial cities and seaports. In particular, the paper deals with (a the opportunities that exist for the achievement of efficiency in freight transport; (b the subgroups of economies that can enhance efficiency attainment in the freight transport industry; (c prevailing cost structures, operating cost and fuel consumption rates within the five modes of freight transport; and (d the salient economic features of the freight transport market. The research approach and methodology combine (a a literature survey; (b empiric research, (c an analysis of the cost structures of freight transport operators from different modes of transport; and (d interviews conducted with specialists in the freight transport industry.

  13. Economic viability, applications and limits of efficient permanent magnet motors - Summary and update; Wirtschaftlichkeit, Anwendungen und Grenzen von effizienten Permanent-Magnet-Motoren - Zusammenfassung und Update - Schlussbericht

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lindegger, M. [Circle Motor AG, Guemligen (Switzerland); Biner, H.-P.; Evequoz, B. [Hochschule Westschweiz, Delemont (Switzerland); Salathe, D. [Hochschule Luzern Technik und Architektur, Horw (Switzerland)

    2009-06-15

    This final report for the Swiss Federal Office of Energy (SFOE), takes a look at the economic viability, applications and limits of efficient permanent magnet motors. Permanent magnet motors are compared with standard IEC asynchronous motors. In a theoretical part of the report, it is discussed how the increasing size of the motor influences efficiency, weight, volume and power. The results of practical tests carried out on six motors are presented. Three standard motors with varying efficiency were compared with three permanent-magnet motors for the power range around 3 kW. Market-oriented considerations concerning permanent-magnet motors are discussed. Operational criteria for the choice of the type of motor to be used are also examined.

  14. Bioenergy guide. Projecting, operation and economic efficiency of biomass power plants; Leitfaden Bioenergie. Planung, Betrieb und Wirtschaftlichkeit von Bioenergieanlagen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Deimling, S. [Stuttgart Univ. (DE). Inst. fuer Energiewirtschaft und Rationelle Energieanwendung (IER); Kaltschmitt, M; Schneider, B. [and others

    2000-07-01

    This guide gives an survey over planning, operation and economics of biomass conversion plants. Main topics are: production and supply of biomass fuels, combustion properties, licensing, cost and financing. It shows planning and management of projects and the legal background for Germany and the European Union.

  15. Economic and Environmental Impacts of Improving Growth Rate and Feed Efficiency in Fish Farming Depend on Nitrogen and Density Limitation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Besson, M.; Komen, H.; Vandeputte, M.; Aubin, J.; Boer, de I.J.M.; Arendonk, van J.A.M.

    2014-01-01

    The aim of fish breeding is to increase profit by producing faster growing fish with lower feed intake. However, little is known about the economic and environmental impacts of selective breeding programs for fish. We modelled a fish farm producing African catfish in a Recirculating Aquaculture

  16. The economic efficiency of investment in the development of reserves of small groups of geographically contiguous gold deposits

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Evdokimov S.I.

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The object of the research is a group of geographically contiguous low volume gold deposits. The subject of the study is an economic justification for a way to involve economic turnover to get a positive commercial result on a specially formed group of gold deposits, in which individual field development is unprofitable. A small production volume, combined with high capital and operating costs are objective reasons for the reduction in investment attractiveness of the deposits which have reserves of gold of 50%, equipped with a mobile processing complex with deep processing technology on highly liquid commodity products on site. An economic-mathematical model was devised to determine the rational placement of the processing capacity of the group.A simulation was conducted and an economic evaluation was performed on the effectiveness of investments in individual and group mining projects. The simulation results show that the joint exploitation of the reserves of the group of deposits, the internal rate of return on investments exceed the rate of return of funds to the bank deposit, the return on investment is above the level of inflation. The group project complies with the strategic line of small mining companies in terms of cost recovery terms, availability of financial sources to cover expenses, provision of stable means of income and obtaining competitive advantage.

  17. Biogas plant operation becomes economically efficient in a district heating grid; Nahwaermenetz macht Betrieb von Biogasanlage rentabel. Wirtschaftlich sinnvoll

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gobmaier, Thomas; Mauch, Wolfgang [Forschungsstelle fuer Energiewirtscahft e.V. (FfE), Muenchen (Germany); Seiler, Johannes [Technische Univ. Muenchen (Germany)

    2009-10-15

    The rising energy cost is a problem in church institutions as elsewhere. An investigation was carried out for a Bavarian monastery (Erzabtei St. Ottilien am Ammersee), with the intention to find out if the construction of a biogas plant would be economically intersting. The monastery has comparably high heat requirements as it operates a swimming pool and other facilities. (orig.)

  18. Techno-economical efficiency and productivity change of wastewater treatment plants: the role of internal and external factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hernández-Sancho, F; Molinos-Senante, M; Sala-Garrido, R

    2011-12-01

    Efficiency and productivity are important measures for identifying best practice in businesses and optimising resource-use. This study analyses how these two measures change across the period 2003-2008 for 196 wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs) in Spain, by using the benchmarking methods of Data Envelopment Analysis and the Malmquist Productivity Index. To identify which variables contribute to the sustainability of the WWTPs, differences in efficiency scores and productivity indices for external factors are also investigated. Our results indicate that both efficiency and productivity decreased over the five years. We verify that the productivity drop is primarily explained by technical change. Furthermore, certain external variables affected WWTP efficiency, including plant size, treatment technology and energy consumption. However, plants with low energy consumption are the only ones which improve their productivity. Finally, the benchmarking analyses proved to be useful as management tools in the wastewater sector, by providing vital information for improving the sustainability of plants.

  19. Persuasive Digital Advertising in Online Advertisement : Case Company: MarkPrint Oy

    OpenAIRE

    Do, Quang Huy

    2015-01-01

    The past decades have seen an unpreceded growth in digital advertising over its budget, efficiency and effectiveness. Since 2003, marketers’ spending on online advertisement worldwide has increased by roughly $1 billion over its previous business quarter. Return-on-Investment for digital advertisement triples traditional ones in numerous areas while the cost of operating online is among the most economical means to reach audiences. Thus, the aim of this thesis is to provide a theoretical foun...

  20. A window-DEA based efficiency evaluation of the public hospital sector in Greece during the 5-year economic crisis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flokou, Angeliki; Aletras, Vassilis; Niakas, Dimitris

    2017-01-01

    The main objective of this study was to apply the non-parametric method of Data Envelopment Analysis (DEA) to measure the efficiency of Greek NHS hospitals between 2009-2013. Hospitals were divided into four separate groups with common characteristics which allowed comparisons to be carried out in the context of increased homogeneity. The window-DEA method was chosen since it leads to increased discrimination on the results especially when applied to small samples and it enables year-by-year comparisons of the results. Three inputs -hospital beds, physicians and other health professionals- and three outputs-hospitalized cases, surgeries and outpatient visits- were chosen as production variables in an input-oriented 2-year window DEA model for the assessment of technical and scale efficiency as well as for the identification of returns to scale. The Malmquist productivity index together with its components (i.e. pure technical efficiency change, scale efficiency change and technological scale) were also calculated in order to analyze the sources of productivity change between the first and last year of the study period. In the context of window analysis, the study identified the individual efficiency trends together with "all-windows" best and worst performers and revealed that a high level of technical and scale efficiency was maintained over the entire 5-year period. Similarly, the relevant findings of Malmquist productivity index analysis showed that both scale and pure technical efficiency were improved in 2013 whilst technological change was found to be in favor of the two groups with the largest hospitals.