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Sample records for economically competitive sodium

  1. Design considerations for economically competitive sodium cooled fast reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang, Hongbin; Zhao, Haihua; Mousseau, Vincent; Szilard, Ronaldo

    2009-01-01

    The technological viability of sodium cooled fast reactors (SFR) has been established by various experimental and prototype (demonstration) reactors such as EBR-II, FFTF, Phenix, JOYO, BN-600 etc. However, the economic competitiveness of SFR has not been proven yet. The perceived high cost premium of SFRs over LWRs has been the primary impediment to the commercial expansion of SFR technologies. In this paper, cost reduction options are discussed for advanced SFR designs. These include a hybrid loop-pool design to optimize the primary system, multiple reheat and intercooling helium Brayton cycle for the power conversion system and the potential for suppression of intermediate heat transport system. The design options for the fully passive decay heat removal systems are also thoroughly examined. These include direct reactor auxiliary cooling system (DRACS), reactor vessel auxiliary cooling system (RVACS) and the newly proposed pool reactor auxiliary cooling system (PRACS) in the context of the hybrid loop-pool design. (author)

  2. PUBLIC EDUCATION AND ECONOMIC COMPETITIVENESS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gabriel-Andrei Donici

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available There is a certain connection between education and economic competitiveness. The relation between these two concepts is easy to intuit. On the medium and long term investments in education generate astrong increase in a country’s level of economic competitiveness. Through education the human capital is formed, and it affects all economic fields. Therefore we can observe that human capital has a decisive influence on the economic competitiveness of a country.

  3. Competitiveness: new economic paradigm?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marlene Peñaloza

    2005-10-01

    Full Text Available Nowadays competitiveness is made up of “the new” paradigm that allows to prevail in the global World. Thus, it is inevitable to ask, was it required to be competitive to be successful in the international trade arena? Recognizing the discussion about it and its theoretical-conceptual density, the present paper studies this old notion whose meaning, in essence, is always the same one. This applies even though new realities in the present world-wide atmosphere confer to it a distinguishing character and new and old players are forced to organize actions and bring efforts together to obtain the competitive supremacy.

  4. Economic competitiveness of windmills

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lapin, E E

    1977-01-01

    The conditions under which windmills become competitive with the generation of electric power from fossil fuels are examined. The influence of cost of construction, financing arrangements, and the future cost of fuels is shown. Energy storage and network arrangements for mills are considered briefly, as are alternate uses for mills, e.g., the utilization of mill output directly for heating or for the production of a fuel.

  5. Competitive economics of nuclear power

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hellman, R.

    1981-01-01

    Some 12 components of a valid study of the competitive economics of a newly ordered nuclear power plant are identified and explicated. These are then used to adjust the original cost projections of four authoritative studies of nuclear and coal power economics

  6. MEASURING COMPETITIVENESS OF ECONOMIC ENTITIES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MUNGIU-PUPĂZAN MARIANA CLAUDIA

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available A competitive structure of a national economy is influenced by the competitiveness of each of the actors made the national economy. In other words, to achieve competitive economic structure shall contribute all sectors of the national economy and hence all branches of the national economy, all organizations within each branch. Thus, the productive sectors of the economy contribute by increasing their competitiveness, GDP growth, added value, while other branches making a contribution through activity, increased quality of life (health, culture, social in training skilled labor (education to ensure effective functioning of the judiciary, protection of private property and citizen safety, lower crime rate (police, reducing the risk of political instability, increasing social cohesion, social disparities (richness and extreme poverty, and discrimination against women and minority groups. Human resources are probably the most important factor determining the competitiveness of an area. The ability of a country to move up the value chain is closely related to human resource capability. In understanding the competitive evaluation is important to assess not only in terms of education, improvement, skills and work experience, but also in terms of other attributes, more difficult to measure, as entrepreneurial relationships, creativity and risk tolerance. Secondly, we must accept that individual productivity is determined by external factors. Latent potential of the individual can develop when the person moves to another environment that provides better and more opportunities. Currently structural changes to remain competitive obtaining essential parameters of the Romanian economy to cope with competitive pressures of the single European market.

  7. Banking Competition and Economic Stability

    OpenAIRE

    Ronald Fischer; Nicolás Inostroza; Felipe J. Ramírez

    2013-01-01

    We consider a two-period model of a banking system to explore the effects of competition on the stability and efficiency of economic activity. In the model, competing banks lend to entrepreneurs. After entrepreneurs receive the loans for their projects, there is a probability of a shock. The shock implies that a fraction of firms will default and be unable to pay back their loans. This will require banks to use their capital and reserves to pay back depositors, restricting restrict second per...

  8. Competitiveness in the global economic crisis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gheorghe Popescu

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available The first challenge is to analyze the concept of "competitiveness" given the fact that in the centre of the great economic analystes' concerns lays from some time the phenomenon of competitiveness, along with the generation of competitive advantage at the organization level and, moreover, at country level. The economic science will have to be rethought, meaning that competitiveness will have to adapt to the new prospects launched today by the global economic crisis.

  9. Pedagogy for Economic Competitiveness and Sustainable Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sahlberg, Pasi; Oldroyd, David

    2010-01-01

    Accelerating threats to a sustainable relationship between economic growth and the capacity of the global social-ecological system to support it require that the implications of competitiveness be reassessed. Today, the capacities that underlie economic competitiveness must also be brought to bear on policy and pedagogy to prepare the coming…

  10. Economic competitiveness of nuclear power in China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hu Chuanwen

    2005-01-01

    Development of nuclear power in China has made a good progress. Currently, economic competitiveness of nuclear power compared to fossil-fuelled power plants is one of the major problems which hamper its development. This article presents the economic competitiveness of nuclear power in China with two-level analyses. First, levelized lifetime cost method is adopted for electricity generation cost comparisons. Important factors influencing economic competitiveness of nuclear power are described. Furthermore, a broad economic evaluation of the full fuel chain of nuclear power and fossil-fuelled plants is discussed concerning macro social-economic issues, environmental and health impacts. The comprehensive comparative assessment would be carried out for decision making to implement nuclear power programme. In consideration of external costs and carbon value, the economic competitiveness of nuclear power would be further improved. Facing swift economic growth, huge energy demand and heavy environmental burden, nuclear power could play a significant role in sustainable development in China. (authors)

  11. Creating an Economically Enabling and Competitive Business ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Creating an Economically Enabling and Competitive Business Environment in the ... the scope of operations of private sector enterprises in the West Bank and Gaza. ... IWRA/IDRC webinar on climate change and adaptive water management.

  12. Economic Development and "National Competitive Advantage"

    OpenAIRE

    J.T., Goode

    2002-01-01

    Despite the preponderance of economic theory and research which argues to the contrary, the notion that national economies stand in a fundamentally competitive relationship with one another remains surprisingly widespread. In recent years, some of the most influential impetus for this misperception has come from Michael Porter's conceptualization of "the competitive advantage of nations" in relation to economic development and date theory. It is argued that Porter neither proposes nor demonst...

  13. Clusters and the new economics of competition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Porter, M E

    1998-01-01

    Economic geography in an era of global competition poses a paradox. In theory, location should no longer be a source of competitive advantage. Open global markets, rapid transportation, and high-speed communications should allow any company to source any thing from any place at any time. But in practice, Michael Porter demonstrates, location remains central to competition. Today's economic map of the world is characterized by what Porter calls clusters: critical masses in one place of linked industries and institutions--from suppliers to universities to government agencies--that enjoy unusual competitive success in a particular field. The most famous example are found in Silicon Valley and Hollywood, but clusters dot the world's landscape. Porter explains how clusters affect competition in three broad ways: first, by increasing the productivity of companies based in the area; second, by driving the direction and pace of innovation; and third, by stimulating the formation of new businesses within the cluster. Geographic, cultural, and institutional proximity provides companies with special access, closer relationships, better information, powerful incentives, and other advantages that are difficult to tap from a distance. The more complex, knowledge-based, and dynamic the world economy becomes, the more this is true. Competitive advantage lies increasingly in local things--knowledge, relationships, and motivation--that distant rivals cannot replicate. Porter challenges the conventional wisdom about how companies should be configured, how institutions such as universities can contribute to competitive success, and how governments can promote economic development and prosperity.

  14. Competition in generation: The economic foundations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Green, R.

    2000-01-01

    This paper sets out the economic foundations that underlie competitive markets in electricity generation. It moves from a general formulation of a competitive market to discuss traditional models of optimal electricity pricing. It shows how an auction market can produce the same results and discusses the option of bilateral trading. Models of market power, which can lead to higher prices and reduced efficiency, are then discussed. The final part of the paper deals with network effects

  15. Creating an Economically Enabling and Competitive Business ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Creating an Economically Enabling and Competitive Business Environment in the West Bank and Gaza Strip. The prospect of indefinite Israeli occupation of the Palestinian territories, and their extreme dependence on foreign assistance and Israeli-controlled customs revenues, had led to the conclusion that the Palestinian ...

  16. Creating an Economically Enabling and Competitive Business ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Creating an Economically Enabling and Competitive Business Environment in the West Bank and Gaza Strip. The prospect of indefinite Israeli occupation of the ... Impact of implementing the Palestinian banking law on the performance of the private sector [Arabic language]. Documents. Impact of the commercial agents law ...

  17. Competitiveness and Economic Growth in Romanian Regions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simionescu Mihaela

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Considering the fact that Romanian economy competitiveness is not based on innovation and investment in human capital, this study makes an empirical evaluation of the impact of occupation and unemployment in Romanian counties on the economic growth. The approach based on panel vector-autoregressive (panel VAR models indicated a negative impact of occupation and activity rate in 42 Romanian counties on the economic growth during 2006-2014. On the other hand, the real economic growth was achieved at high unemployment rates. These results are contrary to previous studies in literature and are due to a structural economic crisis and to lack of labour productivity and investment in human capital. Further policy measures should focus on structural unemployment decrease, more skilled labour force according to labour market needs, lifelong learning, higher performance and quality of education system, promotion of social inclusion, poverty control.

  18. Fuel modelling and its economical competitiveness

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marino, A.C.; Savino, E.J.

    1996-01-01

    Due to reasons of economical competitiveness, there is at present a strong need in the nuclear industry to improve fuel performance under more demanding operating conditions, such as those resulting from an extended burnup. This requires a good understanding of the properties of fuel rod materials and their in-service performance. As it can be easily foreseen, thermal, mechanical and microstructural irradiation effects are strongly interrelated while the fuel is at reactor operating conditions. (author). 7 refs., 16 figs

  19. Competitiveness of Slovakia and the Economic Crisis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silvia Ručinská

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available The impacts of financial crisis in the beginning of this year have also been felt by the Slovak economy. It could be argued that the competitiveness of Slovakia is under the influence of the world economic crisis, as it is a small, open and pro-export oriented economy, hence influenced by foreign markets. Because of limited extent of domestic market, the foreign demand plays a key role in economic growth, a role that depends on the development of international economic affairs. As the biggest Slovak trade partners are in a deep recession, it induces a slowdown in the domestic economy as well. Financial problems of numerous banks in these countries, in combination with the growing lack of trust in the performance of the economies have resulted in a decline in demand and consumption, which had its effects on Slovakia as well. Based on our analysis of the manifestations and consequences of the financial crisis we show the effects on competitiveness of Slovakia, as well as on public policy.

  20. Moving targets. Economic competitiveness of nuclear power

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rogner, H.H.; Langlois, L.

    2000-01-01

    Most world electricity markets are now moving towards greater competition, driven in part by technology, low fuel prices, and experience that competitive markets are more self-sustaining. Electric power is being sold in a number of markets in member countries of the Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD) for around US $0.02 per kilowatt-hour (kWh). Can nuclear generation match such prices? If not, can it be made to do so? Electricity companies are now in the business of selling a commodity (kWh) and commercial services instead of a strategic good. Excess capacity, low demand growth and lower product prices in major industrialized countries have forced power generators and their suppliers to be more concerned with the costs of their operations and profitability of their investments. These companies increasingly need a commercial, profit-oriented approach if they are to survive and prosper. Even more, they will need to make substantial cost reductions over the next few years. The nuclear industry is no exception. How does nuclear power stack up in this environment? The IAEA Planning and Economic Studies Section is doing a series of studies on precisely these questions, divided into issues affecting the near, medium and long-term future of nuclear power. This corresponds roughly to matters affecting existing plants, upgrades and life extensions, or new plants. In general, the studies find that nuclear power has the potential to be competitive in all three markets. But realizing that potential will require significant changes on the part of the industry and its regulators. This article focuses on the prevailing market situation in many industrialized countries. Several lessons also are applicable to developing countries, particularly in cases where the financing of electric power projects is expected to come from international capital markets. The overall situation is distinctly different for developing countries. Typically the capacity there for

  1. How Do National Economic Competitiveness Indices View Human Capital?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sabadie, Jesus Alquezar; Johansen, Jens

    2010-01-01

    "Economic competitiveness" is at the top of national, regional and global political and economic agendas. Several countries in all regions of the world have established policies and institutions devoted to economic competitiveness, including in developing and transition countries. This leads to the question of how to define national economic…

  2. Competitive market for multiple firms and economic crisis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tao, Yong

    2010-09-01

    The origin of economic crises is a key problem for economics. We present a model of long-run competitive markets to show that the multiplicity of behaviors in an economic system, over a long time scale, emerge as statistical regularities (perfectly competitive markets obey Bose-Einstein statistics and purely monopolistic-competitive markets obey Boltzmann statistics) and that how interaction among firms influences the evolutionary of competitive markets. It has been widely accepted that perfect competition is most efficient. Our study shows that the perfectly competitive system, as an extreme case of competitive markets, is most efficient but not stable, and gives rise to economic crises as society reaches full employment. In the economic crisis revealed by our model, many firms condense (collapse) into the lowest supply level (zero supply, namely, bankruptcy status), in analogy to Bose-Einstein condensation. This curious phenomenon arises because perfect competition (homogeneous competitions) equals symmetric (indistinguishable) investment direction, a fact abhorred by nature. Therefore, we urge the promotion of monopolistic competition (heterogeneous competitions) rather than perfect competition. To provide early warning of economic crises, we introduce a resolving index of investment, which approaches zero in the run-up to an economic crisis. On the other hand, our model discloses, as a profound conclusion, that the technological level for a long-run social or economic system is proportional to the freedom (disorder) of this system; in other words, technology equals the entropy of system. As an application of this concept, we give a possible answer to the Needham question: “Why was it that despite the immense achievements of traditional China it had been in Europe and not in China that the scientific and industrial revolutions occurred?”

  3. ECONOMIC RECESSION A CALL FOR COMPETITIVE INTELLIGENCE

    OpenAIRE

    Lucian Marius IVANOV

    2011-01-01

    Global recession brought about a significant growth in competition, stressing the need for relevant and reliable intelligence as a support for making efficient strategic decisions. The recent circumstances draw the attention far more earnestly this time on the need for an intelligence structure within companies to be ready for sustaining business management endeavours in line with increasing competitiveness, protection and promotion of their interests.

  4. Creating an Economically Enabling and Competitive Business ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Arabic language]. Documents. Strengthening the role of the Palestine securities exchange in attracting foreign investment [Arabic language]. Documents. Impact of infrastructure costs on the competitiveness of the Palestinian industrial sector ...

  5. Environmental Economics Research Competition for the Middle East ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    , to extend its work in environmental economics by supporting a series of small research projects in the Middle East and North Africa. Project proposals will be solicited through two competitions: one with and one without a specific theme.

  6. COMPETITIVENESS IN SERVICES, DRIVING FORCE OF ECONOMIC DEVELOPMENT

    OpenAIRE

    RAMONA PÎRVU; MARIA DANATIE ENESCU

    2012-01-01

    The competitiveness of a nation is ensured by the profitable activity of firms. They strengthen their position in the domestic and international markets through global strategies whose purpose is to increase productivity and maintain it at a high level. For this, the company must take into account both the internal economic environment which ensures operating conditions and the external economic environment’s development. The five competitive forces determine the industry’s profitability beca...

  7. Drivers of Competitiveness and Strategies for Economic ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    This project will support capacity building, research studies and policy outreach with a focus on the following areas: the dynamics of small and medium enterprises (SMEs) and their potential for job creation; enhancing the inclusiveness of export-led growth through innovation, technology and competitiveness; balancing ...

  8. Retail competition in electricity markets. Expectations, outcomes and economics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Littlechild, Stephen

    2009-01-01

    In 'Retail competition in electricity markets' (Energy Policy, 37(2), February 2009, Pages 377-386) it is argued by Defeuilly that the introduction of retail competition into electricity markets gave rise to great expectations that it failed to meet, and that this was primarily the fault of Austrian economic thinking. The main purpose of this note is to explain why both of these propositions are incorrect. A few further comments challenge his subsequent suggestion that the competitive process in electricity is so constrained by the limitations of consumer decision-making and electricity technology as to cast doubt on the policy of opening the retail market to competition

  9. Drivers of Competitiveness and Strategies for Economic ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    ... gain; and new theoretical frameworks for studying the determinants of economic diversification. ... Enter the dragon : policies to attract Chinese investment. Téléchargez le PDF. Rapports. Selective review of foreign direct investment theories.

  10. Competition Research for Economic Development | IDRC ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    ... and disseminated by means of a high-profile communications program. ... Fiscalía Nacional Económica. Institution Country. Chile. Institution Website ... IDRC partner the World Economic Forum is building a hub for inclusive growth solutions.

  11. Collective management societies against free economic competition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Felipe Abello Monsalvo

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available The collective management of copyright is presented as a mechanism for the administration of the collection for the use of the patrimonial rights of copyright holders. The Collective Management Companies (SGC act as the appointed representative of the holders of the mentioned rights. The management of copyright through the SGC generates certain efficiencies and, in some cases, it is indispensable. Nonetheless, benchmarking for each case may identify the existence of dominance position of the sgc. It is necessary to propose minimum guidelines so that the SGC in the execution of its management do not incur in anti-competitive practices.

  12. The GBR reactor an economically competitive Breeder

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chermanne, J.

    1974-01-01

    In this article the design is described of a 1200 MWe fast breeder, gas-cooled reactor (GBR-4), prepared by a group of experts of the Gas Breeder Reactor Association and used as a reference system for economical and safety evaluations, as well as for defining the research and development program focussed on such concept and the specifications of the prospective demonstrative plant

  13. Competitive economics: Nuclear and coal power

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hellman, R.

    1984-01-01

    An extraordinary aspect of nuclear power is the fact that until 1974 no competent and authoritative study of its economics had been published, in or out of government. Yet well over $100 billion of orders have been given. Another extraordinary characteristic of the industry is prematurity. Light water reactors operate at about half the temperatures, a fourth the steam pressures and half the turbine speeds of fossil fuel units. They therefore must move 3.5 times the cubic feet of steam per hour to get the same power output, and this requires piping, valves, pumps, boilers, etc. which are so much bigger as to create serious technological problems of manufacture, installation, operation and maintenance. Instead of following normal sequences of test and proof, the industry rushed massive orders prematurely -- and this for a technology with enormous problems of radioactivity and economic unknowns

  14. Competitive economics: nuclear and coal power

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hellman, R.

    1984-01-01

    Ignorance of the comparative economics and prematurity in adopting light water reactors characterize the nuclear industry, which has defied the laws of logic for learning. The absence of valid authoritative data to determine the economics of a newly ordered nuclear power plant is what leads to the methodological problems in making comparisons with coal. The author's solution adjusts the four most authoritative studies to reality: by the Atomic Energy Commission in 1975, a team of TRW and Mitre Corp. for ERDA in 1976, by the Nuclear Regulatory Commission in 1979, and by Exxon. The adjustments, which include original costs adjusted for lifetime; capital adjustments for sufflation, construction time, unit life, and capacity factor; fuel adjustments, and other adjustments involving management, replacement, maintenance, fuel prices, waste disposal, etc.) show that the total busbar cost per kWh from nuclear power units is 2.2 times that of coal. 7 references, 1 table

  15. Economics of Sustainable Development. Competitiveness and Economic Growth

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dorel AILENEI

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Economic growth is one of the most important issues of humanity. Both in national economies and world economy, recession and prosperity periods are regularly succeeding with different amplitudes. But beyond these fluctuations and their effects, the results are important: performance and economic growth. Because of the problematical issue of economic growth, the authors are trying to critically reflect on the economic growth concept and on its implications on the praxis area. Although there is a large literature about economic growth modeling, it is intriguing that there still are some serious obstacles for conceptualization and praxis. Only the simple fact that the economic growth process needs serious thinking on the time dimension is sufficient for understanding the real difficulties of this problematical issue. As for the economic growth praxis, a clear analysis of the interests system within an economy is needed. Without trying to find miraculous solutions for the economic growth issue, the authors suggest a clear and correct analysis of this important subject.

  16. The Economic Effect of Competition in the Air Transportation Industry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hubbard, H. B.

    1972-01-01

    The air transportation industry has been described as a highly-competitive, regulated oligopoly or as a price-regulated cartel with blocked entry, resulting in excessive service and low load factors. The current structure of the industry has been strongly influenced by the hypotheses that increased levels of competition are desirable per se, and that more competing carriers can be economically supported in larger markets, in longer haul markets, with lower unit costs, and with higher fare levels. An elementary application of competition/game theory casts doubt on the validity of these hypotheses, but rather emphasizes the critical importance of the short-term non-variable costs in determining economic levels of competition.

  17. The economic policy as factor of competitiveness in China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan González García

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The object of this article consists of establishing the relation between competitiveness and economic policy in the case of the People’s Republic of China in the period from 1948 to 2008. The hypothesis that is demonstrated throughout the presentation maintains that more than the macroeconomic stability, the economic growth is directly related to the type of economic policy that applies a nation, as it is the case of China. The historical antecedents (1948-1978, the economic policy in the days of the reform of the economy (1978-1998 and the present time in which the past and the present are crossed, constitute the huge landmarks of the work. The economic policy is analyzes in “sub political” such as the agriculturist, industrialist, prices, foreign trade, foreign affairs, fiscal, monetary, exchange and investment, competitiveness etc., taking the work to planes of better concretion.

  18. Polish and Estonian Economic Competitiveness. A Comparative Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna Kowalska

    2007-10-01

    Full Text Available The starting point of the study has been a survey of indices developed by international economic organizations. Such indices tend to encompass a number of qualitative/quantitative variables relating to economic viability, e.g. economic liberties, budgetary balance, judiciary, technical sophistication, social factors and innovation. Basing on the aforementioned data, the study has focused upon the comparison of both countries competitive stances and permitted the formulation of certain economic policy guidelines with regard to Poland, which has underperformed Estonia in most of the rankings.

  19. Modularization as an avenue to economic competitiveness

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cottrell, J H [Avondale Industries, Inc., Rumson, NJ (United States)

    1990-07-01

    There are many features of the emerging next generation of nuclear power which impact the competitiveness of the facilities. We will focus on the equipment fabrication and erection phase of the work. Utility plants, like other complex facilities, require comprehensive program management skills. While any project is sensitive to cost, schedule and quality control, nuclear plants have strict and regulated requirements associated with quality control, and its associated materials source and record keeping. The industry has developed an increasing interest in the adaptation of prefabrication, or modularization, to the design, engineering and construction of power plants. Avondale Industries has been actively involved for the past several years with the DOE/EPRI sponsored Westinghouse design for an advanced passive 600 MWe PWR nuclear power plant (the AP-600). The Westinghouse team is currently working on the detailed design and NRC licensing/design certification phase. This program is a part of the current industry advanced light water (ALWR) efforts aimed at re-establishing the nuclear power option to meet U.S. electric generation needs in the 1990s and beyond. The Westinghouse program has the objective of developing the conceptual design of a greatly simplified 600 MWe pressurized water reactor plant with major improvements in safety, licensing certainty, life cycle cost, and construction schedule. One of the major tasks of the program is the development of an optimized plant arrangement and construction approach using modular construction to assist in achieving a short construction schedule and cost-effective plant configuration. Although the finite effect of modularization has yet to be tested in the dynamics of the erection of a commercial nuclear power plant, we feel that there is sufficient evidence from experience in other major manufacturing areas to warrant its application to future construction programs. In order to focus on the potential for modular

  20. Modularization as an avenue to economic competitiveness

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cottrell, J.H.

    1990-01-01

    There are many features of the emerging next generation of nuclear power which impact the competitiveness of the facilities. We will focus on the equipment fabrication and erection phase of the work. Utility plants, like other complex facilities, require comprehensive program management skills. While any project is sensitive to cost, schedule and quality control, nuclear plants have strict and regulated requirements associated with quality control, and its associated materials source and record keeping. The industry has developed an increasing interest in the adaptation of prefabrication, or modularization, to the design, engineering and construction of power plants. Avondale Industries has been actively involved for the past several years with the DOE/EPRI sponsored Westinghouse design for an advanced passive 600 MWe PWR nuclear power plant (the AP-600). The Westinghouse team is currently working on the detailed design and NRC licensing/design certification phase. This program is a part of the current industry advanced light water (ALWR) efforts aimed at re-establishing the nuclear power option to meet U.S. electric generation needs in the 1990s and beyond. The Westinghouse program has the objective of developing the conceptual design of a greatly simplified 600 MWe pressurized water reactor plant with major improvements in safety, licensing certainty, life cycle cost, and construction schedule. One of the major tasks of the program is the development of an optimized plant arrangement and construction approach using modular construction to assist in achieving a short construction schedule and cost-effective plant configuration. Although the finite effect of modularization has yet to be tested in the dynamics of the erection of a commercial nuclear power plant, we feel that there is sufficient evidence from experience in other major manufacturing areas to warrant its application to future construction programs. In order to focus on the potential for modular

  1. Theoretical and methodological approaches to economic competitiveness (Part I

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Macari Vadim

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The article is based on study of several representative bibliographical sources,it is tried to examine, to order from logical and scientific point of view some of the most common theoretical and methodological understandings of the essence, definition, phenomenon, types, haracteristics and indices of economic competitiveness.

  2. Theoretical and methodological approaches to economic competitiveness (part II

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Macari Vadim

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available This article, on the basis of the study of many representative bibliographic sources, examines and tries to order from logical and scientific point of view some of the most common theoretical and methodological treatments of the essence, definition, phenomenon, types, characteristics and indices of economic competitiveness.

  3. THEORETICAL AND METHODOLOGICAL APPROACHES TO ECONOMIC COMPETITIVENESS (Part II

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vadim MACARI

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available This article, on the basis of the study of many representative bibliographic sources, examines and tries to order from logical and scientific point of view some of the most common theoretical and methodological treatments of the essence, definition, phenomenon, types, characteristics and indices of economic competitiveness.

  4. THEORETICAL AND METHODOLOGICAL APPROACHES TO ECONOMIC COMPETITIVENESS (Part I

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vadim MACARI

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The article is based on study of several representative bibliographical sources,it is tried to examine, to order from logical and scientific point of view some of the most common theoretical and methodological understandings of the essence, definition, phenomenon, types, characteristics and indices of economic competitiveness.

  5. ORGANIZATIONAL AND ECONOMIC ASPECTS OF INCREASING COMPETITIVENESS OF UKRAINIAN BANKS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivanova S.

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Modern business conditions and comprehensive economic globalization put the banking institutions at the forefront of the task of achieving and maintaining a high level of competitiveness both on the domestic and on the external financial markets, as banks serve as the main intermediaries in the whole complex of relationships between different economic subjects. To achieve and maintain the competitiveness of banks it is important to create an effective management mechanism, which determines the relevance of the chosen topic. Purpose. The purpose of the work is to summarize the existing theoretical aspects concerning the competitiveness of banks and develop organizational and economic approaches to its enhancement and implementation in banking practice. Results. The article generalizes the notion of competitiveness as an economic category and defines the main approaches of scientists to its interpretation. The role and importance of foreign capital in the banking system and its impact on the competitiveness of banks are considered, and the share of foreign capital in the authorized capital of banks for the period of 2008-2017 is calculated. On the basis of the comparative analysis, the impact on the competitiveness of the largest banking institutions of Ukraine on the performance indicators, such as volumes of assets, liabilities of banks and capital adequacy, was investigated. The possibility of increasing the efficiency of the mechanism of ensuring competitiveness according to the process approach is outlined. By means of the Microsoft Office Visio software system, the Bank’s own Banking Business Management business process was built to ensure the bank’s viability and its structural analysis according to the IDEF0 standard of the SADT methodology. Conclusions. The relationship between the analysis of the bank’s position and the development of its development strategy is important for the understanding and effective management

  6. Improving the economics and competitiveness of nuclear power in China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jing Chunning; Tian Jiashu

    2005-01-01

    A cost structure of nuclear power plant is introduced in this paper. Various factors that influence the nuclear power economics are discussed in detail. A preliminary study is carried out for the short-term new nuclear power plants in China. Focusing on the Chinese nuclear power development strategy, the short term and mid-long term economics of nuclear power in China is analyzed. Based on analysis and comparison, suggestions and proposals for improving the economics and competitiveness of nuclear power in China are provided. (authors)

  7. Economic competitiveness of fuel cell onsite integrated energy systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bollenbacher, G.

    1983-01-01

    The economic competitiveness of fuel cell onsite integrated energy systems (OS/IES) in residential and commercial buildings is examined. The analysis is carried out for three different buildings with each building assumed to be at three geographic locations spanning a range of climatic conditions. Numerous design options and operating strategies are evaluated and two economic criteria are used to measure economic performance. In general the results show that fuel cell OS/IES's are competitive in most regions of the country if the OS/IES is properly designed. The preferred design is grid connected, makes effective use of the fuel cell's thermal output, and has a fuel cell powerplant sized for the building's base electrical load.

  8. COMPETITIVENESS IN SERVICES, DRIVING FORCE OF ECONOMIC DEVELOPMENT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    RAMONA PÎRVU

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The competitiveness of a nation is ensured by the profitable activity of firms. They strengthen their position in the domestic and international markets through global strategies whose purpose is to increase productivity and maintain it at a high level. For this, the company must take into account both the internal economic environment which ensures operating conditions and the external economic environment’s development. The five competitive forces determine the industry’s profitability because they configure firms’ selling prices, production costs and investments needed to be competitive in the field. The threat of new competitors limits the potential profit since they involve new production units and the opportunities for market expansion. Economic strength of the buyers and bidders attracts profits to them. Rivalry among existing competitors erodes profits by increasing costs of competition (like advertising, selling expenses or those required for research and development. The presence of substitutive goods or services limits competitors’ prices through buyers’ transfer phenomena limiting and eroding market share of industry / firm in the total production output.

  9. EUROPEAN SOCIAL MODEL.COMPETITIVE ADVANTAGE OR ECONOMIC HANDICAP

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iovitu Mariana

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available “Corporative social responsibility” (CSR represents equally a very actual debate, but also an appraisal criteria of the dynamic of eco-social integration quality process at European level. Especially that the protection need is demanded by the current economic crisis. This concept is meant to combine the position, attitude and behaviour of the trade-unions with the interests of employer’s organisations in search of possible influential mechanisms of the competitive advantage at European level. Due to the current economic crisis, the implications on the labour force market are causing an explainable anxiety. The attention of the decision takers is oriented towards joining the objectives “social well being with economic well being” in view of an expected economic come back. This approach proves a significant change at the level of economic and social policies within the European Union.

  10. ECONOMIC CRISIS AND THE COMPETITIVENESS OF TRANSNATIONAL COMPANIES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    LIVIU RADU

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available In crisis situations, the competitiveness of transnational companies becomes a particularly complex concept, due to the fact that said business entities are continuously moving within the context of internationalization and increasing use of global strategies. Given the current economic context, one cannot merely assess the competitiveness level of any given transnational company from a static standpoint, depending on the turnover, sales volume or number of employees of said company, but such assessment needs to be made from a dynamic standpoint, in close connection with the internal and international business environment in which that company carries out its activity.

  11. Economic requirements for competitive laser fusion power production

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hogan, W.J.; Meier, W.R.

    1986-01-01

    An economic model of a laser fusion commercial power plant is used to identify the design and operating regimes of the driver, target and reaction chamber that will result in economic competitiveness with future fission and coal plants. The authors find that, for a plant with a net power of 1 GW/sub e/, the cost of the driver must be less than $0.4 to 0.6 B, and the recirculating power fraction must be less than 25%. Target gain improvements at low driver energy are the most beneficial but also the most difficult to achieve. The optimal driver energy decreases with increasing target technology. The sensitivity of the cost of electricity to variations in cost and performance parameters decreases with increasing target technology. If chamber pulse rates of a few Hz can be achieved, then gains of 80-100 are sufficient, and higher pulse rates do not help much. Economic competitiveness becomes more difficult with decreasing plant size. Finally, decreasing the cost of the balance of plant has the greatest beneficial effect on economic competitiveness

  12. Comparative study of economic competitive for nuclear seawater desalination

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tian Li; Wang Yongqing

    2001-01-01

    The method of levelized discounted production water cost and the new desalination economic evaluation program (DEEP1.1) are used. Many cases of seawater desalination by nuclear energy or fossil energy combined with reverse osmosis (RO), Multi-effect distillation (MED) or multi-stage flash (MSF) technology in south-east Asia is performed and their economic competitive is analyzed. Their results indicate, the nuclear desalination plants have stronger economic competitive comparing to the fossil in the RO, MED and MSF technology. The desalination water cost is very changeable depending on the difference of desalination technology and water plant size. Its range is 0.56 dollar · m -3 - 1.89 dollar · m -3 , the lowest desalination water cost is product by RO and the highest is by MSF. The sensitive factors of the economic competitive are orderly the discounted rate, desalination plant size, seawater temperature and total dissolved solids (TDS), fossil fuel price and specific power plant investment. The highest rate of water cost is about 19.3% comparing to base case

  13. International University Research Ventures: Implications for U.S. Economic Competitiveness National Security

    Science.gov (United States)

    2018-03-31

    NTERNATIONAL UNIVERSITY RESEARCH VENTURES: IMPLICATIONS FOR US ECONOMIC COMPETITIVENESS AND NATIONAL SECURITY The views, opinions and/or findings...UNIVERSITY RESEARCH VENTURES: IMPLICATIONS FOR US ECONOMIC COMPETITIVENESS AND NATIONAL SECURITY Report Term: 0-Other Email: mzak@gatech.edu...expected to inform political and economic theories about technology transfer, innovation, economic competitiveness, and democratization/civil

  14. Economic intelligence and intellectual capital in agriculture competitiveness: Case study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nešković Slobodan

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The process of globalization in the last few decades conditioned the many technological, economic and social changes which have transformed the world market of agricultural products and the impact on the competitive environment. In the modern world, creating material value in agricultural production more and more the result of the intangible factors and production is increasingly based on knowledge, skills and innovation of employees. In the industrial age the necessary resources to achieve competitive advantages were capital, natural resources and work, while in today's knowledge-based economy the importance is on the information, innovation, knowledge, intellectual capital and intellectual property - that have become the foundation of creating all other values. These values are, because of their great importance in achieving the modern competitive advantages, very often the target of economic intelligence and therefore require all available forms of protection. The sector of agricultural production can make a significant contribution to improving the overall national competitiveness if it is based on intellectual capital as evidenced by the country with highly developed agriculture. However, by observing global changes can be concluded that Serbia in this sector has unused potential for growth and development.

  15. Economic competitiveness of seawater desalinated by nuclear and fossil energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tian Li; Wang Yongqing; Guo Jilin; Liu Wei

    2001-01-01

    The levelized discounted production water cost method and the new desalination economic evaluation program (DEEP1.1) were used to compare the economics of desalination using nuclear or fossil energy. The results indicate that nuclear desalination is more economic than fossil desalination with reverse osmosis (RO), multi-effect distillation (MED) and multi-stage flash (MSF). The desalination water cost varies depending on the desalination technology and the water plant size from 0.52-1.98 USD·m -3 with the lowest water price by RO and the highest by MSF. The sensitivity factors for the economic competitiveness increases in order of the discounted rate, desalination plant scale, fossil fuel price, specific power plant investment, seawater temperature and total dissolve solid (TDS). The highest water cost is about 22.6% more than the base case

  16. ASEAN Economic Community Implementation and Indonesian Textile Industry Competitiveness

    OpenAIRE

    Susilo, Yuvensius Sri

    2013-01-01

    AbstractThis study aims to analyze the impact of ASEAN Economic Community implementation in 2015 on the competitiveness of Indonesian textile and textile products industry. It uses simulations with the GTAP model to answer the proposed research questions. The GTAP simulation results suggest that Indonesian textile industry would gain the largest trade surplus followed by Thailand and Malaysia. For apparel, Vietnam would benefit the most, followed by Indonesia and Thailand. The ratio of domest...

  17. ASEAN Economic Community Implementation and Indonesian Textile Industry Competitiveness

    OpenAIRE

    Susilo, Yuvensius Sri

    2013-01-01

    This study aims to analyze the impact of ASEAN Economic Community implementation in 2015 on the competitiveness of Indonesian textile and textile products industry. It uses simulations with the GTAP model to answer the proposed research questions. The GTAP simulation results suggest that Indonesian textile industry would gain the largest trade surplus followed by Thailand and Malaysia. For apparel, Vietnam would benefit the most, followed by Indonesia and Thailand. The ratio of domestic to im...

  18. ASEAN ECONOMIC COMMUNITY IMPLEMENTATION AND INDONESIAN TEXTILE INDUSTRY COMPETITIVENESS

    OpenAIRE

    Susilo, Yuvensius Sri

    2013-01-01

    AbstractThis study aims to analyze the impact of ASEAN Economic Community implementation in 2015 on the competitiveness of Indonesian textile and textile products industry. It uses simulations with the GTAP model to answer the proposed research questions. The GTAP simulation results suggest that Indonesian textile industry would gain the largest trade surplus followed by Thailand and Malaysia. For apparel, Vietnam would benefit the most, followed by Indonesia and Thailand. The ratio of domest...

  19. Quasivariational Inequalities for a Dynamic Competitive Economic Equilibrium Problem

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carmela Vitanza

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this paper is to consider a dynamic competitive economic equilibrium problem in terms of maximization of utility functions and of excess demand functions. This equilibrium problem is studied by means of a time-dependent quasivariational inequality which is set in the Lebesgue space L2([0,T],ℝ. This approach allows us to obtain an existence result of time-dependent equilibrium solutions.

  20. ENTREPRENEURSHIP IN TERMS OF THE LEVEL OF ECONOMIC COMPETITIVENESS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elena Mihaela ILIESCU

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Considering that from a qualitative point of view, human activity in general, has recorded a significant leap along with the debut of entrepreneurial activities, from the “creative destruction” perspective through competition of Joseph Scumpeter until present, entrepreneurial theory and practice reveals a generally accepted point of view: entrepreneurship, regardless of the form under which it is carried out, represents the engine for the market economy system, the determining factor of competitiveness growth and sustainable economic growth. Once aware of the positive impact it has on the economy and society, entrepreneurship has and is being promoted at a national level, European and global by creating, coordinating and implementing a strategic framework, legislative and financially favorable. However, the socio-economic data analysis shows that, economies having an analog development level, record different entrepreneurial rates, that similar entrepreneurial activities have a different impact on economic development or that, as the economies record a higher development level, the interest for initiating new businesses declines. From this perspective, the purpose of this paper is to underline and promote the entrepreneurship’s role as a fundamental source for increasing growth potential and national and regional development in the long term, and to highlight, based on empirical data, the interdependency, the qualitative and quantitative correlation between the entrepreneurial rate and the competitiveness level of a country.

  1. ASEAN ECONOMIC COMMUNITY IMPLEMENTATION AND INDONESIAN TEXTILE INDUSTRY COMPETITIVENESS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuvensius Sri Susilo

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available AbstractThis study aims to analyze the impact of ASEAN Economic Community implementation in 2015 on the competitiveness of Indonesian textile and textile products industry. It uses simulations with the GTAP model to answer the proposed research questions. The GTAP simulation results suggest that Indonesian textile industry would gain the largest trade surplus followed by Thailand and Malaysia. For apparel, Vietnam would benefit the most, followed by Indonesia and Thailand. The ratio of domestic to import prices analysis suggests that Indonesian textile products have higher competitiveness than the other ASEAN’s. For the apparel products, Indonesia is as competitive as both Malaysia and the Philippines.Keywords: AEC 2015, Competitiveness, Textile dan Textile Products Industry, IndonesiaJEL Classification: C68, F15AbstrakPenelitian ini bertujuan untuk menganalisis dampak penerapan Masyarakat Ekonomi ASEAN pada 2015 pada daya saing industri tekstil dan produk tekstil Indonesia. Alat analisis yang digunakan deskriptif dan simulasi dengan model GTAP. Hasil simulasi GTAP menyarankan bahwa industri tekstil Indonesia akan memperoleh surplus perdagangan terbesar, diikuti oleh Thailand dan Malaysia. Untuk produk pakaian, Vietnam memperoleh manfaat terbesar diikuti Indonesia dan Thailand. Berdasarkan rasio harga domestik terhadap harga impor, daya saing produk tekstil Indonesia relatif lebih tinggi dibandingkan negara-negara ASEAN lainnya. Untuk produk pakaian, Indonesia kompetitif, sejajar dengan Malaysia dan Filipina.Kata kunci: AEC 2015, Daya Saing, Tekstil dan Produk Tekstil JEL Classification: C68, F15

  2. Economic competitiveness requirements for evolutionary water cooled reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hudson, C.R.; Bertel, E.; Paik, K.H.; Roh, J.H.; Tort, V.

    1999-01-01

    This paper analyses the necessary economic conditions for evolutionary water cooled reactors to be competitive. Utilising recent national cost data for fossil-fired base load plants expected to be commissioned by 2005 -2010, target costs for nuclear power plants are discussed. Factors that could contribute to the achievement of those targets by evolutionary water cooled reactors are addressed. The feed-back from experience acquired in implementing nuclear programmes is illustrated by some examples from France and the Republic of Korea. The paper discusses the impacts on nuclear power competitiveness of globalisation and deregulation of the electricity market and privatisation of the electricity sector. In addition, issues related to external cost internalisation are considered. (author)

  3. Competition in electricity spot markets. Economic theory and international experience

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fehr, Nils-Henrik von der; Harbord, David

    1998-09-01

    This publication gives a survey of economic theory and international experience connected to electricity spot markets. The main purpose is to consider the attempts that have been made to apply economic theory and empirical methods to the analysis of electricity markets, and to evaluate them in light of theoretical considerations and empirical evidence. The publication describes in simple terms the basic pool pricing mechanism, and experience with pools in a number of countries. It is worth emphasizing that it is not the purpose to treat in extensive detail the structure of electricity pools around the world. Key factors of the markets in England and Wales, Norway and Australia are described in order to allow for a comparison of design issues and evaluation of competitive performance. 80 refs., 14 figs., 15 tabs.

  4. Economic efficency and competitive position of nuclear energy today

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schmitt, D.

    1988-01-01

    In spite of the relaxation making itself felt at the moment on the world energy markets, the competitive position of nuclear power from either existing or shortly to be connected power plants remains safe. Any attempt at doing without this extraordinarily convenient vehicle of power generation would mean to severely force up costs and expenses. The competitive position of existing nuclear power plants is assumed to remain untouched through the coming decade. In spite of the presently very low world market prices imported coal is especially affected by, even abstract economic analyses show nuclear energy to come out superior to all other alternatives providing for the electric power supply of the Federal Republic of Germany. Once the over-capacity is reduced and under control, a longer-term superior competitive position of nuclear power, however, presupposes a rise in prices full level with those of the neighbor countries. At any rate and for the time being, the divergence of electric power from imported coal prices which was even obvious in the mean load range has diminished. The superior position of nuclear power in the base load range can be maintained through avoiding further rises in operating costs by gradual rationalization and standardization. (orig./HP) [de

  5. Three Studies in Industrial Economics: Competition and Industry Structure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keil, Jan

    Chapter 1 reviews alternative theories of competition - the standard Neoclassical view, the contribution of the Chicago School as well as the two dynamic lines of thought which are part of Austrian economics and Classical Political Economy. The latter is presented as a consistent alternative to the other existing theories. Of special interest is the question if and how industry structure matters in these approaches, how profitability differentials are explained and what role market share concentration and mobility barriers play. Their predictions and implications for empirical research are compared. Ways to test and evaluate these different approaches are described. Chapter 2 investigates econometrically how industry and micro level variables determine persistent differentials in the rate of return on assets in the U.S. The analysis is the first to use business segment data to explain long term profitability differentials. It presents new market concentration indicators that are superior to concentration ratios and allow to analyze an unpreceded amount of concentration and other data back to 1977. Critical concentration levels, non-linearities, interaction effects and previously ignored important control variables like industrial unionization are being considered. Concentration is found to have significant negative effects on profitability differentials. Barrier indicators are insignificant while market shares are positively correlated with long-run profitability. Concentration thus increases, not diminishes the degree of industrial competition. This is interpreted as evidence in support of Classical Political Economic competition theory. Chapter 3 presents a costs of production based industry analytical study that aims at consistency with Classical Political Economic thought. It investigates how growth of renewable electricity in Germany forces conventional power plants to shift towards more flexible operating regimes. The simulation of individual power plant load

  6. Nuclear energy and economic competitiveness in several normative systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thomas, S.

    2009-01-01

    The serious challenge imposed by the necessity of reducing the gases emission of greenhouse effect in the electric generation sector, it has renovated the interest in the new plants construction of nuclear energy. Nevertheless, since the use of the nuclear energy began to descend ago more of 25 years, it is has speculated continually about the possible nuclear rebirth. Are such predictions based in solid basis or are mere groundless prognostics? The objective of the present document is to analyze the economic aspects of the nuclear energy, to identify the key factors that they allow to determine its competitiveness and to sound the possible markets for the new plants of nuclear energy. To achieve this, it is divided in the following sections: Revision of the current state of the nuclear energy, including the location, the type and capacity of the plants; Identification of the variables that determine the economic situation of the nuclear energy; Revision of the recent predictions and of the economic aspects of the Olkiluoto nuclear power plant of Finland; A revision by market of the possible future of the new nuclear facilities in the coming decade. (Author)

  7. Economic goals and requirements for competitive fusion energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miller, R.L.

    1998-01-01

    Future economic competitiveness, coupled to and constrained by environmental and safety characteristics, continues to provide a central strategic motivation and concern for fusion research. Attention must also be paid to the evolving cost projections of future fusion competitors, with appropriate consideration of externalized impacts, insofar as they establish the eventual market-penetration context and also influence the near-term funding climate for fusion R and D. With concept optimization and selection in mind, tradeoffs among system power density, recirculating power, plant availability (reflecting both forced and planned outages), complexity, and structural materials and coolant choices are best monitored and resolved in the context of their impacts on capital and operating costs, which, together with low fuel costs and financial assumptions, determine the projected life-cycle product cost of fusion. Considerations deriving from deregulation and privatization are elucidated, as are possible implications of modern investment-analysis methods. (orig.)

  8. Enhancing the economic competitiveness of the Olkiluoto Nuclear Power Plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Paavola, M.

    1996-01-01

    The two 710 MWe BWRs at Olkiluoto in Finland have been running for the past ten years with a capacity factor of over 90%. The success of these reactors in being competitive with various forms of fossil fuel power production is attributed to a number of key factors. Of these, the most important is that the staff of the utility and contractors and suppliers personnel are well trained, committed and able to learn new things. Strict safety regulations contribute to competitiveness because the good practice required and the need to keep the plant in mint condition lead to fewer production interruptions and to lower operational costs in the long run. Continuous investment in updating the plant is necessary to maintain high productivity throughout its lifetime. A long-term operational plan coupled with carefully prepared maintenance outages and high quality workmanship also helps to ensure good performance. Better fuel designs and high quality have enabled the plant output to be increased while stabilising or reducing fuel costs. Money for waste management has been reserved since the start of plant operation so that economic production can be ensured during the latter part of the plant lifetime. (UK)

  9. THE STATE OF ECONOMIC FREEDOM IN UKRAINE AND ITS IMPACT ON COMPETITIVENESS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Mytsiuk

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The place of Ukraine in the world rankings, the level of economic freedom in Ukraine and its impact on competitiveness are considered in the article. The analysis of tendencies of development of Ukraine in the international arena is carried and competitiveness of the national economy is defined. The indices of global competitiveness and economic freedom are investigated. The basic components of these ratings are analyzed and correlation between economic freedom of the country and its competitiveness is proved. The macroeconomic and institutional factors of Ukraine's competitiveness increase on the world stage are identified. It has been found out that reduction of the competitiveness of Ukraine in the international rankings is connected with the political instability and foreign aggression. Since military confrontation in the Donbas region lead to a steady decline in general economic indicators, destruction of infrastructure, lower production, it has a negative impact on future international competitiveness ranking of Ukraine.

  10. Essential Inputs and Antitrust Barriers in the Mexican Economic Competition Regime

    OpenAIRE

    Victor Pavon-Villamayor

    2014-01-01

    According to the new law, a barrier to competition and free entry is also, literally, anything that limits or distorts the process of competition and free entry. Víctor Pavón-Villamayor (Oxford Competition Economics)

  11. Enhancing the Teaching of Introductory Economics with a Team-Based, Multi-Section Competition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beaudin, Laura; Berdiev, Aziz N.; Kaminaga, Allison Shwachman; Mirmirani, Sam; Tebaldi, Edinaldo

    2017-01-01

    The authors describe a unique approach to enhancing student learning at the introductory economics level that utilizes a multi-section, team-based competition. The competition is structured to supplement learning throughout the entire introductory course. Student teams are presented with current economic issues, trends, or events, and use economic…

  12. Economical Aspects of Sodium Borohydride for Hydrogen Storage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ture, I. Engin; Tabakoglu, F. Oznur; Kurtulus, Gulbahar

    2006-01-01

    Hydrogen is the best fuel among others, which can minimize the cause to global warming. Turkey has an important location with respect to hydrogen energy applications. Moreover, Turkey has 72.2% of the world's total boron reserves. Sodium borohydride (NaBH 4 ) which can be produced from borax has high hydrogen storage capacity. Hence, it is important for Turkey to lead studies about sodium borohydride to make it one of the most feasible hydrogen storage methods. In this paper an approximate process cost analysis of a NaBH 4 -H 2 system is given, starting with NaBH 4 production till recycling of it. It is found that, the usage of NaBH 4 as hydrogen storage material is relatively an expensive method but after improving reactions and by-product removal in the system and reducing the energy and reactant costs, sodium borohydride is one of the best candidates among hydrogen storage technologies. (authors)

  13. Balancing economic freedom against social policy principles: EC competition law and national health systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mossialos, Elias; Lear, Julia

    2012-07-01

    EU Health policy exemplifies the philosophical tension between EC economic freedoms and social policy. EC competition law, like other internal market rules, could restrict national health policy options despite the subsidiarity principle. In particular, European health system reforms that incorporate elements of market competition may trigger the application of competition rules if non-economic gains in consumer welfare are not adequately accounted for. This article defines the policy and legal parameters of the debate between competition law and health policy. Using a sample of cases it analyses how the ECJ, national courts, and National Competition Authorities have applied competition laws to the health services sector in different circumstances and in different ways. It concludes by considering the implications of the convergence of recent trends in competition law enforcement and health system market reforms. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Fog harvesting on the verge of economic competitiveness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tiedemann, K. J.; Lummerich, A.

    2010-07-01

    Water scarcity is the bottleneck for agriculture and development of Peru’s coast and subject to aggravation due to climate change. Until present day, Peru’s coast in general and the Lima Metropolitan Area (LMA) in particular have enjoyed to a great extend the effect of the country’s high altitude glaciers that serve as a buffer for the capital’s water demand during the highland dry season. However, climate models predict the disappearance of this buffer system below 5.500 masl by 2015, leaving one of the driest places on earth with yet another decrease in freshwater supply (Zapata 2008). The deviation of water resources from the highlands has led already to allocation conflicts. Peru is in urgent need of new concepts for water management. Fog harvesting was introduced to South America in the 1980s and has since been implemented at various locations in North and Central America, Europe, Africa, Asia and Australia. The Standard Fog Collector (SFC) as described by Schemenauer and Cereceda (1994) has proven to be a successful instrument for this purpose. Apart from a number of small scale investigations, the design of the collector has barely been changed over the past three decades (e.g. Gioda et al. 1993). Within the framework of the presented project, financed primarily by the Global Exploration Fund of the National Geographic Society and Bayer AG, new fog collectors were designed at pilot and full scale. Best results in terms of simplicity of construction and water yield were obtained by a metal frame structure called Eiffel. While covering the same amount of space as an SFC and using the same Raschel 65% shadow net, the Eiffel collector harvested up to 2.650 liters of water within a frame of 8x4m compared to up to 600 liters of water harvested by a SFC at the same location. In combination with a simplified maintenance concept, our collectors present an economically competitive alternative to water supply by truck delivery in a region that is not likely to

  15. Hydraulic design considerations for a multi-tube sodium economizer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hassberger, J.A.; McConnell, P.M.; Olson, W.H.

    1975-01-01

    Operating experience gained from tests shows that flow distribution effects can severely affect the thermal performance of high effectiveness, low pressure drop sodium heat exchangers. It has been shown that design efforts for such devices must include proper consideration of potential causes of flow maldistribution within the tube bundle. Furthermore, it has been demonstrated that fairly simple design features can be capable of eliminating detrimental flow fields in the tube bundle

  16. It's about time : investing in transportation to keep Texas economically competitive.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-03-01

    This current report, It's About Time: Investing in Transportation to Keep Texas : Economically Competitive, updates the February 2009 report by providing : an enhanced analysis of the current state of the Texas transportation system, : determining th...

  17. Economic Reform, Firm Survival and Competitiveness (Middle East ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    During the 1980s, it was thought that liberalizing trade and exposing industries ... of some firms but a more productive and competitive industrial sector as a whole. ... to stimulate higher firm-level productivity in the Middle East and North Africa.

  18. Economic Competitiveness and the Human-Capital Investment Gap.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faux, Jeff

    Educational performance has become a crucial element in the United States' capacity to prosper in a new global economy of fierce competition. In addition to the traditional question of how the educational system contributes to students' intellectual growth, a new question is being asked: How does the educational system contribute to national…

  19. The Role for Competition Policy in Economic Development

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    promoted by major donors and international organisations as part of the ... ownership and control in the South African economy. The new ... The effects of competition policy in South Africa, and selected .... costs and multiproduct firms. ..... While consistent with profit maximisation, import parity pricing is inefficient in terms.

  20. Sodium

    Science.gov (United States)

    Table salt is a combination of two minerals - sodium and chloride Your body needs some sodium to work properly. It helps with the function ... in your body. Your kidneys control how much sodium is in your body. If you have too ...

  1. COMPETITIVE DYNAMICS AND EARLY MOVER ADVANTAGES UNDER ECONOMIC RECESSIONS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roberto Vassolo

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available In light of the recent macroeconomic instability in global markets, we examine the evolution of competitive dynamics and firm profitability when industries are subject to recessions. Although ordinary intuition leads most to view recessions as harmful, we highlight conditions under which they enhance the relative value of industry-level supply-side isolating mechanisms, thereby affording early movers significant and sustainable profit advantages vis-à-vis laggards. We observe that the distribution of firm size within the industry switches from a bi-modal distribution (i.e., one dominated by both small and large firms to a right-skewed one (i.e., dominated mostly by large firms in these contexts, thereby signaling the rise of important opportunities in the form of less rivalrous competitive contexts for survivors of recessions. We derive our results from formal modeling and multiple simulation runs.

  2. Ensuring innovation competitiveness and economic sustainability of Israel

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexandru A. GRIBINCEA

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available The world is facing major economic and environmental change. Climate change, demographic issues, global urbanization pose challenges and constraints over the last decades. International bodies are worried about population growth, including urban over 7 billion, of which about 60% live in urban areas. More than 76% of Europe’s energy consumption is in the urban environment. Effective measures are needed to reduce emissions of gases and harmful substances in order to avoid the worst scenarios coming. The aim of the research is to investigate the real situation in the economic sector aiming at sustainable development and the experience of promoting economic development with the protection of the oikumene.

  3. Technological innovation as a mean to increase economic competitiveness

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniela VASILE

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Corporations must be able to adapt and evolve if they wish to survive. Businesses operate with the knowledge that their competitors will inevitably come to the market with a product that changes the basis of competition. The ability to change and adapt is essential to survival.(1 European Union and its member states set several frameworks to support companies to acquire knowledge and strengthen their competitiveness, as follows:- National Programs for R & D funding which support national actors;- Sectorial Operational Programs (either at national or regional level, in full compliance with national rules;- EU programs (e.g. Competitiveness and Innovation Program – CIP, R&D Framework Programs – FP;- Pan-European programs (e.g. EUREKA.Romania is participating to all programs and pan-European R & D frameworks. Furthermore, its innovation program within the National Plan for research facilitates company participation to knowledge development and technology development. Nevertheless Romania’s Innovation performance is still at one of the lowest level in Europe(2. The followings present how companies are considering their participation to R & D programs and the impact of an R & D project in a company.

  4. Effect of sodium borohydride synthesis on NaBH4-H2 system economics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tabakoglu, F. oeznur; Kurtulus, Guelbahar

    2007-01-01

    The hazards and negative impacts of fossil fuel usage on environment and the prospect of fossil fuel depletion in near future have urged scientists to search for and use clean energy sources and alternative fuels. Hydrogen is the best fuel among others, which can minimize the effects of global warming. Although it is currently more expensive than other fuels, it will be cheaper following further developments in hydrogen technologies from production till end-use. Hydrogen storage is a critical issue in terms of safety and economics of hydrogen energy system. Chemical hydrides are an attractive hydrogen storage method due to their potential of achieving high volumetric and gravimetric storage densities. Among chemical hydrides, sodium borohydride (NaBH 4 ) is given a big attention, due to its 10.8% theoretical hydrogen storage capacity. Hydrogen, which can be released by sodium borohydride hydrolysis reaction on-site, can be used in a proton exchange membrane fuel cell (PEMFC) at anode. on the other hand, sodium borohydride solution can be used directly in a borohydride fuel cell (DBFC) at anode. Like the other chemical hydrides, sodium borohydride has been an expensive material up to now, constituting a major obstacle to commercialization of sodium borohydride as a hydrogen storage method. This paper aims to give an approximate estimation process cost of the NaBH 4 -H 2 system by taking into account both the energy and raw material costs, starting with sodium borohydride production till recycling of it. Two different methods to synthesize sodium borohydride are analyzed and their effects on total cost are compared. It was found that the usage of Bayer process to synthesize sodium borohydride makes the overall sodium borohydride - hydrogen system cost higher than the total cost of the alternative process which starts with the production of sodium borohydride from borax decahydrate. (authors)

  5. Trade policy under imperfect competition: The economics of Russian roulette

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    S. Brakman (Steven); J.G.M. van Marrewijk (Charles)

    1996-01-01

    textabstractNeo-classical economic theory shows that managed trade or protectionism is (almost) always welfare decreasing. However, measurements of the welfare costs of protectionism based on neo-classical models seem to suggest that these costs are quite small. We discuss general new insights and

  6. Trade policy under imperfect competition : The economics of Russian roulette

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brakman, S; vanMarrewijk, C

    Neo-classical economic theory shows that managed trade or protectionism is (almost) always welfare decreasing. However, measurements of the welfare costs of protectionism based on neo-classical models seem to suggest that these costs are quite small. We discuss general new insights and developments

  7. Strategies for Urbanization and Economic Competitiveness in Burundi

    OpenAIRE

    World Bank Group

    2015-01-01

    This report argues that urbanization brings significant opportunities for both rural and urban areas and that Burundi needs to prioritize issues of economic growth and job creation. Based on a diagnostic evaluation of the current urbanization and spatial growth, GDP, and job potential, the report highlights the importance of prioritizing policies and investments to address deficiencies in ...

  8. A HUMANISING ECONOMIC APPROACH ON COMPETITION POLICY OR HOW THE BEHAVIORAL ECONOMICS BLENDS WITH “TRADITIONAL ECONOMICS”

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liviana Andreea Niminet

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Behavioral are crucial for understanding both the consumer’s attitude and firms’ attitude as well as for understanding the market outcomes. The past ten years brought a lot of attention from researchers and policy-makers on the behavioral economics issue. Classical, traditional economic models rely on the assumptions of rationality and ordered preferences. Behavioral economics explores interactions between demand and supply including information framing, the use of heuristics in decision-making and time-inconsistent preferences. The research on behavioral economics has led to an extensive debate about the relative merits of both traditional and behavioral economics. First of all we propose to highlight the advantages and disadvantages of behavioral economics versus traditional economics on a very sensitive issue: the competition policy. Then we address market issues that can be solved by means of behavioral economics afterwards turning out attention to the remedies of behavioral economics and ,last but not least, the United Kingdom successful model on the matter of competition policy.

  9. The Role of Culture, Competitiveness and Economic Performance in Explaining Academic Performance: A Global Market Analysis for International Student Segmentation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baumann, Chris; Hamin

    2011-01-01

    A nation's culture, competitiveness and economic performance explain academic performance. Partial Least Squares (PLS) testing of 2252 students shows culture affects competitiveness and academic performance. Culture and economic performance each explain 32%; competitiveness 36%. The model predicts academic performance when culture, competitiveness…

  10. Development of advanced loop-type fast reactor in Japan (4): An advanced design of the fuel handling system for the enhanced economic competitiveness

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Usui, S.; Mihara, T.; Obata, H.; Kotake, S.

    2008-01-01

    Refueling operation of sodium fast reactor (SFR) is one of major technical issue due to the chemical activities and opaqueness of sodium coolant properties in comparison with that of LWR. In the Japan Atomic Energy Agency (JAEA) sodium cooled Fast Reactor (JSFR) design study, the further reliable and rational fuel handling system (FHS) has been developing based on the experience of safe and reliable fuel handling operation in the existent SFR plants. Some of advanced concepts for the FHS have being studied in order to increase economic competitiveness further by attempting reduction of the amount of the material and the refueling time, and are scheduled to execute elemental tests and/or mock-up tests to confirm their feasibilities. (authors)

  11. ECONOMIC MODEL FOR EVALUATION OF INTEGRAL COMPETITIVENESS OF AUTOMOTIVE ENTERPRISES (AE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. F. Zubritsky

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper considers problems pertaining to evaluation of competitiveness of automotive enterprises in the field of international consignments. An economic model for determination of the integral AE competitiveness is proposed in the paper and the model permits to substitute an expert estimation in respect of some factors by their qualitative calculation on the basis of data on enterprise activity in the international consignment market.

  12. EPR design: A combined approach on safety and economic competitiveness

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Griedl, R.; Sturm, J.; Degrave, C.; Kappler, F.; Martin-Onraet, M.

    2001-01-01

    Starting in 1991, the French and German cooperation led to common work based on the experience of the two designers FRAMATOME and SIEMENS KWU with all their know how, the most important utilities in France and Germany operating NPP and the technical supports of the Licensing Authorities GRS and IPSN. The conclusion of that work was the issue in November 1997 and February 1999 respectively of two Basic Design reports for a European Pressurized Reactor (EPR) with a power of 4250 MWth and 4900 MWth. The Basic Design approach was led under two key items: Enhancement of the overall safety level by implementation of design measures to: make the plant less dependant to common cause failures; practically eliminate all high pressure core melt sequences which could lead to important radioactive releases to the environment; implement specific systems to face severe accident situation with low-pressure core melt. Use of the many years of experiences in two different nuclear designs is to reach an overall availability figure over 91%, partly due to design improvements on the safety level. With such an objective, demonstrated by feedback of experience on already operating plants, the EPR project can be proposed as a competitive alternative to the most recent fossil plants. (author)

  13. Social responsibility of the state and business as a factor of competitiveness and economic growth

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fylyppova Iryna H.

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The role of social factors in economic development of countries and nations cannot be ignored today. However, the goal of this article is not a proof of this already evident fact; the main hypothesis of the article is that the level of social responsibility of the state and business is directly reflected in competitiveness of the national economy and prospects of economic growth. The authors proceed from three quite evident assumptions: first – development of entrepreneurship is the basic factor of competitiveness in the market economy; second – competitiveness is a condition of export oriented economic growth; third – all the above listed “ingredients”, including economic growth, “close” on one key indicator – labour productivity, and the main problem lies in clear identification of the cause-effect relations between them. Thus, labour productivity is the nucleus of the “competitivenesseconomic growth” system. The authors consider labour productivity as a function of three arguments: physical, human and social capital. Moreover, the first two arguments are a passive potential of the economic system and characterise the level of development of productive forces and only the social capital, which reflects the level of development of production relations, characterises real possibilities of the economic system with respect to realisation of its passive potential, that is, is the active potential of the system. The production function of social labour, identified in such a way, is, in fact, a characteristic of the social method of production. While studying influence of social factors upon development of entrepreneurship, competitiveness and economic growth, the authors reveal internal contradiction of the existing social method of production.

  14. Skills Management: A Base for Increasing Economic Competitiveness in Romania

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Viorica CHIŞU

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available The study incorporates an analysis of the performance of higher education system (the Bologna Model from the perspective of evaluations made by companies. The main objective is to identify the competence areas required from fresh graduates for sustaining the contention of business enterprises and to analyse investments made by companies for developing talents within the framework of pressure generated by the economic crisis. The study take into consideration the partnership between the economic environment and higher education institutions as well as an anticipation of occupation trends for young graduates based on employee forecasts. Research results demonstrate the fact that the education system relies mainly on a transfer of knowledge and not on developing the competencies necessary for enhancing the employment chances of graduates or on their job performance. Only two out of ten employers are satisfied by the competencies demonstrated by graduates, the statistics being similar to the number of employers who collaborate with higher education institutions for providing adequate study programmes. From amongst the companies declaring that they provide continual development programmes, most invest in courses related to communication, team work and client orientation, although they are not satisfied with the graduates’ abilities in solving problems, making decisions or in leadership. A weak collaboration between companies and educational institutions generates a lack of rapid response from the educational system to the requirements of the market economy, amplifying the deficiency of competences, especially in fields with continual technological development or in those where new occupations are constantly appearing.

  15. Economic and social analyses at a regional level in the light of competitiveness

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicoleta Maria Gogâltan

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available In most economic studies, competitiveness is considered a key issue of the political success failure. A major element which contributes to regional inequalities is the level of competitiveness. This element has been the subject of numerous studies over the past years, even though more attention was given to the national level and less to the regional one. Moreover, the purpose of these regional analyses is the correlation of territorial objectives and problems with possible sources of financing, seeing to ensure optimal combinations between regional demand and supply, the optimal distribution of the income and of the results obtained, regional competitiveness, the location of clusters, etc.

  16. Broadband adoption, digital divide, and the global economic competitiveness of Western Balkan countries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mitrović Đorđe

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The existing variation in economic performance between countries is significantly affected by the level, diffusion, and use of different types of information and communication technology. In the last several years economic competitiveness increasingly depends on broadband availability and the adoption, use, and speed of this technology. Broadband access to the internet fosters economic growth and development and increases a country’s global competitiveness. This technology could have a big impact on the competitive advantage of Western Balkan countries because they currently experience a large digital divide, both within countries (between regions, urban and rural areas, different vulnerable groups, etc. and with EU countries. The purpose of the paper is to analyse the current level and dynamics of the digital divide in Western Balkan countries using the Broadband Achievement Index (BAI, the Data Envelopment Analysis (DEA-based model, the Global Competitiveness Index (GCI, the Corruption Perception Index (CPI, and cross-country methodology. This paper measures and compares Western Balkan countries’ current level of broadband adoption and their position on the evolutionary path towards closing the existing economic and digital gap with EU countries. Comparative analysis of calculated BAI data values, GCI, and CPI shows that Western Balkan countries belong to the ‘laggard’ group regarding their broadband achievement and global economic competitiveness. The values of the calculated BAI sub-indexes in this paper indicate the strong and weak sides of the corresponding aspects of broadband technology implementation and give directions for setting further priorities for political intervention, not only in the building of information society but also in the improvement of the economic competitiveness of Western Balkan countries.

  17. Technical Efficiency and Port Competition: Revisiting the Bohai Economic Rim, China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Grace Wang

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The Bohai Economic Rim plays an important role in supporting China’s economic growth. For this research, we selected nine main ports in the region to study whether intra-port competition or corporatization would improve efficiency. Using a panel fixed effect model and stochastic frontier model, we found that the technical efficiency of selected ports is significantly influenced by the time of the initial public offering than by regional competition. The results are supportive and encouraging for policy makers to move toward the decentralized port governance in China.

  18. Defining competitiveness through the theories of new economic geography and regional economy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vuković Darko

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The subject of work is defining competitiveness through a multidisciplinary approach of the theories of new economic geography and regional economy. The paper describes in detail the theory of competitiveness, defined by numerous authors in this area, with special emphasis on the opposing views of Michael Porter and Paul Krugman. A regional competitiveness that is colsely related to economic geography and regional economy, the development of regional economy and typology of regions have been defined in the work. One of the first authors that stressed the importance of geographical location was Michael Porter. In his model called “diamond“, the author emphasizes that geographical concentration of a business enhances the productivity, innovativity and sector export. After this theory, many authors have foccussed on the location problem research, which resulted in better interconnection of economy and geography. As the result of such activities, new directions have been developed, such as the new theory of economic geography and regional economy. New economic geography has been mentioned mostly in connection with the Nobel Prize winner, Paul Krugman, whose theories are often opposed to Porter's ones. Krugman had the most credit for the development of New Economic Geography. At the end of the work, the differences between comparative and competitive adventages were explained. [Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije, br. 47007, br. 47009 i br. 179015

  19. ORGANIZATIONAL AND ECONOMIC MECHANISM OF MANAGING COMPETITIVENESS OF THE COAL-MINING ENTERPRISE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Viktoriya V. Dyachkova

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available In the present article the authors propose the organizational and economic mechanism of managing competitiveness of the coal-mining enterprise. This mechanism has been worked out on the basis of the analysis of business processes of competitiveness management in mines of the Donbass region with the aim of supporting, arranging and managing effectively these processes. During the research the common faults complicating exact and timely assessment of competitiveness of the enterprise were revealed and the structural and functional model of business processes was offered. This model includes a complex of actions with a certain algorithm of the actions aimed to increase the level of competitiveness by assessment of the current level of enterprise’s competitiveness, to identify strengths andweaknesses of the enterprise, and to elaborate the strategy of subsequent implementation. The basis of the proposed mechanism is represented by economic and mathematical model of competitiveness assessment. This model includes the use of the method for assessing the enterprise’s competitiveness on the basis of three indicators: 1 financial and economic conditions; 2 production and technological conditions; 3 mining-and-geological conditions. This model gained further development in the treelike structure of factors and indicators for ensuring the possibility of identification of the priority directions and problems of enterprise’s activity. As a result, the authors proposed the method of defining disproportions among current and potential opportunities of the enterprise by modeling a sample enterprise, and also the method of definition of stability of the enterprise by comparison of competitiveness indicators for the last and report period. The last stage of formation of the organizational and economic mechanism of management of competitiveness of the coal-mining enterprise is development of a matrix of the choice of the development strategy of the

  20. Evaluation of the Impact of the EU Structural Support on the Competitiveness of Lithuanian Economics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rita Remeikiene

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Increasing amounts of the EU structural support in Lithuania require theoretical and practical research to disclose the determinants that have a significant impact on the competitiveness of Lithuanian economics. The purpose of this article is to evaluate the impact of the EU structural support on the competitiveness of Lithuanian economics. The methods of the research include systematic and comparative analysis of the scientific literature, expert evaluation and linear regression. The research disclosed the main determinants of country’s competitiveness. The results have revealed that EU structural support has the most significant impact on Lithuanian engineering and technological infrastructure. The impact of the support on country’s macroeconomic, scientific and social environment can also be considered as significant. The EU structural support has medium strong impact on education and business environment conditions in Lithuania. It has been established that, in the field of business advancement, Lithuanian should be rated as medium competitive. Hence, the increase in country’s competitiveness by employing EU structural funds should be treated as one of priority aims. In addition, responsible authorities should perform with higher efficiency seeking for higher competitiveness of the country.

  1. THE COMPETITIVE ADVANTAGE OF ROMANIA IN THE CONTEXT OF ECONOMIC RECOVERY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Filip Radu Ion

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available The economic crisis has given the opportunity for the world to reconsider the use of resources, so the subject of competitive advantage has became actual. There are several relevant papers on national competitiveness, but we consider that there are still important issues to discuss in order to identify the economic sectors in Romania that have the potential to create successful products for the global market. The paper applies modern competitivity models on the features of our country, and concludes about the best use of our resources, in terms of increased productivity and optimal results. The goal is to encourage exporters to extend on several international markets and multinational companies to invest in developing new businesses in Romania.

  2. Cross-Border Higher Education: Global and Local Tensions within Competition and Economic Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Owens, Taya L.; Lane, Jason E.

    2014-01-01

    In this chapter, the authors explore various types of cross-border higher education, considering equity and quality issues within these developments. With a particular focus on international branch campuses, the authors discuss the ways in which global competition for knowledge and economic development interact with tensions at the local level.

  3. Burkina Faso - Promoting Growth, Competitiveness and Diversification : Country Economic Memorandum, Volume 3. Enhancing Growth Factors

    OpenAIRE

    World Bank

    2010-01-01

    The main conclusion of Country Economic Memorandum is that the previous model of extensive growth has now exhausted its potential and must be renewed. Given the existing population dynamics, low environmental tolerance due to its Sahelian climate and competition forces imposed due to its open economy, Burkina Faso is heavily investing in growth based on increased productivity to overcome i...

  4. Burkina Faso - Promoting Growth, Competitiveness and Diversification : Country Economic Memorandum, Volume 1. Main Report

    OpenAIRE

    World Bank

    2010-01-01

    The main conclusion of Country Economic Memorandum is that the previous model of extensive growth has now exhausted its potential and must be renewed. Given the existing population dynamics, low environmental tolerance due to its Sahelian climate and competition forces imposed due to its open economy, Burkina Faso is heavily investing in growth based on increased productivity to overcome i...

  5. Group Litigation in European Competition Law: A Law and Economics perspective

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    S.E. Keske (Sonja)

    2009-01-01

    textabstractIn this thesis, insights of the law and economics literature were collected in order to develop the features of an optimal group litigation concerning the deterrence of European Competition Law violation and these were then compared to the proposals of the European Commission in the

  6. Implementation of Electricity Business Competition Framework with Economic Dispatch Direct Method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yusra Sabri

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Technically, electricity business under competition structure is more complex than that of vertically integrated one. The main prolems here are how to create an applicable competition framework and to solve electric calculations very quickly to obtain an optimal energi pricing, cost of losses, congestion and transportation costs by less than 15 minutes. This paper proposes a competition framework with the electric calculations, where a bilateral contract has been accommodated. Optimal energy price in the paper is calculated based on direct method of economic dispatch to obtain the result very quickly. The proposed method has been simulated to a 4-bus system. The simulation results show that the method works well and complies with the expectation. Therefore, electric power business under competition structure can be well realized by the proposed method.

  7. Competition

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bridoux, F.; Vodosek, M.; Den Hartog, D.N.; McNett, J.M.

    2014-01-01

    Competition traditionally refers to the actions that firms take in a product market to outperform rivals in attracting customers and generating revenues. Yet, competition extends beyond product markets to other arenas such as factor markets, where firms compete for resources, and the political

  8. Political and Economic Decisions and Competition – What is the Efficient Antimonopoly Policy?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Irakli Lekvinadze

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available This article discusses the influence of economic decisions which affect the antitrust and competition support policies. Many countries provide governmental initiatives for improving antirust legislation. There is an effort to develop efficient legislation, to define market boundaries, to identify dominating companies, and to prevent cartel development. A review of the literature has shown that refined legislation does not work. Qualified and non-politicized economic decisions are required to provide fair and equitable competition in the marketplace. The discussions of various researchers are profiled on the economic issues. This article analyzes The Republic of Georgia’s 20 year unique market experiences in Eastern Europe. Recommendations have been proposed to increase the effectiveness of an anti-monopoly policy. Normal 0 false false false EN-US X-NONE X-NONE MicrosoftInternetExplorer4

  9. ECONOMIC COMPETITIVENESS ANALYSIS OF THE REPUBLIC OF MOLDOVA IN TERMS OF: SCIENCE, TECHNOLOGY AND INNOVATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iulita BIRCA

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available An important condition for achieving a sustainable economic growth and for improving living standards of the population of the Republic of Moldova is the active involvement of the national economy in the international exchange of goods, services, knowledge, technology, etc., and also strengthening its positions on the international market. Therefore, to achieve and maintain competitiveness has become a fundamental economic policies issue in the context of globalization. In the contemporary world, national economic competitiveness is determined by a wide variety of features and important factors. In this article, the authors will focus their attention on the part of science, technology and innovation as being one of the key tools in the modern future of any modern state.

  10. Evolution of competition in energy alternative pathway and the influence of energy policy on economic growth

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yang, Honglin; Wang, Lin; Tian, Lixin

    2015-01-01

    This work is devoted to the evolution of the competition of energy alternative pathway in China, and the influence of energy policy on economic growth by using a dynamical system method. Firstly, the relation between energy and economic growth is taken into account, and a dynamic evolution model is established. It is observed that Hopf bifurcation and chaotic behavior occurs with the varying investment in renewable energy production. Secondly, when there is no policy intervention in energy market, the evolution of competition in energy alternative pathway is also investigated. Thirdly, the system parameters are also identified by using an artificial neural network method on the basis of certain empirical statistical data in China, and the dynamics of the parameters-identified system are studied. Finally, the influences of energy policy on economic growth are empirically analyzed, and some policy recommendations are given based on the results of empirical analysis. - Highlights: • Modeling the energy economy system via the method of dynamic system. • Attaining the chaotic attractor of the energy production and economic system. • Discovering the Hopf bifurcation when the investment changes. • Proposing the alternative pathway of free competition in energy production. • Determining the turning points of parameters related to policy regulation

  11. The Role of Innovation in Fostering Competitiveness and Economic Growth: Evidence from Developing Economies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Terzić Lejla

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper deals with the essential features determining the role of innovation in developing economies by examining the structure of innovation measures. The economic growth and competitiveness of developing economies are powerfully connected to its innovation status. The purpose of this paper is to examine the significance of innovation in driving economic growth per capita and competitiveness in selected developing economies. In order to determine the interconnection among the variables of innovation, competitiveness, and growth, assorted methodological measurement instruments have been applied. The data were collected from both primary and secondary sources. The results suggest the importance of specific innovation dimensions for prospective economic growth in developing economies. The identical measures responsible for fragile innovation are associated to the low composite measures of innovation accomplishment. This demonstrates the enormous disparity concentrated in every innovation aspect over time, specifically in innovation output and enterprise performances between the developing economies and the EU-28 average measures. The research results indicate the usage of appropriate economic instruments in diminishing the problems that developing economies are currently dealing with.

  12. sodium

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Les initiatives de réduction de la consommation de sel qui visent l'ensemble de la population et qui ciblent la teneur en sodium des aliments et sensibilisent les consommateurs sont susceptibles de réduire la consommation de sel dans toutes les couches de la population et d'améliorer la santé cardiovasculaire. Ce projet a ...

  13. Climate and competitiveness: An economic impact assessment of EU leadership in emission control policies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alexeeva-Talebi, V.; Boehringer, C.; Moslener, U. [Centre for European Economic Research, Mannheim (Germany)

    2007-07-01

    The European Council has recently claimed to consider ambitious emission reduction targets (15 to 30 percent by 2020 as compared to 1990 levels) to limit global climate change. In light of the coexistent EU priorities under the Lisbon process, the authors analyze alternative unilateral EU emission control policies against their effects on EU (sectoral and economy-wide) competitiveness using a multi-sector, multi-region computable general equilibrium (CGE) model framework. For a given emission reduction target, the simulations show that alternative implementation rules (uniform versus sectorally differentiated carbon taxes) induce ambiguous impacts on sectoral competitiveness: For a uniform tax, relatively carbon-intensive EU industries face competitiveness losses, while carbon-extensive sectors improve their ability to compete internationally. Losses and gains are reinforced by the stringency of unilateral emission reduction targets. Thus, the implementation of an (economically efficient) uniform carbon tax induces structural change which inevitably goes at the expense of carbon-intensive industries. Vice versa, the authors find that more pronounced tax differentiation in favor of carbon-intensive industries can largely neutralize the negative impacts of emission constraints on their competitiveness, but goes at the expense of overall efficiency. In this case, adjustment costs of emission abatement will to a large extent be born by energy-extensive sectors in terms of a deteriorated ability to compete. As a middle course, moderate tax differentiation allows to sectorally balance competitiveness effects of emission control policies and at the same time limit overall efficiency losses. The authors find also that the level of tax differentiation to balance sectoral competitiveness effects and to limit overall efficiency losses is independent of the emission reduction target. Furthermore, the results indicate that the magnitude of sectoral competitiveness effects is

  14. Energy and competitiveness - Notes of the Economic Analysis Council, Nr. 6

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bureau, Dominique; Fontagne, Lionel; Martin, Philippe

    2013-05-01

    This note aims at analyzing the impact of a possible increase of energy prices on the French competitiveness, and more particularly on the performance of exporting companies, while trying to make a distinction between short-term and long-term effects. A first part proposes a diagnosis of the French loss of competitiveness. The second part analyzes the energy prices in France for industries with comparisons with other countries (electricity price, tariffs and production cost). The next part addresses mechanisms relating competitiveness and energy price on a short, medium or long term. Then the authors try to assess at the enterprise level how exports react to energy price variations. The last part contains recommendations for an economic policy

  15. Co-operation and Competition in Regional Economic Development Associated with Radioactive Waste Management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Webler, Thomas

    2009-01-01

    Competition and co-operation appear in many different social venues. The author gives a variety of examples of co-operative behaviour in economics, politics, research, and everyday life activities such as sports. These four diverse examples illustrate the variety of forms that co-operation may take such as tacit co-operation, incremental co-operation, deep co-operation, etc. The links with the form of democracy (adversary democracy or consensual democracy) are also pointed. However, as with so many other things in life, the key is to the question of co-operation or competition is balance. Co-operation and competition are dialectical opposites. They create and maintain and define each other; they each are incomplete without the other

  16. The Spatio-Temporal Evolution of Geo-Economic Relationships between China and ASEAN Countries: Competition or Cooperation?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shufang Wang

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available In the last 30 years, China’s economic power has experienced great changes and has brought about a profound impact on the world economy. This led us to ask a question: do changes in China’s economic power shift the geo-economic relationships between China and its neighboring countries? To answer this question, we researched the evolution of geo-economic relationships between China and the Association of Southeast Asian Nations (ASEAN countries. Using the Euclidean distance method, we explored the changes in these geo-economic relationships between China and ASEAN countries from 1980 to 2014. Our findings resulted in five conclusions: (1 Over time, geo-economic relationships between China and ASEAN countries remained relatively stable. (2 Geographically, the main geo-economic relationships between China and continental ASEAN countries were complementary, while the main geo-economic relationships between China and island ASEAN countries were competitive. (3 Geopolitics and geo-culture were attributed to the changes in geo-economic relationships. (4 The evolution of geo-economic relationships was characterized by path dependence. (5 Geo-economic relationships between China and ASEAN countries could be classified into four types: game type, with high cooperation and competition; complementary type, with high cooperation and low competition; fight type, with low cooperation and high competition; and loose type, with low cooperation and competition. Our findings contribute to improving the understanding of geo-economic relationships.

  17. Organizational-economic mechanism of management of food industry enterprises competitiveness

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O.A. Gorb

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The article is devoted to the discussion of the peculiarities of the formation of organizational-economic mechanism of food industry enterprise management. Brief characteristics of social-economic environment of functioning the enterprises of the industry have been given for determining its desirable parameters. The characteristics of challenges to the competitive positions of Ukrainian enterprises in the connection with the country's entry to the “free trade” zone with the European Union have also been given. The authors consider the solving of the touched upon problem in the combination of competitiveness management functions and preventive anti-crisis management in the single mechanism. The structure of such mechanism has been suggested, and the characteristics of its components have been given.

  18. New perspectives on internationalization and competitiveness integrating economics, innovation and higher education

    CERN Document Server

    2015-01-01

    This volume showcases contributions from leading academics, educators and policymakers derived from two workshops hosted by the Interdisciplinary Center for Economic Science (ICES) at George Mason University on internationalization and competitiveness. It aims to present key areas of current research and to identify basic problems within the field to promote further discussion and research. This book is organized into two sections, focusing on: science and economics and innovation policy and its measurement, with an underlying emphasis on exploring connections across disciplines and across research, practice and policy. The first workshop was held at George Mason University (GMU) in Arlington, VA, USA in March 2013 and a second, building on the key results from the first, was held at the Royal Institute of Technology (KTH) in Stockholm, Sweden in October 2013. A variety of problems were discussed and several interdisciplinary concepts in internationalization and competitiveness have already emerged from the...

  19. TAX COMPONENT OF FISCAL POLICY OF INCREASE COMPETITIVENESS OF NATIONAL ECONOMICS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Danilov

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available The article is devoted to the problems of using fiscal levers to regulate the national economy competitiveness. What kind of tax levers should be used in order to increase the competitiveness of the national economy is justified. Taxes are the main source of fiscal revenue of the country, which depends on the inherent principles of optimizing the tax system, determined Ukraine's withdrawal from the crisis and raising the country's competitiveness. It is proposed differentiation in income tax rates, depending on whether the company is engaged in innovation and investment activity or not. Changing the rate of value added tax in a downward will reduce the revenue of the country. For enterprises that are not exporting products to decrease the amount of working capital for a certain period Fiscal policy that promotes the removal of the country's financial and economic crisis and the increasing competitiveness of the state, should be challenging. In order to implement incentive effects of taxes set forth in the tax code, we propose a linear programming model of the budget (revenue and expenditure . Building the economic and mathematical optimization model with possible actions challenging the tax factors of individual taxes and the possibilities of using the proceeds of certain taxes on certain items of expenditure budget.

  20. Contracting out local road and park services: Economic effects and their strategic, contractual, and competitive conditions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lindholst, Andrej Christian; Petersen, Ole Helby; Houlberg, Kurt

    2018-01-01

    such as markets, contracts, municipal strategies and contracting history influence these outcomes. Drawing on original survey data from Danish municipalities, we find that competitive tendering has on average reduced costs. Further analysis shows that savings are not associated with lower quality, thus indicating......The economic rationale for contracting out local services is increasingly contested by empirical research. This article aims to contribute to this literature, first by scrutinising the economic effects of contracting out in local road and park services and, second, by exploring how characteristics...... realise larger savings, whereas the characteristics of markets and contracts do not seem to explain variations in cost savings....

  1. Point Climat no. 29 'Managing France's energy transition while safeguarding economic competitiveness: be productive'

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sartor, Oliver; Leguet, Benoit

    2013-01-01

    Among the publications of CDC Climat Research, 'Climate Briefs' presents, in a few pages, hot topics in climate change policy. This issue addresses the following points: - Is the French energy transition compatible with economic growth and a 'competitive' French economy? Our answer is 'yes, with some conditions'. - The French economy is better positioned today for a meaningful energy transition than it has been for over 40 years. At the level of the macro-economy, a steady shift to higher energy prices is now much easier without hurting economic growth than it once was. - A small percentage of energy-intensive sectors may need targeted and temporary assistance with this transition

  2. The economic competitiveness and emissions of battery electric vehicles in China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhao, Xin; Doering, Otto C.; Tyner, Wallace E.

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • We evaluate the life-cycle cost and emissions of BEVs in China. • BEVs are not economically competitive compared with ICEVs in the Chinese market. • The value of emission reductions is small compared with the subsidy on BEVs. • The CO 2 emission reduction from BEVs is relatively constant over the time. • BEVs likely will not be economically competitive in China before 2031. - Abstract: Electric vehicles (EVs) have high energy efficiency and low pollutant and greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions compared with conventional internal combustion engine vehicles (ICEVs). This study examines the economic competitiveness of battery electric vehicles (BEVs) in the Chinese market. BEVs are compared with ICEVs using benefit-cost analyses from the perspectives of consumers, society and GHG emissions. A life-cycle cost model is developed to evaluate the lifetime cost of a vehicle. The results show that, with central government subsidies, the BEV life-cycle private cost (LCPC) is about 1.4 times higher than comparable ICEVs. Central government subsidies on BEVs will not be cost effective and efficient unless the annual external cost reduction from using BEV reaches $2500 for a compact vehicle or $3600 for a multi-purpose vehicle. That total cost level would imply a carbon cost of more than $2100 per ton. The current life-cycle external cost reductions from using BEV are around $2000–$2300, which are smaller than government subsidies or LCPC differences between BEV and ICEV. Further projections show that BEVs likely will not be economically competitive in the Chinese market before 2031

  3. Political competition, economic reform and growth : theory and evidence from transition countries

    OpenAIRE

    Pavletic, Ivan

    2010-01-01

    Which political and institutional factors trigger reforms that enable the poor to benefit from the process of economic growth? How can the incentives of policy makers be influenced in order to achieve such a dynamic? These are the questions this study seeks to address by examining the transition process in post-communist countries. The author argues that political competition within an accepted and respected institutional environment has been a driving force in shaping the direction and succe...

  4. Wireless Competition in Canada: Damn the Torpedoes! The Triumph of Politics over Economics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jeffrey Church

    2014-08-01

    agencies will continue the failed policy of attempting to “enhance competition” in wireless markets. What will be the final cost to Canadians of an economically vacuous commitment to the proposition that competition is measured by the number of competitors?

  5. Competitiveness and Economic Growth through Education and Investments: The Case of Moldova

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tatiana PÎŞCHINA

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available This article explores and emphasizes the importance of education and innovation activity for competitiveness, and qualitative economic growth, using the case study of the Republic of Moldova. Specifically in context of globalization, when developing nations experience pressures of economic and societal imbalances, the importance of basic cornerstones of the economy cannot be overestimated. Starting with education, an economy builds the platform to nurture and hopefully retain talent. Entrepreneurs create new business streams, new products and services, and new areas for investment. Investments, in their turn, can be used as another powerful mechanism to obtain quality in economic growth. Besides necessary investments in infrastructure and healthcare, investments into science, technology and various R&D activities that lead up to the increased share of high-technology in the GDP structure of countries like Moldova are necessary, as well as possible due to high potential of Moldova’s skilled population making up for the lack of other resources available to the developed economies. In this context, economic competitiveness and qualitative growth by importing, adapting, implementing and developing new technologies, can be reached by the industrializing economies sooner than expected.

  6. Effect of Economic Vulnerability on Competitive Advantages, Enterprise Performance and Sustainability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdullah Al Mamun

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available This study investigated the effect of economic vulnerability upon competitive advantages, performance, and sustainability of micro-enterprises owned and managed by micro-entrepreneurs who participate in varied development initiatives in Peninsular Malaysia. Upon adopting the cross-sectional design, data were randomly collected from selected 300 micro-entrepreneurs from the eKasih program (national poverty data bank located in four states of Peninsular Malaysia. The quantitative data were collected by conducting structured interview sessions with the respondents held from September until November 2017. The findings revealed that the state of economic vulnerability among the respondents had a significantly negative effect on the aspects of competitive advantages, performance, and sustainability among micro-enterprises in Peninsular Malaysia. Despite of the widely acknowledged and empirically examined effects of socioeconomic antecedents upon micro-enterprise performance, the focus on the effect of a more comprehensive measure of socioeconomic condition, that is, economic vulnerability, among low-income households appears to be scant. Hence, the outcomes of this study are able to provide critical insights for development organizations pertaining to development programs and their effectiveness on economically vulnerable, particularly among low-income households in Peninsular Malaysia.

  7. Techno-Economic Comparison of Onshore and Offshore Underground Coal Gasification End-Product Competitiveness

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Natalie Christine Nakaten

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Underground Coal Gasification (UCG enables the utilisation of coal reserves that are currently not economically exploitable due to complex geological boundary conditions. Hereby, UCG produces a high-calorific synthesis gas that can be used for generation of electricity, fuels and chemical feedstock. The present study aims to identify economically competitive, site-specific end-use options for onshore and offshore produced UCG synthesis gas, taking into account the capture and storage (CCS and/or utilisation (CCU of resulting CO 2 . Modelling results show that boundary conditions that favour electricity, methanol and ammonia production expose low costs for air separation, high synthesis gas calorific values and H 2 /N 2 shares as well as low CO 2 portions of max. 10%. Hereby, a gasification agent ratio of more than 30% oxygen by volume is not favourable from economic and environmental viewpoints. Compared to the costs of an offshore platform with its technical equipment, offshore drilling costs are negligible. Thus, uncertainties related to parameters influenced by drilling costs are also negligible. In summary, techno-economic process modelling results reveal that scenarios with high CO 2 emissions are the most cost-intensive ones, offshore UCG-CCS/CCU costs are twice as high as the onshore ones, and yet all investigated scenarios except from offshore ammonia production are competitive on the European market.

  8. Legal Guarantees of Economic Competition in the European Union Public Procurement Regulation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. Kosiński

    2017-01-01

    that new 2014 EU public procurement directives, viz. Directive 2014/23/ EU, Directive 2014/24/EU and Directive 2014/25/EU, are not really aimed at fostering the competition as the main goal. Nevertheless, a specific and deep analysis of regulation of mentioned directives leads to the conclusion that those directives provide for bigger and broader economic competition. This is achieved generally thanks to opening of the public procurement market for micro, small and medium enterprises (SMBs’ sector. 

  9. Competition

    CERN Multimedia

    Staff Association

    2017-01-01

    Get ready for the Easter Egg Hunt! The Staff Association is organising a competition from 10 to 21 April 2017. There are several Go Sport gift vouchers to win, with a value of 50 € each. Try your luck! Count the number of different eggs that we have hidden on our website. Then indicate your answer in the online form. To participate, you just need to be a member of the Staff Association. Winners will be randomly drawn among the correct answers.

  10. Competition

    CERN Multimedia

    Staff Association

    2016-01-01

      The Staff Association is organising a competition from 13 to 21 December 2016. There are several Go Sport vouchers to win with a value of 50 € each. Try your luck! To participate, you just have to be a member of the Staff Association and take the online quiz: https://ap-vote.web.cern.ch/content/jeu-concours-de-noel. The winners will be drawn among the correct answers.

  11. Competition

    CERN Multimedia

    Staff Association

    2016-01-01

      The Staff Association is organising a competition from April 11 to 20. There are several Go Sport gift vouchers with a value of 50 € each to win. Try your luck! To participate, you just have to be a member of the Staff Association and take the online quiz: https://ap-vote.web.cern.ch/content/jeu-concours. The winners will be drawn among the correct answers.

  12. Economic competitiveness of small modular reactors versus coal and combined cycle plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alonso, Gustavo; Bilbao, Sama; Valle, Edmundo del

    2016-01-01

    Small modular reactors (SMRs) may be an option to cover the electricity needs of isolated regions, distributed generation grids and countries with small electrical grids. Previous analyses show that the overnight capital cost for SMRs is between 4500 US$/kW and 5350 US$/kW, which is between a 6% and a 26% higher than the average cost of a current large nuclear reactor. This study analyzes the economic competitiveness of small modular reactors against thermal plants using coal and natural gas combined cycle plants. To assess the economic competitiveness of SMRs, three overnight capital costs are considered 4500 US$/kW, 5000 US$/kW and 5350 US$/kW along with three discount rates for each overnight cost considered, these are 3, 7, and 10%. To compare with natural gas combined cycle (CC) units, four different gas prices are considered, these are 4.74 US$/GJ (5 US$/mmBTU), 9.48 US$/GJ (10 US$/mmBTU), 14.22 US$/GJ (15 US$/mmBTU), and 18.96 US$/GJ (20 US$/mmBTU). To compare against coal, two different coal prices are considered 80 and 120 US$/ton of coal. The carbon tax considered, for both CC and coal, is 30 US$/ton CO_2. The results show what scenarios make SMRs competitive against coal and/or combined cycle plants. In addition, because the price of electricity is a key component to guarantee the feasibility of a new project, this analysis calculates the price of electricity for the economically viable deployment of SMRs in all the above scenarios. In particular, this study shows that a minimum price of electricity of 175 US$/MWh is needed to guarantee the feasibility of a new SMR, if its overnight capital cost is 5350 US$/kWe and the discount rate is 10%. Another result is that when the price of electricity is around 100 US$/MWh then the discount rate must be around 7% or less to provide appropriate financial conditions to make SMRs economically feasible. - Highlights: • Small modular reactor (SMR) are economically assessed. • SMR are compared against gas and coal

  13. Full employment and competition in the Aspen economic model: implications for modeling acts of terrorism.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sprigg, James A.; Ehlen, Mark Andrew

    2004-11-01

    Acts of terrorism could have a range of broad impacts on an economy, including changes in consumer (or demand) confidence and the ability of productive sectors to respond to changes. As a first step toward a model of terrorism-based impacts, we develop here a model of production and employment that characterizes dynamics in ways useful toward understanding how terrorism-based shocks could propagate through the economy; subsequent models will introduce the role of savings and investment into the economy. We use Aspen, a powerful economic modeling tool developed at Sandia, to demonstrate for validation purposes that a single-firm economy converges to the known monopoly equilibrium price, output, and employment levels, while multiple-firm economies converge toward the competitive equilibria typified by lower prices and higher output and employment. However, we find that competition also leads to churn by consumers seeking lower prices, making it difficult for firms to optimize with respect to wages, prices, and employment levels. Thus, competitive firms generate market ''noise'' in the steady state as they search for prices and employment levels that will maximize profits. In the context of this model, not only could terrorism depress overall consumer confidence and economic activity but terrorist acts could also cause normal short-run dynamics to be misinterpreted by consumers as a faltering economy.

  14. Effect of Black Economic Empowerment on profit and competitiveness of firms in South Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ewert P.J. Kleynhans

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Orientation: The key obstacle hindering optimal profitability levels and competitiveness in firms in South Africa is the application of labour legislation policies and tools aimed at narrowing the income gap between different racial groups and resolving inequality amongst a diverse workforce. Research purpose: This article determined whether the implementation of a Black Economic Empowerment (BEE policy by companies has a positive effect on their growth in terms of profits and competitiveness. Motivation for the study: This study determined whether the implementation of BEE could be profitable for companies. Research design, approach and method: A quantitative study was undertaken in order to find empirical evidence supporting the relation between high BEE Scores, profitability and competitiveness. The empirical investigation utilised regression analysis, correlations and other methods, based on data between January 2009 and December 2011. The BEE Scorecard was used to obtain BEE scores of the top 50 BEE companies. Thereafter, the top 50 companies’ financial information was gathered from the Johannesburg Securities Exchange. Main findings: The implementation of BEE within companies has a positive effect on profitability, turnover and investment. Numerous factors have, however, been hindering,while other factors enhanced the success of BEE. Practical/managerial implications: The findings encourage mangers to engage in BEE as it may facilitate higher profits and indicates where labour legislation could be improved. Contribution/value-add: Value was added through new research determining the effects of BEE and labour legislation on profitability and competitiveness of firms on a micro-level.

  15. THE ROLE OF THE INTERNATIONAL ECONOMIC ORGANIZATIONS AND THE PUBLIC SECTOR IN CREATING AND SUSTAINING INTERNATIONAL COMPETITIVENESS

    OpenAIRE

    Irina-Elena Gentimir

    2013-01-01

    By analyzing the global economy, one can easily notice that states that record economic growth are competitive, and that the competitive ones collect revenues of billions of dollars from trade, outsourcing and meeting the needs of their citizens. The role of private sector in creating and sustaining competitiveness it is well known. But what actions are undertaken by the international organizations and the public sector in this direction? The scope of this article is to offer a brief descript...

  16. Apples and Oranges Mean a New Fruit Crop: New Business Plan Competition Model Integrates Economic and Community Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feldman, Jacqueline; Oden, Lisa Derby

    2007-01-01

    Mount Wachusett Community College Entrepreneurial Resource Center Business Plan Competition brings together stakeholders across all economic sectors to bolster the regional economy. It also highlights entrepreneurs as a viable career choice. The competition disintegrates existing silos, provides education to all entrants, and gives business…

  17. Effect of chemical pressure on competition and cooperation between polar and antiferrodistortive distortions in sodium niobate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jauhari, Mrinal; Mishra, S. K.; Mittal, R.; Sastry, P. U.; Chaplot, S. L.

    2017-12-01

    We present results obtained from a combination of dielectric and x-ray diffraction measurements for compositional design of (1 -x )NaNb O3-x BaTi O3(NNBT x ) , which can induce interferroelectric phase transitions. Anomalies are observed in dielectric measurements performed for various compositions at 300 K, as well as at different temperatures for NNBT03. We observed the appearance(disappearance) of the superlattice reflections along with change in the intensities of the main perovskite peaks in the powder x-ray diffraction data, which provide clear evidences for structural phase transitions with composition and temperature. We found that increasing the concentration of BaTi O3 leads to the suppression of out-of-phase rotation of octahedra and an increment in tetragonality (c /a ratio), which promotes the polar mode at room temperature. The temperature-dependent powder diffraction study shows that the ferroelectric rhombohedral phase of pure sodium niobate gets suppressed for the composition x =0.03 , and the monoclinic phase C c gets stabilized at low temperature. The monoclinic phase is believed to provide for a flexible polarization rotation and is considered to be directly linked to the high-performance piezoelectricity in materials due to presence of more easy axes for spontaneous polarizations than the rhombohedral phase.

  18. Modelling of liquid sodium induced crack propagation in T91 martensitic steel: Competition with ductile fracture

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hemery, Samuel [Institut PPRIME, CNRS, Université de Poitiers, ISAE ENSMA, UPR 3346, Téléport 2, 1 Avenue Clément Ader, BP 40109, 86961 Futuroscope Chasseneuil Cedex (France); Berdin, Clotilde, E-mail: clotilde.berdin@u-psud.fr [Univ Paris-Sud, SP2M-ICMMO, CNRS UMR 8182, F-91405 Orsay Cedex (France); Auger, Thierry; Bourhi, Mariem [Ecole Centrale-Supelec, MSSMat CNRS UMR 8579, F-92295 Chatenay Malabry Cedex (France)

    2016-12-01

    Liquid metal embrittlement (LME) of T91 steel is numerically modeled by the finite element method to analyse experimental results in an axisymmetric notched geometry. The behavior of the material is identified from tensile tests then a crack with a constant crack velocity is introduced using the node release technique in order to simulate the brittle crack induced by LME. A good agreement between the simulated and the experimental macroscopic behavior is found: this suggests that the assumption of a constant crack velocity is correct. Mechanical fields during the embrittlement process are then extracted from the results of the finite element model. An analysis of the crack initiation and propagation stages: the ductile fracture probably breaks off the LME induced brittle fracture. - Highlights: • T91 martensitic steel is embrittled by liquid sodium depending on the loading rate at 573 K. • The mechanical behavior is modeled by a von Mises elastic-plastic law. • The LME induced crack propagates at a constant velocity. • The mechanical state at the crack tip does not explain a brittle crack arrest. • The occurrence of the ductile fracture breaks off the brittle fracture.

  19. Effects of regulation and economic environment on the electricity industry's competitiveness: A study based on OECD countries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baek, Chulwoo; Jung, Euy-Young; Lee, Jeong-Dong

    2014-01-01

    We propose a competitiveness index for the electricity industry based on efficiency, stability, and growth factors identified from previous studies subject to data accessibility. These are then weighted appropriately through the application of the analytical hierarchy process. This index is an alternative tool to capture the diverse characteristics of the electricity industry in order to analyze performance after deregulation. Using the competitiveness index, we analyze the effect of regulation change in specific economic environments represented by the level of economic development, energy intensity, and manufacturing share, for example. According to the results, deregulation generally increases competitiveness, but the effect depends on the economic environment and the type of regulation. Deregulating entry and vertical integration to increase competitiveness is more effective in countries where the level of economic development, energy intensity, and manufacturing share are low. The manner in which the privatization effect is related to the economic environment is, however, unclear. - Highlights: • This study proposes a competitiveness index for the electricity industry. • It examines the effects of electricity industry deregulation in OECD countries. • It suggests an economic environment in which deregulation can contribute to competitiveness

  20. THE DETERMINANTS OF THE VIETNAMESE ECONOMICS COMPETITIVENESS, A LESSON FOR DEVELOPING COUNTRIES

    OpenAIRE

    Van Ha NGUYEN; Xavier GALIEGUE

    2011-01-01

    Vietnam has been very successful for the last two decades, since the adoption of “Doi moi” in 1986. Over the last two decades, an economic growth rate in Vietnam has been one of the highest worldwide (with GDP growing by respectively 8% per year). The increase of the Vietnamese share of world trade is the highest of all major Asian exporters (including China) since the mid-1990s. « Why is Vietnam so competitive with respect to other Asian exporters? » This paper considers Vietnam's competitiv...

  1. THE ROLE OF THE INTERNATIONAL ECONOMIC ORGANIZATIONS AND THE PUBLIC SECTOR IN CREATING AND SUSTAINING INTERNATIONAL COMPETITIVENESS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Irina-Elena Gentimir

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available By analyzing the global economy, one can easily notice that states that record economic growth are competitive, and that the competitive ones collect revenues of billions of dollars from trade, outsourcing and meeting the needs of their citizens. The role of private sector in creating and sustaining competitiveness it is well known. But what actions are undertaken by the international organizations and the public sector in this direction? The scope of this article is to offer a brief description of the role played by these actors taking into account that they must create the fundamental condition for competitiveness: macroeconomic stability.

  2. Micro-economic analysis of the physical constrained markets: game theory application to competitive electricity markets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bompard, E.; Ma, Y. C.; Ragazzi, E.

    2006-03-01

    Competition has been introduced in the electricity markets with the goal of reducing prices and improving efficiency. The basic idea which stays behind this choice is that, in competitive markets, a greater quantity of the good is exchanged at a lower price, leading to higher market efficiency. Electricity markets are pretty different from other commodities mainly due to the physical constraints related to the network structure that may impact the market performance. The network structure of the system on which the economic transactions need to be undertaken poses strict physical and operational constraints. Strategic interactions among producers that game the market with the objective of maximizing their producer surplus must be taken into account when modeling competitive electricity markets. The physical constraints, specific of the electricity markets, provide additional opportunity of gaming to the market players. Game theory provides a tool to model such a context. This paper discussed the application of game theory to physical constrained electricity markets with the goal of providing tools for assessing the market performance and pinpointing the critical network constraints that may impact the market efficiency. The basic models of game theory specifically designed to represent the electricity markets will be presented. IEEE30 bus test system of the constrained electricity market will be discussed to show the network impacts on the market performances in presence of strategic bidding behavior of the producers.

  3. Micro-economic analysis of the physical constrained markets: game theory application to competitive electricity markets

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bompard, E.; Ma, Y.C. [Politecnico di Torino, Dept. of Electrical Engineering, Torino (Italy); Ragazzi, E. [CERIS, Institute for Economic Research on Firms and Growth, CNR, National Research Council, Moncalieri, TO (Italy)

    2006-03-15

    Competition has been introduced in the electricity markets with the goal of reducing prices and improving efficiency. The basic idea which stays behind this choice is that, in competitive markets, a greater quantity of the good is exchanged at a lower price, leading to higher market efficiency. Electricity markets are pretty different from other commodities mainly due to the physical constraints related to the network structure that may impact the market performance. The network structure of the system on which the economic transactions needs to be undertaken poses strict physical and operational constraints. Strategic interactions among producers that game the market with the objective of maximizing their producer surplus must be taken into account when modeling competitive electricity markets. The physical constraints, specific of the electricity markets, provide additional opportunity of gaming to the market players. Game theory provides a tool to model such a context. This paper discussed the application of game theory to physical constrained electricity markets with the goal of providing tools for assessing the market performance and pinpointing the critical network constraints that may impact the market efficiency. The basic models of game theory specifically designed to represent the electricity markets will be presented. IEEE30 bus test system of the constrained electricity market will be discussed to show the network impacts on the market performances in presence of strategic bidding behavior of the producers. (authors)

  4. Applying the competitive market business equation to power generation operations and economics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Corio, M.R.; Bellucci, J.W.; Boyd, G.A.

    1996-01-01

    This paper presents cost-effectiveness evaluation, benchmarking, planning, and decision-making tools being used with utilities to address critical production/cost-efficiency and market issues in the transition to a competitive market in electricity. It expands upon Applied Economic Research Co., Inc.'s (AER's) earlier work in the area of frontier analysis of plant spending vs. reliability. It discusses development of a method for quantifying the various elements involved and for structuring them into an integrated framework and set of models for analysis, evaluation of alternatives, and forward planning in the evolving transition to a deregulated, competitive market in electricity. The work presented addresses the overall production cost frontier, i.e., the marginal cost of production including operation, maintenance, capital, and fuel expenditures. (Fuel expenditures are a function of the price paid for fuel (per Btu) and the efficiency with which the fuel is transformed from Btu's to kWh, i.e., the heat rate.) Frontiers (best demonstrated performance curves) are developed for the total cost of production--analyzing both reliability and heat rate. The paper describes and gives examples of the framework for evaluating the competitive position of a utility's generating units compared to other units, as well as the framework for evaluating the potential for revenue obtained outside the existing service area

  5. Romanian Business Environment in the Context of Economic Competitiveness Based on Knowledge

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ion STEGAROIU

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available The changes of production factors priorities affect more and more the evolution of global economy, requiring reorientation of development policies both at company level and at national economies level to adapt to the phenomenon called: “the new economy” or “knowledge economy”. If for classical economy the ability to compete - competitiveness- depends largely on the quantity or the amount of production factors, at the present, has gained importance the efficiency of their use. The idea of making this article appeared both from the necessity of a systematic research to approach the Romanian competitive environment and the desire to stoop to this important conference theme. We can certainly say that the actual business environment is characterized by a particularly dynamic due to changes that occur within it, especially under the impact of technical and scientific revolution which brought to the fore the knowledge as an essential element of achieving a high competitiveness. It is intended that the proposed theme of this article to have an economic importance for the actual information and adequacy of the current economy in Romania.

  6. Comparison of lead and sodium-cooled reactors - Safety, fuel cycle performance and some economical aspects

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carlsson, Johan; Tucek, Kamil; Wider, Hartmut [Joint Research Centre, EC-JRC, Westerduinweg 3, P.O. Box 2, NL-0 1755 ZG Petten (Netherlands)

    2006-07-01

    This paper compares the Lead-cooled Fast Reactor (LFR) and the Sodium-cooled Fast Reactor (SFR) regarding different aspects of the coolant, safety and economics. A brief review of design and safety experience of an SFR (BN-600) and some safety philosophy of the most developed LFR (BREST) are presented as well. The pros and cons of the lead and the sodium coolants are discussed. This paper presents results concerning the coolant temperature evolution during three accident scenarios, i.e. Loss-Of- Flow (LOF), Loss-Of-Heat-Sink (LOHS), and Total-Loss-Of-Power (TLOP). It also studies possible moderators, like BeO and hydrides, for the core designs to have negative reactivity feedbacks and favorable reactivity swings. LFR seems to be able to accommodate more minor actinides than SFR at comparable coolant and Doppler feedbacks. We show that LFR can be designed both to breed and burn transuranics from LWRs. The hydrides lead to the most favorable reactivity feedbacks, but the poorest reactivity swing. It is shown that the LFR can handle the LOF transient better than the SFR. This is due to the much lower pressure drop in the LFR core. The coolant outlet temperatures stabilize at 2050 K and 940 K for SFR and LFR, respectively when no feedbacks are considered. Investigations also concern the SFR's performance when the pitch-to-diameter was increased from 1.2 to 1.4. For the LOHS and TLOP accidents their temperature evolutions are milder for the LFR since lead has a 50% larger volumetric heat capacity. For the TLOP the core outlet temperature of the LFR peaks at 1080 K after 2 days. Regarding economics it appears easier to avoid an intermediate cycle in an LFR than an SFR. (authors)

  7. Comparison of lead and sodium-cooled reactors - Safety, fuel cycle performance and some economical aspects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carlsson, Johan; Tucek, Kamil; Wider, Hartmut

    2006-01-01

    This paper compares the Lead-cooled Fast Reactor (LFR) and the Sodium-cooled Fast Reactor (SFR) regarding different aspects of the coolant, safety and economics. A brief review of design and safety experience of an SFR (BN-600) and some safety philosophy of the most developed LFR (BREST) are presented as well. The pros and cons of the lead and the sodium coolants are discussed. This paper presents results concerning the coolant temperature evolution during three accident scenarios, i.e. Loss-Of- Flow (LOF), Loss-Of-Heat-Sink (LOHS), and Total-Loss-Of-Power (TLOP). It also studies possible moderators, like BeO and hydrides, for the core designs to have negative reactivity feedbacks and favorable reactivity swings. LFR seems to be able to accommodate more minor actinides than SFR at comparable coolant and Doppler feedbacks. We show that LFR can be designed both to breed and burn transuranics from LWRs. The hydrides lead to the most favorable reactivity feedbacks, but the poorest reactivity swing. It is shown that the LFR can handle the LOF transient better than the SFR. This is due to the much lower pressure drop in the LFR core. The coolant outlet temperatures stabilize at 2050 K and 940 K for SFR and LFR, respectively when no feedbacks are considered. Investigations also concern the SFR's performance when the pitch-to-diameter was increased from 1.2 to 1.4. For the LOHS and TLOP accidents their temperature evolutions are milder for the LFR since lead has a 50% larger volumetric heat capacity. For the TLOP the core outlet temperature of the LFR peaks at 1080 K after 2 days. Regarding economics it appears easier to avoid an intermediate cycle in an LFR than an SFR. (authors)

  8. Developing an economic performance system to enhance nuclear power plant competitiveness

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2002-01-01

    In 1999 about 16% of the world's electricity was produced by nuclear power, and the total worldwide operating experience of nuclear power plants was over 9200 reactor-years. Some 16 countries are dependent on nuclear power for more than 25% of their electricity generation. In some countries deregulation of the electricity market has either happened or is currently ongoing, while in others it is planned for the future. Nevertheless, many countries are already facing open electricity markets and operating costs are under unprecedented pressure, with competition expected to come soon to the nuclear industry worldwide. To a certain extent, however, the industry has already prepared or is currently preparing to face competition. This report is primarily intended for nuclear power plant and utility managers. It discusses the means and principal issues for the development of the nuclear economic performance international system (NEPIS), which should enhance nuclear power plant competitiveness. The following issues are addressed: The major transformations occurring in the electricity generation industry that require reductions in operations and maintenance costs at nuclear utilities; The methods that nuclear plant management use to identify and justify the economic optimum level of a plant and its use of resources; The value of collecting cost and performance data and the analysis techniques that use that data; The cost data required to be collected; The difficulty of collecting data with existing cost accounting systems; The new cost accounting and collection systems that will be required, The cost effectiveness of the overall process. This report also presents the preliminary results of a pilot project that was established to collect cost data on a few nuclear power plants and was used to verify the adequacy of the definitions and terminology set for NEPIS

  9. Evaluation of competitive and economic indices in canola and pea intercropping at different rates of nitrogen fertilizer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seyfollah fallah

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available The experiment was conducted in order to evaluate of competitive and economic indices in canola and pea intercropping at different rates of nitrogen fertilizer at Shahrekord University research farm during 1390 - 1391. Intercropping and sole cropping treatments (100% canola; 66% canola + 33% pea, 50% canola + 50% pea; 33% canola + 66% pea; 100% pea were evaluated as the first factor and nitrogen rates (100% need; 75% need and 50% need as the second factor in a randomized complete block design with three replications. The calculated competitive indices were included land equivalent ratio (LER, relative crowding coefficient (K, aggressively (A, the system production index (SPI, actual yield loss (AYL, competitive ratio (CR and economy indices included monetary advantage index (MAI, and the intercropping advantage (IA. Results showed that all the competitive and economic indices had the highest amount in 50 and 75% of nitrogen requirement. The amounts of AYLt and SPI and economic indices (MAI and IA were positive for all intercropping ratios. Also, LERt and Kt for all intercropping ratio were greater than one, that indicating the superiority of intercropping over sole cropping any of the two plants. The positive values aggressively index and the greater than one values competitive ratio for canola, indicated canola was superior competitor in compared to pea. In conclusion, the evaluation of competitive and economic indices appropriately describes intercropping advantage of canola with pea in reduced nitrogen fertilizer conditions.

  10. The effect of steam cycle conditions upon the economics and design of a sodium-cooled fast reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Philpott, E.F.; Pounder, F.; Willby, C.R.

    1978-01-01

    The paper studies the effect of variation of steam and feedwater conditions upon the economics, design and layout of a sodium-cooled fast reactor. The parameters investigated are steam temperature and pressure, feedwater temperature, and boiler recirculation ratio. The paper also includes an assessment of the effects of associating the fast reactor with saturated steam cycle conditions. (author)

  11. Youth Entrepreneurship as a Way of Boosting Indian Economic Competitiveness: A Study of Orissa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manjusmita Dash

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Recently, interest in youth entrepreneurship has been fuelled due to high levels of unemployment amongst young people and as a way to foster employment opportunities or to address social exclusion. Youth entrepreneurship has gained more importance in recent years in many countries, with increased interest in entrepreneurship as a way of boosting economic competitiveness and promoting regional development. Based on survey and interview of the young entrepreneurs through a structured questionnaire in Bhubaneswar and Cuttack, the twin cities of Orissa, the researchers have made an attempt to study the factors contributing to the promotion of young entrepreneurs to start up their own enterprise, to find out the constraints that impedes and prospects that motivates the young people in starting and running a business and to assess the performance of the young entrepreneurs in Orissa.

  12. Development of an industrial complex for ensuring national competitiveness and economic security

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. V. Kalach

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Living standards depends on the state of the country’s industrial complex. In a message to Russian President Vladimir Putin's Federal Assembly was asked to implement in 2015 a national technological initiative, the development of industries of the new technological order. As a result of the predominance of the industry of the sixth technological order should occur major changes in the structure of production factors and significance. It follows the inevitability of structural changes in the system of economic institutions and mechanisms of economic security and competitiveness of the state achieve the main goal of the state program “The development of industry and increase its competitiveness” is carried out through the following the directions of sub-programs: investment goods (chemical complex development composite materials, industrial biotechnology, power engineering, machine tool industry, agricultural machinery, machinery specialized production, transport engineering; goods (light industry, children;s products industry, the automotive industry; military-industrial complex; infrastructure (development of engineering activities, industrial parks; semi-finished goods and materials (timber industry, metallurgy, industrial development of rare-earth metals. At the current pace of technological and economic development, the 6 th technological structure will come into proliferation phase in 2010–2020, and in the phase of maturity – 40-ies of XXI century. At the same time in 2020–2025 there will be a new scientific-technical and technological revolution, which will become the basis for developing, synthesizing advances in the above basic technologies. In this paper, we proposed as a tool to ensure the economic security of the state to use the acceleration system of technical development of the industrial complex.

  13. Digit Ratio (2D:4D) Predicts Self-Reported Measures of General Competitiveness, but Not Behavior in Economic Experiments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bönte, Werner; Procher, Vivien D; Urbig, Diemo; Voracek, Martin

    2017-01-01

    The ratio of index finger length to ring finger length (2D:4D) is considered to be a putative biomarker of prenatal androgen exposure (PAE), with previous research suggesting that 2D:4D is associated with human behaviors, especially sex-typical behaviors. This study empirically examines the relationship between 2D:4D and individual competitiveness, a behavioral trait that is found to be sexually dimorphic. We employ two related, but distinct, measures of competitiveness, namely behavioral measures obtained from economic experiments and psychometric self-reported measures. Our analyses are based on two independent data sets obtained from surveys and economic experiments with 461 visitors of a shopping mall (Study I) and 617 university students (Study II). The correlation between behavior in the economic experiment and digit ratios of both hands is not statistically significant in either study. In contrast, we find a negative and statistically significant relationship between psychometric self-reported measures of competitiveness and right hand digit ratios (R2D:4D) in both studies. This relationship is especially strong for younger people. Hence, this study provides some robust empirical evidence for a negative association between R2D:4D and self-reported competitiveness. We discuss potential reasons why digit ratio may relate differently to behaviors in specific economics experiments and to self-reported general competitiveness.

  14. Digit Ratio (2D:4D Predicts Self-Reported Measures of General Competitiveness, but Not Behavior in Economic Experiments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Werner Bönte

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The ratio of index finger length to ring finger length (2D:4D is considered to be a putative biomarker of prenatal androgen exposure (PAE, with previous research suggesting that 2D:4D is associated with human behaviors, especially sex-typical behaviors. This study empirically examines the relationship between 2D:4D and individual competitiveness, a behavioral trait that is found to be sexually dimorphic. We employ two related, but distinct, measures of competitiveness, namely behavioral measures obtained from economic experiments and psychometric self-reported measures. Our analyses are based on two independent data sets obtained from surveys and economic experiments with 461 visitors of a shopping mall (Study I and 617 university students (Study II. The correlation between behavior in the economic experiment and digit ratios of both hands is not statistically significant in either study. In contrast, we find a negative and statistically significant relationship between psychometric self-reported measures of competitiveness and right hand digit ratios (R2D:4D in both studies. This relationship is especially strong for younger people. Hence, this study provides some robust empirical evidence for a negative association between R2D:4D and self-reported competitiveness. We discuss potential reasons why digit ratio may relate differently to behaviors in specific economics experiments and to self-reported general competitiveness.

  15. ECONOMIC ESSENCE OF COMPETITIVENESS OF AGRO-FOOD PRODUCTS AND ITS MANAGEMENT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cornel COSER

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Approach of the competitiveness of food products can be found in many research studies in the field. They reveal the essence of agro-food competitiveness, while expressing management tools and method. At the level of agro-food competitiveness management, this article highlights also the possibility of influencing factors determining the defining characteristics of the respective competitiveness.

  16. Economic essence of competitiveness of agro-food products and its management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Coser Cornel

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Approach of the competitiveness of food products can be found in many research studies in the field. They reveal the essence of agro-food competitiveness, while expressing management tools and method. At the level of agro-food competitiveness management, this article highlights also the possibility of influencing factors determining the defining characteristics of the respective competitiveness.

  17. The technical and economic impact of minor actinide transmutation in a sodium fast reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gautier, G. M.; Morin, F.; Dechelette, F.; Sanseigne, E.; Chabert, C.

    2012-01-01

    Within the frame work of the French National Act of June 28, 2006 pertaining to the management of high activity, long-lived radioactive waste, one of the proposed processes consists in transmuting the Minor Actinides (MA) in the radial blankets of a Sodium Fast Reactor (SFR). With this option, we may assess the additional cost of the reactor by comparing two SFR designs, one with no Minor Actinides, and the other involving their transmutation. To perform this exercise, we define a reference design called SFRref, of 1500 MWe that is considered to be representative of the Reactor System. The SFRref mainly features a pool architecture with three pumps, six loops with one steam generator per loop. The reference core is the V2B core that was defined by the CEA a few years ago for the Reactor System. This architecture is designed to meet current safety requirements. In the case of transmutation, for this exercise we consider that the fertile blanket is replaced by two rows of assemblies having either 20% of Minor Actinides or 20% of Americium. The assessment work is performed in two phases. - The first consists in identifying and quantifying the technical differences between the two designs: the reference design without Minor Actinides and the design with Minor Actinides. The main differences are located in the reactor vessel, in the fuel handling system and in the intermediate storage area for spent fuel. An assessment of the availability is also performed so that the impact of the transmutation can be known. - The second consists in making an economic appraisal of the two designs. This work is performed using the CEA's SEMER code. The economic results are shown in relative values. For a transmutation of 20% of MA in the assemblies (S/As) and a hypothesis of 4 kW allowable for the washing device, there is a large external storage demanding a very long cooling time of the S/As. In this case, the economic impact may reach 5% on the capital part of the Levelized Unit

  18. State Policy of Stimulation of Industrial Competitiveness under Conditions of Economic Integration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kovalchuk Viacheslav H.

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available The article is devoted to problems of state regulatory policy of stimulation of economic growth, increase of efficiency of activity of industrial branches of the country. It considers examples of foreign experience in the part of state support of domestic manufacturers. It shows possible variants of integration of co-operation between CIS countries on the basis of specialisation, co-operation and joint activity for achieving economic growth of economies. It demonstrates an automated system of mass servicing of customers, which is offered to be used in the structure of associations of trade enterprises. It offers ways of achievement of competitive advantages of domestic enterprises under conditions of globalisation by means of introduction of clusters of the consumer market enterprises. The article reveals their shortcomings and possibilities of development in the territory of Ukraine under conditions of limited financial resources. It acknowledges that measures of the fiscal policy should be directed, first of all, at support of creation of associations of medium enterprises of the light and other branches of industry and agriculture, which have development potential. It identifies main elements of creation of state programmes of support and development of the cluster form of organisation of the light and other branches of industry, agriculture and trade.

  19. THE ANALYSIS OF COMPETITIVENESS IN THE TOURISM SECTOR IN THE ACTUAL CONTEXT OF ECONOMIC CRISIS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vasile ROBU

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available The past few years have witnessed many storms in the Tourism sector. Under the influence of an extremely volatile world economy (financial crisis, commodity and oil price rises, sharp exchange rate fluctuations, increase terrorism acts in several region with tourism potential Tourism demand slowed significantly. Yet, despite the current difficulties, the Tourism sector remains a critical economic sector worldwide and one that provides significant potential for economic growth and development internationally. A growing national Tourism sector contributes to raises national income, employment, and can improve a country's balance of payments. The sector is thus an important driver of growth and prosperity and,  within developing countries, it can play a leading role in poverty reduction. Despite the overall importance of developing the Tourism sector, many obstacles at the national level continue to hinder its development. This analysis aims to serve two purposes. First, we intend to provide useful comparative information for making decisions related to business and tourism development. Second, and more importantly, we hope that the analysis provides an opportunity for the Tourism industry to highlight the obstacles to Tourism competitiveness.

  20. Burkina Faso - Promoting Growth, Competitiveness and Diversification : Country Economic Memorandum, Volume 2. Sources of Growth - Key Sectors for Tomorrow

    OpenAIRE

    World Bank

    2010-01-01

    The main conclusion of Country Economic Memorandum is that the previous model of extensive growth has now exhausted its potential and must be renewed. Given the existing population dynamics, low environmental tolerance due to its Sahelian climate and competition forces imposed due to its open economy, Burkina Faso is heavily investing in growth based on increased productivity to overcome i...

  1. Competitiveness of the railway transportation in the conditions of functioning of the infrastructure new organizational-economic mechanism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.I. Mishchenko

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available The transport infrastructure of railways of the countries of EU-27 in the conditions of functioning new organizational-economic mechanism, and also dynamics of level of competitiveness of a railway transportation as result of reforming of railways of the countries of EU-27, in the conditions of realisation of the European transport legislation is investigated.

  2. Fear, economic consequences, hunting competition, and distrust of authorities determine preferences for illegal lethal actions against gray wolves (Canis lupus)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Højberg, Peter Lyhne; Nielsen, Martin Reinhardt; Jacobsen, Jette Bredahl

    2017-01-01

    based on similarities of preferences. Preference for illegal lethal actions were found among four groups concerned about; (1) negative economic impact; (2) competition over game; (3) safety of humans and domestic animals, and; (4) lack of trust in authorities. Our results do not imply that 60...

  3. Safety and Security Decisions in times of Economic Crisis : Establishing a Competitive Advantage

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Reniers, G.L.L.M.E.

    2014-01-01

    The paper argues that organisations who invest intelligently in safety and security, regardless the macroeconomic situation, will have a competitive advantage over their competitors not doing so. Establishing and maintaining a competitive advantage is all about excellence. Excellent results actually

  4. Analysis of Economic Efficiency of Production of Low-Concentrated Sodium Hypochlorite by Direct Electrolysis of Natural Waters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fesenko, L. N.; Pchelnikov, I. V.; Fedotov, R. V.

    2017-11-01

    The study presents the economic efficiency of direct electrolysis of natural waters in comparison with the waters artificially prepared by electrolysis of the 3% sodium salt solution. The study used sea water (Black sea water); mineral water (underground water of the Melikhovskaya station, “Ognennaya” hole); brackish water (underground water from the Grushevskaya station of the Aksai district); 3% solution of sodium salt. As a result, the dependences characterizing the direct electrolysis of natural waters with different mineralization, economic, and energy parties are shown. The rational area of the electrolysis for each of the investigated solution is determined. The cost of a kilogram of active chlorine obtained by the direct water electrolysis: Black sea from 17.2 to 18.3 RUB/kg; the Melikhovskaya station “Ognennaya” hole - 14.3 to 15.0 Rubles/kg; 3% solution of NaCl - 30 Rubles./kg; Grushevskogo St. - 63,0-73,0 Rubles/kg.

  5. Trade Barrier Elimination, Economics of Scale and Market Competition: Computable General Equilibrium Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Widyastutik Widyastutik

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available The ASEAN and its dialogue partner countries agreed to reduce trade barriers in the services sector, one of which is sea transport services. The purpose of this study is to estimate the equivalent tax of non-tariff barriers in the sea transport services. Besides that, this study is going to analyze the economic impacts of the regulatory barriers elimination in the sea transport services of ASEAN and its dialogue partner countries. Using the gravity model, it can be identified that trade barriers of sea transport services sector of ASEAN and dialogue partner countries are still relatively high. Additionally, by adopting IC-IRTS model in Global CGE Model (GTAP, the simulation results show consistent results with the theory of pro-competitive effects. The greater gain from trade is obtained in the CGE model assuming IC-IRTS compared to PC-CRTS. China gains a greater benefit that is indicated by the highest increase in welfare and GDP followed by Japan and AustraliaDOI: 10.15408/sjie.v6i2.5279

  6. Solar photovoltaic. Competitiveness and economic evaluation. Comparative and models; Energia solar fotovoltaica. Competitividad y evaluacion economica. comparativa y modelos

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Collado Fernandez, E.; Colmenar Santos, A.; Peire Arroba, J.; Carpio Ibanez, J.; Castro Gil, M. A.

    2010-07-01

    Limits have been evaluated in the medium and long term economic competitiveness of solar photovoltaic energy in general and Spain in particular, considering the level of evolution that must have this form of energy production, until it become cevitamin with the other traditional energy sources and other emerging growth. to conduct the study, has developed a scenario-based methodology photovoltaic, which has taken account of the Spanish state regulation because it is vital operation on the road to real competitiveness relative to other types of energy. (Author) 10 refs.

  7. Approaches for Assessing the Economic Competitiveness of Small and Medium Sized Reactors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2013-12-15

    periods, unit timing (spread of investments over time); and, possibly, greater involvement of local industry and local labour. The effectiveness of all of these approaches to SMR design and deployment depends on the application and on market variables, such as interest rates, and needs to be assessed and demonstrated for specific cases. Upon the advice and with the support of IAEA Member States, the IAEA provides a forum for the exchange of information by experts and policy makers from industrialized and developing countries on the technical, economic, environmental and social aspects of SMR development and implementation in the twenty-first century, and makes this information available to all interested Member States by producing status reports and other publications dedicated to advances in SMR design and technology development. This report was prepared to assist existing and potential stakeholders in Member States in understanding the economic competitiveness of SMR technologies compared to other energy sources and large reactors (LRs); to provide information on available approaches and frameworks to assess the economic competitiveness of advanced SMRs and LRs under specific conditions of their application; and to share knowledge on positive experiences of several Member States that are introducing SMRs into their energy mix. The report is intended for a variety of stakeholders including: design organizations involved in SMR development programmes; investors and potential users of innovative SMRs; and officers in the ministries or atomic energy commissions in Member States responsible for implementing nuclear technology development programmes or evaluating nuclear power deployment options in the near, medium and longer term. The main sections of this report highlight the experience with and future plans for SMRs in several Member States, and present the available methodological options to assist design organizations and guide potential users on the economic performance

  8. Essays on inference in economics, competition, and the rate of profit

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scharfenaker, Ellis S.

    This dissertation is comprised of three papers that demonstrate the role of Bayesian methods of inference and Shannon's information theory in classical political economy. The first chapter explores the empirical distribution of profit rate data from North American firms from 1962-2012. This chapter address the fact that existing methods for sample selection from noisy profit rate data in the industrial organization field of economics tends to be conditional on a covariate's value that risks discarding information. Conditioning sample selection instead on the profit rate data's structure by means of a two component (signal and noise) Bayesian mixture model we find the the profit rate sample to be time stationary Laplace distributed, corroborating earlier estimates of cross section distributions. The second chapter compares alternative probabilistic approaches to discrete (quantal) choice analysis and examines the various ways in which they overlap. In particular, the work on individual choice behavior by Duncan Luce and the extension of this work to quantal response problems by game theoreticians is shown to be related both to the rational inattention work of Christopher Sims through Shannon's information theory as well as to the maximum entropy principle of inference proposed physicist Edwin T. Jaynes. In the third chapter I propose a model of ``classically" competitive firms facing informational entropy constraints in their decisions to potentially enter or exit markets based on profit rate differentials. The result is a three parameter logit quantal response distribution for firm entry and exit decisions. Bayesian methods are used for inference into the the distribution of entry and exit decisions conditional on profit rate deviations and firm level data from Compustat is used to test these predictions.

  9. Lessons from plant management for achieving economic competitiveness for evolutionary reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Andognini, G.

    1999-01-01

    Ontario Hydro, Canada's largest utility, has 20 nuclear power units of the CANDU design with a total design power of 15, 020 Electrical MW or about half of the total generating capacity. The performance of these plants, which were installed between the 1970s and early 1990s, was initially very good but worsened in recent years and the regulator expressed concerns about declining safety standards. In early 1997, an external Nuclear Performance Advisory Group led by Mr G. Carl Andognini was established and conducted an intensive assessment of the nuclear operation. That assessment ranked the operation of Ontario Hydro's plants as m inimally acceptable , noting a number of causes such as: lack of management leadership and accountability; poor safety culture; inadequate training; lack of configuration management; and, deficient organization. A recovery program is now underway, involving the laying-up of eight units to free resources to upgrade the remaining twelve. A number of lessons that can be drawn from the Ontario Hydro experience are presented. The key lessons include: the importance of having the light people, with the right qualifications in the right place, at the right time; the need for all staff to have a questioning attitude and to be committed to a s afety culture ; configuration management is essential - knowledge of the status of the plant must be maintained and all documentation kept up to date; maintenance must be given high priority and be provided adequate resources: defined standards are needed for the conduct of all work; the Directors (or equivalent) and senior management must understand the plant and appreciate the consequences of their decisions and actions. The paper concludes that good new designs are not sufficient by themselves to achieve economically competitive and safe nuclear plants - a high standard of operation and maintenance is also necessary throughout the life of the plants. (author)

  10. Formation of an Approach to the Clustered Management of Foreign Economic Activity of Enterprises in the Conditions of Global Competition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sushchenko Olena A.

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The article is aimed at formation of an approach to the clustered management of foreign economic activity of enterprises in the conditions of global competition. Expedience of use of the cluster approach in the field of management of foreign economic activity of enterprises has been substantiated. A basic framework has been developed and a cluster model for management of foreign economic activity of enterprises providing a description of such management as a complex mechanism with the specified parameters has been created. The basic elements of the cluster model of management of foreign economic activity of enterprise have been allocated. Purposes for selecting elemental clusters in the process of management of foreign economic activity of enterprise have been defined. The partial functions of management that display the functional purpose of the cluster model of management of foreign economic activity of enterprises, as well as the composition of its elements, have been allocated. A generalized hierarchical view of the cluster model of management of foreign economic activity of enterprises has been proposed. A scheme of the operational administration of functioning of the cluster model of management of foreign economic activity of enterprises, based on the core principles and basics of situational simulation, has been presented. Effectiveness of the presented management model is determined by the increasing share of enterprises in the external markets in the context of the relevant clusters, an expansion of the types of foreign economic activity of enterprises, implementation of innovations

  11. Forms of Market and Competition in the Contemporary Economics. Theoretical Aspect

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ryszard Zabrzewski

    2007-10-01

    Full Text Available In the article author analyses the subjective structures of markets (as abstract notion. Bases of these structures are quantitative criteria. The main mechanism which changes these structures is the non-perfect competition. Twenty years ago M.E. Porter, the famous American economist, was formulated a concept of new stage of market rivalry. Above the article, the author makes a critical remark on Porters concept of market competition.

  12. Competitive Advantages of Effective Relationships of Business Entities as a Basis for Economic Development of Ukraine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Butenko Nataliia V.

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the article is to determine the transformation of sense of relationships between business entities in the national economy as well as basic ideas and principles of forming competitive advantages of effective relationships. The objective preconditions for the transition from the confrontation strategy to relationships as a basis of interaction of business entities in the structure of the national economy are analyzed. It is determined that the weakening of the antagonistic dominant of competitive relations and the growing importance of a constructive component of partnership has become a background of the desire of business entities to establish effective relationships. The attention is focused on the trends of the cooperation and integration approach to competitive behavior, which is manifested in such forms of competitive interactions as coordination, constructive interaction and competitive collaboration in order to achieve individual and common goals of competitive relationships of the entities. The competitive advantages based on establishing long-term and effective relationships are considered. The peculiarities in the formation of the system of relationships in the insurance market are justified, in particular the causes hindering the development of relationships in the sphere of security are determined, the main partners — entities in the system of relationships in the insurance market are identified, the levels of relationships management in the insurance market are determined. Among the advantages of the use of effective relationships in the field of insurance are the following: improving the company’s image, attracting new customers, additional sales of insurance services, limiting the access of competitors’ offers, more efficient use of the advertising budget, improving the efficiency of the development of new insurance products and services, increasing the profits and value of brands, improving relations with

  13. CURRENT TRENDS OF THE REGIONAL DEVELOPMENT POLICY IN THE EUROPEAN UNION. THE DEVELOPMENT OF COMPETITIVE ECONOMIC AGGLOMERATIONS OF CLUSTER TYPE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    LAURA CISMAŞ

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The study of economic agents’ behaviour, whose nowadays tendency is togroup themselves in space as clusters, has an important place in the field of localizing industrialactivities. This is due to domestic scale economies, known as agglomerations economies.According to Edgar M. Hoover (Hoover, 1948, domestic scale economies are specific tocompanies; the economies of localizing - to a certain branch, whose companies form clusters incertain geographical arias, and the urbanization economies are specific to cities, where thereare clusters of companies from different branches. The specialty literature regarding localeconomic development, based on the idea of cluster starts from well-known economic theories,such as: agglomeration theory (Alfred Marshall, the theory of spatial localizing of industrialunits (Alfred Weber, the theory of interdependence of locations (Harold Hotelling, the diamondtheory (Michael Porter, the theory of entrepreneurship (Joseph Schumpeter, the theory ofgeographical concentration. Basically, the common point which links them are the conceptswhich occur in these theories, such as: industrial district, industrial agglomeration, spatialinterdependence, concepts which lie at the basis of the cluster idea. Clusters represent animportant instrument for promoting industrial development, innovation, competitiveness andeconomic growth. If, at the beginning, the effort to develop clusters belonged to private personsand companies, nowadays, the actors involved in their development are the governments andpublic institutions of national or regional level.The objective established within the Lisbon Strategy (2000, to make the EuropeanUnion “the most competitive and dynamic knowledge-based economy”, is tightly linked to thenew approaches of the European economic policy, to competitiveness. One of the policies isfocused on developing at the European Union level clusters in the high competitiveness fields. with an innovative character

  14. Economic study of replacing conventional ballast with electronic ballast for high pressure sodium lamps used in public lighting in Egypt

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Osama M. Arafa

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available High pressure sodium lamp is widely used for street and public lighting in many countries including Egypt. It is traditionally connected to the AC mains through electromagnetic ballast. Electronic ballast for high pressure sodium lamp has reached a matured technological state and it is outperforming electromagnetic ballast in almost all operational aspects. Differentiating both ballasts from a technical perspective has been presented in great detail by the authors in a previous paper. Due to the current critical shortage of electrical energy supply in Egypt; top executives seek alternatives to mitigate the crisis of electricity shortage. Among these alternatives is a national plan to replace magnetic ballasts with electronic ballasts for public lighting applications. Replacing conventional electromagnetic ballast with electronic ballast is associated with high capital investment due to high cost of such devices. The objective of this study is to outlay a systematic approach to define the threshold price of electronic ballast which assures the economical feasibility of such plan. In doing this, the economical aspects of replacing electromagnetic ballasts with electronic ballast on a national scale in Egypt are analyzed and presented.

  15. The Leading Economic Sectors Building Comparative and Competitive Advantages in Romania's Foreign Trade

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adriana Giurgiu

    2008-05-01

    Full Text Available For now on, as a member state of the EU, Romania and the Romanian commercial operators should maximize the foreign trade’s opportunities given by the rich portfolio of free trade agreements of the European Union and try to reorient our exports towards countries where the products of which the structure of our Romanian exports is consisted of hold a comparative and competitive advantage, in order to reduce the Romanian long-term trade balance deficit. Therefore, this paper focuses on finding out the leading sectors with high potential to maintain and consolidate the comparative and competitive advantages of the Romania’s foreign trade.

  16. Trust, Personal Moral Codes, and the Resource-Advantage Theory of Competition: Explaining Productivity, Economic Growth, and Wealth Creation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shelby D. Hunt

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Scholars agree that societal-level moral codes that promote social trust also promote wealth creation.  However, what specific kinds of societal-level moral codes promote social trust?  Also, by what specific kind of competitive process does social trust promote wealth creation?  Because societal-level moral codes are composed of or formed from peoples’ personal moral codes, this article explores a theory of ethics, known as the “Hunt-Vitell” theory of ethics, that illuminates the concept of personal moral codes and uses the theory to discuss which types of personal moral codes foster trust and distrust in society.  This article then uses resource-advantage (R-A theory, one of the most completely articulated dynamic theories of competition, to show the process by which trust-promoting, societal-level moral codes promote productivity and economic growth.  That is, they promote wealth creation.

  17. In vitro characterization of luseogliflozin, a potent and competitive sodium glucose co-transporter 2 inhibitor: Inhibition kinetics and binding studies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saeko Uchida

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available In this study, we evaluated an inhibition model of luseogliflozin on sodium glucose co-transporter 2 (SGLT2. We also analyzed the binding kinetics of the drug to SGLT2 protein using [3H]-luseogliflozin. Luseogliflozin competitively inhibited human SGLT2 (hSGLT2-mediated glucose uptake with a Ki value of 1.10 nM. In the absence of glucose, [3H]-luseogliflozin exhibited a high affinity for hSGLT2 with a Kd value of 1.3 nM. The dissociation half-time was 7 h, suggesting that luseogliflozin dissociates rather slowly from hSGLT2. These profiles of luseogliflozin might contribute to the long duration of action of this drug.

  18. The Economics of Parallel Trade – Iconoclast Views on a Dogma of EU Competition Law

    OpenAIRE

    Petit, Nicolas

    2010-01-01

    This paper attempts to demonstrate that whilst parallel trade (also referred to as “grey market trade” in the United States, or as “arbitrage” in economic theory) in the European Union is subject to a remarkably favourable legal regime, the economic case supporting this approach remains to be made. To this end, it shows that the position of the EU Courts, and more generally of the EU institutions, is far from unquestionable in light of the relevant economic literature.

  19. Sprawl and mega-events: Economic growth and recent urban expansion in a city losing its competitive edge (Athens, Greece

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luca Salvati

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available In the new context of contemporary cities, local competitiveness for financial resources has grown more than ever, resulting in cities characterised by important socioeconomic transformations. Earlier studies addressed the relation between urban expansion, socioeconomic development and mega-events only for specific areas and types of urban growth, often overlooking the role of mega-events in fuelling urban sprawl. As the host of the 2004 Olympic Games, Athens, Greece is a paradigmatic example for emerging cities hosting mega-events due to the close interconnection between the Olympics, infrastructure development and urban sprawl. This article connects the latent relationship between economic expansion driven by the Olympic Games and laissez-faire urbanism to the long-term unregulated urban expansion characterising Athens’s development. By providing room for the original wave of sprawl, the resulting socioeconomic context is interpreted as a signal of the weakness of the “competitive city” framework in poorly planned and long-deregulated urban contexts such as Athens. A comprehensive analysis of recent phases of economic growth and discontinuous urban expansion thus provides further insight into understanding sprawl processes in today’s cities, and helps distinguish the morphological patterns and socioeconomic dynamics that characterise urban expansion during sequential cycles of economic expansion and recession.

  20. Economic competitiveness gap related to the application of the GAEC standards of cross-compliance on farms: evaluation methodology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marco Fedrizzi

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper describes the methods used in the monitoring carried out in the farms of the MO.NA.CO. project, to calculate the economic competitiveness gap faced by agricultural holdings that accede to the commitments imposed by the standards included in the project. The monitoring works were performed in agricultural holdings in relation to the particular reference condition of each standard. The processing of the information acquired allowed us to define the working times of each cultivation operation by means of the indications in the recommendations of the Associazione Italiana di Genio Rurale - Italian Rural Engineering Association, that considers the official methodology of the International Commission of the Organisation Scientifique du Travail en Agriculture (C.I.O.S.T.A.. The overall costs and revenues in case of compliance or non-compliance with the commitments of the standard were calculated by using Biondi’s methodology and other norms that indicate the technical and economic coefficients to be used in the calculations (EP 496.2 and D 497.4 ASAE standards. With the data related to the unit cost of ploughing a model Partial Least Squares (PLS has been achieved and validated, and it makes possible to predict the unit cost of this agricultural operation. Finally, the values of the variation of the economic competitiveness gap are reported for each standard.

  1. Socio-economic Segregation with (without) Competitive Education Policies: A Comparative Analysis of Argentina and Chile.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Narodowski, Mariano; Nores, Milagros

    2002-01-01

    The view that competition initiatives in education, such as Chile's introduction of vouchers, promote socioeconomic segregation in schools is questioned. Chile and Argentina have faced very different decentralization reforms, carried out within different regulatory frameworks, but have arrived at similar situations in terms of schools'…

  2. The Economics of MOOCs and Their Interrelationship to Competitiveness and Cohesiveness: The Case of Israel

    Science.gov (United States)

    BenDavid-Hadar, Iris

    2015-01-01

    Higher education contributes to state competitiveness via human capital development that provides future returns to the economy through increases in labour productivity. Additionally, higher education is an infrastructure for future state-level social cohesiveness. Those countries where the education system produces more equitable outcomes are…

  3. Cooperação econômica versus competitividade social Economic cooperation versus social competitiveness

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    João Cláudio Tupinambá Arroyo

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available As estratégias de cooperação econômica, presentes desde as sociedades primitivas, indicam que a presidência da lógica da 'competição' é uma importante distorção promovida pelo modo capitalista de produção e vivência que apartou o trabalhador do trabalho, desumanizando as relações sociais e políticas. Cooperação e competição possuem interações e complementaridades possíveis de potencializar um desenvolvimento humano desde que sob as premissas da economia solidária. Interação que traz efetiva agregação de valor ao processo econômico. A principal estratégia cooperativa está na lógica das teorias que fundamentam os aglomerados e arranjos econômicos. E a construção sociocultural capaz de tornar esta opção uma construção hegemônica se articula, hoje, em torno da economia solidária.The strategies of economic cooperation, found since primitive societies, indicate that the dominance of the logic of 'competition' is an important distortion promoted by the capitalist mode of production and the experience that separated the worker from work, dehumanizing social and political relations. Cooperation and competition interact and complement each other in ways that are capable of potentializing human development as long as they do so from the premises of solidarity economics. This interaction effectively aggregates value to the economic process. The principal cooperative strategy is in the logic of the theories that are at the foundation of the economic agglomerates and arrangements. The social-cultural construction capable of making this option a hegemonic construction is now articulated around solidarity economics.

  4. Economic competitiveness of underground coal gasification combined with carbon capture and storage in the Bulgarian energy network

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nakaten, Natalie Christine

    2014-11-15

    Underground coal gasification (UCG) allows for exploitation of deep-seated coal seams not economically exploitable by conventional coal mining. Aim of the present study is to examine UCG economics based on coal conversion into a synthesis gas to fuel a combined cycle gas turbine power plant (CCGT) with CO2 capture and storage (CCS). Thereto, a techno-economic model is developed for UCG-CCGT-CCS costs of electricity (COE) determination which, considering sitespecific data of a selected target area in Bulgaria, sum up to 72 Euro/MWh in total. To quantify the impact of model constraints on COE, sensitivity analyses are undertaken revealing that varying geological model constraints impact COE with 0.4% to 4%, chemical with 13%, technical with 8% to 17% and market-dependent with 2% to 25%. Besides site-specific boundary conditions, UCG-CCGT-CCS economics depend on resources availability and infrastructural characteristics of the overall energy system. Assessing a model based implementation of UCG-CCGT-CCS and CCS power plants into the Bulgarian energy network revealed that both technologies provide essential and economically competitive options to achieve the EU environmental targets and a complete substitution of gas imports by UCG synthesis gas production.

  5. Economic competitiveness of underground coal gasification combined with carbon capture and storage in the Bulgarian energy network

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nakaten, Natalie Christine

    2014-01-01

    Underground coal gasification (UCG) allows for exploitation of deep-seated coal seams not economically exploitable by conventional coal mining. Aim of the present study is to examine UCG economics based on coal conversion into a synthesis gas to fuel a combined cycle gas turbine power plant (CCGT) with CO2 capture and storage (CCS). Thereto, a techno-economic model is developed for UCG-CCGT-CCS costs of electricity (COE) determination which, considering sitespecific data of a selected target area in Bulgaria, sum up to 72 Euro/MWh in total. To quantify the impact of model constraints on COE, sensitivity analyses are undertaken revealing that varying geological model constraints impact COE with 0.4% to 4%, chemical with 13%, technical with 8% to 17% and market-dependent with 2% to 25%. Besides site-specific boundary conditions, UCG-CCGT-CCS economics depend on resources availability and infrastructural characteristics of the overall energy system. Assessing a model based implementation of UCG-CCGT-CCS and CCS power plants into the Bulgarian energy network revealed that both technologies provide essential and economically competitive options to achieve the EU environmental targets and a complete substitution of gas imports by UCG synthesis gas production.

  6. Maillard Conjugation of Sodium Alginate to Whey Protein for Enhanced Resistance to Surfactant-Induced Competitive Displacement from Air-Water Interfaces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cai, Bingqing; Saito, Anna; Ikeda, Shinya

    2018-01-24

    Whey protein adsorbed to an interface forms a viscoelastic interfacial film but is displaced competitively from the interface by a small-molecule surfactant added afterward. The present study evaluated the impact of the covalent conjugation of high- or low-molecular-weight sodium alginate (HA or LA) to whey protein isolate (WPI) via the Maillard reaction on the ability of whey protein to resist surfactant-induced competitive displacement from the air-water interface. Surfactant added after the pre-adsorption of conjugate to the interface increased surface pressure. At a given surface pressure, the WPI-LA conjugate showed a significantly higher interfacial area coverage and lower interfacial film thickness compared to those of the WPI-HA conjugate or unconjugated WPI. The addition of LA to the aqueous phase had little effect on the interfacial area and thickness of pre-adsorbed WPI. These results suggest the importance of the molecular weight of the polysaccharide moiety in determining interfacial properties of whey protein-alginate conjugates.

  7. ROMANIAN TOURISM REVIVAL, A PRIORITY PREMISE IN INCREASING NATIONAL ECONOMIC COMPETITIVENESS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stefanita SUSU

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available According to the World Travel & Tourism Council (WTTC, the tourism industry has created five million new jobs, going to count globally over 260 million employees; approx. 10% of all new jobs in the world are generated by this industry. Where is Romania in this landscape? At the level of competitiveness, Romania fell five places in 2011-2013, reaching 68, from 63, behind Hungary, Poland and even Bulgaria. The reasons for departing from: Romanians' attitude towards tourists, ineffective marketing, the quality of the natural environment, transport deficiencies and ineffective police services (law enforcement, maintaining order. However, at the national level, we have all the necessary elements and we have all chances to become a competitive tourist destination domestically and internationally; in order for this chance to become a reality, we need to exploit the existing potential and transform Romania into an attractive tourist destination for both Romanian and foreigners, a performance target, as the natural conditions and materials are available.

  8. Economics of voluntarist approaches in environmental policies with non-perfect competition and cooperation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    David, M.

    2004-05-01

    Voluntarist approaches (VA) are a form of environmental regulation which has been recently developed and which allows companies to voluntarily commit themselves to improve their environmental efficiencies. This work integrates for the first time the role of market structures which prevail both on the polluting industries side and on the cleansing industries side in order to compare some VA with other environmental policy instruments. A VA inspired from a policy introduced in Denmark is compared first with a tax in the framework of an imperfect competition between polluting companies. The same form of VA is then compared to a tax, a pollution quota and a process standard when the cleansing is delegated to an imperfectly competitive industry. Finally, the study of a VA applied in France in the domain of domestic packing wastes allows to compare the theoretical point of view and the real situation. (J.S.)

  9. Enabling Manufacturing Competitiveness and Economic Sustainability : Proceedings of the 4th International Conference on Changeable, Agile, Reconfigurable and Virtual production

    CERN Document Server

    2012-01-01

    The changing manufacturing environment requires more responsive and adaptable manufacturing systems. The theme of the 4th International Conference on Changeable, Agile, Reconfigurable and Virtual production (CARV2011) is “Enabling Manufacturing Competitiveness and Economic Sustainability”. Leading edge research and best implementation practices and experiences, which address these important issues and challenges, are presented. The proceedings include advances in manufacturing systems design, planning, evaluation, control and evolving paradigms such as mass customization, personalization, changeability, re-configurability and flexibility. New and important concepts such as the dynamic product families and platforms, co-evolution of products and systems, and methods for enhancing manufacturing systems’ economic sustainability and prolonging their life to produce more than one product generation are treated. Enablers of change in manufacturing systems, production volume and capability scalability and man...

  10. Economic Optimal Operation of Community Energy Storage Systems in Competitive Energy Markets

    OpenAIRE

    Arghandeh, Reza; Woyak, Jeremy; Onen, Ahmet; Jung, Jaesung; Broadwater, Robert P.

    2014-01-01

    Distributed, controllable energy storage devices offer several benefits to electric power system operation. Three such benefits include reducing peak load, providing standby power, and enhancing power quality. These benefits, however, are only realized during peak load or during an outage, events that are infrequent. This paper presents a means of realizing additional benefits by taking advantage of the fluctuating costs of energy in competitive energy markets. An algorithm for optimal charge...

  11. An Analysis of Techno-Economic Requirements for MOSAIC CPV Systems to Achieve Cost Competitiveness

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Horowitz, Kelsey A [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Cunningham, Daniel [ARPA-E; Zahler, James [ARPA-E

    2017-11-01

    A comprehensive bottom-up cost model has been developed by NREL for ARPAE's MOSAIC micro-concentrator PV program. In this presentation, we use this model to examine the potential competitiveness of MOSAIC systems compared to incumbent technologies in different markets. We also provide an example of how these models can be used by awardees to assess different aspects of their design.

  12. Economical assessment of competitive enhanced limestones for CO2 capture cycles in power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Romeo, Luis M.; Lara, Yolanda; Lisbona, Pilar; Martinez, Ana

    2009-01-01

    CO 2 capture systems based on the carbonation/calcination loop have gained rapid interest due to promising carbonator CO 2 capture efficiency, low sorbent cost and no flue gases treatment is required before entering the system. These features together result in a competitively low cost CO 2 capture system. Among the key variables that influence the performance of these systems and their integration with power plants, the carbonation conversion of the sorbent and the heat requirement at calciner are the most relevant. Both variables are mainly influenced by CaO/CO 2 ratio and make-up flow of solids. New sorbents are under development to reduce the decay of their carbonation conversion with cycles. The aim of this study is to assess the competitiveness of new limestones with enhanced sorption behaviour applied to carbonation/calcination cycle integrated with a power plant, compared to raw limestone. The existence of an upper limit for the maximum average capture capacity of CaO has been considered. Above this limit, improving sorbent capture capacity does not lead to the corresponding increase in capture efficiency and, thus, reduction of CO 2 avoided cost is not observed. Simulations calculate the maximum price for enhanced sorbents to achieve a reduction in CO 2 removal cost under different process conditions (solid circulation and make-up flow). The present study may be used as an assessment tool of new sorbents to understand what prices would be competitive compare with raw limestone in the CO 2 looping capture systems. (author)

  13. Economic competitiveness : performance measures for transportation : review of literature and best practices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-11-01

    The New York State Department of Transportation (NYSDOT) is developing a comprehensive set of measures that link investments in transportation to the general economic performance of the New York State Economy. The agency would like to understand in p...

  14. Framework for Developing Economic Competitiveness Measures for the California Sustainable Freight Action Plan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-07-04

    The METRANS Transportation Center has been providing technical assistance to the California Governors Office of Business and Economic Development (GO-Biz) and the California Air Resources Board (CARB) in support of implementing the California Sust...

  15. The Project Approach in Organization of Foreign Economic Activity as a Means of Increasing Competitiveness of Industrial Enterprise

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lazarenko Vladimir Ye.

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The article is aimed at studying the organization of foreign economic activity of industrial enterprise in case of introduction of project approach to its management. New conditions of doing business in terms of aircraft building enterprises, consisting in the transition to production according to international standards, require a modern approach to the solution of the range of issues. In conditions of limited internal financial resources of company and high expenses connected with entering the foreign market, it is extremely important to define the priority directions of foreign economic activity and the most optimal mechanisms of its organization and management. The functioning of the sphere of foreign economic activity of industrial enterprise in case of introduction of project approach to management has been analyzed. The essence, features and the main parameters of project approach as a means of increasing the competitiveness of enterprise have been defined. Priorities of the large-scale enterprise development strategy have been analyzed and suggested by means of carrying out the project method of organization of foreign economic activity.

  16. Competition in the natural gas pipeline industry: An economic policy analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gallick, E.C.

    1993-01-01

    The Federal Energy Regulatory Commission (FERC) currently regulates the price at which natural gas can be sold by regulated interstate natural gas pipelines. Whether pipelines should be deregulated depends, to an important extent, on the competitive nature of the market. The key question is whether pipelines can successfully raise price (i.e., the transport fee) and reduce output if the market is deregulated. In most natural gas pipeline markets, there are a small number of current suppliers. Opponents of deregulation argue that the unrestrained market power of pipelines in many local markets will introduce inefficiencies in the sale of natural gas. Implicit in their arguments is a narrow view of competition: the number of current suppliers. The competitive effect of potential entry is largely ignored. These commentators would argue that without potential entry, it may be true that the net social cost of deregulation exceeds the costs of maintaining present regulation. A study was conducted to determine the extent to which potential entry might constrain the exercise of market power by natural gas pipelines if price and entry regulation is removed. Potential entrants are defined in the context of antitrust markets. That is, these markets are consistent with the Department of Justice (DOJ) Merger Guidelines. The study attempts to quantify the effects of potential entry on the market power of current suppliers. The selection of potential entrants therefore considers a number of factors (such as the size of the nearby supplier and the distance to the market) that are expected to affect the likelihood of collision in a deregulated market. The policy implications of the study are reviewed

  17. The comparative analysis of safety and economic competitiveness of the advanced high-power reactor projects of NPP

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Batyrbekov, G.A.; Makhanov, U.M.; Philimonova, R.A.; Kichutkina, E.G.

    2002-01-01

    The comparative analysis results of the safety and economic competitiveness of the seven advanced large sized reactors projects (900 MW and more) are submitted in that report: EPR, Frameatome France, Siemens Germany; EP-1000 Westinghouse, USA and Genesi Italy; Candu 9, Atomic Energy of Canada Ltd; System 80 +, ABB, USA; KNGR, group NSSS Engineering and Development, Korea Power Engineering Company, Inc; APWR, Electric Power company, Japan Atomic Power Company, Mitsubishi Heavy Industries, Westinghouse Electric; and WWER-1000 (V-392), Atomenergoproject/Gidropress Russian Federation. According to the economic competitiveness of listed compared power reactors the 14 criteria of safety have been accepted. These criteria: 1. Features of the barrier system of 'defence-in-depth'. 2. The self-security of a reactor under increase of power and reactivity of a reactor, decrease of the expense and phase transformations of the reactor core coolant (presence of negative feedbacks). 3. Presence of the reactor shutdown systems responding principles of a variety, independence and reservation. Presence of the passive means of initiation and operation of the emergency protection. 4. The emergency cooling of the core of reactor. A presence of the passive means of cooling. Presence of the water reservation for the water supply of the different safety systems. 5. The emergency electrical supply, its reliability and degree of reservation. 6. The prevention measures of the heavy accident with the melt core. The decrease of the heavy accident probability. 7. The account of the heavy accident under development of the levels of protection. 8. The protection levels of NPP, the technological criteria of efficiency of the each safety barriers and the limiting radiation criteria for the each level of protection , in particular for the design-basis and beyond-design-basis accidents. 9. The measures for reduction of the heavy accident consequences. The management by the beyond

  18. An Analysis of Economic Growth, Competitiveness and Macroeconomic Imbalances in the European Union

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gheorghe Hurduzeu

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Taking into consideration the determinants of the economic crisis and of the sovereign debt crisis, we aim to analyze the dynamics of the European economies and discuss changes related to macroeconomic imbalances, as highlighted by the recent crises as an important factor of the unfavorable dynamics registered during the last years. In this respect we considered both internal and external imbalances, as specified in the macroeconomic imbalance procedure that was implemented for the European Union member states since 2012, as a response to the crises that affected all open economies of the world. The purpose of this article is to provide a comprehensive analysis of economic imbalances in the European Union and to determine their influence on economic growth.

  19. Competition and Constraint : Economic Globalization and Human Resource Practices in 23 European Countries

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Koster, Ferry; Wittek, Rafael

    2016-01-01

    Economic globalization is often considered to be one of the main causes of recent changes in the workplace and the way in which organizations manage their human resources. Nevertheless, an empirical study putting this claim to the test by relating the internationalization of the economy to the use

  20. Economic Viability of Metallic Sodium-Cooled Fast Reactor Fuel in Korea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. K. Kim

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper evaluates whether SFR metallic nuclear fuel can be economical. To make this determination, the cost of SFCF (SFR fuel cycle facilities was estimated, and the break-even point of the manufacturing cost of SFR metallic nuclear fuel for direct disposal option was then calculated. As a result of the cost estimation, the levelized unit cost (LUC for SFCF was calculated to be 5,311 $/kgHM, and the break-even point was calculated to be $5,267/kgHM. Therefore, the cost difference between LUC and the break-even point is not only small but is also within the relevant range of the uncertainty level of Class 3 in accordance with a generic cost estimate classification matrix of AACE (the Association for the Advancement of Cost Engineering. This means it is very difficult to judge the economical feasibility of SFR metallic nuclear fuel because as of today there are no commercial facilities in Korea or the world. The economic feasibility of SFR metallic nuclear fuel, however, will be enhanced if the mass production of SFCF becomes possible in the future.

  1. Korean SFR development program and technical activities for improving economical competitiveness

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yoo, Jaewoon

    2013-01-01

    Future Plan: • Construction cost evaluation of PGSFR and commercial SFR; – Component based capital cost evaluation of PGSFR is undergoing and will be completed by the first half of 2014; – Component cost is only based on the experience from that of LWR; • Cost Benefit Analysis of Future Nuclear Energy Mix; – With revised National Energy Plan (as of 2013); – Near-term: Benefit from LWR spent fuel recycling: - In Korean law, Share of Expense for spent fuel disposal is reserved as 0.4M$ per a LWR spent fuel assembly (as of 2003); – Long-term: Competitive power plant to LWR with self sustainable feature; • Revision of commercial SFR conceptual design; – Less constraint in material (fuel, cladding) irradiation experience; – More innovative features as long-term goal

  2. AP1000: Meeting economic goals in a competitive world. Annex 7

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Davis, G.; Cummins, E.; Winters, J.

    2002-01-01

    In the U.S., conditions are becoming more favorable for considering the nuclear option again for new baseload generation. While oil and natural gas prices have risen, the cost of operating the existing fleet of nuclear plants has decreased. Furthermore, an advanced 1000 MWe nuclear plant that will be even more cost-competitive with fossil fuels and natural gas will be available by 2005. Westinghouse, in an effort to further improve on the AP600's cost competitiveness, has developed the AP1000, a two-loop, 1000 MWe, advanced pressurized water reactor (PWR) with passive safety features and extensive plant simplifications to enhance the construction, operation, and maintenance. Like the AP600, the AP1000 uses proven technology that builds on over 30 years of operating PWR experience. Westinghouse has completed design studies that demonstrate that it is feasible to increase the power output of the AP600 to at least 1000 MWe, maintaining its current design configuration and licensing basis. To maximize the cost savings, the AP1000 has been designed within the space constraints of the AP600, while retaining the credibility of proven components and substantial safety margins. The affect on the plant's overnight cost of the increased major components that is required to uprate the AP600 to 1000 MWe is small. This overall cost addition is on the order of 11 percent, while the overall power increase is almost 80 percent. This paper describes the changes made to uprate the AP600 and gives an overview of the plant design. (author)

  3. Nuclear energy and economic competitiveness in several normative systems; Energia nuclear y competitividad economica en varios sistemas normativos

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thomas, S. [University of Greenwich, 30 Park Row, London SE10 9LS (United Kingdom)

    2009-07-01

    The serious challenge imposed by the necessity of reducing the gases emission of greenhouse effect in the electric generation sector, it has renovated the interest in the new plants construction of nuclear energy. Nevertheless, since the use of the nuclear energy began to descend ago more of 25 years, it is has speculated continually about the possible nuclear rebirth. Are such predictions based in solid basis or are mere groundless prognostics? The objective of the present document is to analyze the economic aspects of the nuclear energy, to identify the key factors that they allow to determine its competitiveness and to sound the possible markets for the new plants of nuclear energy. To achieve this, it is divided in the following sections: Revision of the current state of the nuclear energy, including the location, the type and capacity of the plants; Identification of the variables that determine the economic situation of the nuclear energy; Revision of the recent predictions and of the economic aspects of the Olkiluoto nuclear power plant of Finland; A revision by market of the possible future of the new nuclear facilities in the coming decade. (Author)

  4. MARKET COMPETITIVENESS, RISK, AND ECONOMIC RETURN: THE CASE OF THE LIMASSOL JUICE FACTORY

    OpenAIRE

    Andreas Andreou; Glenn Jenkins; Savvakis Savvides

    1991-01-01

    This paper evaluates the strategic options available to a juice drink manufacturing company in Cyprus who is facing serious problems of survival in an aggressive and rapidly changing market environment. Following an initial screening of possible investments based on qualitative evaluation of the market, the two most promising strategies are formulated and appraised for financial and economic viability. The financial appraisal analyzes the projected cash flows from the owner’s and total invest...

  5. The competitive economics of a middle aged multi unit nuclear generating station

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Talbot, K.H.

    1994-01-01

    In 1992 Ontario Hydro's 15 year old 4 x 850 MWe Candu, Bruce A Nuclear Generating Station was predicted to need considerable capital investment to replace pressure tubes, steam generators and other prematurely ageing equipment in order to restore the station to high performance. Over the subsequent two years the station has undergone 2 major economic assessment studies which have confirmed the economic viability of continued operation of the plant. Declining demand for electricity in Ontario combined with a excess of generating capacity and a need to stabilise electricity rates have however forced significant operational cost reductions and reduced capital availability for rehabilitation work, it's medium and long term future remains in question. This presentation offers a practical illustration of the need to maintain steady high performance from nuclear generating plant via the appropriate life management techniques. The avoidance of mid life infusion of capital is considered as essential if nuclear generation is to successfully survive major changes in economic conditions. 2 tabs., 7 figs

  6. Fuzzy model of relationship among economic performance, competitiveness and business ethics of small and medium-sized enterprises

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nina Bočková

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this article is to study the relations among financial indicators, competitiveness and business ethics of comparable small and medium-sized enterprises. A sample of 59 SMEs from the South Moravia region was chosen. All selected companies either produce or service electronics. This research is based on the application of scientific analysis, synthesis, induction, fuzzy logic and modeling. Information for this research was obtained from secondary information sources – Amadeus database, accounting statements and information from the register of companies. Each company is described by a set of 10 variables. Fuzzy sets and reasoning are ideal tools to cope with vague, ill-structured and uncertain scenarios which can be found frequently in business and economics. This is the main reason why fuzzy logic was used in this research. The paper is self-explanatory and no a prior knowledge of fuzzy reasoning is required.

  7. Competition to commit crime: An economic experiment on illegal logging using behavioral game theory

    OpenAIRE

    Tananya Songchoo; Komsan Suriya

    2012-01-01

    This study constructs an economic experiment using behavioral game theory to figure out policies that discourage illegal logging in Thailand. A player is assigned to be either a police or an outlaw in the game. The game randomly matches two players in different roles. The lawbreaker can offer a bribe to police under uncertainties whether the police may refuse it or reject the offer because of too small amount of the bribe. Even when bribery is accepted, it is still uncertain for an lawbreaker...

  8. The market for, and economics of, cogeneration and independent power projects in a competitive environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McLeese, R.

    1999-01-01

    A corporate review of Access Capital Corporation was presented. The company is a financial advisor for the development and ownership of electric power projects. The company has expertise in various technologies including gas-fired cogeneration, hydro energy, biomass, renewables and district heating. This presentation included a series of overhead viewgraphs which focused on: (1) the restructuring of Ontario's electricity market, (2) future private power requirements, (3) economics of IPP technologies, (4) pros and cons of on-site power generation, (5) rates paid for private power supply, and (6) financial restructuring of current NUG power purchase contracts. 2 tabs., 6 figs

  9. Economic evaluation of current conditions of competition and efficiency of automotive and rail systems in Colombia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vasco Correa, Carlos Andrés

    2012-01-01

    This study uses microeconomic data from the transportation systems of land cargo in Colombia: rail and trucking, to determine their degree of allocative efficiency through the non-parametric method Data Envelopment Analysis DEA. The average overall efficiency found was 74.4% for trains and 20.56% for trucks. These figures indicate that rail is more efficient in the allocation of resources. This means that trains in Colombia use their input better than trucks to maximize their production, given the costs and technological characteristics of each system. This is a signal for the design of a public policy for investment in transportation infrastructure that seeks to raise the competitiveness of Colombian exports, investing not only in roads but in complementary systems such as railways too. - Highlights: ► Colombia is currently undergoing a backlog of transport infrastructure and high export costs. ► We perform a microeconomic study of transportation systems in Colombia: rail and trucking. ► As a result we found that the rail is much more efficient than the automotive system. ► As policy recommendation the government should consider the investment in railways. ► It is necessary to take into account the strategic value that investment in railways would bring.

  10. Untying the Energy Knot of Supply Security, Climate Change, Economic Competitiveness: The Role of Electricity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bulteel, Paul; Capros, Pantelis

    2007-07-01

    In energy terms, the following decades will be dominated by the challenge of developing a low-carbon, energy-secure and competitive economy. EURELECTRIC launched a study, horizon 2030-2050, to develop a qualified vision about the role of electricity in responding to these challenges. The resulting message is a positive one: with the right policies that include a long-term visibility of carbon pricing to allow integration of climate change impacts in investments and business strategies, it is possible to substantially reduce greenhouse gas emissions without unreasonable costs to the economy, and at the same time to reduce oil and gas dependency. A focus on demand side energy-efficiency is a prerequisite. The development of renewables, of clean fossil fuel technology with carbon capture and storage, and of nuclear energy can make a low-carbon and largely oil-independent power generation mix a reality. This allows for formidable synergies with energy-efficient electro-technologies at the demand side. Two sectors are especially meaningful in this respect: the heating and cooling and road transport sectors, where heat pumps and plug-in hybrid cars respectively can make energy-efficient, oil-independent and low-carbon homes and cars a reality. Although the analysis is based on European conditions, the authors believe that it has worldwide relevance. (auth)

  11. Power market competition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kelly, J.

    1998-01-01

    In the Unites States the prospect of greater competition in wholesale power market was immediately eclipsed by talk of retail competition. Attempts to move to retail competition have been costly and complex. Prudent public policy and economic analyses suggest that retail competition not be implemented until it can first be demonstrated that effective competition exists in wholesale power markets [it

  12. Planning the International Competition Schedules for the Health of Elite Athletes: A 21-Year Retrospective Study Evaluating the Effectiveness and Economic Impact in an Olympic Sport.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna Maria Malagoni

    Full Text Available The increased number of trips and competitions scheduled in the international agonistic calendars meets commercial demands while acting as a source of stress for the athletes. A model, developed in biathlons to monitor the so-called competition load, revealed an upward trend over time. The aim of this study was to evaluate, in a 21-year period, the effects of the International Biathlon Union's rescheduling of the competitive calendars to control the competition load, as well as its stability over time and the economic impact of this intervention.For each season competition, the load factors from the international agonistic calendar (number of venues/events, competition days/distance were considered, and the athletes' daily and maximal stress scores were calculated. The calendar rescheduling, which started in 2001, involved the length of competitions, number of resting days and frequency of travels. Data from the period pre (1994-2000 and post (2001-2007 the intervention, as well as follow-up (2008-2015, were compared and analyzed in relation to the federation's budget.The competition load and athletes' daily stress score progressively increased pre, plateaued post and remained stable in follow-up. Their annual variations within the final two periods were significantly lower than in the pre period, in spite of the higher average values. The maximal stress score decreased over time. The direct correlation between most of the competition load factors with the economic budget present in pre was lost in post and follow-up. Similarly, the athletes' daily stress score had a stable trend in post and follow-up, while budget continued to increase.The management of an athlete's potential source of stress by an international federation stabilized the competition load over time, but it did not affect the budget. Furthermore, it uncoupled the relationship between the athlete's effort and federation income.

  13. Planning the International Competition Schedules for the Health of Elite Athletes: A 21-Year Retrospective Study Evaluating the Effectiveness and Economic Impact in an Olympic Sport.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malagoni, Anna Maria; Lamberti, Nicola; Carrabre, James E; Litmanen, Hannu; Jeannier, Pierre; Zhukovskaja, Larisa; Dal Follo, Donatella; Zambon, Christel; Resch, Nicole; Manfredini, Fabio

    2015-01-01

    The increased number of trips and competitions scheduled in the international agonistic calendars meets commercial demands while acting as a source of stress for the athletes. A model, developed in biathlons to monitor the so-called competition load, revealed an upward trend over time. The aim of this study was to evaluate, in a 21-year period, the effects of the International Biathlon Union's rescheduling of the competitive calendars to control the competition load, as well as its stability over time and the economic impact of this intervention. For each season competition, the load factors from the international agonistic calendar (number of venues/events, competition days/distance) were considered, and the athletes' daily and maximal stress scores were calculated. The calendar rescheduling, which started in 2001, involved the length of competitions, number of resting days and frequency of travels. Data from the period pre (1994-2000) and post (2001-2007) the intervention, as well as follow-up (2008-2015), were compared and analyzed in relation to the federation's budget. The competition load and athletes' daily stress score progressively increased pre, plateaued post and remained stable in follow-up. Their annual variations within the final two periods were significantly lower than in the pre period, in spite of the higher average values. The maximal stress score decreased over time. The direct correlation between most of the competition load factors with the economic budget present in pre was lost in post and follow-up. Similarly, the athletes' daily stress score had a stable trend in post and follow-up, while budget continued to increase. The management of an athlete's potential source of stress by an international federation stabilized the competition load over time, but it did not affect the budget. Furthermore, it uncoupled the relationship between the athlete's effort and federation income.

  14. Spatial concentration of economic activity and competitiveness of Central European regions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Justyna Majewska

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available The paper tackles with a still somewhat underdeveloped aspect of regional competiveness which regards to spillover effects stemming from spatial proximity of highly competitive neighbors. Although spillover effects are well recognized in the literature, we focus more on inter-regional concentration of business activity when enterprises are located in a particular district which is not far from the agglomeration center but not the center itself. We check for statistical significance of spatial autocorrelation measures (local Moran’s Ii statistic in order to identify spillovers between districts in Central European countries (Germany, Poland, Czech Republic and Slovakia. We use variables indicating Knowledge Intensive Services (KIS, in particular hi-tech KIS and information and communication services (including computer science. We compare 2009 with 2015 to notice agglomeration dynamics. We observe statistically significant spillover effects in Central European countries in urbanization-type clusters as well as strengthening of the effect over time. Taking into consideration more detailed data for Poland we conclude that while hi-tech KIS mostly spill over to neighboring districts, the reverse pattern may be observed for computer science (programming and consultancy. One explanation is that this subsector relies on highly demanded workforce and a prestigious localization (in the agglomeration centers works as a bargaining chip to attract programmers. In order to measure the spillover effects more precisely it is recommended to define and measure the neighborhood of agglomeration centers using localization of firms based on GPS coordinates instead of centroids (geometric means of districts – as shown in example of Poland.

  15. Competitiveness and Economic Security — Priority Problems of the Region’s Metallurgical Comples and Its Leaders in the Conditions Of Instability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrey Anatolyevich Kozitsyn

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The subject-matter of the research is the study of the regional metallurgical complex and its leaders, which account for 55 % of industrial output and more than 57 % of exports of the Sverdlovsk region, in the current terms of economic instability. Supporting the business priorities of improving the competitiveness and economic security of the enterprise is based on the example of "UMMCHolding" — the leader of ferrous metallurgy in the Middle Urals, an active participant in the global and Russian copper market. The modern economic, mathematical, and general scientific methods (comparison study, the ratio of total and private, and others are applied as the research methods. To obtain the study results, the main areas of the holding impacted by the sanctions are analyzed: modernization of production and spare parts provisions of the current imported equipment, correction of the supply chain, searching for new business partners, transformation of the structure and direction of cargo traffic, solving transportation problems, stocks system management and minimization of economic, social and environmental costs. The urgency of solving the problem of company competitiveness and economic security increasing together with its sectoral and regional features in the present conditions is proved as the key conclusion. The high competitiveness of the holding is considered to be one of the factors of its economic security. The main goal of the economic security of the company is its sustainable and maximally effective functioning at the present time and high potential for successful development in the future. The indicators and criteria for the economic security evaluation are studied in detail. The analysis conducted has shown that, in general, the holding has high indicators characterizing its economic security on the basis of high competitiveness. As a negative sign, a lack of the investment growth needed to solve urgent problems is noticed.

  16. Ukrainian Economic Reforms: Current Status and Perspectives in the Face of Competition on European Union Markets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Greta Marianna

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The conflict in Ukraine since the beginning of 2014 has been the important in the history of Ukraine as an independent state. Despite the danger of economic collapse, the loss of Crimea, and war in its most industrialized region, Ukraine is still trying to conduct reforms and implement Western standards. Through persistent work Ukraine has been moving forward, despite all the difficulties. The society is staying together with the government to save the economy and defend the integrity of the whole country. This article outlines key processes in the Ukrainian reforms during 2014 and describes the cooperation of Ukraine with the European Union and international organizations in the field of financial support and reforms. The main goal of the article is to present the situation in various spheres of the country’s development, but it is also an attempt to present a wider perspective on both the achievements and shortcomings in the process of reforms. The authors focus on those aspects having a significant impact on the Ukrainian economy after February 2014.

  17. Economic competition, sustainability, and survival endurance: The extinction of the dodo, the Easter Island case, and the tragedy of the commons effect

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pedro Moreira

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available A fast developing industry worldwide, tourism demands a monumental extent of resources, and at times devastates and condemns the very own environments that are fundamental to the economic survival of organizations and the sustainability of travel destinations. The purpose of the study is to link three established scientific themes on survival and sustainability to empirical results in the field of economic decision and behavior. The discussion of this link may also represent the originality value of the paper. Departing from the results of a series of decision games obtained under a quasi-experimental design, behavioral patterns were analyzed and extrapolated to explore the terminal effects of competition trends on the survival and economic viability of organizations and travel destinations in restricted environments. The findings show that the identified competition tendency neutralized an important share of the economic potential offered by the decision game, with significant negative effects on the economic efficiency. If persistent, the competition tendency is expected to produce long term effects on the sustainability and economic survival of organizations and travel destinations in restricted environments. DOI: 10.18870/hlrc.v2i4.84

  18. Competition Regime

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Danilo Icaza Ortiz

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper is a review of the competition regime works of various authors, published under the auspices of the University of the Hemispheres and the Corporation for Studies and Publications. Analyzes the structure, the general concepts, case law taken for development. Includes comments on the usefulness of this work for the study of competition law and the contribution to the lawyers who want to practice in this branch of economic law.

  19. Sodium Lauryl Sulfate Competitively Interacts with HPMC-AS and Consequently Reduces Oral Bioavailability of Posaconazole/HPMC-AS Amorphous Solid Dispersion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Yuejie; Wang, Shujing; Wang, Shan; Liu, Chengyu; Su, Ching; Hageman, Michael; Hussain, Munir; Haskell, Roy; Stefanski, Kevin; Qian, Feng

    2016-08-01

    Sodium lauryl sulfate (SLS), as an effective surfactant, is often used as a solubilizer and/or wetting agent in various dosage forms for the purpose of improving the solubility and dissolution of lipophilic, poorly water-soluble drugs. This study aims to understand the impact of SLS on the solution behavior and bioavailability of hypromellose acetate succinate (HPMC-AS)-based posaconazole (PSZ) ASDs, and to identify the underlying mechanisms governing the optimal oral bioavailability of ASDs when surfactants such as SLS are used in combination. Fluorescence spectroscopy and optical microscopy showed that "oil-out" or "liquid-liquid phase separation (LLPS)" occurred in the supersaturated PSZ solution once drug concentration surpassed ∼12 μg/mL, which caused the formation of drug-rich oily droplets with initial size of ∼300-400 nm. Although FT-IR study demonstrated the existence of specific interactions between PSZ and HPMC-AS in the solid state, predissolved HPMC-AS was unable to delay LLPS of the supersaturated PSZ solution and PSZ-rich amorphous precipitates with ∼16-18% HPMC-AS were formed within 10 min. The coprecipitated HPMC-AS was found to be able to significantly delay the crystallization of PSZ in the PSZ-rich amorphous phase from less than 10 min to more than 4 h, yet coexistent SLS was able to negate this crystallization inhibition effect of HPMC-AS in the PSZ-rich amorphous precipitates and cause fast PSZ crystallization within 30 min. 2D-NOESY and the CMC/CAC results demonstrated that SLS could assemble around HPMC-AS and competitively interact with HPMC-AS in the solution, thus prevent HPMC-AS from acting as an effective crystallization inhibitor. In a crossover dog PK study, this finding was found to be correlating well with the in vivo bioavailability of PSZ ASDs formulated with or without SLS. The SLS containing PSZ ASD formulation demonstrated an in vivo bioavailability ∼30% of that without SLS, despite the apparently better in vitro

  20. INCREASED COMPETITIVENESS OF CONSTRUCTION ENTERPRISES ON THE BASIS OF ORGANISATIONAL-ECONOMIC DECISIONS OF PERSONNEL POTENTIAL MANAGEMENT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. R. Emirbekova

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Objectives. The development of an algorithm for optimising the formation and use of human resources of a construction enterprise.Methods. The research basis consists in a generalised methodology  for personnel management, as well as specific methods for logical  and statistical analysis of management decision-making in  construction activities. The approaches, criteria, indicators and methods for assessing the effectiveness of human resource  management are studied alongside factors influencing the efficiency  resource potential management in a construction enterprise.Results. A quantitative methodology for the selection of qualified  staff for the implementation of construction projects is proposed.  The indicators of the effectiveness of the staff potential are  determined. Qualitative and quantitative data for the optimal  personnel formation for the construction project realisation are  systematised. An algorithm for optimising the personnel potential of  a construction enterprise is proposed. The use of this algorithm will  inform the choice of organisational and economic solutions for the  formation and effective use of qualified personnel at the expense of  combining professions, thereby reducing the cost and duration of construction work and increasing the resource efficiency and competitiveness of the construction enterprise.Conclusion. The labour potential of a construction enterprise can  significantly contribute to increased efficiency if it is used  appropriately and in an organised manner, using modern scientific  methods of management. Methods for building and organising the  activity of the personnel management system are proposed and a  mechanism for establishing relationships between the employer and employees that promote the most effective use of all types of resources for the development of the enterprise according to  strategic objectives is disclosed. The dominant role of the

  1. Competitiveness and range of applications of nuclear power, as seen in the light of recent developments in the field of energy economic and energy policy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Michaelis, H.

    1975-01-01

    At the reactor conferences in Karlsruhe in 1973 and in Berlin in 1974 the author gave his views on the competitive position of nuclear energy in the German Federal Republic and described how the determining factors in cost development, both for conventional energy generation and for nuclear power generation, have developed since October 1971. Basic data were provided by the paper by B. Bergmann and H. Kraemer (KFA Juelich) 'Technical and economic state in October 1971 as well as prospects for nuclear energy in power economics in the German Federal Republic' (Juel-827-HT - February 1972). The author now shows to what extent the determining factors for the competitive capacity of nuclear energy in the Federal Republic of Germany have changed until April 1975. (orig.) [de

  2. A new vision on competitiveness within the post-crisis economy. Causes, evolutions and possible innovative solutions to fight against the undesirable effects of the economic crisis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laura Mariana CISMAŞ

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available The main objective of this paper is to highlight the need for promoting a new vision regarding competitiveness mostly in the context of amplifying the effects and the complexity of the nature of crisis manifested now on the international level (economic, environment, demographic, value and moral etc..The economic thinking pays increased attention to the issues related to economic crisis, as well as the development of theories that give satisfactory answers about the causes and, especially, the solutions to the crisis.Using scientific observation and comparative case study as research methods, this paper aims to make a theoretical critical review of the theories regarding the causes of economic crisis over time and to identify and analyze some anti-crisis policies.

  3. Fuel modelling and its economical competitiveness; Obtencion de UO{sub 2} ex AUC (carbonato de uranil amonio) partiendo de fluoruro de uranilo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marino, A C [Comision Nacional de Energia Atomica, San Carlos de Bariloche (Argentina). Centro Atomico Bariloche; Savino, E J [Comision Nacional de Energia Atomica, San Martin (Argentina). Centro Atomico Constituyentes

    1997-12-31

    Due to reasons of economical competitiveness, there is at present a strong need in the nuclear industry to improve fuel performance under more demanding operating conditions, such as those resulting from an extended burnup. This requires a good understanding of the properties of fuel rod materials and their in-service performance. As it can be easily foreseen, thermal, mechanical and microstructural irradiation effects are strongly interrelated while the fuel is at reactor operating conditions. (author). 7 refs., 16 figs.

  4. Competition in Japan

    OpenAIRE

    Michael E. Porter; Mariko Sakakibara

    2004-01-01

    This article examines competition in Japan and its link to postwar economic prosperity. While Japan's industrial structure and competition policy seem to indicate that competition in Japan has been less intense, the empirical evidence does not support this conclusion. The sectors in which competition was restricted prove to be those where Japan was not internationally successful. In the internationally successful sectors, internal competition in Japan was invariably fierce. While the level of...

  5. Co-operation and economic relationship as determinants for competitiveness in the food sector: the Spanish wheat to bread chain

    OpenAIRE

    de Magistris, Tiziana; Gracia, Azucena

    2008-01-01

    The objective of the paper is to investigate the impact of co-operation amongst stakeholders of the food chain on enterprise competitiveness. The analysis focuses on the Spanish wheat to bread chain. A theoretical model is developed which covers the main components that define competitiveness (profitability, turnover, market share, customer loyalty and product quality), quality supply chain relationship (trust, commitment and satisfaction) and the main factors explaining supply chain relation...

  6. Local economic development and globalisation : the international competitiveness of certain South African municipalities / Vincent Monti Malebo Mongake

    OpenAIRE

    Mongake, Monti Malebo Vincent

    2004-01-01

    In today's global competitive environment, a city or a town more than ever needs a strategy that articulates how its international competitiveness is to be improved. Since 1994, following its first democratic elections, South Africa started processes of significant local government reform, as well as fast integration into the global economy. These processes will place significant challenges in the way of South Africa's local government (municipalities) since they now not only h...

  7. Analysis of the Impact of the Flow of Migrant Workers on Regional Economy: Based on the Thought about the Promotion of Jiangxi Regional Economic Competitiveness

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sun Yuping

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Labor resource is the necessary productive factor in regional economic development, and one of important indexes to evaluate regional economic competitiveness. The great economic achievement brought by the 30-year reform and opening up of China is due to the fact that China brought the backward advantage of “demographic dividend” into play, promoted the fast development of industrialization and urbanization, and became the second largest economy in the world. The entity of “demographic dividend” is the non-agricultural migrant population, i.e., migrant workers. The transfer employment of migrant workers has typical regional liquidity, and the imbalance of regional economy causes the flow of many migrant workers. In order to achieve harmonious development and coordinated development, underdeveloped areas must understand the character and regulation, adopt positive industrial policy and supportive policy, guide the reasonable flow of migrant workers, and realize the transfer of local employment and citizenization of migrant workers, which can enhance regional economic competitiveness

  8. Regional decision-making and competitive funding : metropolitan planning organizations and the transportation investments generating economic recovery program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-08-01

    Transportation benefits and economic stimulus were behind the creation of the Transportation Investment Generating Economic Recovery (TIGER) program in 2009. New transportation funding programs exist in a landscape of other programs, and in addition ...

  9. Study of Canopy Structure and Growth Characters Role of Two Wheat Cultivars in Competition, on Economic Threshold and Yield of Rye and Wild Mustard

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. Saadatian

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available To evaluate the role of effective factors on competition of two wheat cultivars against two species of narrow leaf and broad leaf weeds this study was conducted as two separated experiments based on a randomized complete block design with 3 replications at Agricultural Faculty of Bu-Ali Sina University, in 2008-2009. In both Experiments, Alvand and Sayson cultivars were planted with densities of 450 plants m-2. In the 1st experiment, rye with densities of 0, 20, 40, 60 and 80 plants m-2 were planted in inter-rows of wheat. In the 2nd experiment, wild mustard densities were 0, 8, 16, 24 and 32 plants m-2. The results showed that characters such as vertical distribution of leaf area index and dry matter, height and its increase rate in interference, emergence rate, rate of canopy development and precocity led to increasing competitive ability of Alvand than Sayson in competition with two weed species. These factors were effective in reduction seed production of weeds and economic threshold in Alvand. Despite of lower height of wild mustard than rye, distribution of leaf area and canopy structure of wild mustard increased light competition ability and shadow on crop, so that harmful effects of individual plant of wild mustard in different densities was more than rye. Increasing rate of wild mustard seed bank was more than ray.

  10. Economic factor environmental protection. Productivity of the German environmental and climate protection industry in international competition; Wirtschaftsfaktor Umweltschutz. Leistungsfaehigkeit der deutschen Umwelt- und Klimaschutzwirtschaft im internationalen Vergleich

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Legler, Harald; Krawczyk, Olaf [Niedersaechsisches Institut fuer Wirtschaftsforschung (NIW), Hannover (Germany); Walz, Rainer; Eichhammer, Wolfgang; Frietsch, Rainer [Fraunhofer Institut fuer System- und Innovationsforschung (ISI), Karlsruhe (Germany)

    2006-05-15

    The analysis on the economic factor environment and the German environmental industry on international competition is faced to methodological limits, since the environmental industry does not present itself as an homogeneous sector. The study is organized in the following chapters: introduction - the importance of environmental industry; classification of environmental and climate protection industry; productivity volume and production structure; international competition for potential environmental protection products; environmental protection industry and innovative performance. Integrated environmental solutions are of increasing significance, avoiding emissions and products and production process from beginning on. All known forecast indicate an expansive market development. In addition the rising prices for crude oil may push the search for innovative solutions to substitute fossil energy sources. The environmental industry should look for globally transferable solutions in order to promote global sustainable growth.

  11. Investigation of competitiveness and social-economic benefits of the French solar sector - Final deliverable. Competitiveness and employment of the solar sector in France: situation and prospective by 2023 - Synthesis of the study of social-economic benefits of the development of the French solar sector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2017-01-01

    This document reports a study which aimed at investigating present costs and benefits of the French solar sector in 2015, and at elaborating realistic assessments of social and economic benefits (jobs, avoided emissions, tax) by 2023, and also at highlighting the competitiveness of solar solutions and at analysing self-consumption models. In order to do so, it reports an analysis of the French solar photovoltaic sector and an analysis of the French solar thermal sector (costs, competitiveness, development scenario, benefits on the medium term), and proposes a comparison between these both sectors

  12. Second COSTECH annual national science and technological conference and exhibitions: Science, technology and innovation in enhancing competitiveness for socio-economic development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2007-01-01

    The Government of the United Republic of Tanzania recognizes that science, technology and innovation (STI) are vital to our economic and social progress. In an increasingly globalised world, it is recognised that high levels of investment in research and innovation are essential, both for economic competitiveness and to yield innovations in areas such as agriculture, health, natural resources, environment and energy sectors and make tangible improvements to the quality of our life. The government also realizes the need to provide an enabling environment for competition and innovation which in turn creates pressure for improvements in efficiency, quality and productivity. The development of a knowledge economy is a key challenge that is facing Tanzania today. It is essential that the country strives to build a truly knowledge based society. Such a society will offer new opportunities for economic and social advancement. It is therefore important that for a knowledge translation and disseminations are created and strengthened. The context to this is that knowledge is the currency for development.(author)

  13. Conceptual core design study for Japan sodium-cooled fast reactor: Review of sodium void reactivity worth evaluation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ohki, Shigeo

    2012-01-01

    The conceptual core design study for a large-scale Japan sodium-cooled fast reactor (JSFR) have been carried out in the framework of the FaCT project. The reference “High-internal conversion” core can satisfy the requirements for enhanced safety, as well as achieving economic competitiveness. In order to increase the design reliability, more rigorous uncertainty evaluation is important. Development of the verification and validation methodology of the core neutronic design method is currently underway. (author)

  14. Estimating the health and economic effects of the proposed US Food and Drug Administration voluntary sodium reformulation: Microsimulation cost-effectiveness analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pearson-Stuttard, Jonathan; Kypridemos, Chris; Collins, Brendan; Mozaffarian, Dariush; Huang, Yue; Bandosz, Piotr; Capewell, Simon; Whitsel, Laurie; Wilde, Parke; O'Flaherty, Martin; Micha, Renata

    2018-04-01

    Sodium consumption is a modifiable risk factor for higher blood pressure (BP) and cardiovascular disease (CVD). The US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) has proposed voluntary sodium reduction goals targeting processed and commercially prepared foods. We aimed to quantify the potential health and economic impact of this policy. We used a microsimulation approach of a close-to-reality synthetic population (US IMPACT Food Policy Model) to estimate CVD deaths and cases prevented or postponed, quality-adjusted life years (QALYs), and cost-effectiveness from 2017 to 2036 of 3 scenarios: (1) optimal, 100% compliance with 10-year reformulation targets; (2) modest, 50% compliance with 10-year reformulation targets; and (3) pessimistic, 100% compliance with 2-year reformulation targets, but with no further progress. We used the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey and high-quality meta-analyses to inform model inputs. Costs included government costs to administer and monitor the policy, industry reformulation costs, and CVD-related healthcare, productivity, and informal care costs. Between 2017 and 2036, the optimal reformulation scenario achieving the FDA sodium reduction targets could prevent approximately 450,000 CVD cases (95% uncertainty interval: 240,000 to 740,000), gain approximately 2.1 million discounted QALYs (1.7 million to 2.4 million), and produce discounted cost savings (health savings minus policy costs) of approximately $41 billion ($14 billion to $81 billion). In the modest and pessimistic scenarios, health gains would be 1.1 million and 0.7 million QALYS, with savings of $19 billion and $12 billion, respectively. All the scenarios were estimated with more than 80% probability to be cost-effective (incremental cost/QALY cost-saving by 2031. Limitations include evaluating only diseases mediated through BP, while decreasing sodium consumption could have beneficial effects upon other health burdens such as gastric cancer. Further, the effect

  15. Economic assessment of R and D with real options in the field of fast reactors taking into account uncertainty on their competitiveness: the case of France

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Taverdet-Popiolek, Nathalie; Shoai Tehrani, Bianka

    2013-01-01

    In a context of potential worldwide nuclear development, this paper aims at assessing the economic value of pursuing research in Generation IV fast reactors today, given that it would allow industrial deployment around 2040 in case of high uranium prices. Two key variables shall be considered as inputs for the assessment: the price of uranium and the over-cost of Generation IV reactors compared to the previous generation. Our model based on real options theory demonstrates that this value is positive and outweighs the risks associated with the competitiveness of Generation IV. (authors)

  16. Competition through regulation - efforts aimed at reform in the European and German gas industries: Appropriate, feasible and consistent with the economic facts?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Klaue, S.

    1994-01-01

    At the forefront of the ongoing debate in Europe on the political, economic and legal aspects of energy supplies are considerations for introducing a new regulatory framework, especially the general third-party access (TPA) regime for grid energies. Most advocates of such reform claim that it is needed for the sake of more competition in the energy sector. However, they do not set out from economic facts and seek a solution to the problems. Instead, the solution is laid down as the target, to which the economic facts are subordinated. Blind activism inspired by theoretical motives and without regard for the consequences must be avoided. Otherwise there is a danger of the new framework being unsuitable for really bringing about any movement, be it in the intended direction or towards the envisaged goal. The introduction of general TPA can only be successful if there are certain structures and market trends. Do such structures and market trends exist in the European and German gas industries? In answering this question, it is necessary to proceed from the economic conditions, on which both a general and an economical/legal assessment of reform efforts should actually be based. Reference is therefore made to Jonathan P. Stern, who gathered in facts and whose evaluations are taken into account here. (orig.)

  17. Competition Policy in Malaysia

    OpenAIRE

    Lee, Cassey

    2004-01-01

    Malaysia does not have a national competition law. Competition is regulated at the sectoral level in the country. Two economic sectors have legal provisions for competition law but these have been relatively ineffectively enforced. The benefits of Malaysia's industrial policy as well as the policy reforms in regulation and trade have been compromised by the lack of a formal institution to address competition related issues. Hence, the future priority and direction of regulatory reform is obvi...

  18. Competitive platinum-group-metal (PGM) supply from the Eastern Limb, Bushveld Complex: Geological, mining and mineral economic aspects

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    McGill, JE

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available -GROUP-METAL (PGM) SUPPLY FROM THE EASTERN LIMB, BUSHVELD COMPLEX: GEOLOGICAL, MINING, AND MINERAL ECONOMIC ASPECTS Dr. Jeannette E. McGill & Prof. Murray W. Hitzman ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS ? COUNCIL FOR SCIENTIFIC AND INDUSTRIAL RESEARCH (CSIR) ? Centre for Mining... Innovation ? Office of Graduate Studies, Fogarty Endowment ? Mr. VISHNU PILLAY (EXECUTIVE HEAD: JV?S ? Anglo Platinum) ? ACADEMIC ADVISORS Prof. Murray Hitzman (Economic Geology); Dr. Hugh Miller (Mining Engineering); Prof. Rodderick Eggert (Mineral...

  19. Debates of the Vista 2010 Colloquium 'The right price of energy, from economic competitiveness to social justice'

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cailletaud, Marie-Claire; Doutreligne, Patrick; Ducre, Henri; Lederer, Pierre; Abadie, Pierre-Marie; Bergougnoux, Jean; Geoffron, Patrice; Heuze, Gregoire; Lorenzi, Jean-Herve

    2012-12-01

    The interveners discuss the issue of the right price of energy, right price being understood as an issue of social justice as well as an issue of economic optimality and of industrial and investment growth. They notably outline and comment the necessity of a stronger European coherence, the importance of the economic, environmental and job issues, the necessity of social cohesion (accessibility to energy for all at an affordable price), and of the emergence of a low carbon economy

  20. Reflections on Competition, Competition Regulation and the Current Crises

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Buch-Hansen, Hubert; Wigger, Angela

    2013-01-01

    competition came to enjoy such an exalted status in Europe and then challenges conventional wisdom by bringing into focus the downsides of competition. It argues that excessive competition and neoliberal competition regulation have contributed to intensify the economic, political, social and environmental...

  1. COMPETITION: CLASSICAL VERSUS NEOCLASSICAL VIEW

    OpenAIRE

    Mihaela Cornelia Sandu

    2013-01-01

    Competition is an important element from economical theory. Over time it has experienced several definitions and classifications much of them being contradictory. In this paper I will make a parallel between classical and neoclassical point of view according to competition. Keywords. Competition; neoclassical theory; classical theory; monopolistic; perfect competition.

  2. Economics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palley, Paul D; Parcero, Miriam E

    2016-10-01

    A review of literature in the calendar year 2015 dedicated to environmental policies and sustainable development, and economic policies. This review is divided into these sections: sustainable development, irrigation, ecosystems and water management, climate change and disaster risk management, economic growth, water supply policies, water consumption, water price regulation, and water price valuation.

  3. An analysis of the economic scenario of Peru and Chile, from the perspective of global competitiveness double diamond

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jesús C. Peña-Vinces

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Little economies, as the Peruvian and Chilean, are found immersed in the global sand of the emerging economies, so that to evaluate them from a home based point of view (Porter 1990 would be a very limited and not useful approach. This fact makes Porter’s national diamond (1990 to end up, not being enough for that objective (Moon et al. 1998: 135. This paper analyzes the mentioned economies from a global approach, which includes the local market and the foreign market, in other words, to evaluate them from the double diamond perspective of the international competitiveness proposed by Moon et al. (1998, and Moon and Lee (2004: 138.

  4. Education for sustainability – a prerequisite for post-crisis economic competitiveness with possible inference for Romania

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Camelia Iuliana LUNGU

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available The need to integrate sustainability among the skills of specialists in economics and its accreditation for the university curricula was recognized in academic literature for over twenty years. Based on literature review the study outlines the idea that although there is significant interest in the concept of sustainability for economic education, particularly for the accounting domain, as demonstrated by the wide range of topics dealt with in a number of high quality journals, the dispersion is extremely high, the subjects are not treated consistently and the research impact is not reflected in practice. The paper presents then a documentary based research on the deepening the subjects included in the curricula of master's programs in a number of European universities, central or collateral dealing with aspects of sustainability. In the last part of the article a study is depicted in order to present a picture of the possible involvement of Romanian students, graduated of economic studies, regarding the aspects of sustainability (environment, society and corporate responsibility, impacting the future evolution of the Romanian economy.

  5. Dancing in the Dark: Competition over the "Meaning of Competition"

    OpenAIRE

    Metcalfe John Stanley

    2009-01-01

    Competing concepts of competition provide a sharp divide between theories of economic order and theories of economic transformation. The shift from competition as a state of affairs and competition as a creative process provides the divergence of perspective that is the topic of this paper. We link the Smith Marshall approach of rivalry and open competition to the more modern evolutionary view based on variation cum selection perspectives on innovation and the adaptive role of market processe...

  6. Economism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Simons

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Modern society is characterised not only by a fascination with scientific technology as a means of solving all problems, especially those that stand in the way of material progress (technicism, but also by an obsessive interest in everything that has to do with money (economism or mammonism. The article discusses the relationship between technicism and economism, on the basis of their relationship to utilitarian thinking: the quest for the greatest happiness for the greatest number of people. Recent major studies of neo-liberalism (seen as an intensification of utilitarianism by Laval and Dardot are used as reference to the development of utilitarianism. It is suggested that the western view of the world, as expressed in economism and technicism, with a utilitarian ethics, features three absolutisations: those of theoretical thinking, technology and economics. In a second part, the article draws on the framework of reformational philosophy to suggest an approach that, in principle, is not marred by such absolutisations.

  7. Finding of no significant impact for the joint DOE/EPA program on national industrial competitiveness through energy efficiency and economics (NICE{sup 3})

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-03-01

    The Department of Energy (DOE) has prepared a Programmatic Environmental Assessment (PEA), to assess the environment impacts associated with a joint DOE/EPA cost-sharing grant program named National Industrial Competitiveness through Energy Efficiency, Environment and Economics (NICE{sup 3}). The purpose of the NICE{sup 3} Program is to encourage waste minimization technology in industry by funding projects that develop activities and process improvements to conserve energy and reduce pollution. The proposed action would provide Federal financial assistance in the form of grants to industry in order to promote pollution prevention, energy efficiency, and cost competitiveness. Based on the analysis presented in the PEA, DOE has determined that the proposed action (providing NICE{sup 3} grants for projects which are consistent with the goals of the PPA and EPACT) does not constitute a major Federal action significantly affecting the quality of the human environment within the meaning of NEPA. Therefore, the preparation of an Environmental Impact Statement is not needed and the Department is issuing this Finding of No Significant Impact.

  8. COMPETITIVENESS FOR SUSTAINABLE ECONOMIES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nelu Eugen POPESCU

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available The current economic environment puts pressure on all national economies which struggle to improve their competitiveness and innovativeness in a sustainable way. This article aims to present the current state of the competitiveness by reviewing the main literature and worldwide researches, in order to provide a brief overview of the determinants that drive productivity and economic success at global and national level, taking into consideration the entrepreneurial activity for a country’s competitiveness and economic growth. The paper identifies the ways in which efficiency driven countries can improve their policies and get a better return on their investments, underlining a set of competitiveness enhancing policies (measures that can be implemented by public and private institutions in order to strengthen the economic fundamentals of the economies.

  9. Plenary - safety culture and its relationship to economic value in the competitive market: a global perspective. Panel Discussion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sellman, Michael B.

    2001-01-01

    Full text of publication follows: These are times of great optimism within the nuclear power industry-the likes of which it has not experienced in more than two decades. Increased demand for electricity and continued environmental concerns have highlighted the worldwide need for a sustainable nuclear industry and have opened public dialogue about the possibility of the construction of new nuclear power plants. The recent power crisis in California and power shortages elsewhere have heightened this renewed interest in nuclear power. This new optimism within the industry must be backed by solid public support for the industry to once again flourish. This support will only come from absolute public confidence in the safety of nuclear power and the industry's ability to operate responsibly. Safety and safety culture are the foundation for the future growth of this industry, and thus, it is the overall theme of this conference and the major theme to be addressed by this distinguished slate of plenary speakers. Introductions: Thomas J. Lewis, Director, Administrations, Nuclear Management Company and Assistant General Chair. Welcome and Opening Remarks: James Lake, President, American Nuclear Society, Richard Abdoo, Chair of the Board and CEO, Wisconsin Electric Company. Setting the Stage for Safety Culture and Its Relationship to Economic Value: Michael B. Sellman, General Chair, 2001 Annual Meeting. Presentations: Commissioner Jeffrey Merrifield, U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission; Professor Shunsuke Kondo, University of Tokyo-Japan; David W. Bersoff, Director of the Yankelovich Monitor. (authors)

  10. Autonomy of universities in the modern socio-economic realities: competitive wars or a springboard to jump?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O. A. Khomeriki

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available In the article the author considers the main innovation of the new law «On Higher Education» and autonomy of universities. The author analyzes the main positives and benefits of this innovation and the experience of Western universities and justifies position on the need for radical change in management, developing new standards, plans and etc. Thus, at the first place of the list there are innovations related to changes in management. They, in turn, also form a hierarchy, where on the top there are educational policy proposals, and on the lowest stage are personnel changes in the management of an institution. The successful implementation of decentralization reforms or significant implications requires strong and durable and contemporary models of rational planning and implementation. In this sense, the author assesses the likely hazards and Ukrainian autonomy of Higher Education, the trends, which are the prospects for the unsuccessful implementation and have negative social consequences. Proving the idea that the first means of preventing negative tendencies is a gradual balance and account crisis of socio­economic situation in Ukraine, the author also emphasizes that efforts in this direction requires, above all, political support, because of such conversion should be wide access to the constant monitoring of the situation, statistical data on the state and trends of changes in higher education of the country.

  11. The role of research programs and commercial contracts for increase of economic competitiveness and development at INR Pitesti

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Petra, Nicoleta Mihaela; Ionila, Maria; Datcu, Mirela; Balan, Iosif Bogdan; Cretu, Ileana

    2008-01-01

    In the period in which globalization is increasing, one of the strategic objectives of the institute is to focus on those activities which help developing of services, products and technologies, applicable in nuclear industry, environment protection and medicine. One way to sustain INR activity is the technological transfer which ensures availability of research results by carrying out of R and D contracts in priority areas and of contracts with economical agents for the supply of services, products, technologies, such as: - Materials irradiation for medicine, industry and research; - Neutron Activation Analysis (NAA) and prompt gamma spectrometry for Cernavoda NPP - Unit 1; - Control and testing: non-destructive examination, functional tests of samples and equipment from Cernavoda NPP - Unit 1; - Characterization, conditioning and treatment of radioactive wastes for NPP- Cernavoda, Unit 1, Nuclear Fuel Plant (FCN) - Pitesti; - Measurement of isotopes concentration in environmental samples; -Corrosion experiments in static autoclaves and experiments regarding microbial corrosion for NPP Cernavoda Unit 1 and FCN Pitesti; - Nuclear consultancy for Cernavoda NPP - Unit 1 and Unit 2; - Stainless steel casks for radwaste; - Containers for heavy water; - Training and practice for students at the Universities of Pitesti, Bucuresti, Brasov. The paper presents the main areas where the results obtained in R and D programs can be applied, their implementation can be done, and the status of contracts and their importance for INR Pitesti and Romanian society development, as well. (authors)

  12. Evaluating the efficiency of divestiture policy in promoting competitiveness using an analytical method and agent-based computational economics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rahimiyan, Morteza; Rajabi Mashhadi, Habib [Department of Electrical Engineering, Faculty of Engineering, Ferdowsi University of Mashhad, Mashhad (Iran)

    2010-03-15

    Choosing a desired policy for divestiture of dominant firms' generation assets has been a challenging task and open question for regulatory authority. To deal with this problem, in this paper, an analytical method and agent-based computational economics (ACE) approach are used for ex-ante analysis of divestiture policy in reducing market power. The analytical method is applied to solve a designed concentration boundary problem, even for situations where the cost data of generators are unknown. The concentration boundary problem is the problem of minimizing or maximizing market concentration subject to operation constraints of the electricity market. It is proved here that the market concentration corresponding to operation condition is certainly viable in an interval calculated by the analytical method. For situations where the cost function of generators is available, the ACE is used to model the electricity market. In ACE, each power producer's profit-maximization problem is solved by the computational approach of Q-learning. The power producer using the Q-learning method learns from past experiences to implicitly identify the market power, and find desired response in competing with the rivals. Both methods are applied in a multi-area power system and effects of different divestiture policies on market behavior are analyzed. (author)

  13. Evaluating the efficiency of divestiture policy in promoting competitiveness using an analytical method and agent-based computational economics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rahimiyan, Morteza; Rajabi Mashhadi, Habib

    2010-01-01

    Choosing a desired policy for divestiture of dominant firms' generation assets has been a challenging task and open question for regulatory authority. To deal with this problem, in this paper, an analytical method and agent-based computational economics (ACE) approach are used for ex-ante analysis of divestiture policy in reducing market power. The analytical method is applied to solve a designed concentration boundary problem, even for situations where the cost data of generators are unknown. The concentration boundary problem is the problem of minimizing or maximizing market concentration subject to operation constraints of the electricity market. It is proved here that the market concentration corresponding to operation condition is certainly viable in an interval calculated by the analytical method. For situations where the cost function of generators is available, the ACE is used to model the electricity market. In ACE, each power producer's profit-maximization problem is solved by the computational approach of Q-learning. The power producer using the Q-learning method learns from past experiences to implicitly identify the market power, and find desired response in competing with the rivals. Both methods are applied in a multi-area power system and effects of different divestiture policies on market behavior are analyzed.

  14. MACROECONOMIC ASPECTS OF COMPETITIVENESS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oleg Hooke

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available In the process of globalization of world economic processes, the role of individual national economies increases, comparative advantages of the development of a country are formed, and their competitiveness is ensured. That is why it is worth emphasizing the importance of increasing the competitiveness of each individual country, based on its internal capacity. In a broad aspect, the competitiveness of the national economy is perceived as the ability of the country to ensure the balance of its external proportions and to avoid those constraints imposed by the foreign economic sphere, to self-organizing the improvement of their world economic ties. The competitiveness of the economy at the macro level is associated with the duration of the cycle of reproduction of the main productive assets and, accordingly, the jobs, productive forces of society and determined by the overall economic efficiency of investment. The criteria of competitiveness of the national economy are the growth of social productivity of labor, increase of social and economic efficiency of production and standard of living of the population. The competitiveness of the national economy determines sustainable socio-economic development of the country, as well as sustainable development predetermines the competitiveness of not only the country, but also all its levels. Scientific results are obtained using special methods of research of economic objects and phenomena, that is, based on the correlation and regressive, comparative analysis (establishing the relationship between the indicator factor, as well as economic modeling. Findings. Generalizing analysis and the importance of the macroeconomic aspect of competitiveness were used in the research paper, which will allow to better respond to the economic situation, in accordance with the trends of the “green” transformation of the economy; which in turn will solve important problems of the development and implementation of its

  15. Concept analysis of competitiveness

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bychkovskii Andrei Yurevich

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Approaches to determine the competitiveness of enterprises. The techniques of estimating the probability of bankruptcy as the lowest level of competitiveness of the organization. Asked to assess the competitiveness on the basis of the analysis of internal and external factors of the company. External factors are asked to provide a financial and economic, political, industrial, technological, social, environmental. Internal factors proposed to explore, using the model of "the golden rule of business economics" in conjunction with approaches for assessing the ability of the enterprise to create value.

  16. 75 FR 53667 - Space Coast Regional Innovation Cluster Competition

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-09-01

    ... Coast Regional Innovation Cluster Competition AGENCY: Economic Development Administration (EDA... upcoming availability of funding for the Space Coast Regional Innovation Cluster (RIC) Competition under... economic development initiatives aligned with regional cluster and competitiveness analyses to sustain the...

  17. Mechanical Design Features of the KALIMER-600 Sodium-Cooled Reactor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Jae Han; Park, Chang Gyu; Kim, Jong Bum [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Taejon (Korea, Republic of)

    2005-07-01

    KALIMER-600 is a sodium cooled reactor with a fast spectrum neutron reactor core. The NSSS design has three heat transport systems of a PHTS (Primary Heat Transport System), a IHTS (Intermediate Heat Transport System) and a SGS (Steam Generation System). PHTS is a pool type and has a large amount of sodium in the pool. The mechanical design targets are maintaining the enough structural integrity for a seismic load of SSE 0.3g and the thermal and mechanical loads by the high temperature environments and an economical competitiveness when compared with other reactor types.

  18. Mechanical Design Features of the KALIMER-600 Sodium-Cooled Reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Jae Han; Park, Chang Gyu; Kim, Jong Bum

    2005-01-01

    KALIMER-600 is a sodium cooled reactor with a fast spectrum neutron reactor core. The NSSS design has three heat transport systems of a PHTS (Primary Heat Transport System), a IHTS (Intermediate Heat Transport System) and a SGS (Steam Generation System). PHTS is a pool type and has a large amount of sodium in the pool. The mechanical design targets are maintaining the enough structural integrity for a seismic load of SSE 0.3g and the thermal and mechanical loads by the high temperature environments and an economical competitiveness when compared with other reactor types

  19. Advanced design nuclear power plants: Competitive, economical electricity. An analysis of the cost of electricity from coal, gas and nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1992-06-01

    This report presents an updated analysis of the projected cost of electricity from new baseload power plants beginning operation around the year 2000. Included in the study are: (1) advanced-design, standardized nuclear power plants; (2) low emissions coal-fired power plants; (3) gasified coal-fired power plants; and (4) natural gas-fired power plants. This analysis shows that electricity from advanced-design, standardized nuclear power plants will be economically competitive with all other baseload electric generating system alternatives. This does not mean that any one source of electric power is always preferable to another. Rather, what this analysis indicates is that, as utilities and others begin planning for future baseload power plants, advanced-design nuclear plants should be considered an economically viable option to be included in their detailed studies of alternatives. Even with aggressive and successful conservation, efficiency and demand-side management programs, some new baseload electric supply will be needed during the 1990s and into the future. The baseload generating plants required in the 1990s are currently being designed and constructed. For those required shortly after 2000, the planning and alternatives assessment process must start now. It takes up to ten years to plan, design, license and construct a new coal-fired or nuclear fueled baseload electric generating plant and about six years for a natural gas-fired plant. This study indicates that for 600-megawatt blocks of capacity, advanced-design nuclear plants could supply electricity at an average of 4.5 cents per kilowatt-hour versus 4.8 cents per kilowatt-hour for an advanced pulverized-coal plant, 5.0 cents per kilowatt-hour for a gasified-coal combined cycle plant, and 4.3 cents per kilowatt-hour for a gas-fired combined cycle combustion turbine plant

  20. Strategies for 2nd generation biofuels in EU - Co-firing to stimulate feedstock supply development and process integration to improve energy efficiency and economic competitiveness

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Berndes, Goeran; Hansson, Julia; Egeskog, Andrea; Johnsson, Filip

    2010-01-01

    The present biofuel policies in the European Union primarily stimulate 1st generation biofuels that are produced based on conventional food crops. They may be a distraction from lignocellulose based 2nd generation biofuels - and also from biomass use for heat and electricity - by keeping farmers' attention and significant investments focusing on first generation biofuels and the cultivation of conventional food crops as feedstocks. This article presents two strategies that can contribute to the development of 2nd generation biofuels based on lignocellulosic feedstocks. The integration of gasification-based biofuel plants in district heating systems is one option for increasing the energy efficiency and improving the economic competitiveness of such biofuels. Another option, biomass co-firing with coal, generates high-efficiency biomass electricity and reduces CO 2 emissions by replacing coal. It also offers a near-term market for lignocellulosic biomass, which can stimulate development of supply systems for biomass also suitable as feedstock for 2nd generation biofuels. Regardless of the long-term priorities of biomass use for energy, the stimulation of lignocellulosic biomass production by development of near term and cost-effective markets is judged to be a no-regrets strategy for Europe. Strategies that induce a relevant development and exploit existing energy infrastructures in order to reduce risk and reach lower costs, are proposed an attractive complement the present and prospective biofuel policies. (author)

  1. Recent progress in sodium technology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hallett, W. J.

    1963-10-15

    Progress over the past year in U. S. laboratories studying some of the materials and engineering problems that must be resolved in bringing the technology of sodium to an economically and technically attractive point is reviewed. The status of sodium cooled power reactors in the U. S. is described. (P.C.H.)

  2. Risk Factors of Young Graduates in the Competitive E.U. Labour Market at the End of the Current Economic Crisis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kacerova Eliska

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Modern development trends in the labour market have been an increasingly important political and economic issue not only domestically but also on the European level. It proves the fact that in The Europe 2020 strategy, one of the main five points is the aim to increase the employment rate of the population (age: 20–64 from the current 69% to at least 75%. Various risk groups of job candidates emerge among the unemployed. The economic crisis in 2007 made the situation in the labour markets worse. The demand for labour decreased while the number of candidates increased. In recent years, fresh graduates under the age of 25 have been regarded as a high risk group sometimes nicknamed “the lost generation” or Generation Y. This generation is well accustomed to modern technologies which they use for their own benefit and they are willing and able to work from anywhere. On the contrary, those over the age of 35, who are sometimes referred to as Generation X, have different attitudes and requirements for the labour market. Despite the increasing level of education among young people, their unemployment has been worsening since the economic crisis began. The aim of this article was to ascertain how future university graduates (491 final-year students from 5 faculties at Tomas Bata University in Zlín, Czech Republic perceive individual risk factors influencing the success of today’s graduate of Generation Y in the competitive labour market. The target group, future university graduates, evaluated 13 risk areas on a five-point scale. These 13 risk areas were identified based on primary research among 1.059 employers in the Czech Republic, which is a part of a complete two-year research project IGA/FaME/2013/030. This article focuses on only two areas which closely analysed the perception of graduates as drifters, and their demands for high starting salaries. These two risk areas were mentioned by employers as the areas with the highest risk and

  3. Competitiveness and Management of Technology

    OpenAIRE

    Cheng, Ming Yu

    2015-01-01

    This paper delves into competition and technology management as a means of economic development. Expanding from Porter's framework on competitiveness and using a novel framework of PTGE(People, Technology, Government and Environment), this paper argues that three types of competitive advantage could be created. These competitive advantages range from passive to active advantages, i.e. natural advantage, duplicated advantage and niche advantage. Technology and effective management of technolog...

  4. COMPETITIVENESS AND COMPETITIVE ORIENTATIONS: EVALUATION OF STUDENTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Z. Efimova

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Education of a competitive student is a strategically significant problem of the system of higher education in modern social and economic conditions. Personal competitiveness and competitive orientations – priority quality of future expert for successful future professional experience.The aim of the present research is to study factors of competitive orientations formation and criteria for evaluation of competitiveness of student’s youth in the Russian society.Methodology and research methods. Results of theoretical researches of Russian and foreign researchers are generalized; secondary analysis of data based on results of sociological researches and analysis of official statistical data are carried out. The results of the sociological survey undertaken in 2017 on the basis of statistical methods were processed and studied by the instrumentality of IBM SPSS Statistics 23 program; 1196 students of institutions of higher and secondary vocational education of the Tyumen region took part.Results and scientific novelty. It is stated that senior students feel themselves more competitive. It is revealed that a quarter of students who took part in the survey, generally men, count themselves competitive. A continuous distance of goal-setting is recorded among these respondents; in every third case they have plans of professional growth for five and more years that allows them to build attractive competitive strategy.The level of the competitiveness is directly connected with such indicators as “social stratum”, “overall life satisfaction”, “self-esteem of health”, “tendency to lead a healthy lifestyle” and “the level of trust in the surrounding people”. Mostly the students oriented on competition look into the future with confidence and optimism.Respondents focused on the competitiveness were more tend to demonstrate their abilities and cause admiration, have a creative approach towards work, be ready for surprises

  5. Environmental effectiveness of GAEC cross-compliance Standard 3.1 ‘Ploughing in good soil moisture conditions’ and economic evaluation of the competitiveness gap for farmers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rosa Francaviglia

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Within the MO.NA.CO. Project the environmental effectiveness of GAEC cross-compliance Standard 3.1 ‘Ploughing in good soil moisture conditions’ was evaluated, as well as the economic evaluation of the competitiveness gap for farmers which conform or do not conform to cross-compliance. The monitoring has been carried out at nine experimental farms with different pedoclimatic characteristics, where some indicators of soil structure degradation have been evaluated, such as bulk density, packing density and surface roughness of the seedbed, and the crop productive and qualitative parameters. In each monitoring farm two experimental plots have been set up: factual with soil tillage at proper water content (tilth, counterfactual with soil tillage at inadequate water content (no tilth. The monitoring did not exhibit univocal results for the different parameters, thus the effectiveness of the Standard 3.1 is ‘contrasting’ (class of merit B, and there was an evident practical problem to till the soil at optimum water content, even in controlled experimental condition. Bulk density was significantly lower in the factual treatment although in soils with very different textures (sandy-loam and clayey. Packing density (PD showed a high susceptibility to compaction in soils with low PD and medium texture. The tortuosity index, indicating the roughness of the seedbed, was lower and generally significantly different in the factual treatment. Results showed that the ploughing done in excessive soil moisture conditions is more expensive due to the increased force of traction of the tractor, which causes an increase in slip of the tractor wheels, with a speed reduction and increase in the working times and fuel consumption. Moreover, the crop yield is also reduced considerably according to the cultivated species.

  6. Low sodium diet (image)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... for you. Look for these words on labels: low-sodium, sodium-free, no salt added, sodium-reduced, ... for you. Look for these words on labels: low-sodium, sodium-free, no salt added, sodium-reduced, ...

  7. Mixed Solvent Reactive Recrystallization of Sodium Carbonate

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gaertner, R.S.

    2005-01-01

    Investigation of the reactive recrystallization of trona (sodium sesquicarbonate) and sodium bicarbonate to sodium carbonate (soda) in a mixed solvent led to the design of several alternative, less energy consumptive, economically very attractive process routes for the production of soda from all

  8. COMPETITION AS MARKET MECHANISM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. Ya. Kazhuro

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The essence of a competition as an objective law for development of the commodities production based on private ownership of the means of production and commodity exchange has been revealed in the paper. The paper presents an economic basis of market economy (private ownership which generates a corresponding production objective. Such purpose is a maximization of profit and a minimization of market subject expenses. Therefore, a struggle for the most favourable conditions on commodity production and sales is inevitable in such situation. The struggle is considered in the community with developed market economy as a competition.The competition is regarded not as an exogenic factor exerting its influence on market economic system from the outside, but as an objective phenomenon which is inherent to management market system in itself. Such treatment is substantiated by economic disintegration of individual commodity producers. Being an important engine of market economy, the competition does not establish its laws, and its role is to be an executive of data which are internally inherent in commodity production laws and firstly it concerns a profit maximization law which defines a purpose and guiding motif of economic entities in the given economy.The competition plays a contradictory role under conditions of market economy. On the one hand, it makes manufacturers constantly to aspire to expense reduction for the sake of profit increase. This has resulted in labour productivity increase, production cost decrease and a company receives an opportunity to reduce retail price for its products. Consequently, the competition acts as a potential factor for lowering of prices while increasing production efficiency. On the other hand, sellers have more freedom in price fixing under conditions of imperfect competition as they sell their products under the conditions of a monopolistic competition or an oligopoly. This is the main weakest point of the market

  9. Hidden Sodium

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2013-03-04

    In this podcast, learn about reducing sodium intake by knowing what to eat and the main sources of sodium in the diet. It's important for a healthy lifestyle.  Created: 3/4/2013 by National Center for Chronic Disease Prevention and Health Promotion (NCCDPHP).   Date Released: 3/4/2013.

  10. Dietary sodium

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Graudal, Niels

    2015-01-01

    The 2013 Institute of Medicine (IOM) report "Sodium Intake in Populations: Assessment of Evidence" did not support the current recommendations of the IOM and the American Heart Association (AHA) to reduce daily dietary sodium intake to below 2,300 mg. The report concluded that the population...

  11. Competitive Intelligence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bergeron, Pierrette; Hiller, Christine A.

    2002-01-01

    Reviews the evolution of competitive intelligence since 1994, including terminology and definitions and analytical techniques. Addresses the issue of ethics; explores how information technology supports the competitive intelligence process; and discusses education and training opportunities for competitive intelligence, including core competencies…

  12. Essays in antitrust economics

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verouden, V.C.H.M.

    2001-01-01

    Competition law - or antitrust law, as it is called in the United States - is a field of law to which economic concepts, such as "restriction of competition" and "anti-competitive effect", are of central importance. This thesis analyses a number of such concepts, both from an economic and a legal

  13. Retail competition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1998-01-01

    Retail competition as the cornerstone of a competitive electricity marketplace was the subject of the seventh in the series of policy discussion papers developed at the Market Design Conference. Concern was expressed that because of the complexities involved in market design and technical implementation, the retail competition may lag behind other elements of the implementation of the new market design. A variety of key issues were debated, including the role of physical versus financial contracts, the form of retail competition and financial settlement systems in the short term, the requirement to separate 'competitive' (metering, billing, maintenance, consumer education) from non-competitive' (the transmission wires) services and the role of municipal electric utilities. It was agreed that the IMO should play an important role in defining and enforcing the separation of services, and that as a general rule, the development of policy in this area should be guided by the principle of maximizing the potential for competition

  14. Competition Policies in Emerging Economies: Lessons and ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    30 juil. 2008 ... Do small developing economies, or SDEs, need a specific competition policy to ... to promote competition and business creation, yet the economic and ... in Emerging Economies features in-depth analysis of two strategic ...

  15. The monopolistic competition revolution in retrospect

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    L.J.H. Bettendorf (Leon); B.J. Heijdra (Ben)

    2003-01-01

    textabstractAvinash Dixit and Joseph Stiglitz revolutionized the modelling of imperfectly competitive markets and launched "the second monopolistic competition revolution". Experts in the areas of macroeconomics, international trade theory, economic geography, and international growth theory examine

  16. Competition in energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Haynes, Warren

    1995-01-01

    With changes occurring within both the gas and electricity industries and both sectors undergoing simultaneous reforms at the State and national levels it is timely to look at some major aspects of the energy-reform processes in Australia and to attempt to offer some perspectives from the viewpoint of an industry user of energy. From an industry user's viewpoint there is quantifiable evidence that competition in the energy sector will deliver major economic benefits to industry and the nation. The reform process currently in train will increase Australia's international competitiveness. Commonwealth-State collaboration is useful on economic issues which require a national consistent approach. Many significant and complex arrangement apply to the gas and electricity sectors which add to the complexity of the respective reform processes. More competitive arrangements are therefore required more quickly at several stages of the gas-sector reform process, such as in the commercialization of government utilities, resolving the issue of third-party transmission pricing, and the removal of State governments' impediments to competitive trading. The Hilmer Report on National Competition Policy will help deal with some difficult structural and transitional issues, e.g. third-party access, competitive structures, regulatory regimes, and a consistent national approach.(author). 1 fig., 1 photo

  17. Sodium Oxybate

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... or give your sodium oxybate to anyone else; selling or sharing it is against the law. Store ... dehydrogenase deficiency (an inherited condition in which certain substances build up in the body and cause retardation ...

  18. Sodium Azide

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Exposure to a large amount of sodium azide by any route may cause these other health effects as well: Convulsions Low blood pressure Loss of consciousness Lung injury Respiratory failure leading to death Slow heart rate ...

  19. The State of Competition and the Competition Regime of Ethiopia ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    2015-08-14

    Ethiopia has made progress toward market-oriented economic management, but the state of domestic competition remains weak, ... These policies are still in place in Ethiopia, even though they clash with market principles. ... August 14, 2015 ...

  20. Facing competitive pressures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Weinrich, H.

    1994-01-01

    This article discusses the problems facing the electric power industry and professional personnel as a result of economic downturn and the resulting down sizing of individual companies and utilities. The author proposes that the most efficient use of technology will have greater impact in making a utility more competitive than reducing the head count

  1. Innovation and strategic competitiveness

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jović Mile B.

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available Paper discussed relationships of innovation to achieving strategic competitiveness in today globalized economic environment. Special attention is devoted to the nature of competitive advantages on global industries as well national level. Competitive advantage is a firm's ability to transform inputs into goods and services at a profit on a sustained basis, better than competitors. Comparative advantage resides in the factor endowments and created endowments of particular regions. Beside the traditional endowment approach (land, natural resources, labor and the size of the local population it is emphasized the importance of created one such as skilled labor, the technology and knowledge base, government support and culture. Creating corporate or country competitiveness roadmap there are no substantial difference - innovative as well strategic approach is essential.

  2. The State of Competition and the Competition Regime of Ethiopia ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    The socialist regime's economic policies are further compounding the problems that businesses face. ... This project seeks to investigate the barriers to competition, the potential gaps in Ethiopia's revised competition law (Trade Practices Proclamation), and the possible challenges that ... Bulletin de BRAS - Janvier 2018.

  3. MICROECONOMIC ANALYSIS IN COMPETITION POLICY

    OpenAIRE

    Paul Prisecaru

    2013-01-01

    This paper presents some of the most important microeconomic tools used in assessing antitrust and merger cases by the competition authorities. By explaining the way that microeconomic concepts like “market power”, “critical loss” or “price elasticity of demand” are used by the modern competition policy, the microeconomics scholar can get a practical perspective on the way that these concepts fit into the more general concept of “competition policy”. Extensive economic research has shown what...

  4. Environmental protection and competition policy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mehrlaender, H.

    1993-01-01

    The area 'Environmental protection and competition policy' follows the introductory guideline by Sir Leon Brittan, vice-president of the EC-Commission: 'We must seek the most market driven, dynamic approach to solutions, such that competition and technological advance bring the maximum economic and environmental benefits'. From this concrete measures are derived. (HSCH) [de

  5. Environmental effectiveness of GAEC cross-compliance standard 4.1 (b, c ‘Protection of permanent pasture land’ and economic evaluation of the competitiveness gap for farmers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mauro Salis

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents the main results of the monitoring on the effectiveness of the cross-compliance Standard 4.1 ‘Permanent pasture protection: lett. b, c’ carried out in two case studies within the project MO.NA.CO. Soil, botanical, productive and economic (competitiveness gap parameters have been monitored. In the short term, the Standard 4.1 showed its effectiveness on soil quality, biomass productivity and competitiveness gap in both case studies. Botanical parameters showed differing results, therefore their generalization is not applicable to the heterogeneity of the pasture land Italian system. Shallow soil tillage could be suggested, every 40-50 years, when an appropriate soil organic matter content and the absence of runoff phenomena occur.

  6. Essays on the Indian economy : Competitive pressure, productivity and performance

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sahoo, A.

    2008-01-01

    India undertook a drastic economic reform program in 1991, with the significant objectives of removing existing inefficiencies and enhancing global competitiveness. A competitive environment is a prerequisite condition for gaining higher productivity. The main desired role of economic liberalization

  7. Mediterranean Way of Competitiveness

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Art Kovacic

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available The Mediterranean area have a special concept of competitiveness topic. Normally is that region not so industrial and knowledge based oriented as a North Europe.That countries can't reach the same development level as the north one. Lisbon's and Goethenburg's strategies create the main framework of development programme. Mediterranean programme is such a case. European internal market has forced the EU countries to increase competitiveness. The economic prosperity of countries is associated with their ability to generate or attract economic activities which are able to increase income by performing well on themarket. Financial crisis in the EU has changed the look on the competitiveness research. Economy in the main countries has to find way of recovery. Former giants of the financial world have found themselves suddenly facing bankruptcy.Inevitably, the crisis is also having an effect on households and businesses - economic growth has slowed sharply and in some EU countries unemployment has begun to increase for the first time in several years. Form that perspective we have to find the right solution of European competitiveness.

  8. SOCIAL ASPECTS OF COMPETITIVENESS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Klimova A. V.

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available One of the most important conditions of the existence of every organization, every enterprise is to insure the long-term sustainable development, one of the conditions of which is the increase of an organizational competitiveness. In modern economic conditions, social aspects of competitiveness are now in the foreground of interest, because just the strategy of social responsibility (SSR of modern enterprises can assure some commercial benefits, in responding, at the same time, to the social demands and in creating its well-being. Such an approach is in the basis of the notion of competitiveness. Along with «rigid parameters», such as price characteristics, the capability to deal with competitors, effective financial and production policies, «flexible factors» of competitiveness are of a big importance: a personnel potential, individual and collective competencies, organizational and managerial capabilities. As a result, we have formulated a research hypothesis: the organizational competitiveness is defined by individual and collective competencies of an organization, is based on socially responsible actions, confirms the demand for the object and insures its sustainable long-term development. Any organization should base all its actions aimed to increase its competitiveness on its intellectual potential, or on the management of individual and collective competencies that assure the sustainable development and the goal achievement. For every organizational strategic action, an effective combination of these competencies exists. So, we suggest a new definition of competitiveness: it is a social and economic category of understanding of the social responsibility, having as a central element individual and collective competencies, based on socially responsible actions of an enterprise, insuring its long-term sustainable development.

  9. Competition and social cohesion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mario Libertini

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available "Competition" and "social cohesion" are both protected by E.U. and Italian laws. The author moves from the analysis of the meaning of these two concepts, in order to reflect on their compatibility and the way to conciliate them. The central problem - in the opinion of the Author - is to abandon the myth of spontaneous markets' order and to rebuild a political order able to maintain and support, as far as possible, the competitive market economy, but also to govern economic processes in critical moments and situations.

  10. BUSINESS COMPETITORS AND COMPETITIVE ADVANTAGE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    SUCIU TITUS

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents the concept of competition, both from the perspective of the economic sector –where it is characteristic for pure monopole, oligopoly, monopole competition and pure competition, as well asfrom the market’s point of view – where it determines the strategies, objectives, advantages and weaknesses of acompany. The main point of the paper is the criticism of the pure and perfect competition theory. Concluding,the author insists on innovation, especially on the model of open innovation.

  11. Teaching Imperfect Competition at the Principles Level.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weber, William V.; Highfill, Jannett K.

    1990-01-01

    Argues that, although most economics textbooks' explanations of imperfect competition may involve three to five models, the concept can be taught using a single, simple model. Uses several business/economic examples as illustrations. (DB)

  12. Economics of voluntarist approaches in environmental policies with non-perfect competition and cooperation; Economie des approches volontaires dans les politiques environnementales en concurrence et cooperation imparfaites

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    David, M

    2004-05-15

    Voluntarist approaches (VA) are a form of environmental regulation which has been recently developed and which allows companies to voluntarily commit themselves to improve their environmental efficiencies. This work integrates for the first time the role of market structures which prevail both on the polluting industries side and on the cleansing industries side in order to compare some VA with other environmental policy instruments. A VA inspired from a policy introduced in Denmark is compared first with a tax in the framework of an imperfect competition between polluting companies. The same form of VA is then compared to a tax, a pollution quota and a process standard when the cleansing is delegated to an imperfectly competitive industry. Finally, the study of a VA applied in France in the domain of domestic packing wastes allows to compare the theoretical point of view and the real situation. (J.S.)

  13. Coal competitiveness?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rogeaux, B.

    2006-01-01

    Will coal electrical plants be more competitive in the coming years? Answering this one cannot be limited to merely comparing estimates based on reference electricity production costs. The competitiveness of coal will indeed depend on the final product marketed, as the MWhs are not equal: is the purpose to produce base, half-base MWh? Does the electrical equipment structure require flexible MWh (for instance in the event of significant intermittent renewable energy amounts), and therefore plants able to adjust their power rapidly? But the competitiveness of coal will also depend on many factors that will correct reference cost estimates: uncertainties, risks, externalities. These factors will need to be appreciated on a case by case basis. We introduce some of the reasoning used to better appreciate the future competitiveness of coal, and the main factors conditioning it in three contrasting regions of the world: Europe, USA, china. (author)

  14. Environmental effectiveness of GAEC cross-compliance Standard 2.1 ‘Maintaining the level of soil organic matter through management of stubble and crop residues’ and economic evaluation of the competitiveness gap for farmers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Domenico Ventrella

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Within the Project MO.NA.CO. the Environmental effectiveness of GAEC cross-compliance Standard 2.2 ‘Maintaining the level of soil organic matter through management of stubble and crop residues’ and economic evaluation of the competitiveness gap for farmers were evaluated. The monitoring was performed in eight experimental farms of the Council for agricultural research and economics (CREA, distributed throughout Italy and with different soil and climatic conditions. Yield parameters and several components of soil organic matter were evaluated in two contrasting treatments applied to one-year rotation of winter durum wheat and maize: i incorporation into the soil of crop residues (Factual treatment and ii burning or removal of crop residues (Counterfactual treatment. The application of the standard ‘crop residue management’ has showed contrasting results with differences (for yield and soil between the two treatments resulted almost always non significant. The analysis of economic competitiveness gap showed that the CR incorporation is more expensive than CR burning or removal, but the economic disadvantage can be considered rather small and thus easily compensated by Community aids. Therefore, the soil incorporation of crop residues can be considered a ‘good agricultural practice’ that does not penalize farmers in terms of production and cost and at the same time contributes to the maintenance of fertility and soil biodiversity. On the contrary, the removal and burning of residues result in a low or no-addition of organic matter into the soil. Moreover, burning can contribute to decrease the biodiversity and to increase the risk of air pollution, fires and road accidents.

  15. Environmental effectiveness of GAEC cross-compliance standard 2.1 ‘Maintaining the level of soil organic matter through management of stubble and crop residues’ and economic evaluation of the competitiveness gap for farmers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Domenico Ventrella

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Within the Project MO.NA.CO. the Environmental effectiveness of GAEC cross-compliance standard 2.2 ‘Maintaining the level of soil organic matter through management of stubble and crop residues’ and economic evaluation of the competitiveness gap for farmers were evaluated. The monitoring was performed in eight experimental farms of the Council for agricultural research and economics (CREA, distributed throughout Italy and with different soil and climatic conditions. Yield parameters and several components of soil organic matter were evaluated in two contrasting treatments applied to one-year rotation of winter durum wheat and maize: i incorporation into the soil of crop residues (Factual treatment and ii burning or removal of crop residues (Counterfactual treatment. The application of the standard ‘crop residue management’ has showed contrasting results with differences (for yield and soil between the two treatments resulted almost always non significant. The analysis of economic competitiveness gap showed that the CR incorporation is more expensive than CR burning or removal, but the economic disadvantage can be considered rather small and thus easily compensated by Community aids. Therefore, the soil incorporation of crop residues can be considered a ‘good agricultural practice’ that does not penalize farmers in terms of production and cost and at the same time contributes to the maintenance of fertility and soil biodiversity. On the contrary, the removal and burning of residues result in a low or no-addition of organic matter into the soil. Moreover, burning can contribute to decrease the biodiversity and to increase the risk of air pollution, fires and road accidents.

  16. Knowledge management and economic integration in Southern Africa: unpacking the contribution of a regional spatial perspective in building regional competitiveness and prosperity

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Chakwizira, J

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available spatial planning office under-girded by a southern African spatial development perspective protocol. The office could become a fountain of enhanced spatial knowledge management and a platform for generating economic integration intervention levers...

  17. Tax system competition – instruments and beneficiaries

    OpenAIRE

    Krzysztof Biernacki

    2014-01-01

    Tax competition among states and jurisdictions has already been examined many times in the economic literature. However, the main scope of the research was focused on a tax rates competition in income taxes and its consequences in bringing direct investments. This scripture/commentary tries to analyze various instruments and beneficiaries of the tax system competition and provide a general overview on this subject.

  18. Test Your Sodium Smarts

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... You may be surprised to learn how much sodium is in many foods. Sodium, including sodium chloride ... foods with little or no salt. Test your sodium smarts by answering these 10 questions about which ...

  19. Public healthcare interests require strict competition enforcement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loozen, Edith M H

    2015-07-01

    Several countries have introduced competition in their health systems in order to maintain the supply of high quality health care in a cost-effective manner. The introduction of competition triggers competition enforcement. Since healthcare is characterized by specific market failures, many favor healthcare-specific competition enforcement in order not only to account for the competition interest, but also for the healthcare interests. The question is whether healthcare systems based on competition can succeed when competition enforcement deviates from standard practice. This paper analyzes whether healthcare-specific competition enforcement is theoretically sound and practically effective. This is exemplified by the Dutch system that is based on regulated competition and thus crucially depends on getting competition enforcement right. Governments are responsible for correcting market failures. Markets are responsible for maximizing the public healthcare interests. By securing sufficient competitive pressure, competition enforcement makes sure they do. When interpreted according to welfare-economics, competition law takes into account both costs and benefits specific market behavior may have for healthcare. Competition agencies and judiciary are not legitimized to deviate from standard evidentiary requirements. Dutch case law shows that healthcare-specific enforcement favors the healthcare undertakings concerned, but to the detriment of public health care. Healthcare-specific competition enforcement is conceptually flawed and counterproductive. In order for healthcare systems based on competition to succeed, competition enforcement should be strict. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Life on the edge: navigating the competitive tensions between the 'social' and the 'economic' in the social economy and in its relations to the mainstream

    OpenAIRE

    Ray Hudson

    2009-01-01

    Drawing on detailed empirical research in the UK, in this article I explore the motivations that lie behind the formation of social economy organisations (SEOs) and the multiple trajectories that these can then follow and the tensions to which this can give rise as the ‘social’ runs up against the ‘economic’. This can, and often does, involve competition between SEOs in limited local markets and in search of state grant income. For those that seek to transcend these limits, the tensions betwe...

  1. Is nuclear power competitive

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brandfon, W.W.

    1984-01-01

    In view of the current high cost of coal and nuclear plants and the unfavorable regulatory and financial conditions under which they've been built in the last decade, the Atomic Industrial Forum assembled a Study Group, with extensive experience in economic analysis to examine future cost possibilities. This paper summarizes the first phase of a two-phase study to address the competitiveness of electricity from new coal and nuclear plants with oil and natural gas in common markets

  2. Assessment of sodium conductor distribution cable

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1979-06-01

    The study assesses the barriers and incentives for using sodium conductor distribution cable. The assessment considers environmental, safety, energy conservation, electrical performance and economic factors. Along with all of these factors considered in the assessment, the sodium distribution cable system is compared to the present day alternative - an aluminum conductor system. (TFD)

  3. CONCEPTUAL APPROACH OF COMPETITIVENESS AND INTERDEPENDENCE BETWEEN COMPETITION AND COMPETITIVENESS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tatiana GUTIUM

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available This article is devoted to analysis of interdependence and correlation between competition and competitiveness, and competition’s consequences. The author analysed some authors’ visions on competitiveness, and common features between theories of competition and competitiveness. Using the synthetic indicator elaborated by author has been evaluated the competitiveness of domestic goods on the internal and external market. At the end of this article, the author has developed proposals to increase competitiveness.

  4. Impact of technology diffusion on economic growth and international competitiveness. Empirical evidence for four East Asian countries; Gijutsu hakyu no koka to Asia keizai no seichoryoku, yushutsu kyosoryoku

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hoshino, Y.; Sakurai, N.

    1999-06-01

    Asian economies hit by the currency crisis in 1997 are still in struggle to recover their growth and to boost again their exports. Although several short-term policy measures to stimulate the demand- side of the economy is certainly necessary, in a longer-term perspective, the key to real recovery would exist in their ability to absorb foreign technologies through trade and/or FDI, as stressed by recent new theories of growth and trade. This paper examines empirically the role of technology diffusion from advanced countries to total factor productivity (TFP) and export competitiveness in four major East-Asian countries: Korea, Singapore, Malaysia and Indonesia, three of which were seriously damaged by the currency crisis. Our major findings are summarized as follows. First, we found that technology acquisition from abroad is quite important for TFP growth of most industries in Asia, in particular for two ASEAN countries (Malaysia and Indonesia), while such productivity impact from foreign technology was relatively small for Korea and Singapore. Second, the impact of technology diffusion was much larger in that through trade than in that through foreign direct investment. Some FDI practices to preclude technology access for developing countries might explain such weaker role of FDI on TFP. Third, the nexus between TFP and export competitiveness was surely positive, in particular for industries of high export performance. However, the magnitude of impact was relatively small in Korea, in spite of its overwhelming productivity performance. (author)

  5. Economic Competition, Sustainability, and Survival Endurance: The Extinction of the Dodo, the Easter Island Case, and the Tragedy of the Commons Effect

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moreira, Pedro

    2012-01-01

    A fast developing industry worldwide, tourism demands a monumental extent of resources, and at times devastates and condemns the very own environments that are fundamental to the economic survival of organizations and the sustainability of travel destinations. The purpose of the study is to link three established scientific themes on survival and…

  6. The Literature Review of a New Form of Competitiveness Called City Competitiveness

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Osman EROĞLU

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available With globalization, the rapid development of information technologies and the rapid changes in the economic structure, the country’s borders at a time increasingly depreciate and the importance of city competitiveness reveals. Although it is an ongoing debate around the world whether cities compete with each other, city competitiveness is a new form of competitiveness. Cities compete with each other to increase their competitiveness. City competitiveness is defined as having better values compared to other cities. In this study, a new form of competitiveness called city competitiveness is examined.

  7. Effectiveness of Chlorinated Water, Sodium Hypochlorite, Sodium ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study evaluated the efficacy of chlorinated water, sodium hypochlorite solution, sodium chloride solution and sterile distilled water in eliminating pathogenic bacteria on the surfaces of raw vegetables. Lettuce vegetables were dipped in different concentrations of chlorinated water, sodium hypochlorite solution, sodium ...

  8. Cavitation problems in sodium valves

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Elie, X.

    1976-01-01

    Cavitation poses few problems for sodium valves, in spite of the fact that the loops are not pressurized. This is no doubt due to the low flow velocities in the pipes. For auxiliary loop valves we are attempting to standardize performances with respect to cavitation. For economic reasons cavitation thresholds are approached with large diameter valves. (author)

  9. The economic aspect

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    MacKerron, G.

    1984-01-01

    The subject is covered in sections: introduction (indicating the importance of 'back end' operations in the economics of nuclear power production); irradiated fuel transport costs in the UK (the Sizewell PWR; existing UK reactors); economic appraisal; past nuclear economics; future nuclear economics; (electricity demand; technological maturity; social and political factors; competition to nuclear power). (U.K.)

  10. Economic and geopolitical aspects of the development of the natural gas market in the framework of its opening to competition (group 5)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dauger, J.M.

    2002-01-01

    This article is the work of a group of students from the ''Ecole Nationale d'Administration'', they had to study the present economy of natural gas and its perspective. First they have remembered some specificities of this market: natural gas is far more expensive to transport than oil because of its low energetic density, so this economy is driven by transport costs which implies that gas markets are regionalized with few inter-connections and that there is no reference price for gas. Secondly they show that the trend toward the opening of this market to competition, particularly strong in Usa and in Europe, should not be solved by market rules only but has to involve some concepts like: public service, the role of the state, long-term energy policy, social impacts or strategic interests. (A.C.)

  11. Case competitions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schjoldager, Anne Gram

    2009-01-01

    The paper presents and discusses a teaching project with case competitions for MA students of specialised translation at the Aarhus School of Business, Aarhus University. Drawing on a series of online questionnaires, the paper ascertains how the project was evaluated by the participating students...

  12. EDITORIAL: Physics competitions Physics competitions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jordens, H.; Mathelitsch, L.

    2009-11-01

    1. Physics competitions: aims and realizations One aim of physics competitions is to increase the interest of young students, primarily at upper secondary level, to physics and natural sciences in general. A competition has motivational aspects known usually from sports events or games—comparing one's own ability with others, of course with the desire to be better and to win. If competitions reach nationwide and even international levels, additional stimulation is created. Competitions provide greatest attraction to possible winners, to the group of gifted people in a particular field. This implies that science contests are excellent tools for the promotion of talented students. Traditional teaching has been shown to have problems in supporting this group of students. Very often teachers are overstretched with the demands of teaching both low- and high-level students. Extracurricular activities are therefore a good chance to relieve the teacher, and to give talented students the opportunity for appropriate training and challenge. The competitions, however, have a broader impact and address more young people than one might guess from the statements above. Training courses and selection at school level give a larger group of students extra and, to some extent, complimentary education in physics. The degree of complexity of the tasks corresponds very often to the standards of the next level of education in the school system. Interestingly, many physics competitions have their origin in countries beyond the former Iron Curtain. They started as regional and national tournaments, were joined by neighbouring countries and have grown, in some cases, to events with participants from more than 80 countries. Although the features mentioned above are common to the different competitions, there are distinct differences between them [1]. The International Physics Olympiad (IPhO) is the oldest international physics competition for students at upper secondary level [2]. It dates

  13. Western Canada Sedimentary Basin competitiveness

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Millar, R.H.G.

    1996-01-01

    Recent dramatic expansion of the natural gas industry in the Western Canada Sedimentary Basin provided ample proof of the potential of this area for further development of natural gas supply. However, the inherent competitive advantages provided by the Western Canada Sedimentary Basin were said to have been offset by low netback prices resulting in poor producer economics when competitiveness is measured by availability of opportunities to find and develop gas supply at costs low enough to ensure attractive returns. Technology was identified as one of the key elements in improving basin competitiveness, but the greatest potential lies in reduced transportation costs and increased access to North American market centres. 8 figs

  14. EDITORIAL: Physics competitions Physics competitions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jordens, H.; Mathelitsch, L.

    2010-07-01

    This editorial opens the second special section on physics competitions in European Journal of Physics. In the first section last year, we asked for feedback on the idea of such a section and on the content of the articles. We received no answer whatsoever, which can be interpreted in two ways: the section is not interesting enough to raise motivation for feedback, or the reader is satisfied. Having no indication which scenario is the correct one, we are optimistic and favour the second. The section at hand contains three articles. Again, as last year, the organizer of the annual Olympiad reports on tasks and outcomes of this competition. The Olympiad took place in Merida, Mexico, and was by far the largest event with 316 contestants from 68 countries. Again, the predominance of Asian/Chinese students was manifest, showing how serious the training is taken by both their authorities and students. Unfortunately, the winners of the last International Young Physicists' Tournament (IYPT), the team from Korea, did not accept the offer to report on their prize-winning contribution. We are thankful that two students from Austria, who achieved second place with their team, took over and reported on the task which they presented in the finals of the competition. It connects the fields of sport and physics and explains a special move in skateboarding. The third contribution introduces a different competition, 'International Conference of Young Scientists'. On one hand, as in the Olympiad, it addresses individuals, not teams. On the other, as in the IYPT, students have several months to prepare and also the quality of the presentation is an important element of the judgment. In fact, this competition comes closer to real scientific research compared to the other events. Finally and again, we hope that this section will serve several purposes: To show the competitions as a very important tool in the support of gifted students. To raise awareness amongst university teachers, and

  15. Sodium in diet

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diet - sodium (salt); Hyponatremia - sodium in diet; Hypernatremia - sodium in diet; Heart failure - sodium in diet ... Too much sodium in the diet may lead to: High blood pressure in some people A serious buildup of fluid in people with heart failure , cirrhosis of ...

  16. Energy and competitiveness

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Taylor, D.; Flaman, L.; Beigie, C.

    1992-01-01

    Energy efficiency-related programs in two Canadian provinces are reviewed. The Ontario Ministry of Energy has implemented programs to improve industrial energy efficiency in order to contribute to future economic growth. Since 1987, the Industrial Energy Services Program provides energy audits, feasibility analysis grants, and project engineering grants for energy efficiency improvements. Results show that an industrial plant can cut its energy costs by an average of 10% with the proper help. To minimize electricity costs, Ontario Hydro has a demand management program that offers a combination of financial assistance for energy conservation measures, rate incentives, standards and regulation, and fuel substitution. Results in 1992 show 250 MW in saved and shifted load. In Alberta, a TransAlta Utilities program in supply side management has the objective of maximizing the production potential of existing plants. The resulting benefit is improved electric power production efficiency that leads to increased competitiveness. Side benefits include delay of new plant construction, reduced coal consumption, and reduction in greenhouse gas emissions. Finally, Canada's economic competitiveness is reviewed historically and measures to improve this competitiveness are suggested. A new national policy strategy would include gradual elimination of all import tariffs, optimization of natural resources, securing energy availability at prices at or below world levels, and becoming a leader in transportation and communications. 1 fig., 1 tab

  17. Logo competition

    CERN Multimedia

    Staff Association

    2013-01-01

    Award of the prizes The price ceremony for the Staff Association’s new logo competition which took place on Friday 1st March at 5 p.m. was a big success. The first prize, an Ezee Suisse electric bike, was won by Paulo Rios, from Portugal. In his absence, the bike was handed to his brother Vitor. The other five winners of the competition also received their prize: Go Sport vouchers. A peize draw was then organized to award 22 other participants with prizes offered by our commercial partners (Aquaparc, BCGE, L’Occitane, Passeport Gourmand, Sephora, Theater La Comédie de Genève), whom we would like to warmly thank. After all prices were distributed the evening continued with discussions around a friendly drink.

  18. Competitive Framing

    OpenAIRE

    Ran Spiegler

    2014-01-01

    I present a simple framework for modeling two-firm market competition when consumer choice is "frame-dependent", and firms use costless "marketing messages" to influence the consumer's frame. This framework embeds several recent models in the "behavioral industrial organization" literature. I identify a property that consumer choice may satisfy, which extends the concept of Weighted Regularity due to Piccione and Spiegler (2012), and provide a characterization of Nash equilibria under this pr...

  19. An economic analysis of space solar power and its cost competitiveness as a supplemental source of energy for space and ground markets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marzwell, N. I.

    2002-01-01

    Economic Growth has been historically associated with nations that first made use of each new energy source. There is no doubt that Solar Power Satellites is high as a potential energy system for the future. A conceptual cost model of the economics value of space solar power (SSP) as a source of complementary power for in-space and ground applications will be discussed. Several financial analysis will be offered based on present and new technological innovations that may compete with or be complementary to present energy market suppliers depending on various institutional arrangements for government and the private sector in a Global Economy. Any of the systems based on fossil fuels such as coal, oil, natural gas, and synthetic fuels share the problem of being finite resources and are subject to ever-increasing cost as they grow ever more scarce with drastic increase in world population. Increasing world population and requirements from emerging underdeveloped countries will also increase overall demand. This paper would compare the future value of SSP with that of other terrestrial renewable energy in distinct geographic markets within the US, in developing countries, Europe, Asia, and Eastern Europe.

  20. Ideology and 'A' Level Economics Textbooks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Webster, Angela

    1978-01-01

    Reviews economics textbooks frequently used in college level economics courses in England to determine the extent of bias. Topics analyzed include economics as science and ethics, profits, advertising, economic objectives, perfect competition, and nationalized industries. (Author/DB)

  1. The Nexus Land-Use model version 1.0, an approach articulating biophysical potentials and economic dynamics to model competition for land-use

    Science.gov (United States)

    Souty, F.; Brunelle, T.; Dumas, P.; Dorin, B.; Ciais, P.; Crassous, R.; Müller, C.; Bondeau, A.

    2012-10-01

    Interactions between food demand, biomass energy and forest preservation are driving both food prices and land-use changes, regionally and globally. This study presents a new model called Nexus Land-Use version 1.0 which describes these interactions through a generic representation of agricultural intensification mechanisms within agricultural lands. The Nexus Land-Use model equations combine biophysics and economics into a single coherent framework to calculate crop yields, food prices, and resulting pasture and cropland areas within 12 regions inter-connected with each other by international trade. The representation of cropland and livestock production systems in each region relies on three components: (i) a biomass production function derived from the crop yield response function to inputs such as industrial fertilisers; (ii) a detailed representation of the livestock production system subdivided into an intensive and an extensive component, and (iii) a spatially explicit distribution of potential (maximal) crop yields prescribed from the Lund-Postdam-Jena global vegetation model for managed Land (LPJmL). The economic principles governing decisions about land-use and intensification are adapted from the Ricardian rent theory, assuming cost minimisation for farmers. In contrast to the other land-use models linking economy and biophysics, crops are aggregated as a representative product in calories and intensification for the representative crop is a non-linear function of chemical inputs. The model equations and parameter values are first described in details. Then, idealised scenarios exploring the impact of forest preservation policies or rising energy price on agricultural intensification are described, and their impacts on pasture and cropland areas are investigated.

  2. The Nexus Land-Use model version 1.0, an approach articulating biophysical potentials and economic dynamics to model competition for land-use

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. Souty

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Interactions between food demand, biomass energy and forest preservation are driving both food prices and land-use changes, regionally and globally. This study presents a new model called Nexus Land-Use version 1.0 which describes these interactions through a generic representation of agricultural intensification mechanisms within agricultural lands. The Nexus Land-Use model equations combine biophysics and economics into a single coherent framework to calculate crop yields, food prices, and resulting pasture and cropland areas within 12 regions inter-connected with each other by international trade. The representation of cropland and livestock production systems in each region relies on three components: (i a biomass production function derived from the crop yield response function to inputs such as industrial fertilisers; (ii a detailed representation of the livestock production system subdivided into an intensive and an extensive component, and (iii a spatially explicit distribution of potential (maximal crop yields prescribed from the Lund-Postdam-Jena global vegetation model for managed Land (LPJmL. The economic principles governing decisions about land-use and intensification are adapted from the Ricardian rent theory, assuming cost minimisation for farmers. In contrast to the other land-use models linking economy and biophysics, crops are aggregated as a representative product in calories and intensification for the representative crop is a non-linear function of chemical inputs. The model equations and parameter values are first described in details. Then, idealised scenarios exploring the impact of forest preservation policies or rising energy price on agricultural intensification are described, and their impacts on pasture and cropland areas are investigated.

  3. Design study on sodium-cooled large-scale reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shimakawa, Yoshio; Nibe, Nobuaki; Hori, Toru

    2002-05-01

    In Phase 1 of the 'Feasibility Study on Commercialized Fast Reactor Cycle Systems (F/S)', an advanced loop type reactor has been selected as a promising concept of sodium-cooled large-scale reactor, which has a possibility to fulfill the design requirements of the F/S. In Phase 2 of the F/S, it is planed to precede a preliminary conceptual design of a sodium-cooled large-scale reactor based on the design of the advanced loop type reactor. Through the design study, it is intended to construct such a plant concept that can show its attraction and competitiveness as a commercialized reactor. This report summarizes the results of the design study on the sodium-cooled large-scale reactor performed in JFY2001, which is the first year of Phase 2. In the JFY2001 design study, a plant concept has been constructed based on the design of the advanced loop type reactor, and fundamental specifications of main systems and components have been set. Furthermore, critical subjects related to safety, structural integrity, thermal hydraulics, operability, maintainability and economy have been examined and evaluated. As a result of this study, the plant concept of the sodium-cooled large-scale reactor has been constructed, which has a prospect to satisfy the economic goal (construction cost: less than 200,000yens/kWe, etc.) and has a prospect to solve the critical subjects. From now on, reflecting the results of elemental experiments, the preliminary conceptual design of this plant will be preceded toward the selection for narrowing down candidate concepts at the end of Phase 2. (author)

  4. Sodium technology handbook

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2005-09-01

    This document was published as a textbook for the education and training of personnel working for operations and maintenances of sodium facilities including FBR plants and those engaged in R and D activities related to sodium technology. This handbook covers the following technical areas. Properties of sodium. Compatibilities of sodium with materials. Thermalhydraulics and structural integrity. Sodium systems and components. Sodium instrumentations. Sodium handling technology. Sodium related accident evaluation and countermeasures for FBRs. Operation, maintenance and repair technology of sodium facilities. Safety measures related to sodium. Laws, regulations and internal rules related to sodium. The plannings and discussions of the handbook were made in the Sodium Technology Education Committee organized in O-arai Engineering Center consisting of the representatives of the related departments including Tsuruga headquarters. Experts in various departments participated in writing individual technical subjects. (author)

  5. Power industry and competition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Recknagel, H.

    1988-01-01

    A task group on antritrust law has been set in by the Federal Ministry of Economics in order to again investigate the position of the utilities within the framework of the law against restraints on competition, (GWB). The task group's report states that from the power industry's perspective, there is no reason to modify the existing system created by sections 103, 103a of the GWB. The EC internal market to come, and enhanced use of coal for power generation to be continued beyond the year 1995 are topics that will keep politicians, utilities, and lawmakers in this field busy enough. In such a situation, the legislator cannot afford a discovery trip into unexplored, theoretical impacts of enhanced competition on the power industry. (orig./DG) [de

  6. COMPETITIVE INTELLIGENCE ANALYSIS - SCENARIOS METHOD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivan Valeriu

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Keeping a company in the top performing players in the relevant market depends not only on its ability to develop continually, sustainably and balanced, to the standards set by the customer and competition, but also on the ability to protect its strategic information and to know in advance the strategic information of the competition. In addition, given that economic markets, regardless of their profile, enable interconnection not only among domestic companies, but also between domestic companies and foreign companies, the issue of economic competition moves from the national economies to the field of interest of regional and international economic organizations. The stakes for each economic player is to keep ahead of the competition and to be always prepared to face market challenges. Therefore, it needs to know as early as possible, how to react to others’ strategy in terms of research, production and sales. If a competitor is planning to produce more and cheaper, then it must be prepared to counteract quickly this movement. Competitive intelligence helps to evaluate the capabilities of competitors in the market, legally and ethically, and to develop response strategies. One of the main goals of the competitive intelligence is to acknowledge the role of early warning and prevention of surprises that could have a major impact on the market share, reputation, turnover and profitability in the medium and long term of a company. This paper presents some aspects of competitive intelligence, mainly in terms of information analysis and intelligence generation. Presentation is theoretical and addresses a structured method of information analysis - scenarios method – in a version that combines several types of analysis in order to reveal some interconnecting aspects of the factors governing the activity of a company.

  7. The sodium coolant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rodriguez, G.

    2004-01-01

    The sodium is the best appropriate coolant for the fast neutrons reactors technology. Thus the fast neutrons reactors development is intimately bound to the sodium technology. This document presents the sodium as a coolant point of view: atomic structure and characteristics, sodium impacts on the fast neutron reactors technology, chemical properties of the sodium and the consequences, quality control in a nuclear reactor, sodium treatment. (A.L.B.)

  8. Environmental effectiveness of GAEC cross-compliance standard 2.2 "Maintaining the level of soil organic matter through crop rotation" and economic evaluation of the competitiveness gap for farmers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lamberto Borrelli

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Within the Project MO.NA.CO was evaluated the Environmental effectiveness of GAEC cross-compliance standard 2.2 “Maintaining the level of soil organic matter through crop rotation” and economic evaluation of the competitiveness gap for farmers who support or not the cross-compliance regime. The monitoring was performed in nine experimental farms of the Council for Agricultural Research and Economics (CREA distributed throughout Italy and with different soil and climatic conditions. Were also evaluated the soil organic matter and some yield parameters, in a cereal monocropping (treatment counterfactual and a two-year rotation cereal-legume or forage (treatment factual. The two-years application of the standard “crop rotations” has produced contrasting results with regards to the storage of soil organic matter through crop rotation and these were not sufficient to demonstrate a statistically significant effect of treatment in any of the farms considered in monitoring, only in those farms subjected to more years of monitoring was recorded only a slight effect of the standard as a trend. The variations of organic matter in soils in response to changes in the culture technique or in the management of the soil may have long lag times and two years of time are not sufficient to demonstrate the dynamics of SOM associated with the treatment, also in consideration of the large inter annual variability recorded in different monitored sites.

  9. EDITORIAL: Physics competitions Physics competitions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jordens, H.; Mathelitsch, L.

    2011-07-01

    International tests on competences, such as TIMSS or PISA, and knowledge of young students have revealed low average scores in many countries, often unexpectedly. One effective measure to increase the average standard of a population is to bring the last third of the group to a higher level. Therefore, many nations put some effort into this activity. This brings the danger that not enough attention is paid to students at the other end, those who are talented. Indeed, it is a very difficult task for a teacher to support the less able and at the same time challenge the gifted students, to lead them to the limits of their abilities and provide for a smooth transition to university study. Physics competitions have been proven to fulfil these last demands to a large degree, and therefore are an important additional and, to some extent, complementary tool for the promotion of talented students. This third special section on physics competitions in European Journal of Physics contains three papers, each dealing with a different form of science contest. The first continues the series of presentations of tasks performed at the International Young Physicists' Tournament, which was held in Vienna in 2011. First place went to the team from Singapore, and they have put their investigation on vertical oscillations of coupled magnets into written form (not required by the tournament, where an oral presentation and a defence and discussion are the central aspects). Their paper shows how rich in physics this problem is, and what level of solutions high-school students can already achieve. Sadly, those responsible for the organization of last year's International Physics Olympiad did not provide us with a report on this competition. This is unfortunate, since the Olympiad in Zagreb was very successful and, in particular, the experimental tasks were creative and demanding. Very similar to the aims and the execution of the Physics Olympiad is the International Olympiad on Astronomy

  10. Planning Change of the Type of Economic Development of Enterprises of the Dairy Industry with Consideration of Influence of the Competitive Environment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kulynych Yuriy M.

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The article justifies a necessity of transition of dairy industry enterprises to the intensive type of economic development. It offers a mathematical model of transition to the intensive type of development. The model is build on the basis of the well-known methods. The author offers two variants of formation of the intensive type of development during the period of planning. Pursuant to the first variant, it is planned to increase expenditures of an enterprise during the period of planning, pursuant to the second – to reduce expenditures of the period of planning compared to the basic one. The author considers and analyses the essence of the innovation strategy of dairy enterprises and offers a model of formation of such a strategy at an enterprise. The article considers main problems that suppress investment activity in the country. The author focuses, in particular, on the following: inconsistent investment policy of the state in the food sphere, poorly developed innovation infrastructure, monopoly of reporcessors in the dairy products markets and low level of profitability of dairy enterprises. In conclusion the author offers measures on formation of investment attractiveness of the dairy industry.

  11. Discovering the Nature of Competitive Personality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olga A. Klyueva

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The concept of “competitiveness” has been most thoroughly developed in theframework of modern economics and management. Apart from economic factors,this concept also embraces social and psychological factors, but economic modelsdo not reveal the psychological essence of the concept of “competitive personality.”Analytical review of the psychological and educational case studies of the competitive-personality problem has brought to light the ambiguity in this concept alongwith a multitude of models that distinguish individual aspects of a competitivepersonality. Most creators of the various models emphasize the quality of the conditionsnecessary for forming and developing a competitive personality.In economics, competition is an essential, inherent feature of various types of activitywhere conflicts of interest occur. However, the established economic modelof competitive personality reduces and replaces the psychological content of theconcept.Theoretically and experimentally the authors of this article substantiate their disclosureof the competitive-personality concept via its creative potential. Results ofan in-depth study confirm that the ability to achieve success through one’s owninitiative, anticipating the demands of competition, appears to be the backbonefor competitiveness of personality.

  12. Romania's Competitiveness and Competitive Position in Global Context

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valentin NECULITA

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Competitiveness increase has become a primordial framework of the social and economic development strategies of most world countries (mainly the most developed ones over the last decades. The vigorous boost of the contemporary phenomenon of globalization, which has widened the global area of economies, sectors and firms confrontation, has laid an emphasis on their competitiveness importance for their favorable position in the international competition and has therefore force the status to take proper, broad and concerted measures to stimulate the determining factors of action and to take better advantage of their effects. The purpose of the paper is to determine whether an increase in competitiveness could reduce the disparities between regions. The E.U. Member States and regions need significant financial help to solve various structural problems and to achieve their potential of growth. Romania is no exception, one of the main problems being the low rate in attracting European funds.

  13. THEORETICAL AND METHODOLOGICAL APPROACHES TO REGIONAL COMPETITION INVESTIGATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.I. Tatarkin

    2006-03-01

    Full Text Available The article is dedicated to theoretical-methodological issues of regional economy competitiveness investigation. Economic essence of regional competitiveness is analyzed, its definition is given. The factors that determine relations of competition on medium and macrolevels are proved. The basic differences between world-economical and inter-regional communications are formulated. The specific features of globalization processes as form of competitive struggle are considered.

  14. Competition policy and market leaders

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Maci, I.; Žigić, Krešimir

    -, č. 375 (2008), s. 1-29 ISSN 1211-3298 R&D Projects: GA MŠk LC542 Institutional research plan: CEZ:MSM0021620846 Keywords : competition policy * market leaders * innovation Subject RIV: AH - Economics http://www.cerge-ei.cz/pdf/wp/Wp375.pdf

  15. Competition policy and market leaders

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Maci, Ilir; Žigić, K.

    -, č. 375 (2008), s. 1-29 ISSN 1211-3298 R&D Projects: GA MŠk LC542 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z70850503 Keywords : competition policy * market leaders * innovation Subject RIV: AH - Economics http://www.cerge-ei.cz/pdf/wp/Wp375.pdf

  16. Competition in spatial location models

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Webers, H.M.

    1996-01-01

    Models of spatial competition are designed and analyzed to describe the fact that space, by its very nature, is a source of market power. This field of research, lying at the interface of game theory and economics, has attracted much interest because location problems are related to many aspects of

  17. Competition policy and market leaders

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Žigić, Krešimir; Maci, Ilir

    2011-01-01

    Roč. 28, č. 3 (2011), s. 1042-1049 ISSN 0264-9993 R&D Projects: GA MŠk LC542 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z70850503 Keywords : competition policy * innovation Subject RIV: AH - Economics Impact factor: 0.701, year: 2011

  18. COMPETITIVENESS IN REGIONAL DEVELOPMENT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ELENA MĂDĂLINA OPRIȚESCU

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The development and diversification of the economic activities, the stimulation of investments both in the public sector, but mainly in the private one, the reduction of unemployment, the improvement of living standards are just some of the concepts aimed at by the regional development. The main method which can lead to a balanced development of the regions is financing them differentially so that the underdeveloped regions would obtain proportionally more funds that the developed ones. At a region level, the main objective is represented by the more accelerated growth of the less developed regions, in an effort to diminish the inter-regional and intra-regional development disparities. A key role is played by the sustainable economic growth concept, while also analyzing the competitiveness at a regional level, as well as the main development factors.

  19. FLEXIBLE BUDGET OF SPORT COMPETITIONS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dragan Vukasović

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available Manager of sport competition has right to decide and also to take responsibility for costs, income and financial results. From economic point of wiev flexible budget and planning cost calculations is top management base for analyzing success level of sport competition. Flexible budget is made before sport competition with few output level, where one is always from static plan-master plan. At the end of competition when we have results, we make report of plan executing and we also analyzing plan variances. Results of comparation between achieved and planning level of static budget can be acceptable if achieved level is approximate to budget level or if we analyzing results from gross or net income. Flexible budget become very important in case of world eco- nomic crises

  20. Environmental effectiveness of GAEC cross-compliance Standard 1.1a (temporary ditches and 1.2g (permanent grass cover of set-aside in reducing soil erosion and economic evaluation of the competitiveness gap for farmers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paolo Bazzoffi

    2016-02-01

    decrease in the erosion due to the vegetation cover of the soil compared to bare soil. The economic competitiveness gap of  Standard 1.1(commitment a stood at € 4.07±1.42 € ha-1 year-1, while CO2 emissions due to execution of temporary ditches was 2.58 kg ha-1year-1. As for the Standard 1.2 (commitment g the average differential competitiveness gap amounted to  50.22±13.7 € ha-1 year-1 and an output of CO2 equal to 31.52  kg ha-1 year.

  1. Liquid sodium pool fires

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Casselman, C [DSN/SESTR, Centre de Cadarache, Saint-Paul-lez-Durance (France)

    1979-03-01

    Experimental sodium pool combustion results have led to a definition of the combustion kinetics, and have revealed the hazards of sodium-concrete contact reactions and the possible ignition of organic matter (paint) by hydration of sodium peroxide aerosols. Analysis of these test results shows that the controlling mechanism is sodium evaporation diffusion. (author)

  2. Liquid sodium pool fires

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Casselman, C.

    1979-01-01

    Experimental sodium pool combustion results have led to a definition of the combustion kinetics, and have revealed the hazards of sodium-concrete contact reactions and the possible ignition of organic matter (paint) by hydration of sodium peroxide aerosols. Analysis of these test results shows that the controlling mechanism is sodium evaporation diffusion. (author)

  3. Small liquid sodium leaks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dufresne, J.; Rochedereux, Y.; Antonakas, D.; Casselman, C.; Malet, J.C.

    1986-05-01

    Usually, pessimistic considerations inassessing the safety of secondary sodium loops in LMFBR reactor lead to assume guillotine rupture releasing a large amount of sodium estimate the consequences of large sodium fires. In order to reduce these consequences, one has to detect the smallest leak as soon as possible and to evaluate the future of an initial small leak. Analysis of the relationship between crack size and sodium outflow rate; Analysis of a sodium pipe with a small open crack

  4. Is nuclear power competitive

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brandfon, W.W.

    1984-01-01

    The first phase of a two-phase study of the competitiveness of electricity from new coal and nuclear plants with oil and natural gas in common markets concludes that, with few exceptions throughout the country, overall levelized nuclear generating cost could be lower than coal generating costs by more than 40%. The study shows a wider margin of economic superiority for nuclear than has been seen in other recent studies. Capital and fuel costs are the major determinants of relative nuclear and coal economics. The only substantial difference in the input assumptions has related to a shorter lead time for both coal and nuclear units, which reduces capital costs. The study gives substance to the charge that delaying tactics by intervenors and an unstable licensing environment drove up lifetime costs of both coal and nuclear plants. This caused an increase in electric rates and affected the entire economy. The study shows that nuclear power is competitive when large baseload capacity is required. 14 figures

  5. Does competition influence safety?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pamme, H.

    2000-01-01

    Competition in the deregulated electricity market does not leave nuclear power plants unaffected. Operators seek to run their plants at maximum availability and with optimized cost structures so that specific generating costs are minimized. The 'costs of safety', with their fixed-cost character, are elements of this cost structure. Hence the question whether safety is going to suffer under the cost pressure on the market. The study shows that the process of economic optimization does not permit cost minimization for its own sake in the area of operating costs which can be influenced by management or are 'avoidable'. The basis of assessment rather must be potential risks which could entail losses of availability. Prophylactic investments made in order to avoid losses of availability to a large extent also imply unchanged or even higher levels of safety. Economic viability and safety thus are closely correlated. Competition in a deregulated marekt so far has not done any direct harm to plant safety. An even more efficient use of scarce funds and, hopefully, a tolerable political environment should allow the safety level of nuclear power plants to be upheld, and safety culture to be maintained, also in the future. (orig.) [de

  6. Development of sodium disposal technology. Experiment of sodium compound solidification process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Matsumoto, Toshiyuki; Ohura, Masato; Yatoh, Yasuo

    2007-07-01

    A large amount of sodium containing radioactive waste will come up at the time of final shutdown/decommission of FBR plant. The radioactive waste is managed as solid state material in a closed can in Japan. As for the sodium, there is no established method to convert the radioactive sodium to solid waste. Further, the sodium is highly reactive. Thus, it is recommended to convert the sodium to a stable substance before the solidification process. One of the stabilizing methods is conversion of sodium into sodium hydroxide solution. These stabilization and solidification processes should be safe, economical, and efficient. In order to develop such sodium disposal technology, nonradioactive sodium was used and a basic experiment was performed. Waste-fluid Slag Solidification method was employed as the solidification process of sodium hydroxide solution. Experimental parameters were mixing ratio of the sodium hydroxide and the slag solidification material, temperature and concentration of the sodium hydroxide. The best parameters were obtained to achieve the maximum filling ratio of the sodium hydroxide under a condition of enough high compressive strength of the solidified waste. In a beaker level test, the solidified waste was kept in a long term and it was shown that there was no change of appearance, density, and also the compressive strength was kept at a target value. In a real scale test, homogeneous profiles of the density and the compressive strength were obtained. The compressive strength was higher than the target value. It was shown that the Waste-fluid Slag Solidification method can be applied to the solidification process of the sodium hydroxide solution, which was produced by the stabilization process. (author)

  7. Economic Studies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. V. Kholopov

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The establishment of the School of Economic Science at MGIMO was due to the necessity of the world economy research, and the need to prepare highly skilled specialists in international economics. The school is developing a number of areas, which reflect the Faculty structure. - Economic theory is one of the most important research areas, a kind of foundation of the School of Economic Science at MGIMO. Economic theory studies are carried out at the chair of Economic theory. "The course of economic theory" textbook was published in 1991, and later it was reprinted seven times. Over the past few years other textbooks and manuals have been published, including "Economics for Managers" by Professor S.N. Ivashkovskaya, which survived through five editions; "International Economics" - four editions and "History of Economic Thought" - three editions. - International Economic Relations are carried out by the Department of International Economic Relations and Foreign Economic Activity. Its establishment is associated with the prominent economist N.N. Lyubimov. In 1957 he with his colleagues published the first textbook on the subject which went through multiple republications. The editorial team of the textbook subsequently formed the pride of Soviet economic science - S.M. Menshikov, E.P. Pletnev, V.D. Schetinin. Since 2007, the chair of Foreign Economic Activities led by Doctor of Economics, Professor I. Platonova has been investigating the problems of improving the architecture of foreign economic network and the international competitiveness of Russia; - The history of the study of problems of the world economy at MGIMO begins in 1958 at the chair baring the same name. Since 1998, the department has been headed by Professor A. Bulatov; - The study of international monetary relations is based on the chair of International Finance, and is focused on addressing the fundamental scientific and practical problems; - The chair "Banks, monetary circulation

  8. Competition And Antitrust Law In Ecuadorian Constitution

    OpenAIRE

    Marcelo Marín Sevilla

    2013-01-01

    This work allows us to establish the Economic Constitution and the Competition Law (C.L) in the Constitution. Additionally, the paper analyzes whether the rules outlined in the C. L. and in doctrine are consistent and appropriate with the Constitution of Ecuador. The Competition and Antitrust Laws has rules for investigating and punishing the cartels, the abuses of power market (dominant position), the rules for merger control, the behaviors of Abuse of economic dependence, and unfair competi...

  9. The Necessity of ASEAN Competition Law: Rethinking

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Udin Silalahi

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available As outlined in the AEC Blueprint, all ASEAN member states (AMSs will endeavour to introduce competition policy by 2015. At present 7 (seven AMSs, namely: Indonesia, Singapore, Malaysia, Thailand, Vietnam, Philippines, Myanmar have the national competition laws to supervise anti-competitive conduct in the domestic market. But the question is what if happened unfair competition between ASEAN member states, due to the agreement or businesses activities by business actors that harm competition? ASEAN has an ASEAN Regional Guidelines on Competition Policy (ARGCP that developed by ASEAN Experts Group on Competition (AEGC as framework for member states to develop its own competition law or policy and as a guideline in measuring that directly affect the behaviour of enterprises and the structure of industry and markets. Regional Guideline is just to help AMSs in increasing of awareness of important policy, not to sustain the competition among ASEAN member countries. Until now there is no ASEAN Competition Law and Institution to oversee competition among ASEAN member countries. In this era, ASEAN economic integration it is a certainty that anti-competitive among AMSs will happen.

  10. Design study on sodium-cooled middle-scale modular reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shimakawa, Yoshio; Nibe, Nobuaki; Hori, Toru

    2002-05-01

    In Phase 1 of the 'Feasibility Study on Commercialized Fast Reactor Cycle Systems (F/S)', an advanced loop type reactor has been selected as a promising concept of sodium-cooled middle-scale modular reactor, which has a possibility to fulfill the design requirements of the F/S. In Phase 2 of the F/S, it is planed to precede a preliminary conceptual design of a sodium-cooled middle-scale modular reactor based on the design of the advanced loop type reactor. Through the design study, it is intended to construct such a plant concept that can show its attraction and competitiveness as a commercialized reactor. This report summarizes the results of the design study on the sodium-cooled middle-scale modular reactor performed in JFY2001, which is the first year of Phase 2. As the construction cost of the sodium-cooled middle-scale modular reactor, which has been constructed in Phase 1, was about 10% higher than that of the sodium-cooled large-scale reactor, a new concept of the middle-scale modular reactor, which is expected to be equal to the large-scale reactor from a viewpoint of economic competitiveness, has been re-constructed based on the design of the advanced loop type reactor. After that, fundamental specifications of main systems and components for the new concept have been set, and critical subjects related to safety, structural integrity, thermal hydraulics, operability, maintainability and economy have been examined and evaluated. As a result of this study, the plant concept of the sodium-cooled middle-scale modular reactor has been constructed, which has a prospect to satisfy the economic goal (construction cost: less than 200,000 yens/kWe, etc.) and has a prospect to solve the critical subjects. From now on, reflecting the results of elemental experiments, the preliminary conceptual design of this plant will be preceded toward the selection for narrowing down candidate concepts at the end of Phase 2. (author)

  11. MICROECONOMIC ANALYSIS IN COMPETITION POLICY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paul Prisecaru

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents some of the most important microeconomic tools used in assessing antitrust and merger cases by the competition authorities. By explaining the way that microeconomic concepts like “market power”, “critical loss” or “price elasticity of demand” are used by the modern competition policy, the microeconomics scholar can get a practical perspective on the way that these concepts fit into the more general concept of “competition policy”. Extensive economic research has shown what are the market forces and economic factors that determine how cartels, which are at the core of antitrust policy, are established and sustained over time. One of the most important of these factors is the markets exposure to innovation, especially disruptive innovation. In these markets, the paradox, from a competition policy perspective, can be considered the fact that collusion is one of the least important concerns, due to the specific elements that determine the nature of competition.Instead, the main anticompetitive risk in the markets exposed to intensive innovation is unilateral conduct by which dominant incumbents can exclude competitors.

  12. CONSIDERATIONS OF NATIONAL CULTURE’S ROLE IN EXPLAINING COMPETITIVENESS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivana Načinović Braje

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper aims to map the connection between national culture and competitiveness. Competitiveness includes the set of institutions, policies, and factors that determine the level of productivity of a country. Although competitiveness can be a result of several drivers, we argue that as some of these are people driven, competitiveness must be related to basic underlying assumptions, espoused values and artefacts shared by the people from the observed entity. This makes competitiveness closely related to national and organizational culture. Cross-country analysis has indicated that national culture features do have an impact on national competitiveness. The empirical analysis of global competitiveness index and Hofstede’s cultural variables has shown that uncertainty avoidance index negatively affects competitiveness, but long term orientation index affects competitiveness in a positive way. Therefore, policy makers should be aware that not only tangible economic factors lead to competitiveness but intangible factors such as culture should also be considered in attempts to improve competitiveness.

  13. Competitive spirit

    Science.gov (United States)

    2000-01-01

    Leicester University will host the 65 international teams of students who will assemble in July for this year's International Physics Olympiad . The last time the Olympiad came to the UK was in 1986 in London, and it was the notable enthusiasm of the Leicester Physics and Astronomy department which persuaded the Olympiad Committee to give them the chance of organizing the prestigious event. The students taking part from all over the world are studying physics at A-level or an equivalent standard and they will take part in an intellectual marathon of theoretical and practical examinations. Each national team comprises five students selected from three rounds of competition and the teams will receive an official welcome from the city, as well as opportunities to visit some of the important educational and cultural centres of the surrounding region. The finalists will also be able to test their skills and initiative at the Challenger Learning Centre, which forms part of Leicester's new National Space Science Centre. Specific information on the event can be found on the Olympiad-2000 website at www.star.le.ac.uk/IphO-2000 . The Rudolf Ortvay problem solving contest in physics, which takes place in November, is a tradition of Eötvös University in Budapest, Hungary. The competition was first opened to international participants in 1998, enabling students from universities around the world to show their knowledge, ingenuity, problem-solving skills and physical insight into problems that are far beyond routine level. The problems (30 - 35 each year) are chosen from different branches of theoretical as well as applied physics. They have varying levels of difficulty, and every contestant can send solutions for ten problems. The focus is not on school-level problem-solving routines but rather on the `physical' way of thinking, recognition of the heart of the problem and an appropriate choice of mathematics. The majority of the assigned problems are original, few having

  14. Multinationals and Institutional Competitiveness

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hull Kristensen, Peer; Morgan, Glenn

    This article discusses how institutional competitiveness and multinationals are mutually enriching concepts. Seen from the perspective of Multinationals, institutional competitiveness becomes expressed at two levels. At the level of corporate HQs institutional competitiveness proves itself...... competitiveness of Liberal Market Economies and Coordinated Markets Economies under the current competitive regime....

  15. Lunabotics Mining Competition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mueller, Rob; Murphy, Gloria

    2010-01-01

    This slide presentation describes a competition to design a lunar robot (lunabot) that can be controlled either remotely or autonomously, isolated from the operator, and is designed to mine a lunar aggregate simulant. The competition is part of a systems engineering curriculum. The 2010 competition winners in five areas of the competition were acknowledged, and the 2011 competition was announced.

  16. Animal spirits, competitive markets, and endogenous growth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miyazaki, Kenji

    2013-10-01

    This paper uses a simple model with an endogenous discount rate and linear technology to investigate whether a competitive equilibrium has a higher balanced growth path (BGP) than the social planning solution and whether the BGP is determinate or indeterminate. The implications are as follows. To start with, people with an instinct to compare themselves with others possess an endogenous discount rate. In turn, this instinct affects the economic growth rate in a competitive market economy. The competitive market economy also sometimes achieves higher economic growth than a social planning economy. However, the outcomes of market economy occasionally fluctuate because of the presence of the self-fulfilling prophecy or animal spirits.

  17. Competition And Antitrust Law In Ecuadorian Constitution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcelo Marín Sevilla

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available This work allows us to establish the Economic Constitution and the Competition Law (C.L in the Constitution. Additionally, the paper analyzes whether the rules outlined in the C. L. and in doctrine are consistent and appropriate with the Constitution of Ecuador. The Competition and Antitrust Laws has rules for investigating and punishing the cartels, the abuses of power market (dominant position, the rules for merger control, the behaviors of Abuse of economic dependence, and unfair competition behaviors. Always the Antitrust Authority will analyze these behaviors in terms of welfare of both: the consumer and the market.

  18. Multispecies weed competition and their economic threshold on the wheat crop Interferência e nível de dano econômico de várias espécies infestantes na cultura de trigo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Gherekhloo

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Two field experiments were conducted to evaluate the effects of multispecies weed competition on wheat grain yield and to determine their economic threshold on the crop. The experiments were conducted in 2002, on two sites in Iran: at the Agricultural Research Station on Ferdowsi University of Mashhad (E1 and on the fields of Shirvan's Agricultural College (E2. A 15 x 50 m area of a 15 ha wheat field in E1 and a 15 x 50 m area of a 28 ha wheat field in E2 were selected as experimental sites. These areas were managed like other parts of the fields, except for the use of herbicides. At the beginning of the shooting stage, 30 points were randomly selected by dropping a 50 x 50 cm square marker on each site. The weeds present in E1 were: Avena ludoviciana, Chenopodium album, Solanum nigrum, Stellaria holostea, Convolvulus spp., Fumaria spp., Sonchus spp., and Polygonum aviculare. In E2 the weeds were A. ludoviciana, Erysimum sp., P. aviculare, Rapistrum rugosum, C. album, Salsola kali, and Sonchus sp. The data obtained within the sampled squares were submitted to regression equations and weeds densities were calculated in terms of TCL (Total Competitive Load. The regression analysis model indicated that only A. ludoviciana, Convolvulus spp. and C. album, in E1; and A. ludoviciana, S. kali, and R. rugosum, in E2 had a significant effect on the wheat yield reduction. Weed economic thresholds were 5.23 TCL in E1 and 6.16 TCL in E2; which were equivalent to 5 plants m-2 of A. ludoviciana or 12 plants m-2 of Convolvulus spp. or 19 plants m-2 of C. album in E1; and 6 plants m-2 A. ludoviciana, 13 plants m-2 S. kali and 27 plants m-2 R. rugosum in E2. Simulations of economic weed thresholds using several wheat grain prices and weed control costs allowed a better comparison of the experiments, suggesting that a more competitive crop at location E1 than at E2 was the cause of a lower weed competitive ability at the first location.Foram realizados dois

  19. Development Status on Innovative Sodium-Cooled Fast Reactor (JSFR)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yanagisawa, Tsutomu; Sato, Kazujiro

    2006-01-01

    The first step in Japan's nuclear fuel cycle policy is to introduce MOX recycle in light water reactors (LWRs) and the final step is to establish multiple TRU recycle in fast reactors (FRs), with the goal of realizing a stable supply, effective use of nuclear fuel resources, and the environmentally friendly production of energy. Therefore, a feasibility study on commercialized FR cycle systems has been launched since July 1999 by a Japanese joint project team of Japan Atomic Energy Agency (JAEA) and the Japan Atomic Power Company (JAPC: the representative of the electric utilities) in cooperation with Central Research Institute of Electric Power Industry (CRIEPI) and vendors. In the period from July 1999 to March 2001, the feasibility study phase-I was conducted to screen out representative FR cycle concepts. In the feasibility study phase-II (April 2001 - March 2006), investigations in to the representative FR concepts were carried out to clarify the most promising concept for commercial deployment. This paper describes an innovative sodium-cooled FR, which is named as the JAEA Sodium-cooled FR (JSFR), as the most promising FR concept that meets the Generation-IV performance target. The JSFR employs several advanced technologies, such as an oxide dispersion strengthened (ODS) cladding for higher burn-up, a short-piping configuration with less elbows by adopting high chromium steel, a large scale integrated intermediate heat exchanger with a primary circulation pump, etc. Based on the design, construction and operation experiences of JOYO and MONJU, there are extensive technology bases for sodium-cooled FRs. Nevertheless, several innovative technologies implemented into the JSFR have to be developed in order to realize higher economic competitiveness by reducing construction costs and improving plant availability

  20. JPRS Report, Science & Technology. Europe: Economic Competitiveness

    Science.gov (United States)

    1992-02-24

    will be coordinated with other programmes such as " Agriculture and Agro-Industry" and "Industrial and Materials Technology (BRITE/EURAM [Bright...programme. Ethics Area 4: Research on Biomedical Ethics This will include legislation on bioethics and current ethics; the social impact of the...programme (i.e., any technological risks); assessing bioethical aspects of other EC R&D programmes; and establishing a European "ethical observatory

  1. JPRS Report, Science & Technology. Europe: Economic Competitiveness

    Science.gov (United States)

    1991-01-28

    development: funding of R&D contracts subcontracted to external parties by companies with less than 1000 employees. • Technically oriented company... Analysis Using Molecular Biology," which it has been sponsoring since 1985. As of 1991, the program will receive a total of DM25 Million in...For instance, the five Dutch multinationals—Shell, Philips, Unilever , Akzo, DSM—earmark about 20 percent of their R&D budget to basic research

  2. JPRS Report Science & Technology Europe Economic Competitiveness

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    1992-01-01

    Partial Contents: Science and Technology Policy, Corporate Alliances, Corporate Strategies, East West Relations, Europe Asia Relations, Infrastruction, Budget, Semiconductors, Strategy, Government, Industrial Policy...

  3. Drivers of Competitiveness and Strategies for Economic ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Rapports. Papua New Guinea and the natural resource curse. Téléchargez le PDF. Rapports. Trade costs and impacts of trade facilitation on manufacturing exports by Thailand. Téléchargez le PDF. Rapports. Labour productivity and export performance : firm-level evidence from Indian manufacturing industries since 1991.

  4. Drivers of Competitiveness and Strategies for Economic ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Features of post-crisis protectionism in Asia and the Pacific. Téléchargez le PDF. Rapports. Utilization of trade agreements in Sri Lanka : perceptions of exporters vs. statistical measurements. Téléchargez le PDF. Rapports. Trade facilitation in India : an analysis of trade processes and procedures. Téléchargez le PDF.

  5. JPRS Report Science & Technology Europe Economic Competitiveness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1992-10-06

    Budget Summarized [Bonn TECHNOLOGIE NACHRICHTEN -MANAGEMENT INFORMATIONEN, 10 Jul 92] 2 Germany: Small, Medium Firms Face Problems in Joining EC...Programs [Bonn TECHNOLOGIE NACHRICHTEN -MANAGEMENT INFORMATIONEN, 29 Jun 92] 5 Germany: SPD Deputy on Research Priorities, Savings [Wolf...7 German Government Provides More S&T Program Funding for Eastern Laender [Bonn TECHNOLOGIE- NACHRICHTEN MANAGEMENT-INFORMATIONEN, 13 Jul 92

  6. Drivers of Competitiveness and Strategies for Economic ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Asia's international production networks : will India be the next assembly centre? Rapports. Multilateralism in crisis. Rapports. Thailand's 2011 flooding : its impact on direct exports and global supply chains. Rapports. Trade concentration and crisis spillover : case study of transmission of the subprime crisis to Thailand ...

  7. JPRS Report, Science & Technology: Europe, Economic Competitiveness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1991-06-27

    Americans and Japa- nese already announced the information society, in Ger- many Wilhelm Fucks’s book was still a best seller. Fucks believed that...cannot kid ourselves; this is not for tomorrow. Among others things, there are many technical problems, and maybe even more regulatory ones, which

  8. JPRS Report, Science & Technology. Europe: Economic Competitiveness

    Science.gov (United States)

    1992-12-11

    general-council president Rene Monory, commenting on Poitiers’s Futuroscope, explains that "We had no chance of catching up with the other French...in Compiegne; Vatine Technology Park in Rouen; Caen-Normandie Technopolis in Caen; Cite Descartes in Marne-la-Vallee; Brest Iroise in Brest; Quimper

  9. JPRS Report, Science & Technology, Europe, Economic Competitiveness

    Science.gov (United States)

    1991-04-25

    business), and entertainment electronics com- panies such as Sony , Pioneer, JVC, Hitachi and Mat- sushita ("National Panasonic") in particular are...of outsiders from Southeast Asia, who are making life miser- able for the already too numerous big producers, such as BASF, Sony , TDK, Maxell, FDM...Motor, Mitsubishi Motor, and Yamaha Motor (motorcycles, alongside its parent com- pany Yamaha Corporation, which is also in the musical instrument

  10. JPRS Report, Science & Technology, Europe, Economic Competitiveness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1991-08-09

    network hardware and software, and customised service to end users. The horizontal stratifi- cation of satellite communications which still prevails in...Television] Components"] [Text] Following the example of Japanese firms, Thomson Consumer Electronics (TCE), the Thomson group’s mass -market...installations, garage doors, cabinets or escalators and is sold like an ordinary mass product over the counter. At the astonishingly low price of DM500. Or

  11. Drivers of Competitiveness and Strategies for Economic ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Rapports. Effects of environmental regulations on South Asian food and agricultural exports : a gravity analysis. Téléchargez le PDF. Rapports. Developing inland China : do heterogeneous coastal foreign direct investments and exports help? Téléchargez le PDF. Rapports. Compulsory licensing : India's maiden experience.

  12. JPRS Report, Science & Technology, Europe, Economic Competitiveness

    Science.gov (United States)

    1992-01-30

    development groups: food products, construction/housing, health and transportation. These areas make up a large part of the export products Denmark...Champagne Ardenne 11.86 12.75 5.52 15.55 13.63 26.64 14.05 100 Franche - Comte 0.74 1.40 4.85 9.31 2.34 76.38 3.15 1.83 100 ne- de-France 1.34

  13. Drivers of Competitiveness and Strategies for Economic ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    ... Korea's package for enhancing FTA utilization. Téléchargez le PDF. Dossiers. SME loan defaults in Bangladesh. Téléchargez le PDF. Dossiers. Moving freely? : labour mobility in ASEAN. Téléchargez le PDF. Dossiers. Kazakhstan's membership of the Eurasian Customs Union : implications for trade and WTO accession.

  14. JPRS Report, Science & Technology. Europe: Economic Competitiveness

    Science.gov (United States)

    1991-02-22

    de-France’s concentration exceeds Grenoble’s. In the Alps region, this concentration synergizes with the general industrial activity. The...the syncytial virus; treatment of sexually-transmissible diseases, such as prevention of recidivous vulvovaginal candidiases ; and parasitological

  15. Drivers of Competitiveness and Strategies for Economic ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Rules of origin and development of regional production network in Asia : case studies of selected industries. Téléchargez le PDF. Rapports. Coping with food price hikes : strategies of the poor in Kandy, Sri Lanka. Téléchargez le PDF. Rapports. Utility of regional trade agreements : experience from India's regionalism.

  16. Drivers of Competitiveness and Strategies for Economic ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Intellectual property rights in regional trade agreements of Asia-Pacific economies. Téléchargez le PDF. Rapports. Social security for migrant labour in the Greater Mekong subregion. Téléchargez le PDF. Rapports. Trade costs in the developing world : 1995 - 2010. Téléchargez le PDF. Rapports. Challenges resulting from ...

  17. Economic Dominance with Political Incompetence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tienken, Christopher H.

    2014-01-01

    The fraudulent claims by policymakers and pundits that the United States is losing its economic competitiveness due to a failing education system continue unabated. However, the latest data on competitiveness suggest that it is poor economic policy, not education, that is holding back the economy.

  18. Theoretical Basis Of The Company Competitiveness Assessment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vladimir Nikiforovich Belkin

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The article deals with the basic theoretical questions of the company competitiveness assessment. The state of modern economic thought on this issue is shown. The main factors of the company competitiveness are specified. A specific role of staff of an enterprise is revealed: on the one hand, it is a resource, on the other is a subject, resulting in productive movement all factors of competitiveness, i.e. the staff is a critical factor in the company competitiveness. The criterion of company competitiveness is proposed, on its basis, the concept of “competitive enterprise” is defined. The most well-known approaches for assessing the company competitiveness are analyzed. The author’s method of the company competitiveness assessment based on the dynamics of the integral index of competitiveness is provided. For those cases, when it is impossible to determine the proportion of products on the market, it is proposed to evaluate the company competitiveness on the profitability of its production. The article shows the experience in calculating of the company competitiveness on the proposed author’s methods.

  19. Environmental regulations and industrial competitiveness: evidence from China

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    S. Stavropoulos (Spyridon); R.S. Wall (Ronald); Xu, Y. (Yuanze)

    2017-01-01

    textabstractEconomic activities are closely related to real-world environmental issues. Currently, more attention is paid to the association between environmental regulations and industrial competitiveness (IC) because of pressures on economic development and environmental protection. In this study,

  20. Industrial restructuring as an instrument for enhancing national competitiveness

    OpenAIRE

    Muradov, Shahbaz; Yuzbashieva, Gulshen

    2008-01-01

    This article considers matters of fostering national economic competitiveness in the context of industrial restructuring. The authors show the dependence of dynamic and sustainable economic and social development on the frequency and depth of structural transformations in the economy.

  1. Industrial Competitiveness and Technological Advancement: Debate Over Government Policy

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Schacht, Wendy H

    2007-01-01

    .... economic growth, productivity, and international competitiveness. Because technology can contribute to economic growth and productivity increases, congressional attention has focused on how to augment private-sector technological development...

  2. Industrial Competitiveness and Technological Advancement: Debate Over Government Policy

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Schacht, Wendy H

    2005-01-01

    .... economic growth productivity, and international competitiveness. Because technology can contribute to economic growth and productivity increases, congressional interest has focused on how to augment private-sector technological development...

  3. Industrial Competitiveness and Technological Advancement: Debate Over Government Policy

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Schacht, Wendy H

    2006-01-01

    .... economic growth, productivity, and international competitiveness. Because technology can contribute to economic growth and productivity increases, congressional attention has focused on how to augment private-sector technological development...

  4. Competitive balance in national European soccer competitions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Haan, M.A.; Koning, R.H.; van Witteloostuijn, A.; Albert, Jim; Koning, Ruud H.

    2007-01-01

    According to popular belief, competitive balance in national soccer competitions in Europe has decreased due to the Bosman ruling and the introduction of the Champions League. We test this hypothesis using data from 7 national competitions, for a host of indicators. We find some evidence for

  5. EDUCATION AND COMPETITIVENESS IN THE GLOBALIZATION ERA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Popa Ioan

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available The educational system is one of the important factors in creating and developing the competitive forces of a country. The higher education provides the socio-economic environment with two basic services: teaching and research. The duality marks an entire history for higher education, but nowadays a new dilemma has emerged: economic efficiency (the university as an economic provider of services versus academic competitiveness (the university as a research forum. In addition, a new challenge seems to be altering the future of higher education, these stemming from the massive increase in the demand for university teaching services: elite higher education, thus efficient, highly competitive academically (competitiveness, or mass higher education, adapted to the demand, with the primary role of harnessing knowledge though professional training (effectiveness.

  6. Sodium Ferric Gluconate Injection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sodium ferric gluconate injection is used to treat iron-deficiency anemia (a lower than normal number of ... are also receiving the medication epoetin (Epogen, Procrit). Sodium ferric gluconate injection is in a class of ...

  7. Naproxen sodium overdose

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/002507.htm Naproxen sodium overdose To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. Naproxen sodium is a nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug (NSAID) used ...

  8. Sodium hydroxide poisoning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sodium hydroxide is a very strong chemical. It is also known as lye and caustic soda. This ... poisoning from touching, breathing in (inhaling), or swallowing sodium hydroxide. This article is for information only. Do ...

  9. Sodium pumping: pump problems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guer, M.; Guiton, P.

    Information on sodium pumps for LMFBR type reactors is presented concerning ring pump design, pool reactor pump design, secondary pumps, sodium bearings, swivel joints of the oscillating annulus, and thermal shock loads

  10. Docusate Sodium and Pregnancy

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... a risk of miscarriage. Can use of docusate sodium during pregnancy cause birth defects? Few studies have been done to look at the possible risks of docusate sodium during pregnancy. However, the available studies show that when used ...

  11. Sodium carbonate poisoning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sodium carbonate (known as washing soda or soda ash) is a chemical found in many household and industrial products. This article focuses on poisoning due to sodium carbonate. This article is for information only. Do NOT ...

  12. ELTA: Citatrademark: Sodium measurement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mauvais, O.

    2002-01-01

    ELTA is pleased to present its last model of Sodium analyzers: CITA 2340: Automatically controlled sodium meter, integrating more automation and performances results respecting costs and wastes reduction. (authors)

  13. Putting competition into perspective

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jones, L. III.

    1993-01-01

    This paper examines the current level of competition in the electric industry in the context of the history of the industry and the development of electric markets in other counties. The topics of the paper include competition in the history of the American electric industry, the current state of competition, the competitive situation in Texas, competition in other electric markets, and competitive changes in the US market

  14. Current and future competitiveness of bioenergy - Conceptions about competitiveness

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ling, E.; Lundgren, K.; Maartensson, Kjell

    1998-01-01

    It is important to visualize the conceptions that guide the behaviour of the actors within the energy system to be able to, in an efficient manner, increase the share of renewable energy in the energy mix. A major issue is to elucidate explicit and implicit presumptions within judgements on the competitiveness of bioenergy. This study focuses on how conceptions of bioenergy in the form of patterns of thinking, influence whether bioenergy can become competitive. The aim of the study is to develop a framework that will enable an increased understanding of the competitiveness of bioenergy today and in the future. The conceptions that the actors of the energy system uphold are studied and analysed. The conceptions of the actors are seen as key factors for the understanding of the function of the energy system and accordingly also for the understanding of the competitiveness of bioenergy. The over-all method perspective in the study is an actor approach. The actors' conceptions have been identified from interviews with 30 significant actors within the energy system. The material from the interviews has been synthesised into nine ideal types of actors. These nine 'model actors' are seen as representing the whole material and form the basis for the further analysis of the competitiveness of bioenergy as depending on patterns of thinking called logics. Three idealized logics are developed. The three logics developed in the study are production logic, market logic and socio-economic logic. (Upholders of the logics rank energy sources after production cost, profitability, and socio-economic legitimacy, respectively.) The logics co-exist within the different parts of the energy system. A single person can even uphold more than one logic. The three logics have however different weight in different organisations and in different parts of the energy system. Finally, the study proposes an enlarged description of the competitiveness of bioenergy in three dimensions: price

  15. GLOBAL COMPETITION AND ROMANIA’S NATIONAL COMPETITIVE ADVANTAGE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pop Nicolae Alexandru

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Analyzing products and services around us it is clear that most of them are the result of production factors, labor and capital becoming more international and increasingly less and less national. We are witnessing the globalization of markets and production, to a large global integration and interdependence, increase personalization of production and services as a result of new communication systems interaction and flexible production processes. Markets will continue to homogenize and diversify at the same time, so it is important that as a global marketer one addresses a market segment defined by income, age, and consumption habits and not by membership of a nation. The most visible and polarized is the premium segment fighting for high income clients where brand value plays an important role. Instead identification of large segments of customers offers the advantages of scale economy in production and marketing for global enterprises. Consumer profile is the dominant global consumer requesting and accepting global products and services easily. In fact, what can force an economic alignment to achieve the best performance, rather than the global consumer. The research methodology used includes literature review, comparative analysis, synthesis of data based on bibliographic resources and official documents.The aim of the paper is to highlight current models that underlie the competitive advantage of nations and assess the competitive advantage of Romania in the context of the global market. A case study is used to offer an overview of competitive advantage of Antibiotice Iasi SA, a competitive player, in a global pharmaceutical market with strong global competition. Countries moderate companies’ achievements of global efficiency objectives due to the countries’ rivalry. Romania has to understand that it is in competition with other countries in order to fulfill economic, political and social objectives. The scope in the end is the well

  16. Liquid sodium technology research

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, W.C.; Lee, Y.W.; Nam, H.Y.; Chun, S.Y.; Kim, J.; Won, S.Y.

    1982-01-01

    This report describes the technology of impurity control and measurement of liquid sodium, problems associated with material degradation and change of heat transfer characteristics in liquid sodium, and the conceptual design of multipurpose sodium test loop. Discussion and the subsequent analysis are also made with regard to the test results for the sodium-H 2 0 reaction and its effects on the system. (author)

  17. The meaning of competition between social and market rented housing

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lennartz, C.; Haffner, M.E.A.; Oxley, M.J.

    2009-01-01

    When policy makers claim that rented housing has to become more competitive, there is no consensus on what competition in this context actually means. The same holds true for scientific housing research: Theories that have utilized the economic concept of competition tend to rely on implicit

  18. NEW APPROACHES TO EXPORT COMPETITIVENESS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alina Petronela NEGREA

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available The economic literature and the political discourse typically look at international competitiveness mainly by the means of export market shares. However, globalisation, production fragmentation and the growing importance of global value chains (GVCs increasingly challenge traditional approaches of export competitiveness and call for a more accurate and disaggregated level of analysis. Due to the growing fragmentation of production, a country exports now include a significant amount of imports of intermediate goods which are part of the export value. In this case, a simple analysis of the evolution of exports can distort the international competitive position of a country. The article suggests a new approach based on the value-added content of international trade measured by means of global value chain analysis.

  19. Institutional Competitiveness in Media Markets

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lund, Anker Brink

    a social science / leadership perspective - not from the perspective of a journalist or from the ideologically critical perspective of the license payer. Thirdly, we consider competition in the media market as an institutional phenomenon that is not solely conditioned by economic considerations. We aim...... emerged from a tradition based upon ideals of freedom of expression, democracy and the enlightenment of the general public. At the same time we stress the fact that the media worldwide is Big Business - and that this reality has an increasing effect on Danish competitiveness and business development......This inaugural address is a welcome opportunity to call your attention to a new area of research that the International Center for Business and Politics has chosen as one of five areas of special interest. By referring to this area of focus as'institutional competition in the media market' we also...

  20. INNOVATIVE CLUSTER OR COMPETITIVENESS POLE?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liliana Scutaru

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available The paper analyzes the situation of clusters in Romania and their areas of activity and innovation in entrepreneurship Romanian state. It is made also a territorial distribution of clusters on the eight regions. The findings lead to the conclusion that there are some clusters that have the vocation to become poles of competitiveness in areas such as renewable energy, automotive, electronics, health, biotechnology, mechatronics or ICT (Information and Communication Technology which represent the resources for future of the Romanian economy. Regarding the degree of innovation of Romanian Small and Medium Enterprises (SMEs, the level is relatively modest, 30.8% of all enterprises being innovative. If we were to answer the question the title suggests, we would say "yes" to both since the innovative cluster as well as the competitiveness pole promotes par excellence, innovation through study, research and stimulation of creativity. And this is more than enough to support economic growth of Romania and maintain the competitiveness worldwide.

  1. Sodium sieving in children

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rusthoven, Esther; Krediet, Raymond T.; Willems, Hans L.; Monnens, Leo A.; Schröder, Cornelis H.

    2005-01-01

    Sodium sieving is a consequence of dissociation between the amount of water and sodium transported over the peritoneal membrane. This dissociation occurs in the presence of aquaporin-mediated water transport. Sieving of sodium can be used as a rough measure for aquaporin-mediated water transport.

  2. The new competitive intelligence agents: "Programming" competitive intelligence ethics into corporate cultures

    OpenAIRE

    Betsy Van der Veer Martens; Emilie Steele Giustozzi

    2011-01-01

    This article examines some of the ethical issues involved in competitive intelligence activities on the Internet. We discuss the importance of an ethical framework for the performance of competitive intelligence, especially the Code of Ethics of SCIP (the leading professional association for strategic and competitive professionals), in the context of today's networked global environment. The virtual borderlines separating national economic and military territories online are becoming increasi...

  3. Productive and Unproductive Competition

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Guerra, Alice; Luppi, Barbara; Parisi, Francesco

    Conventional theories of competition classify contests as being either “productive,” when the competitive efforts generate a surplus for society, or “unproductive,” when competition generates no social surplus and merely distributes already existing resources. These two discrete categories of com...... and socially optimal levels of competition in the full range of intermediate cases, as well as in the extremum cases of destructive and super-productive competition.......Conventional theories of competition classify contests as being either “productive,” when the competitive efforts generate a surplus for society, or “unproductive,” when competition generates no social surplus and merely distributes already existing resources. These two discrete categories...... of competition create a division of real-world situations into analytical categories that fails to recognize the entire spectrum of competitive activities. Taking the existing models of productive and unproductive competition as benchmark idealizations, this paper explores the relationship between the privately...

  4. Competitiveness as an Indicator of Sustainable Development of Tourism: Applying Destination Competitiveness Indicators to Ethiopia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wondowossen, T.A.; Nakagoshi, N.; Yukio, Y.; Jongman, R.H.G.; Dawit, A.Z.

    2014-01-01

    Competitiveness can be applied to predict the economic sustainability of tourism in destinations which has been measured in terms of leakages and linkage related to employment and income generation opportunities to the destinations. This article examines destination competitiveness of Ethiopia based

  5. EU environmental policy and competitiveness

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stojanović Boban

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Protection of the environment was not a specific importance to the Community although the Treaty of Rome expressly specified that "health, safety environmental protection" shall be based on "a high level of protection". In deciding upon a framework for a European environmental policy, the Community was also responding to increased public awareness of the problem and concerns about the state of the natural and man-made environment. During the past years, competitiveness concerns have dominated the EU policy debate, in the course of which a growing consensus is being developed on the importance of eco-innovations and resource efficiency for EU competitiveness and on the market opportunities they offer. There is an increasing evidence that environmental policy and eco-innovations can promote economic growth, as well as maintain and create jobs, contributing both to competitiveness and employment. Environmental constraints to rapid economic growth are increasingly recognized by countries, leading to a rising awareness of the need for sustainable development. Implementation of an environmental policy however, generates significant implications for competition among countries.

  6. Commercial Activity or Banking Competition?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rose-Marie Pușcaciu

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The study analyzes the competition on the banking market and proposes an overview of debt collection companies through the economic crisis which has profoundly affected the banking sector. Article scroll through the main features of competition on the banking market as well as the domain weaknesses that negatively influenced the banking system performance. Even if there is not a sufficiently transparent and functional legal framework and debt recovery market is not supervised enough, it is among the few markets that increase from year to year. Increasing competition from adjacent companies that compete with banks, namely, a non-banking entity, it is stimulating the banking system which will thus become more constructive. It is estimated, that in terms of customers, there will be no differentiation between the banking industry and non-banking entities that will reshape the Romanian banking system soon. Also, the study aims to highlight the existence of debt collection companies, implicitly, the specific markets, it is only a consequence of excessive, unnecessary and dangerous borrowing from previous years. Avoiding bad loans from banks, a fair competition from banks and from non-banking institutions, in the long term, it will generate a balance in the market and it will support economic growth of Romania.

  7. Assumptions of Corporate Social Responsibility as Competitiveness Factor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zaneta Simanaviciene

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to examine the assumptions of corporate social responsibility (CSR as competitiveness factor in economic downturn. Findings indicate that factors affecting the quality of the micro-economic business environment, i.e., the sophistication of enterprise’s strategy and management processes, the quality of the human capital resources, the increase of product / service demand, the development of related and supporting sectors and the efficiency of natural resources, and competitive capacities of enterprise impact competitiveness at a micro-level. The outcomes suggest that the implementation of CSR elements, i.e., economic, environmental and social responsibilities, gives good opportunities to increase business competitiveness.

  8. Enforcing Competition Rules in South Africa: Thieves at the Dinner ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    2013-03-01

    Mar 1, 2013 ... Describing and analyzing competition law in South Africa, this book promotes a deeper understanding of the development of this foundational economic law within its specific national, social and economic context. Enforcing Competition Rules in South Africa draws strongly on case law and enforcement ...

  9. Marketization and Economic Performance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Morten Balle

    2010-01-01

    . A reform enforcing compulsory competitive tendering in homecare for elderly people in Denmark is analysed and its relation to measures of economic performance is explored. Two competing models of marketization are contrasted in the analysis: a problem solving model inspired by public choice ideology...... little impact on economic performance is found, which lends support to an institutional interpretation of the findings....

  10. Competition keeps SWU buyers happy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gunter, L.

    1989-01-01

    While promising developments in laser separation for uranium enrichment have been realized and a group of utilities with centrifuge technology is exerting pressure on the US DoE to move into a more competitive position, projections of over-supply into the next century and questions about the economic viability for any enrichment venture allow room for a great deal of speculation about the future. (author)

  11. The Reinforcement Learning Competition 2014

    OpenAIRE

    Dimitrakakis, Christos; Li, Guangliang; Tziortziotis, Nikoalos

    2014-01-01

    Reinforcement learning is one of the most general problems in artificial intelligence. It has been used to model problems in automated experiment design, control, economics, game playing, scheduling and telecommunications. The aim of the reinforcement learning competition is to encourage the development of very general learning agents for arbitrary reinforcement learning problems and to provide a test-bed for the unbiased evaluation of algorithms.

  12. Report of sodium cavitation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Murai, Hitoshi; Shima, Akira; Oba, Toshisaburo; Kobayashi, Ryoji; Hashimoto, Hiroyuki

    1975-01-01

    The damage of components for LMFBRs due to sodium cavitation is serious problem. This report summarizes the following items, (1) mechanism of the incipience of sodium cavitation, (2) damage due to sodium cavitation, (3) detection method for sodium cavitation, and (4) estimation method for sodium cavitation by the comparison with water cavitation. Materials were collected from the reports on liquid metal cavitation, sodium cavitation and water cavitation published from 1965 to now. The mechanism of the incipience of sodium cavitation cavitation parameters (mean location, distributed amount or occurrence aspect and stability), experiment of causing cavitation with Venturi tube, and growth of bubbles within superheated sodium. The sodium cavitation damage was caused by magnetostriction vibration method and with Venturi tube. The state of damage was investigated with the cavitation performance of a sodium pump, and the damage was examined in view of the safety of LMFBR plants. Sodium cavitation was detected with acoustic method, radiation method, and electric method. The effect of physical property of liquid on incipient cavitation was studied. These are thermodynamic effect based on quasistatic thermal equilibrium condition and the effect of the physical property of liquid based on bubble dynamics. (Iwase, T.)

  13. Sodium safety manual

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hayes, D.J.; Gardiner, R.L.

    1980-09-01

    The sodium safety manual is based upon more than a decade of experience with liquid sodium at Berkeley Nuclear Laboratories (BNL). It draws particularly from the expertise and experience developed in the course of research work into sodium fires and sodium water reactions. It draws also on information obtained from the UKAEA and other sodium users. Many of the broad principles will apply to other Establishments but much of the detail is specific to BNL and as a consequence its application at other sites may well be limited. Accidents with sodium are at best unpleasant and at worst lethal in an extremely painful way. The object of this manual is to help prevent sodium accidents. It is not intended to give detailed advice on specific precautions for particular situations, but rather to set out the overall strategy which will ensure that sodium activities will be pursued safely. More detail is generally conveyed to staff by the use of local instructions known as Sodium Working Procedures (SWP's) which are not reproduced in this manual although a list of current SWP's is included. Much attention is properly given to the safe design and operation of larger facilities; nevertheless evidence suggests that sodium accidents most frequently occur in small-scale work particularly in operations associated with sodium cleaning and special care is needed in all such cases. (U.K.)

  14. Nuclear power: A competitive option? Annex 3

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bertel, E.; Wilmer, P.

    2002-01-01

    Because the future development of nuclear power will depend largely on its economic performance compared to alternatives, the OECD Nuclear Energy Agency (NEA) investigates continuously the economic aspects of nuclear power. This paper provides key findings from a series of OECD studies on projected costs of generating electricity and other related NEA activities. It addresses the cost economics necessary for nuclear units to be competitive, and discusses the challenges and opportunities currently faced by nuclear power. (author)

  15. [Nodulation competitiveness of nodule bacteria: Genetic control and adaptive significance].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Onishchuk, O P; Vorobyov, N I; Provorov, N A

    2017-01-01

    The most recent data on the system of cmp (competitiveness) genes that determine the nodulation competitiveness of rhizobial strains, i.e., the ability to compete for nodule formation in leguminous plants, is analyzed. Three genetic approaches for the construction of economically valuable strains of rhizobia are proposed: the amplification of positive regulators of competitiveness, the inactivation of the negative regulators of this trait, and the introduction of efficient competitiveness factors into strains capable of active nitrogen fixation.

  16. Dialysate sodium and sodium gradient in maintenance hemodialysis: a neglected sodium restriction approach?

    OpenAIRE

    Munoz Mendoza, Jair; Sun, Sumi; Chertow, Glenn M.; Moran, John; Doss, Sheila; Schiller, Brigitte

    2011-01-01

    Background. A higher sodium gradient (dialysate sodium minus pre-dialysis plasma sodium) during hemodialysis (HD) has been associated with sodium loading; however, its role is not well studied. We hypothesized that a sodium dialysate prescription resulting in a higher sodium gradient is associated with increases in interdialytic weight gain (IDWG), blood pressure (BP) and thirst.

  17. COMPETITIVE PRODUCT ADVANTAGES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adrian MICU

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Cost advantages may be either internal or external. Internal economics of scope, scale, or experience, and external economies of focus or logistical integration, enable a company to produce some products at a lower cost than the competition. The coordination of pricing with suppliers, although not actually economizing resources, can improve the efficiency of pricing by avoiding the incrementalization of a supplier's nonincremental fixed costs and profit. Any of these strategies can generate cost advantages that are, at least in the short run, sustainable. Even cost advantages that are not sustainable, however, can generate temporary savings that are often the key to building more sustainable cost or product advantages later.. Even when a product's physical attributes are not readily differentiable, opportunities to develop product advantages remain. The augmented product that customers buy is more than the particular product or service exchanged. It includes all sorts of ancillary services and intangible relationships that make buying thesame product from one company less difficult, less risky, or more pleasant than buying from a competitor. Superior augmentation of the same basic product can add substantial value in the eyes of consumers, leading them to pay willingly what are often considerable price premiums.

  18. Mixing, entropy and competition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Klimenko, A Y

    2012-01-01

    Non-traditional thermodynamics, applied to random behaviour associated with turbulence, mixing and competition, is reviewed and analysed. Competitive mixing represents a general framework for the study of generic properties of competitive systems and can be used to model a wide class of non-equilibrium phenomena ranging from turbulent premixed flames and invasion waves to complex competitive systems. We demonstrate consistency of the general principles of competition with thermodynamic description, review and analyse the related entropy concepts and introduce the corresponding competitive H-theorem. A competitive system can be characterized by a thermodynamic quantity—competitive potential—which determines the likely direction of evolution of the system. Contested resources tend to move between systems from lower to higher values of the competitive potential. There is, however, an important difference between conventional thermodynamics and competitive thermodynamics. While conventional thermodynamics is constrained by its zeroth law and is fundamentally transitive, the transitivity of competitive thermodynamics depends on the transitivity of the competition rules. Intransitivities are common in the real world and are responsible for complex behaviour in competitive systems. This work follows ideas and methods that have originated from the analysis of turbulent combustion, but reviews a much broader scope of issues linked to mixing and competition, including thermodynamic characterization of complex competitive systems with self-organization. The approach presented here is interdisciplinary and is addressed to the general educated readers, whereas the mathematical details can be found in the appendices. (comment)

  19. Forecasting oilfield economic performance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bradley, M.E.; Wood, A.R.O.

    1994-01-01

    This paper presents a general method for forecasting oilfield economic performance that integrates cost data with operational, reservoir, and financial information. Practices are developed for determining economic limits for an oil field and its components. The economic limits of marginal wells and the role of underground competition receive special attention. Also examined is the influence of oil prices on operating costs. Examples illustrate application of these concepts. Categorization of costs for historical tracking and projections is recommended

  20. FINANCIAL PLANNING AND FINANCING OF SPORTS COMPETITIONS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Srećko Novaković

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Manager of sport competition has right to decide and also to take responsibility for costs, income and financial results. From economic point of wiev flexible budget and planning cost calculations is top management base for analyzing success level of sport competition. Flexible budget is made before sport competition with few output level, where one is always from static plan-master plan. At the end of competition when we have results, we make report of plan executing and we also analyzing plan variances. Results of comparation between achieved and planning level of static budget can be acceptable if achieved level is approximate to budget level or if we analyzing results from gross or net income. Flexible budget become very important in case of world economic crises.

  1. Competitive intelligence awareness in the South African property sector

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tshilidzi Eric Nenzhelele

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available The South African property sector contributes highly to job creation, alleviation of poverty and economic growth. Although South Africa has dropped in the global competitiveness ranking, the property sector of South Africa remains very competitive. To survive in a competitive business environment firms seek for tools that offer competitive advantage. It is widely reported the competitive intelligence provide firms with competitive advantage over rivals. Although the awareness of competitive intelligence has been examined in other sectors in South Africa, no study on the awareness of competitive intelligence has yet been conducted in the property sector. This study aims at establishing the extent to which property practitioners are aware of competitive intelligence

  2. Managing Multiple Sources of Competitive Advantage in a Complex Competitive Environment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexandre Howard Henry Lapersonne

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this article is to review the literature on the topic of sustained and temporary competitive advantage creation, specifically in dynamic markets, and to propose further research possibilities. After having analyzed the main trends and scholars’ works on the subject, it was concluded that a firm which has been experiencing erosion of its core sources of economic rent generation, should have diversified its strategy portfolio in a search for new sources of competitive advantage, ones that could compensate for the decline of profits provoked by intensive competitive environments. This review concludes with the hypothesis that firms, who have decided to enter and manage multiple competitive environments, should have developed a multiple strategies framework approach. The management of this source of competitive advantage portfolio should have allowed persistence of a firm’s superior economic performance through the management of diverse temporary advantages lifecycle and through a resilient effect, where a very successful source of competitive advantage compensates the ones that have been eroded. Additionally, the review indicates that economies of emerging countries, such as the ones from the BRIC block, should present a more complex competitive environment due to their historical nature of cultural diversity, social contrasts and frequent economic disruption, and also because of recent institutional normalization that has turned the market into hypercompetition. Consequently, the study of complex competition should be appropriate in such environments.

  3. Solubilities of sodium nitrate, sodium nitrite, and sodium aluminate in simulated nuclear waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reynolds, D.A.; Herting, D.L.

    1984-09-01

    Solubilities were determined for sodium nitrate, sodium nitrite, and sodium aluminate in synthetic nuclear waste liquor. Solubilities were determined as a function of temperature and solution composition (concentrations of sodium hydroxide, sodium nitrate, sodium nitrite, and sodium aluminate). Temperature had the greatest effect on the solubilities of sodium nitrate and sodium nitrite and a somewhat lesser effect on sodium aluminate solubility. Hydroxide had a great effect on the solubilities of all three salts. Other solution components had minor effects. 2 references, 8 figures, 11 tables

  4. Sodium aerosol recovering device

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fujimori, Koji; Ueda, Mitsuo; Tanaka, Kazuhisa.

    1997-01-01

    A main body of a recovering device is disposed in a sodium cooled reactor or a sodium cooled test device. Air containing sodium aerosol is sucked into the main body of the recovering device by a recycling fan and introduced to a multi-staged metal mesh filter portion. The air about against each of the metal mesh filters, and the sodium aerosol in the air is collected. The air having a reduced sodium aerosol concentration circulates passing through a recycling fan and pipelines to form a circulation air streams. Sodium aerosol deposited on each of the metal mesh filters is scraped off periodically by a scraper driving device to prevent clogging of each of the metal filters. (I.N.)

  5. [Sodium intake during pregnancy].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delemarre, F M; Franx, A; Knuist, M; Steegers, E A

    1999-10-23

    International studies have yielded contradictory results on efficacy of a sodium-restricted diet during pregnancy in preventing and curing hypertension of pregnancy. In the Netherlands three studies have been performed to investigate the value of dietary sodium restriction in pregnancy; they concerned epidemiology, prevention and treatment. Midwives often prescribed this dietary intervention. Urinary sodium excretion was not related to blood pressure changes in pregnancy. Dietary sodium restriction from the third month of pregnancy onwards did not reduce the incidence of pregnancy-induced hypertension. Maternal side effects were a decreased intake of nutrients, decreased maternal weight gain, lowered plasma volume and stimulation of the renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system. A dietary sodium restriction in women with early symptoms of pregnancy-induced hypertension showed no therapeutic effect on blood pressure. There is no place for dietary sodium restriction in the prevention or treatment of hypertension in pregnancy.

  6. Sodium fire protection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Raju, C.; Kale, R.D.

    1979-01-01

    Results of experiments carried out with sodium fires to develop extinguishment techniques are presented. Characteristics, ignition temperature, heat evolution and other aspects of sodium fires are described. Out of the powders tested for extinguishment of 10 Kg sodium fires, sodium bi-carbonate based dry chemical powder has been found to be the best extinguisher followed by large sized vermiculite and then calcium carbonate powders distributed by spray nozzles. Powders, however, do not extinguish large fires effectively due to sodium-concrete reaction. To control large scale fires in a LMFBR, collection trays with protective cover have been found to cause oxygen starvation better than flooding with inert gas. This system has an added advantage in that there is no damage to the sodium facilities as has been in the case of powders which often contain chlorine compounds and cause stress corrosion cracking. (M.G.B.)

  7. Sodium fire suppression

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Malet, J C [DSN/SESTR, Centre de Cadarache, Saint-Paul-lez-Durance (France)

    1979-03-01

    Ignition and combustion studies have provided valuable data and guidelines for sodium fire suppression research. The primary necessity is to isolate the oxidant from the fuel, rather than to attempt to cool the sodium below its ignition temperature. Work along these lines has led to the development of smothering tank systems and a dry extinguishing powder. Based on the results obtained, the implementation of these techniques is discussed with regard to sodium fire suppression in the Super-Phenix reactor. (author)

  8. Sodium fire suppression

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Malet, J.C.

    1979-01-01

    Ignition and combustion studies have provided valuable data and guidelines for sodium fire suppression research. The primary necessity is to isolate the oxidant from the fuel, rather than to attempt to cool the sodium below its ignition temperature. Work along these lines has led to the development of smothering tank systems and a dry extinguishing powder. Based on the results obtained, the implementation of these techniques is discussed with regard to sodium fire suppression in the Super-Phenix reactor. (author)

  9. The classical notion of competition revisited

    OpenAIRE

    Salvadori, Neri; Signorino, Rodolfo

    2010-01-01

    The paper seeks to fill a lacuna within Classical economics concerning the process of market price determination in a short-period equilibrium. To this aim, first we distinguish the Classical notion of free competition from the Walrasian notion of perfect competition and we argue that the latter is beset by some theoretical difficulties alien to the former. Second, we reconstruct in some detail Smith and Marx’s views concerning market price determination and we show that Marx’s extensive use ...

  10. Technological competence and competitiveness of Korea industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Geun

    1997-06-01

    This book introduces technology and competitiveness and industrial policy of economics, technological competence and technological innovation system of Korea, a newly industrialized country, development of technological innovation and competence of semiconductor industry, development of technological innovation and competence of synthetic fiber industry, development of technological innovation and competence of machine tool industry, development of technological competence of automobile industry, improvement and delay of technological competence of computer industry, and development of technological innovation and competitiveness of appliance industry.

  11. Competitive situation of clothing and textile industry

    OpenAIRE

    Jansevičiūtė, Daina

    2010-01-01

    This paper is up for discussing the composed competitive situation of Lithuanian clothing and textile industry. Author concisely proposes aspects of competitive ability conception, explores the main statistical information illustrating importance of clothing and textile industry in all manufacturing and economics. Willing to accomplish a statistical data analysis of trade clothing and textile industry competitors and advantages which they have and which influence Lithuanian clothing and texti...

  12. Sodium fill of FFTF

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Waldo, J.B.; Greenwell, R.K.; Keasling, T.A.; Collins, J.R.; Klos, D.B.

    1980-02-01

    With construction of the Fast Flux Test Facility (FFTF) completed, the first major objective in the startup program was to fill the sodium systems. A sodium fill sequence was developed to match construction completion, and as systems became available, they were inerted, preheated, and filled with sodium. The secondary sodium systems were filled first while dry refueling system testing was in progress in the reactor vessel. The reactor vessel and the primary loops were filled last. This paper describes the methods used and some of the key results achieved for this major FFTF objective

  13. Fires of sodium installations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hajek, L.; Tlalka, R.

    1984-01-01

    A survey is presented of the literature dealing with fires of sodium installations between 1974 and 1981. Also described are three experimental fires of ca 50 kg of sodium in an open area, monitored by UJV Rez. The experimental conditions of the experiments are described and a phenomenological description is presented of the course of the fires. The experiments showed a relationship between wind velocity in the area surrounding the fire and surface temperature of the sodium flame. Systems analysis methods were applied to sodium area, spray and tube fires. (author)

  14. Sustainability and Competitiveness in Australian Cities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Richard Hu

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available This study injects sustainability into competitiveness to inform policy making and planning for contemporary urban development. This is built upon the recent advancement in the scholarship on urban competitiveness that demonstrates a clear deviation from an economic-centric approach to incorporate multiple dimensions of a city’s progress. This study has an explicit concern for environmental sustainability and its relationship with urban competitiveness and their conceptual and methodological articulations. Empirically, this study measures the sustainability and competitiveness in Australian cities and reveals that Australia’s urban progress is clearly associated with an environmental cost. The findings are useful to inform policy making and planning for building sustainable and competitive cities. Apart from the conventional solutions that focus on urban form change and transport infrastructure improvement, this study suggests a need to explore the opportunities deriving from the emerging smart city planning and practice.

  15. A reflux capsule steam generator for sodium cooled reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lantz, E.

    Pressurized water reactor plants at numerous sites have sustained significant leakage through their steam generators. The consequent shutdowns for repairs and replacements have damaged their economics. This experience suggests that if steam generators for liquid metal fast breeder reactors (LMFBR's) continue to be built as presently designed some of them will have similar problems. Because of their larger capital investment, the consequent damage to the economics of LMFBR's could be more serious. Reflux capsules provide a way to separate sodium from water and to reduce thermal stresses in steam generators for sodium cooled reactors. Their use would also eliminate the need for a primary heat exchanger and a secondary sodium loop pump. (author)

  16. Institutional Competitiveness in the Global Economy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Campbell, John L.; Pedersen, Ove K.

    that are very different institutionally. The analysis shows that there is no one best way to achieve success in today's global economy, except perhaps for reducing socioeconomic inequality; that the type of capitalism known as coordinated market economies are oversimplified in the literature; and that high...... national competitiveness under conditions of economic globalization. Following the varieties of capitalism literature, this paper argues that Denmark's success has been based in large part on its institutional competitiveness-its capacity to achieve socioeconomic success as a result of the competitive...

  17. Disciplinary competitiveness analysis in international stomatology education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wen, Ping; Hong, Xiao; Zhu, Lu; Zhang, Linglin; Gu, Xuekui; Gao, Zhihua; Chen, Qianming

    2013-11-01

    With economic and cultural globalization, the trend of globalization of higher education becomes inevitable. Using the concept of competitiveness, the authors established a principal component analysis (PCA) model to examine disciplinary competitiveness in stomatology of various higher education institutions worldwide. A total of forty-four universities entered the final list according to these calculations. Possible reasons for their selection were explored and explained at macro and micro levels. The authors further accessed various sources of data and summarized several suggestions for enhancing disciplinary competitiveness for other universities in pursuit of promoting their position in the global spectrum.

  18. Parental social status and intrasexual competitiveness among adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buunk, Abraham P; Stulp, Gert; Ormel, Johan

    2014-11-17

    A study among 1,881 adolescents (52.3% girls) with a mean age of 19.1 years examined the effects of parental social status upon intrasexual competitiveness. Whereas females were consistently more intrasexually competitive the higher the socio-economic status of their parents, males with parents of the lowest socio-economic status tended to be more intrasexually competitive than those with parents of medium socio-economic status, and nearly as intrasexually competitive as those with parents of high socio-economic status. Only among adolescents with parents of low socio-economic status were males more intrasexually competitive than females. Among males and females, higher levels of intrasexual competitiveness were related to a higher family income, to a higher occupational status of the father as well as of the mother, and to a higher educational level of the mother. Only among females were higher levels of intrasexual competitiveness associated with a higher educational level of the father. Males whose fathers had only elementary education had a relatively high level of intrasexual competitiveness. The results are discussed in the context of the multifaceted nature of human status, and the potential relevance of intrasexual competitiveness for individuals of high versus low social status.

  19. Economic Engagement Framework: Economic Impact Guidelines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ambargis, Zoë; Mead, Charles Ian; Rzeznik, Stanislaw J.; Swenson, David; Weisenberger, Janet

    2014-01-01

    The Association of Public and Land-grant Universities' (APLU's) Commission on Innovation, Competitiveness, and Economic Prosperity (CICEP) views university contributions to the economy across a spectrum of activity--from educating students and creating the talent necessary for the 21st century workforce to developing innovation ecosystems and…

  20. Pollution taxes and international competitiveness

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Birch Soerensen, P.

    1994-01-01

    Throughout the industrialized world policy makers are becoming increasingly aware of the potential gains in economic efficiency and environmental quality to be reaped in certain areas of pollution control by switching from direct regulation to market-oriented policy instruments such as pollution taxes. However, concern about the impact on the international competitiveness of domestic producers seems to make governments in many countries hesitant to introduce pollution taxes. As a result, several observers have called for international agreements on harmonized pollution taxes among larger groups of countries such as the member states of the European Community. This paper argues that policy makers should be less concerned about the effects of pollution taxes on international competitiveness and more conscious about their effects on economic efficiency and equity. If pollution taxes improve the allocation of resources, it would be possible to compensate those citizens who might lose from their introduction and still leave the rest of society better off. The openness of the economy only means that a given improvement of environmental quality can be achieved through a lower level of pollution tax rates than would be necessary in a closed economy, because a given pollution tax rate will cause a greater contraction of output in polluting industries, the more these industries are exposed to foreign competition. (EG)

  1. Strategic Alliance: Competitiveness of Sino-Foreign Cooperative School Running Operation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xie, Lihui; Hou, Tao; Li, Ze

    2011-01-01

    Lying in a transformation period of economic development, economic prosperity, social progress and development in science and technology have to rely on strong competitiveness of a nation's universities to a large degree. Actually, universities' competitiveness is closely related to the improvement of a nation's competitiveness in human resources,…

  2. Environmental regulation and competitiveness

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mulatu, A.; Florax, R.J.G.M.; Withagen, C.A.A.M.

    2001-01-01

    The potential relationship between domestic environmental regulation and international competitiveness has evoked various speculations. The common neoclassical train of thought is that strict environmental regulation is detrimental to the competitiveness of industry, and that it induces phenomena

  3. Diversifying evolution of competitiveness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baldauf, Sebastian A; Engqvist, Leif; Weissing, Franz J

    2014-10-29

    In many species, individuals express phenotypic characteristics that enhance their competitiveness, that is, the ability to acquire resources in competition with others. Moreover, the degree of competitiveness varies considerably across individuals and in time. By means of an evolutionary model, we provide an explanation for this finding. We make the assumption that investment into competitiveness enhances the probability to acquire a high-quality resource, but at the same time reduces the ability of exploiting acquired resources with maximal efficiency. The model reveals that under a broad range of conditions competitiveness either converges to a polymorphic state, where individuals differing in competitive ability stably coexist, or is subject to perpetual transitions between periods of high and low competitiveness. The dynamics becomes even more complex if females can evolve preferences for (or against) competitive males. In extreme cases, such preferences can even drive the population to extinction.

  4. State regulation of the coming competitive market

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lively, M.B.

    1997-01-01

    Utilities and state commissions can have retail competition without a federal presence by integrating economics and reliability through a concept called Wide Open Load Following, or WOLF. Under WOLF, the transaction between the utility and the consumer would continue to be a sale that is subject to regulation by the state commission. As a retail sale, the transaction requires no FERC involvement. This article shows how WOLF combines economics and physics for pricing retail electric sales in a competitive market so that the sales remain under the jurisdiction of a state authority, even while third parties participate in the market

  5. Competitive strategy : Sorrin Puutarha

    OpenAIRE

    Haaristo, Emilia

    2010-01-01

    The thesis handles the fresh food product industry in Finland and especially one company operating in the industry and its competitive position. Sorrin Puutarha manufactures ready-to-use fresh cut salad bag, which is sold in the grocery stores. The objective of the thesis was to find competitive advantages of the case company. Once the competitive advantages were identified the purpose was to choose a fitting competitive strategy that would strengthen those advantages. The field study was con...

  6. Can competition reduce quality?

    OpenAIRE

    Brekke, Kurt; Siciliani, Luigi; Straume, Odd Rune

    2017-01-01

    In a spatial competition setting there is usually a non-negative relationship between competition and quality. In this paper we offer a novel mechanism whereby competition leads to lower quality. This mechanism relies on two key assumptions, namely that the providers are motivated and risk-averse. We show that the negative relationship between competition and quality is robust to any given number of firms in the market and whether quality and price decisions are simultaneous or sequential. We...

  7. Ireland's Competitiveness Challenge 2011

    OpenAIRE

    2012-01-01

    The NCC publishes two annual competitiveness reports. Ireland's Competitiveness Challenge focuses on the national competitiveness issues of most importance to the enterprise sector and identifies policy recommendations required to address these issues. The report focuses on pursuing policies to improve competitiveness, particularly those to reduce the cost base for enterprise, to enhance the performance of the entire education system, and to deliver meaningful public sector reform. Ireland's ...

  8. 30 Years Trend of Competitive Balance in Turkish Football Super League

    Science.gov (United States)

    Inan, Tugbay

    2018-01-01

    We must point out that the results of football games affect the competitive balance degree. In other words, the calculations we made in the score table at the end of the season give us a degree of competitive balance. The degree on which the concept of competitiveness is based is cited as competitive balance in football. Sports economics can be…

  9. 78 FR 50394 - Advisory Committee on Supply Chain Competitiveness: Notice of Public Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-08-19

    ... Competitiveness: Notice of Public Meeting AGENCY: International Trade Administration, U.S. Department of Commerce... discussion for a public meeting of the Advisory Committee on Supply Chain Competitiveness (Committee). DATES... growth competitiveness, foster national economic competitiveness, and improve U.S. supply chain...

  10. Visibility in sodium fume

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hughes, G.W.; Anderson, N.R.

    1971-01-01

    The appearance of sodium fume of unknown concentration and the effects of short term exposure on unprotected workers is described. The molecular extinction coefficient of sodium fume is calculated from which light transmission data, and a rapid method for the estimation of the fume concentration is proposed. (author)

  11. Sodium outleakage detection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Casselman, C.

    1979-01-01

    Effective detection of outleakage from sodium facilities permits timely intervention capable of limiting the consequences of such leakage. Two types of detection systems are described: local and overall detection. The use of two independent systems in sodium facilities is recommended. (author)

  12. Annular sodium flowsensor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kaiser, W.C.; Brewer, J.; Forster, G.A.

    1983-01-01

    This paper describes a unique eddy-current type liquid sodium flowsensor, designed as a joint effort between Argonne National Laboratory and Kaman Instrumentation Corp. Test results are included for operation of the flowsensor mounted on a sodium test loop whose configuration simulates the actual operating conditions, except for the magnetic field of the ALIP

  13. Competition for Assistance Agreements

    Science.gov (United States)

    It is EPA policy to promote competition in the award of assistance agreements to the maximum extent practicable.When assistance agreements are awarded competitively, it is EPA policy that the competitive process be fair and open & that no applicant receive

  14. Plan competitions reveal entrepreneurial talent

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Madison, Alison L.

    2011-05-15

    Monthly economic diversity column for Tri-City Herald business section. Excerpt below: There’s something to be said for gaining valuable real-world experience in a structured, nurturing environment. Take for instance learning to scuba dive in the comfort of my resort pool rather than immediately hanging out with sharks while I figure out little things like oxygen tanks and avoiding underwater panic attacks. Likewise, graduate students are getting some excellent, supportive real-world training through university business plan competitions. These competitions are places where smart minds, new technologies, months of preparation and coaching, and some healthy pre-presentation jitters collide to reveal not only solid new business ideas, but also some promising entrepreneurial talent. In fact, professionals from around our region descend upon college campuses every spring to judge these events, which help to bridge the gap between academics and the real technology and business-driven economy.

  15. Regional Competition for Confidence: Features of Formation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Irina Svyatoslavovna Vazhenina

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The increase in economic independence of the regions inevitably leads to an increase in the quality requirements of the regional economic policy. The key to successful regional policy, both during its development and implementation, is the understanding of the necessity of gaining confidence (at all levels, and the inevitable participation in the competition for confidence. The importance of confidence in the region is determined by its value as a competitive advantage in the struggle for partners, resources and tourists, and attracting investments. In today’s environment the focus of governments, regions and companies on long-term cooperation is clearly expressed, which is impossible without a high level of confidence between partners. Therefore, the most important competitive advantages of territories are intangible assets such as an attractive image and a good reputation, which builds up confidence of the population and partners. The higher the confidence in the region is, the broader is the range of potential partners, the larger is the planning horizon of long-term concerted action, the better are the chances of acquiring investment, the higher is the level of competitive immunity of the territories. The article defines competition for confidence as purposeful behavior of a market participant in economic environment, aimed at acquiring specific intangible competitive advantage – the confidence of the largest possible number of other market actors. The article also highlights the specifics of confidence as a competitive goal, presents factors contributing to the destruction of confidence, proposes a strategy to fight for confidence as a program of four steps, considers the factors which integrate regional confidence and offers several recommendations for the establishment of effective regional competition for confidence

  16. Total-body sodium and sodium excess

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aloia, J.F.; Cohn, S.H.; Abesamis, C.; Babu, T.; Zanzi, I.; Ellis, K.

    1980-01-01

    Total-body levels of sodium (TBNa), chlorine (TBCI), calcium (TBCa), and potassium (TBK) were measured by neutron activation and analysis of results by whole body counting in 66 postmenopausal women. The relationship between TBNa, and TBCl, TBK, and TBCa on the one hand, and height and weight on the other, were found to compare with those previously reported. The hypothesis that TBNa and TBCl are distributed normally could not be rejected. The sodium excess (Na/sub es/) is defined as the sodium that is present in excess of that associated with the extracellular fluid (chlorine) space; the Na/sub es/ approximates nonexchangeable bone sodium. In these 66 postmenopausal women, and in patients with different endocrinopathies previously described, the values on Na/sub es/ did not differ from the normal values except in the thyrotoxicosis patients, where they were decreased. A close relationship between Na/sub es/ and TBCa was maintained in the endocrinopathies studied. This relationship was found in conditions accompanied by either an increment or a loss of skeletal mass. It appears that the NA/sub es/ value is primarily dependent upon the calcium content of bone

  17. Competitiveness of tomato production in punjab, pakistan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Akhtar, W.; Qureshi, A.H.; Khan, M.A.

    2016-01-01

    The study measures competitiveness at farm level and economic efficiency at country level of tomato production in relation to tomato trade by using Policy Analysis Matrix (PAM) framework in Punjab, Pakistan. The province was divided into two tomato production regions i.e., Central and Southern Punjab for analysis purpose under importable scenario by using import parity price. Results of PAM model revealed that tomato production in both regions of Punjab has competitiveness under prevailing market situation as indicated by positive private profitability and private cost ratio (PCR) which is less than 1. Competitiveness difference in two regions indicated that Central Punjab has more competitiveness at farm level in tomato production. Economic efficiency results i.e. Domestic Resource Cost (DRC) ratio remained 0.39 and 0.51 in Central and Southern Punjab, respectively with positive social profitability indicating strong comparative advantage under importable scenario. The above results implied that Central Punjab has greater economic efficiency than Southern Punjab in domestic resources use for production of tomato as import substitute commodity. Results of Nominal Protection Coefficient (NPC) and Effective Protection Coefficient (EPC) indicated that combine effects of policies on output and tradable input market did not pass any protection to tomato farmers in the study area. Net effect of policy or market failure is reducing the profitability of tomato producers at farm level which indicates lack of motivation from policies for farmers to expand tomato production as import substitute crop. Present study recommended competitiveness and economic efficiency analysis in other tomato producing regions of the country for year round tomato supply on the basis of resource efficiency and to curtail tomato imports to save the precious foreign exchange. To enhance the competitiveness there is need to increase farmer's incentives through increase of farm level price up to

  18. National and Regional Competitiveness in the Crisis Context. Successful Examples

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gina Cristina DIMIAN

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available The paper addresses the issue of national and regional competitiveness in the context of socio-economic and financial crisis. Competitiveness is a complex concept which can be studied at both the firm and the local and national level.Thus, in economic terms the competitiveness is most often associated with the productivity or efficiency with which inputs are transformed into goods and services. As for the regional competitiveness it should be analyzed in terms of results (revenue, employment and in relation to its determinants: ranging from the classical production factors (capital, labour, technological progress to the “soft” factors (human capital, research and development, dissemination of knowledge.The current economic environment has revealed that countries such as China, India, Brazil and also the Czech Republic and Poland, following prudent economic policies, have managed to make from macroeconomic stability, investment in education and research some of their major drivers of economic growth.

  19. Economics and the environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alm, A.L.

    1991-01-01

    There is no reason to believe that strict environmental controls are inconsistent with economic well-being and competitiveness. In fact, firms in nations with tough standards have a competitive edge. They have already made some of the capital investments, are finding ways to eliminate wastes, and are developing exportable technologies and skills. The economic argument in the US should not be focused on how pollution control affects the domestic economy. It should be focused on how we can create a framework for technological innovation to solve problems more efficiently and effectively and then to actively propel this innovation into global markets

  20. Energy levy and competitiveness

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Berdowski, P.A.M.

    1991-01-01

    The principle of regulating levies is that the consumption of products that have negative effects on the environment will be reduced. The income of the levies can be reimbursed to the civilians and companies via tax reduction. One of the impacts of the implementation of energy levies is the negative effect on the competitive position of the Dutch industry and businesses. In this report attention is paid to the micro-economic consequences of energy levies. The flows of fifteen production processes and the position of these processes in the market have been analyzed systematically. The impacts of energy levies on these product flows are investigated. The sectors that have been analyzed are the services sector (mainly determined by households), the agricultural food sector, the transportation sector, and the basic industry (mostly energy-intensive industries). In order to determine the sensitivity of the height of the energy levy three variants were investigated: 25%, 50% and 100% surcharge on the present energy costs. The variants are combined with three geographic levy ranges: national, European and global. 21 figs., 9 tabs

  1. Theoretical aspects of competitive advantage and competition

    OpenAIRE

    Hudakova, Ivana

    2009-01-01

    The concept of competitive advantage is well-known for many of us and a number of literary resources focused on entrepreneurship and functioning of economies deal with it, either directly or indirectly. The understanding of the term competitive advantage though sometimes varies. One can only perceive it when looking at it as a whole, a live organism that is constantly developing in a complex dynamic entrepreneurial environment, the individual parts of which do not function when separated from...

  2. Firms’ behavior in conditions of imperfect competitive environments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ján Kantor

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available This article deals with the analysis of market structure on the imperfect competitive market, measuring market power, its effect on the price of products and reasons for origin of imperfect competition at the market. Described are the market conditions issues and possibilities of their manufacturing influence on the market price with graphical expressions. Prices are higher and capacity of production is lower. It characterizes monopoly, oligopoly, and monopolistic competition. With its content it expresses, that imperfect competitive environment differs from perfect competition environment disparity of demand curve and in the market economics it has a more frequent application.

  3. STRUCTURIZATION OF COMPETITIVE CAPACITY OF TRADE ORGANIZATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. A. Sеrеbrуаkоvа

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The modern consumer market is characterized by a complex of immanent tendencies of development, the competitive relations reflecting specifics inherent in it. These tendencies of development of the competitive environment of the consumer market are in many respects caused by a state and extent of use of competitive capacity of the organizations functioning in this market. This obvious circumstance causes the necessity of complex scientific research of competitive capacity of trade organizations, including its structures, for definition of prospects of its sustainable strategic development. Immanent properties of competitive capacity of trade organization allowed to study in detail its structure, by means of the substantial review of the existing options of its representation and their systematization on specific, element and system signs. In development of specific structure of competitive potential its addition commercial, technological, communication, consumer and image the potentials reflecting functional and branch specifics of activity of trade organization is offered. The system of elements of competitive capacity of trade organization is given by its structure-forming types. It is proved that these elements aren't characterized by strict distribution by types of potentials, and separate from elements are universal, accepted for simultaneous use when forming all types of potential. Allocation of a system sign of structurization of competitive potential was based on situation that "systemacity" has to be provided not so much with hierarchy of hierarchy of types and elements of potential, their interrelations, how many possibility of the accounting of various classification signs allowing to typify competitive potential as system integrity, regardless of its separate types. Those signs were the stage of a demand and level of use in economic activity, economic feasibility of existence of unrealized potential, the origin nature.

  4. COMPETITIVENESS THROUGH INFORMATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raluca Daniela RIZEA

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Intelligence competitiveness has already started to build its road in the company’s long term strategies. Nonetheless, business executives continue to look for ways to apply information technology strategically to their businesses. Using information managers manage to communicate, to convey their knowledge about markets, competitors, products, services and operations. Even if data and information are all over there are few amounts of managers that realize the importance of them to the success of the business. This article will review competitive forces and competitive information systems strategies for gaining competitive advantages, explain concepts of value chain, value co-opetition (competition and cooperation, and discuss innovation strategy. Co-opetition is a strategy whereby companies cooperate and compete at the same time with their competitors, complementors (i.e. hardware and software businesses, customers, suppliers. The article discuss an important dimension of information system, identifies competitive advantages and enhancing competitive strategies thought information systems.

  5. Prospects of competitive process innovation business in Brazil: critical factors for competitiveness, productivity and growth

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kátia Keiko Kitaguti

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available The economic conditions of recent times require a structural changing and, mainly, behavioral ones of Brazilian business. The scenario created by big economic powers shows the difference between Brazilian industries and service sectors when it is compared business issues, for example, competitiveness, productivity and innovation, with others countries. The technological innovation consists in a critical factor for competitiveness and for the global economic development; moreover, it can be found in industrial sectors (responsible for materialization and organization of operational system of production process and in service sectors (which make planning of the contracted activity. Innovation should not be included only in these two economic sectors; however, it has to be included in the economic thought of countries. It has to be highlighted the fact that innovation is not the unique factor of competitiveness, but, productivity and knowledge make the same impact in competitiveness as innovation does. Besides, external and internal demands predict trends in terms of searching products, process an strategies, which can promote a better interaction between market and productivity control. In a global context, Brazil, specially, has a lot of techniques to learn in terms of how to use its resources in a adequate way, independently if they are natural or not. That is why studies about critical factors for competitiveness are determined for the Brazil's sustainable growth.

  6. EVOLUTION OF THE ECONOMIC COMPETITIVENESS’ RESEARCH AS A MULTIDIMENSIONAL NOTION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vadim MACARI

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available In this article, some of the most important research issues and developments in economic competitiveness as the process and multidimensional concept have been studied. The ‘competitive enterprise’ has been defined and it was shown that the profit is of secondary importance compared with the competitive ability. There were researched certain components of the enterprise’s competitiveness: competitiveness of a market supply; competitiveness of the potential (resources of an enterprise; management competitiveness; competitiveness of a managerial idea. The author argues that the effectiveness of the entrepreneurial activity, as a rule, remains the factor with the highest contribution to ensuring, maintaining and increasing of the entrepreneurial competitiveness.

  7. Do behavioural insights matter for competition policy?

    OpenAIRE

    CIRIOLO Emanuele

    2016-01-01

    Behavioural insights make use of behavioural economics and psychology to analyse how humans behave when adopting economic decisions. The use of behavioural insights to improve policy-making is becoming increasing popular all over the world. Pensions, taxes, unemployment, energy efficiency, adult education, charitable giving and, of course, competition policy have benefitted from the application of behavioural insights. Emanuele Ciriolo, from the European Commission Joint Research Centre, expl...

  8. Approximate kernel competitive learning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Jian-Sheng; Zheng, Wei-Shi; Lai, Jian-Huang

    2015-03-01

    Kernel competitive learning has been successfully used to achieve robust clustering. However, kernel competitive learning (KCL) is not scalable for large scale data processing, because (1) it has to calculate and store the full kernel matrix that is too large to be calculated and kept in the memory and (2) it cannot be computed in parallel. In this paper we develop a framework of approximate kernel competitive learning for processing large scale dataset. The proposed framework consists of two parts. First, it derives an approximate kernel competitive learning (AKCL), which learns kernel competitive learning in a subspace via sampling. We provide solid theoretical analysis on why the proposed approximation modelling would work for kernel competitive learning, and furthermore, we show that the computational complexity of AKCL is largely reduced. Second, we propose a pseudo-parallelled approximate kernel competitive learning (PAKCL) based on a set-based kernel competitive learning strategy, which overcomes the obstacle of using parallel programming in kernel competitive learning and significantly accelerates the approximate kernel competitive learning for large scale clustering. The empirical evaluation on publicly available datasets shows that the proposed AKCL and PAKCL can perform comparably as KCL, with a large reduction on computational cost. Also, the proposed methods achieve more effective clustering performance in terms of clustering precision against related approximate clustering approaches. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Methodology for Extraction of Remaining Sodium of Used Sodium Containers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jung, Minhwan; Kim, Jongman; Cho, Youngil; Jeong, Jiyoung

    2014-01-01

    Sodium used as a coolant in the SFR (Sodium-cooled Fast Reactor) reacts easily with most elements due to its high reactivity. If sodium at high temperature leaks outside of a system boundary and makes contact with oxygen, it starts to burn and toxic aerosols are produced. In addition, it generates flammable hydrogen gas through a reaction with water. Hydrogen gas can be explosive within the range of 4.75 vol%. Therefore, the sodium should be handled carefully in accordance with standard procedures even though there is a small amount of target sodium remainings inside the containers and drums used for experiment. After the experiment, all sodium experimental apparatuses should be dismantled carefully through a series of draining, residual sodium extraction, and cleaning if they are no longer reused. In this work, a system for the extraction of the remaining sodium of used sodium drums has been developed and an operation procedure for the system has been established. In this work, a methodology for the extraction of remaining sodium out of the used sodium container has been developed as one of the sodium facility maintenance works. The sodium extraction system for remaining sodium of the used drums was designed and tested successfully. This work will contribute to an establishment of sodium handling technology for PGSFR. (Prototype Gen-IV Sodium-cooled Fast Reactor)

  10. How competitive is nuclear energy?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Keppler, J.H.

    2010-01-01

    The economic competitiveness of nuclear energy will be crucial for determining its future share in world electricity production. In addition, the widespread liberalization of power markets, in particular in OECD countries, reinforces the role of commercial criteria in technology selection . The recently published IEA/NEA study on Projected Costs of Generating Electricity: 2010 Edition (IEA/NEA, 2010) provides important indications regarding the relative competitiveness of nuclear energy in OECD member countries as well as in four non-OECD countries (Brazil, China, Russia and South Africa). The results highlight the paramount importance of discount rates and, to a lesser extent, carbon and fuel prices when comparing different technologies. Going beyond this general finding, the study also shows that the relative competitiveness of nuclear energy varies widely from one major region to another, and even from country to country. While the study provides a useful snapshot of the costs of generating electricity with different technologies, it does not provide an absolute picture of the competitiveness of nuclear energy. Like any study, Projected Costs of Generating Electricity makes a number of common assumptions about discount rates as well as carbon and fuel prices. In addition, its calculations are based on a methodology that is referred to as the levelised cost of electricity (LCOE), which assumes that all risks are included in the interest or discount rate, which determines the cost of capital. In other words, neither the electricity price risk for nuclear and renewables, nor the carbon and fuel price risk for fossil fuels such as coal and gas, receive specific consideration. The decisions of private investors, however, will depend to a large extent on their individual appreciations of these risks. The competitiveness of nuclear energy thus depends on three different factors which may vary greatly from market to market: interest rates, carbon and fuel prices, and

  11. The Competitive Advantages of Retail Enterprises: the Factor and the Result of Competitive Relations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chorna Maryna V.

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available The article is aimed at systematization and development of a conceptual-categorical apparatus of the essence of competitive advantages. The approaches to their interpretation have been allocated. The essential characteristics and stages of the life cycle of competitive advantages are considered. As active stages it is suggested to consider the following: formation, implementation, and development. The basic properties of competitive advantages such as dual character have been substantiated and supplemented. Both the factor and the effective nature of competitive advantages are characterized. On the basis of the mentioned approaches together with the identified features, a definition of the concept of «competitive advantages» as economic category has been proposed. Its use as a base along with taking into consideration the functional specificity of trade enterprises has allowed: clarifying the essence of competitive advantages of retail enterprises; suggesting their definition as a factor and as a result of competitive relations. The identification of dual character will increase the possibilities to assess competitive advantages. Prospects for further researches in this direction are connected with allocating of peculiarities and kinds of competitive advantages of retail trade enterprises with the purpose of increasing the of validity of decisions on their formation, implementation, and development.

  12. GLOBAL TRADE. THE KEY TO TRANSATLANTIC COMPETITIVENESS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mădălina Laura CUCIURIANU

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Global trade has an important characteristic in terms of open global markets by means of eliminating barriers to trade and investment. The United States and the European Union, two major international actors and competitors in the economic field, have both the opportunity to change the global trade by concluding the negotiations of the Transatlantic Trade and Investment Partnership. For this reason, this paper tries to find the connections between global trade and transatlantic competitiveness in the way that the global trade can be considered a key to transatlantic competitiveness. The United States and the European Union are global actors and competitors in the global economy and the play field is the global trade. In order to be aware of the importance ofglobal trade in the transatlantic competitiveness, this paper includes also an analysis of the concrete actions that both economic powers are taking in key-sectors of the transatlantic economy.

  13. Search engine competition with network externalities

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Argenton, C.; Prüfer, J.

    2012-01-01

    The market for Internet search is not only economically and socially important, it is also highly concentrated. Is this a problem? We study the question of whether “competition is only a free click away.” We argue that the market for Internet search is characterized by indirect network externalities

  14. Search Engine Competition with Network Externalities

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Argenton, C.; Prüfer, J.

    2011-01-01

    The market for Internet search is not only economically and socially important, it is also highly concentrated. Is this a problem? We study the question whether "competition is only a free click away". We argue that the market for Internet search is characterized by indirect network externalities

  15. The monopolistic competition revolution in retrospect

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brakman, Steven; Heijdra, Ben J.

    2002-01-01

    In this paper we argue that there have been two monopolistic competition revolutions. The first was started by Joan Robinson and Edward Chamberlin in the 1930s but failed to have much impact on economic theory. The second was initiated by Avinash Dixit and Joseph Stiglitz in the early 1970s. Their

  16. Competitiveness of chinese socialist market economy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Henry Ernesto Turner Barragán

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available The article analyzes the dynamics held by the Chinese economy becomes, since it happened to be a communist to a capitalist economy and social market economy. Being in the latter, in which the country achieved high rates of economic growth, and improve their competitiveness pillars, generating higher growth prospects in the economy and the income of the society.

  17. Contract networks for competition in transmission grids

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hogan, W.W.

    1992-01-01

    Increased reliance on competition in energy markets requires pricing, access, and investment reform for the essential transmission grids. Due to the complexity of the network interactions, the usual analogies to economic concepts from other settings have little or no meaning in transmission grids. A contract network framework builds from first principles to define the conditions of an efficient market. 8 refs

  18. Financial Sector Competition, Service Trade, and Growth

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    J.F. François (Joseph); F.W. Eschenbach

    2002-01-01

    textabstractWe explore dynamic linkages between financial/banking sector openness, financial sector competition, and growth. We first develop an analytical model, highlighting links between long-run economic performance and services trade, through scale economies and market and cost structures in

  19. Do talented women shy away from competition?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hoyer, Britta; van Huizen, T.M.; Keijzer, L.M.; Rezaei Khavas, T.; Rosenkranz, S.; Westbrock, B.

    2016-01-01

    We study the willingness to compete in a cognitive task among an entire cohort of fresh man business and economics students. Combining data from a lab-in-thefield experiment with university admissions data, we trace the gender gap in competitiveness at different levels of high school performance.

  20. A Golden Opportunity for Currency Competition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cobb, Joe

    1983-01-01

    The Federal Reserve makes mistakes in monetary policy and causes business cycles. A free market solution to the failure of central economic planning is competition in money and banking. A second currency, the "Gold Eagle," should be issued and allowed to compete with the dollar. (SR)

  1. Shared, competitive, and comparative advantages: a competence-based view of industrial-district competitiveness

    OpenAIRE

    César Camisón

    2004-01-01

    The author's aim is to construct and validate empirically a theoretical model that allows performance and competitiveness in firms located in industrial districts to be explained. From the strategic perspective adopted, economic revenues are explained by three types of advantage: shared advantages, competitive advantages, and comparative advantages. Neither integration in the district, nor its attraction due to the shared competences within it, are significant predictors of performance. Empir...

  2. Sodium oxide aerosol filtration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Duverger de Cuy, G [DSN/SESTR, Centre de Cadarache, Saint-Paul-lez-Durance (France)

    1979-03-01

    In the scope of the sodium aerosol trapping research effort by the CEA/DSN, the retention capacity and yield were measured for very high efficiency fiberglass filters and several types of prefilters (cyclone agglomerator, fabric prefilters, water scrubbers). (author)

  3. Sodium oxide aerosol filtration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Duverger de Cuy, G.

    1979-01-01

    In the scope of the sodium aerosol trapping research effort by the CEA/DSN, the retention capacity and yield were measured for very high efficiency fiberglass filters and several types of prefilters (cyclone agglomerator, fabric prefilters, water scrubbers). (author)

  4. Sodium distiller II

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goncalves, A.C.; Castro, P.M. e; Torres, A.R.; Correa, S.M.

    1990-01-01

    A sodium distiller allows the evaluation of the sodium purity, contained in plants and circuits of Fast Reactors. The sodium distillers of the IEN Reactor's Department was developed initially as a prototype, for the testing of the distillation process and in a second step, as a equipment dedicated to attendance the operation of these circuits. This last one was build in stainless steel, with external heat, rotating crucible of nickel for four samples, purge system for pipe cleaning and a sight glass that permits the observation of the distillation during all the operation. The major advantage of this equipment is the short time to do a distillation operation, which permits its routine utilization. As a consequence of the development of the distillers and its auxiliary systems an important amount of new information was gathered concerning components and systems behaviour under high temperature, vacuum and sodium. (author)

  5. Sodium hypochlorite poisoning

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... that can cause choking and serious breathing problems. Symptoms of sodium hypochlorite poisoning may include: Burning, red eyes Chest pain Coma Coughing (from the fumes) Delirium Gagging sensation Low blood pressure Pain in the ...

  6. NON-COMPETITION CLAUSES IN COMMERCIAL CONTRACTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MIHAELA IRINA IONESCU

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available We begin with an analysis of areas where rivalry between economic agents can not show (any act of competition committed in this area drawing the liability of the author, we will then analyze competition in relations between the trader and servant or other employees and continue with the analysis of the legal ban on competition in the limited liability companies and joint stock companies. So, the relevant provisions of Law 31/1990 are reviewed, views of legal doctrine and practice of judicial rulings on the nature and purpose of the relevant provisions referred to, their scope, applicability of statutory prohibition against competition in the profile activity of the company, the prohibition in the liquidation phase, procedural methods which can cover damage caused to the creditor’s violated rights, as well as statute of limitations for the right to action and prescription.

  7. Competition law and the obligation to supply

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bergqvist, Christian

    2015-01-01

    While accepted in theory and practice that an obligation to supply, ser-vice or license can emerge under competition law, the scope of this is subject to many, if not lacunas, at least ambiguities, and no general ob-li¬gations of such nature can, no should, be identified. Further, and equally...... important, the narrow set of circumstances warranting inter-vention against refusals is defined by competition law in accordance with its underlying principles of a predominantly economic nature. Hence, competition law should not be relied upon as a corrective in-strument to lacunas in other areas of law, e.......g. compulsory licenses un-der IP law. Below, some considerations regarding the obligation to supply under competition law are offered for the purpose of correcting the misunderstandings....

  8. COMPETITIVENESS IN THE SPHERE OF INNOVATIVE ENTREPRENEURSHIP

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. Yu. Reshetov

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The theme of this article is relevant because in any economic doctrine of competition is seen as a driving force of the market. The ability of business entities, including entities of innovative entrepreneurship to compete for the market (consumers is a key factor in the development of this segment and the main factor stimulating the transition of the national economy to innovation-oriented development.The purpose: The aim of the article is in-depth and comprehensive analysis of the positions of Russian and foreign scientists-economists on the question of the essence of the concepts of «competition» and «competitiveness».Methods. Methodological basis of this paper are generalization of literary sources and comparative analysis methods. Results. Comprehensively analyzed the positions of leading scientists and economists in relation to the concepts of «competition and competitiveness», including and in such an important sector as innovative entrepreneurship. The identifi ed similarities, diff erences and their features.Conclusions / significance. Identifi ed and completed a substantial part of the economic category «competitiveness of innovative entrepreneurship». According to the authors, the competitiveness of innovative entrepreneurship should be considered as the ability of the subjects of this segment to compete in a superior degree with the manufacturers (sellers of a similar product (goods, works, services with the best (unique characteristics through effi cient and optimal use of knowledge and other resources to support the activities to maximize the economic benefi ts, not available to competitors of, or adjacent segment.

  9. PRICES IN COMPETITIVE SYSTEM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    VADUVA MARIA

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Regularities of competitive market determine rules for determining prices and their dynamics. Orientation prices to competition (competitive pricing is the strategy most frequently used in countries with market economies and especially for exports. Moreover, in an economy dominated by market competition it cannot be ignored without certain risks the prices resulting from competition between products bidders. Companies that use this type of strategy seek to maintain a level of prices linked to that charged by other competitors (or exporting producers generally no longer covering production costs or demand, relying on the assumption that the average market price is a reasonable basis of costs. But the way how practical guidance and reporting to the competition in every price strategy, will be determined by the company's market position, by the available power and enjoyed prestige, objectives and prospects of its market share etc. according to these elements, there may be several versions of pricing strategies oriented to competitors.

  10. Architectural Competition and BIM

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Nils Lykke; Frandsen, Anne Kathrine; Øien, Turid Borgestrand

    2015-01-01

    on architecturalcompetitions, a series of interviews was conducted with building clients as well as architects, focusing on the impact of the above-mentioned changes within the building sector on architectural competitions as an institution. In the interviews, ICT and notleast BIM was a recurring theme that both parties saw...... as having a positive impact on competitions. But when looking closely into the answers, these revealed diverse understandings of how and why the impact of BIM on competitions could be said to be positive. The paper sheds light on the interaction between the actors (building clients, architects and client...... consultants) and the applied technologies (competition forms, ICT tools, directives) in architectural competitions in a theoretical actor-network perspective. The diverging understandings of the role of BIM are demonstrating one of many negotiations in progress in the network of architectural competitions...

  11. Liquid sodium oxygenmeter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jakes, D.; Fresl, M.; Svoboda, V.

    1979-02-01

    The results of test runs of two design varieties of liquid sodium oxygenmeter in sodium loops are described. The accuracy and sensitivity are discussed reached using this instrument within 1 and 10 p.p.m. of oxygen concentration. A change in the used reference system is proposed based on practical experiences and thermochemical calculations. Ceramic electrolyte corrosion is analysed and the possible interpretation of the corrosion effect on the galvanic cell electromotive force is suggested. (author)

  12. Too Much Sodium

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    This podcast is based on the February 2012 CDC Vital Signs report. Ninety percent of Americans age two and older eat too much sodium which can increase your risk for high blood pressure and often leads to heart disease and stroke, two leading causes of death in the US. Learn several small steps you can take to reduce the amount of sodium in your diet.

  13. Electricity market competition and nuclear power

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Varley, C.; Paffenbarger, J.

    1999-01-01

    Throughout the world, the Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD) member countries' governments are promoting competitive electricity markets. In particular, there is a move away from administrative price-setting by government institutions to market price-setting through the introduction of competition. Today this is often focused on competition in generation. However, competition among final electricity suppliers and distributors to provide effective consumer choice is a further step that governments are likely to pursue as experience with market reform grows. This competitive environment will undoubtedly impact upon the nuclear generation industry. Competition will provide an opportunity to reinvigorate nuclear power; it will improve the transparency of energy policy-making and the policy framework for nuclear power; it will spur innovation in existing plants and help prospects for new plant build; and provide a strong impetus for cost reduction and innovation. This paper discusses these issues in detail. It looks at the potential benefits and challenges to the nuclear generation industry arising from an increasingly competitive market. (author)

  14. Competition in electricity markets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Taylor, W.

    1996-01-01

    This article examines expanded wholesale and retail competition and the effect that they are likely to have on the electric power industry. The author believes that expanded wholesale competition is good and will bring immediate benefit to all electric consumers; however, based on the experience of the natural gas industry and the electric power industry in California and other parts of the world, the author counsels caution in moving toward expanded retail competition

  15. The Competitive Perception

    OpenAIRE

    Lima, João Tiago

    2012-01-01

    This paper aims to define what competitive perception is. Using Dufrenne’s phenomenological analysis of the art spectator’s experience, namely the concept of aesthetic perception, I will claim that it is useful to apply this phenomenological approach to the experience of watching sport events. I will argue that the concepts of uncertainty and auto teleology, being two main features in sport competition, are helpful to define competitive perception.

  16. Quality and Competition

    OpenAIRE

    Rajiv D. Banker; Inder Khosla; Kingshuk K. Sinha

    1998-01-01

    In recent years, the practitioner literature in operations management has seen a dramatic surge in articles on quality management. It reflects the increased emphasis on quality by U.S. firms, which has been attributed largely to increased competition faced by them. The question of how quality is influenced by competitive intensity, however, has not received much attention, either in the practitioner or the academic research literatures. The notion of competitive intensity itself has not been ...

  17. Competitive versus comparative advantage

    OpenAIRE

    Neary, J. Peter

    2002-01-01

    I explore the interactions between comparative, competitive and absolute advantage in a two-country model of oligopoly in general equilibrium. Comparative advantage always determines the direction of trade, but both competitive and absolute advantage affect resource allocation, trade patterns and trade volumes. Competitive advantage in the sense of more home firms drives foreign firms out of marginal sectors but also makes some marginal home sectors uncompetitive. Absolute advantage in the se...

  18. Competition Law and the Bounded Rationality of Firms

    OpenAIRE

    Bhattacharya, Shilpi

    2016-01-01

    Firm rationality plays a role in several aspects of competition law. Yet, the conception of the firm as a rational, profit maximizing entity has been disputed in different disciplines. This literature shows that neoclassical economic assumptions on which competition law is based can fall short of explaining the full range of observed firm behaviour. Accordingly, an alternative conception of the firm as boundedly rational can impact the understanding of firm conduct in competition law. Be...

  19. Competitiveness in tourism: A comparison between Brazil and Switzerland

    OpenAIRE

    Maria Gabriela Montanari; Janaina de Moura Engracia Giraldi

    2013-01-01

    Despite the unstable global situation and the crisis in the euro area, world tourism has remained strong and with a positive growth in the last years. Besides, this activity has a great economic and social importance which is reflected in its ability to generate jobs and income. Thus, this article aims to analyze the competitiveness of the tourism sector in Brazil and Switzerland, comparing the two countries through competitive factors identified by the World Competitiveness Index in Tourism ...

  20. ESTIMATION OF EFFICIENCY OF THE COMPETITIVE COOPERATION MODEL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Natalia N. Liparteliani

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Competitive cooperation model of regional travel agencies and travel market participants is considered. Evaluation of the model using mathematical and statistical methods was carried out. Relationship marketing provides a travel company certain economic advantages.