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Sample records for economically disadvantaged african-american

  1. Contributing factors of teenage pregnancy among African-American females living in economically disadvantaged communities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Summers, Lauren; Lee, Young-Me; Lee, Hyeonkyeong

    2017-10-01

    To identify contributing factors that increased the risk of pregnancy among African-American adolescent females living in economically disadvantaged communities and to evaluate the current pregnancy prevention programs addressing these factors in order to provide suggestions for the development of tailored pregnancy prevention programs for this target population. Pregnancy rates among adolescents in the United States have declined over the past several years. Despite this trend, the pregnancy rate for African-American adolescent females is disproportionately higher than the adolescent pregnancy rates for other ethnicities. Limited attempts have been made to compile and synthesize the factors that increase risk of pregnancy in this population or to evaluate the effectiveness of intervention programs for African-American females that incorporate these risk factors. An integrative literature review was conducted to identify the major contributing factors of pregnancy among African American adolescents living in economically disadvantaged areas. Of the identified contributing risk factors for early pregnancy among African-American adolescent females, the five most supported risk factors were: parental influence, peer influence, social messages, substance use including alcohol, and pregnancy desire. Twelve pregnancy prevention programs were identified that addressed one or more of the five contributing factors to pregnancy. Parental influence and social messages were the most addressed factors among these programs. This review found five contributing factors related to teenage pregnancy; however, current intervention programs are not well addressed substance use as a component of alcohol use. Thus, development of a tailored pregnancy prevention program incorporating those factors will help decrease the high pregnancy rate among this target population. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Effect of Environmental Risk and Externalizing Comorbidity on Internalizing Problems Among Economically Disadvantaged African American Youth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Jingwen; Bolland, John; Dick, Danielle; Mustanski, Brian; Kertes, Darlene A

    2016-09-01

    This study examined effects of racial discrimination, community violence, and stressful life events on internalizing problems among African American youth from high poverty neighborhoods ( N = 607; 293 boys; M age = 16.0 years, SD = 1.44 years). Mediated effects via externalizing problems on these relations were also examined, given the high comorbidity rate between internalizing and externalizing problems. Externalizing problems partially mediated the effect of stressful life events on internalizing problems and fully mediated the effect of racial discrimination for boys but not for girls. Exposure to violence had a significant indirect effect on internalizing problems via externalizing problems. The findings call for greater attention to internalizing problems among African American youth and pathways to internalizing problems via externalizing problems.

  3. Family planning and contraceptive decision-making by economically disadvantaged, African-American women

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hodgson, Eric J.; Collier, Charlene; Hayes, Laura; Curry, Leslie; Fraenkel, Liana

    2013-01-01

    Background Significant racial disparities exist in the US unplanned pregnancy rate. We conducted a qualitative study using the theory of planned behavior as a framework to describe how low-income, African-American women approach family planning. Study Design Structured focus groups were held with adult, low-income, non-pregnant, African-American women in Connecticut. Data were collected using a standardized discussion guide, and audio-taped and transcribed. Four, independent researchers coded the transcripts using the constant comparative method. Codes were organized into over-arching themes. Results Contraceptive knowledge was limited with formal education often occurring after sexual debut. Attitudes about contraception were overtly negative with method effectiveness being judged by the experience of side effects. Family and friends strongly influence contraceptive decisions while male partners are primarily seen as a barrier. Contraceptive pills are perceived as readily accessible although compliance is considered a barrier. Conclusions Contraception education should occur before sexual debut, should involve trusted family and community members, and should positively frame issues in terms of achieving life goals. PMID:23177266

  4. Kinship Care for African American Children: Disproportionate and Disadvantageous

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    Harris, Marian S.; Skyles, Ada

    2008-01-01

    To highlight the individual and systemic practices that perpetuate the overuse of and reliance on kinship care and instead emphasize family reunification as the permanency plan for African American children in the child welfare system, the authors first discuss how kinship care is affected by federal child welfare policy and provide a historical…

  5. African Americans and Network Disadvantage: Enhancing Social Capital through Participation on Social Networking Sites

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Danielle Taana Smith

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available This study examines the participation of African Americans on social networking sites (SNS, and evaluates the degree to which African Americans engage in activities in the online environment to mitigate social capital deficits. Prior literature suggests that compared with whites, African Americans have less social capital that can enhance their socio-economic mobility. As such, my research question is: do African Americans enhance their social capital through their participation on SNS? I use nationally representative data collected from the Pew Internet and American Life Project to explore the research question. The results suggest that the online environment is potentially a space in which African Americans can lessen social capital deficits.

  6. Parenting Dimensionality and Typology in a Disadvantaged, African American Sample: A Cultural Variance Perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weis, Robert

    2002-01-01

    Examined the parenting cognitions of single, adolescent, disadvantaged, African American mothers. Maternal reports highlighted three parenting dimensions: warmth, control, and anger. Mother-child dyads were periodically observed and interviewed. Mothers were classified as dismissive, permissive, authoritative, or affectionate-distressed.…

  7. Prediction of HIV Sexual Risk Behaviors Among Disadvantaged African American Adults Using a Syndemic Conceptual Framework.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nehl, Eric J; Klein, Hugh; Sterk, Claire E; Elifson, Kirk W

    2016-02-01

    The focus of this paper is on HIV sexual risk taking among a community-based sample of disadvantaged African American adults. The objective is to examine multiple factors associated with sexual HIV risk behaviors within a syndemic conceptual framework. Face-to-face, computer-assisted, structured interviews were conducted with 1535 individuals in Atlanta, Georgia. Bivariate analyses indicated a high level of relationships among the HIV sexual risks and other factors. Results from multivariate models indicated that gender, sexual orientation, relationship status, self-esteem, condom use self-efficacy, sex while the respondent was high, and sex while the partner was high were significant predictors of condomless sex. Additionally, a multivariate additive model of risk behaviors indicated that the number of health risks significantly increased the risk of condomless sex. This intersection of HIV sexual risk behaviors and their associations with various other behavioral, socio-demographic, and psychological functioning factors help explain HIV risk-taking among this sample of African American adults and highlights the need for research and practice that accounts for multiple health behaviors and problems.

  8. Latinas and African American Women at Work: Race, Gender, and Economic Inequality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Browne, Irene, Ed.

    The 13 chapters of this book, written by various sociologists, document how race and gender intersect to put African American and Latina women at a disadvantage in the workplace. The articles encompass 30 years of change for women at all levels of the workforce, from those who spend time on the welfare rolls to middle class professionals, and look…

  9. Neighborhood disadvantage, physical activity barriers, and physical activity among African American breast cancer survivors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antwan Jones

    2015-01-01

    Higher renter rates and individual barriers both contribute to lower levels of physical activity in African American breast cancer survivors. These data suggest that the potential for constant residential turnover (via rentership and perceived barriers may increase physical inactivity even where facilities may be available.

  10. Family Economic Stress, Quality of Paternal Relationship, and Depressive Symptoms among African American Adolescent Fathers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hunt, Tenah K A; Caldwell, Cleopatra H; Assari, Shervin

    2015-10-01

    This study examined the association between perceived family economic stress, quality of father-son relationships, and depressive symptoms among African American adolescent fathers. Data were collected during pregnancy from 65 African American adolescents who were first-time fathers, ages 14-19. Results from multiple regression analyses indicated that higher paternal relationship satisfaction was associated with fewer depressive symptoms among adolescent fathers. Additionally, depressive symptoms were higher among adolescent fathers who reported experiencing higher levels of conflict with their fathers. Further, paternal conflict moderated the effect of perceived family economic stress on depressive symptoms. That is, among adolescent fathers experiencing low levels of conflict with their fathers, high perceived family economic stress was associated with more depressive symptoms. Study findings suggest that the risk for depressive symptoms is highest among adolescent fathers experiencing low family economic stress and highly conflictual relations with their fathers. These results highlight the complexities of paternal relationships and perceived economic stressors on depressive symptoms during pregnancy for African American adolescent fathers. The importance of expanding research on influential familial relationships and economic stressors on adolescent African American fathers is discussed.

  11. Neighborhood disadvantage moderates associations of parenting and older sibling problem attitudes and behavior with conduct disorders in African American children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brody, Gene H; Ge, Xiaojia; Kim, Su Yeong; Murry, Velma McBride; Simons, Ronald L; Gibbons, Frederick X; Gerrard, Meg; Conger, Rand D

    2003-04-01

    Data from 296 sibling pairs (mean ages 10 and 13 years), their primary caregivers, and census records were used to test the hypothesis that African American children's likelihood of developing conduct problems associated with harsh parenting, a lack of nurturant-involved parenting, and exposure to an older sibling's deviance-prone attitudes and behavior would be amplified among families residing in disadvantaged neighborhoods. A latent construct representing harsh-inconsistent parenting and low levels of nurturant-involved parenting was positively associated with younger siblings' conduct disorder symptoms, as were older siblings' problematic attitudes and behavior. These associations were strongest among families residing in the most disadvantaged neighborhoods. Future research and prevention programs should focus on the specific neighborhood processes associated with increased vulnerability for behavior problems.

  12. Tests of the theory of work adjustment with economically distressed African Americans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lyons, Heather Z; Velez, Brandon L; Mehta, Mansi; Neill, Natalie

    2014-07-01

    The present study tested 2 competing, extended models of the theory of work adjustment (TWA) with a sample of 100 economically distressed working African Americans receiving services at a nonprofit community center. Model 1 depicted a mediated model consistent with postulations of the TWA's original theorists. Model 2 depicted a moderated mediation model consistent with cultural critiques of the TWA. Bivariate correlations indicated that perceptions of person-organization (P-O) fit were positively related to job satisfaction and negatively related to turnover intentions, and job satisfaction was negatively related to turnover intentions. Furthermore, perceptions of racial climate were positively related to perceptions of P-O fit and job satisfaction and negatively related to turnover intentions. Moreover, results of the path analyses indicated stronger support for Model 2, the moderated mediation model, in which the indirect link of P-O fit with turnover intentions through job satisfaction was conditional on levels of racial climate. Specifically, when racial climate was perceived as less supportive, the indirect link of P-O fit with turnover intentions was nonsignificant, but when employees reported moderate and more supportive levels of racial climates, this indirect relation was significant. Research and career counseling implications of the present study's findings for financially distressed African American employees are discussed. PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2014 APA, all rights reserved.

  13. The effect of neighborhood disadvantage, social ties, and genetic variation on the antisocial behavior of African American women: a multilevel analysis.

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    Lei, Man-Kit; Simons, Ronald L; Edmond, Mary Bond; Simons, Leslie Gordon; Cutrona, Carolyn E

    2014-11-01

    Social disorganization theory posits that individuals who live in disadvantaged neighborhoods are more likely to engage in antisocial behavior than are those who live in advantaged neighborhoods and that neighborhood disadvantage asserts this effect through its disruptive impact on social ties. Past research on this framework has been limited in two respects. First, most studies have concentrated on adolescent males. In contrast, the present study focused on a sample of adult African American females. Second, past research has largely ignored individual-level factors that might explain why people who grow up in disadvantaged neighborhoods often do not engage in antisocial behavior. We investigated the extent to which genetic variation contributes to heterogeneity of response to neighborhood conditions. We found that the impact of neighborhood disadvantage on antisocial behavior was mediated by neighborhood social ties. Further, the analysis indicated that the effects of neighborhood disadvantage and social ties on antisocial behavior were moderated by genetic polymorphisms. Examination of these moderating effects provided support for the differential susceptibility model of Gene × Environment. The effect of Gene × Neighborhood Disadvantage on antisocial behavior was mediated by the effect of Gene × Neighborhood Social Ties, providing support for an expanded view of social disorganization theory.

  14. Immunizations and African Americans

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Data > Minority Population Profiles > Black/African American > Immunizations Immunizations and African Americans African American adults are less ... 19 to 35 months had comparable rates of immunization. African American women are as likely to have ...

  15. Social, economic, and political processes that create built environment inequities: perspectives from urban African Americans in Atlanta.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Redwood, Yanique; Schulz, Amy J; Israel, Barbara A; Yoshihama, Mieko; Wang, Caroline C; Kreuter, Marshall

    2010-01-01

    Growing evidence suggests that the built environment features found in many high-poverty urban areas contribute to negative health outcomes. Both built environment hazards and negative health outcomes disproportionately affect poor people of color. We used community-based participatory research and Photovoice in inner-city Atlanta to elicit African Americans' perspectives on their health priorities. The built environment emerged as a critical factor, impacting physical and mental health outcomes. We offer a conceptual model, informed by residents' perspectives, linking social, economic, and political processes to built environment and health inequities. Research, practice, and policy implications are discussed within an environmental justice framework.

  16. The Socio-Economic Impact of Student Loan Debt on African American Graduates of the University of Phoenix Residing in Philadelphia, Pennsylvania

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daniels, Terrence D.

    2017-01-01

    Little is known about the long-term socio-economic impact of student loan debt on African-American graduates of the University of Phoenix who reside in Philadelphia, Pennsylvania. The purpose of this case study is to examine the socio-economic impact of student loan debt on these students five years after receiving a degree from this for-profit…

  17. Sex Partner Type, Drug Use and Condom Use Self-Efficacy Among African Americans from Disadvantaged Neighborhoods: Are Associations with Consistent Condom Use Moderated by Gender?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nehl, Eric J; Elifson, Kirk; DePadilla, Lara; Sterk, Claire

    2016-09-01

    Gender inequalities in sexual behavior are explored from the perspective of the theory of gender and power. This study focused on the effect of sex partner type (steady versus casual), drug use, and condom use self-efficacy regarding consistent condom use (CCU) among a community-based sample of adults. The sample included 1,357 African American men and women (M age 37.0, SD 13.1 years; 44% women, 66% men) from 61 disadvantaged census block groups in Atlanta, GA as part of a study of individual and neighborhood characteristics and HIV risk-taking. Having a steady partner decreased the odds of CCU, while higher condom use self-efficacy increased the odds of CCU. Among non-drug users, having a drug-using partner was associated with decreased odds of condom use for women only. Women with drug-using partners, especially a steady partner, were least likely to report CCU. Therefore, interventions intended to empower CCU among women need to expand beyond acknowledging the reduced control that women who use drugs demonstrate to also consider those who have drug-using sexual partners.

  18. African American Males: Leaving the Nightmare.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gill, Wali

    The plight of African American males has become a problem of alarming proportions in the United States. This paper reports serious disadvantage and risk for this group in terms of education, employment, poverty levels, family disintegration, criminal status, health, and death rates. The paper contends that the crisis for African American males…

  19. Depression and African Americans

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... You are here Home » Depression And African Americans Depression And African Americans Not “Just the Blues” Clinical ... or spiritual communities. Commonly Asked Questions about Clinical Depression How do I get help for clinical depression? ...

  20. The Effects of Mother's Marital Status on Adolescent and Young Adult Health and Economic Well-Being among African Americans

    Science.gov (United States)

    LaVeist, Thomas A.; Zeno, Tia L.; Fesahazion, Ruth G.

    2010-01-01

    This article explores the effects of being raised by married parents during childhood on health and well-being in adolescence and young adulthood in a longitudinal sample of African Americans. This study aims to address the following three questions: Does childhood with married parents lead to better health and well-being during adolescence? Does…

  1. Body Size Perceptions among Overweight and Obese African American Women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baruth, Meghan; Sharpe, Patricia A; Magwood, Gayenell; Wilcox, Sara; Schlaff, Rebecca A

    2015-11-05

    Understanding body size perceptions and discrepancies among African American women may have implications for effective weight-loss interventions. The purpose of this study is to examine body size perceptions of economically disadvantaged, overweight and obese African American women. Cross-sectional using baseline data from a randomized controlled trial. 18 census tracts in a central South Carolina city where ≥ 25% of residents were below poverty income. 147 economically disadvantaged, overweight and obese African American women. Using Pulvers' figure rating scale, participants chose the figure: 1) closest to their current figure; 2) they would be satisfied with; and 3) with a body weight that would be a health problem for the average person. Mean body mass indices corresponding to each figure were compared with those in a large sample of White women. Most participants wanted to be smaller (mean=2.6 figures smaller) than their current size. A majority (67%) chose the largest figure as representing a body size that could lead to a health problem, and most (60%) chose a current figure smaller than the figure they believed would be associated with health problems. The mean body mass index for women selecting any given figure as their current size was significantly larger (5.2-10.8 kg/m(2) larger, Phealth consequences. Body size misperceptions and/or satisfaction may pose barriers for effective weight-loss.

  2. African American Suicide

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    African American Suicide Fact Sheet Based on 2012 Data (2014) Overview • In 2012, 2,357 African Americans completed suicide in the U.S. Of these, 1,908 (80. ... rate of 9.23 per 100,000). The suicide rate for females was 1.99 per 100, ...

  3. Infant Mortality and African Americans

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Profiles > Black/African American > Infant Health & Mortality Infant Mortality and African Americans African Americans have 2.2 ... to receive late or no prenatal care. Infant Mortality Rate Infant mortality rate per 1,000 live ...

  4. Health Behavior and Behavioral Economics: Economic Preferences and Physical Activity Stages of Change in a Low-Income African American Community

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leonard, Tammy; Shuval, Kerem; de Oliveira, Angela; Skinner, Celette Sugg; Eckel, Catherine; Murdoch, James C.

    2014-01-01

    Purpose To examine the relationship between physical activity stages of change and preferences for financial risk and time. Design A cross-sectional, community-based study. Setting A low-income, urban, African American neighborhood. Subjects 169 adults Measures Self-reported physical activity stages of change—precontemplation to maintenance, objectively measured BMI and waist circumference, and economic preferences for time and risk measured via incentivized economic experiments. Analysis Multivariable ordered logistic regression models were used to examine the association between physical activity stages of change and economic preferences while controlling for demographic characteristics of the individuals. Results Individuals who are more tolerant of financial risks (OR=1.31, p<0.05) and whose time preferences indicate more patience (OR=1.68, p<0.01) are more likely to be in a more advanced physical activity stage (e.g. from preparation to action). The likelihood of being in the maintenance stage increases by 5.6 and 10.9 percentage points for each 1 unit increase in financial risk tolerance or 1 unit increase in the time preference measure, respectively. Conclusions Greater tolerance of financial risk and more patient time preferences among this low-income ethnic minority population are associated with a more advanced physical activity stage. Further exploration is clearly warranted in larger and more representative samples. PMID:23448410

  5. Health behavior and behavioral economics: economic preferences and physical activity stages of change in a low-income African-American community.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leonard, Tammy; Shuval, Kerem; de Oliveira, Angela; Skinner, Celette Sugg; Eckel, Catherine; Murdoch, James C

    2013-01-01

    To examine the relationship between physical activity stages of change and preferences for financial risk and time. A cross-sectional, community-based study. A low-income, urban, African-American neighborhood. One hundred sixty-nine adults. Self-reported physical activity stages of change-precontemplation to maintenance, objectively measured body mass index and waist circumference, and economic preferences for time and risk measured via incentivized economic experiments. Multivariable ordered logistic regression models were used to examine the association between physical activity stages of change and economic preferences while controlling for demographic characteristics of the individuals. Individuals who are more tolerant of financial risks (odds ratio [OR] = 1.31, p < .05) and whose time preferences indicate more patience (OR = 1.68, p < .01) are more likely to be in a more advanced physical activity stage (e.g., from preparation to action). The likelihood of being in the maintenance stage increases by 5.6 and 10.9 percentage points for each one-unit increase in financial risk tolerance or one-unit increase in the time preference measure, respectively. Greater tolerance of financial risk and more patient time preferences among this low-income ethnic minority population are associated with a more advanced physical activity stage. Further exploration is clearly warranted in larger and more representative samples.

  6. Measuring Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus Knowledge and Perceptions of Risk in Middle-Class African Americans

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spears, Erica C.; Guidry, Jeffrey J.; Harvey, Idethia S.

    2018-01-01

    There is a paucity in the literature examining the African American middle-class. Most studies of African Americans and Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus (T2DM) have concentrated on lower-SES individuals, or make no distinction between African Americans of varying socio-economic positions. Middle-class African Americans are vulnerable in ways often…

  7. African Americans and Glaucoma

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Americans are still unknown. However, research shows that African Americans are genetically more at risk for glaucoma, making early detection and treatment all the more important. In studies such as the Baltimore Eye Survey and the ...

  8. School-level economic disadvantage and obesity in middle school children in central Texas, USA: a cross-sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Springer, Andrew E; Li, Linlin; Ranjit, Nalini; Delk, Joanne; Mehta, Kajal; Kelder, Steven H

    2015-07-27

    Although children of lower socio-economic status (SES) in the United States have generally been found to be at greater risk for obesity, the SES-obesity association varies when stratified by racial/ethnic groups-with no consistent association found for African American and Hispanic children. Research on contextual and setting-related factors may provide further insights into ethnic and SES disparities in obesity. We examined whether obesity levels among central Texas 8th grade students (n=2682) vary by school-level economic disadvantage across individual-level family SES and racial/ethnicity groups. As a secondary aim, we compared the association of school-level economic disadvantage and obesity by language spoken with parents (English or Spanish) among Hispanic students. Multilevel regression models stratified by family SES and ethnicity were run using cross-sectional baseline data from five school districts participating in the Central Texas CATCH Middle School project. For family SES, independent multi-level logistic regression models were run for total sample and by gender for each family SES stratum (poor/near poor/just getting by, living comfortably, and very well off), adjusting for age, ethnicity, and gender. Similarly, multi-level regression models were run by race/ethnic group (African American, Hispanic, and White), adjusting for age, family SES, and gender. Students attending highly economically disadvantaged (ED) schools were between 1.7 (95% CI: 1.1-2.6) and 2.4 (95% CI: 1.2-4.8) times more likely to be obese as students attending low ED schools across family SES groups (pdisadvantaged schools for obesity prevention efforts and support further exploration of school SES context in shaping children’s physical activity and dietary behaviors.

  9. Mental Health and African Americans

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Minority Population Profiles > Black/African American > Mental Health Mental Health and African Americans Poverty level affects mental health ... compared to 120% of non-Hispanic whites. 1 MENTAL HEALTH STATUS Serious psychological distress among adults 18 years ...

  10. African-Americans and Alzheimer's

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Share Plus on Google Plus African-Americans and Alzheimer's alz.org | IHaveAlz Introduction 10 Warning Signs Brain ... African-Americans are at a higher risk for Alzheimer's disease. Many Americans dismiss the warning signs of ...

  11. The myth of meritocracy and African American health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kwate, Naa Oyo A; Meyer, Ilan H

    2010-10-01

    Recent theoretical and empirical studies of the social determinants of health inequities have shown that economic deprivation, multiple levels of racism, and neighborhood context limit African American health chances and that African Americans' poor health status is predicated on unequal opportunity to achieve the American Dream. President Obama's election has been touted as a demonstration of American meritocracy-the belief that all may obtain the American Dream-and has instilled hope in African Americans. However, we argue that in the context of racism and other barriers to success, meritocratic ideology may act as a negative health determinant for African Americans.

  12. 13 CFR 124.104 - Who is economically disadvantaged?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... cash), personal net worth, and the fair market value of all assets, whether encumbered or not. SBA will... disadvantage must describe it in a narrative statement, and must submit personal financial information. (2) When married, an individual claiming economic disadvantage also must submit separate financial...

  13. Poverty, safety net programs, and African Americans' mental health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Snowden, Lonnie R

    2014-11-01

    African Americans' poverty and deep-poverty rates are higher than those of Whites, and African Americans' poverty spells last longer. Furthermore, nonpoor African Americans are especially likely to slip into poverty, and over the course of a lifetime, very many African Americans will experience poverty. Accordingly, African Americans are disproportionately likely to be assisted by safety net programs providing income support and health and social assistance. When mental health-related outcomes are assessed, U.S.-focused and international studies of safety net programs sometimes find that adults and children show a decline in symptoms of mental illness after participating. All things being equal, these improvements can disproportionately benefit African Americans' mental health. Safety net programs' mental health-related impact should be routinely assessed when evaluating the programs' economic and social outcomes and the impact they have on African Americans' mental health. Policy research of this kind can help us to understand whether these very large interventions show society-wide mental health-related improvement in the disproportionately large number of African Americans who participate in them. PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2014 APA, all rights reserved.

  14. Retention of African American Women in a Lifestyle Physical Activity Program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buchholz, Susan W; Wilbur, JoEllen; Schoeny, Michael E; Fogg, Louis; Ingram, Diana M; Miller, Arlene; Braun, Lynne

    2016-03-01

    The purpose of the article is to examine how well individual characteristics, neighborhood characteristics, and intervention participation predict study retention and staff level of effort needed for retention, using a cohort of African American women enrolled in a physical activity program. Secondary data analysis was conducted from a randomized clinical trial. Participants were aged 40 to 65 years without major signs/symptoms of cardiovascular disease. Assessments were conducted at community sites in/bordering African American communities. Study retention was 90%. Of those retained, 24% required moderate/high level of staff effort for retention. Retention was predicted by being older, having lower perceived neighborhood walkability, living in neighborhoods with greater disadvantage and crime, and having greater program participation. More staff effort was predicted by participants being younger, having more economic hardships, poorer health, or lower intervention participation. We may be able to identify people at baseline likely to require more staff effort to retain. © The Author(s) 2015.

  15. Schooling and Achievement: A Discussion on African American Students from Low Socio-Economic Households and Their Over-Diagnoses of Learning Disabilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hankerson, Pamela S.

    2011-01-01

    The following is a discussion on student level of academic achievement, specifically that of African American learners. The misdiagnosis of Black students having learning disabilities and other disabilities will be examined, and the factors as to why this misdiagnosis occurs so often. Research will be provided as evidence to support this claim, as…

  16. African Americans and Multiple Sclerosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Council: nationalMSsociety.org/African- AmericansandMS African Americans & Multiple Sclerosis GENER AL INFORMATION MS STOPS PEOPLE FROM MOVING. ... Judy, diagnosed in 1982 What is MS? Multiple sclerosis (MS), an unpredictable, often disabling disease of the ...

  17. The economic value of improving the health of disadvantaged Americans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schoeni, Robert F; Dow, William H; Miller, Wilhelmine D; Pamuk, Elsie R

    2011-01-01

    Higher educational attainment is associated with better health status and longer life. This analysis estimates the annual dollar value of the benefits that would accrue to less-educated American adults if they experienced the lower mortality rates and better health of those with a college education. Using estimates of differences in mortality among adults aged ≥ 25 years by educational attainment from the National Longitudinal Mortality Survey and of education-based differentials in health status from published studies based on the Medical Expenditure Panel Survey, combined with existing estimates of the economic value of a healthy life year, the economic value of raising the health of individuals with less than a college education to the health of the college educated is estimated. The annual economic value that would accrue to disadvantaged (less-educated) Americans if their health and longevity improved to that of college-educated Americans is $1.02 trillion. This modeling exercise does not fully account for the social costs and benefits of particular policies and programs to reduce health disparities; rather, it provides a sense of the magnitude of the economic value lost in health disparities to compare with other social issues vying for attention. The aggregate economic gains from interventions that improve the health of disadvantaged Americans are potentially large. Copyright © 2011 American Journal of Preventive Medicine. All rights reserved.

  18. Enhancing Breastfeeding Rates Among African American Women: A Systematic Review of Current Psychosocial Interventions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Angela; Kirk, Rosalind; Rosenblum, Katherine Lisa

    2015-01-01

    Abstract The goals of this article are to provide a review of key interventions and strategies that impact initiation and duration of breastfeeding with particular focus on low-income African American mothers' maternal psychological vulnerabilities during the early postpartum period using a social ecological perspective as a guiding framework. Although modest gains have been achieved in breastfeeding initiation rates in the United States, a projected gap remains between infant feeding practices and national Healthy People breastfeeding goals set for 2020, particularly among African Americans. These disparities raise concerns that socially disadvantaged mothers and babies may be at increased risk for poor postnatal outcomes because of poorer mental health and increased vulnerability to chronic health conditions. Breastfeeding can be a protective factor, strengthening the relationship between mother and baby and increasing infant health and resilience. Evidence suggests that no single intervention can sufficiently address the multiple breastfeeding barriers faced by mothers. Effective intervention strategies require a multilevel approach. A social ecological perspective highlights that individual knowledge, behavior, and attitudes are shaped by interactions between the individual woman, her friends and family, and her wider historical, social, political, economic, institutional, and community contexts, and therefore effective breastfeeding interventions must reflect all these aspects. Current breastfeeding interventions are disjointed and inadequately meet all African American women's social and psychological breastfeeding needs. Poor outcomes indicate a need for an integrative approach to address the complexity of interrelated breastfeeding barriers mothers' experience across layers of the social ecological system. PMID:25423601

  19. The Mercantile Business Coalition: A Narrative Analysis of a Learning Organization in an African American Community

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harrell, Alma S.

    2013-01-01

    "A race that is solely dependent upon another for its economic existences sooner or later dies," this quote by Marcus Garvey highlighted the need for African American communities to think about the importance of economic development. This message was also heard by African Americans as early as the 1700s. Not only was the message about…

  20. Classic African American Children's Literature

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    McNair, Jonda C.

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this article is to assert that there are classic African American children's books and to identify a sampling of them. The author presents multiple definitions of the term classic based on the responses of children's literature experts and relevant scholarship. Next, the manner in which data were collected and analyzed in regard to…

  1. African-American wildland memories

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cassandra Y. Johnson; J. Michael Bowker

    2004-01-01

    Collective memory can be used conceptually to examine African-American perceptions of wildlands and black interaction with such places. The middle--American view of wildlands frames these terrains as refuges--pure and simple, sanctified places distinct from the profanity of human modification. However, wild, primitive areas do not exist in the minds of all Americans as...

  2. African Americans and High Blood Pressure

    Science.gov (United States)

    ANSWERS by heart Lifestyle + Risk Reduction High Blood Pressure What About African Americans and High Blood Pressure? African Americans in the U.S. have a higher prevalence of high blood pressure (HBP) ...

  3. Early stimulation and language development of economically disadvantaged young children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malhi, Prahbhjot; Sidhu, Manjit; Bharti, Bhavneet

    2014-04-01

    To examine the effect of home stimulation on the language functioning of young children from low income families. The language functioning of 102 children (Mean age = 3.3 y, SD = 1.3) was assessed by the communication sub-scale of the Indian Developmental Inventory (IDI). Home visits were made to assess the quality of stimulation provided by parents to children. Seven items measuring stimulation of the child were selected from the Mohite Home Environment Inventory, a scale measuring the quality of home environment. Nearly 16 % of children from economically disadvantaged homes had language delay. Children with language delay as compared to children with adequate language skills had significantly lower stimulation at home (t = 2.59, P = 0.01), specifically parents were significantly less likely to praise their child (25 % vs. 52 %, χ (2) = 4.03, P = 0.045) or provide verbal stimulation (44 % vs. 72 %, χ (2) = 4.95, P = 0.026). Multivariate stepwise regression analysis revealed that 18 % of the variance in the communication developmental quotient (DQs) of children was accounted by stimulation and age of the child (F = 10.47, P = 0.000). Programs that seek to increase early stimulation for disadvantaged children by providing cognitive-linguistic enriched learning experiences would go a long way in paving the way for improved language, cognition and school performance in young children.

  4. Engaging African Americans in Smoking Cessation Programs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wallen, Jacqueline; Randolph, Suzanne; Carter-Pokras, Olivia; Feldman, Robert; Kanamori-Nishimura, Mariano

    2014-01-01

    Background: African Americans are disproportionately exposed to and targeted by prosmoking advertisements, particularly menthol cigarette ads. Though African Americans begin smoking later than whites, they are less likely to quit smoking than whites. Purpose: This study was designed to explore African American smoking cessation attitudes,…

  5. Chronic Liver Disease and African Americans

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Stay Connected OMH Home > Policy and Data > Minority Population Profiles > Black/African American > Chronic Liver Disease Chronic Liver Disease and African Americans Among African Americans, chronic liver disease is a leading cause of death. While the cause is not always known, some ...

  6. Low parental support in late adolescence predicts obesity in young adulthood; Gender differences in a 12-year cohort of African Americans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Assari, Shervin; Caldwell, Cleopatra Howard; Zimmerman, Marc A

    2015-01-01

    Most studies that have investigated the link between parenting behaviors and risk of obesity among offsprings have mostly used a cross-sectional design, enrolled Caucasian samples, focused on childhood obesity, and covered aspects of parenting behaviors that directly influence energy balance and food intake of the children. Thus, more longitudinal research is needed on how more general aspects of parenting influence obesity in young ethnic minority adults. The current longitudinal study aimed to test if baseline parental support predicts change in body mass index (BMI) of African Americans, and if this prediction varies based on gender of offspring. The current study followed 227 young African American adults (109 male and 118 female) for 12 years from year 2000 (mean age 20) to year 2012 (mean age 32). All participants were enrolled from a disadvantaged urban area in the Midwest of the United States. Baseline demographics (age, gender), socio-economics (family structure, and parental employment), psychological symptoms (anxiety and depression), general parental support (maternal support, and paternal support) were measured. BMI was measured at baseline and at follow up. We used gender-specific linear regressions to test the predictive role of baseline paternal and maternal support (year 2000) on change in BMI (from 2000 to 2012). Regression analysis showed that among female African American young adults, high baseline maternal support was predictive of a lower increase in BMI from 2000 to 2012. The association remained significant while all covariates were in the model. We could not find such an association for male African American young adults. High maternal support appears to be protective against increases in BMI among African American female young adults. As parental support is a modifiable factor within available evidence-based interventions that enhance parenting, it should be included in obesity prevention programs for African American women. Policies and

  7. Reconsidering the Relationship between Race and Crime: Positive and Negative Predictors of Crime among African American Youth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Entner Wright, Bradley R.; Younts, C. Wesley

    2009-01-01

    Studies of race and crime have emphasized the effects of social disadvantage and discrimination on increasing crime among African Americans. The authors extend this literature by examining various beliefs and institutions that have developed within African American communities that, in contrast, decrease criminal behavior. A model of…

  8. Health-related Quality of Life of African American Breast Cancer Survivors Compared to Healthy African American Women

    Science.gov (United States)

    Von Ah, Diane M.; Russell, Kathleen M.; Carpenter, Janet; Monahan, Patrick O.; Zhao, Qianqian; Tallman, Eileen; Ziner, Kim Wagler; Storniolo, Anna Maria; Miller, Kathy D.; Giesler, R. Brian; Haase, Joan; Otte, Julie; Champion, Victoria L.

    2011-01-01

    Background The diagnosis and treatment of breast cancer can result in an array of late cancer-specific side effects and changes in general well-being. Research has focused on Caucasian samples, limiting our understanding of the unique health-related quality of life outcomes of African American breast cancer survivors (BCS). Even when African American BCS have been targeted, research is limited by small samples and failure to include comparisons of peers without a history of breast cancer. Objective The purpose of this study was to compare health-related quality of life of African American women BCS to African American women with no history of breast cancer (control group). Methods A total of 140 women (62 BCS and 78 control), ages 18 years or older and 2–10 years post-diagnosis, was recruited from a breast cancer clinic and cancer support groups. Participants provided informed consent and completed a one-time survey based on Brenner’s (1995) proximal-distal health-related quality of life model. Results After adjusting for age, education, income, and body mass index, African American BCS experienced more fatigue (p=0.001), worse hot flashes (p<0.001) and worse sleep quality (p<0.001), but more social support from their partner (p=0.028) and more positive change (p=0.001) compared to African American women controls. Conclusions Our results suggest that African American women BCS may experience unique health-related outcomes that transcend age, education, socio-economic status and body mass index. Implications for Practice Findings suggest the importance of understanding the survivorship experience for particular racial and ethnic subgroups to proactively assess difficulties and plan interventions. PMID:22228394

  9. African American Children and Mental Health. Child Psychology and Mental Health

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hill, Nancy E., Ed.; Mann, Tammy L., Ed.; Fitzgerald, Hiram E., Ed.

    2011-01-01

    This groundbreaking two-volume set examines the psychological, social, physical, and environmental factors that undermine or support healthy development in African American children while considering economic, historical, and public policies. African American children are at the highest risk for becoming school dropouts, for academic disengagement…

  10. Why We Must Continue to Investigate Menthol's Role in the African American Smoking Paradox.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alexander, Linda A; Trinidad, Dennis R; Sakuma, Kari-Lyn K; Pokhrel, Pallav; Herzog, Thaddeus A; Clanton, Mark S; Moolchan, Eric T; Fagan, Pebbles

    2016-04-01

    The disproportionate burden of tobacco use among African Americans is largely unexplained. The unexplained disparities, referred to as the African American smoking paradox, includes several phenomena. Despite their social disadvantage, African American youth have lower smoking prevalence rates, initiate smoking at older ages, and during adulthood, smoking rates are comparable to whites. Smoking frequency and intensity among African American youth and adults are lower compared to whites and American Indian and Alaska Natives, but tobacco-caused morbidity and mortality rates are disproportionately higher. Disease prediction models have not explained disease causal pathways in African Americans. It has been hypothesized that menthol cigarette smoking, which is disproportionately high among African Americans, may help to explain several components of the African American smoking paradox. This article provides an overview of the potential role that menthol plays in the African American smoking paradox. We also discuss the research needed to better understand this unresolved puzzle. We examined prior synthesis reports and reviewed the literature in PubMed on the menthol compound and menthol cigarette smoking in African Americans. The pharmacological and physiological effects of menthol and their interaction with biological and genetic factors may indirectly contribute to the disproportionate burden of cigarette use and diseases among African Americans. Future studies that examine taste sensitivity, the menthol compound, and their effects on smoking and chronic disease would provide valuable information on how to reduce the tobacco burden among African Americans. Our study highlights four counterintuitive observations related to the smoking risk profiles and chronic disease outcomes among African Americans. The extant literature provides strong evidence of their existence and shows that long-standing paradoxes have been largely unaffected by changes in the social

  11. A Survey of Contemporary African American Poetry, Drama, & Fiction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lilly Fernandes

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Analysis of literature indicates that varying viewpoints about different elements which define contemporary African American Literature has been identified. Majority of the scholarly works on African American writing are built on foundation of culture, political oppression and the need to express their true needs. This paper explores the current trends in contemporary African American Literature by examining tenets in poetry, fiction and drama.  Through the ages African American poetry, novels and drama can be considered to a chronicle documenting the struggles of a race which has been debated, debased and their humanity violated to the fight against oppression, social and political empowerment. From the views of this paper it can be concluded that the African American writing is not simply a reflection of the chain of events that took place but was a factor in change. Most of the writers and the works which have been highlighted in this essay have shown one primary theme: the use of literature as the means to voice their anger about social and economic repression. Keywords: s

  12. African American Health PSA (:60)

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2017-05-02

    This 60 second public service announcement is based on the May 2017 CDC Vital Signs report. The life expectancy of African Americans has improved, but it’s still an average of four years less than whites. Learn what can be done so all Americans can have the opportunity to pursue a healthy lifestyle.  Created: 5/2/2017 by Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC).   Date Released: 5/2/2017.

  13. African American fathers and incarceration: paternal involvement and child outcomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perry, Armon R; Bright, Mikia

    2012-01-01

    Despite only accounting for 6% of the general population, African American males represent nearly 50% of the prison population. To investigate the impact of mass incarceration on African American families, data from the Fragile Families and Child Well-Being study were analyzed. Specifically, the purpose of this study was to examine the impact of previous incarceration on African American fathers' instrumental and affective involvement with their children, and the extent to which their previous incarceration influences their children's behavior. Results revealed that 51% of the fathers in the sample had been incarcerated by their child's fifth birthday. The results also revealed that these fathers fared worse economically and were less involved with their children. Moreover, the children of previously incarcerated fathers had significantly worse behavioral problems than the children of fathers who had never been incarcerated.

  14. The Sociocultural Benefits of Writing for African American Adolescent Males

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tatum, Alfred; Gue, Valerie

    2012-01-01

    Historically speaking, reading and writing among African Americans were collaborative acts involving a wide range of texts that held social, economic, political, or spiritual significance. One of the constants of literacy collaboratives was being regularly and purposefully engaged with print within a meaningful social context. During the summer of…

  15. Bibliographies of Microforms Relating to African-Americans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ransom, Charles G.

    1994-01-01

    Lists approximately 250 microforms from the University of Michigan library that relate to African Americans. Headings are biographies, civil rights, Civil War, colonization, economics, employment, freedmen, history, Michigan, music, news, papers, periodicals, politics, race, Reconstruction, religion, riots, segregation, slavery, social conditions,…

  16. A comparison of skin tone discrimination among African American men: 1995 and 2003.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uzogara, Ekeoma E; Lee, Hedwig; Abdou, Cleopatra M; Jackson, James S

    2014-04-01

    This study investigated perceptions of skin tone discrimination among adult African American men. Research suggests that through negative African American stereotypes, out-group members (Whites) perceive light-skinned African Americans favorably and dark-skinned African Americans unfavorably. However, it is unclear how treatment by in-group members (other African Americans) uniquely affects men. Using data from the 1995 Detroit Area Study and the 2003 National Survey of American Life, we investigated these relationships among African American men representing a wide range of socioeconomic groups. We found that African American men's perceptions of out-group and in-group treatment, respectively, were similar across time. Light-skinned men perceived the least out-group discrimination while dark-skinned men perceived the most out-group discrimination. In appraisals of skin tone discrimination from in-group members, medium-skinned men perceived the least discrimination while both light- and dark-skinned men perceived more in-group discrimination. Additionally, men of lower social economic groups were more affected by skin tone bias than others. Future research should explore the influence of these out- and in-group experiences of skin tone discrimination on social and psychological functioning of African American men.

  17. African American Therapists Working with African American Families: An Exploration of the Strengths Perspective in Treatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bell-Tolliver, Laverne; Burgess, Ruby; Brock, Linda J.

    2009-01-01

    With the exception of Hill's (1971, 1999) work, historically much of the literature on African American families has focused more on pathology than strengths. This study used interviews with 30 African American psychotherapists, self-identified as employing a strengths perspective with African American families, to investigate which strengths they…

  18. Fear of Neighborhood Violence During Adolescence Predicts Development of Obesity a Decade Later: Gender Differences Among African Americans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Assari, Shervin; Moghani Lankarani, Maryam; Caldwell, Cleopatra Howard; Zimmerman, Marc A

    2016-06-01

    African American youth are more likely than other racial and ethnic groups to be obese. African American youth are also more likely to live in disadvantaged neighborhoods which increase their victimization, observation, and fear of violence. This study tested if victimization, observation, and fear of violence in the neighborhood during adolescence predict trajectory of body mass index (BMI) in the 3rd decade of life in African Americans. Data came from an 18-year community-based cohort. We used multi-group latent growth curve modeling for data analysis, considering neighborhood violence at age 15 (i.e. victimization, observation, and fear) as predictors, and the linear slope for the average change in BMI from age 21 to 32 as the outcome, with age and socioeconomic status (i.e. intact family and parental employment) as covariates. Fear of neighborhood violence at age 15 was predictive of an increase in BMI from age 21 to 32 among female but not male African Americans. Victimization and observation of violence at age 15 did not predict BMI change from age 21 to 32 among female or male African Americans. Fear of neighborhood violence is a contributing factor to increased risk of obesity for female African American youth who live in disadvantaged areas. This finding has implications for prevention of obesity among African American women who are at highest risk for obesity in the United States. Initiatives that enhance neighborhood safety are critical strategies for obesity prevention among African American women.

  19. African American Social Networking Online: Applying a Digital Practice Approach to Understanding Digital Inequalities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Danielle Taana Smith

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available This study develops a framework for systematic examination of information and communication technologies (ICTs usage differences within a group. This framework situates the digital divide and digital inequalities model within a broader conceptual model of digital practice, exemplified by how groups of people use ICTs. I use nationally representative data to examine online activities on social networking sites (SNS for African Americans and other ethnoracial groups. The data for this research comes from the Pew Internet and American Life’s “Spring Tracking Survey 2008”. The results from regression analyses support the digital practice framework which moves discussions of ICT usage beyond social and economic advantages or disadvantages, and addresses individual and group needs in using these technologies.

  20. A Mirror Image African American Student Reflections

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cannon Dawson, Candice

    2012-01-01

    This dissertation is a narrative inquiry research project that focuses on the collegiate experiences of African American students at both historically black colleges and universities (HBCUs) and predominantly white institutions (PWIs). I look at how African American college students who engage in race or culturally specific activities, the degree…

  1. African Americans and the Industrial Revolution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trotter, Joe William, Jr.

    2000-01-01

    Briefly outlines the ways race and technology shaped: (1) the early enslavement of African Americans; (2) the work of bondsmen and women during the antebellum era; and (3) the increasing urbanization of the African American population during the industrial age. (CMK)

  2. Educating African American Males: A Dream Deferred.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Milwaukee Public Schools, WI.

    This document presents recommendations of the Milwaukee (Wisconsin) African American Male Task Force (MAAMTF), which reviewed from January through April of 1990 current educational efforts and recommended strategies by which schools could better address African American males' needs. The MAAMTF recommendations are to be implemented in two phases.…

  3. Translating Culture: Contemporary African American Poetry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kristina Kočan Šalamon

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The paper interrogates cultural specifics of contemporary African American poetry and exhibits translation problems when translating this poetic work. African American writers have always included much of their cultural heritage in their writing and this is immediately noticed by a translator. The cultural elements, such as African American cuisine, attire and style in general, as well as spiritual and religious practices, often play a significant role for African American poets who are proclaiming their identity. Moreover, the paper presents the translation problems that emerge when attempting to transfer such a specific, even exotic, source culture into a target culture, like Slovene. The goal is to show to what extent contemporary African American poetry can successfully be translated into the Slovene language and to highlight the parts that inevitably remain lost in the translation process.

  4. African-Americans and comprehensive service use.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Theriot, Matthew T; Segal, Steven P; Cowsert, Max J

    2003-06-01

    This study examined African-Americans' use of comprehensive mental health services. 248 long-term users of self-help agencies (SHAs) were interviewed about their use of 37 different mental health services from various providers in a six-month period. Multiple regression analysis showed that the homeless and African-Americans were the high users in our sample. A subsequent MANOVA procedure suggested that this may be the result of African-Americans' increased use of SHAs. While African-Americans are low service users in traditional studies focusing on a narrow list of services and providers, this research argues for including SHAs in future studies of African-American service use.

  5. Intimate partner violence in African American women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campbell, Doris Williams; Sharps, Phyllis W; Gary, Faye A; Campbell, Jacquelyn C; Lopez, Loretta M

    2002-01-01

    Violence against African American women, specifically intimate partner abuse, has a significant impact on their health and well being. Intimate partner femicide and near fatal intimate partner femicide are the major causes of premature death and disabling injuries for African American women. Yet, despite this, there is a paucity of research and interventions specific and culturally relevant for these women. This article focuses on issues relevant to intimate partner violence and abuse against African American women by examining existing empirical studies of prevalence and health outcomes of intimate partner violence against women in general, plus what limited research there is about African American women, specifically. It includes a discussion of specific recommendations for research, practice, education, and policy to reduce and prevent intimate partner violence against African American women.

  6. Struggles of agency and structure as cultural worlds collide as urban African American youth learn physics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elmesky, Rowhea

    This critical ethnography focused on five urban African American students, coming from economically disadvantaged homes in Philadelphia, who were considered at risk with regard to their position within society as well as within the small learning community of their low-academically performing school. As participants in the study, they were employed from June 11, 2001 from 9:00 AM until 1:00 PM and continuing until September 7, 2001 at $7.50 per hour under research grants from the Spencer Foundation and the National Science Foundation. Through this study, these five youth were provided with traditional and nontraditional opportunities to build understandings of some of the most essential concepts of physics as learners. Moreover, they also had the chance to work as research assistants, teacher educators and curriculum developers. The findings of the research conclusively reveal that African American, urban youth from some of the most challenging situations are capable of learning physics concepts. Moreover, the most success resulted when students' strategies of action were directed towards the objective of learning although, in the process of meaning-making, their personal goals unrelated to science were also met. In addition, the research results show that urban African American students come to school with strategies of action replete with cultural practices, symbols and their underlying meanings from fields outside of school including both the home and the neighborhood. These cultural resources, when triggered, then become apparent within learning environments and can powerfully assist learning when the desired outcomes of the student(s) are in tune with the objective of learning physics. Through the physics teaching and learning that occurred within this study, as well as their work as researchers, teacher educators and curriculum developers, April, Ebony, Markist, Pierre and Ya-Meer had opportunities to utilize their cultural capital to build new knowledge

  7. The "Collateral Impact" of Pupil Behaviour and Geographically Concentrated Socio-Economic Disadvantage

    Science.gov (United States)

    David, Alex Hugh

    2010-01-01

    Schools in areas of concentrated disadvantage tend to have below-average attainment, but there is no consensus on why. Mental and behavioural disorders in children are correlated with socio-economic disadvantage. This paper puts forward the hypothesis that the first phenomenon can at least partly be accounted for by the second phenomenon through…

  8. Romantic Relationship Commitment Behavior Among Emerging Adult African American Men

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kogan, Steven M.; Yu, Tianyi; Brown, Geoffrey L.

    2017-01-01

    Contextual and intrapersonal factors affecting the development of African American men’s romantic relationship commitment-related behavior were investigated. Socioeconomic disadvantage during early adolescence was hypothesized to predict harsh, unsupportive parenting practices. Harsh parenting was hypothesized to result in youths’ emotion-regulation difficulties, indicated by elevated levels of anger during mid-adolescence, particularly when men were exposed to racial discrimination. Young African American men’s anger during mid-adolescence, a consequence of harsh, unsupportive parenting and racial discrimination, was expected to predict commitment-related behavior. Hypotheses were tested with a sample of rural African American men participating in a panel study from the ages of 11 through 21. Data from teachers, parents, and youths were integrated into a multi-reporter measurement plan. Results confirmed the hypothesized associations. Study findings indicate that the combination of harsh parenting and racial discrimination is a powerful antecedent of young men’s commitment-related behavior. Anger across mid-adolescence mediated this interaction effect. PMID:28989183

  9. African-American Prostate Cancer Disparities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Zachary L; Eggener, Scott E; Murphy, Adam B

    2017-08-14

    The purpose of this review is to examine prostate cancer racial disparities specific to the African-American population. African-American men are more likely to be diagnosed with prostate cancer, present at an earlier age; are more likely to have locally advanced or metastatic disease at diagnosis; and have suboptimal outcomes to standard treatments. Prostate cancer treatment requires a nuanced approach, particularly when applying screening, counseling, and management of African-American men. Oncological as well as functional outcomes may differ and are potentially due to a combination of genetic, molecular, behavioral, and socioeconomic factors.

  10. Efficacy of the Young Women's CoOp: An HIV Risk-Reduction Intervention for Substance-Using African-American Female Adolescents in the South

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wechsberg, Wendee M.; Browne, Felicia A.; Zule, William A.; Novak, Scott P.; Doherty, Irene A.; Kline, Tracy L.; Carry, Monique G.; Raiford, Jerris L.; Herbst, Jeffrey H.

    2017-01-01

    HIV/sexually transmitted infection (STI) risk-reduction interventions are needed to address the complex risk behaviors among African-American female adolescents in disadvantaged communities in North Carolina. In a two-group randomized trial, we reached 237 sexually active, substance-using African-American female adolescents, to test a…

  11. The Contribution of Community and Family Contexts to African American Young Adults' Romantic Relationship Health: A Prospective Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kogan, Steven M.; Lei, Man-Kit; Grange, Christina R.; Simons, Ronald L.; Brody, Gene H.; Gibbons, Frederick X.; Chen, Yi-fu

    2013-01-01

    Accumulating evidence suggests that African American men and women experience unique challenges in developing and maintaining stable, satisfying romantic relationships. Extant studies have linked relationship quality among African American couples to contemporaneous risk factors such as economic hardship and racial discrimination. Little research,…

  12. Assessing the Relationship between Parental Influences and Wellbeing among Low Income African American Adolescents in Chicago

    Science.gov (United States)

    Voisin, Dexter R.; Harty, Justin; Kim, Dong Ha; Elsaesser, Caitlin; Takahashi, Lois M.

    2017-01-01

    Background: African American youth in urban centers often reside in poorly resourced communities and face structural disadvantage, which can result in higher rates of poor behavioral health factors such as mental health problems, juvenile justice system involvement, substance use, risky sex and lower school engagement. While parental monitoring…

  13. African-American Women in the Professoriate: Addressing Social Exclusion and Scholarly Marginalization through Mentoring

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lloyd-Jones, Brenda

    2014-01-01

    African-American women and other underrepresented faculty members often report experiences of social exclusion and scholarly marginalization in mainstream institutions of higher education. This lack of inclusion challenges their retention and hinders them from becoming productive members of the professoriate, positioning them at a disadvantage for…

  14. African American Girls' Descriptions of Life in High-Risk Neighborhoods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kruger, Ann Cale; Zabek, Faith; Collins, Staeshe; Harper, Erin A.; Hamilton, Chela; McGee, Miriam Chitescu; Perkins, Catherine; Meyers, Joel

    2016-01-01

    In disadvantaged neighborhoods African American girls are at elevated risk for exposure to violence and sexualization (Miller, 2008; Salazar, Wingood, DiClemente, Lan, & Harrington, 2004). Preventive interventions can promote resilience by supporting capacities such as social decision making and self-understanding (Masten, 2001). We report on…

  15. Structural health and the politics of African American masculinity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Metzl, Jonathan M

    2013-07-01

    This commentary describes ways in which notions of African American men's "health" attained by individual choice-embedded in the notion that African American men should visit doctors or engage in fewer risky behaviors-are at times in tension with larger cultural, economic, and political notions of "health." It argues that efforts to improve the health of Black men must take structural factors into account, and failure to do so circumvents even well-intentioned efforts to improve health outcomes. Using historical examples, the article shows how attempts to identify and intervene into what are now called social determinants of health are strengthened by addressing on-the-ground diagnostic disparities and also the structural violence and racism embedded within definitions of illness and health. And, that, as such, we need to monitor structural barriers to health that exist in institutions ostensibly set up to incarcerate or contain Black men and in institutions ostensibly set up to help them.

  16. Digital expression among urban, low-income African American adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baker, Christina M; Staiano, Amanda E; Calvert, Sandra L

    2011-01-01

    Digital production is a means through which African American adolescents communicate and express their experiences with peers. This study examined the content and the form of the digital productions of 24 urban, low-income African American adolescents who attended a summer academic program. The content of student digital productions focused on academic experiences and friendships. Their production styles revealed that youth used perceptually salient production features, such as rapid scene changes and loud rap music. The results suggest that when placed in a supportive, academic environment and provided with digital production resources, students who traditionally face barriers due to cultural and economic inequalities digitally express to their peers an interest in academics and positive peer relationships, and that these youth communicate their experiences through a shared production style that reflects their broader cultural experiences.

  17. The African-American History of Martha's Vineyard.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weintraub, Elaine

    1993-01-01

    Reports on research into African American history and experiences in Martha's Vineyard (Massachusetts). Examines primary sources and oral traditions of African American cultural and social history from 1703 to the present. Discusses African American sailors, race relations, and contributions by African American individuals to the community. (CFR)

  18. Mechanisms of Vowel Variation in African American English

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holt, Yolanda Feimster

    2018-01-01

    Purpose: This research explored mechanisms of vowel variation in African American English by comparing 2 geographically distant groups of African American and White American English speakers for participation in the African American Shift and the Southern Vowel Shift. Method: Thirty-two male (African American: n = 16, White American controls: n =…

  19. Economic disadvantage and young children's emotional and behavioral problems: mechanisms of risk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rijlaarsdam, Jolien; Stevens, Gonneke W J M; van der Ende, Jan; Hofman, Albert; Jaddoe, Vincent W V; Mackenbach, Johan P; Verhulst, Frank C; Tiemeier, Henning

    2013-01-01

    This study aimed to establish potential mechanisms through which economic disadvantage contributes to the development of young children's internalizing and externalizing problems. Prospective data from fetal life to age 3 years were collected in a total of 2,169 families participating in the Generation R Study. The observed physical home environment, the provision of learning materials in the home, maternal depressive symptoms, parenting stress, and harsh disciplining practices were all analyzed as potential mediators of the association between economic disadvantage and children's internalizing and externalizing problem scores. Findings from structural equation modeling showed that for both internalizing and externalizing problems, the mechanisms underlying the effect of economic disadvantage included maternal depressive symptoms, along with parenting stress and harsh disciplining. For internalizing but not for externalizing problem scores, the lack of provision of learning materials in the home was an additional mechanism explaining the effect of economic disadvantage. The current results suggest that interventions that focus solely on raising income levels may not adequately address problems in the family processes that emerge as a result of economic disadvantage. Policies to improve the mental health of mothers with young children but also their home environments are needed to change the economic gradient in child behavior.

  20. Temperament Influences on Parenting and Child Psychopathology: Socio-Economic Disadvantage as Moderator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flouri, Eirini

    2008-01-01

    Despite calls for research on how the socio-economic environment may be related to temperament, we still do not know enough about the relationship between temperament and socio-economic disadvantage (SED). A particularly under-researched question in temperament research is how SED may moderate the temperament-parenting and the temperament-child…

  1. The Great Recession and health risks in African American youth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Edith; Miller, Gregory E; Yu, Tianyi; Brody, Gene H

    2016-03-01

    In the present study, we investigated associations of macro-economic conditions - the Great Recession - with cellular epigenetic aging, allostatic load, and self-reported health, in a group that experiences significant health disparities, African Americans. A sample of 330 African American adolescents in Georgia was followed from pre-recession (2007, M age=16.6) to post-recession (2010, M age=19.3). Economic data were collected in both 2007 and 2010. Three groups were formed to represent economic trajectories across the period of the Great Recession (stable low economic hardship, downward mobility, and stable high economic hardship). At age 19, measures of cellular epigenetic aging (derived from leukocyte DNA methylation profiles, reflecting the disparity between a person's biological and chronological age), allostatic load (composite of blood pressure, C reactive protein, cortisol, epinephrine, norepinephrine, and body mass index), and adolescent self-report of health were obtained. Linear trend analyses documented significant differences across all outcomes. The more time adolescents spent under economic hardship, the higher their epigenetic aging [estimate=1.421, SE=0.466, p=.002] and allostatic load [estimate=1.151, SE=0.375, p=.002] scores, and the worse their self-report of health [estimate=4.957, SE=1.800, p=.006]. Specific group comparisons revealed that adolescents in the downward mobility group had higher levels of allostatic load than adolescents in the stable low hardship group [p<.05]. Overall, these findings suggest that the health profiles of African American youth may in part be shaped by environmental macro-economic societal conditions, and that effects on biological markers can be detected relatively early in life. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Concurrent sexual partnerships among African American women in Philadelphia: results from a qualitative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nunn, Amy; Dickman, Samuel; Cornwall, Alexandra; Kwakwa, Helena; Mayer, Kenneth H; Rana, Aadia; Rosengard, Cynthia

    2012-07-01

    African American women are disproportionately affected by HIV/AIDS. Concurrent sexual partnerships may contribute to racial disparities in HIV infection. Little is known about attitudes and practices related to concurrency among African American women, or the social, structural and behavioural factors influencing concurrency. We recruited 19 heterosexual African American women engaging in concurrent sexual partnerships from a public clinic in Philadelphia in 2009. We conducted interviews exploring social norms, attitudes and practices about concurrency, and the structural, social and behavioural factors influencing concurrent sexual partnerships, guided by grounded theory. Seventeen women reported one main and one or more non-main partners; two reported no main partners. Many women used condoms more frequently with non-main than main partners, noting they trust main partners more than non-main partners. Social factors included social normalisation of concurrency, inability to negotiate partners' concurrent partnerships, being unmarried, and not trusting partners. Lack of trust was the most commonly cited reason that women engaged in concurrent partnerships. Structural factors included economic dependence on partners, partners' dependence on women for economic support and incarceration that interrupted partnerships. Behavioural factors included alcohol and cocaine use. Social, structural and behavioural factors strongly influenced these African American women's concurrent sexual partnerships. Many HIV interventions disseminated by the CDC focus largely on behavioural factors and may fail to address the social and structural factors influencing African American women's sexual networks. Novel HIV prevention interventions that address the social determinants of African American women's HIV risks are urgently needed.

  3. Research with African Americans: Lessons Learned about Recruiting African American Women

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coker, Angela D.; Huang, Hsin-Hsin; Kashubeck-West, Susan

    2009-01-01

    The authors briefly explore literature related to recruiting African American research participants, reflect on their experiences conducting body image research with a sample of African American college women in an earlier study (S. Kashubeck-West et al., 2008), and discuss some methodological and cultural challenges that they encountered during…

  4. African American Pastors' Beliefs and Actions Regarding Childhood Incest in the African American Community

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wells, Tesia Denis

    2012-01-01

    This quantitative study sought to explore African American pastors' beliefs and actions regarding childhood incest in the African American community and their decisions to inform the proper authorities. This exploratory study was developed in order to draw both public and academic attention to the understudied phenomenon of childhood incest within…

  5. Teaching African American Youth: Learning from the Lives of Three African American Social Studies Teachers

    Science.gov (United States)

    McBride, Chantee Earl

    2010-01-01

    This study examines the life histories of three African American social studies teachers, focusing on the evolution and changes in their identities, perspectives, and attitudes related to their profession and instructional practice. In addition, the study addresses the significance of the teachers' racialized experiences as African Americans and…

  6. Understanding Tobacco Use Onset Among African Americans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roberts, Megan E; Colby, Suzanne M; Lu, Bo; Ferketich, Amy K

    2016-04-01

    Compared to the majority of non-Hispanic white ("white") cigarette smokers, many African American smokers demonstrate a later age of initiation. The goal of the present study was to examine African American late-onset smoking (ie, regular smoking beginning at age 18 or later) and determine whether late-onset (vs. early-onset) smoking is protective in terms of quit rates and health outcomes. We used data from the National Survey of Midlife Development in the United States (MIDUS) because the wide age range of participants (20-75 at baseline) allowed the examination of smoking cessation and mortality incidence across the lifespan. Consistent with previous research, results indicated a later average age of smoking onset among African Americans, compared to whites. Disentangling effects of race from age-of-onset, we found that the cessation rate among late-onset African American smokers was 33%, whereas rates for early-onset African American smokers and early- and late-onset white smokers ranged from 52% to 57%. Finally, results showed that among white, low-socioeconomic status (SES) smokers, the hazard rate for mortality was greater among early- versus late-onset smokers; in contrast, among African American smokers (both low- and high-SES) hazard rates for mortality did not significantly differ among early- versus late-onset smokers. Although late (vs. early) smoking onset may be protective for whites, the present results suggest that late-onset may not be similarly protective for African Americans. Tobacco programs and regulatory policies focused on prevention should expand their perspective to include later ages of initiation, in order to avoid widening tobacco-related health disparities. This study indicates that late-onset smoking is not only the norm among African American adult smokers, but that late- versus early-onset smoking (ie, delaying onset) does not appear to afford any benefits for African Americans in terms of cessation or mortality. These results

  7. Cytomegalovirus Infections among African-Americans

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Best Al M

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Since African-Americans have twice the prevalence of cytomegalovirus (CMV infections as age-matched Caucasians we sought to determine the ages and possible sources of infection of African-American children. Methods Subjects were 157 African-American healthy children and adolescents and their 113 household adults in Richmond VA. Families completed a questionnaire, provided saliva for antibody testing, and adolescents were interviewed regarding sexual activity. Results Regardless of age CMV seropositivity was not associated with gender, breast feeding, health insurance, sexual activity, or household income, education, or size. In the final regression model, prior CMV infection in adults was over two-fold higher than in children (chi-square = 18.8, p Conclusion We observed that African-American children had CMV seroprevalence rates by age 20 years at less than one-half of that of their adult mothers and caregivers. Sibling-to-sibling transmission was a likely source of CMV infections for the children. The next generation of African-American women may be highly susceptible to a primary CMV infection during pregnancy and may benefit from a CMV vaccine.

  8. Family and Personal Adjustment of Economically Disadvantaged Chinese Adolescents in Hong Kong

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel T. L. Shek

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available This study attempted to examine the relationship between poverty and adolescent developmental outcomes in the family and personal domains in 3,328 Chinese secondary school students in Hong Kong. Developmental outcomes included positive youth development constructs, problem behaviors, perceived family interaction, and parental parenting. Results showed that adolescents experiencing poverty did not differ from nonpoor adolescents in terms of risk behavior and in most indicators of positive youth development. On the other hand, adolescents with economic disadvantage displayed lower levels of positive identity, family interaction, and perceived paternal parenting than did those without economic disadvantage.

  9. The management of hypertension in African Americans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferdinand, Keith C; Armani, Annemarie M

    2007-06-01

    The prevalence of hypertension in blacks in the United States is among the highest in the world. Compared with whites, blacks develop hypertension at an earlier age, their average blood pressures are much higher and they experience worse disease severity. Consequently, blacks have a 1.3 times greater rate of nonfatal stroke, 1.8 times greater rate of fatal stroke, 1.5 times greater rate of heart disease death, 4.2 times greater rate of end-stage kidney disease, and a 50% higher frequency of heart failure; overall, mortality due to hypertension and its consequences is 4 to 5 times more likely in African Americans than in whites. The increased prevalence of hypertension and excessive target organ damage is due to a combination of genetic and, most likely, environmental factors. There are no clinical trial data at present to suggest that lower-than-usual BP targets should be set for high-risk demographic groups such as African Americans. The primary means of prevention and early treatment of hypertension in African Americans will be the appropriate use of lifestyle modification. The International Society of Hypertension in Blacks guidelines realize that most patients will require combination therapy, many of them first-line, to reach appropriate BP goals. Although certain classes and combinations of antihypertensive agents have been well-established to be effective, the choice of drugs for combination therapy in African American patients may be different. Within the African American group, the responsiveness to monotherapy with ACE inhibitors, angiotensin receptor blockers, and beta blockers may be less than the responsiveness to diuretics and calcium channel blockers, but these differences are corrected when diuretics are added to the neurohormonal antagonists. Of note, African American patients with systolic BP >15 mm Hg or a diastolic BP >10 mm Hg above goal should be treated with first-line combination therapy.

  10. Cancer statistics for African Americans, 2013.

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeSantis, Carol; Naishadham, Deepa; Jemal, Ahmedin

    2013-05-01

    In this article, the American Cancer Society estimates the number of new cancer cases and deaths for African Americans and compiles the most recent data on cancer incidence, mortality, survival, and screening prevalence based upon incidence data from the National Cancer Institute, the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, and the North American Association of Central Cancer Registries and mortality data from the National Center for Health Statistics. It is estimated that 176,620 new cases of cancer and 64,880 deaths will occur among African Americans in 2013. From 2000 to 2009, the overall cancer death rate among males declined faster among African Americans than whites (2.4% vs 1.7% per year), but among females, the rate of decline was similar (1.5% vs 1.4% per year, respectively). The decrease in cancer death rates among African American males was the largest of any racial or ethnic group. The reduction in overall cancer death rates since 1990 in men and 1991 in women translates to the avoidance of nearly 200,000 deaths from cancer among African Americans. Five-year relative survival is lower for African Americans than whites for most cancers at each stage of diagnosis. The extent to which these disparities reflect unequal access to health care versus other factors remains an active area of research. Overall, progress in reducing cancer death rates has been made, although more can and should be done to accelerate this progress through ensuring equitable access to cancer prevention, early detection, and state-of-the-art treatments. Copyright © 2013 American Cancer Society, Inc.

  11. Parental Depression and Economic Disadvantage: The Role of Parenting in Associations with Internalizing and Externalizing Symptoms in Children and Adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reising, Michelle M; Watson, Kelly H; Hardcastle, Emily J; Merchant, Mary Jane; Roberts, Lorinda; Forehand, Rex; Compas, Bruce E

    2013-04-01

    This study examined the effects of parental depression symptoms, economic disadvantage, and parenting behaviors in 180 children and adolescents of depressed parents (ages 9-15 years-old). Analyses revealed that while parental depression symptoms, economic disadvantage, and disrupted parenting behaviors were related to children's internalizing and externalizing symptoms, disrupted parenting (e.g., intrusive, neglectful parenting) accounted for the association of parental depressive symptoms and economic disadvantage with children's symptoms. This study provides evidence that disrupted parenting may be a common or shared process through which both parental depression and economic disadvantage are associated with children's internalizing and externalizing problems.

  12. Economically Disadvantaged Minority Girls' Knowledge and Perceptions of Science and Engineering and Related Careers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Hui-Hui; Billington, Barbara L.

    2016-01-01

    This article addresses economically disadvantaged minority girls' knowledge and perceptions of science and engineering and the influence of their experiences with science, technology, engineering, and mathematics (STEM) on their choices for future careers. We interviewed three girls who participated in a 4-H-led gender-inclusive STEM program. Our…

  13. Economic Disadvantage and Young Children's Emotional and Behavioral Problems: Mechanisms of Risk

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rijlaarsdam, Jolien; Stevens, Gonneke W. J. M.; van der Ende, Jan; Hofman, Albert; Jaddoe, Vincent W. V.; Mackenbach, Johan P.; Verhulst, Frank C.; Tiemeier, Henning

    2013-01-01

    This study aimed to establish potential mechanisms through which economic disadvantage contributes to the development of young children's internalizing and externalizing problems. Prospective data from fetal life to age 3 years were collected in a total of 2,169 families participating in the Generation R Study. The observed physical home…

  14. Predictors of Parenting among Economically Disadvantaged Latina Mothers: Mediating and Moderating Factors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prelow, Hazel M.; Weaver, Scott R.; Bowman, Marvella A.; Swenson, Rebecca R.

    2010-01-01

    Structural equation modeling was used to examine the role of ecological risk factors, maternal psychological distress, and social network support on the parenting behaviors of 535 economically disadvantaged Latina mothers, who were surveyed for the Welfare Children, & Families: A Three City Study. We predicted that ecological risk would…

  15. Relationship between Success in Extracurricular Programs and Student Academic Performance in Economically Disadvantaged High Schools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Killgo, Jay

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the common characteristics of economically disadvantaged schools that demonstrate success in academics and extracurricular activities. Mixed-method design was used for this study. The quantitative portion of the study determined the correlation between a school's performance in extracurricular activities,…

  16. Exploring School- and Home-Related Protective Factors for Economically Disadvantaged Middle School Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okilwa, Nathern S. A.

    2016-01-01

    This study explored the experiences of middle school students, particularly focusing on the academic achievement of economically disadvantaged students. For low SES middle school students, the known cumulative effects of poverty coupled with school transition and early adolescence development heighten the potential risks for school failure. By…

  17. Economic disadvantage and young children's emotional and behavioral problems: Mechanisms of risk

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    J. Rijlaarsdam (Jolien); G. Stevens (Gonneke); J. van der Ende (Jan); A. Hofman (Albert); V.W.V. Jaddoe (Vincent); J.P. Mackenbach (Johan); F.C. Verhulst (Frank); H.W. Tiemeier (Henning)

    2013-01-01

    textabstractThis study aimed to establish potential mechanisms through which economic disadvantage contributes to the development of young children's internalizing and externalizing problems. Prospective data from fetal life to age 3 years were collected in a total of 2,169 families participating in

  18. Fear of Neighborhood Violence During Adolescence Predicts Development of Obesity a Decade Later: Gender Differences Among African Americans

    Science.gov (United States)

    Assari, Shervin; Moghani Lankarani, Maryam; Caldwell, Cleopatra Howard; Zimmerman, Marc A

    2016-01-01

    Background African American youth are more likely than other racial and ethnic groups to be obese. African American youth are also more likely to live in disadvantaged neighborhoods which increase their victimization, observation, and fear of violence. Objectives This study tested if victimization, observation, and fear of violence in the neighborhood during adolescence predict trajectory of body mass index (BMI) in the 3rd decade of life in African Americans. Patients and Methods Data came from an 18-year community-based cohort. We used multi-group latent growth curve modeling for data analysis, considering neighborhood violence at age 15 (i.e. victimization, observation, and fear) as predictors, and the linear slope for the average change in BMI from age 21 to 32 as the outcome, with age and socioeconomic status (i.e. intact family and parental employment) as covariates. Results Fear of neighborhood violence at age 15 was predictive of an increase in BMI from age 21 to 32 among female but not male African Americans. Victimization and observation of violence at age 15 did not predict BMI change from age 21 to 32 among female or male African Americans. Conclusions Fear of neighborhood violence is a contributing factor to increased risk of obesity for female African American youth who live in disadvantaged areas. This finding has implications for prevention of obesity among African American women who are at highest risk for obesity in the United States. Initiatives that enhance neighborhood safety are critical strategies for obesity prevention among African American women. PMID:27679791

  19. Food insecurity is associated with past and present economic disadvantage and body mass index.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarlio-Lähteenkorva, S; Lahelma, E

    2001-11-01

    Fears and experiences of food restriction influence eating behavior but the association between past and present economic disadvantage, food insecurity and body size is poorly understood. Therefore, we examined these associations in a nationwide, representative sample of 25- to 64-y-old Finnish men and women (n = 6506). The respondents were classified by their body mass index (BMI) into four groups: thin, normal, overweight and obese. Economic disadvantage was assessed by three indicators including low household income, unemployment during past 5 y and long-term economic problems in childhood. Food insecurity was assessed by five separate items concerning economic fears and experiences related to sufficient supply of food during the past 12 mo, and a combined scale in which those with affirmative responses to four to five items were classified as hungry. Multivariable logistic regression analyses were conducted using both the BMI grouping and indicators of economic disadvantage as independent variables to predict food insecurity, controlling simultaneously for age, educational attainment and sex. The results showed that low household income, recent unemployment and economic problems in childhood were all predictors of food insecurity. Thin people were most likely to be hungry and showed most food insecurity in five separate items. In addition, obese people reported more buying cheaper food due to economic problems and fears or experiences of running out of money to buy food than did normal weight subjects. In conclusion, both past and present economic disadvantage is associated with various aspects of food insecurity. The association between food insecurity and BMI is curvilinear.

  20. Educational Resilience in African American Adolescents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cunningham, Michael; Swanson, Dena Phillips

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this article was to examine factors within the school context that facilitates educational resilience among African American high school students. The authors expected academic self-esteem to be positively associated with future expectations (academic and general). They expected perceptions of school-based social support to have…

  1. Legacy of a Pioneer African American Educator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cazers, Gunars; Curtner-Smith, Matthew

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose was to reconstruct the historical and legendary contribution of one exemplary African American physical education teacher educator who lived and worked in the Deep South prior to and immediately following the 1954 Brown v. Board of Education court case. The following questions guided data collection and analysis: To what…

  2. African American School Psychology Program Leavers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Proctor, Sherrie Lynn

    2010-01-01

    This phenomenology used 21 in-depth interviews to explore seven African Americans' experiences at the school psychology programs they left. The purpose was to investigate what experiences contributed to participants' decisions to leave programs; if programs used retention strategies and if so, participants' view of the strategies; and what…

  3. African American Women Counselors, Wellness, and Spirituality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knowles, Debora; Bryant, Rhonda M.

    2011-01-01

    Given their tremendous professional responsibilities, professional counselors face daunting challenges to remaining healthy and avoiding role stress and overload. This article explores the intersection of race, gender, wellness, and spirituality in the self-care of African American women counselors. The authors give particular attention to…

  4. African-Americans and Heart Disease, Stroke

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Thromboembolism Aortic Aneurysm More African-Americans and Heart Disease, Stroke Updated:Aug 22,2017 Heart disease is the ... a marathon.” Learn more: Family History and Heart Disease, Stroke Make the Effort to Prevent Heart Disease with ...

  5. African-American Axioms and Maxims.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zulu, Itibari M.

    1998-01-01

    Examines and describes 30 African-American centered quotation and motivational books, all but one of which were published between 1993 and 1997. The books articulate a diversity of genres and themes. Annotations are divided into: (1) general quotation; (2) daily words and meditation/motivation sources; (3) religion and theology; and (4)…

  6. 2000 African American History Month Celebration Luncheon

    Science.gov (United States)

    2000-01-01

    Mack McKinney (left), chief, Programs Resources Management, and Delores Abraham (right), with the Astronaut office, flank one of the posters decorating the Early Space Exploration Conference Center at the KSC Visitor Complex for the 2000 African American History Month Celebration Luncheon. McKinney is chairperson for the event.

  7. African American Homeschooling Practices: Empirical Evidence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mazama, Ama

    2016-01-01

    Despite a significant increase in scholarly interest for homeschooling, some of its most critical aspects, such as instructional daily practices, remain grossly understudied. This essay thus seeks to fill that void by presenting empirical evidence regarding the homeschooling practices of a specific group, African Americans. Most specifically, the…

  8. Cash, cars, and condoms: economic factors in disadvantaged adolescent women's condom use.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosenbaum, Janet; Zenilman, Jonathan; Rose, Eve; Wingood, Gina; DiClemente, Ralph

    2012-09-01

    Evaluate whether adolescent women who received economic benefits from their boyfriends were more likely never to use condoms. Data are obtained from a longitudinal HIV prevention intervention study with 715 African American adolescent women in urban Atlanta surveyed at baseline, 6 months, and 12 months. The primary outcome was never using condoms in the past 14 and 60 days at 6 and 12 months. The primary predictor was having a boyfriend as primary spending money source at baseline. Analysis minimized confounding using propensity weighting to balance respondents on 81 variables. A boyfriend was the primary spending money source for 24% of respondents, who did not differ in neighborhood or family context but had lower education, more abuse history, riskier sex, and more sexually transmitted infections. After propensity score weighting, no statistically significant differences for 81 evaluated covariates remained, including age distributions. Women whose boyfriend was their primary spending money source were 50% more likely never to use condoms at 6 and 12 months and less likely to respond to the intervention at 12 months. Women whose boyfriend had been their primary spending money source but found another spending money source were more likely to start using condoms than women who continued. Women whose boyfriends owned cars were more likely never to use condoms. Receiving spending money from a boyfriend is common among adolescent women in populations targeted by pregnancy and sexually transmitted infection prevention interventions, and may undermine interventions' effectiveness. Clinicians and reproductive health interventions need to address females' economic circumstances. Copyright © 2012 Society for Adolescent Health and Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. School Counseling for African American Adolescents: The Alfred Adler Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sapp, Marty

    2010-01-01

    This article discusses how Adlerian counseling can be used as a form of school counseling for African American adolescents. Moreover, school counseling for African American adolescents is discussed within the context of African American culture. Due to the strength-based nature of Adlerian approach, it can capitalize on African American…

  10. Voices of African American Families: Perspectives on Residential Treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kruzich, Jean M.; Friesen, Barbara J.; Williams-Murphy, Tracy; Longley, M. J.

    2002-01-01

    Examines families' perceptions about involvement in residential treatment from the viewpoints of African American and non-African American family members. Focus group interviews found that all family members shared some common positive and negative experiences. However, unique issues remained for African American caregivers. Implications for…

  11. Perceptions of Domestic Violence: A Dialogue with African American Women

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bent-Goodley, Tricia B.

    2004-01-01

    Although empirical research has accumulated over the past 20 years regarding African Americans and domestic violence, many questions remain about African American perceptions of domestic violence. This article explores African American women's perceptions about domestic violence through three focus groups held at a New York social services agency.…

  12. Black Lives Matter: Teaching African American Literature and the Struggle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gross, Jeffrey

    2016-01-01

    In theorizing how we should pedagogically approach African American literature, especially in courses for undergraduates, I argue that we have to move away from questions of what was or even what is African American literature and, instead, find ways to teach African American literature in both its historical contexts--artistic and political--and…

  13. From Crisis to Empowerment: African American Women in Community Colleges

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bates, Marcie Ann

    2012-01-01

    Social challenges tear at the fabric of the African American family, revealing complexities that identify a de facto leader, the African American woman. She exists in a chasm of overt circumstances which heavily influences her successes. The purpose of this study is to identify factors that motivated seven female African American community college…

  14. African American Educational Leadership in the School Superintendency

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Eva C.

    2013-01-01

    African American educational leadership has long been part of American education and African American activism to resist oppression. However, the field of educational leadership has rarely included the contributions of African American leaders, particularly women leaders, into mainstream leadership theory and practices. This omission is difficult…

  15. African American Single Mothers Raising Sons: Implications for Family Therapy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gantt, Ann L.; Greif, Geoffrey L.

    2009-01-01

    Being raised by a single mother is one factor that has been suggested as contributing to the plight of African American males. Yet few studies have focused specifically on African American single mothers' experiences with raising sons. This qualitative study explored the following questions: (1) What are the experiences of African American single…

  16. 77 FR 5375 - National African American History Month, 2012

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-02-03

    ... History Month, we celebrate the rich legacy of African Americans and honor the remarkable contributions... History,'' invites us to pay special tribute to the role African American women have played in shaping the... National African American History Month, 2012 By the President of the United States of America A...

  17. Oral Cancer in African Americans: Addressing Health Disparities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dodd, Virginia J.; Watson, Jennifer M.; Choi, Youjin; Tomar, Scott L.; Logan, Henrietta L.

    2008-01-01

    Objectives: To explore factors underlying African Americans' perceptions of oral cancer and the oral cancer exam. Study findings were used to guide development of oral cancer messages designed to increase oral cancer exams among African Americans. Methods: Focus groups were conducted to understand African Americans' attitudes and expectations…

  18. An Exploration of African American Students' Attitudes toward Online Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okwumabua, Theresa M.; Walker, Kristin M.; Hu, Xiangen; Watson, Andrea

    2011-01-01

    The current work presents exploratory research findings concerning African American students' attitudes toward online learning. The Online Tutoring Attitudes Scale (OTAS; Graff, 2003) was administered to 124 African American students in a positive youth development program. Findings suggest that African American students' attitudes toward…

  19. Representing African American Women in U.S. History Textbooks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schocker, Jessica B.; Woyshner, Christine

    2013-01-01

    This article addresses the dearth of African American women in high school U.S. history textbooks. The authors conducted a content analysis of the images in an African American history textbook and found that black women are underrepresented. Women are found in less than 15 percent of the images in the African American history text, while they…

  20. Gender Differences in African American Attitudes toward Gay Males.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Battle, Juan; Lemelle, Anthony J., Jr.

    2002-01-01

    Used data from the 1993 National Black Politics Study to examine the way gender worked in explaining African American attitudes toward gay men. Results indicated that African American females expressed more positive attitudes toward homosexual men than did African American males, and of the variables examined (including age, church attendance,…

  1. Aspects of Spatial Economic Processes of Disadvantaged Areas in Hungarian and International Perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    KITTI NÉMEDI-KOLLÁR

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The examination of disadvantaged regions goes back to a long history, greatly influenced by the ever-changing natural, economic and human resources. Consequently, while examining the disadvantaged areas, we face new systems of coherences. Today’s regional policy also needs to answer the question whether the spatial development funds of the past have been efficient or not and whether the land use distribution influences the spatial competitiveness or not. As we move towards 2015, we must consider the actual state of delivery of the Millennium Development Goals (MDGs in the Least Developed Countries (LDCs and address the above-mentioned issues in order to realise the international political commitment to leave no one behind. In this paper, we have shown some aspects of spatial economic processes through the example of the Hungarian disadvantaged areas. These issues are timely because the usefulness of the research is important, ranging from rural development to spatial planning and the elaboration of local and regional development strategies. Spatial discrepancies in Hungary cause the disadvantage of rural areas, contributing to their lagging behind compared to the urban areas (Kollár, 2012.

  2. Predicting Non-African American Lesbian and Heterosexual Preadoptive Couples' Openness to Adopting an African American Child

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldberg, Abbie E.; Smith, JuliAnna Z.

    2009-01-01

    Despite increases in transracial adoption, African American children remain the least likely to be adopted. No research has examined the factors that predict prospective adopters' willingness to adopt an African American child. This study used multilevel modeling to examine predictors of willingness to adopt an African American child in a sample…

  3. Family adversity and inhibitory control for economically disadvantaged children: preschool relations and associations with school readiness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Eleanor D; Ackerman, Brian P; Moore, Charlee A

    2013-06-01

    This study examined longitudinal relations linking aspects of family adversity to inhibitory control and school readiness for 120 economically disadvantaged children attending a Head Start preschool. The aspects of family adversity included income-to-needs ratios and an adversity index representing family instability and family chaos. The results showed that the adversity index but not the income ratios contributed to explaining diversity in the development of inhibitory control over the course of the preschool year. Additionally, the adversity index predicted school readiness at the end of the year, and the results suggested that inhibitory control mediated this effect. The implications concern understanding family sources of diversity in inhibitory control for economically disadvantaged preschool children. PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2013 APA, all rights reserved.

  4. Economic Disadvantage and Young Children?s Emotional and Behavioral Problems: Mechanisms of Risk

    OpenAIRE

    Rijlaarsdam, Jolien; Stevens, Gonneke W. J. M.; van der Ende, Jan; Hofman, Albert; Jaddoe, Vincent W. V.; Mackenbach, Johan P.; Verhulst, Frank C.; Tiemeier, Henning

    2012-01-01

    This study aimed to establish potential mechanisms through which economic disadvantage contributes to the development of young children?s internalizing and externalizing problems. Prospective data from fetal life to age 3?years were collected in a total of 2,169 families participating in the Generation R Study. The observed physical home environment, the provision of learning materials in the home, maternal depressive symptoms, parenting stress, and harsh disciplining practices were all analy...

  5. High frequency of silent brain infarcts associated with cognitive deficits in an economically disadvantaged population

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paula Squarzoni

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: Using magnetic resonance imaging, we aimed to assess the presence of silent brain vascular lesions in a sample of apparently healthy elderly individuals who were recruited from an economically disadvantaged urban region (São Paulo, Brazil. We also wished to investigate whether the findings were associated with worse cognitive performance. METHODS: A sample of 250 elderly subjects (66-75 years without dementia or neuropsychiatric disorders were recruited from predefined census sectors of an economically disadvantaged area of Sao Paulo and received structural magnetic resonance imaging scans and cognitive testing. A high proportion of individuals had very low levels of education (4 years or less, n=185; 21 with no formal education. RESULTS: The prevalence of at least one silent vascular-related cortical or subcortical lesion was 22.8% (95% confidence interval, 17.7-28.5, and the basal ganglia was the most frequently affected site (63.14% of cases. The subgroup with brain infarcts presented significantly lower levels of education than the subgroup with no brain lesions as well as significantly worse current performance in cognitive test domains, including memory and attention (p<0.002. CONCLUSIONS: Silent brain infarcts were present at a substantially high frequency in our elderly sample from an economically disadvantaged urban region and were significantly more prevalent in subjects with lower levels of education. Covert cerebrovascular disease significantly contributes to cognitive deficits, and in the absence of magnetic resonance imaging data, this cognitive impairment may be considered simply related to ageing. Emphatic attention should be paid to potentially deleterious effects of vascular brain lesions in poorly educated elderly individuals from economically disadvantaged environments.

  6. Mechanisms of Vowel Variation in African American English.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holt, Yolanda Feimster

    2018-02-15

    This research explored mechanisms of vowel variation in African American English by comparing 2 geographically distant groups of African American and White American English speakers for participation in the African American Shift and the Southern Vowel Shift. Thirty-two male (African American: n = 16, White American controls: n = 16) lifelong residents of cities in eastern and western North Carolina produced heed,hid,heyd,head,had,hod,hawed,whod,hood,hoed,hide,howed,hoyd, and heard 3 times each in random order. Formant frequency, duration, and acoustic analyses were completed for the vowels /i, ɪ, e, ɛ, æ, ɑ, ɔ, u, ʊ, o, aɪ, aʊ, oɪ, ɝ/ produced in the listed words. African American English speakers show vowel variation. In the west, the African American English speakers are participating in the Southern Vowel Shift and hod fronting of the African American Shift. In the east, neither the African American English speakers nor their White peers are participating in the Southern Vowel Shift. The African American English speakers show limited participation in the African American Shift. The results provide evidence of regional and socio-ethnic variation in African American English in North Carolina.

  7. Postpartum depression among African-American women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amankwaa, Linda Clark

    2003-01-01

    The purpose of this qualitative study was to describe the nature of postpartum depression (PPD) among African-American women. Twelve women, who had experienced PPD within the last three years, were interviewed for approximately one hour at two intervals. Nudist-4 software and the constant comparative method were used to analyze the data. Five themes "Stressing Out," "Feeling Down," "Losing It," "Seeking Help," and "Feeling Better" represented aspects of PPD as experienced by the participants. The last theme, "Dealing with It," represented the cultural ways in which African-American mothers managed their depression. These included Keeping the Faith, Trying to Be a Strong Black Woman, Living with Myths, and Keeping Secrets. Suggestions for future directions in nursing research are included.

  8. The Development of African American Literature

    OpenAIRE

    DEROUICHE, aicha

    2016-01-01

    In America, racism spread around the country especially in the South. Black people were treated badly. They did not have full rights as the white citizens. Due to these facts, many black writers responded with a set of literary works and used their skill in writing to reflect on their life. Thus, they have reached an artistic level and produced creative works. This research work deals with African American Literature which has appeared due to some historical circumstances. I...

  9. SUBJECTIVE MEMORY IN OLDER AFRICAN AMERICANS

    OpenAIRE

    Sims, Regina C.; Whitfield, Keith E.; Ayotte, Brian J.; Gamaldo, Alyssa A.; Edwards, Christopher L.; Allaire, Jason C.

    2011-01-01

    The current analysis examined (a) if measures of psychological well-being predict subjective memory, and (b) if subjective memory is consistent with actual memory. Five hundred seventy-nine older African Americans from the Baltimore Study of Black Aging completed measures assessing subjective memory, depressive symptomatology, perceived stress, locus of control, and verbal and working memory. Higher levels of perceived stress and greater externalized locus of control predicted poorer subjecti...

  10. African American teen mothers' perceptions of parenting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wayland, J; Rawlins, R

    1997-02-01

    The purpose of this study was to describe the childbearing African American teens' perceptions of parenting based on their own experiences. Focus group discussions were held with 17 teens in their school setting for 50 minutes each week. Group discussions were audiotaped, tapes were transcribed, and then analyzed for common themes. The unmarried teens ranged in age from 15 to 18 years. Findings indicated that the teens depended on grandmothers to provide child care and for information about parenting. The teens identified parenting problems including crying, discipline, and conflicts dealing with grandmothers and the child's father. Teens wanted more information about breastfeeding and minor childhood diseases. The researchers identified that teens lacked information about their children's growth and development and safety issues. Findings have implications for nurses who care for childbearing teens and their children; and those involved in planning and implementing parent education programs for African American teen mothers and their families. Further research is indicated with larger samples of African American teens; and to explore the context of family relationships in which teen mothers and grandmothers share parenting for the teens' children.

  11. Weight Status and High Blood Pressure Among Low-Income African American Men

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bruce, Marino A.; Beech, Bettina M.; Edwards, Christopher L.; Sims, Mario; Scarinci, Isabel; Whitfield, Keith E.; Gilbert, Keon; Crook, Errol D.

    2016-01-01

    Obesity is a biological risk factor or comorbidity that has not received much attention from scientists studying hypertension among African American men. The purpose of this study was to examine the relationship between weight status and high blood pressure among African American men with few economic resources. The authors used surveillance data collected from low-income adults attending community- and faith-based primary care clinics in West Tennessee to estimate pooled and group-specific regression models of high blood pressure. The results from group-specific logistic regression models indicate that the factors associated with hypertension varied considerably by weight status. This study provides a glimpse into the complex relationship between weight status and high blood pressure status among African American men. Additional research is needed to identify mechanisms through which excess weight affects the development and progression of high blood pressure. PMID:20937738

  12. Teacher and Observer Ratings of Young African American Children's Social and Emotional Competence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Humphries, Marisha L.; Keenan, Kate; Wakschlag, Lauren S.

    2012-01-01

    Children's social and emotional competence abilities have been linked to successful social interactions and academic performance. This study examined the teacher and observer ratings of social and emotional competence for 89 young (3- to 5-year-old), African American children from economically stressed urban environments. There was a specific…

  13. African American College Student Retention and the Ecological Psychology of Historically Black Colleges.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, M. Christopher, II

    1998-01-01

    Discusses the dominant historic, economic, political, and social issues which affect the retention of African American college students through studies on ecological psychology. Considers the behaviors demonstrated by historically Black colleges which translate into effective retention policies or practices for predominantly White institutions.…

  14. Improving the Quality of Life for Rural Elderly African Americans through Education: A Nontraditional Approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spence, Susie A.

    1997-01-01

    Describes a program designed to help rural elderly African Americans acquire daily living skills, conducted in their homes to reduce transportation problems and increase participation. The design takes into account characteristics of the population, such as age, health, economic conditions, race, educational level, and support systems. (SK)

  15. Marriage Expectations among African American Couples in Early Adulthood: A Dyadic Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barr, Ashley B.; Simons, Ronald L.

    2012-01-01

    Using Family and Community Health Study data consisting of 168 unmarried, primarily African American couples, the current study sought to understand the dyadic interplay among school, work, and partner-specific marriage expectations in early adulthood. Drawing on the economic prospects, adult transitions, and work-family literatures, the authors…

  16. Pubertal Timing and its Link to Behavioral and Emotional Problems Among African American Adolescent Girls

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carter, Rona; Jaccard, James; Silverman, Wendy K.; Pina, Armando A.

    2009-01-01

    Using an ‘at-risk’ sample of African American girls, the present study examined the link between girls' retrospective reports of pubertal timing, girls' perceived relative pubertal timing, and their behavioral and emotional problems as rated by the girls themselves (N = 102; 11 to 17 years), as well as teachers and parents. Structural equation modeling results indicated that the girls' retrospective reports of menarche were significantly related to their perceived relative menarche, whereas the girls' retrospective reports of development of their breasts were not related to their perceived relative development of breasts. Girls who perceived their breasts developing early relative to their peers were more likely to engage in delinquent behaviors according to teacher report. Significant effects of teacher reported adolescent internalizing problems also were found for girls who retrospectively reported either early or late development of breasts. The study's findings underscore the importance of teasing apart the effects of different indicators of girls' pubertal development on psychosocial adjustment and including teachers' reports of girls' emotional and behavioral problems, particularly among girls with the additional risks associated with residing in an economically disadvantaged urban setting. PMID:18801563

  17. Mayo's Older African Americans Normative Studies: WMS-R norms for African American elders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lucas, John A; Ivnik, Robert J; Smith, Glenn E; Ferman, Tanis J; Willis, Floyd B; Petersen, Ronald C; Graff-Radford, Neill R

    2005-06-01

    Norms for African American elders on the Wechsler Memory Scale-Revised (WMS-R) were derived from a sample of 309 community-dwelling individuals participating in Mayo's Older African Americans Normative Studies (MOAANS). Normative estimates are provided for traditional WMS-R subtest scores and for supplemental procedures to evaluate forgetting rates and recognition memory. Tables are provided to convert raw WMS-R subtest and supplemental scores to age-corrected scaled scores. These may be further adjusted for years of education, if desired, by applying regression-based corrections. We anticipate that these data will enhance the diagnostic utility and clinical interpretation of WMS-R performance in older African Americans.

  18. Socioeconomic Status, Financial Strain, and Leukocyte Telomere Length in a Sample of African American Midlife Men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schrock, Joshua M; Adler, Nancy E; Epel, Elissa S; Nuru-Jeter, Amani M; Lin, Jue; Blackburn, Elizabeth H; Taylor, Robert Joseph; Chae, David H

    2017-06-20

    African American men in the USA experience poorer aging-related health outcomes compared to their White counterparts, partially due to socioeconomic disparities along racial lines. Greater exposure to socioeconomic strains among African American men may adversely impact health and aging at the cellular level, as indexed by shorter leukocyte telomere length (LTL). This study examined associations between socioeconomic factors and LTL among African American men in midlife, a life course stage when heterogeneity in both health and socioeconomic status are particularly pronounced. Using multinomial logistic regression, we examined associations between multiple measures of SES and tertiles of LTL in a sample of 92 African American men between 30 to 50 years of age. Reports of greater financial strain were associated with higher odds of short versus medium LTL (odds ratio (OR)=2.21, p = 0.03). Higher income was associated with lower odds of short versus medium telomeres (OR=0.97, p = 0.04). Exploratory analyses revealed a significant interaction between educational attainment and employment status (χ 2  = 4.07, p = 0.04), with greater education associated with lower odds of short versus long telomeres only among those not employed (OR=0.10, p = 0.040). Cellular aging associated with multiple dimensions of socioeconomic adversity may contribute to poor aging-related health outcomes among African American men. Subjective appraisal of financial difficulty may impact LTL independently of objective dimensions of SES. Self-appraised success in fulfilling traditionally masculine gender roles, including being an economic provider, may be a particularly salient aspect of identity for African American men and have implications for cellular aging in this population.

  19. The college life experiences of African American women athletes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sellers, R M; Kuperminc, G P; Damas, A

    1997-10-01

    The present study provides a descriptive analysis of four areas of African American women student athletes' college life experiences: academic performance; alienation and abuse; perceived social advantage as the result of athletics; and life satisfaction. Multivariate comparisons were made between the four areas of college life experiences of 154 African American women student athletes and 793 White women student athletes, 250 African American women nonathletes, and 628 African American men student athletes from a national sample of 39 NCAA Division I universities. Overall, African American women student athletes are performing adequately academically, integrating socially within the university, perceiving some social advantage as the result of being athletes, and are fairly satisfied with their life. Their experiences seem most consistent with African American women nonathletes. Results are discussed in the context of potential policy recommendations as well as the need for more research on this particular population.

  20. African American Visual Artists in France

    OpenAIRE

    Sanconie, Maïca

    2009-01-01

    This paper presents a panorama of the presence of African-American artists in France over the last 30 years or so: from 1979, when I met Michel Fabre, under whose direction I wrote my doctoral dissertation – completed in 1984 – up to and including my participation in Michel and Geneviève Fabre’s activities with the Cercle d’études afro-américaines. I have divided this time into three periods, all predicated on the extraordinary advent of Basquiat’s art in France in the late 1980s. These perio...

  1. African American film sound: scoring blackness

    OpenAIRE

    Doughty, Ruth

    2008-01-01

    The term ‘black music’ has long been a cause for contention. What do we mean by music being ‘black’, or more specifically in the case of this chapter, African American? The music industry has typically marketed products via the categorization of specific genres: for example, jazz, blues, soul, funk and rap. These generic types are often classified as ‘black music’. Philip Tagg vehemently debates the suitability of such an essentializing label, as he correctly argues that aesthetic practice is...

  2. Equipping African American Clergy to Recognize Depression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anthony, Jean Spann; Morris, Edith; Collins, Charles W; Watson, Albert; Williams, Jennifer E; Ferguson, Bʼnai; Ruhlman, Deborah L

    2016-01-01

    Many African Americans (AAs) use clergy as their primary source of help for depression, with few being referred to mental health providers. This study used face-to-face workshops to train AA clergy to recognize the symptoms and levels of severity of depression. A pretest/posttest format was used to test knowledge (N = 42) about depression symptoms. Results showed that the participation improved the clergy's ability to recognize depression symptoms. Faith community nurses can develop workshops for clergy to improve recognition and treatment of depression.

  3. Parental Depression and Economic Disadvantage: The Role of Parenting in Associations with Internalizing and Externalizing Symptoms in Children and Adolescents

    OpenAIRE

    Reising, Michelle M.; Watson, Kelly H.; Hardcastle, Emily J.; Merchant, Mary Jane; Roberts, Lorinda; Forehand, Rex; Compas, Bruce E.

    2013-01-01

    This study examined the effects of parental depression symptoms, economic disadvantage, and parenting behaviors in 180 children and adolescents of depressed parents (ages 9–15 years-old). Analyses revealed that while parental depression symptoms, economic disadvantage, and disrupted parenting behaviors were related to children’s internalizing and externalizing symptoms, disrupted parenting (e.g., intrusive, neglectful parenting) accounted for the association of parental depressive symptoms an...

  4. A longitudinal study of parenting and adolescent adjustment in Chinese adolescents with economic disadvantage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shek, Daniel T L

    2003-01-01

    This longitudinal study examines the relationship between parenting behavior and adolescent adjustment (psychological well-being, substance abuse and delinquent behavior) in Chinese adolescents with economic disadvantage (N = 199). Results showed that parenting characteristics were concurrently and longitudinally related to measures of adolescent adjustment, particularly adolescent problem behavior. Compared with the norm based on adolescents of a community sample, poor adolescents perceived parenting characteristics to be more negative and they had relatively lower life satisfaction. Paternal parenting was perceived to be more negative than maternal parenting and parenting behavior was perceived to deteriorate over time.

  5. The Reflection of Race and Law in African American Literature

    OpenAIRE

    Peter Schneck

    2008-01-01

    Since the law has been crucial in defining and delineating the dimensions of African American experience both in slavery and in freedom, the encounter with the American legal system and its representatives has left a strong imprint on African American cultural and literary memory and expression. The article sketches out a few aspects and features which characterize the reflection of law and race in African American culture and literature.

  6. The Reflection of Race and Law in African American Literature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter Schneck

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available Since the law has been crucial in defining and delineating the dimensions of African American experience both in slavery and in freedom, the encounter with the American legal system and its representatives has left a strong imprint on African American cultural and literary memory and expression. The article sketches out a few aspects and features which characterize the reflection of law and race in African American culture and literature.

  7. KSC kicks off African-American History Month

    Science.gov (United States)

    2000-01-01

    Michelle Amos, mistress of ceremonies for the kick-off of African-American History Month, works with the audience to assist them in the pronunciation of a few token words in native Swahili. The theme for this year's observation is 'Heritage and Horizons: The African-American Legacy and the Challenges of the 21st Century.' February is designated each year as a time to celebrate the achievements and contributions of African Americans to Kennedy Space Center, NASA and the nation.

  8. Online Health Information and Low-Literacy African Americans

    OpenAIRE

    Birru, Mehret S; Steinman, Richard A

    2004-01-01

    African Americans with low incomes and low literacy levels disproportionately suffer poor health outcomes from many preventable diseases. Low functional literacy and low health literacy impede millions of Americans from successfully accessing health information. These problems are compounded for African Americans by cultural insensitivity in health materials. The Internet could become a useful tool for providing accessible health information to low-literacy and low-income African Americans. O...

  9. The role of socio-economic disadvantage in the development of comorbid emotional and conduct problems in children with ADHD.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flouri, Eirini; Midouhas, Emily; Ruddy, Alexandra; Moulton, Vanessa

    2017-06-01

    Previous research shows that, compared to children without ADHD, children with ADHD have worse socio-emotional outcomes and more experience of socio-economic disadvantage. In this study, we explored if and how the increased emotional and behavioural difficulties faced by children with ADHD may be accounted for by their more disadvantaged socio-economic circumstances. Our study, using data from 180 children (149 boys) with ADHD from the Millennium Cohort Study, had two aims. First, to examine the role of socio-economic disadvantage in the trajectories of emotional and conduct problems in children with ADHD at ages 3, 5, 7 and 11 years. Second, to explore the roles of the home environment (household chaos) and parenting (quality of emotional support, quality of the parent-child relationship and harsh parental discipline) in mediating any associations between socio-economic disadvantage and child emotional and conduct problems. Using growth curve models, we found that socio-economic disadvantage was associated with emotional and conduct problems but neither the home environment nor parenting attenuated this association. Lower quality of the parent-child relationship and harsher discipline were associated with more conduct problems. It appears that socio-economic disadvantage and parenting contribute independently to the prediction of comorbid psychopathology in children with ADHD.

  10. Troubled times, troubled relationships: how economic resources, gender beliefs, and neighborhood disadvantage influence intimate partner violence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Golden, Shelley D; Perreira, Krista M; Durrance, Christine Piette

    2013-07-01

    We evaluate race/ethnicity and nativity-based disparities in three different types of intimate partner violence (IPV) and examine how economic hardship, maternal economic dependency, maternal gender beliefs, and neighborhood disadvantage influence these disparities. Using nationally representative data from urban mothers of young children who are living with their intimate partners (N = 1,886), we estimate a series of unadjusted and adjusted logit models on mothers' reports of physical assault, emotional abuse, and coercion. When their children were age 3, more than one in five mothers were living with a partner who abused them. The prevalence of any IPV was highest among Hispanic (26%) and foreign-born (35%) mothers. Economic hardship, economic dependency on a romantic partner, and traditional gender beliefs each increased women's risk for exposure to one or more types of IPV, whereas neighborhood conditions were not significantly related to IPV in adjusted models. These factors also explained most of the racial/ethnic and nativity disparities in IPV. Policies and programs that reduce economic hardship among women with young children, promote women's economic independence, and foster gender equity in romantic partnerships can potentially reduce multiple forms of IPV.

  11. African American Literature, 1989-94: An Annotated Bibliography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, R. Baxter; Butts, Tracy; Jones, Sharon

    1997-01-01

    Contains an annotated bibliography of African American literature (published between 1989 and 1994), including anthologies, fiction, poetry, drama, criticism, cultural studies, biography, interviews, and letters. (TB)

  12. Bullying and victimization among African American adolescents: a literature review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Albdour, Maha; Krouse, Helene J

    2014-05-01

    Bullying among African American adolescents. This article reviews the current literature on bullying and victimization among African American adolescents. It highlights bullying and violence disparity among African American adolescents, associated risk and protective factors, and effects of bullying on adolescent health. Twenty-three English language peer-reviewed articles from CINAHL, Pubmed, and Psyc-INFO databases. African American adolescents have higher rates of bullying and victimization compared to other adolescent populations. This review found strong associations among bullying involvement, substance abuse, and family factors. Bullying also had a significant impact on adolescent health, particularly psychological symptoms and school performance. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  13. Online Health Information and Low-Literacy African Americans

    Science.gov (United States)

    Birru, Mehret S

    2004-01-01

    African Americans with low incomes and low literacy levels disproportionately suffer poor health outcomes from many preventable diseases. Low functional literacy and low health literacy impede millions of Americans from successfully accessing health information. These problems are compounded for African Americans by cultural insensitivity in health materials. The Internet could become a useful tool for providing accessible health information to low-literacy and low-income African Americans. Optimal health Web sites should include text written at low reading levels and appropriate cultural references. More research is needed to determine how African Americans with low literacy skills access, evaluate, prioritize, and value health information on the Internet. PMID:15471752

  14. African American adolescent males living with obesity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ashcraft, Pamela F

    2013-01-01

    The objective was to explore, through the concepts of self-perception and meaning, the lived experience of obesity in African American males between the ages of 13-17 years. Hermeneutic phenomenological design was used to guide the study. Thirteen inner-city African American males were enrolled. All participants had a documented body mass index of >95th percentile and were actively receiving treatment at a medical obesity clinic. Qualitative data were collected using in-depth semi-structured interviews. Self-perception and meaning are interrelated and important factors in understanding obesity uniquely from the adolescents view. If individuals do not understand that they are obese then they are unable to assign meaning to obesity within their life. Four main themes were discovered. The main themes were as follows: (1) It Don't Mean Nuthin'; (2) It's Just Me, Who I Am; (3) Something Bad Might Happen; and (4) I'm Confused and I Feel Bad. Patterns emerged that will allow health care workers to engage adolescents on a personal level, thereby increasing the potential for treatment outcomes consistent with weight management clinic goals. To realize successful outcomes for these adolescents, health care providers must incorporate the adolescents' understanding, knowledge, and values related to obesity in treatment planning. © 2012 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  15. Association Between Life Event Stressors and Low Birth Weight in African American and White Populations: Findings from the 2007 and 2010 Los Angeles Mommy and Baby (LAMB) Surveys.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Yuan; Kershaw, Trace; Ettinger, Adrienne S; Higgins, Chandra; Lu, Michael C; Chao, Shin M

    2015-10-01

    We examined the association between life events stressors during pregnancy and low birth weight (LBW) among African Americans and Whites, while systematically controlling for potential confounders including individual characteristics and city-level variations and clustering. We analyzed data from 4970 women with singleton births who participated in the 2007 and 2010 Los Angeles Mommy and Baby Surveys. Multilevel logistic regression was used to assess the association between emotional, financial, spousal and traumatic stressors and LBW among African Americans and Whites. Potential confounders included were: the city-level Economic Hardship Index, maternal demographics, pre-pregnancy conditions, insurance, behavioral risk factors and social support. African Americans were significantly more likely to experience any domain of stressors during their pregnancy, compared to Whites (p < 0.001). Only the association between financial stressors and LBW was significantly different between African Americans and Whites (p for interaction = 0.015). Experience of financial stressors during pregnancy was significantly associated with LBW among African Americans (adjusted odds ratio = 1.49; 95 % confidence interval = 1.01-2.22) but not Whites. Differential impact of financial stressors during pregnancy may contribute to racial disparities in LBW between African Americans and Whites. We showed that financial life event stressors, but not other domains of stressors, were more likely to impact LBW among African Americans than Whites. Initiatives aimed at mitigating the negative impacts of financial stress during pregnancy may contribute to reducing disparities in birth outcomes between African Americans and Whites.

  16. A free-floating currency regime during economic crisis: advantage or disadvantage?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lubor Lacina

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper deals with the identification of potential disadvantages associated with the existence of national currencies with the floating exchange rate regime during the current financial and economic crisis in countries postponing their entry into the eurozone. The hypothesis is that the advantages of a floating exchange rate may be outweighed by their disadvantages (high volatility of exchange rates. First part of the paper provides evidence about the development of Czech crown exchange rate since transition from fix to free float regime. Special attention will be given to the period during the recent global economic crisis. For the sake of comparison, evolution of other currencies in the region (zloty, forint and Slovak crown, will be taken to consideration. Second part of the paper form case studies identifying impact due to volatility on national currencies. Case studies were used to identify possible negative impacts from volatility in national currencies on export firms in the Czech Republic and holders of mortgage loans denominated in foreign currencies in Hungary. The last part of the paper will formulate recommendations for businesses entering into foreign trade relationships, as well as for policy makers in countries using national currencies which are preparing for membership in the eurozone.

  17. Disparities at presentation, diagnosis, treatment, and survival in African American men, affected by prostate cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chornokur, Ganna; Dalton, Kyle; Borysova, Meghan E; Kumar, Nagi B

    2011-06-15

    Prostate cancer (PCa) remains the most common malignancy and the second leading cause of cancer death among men in the United States. PCa exhibits the most striking racial disparity, as African American men are at 1.4 times higher risk of being diagnosed, and 2-3 times higher risk of dying of PCa, compared to Caucasian men. The etiology of the disparity has not been clearly elucidated. The objective of this article is to critically review the literature and summarize the most prominent PCa racial disparities accompanied by proposed explanations. The present literature on disparities at presentation, diagnosis, treatment, and survival of African American men affected by PCa was systematically reviewed. Original research as well as relevant review articles were included. African American men persistently present with more advanced disease than Caucasian men, are administered different treatment regimens than Caucasian men, and have shorter progression-free survival following treatment. In addition, African American men report more treatment-related side-effects that translates to the diminished quality of life (QOL). PCa racial disparity exists at stages of presentation, diagnosis, treatment regimens, and subsequent survival, and the QOL. The disparities are complex involving biological, socio-economic, and socio-cultural determinants. These mounting results highlight an urgent need for future clinical, scientific, and socio-cultural research involving transdisciplinary teams to elucidate the causes for PCa racial disparities. Copyright © 2010 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  18. Simulating the Impact of Crime on African American Women's Physical Activity and Obesity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Powell-Wiley, Tiffany M; Wong, Michelle S; Adu-Brimpong, Joel; Brown, Shawn T; Hertenstein, Daniel L; Zenkov, Eli; Ferguson, Marie C; Thomas, Samantha; Sampson, Dana; Ahuja, Chaarushi; Rivers, Joshua; Lee, Bruce Y

    2017-12-01

    The objective of this study was to quantify the impact of crime on physical activity location accessibility, leisure-time physical activity (LTPA), and obesity among African American women. An agent-based model was developed in 2016 to represent resource-limited Washington, DC, communities and their populations to simulate the impact of crime on LTPA and obesity among African American women under different circumstances. Data analysis conducted between 2016 and 2017 found that in the baseline scenario, African American women had a 25% probability of exercising. Reducing crime so more physical activity locations were accessible (increasing from 10% to 50%) decreased the annual rise in obesity prevalence by 2.69%. Increasing the probability of African American women to exercise to 37.5% further increased the impact of reducing crime on obesity (2.91% annual decrease in obesity prevalence). These simulations showed that crime may serve as a barrier to LTPA. Reducing crime and increasing propensity to exercise through multilevel interventions (i.e., economic development initiatives to increase time available for physical activity and subsidized health care) may promote greater than linear declines in obesity prevalence. Crime prevention strategies alone can help prevent obesity, but combining such efforts with other ways to encourage physical activity can yield even greater benefits. © 2017 The Obesity Society.

  19. Spiritual well-being among older african americans in a midwestern city.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Gary L; Keigher, Sharon; Williams, Agnes Virginia

    2012-06-01

    More than many other cities in America, older African Americans in Milwaukee, WI contend with negative environmental, socio-economic and health challenges in one of the most hyper-segregated cities in America. This research examines the role of spirituality and religion in their lives and the ways that spirituality and religious affiliation contribute to their quality of life. Over 500 elderly respondents aged 55-105 completed a questionnaire. The analysis found: (a) strong identification with religious institutions and high levels of attendance and participation in religious activities, (b) a substantial number felt support from fellow church members, and (c) strong reliance on spirituality and their sense of connection to God as sources of strength in coping with personal challenges. This study adds to the findings of other research done which stressed the importance of spirituality, religious practice and congregational assistance in serving critical survival functions for older African Americans. This is the first such research done, however, reporting on Milwaukee's African American older adults. This study used mixed methods of research, conducting both a descriptive statistical analysis of African American elderly in Milwaukee County to develop a profile while simultaneously gathering, where possible, qualitative data as well, in the form of narratives, written comments and field notes of first hand observations on this growing population.

  20. African-Americans in Community Colleges. UCLA Community College Bibliography

    Science.gov (United States)

    McJunkin, Kyle Stewart

    2005-01-01

    Recent literature on African Americans students at the community college level represents an eclectic body of material. Broadly speaking, this literature has focused on questions concerning African American learning styles, cultural determinants to success, retention issues, and comparative achievement with other minority groups. While the…

  1. Promoting Achievement for African American Males through Group Work

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bailey, Deryl F.; Bradbury-Bailey, Mary E.

    2007-01-01

    The authors describe how the effective use of groups can promote academic achievement for adolescent African American males. Literature regarding adolescents' and African Americans' experience with groups is reviewed. The authors provide information on academic disidentification and achievement gaps, both critical to understanding the problem of…

  2. Support Needs of Overweight African American Women for Weight Loss

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, Janet L.; Stewart, Diana W.; Lynam, Ian M.; Daley, Christine M.; Befort, Christie; Scherber, Robyn M.; Mercurio, Andrea E.; Okuyemi, Kolawole S.; Ahluwalia, Jasjit S.

    2009-01-01

    Objectives: To examine social support needs of obese and overweight African American women for weight loss. Methods: Focus groups were conducted with overweight and obese African American women. Data were analyzed using standard grounded theory text analysis. Results: Our middle-aged (45.7 years; SD = 12.6) women (N = 66) were interested in…

  3. Students' Comprehension of the representation of African American ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This article was prompted by observations in tutorial lectures on African American Literature and reports on a subsequent pilot study. It explores students' responses to African American Vernacular (AAV) as used in the novel The Color Purple by Alice Walker. A questionnaire was used to explore students' comprehension of ...

  4. 20 African-Americans Your Students Should Meet

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bardeen, Tara

    2008-01-01

    There is more to Black History Month than honoring Martin Luther King Jr. Black History Month is a time to honor the significant contributions of African-Americans throughout history. This article presents 20 super-achievers new generation of African-Americans heroes students should meet: (1) Kimberly Oliver; (2) John Lewis; (3) Rita Dove; (4)…

  5. Interaction of African American Learners Online: An Adult Education Perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang, Haijun; Yang, Yang

    2016-01-01

    This study examines how various life factors and personal attributes affect African American adult learners' use of the three types of learning interaction-learner-content, learner-instructor, and learner-learner. Multivariate multiple regression analyses were used. The aggregate effect of life factors on African American adult learners' use of…

  6. Multiculturalism, Diversity, and African American College Students: Receptive, Yet Skeptical?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ervin, Kelly S.

    2001-01-01

    Hypothesized that African American college students with higher racial self-esteem would be more open to diversity and multiculturalism than students with lower racial self-esteem. Surveys indicated that most students valued diversity-oriented courses, though most also believed that diversity courses were biased against African Americans. Students…

  7. Engaging African American landowners in sustainable forest management

    Science.gov (United States)

    John Schelhas; Sarah Hitchner; Cassandra Johnson Gaither; Rory Fraser; Viniece Jennings; Amadou Diop

    2016-01-01

    The Sustainable Forestry and African American Land Retention Program is a comprehensive effort to address the long-standing problem of underparticipation of African Americans in forest management. We conducted rapid appraisal baseline research for pilot projects in this program in three Southern states using a carefully selected purposive sample to enhance our...

  8. 78 FR 8347 - National African American History Month, 2013

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-02-06

    ... unfulfilled. For African Americans, it was a dream denied until 150 years ago, when a great emancipator called... National African American History Month, 2013 By the President of the United States of America A Proclamation In America, we share a dream that lies at the heart of our founding: that no matter who you are...

  9. African-American College Students' Perceptions Of Sexual Coercion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mouzon, LaTonya D.; Battle, Alicia; Clark, Kevin P.; Coleman, Stephanie; Ogletree, Roberta J.

    2005-01-01

    While the phenomenon of sexual coercion has been studied extensively, little is known about African-American college students' perceptions about verbal sexual coercion. Using a phenomenological approach, the researchers conducted five focus group interviews with 39 African-American students (20 females, 19 males) at a large Midwestern university…

  10. The Relationship between African American Enculturation and Racial Identity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cokley, Kevin; Helm, Katherine

    2007-01-01

    This study investigated how predictive the Cross Racial Identity Scale (CRIS; B. J. Vandiver, W. E. Cross, F. C. Worrell, & P. Fhagen-Smith, 2002), a measure of Black racial identity, was of African American cultural practices, beliefs, and attitudes (i.e., enculturation) as measured by the African American Acculturation Scale-33 (H. Landrine & E.…

  11. Asthma Management Disparities: A Photovoice Investigation with African American Youth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evans-Agnew, Robin

    2016-01-01

    Disparities in asthma management are a burden on African American youth. The objective of this study is to describe and compare the discourses of asthma management disparities (AMDs) in African American adolescents in Seattle to existing youth-related asthma policies in Washington State. Adolescents participated in a three-session photovoice…

  12. Counseling Groups for African American Women: A Focus on Spirituality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Carmen Braun; Frame, Marsha Wiggins; Green, Evelyn

    1999-01-01

    Explains cultural and spiritual traditions within African American women's experience that form the foundation for group counseling strategies. Reviews literature regarding African American women's experience in groups. Explains group interventions such as art, music, dance, imagery, journaling, and rituals that can help transcend, empower, and…

  13. Race Consciousness. African-American Studies for the New Century.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fossett, Judith Jackson, Ed.; Tucker, Jeffrey A., Ed.

    This collection of essays represents new scholarship in African American studies, drawing lessons from the past and providing insights into current intellectual trends. Topics such as the culture of America as a culture of race, legacies of slavery and colonialism, crime and welfare politics, and African American cultural studies are addressed.…

  14. Parenting African American Children in the Context of Racism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keyes, Angela W.; Smyke, Anna T.; Middleton, Melissa; Black, Corey L.

    2015-01-01

    The legacy of slavery in the United States has impacted generations of African Americans, especially parents who must prepare their children to face the challenges associated with being a person of color in this country. The authors explore aspects of racism, White privilege, racial socialization, and African American parents' fears as they equip…

  15. Food Group Categories of Low-Income African American Women

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lynch, Elizabeth B.; Holmes, Shane

    2011-01-01

    Objective: Describe lay food group categories of low-income African American women and assess the overlap of lay food groups and MyPyramid food groups. Design: A convenience sample of African American mothers from a low-income Chicago neighborhood performed a card-sorting task in which they grouped familiar food items into food groups. Setting:…

  16. Perceived Racism and Encouragement among African American Adults

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rowles, Joanna; Duan, Changming

    2012-01-01

    Racial discrimination has negatively affected African Americans in the United States for centuries and produced one of the most publicly recognized histories of social oppression. Extensive research has shown the deleterious effects of racism on African American people and clearly demonstrated that perceived racism and discrimination may…

  17. Teaching African-American History in the Age of Obama

    Science.gov (United States)

    Millward, Jessica

    2009-01-01

    When the author proposed a spring course on major topics in African-American history, drawing a large enrollment was her chief concern. She had previously taught the course under a different title at the University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, a campus with a sizable African-American presence among students and faculty members. She now teaches…

  18. African American Homeschooling and the Question of Curricular Cultural Relevance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mazama, Ama; Lundy, Garvey

    2013-01-01

    Homeschooling, and academic interest in this phenomenon, have increased tremendously over the last decade. The surge of African American involvement in the homeschool movement has also become noticeable. However, there continues to be a general paucity of research on the motivations of African American parents that choose homeschooling. In order…

  19. Cooperative Learning: A Case for African-American Students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haynes, Norris M.; Gebreyesus, Sara

    1992-01-01

    Suggests that African-American children benefit from cooperative-learning strategies because of their cultural heritage, family background, and socialization. Reviews cooperative-learning strategies, offers theoretical analysis of sociocultural basis for cooperative-learning orientations among African-American children, and examines empirical…

  20. Successful Teaching Strategies for Urban African American High School Males

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blue, Adonis

    2017-01-01

    The continued dismal performance of African American students calls for the establishment of better strategies and techniques. The available studies reveal very little regarding the initiatives pursued by middle and elementary school teacher in addressing the academic needs of African American students, however, this literature has not yet defined…

  1. Relationship of pain and ancestry in African American women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robbins, J A; Qi, L; Garcia, L; Younger, J W; Seldin, M F

    2015-05-01

    African Americans are reported to be more sensitive to pain than European Americans. Pain sensitivity has been shown to be genetically linked in animal models and is likely to be in humans. Exactly, 11,239 self-identified African American post-menopausal women enrolled in the Women's Health Initiative had percentage African ancestry determined by ancestry informative markers, "Pain Construct" measurements and covariate information. They answered five questions about specific types and location of pain, such as joint, neck, low back, headache and urinary. They also answered two questions which were used to derive a "Pain Construct", a measure of general pain scored on a scale of 1-100. Associations were tested in linear regression models adjusting for age, self-reported medical conditions, neighbourhood socio-economic status, education and depression. In the unadjusted model of the five specific types of pain measures, greater pain perception was associated with a higher proportion of African ancestry. However, some of the specific types of pain measures were no longer associated with African ancestry after adjustment for other study covariates. The Pain Construct was statistically significantly associated with African ancestry in both the unadjusted [β = -0.132, 95% confidence interval (CI) = -099 to -0.164; r = -0.075, 95% CI -0.056 to -0.093] and the adjusted models (β = -0.069 95% CI = -0.04 to -0.10). Greater African ancestry was associated with higher levels of self-reported pain, although this accounted for only a minor fraction of the overall variation in the Pain Construct. © 2015 European Pain Federation - EFIC®

  2. Marketing, recruiting and retaining African American baccalaureate nursing students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    July, F M

    1994-01-01

    The purpose of this descriptive study was to examine the marketing, recruitment and retention policies and practices with reference to African American nursing students in baccalaureate nursing programs. The sample consisted of top-ranked and southern nursing schools accredited by the National League for Nursing (N = 49). Findings indicate that African American enrollment in nursing schools has not changed demonstrably over the past 10 years. High schools (78%) and community colleges (61%) were the main markets for recruiting African American students. Two approaches, rated as successful in retaining African American nursing students, were use of African American counselors and student housing. The college catalog was no longer the method used most frequently for marketing nursing programs.

  3. Black-white unions: West Indians and African Americans compared.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Model, S; Fisher, G

    2001-05-01

    In this research we use 1990 PUMS data to compare the propensity for unions between African Americans and native whites with the propensity for unions between British West Indians and native whites. In addition, we distinguish women and men. Descriptive statistics indicate that West Indians, with the exception of men who arrived as adults, are more likely than African Americans to have white partners. After the introduction of controls for several correlates of intermarriage, however, West Indian men of any generation have lower exogamy rates than African American men, while exogamy rates are higher among West Indian women who arrived as children or who were born in the United States than among African American women. Thus we find no consistent evidence of greater exogamy for British West Indians than for African Americans.

  4. Culturally specific dance to reduce obesity in African American women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murrock, Carolyn J; Gary, Faye A

    2010-07-01

    This article provides evidence of a culturally specific dance intervention to decrease obesity as measured by body fat and body mass index (BMI) in African American women. A community partnership was formed with two African American churches to develop an intervention to address the issue of obesity. The culturally specific dance intervention was delivered two times per week for 8 weeks, choreographed to gospel music selected by the experimental group participants, and taught by an African American woman. Body fat and BMI were assessed at three time points and revealed significant differences between the two groups. Attending a minimum of 7 classes was enough to show an observed dose effect and the intervention was found to be culturally specific by understanding their roles as African American women. This community partnership was an effective way to promote a church-based, culturally specific dance intervention to improve the health of African American women.

  5. Tenancy and African American Marriage in the Postbellum South.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bloome, Deirdre; Muller, Christopher

    2015-10-01

    The pervasiveness of tenancy in the postbellum South had countervailing effects on marriage between African Americans. Tenancy placed severe constraints on African American women's ability to find independent agricultural work. Freedwomen confronted not only planters' reluctance to contract directly with women but also whites' refusal to sell land to African Americans. Marriage consequently became one of African American women's few viable routes into the agricultural labor market. We find that the more counties relied on tenant farming, the more common was marriage among their youngest and oldest African American residents. However, many freedwomen resented their subordinate status within tenant marriages. Thus, we find that tenancy contributed to union dissolution as well as union formation among freedpeople. Microdata tracing individuals' marital transitions are consistent with these county-level results.

  6. African American health disparities in lung cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Green, Pauline M; Guerrier-Adams, Suzy; Okunji, Priscilla O; Schiavone, Deborah; Smith, Joann E

    2013-04-01

    Lung cancer is a leading cause of cancer-related deaths in the United States and globally. African Americans experience significant differences in lung cancer incidence and mortality. Smoking is the single greatest risk for lung cancer, making smoking cessation programs a potentially fruitful approach for reducing the risk of lung cancer. Despite clinical practice guidelines that prompt nurses to advise patients to quit smoking, only a small percentage of nurses do so. Minority patients are less likely than Whites to receive smoking cessation advice. This article discusses recent findings on the pathophysiology and risks for lung cancer. The literature on smoking cessation research is examined to determine the features of successful cessation interventions. Recommendations are offered for enhancing tobacco cessation efforts in nursing practice, education, and research.

  7. Are You at Risk for Oral Cancer? What African American Men Need to Know

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Info Health Information Are You At Risk for Oral Cancer? What African American Men Need to Know Are ... symptoms? Are African American men at risk for oral cancer? Yes, African American men are one of the ...

  8. Network exposure and homicide victimization in an African American community.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Papachristos, Andrew V; Wildeman, Christopher

    2014-01-01

    We estimated the association of an individual's exposure to homicide in a social network and the risk of individual homicide victimization across a high-crime African American community. Combining 5 years of homicide and police records, we analyzed a network of 3718 high-risk individuals that was created by instances of co-offending. We used logistic regression to model the odds of being a gunshot homicide victim by individual characteristics, network position, and indirect exposure to homicide. Forty-one percent of all gun homicides occurred within a network component containing less than 4% of the neighborhood's population. Network-level indicators reduced the association between individual risk factors and homicide victimization and improved the overall prediction of individual victimization. Network exposure to homicide was strongly associated with victimization: the closer one is to a homicide victim, the greater the risk of victimization. Regression models show that exposure diminished with social distance: each social tie removed from a homicide victim decreased one's odds of being a homicide victim by 57%. Risk of homicide in urban areas is even more highly concentrated than previously thought. We found that most of the risk of gun violence was concentrated in networks of identifiable individuals. Understanding these networks may improve prediction of individual homicide victimization within disadvantaged communities.

  9. African American Male Achievement: Using a Tenet of Critical Theory to Explain the African American Male Achievement Disparity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palmer, Robert T.; Maramba, Dina C.

    2011-01-01

    Although African Americans continue to demonstrate a desire for education, Black male enrollment and completion rates in higher education are dismal when compared to other ethnic groups. Researchers and scholars have noted various theories and philosophies responsible for the academic disengagement of African American men in higher education. This…

  10. African-American Academic Nurse Leader's Role in Persistence of African-American Baccalaureate Nursing Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nelson, Kesha Marie

    2017-01-01

    African-American baccalaureate nursing students have a limited persistence to graduation. This constructivist grounded theory study was designed to generate a substantive theory, emerged from these data, that explained and provided insight the African-American academic nurse leader's role in the persistence to graduation of African-American…

  11. Can the Arts Get Under the Skin? Arts and Cortisol for Economically Disadvantaged Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Eleanor D; Garnett, Mallory L; Anderson, Kate E; Laurenceau, Jean-Philippe

    2017-07-01

    This within-subjects experimental study investigated the influence of the arts on cortisol for economically disadvantaged children. Participants were 310 children, ages 3-5 years, who attended a Head Start preschool and were randomly assigned to participate in different schedules of arts and homeroom classes on different days of the week. Cortisol was sampled at morning baseline and after arts and homeroom classes on two different days at start, middle, and end of the year. For music, dance, and visual arts, grouped and separately, results of piecewise hierarchical linear modeling with time-varying predictors suggested cortisol was lower after an arts versus homeroom class at middle and end of the year but not start of the year. Implications concern the impact of arts on cortisol for children facing poverty risks. © 2016 The Authors. Child Development © 2016 Society for Research in Child Development, Inc.

  12. Cortisol and antisocial behavior in early adolescence: the role of gender in an economically disadvantaged sample.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kobak, Roger; Zajac, Kristyn; Levine, Seymour

    2009-01-01

    This study examines the relation between adolescents' antisocial behaviors and adrenocortical activity during a laboratory visit in a sample of economically disadvantaged families (N = 116, ages 12-14, 51% female). Pretask cortisol levels indexed adolescents' prechallenge response to the lab visit, whereas adolescents' response to a conflict discussion with their caregivers was indexed with residualized change in pre- to postconflict cortisol levels. A trait measure of antisocial behavior (derived from parent, teacher, and self-reports) was associated with lower pretask cortisol levels but greater cortisol response to the conflict discussion. Gender moderated antisocial adolescents' cortisol response to the conflict discussion with girls who reported more covert risky problem behaviors showing an increased cortisol response. The findings suggest that, although antisocial adolescents had lower pretask cortisol levels, conflict discussions with caregivers present a unique challenge to antisocial girls compared with antisocial boys.

  13. A study of the historical role of African Americans in science, engineering and technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Keith Wayne

    2000-11-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine if there is adequate documentation of an historical role of African and African American involvement in science, engineering, and technology. Through the use of history of science and technology research methodology, along with an examination of the sociological and economic impacts of adequately accredited innovations and inventions contributed by Africans and African Americans, the researcher investigated their contributions to the following areas of science and technology: life science, physical sciences and chemistry, engineering, and science education. In regard to the timeframe for this study, the researcher specifically investigated African and African American involvement in science and technology that includes periods prior to black enslavement, scientific racism and colonialism, as well as during and after those periods. This research study reveals that there are adequate historical data regarding African and African American contributions to science, engineering, and technology. The data reveals that for many millennia African peoples have been continually involved in science and world science histories. The data further show that the numbers of African Americans acquiring BS, MS, Ph.D., Doctor of Science and Doctor of Engineering degrees in science and engineering disciplines are increasing. That these increases are not happening at a rate representative of the present or future African American percentages of the population. Consequently, because of future changes in our nation's demographics, increasing the numbers of people from under-represented groups who pursue scientific and engineering professions has become a matter of national security at the highest levels of government. Moreover, African Americans, Hispanics, and Native Americans are not pursuing careers or taking courses in science and engineering at a rate high enough to fulfill the prospective needs for the United States' industries, government

  14. Training African-American residents in the 20th century.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Green-McKenzie, Judith

    2004-03-01

    Bellevue Hospital, the oldest public hospital in the United States and a lineal descendant of an infirmary for slaves, accepted its first African-American resident, Dr. Ubert Conrad Vincent, in 1918. This occurred at a time when many medical centers were not accepting African-American residents. At the end of WWII, one-third of the accredited medical schools still barred African Americans. However, Bellevue Hospital continued to train African-American residents. Between the 1920s and 1940s four African Americans matriculated at Bellevue Hospital. There were six in the 1950s, four in the 1960s, and 25 in the 1970s. By the 1980s, 40 African Americans matriculated, and between 1990 and 1995, 61 matriculated. Despite its historic first, Bellevue lagged slightly behind the national average. While the number of African-American residents occupying U.S. residency slots increased from 2.8% in 1978 to 6.5% in 1996, African Americans comprised 3.6% of residency slots at Bellevue between 1985-1995. Currently, only 7% of practicing physicians and 5% in faculty positions are latino, African-American, and Native American. Increasing the number of under-represented minority (URM) physicians is important to the United States, as URM physicians are more likely to serve the poor and uninsured, therefore improving the overall healthcare of the underprivileged. A study by the Association of American Medical Colleges indicated that minority medical school graduates were five times more likely to report that they planned to serve minority populations than other graduates. In their position paper, the American College of Physicians expressed the belief that increasing the number of URM physicians will help reduce healthcare disparities that can hurt minority populations and lead to poor health outcomes. The Supreme Court acknowledged the importance of racial diversity by upholding the University of Michigan affirmative action admissions policy in its June 2003 ruling. URM physicians are

  15. College Graduation Reduces Vulnerability to STIs / HIV among African-American Young Adult Women

    Science.gov (United States)

    Painter, Julia E.; Wingood, Gina M.; DiClemente, Ralph J.; DePadilla, Lara M.; Simpson-Robinson, LaShun

    2012-01-01

    African-American women are disproportionately affected by STIs including HIV. The Theory of Gender and Power (TGP) posits that economic exposures, including educational attainment, place women at increased risk for STIs/HIV. This study examined the association between educational attainment and vulnerability to STIs/HIV, as well as potential TGP-driven mediators of this association, among African-American women. Baseline data were assessed from an STI/HIV prevention intervention for African-American women (N=848) aged 18–29 recruited from three Kaiser Permanente Centers in Atlanta, GA. Data collection included 1) a survey of demographic, psychosocial, and behavioral measures and 2) self-collected, laboratory-confirmed vaginal swabs for STIs (trichomoniasis, chlamydia, gonorrhea, and human papillomavirus). Multiple regression analyses and multivariate mediation analyses were used to examine the association between educational attainment with a laboratory-confirmed STI and potential TGP mediators. Controlling for age and receipt of public assistance, the odds of an STI diagnosis were 73% lower among participants with a college degree or greater compared to participants who had not completed high school. There were also significant associations between educational attainment and multiple TGP mediators from the Sexual Division of Power and the Structure of Cathexis. TGP constructs did not mediate the association between educational attainment and laboratory-confirmed STI. The current study suggests that graduating from college may lead to a beneficial reduction in vulnerability to STIs/HIV among African-American women. Findings from this study support expanding structural level interventions, emphasizing both high-school and college graduation, as a means of reducing vulnerability to STIs/HIV among African-American women. PMID:22555218

  16. Pathways from Racial Discrimination to Multiple Sexual Partners Among Male African American Adolescents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kogan, Steven M.; Yu, Tianyi; Allen, Kimberly A.; Pocock, Alexandra M.; Brody, Gene H.

    2014-01-01

    African American male adolescents’ involvement with multiple sexual partners has important implications for public health as well as for their development of ideas regarding masculinity and sexuality. The purpose of this study was to test hypotheses regarding the pathways through which racial discrimination affects African American adolescents’ involvement with multiple sexual partners. We hypothesized that racial discrimination would engender psychological distress, which would promote attitudes and peer affiliations conducive to multiple sexual partnerships. The study also examined the protective influence of parenting practices in buffering the influence of contextual stressors. Participants were 221 African American male youth who provided data at ages 16 and 18; their parents provided data on family socioeconomic disadvantages. Of these young men, 18.5% reported having 3 or more sexual partners during the past 3 months. Structural equation models indicated that racial discrimination contributed to sexual activity with multiple partners by inducing psychological distress, which in turn affected attitudes and peer affiliations conducive to multiple partners. The experience of protective parenting, which included racial socialization, closeness and harmony in parent-child relationships, and parental monitoring, buffered the influence of racial discrimination on psychological distress. These findings suggest targets for prevention programming and underscore the importance of efforts to reduce young men’s experience with racial discrimination. PMID:25937821

  17. The Great Migration and African-American Genomic Diversity.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Soheil Baharian

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available We present a comprehensive assessment of genomic diversity in the African-American population by studying three genotyped cohorts comprising 3,726 African-Americans from across the United States that provide a representative description of the population across all US states and socioeconomic status. An estimated 82.1% of ancestors to African-Americans lived in Africa prior to the advent of transatlantic travel, 16.7% in Europe, and 1.2% in the Americas, with increased African ancestry in the southern United States compared to the North and West. Combining demographic models of ancestry and those of relatedness suggests that admixture occurred predominantly in the South prior to the Civil War and that ancestry-biased migration is responsible for regional differences in ancestry. We find that recent migrations also caused a strong increase in genetic relatedness among geographically distant African-Americans. Long-range relatedness among African-Americans and between African-Americans and European-Americans thus track north- and west-bound migration routes followed during the Great Migration of the twentieth century. By contrast, short-range relatedness patterns suggest comparable mobility of ∼15-16km per generation for African-Americans and European-Americans, as estimated using a novel analytical model of isolation-by-distance.

  18. Surviving oppression under the rock: the intersection of New York's drug, welfare, and educational polices in the lived experiences of low-income African Americans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Windsor, Liliane Cambraia; Dunlap, Eloise; Armour, Marilyn

    2012-01-01

    Drawing on standpoint and intersectionality theories, this study explores the degree to which interactions among New York State's Rockefeller Drug Laws and educational and welfare policies have contributed to the maintenance of a culture of surveillance in which the lives of impoverished African Americans are overseen and influenced by oppressive policies and governmental institutions. Qualitative secondary analysis of longitudinal ethnographic data was conducted. Findings demonstrate multiple disadvantages that impoverished African American families struggling with substance use or sale experience. These disadvantages accumulated intergenerationally, in a snowball effect, making it difficult for participants to maintain stable lives. Findings explored the tension between participants' lived experiences and the multiple ways they either assimilated or resisted their oppression. New sensitive policies informed by standpoint, intersectionality, and Afrocentric perspectives must be developed to increase the availability of meaningful employment and strengthening impoverished African American communities.

  19. Overcoming barriers to engaging socio-economically disadvantaged populations in CHD primary prevention: a qualitative study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cunningham Heather

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Preventative medicine has become increasingly important in efforts to reduce the burden of chronic disease in industrialised countries. However, interventions that fail to recruit socio-economically representative samples may widen existing health inequalities. This paper explores the barriers and facilitators to engaging a socio-economically disadvantaged (SED population in primary prevention for coronary heart disease (CHD. Methods The primary prevention element of Have a Heart Paisley (HaHP offered risk screening to all eligible individuals. The programme employed two approaches to engaging with the community: a a social marketing campaign and b a community development project adopting primarily face-to-face canvassing. Individuals living in areas of SED were under-recruited via the social marketing approach, but successfully recruited via face-to-face canvassing. This paper reports on focus group discussions with participants, exploring their perceptions about and experiences of both approaches. Results Various reasons were identified for low uptake of risk screening amongst individuals living in areas of high SED in response to the social marketing campaign and a number of ways in which the face-to-face canvassing approach overcame these barriers were identified. These have been categorised into four main themes: (1 processes of engagement; (2 issues of understanding; (3 design of the screening service and (4 the priority accorded to screening. The most immediate barriers to recruitment were the invitation letter, which often failed to reach its target, and the general distrust of postal correspondence. In contrast, participants were positive about the face-to-face canvassing approach. Participants expressed a lack of knowledge and understanding about CHD and their risk of developing it and felt there was a lack of clarity in the information provided in the mailing in terms of the process and value of screening. In

  20. The barriers against childhood immunizations: a qualitative research among socio-economically disadvantaged mothers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Topuzoğlu, Ahmet; Ay, Pinar; Hidiroglu, Seyhan; Gurbuz, Yucel

    2007-08-01

    The socio-economically disadvantaged populations are among the most vulnerable groups that are under-vaccinated. Therefore, the aim of this qualitative study was to understand the behaviours of mothers concerning the immunization of their children, the decision-making process, the perceived barriers, and the enabling factors to access the services in a suburban population in Istanbul. Eight focus group discussions and two in-depth interviews were carried out with the mothers who have children younger than five years. While the responsibility of immunization was left totally to the mother, the socially subordinate role of women did not provide the means of getting the immunization services. The women were dependent mostly on social networks for getting the immunization services. Another important barrier to the services was related to the economical constraints and accessibility of the services. In addition, the lack of effective communication and information transfer between the health personnel and the mothers formed an important obstacle. This study underlines a need for an effective counselling tailored to the immunization session, which will maintain a positive relationship between the personnel and the mother.

  1. Determinants of childhood immunization uptake among socio-economically disadvantaged migrants in East China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Yu; Li, Qian; Chen, Enfu; Chen, Yaping; Qi, Xiaohua

    2013-07-09

    To determine the coverage of childhood immunization appropriate for age among socio-economically disadvantaged recent migrants living in East China and to identify the determinants of full immunization uptake among these migrant children. This is a cross-sectional survey of 1,426 migrant mothers with a child aged ≤ 24 months, who were interviewed with a pretested questionnaire. Various vaccines, migration history and some other social-demographic and income details were collected. Single-level logistic regression analyses were applied to identify the determinants of full immunization status. Immunization coverage rates are lower among migrants and even lower among recent migrants. The likelihood of a child receiving full immunization rise with parents' educational level and the frequency of mother's utilization of health care. Higher household income also significantly increase the likelihood of full immunization, as dose post-natal visits by a health worker. Recent migrant status favours low immunization uptake, particularly in the vulnerability context of alienation and livelihood insecurity. Services must be delivered with a focus on recent migrants. Investments are needed in education, socio-economic development and secure livelihoods to improve and sustain equitable health care services.

  2. Firearm-Related Suicide Among Young African-American Males

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joe, Sean; Kaplan, Mark S.

    2009-01-01

    National trends in firearm-related suicides among African-American and white males in the age groups 15 to 19 years and 20 to 24 years from 1979 to 1997 were examined. The rates and percentages of suicide by firearms increased significantly more among African-American males than among white males. During the 19-year period, firearms accounted for about 70 percent and 64 percent of all suicides among males aged 15 to 19 years and 20 to 24 years, respectively. The results support the Surgeon General’s 1999 call for greater awareness of the suicide risk among African-American males. PMID:11875228

  3. Child care and the development of behavior problems among economically disadvantaged children in middle childhood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Votruba-Drzal, Elizabeth; Coley, Rebekah Levine; Maldonado-Carreño, Carolina; Li-Grining, Christine P; Chase-Lansdale, P Lindsay

    2010-01-01

    Research examining the longer term influences of child care on children's development has expanded in recent years, but few studies have considered low-income children's experiences in community care arrangements. Using data from the Three-City Study (N=349), the present investigation examines the influences of child care quality, extent and type on low-income children's development of behavior problems during middle childhood (7-11 years old). Higher levels of child care quality were linked to moderate reductions in externalizing behavior problems. High-quality child care was especially protective against the development of behavior problems for boys and African American children. Child care type and the extent of care that children experienced were generally unrelated to behavior problems in middle childhood. © 2010 The Authors. Child Development © 2010 Society for Research in Child Development, Inc.

  4. Prevalence of stuttering in African American preschoolers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Proctor, Adele; Yairi, Ehud; Duff, Melissa C; Zhang, Jie

    2008-12-01

    In this study, the authors sought to determine the prevalence of stuttering in African American (AA) 2- to 5-year-olds as compared with same-age European Americans (EAs). A total of 3,164 children participated: 2,223 AAs and 941 EAs. Data were collected using a 3-pronged approach that included investigators' individual interactions with each child, teacher identification, and parent identification of stuttering. No statistically significant difference for stuttering was found between AA and EA children. Using the investigator and teacher method of identification, the prevalence of stuttering was 2.52% for the entire sample. For both racial groups, boys exhibited a higher prevalence of stuttering than girls. Of the 3 predictors (age, race, sex) of stuttering, only sex was a significant predictor. AA 2- to 5-year-olds are not overrepresented in the stuttering population for this age group. When data are combined for both racial groups, the prevalence of stuttering is 2.52%. More boys than girls stuttered in this sample of preschoolers.

  5. Microevolution of African American dental morphology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edgar, Heather J H

    2007-04-01

    The African American (AA) gene pool is primarily the result of gene flow between two biologically disparate groups: West Africans (WA) and Americans of western European descent (EA). This research utilizes characteristics of dental morphology to trace genetic relationships among WA, western Europeans (EU), AA, and European Americans. Dental morphological traits are useful for this purpose because they are heritable, do not remodel during life (although they can be lost to wear or pathology), and can be compared equally among samples from past and present populations. The results of this research provide new information about human microevolution through time and space in a biocultural setting. The mean measure of divergence is used to analyze dental morphological data from 1,265 individuals in 25 samples grouped by ancestry and time. Three hypotheses associated with admixture in AA are tested. When compared with known history, results from dental morphological data are equivocal in documenting admixture in AA. Dental morphological traits do appear to reflect admixture in AA. However, changes in trait frequencies do not closely correspond with important cultural events and trends such as the institutionalized racism of the Civil War and Jim Crow era. Results are mixed concerning whether AA with greater admixture were more likely to take part in the Great Migration to southern urban centers and to the North.

  6. The landscape of recombination in African Americans

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hinch, Anjali G.; Tandon, Arti; Patterson, Nick; Song, Yunli; Rohland, Nadin; Palmer, Cameron D.; Chen, Gary K.; Wang, Kai; Buxbaum, Sarah G.; Akylbekova, Meggie; Aldrich, Melinda C.; Ambrosone, Christine B.; Amos, Christopher; Bandera, Elisa V.; Berndt, Sonja I.; Bernstein, Leslie; Blot, William J.; Bock, Cathryn H.; Boerwinkle, Eric; Cai, Qiuyin; Caporaso, Neil; Casey, Graham; Cupples, L. Adrienne; Deming, Sandra L.; Diver, W. Ryan; Divers, Jasmin; Fornage, Myriam; Gillanders, Elizabeth M.; Glessner, Joseph; Harris, Curtis C.; Hu, Jennifer J.; Ingles, Sue A.; Isaacs, Williams; John, Esther M.; Kao, W. H. Linda; Keating, Brendan; Kittles, Rick A.; Kolonel, Laurence N.; Larkin, Emma; Le Marchand, Loic; McNeill, Lorna H.; Millikan, Robert C.; Murphy, Adam; Musani, Solomon; Neslund-Dudas, Christine; Nyante, Sarah; Papanicolaou, George J.; Press, Michael F.; Psaty, Bruce M.; Reiner, Alex P.; Rich, Stephen S.; Rodriguez-Gil, Jorge L.; Rotter, Jerome I.; Rybicki, Benjamin A.; Schwartz, Ann G.; Signorello, Lisa B.; Spitz, Margaret; Strom, Sara S.; Thun, Michael J.; Tucker, Margaret A.; Wang, Zhaoming; Wiencke, John K.; Witte, John S.; Wrensch, Margaret; Wu, Xifeng; Yamamura, Yuko; Zanetti, Krista A.; Zheng, Wei; Ziegler, Regina G.; Zhu, Xiaofeng; Redline, Susan; Hirschhorn, Joel N.; Henderson, Brian E.; Taylor, Herman A.; Price, Alkes L.; Hakonarson, Hakon; Chanock, Stephen J.; Haiman, Christopher A.; Wilson, James G.; Reich, David; Myers, Simon R.

    2011-01-01

    Recombination, together with mutation, is the ultimate source of genetic variation in populations. We leverage the recent mixture of people of African and European ancestry in the Americas to build a genetic map measuring the probability of crossing-over at each position in the genome, based on about 2.1 million crossovers in 30,000 unrelated African Americans. At intervals of more than three megabases it is nearly identical to a map built in Europeans. At finer scales it differs significantly, and we identify about 2,500 recombination hotspots that are active in people of West African ancestry but nearly inactive in Europeans. The probability of a crossover at these hotspots is almost fully controlled by the alleles an individual carries at PRDM9 (P<10−245). We identify a 17 base pair DNA sequence motif that is enriched in these hotspots, and is an excellent match to the predicted binding target of African-enriched alleles of PRDM9. PMID:21775986

  7. The Contribution of Community and Family Contexts to African American Young Adults’ Romantic Relationship Health: A Prospective Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kogan, Steven M.; Lei, Man-Kit; Grange, Christina R.; Simons, Ronald L.; Brody, Gene H.; Gibbons, Frederick X.; Chen, Yifu

    2013-01-01

    Accumulating evidence suggests that African American men and women experience unique challenges in developing and maintaining stable, satisfying romantic relationships. Extant studies have linked relationship quality among African American couples to contemporaneous risk factors such as economic hardship and racial discrimination. Little research, however, has examined the contextual and intrapersonal processes in late childhood and adolescence that influence romantic relationship health among African American adults. We investigated competence-promoting parenting practices and exposure to community-related stressors in late childhood, and negative relational schemas in adolescence, as predictors of young adult romantic relationship health. Participants were 318 African American young adults (59.4% female) who had provided data at four time points from ages 10–22 years. Structural equation modeling indicated that exposure to community-related stressors and low levels of competence-promoting parenting contributed to negative relational schemas, which were proximal predictors of young adult relationship health. Relational schemas mediated the associations of competence-promoting parenting practices and exposure to community stressors in late childhood with romantic relationship health during young adulthood. Results suggest that enhancing caregiving practices, limiting youths’ exposure to community stressors, and modifying relational schemas are important processes to be targeted for interventions designed to enhance African American adults’ romantic relationships. PMID:23494451

  8. Barriers to using palliative care: insight into African American culture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drisdom, Sheronda

    2013-08-01

    As the hospice care setting becomes more racially and ethnically diverse, attending to the different conditions and needs of various groups is essential to providing optimal care. African Americans make up only a small percentage of hospice users in the United States. This article highlights barriers associated with the underenrollment of African Americans into hospice and palliative care programs. A thorough analysis of the literature was conducted to define hospice and palliative care and assess circumstances that impact the use of hospice services by African Americans. Many African Americans are not choosing hospice care because of cultural issues or knowledge deficits, whether through lack of communication or low literacy. Healthcare providers can begin by familiarizing themselves with hospice organizations and developing and putting into practice strategies to communicate with and educate patients and families about hospice care in a culturally sensitive manner.

  9. Genetic Counseling for Breast Cancer Susceptibility in African American Women

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Hughes, Chanita

    2004-01-01

    .... The objectives of this study are to develop a Culturally Tailored Genetic (CTGC) protocol for African American women and evaluate its impact on decision-making and satisfaction about BRCAl/2 testing, quality of life, and cancer control practices...

  10. Mobile Technologies & Socio-Economic Opportunities for Disadvantaged Women: A Study of Information Behavior in a Developing Nation Context

    Science.gov (United States)

    Potnis, Devendra Dilip

    2010-01-01

    Information and communication technologies (ICTs) have been championed by the United Nations and others as one of the key media to open up socio-economic opportunities for disadvantaged populations. Studies lead us to believe that after being introduced to ICTs, users' information behavior changes, enabling them to benefit from socio-economic…

  11. Learning to (Dis)Engage? The Socialising Experiences of Young People Living in Areas of Socio-Economic Disadvantage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mason, Carolynne; Cremin, Hilary; Warwick, Paul; Harrison, Tom

    2011-01-01

    Young people are increasingly required to demonstrate civic engagement in their communities and help deliver the aspirations of localism and Big Society. Using an ecological systems approach this paper explores the experiences of different groups of young people living in areas of socio-economic disadvantage. Using volunteering as an example of…

  12. Economic Disadvantage, Perceived Family Life Quality, and Emotional Well-Being in Chinese Adolescents: A Longitudinal Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shek, Daniel T. L.

    2008-01-01

    Over three consecutive years, Chinese secondary school students experiencing and not experiencing economic disadvantage (n = 280 and 2,187, respectively) responded to measures of perceived family life quality (parenting attributes and parent-child relational quality) and emotional well-being (hopelessness, mastery, life satisfaction and…

  13. Relationship between Language and Concept Science Notebook Scores of English Language Learners and/or Economically Disadvantaged Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huerta, Margarita; Irby, Beverly J.; Lara-Alecio, Rafael; Tong, Fuhui

    2016-01-01

    Despite research interest in testing the effects of literacy-infused science interventions in different contexts, research exploring the relationship, if any, between academic language and conceptual understanding is scant. What little research exists does not include English language learners (ELLs) and/or economically disadvantaged (ED) student…

  14. The Positive Impact of Project-Based Learning on Attendance of an Economically Disadvantaged Student Population: A Multiyear Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Creghan, Casey; Adair-Creghan, Kathleen

    2015-01-01

    Students who do not regularly attend high school are at an increased risk of failure in the classroom and may eventually contribute to a higher dropout rate. More specifically, the attendance rates of students from economically disadvantaged backgrounds have traditionally been lower than those with average means. Therefore, the purpose of this…

  15. African American leadership groups: smoking with the enemy

    OpenAIRE

    Yerger, V; Malone, R

    2002-01-01

    Background: Among all racial and ethnic groups in the USA, African Americans bear the greatest burden from tobacco related disease. The tobacco industry has been highly influential in the African American community for decades, providing funding and other resources to community leaders and emphasising publicly its support for civil rights causes and groups, while ignoring the negative health effects of its products on those it claims to support. However, the industry's private business reason...

  16. Describing abortion attitudes among young, African American men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woodhams, Elisabeth J; Hill, Brandon J; Fabiyi, Camille; Gilliam, Melissa

    2016-08-01

    This paper describes African American teenaged males' attitudes and perspectives on abortion. Data were derived from a larger cross-sectional survey of African American males aged 14-19, living in the south side of Chicago. Acceptability of abortion varied by partner type, such that 60% of teenagers felt abortion was acceptable with a casual partner while 37% found it acceptable with committed partners (pattitudes toward abortion. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. African American Parents’ HPV Vaccination Intent and Concerns

    OpenAIRE

    Sanders Thompson, Vetta L.; Arnold, Lauren D.; Notaro, Sheri R.

    2012-01-01

    This study describes attitudes and social and environmental factors that affect African American parents’ intent to vaccinate their daughters against human papillomavirus (HPV). Thirty African American parents of daughters aged nine to 17 years and no history of HPV infection completed semi-structured interviews. Interviews addressed factors that influenced intent to vaccinate, perception of community norms related to vaccination, vaccination scenarios involving place of vaccination, and vacc...

  18. Informal learning in SME majors for African American female undergraduates

    OpenAIRE

    Ezella McPherson

    2014-01-01

    This research investigates how eight undergraduate African American women in science, math, and engineering (SME) majors accessed cultural capital and informal science learning opportunities from preschool to college. It uses the multiple case study methodological approach and cultural capital as the framework to better understand their opportunities to engage in free-choice science learning. The article demonstrates that African American women have access to cultural capital and informal sci...

  19. Atypical dimensions of caregiver-adolescent interaction in an economically disadvantaged sample.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kobak, Roger; Zajac, Kristyn; Abbott, Caroline; Zisk, Abby; Bounoua, Nadia

    2017-05-01

    The Goal-Corrected Partnership Adolescent Coding System (GPACS) has shown promise in assessing a secure as well as three atypical patterns of parent-adolescent interaction during a conflict discussion. The current study of 186 economically disadvantaged families examines the degree to which four GPACS patterns: secure/collaborative, hostile/punitive, role confused, and disoriented, prospectively predict adolescents' social competence and maladaptive behavior (internalizing, externalizing, and risk behaviors) at age 15 years after controlling for these social behaviors at age 13 years and contemporaneous GPACS scores. Adolescents from secure/collaborative dyads at age 13 were more likely to have a secure state of mind in the Adult Attachment Interview at age 15 and showed higher levels of teachers' ratings of empathy and lower levels of teachers' ratings of externalizing behaviors at age 15 years. Adolescents in disoriented dyads showed higher levels of teacher-rated internalizing problems, while male adolescents in role confused dyads reported higher levels of involvement in risk behaviors, including unprotected sexual activity and substance use problems.

  20. A Multicomponent Intervention Helped Reduce Sugar-Sweetened Beverage Intake in Economically Disadvantaged Hispanic Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feng, Du; Song, Huaxin; Esperat, M Christina; Black, Ipuna

    2016-11-01

    This study aimed to examine the effect of a multicomponent intervention program on consumption of sugar-sweetened beverages (SSBs), and lifestyle factors associated with SSB intake, in Hispanic children from low-income families. A five-wave longitudinal study using a quasi-experimental design was conducted. Five elementary schools in West Texas served as the setting. Participants included 555 predominantly Hispanic children (ages 5-9 years) from low-income families and their parents (n = 525). A multicomponent intervention program was implemented. Children's anthropometric measures were obtained. Their weight status was determined based on body mass index for age and gender. Parents responded to a demographic questionnaire, a shelf inventory, an acculturation scale, and a family survey. Growth curve analyses were used to test differences between intervention and comparison participants' SSB intake and to examine potential covariates. Comparison group children's daily SSB intake significantly increased over time (B = 1.06 ± .40 ounces per month, p < .01), but this linear increase of SSB was slowed down by the intervention (B = -.29 ± .12, p < .05). More daily TV time, more fast food intake, and more types of SSBs available at home were associated with higher SSB intake. Risk factors of childhood obesity were associated with each other. The intervention program produced a modest reduction in SSB consumed by economically disadvantaged and predominantly Hispanic children. © 2016 by American Journal of Health Promotion, Inc.

  1. Exposure to Interpersonal Violence and Socioemotional Adjustment in Economically Disadvantaged Preschoolers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bush, Hillary H.; Eisenhower, Abbey

    2014-01-01

    Focusing specifically on the experiences of economically disadvantaged preschoolers, the relations between interpersonal violence exposure, behavior problems, and social skills were examined in both the home and school settings. In this racially and ethnically diverse sample of preschoolers from poor, urban households (N = 64; 3-6 years old; 56% female), many children (33%) had been exposed to at least one type of interpersonal violence, and even more (70%) had been exposed to any type of potentially traumatic event (PTE). Although exposure to interpersonal violence was not directly associated with parent- or teacher-reported behavior problems or social skills, a significant interaction effect was observed between exposure to interpersonal violence and teacher-reported internalizing problems in predicting teacher-reported social skills; specifically, for children with the highest levels of internalizing problems, a positive relation between interpersonal violence exposure and social skills was observed. This indirect effect was observed only in the school setting, whereas children in this high-risk sample appeared to demonstrate resilience in the home setting. Given these high rates of exposure, additional, clinically-relevant research is needed to inform interventions for this vulnerable population. PMID:25175528

  2. Influences underlying family food choices in mothers from an economically disadvantaged community.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hardcastle, Sarah J; Blake, Nicola

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this qualitative study was to explore the perceptions and attitudes that underlie food choices, and, the impact of a school-based healthy eating intervention in mothers from an economically-disadvantaged community. The aim of the intervention was to educate children to act as 'health messengers' to their families. Sixteen semi-structured phone interviews were conducted with mothers with four receiving a second interview. Interviews were conducted following their child's participation in a six-week after school healthy cooking intervention. Thematic content analysis revealed four main themes: Cost and budget influence on food choices, diversity in household rules controlling food, role of socialisation on diet, and improved cooking skills and confidence to make homemade meals. The interview findings demonstrated the positive influence of the after-school cooking intervention on children and their families in cooking skills, promoting healthier cooking methods and increasing confidence to prepare homemade meals. The findings demonstrated the wider economic and social influences on food choices and eating practices. Socialisation into, and strong cultural norms around, eating habits were significant influences on family diet and on parental decisions underpinning food choices and attitudes towards the control of food within the family. The intervention was perceived to be successful in terms of improving nutritional knowledge, cooking skills and increasing confidence to make healthy and tasty homemade meals. The study demonstrates the importance of parental involvement in school-based interventions if improvements in healthy eating are to be evidenced at the family level and maintained. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Learning Freedom: Education, Elevation, and New York's African-American Community, 1827-1829

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hines, Michael

    2016-01-01

    Even though the black community of antebellum New York City lived in a society that marginalized them socially and economically, they were intent on pursuing the basic privileges of American citizenship. One tactic African Americans employed to this end was the tenacious pursuit of education, which leaders believed would act both as an aid in…

  4. The Families Who Care Project: Meeting the Educational Needs of African American and Rural Family Caregivers Dealing with Dementia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coogle, Constance L.

    2002-01-01

    Advisors from universities, human services agencies, and Alzheimer's Association identified the educational needs of family caregivers; results were used to prepare training materials. Family caregivers who were trained, mostly African American and rural (n=106), increased knowledge of the disease and caregiving. Economic barriers to participation…

  5. Rethinking "Turner v. Keefe": The Parallel Mobilization of African-American and White Teachers in Tampa, Florida, 1936-1946

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shircliffe, Barbara J.

    2012-01-01

    In 1941, members of the local unit of the Florida State Teachers Association (FSTA) met in Tampa to plan a lawsuit against Hillsborough County's school board for paying African-American teachers less than white teachers. Hilda Turner, who taught history and economics at Tampa's historically black high school, agreed to serve as plaintiff; she was…

  6. A Qualitative Investigation of African Americans' Decision to Pursue Computing Science Degrees: Implications for Cultivating Career Choice and Aspiration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Charleston, LaVar J.

    2012-01-01

    According to Pearson (2002), minority groups are not well represented in science, technology, engineering, and mathematics (STEM) occupations. Among these underrepresented groups are African Americans. To ensure the economic vitality of the STEM workforce in the United States, it is imperative to broaden participation in STEM-related fields and…

  7. Racial Identity Development and Psychological Coping Strategies of Undergraduate and Graduate African American Males

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eric Bridges

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available African American men face many socio-cultural, academic, and negative stressors that generate stress experiences and identity conflicts. These stressors, in turn, may lead to psychological pressures that negatively affect relationships that African American men have with African American women, children, other African American men, and the African American community. The purpose of this study was to examine the impact that racial identity has on the development of psychological healthy coping strategies among African American males at a predominantly White university in the southeastern United States. The goal of the study was to see what factors helped young African American men at this institution succeed academically.

  8. 49 CFR 26.67 - What rules determine social and economic disadvantage?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... significant adverse tax or interest consequences, include only the present value of such assets, less the tax... presumption of disadvantage. (1) If the statement of personal net worth that an individual submits under... disadvantage? 26.67 Section 26.67 Transportation Office of the Secretary of Transportation PARTICIPATION BY...

  9. Engaging African American women in research: an approach to eliminate health disparities in the African American community.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown Speights, Joedrecka S; Nowakowski, Alexandra C H; De Leon, Jessica; Mitchell, M Miaisha; Simpson, Ivana

    2017-06-01

    To explore the success of community-based participatory research [CBPR] in engaging African American women to achieve health equity by elucidating community, trust, communication and impact. Recommendations helpful for researchers interested in engaging communities to achieve health equity in the USA are included. African American women experience health disparities of multifactorial etiology and are underrepresented in research. CBPR is a collaborative approach that incorporates perspectives, which address the intricate determinants of health and has been reported as an effective means to address health disparities. Yet, the science of CBPR seems elusive to researchers in the medical field. The opportunity exists to better understand and expand the use of the principles of engagement, replication, and sustainability in engaging African American women in health research. A variety of literature regarding engaging African American women in community-based participatory research was reviewed. CBPR focused on robust engagement of marginalized groups continues to be validated as a vital approach to the elimination of disparities and improved health for all, especially ethnic and racial minority populations. However, limited evidence of focused engagement of African American women was found. Making specific outreach to African American women must be a community and patient engagement priority to achieve health equity. Continued research is needed which specifically focuses on building and sustaining engagement with African American women and their communities. This research can transform healthcare access, experiences and outcomes by yielding actionable information about what African American women need and want to promote wellness for themselves and their communities. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  10. The influences and experiences of African American undergraduate science majors at predominately White universities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blockus, Linda Helen

    The purpose of this study is to describe and explore some of the social and academic experiences of successful African American undergraduate science majors at predominately White universities with the expectation of conceptualizing emerging patterns for future study. The study surveyed 80 upperclass African Americans at 11 public research universities about their perceptions of the influences that affect their educational experiences and career interests in science. The mailed survey included the Persistence/ voluntary Dropout Decision Scale, the Cultural Congruity Scale and the University Environment Scale. A variety of potential influences were considered including family background, career goals, psychosocial development, academic and social connections with the university, faculty relationships, environmental fit, retention factors, validation, participation in mentored research projects and other experiences. The students' sources of influences, opportunities for connection, and cultural values were considered in the context of a research university environment and investigated for emerging themes and direction for future research. Results indicate that performance in coursework appears to be the most salient factor in African American students' experience as science majors. The mean college gpa was 3.01 for students in this study. Challenging content, time demands, study habits and concern with poor grades all serve to discourage students; however, for most of the students in this study, it has not dissuaded them from their educational and career plans. Positive course performance provided encouragement. Science faculty provide less influence than family members, and more students find faculty members discouraging than supportive. Measures of faculty relations were not associated with academic success. No evidence was provided to confirm the disadvantages of being female in a scientific discipline. Students were concerned with lack of minority role models

  11. Pathways between socioeconomic status and modifiable risk factors among African American smokers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kendzor, Darla E; Businelle, Michael S; Mazas, Carlos A; Cofta-Woerpel, Ludmila M; Reitzel, Lorraine R; Vidrine, Jennifer Irvin; Li, Yisheng; Costello, Tracy J; Cinciripini, Paul M; Ahluwalia, Jasjit S; Wetter, David W

    2009-12-01

    Although socioeconomic status is a major contributing factor to health disparities, the mechanisms through which socioeconomic status influences health remain unclear. The purpose of the present study was to evaluate an a priori conceptual model of the pathways between socioeconomic status and modifiable health risk factors in a sample of 399 African Americans seeking smoking cessation treatment. A latent variable modeling approach was utilized to characterize the interrelationships among socioeconomic status, neighborhood disadvantage, social support, negative affect/perceived stress, and three specific modifiable risk factors (i.e., overweight/obesity, insufficient physical activity, at-risk drinking). Findings indicated that neighborhood disadvantage, social support, and negative affect/perceived stress function as pathways linking socioeconomic status and modifiable risk factors among African American smokers, and negative affect/perceived stress appears to play a key mediating role. Policy, community, and individual-level interventions may attenuate the impact of socioeconomic status on health by targeting intermediate psychosocial, environmental, and behavioral pathways. © Springer Science+Business Media, LLC 2009

  12. Cancer survival disparities worsening by socio-economic disadvantage over the last 3 decades in new South Wales, Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tervonen, Hanna E; Aranda, Sanchia; Roder, David; You, Hui; Walton, Richard; Morrell, Stephen; Baker, Deborah; Currow, David C

    2017-09-14

    Public concerns are commonly expressed about widening health gaps. This cohort study examines variations and trends in cancer survival by socio-economic disadvantage, geographical remoteness and country of birth in an Australian population over a 30-year period. Data for cases diagnosed in New South Wales (NSW) in 1980-2008 (n = 651,245) were extracted from the population-based NSW Cancer Registry. Competing risk regression models, using the Fine & Gray method, were used for comparative analyses to estimate sub-hazard ratios (SHR) with 95% confidence intervals (CI) among people diagnosed with cancer. Increased risk of cancer death was associated with living in the most socio-economically disadvantaged areas compared with the least disadvantaged areas (SHR 1.15, 95% CI 1.13-1.17), and in outer regional/remote areas compared with major cities (SHR 1.05, 95% CI 1.03-1.06). People born outside Australia had a similar or lower risk of cancer death than Australian-born (SHR 0.99, 95% CI 0.98-1.01 and SHR 0.91, 95% CI 0.90-0.92 for people born in other English and non-English speaking countries, respectively). An increasing comparative risk of cancer death was observed over time when comparing the most with the least socio-economically disadvantaged areas (SHR 1.07, 95% CI 1.04-1.10 for 1980-1989; SHR 1.14, 95% CI 1.12-1.17 for 1990-1999; and SHR 1.24, 95% CI 1.21-1.27 for 2000-2008; p economic disadvantage that warrants a policy response and further examination of reasons behind these disparities.

  13. Occupational/Career Indecision for Economically Disadvantaged High School Students of High Intellectual Ability: A Mixed-Methods Cognitive Process Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jung, Jae Yup; Young, Marie

    2017-01-01

    A mixed-methods design was employed to identify the cognitive processes that lead to occupational/career indecision for economically disadvantaged adolescents of high intellectual ability. In the first phase, interview data collected from 26 economically disadvantaged intellectually gifted Australian adolescents were analyzed using grounded theory…

  14. The Status of African American Physicists within the DOE Laboratories

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jackson, Keith

    2005-03-01

    In May 2002 there was a backpage article published in American Physical Society Newsletter by the President of the National Society of Black Physicists (NSBP). This article showed that of the 3372 professional physicists employed at the DOE national labs, only 11 are African American, which on a percentage basis is 4 times less than the total availability of Ph.D. African American physicists in the labor force. NSBP want to provide an update of the interaction between National Society of Black Physicists (NSBP) and the department of Energy in particular the Office of Science on the issue of employment of African American Physicists in scientific and technical. You might ask the following question: Why should the current generation of African American Physicists be concerned about their underepresentation on the scientific staffs of the DOE National Laboratories? The answer to this question may vary from person to person, but I would like to propose the following: The National Laboratories are the largest providers of career opportunities in Physics in the United States. There is a general view in the community; African Americans are not getting a return on their national investment in the DOE National Labs. Failure to engage with HBCU’s through their user facilities causes a training or skills deficit when it comes to preparing students to participate at the forefront of physics research. By rebuffing interactions with HBCU¹s, as many the laboratories have done, the national laboratories are in effect refusing to transfer scientific knowledge to the stakeholders in the African American community. The update will contain some additional information about NSBP proposals to solve the problem of underepresentation of African American and Hispanic physicists within the National Laboratories and how the Office of Science has response these proposals.

  15. Parsing the Gulf between Africans and African Americans

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ashly Nsangou

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available The rise in African immigrants to the US provides an opportunity to assess relations between Africans and African Americans in college. An online survey of 322 current and recently-graduated college students (including 45 Africans, 160 African Americans, and 117 whites assessed respondents’ experiences of racism in US high schools and colleges. Semi-structured interviews of 30 students (10 African, 10 African American and 10 white students supplemented these data. Even within a sociopolitical context of more visible racial intolerance, Black intra-racial cohesion was absent. Although more first- and second-generation Africans (73% felt that they had been judged while living in the US compared to African Americans (34% or whites (20%, for 70–80% of respondents, this had occurred only in high school. Despite experiencing these judgments, Africans’ identity related more to their focus on education than their race, reflected in a higher proportion who felt intense family pressure to attend college (65% compared to African Americans (37% and whites (39%. Interview data confirmed previous reports in the literature that African Americans lack a sense of connection to Africans, attributed to Africans’ purported sense of superiority and disregard for African Americans’ ongoing struggle to end oppression. These mixed-methods data suggest that intermingling in the college environment has not resulted in first- and second-generation Africans and African Americans sharing a common in-group, race-based identity. We discuss the implications of overlooking ethnic distinctions due to presumptions of racial homogeneity that deprive Black individuals of their uniqueness.

  16. "So we would all help pitch in:" The family literacy practices of low-income African American mothers of preschoolers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jarrett, Robin L; Hamilton, Megan-Brette; Coba-Rodriguez, Sarai

    2015-01-01

    The development of emergent literacy skills are important for the development of later literacy competencies and affect school readiness. Quantitative researchers document race- and social class-based disparities in emergent literacy competence between low-income African American and middle-income White children. Some researchers suggest that deficits in parenting practices account for limited literacy skills among low-income African American children. A small body of qualitative research on low-income African American families finds that despite economic challenges, some African American families were actively engaged in promoting child literacy development. Using qualitative interviews that emphasize family strengths, we add to this small body of research to highlight positive family practices obscured in many quantitative analyses that concentrate on family shortcomings. Specifically, we examine in-home literacy practices and child literacy development with a sample of low-income African American mothers (families) of preschoolers. Key findings include identification of various literacy activities promoting child literacy development and inclusion of multiple family members assisting in literacy activities. These findings add to substantive discussions of emergent literacy and resilience. Insights from the qualitative interviews also provide culturally-sensitive recommendations to childhood educators and speech-language pathologists (SLP) who work with low-income African American families and children. Reader should recognize that (1) there is not a 'right' phenotype and therefore not a right form of environmental input and (2) that context matters (at both the level of the cell and the individual organism). Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. The Influence of the African American Father on Level of Self-Efficacy, Career Achievement, and Aspirations of His African American Daughter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stewart, April E.

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this correlational study was to investigate the influence of perceived and desired paternal involvement of the African American father on his African American daughter. The research problem is how father involvement may influence self-efficacy, career achievements, and aspirations of African American females. This study sought to…

  18. Perceptions of guided imagery for stress management in pregnant African American women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jallo, Nancy; Salyer, Jeanne; Ruiz, R Jeanne; French, Elise

    2015-08-01

    Maternal stress during pregnancy has been associated with numerous adverse pregnancy, birth, and health outcomes. Pregnant African American women have been reported to have higher levels of stress compared to other ethnic or racial groups underscoring the need for effective interventions to reduce stress in this population. The purpose of this study was to gain an in-depth understanding of the perceptions of guided imagery (GI) as a technique for stress management in a cohort of pregnant African American women who participated in a GI intervention as part of a larger mixed methods randomized controlled trial. The 12week intervention was a professionally recorded compact disc with four tracks developed and sequenced to reduce stress and associated symptoms. The findings from this descriptive phenomenologic study were derived from daily logs and interviews from 36 participants randomized to the GI group. Participants described the stressful nature of their lives. Results demonstrated pregnant African American women perceived the intervention as beneficial in reducing stress and the associated symptoms. The emergent themes suggested the intervention offered a respite from their stressful lives, reduced the negative emotional responses to stress and enhanced well-being, benefited other areas of their daily life, and provided an opportunity to connect with their baby. The study results support the perceived efficacy of GI as a stress coping intervention. GI is an economic as well as easy to implement, access and use technique that has potential stress coping benefits as perceived by pregnant African American women. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Individual- and area-level unemployment influence smoking cessation among African Americans participating in a randomized clinical trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kendzor, Darla E; Reitzel, Lorraine R; Mazas, Carlos A; Cofta-Woerpel, Ludmila M; Cao, Yumei; Ji, Lingyun; Costello, Tracy J; Vidrine, Jennifer Irvin; Businelle, Michael S; Li, Yisheng; Castro, Yessenia; Ahluwalia, Jasjit S; Cinciripini, Paul M; Wetter, David W

    2012-05-01

    African Americans suffer disproportionately from the adverse health consequences of smoking, and also report substantially lower socioeconomic status than Whites and other racial/ethnic groups in the U.S. Although socioeconomic disadvantage is known to have a negative influence on smoking cessation rates and overall health, little is known about the influence of socioeconomic status on smoking cessation specifically among African Americans. Thus, the purpose of the current study was to characterize the impact of several individual- and area-level indicators of socioeconomic status on smoking cessation among African Americans. Data were collected as part of a smoking cessation intervention study for African American smokers (N = 379) recruited from the Houston, Texas, metropolitan area, who participated in the study between 2005 and 2007. The separate and combined influences of individual-level (insurance status, unemployment, education, and income) and area-level (neighborhood unemployment, education, income, and poverty) indicators of socioeconomic status on continuous smoking abstinence were examined across time intervals using continuation ratio logit modeling. Individual-level analyses indicated that unemployment was significantly associated with reduced odds of smoking abstinence, while higher income was associated with greater odds of abstinence. However, only unemployment remained a significant predictor of abstinence when unemployment and income were included in the model together. Area-level analyses indicated that greater neighborhood unemployment and poverty were associated with reduced odds of smoking abstinence, while greater neighborhood education was associated with higher odds of abstinence. However, only neighborhood unemployment remained significantly associated with abstinence status when individual-level income and unemployment were included in the model. Overall, findings suggest that individual- and area-level unemployment have a negative

  20. Neighbourhood Socio Economic Disadvantage Index’s Analysis of the Flood Disasters Area at East Jakarta in 1996 and 2016

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ranti Ristiani, Christina; Rokhmatuloh; Hernina, Revi

    2017-12-01

    Flood is one of natural disasters that have often happened in East Jakarta. Flood can give several negative impacts and it can affect all aspects of society lives such as economics, political, cultural, socials and others. East Jakarta is an urban area which continuously grows and establishes to become a rapid area. It can be seen from the highest population density in East Jakarta (BPS, 2016) and categorized into a region prone to flooding based on data Prone Flood Map in 1996 and 2016. The higher population exists in East Jakarta, the bigger possibility of the negative effects of disaster it gets. The negative impacts of flood disaster can affect societies especially with socio-economic disadvantage. One of the index to measure socio-economic disadvantage is NSDI (Neighbourhood socio-economic disadvantage index). However, to adjust indicators used in NSDI with Indonesia statistical data compatibility, it needs further assessment and evaluation. Therefore, this paper evaluates previous main indicators used in previous NSDI studies and improves with indicators which more suitable with statistical records in Indonesia. As a result, there will be improved 19 indicators to be used in NSDI, but the groups of indicators remain the same as previous namely; income, education, occupation, housing, and population.

  1. Health-related quality of life of african american breast cancer survivors compared with healthy African American women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Von Ah, Diane M; Russell, Kathleen M; Carpenter, Janet; Monahan, Patrick O; Qianqian, Zhao; Tallman, Eileen; Ziner, Kim Wagler; Storniolo, Anna Maria; Miller, Kathy D; Giesler, R Brian; Haase, Joan; Otte, Julie; Champion, Victoria L

    2012-01-01

    The diagnosis and treatment of breast cancer can result in an array of late cancer-specific side effects and changes in general well-being. Research has focused on white samples, limiting our understanding of the unique health-related quality of life outcomes of African American breast cancer survivors (BCSs). Even when African American BCSs have been targeted, research is limited by small samples and failure to include comparisons of peers without a history of breast cancer. The purpose of this study was to compare health-related quality of life of African American female BCSs with that of African American women with no history of breast cancer (control group). A total of 140 women (62 BCSs and 78 controls), 18 years or older and 2 to 10 years postdiagnosis, were recruited from a breast cancer clinic and cancer support groups. Participants provided informed consent and completed a 1-time survey based on the proximal-distal health-related quality of life model of Brenner et al (1995). After adjusting for age, education, income, and body mass index, results show that African American BCSs experienced more fatigue (P = .001), worse hot flashes (P < .001), and worse sleep quality (P < .001) but more social support from their partner (P = .028) and more positive change (P = .001) compared with African American female controls. Our results suggest that African American female BCSs may experience unique health-related outcomes that transcend age, education, socioeconomic status, and body mass index. Findings suggest the importance of understanding the survivorship experience for particular racial and ethnic subgroups to proactively assess difficulties and plan interventions.

  2. Female genital mutilation in African and African American women's literature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Darja Marinšek

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available The article builds on the existing dispute between African and African American women writers on the competence of writing about female genital mutilation (FGM, and tries to determine the existence and nature of the differences between the writings of these two groups. The author uses comparative analysis of two popular African and African American novels, comparing their ways of describing FGM, its causes and consequences, the level ob objectivity and the style of the narrations.This is followed by a discussion on the reasons for such differences, incorporating a larger circle of both African and African American women authors, at the same time analysing the deviance within the two groups. While the differences between African American writers are not that great, as they mostly fail to present the issue from different points of view, which is often the result of their lack of direct knowledge of the topic, African authors' writing is in itself discovered to be ambivalent and not at all invariable. The reasons for such ambivalence are then discussed in greater context, focusing on the effect of the authors' personal contact with circumcision as well as their knowledge and acceptance of Western values. The author concludes by establishing the African ambivalent attitude towards FGM, which includes different aspects of the issue, as the most significant difference between their and African American writers' description of this practice.

  3. Unheard Voices: African American Fathers Speak about their Parenting Practices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doyle, Otima; Clark, Trenette T; Cryer-Coupet, Qiana; Nebbitt, Von E; Goldston, David B; Estroff, Sue E; Magan, Ifrah

    2015-07-01

    Researchers have called for qualitative investigations into African American fathers' parenting practices that consider their social context and identify specific practices. Such investigations can inform the way we conceptualize African American fathers' parenting practices, which can in turn contribute to prevention interventions with at-risk youth. We conducted semi-structured, qualitative interviews about parenting with 30 self-identified, African American, biological fathers of pre-adolescent sons at-risk for developing aggressive behaviors, depressive symptoms, or both. Fathers provided descriptions of their parenting practices, which were at times influenced by their environmental context, fathers' residential status, and masculine ideologies. Our systematic analysis revealed four related themes that emerged from the data: managing emotions, encouragement, discipline, and monitoring. Of particular note, fathers in the current sample emphasized the importance of teaching their sons to manage difficult emotions, largely utilized language consistent with male ideologies (i.e., encouragement rather than love or nurturance), and engaged in high levels of monitoring and discipline in response to perceived environmental challenges and the developmental needs of their sons. The findings provide deeper insight into the parenting practices of African American fathers who are largely understudied, and often misunderstood. Further, these findings highlight considerations that may have important implications for father-focused prevention interventions that support African American fathers, youth, and families.

  4. Opinions of African Americans about tobacco industry philanthropy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    King, Gary; Gebreselassie, Tesfayi; Mallett, Robyn K; Kozlowski, Lynn; Bendel, Robert B

    2007-12-01

    To investigate African Americans' opinions about the philanthropic contributions of the tobacco industry to Black organizations. One thousand African Americans were randomly selected using a stratified cluster sample design of 10 U.S. congressional districts represented by African Americans. Almost two-thirds of African Americans favored accepting tobacco industry philanthropy as long as the recipients do not support smoking. A majority agreed that the tobacco industry gives money to African American communities to improve its image (71.2%), make money (83.2%), and to encourage people to smoke (60.5%). About one-third stated they believed it gave money to help the community (34.4%). Multiple logistic regression showed that women, the college educated, and current smokers were significantly (pphilanthropy. Multiple logistic regression revealed significant differences by education, smoking status, and selective attitudinal and behavioral variables with regard to tobacco industry philanthropy. The 18-34 age group was significantly less likely to agree that the tobacco industry gives money to help the community, with or without covariate adjustment. Results of this study are important because despite the perceived benefits to these communities, tobacco industry contributions could mitigate community concerns about tobacco-related diseases, mask their significance, and undermine tobacco control strategies and policies.

  5. Cancer fatalism and breast cancer screening in African American women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spurlock, Wanda Raby; Cullins, Leah S

    2006-01-01

    Despite significant advances in science, medicine, and technology African American women are more likely to die from breast cancer than Caucasian women. There is a growing body of literature that describes strategies to improve breast cancer screening among African American women. However, data suggest that African American women, compared to Caucasian women, are less likely to participate in regular breast cancer screening. The belief that a diagnosis of cancer will result in death has been identified as a potential barrier to cancer screening in African American population groups. However, research examining the degree to which perceptions of fatalism influence breast cancer screening in culturally and ethnically diverse population groups is scant. This repot describes the outcomes of a study undertaken to examine relationships between perceptions of cancer fatalism and breast cancer screening in African American women. Findings support the postulation that fatalism negatively influences health promoting practices such as breast cancer screening. However, contrary to prior research findings age was observed to be inversely associated with cancer fatalism.

  6. The Diabetic Health of African American Grandmothers Raising their Grandchildren

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dana L. Carthron

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose The purpose of this study is to compare the health of primary caregiving African American grandmothers with diabetes with African American women with diabetes who were not primary caregivers. Design Using a comparative, descriptive, cross-sectional design, 34 African American primary caregiving grandmothers were compared with 34 non-caregiving women with diabetes mellitus; women aged 55–75 years were recruited for this study throughout the central Arkansas. Methods To measure the overall health, data on blood pressure, body mass index measurements, HbA1c levels, total cholesterol, and urine protein and creatinine levels were collected from all the participants. Results Statistically significant differences between the caregivers and non-caregivers groups in systolic pressure ( t = −3.42, P = 0.001 and diastolic pressure ( t = −3.790, P = 0.000 and urine protein ( W = 294.00, P = 0.000 were noted. Additionally, a clinically significant difference in HbA1c was noted between groups. Conclusion Differences in systolic and diastolic pressures, urine protein, and clinically significant differences in HbA1c suggest that African American primary caregiving grandmothers with diabetes mellitus may have more difficulty in maintaining their diabetic health than non-caregiving African American women.

  7. Discrimination and psychiatric disorders among older African Americans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mouzon, Dawne M; Taylor, Robert Joseph; Keith, Verna M; Nicklett, Emily J; Chatters, Linda M

    2017-02-01

    This study examined the impact of everyday discrimination (both racial and non-racial) on the mental health of older African Americans. This analysis is based on the older African American subsample of the National Survey of American Life (NSAL) (n = 773). We examined the associations between everyday discrimination and both general distress and psychiatric disorders as measured by the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM-IV). Six dependent variables were examined: lifetime mood disorders, lifetime anxiety disorders, any lifetime disorder, number of lifetime disorders, depressive symptoms as measured by the 12-item Center for Epidemiological Scale of Depression (CES-D), and serious psychological distress as measured by the Kessler 6 (K6). Overall, racial and non-racial everyday discrimination were consistently associated with worse mental health for older African Americans. Older African Americans who experienced higher levels of overall everyday discrimination had higher odds of any psychiatric disorder, any lifetime mood disorder, any lifetime anxiety disorder, and more lifetime DSM-IV disorders, in addition to elevated levels of depressive symptoms and serious psychological distress. These findings were similar for both racial discrimination and non-racial discrimination. This study documents the harmful association of not only racial discrimination, but also non-racial (and overall) discrimination with the mental health of older African Americans. Specifically, discrimination is negatively associated with mood and anxiety disorders as well as depressive symptoms and psychological distress. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  8. Informal learning in SME majors for African American female undergraduates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ezella McPherson

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available This research investigates how eight undergraduate African American women in science, math, and engineering (SME majors accessed cultural capital and informal science learning opportunities from preschool to college. It uses the multiple case study methodological approach and cultural capital as the framework to better understand their opportunities to engage in free-choice science learning. The article demonstrates that African American women have access to cultural capital and informal science learning inside and outside of home and school environments in P-16 settings. In primary and secondary schools, African American girls acquire cultural capital and access to free-choice science learning in the home environment, museums, science fairs, student organizations and clubs. However, in high school African American female teenagers have fewer informal science learning opportunities like those such as those provided in primary school settings. In college, cultural capital is transmitted through informal science learning that consisted of involvement in student organizations, research projects, seminars, and conferences. These experiences contributed to their engagement and persistence in SME fields in K-16 settings. This research adds to cultural capital and informal science learning research by allowing scholars to better understand how African American women have opportunities to learn about the hidden curriculum of science through informal science settings throughout the educational pipeline.

  9. The moderating effects of skin color and ethnic identity affirmation on suicide risk among low-SES African American women

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perry, Brea L.; Stevens-Watkins, Danelle; Oser, Carrie B.

    2012-01-01

    This study examined the influence of concurrent racism and sexism experiences (i.e. gendered racism) on African American women’s suicidal ideation and behavior in the context of disadvantaged socioeconomic status. Drawing on a stress process framework, the moderating effects of ethnic identity and skin color were explored using multiple regression analyses. Data were from 204 low-income African American women in the B-WISE (Black Women in a Study of Epidemics) project. Findings suggested that experiencing gendered racism significantly increased these women’s risk for suicidal ideation or behavior, though only among women with medium or dark skin color. Also, having strong ethnic identity buffered the harmful effects of gendered racism. The moderating properties of skin color and ethnic identity affirmation likely operate through psychosocial pathways, blocking internalization of negative stereotypes and reducing the level of distress experienced in response to gendered racism. PMID:23459264

  10. Predictors of high-energy foods and beverages: a longitudinal study among socio-economically disadvantaged adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stephens, Lena D; McNaughton, Sarah A; Crawford, David; Ball, Kylie

    2014-02-01

    While socio-economically disadvantaged adolescents tend to have poor dietary intakes, some manage to eat healthily. Understanding how some disadvantaged adolescents restrict high-energy foods and beverages may inform initiatives promoting healthier diets among this population. The present investigation aimed to: (i) identify disadvantaged adolescents' high-energy food and beverage intakes; and (ii) explore cross-sectional and longitudinal associations between intrapersonal, social and environmental factors and disadvantaged adolescents' high-energy food intakes. Longitudinal online surveys were completed at baseline (2004-2005) and follow-up (2006-2007), each comprising a thirty-eight-item FFQ and questions examining intrapersonal, social and environmental factors. Thirty-seven secondary schools in metropolitan and non-metropolitan Victoria, Australia. Of 1938 adolescents aged 12-15 years participating at both time points, 529 disadvantaged adolescents (whose mothers had low education levels) were included in the present investigation. At baseline and follow-up, respectively 32% and 39% of adolescents consumed high-energy foods less frequently (≤2 high-energy food meals/week); 61% and 65% consumed high-energy beverages less frequently (≤1 time/d). More girls than boys had less frequent high-energy food intakes, and baseline consumption frequency predicted consumption frequency at follow-up. Adolescents with less frequent consumption of high-energy foods and beverages seldom ate fast food for main meals, reported reduced availability of high-energy foods at home and were frequently served vegetables at dinner. Nutrition promotion initiatives could help improve disadvantaged adolescents' eating behaviours by promoting adolescents and their families to replace high-energy meals with nutritious home-prepared meals and decrease home availability of high-energy foods in place of more nutritious foods.

  11. Gang membership and marijuana use among African American female adolescents in North Carolina.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wechsberg, Wendee M; Doherty, Irene A; Browne, Felicia A; Kline, Tracy L; Carry, Monique G; Raiford, Jerris L; Herbst, Jeffrey H

    2015-01-01

    The southeastern US sustains the highest high school dropout rates, and gangs persist in underserved communities. African American female adolescents who drop out of school and are gang members are at substantial risk of exposure to severe violence, physical abuse, and sexual exploitation. In this study of 237 female African American adolescents 16-19 years of age from North Carolina who dropped out or considered dropping out, 11% were current or past gang members. Adolescents who reported gang membership began smoking marijuana at a mean age of 13, whereas those who reported no gang membership began at a mean age of 15 years (Pgang members and non-gang members, respectively (P=0.04). Problem alcohol use was high in both groups: 40% and 65% for non-gang and gang members, respectively (P=0.02). Controlling for frequent marijuana use and problem alcohol use, adolescents who reported gang membership were more likely than non-gang members to experience sexual abuse (odds ratio [OR] =2.60, 95% confidence interval [CI] [1.06, 6.40]), experience physical abuse (OR =7.33, 95% CI [2.90, 18.5]), report emotional abuse from their main partner (OR =3.55, 95% CI [1.44, 8.72]), run away from home (OR =4.65, 95% CI [1.90, 11.4]), get arrested (OR =2.61, 95% CI [1.05, 6.47]), and report violence in their neighborhood including murder (OR =3.27, 95% CI [1.35, 7.96]) and fights with weapons (OR =3.06, 95% CI [1.15, 8.11]). Gang members were less likely to receive emotional support (OR =0.89, 95% CI [0.81, 0.97]). These findings reinforce the urgent need to reach young African American women in disadvantaged communities affiliated with gangs to address the complexity of context and interconnected risk behaviors.

  12. Cohort study of smoke-free homes in economically disadvantaged communities in the Dominican Republic

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ann M. Dozier

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To analyze household smoking-ban prevalence over time and predictors among communities in the Dominican Republic, historically a significant tobacco-growing country with few tobacco control regulations. METHODS: Baseline (2004 and follow-up surveillance surveys (2006, 2007 (each n > 1 000 randomly selected households conducted in six economically disadvantaged communities (three tobacco-growing and two each urban, peri-urban, and rural assessed household members’ demographics, health status, and household characteristics, including smoking restrictions. RESULTS: Between 2004 and 2007, household smoking-ban prevalence increased in all communities, with overall rates increasing from 23.9% (2004 to 45.3% (2007. Households with smokers adopted smoking bans at lower rates (6%-17% versus those without smokers (which had an adoption rate of 35%-58%. Logistic regression models demonstrated that the associations between allowing smoking in households with no members who smoked and being located in a tobacco-growing community, being a Catholic household, and having a member with a cardiovascular problem were statistically significant. The association between having a child under age 5 or a member with a respiratory condition and prohibiting smoking in the home was not statistically significant. CONCLUSIONS: Prevalence of households banning smoking increased in all communities but remained well below rates in industrialized countries. For low- and middle-income countries or those in early stages of tobacco control, basic awareness-raising measures (including surveillance activities may lead to statistically significant increases in household smoking-ban adoption, particularly among households with no smokers. An increase in household smoking-ban prevalence may result in changes in community norms that can lead to a further increase in the adoption of smoking bans. Having household members who smoke and being in a tobacco-growing community may

  13. Trends in opioid use and dosing among socio-economically disadvantaged patients

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gomes, Tara; Juurlink, David N; Dhalla, Irfan A; Mailis-Gagnon, Angela; Paterson, J Michael; Mamdani, Muhammad M

    2011-01-01

    Background Opioid therapy for patients with chronic nonmalignant pain remains controversial, primarily because of safety concerns and the potential for abuse. The objective of this study was to examine trends in opioid utilization for nonmalignant pain among recipients of social assistance and to explore the relation between dose of analgesic and mortality. Methods Using a cross-sectional study design, we characterized annual trends in prescriptions for and daily dose of opioid analgesics between 2003 and 2008 for beneficiaries (aged 15 to 64 years) of Ontario’s public drug plan. We defined moderate, high and very high dose thresholds as daily doses of up to 200, 201 to 400, and more than 400 mg oral morphine (or equivalent), respectively. In an exploratory cohort study, we followed, over a 2-year period, patients who received at least one prescription for an opioid in 2004 to investigate the relation between opioid dose and opioid-related mortality. Results Over the study period, opioid prescribing rates rose by 16.2%, and 180 974 individuals received nearly 1.5 million opioid prescriptions in 2008. Also by 2008, the daily dose dispensed exceeded 200 mg morphine equivalent for almost a third (32.6%) of recipients of long-acting oxycodone but only 20.3% of those treated with fentanyl or other long-acting opioids. Among patients for whom high or very high doses of opioids were dispensed in 2004, 19.3% of deaths during the subsequent 2 years were opioid-related, occurring at a median age of 46 years. Two-year opioid-related mortality rates were 1.63 per 1000 population (95% confidence interval [CI] 1.42–1.85) among people with moderate-dose prescriptions, 7.92 per 1000 population (95% CI 5.25–11.49) among those with high-dose prescriptions, and 9.94 per 1000 population (95% CI 2.78–25.12) among those with very-high-dose prescriptions. Interpretation Among socio-economically disadvantaged patients in Ontario, the use and dose of opioids for nonmalignant pain

  14. HIV/AIDS stigma and religiosity among African American women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muturi, Nancy; An, Soontae

    2010-06-01

    African American women are disproportionately affected by HIV/AIDS compared with other ethnicities, accounting for two-thirds (67%) of all women diagnosed with HIV. Despite their increased risk of HIV infection, few studies have been conducted to understand culture-specific factors leading to their vulnerability. Given the central role of religious organizations in African American communities, this study explored whether and to what extent religiosity plays a role in stigma toward HIV/AIDS. Results of hierarchical regression showed that after controlling for key factors, religiosity was a significant factor predicting the level of religious stigma. Those with high religiosity displayed significantly higher stigma, associating HIV/AIDS with a curse or punishment from God. Verbatim responses to an open-ended question also revealed seemingly ingrained prejudice against HIV/AIDS from a religious perspective. The findings point to the important role of faith-based organizations (FBOs) in addressing HIV/AIDS issues within African American communities.

  15. Inez Beverly Prosser and the education of African Americans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benjamin, Ludy T; Henry, Keisha D; McMahon, Lance R

    2005-01-01

    Inez Beverly Prosser (ca. 1895-1934) was arguably the first African American woman to earn a doctorate in psychology. Her dissertation, completed in 1933, examined personality differences in black children attending either voluntarily segregated or integrated schools and concluded that black children were better served in segregated schools. This research was one of several studies in the 1920s and 1930s that was part of the debate on segregated schools as maintained in the United States under the "separate but equal" doctrine of Plessy v. Ferguson (1896). This article examines the life and career of Prosser in the context of educational barriers and opportunities for African Americans in the early part of the twentieth century and explores the arguments that pitted African Americans against one another in determining how best to educate black children, arguments that eventually led to the desegregation decision of Brown v. Board of Education (1954). Copyright 2005 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  16. African American parents' HPV vaccination intent and concerns.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanders Thompson, Vetta L; Arnold, Lauren D; Notaro, Sheri R

    2012-02-01

    This study describes attitudes and social and environmental factors that affect African American parents' intent to vaccinate their daughters against human papillomavirus (HPV). Thirty African American parents of daughters aged nine to 17 years and no history of HPV infection completed semi-structured interviews. Interviews addressed factors that influenced intent to vaccinate, perception of community norms related to vaccination, vaccination scenarios involving place of vaccination, and vaccination prior to or after the child's initiation of sexual activity. A recurring theme was the influence of physician recommendation on African American parents' intent to obtain HPV vaccination for their daughters. Most parents reported that they could overcome barriers to vaccination, except vaccine costs and lack of insurance. While religious beliefs were important to parents, they reported that they would not interfere with vaccination decisions; fears of early sexuality due to vaccination were limited. The implications of these findings are discussed.

  17. Major depressive disorder in the African American population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bailey, Rahn K; Patel, Milapkumar; Barker, Narviar C; Ali, Shahid; Jabeen, Shagufta

    2011-07-01

    Depression is a common mental disorder that presents with depressed mood. It can become chronic or recurrent and lead to substantial impairment in an individual's ability to function. At this level, it is identified as major depressive disorder (MDD). Depression and MDD occur across all racial and ethnic groups. Although many depressed patients are treated in primary care, depression in these settings has been underdetected and undertreated. African Americans, especially, who suffer from depression are frequently underdiagnosed and inadequately managed in primary care due to patient, physician, and treatment setting factors. Patient factors include being poor, uninsured, restrictive insurance policies, biological-genetic vulnerability, nonresponsiveness to traditional pharmacological interventions, and stigma (i.e., attitudes and perceptions of mental illness). Physician factors include diagnosis and assessment, physician characteristics, physician bias, and culture; and treatment setting factors include systemic variables such as lack of or poor access to health care, racism, environment, and patient management. African Americans are less likely to receive proper diagnosis and treatment, more likely to have depression for long periods of time, and more likely to suffer greater disability from depression. Understanding patient, physician, and treatment setting factors as contributing barriers that impede effective diagnosis and treatment of depression and MDD in African Americans is critical to effective patient management and discovery. Greater African American participation in clinical research trials also is needed to effectively improve, diagnose, and treat depression in African Americans. This article examines depression among African Americans in the context of gender, culture, and psychosocial determinants, and their engagement in clinical trials.

  18. Developing culturally sensitive cancer genetics communication aids for African Americans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baty, Bonnie Jeanne; Kinney, Anita Yeomans; Ellis, Sara Marie

    2003-04-15

    The goal of this project was to develop educational materials to communicate genetic health information in a culturally sensitive manner. These materials were designed to communicate information about cancer risk, genetic testing options, and health management options in an African American kindred with a known BRCA1 mutation. Educational materials were pilot-tested in four African American focus groups varying in socioeconomic status and gender. The audiotaped focus groups consisted of presentation of the educational materials, followed by a feedback session led by an African American facilitator. Qualitative analysis of the focus group transcripts identified important themes and the educational materials were revised in response to the participants' suggestions. The products included a booklet and a flip chart for use in educational sessions. Focus group participants recommended a substantial reduction in technical detail, and recommended that information be personalized and made relevant to the lives of the target population. Other critical themes included the importance of building trust in the medical system and avoiding words and images that have strong negative associations in the African American community. Strategies that were successful included nontechnical images to explain genetic concepts, clip art images to energize and personalize word slides, vibrant color, identifiably African American figures, and the development of themes relevant to many African Americans. The use of these materials in an ongoing study offering BRCA1 counseling and testing to a large, rural Louisiana-based kindred will provide additional feedback about the effectiveness of the culturally tailored genetic education and counseling materials. Copyright 2003 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  19. Nursing's role in racism and African American women's health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eliason, M J

    1999-01-01

    African American women's health has been neglected in the nursing and other health care literature, in spite of evidence that they are among the most vulnerable populations in the United States today. In this article, I highlight the health disparities between African American and European American women, discuss possible reasons for the disparities, and propose that nursing as a profession has been complicit in perpetuating the racism of health care and society. Although the focus is on nursing research and practice, it is likely that other health care disciplines perpetuate racism in similar ways.

  20. Impact of Grandchild Caregiving on African American Grandparents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samuel, Preethy S; Marsack, Christina N; Johnson, Lisa A; LeRoy, Barbara W; Lysack, Catherine L; Lichtenberg, Peter A

    2017-01-01

    The aim of this study was to describe the context and impact of caregiving for grandchildren with health concerns on grandparents. The study sample comprised 391 African American grandparents aged 55 or older. Logistic regression analysis indicated that grandparent caregivers of grandchildren with psychiatric or behavioral problems were more likely to experience a negative impact on their health (AOR = 7.86, p =.008) and leisure (AOR = 14.31, p =.024) than grandparent caregivers of grandchildren with no or other types of health problems. The findings underscore the need to support African American grandparent caregivers, particularly those raising grandchildren with mental health problems.

  1. African-American Female Students and STEM: Principals' Leadership Perspectives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sampson, Kristin Morgan

    As the U.S. becomes more diverse, school leaders, major corporations, and areas of national defense continue to investigate science, technology, engineering and math (STEM) education issues. African-American female students have historically been underrepresented in STEM fields, yet educational leadership research, examining this population is limited. The purpose of this qualitative study was to explore how principals support African-American female students in schools with a STEM program. The Critical Race Theory (CRT)was used as a theoretical framework to highlight the inadequacies to support educational inequalities. The application of the CRT in this study is due to the embedded inequality practices within the educational system, that have resulted in the underrepresentation of African-American female students in STEM. To complement CRT, the transformative leadership model was also utilized to examine the emancipatory leadership practices principals utilized. These theories framed the context of this study by recognizing the need to address how support is actualized to African-American female students in STEM by their principals. A case study approach was an appropriate method to answer the two research questions, 1) How do principals feel they support African-American female students in their STEM programs? and 2) What practices do principals engage in that support underrepresented students in STEM? This approach intended to uncover how a principal leads a multifaceted population of underrepresented students in STEM programs. Two principals of STEM schools, where more than 50% of the population were African-American, were interviewed and observed completing daily operations at community-wide events. The STEM Coordinators and a teacher were also interviewed, and test scores were examined to provide further information about the STEM program, and public records were obtained to analyze the principals' means of communication. I found that principals supported

  2. Meaning of bereavement among older African American widows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodgers, Laura S

    2004-01-01

    In spite of the increase in research on spousal bereavement, researchers have not specifically addressed the impact that ethnicity may have on the bereavement experience. The results of this descriptive phenomenological study increase the understanding of spousal bereavement among older African American widows. Storytelling was at the heart of every participant's description of her bereavement experience. Six themes were identified: awareness of death, care giving, getting through, moving on, changing feelings, and financial security. For nurses to effectively intervene in the lives of bereaved older African American widows, they must consider each widow's culture, heritage, and lived experiences, which can be ascertained through eliciting and listening to the widow's life stories.

  3. The Social-Emotional Impact of Instrumental Music Performance on Economically Disadvantaged South African Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Devroop, Karendra

    2012-01-01

    Within the literature there exists a large volume of research studies attesting to the positive relationships between studying music and various psychological and sociological variables. A close examination of these studies reveals that only a handful were conducted on disadvantaged populations. Accordingly, it remains unclear to what extent these…

  4. Extending the extended family for homeless and marginally housed African American women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Killion, C M

    2000-01-01

    Young homeless African American women and elderly marginally housed African American women have health, housing, and personal concerns specific to their age cohort, yet they also have parallel and complementary needs. The young struggle to find affordable housing, while the old may have difficulty in maintaining their homes. This article reports select findings from a pilot study designed to describe these two groups of women. The preliminary study was conducted preparatory to the development of a larger study to explore factors that would facilitate or hinder linking the two groups of women for mutual assistance in housesharing arrangements. Interviews and housing history findings revealed contrasts and similarities among the women and between both cohorts that reflected individual differences, common yet divergent life courses, and collective responses to family life situations, societal trends, and policies. Advantages and disadvantages of housesharing were delineated with 56.3% of the homeless women and 81.3% of the elderly women viewing coresidential living as an option worth considering. Housesharing arrangements should be further investigated by nurses and colleagues. Findings from this study are foundational for establishing alliances that may be a means to promote health and strengthen "family" in both populations.

  5. Social Support and Neighborhood Stressors Among African American Youth: Networks and Relations to Self-Worth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McMahon, Susan D; Felix, Erika D; Nagarajan, Thara

    2011-06-01

    Although neighborhood stressors have a negative impact on youth, and social support can play a protective role, it is unclear what types and sources of social support may contribute to positive outcomes among at-risk youth. We examined the influences of neighborhood disadvantage and social support on global self-worth among low-income, urban African American youth, both concurrently and longitudinally. We examined social support from both a structural and functional perspective, and tested the main-effects and the stress-buffering models of social support. Participants included 82-130 youth, in 6th-8th grade, who completed self-report measures. Network support results suggest participants received emotional, tangible, and informational support most often from mothers and other female relatives, with friends, fathers, and teachers also playing important roles. Model testing accounted for neighborhood stressors and support from various sources, revealing support from close friends was associated with concurrent self-worth; whereas, parent support predicted self-worth longitudinally, above and beyond initial levels of self-worth. The findings provide evidence for the main-effects model of social support and not the stress-buffering model. Our findings illustrate the importance of extended family networks and the types of support that youth rely upon in African American impoverished communities, as well as how support contributes to global self-worth. Implications and suggestions for future research and intervention are discussed.

  6. Using African American Children's Literature to Support Literacy Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    McClellan, Sally; Fields, M. Evelyn

    2004-01-01

    Reading is an essential skill for young children. It can chart a course for school success. Without this ability, children are likely to be unsuccessful and drop out of school. In this article, the authors focus on the use of Authentic African American children's literature to support literacy development, help unite the home and school…

  7. The Brotherhood: Empowering Adolescent African-American Males toward Excellence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wyatt, Shelby

    2009-01-01

    A review of the literature reveals that African-American males do not achieve at the same academic levels as their White counterparts. This article reports the effectiveness of a school-based male mentoring program established by a professional school counselor in an urban high school that formed a relationship of support for male students…

  8. NGOMA: Celebrate the Dream with African-American Literature

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brinson, Sabrina A.

    2008-01-01

    How can everyone celebrate the most powerful dream (Dr. Martin Luther King, Jr.'s) in America's history, which paved the way for civil rights, equality, and social justice? How can everyone heighten students' awareness of these civil and social issues? An increased use of African-American literature is one effective way. In this article,…

  9. 77 FR 33595 - African-American Music Appreciation Month, 2012

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-06-07

    ..., symphony, and classical music by bringing energy and creativity to traditional genres. At its core, African... Documents#0;#0; #0; #0;Title 3-- #0;The President ] Proclamation 8832 of June 1, 2012 African-American Music... piece of American culture, music offers a vibrant soundtrack to the story of our people and our Union...

  10. Title I: African-American Studies Program. Student Workbook.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, Linda

    This is a student workbook in African American studies used in the Detroit, Michigan public schools in 1978-79. The workbook contains student exercises in African history, culture, geography, languages, architecture, folktales, food, and artifacts. The continent of Africa is covered in units on Egypt, North Africa, West Africa, Central Africa, and…

  11. New role perspective of African American women in Terry Mcmillan's ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A number of studies on female-authored African American literary works have focused on female writers' creative responses to male-authored representations of the tensions of racism, internal crisis of man-woman relationships and the challenges of empowering the black female character. Little attention has been paid to ...

  12. Stress, Marital Satisfaction, and Psychological Distress among African Americans

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lincoln, Karen D.; Chae, David H.

    2010-01-01

    This study examines relationships among financial strain, unfair treatment, and martial satisfaction among African Americans. Using data from the National Survey of American Life, findings indicated that social stressors that occur inside of the home (i.e., financial strain) as well as those experienced outside of the home (i.e., unfair treatment)…

  13. Fostering Healthy Lifestyles in the African American Population

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murimi, Mary; Chrisman, Matthew S.; McAllister, Tiffany; McDonald, Olevia D.

    2015-01-01

    Approximately 8.3% of the U.S. population (25.8 million people) is affected by type 2 diabetes. The burden of diabetes is disproportionately greater in the African American community. Compared with non-Hispanic Caucasian adults, the risk of diagnosed type 2 diabetes was 77% higher among non-Hispanic Blacks, who are 27% more likely to die of…

  14. Predicting Relationship Stability among Midlife African American Couples

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cutrona, Carolyn E.; Russell, Daniel W.; Burzette, Rebecca G.; Wesner, Kristin A.; Bryant, Chalandra M.

    2011-01-01

    Objective: This study examined predictors of relationship stability over 5 years among heterosexual cohabiting and married African American couples raising an elementary-school-age child. The vulnerability-stress-adaptation model of relationships (Karney & Bradbury, 1995) guided the investigation. Contextual variables were conceptualized as…

  15. African American College Students: Literacy of Depression and Help Seeking

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stansbury, Kim L.; Wimsatt, Maureen; Simpson, Gaynell Marie; Martin, Fayetta; Nelson, Nancy

    2011-01-01

    Depression is a serious public health concern in the United States affecting almost 18.8 million adults. It is a common mental disorder in college students, with estimates of 1 in 4 "experiencing an episode by age 24." African American college students are at an elevated risk for depression due to racism, stress, sleep deprivation, and lack of…

  16. Physical Education and Academic Performance in Urban African American Girls

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, Bo

    2017-01-01

    This study was designed to examine urban African American girls' participation in physical education and its association with academic performance. One hundred eighty four participants completed questionnaires assessing moderate-to-vigorous physical activity and learning engagement in physical education while their academic performance was based…

  17. Young African American Boys Narrating Identities in Science

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kane, Justine M.

    2016-01-01

    The goal of this study is to bring the voices of African American boys front and center in science education research in an effort to strengthen our understandings of their experiences of school and science. Using an interpretivist perspective within a narrative inquiry approach, I focus on the student and science-student identities two African…

  18. Genetic Counseling for Breast Cancer Susceptibility in African American Women

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Hughes, Chanita

    2007-01-01

    .... The objectives of this study were to develop a Culturally Tailored Genetic (CTGC) protocol for African American women and evaluate its impact on decision-making and satisfaction about BRCA1/2 testing, quality of life, and cancer control practices...

  19. Social Cognitive Predictors of Dietary Behavior among African Americans

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stephens, Torrance T.; Resinicow, Ken; Latimer-Sport, Markita; Walker, Lauren

    2015-01-01

    Background: This study examined the extent to which social cognitive theory is involved in dietary behavior changes among a sample of African Americans in Georgia. Purpose: We examined whether outcome expectations, barriers, and self-efficacy mediate changes in fruit and vegetable intake behavior. Methods: To accomplish this, we used change scores…

  20. The Impact of African American Fathers on Adolescent Sexual Behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dittus, Patricia J.; Gordon, Vivian V.; Jaccard, James

    1997-01-01

    The impact the father's attitude toward premarital sexual intercourse has on the sexual behavior of the father's adolescent child was studied with approximately 750 inner-city African American youth. Results showed that adolescent perceptions of paternal attitudes were predictive of teen sexual behavior independent of perceptions of maternal…

  1. Tough Girls: Fiction for African American Urban Teens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doyle, Miranda

    2002-01-01

    Includes annotated bibliographies for 10 books of fiction that appeal to urban African American girls, five adult titles and five young adult titles. Identifies seven essential characteristics present in the most popular books in a teen section, based on conversations with teens. (LRW)

  2. Beauty and Body Image Concerns Among African American College Women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Awad, Germine H; Norwood, Carolette; Taylor, Desire S; Martinez, Mercedes; McClain, Shannon; Jones, Bianca; Holman, Andrea; Chapman-Hilliard, Collette

    2015-12-01

    The current study examined body image concerns among African American women. In recent years, there has been an attempt to include ethnic minority samples in body image studies (e.g., Grabe & Hyde, 2006; Hrabosky & Grilo, 2007; Lovejoy, 2001) but few specifically examine unique issues pertaining to beauty and body image for African American college age women. A total of 31 African American women participated in one of five focus groups on the campus of a large Southwestern University to examine beauty and body image. Data were analyzed using a thematic approach and several themes were identified. The majority of themes pertained to issues related to hair, skin tone, body type, and message sources. Themes included: sacrifice, ignorance/racial microaggressions, and validation and invalidation by others, thick/toned/curvy as optimal, hypersexualization, and being thin is for White women. Findings of the current study suggest a reconceptualization of body image for African American women where relevant characteristics such as hair and skin tone are given more priority over traditional body image concerns often associated with European American women.

  3. Critical Readings: African American Girls and Urban Fiction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gibson, Simone

    2010-01-01

    The goal of this writing is to introduce the reader to the urban fiction genre, explore why adolescent African American girls may be engaging with novels from the genre, and how teachers may be able to use texts from the genre to increase literacy skills.

  4. Bilingualism and How it Impacts the African American Child

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anthony,Taiwanna D.; Kritsonis, William A.

    2006-01-01

    As the era of bilingualism increases in many states, African American children are some how being overlooked. There are many challenges for non-native Spanish speakers. Many of the school programs are focused on ESL (English as a Second Language), ELL (English Language Learner), or LEP (Limited English Proficiency) students. The authors provide…

  5. Eating Disorders in African American Girls: Implications for Counselors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Talleyrand, Regine M.

    2010-01-01

    Given the recent focus on eating disorders in children, it is imperative that counselors consider eating concerns that affect children of all racial and ethnic groups and hence are effective in working with this population. The author discusses risk factors that potentially contribute to eating disorders in African American girls given their…

  6. Gender Role Orientation and Anxiety Symptoms among African American Adolescents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palapattu, Anuradha G.; Kingery, Julie Newman; Ginsburg, Golda S.

    2006-01-01

    The present study evaluated gender role theory as an explanation for the observed gender differences in anxiety symptoms among adolescents. Specifically, the relation between gender, gender role orientation (i.e., masculinity and femininity), self-esteem, and anxiety symptoms was examined in a community sample of 114 African Americans aged 14 to…

  7. The Role of Religiosity in African American Preadolescent Aggression

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holmes, Khiela J.; Lochman, John E.

    2012-01-01

    This study examined the role of parent and preadolescent religiosity in aggression among African American preadolescents with moderate to high aggression. Hierarchical regression analyses were used to determine (a) which aspects of parent and preadolescent religiosity (i.e., church attendance, private religious activities, and intrinsic…

  8. Domestic Transracial Adoption: In the Words of African American Adoptees

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Ellen M.

    2013-01-01

    Domestic transracial adoption has sparked more controversy than any other type of adoption. For the purposes of this study domestic transracial adoption is defined as European American parents adopting African American children. Many of the studies completed are contradictory and fail to control for variables that affect the outcome such as age of…

  9. Secondary Teacher Education Pathway: Recruiting African American Male Teachers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rudd, Helena Virginia

    2012-01-01

    This executive position paper proposes an innovative Career and Technical Pathway for secondary education. The Secondary Teacher Education Pathway (STEP) is a teacher education pathway for high school students who are interested in teaching as a profession. The goal of this Program is to increase the number of African American male teachers in…

  10. Child Maltreatment and Delinquency Onset among African American Adolescent Males

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, James Herbert; Van Dorn, Richard A.; Bright, Charlotte Lyn; Jonson-Reid, Melissa; Nebbitt, Von E.

    2010-01-01

    Child welfare and criminology research have increasingly sought to better understand factors that increase the likelihood that abused and neglected children will become involved in the juvenile justice system. However, few studies have addressed this relationship among African American male adolescents. The current study examines the relationship…

  11. Relationship between Physical Function and Sleep Quality in African Americans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thorpe, Roland J; Gamaldo, Alyssa A; Salas, Rachel E; Gamaldo, Charlene E; Whitfield, Keith E

    2016-10-15

    There is a growing body of research examining the relationship between sleep and functional outcomes. However, little is known about sleep and physical functioning in older African Americans. Data for this project included 450 community-dwelling older African Americans (71.4 ± 9.2 years of age) who participated in the Baltimore Study of Black Aging. Overall sleep pattern and quality was measured by the Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index (PSQI). Physical functioning was measured by the number of activities of daily living that each participant reported difficulty (ADL; e.g. eating, dressing, and bathing). Negative binomial regression models were conducted to estimate the association between sleep quality and physical functioning. Seventy-two percent of the participants reported poor sleep quality. African Americans who reported poor sleep quality had a greater likelihood of an increase in the number of difficulties in ADLs that they reported even after accounting for demographic characteristics and health conditions. The relationship between sleep quality and physical functioning did not vary by gender. Sleep may be an important factor to consider when seeking to improve physical functioning among community-dwelling older African Americans. © 2016 American Academy of Sleep Medicine

  12. Integrating African American Fiction into the Middle School Curriculum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bacharach, Nancy; Miller, Terry

    1996-01-01

    Examines the psychosocial development of middle school readers and suggests ways to use fiction with admirable African American characters to help develop cultural awareness and sensitivity during the middle school years. Covers mystery or problem-solving units, historical and survival units, and friends and family relationships units. Includes a…

  13. Immersion and Identity: Experiences of an African American Preschool Child

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCullough, Ruanda Garth; Reyes, Sharon Adelman

    2010-01-01

    This article explores the benefits and challenges of a Spanish language immersion preschool from the perspective of a non-Spanish speaking African American family. Data explored include the decision to enroll, reactions from peers and family, home-school communication issues, language development, and family involvement. In addition,…

  14. Depression and Risk Perceptions in Older African Americans With Diabetes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rovner, Barry W; Haller, Julia A; Casten, Robin J; Murchison, Ann P; Hark, Lisa A

    2014-05-01

    Objective. The purpose of this study is to describe the impact of depression on perceptions of risks to health, diabetes self-management practices, and glycemic control in older African Americans with type 2 diabetes. Methods. The authors analyzed data on depression, risk perceptions, diabetes self-management, and A1C in African Americans with type 2 diabetes. T-tests, χ(2), and multivariate regression were used to analyze the data. Results. The sample included 177 African Americans (68% women) whose average age was 72.8 years. Thirty-four participants (19.2%) met criteria for depression. Compared to nondepressed participants, depressed participants scored significantly higher on Personal Disease Risk (the perception of being at increased risk for various medical problems), Environmental Risk (i.e., increased risk for environmental hazards), and Composite Risk Perception (i.e., overall perceptions of increased risk); adhered less to diabetes self-management practices; and had marginally worse glycemic control. Depression and fewer years of education were independent predictors of overall perception of increased health risks. Conclusion. Almost 20% of older African Americans with type 2 diabetes in this study were depressed. Compared to nondepressed participants, they tended to have fewer years of education, perceived themselves to be at higher risk for multiple health problems, and adhered less to diabetes self-management practices. It is important for diabetes educators to recognize the impact of low education and the fatalistic perceptions that depression engenders in this population.

  15. African American Trickster: Representations in the Work of Romare Bearden.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schramm, Susan L.; Jeffries, Rhonda B.

    2000-01-01

    Examines the role of the African American "trickster" archetype and the conceptions of the trickster in folk tales and pop culture. Discusses the trickster in the life and work of Romare Bearden. Provides a rationale for an arts-based integrated curriculum and describes a four-step art criticism technique to integrate Bearden and the…

  16. Reasons for African American Student Attrition from School Psychology Programs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Proctor, Sherrie L.; Truscott, Stephen D.

    2012-01-01

    This phenomenological study used a series of three in-depth interviews with seven African American participants, for a total of 21 interviews, to explore their experiences in the specialist and doctoral level school psychology programs they left prior to obtaining a professional entry-level degree. The study's purpose was to investigate what…

  17. Contextual Stress and Health Risk Behaviors among African American Adolescents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Copeland-Linder, Nikeea; Lambert, Sharon F.; Chen, Yi-Fu; Ialongo, Nicholas S.

    2011-01-01

    This study examined the longitudinal association between contextual stress and health risk behaviors and the role of protective factors in a community epidemiologically-defined sample of urban African American adolescents (N = 500; 46.4% female). Structural equation modeling was used to create a latent variable measuring contextual stress…

  18. Black Students, Black Colleges: An African American College Choice Model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McDonough, Patricia M.; Antonio, Anthony Lising; Trent, James W.

    1997-01-01

    Explores African Americans' college choice decisions, based on a national sample of 220,757 freshmen. Independent of gender, family income, or educational aspiration, the most powerful predictors for choosing historically black colleges and universities are geography, religion, the college's academic reputation, and relatives' desires. The top…

  19. Cultural Dysthymia: An Unrecognized Disorder among African Americans?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vontress, Clemmont E.; Woodland, Calvin E.; Epp, Lawrence

    2007-01-01

    Many African Americans experience low-grade depression, referred to as dysthymia in the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (4th ed., text rev.; American Psychiatric Association, 2000). After more than 250 years of enslavement, prejudice, and discrimination, dysthymia is reflected in chronic low-grade sadness, anger, hostility,…

  20. Africans and African-Americans: An Enduring Relationship | Amin ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    By working together, Africans and African-Americans have challenged slavery, oppression, colonialism, racism, and exploitation. But the challenges facing both groups remain significant in contemporary times, and they need to continue their collaboration. Africa Insight Vol.35(1) 2005: 58-64 ...

  1. Knowledge and Attitudes about Colon Cancer Screening among African Americans

    Science.gov (United States)

    James, Aimee S.; Daley, Christine M.; Greiner, K. Allen

    2011-01-01

    Objectives: To explore knowledge and attitudes about colorectal cancer (CRC) screening among African American patients age 45 and older at a community health center serving low-income and uninsured patients. Methods: We conducted 7 focus groups and 17 additional semistructured interviews. Sessions were audio-recorded, transcribed, and analyzed…

  2. Marriage, Money, and African American Mothers' Self-Esteem

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mandara, Jelani; Johnston, Jamie S.; Murray, Carolyn B.; Varner, Fatima

    2008-01-01

    This study examined the effects of marital status and family income on the self-esteem of 292 African American mothers. Counter to previous studies with European American mothers, family income moderated the effects of marital status. Those mothers with higher family income had higher self-esteem, regardless of their marital status. For those with…

  3. African-American Female Student Experiences in Community College

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dozier, Nedra

    2016-01-01

    This is a mixed method study focusing on African-American Female (AAF) student experiences and success in the community college. This study was focused at a large southeastern, comprehensive community college. A chi-squared analysis of extant data concerning questions from the Community College Survey for Student Engagement (CCSSE) instrument was…

  4. A Motivational Intervention for African American Boys Labeled as Aggressive

    Science.gov (United States)

    Graham, Sandra; Taylor, April; Hudley, Cynthia

    2015-01-01

    A 12-week, 32-lesson afterschool intervention was conducted with third-to fifth-grade urban African American boys classified as aggressive. Grounded in attribution theory and organized around the construct of perceived responsibility in self and others, the intervention focused on increasing both social skills and academic motivation. Participants…

  5. African American Students' Experiences in Special Education Programs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Craft, Eleanor; Howley, Aimee

    2018-01-01

    Background/Context: Disproportionate placement of African American students into special education programs is likely to be a form of institutional racism, especially when such placement stigmatizes students. If placement also fails to lead to educational benefits, the practice becomes even more suspect. Some studies have explored disproportionate…

  6. African American Child-Women: Nutrition Theory Revisited

    Science.gov (United States)

    Talpade, Medha

    2006-01-01

    Past research indicates a significantly higher prevalence of early sexual maturation in African American (AA) girls, which is associated with a number of psychological and behavioral problems as well as with health problems such as childhood obesity and diabetes. Both nutrition and body image perceptions have never before been empirically…

  7. African American Male College Athletes' Narratives on Education and Racism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singer, John N.

    2016-01-01

    This study presents narrative case study vignettes of three elite African American male football athletes at a major historically White institution of higher education with a big-time athletics department. More specifically, I draw from critical race theory to garner insight into their secondary schooling background, what education means to them,…

  8. Allostatic Load and Health Status of African Americans and Whites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deuster, Patricia A.; Kim-Dorner, Su Jong; Remaley, Alan T.; Poth, Merrily

    2011-01-01

    Objectives: To compare health risks in 84 healthy African American and 45 white men and women after calculating allostatic load (AL) from biologic, psychosocial, and behavioral measures. Methods: Participants (18-45 years) ranging in weight from normal to obese and without hypertension or diabetes. Fitness, body fat, CRP, mood, social support,…

  9. Teaching and Learning African American History in a Multiracial Classroom

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chikkatur, Anita

    2013-01-01

    The author explores the challenges of teaching and learning African American history, a history fraught with uncomfortable implications about contemporary race relations and race-based inequalities. Drawing on various theories of anti-oppressive education, and using data from an ethnographic study conducted in one history classroom, the author…

  10. 76 FR 6519 - National African American History Month, 2011

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-02-04

    ... and women have persevered to enrich our national life and bend the arc of history toward justice. From... justice and equality laid out by our forbearers. In the Emancipation Proclamation, President Abraham... to climb out of poverty. During National African American History Month, we recognize the...

  11. African American Homeschooling and the Quest for a Quality Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mazama, Ama; Lundy, Garvey

    2015-01-01

    Academic interest in homeschooling has increased over the last decade, as what was once perceived as a marginal development, has, in fact, turned into a significant and growing phenomenon. There has been, in recent years, a noticeable surge in African American involvement in the homeschooling movement as well. However, there continues to be a…

  12. Intergroup Differences and Their Impact on African American Teachers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mabokela, Reitumetse Obakeng; Madsen, Jean A.

    2003-01-01

    Examined how intergroup differences within suburban schools affected African American teachers' experiences. Organizational culture strongly influenced how whites treated their minority counterparts. Because the majority established norms, minorities were expected to comply with uniform sets of rules and regulations. Intergroup conflict arose…

  13. Genetic Counseling for Breast Cancer Susceptibility in African American Women

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Hughes, Chanita

    2005-01-01

    .... The objectives of this study are to develop a Culturally Tailored Genetic (CTGC) protocol for African American women and evaluate its impact on decision-making and satisfaction about BRCA1/2 testing, quality of life, and cancer control practices...

  14. The World Is Waiting for the Sunrise: African Americans "yel Mundo Latino."

    Science.gov (United States)

    Widener, Danny

    1998-01-01

    Traces the long and varied history of interaction and collective action by African Americans and Latinos, focusing on common culture and political cooperation. Outlines issues related to the continued cooperation of African Americans and Latinos, and common political projects. (SLD)

  15. Psychodynamics of Coping and Survival of the African-American Female in a Changing World.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Young, Carlene

    1989-01-01

    Analyzes the sociopsychological factors that account for increased stressors and dysfunctionality in contemporary African American women. Discusses the importance of African American family life values in combating dehumanization. (FMW)

  16. Cycling in the African American Community : safety training guidelines and findings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-08-01

    This report is a program users manual for the Cycling in the African American Community (CAAC) safety training intervention. The CAAC safety training intervention was designed to nudge more African Americans, who are often beginning cyclists...

  17. "I Worship Black Gods": Formation of an African American Lucumi Religious Subjectivity

    OpenAIRE

    Norman, Lisanne

    2015-01-01

    In 1959, Christopher Oliana and Walter “Serge” King took a historic journey to pre-revolutionary Cuba that would change the religious trajectory of numerous African Americans, particularly in New York City. They became the first African American initiates into the Afro-Cuban Lucumi orisha tradition opening the way for generations of African Americans who would comprehensively transform their way of life. This dissertation examines the inter-diasporic exchanges between African Americans and th...

  18. African american women, hair care, and health barriers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gathers, Raechele Cochran; Mahan, Meredith Grace

    2014-09-01

    The objective of this study was to elucidate the prevalence of hair loss among African American women; explore the psychosocial impact of hair grooming difficulties; and examine both perceptions related to physician encounters in this group and the relationship between hair grooming, physical activity, and weight maintenance. An anonymous retrospective and qualitative survey, the Hair Care Assessment Survey, is an 18-question novel survey instrument designed at the Henry Ford Hospital Department of Dermatology Multicultural Dermatology Center. The Hair Care Assessment Survey was distributed at church-related functions at predominantly African American metropolitan Detroit churches. Two hundred African American women from metropolitan Detroit, Michigan, aged 21 to 83. The Hair Care Assessment Survey collected data relating to hair loss and hair care, psychosocial experiences relating to hair loss, and hair care as it relates to exercise and body weight management. Data was collected on doctor-patient hair-related medical visits and experiences with commercially available ethnic hair care products. More than 50 percent reported excessive hair loss. Twenty-eight percent had visited a physician to discuss hair issues, but only 32 percent felt their physician understood African American hair. Forty-five percent reported avoiding exercise because of hair concerns, and 22 percent felt that their hair impeded maintaining healthy body weight. Hair loss affects a compelling number of African American women, and a significant number express dissatisfaction in hair-related physician encounters. Additionally, hair styling problems present a serious impediment to physical activity and weight management among this already high-risk population.

  19. Morphological awareness skills of fourth-grade African American students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Apel, Kenn; Thomas-Tate, Shurita

    2009-07-01

    We examined the morphological awareness skills of fourth-grade African American children and the association between degree of African American English (AAE) use and performance on written measures of morphological awareness. Additional purposes were to determine whether performance on the morphological awareness tasks (a) was affected by the transparency of morphologically related words and the type of task administered, (b) was associated with other literacy and literacy-related skills, and (c) explained unique variance on these latter abilities. Thirty fourth-grade African American children from low-income backgrounds were administered 2 morphological awareness tasks and completed norm-referenced measures of word-level reading, reading comprehension, spelling, phonemic awareness, and receptive vocabulary. The degree of AAE use was not associated with students' performance on the morphological awareness tasks. On these tasks, significantly higher scores were obtained on items that represented a transparent relationship between a base word and its derived form. The students' performance on the morphological awareness tasks was significantly and moderately related to their performance on the word-level reading, spelling, and receptive vocabulary measures. Morphological awareness scores explained significant unique variance on measures of word-level reading and spelling, above that predicted by performance on measures of phonemic awareness and vocabulary. As shown in previous investigations of Caucasian children's morphological awareness skills, fourth-grade African American students' morphological awareness abilities are associated with select language and literacy skills. Professionals should capitalize on students' intact capabilities in morphological awareness during literacy instruction in an effort to maximize language and literacy performance for African American students.

  20. Stimulating cancer screening among Latinas and African-American women. A community case study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yancey, A K; Walden, L

    1994-01-01

    Recent studies have attributed underutilization of early cancer detection programs among the disadvantaged to knowledge deficits and myths, lack of belief in cancer susceptibility (denial), and such attitudinal barriers as fear and embarrassment. Video modalities have been demonstrated to be effective in increasing knowledge and promoting health-protective behavior in low-income people of color. Waiting rooms of public health clinic facilities in large urban areas provide a captive audience of predominantly African Americans and Latinos with a preference for obtaining health information from audiovisual media. The development of a culturally sensitive, cost-effective documentary format is described. An experience of rapid acceleration in demand for Pap smears in an underserved Latino community of East Los Angeles following the showing of one of these videos is chronicled as a spontaneous and informal evaluation of this approach to health education/promotion video production.

  1. What's So "Powerful" about African American Children's Literature?: Let's Ask the Students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hefflin, Bena R.

    2003-01-01

    Outlines what educators and academics describe as the "power" of children's literature and multicultural children's literature, which includes African American children's literature. Explores what four African American third-graders have to say about the "power" of six African American children's books. Concludes with the…

  2. African American Children's Literature that Helps Students Find Themselves: Selection Guidelines for Grade K-3.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barksdale-Ladd, Mary Alice; Hefflin, Bena R.

    2001-01-01

    Suggests guidelines for selecting African American children's literature of high literary and artistic qualities for grades K-3. Presents guidelines for all teachers, whether they have African American children in their classrooms or not. Provides a list of 27 selected recent books with an African American context that meet the same criteria for…

  3. "The Brown Face of Hope": Reading Engagement and African American Boys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meier, Terry

    2015-01-01

    African American children's literature has a potentially powerful role to play in increasing reading engagement for African American boys. Unfortunately, this body of literature is not always used effectively in schools. Many teachers use African American books as an add-on to pre-exisiting curriculum rather than fully exploring the topics,…

  4. An Examination of African American Female College Presidents' Professional Ascendancy and Mentoring Experiences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith-Ligon, Pamela

    2011-01-01

    There is a large disparity in the number of African American women leaders in higher education, specifically in the presidency. Much of the literature negates the experiences of the African American woman, often fusing their experiences with those of all women, or those of African American men, which often disregards the challenges and successes…

  5. African Americans Majoring in Science at Predominantly White Universities (A Review of the Literature)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Green, Andre; Glasson, George

    2009-01-01

    One of the most significant problems facing science education is the under-representation of African Americans in science related fields (Young, 2005). African American constitute a little more than 12% of the United States population. However, as recently as 1999 African Americans only comprised only 3.4% of persons working in science and…

  6. Young African American Male-Male Relationships: Experiences, Expectations, and Condom Use

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taggart, Tamara; Ellen, Jonathan; Arrington-Sanders, Renata

    2017-01-01

    HIV disproportionately impacts young African American men who have sex with men (MSM). In this study, we sought to understand how previous relationship experiences and expectations for romantic relationships influence condom use among young African American MSM. Twenty African American MSM aged 16 to 24 years completed a semi-structured interview…

  7. African American and Latino Men's Recommendations for an Improved Campus Environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cerezo, Alison; Lyda, James; Enriquez, Alma; Beristianos, Matthew; Connor, Michael

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to share findings from semistructured qualitative interviews with 9 African American and 12 Latino men about their ideas on how university personnel could better support their needs. Stressing the need for African American men to learn self-reliance to counter microaggressions, African American participants offered…

  8. African American Educators' Ideas and Practices for Increasing High School Graduation Rates, 1920-1940

    Science.gov (United States)

    Juergensen, Miyoshi B.

    2015-01-01

    This study explores African American educators' ideas about school completion in the 1920s and 1930s as a way to begin to understand their contributions to the historical discourse on school completion. Using publications from African American professional teaching organizations, the author elevates and examines how African American educators both…

  9. The Influence of Racism and Sexism in the Career Development of African American Women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evans, Kathy M.; Herr, Edwin L.

    1991-01-01

    Combined effects of racism and sexism in the workplace subject African-American woman to more discrimination than either Black men or White women. Examines racism and sexism in employment practices and in the career development and aspirations of African-American women. Identifies coping system of African-American women who avoid career fields in…

  10. African American Young Adult Smoking Initiation: Identifying Intervention Points and Prevention Opportunities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheney, Marshall K.; Mansker, Jacqueline

    2014-01-01

    Background: African Americans have one of the lowest smoking rates as teens yet have one of the highest smoking rates as adults. Approximately 40% of African Americans who have ever smoked started smoking between the ages of 18 and 21. Purpose: This study aimed to identify why African American young adults began smoking in young adulthood and what…

  11. Cultural Orientation as a Protective Factor against Tobacco and Marijuana Smoking for African American Young Women

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nasim, Aashir; Corona, Rosalie; Belgrave, Faye; Utsey, Shawn O.; Fallah, Niloofar

    2007-01-01

    The present study examined cultural orientation as a protective factor against tobacco and marijuana smoking for African American young women (ages 18 to 25). African American college students (N = 145) from a predominantly White university were administered subscales from the African American Acculturation Scale-Revised (AAAS-R); the shortened…

  12. "Brother Where Art Thou?" African American Male Instructors' Perceptions of the Counselor Education Profession

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brooks, Michael; Steen, Sam

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the perceptions of African American male counselor educators regarding the limited number of African American male faculty members in counselor education. Implications and suggestions on how universities can recruit and retain African American male faculty members are provided.

  13. Examining the Writing of Adolescent African American English Speakers: Suggestions for Assessment and Intervention

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horton-Ikard, RaMonda; Pittman, Ramona T.

    2010-01-01

    This article describes the use of African American English (AAE) in the written and oral language of African American adolescents who struggle with writing. Written and oral language samples of 22 African American 10th-grade students were transcribed, analyzed, and coded for AAE, grammatical errors, spelling errors, and punctuation errors. Four…

  14. Feature Articles on African Americans in Sports Illustrated in the 1990s

    Science.gov (United States)

    Angela Lumpkin

    2009-01-01

    This descriptive study examined whether the coverage of African Americans in the feature articles in Sports Illustrated during the 1990s was representative of their participation levels. Nearly half of the articles featured European Americans; about one-third featured African Americans. More African Americans were featured in basketball, boxing,…

  15. A Case Study of the Development of African American Women Executives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brooks Greaux, Lisa

    2010-01-01

    Even in an era when the country elected an African American man as President of the United States, there is still a paucity of African American women executives within Fortune 500 companies. Although more African American women have joined the ranks of corporate management over the last two decades, the numbers, when compared to those of White…

  16. Missing Voices: African American School Psychologists' Perspectives on Increasing Professional Diversity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Proctor, Sherrie L.; Truscott, Stephen D.

    2013-01-01

    Since the mid 1960s, there has been a noticeable decrease in the percentage of African American educators. Although a sizeable literature is dedicated to understanding how to recruit African American teachers, fewer studies focus on recruiting and retaining African American school psychologists. Therefore, this exploratory qualitative study…

  17. The Politics of Public Discourse: Discourse, Identity and African-Americans in Science Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Bryan A.

    2005-01-01

    This review examines twenty years of research (1985-2005) on African-American students in science education. This analysis identified three types of research studies on African-Americans. First, a series of studies provided status reports of African-American students' performance in science. Second, a series of studies highlighted cultural…

  18. Escaping Poverty and Securing Middle Class Status: How Race and Socioeconomic Status Shape Mobility Prospects for African Americans During the Transition to Adulthood

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hardaway, Cecily R.; Mcloyd, Vonnie C.

    2014-01-01

    This article draws on extant research from the disciplines of psychology, sociology, and economics to identify linkages between individual, family, community, and structural factors related to social mobility for African Americans during the transition to adulthood. It considers how race and class together affect opportunities for social mobility through where African Americans live, whom they associate with, and how they are impacted by racial and class-related stigma. Of particular interest is social mobility as accomplished through academic achievement, educational attainment, employment, economic independence, and homeownership. Research on five issues is reviewed and discussed: (a) the unique vulnerabilities of newly upwardly mobile African Americans, (b) wealth as a source of inequality, (c) racism and discrimination, (d) the stigma associated with lower-class status, and (e) social and cultural capital. The article concludes with a summary and directions for future research. PMID:19636721

  19. Economic Stress, Emotional Quality of Life, and Problem Behavior in Chinese Adolescents with and without Economic Disadvantage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shek, Daniel T. L.

    2005-01-01

    The relationships between perceived economic stress (current economic hardship and future economic worry) and emotional quality of life (existential well-being, life satisfaction, self-esteem, sense of mastery, psychological morbidity) as well as problem behavior (substance abuse and delinquency) were examined in 1519 Chinese adolescents with and…

  20. Long-term consequences of adolescent parenthood among African American urban youth: A propensity matching approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Assini-Meytin, Luciana C.; Green, Kerry M.

    2015-01-01

    Purpose To improve understanding of long-term socioeconomic consequences of teen parenting for men and women. Methods Analysis is based on the Woodlawn Study, a longitudinal study of an African American cohort from a socially disadvantaged community in Chicago; data were collected at childhood (N=1,242), adolescence (N=705), young adulthood (age 32, N=952), and midlife (age 42, N=833). This analysis focused on the 1050 individuals with data on teen parenting. We used propensity score matching to account for differences in background characteristics between teenage parents and their peers and multiple imputation to account for differential attrition. Results The regression models on matched samples showed that at age 32, in comparison to non-teen mothers, teenage mothers were more likely to be unemployed, live in poverty, depend on welfare, and have earned a GED or completed high school compared to finishing college. At age 32, teen fathers were more likely to be without a job compared to non-teen fathers. At age 42, the effect of teen parenting for women remained statistically significant for education and income. There were no significant associations between teen parenting and outcomes for men at age 42. Conclusions Socioeconomic consequences of teenage parenting among African Americans from disadvantaged background seem to be primarily concentrated in women and persist throughout adulthood. In addition to promoting the delay of parenting after the teenage years, it is critical to provide programs at early stages in the life course to mitigate the negative socioeconomic consequences of teenage motherhood as effects for women are broad. PMID:25769478

  1. Parental Monitoring, Association with Externalized Behavior, and Academic Outcomes in Urban African-American Youth: A Moderated Mediation Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lopez-Tamayo, Roberto; LaVome Robinson, W; Lambert, Sharon F; Jason, Leonard A; Ialongo, Nicholas S

    2016-06-01

    African-American adolescents exposed to neighborhood disadvantage are at increased risk for engaging in problem behavior and academic underachievement. It is critical to identify the mechanisms that reduce problem behavior and promote better academic outcomes in this population. Based on social disorganization and socioecological theories, the current prospective study examined pathways from parental monitoring to academic outcomes via externalizing behavior at different levels of neighborhood disadvantage. A moderated mediation model employing maximum likelihood was conducted on 339 African-American students from 9th to 11th grade (49.3% females) with a mean age of 14.8 years (SD ± 0.35). The results indicated that parental monitoring predicted low externalizing behavior, and low externalizing behavior predicted better academic outcomes after controlling for externalizing behavior in 9th grade, intervention status, and gender. Mediation was supported, as the index of mediation was significant. Conversely, neighborhood disadvantage did not moderate the path from parental monitoring to externalizing behavior. Implications for intervention at both community and individual levels and study limitations are discussed. © Society for Community Research and Action 2016.

  2. An analysis of African American, feminist, and native American movements in the 1960s and 1970s

    OpenAIRE

    Ertürk, Sibel

    2001-01-01

    Ankara : The Department of History, The Institute for Graduate Studies in Economics and Social Sciences, Bilkent University, 2001. Thesis (Master's) -- Bilkent University, 2001. Includes bibliographical references leaves 145-150. The purpose of the theses is to illustrate the analogy among African American, feminist, and Native American protest movements of the 1960s and 1970s in the United States, and particularly to examine the division between nonviolent/legal and militan...

  3. Intelligence development of socio-economically disadvantaged pre-school children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sefa Bulut

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available The intellectual development of socioeconomically disadvantaged preschool children is influenced by several factors. The development of intelligence is a multidimensional concept that is determined by biological, social, and environmental factors. In this literature review, however, only the social and environmental factors are discussed. Some of the factors that have profound effect on children's cognitive development are as follows: environmental stimulation, parental attitudes, maternal age, and education. Successful intervention and prevention programs aimed at enhancing children's cognitive development are also exemplified. It appears that early intervention programs in the second and third year of an infant's life have fundamental effects on the cognitive development of disadvan-taged children. It is clear that learning starts with birth. Longitudinal studies revealed that the most effective period for intervention is early childhood. Those who received early day-care and preschool intervention programs have sustained these gains in adolescence and adulthood. Those benefits include higher IQ scores, better achievement test scores, better reading and math skills, more educational attainment, more college degrees, and fewer psychosocial and mental health problems. Therefore, it appears that investing in early high-quality programs provide multiple advantages for individuals and society. Social activists, psychologists, and counsellors should make every effort to affect the allocation of governmental funds and policies.

  4. Financial strain, inflammatory factors, and haemoglobin A1c levels in African American women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cutrona, Carolyn E; Abraham, William T; Russell, Daniel W; Beach, Steven R H; Gibbons, Frederick X; Gerrard, Meg; Monick, Martha; Philibert, Robert

    2015-09-01

    Type 2 diabetes disproportionately affects African American women, a population exposed to high levels of stress, including financial strain (Centers for Disease Control & Prevention, 2011, http://www.cdc.gov/diabetes/pubs/pdf/ndfs_2011.pdf). We tested a mediational model in which chronic financial strain among African American women contributes to elevated serum inflammation markers, which, in turn, lead to increased haemoglobin A1C (HbA1c) levels and risk for type 2 diabetes. We assessed level of financial strain four times over a 10-year period and tested its effect on two serum inflammation markers, C-reactive protein (CRP) and soluble interleukin-6 receptor (sIL-6R) in year 11 of the study. We tested the inflammation markers as mediators in the association between chronic financial strain and HbA1c, an index of average blood glucose level over several months. Data were from 312 non-diabetic African American women from the Family and Community Health Study (FACHS; Cutrona et al., 2000, J. Pers. Soc. Psychol., 79, 1088). Chronic financial strain predicted circulating sIL-6R after controlling for age, BMI, health behaviours, and physical health measures. In turn, sIL-6R significantly predicted HbA1c levels. The path between chronic financial strain and HbA1c was significantly mediated by sIL-6R. Contrary to prediction, CRP was not predicted by chronic financial strain. Results support the role of inflammatory factors in mediating the effects of psychosocial stressors on risk for type 2 diabetes. Findings have implications for interventions that boost economic security and foster effective coping as well as medical interventions that reduce serum inflammation to prevent the onset of type 2 diabetes. © 2014 The British Psychological Society.

  5. HPV vaccine acceptance among African-American mothers and their daughters: an inquiry grounded in culture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galbraith-Gyan, Kayoll V; Lechuga, Julia; Jenerette, Coretta M; Palmer, Mary H; Moore, Angelo D; Hamilton, Jill B

    2017-05-29

    Much of the research on African-Americans' HPV vaccine acceptance has largely focused on racial/ethnic differences related to cognitive, socio-economical, and structural factors that contribute to differences in HPV vaccine acceptance and completion. A growing body of literature suggest that cultural factors, such as mistrust of healthcare providers (HCPs) and the healthcare system, religion, and social norms related to appropriate sexual behaviors, also plays a prominent role in their HPV vaccine acceptance. However, these studies were limited in their use of theoretical approaches necessary to conceptualize and operationalize culture. To explore the influence of culture on African-American mothers' and daughters' HPV vaccine acceptance using the PEN-3, a culturally-centered conceptual framework. Grounded theory techniques were used to explore cultural factors that influenced the acceptance of the HPV vaccine among African-American mothers (n = 28) and their daughters (n = 34). Positive attitudes towards vaccination stemmed from beliefs that the HPV vaccine has cancer prevention benefits and that vaccinations in general protected against infectious diseases. Negative attitudes stemmed from beliefs that the HPV vaccine was too new, not effective, daughters were too young, and that vaccines were not a one-size-fits-all intervention. Majority of mothers and daughters indicated that their religious doctrine did not impede their HPV vaccination decisions. For a few mothers, religious beliefs could not be separated from their HPV vaccination decisions and ultimately deterred HPV vaccine acceptance. HCP recommendations were valued however mothers were often dissatisfied with the detail of information communicated. Support networks provided both positive and negative types of social support to mothers and daughters. The media highlighted the cancer prevention benefits of the HPV vaccine and unintentionally communicated negative information of the HPV vaccine

  6. Political fragmentation and widening disparities in African-American and white mortality, 1972-1988.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Yonsu; Bruckner, Tim A

    2016-12-01

    During the 1970s and 1980s in the U.S., population movement, urban sprawl and urban governance reform led to a proliferation of local, autonomous jurisdictions. Prior literature examines how this creation of local governments, also referred to as political fragmentation, contributes to economic growth and social inequality. We examine the impact of political fragmentation on health equity by testing the hypothesis that the mortality disparity between whites and African-Americans varies positively with political fragmentation. We retrieved mortality data from the multiple cause-of-death file and calculated total number of local governments per 1000 residents in a county to measure the degree of political fragmentation. We focused on 226 U.S. counties with population size greater than 200,000 and restricted the analysis to four distinct periods with overlapping government and mortality data (1972-73, 1977-78, 1982-83, and 1987-88). We applied generalized estimating equation methods that permit analysis of clustered data over time. Methods also controlled for the age structure of the population, reductions in mortality over time, and confounding by county-level sociodemographic variables. Adjusted coefficients of fragmentation are positive and statistically significant for both whites (coef: 2.60, SE: 0.60, p politically fragmented urban counties and/or time periods. From 1972 to 1988, political fragmentation in large urban counties moves positively with the racial/ethnic gap in mortality between whites and African-Americans. We discuss intervening mechanisms through which political fragmentation may disproportionately affect mortality among African-Americans.

  7. Tuskegee as Sacred Rhetoric: Focal Point for the Emergent Field of African American Religion and Health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laws, Terri

    2018-02-01

    Scholars in African American religion engage the Tuskegee Syphilis Study as the focal point of the African American experience in institutional medicine. Seeking a way forward from this history and its intentional evil, the author proposes to position Tuskegee as a form of Lynch's culturally contextual sacred rhetoric to make use of its metaphoric value in the emerging field of African American religion and health. In this broader meaning-making frame, Tuskegee serves as a reminder that African American religious sensibility has long been an agential resource that counters abuse of the Black body. It also acknowledges the complex decisions facing African American clinical trial participants.

  8. Paternal and maternal influences on the psychological well-being, substance abuse, and delinquency of Chinese adolescents experiencing economic disadvantage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shek, Daniel T L

    2005-03-01

    On two occasions separated by one year, Chinese adolescents with economic disadvantage in Hong Kong (N = 199) responded to instruments measuring perceived parental parenthood qualities (indexed by perceived parenting styles, support and help from parents, and conflict and relationship with the parents) and psychosocial adjustment (psychological well-being, substance abuse, and delinquency). Results showed that parental parenthood variables were concurrently associated with different measures of adolescent psychological well-being and problem behavior at Time 1 and Time 2. While paternal parenthood qualities at Time 1 predicted changes in existential well-being and delinquency in adolescent boys, but not in adolescent girls, at Time 2, maternal parenthood qualities at Time 1 predicted changes in the mental health and problem behavior in adolescent girls, but not in adolescent boys, at Time 2. There is no strong support for the thesis that adolescent adjustment influences perceived parental parenthood qualities over time. The present study suggests that the influences of fathers and mothers on the adjustment of Chinese adolescents experiencing economic disadvantage vary with the gender of adolescent children. 2004 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  9. Phenotypic variance explained by local ancestry in admixed African Americans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shriner, Daniel; Bentley, Amy R; Doumatey, Ayo P; Chen, Guanjie; Zhou, Jie; Adeyemo, Adebowale; Rotimi, Charles N

    2015-01-01

    We surveyed 26 quantitative traits and disease outcomes to understand the proportion of phenotypic variance explained by local ancestry in admixed African Americans. After inferring local ancestry as the number of African-ancestry chromosomes at hundreds of thousands of genotyped loci across all autosomes, we used a linear mixed effects model to estimate the variance explained by local ancestry in two large independent samples of unrelated African Americans. We found that local ancestry at major and polygenic effect genes can explain up to 20 and 8% of phenotypic variance, respectively. These findings provide evidence that most but not all additive genetic variance is explained by genetic markers undifferentiated by ancestry. These results also inform the proportion of health disparities due to genetic risk factors and the magnitude of error in association studies not controlling for local ancestry.

  10. Home Literacy Environment of African American Head Start Children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Janese Daniels

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available

    Researchers have documented culturally specific family literacy practices in which low-income families engage, which are often a function of the context in which the family is currently embedded.  These practices are well documented in ethnographic literature. Although this evidence exists, its utility is limited due to small sample sizes and lack of quantitative documentation on their contribution to children’s language and literacy development.  This study attempted to quantify those culturally specific family literacy practices.  51 low-income African-American mother-child dyads participated.  The contribution of multiple literacy practices was examined in relation to child language and literacy outcomes.  Most low-income African-American families engaged in multiple literacy practices.  Recommended areas for future research directions are discussed.

  11. Home Literacy Environment of African American Head Start Children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Janese Daniels

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Researchers have documented culturally specific family literacy practices in which low-income families engage, which are often a function of the context in which the family is currently embedded.  These practices are well documented in ethnographic literature. Although this evidence exists, its utility is limited due to small sample sizes and lack of quantitative documentation on their contribution to children’s language and literacy development.  This study attempted to quantify those culturally specific family literacy practices.  51 low-income African-American mother-child dyads participated.  The contribution of multiple literacy practices was examined in relation to child language and literacy outcomes.  Most low-income African-American families engaged in multiple literacy practices.  Recommended areas for future research directions are discussed.

  12. Gender role orientation and anxiety symptoms among African american adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palapattu, Anuradha G; Kingery, Julie Newman; Ginsburg, Golda S

    2006-06-01

    The present study evaluated gender role theory as an explanation for the observed gender differences in anxiety symptoms among adolescents. Specifically, the relation between gender, gender role orientation (i.e., masculinity and femininity), self-esteem, and anxiety symptoms was examined in a community sample of 114 African Americans aged 14 to 19 (mean age 15.77; 57 girls). Results revealed that masculinity was negatively associated with anxiety symptoms whereas femininity was positively associated with anxiety symptoms. Gender role orientation accounted for unique variance in anxiety scores above biological gender and self-esteem, and self-esteem moderated the relation between femininity (but not masculinity) and overall anxiety symptoms. Consistent with research on children and Caucasians, findings supported gender role theory as a partial explanation for the observed gender disparity in anxiety symptoms among African American adolescents.

  13. CVD prevention strategies with urban and rural African American women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Armenia; Wold, Judith; Dunkin, Jeri; Idleman, Lynda; Jackson, Cennette

    2004-08-01

    Using Pender's Health Promotion Model, this study tested a work site cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk factor reduction intervention among low-income African American (LAAW) women. Individual CVD risk profiles were identified at the work site through (1) health risk appraisal, (2) blood pressure measurement, (3) body mass index calculation, (4) individual interviews about diet and exercise behaviors, and (5) total cholesterol analysis. Two LAAW groups, one urban and one rural, exhibited higher or similar pretest CVD relative risks (RR) when statistically compared with a national sample of African American women. The LAAW study samples were younger and more educated. Pretest cholesterol and fat intake for the rural women were higher than for the urban women (<.05). Posttest changes in cholesterol and fat intake risks were more significant in rural LAAW than in urban LAAW (<.05).

  14. Thriving older African American women: aging after Jim Crow.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shenk, D; Zablotsky, D; Croom, M B

    1998-01-01

    This paper is based on the findings of small group discussions with self-defined successful African American women age 60+ in Charlotte, North Carolina. These women, who lived through the Jim Crow era and thrived in spite of the obstacles, continue to seek meaning in their lives through the roles they play in their families, churches, and communities. They feel strongly that there is a core of key values that continue to hold meaning and struggle to impart these values to those whose lives they touch. The key values identified include education, religion, work, and giving back to the community, and illustrate the integration of both traditional and nontraditional definitions of success. Mentoring is proposed as an important concept for understanding the lives of African American women in later life.

  15. Extended family and friendship support and suicidality among African Americans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguyen, Ann W; Taylor, Robert Joseph; Chatters, Linda M; Taylor, Harry Owen; Lincoln, Karen D; Mitchell, Uchechi A

    2017-03-01

    This study examined the relationship between informal social support from extended family and friends and suicidality among African Americans. Logistic regression analysis was based on a nationally representative sample of African Americans from the National Survey of American Life (N = 3263). Subjective closeness and frequency of contact with extended family and friends and negative family interaction were examined in relation to lifetime suicide ideation and attempts. Subjective closeness to family and frequency of contact with friends were negatively associated with suicide ideation and attempts. Subjective closeness to friends and negative family interaction were positively associated with suicide ideation and attempts. Significant interactions between social support and negative interaction showed that social support buffers against the harmful effects of negative interaction on suicidality. Findings are discussed in relation to the functions of positive and negative social ties in suicidality.

  16. Diabetes awareness among African Americans in rural North Carolina.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Antony, Angela K; Baaklini, Walid A

    2004-01-01

    To evaluate the extent of diabetes unawareness in rural North Carolina. Randomly administered an eight-question survey to African Americans age 15-74 living in Halifax County North Carolina. Ninety-five out of 116 eligible participants completed the survey (82% response rate). Most (67%) of the participants reported having two or more major risk factors for Type II diabetes (diabetes mellitus). More than half (51.6%) of the participants were obese. Most (96.8%) of the participants reported having been tested for diabetes at some point in their lives (10% testedpositive, only 8.4% of the remaining 9o% reported ever having a second test). Diabetes mellitus is a very prevalentproblem among the African American population of Halifax County North Carolina. Our study underscores the fact that patients are not systematically screened and followed-up for diabetes melitus. More healthcare and commnity programs need to be adapted to fight this serious public health problem.

  17. Measuring African American women's trust in provider during pregnancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peters, Rosalind M; Benkert, Ramona; Templin, Thomas N; Cassidy-Bushrow, Andrea E

    2014-04-01

    Significant racial disparities exist in pregnancy outcomes, but few researchers have examined the relationship between trust in providers and pregnancy outcomes. The Trust in Physician Scale (TPS), the most widely used tool, has not been tested in pregnancy. We assessed the psychometric properties of the TPS and identified correlates of trust in 189 pregnant African American women. Evidence supports internal consistency reliability (>.85) and internal structure of the TPS (CFI = .97; RMSEA = .05; χ(2) (42) = 65.93, p = .001), but TPS scores did not predict pregnancy outcomes. African American women reported a high level of trust in obstetric providers. Trust did not differ by provider type (physician or midwife) but was related to the women's history of perceived racism and strength of ethnic identity. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  18. Experiences and Learning Needs of African American Family Dementia Caregivers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samson, Zoe Blake; Parker, Monica; Dye, Clinton; Hepburn, Kenneth

    2016-09-01

    Dementia family caregivers display significant rates of psychological and physical symptoms. African Americans (AAs) are disproportionately affected by dementia. African American caregivers display unique patterns of symptomology and responses to interventions designed to promote caregiver well-being. This study analyzed qualitative focus group data from 32 AA caregivers to explore how issues of race and culture may be incorporated into a culturally sensitive intervention for AA dementia family caregivers. Caregivers were asked scripted questions about their caregiving experiences and to suggest alterations to an existing psychoeducation program. Analysis revealed 4 key themes: the tradition of family care, caregiving and caregiving issues, culturally appropriate care, and navigating without a map. Suggestions for an educational program included a focus on developing caregiver skills and knowledge for caregiving, promotion of self-care, and reflection on the AA family and community as resources for care. © The Author(s) 2016.

  19. Examining cultural socialization within African American and European American households.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tyler, Kenneth M; Dillihunt, Monica L; Boykin, A Wade; Coleman, Sean T; Scott, Darla M; Tyler, Christina M B; Hurley, Eric A

    2008-07-01

    This preliminary study explored the cultural socialization processes of 227 African American and European American parents of elementary schoolchildren. The Cultural Value Socialization Scales (K. M. Tyler, A. W. Boykin, C. M. Boelter, & M. L. Dillihunt, 2005) were used to garner parents' reports of their cultural value socialization activities at home. The scales contained written vignettes depicting persons involved in activity that reflected a specific cultural value. Ethnocultural values examined were communalism, verve, movement, and affect, and mainstream cultural values included individualism, competition, bureaucracy, and materialism. Regression analyses reveal that being an African American parent was predictive of competition and materialism scores. Race was not a significant predictor of the remaining cultural value socialization scores. Limitations to the study are discussed. Copyright (c) 2008 APA, all rights reserved.

  20. Competing Claims: Religious Affiliation and African Americans' Intolerance of Homosexuals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ledet, Richard

    2017-01-01

    Literature on religion and political intolerance indicates competing expectations about how Black Protestant church affiliation affects African Americans' attitudes about civil liberties. On the one hand, Black Protestant theology emphasizes personal freedom and social justice, factors generally linked to more tolerant attitudes. On the other hand, Black Protestants tend to be conservative on family and social issues, factors often linked to intolerance of gays and lesbians. Data from the General Social Survey are used to examine the influence of religious group identification, as well as other relevant aspects of religiosity, on political intolerance among African Americans. Results indicate that although other aspects of religion (beliefs and behaviors) help explain variation in political intolerance, Black Protestant church affiliation has no relationship with attitudes about the civil liberties of homosexuals. However, additional tests show that Black Protestant church affiliation significantly predicts intolerance of other target groups (atheists and racists).

  1. African-American girls' dietary intake while watching television.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matheson, Donna M; Wang, Yun; Klesges, Lisa M; Beech, Bettina M; Kraemer, Helena C; Robinson, Thomas N

    2004-09-01

    Television viewing has been associated with childhood obesity, although the mechanisms that link television viewing to higher BMI have not been established. Therefore, our objectives, in this report, were to describe the amount and types of foods that African-American girls consume while watching television and to examine the associations between African-American girls' BMI and the food they consume while watching television. Data were collected from 210 8- to 10-year-old African-American girls at four field centers by trained and certified nutritionists. Two nonconsecutive 24-hour dietary recalls were collected from each girl. For each eating episode reported, the girls were asked if they had been watching television while eating. Height and weight were collected using standard methods and used to calculate BMI. The data were analyzed separately by field center. The proportion of average daily energy intake that the girls consumed while watching television ranged from 26.9% to 35.0%. At all field centers, 40% to 50% of evening meals were consumed while watching television. None of the Spearman correlations between girls' BMI and the amount and type of foods consumed while watching television or at other times during the day were statistically significant (p > 0.05). This research revealed that a significant proportion of African-American girls' daily energy intake is consumed while watching television. Interventions that target reductions in food consumption while watching television or reducing television viewing may be effective strategies to decrease children's energy intakes. These results support a need for research to test the efficacy of these approaches.

  2. Promoting Physical Activity Among Overweight Young African American Women

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2014-01-15

    This podcast is an interview with Nefertiti Durant, MD, MPH, from the University of Alabama at Birmingham about promoting physical activity among overweight and obese young African American Women using Internet-based tools.  Created: 1/15/2014 by Preventing Chronic Disease (PCD), National Center for Chronic Disease Prevention and Health Promotion (NCCDPHP).   Date Released: 1/15/2014.

  3. CDC Vital Signs–African American Health

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2017-05-02

    This podcast is based on the May 2017 CDC Vital Signs report. The life expectancy of African Americans has improved, but it’s still an average of four years less than whites. Learn what can be done so all Americans can have the opportunity to pursue a healthy lifestyle.  Created: 5/2/2017 by Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC).   Date Released: 5/2/2017.

  4. Androgen Receptor Mutations and Polymorphisms in African American Prostate Cancer

    OpenAIRE

    Koochekpour, Shahriar; Buckles, Erick; Shourideh, Mojgan; Hu, SiYi; Chandra, Dhyan; Zabaleta, Jovanny; Attwood, Kristopher

    2014-01-01

    The Androgen receptor (AR) plays a central role in the normal development of the prostate gland, in prostate carcinogenesis, and in the progression of prostate cancer (PCa) to advanced metastatic disease. African American (AA) men with PCa present with higher tumor volume, more advanced tumor stage, and higher Gleason score. This could be in part related to the AR expression or activity in the prostate tissue of AA men, or to unique mutations or polymorphisms of the AR. In Caucasian Americans...

  5. African American Women, Hair Care, and Health Barriers

    OpenAIRE

    Gathers, Raechele Cochran; Mahan, Meredith Grace

    2014-01-01

    Objectives: The objective of this study was to elucidate the prevalence of hair loss among African American women; explore the psychosocial impact of hair grooming difficulties; and examine both perceptions related to physician encounters in this group and the relationship between hair grooming, physical activity, and weight maintenance. Design: An anonymous retrospective and qualitative survey, the Hair Care Assessment Survey, is an 18-question novel survey instrument designed at the Henry F...

  6. Multiple loci associated with renal function in African Americans.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel Shriner

    Full Text Available The incidence of chronic kidney disease varies by ethnic group in the USA, with African Americans displaying a two-fold higher rate than European Americans. One of the two defining variables underlying staging of chronic kidney disease is the glomerular filtration rate. Meta-analysis in individuals of European ancestry has identified 23 genetic loci associated with the estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR. We conducted a follow-up study of these 23 genetic loci using a population-based sample of 1,018 unrelated admixed African Americans. We included in our follow-up study two variants in APOL1 associated with end-stage kidney disease discovered by admixture mapping in admixed African Americans. To address confounding due to admixture, we estimated local ancestry at each marker and global ancestry. We performed regression analysis stratified by local ancestry and combined the resulting regression estimates across ancestry strata using an inverse variance-weighted fixed effects model. We found that 11 of the 24 loci were significantly associated with eGFR in our sample. The effect size estimates were not significantly different between the subgroups of individuals with two copies of African ancestry vs. two copies of European ancestry for any of the 11 loci. In contrast, allele frequencies were significantly different at 10 of the 11 loci. Collectively, the 11 loci, including four secondary signals revealed by conditional analyses, explained 14.2% of the phenotypic variance in eGFR, in contrast to the 1.4% explained by the 24 loci in individuals of European ancestry. Our findings provide insight into the genetic basis of variation in renal function among admixed African Americans.

  7. Eating Behaviors and Obesity in African American and Caucasian Women

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-08-16

    higher BMI and more body fat than Caucasian women but significantly lower levels of disinhibition of control over eating . Dietary restraint was not...disinhibition of control over eating and body mass index (BMI; kg/m2), in primarily Caucasian samples [7, 8]. African American college [9] and community...Disorder Diagnostic Scale [23] is a 22-item scale that is useful as a screening tool for Anorexia Nervosa, Bulimia Nervosa, and Binge Eating Disorder

  8. Nocturnal blood pressure nondipping in obese African-Americans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Napan, Sirikarn; Kwagyan, John; Randall, Otelio S; Xu, Shichen; Ketete, Muluemebet; Maqbool, Abid R

    2011-06-01

    Nondipping pattern of circadian blood pressure (BP) is associated with increased cardiovascular morbidity and mortality; however, limited data are available among obese African-Americans. We, therefore, aimed to evaluate the pattern of circadian BP variation and to identify clinical conditions associated with nondipping in this population. A total of 211 obese African-Americans enrolled in a weight-reduction program underwent 24-h ambulatory BP monitoring. Nondipping was defined as a nocturnal BP reduction of less than 10%. Systolic BP (SBP) nondipping was present in 158 participants (74.9%) and diastolic BP (DBP) nondipping was present in 93 participants (44.1%). In multivariate logistic regression analyses, diabetes was associated with SBP nondipping (adjusted OR, 2.53; CI: 1.16-5.76; P=0.02), and increasing BMI (5 kg/m) was associated with DBP nondipping (adjusted OR, 1.46; CI: 1.17-1.83; P=0.001). In linear regression analyses, BMI was positively correlated to office, 24-h, daytime, and night-time SBP (P=0.03, 0.01, 0.03, and 0.005, respectively) and office, 24-h, daytime, and night-time PP (P=0.01, P<0.001, 0.001, and P=0.003, respectively). This study demonstrated an excessively high prevalence of nondippers and independent associations between diabetes and SBP nondipping and between BMI and DBP nondipping in an obese African-American population.

  9. Referential Ambiguity in the Narrative Productions of African American Adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wainwright, Angela Bradford; Cannito, Michael P

    2015-11-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the production of referential ambiguities in two contrasting narrative conditions among age-defined groups of healthy African American women. Twenty middle-aged adults (M = 51 years) and 20 older adults (M = 72 years) produced a complex story retelling and a personal narrative. All narratives were transcribed orthographically, parsed into T-units, and analyzed for surface structure markings of referents and the presence of ambiguities. The results demonstrated that older adults produced more ambiguities than middle-aged adults, were more compromised with task complexity, used more role or relation designations to refer to story characters while underusing proper names, and exhibited significant lexical retrieval deficits during ongoing narrative production. Middle-aged adults produced more proper names, but were also challenged by the complexity of the story-retelling task. Moreover, the results showed that older adults produced more African American English variants than middle-aged adults. This investigation revealed a pattern of age-related ambiguities during narrative production. The results demonstrated that lexical retrieval from long-term semantic memory was an important predictor of ambiguity, whereas African American English contributed negligibly. These results show that referential ambiguities may be a robust characteristic of cognitive-linguistic changes that occur with typical aging.

  10. The "invisible caregiver": multicaregiving among diabetic African-American grandmothers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carthron, Dana L; Bailey, Donald E; Anderson, Ruth A

    2014-01-01

    To explore the multicaregiving roles African-American grandmothers assume while self-managing their diabetes. This longitudinal, qualitative pilot study explored the challenges of self-managing diabetes among six African-American caregiving grandmothers. Data were collected at 5 times points across 18 months. Content analysis, guided by the Adaptive Leadership framework, was conducted using data matrices to facilitate within-case and cross-case analyses. Although participants initially stated they cared only for grandchildren, all had additional caregiving responsibilities. Four themes emerged which illustrated how African-American caregiving grandmothers put the care of dependent children, extended family and community before themselves. Using the Adaptive Leadership framework, technical and adaptive challenges arising from multicaregiving were described as barriers to diabetes self-management. When assisting these women to self-manage their diabetes, clinicians must assess challenges arising from multicaregiving. This might require developing collaborative work relationships with the client to develop meaningful and attainable goals. Copyright © 2014 Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Obesity, appearance, and psychosocial adaptation in young African American children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Young-Hyman, Deborah; Schlundt, David G; Herman-Wenderoth, Leanna; Bozylinski, Khristine

    2003-01-01

    To evaluate the contributions of weight status, skin tone, peer teasing, and parental appraisals of child's size to self-esteem and psychosocial adjustment in overweight African American children. Overweight to very obese 5- to 10-year-old African American children (N = 117) completed measures of self-esteem, skin tone satisfaction, peer teasing, and body size perception. Caregivers completed the Child Behavior Checklist and rated their child's body size. Overweight was associated with low appearance self-esteem, and body size dissatisfaction with low global self-worth and low appearance self-esteem in children 8 and older. Appearance self-esteem but not global self-worth was lower in girls than boys. Parental perception of child's size as heavier than average was associated with low child appearance self-esteem. Heavier children also had more parental report of behavior and psychosocial problems, but their scores were in the nonclinical range. Child skin tone dissatisfaction was associated with low global self-worth. Weight-related peer teasing was associated with low self-esteem. The relationship between obesity and self-esteem in African American children depends upon age, gender, and children's experiences with teasing and parental evaluation of their size. Other factors, like skin tone satisfaction, contribute to a child's sense of self-worth.

  12. Characterizing Mobility Limitations Among Older African American Men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitchell, Jamie A; Johnson-Lawrence, Vicki; Williams, Ed-Dee G; Thorpe, Roland

    2018-04-01

    This study represents an effort to contribute to the limited body of research on biopsychosocial contextual factors that influence or contribute to mobility limitations for older African American men. Specifically, we were interested in examining associations between socio-demographic, physical and emotional health experiences with mobility limitations. A secondary analysis of 1666 older African American men was performed to investigate socio-demographic, mental and physical health correlates to a specific measures of mobility limitation. In the final model, difficulty with self-care, severe pain interference, and problems with usual activities were most strongly associated with mobility limitations. Men who were married were significantly less likely to experience mobility limitations. Findings highlighted the relationship between mobility limitations and difficulty performing activities of daily living. Additional research should examine the impact of poor emotional health and the buffering effects of marriage on mobility for older African American men, a population at high risk of experiencing disparate health outcomes. Copyright © 2018 National Medical Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. How African Americans express their intentions to be organ donors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Korda, Holly; Wagstaff, David A; McCleary, Karl J

    2007-12-01

    As part of an organ sharing network's outreach, African American adults were interviewed to assess their awareness of the network's efforts and willingness to donate their organs after death. To describe (1) the proportion who expressed their intentions to be an organ donor, (2) the means they had used, and (3) sociodemographic characteristics of the participants who used a particular means. A repeated, cross-sectional, random-digit dialing telephone interview was conducted from July 2005 (start of wave 1) to April 2006 (end of wave 3). Each interview averaged 7 minutes and consisted of 60 items. Trained interviewers placed telephone calls to the residences of African Americans who resided in 1 of 4 New Jersey locales: East Orange/Orange, Irvington, Jersey City/Newark, and Trenton. One thousand five hundred sixty-seven African Americans, aged 18 to 95 years. Five Yes/No items were used to determine if participants had declared their intention to be an organ donor via driver's license application, donor card, donor registry, will/healthcare directive, or discussion with a family member. Twenty-seven percent of the participants had expressed their intentions to be an organ donor with an organ donor card, driver's license, donor registry, or will/healthcare directive. The participants who had used one or more of these formal means were 14.4 times more likely to have discussed their intention to be an organ donor with a family member than were the participants who had not.

  14. African Americans' opinions about human-genetics research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Achter, Paul; Parrott, Roxanne; Silk, Kami

    2004-03-01

    Research on attitudes toward genetics and medicine registers skepticism among minority communities, but the reasons for this skepticism are not well known. In the past, studies linked mistrust of the medical system to historical ethics violations involving minority groups and to suspicions about ideological premise and political intent. To assess public knowledge, attitudes, and behavior regarding human-genetics research, we surveyed 858 Americans onsite in four community settings or online in a geographically nonspecific manner. Compared to participants as a whole, African Americans were significantly more likely to believe that clinical trials might be dangerous and that the federal government knowingly conducted unethical research, including studies in which risky vaccines were administered to prison populations. However, African Americans were also significantly more likely to believe that the federal government worked to prevent environmental exposure to toxicants harmful to people with genetic vulnerabilities. Our data suggest that most Americans trust government to act ethically in sponsoring and conducting research, including genetics research, but that African Americans are particularly likely to see government as powerfully protective in some settings yet selectively disingenuous in others.

  15. Neighborhood characteristics and mental health among African Americans and whites living in a racially integrated urban community.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gary, Tiffany L; Stark, Sarah A; LaVeist, Thomas A

    2007-06-01

    Aspects of the environment in which one lives are increasingly being recognized as major contributors to health, yet few empirical studies have focused on mental health. Therefore, we sought to determine if neighborhood characteristics were associated with mental health outcomes among 1408 African-American (59.3%) and white (40.7%) adults living in a socio-economically homogeneous, racially integrated, urban community in Baltimore, MD. Among African Americans and whites, the perception of severe problems in the community was associated with higher levels of stress (approximately 1.8 units higher), anxiety (approximately 1.8 units higher), and depression (OR= approximately 2.0) compared to those who perceived no or few problems (all pCommunity cohesion, the perception that people generally work together, was associated with better mental health among whites only. These findings give further insight into the complex environment of inner-city communities.

  16. An Exploration of the Ways that Parents Can Influence African American Girls Interest in Achieving in Math and Science

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alexander, Lori L.

    Math and science is the core of science, technology, engineering and math (STEM) education. It is the staying power of economic growth, job opportunities, new technology, innovation and emerging research on a global spectrum in the 21st century. Data reports that African American women are underrepresented in the STEM career field. The focus of this project was to specifically address African American middle school girls achievement gap, awareness and interests in the STEM pipeline. Data for this research was gathered by using Action Research Methodology approach using journals, questionnaire survey and dialogue. Five parents/educators participated in this empirical research study by sharing their personal, lived and unapologetic experiences through eight weeks of action/reflection inquiry. The finding of this research is that parents need to be engaged about STEM and the importance for girls to do well academically early in school with math and science.

  17. Black Adoption Placement and Research Center at 25: placing African-American children in permanent homes (1983-2008).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwartz, Sara L; Austin, Michael J

    2011-01-01

    The Black Adoption Research and Placement Center is a nonprofit organization delivering culturally specific adoption and foster care services. The organization developed as a response to concerns in the African-American community about the high numbers of African-American children entering and not exiting the public foster care system. The organization has undergone significant transformations over its 25-year history in relation to social, political, and economic changes that have altered the ways that the agency finances and delivers services. The history of Black Adoption Research and Placement Center presents an organization that has weathered many challenges because of its strong leadership, its committed governing body, its external relationships, and its internal operations.

  18. Human rights violations among economically disadvantaged women with mental illness: An Indian perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poreddi, Vijayalakshmi; Ramachandra; Thimmaiah, Rohini; Math, Suresh Bada

    2015-01-01

    Background: Globally women confront manifold violations of human rights and women with poverty and mental illness are doubly disadvantaged. Aim: The aim was to examine the influence of poverty in meeting human rights needs among recovered women with mental illness at family and community level. Materials and Methods: This was a descriptive study carried out among randomly selected (n = 100) recovered women with mental illness at a tertiary care center. Data were collected through face-to-face interview using structured needs assessment questionnaire. Results: Our findings revealed that below poverty line (BPL) participants were not satisfied in meeting their physical needs such as “access to safe drinking water” (χ2 = 8.994, P rights needs in emotional dimension, that is, afraid of family members (χ2 = 8.233, P women from APL group expressed that they were discriminated and exploited by the community members (χ2 = 17.490, P women with mental illness. Further, mental health professionals play an essential role in educating the family and public regarding human rights of people with mental illness. PMID:26124524

  19. Human rights violations among economically disadvantaged women with mental illness: An Indian perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poreddi, Vijayalakshmi; Ramachandra; Thimmaiah, Rohini; Math, Suresh Bada

    2015-01-01

    Globally women confront manifold violations of human rights and women with poverty and mental illness are doubly disadvantaged. The aim was to examine the influence of poverty in meeting human rights needs among recovered women with mental illness at family and community level. This was a descriptive study carried out among randomly selected (n = 100) recovered women with mental illness at a tertiary care center. Data were collected through face-to-face interview using structured needs assessment questionnaire. Our findings revealed that below poverty line (BPL) participants were not satisfied in meeting their physical needs such as "access to safe drinking water" (χ(2) = 8.994, P human rights needs in emotional dimension, that is, afraid of family members (χ(2) = 8.233, P poverty line (APL) participants. Similarly, 88.9% of women from APL group expressed that they were discriminated and exploited by the community members (χ(2) = 17.490, P human rights of people with mental illness.

  20. The experiences of African American graduate students: A cultural transition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joseph, Joretta

    Historically Black Colleges and Universities (HBCU) have long been an intellectual resource for the African American community. HBCUs have provided and continue to provide an educational pathway for many Black students, particularly women who seek graduate and advanced degrees. However, despite the overwhelmingly positive presence of HBCU in the African American community, the academic training of students who graduate from HBCUs may be perceived as insufficient by predominantly White graduate institutions (PWIs). As a result, African American students who are not well integrated into their respective departmental communities and cultures at PW/is are likely to leave graduate school. Thus the continuing loss of talented people, potential research, role models for society, and the next generation of African American students in the fields of math, engineering, and the sciences (STEM) create a segregated and limited university environment. Studies in the field that attempt to provide insight in to experiences of underrepresented students are ultimately beneficial. However, often such studies do not address the process of adapting to the culture of a predominantly white institution (PWI), particularly within white and male dominated fields such as mathematics and the sciences. Research has also indicated that the first two years at a predominantly white graduate institution is the crucial transitional period for students of color, and it is this transitional moment in time that is the focus of this study. I consider how students make the transition from HBCU to majority institutions, and what impact this transition has on their persistence and commitment to their discipline. The limited amount of research that does address the experiences of minority doctoral students in math and science is usually coupled with the experiences of women. However, race and gender are not linear or additive. It cannot be assumed that the same factors that effect the under representation

  1. Playing spades: The rich resources of African American young men

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schademan, Alfred R.

    Research has shown that African American young men as a demographic group occupy the lowest levels of academic performance in both science and mathematics. In spite of this educational problem, little research has been conducted on the knowledge related to these disciplines that these young men learn and develop through everyday cultural practices. Such knowledge is needed in order to: (1) combat the deficit views that many teachers currently hold of African American young men, and (2) inform teachers interested in implementing pedagogies in their classrooms that draw upon the knowledge of African American young men. To add to our knowledge in this field, this study examines the resources that African American young men learn, use, and develop through a card game called Spades. Specifically, the study identifies and analyzes the models and model-based reasoning that the players use in order to win games. The study focuses upon modeling as it is central to both science and mathematics. To imbed player models and reasoning in context, the study employs a syncretic theoretical framework that examines how Spades has changed over time and how it is currently played in a high school setting. The qualitative study uses ethnographic methods combined with play-by-play analyses to reconstruct games and examine player strategies and reasoning that guide their decisions. The study found that the players operate from a number of different models while playing the game. Specifically, the players consider multiple variables and factors, as well as their mathematical relationships, to predict future occurrences and then play cards accordingly. Further, the players use a number of resources to win games including changing the game to maintain a competitive edge, counting cards, selectively memorizing cards played, assessing risk, bluffing, reading partners as well as opponents, reneging, estimating probabilities, and predicting outcomes. The player models and resources bear

  2. Paradoxes in obesity with mid-life African American women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaston, Marilyn Hughes; Porter, Gayle K; Thomas, Veronica G

    2011-01-01

    To examine the relationship among socioeconomic status, psychological factors (ie, health locus of control, health satisfaction), and health behaviors (ie, physical exercise, eating patterns) in a volunteer sample of mid-life African American women residing within Washington, DC. The study's sample included 351 African American women who participated in the 12-week Prime Time Sister Circles (PTSC) intervention and completed the initial self-report survey. Of the women completing the baseline survey, clinical assessments were taken on 277 participants. The majority (64.4%) of the women were either obese or extremely obese based upon their body mass index (BMI). Fewer than one-third of the women were satisfied with their weight. Despite these outcomes, most (61.8%) of the sample rated their health, in comparison to other African American women, as either good or very good. Further, more than one-half of the women were somewhat to very satisfied with their health knowledge, attitudes, behaviors, and their physical, emotional, and spiritual health. There was no significant relationship between obesity level and socioeconomic status, as measured by education, personal income, and total household income. Additionally, there were no significant differences in weight or eating behaviors by education, personal income, and total household income. The findings revealed a significant difference in the number of days the women reported engaging in physical exercise by personal income (p < .01) and total household income (p = .05), surprisingly, with the women in the lower-income categories reporting engaging in more days of physical exercise than women in the higher-income categories. This study documents the paradox of obesity in mid-life African American women related to socioeconomic status inasmuch as there were no differences observed in the prevalence of obesity by socioeconomic status indicators. The obese women of lower socioeconomic status reported exercising more than

  3. Perceived Socio-Economic Status and Social Inclusion in School: Interactions of Disadvantages

    Science.gov (United States)

    Veland, Jarmund; Midthassel, Unni Vere; Idsoe, Thormod

    2009-01-01

    This paper is based on a study of 7,372 students in grades 5-10 (aged 11-16) in a representative sample of Norwegian compulsory schools. The aim of the study was to examine the relationship between students' reported socio-economic status (SES) and their perceived social inclusion (SI) in school in the whole sample. We also considered separately a…

  4. Escaping Poverty and Securing Middle Class Status: How Race and Socioeconomic Status Shape Mobility Prospects for African Americans during the Transition to Adulthood

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hardaway, Cecily R.; McLoyd, Vonnie C.

    2009-01-01

    This article draws on extant research from the disciplines of psychology, sociology, and economics to identify linkages between individual, family, community, and structural factors related to social mobility for African Americans during the transition to adulthood. It considers how race and class together affect opportunities for social mobility…

  5. Workplace discrimination predicting racial/ethnic socialization across African American, Latino, and Chinese families.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hagelskamp, Carolin; Hughes, Diane L

    2014-10-01

    Informed by Kohn and Schooler's (1969) occupational socialization framework, this study examined linkages between racial/ethnic minority mothers' perceptions of racial/ethnic discrimination in the workplace and adolescents' accounts of racial/ethnic socialization in the home. Data were collected from 100 mother-early adolescent dyads who participated in a longitudinal study of urban adolescents' development in the Northeastern United States, including African American, Latino, and Chinese families. Mothers and adolescents completed surveys separately. We found that when mothers reported more frequent institutional discrimination at work, adolescents reported more frequent preparation for bias messages at home, across racial/ethnic groups. Mothers' experiences of interpersonal prejudice at work were associated with more frequent cultural socialization messages among African American and Latino families. Chinese youth reported fewer cultural socialization messages when mothers perceived more frequent interpersonal prejudice at work. Findings are discussed in the context of minority groups' distinct social histories and economic status in the United States. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2014 APA, all rights reserved).

  6. Perception of Obesity in African-American and Arab-American Minority Groups.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McClelland, Molly L; Weekes, Carmon V N; Bazzi, Hussein; Warwinsky, Joshua; Abouarabi, Wassim; Snell, Felicia; Salamey, Tarick

    2016-03-01

    Effectiveness of health education programs and interventions, designed to improve obesity rates, may vary according to perceptions of health within cultural groups. A qualitative approach was used. Two minority cultural groups (Arab-American and African-American) living in the same county were studied to compare perceptions of health, nutrition, and obesity and subsequent health behaviors. Control, expectations, bias, acceptance, and access were the five themes identified. Arab-Americans that had lower weights, lower prevalence of chronic diseases, expected healthy weights, reported age and gender bias related to being overweight were not as accepting of being overweight and did not report difficulties in accessing healthy food choices compared to their African-American counterparts. Health interventions aimed at reducing obesity rates and related chronic diseases should be culturally specific and aimed at changing expected and accepted cultural norms. Cultural group's void of certain disease states should be studied and used as models to ameliorate the problem in other cultures. Changing health behaviors within a certain cultural group may produce better outcomes when initiated from a member of that same group. The impact of economic and environmental factors on health behaviors must also be considered.

  7. Reading, Interpreting, and Teaching African American History: Examining How African American History Influences the Curricular and Pedagogical Decisions of Preservice Teachers

    Science.gov (United States)

    King, LaGarrett Jarriel

    2012-01-01

    African American history and how it is taught in classroom spaces have been a point of contention with activists, historians, and educators for decades. In it current form, African American history narratives often are ambiguous and truncated, leaving students with a disjointed construction about U.S. history. Additionally, the pedagogical…

  8. The Violence Epidemic in the African American Community: A Call by the National Medical Association for Comprehensive Reform.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frazer, Eva; Mitchell, Roger A; Nesbitt, LaQuandra S; Williams, Mallory; Mitchell, Edith P; Williams, Richard Allen; Browne, Doris

    2018-02-01

    While much progress has occurred since the civil rights act of 1964, minorities have continued to suffer disparate and discriminatory access to economic opportunities, education, housing, health care and criminal justice. The latest challenge faced by the physicians and public health providers who serve the African American community is the detrimental, and seemingly insurmountable, causes and effects of violence in impoverished communities of color. According to statistics from the Centers for Disease Control (CDC), the number one killer of black males ages 10-35 is homicide, indicating a higher rate of violence than any other group. Black females are four times more likely to be murdered by a boyfriend or girlfriend than their white counterparts, and although intimate partner violence has declined for both black and white females, black women are still disproportionately killed. In addition, anxiety and depression that can lead to suicide is on the rise among African American adolescents and adults. Through an examination of the role of racism in the perpetuation of the violent environment and an exploration of the effects of gang violence, intimate partner violence/child maltreatment and police use of excessive force, this work attempts to highlight the repercussions of violence in the African American community. The members of the National Medical Association have served the African American community since 1895 and have been advocates for the patients they serve for more than a century. This paper, while not intended to be a comprehensive literature review, has been written to reinforce the need to treat violence as a public health issue, to emphasize the effect of particular forms of violence in the African American community and to advocate for comprehensive policy reforms that can lead to the eradication of this epidemic. The community of African American physicians must play a vital role in the treatment and prevention of violence as well as advocating for

  9. Multilevel Associations of Neighborhood Poverty, Crime, and Satisfaction With Blood Pressure in African-American Adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coulon, Sandra M; Wilson, Dawn K; Alia, Kassandra A; Van Horn, M Lee

    2016-01-01

    African-American adults experience the highest rates of elevated blood pressure (BP), and this disparity may be linked to socioeconomic and neighborhood-related disadvantage. Based on a bioecological stress-buffering framework, relations of poverty and neighborhood environmental perceptions with BP were assessed using multilevel regression in at-risk African-American adults. This cross-sectional study used baseline data that were collected in 2008 as part of the Positive Action for Today's Health (PATH) trial (N = 409), a community-based intervention to increase walking in low-income, high-crime neighborhoods. BP and perceived neighborhood crime and satisfaction were investigated as individual-level indicators of health and neighborhood environment. Census block groups (N = 22) served as geographic proxies for neighborhoods, and poverty was obtained using 2010 U.S. Census data, to characterize the neighborhood-level socioeconomic environment. There were no individual-level direct associations. Significant cross-product interactions demonstrated that with higher perceived crime, high satisfaction was associated with lower systolic (γ = 3.34) and diastolic (γ = -1.37) BP, but low satisfaction was associated with higher systolic (γ = 15.12) and diastolic (γ = 7.57) BP. Neighborhood-level poverty was associated with diastolic (γ = 11.48, SE = 4.08, P = 0.008) and systolic BP (γ = 12.79, SE = 6.33, P = 0.052). Variance in BP across block groups was low (intraclass correlation coefficients = 0.002-0.014) and there were no significant random effects. Results supported hypotheses, with greater neighborhood satisfaction linked to lower systolic and diastolic BP when perceived crime was high. Neighborhood poverty was also linked to higher systolic and diastolic BP. Prevention efforts should further investigate whether attending to issues of poverty and related neighborhood perceptions reduces high BP in at-risk African-American communities. © Published by Oxford

  10. Multiple Barriers to Economic Opportunity for the “Truly” Disadvantaged and Vulnerable

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Timothy M. Smeeding

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available This article answers several questions: Which subgroups of the U.S. population—designated by race, ethnicity, family structure, educational status, income, wealth, consumption, or other characteristics—appear to be particularly vulnerable to a lack of economic opportunity based on household characteristics of the family and its children? To what degree does poor access to economic advancement appear to reflect low income or wealth, or do additional barriers contribute substantially to some subgroups’ limited opportunities? Similarly, what advantages accrue to high-income and other privileged groups, such as those born into a well-established married family? What does current research tell us about the mechanisms through which barriers operate and policies that might be effective in reducing them?

  11. Cardiovascular Health in African Americans: A Scientific Statement From the American Heart Association.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carnethon, Mercedes R; Pu, Jia; Howard, George; Albert, Michelle A; Anderson, Cheryl A M; Bertoni, Alain G; Mujahid, Mahasin S; Palaniappan, Latha; Taylor, Herman A; Willis, Monte; Yancy, Clyde W

    2017-11-21

    Population-wide reductions in cardiovascular disease incidence and mortality have not been shared equally by African Americans. The burden of cardiovascular disease in the African American community remains high and is a primary cause of disparities in life expectancy between African Americans and whites. The objectives of the present scientific statement are to describe cardiovascular health in African Americans and to highlight unique considerations for disease prevention and management. The primary sources of information were identified with PubMed/Medline and online sources from the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. The higher prevalence of traditional cardiovascular risk factors (eg, hypertension, diabetes mellitus, obesity, and atherosclerotic cardiovascular risk) underlies the relatively earlier age of onset of cardiovascular diseases among African Americans. Hypertension in particular is highly prevalent among African Americans and contributes directly to the notable disparities in stroke, heart failure, and peripheral artery disease among African Americans. Despite the availability of effective pharmacotherapies and indications for some tailored pharmacotherapies for African Americans (eg, heart failure medications), disease management is less effective among African Americans, yielding higher mortality. Explanations for these persistent disparities in cardiovascular disease are multifactorial and span from the individual level to the social environment. The strategies needed to promote equity in the cardiovascular health of African Americans require input from a broad set of stakeholders, including clinicians and researchers from across multiple disciplines. © 2017 American Heart Association, Inc.

  12. Economic disadvantage and transitional outcomes: a study of young people from low-income families in Hong Kong.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ngai, Steven Sek Yum; Cheung, Jacky Chau-Kiu; To, Siu-Ming; Luan, Hui; Zhao, Ruiling

    2014-07-03

    This study draws on data from focus groups involving 50 young people from low-income families in Hong Kong to investigate their school-to-work experiences. In line with the ecological-developmental perspective, our results show that contextual influences, including lower levels of parental involvement and lack of opportunities for further education or skill development, constrain both the formulation and pursuit of educational and career goals. In contrast, service use and supportive interactions with parents and non-family adults were found to help young people find a career direction and foster more adaptive transition. Furthermore, our results indicate a striking difference in intrapersonal agency and coping styles between youths who were attending further education or engaged in jobs with career advancement opportunities and those who were not. We discuss the implications of our findings, both for future research and for policy development to enhance the school-to-work transition of economically disadvantaged young people.

  13. Using Community-Based Participatory Research to Investigate Meaningful Prenatal Care Among African American Women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nypaver, Cynthia F; Shambley-Ebron, Donna

    2016-11-01

    In the United States, African American babies die more than twice as often as White babies. The cause for this difference remains elusive, yet is likely complex with one factor being inadequate cultural care of pregnant African American women. The purpose of this study was to explore African American women's perspectives of meaningful prenatal care. Community-based participatory research was employed for this study using photovoice. The sample included 11 African American mothers in an urban community in Midwestern United States. Five themes were abstracted from the data: (1) Access to Care; (2) Soul Nourishment; (3) Companionship; (4) Help Me, Teach Me; and (5) The Future. Meaningful prenatal care is influenced by culture. African American women need physical, social, and soulful support to enhance meaningfulness of care during pregnancy. The findings support that meaningfulness of prenatal care for African American women may be enhanced by accessible and uniquely designed, culturally congruent models of prenatal care. © The Author(s) 2015.

  14. Toward improved interpretation and theory building of African American male sexualities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewis, Linwood J; Kertzner, Robert M

    2003-11-01

    This paper examined five challenges to clear understanding of African American male sexualities: incorrect assumptions of African American homogeneity; an underemphasis on developmental change, the contexts and the meanings of sexual behaviors; and a lack of compelling theoretical grounding for African American sexualities. Critical elements for effective theorizing and research about African American sexualities (i.e. multiple levels of analysis, examination of phenomenological meaning of sexuality, measurement of dynamic/developmental change) were outlined and candidate theories within sexual science (social exchange theories, symbolic interactionism, sexual scripting theory) were analyzed in light of these elements. It is suggested that a re-orientation of sex research about African American men using these elements will result in improved understanding of African American sexualities in multiple contexts.

  15. Testicular cancer among African American college men: knowledge, perceived risk, and perceptions of cancer fatalism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Powe, Barbara D; Ross, Louie; Wilkerson, Donoria; Brooks, Patrice; Cooper, Dexter

    2007-03-01

    African American men present at later stages of testicular cancer and have higher mortality rates than Caucasian men. Lack of awareness, beliefs, and access to care may influence this disparity. Guided by the Powe fatalism model, this comparative study assessed knowledge of testicular cancer, perceived risk, and cancer fatalism among African American and Caucasian men who attended selected colleges and universities. Data were collected using the Powe Fatalism Inventory, the Testicular Cancer Knowledge Survey, and the Perceived Cancer Risk Survey. The majority (n = 190) of men were African American (70%), and the remainder were Caucasian. African American men were significantly younger than Caucasian men. African American men also had lower testicular cancer knowledge scores, higher perceptions of cancer fatalism, and lower perceived risk for the disease. Rates of testicular cancer screening were low for all the men. Research should focus on further understanding the relationship between cancer fatalism and health-promoting behaviors among African American men.

  16. Tobacco Withdrawal Amongst African American, Hispanic, and White Smokers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bello, Mariel S; Pang, Raina D; Cropsey, Karen L; Zvolensky, Michael J; Reitzel, Lorraine R; Huh, Jimi; Leventhal, Adam M

    2016-06-01

    Persistent tobacco use among racial and ethnic minority populations in the United States is a critical public health concern. Yet, potential sources of racial/ethnic disparities in tobacco use remain unclear. The present study examined racial/ethnic differences in tobacco withdrawal-a clinically-relevant underpinning of tobacco use that has received sparse attention in the disparities literature-utilizing a controlled laboratory design. Daily smokers (non-Hispanic African American [n = 178], non-Hispanic white [n = 118], and Hispanic [n = 28]) attended two counterbalanced sessions (non-abstinent vs. 16-hour abstinent). At both sessions, self-report measures of urge, nicotine withdrawal, and affect were administered and performance on an objective behavioral task that assessed motivation to reinstate smoking was recorded. Abstinence-induced changes (abstinent scores vs. non-abstinent scores) were analyzed as a function of race/ethnicity. Non-Hispanic African American smokers reported greater abstinence-induced declines in several positive affect states in comparison to other racial/ethnic groups. Relative to Hispanic smokers, non-Hispanic African American and non-Hispanic white smokers displayed larger abstinence-provoked increases in urges to smoke. No racial/ethnic differences were detected for a composite measure of nicotine withdrawal symptomatology, negative affect states, and motivation to reinstate smoking behavior. These results suggest qualitative differences in the expression of some components of tobacco withdrawal across three racial/ethnic groups. This research helps shed light on bio-behavioral sources of tobacco-related health disparities, informs the application of smoking cessation interventions across racial/ethnic groups, and may ultimately aid the overall effort towards reducing the public health burden of tobacco addiction in minority populations. The current study provides some initial evidence that there may be qualitative differences in the

  17. A Qualitative Examination of the Maternal Racial Socialization of African American Preschool Children

    OpenAIRE

    Edwards, Adrienne Laney

    2014-01-01

    The salience of racial socialization among African American families has received considerable attention in the literature; however, few scholars have examined how the process of racial socialization unfolds in families with very young children. This study investigated how African American mothers of preschool-age children approached the process of racial socialization. I interviewed African American mothers who were at least age 18 (N=12) with biological children between the ages of three an...

  18. African American Medical Culture in the Antebellum South: As Remembered in the WPA Narratives

    OpenAIRE

    Barber, Daniel

    2015-01-01

    This project examines the oral accounts of former slaves, as recorded in the WPA narratives in the 1930s, to study the development of African American medical culture in the Antebellum South. Through an examination of these transcribed memories, my research investigates how African American praxes with medicinal flora, healing techniques, and spiritual harmony, reflected their ethnomedical and cosmological ideologies. The duality of these ideologies represents an African American medical iden...

  19. Protective Factors for Depression among African American Children of Predominantly Low-Income Mothers with Depression

    OpenAIRE

    Boyd, Rhonda C; Waanders, Christine

    2012-01-01

    Maternal depression has a deleterious impact on child psychological outcomes, including depression symptoms. However, there is limited research on the protective factors for these children and even less for African Americans. The purpose of the study is to examine the effects of positive parenting skills on child depression and the potential protective effects of social skills and kinship support among African American children whose mothers are depressed and low-income. African American moth...

  20. Time and Quest of Identity of the African-American Character: George Schuyler's Black No More

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hayder Naji Shanbooj Alolaiwi

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available This paper attempts to examine the theme of “passing,” viewed as a metaphor of race that marks a step forward from the painful reality of the Middle Passage to “passing,” as both physical reality and metaphor, and to find out the underlying causes of the passing character in George Schyler's Black No More in the light of social and historical dimensions. The study investigates the aspects of “passing”  manifested by the African-American who is often viewed as an “appendage” to the rest of society, blacks have struggled to attain the success, equality, and overall collective consciousness of the American society, while simultaneously creating and maintaining and identity of their own. Blacks have been and continue to be socially, economically, educationally, and politically disenfranchised and therefore cannot completely find unity within an American system that continuously seeks to reaffirm their inferiority.

  1. Precious African American memories, post-racial dreams & the American nation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, Waldo E

    2011-01-01

    This interdisciplinary essay explores a fundamental paradox at the heart of American race relations since the 1960s: "the changing same." The more things change; the more they remain the same. Combining historical and social-scientific evidence with autobiographical reflections, this discussion critically probes the paradoxical decline and persistence of two dimensions of our enduring racial quagmire: racial inequality and white supremacy. The essay argues that these powerful and interrelated elements of America's continuing racial dilemma demand a massive democratic movement to alleviate both at once. This wide-ranging struggle to realize the promise of American democracy requires more than just a revitalized African American Freedom Struggle that is both intraracial and interracial. Progress toward resolving the seemingly intractable problem of racial inequality in the United States demands far more than intensified efforts to alleviate economic inequality; it requires alleviating white supremacy as well.

  2. Marriage Expectations Among African American Couples in Early Adulthood: A Dyadic Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barr, Ashley B; Simons, Ronald L

    2012-08-01

    Using Family and Community Health Study data consisting of 168 unmarried, primarily African American couples, the current study sought to understand the dyadic interplay among school, work, and partner-specific marriage expectations in early adulthood. Drawing on the economic prospects, adult transitions, and work - family literatures, the authors hypothesized and found ample support that expectations to marry a romantic partner were linked not only to one's own school and work-related experiences but also to those of a partner. These associations held while controlling for relationship satisfaction, general views of marriage, and other covariates that have been posited to explain racial inequalities in relationship and marriage patterns. Furthermore, the authors found that actor covariates of marital expectations differed from partner covariates, a finding that highlights the advantages of dyadic analyses in helping researchers understand marriage as both a developmental and interpersonal process.

  3. Characterizing the learning styles and testing the science-related attitudes of African American middle school students: Implications for the underrepresentation of African Americans in the sciences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perine, Donald Ray

    African Americans, Hispanics, Native Americans and women are underrepresented among the population of scientists and science teachers in the United States. Specifically, the shortage of African Americans teaching math and science at all levels of the educational process and going into the many science-related fields is manifested throughout the entire educational and career structure of our society. This shortage exists when compared to the total population of African Americans in this country, the population of African American students, and to society's demand for more math and science teachers and professionals of all races. One suggestion to address this problem is to update curricular and instructional programs to accommodate the learning styles of African Americans from elementary to graduate school. There is little in the published literature to help us understand the learning styles of African American middle school students and how they compare to African American adults who pursue science careers. There is also little published data to help inform us about the relationship between learning styles of African American middle school students and their attitudes toward science. The author used a learning styles inventory instrument to identify the learning style preferences of the African American students and adults. The preferences identified describe how African American students and African American adult science professionals prefer to function, learn, concentrate, and perform in their educational and work activities in the areas of: (a) immediate environment, (b) emotionality, (c) sociological needs, and (d) physical needs. The learning style preferences for the students and adults were not significantly different in key areas of preference. A Test of Science-Related Attitudes (TOSRA) was used to measure seven distinct science-related attitudes of the middle school students. A comparison of the profile of the mean scores for the students in this study

  4. An ecological approach to physical activity in African American women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walcott-McQuigg, J A; Zerwic, J J; Dan, A; Kelley, M A

    2001-12-01

    Physical activity in women has assumed increasing significance as a policy issue as a result of the release of the 1996 Surgeon General's Report on Physical Activity and Health. This report revealed that women in the United States were less likely than men to adhere to the recommended guidelines for physical activity. African American women are less likely than white women to participate in leisure time physical activity across age, occupational, and income groups. The purpose of this study was to use the Ecological Model of Health Promotion to explore policy, environmental, and individual factors influencing physical activity of middle- to older-aged African American women in a mixed income community in a large midwestern city. Focus group discussions were held with 3 groups of women -- administrators/community leaders, exercisers, and nonexercisers. Thirty-three women between the ages of 40 and 78 participated in the study. The women identified 6 themes influencing physical activity: perceptions of physical activity and exercise; perceived barriers to exercise; perceived benefits of and motivators to exercise; past and present opportunities for exercise; factors that enhance the successful delivery of an exercise program; and coalition building to deliver an exercise program to women in the community. The results of this study reveal that to successfully increase physical activity in an ethnic urban community, researchers and other concerned individuals need to collaborate at multiple ecological levels, with an initial emphasis on establishing coalitions between institutions, community groups, policy makers, and individuals.

  5. Mitochondrial DNA diversity in the African American population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Derek C; Shrestha, Sadeep; Wiener, Howard W; Makowsky, Robert; Kurundkar, Ashish; Wilson, Craig M; Aissani, Brahim

    2015-06-01

    Genetic polymorphism along mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) defines population-specific signatures called mtDNA haplogroups. Estimation of mtDNA haplogroup distribution may be prone to errors, notably if the study sample is not drawn from a multicenter cohort. Here, we report on mtDNA diversity in a sample of African American individuals (n = 343) enrolled in a multicenter cohort. Sequencing of the hypervariable regions I and II of the D-loop control region showed that the most common mitochondrial variants are 73G, 146C, 150T, 152C, 189G, 16278T, and 16311C. In agreement with the published data, we observed 17 common mtDNA haplogroups: L0, L1, L1b, L1c, L2, L2a, L2b, L2c, L2e, L3, L3b, L3d, L3e, L3f, L3h, L3x, and L4. The most commonly observed haplogroup is L2a (19.8%), followed by L1b (10.2%). Overall, the observed mtDNA haplogroup distribution in our study is similar to those published for the African American and the African populations.

  6. Depressive Symptomatology and College Persistence among African American College Students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boyraz, Güler; Horne, Sharon G; Owens, Archandria C; Armstrong, Aisha P

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the relationship between depressive symptomatology and college outcomes among African American students, as well as to determine whether these relationships were moderated by gender and type of university. Participants included 569 African American first-year students attending two public universities in the Southeast United States: a historically Black college/university (HBCU) and a predominantly White institution (PWI). Using a longitudinal study design, data were collected at three time points. Results indicated that, after adjusting for the effects of the control variables (gender, type of institution, high school GPA, participation in on-campus activities, institutional and goal commitments), depressive symptomatology present in the first semester of college was associated with increased likelihood of dropping out of college before the end of the second year of college. The relationship between these two variables was mediated by first-year cumulative GPA. Results also indicated that the hypothesized relationships did not vary as a function of gender and the university type.

  7. Partner violence and medical encounters: African-American women's perspectives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McNutt, L A; van Ryn, M; Clark, C; Fraiser, I

    2000-11-01

    To examine the relationship between intimate partner violence (IPV) victimization and patient satisfaction with medical encounters among an African-American population. Cross-sectional, self-administered, anonymous survey. Community-based, primary care center. Consecutive African-American women recruited from an urban health center. A total of 102 women provided sufficient information to reveal whether they were currently experiencing IPV and to allow us to assess their experiences in their most recent primary care encounter. Patients' perceptions of their most recent encounter using questions adopted from the Medical Interview Satisfaction Scale and Consultation Satisfaction Questionnaire. We used the Conflicts Tactics Scale, supplemented with questions measuring sexual violence and emotional abuse, to assess IPV "in the past year." Women who reported current IPV rated several aspects of the encounter more negatively than did women who did not report current abuse. The IPV victims were less likely to report that they felt respected and accepted during the encounter, and they provided lower ratings of the quality of communication with their providers. It is unclear why victims of partner violence experience medical encounters as less satisfactory. Researchers need to expand studies of medical encounters as experienced by abused women to determine whether IPV status adversely affects general medical care.

  8. The Healthy Toddlers Trial Protocol: An Intervention to Reduce Risk Factors for Childhood Obesity in Economically and Educationally Disadvantaged Populations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Auld Garry

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The number of overweight children in America has doubled to an estimated 10 million in the past 20 years. Establishing healthy dietary behaviors must begin early in childhood and include parents. The Healthy Toddlers intervention focuses on promoting healthy eating habits in 1- to 3-year-old children utilizing the Social Cognitive Theory and a learner-centered approach using Adult Learning principles. This Healthy Toddlers Trial aims to determine the efficacy of a community-based randomized controlled trial of an in-home intervention with economically and educationally disadvantaged mothers of toddlers. The intervention focuses on: (a promoting healthy eating behaviors in toddlers while dietary habits are forming; and (b providing initial evidence for the potential of Healthy Toddlers as a feasible intervention within existing community-based programs. Methods/Design This describes the study protocol for a randomized control trial, a multi-state project in Colorado, Michigan, and Wisconsin with economically and educationally disadvantaged mother-toddler dyads; toddlers are between 12 and 36 months. The Healthy Toddlers intervention consists of eight in-home lessons and four reinforcement telephone contacts, focusing on fruit, vegetable, and sweetened beverage consumption and parental behaviors, taught by paraprofessional instructors. Healthy Toddlers uses a randomized, experimental, short-term longitudinal design with intervention and control groups. In-home data collection (anthropometric measurements, feeding observations, questionnaires, 3-day dietary records occurs at baseline, immediately following the intervention, and 6 months after the intervention. Main toddler outcomes include: a increased fruit and vegetable consumption and decreased sweetened beverage consumption; and b improved toddler-eating skills (self-feeding and self-serving. Main parent outcomes include: a improved psychosocial attributes (knowledge

  9. Perceived parental control processes, parent-child relational qualities, and psychological well-being in chinese adolescents with and without economic disadvantage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shek, Daniel T L

    2005-06-01

    The author assessed the relationships between poverty and perceived parenting style, parent-child relationships, and adolescent psychological well-being in Chinese secondary school students (N = 3,017). Participants completed questionnaires designed to assess (a) the degree to which their parents used monitoring, discipline, and other techniques to control their behavior; (b) the extent to which their parents attempted to control them in a way that undermined their psychological development; (c) the parent-child relational qualities, such as the child's readiness to communicate with the parents and perceived mutual trust; and (d) the child's psychological well-being. Although adolescents with economic disadvantage did not differ from adolescents without economic disadvantage on the maternal variables (except on parental knowledge and parental monitoring), adolescents whose families were receiving public assistance generally perceived paternal behavioral control and father-child relational qualities to be more negative than did adolescents who were not receiving public assistance. The author found psychological well-being (shown by hopelessness, mastery, life satisfaction, self-esteem) of adolescents experiencing economic disadvantage to be weaker than that of adolescents not experiencing economic disadvantage.

  10. Corporate Career Demonstration Project: Impact of a Thirteen-Week Training Program on the Personal, Interpersonal, and Academic Skills of Economically Disadvantaged Young Adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berneman, Louis P.; And Others

    The Corporate Career Demonstration Project is a Federally funded program designed to provide economically disadvantaged young adults with specialized training, counseling and educational experiences. The project's major goal is to prepare these youth for entry level corporate career positions they would otherwise be unable to obtain. Applicants…

  11. Gender and the double burden of economic and social disadvantages on healthy eating: cross-sectional study of older adults in the EPIC-Norfolk cohort

    OpenAIRE

    Conklin, Annalijn I.; Forouhi, Nita G.; Surtees, Paul; Wareham, Nicholas J.; Monsivais, Pablo

    2015-01-01

    Background: Multiple economic factors and social relationships determine dietary behaviours, but the inter-relations between determinants is unknown. Whether women and men differ in the vulnerability to, and impact of, combined disadvantages is also unclear. We examined associations between diverse combinations of economic resources and social relationships, and healthy eating in British older women and men. Methods: Our sample comprised 9,580 over-50s (47% of over-50 responden...

  12. Perceptions of communication choice and usage among African American hearing parents: Afrocentric cultural implications for African American deaf and hard of hearing children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borum, Valerie

    2012-01-01

    In a qualitative study employing an exploratory design, the researcher explored the perceptions of communication choice and usage among 14 African American hearing parents of deaf and hard of hearing children. Semistructured, in-depth thematic interviews were used with a modified grounded-theory approach in which themes were analyzed and coded. Four thematic challenges and opportunities related to communication choice and usage were found: (a) oral tradition-nommo, (b) sign and oral-diunital, (c) literacy, and (d) racial/ethnic cultural socialization. Afrocentric implications for deaf and hard of hearing children are explored based on research observations pertaining to the significance of the oral tradition in African American culture and the socialization of African American deaf and hard of hearing children in the context of African American hearing families.

  13. Determining If the Actions of African American Combat Forces during World War I Positively Affected the Employment of African American Combat Soldiers during World War II

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Doward, Jr, Oscar W

    2007-01-01

    ... them to be combat multipliers for future conflicts. The thesis identifies trends in African Americans' military service from the Revolutionary War through their actions along the Mexican border during the first decade of the 20th century...

  14. Determining If the Actions of African American Combat Forces during World War I Positively Affected the Employment of African American Combat Soldiers during World War II

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Doward, Jr, Oscar W

    2007-01-01

    .... The War Department's recruitment, assessment, and induction practices in its preparation for the Great War are explored, and the impact of Jim Crow practices on the process of African American troop...

  15. Modeling risks: effects of area deprivation, family socio-economic disadvantage and adverse life events on young children's psychopathology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flouri, Eirini; Mavroveli, Stella; Tzavidis, Nikos

    2010-06-01

    The effects of contextual risk on young children's behavior are not appropriately modeled. To model the effects of area and family contextual risk on young children's psychopathology. The final study sample consisted of 4,618 Millennium Cohort Study (MCS) children, who were 3 years old, clustered in lower layer super output areas in nine strata in the UK. Contextual risk was measured by socio-economic disadvantage (SED) at both area and family level, and by distal and proximal adverse life events at family level. Multivariate response multilevel models that allowed for correlated residuals at both individual and area level, and univariate multilevel models estimated the effect of contextual risk on specific and broad psychopathology measured by the Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire. The area SED/broad psychopathology association remained significant after family SED was controlled, but not after maternal qualifications and family adverse life events were added to the model. Adverse life events predicted psychopathology in all models. Family SED did not predict emotional symptoms or hyperactivity after child characteristics were added to the model with the family-level controls. Area-level SED predicts child psychopathology via family characteristics; family-level SED predicts psychopathology largely by its impact on development; and adverse life events predict psychopathology independently of earlier adversity, SED and child characteristics, as well as maternal psychopathology, parenting and education.

  16. Access to primary care for socio-economically disadvantaged older people in rural areas: A qualitative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ford, John A; Turley, Rachel; Porter, Tom; Shakespeare, Tom; Wong, Geoff; Jones, Andy P; Steel, Nick

    2018-01-01

    We aim to explore the barriers to accessing primary care for socio-economically disadvantaged older people in rural areas. Using a community recruitment strategy, fifteen people over 65 years, living in a rural area, and receiving financial support were recruited for semi-structured interviews. Four focus groups were held with rural health professionals. Interviews and focus groups were audio-recorded and transcribed. Thematic analysis was used to identify barriers to primary care access. Older people's experience can be understood within the context of a patient perceived set of unwritten rules or social contract-an individual is careful not to bother the doctor in return for additional goodwill when they become unwell. However, most found it difficult to access primary care due to engaged telephone lines, availability of appointments, interactions with receptionists; breaching their perceived social contract. This left some feeling unwelcome, worthless or marginalised, especially those with high expectations of the social contract or limited resources, skills and/or desire to adapt to service changes. Health professionals' described how rising demands and expectations coupled with service constraints had necessitated service development, such as fewer home visits, more telephone consultations, triaging calls and modifying the appointment system. Multiple barriers to accessing primary care exist for this group. As primary care is re-organised to reduce costs, commissioners and practitioners must not lose sight of the perceived social contract and models of care that form the basis of how many older people interact with the service.

  17. Promoting the interest of African American teenage girls in science: What can we learn from an exemplary African American science teacher?

    Science.gov (United States)

    McMath, Cynthia Stewart

    This study focused on science teaching that promoted the interest of African American teenage girls in the science classroom of an exemplary African American science teacher. It focused on, observed and examined the planning, teaching and learning strategies used by the science teacher. It also described what the science teacher experienced during her high school years, during college, during her teaching career. The case study approach/method was used for this research to capture the description and examination of the practices of the science teacher. This research described how an African American female science teacher serves as a role model and influence a number of African Americans students, especially girls, who experience careers in science. During the interviews and observations the researcher used a system of record keeping for the study to include note taking, audio taping and pictures. It is evident in the findings that the teacher in this study had qualities of an exemplary teacher according to the research. It is further evident that the teacher served as a role model for her students. The results indicated that the exemplary African America science teacher was motivated by her former African American science teacher that served as a role model. The results in this study implied that the lack of the presence of more exemplary African American science teachers has an impact on the level of interest that African American students have in science. Further, it is implied that there is a great need for more practical research that may lead to closing the gap of missing African American science teachers.

  18. Evaluation of Nursing Interventions Designed to Impact Knowledge, Behaviors, and Health Outcomes for Rural African-Americans: An Integrative Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abbott, Laurie S

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this review is to evaluate published nursing research reports of effective health promotion strategies for preventing cardiovascular disease, cancer and stroke among rural African Americans. A review of the nursing literature was conducted to select intervention studies published within the past decade (2004-2014). An integrative review method was adapted to evaluate, analyze, and synthesize the nursing research articles that met the inclusion criteria. Data evaluation encompassed displaying the data in a literature matrix for the appraisal of research components employed in the studies. The major intervention strategies reported in the health promotion studies were reduced, displayed in tables, and synthesized. The resultant comparison of the studies can potentially guide nurse researchers in designing health promotion interventions targeting rural African Americans. Public health nurses are uniquely qualified to assist in the national goals of eliminating health disparities for population groups at risk for poor health outcomes by the development and implementation of evidence-based health promotion interventions. Assisting healthy individuals within community settings reduce risk factors for cardiovascular disease and cancer can potentially decrease mortality rates associated with these diseases and improve health equity for disadvantaged populations. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  19. Racial and Gender Discrimination in the Stress Process: Implications for African American Women's Health and Well-Being.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perry, Brea L; Harp, Kathi L H; Oser, Carrie B

    2013-01-01

    In recent decades, sociologists have increasingly adopted an intersectionality framework to explore and explain the complex and interconnected nature of inequalities in the areas of race, class, and gender. Using an inclusion-centered approach and a sample of 204 low-socioeconomic-status (SES) African American women, the authors theorize and explore the role of racial and gender discrimination in the stress process. Analyses examine relationships between social stressors (racial and gender discrimination) and individual stressors occurring in each of six distinct social contexts. Furthermore, the authors evaluate the effects of racial and gender discrimination as compared to individual stressors on three indicators of mental health and well-being. Findings suggest that racial and gender discrimination increases risk for poor health and low well-being, working both directly and indirectly through increased vulnerability to individual stressors. This research demonstrates the value of a more comprehensive study of stressors that influence the health of low-SES African American women and other multiply disadvantaged groups.

  20. Womanist Spirituality as a Response to the Racism-Sexism Double Bind in African American Women

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Carmen Braun; Wiggins, Marsha I.

    2010-01-01

    Many African American women begin counseling stigmatized by race and gender and may be targets of additional discrimination on the basis of sexual orientation, class, age, and other social variables. In this article, the authors discuss "womanist" spirituality as a means for African American women to cope with racism, sexism, and multiple social…

  1. Hypertensive chronic kidney disease in African Americans: Strategies for improving care

    Science.gov (United States)

    MARTINS, DAVID; AGODOA, LAWRENCE; NORRIS, KEITH C.

    2013-01-01

    African Americans have a disproportionate burden of chronic kidney disease (CKD), which tends to have an earlier onset and a more rapid progression in this population. Many of the factors responsible for the rapid progression of CKD in African Americans are detectable by screening and are modifiable with prompt therapy. PMID:23027732

  2. Transitioning to High School: Issues and Challenges for African American Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holcomb-McCoy, Cheryl

    2007-01-01

    Although there is a growing body of literature on students' transition from middle school to high school, much of the literature fails to take into consideration the distinctive racial and environmental circumstances of African American students. This article reviews literature related to the transitioning of African American students and…

  3. The Design and Implementation of an Education Program for African American Inmates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nelson, Nancy J.

    2007-01-01

    This article describes an education program initiated by African American prisoners in the Airway Heights Correction Center in Airway Heights, Washington. The purpose of the program was to help the inmates to make productive use of their time while incarcerated and to help lessen the high return rate of African American men to the prison. Although…

  4. Anxiety Psychopathology in African American Adults: Literature Review and Development of an Empirically Informed Sociocultural Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hunter, Lora Rose; Schmidt, Norman B.

    2010-01-01

    In this review, the extant literature concerning anxiety psychopathology in African American adults is summarized to develop a testable, explanatory framework with implications for future research. The model was designed to account for purported lower rates of anxiety disorders in African Americans compared to European Americans, along with other…

  5. The Importance of Visibility: Students' and Teachers' Criteria for Selecting African American Literature

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gray, Erika Swarts

    2009-01-01

    Previous research has demonstrated that African American children do not always relate to the literature available in their classrooms. The study examined fifth-grade students' responses to African American literature to determine the criteria students use to select books. Students' selection criteria were then compared with teachers' selection…

  6. College and Career Readiness for Gifted African American Girls: A Call to School Counselors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mayes, Renae D.; Hines, Erik M.

    2014-01-01

    Current literature on college and career readiness highlights the role of educators in promoting the success of all students. However, few studies have focused on the specific needs of gifted African American girls. This article discusses the school experiences and career development of gifted African American girls and it provides a culturally…

  7. The Images of African Americans in Children's Literature of the Past.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Regina

    Focusing on the early examples of African American literature for children, this paper provides a glimpse into the historical development of children's literature that portrays African Americans and the people who had a definite effect on it. In contemporary time, numerous books are available that reflect the social and cultural traditions…

  8. African American College Students at Predominantly White and Historically Black Colleges and Universities

    Science.gov (United States)

    McDonald, Nicole L.

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to more fully understand the socialization experiences of African American college students, and to investigate and/or uncover new information that can offer meaningful insight for transforming institutional barriers that interfere with the success of African American college students. The existing literature…

  9. The African American Male Librarian: Motivational Factors in Choosing a Career in Library and Information Science

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis-Kendrick, Kaetrena D.

    2009-01-01

    A recent American Library Association (ALA) report has shown that less than 1% of credentialed librarians are African American males. This article discusses possible reasons for this dearth; and, in an effort to inform future LIS recruiting and marketing campaigns, the included study attempted to discover which factors lead African American males…

  10. The Relationship between Maladaptive Eating Behaviors and Racial Identity among African American Women in College

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flowers, Kelci C.; Levesque, Maurice J.; Fischer, Sarah

    2012-01-01

    Research on eating disorders has shown that European American women suffer from eating disorders and body image dissatisfaction more than African American women. However, recent meta-analyses suggest these differences may be decreasing and that some African American women may be particularly susceptible to body dissatisfaction and eating disorder…

  11. The Social Construction of Ethnicity and Masculinity of African American College Men

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Jonathan Lee

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to understand how African American college men construct masculine and ethnic notions of their identities, despite disproportionate social obstacles and hegemonic stereotypes. The primary research question of this study was, "how might African American undergraduate males understand and develop healthy concepts…

  12. An Examination of School Attitude and Self-Esteem among African-American Elementary School Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foster, Esau, II

    2009-01-01

    The focus of this research investigation was to examine school attitudes and self-esteem among 48 African-American elementary school children. Based on achievement data on standardized testing, administered by a school district located within the Mid-Atlantic region of the United States, African-American children were stratified in order to…

  13. African American Families on Autism Diagnosis and Treatment: The Influence of Culture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burkett, Karen; Morris, Edith; Manning-Courtney, Patricia; Anthony, Jean; Shambley-Ebron, Donna

    2015-01-01

    Cultural factors such as health care access and autism spectrum disorder (ASD) symptom interpretations have been proposed as impacting delayed diagnosis and treatment for African American children with ASD. A qualitative study of urban African American families caring for their child with autism was conducted with 24 family members and 28 ASD…

  14. Superstar or Scholar? African American Male Youths' Perceptions of Opportunity in a Time of Change

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conchas, Gilberto Q.; Lin, Alex R.; Oseguera, Leticia; Drake, Sean J.

    2015-01-01

    Through a Multiple Marginality Framework, this exploratory case study highlights how African American male youth in an urban high school setting perceive the opportunity structure during the historic election of the first African American President. Youth optimism generated by Obama's election gives students a sense of hope despite the persistent…

  15. Third Grade African American Boys Respond to Representations of Race, Class and Gender in Children's Literature

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alberti, Joseph Michael

    2010-01-01

    African American students are often at odds with their education. Instead of being viewed as a place that can offer help, support, and a catalyst for social change, school is viewed by many African American boys as a place that does not recognize or understand their own lives, and where their knowledge and understandings of the world are not…

  16. Rationales for Support That African American Grandmothers Provide to Their Children Who Are Parenting Adolescents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sumo, Jen'nea; Dancy, Barbara; Julion, Wrenetha; Wilbur, JoEllen

    2015-01-01

    African American grandmothers are known to be a major source of support for their children who are parenting adolescents, but little is known about why they provide support. The purpose of this study was to describe the kinds of support provided by African American maternal and paternal grandmothers to their parenting adolescents and the reasons…

  17. Sociodemographic, Behavioral, and Psychological Correlates of Current Overweight and Obesity in Older, Urban African American Women

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patt, Madhavi Reddy; Yanek, Lisa R.; Moy, Taryn F.; Becker, Diane M.

    2004-01-01

    To better understand obesity and overweight among urban African American women, the authors examined sociodemographic, behavioral, and psychological factors within body mass index (BMI) categories. A total of 496 women were recruited for cardiovascular risk factor screening from 20 urban African American churches. Study participants had a mean age…

  18. Pass It On: The Development of African-American Children's Literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, Gail Singleton

    1999-01-01

    Examines the historical development of modern African American children's literature, from the griot in Africa to recent award-winning authors and illustrators. Addresses connections between African American children's literature and reading comprehension. Discusses culturally conscious literature which, though culturally rich and authentic and…

  19. Marital Satisfaction among African Americans and Black Caribbeans: Findings from the National Survey of American Life

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bryant, Chalandra M.; Taylor, Robert Joseph; Lincoln, Karen D.; Chatters, Linda M.; Jackson, James S.

    2008-01-01

    This study examines the correlates of marital satisfaction using data from a national probability sample of African Americans (N = 962) and Black Caribbeans (N = 560). Findings reveal differences between African Americans and Black Caribbeans, and men and women within those groups, in the predictors of marital satisfaction. Black Caribbean women…

  20. Addressing the Underrepresentation of African-Americans in Counseling and Psychology Programs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haizlip, Breyan N.

    2012-01-01

    Over the last two decades, there has been an upward trend in the number of African-American doctoral students completing counseling and psychology programs. However, despite these trends, African-American faculty continue to be significantly underrepresented as counseling educators and psychology faculty. Similarly, counseling education programs…

  1. Determinants of Low-Fat Eating Behaviors among Midlife African American Women

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evans, Gina L.; McNeil, Lorna H.; Laufman, Larry; Bowman, Sharon L.

    2009-01-01

    Objective: The purpose of this study was to explore midlife African American women's low-fat eating habits in the context of health attitudes, social support, and food preferences. Design: A cross-sectional design was used. Settings: One Midwestern and 1 national African American women's organization were targeted for data collection.…

  2. The Role of the African-American Church in Education about Teenage Pregnancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stevenson, Howard C.

    1990-01-01

    Recommends sharing of ideas among the church and mental health systems when confronting the problem of education about teenage pregnancy in the African-American community. Specifies three decision steps in initiating dialogue between mental health educators and African-American pastors: acknowledging, networking, and developing relationships.…

  3. Those of Broader Vision. An African-American Perspective on Teenage Pregnancy and Parenting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    National Urban League, Inc., New York, NY.

    The most devastating effects of teenage pregnancy are felt among African Americans because of the disproportionate number of adolescent unmarried females in this community who get pregnant and give birth each year. Aspects of this problem are discussed as they relate to the African-American community. Historical antecedents of the problem are…

  4. Super's Work Values Inventory-Revised Scale Validation for African Americans

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hammond, Marie S.; Betz, Nancy E.; Multon, Karen D.; Irvin, Tawana

    2010-01-01

    The psychometric properties of Super's Work Values Inventory-Revised (SWVI-R) were examined in a sample of 213 African American college students. Results indicated that the 12-values scales were as reliable and as valid in a sample of African Americans as has been demonstrated within a predominantly White college student sample. Values of…

  5. Work Socialization and Adolescents' Work-Related Values in Single-Mother African American Families

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toyokawa, Teru; McLoyd, Vonnie C.

    2013-01-01

    This study examined African American mothers' work socialization messages in relation to adolescents' work-related values. Moderation effects of mother-adolescent relation quality on the linkage between maternal socialization messages and adolescents' outcomes were also examined. Participants were 245 single African American mothers and their…

  6. Improving Writing of At Risk Students with a Focus on the African American Male.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cason, Nancy; And Others

    1991-01-01

    An action research project designed and evaluated the effectiveness of an instructional strategy to improve the writing of all secondary students (particularly African-American males) in the Webster Groves, Missouri school district. The first year was devoted to an intensive study of African American culture and literature. A list of six…

  7. Colleges in the Making of Manhood and Masculinity: Gendered Perspectives on African American Males

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dancy, T. Elon, II

    2011-01-01

    Using an interdisciplinary approach, this paper explores the ways in which colleges become sites that socialise African American men as gendered beings. Twenty-four African American men enrolled in 12 colleges and universities across the 19 southern and border states of America participated in this study. The purpose is to illustrate how…

  8. Relationship between Religious Coping and Suicidal Behaviors among African American Adolescents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Molock, Sherry Davis; Puri, Rupa; Matlin, Samantha; Barksdale, Crystal

    2006-01-01

    This study investigated whether hopelessness and depression were risk factors for suicidal thoughts and behaviors in African American adolescents and looked at whether religious participation and religious coping protected these students from suicidality. Participants were 212 African American high school students (133 females, 79 males). The…

  9. The Impact of CHAMPS on the Exclusionary Discipline Incidents of African-American Boys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Russell-Smith, Saundra

    2018-01-01

    African-American boys who receive exclusionary discipline (i.e. in- or out-of-school suspensions) are overrepresented at the elementary (kindergarten through fifth grade) level. Although African-American boys comprised only 15% of the population of this school, they accounted for 70% of the exclusionary discipline incidents. This…

  10. The Black Arts Movement and African American Young Adult Literature: An Evaluation of Narrative Style

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henderson, Laretta

    2005-01-01

    In this article I question whether or not African American young adult literature serves as a primer for, and a version of, African American adult literature. Using the Black Aesthetic as my literary theory and the Coretta Scott King Award as the young adult canon, I note that while the content of adolescent literature is consistent with the…

  11. Impact of Science Tutoring on African Americans' Science Scores on the High School Students' Graduation Examination

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, Edward

    2013-01-01

    This study investigated the relationship between an after-school tutorial program for African American high school students at a Title I school and scores on the science portion of the High School Graduation Examination (HSGE). Passing the examination was required for graduation. The target high school is 99% African American and the passing rate…

  12. Family Matters: Familial Support and Science Identity Formation for African American Female STEM Majors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parker, Ashley Dawn

    2013-01-01

    This research seeks to understand the experiences of African American female undergraduates in STEM. It investigates how familial factors and science identity formation characteristics influence persistence in STEM while considering the duality of African American women's status in society. This phenomenological study was designed using critical…

  13. The Play Factor: Effect of Social Skills Group Play Therapy on Adolescent African-American Males

    Science.gov (United States)

    Earls, Melissa K.

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the effectiveness of Social Skills Group Play Therapy on remedying the social skills deficits of adolescent African-American males. Additionally, the study investigated whether age and grade level impacted the outcome of the intervention. The participants were adolescent African-American males ages 10 to…

  14. Risk and Protective Factors for Depressive Symptoms in Urban African American Adolescents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tandon, Darius S.; Solomon, Barry S.

    2009-01-01

    There is limited understanding of risk and protective factors associated with depression among African American adolescents living in impoverished, urban settings. A cross-sectional study was conducted to identify a range of risk and protective factors associated with depressive symptoms among low-income urban African American adolescents. The…

  15. The Perceived Undergraduate Classroom Experiences of African American Women in Science, Technology, Engineering, and Mathematics (STEM)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holmes, Kimberly Monique

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this dissertation study was to explore African-American women's perceptions of undergraduate STEM classroom experiences, and the ways in which those experiences have supported or hindered their persistence in physics majors. The major research question guiding this study was: How do African-American women perceive the climate and…

  16. Five African American Male Superintendents and Their Leadership in Diverse School Districts in Texas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smothers, Aneil Chrisfor

    2012-01-01

    The focus of this research is in the area of African American male superintendents and their leadership in diverse settings. The research approach adopted in this dissertation used semi-structured interviews with five African American male superintendents that consisted of three main issues: (1) personal; (2) leadership quality/effectiveness and…

  17. Pride, Heritage, and Self-Worth: Keys to African-American Male Achievement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    White-Hood, Marian

    1994-01-01

    Young African American males' role models are those in the entertainment and sports arenas. Few see themselves as scholars, contributing to the common good. To counteract teachers' low expectations of black males' performance, educators at Benjamin Tasker Middle School in Bowie, Maryland, established African-American Achievers, a program that…

  18. Initial evidence of religious practice and belief in depressed african american cancer patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Amy Y; Gary, Faye; Zhu, Hui

    2013-01-01

    This study examined spiritual coping (beliefs and practices) of depressed African American cancer patients through a comparison with depressed White cancer patients and non-depressed African American cancer patients. Using mixed methods, 74 breast (n=41) and prostate (n=33) cancer survivors including 34 depressed and 23 nondepressed African Americans and 17 depressed Whites were interviewed. The interviews were audiotaped and transcribed. Qualitative data analysis identified themes that were coded. The codes were entered into SPSS software. The Fisher's exact test was performed to examine group differences in self-reported spiritual coping. Significantly more depressed African Americans questioned God when learning of a cancer diagnosis than the non-depressed African Americans (p=.03), but they did not differ from the depressed Whites in this regard (p=.70). Significantly more depressed African Americans reported having faith in God (p=.04), reading the bible (p=.02), and conversing with God (p=.01) than did the depressed Whites. They also reported praying alone (p=.01) more frequently than the depressed Whites who, on the other hand, reported praying with others (non-family members) together for one's own health more frequently (p=.04). Depression is associated with a deepening need for spirituality and it affects religious beliefs and practices more in African American than White cancer patients. Given its important role in the lives of African American cancer patients, spirituality may be utilized as a reasonable, culturally-based approach to better assess and treat depression in these patients.

  19. Withstanding Our Status as Outsiders-Within: Professional Counterspaces for African American Women Student Affairs Administrators

    Science.gov (United States)

    West, Nicole M.

    2017-01-01

    Although engagement in social and academic counterspaces has been studied as a strategy used by African American college students to withstand racially inhospitable campus climates, very little research documents the impact of professional counterspaces on African American women student affairs administrators. The purpose of this basic…

  20. Social Messages, Social Context, and Sexual Health: Voices of Urban African American Youth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Secor-Turner, Molly; Sieving, Renee; Garwick, Ann

    2011-01-01

    Objective: To describe aspects of the social context that low-income, urban African American young women articulate as having influenced social messages they received during adolescence about pregnancy timing and childbearing. Methods: Individual interviews were conducted with 20 African American young women ages 18-22. Results: Findings clustered…

  1. African American and Latino Enrollment Trends among Medicine, Law, Business, and Public Affairs Graduate Programs

    Science.gov (United States)

    de la Garza, Rodolfo; Moghadam, Sepehr Hejazi

    2008-01-01

    The purpose of this Tomas Rivera Policy Institute (TRPI) report is twofold: to provide an analysis of the enrollment trends for African American and Latino students among graduate professional programs in the fields of medicine, business, law, and public affairs, and to present other relevant data pertaining to African American and Latino students…

  2. What's up with This Leadership Thing? Voices of African American Male College Undergraduates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Preston-Cunningham, Tammie; Boyd, Barry L.; Elbert, Chanda D.; Dooley, Kim E.; Peck-Parrott, Kelli

    2016-01-01

    This study investigates the perceptions of leadership of African American undergraduate males who attend a predominately-White institution in the Southwest after participation in a leadership development program. Research concerning African American undergraduate males in education has been from a deficit-orientated narrative and focused primarily…

  3. African American and Latina(o) Community College Students' Social Capital and Student Success

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sandoval-Lucero, Elena; Maes, Johanna B.; Klingsmith, Libby

    2014-01-01

    Using a framework of social and cultural capital, this study examined successful African American and Latina/o community college students. Based on focus group interviews with twenty two African American and Latina/o undergraduates at an urban community college, the authors reveal how social and cultural capital gained from students' relationships…

  4. Age and HIV Risk and Protective Behaviors among African American Women

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corneille, Maya A.; Zyzniewski, Linda E.; Belgrave, Faye Z.

    2008-01-01

    Though HIV prevention efforts have focused on young adult women, women of all ages may engage in HIV risk behaviors and experience barriers to condom use. This article examines the effect of age on sexual risk and protective attitudes and behaviors among African American women. Unmarried heterosexual African American women between the ages of 18…

  5. Fifty Years after Brown: The Benefits and Tradeoffs for African American Educators and Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lyons, James E.; Chesley, Joanne

    2004-01-01

    The benefits and tradeoffs for African American professional educators and students resulting from the profound Brown v. Board of Education decision are discussed. Results show that the vast majority of respondents believed that Brown had benefited both African American educators and students.

  6. 77 FR 45471 - White House Initiative on Educational Excellence for African Americans

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-08-01

    ... provide substantial benefits for our country by, among other things, increasing college completion rates... role as the global leader in education, to strengthen the Nation by improving educational outcomes for African Americans of all ages, and to help ensure that all African Americans receive an education that...

  7. African-American College Student Attitudes toward Physics and Their Effect on Achievement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drake, Carl Timothy

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate factors affecting the attitudes that African-American college students have towards introductory college physics. The population targeted for this study consisted of African-American males and females enrolled in introductory college physics classes at an urban public historical black college or…

  8. Pragmatic Features in Original Narratives Written by African American Students at Three Grade Levels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kersting, Jessica M.; Anderson, Michele A.; Newkirk-Turner, Brandi L.; Nelson, Nickola W.

    2015-01-01

    African American English has a rich oral tradition, with identifiable features across all 5 systems of language--phonology, morphology, syntax, semantics, and pragmatics. This is an investigation of the extent to which pragmatic features of African American oral storytelling traditions are apparent in the written stories of African American…

  9. Suppressor Effects in Coping Research with African American Adolescents from Low-Income Communities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaylord-Harden, Noni K.; Cunningham, Jamila A.; Holmbeck, Grayson N.; Grant, Kathryn E.

    2010-01-01

    Objective: The purpose of the current study was to demonstrate the replicable nature of statistical suppressor effects in coping research through 2 examples with African American adolescents from low-income communities. Method: Participants in the 1st example included 497 African American adolescents (mean age = 12.61 years, SD = 0.99; 57% female)…

  10. Parental Characteristics, Ecological Factors, and the Academic Achievement of African American Males

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hines, Erik M.; Holcomb-McCoy, Cheryl

    2013-01-01

    Parental characteristics, ecological factors, and the academic achievement of African American male high school students were examined. One hundred fifty-three 11th and 12th grade African American males completed the Parenting Style Index (Steinberg, Lamborn, Darling, Mounts, & Dornbusch, 1994) and a demographic questionnaire. Results…

  11. Value Dilemmas: Another Look at Placement Issues for African American Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McRoy, Ruth G.

    2003-01-01

    Maintains that transracial adoptions will not significantly reduce the number of African American children in the child welfare system. Asserts that recruitment of adoptive African American parents is hampered by child welfare practices and legislative initiatives. Argues that the transracial adoption debate diverts attention from the differential…

  12. Race-Related Stress, Quality of Life Indicators, and Life Satisfaction among Elderly African Americans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Utsey, Shawn O.; Payne, Yasser A.; Jackson, Ebonique S.; Jones, Antoine M.

    2002-01-01

    Examines the relationships among race-related stress, quality of life indicators, and life satisfaction among elderly African Americans. Results indicated that elderly African American men and women differed significantly with regard to institutional and collective racism-related stress. In addition, institutional racism-related stress was a…

  13. Recruitment and Retention Strategies Utilized by 1890 Land Grant Institutions in Relation to African American Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Westbrook, Johnnie R.; Alston, Antoine J.

    2007-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the strategies employed by 1890 land grant universities in recruiting and retaining African Americans in agricultural science. Recruitment strategies such as African American agricultural role models, secondary agricultural education, summer enrichment programs, and prior agricultural life experiences were…

  14. African American Alumni Feelings of Attachment to a Predominately White Research Intensive University

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burley, Hansel; Butner, Bonita; Causey-Bush, Tonia; Bush, Lawson, V

    2007-01-01

    The authors examined African American alumni opinions of their experience at a predominately white research intensive university from the development office's perspective. Research on decades of African American alumni opinions of their alma mater is nonexistent. Gender, financial aid and matriculation period were the independent variables. The…

  15. A Genome-Wide Association Search for Type 2 Diabetes Genes in African Americans

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Palmer, N.D.; McDonough, C.W.; Hicks, P.J.; Roh, B.H.; Wing, M.R.; Sandy An, S.; Hester, J.M.; Cooke, J.N.; Bostrom, M.A.; Rudock, M.E.; Talbert, M.E.; Lewis, J.P.; Hottenga, J.J.; de Geus, E.J.C.; Willemsen, G.; Boomsma, D.I.; Ferrara, A.; Lu, L.; Ziegler, J.T.; Sale, M.M.; Divers, J.; Shriner, D.; Adeyemo, A.; Rotimi, C.N.; Ng, M.C.Y.; Langefeld, C.D.; Freedman, B.I.; Bowden, D.W.; Posthuma, D.; Penninx, B.W.J.H.; Sladek, R.

    2012-01-01

    African Americans are disproportionately affected by type 2 diabetes (T2DM) yet few studies have examined T2DM using genome-wide association approaches in this ethnicity. The aim of this study was to identify genes associated with T2DM in the African American population. We performed a Genome Wide

  16. The Role of Colorism in Explaining African American Females' Suspension Risk

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blake, Jamilia J.; Keith, Verna M.; Luo, Wen; Le, Huong; Salter, Phia

    2017-01-01

    African American female students' elevated suspension risk has received national attention. Despite a number of studies documenting racial/ethnic disparities in African American females' school suspension risk, few investigations have attempted to explain why these disparities occur. The purpose of this study was to examine the role of colorism in…

  17. A Qualitative Study of African American Women in Engineering Technology Programs in Community Colleges

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blakley, Jacquelyn

    2016-01-01

    This study examined the experiences of African American women in engineering technology programs in community colleges. There is a lack of representation of African American women in engineering technology programs throughout higher education, especially in community/technical colleges. There is also lack of representation of African American…

  18. African American Social Work Faculty: Overcoming Existing Barriers and Achieving Research Productivity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allen, Junior Lloyd; Huggins-Hoyt, Kimberly Y.; Holosko, Michael J.; Briggs, Harold E.

    2018-01-01

    Purpose: This study explored the scholarship experiences of top-ranked African American faculty in schools of social work. Method: Qualitative interviews were conducted with N = 10 top-ranked African American faculty identified as achieving considerable productivity and impact of scholarship. Findings: Four major themes were identified, each of…

  19. A Campus-Community Partnership to Disseminate Health Internet Technology Resources among African Americans

    Science.gov (United States)

    Littlefield, Melissa B.; Edwards, Lorece; Akers, Timothy

    2014-01-01

    The Internet is increasingly used to disseminate health information about diseases and prevention and to help in obtaining health services. Although technology can empower African Americans to adopt healthy lifestyles, the gap in usage between African Americans and Whites undermines the potential power of health Internet technology (IT) to…

  20. The Influence of the Extended Family on the Involvement of Nonresident African American Fathers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perry, Armon R.

    2009-01-01

    This study investigates the extent to which the extended family provides support to African American nonresident fathers and its influence on their involvement with their children. The data for this study were collected from 278 African American nonresident fathers as a part of the Fragile Families and Child Wellbeing Study. The findings revealed…

  1. African American Fathers' Involvement in Their Children's School-Based Lives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abel, Yolanda

    2012-01-01

    This research investigated African American fathers' involvement in the school-based lives of their elementary-aged children using the Hoover-Dempsey and Sandler model of parent involvement and Epstein's framework of involvement. Questionnaires were administered to 101 African American males in the mid-Atlantic region of the United States.…

  2. Slaves No More: The Caring Power of African-American Female Leaders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sernak, Kathleen S.

    2004-01-01

    In this article the author examines the historical significance of the cultural aspect of race on African American females' leadership values and styles that encourage caring in schools. The author focuses her study by asking: What aspects of their (African American female leaders) cultural backgrounds as Africans and as African Americans…

  3. The Perpetual Homelessness of College Experiences: Tensions between Home and Campus for African American Women

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winkle-Wagner, Rachelle

    2009-01-01

    There is an ongoing debate about whether African American students need to sever ties with their families to be successful in college. Adding nuance to this debate, this ethnographic study examines African American women's experiences of navigating family relationships in a predominantly White institution. The women described multiple pressures…

  4. African American English and Spelling: How Do Second Graders Spell Dialect-Sensitive Features of Words?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patton-Terry, Nicole; Connor, Carol

    2010-01-01

    This study explored the spelling skills of African American second graders who produced African American English (AAE) features in speech. The children (N = 92), who varied in spoken AAE use and word reading skills, were asked to spell words that contained phonological and morphological dialect-sensitive (DS) features that can vary between AAE and…

  5. Familial Factors Predicting Attitudes toward Domestic Violence in African American Adolescents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clarke-Williams, Cassandra

    2017-01-01

    Teen dating violence is more prevalent among African Americans than any other racial group in the United States leading to serious health consequences for victims. However, limited data exists on how African American adolescents' attitudes and perceptions regarding dating violence are formed, and whether they are influenced by family members. The…

  6. Examining Instructional Practices, Intellectual Challenge, and Supports for African American Student Writers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alston, Chandra L.

    2012-01-01

    The debate surrounding how best to support African American student writers continues today as the gap between achievement scores persists. This qualitative analysis documents the classroom structures and instructional practices of two English Language Arts teachers working in a predominately African American public middle school, whose students…

  7. Determining the College Destination of African American High School Seniors: Does College Athletic Reputation Matter?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Braddock, Jomills Henry, II; Hua, Lv

    2006-01-01

    A study prolongs research on college choice by analyzing what African American students state about the importance of the college's athletic reputation when choosing which school to attend. Descriptive results indicate that roughly one out of every three African American respondents believe that a school's athletic reputation is at least a…

  8. Self-Esteem Enhancing Reasons for Having Sex and the Sexual Behaviors of African American Adolescents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robinson, Melissa L.; Holmbeck, Grayson N.; Paikoff, Roberta

    2007-01-01

    A sample of 146 African American adolescents living in impoverished neighborhoods with high HIV rates participated in the Chicago HIV Prevention and Adolescent Mental Health Project (CHAMP), a longitudinal study of adolescent HIV risk exposure. The current study examined self-reported reasons why African American adolescents may participate in…

  9. Parental Involvement Promotes Rural African American Youths Self-Pride and Sexual Self-Concepts

    Science.gov (United States)

    McBride Murry, V.; Brody, Gene H.; McNair, Lily D.; Luo, Zupei; Gibbons, Frederick X.; Gerrard, Meg; Wills, Thomas Ashby

    2005-01-01

    This study, an evaluation of the Strong African American Families Program, was designed to determine whether intervention-induced changes in targeted parenting behaviors were associated with young adolescents development of racial pride, self-esteem, and sexual identity. Participants were 332 African American mothers and their 11-year-old children…

  10. Spelling in African American Children: The Case of Final Consonant Devoicing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Treiman, Rebecca; Bowman, Margo

    2015-01-01

    This study examined the effect of dialect variation on children's spelling by using devoicing of final /d/ in African American Vernacular English (AAVE) as a test case. In line with the linguistic interference hypothesis, African American 6-year-olds were significantly poorer at spelling the final "d" of words such as "salad"…

  11. African American Students' Graphic Understanding of the Derivative: Critical Case Studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stringer, Eddy W., III.

    2011-01-01

    Data suggests that a significant loss of African American students from STEM majors occur between their freshmen and sophomore year. This attrition corresponds to the time period when students encounter the calculus sequence. For this reason, calculus persists as a serious barrier preventing African American students from entering STEM fields.…

  12. The Perceptions of African American Women Principals Who Have Been Influential in Public Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miles Brown, Tammy Melitta

    2009-01-01

    This narrative case study research project focused on African American women principals and the leadership qualities and competencies that they bring to an urban school setting. The purpose of this study was to explore the lived experiences of African American women principals and examine the influence of this past experience, identify common…

  13. Fighting through Resistance: Challenges Faced by African American Women Principals in Predominately White School Settings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jackson, Alicia D.

    2013-01-01

    African American women represented a growing proportion within the field of education in attaining leadership roles as school principals. As the numbers continued to rise slowly, African American women principals found themselves leading in diverse or even predominately White school settings. Leading in such settings encouraged African American…

  14. Racial-Ethnic Identity, Academic Achievement, and African American Males: A Review of Literature

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wright, Brian L.

    2009-01-01

    This article discusses broadly, the literature on racial-ethnic identity (REI) and its role as a factor to promote academic success in young African American adolescents, in particular males. The review also defines, describes, and interprets styles of self-presentation that reflect aspects of REI among African American males in and outside of…

  15. "It Was like a Book Buffet!" Parents and Children Selecting African American Children's Literature Together

    Science.gov (United States)

    McNair, Jonda C.

    2011-01-01

    This study examines how African American children--in grades kindergarten through 2--and their parents selected books within the context of a unique family literacy program entitled, "I Never Knew There Were So Many Books About Us!: Parents and Children Reading African American Children's Literature Together". This study is informed by…

  16. Relationships between Weight and Body Dissatisfaction, Body Esteem, and Teasing in African American Girls

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tyler, Chermaine; Johnston, Craig A.; Dalton, William T., III; Foreyt, John P.

    2009-01-01

    This study assessed the relation between weight and weight-related factors (i.e., body dissatisfaction, body esteem, teasing frequency, and the effects of teasing) in a community sample of prepubescent African American girls. African American girls (N = 97) in Grades 3 to 5 completed the McKnight Risk Factor Survey-Third Edition and had their…

  17. Overcoming Workplace Barriers: A Focus Group Study Exploring African American Mothers' Needs for Workplace Breastfeeding Support

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Angela Marie; Kirk, Rosalind; Muzik, Maria

    2015-01-01

    Background Persistent racial disparities in breastfeeding show that African American women breastfeed at the lowest rates. Return to work is a critical breastfeeding barrier for African American women who return to work sooner than other ethnic groups and more often encounter unsupportive work environments. They also face psychosocial burdens that make breastfeeding at work uniquely challenging. Participants share personal struggles with combining paid employment and breastfeeding and suggest workplace and personal support strategies that they believe will help continue breastfeeding after a return to work. Objective To explore current perspectives on ways to support African American mothers' workplace breastfeeding behavior. Methods Pregnant African American women (n = 8), African American mothers of infants (n = 21), and lactation support providers (n = 9) participated in 1 of 6 focus groups in the Greater Detroit area. Each focus group audiotape was transcribed verbatim. Thematic analysis was used to inductively analyze focus group transcripts and field notes. Focus groups explored thoughts, perceptions, and behavior on interventions to support African American women's breastfeeding. Results Participants indicate that they generally believed breastfeeding was a healthy option for the baby; however, paid employment is a critical barrier to successful breastfeeding for which mothers receive little help. Participants felt breastfeeding interventions that support working African American mothers should include education and training for health care professionals, regulation and enforcement of workplace breastfeeding support policies, and support from peers who act as breastfeeding role models. Conclusion Culturally appropriate interventions are needed to support breastfeeding among working African American women. PMID:25714345

  18. Perceived Racism and Ambulatory Blood Pressure in African American College Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hill, LaBarron K.; Kobayashi, Ihori; Hughes, Joel W.

    2007-01-01

    Experiences with racial discrimination may contribute to stress-induced blood pressure (BP) elevations among African Americans. It was reported that perceived racism was associated with ambulatory BP (ABP) during waking hours. This study examined perceived racism and ABP among 40 African American college students, who completed an ABP assessment…

  19. Factors of Persistence for African American Men in a Student Support Organization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simmons, Lamont D.

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this qualitative study is to examine factors of persistence for two African American men involved in the Project Empowerment (PE, pseudonym) student organization at a predominantly White institution. The participants are undergraduate student members of PE, a campus-based organization designed to enhance African American male…

  20. Exploring Spirituality Among African American Women: Implications for Promoting Breast Health Behaviors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conway-Phillips, Regina; Janusek, Linda Witek

    The purpose of this qualitative study was to gain understanding of the definition, meaning, and function of spirituality to African American women. Four categories emerged that add insight for nurses to develop innovative spiritual-based strategies to promote African American women's positive health behaviors. Implications for promoting breast health behaviors are described.