WorldWideScience

Sample records for economical reactorpeacer wastes

  1. The Economics of Residential Solid Waste Management

    OpenAIRE

    Thomas C. Kinnaman; Don Fullterton

    1999-01-01

    This paper provides a broad overview of recent trends in solid waste and recycling, related public policy issues, and the economics literature devoted to these topics. Public attention to solid waste and recycling has increased dramatically over the past decade both in the United States and in Europe. In response, economists have developed models to help policy makers choose the efficient mix of policy levers to regulate solid waste and recycling activities. Economists have also employed diff...

  2. Managing nuclear waste: Social and economic impacts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hemphill, R.C. [Argonne National Lab., IL (United States); Bassett, G.W. Jr. [Illinois Univ., Chicago, IL (United States). Dept. of Economics

    1993-03-01

    Recent research has focused on perceptions of risk dominant source of economic impacts due to siting a high level radioactive waste facility. This article addresses the social and economic considerations involved with the issue of risk perception and other types of negative imagery. Emphasis is placed on ways of measuring the potential for economic effects resulting from perceptions prior to construction and operation of a HLW facility. We describe the problems in arriving at defensible estimates of economic impacts. Our review has found that although legal and regulatory bases may soon allow inclusion of these impacts in EIS and for compensation purposes, credible scientific methods do not currently exist for predicting the existence or magnitude of changes in economic decision-making. Policy-makers should recognize the potential for perception-based economic impacts in determining the location and means of managing radioactive waste; but, they also need be cognizant of the current limitations of quantitative estimates of impacts in this area.

  3. Managing nuclear waste: Social and economic impacts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hemphill, R.C.; Bassett, G.W. Jr.

    1993-01-01

    Recent research has focused on perceptions of risk dominant source of economic impacts due to siting a high level radioactive waste facility. This article addresses the social and economic considerations involved with the issue of risk perception and other types of negative imagery. Emphasis is placed on ways of measuring the potential for economic effects resulting from perceptions prior to construction and operation of a HLW facility. We describe the problems in arriving at defensible estimates of economic impacts. Our review has found that although legal and regulatory bases may soon allow inclusion of these impacts in EIS and for compensation purposes, credible scientific methods do not currently exist for predicting the existence or magnitude of changes in economic decision-making. Policy-makers should recognize the potential for perception-based economic impacts in determining the location and means of managing radioactive waste; but, they also need be cognizant of the current limitations of quantitative estimates of impacts in this area

  4. Economics of transuranic waste immobilization and disposal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Timmerman, C.L.

    1982-01-01

    Seven proposed transuranic (TRU) waste immobilization systems are assessed and evaluated on the basis of costs. Specific cost components that are estimated include processing costs, transportation costs, and repository or disposal costs. Economics are examined to determine the effects that each component has on the system costs. The evaluation led to two recommended systems based on these cost component evaluations. A cast-cement system is recommended for immobilized TRU wastes disposed in a defense-related waste repository because of lower processing costs and a reduced incentive for waste volume reduction. The joule-heated glass system is recommended for the immobilized TRU wastes placed in a commercial waste repository since the increased disposal cost places a greater emphasis and value upon an immobilization system which provides a large volume reduction

  5. Techno-economic feasibility of waste biorefinery

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Shahzad, Khurram; Narodoslawsky, Michael; Sagir, Muhammad

    2017-01-01

    The utilization of industrial waste streams as input materials for bio-mediated production processes constitutes a current R&D objective not only to reduce process costs at the input side but in parallel, to minimize hazardous environmental emissions. In this context, the EU-funded project ANIMPOL...... elaborated a process for the production of polyhydroxyalkanoate (PHA) biopolymers starting from diverse waste streams of the animal processing industry. This article provides a detailed economic analysis of PHA production from this waste biorefinery concept, encompassing the utilization of low......-quality biodiesel, offal material and meat and bone meal (MBM). Techno-economic analysis reveals that PHA production cost varies from 1.41 €/kg to 1.64 €/kg when considering offal on the one hand as waste, or, on the other hand, accounting its market price, while calculating with fixed costs for the co...

  6. Economic instruments for waste management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Malaman, R.

    1991-01-01

    Economic instruments for the implementation of environmental policies distinguish themselves from traditional tools (the 'command and control' type) for the reason that: they influence the costs and the benefits of the economic agents in question; they change the behaviour of the subjects in question in a way that they guarantee behaviour trends less harmful to the environment; they guarantee the assignment of adequate prices to the natural resources that traditionally don't have a price and therefore are consumed excessively by the economic subjects; normally they impose the transfer of economic resources to the disadvantage of the subjects responsible for the phenomena of pollution; certain objective pollution reduction data guarantee the minimization of the social costs of pollution abatement, that is, of the total costs on the economic system in general (economists define this characteristic as the 'static efficiency'); they guarantee what is called in economical jargon, the dynamic efficiency, i.e., in practice, they determine a continuous incentive for the reduction of the emission of the various pollutants and for the realization of the technological innovations that are able to control the pollution; they are more flexible than the instruments of direct regulation, because they leave the subjects a freedom of choice under different price conditions than in the past; they are flexible as well for the reason that the public operator can intervene rapidly to change the way of application

  7. WASTES: Waste System Transportation and Economic Simulation--Version 2:

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sovers, R.A.; Shay, M.R.; Ouderkirk, S.J.; McNair, G.W.; Eagle, B.G.

    1988-02-01

    The Waste System Transportation and Economic Simulation (WASTES) Technical Reference Manual was written to describe and document the algorithms used within the WASTES model as implemented in Version 2.23. The manual will serve as a reference for users of the WASTES system. The intended audience for this manual are knowledgeable users of WASTES who have an interest in the underlying principles and algorithms used within the WASTES model. Each algorithm is described in nonprogrammers terminology, and the source and uncertainties of the constants in use by these algorithms are described. The manual also describes the general philosophy and rules used to: 1) determine the allocation and priority of spent fuel generation sources to facility destinations, 2) calculate transportation costs, and 3) estimate the cost of at-reactor ex-pool storage. A detailed description of the implementation of many of the algorithms is also included in the WASTES Programmers Reference Manual (Shay and Buxbaum 1986a). This manual is separated into sections based on the general usage of the algorithms being discussed. 8 refs., 14 figs., 2 tabs

  8. Accelerator transmutation of waste economics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Krakowski, R.A.

    1995-01-01

    A parametric systems model of the accelerator transmutation of (nuclear) waste (ATW) is used to examine key system trade-offs and design drivers on the basis of unit costs. This model is applied primarily to a fluid-fuel blanket concept for an ATW that generates net electric power from the fissioning of spent commercial reactor fuel. An important goal of this study is the development of essential parametric trade-offs to aid in any future conceptual engineering design of an ATW that would burn spent commercial fuel and generate net electric power. As such, costing procedures and methodologies used to estimate and compare advanced nuclear power generation systems are applied. The cost of electricity required by an electrical power-generating ATW fueled with spent commercial fuels is generally found to be above that projected for other advanced fission power plants. The accelerator and the chemical plant equipment cost accounts are quantitatively identified as main cost drivers, with the capital cost of radio-frequency power dominating the former. Significant reductions of this cost differential are possible by increased blanket neutron multiplication, increased plant capacity, or increased thermal-to-electric conversion efficiency. The benefits of reduced long-lived fission products and spent commercial fuel actinides provided by the ATW approach translate into a less tangible source of revenue to be provided by a charge that must be levied on the client fission power plants being serviced. The main goal of this study, however, is not a direct cost comparison but is instead a quantitative determination of cost-based sensitivity of key cost drivers and operational modes for an ATW concept that would address the growing spent commercial fuel problem; parametric results presented focus on this goal, and a specific ATW ''straw man'' is given to achieve this main objective

  9. Managing nuclear waste: Social and economic impacts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hemphill, R.C.; Bassett, G.W. Jr.

    1993-01-01

    Recent research has focused on perceptions of risk as a dominant source of economic impacts due to siting a high level radioactive waste facility. This article addresses the social and economic considerations involved with the issue of risk perception and other types of negative imagery. Emphasis is placed on ways of measuring the potential for economic effects resulting from perceptions prior to construction and operation of HLW facility. We describe the problems in arriving at defensible estimates of economic impacts. Our review has found that although legal and regulatory bases may soon allow inclusion of these impacts in EIS and for compensation purposes, credible scientific methods do not currently exist for predicting the existence or magnitude of changes in economic decision-making. Policy-makers should recognize the potential for perception-based economic impacts in determining the location and means of managing radioactive waste; but, they also need be cognizant of the current limitations of quantitative estimates of impacts in this area

  10. Economic challenges of radioactive waste management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Soderberg, O.

    1996-01-01

    The management of long lived waste, and the decommissioning of nuclear power plants represent major economic challenges. Power production is an activity that produces benefits now, but considerable costs will appear up to one or two generations later. Who should pay for such inevitable costs? How do you guarantee a lifetime ahead that money will be available when needed? The issues of inter-generational equity and management of the uncertainties involved in estimating future costs decommissioning and waste management, the development of the concept of trust funds and the overseeing of long-term financial liabilities in this field are discussed. The paper contains an overview of how such challenges are met in different countries. Information for the general public about economics in connection with nuclear waste management needs to combine the conflicting demands of accuracy and simplification. Systems for financing future costs are discussed, together with proposed guarantees and suggestions for the efficient organisation of such funding. The present Swedish system is explained. This basically requires license holders to pay a yearly fee to cover the costs of the safe handling and final disposal of nuclear fuel used in the reactor, the safe decommissioning and dismantling of the reactor, and the R and D activities required to achieve this. With recent suggestions for improving the reliability of the 1981 Swedish nuclear waste management funding system as a basis, five information messages rom the Government and responsible authorities are discussed. (author)

  11. Nigerian Wood Waste: A Potential Resource for Economic ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Nigerian Wood Waste: A Potential Resource for Economic Development. ... Journal of Applied Sciences and Environmental Management ... wood waste as a viable resource for economic growth and sustainable development and thereby pique the people's interest in the proper management and harnessing of wood waste.

  12. Is Municipal Solid Waste Recycling Economically Efficient?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lavee, Doron

    2007-12-01

    It has traditionally been argued that recycling municipal solid waste (MSW) is usually not economically viable and that only when externalities, long-term dynamic considerations, and/or the entire product life cycle are taken into account, recycling becomes worthwhile from a social point of view. This article explores the results of a wide study conducted in Israel in the years 2000 2004. Our results reveal that recycling is optimal more often than usually claimed, even when externality considerations are ignored. The study is unique in the tools it uses to explore the efficiency of recycling: a computer-based simulation applied to an extensive database. We developed a simulation for assessing the costs of handling and treating MSW under different waste-management systems and used this simulation to explore possible cost reductions obtained by designating some of the waste (otherwise sent to landfill) to recycling. We ran the simulation on data from 79 municipalities in Israel that produce over 60% of MSW in Israel. For each municipality, we were able to arrive at an optimal method of waste management and compare the costs associated with 100% landfilling to the costs born by the municipality when some of the waste is recycled. Our results indicate that for 51% of the municipalities, it would be efficient to adopt recycling, even without accounting for externality costs. We found that by adopting recycling, municipalities would be able to reduce direct costs by an average of 11%. Through interviews conducted with representatives of municipalities, we were also able to identify obstacles to the utilization of recycling, answering in part the question of why actual recycling levels in Israel are lower than our model predicts they should be.

  13. Challenges when performing economic optimization of waste treatment: A review

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Juul, Nina; Münster, Marie; Ravn, H.

    2013-01-01

    Strategic and operational decisions in waste management, in particular with respect to investments in new treatment facilities, are needed due to a number of factors, including continuously increasing amounts of waste, political demands for efficient utilization of waste resources......-criteria analysis have been developed.A thorough updated review of the existing models is presented, and the main challenges and crucial parameters that need to be taken into account when assessing the economic performance of waste treatment alternatives are identified. The review article will assist both policy......-makers and model-developers involved in assessing the economic performance of waste treatment alternatives....

  14. Challenges when performing economic optimization of waste treatment: A review

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Juul, N.; Münster, M.; Ravn, H.; Söderman, M. Ljunggren

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: • Review of main optimization tools in the field of waste management. • Different optimization methods are applied. • Different fractions are analyzed. • There is focus on different parameters in different geographical regions. • More research is needed which encompasses both recycling and energy solutions. - Abstract: Strategic and operational decisions in waste management, in particular with respect to investments in new treatment facilities, are needed due to a number of factors, including continuously increasing amounts of waste, political demands for efficient utilization of waste resources, and the decommissioning of existing waste treatment facilities. Optimization models can assist in ensuring that these investment strategies are economically feasible. Various economic optimization models for waste treatment have been developed which focus on different parameters. Models focusing on transport are one example, but models focusing on energy production have also been developed, as well as models which take into account a plant’s economies of scale, environmental impact, material recovery and social costs. Finally, models combining different criteria for the selection of waste treatment methods in multi-criteria analysis have been developed. A thorough updated review of the existing models is presented, and the main challenges and crucial parameters that need to be taken into account when assessing the economic performance of waste treatment alternatives are identified. The review article will assist both policy-makers and model-developers involved in assessing the economic performance of waste treatment alternatives

  15. Nigerian Wood Waste: A Potential Resource for Economic ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ADOWIE PERE

    develop bio-based businesses, create wealth, enhance the efficiencies of forests and wood processing industries, improve wood waste management and stimulate domestic economic development. However, appropriate policies and incentives need to be in place to encourage waste utilization and prevent the menace from ...

  16. Environmental/Economic Analysis and Recycling of Wastes from Air ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Environmental and economic analysis was performed on the wastes from Air Liquid Nigeria Ltd. The company's waste water, spent oil, noise and air pollutants were examined. Results show no serious adverse impact on the ambient air quality. There was serious noise pollution problem around the factory hall and generator ...

  17. WASTES: a waste management logistics/economics model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McNair, G.W.; Shay, M.R.; Fletcher, J.F.; Cashwell, J.W.

    1985-01-01

    The WASTES logistics model is a simulation language based model for analyzing the logistic flow of spent fuel/nuclear waste throughout the waste management system. The model tracks the movement of spent fuel/nuclear waste from point of generation to final destination. The model maintains inventories of spent fuel/nuclear waste at individual reactor sites as well as at various facilities within the waste management system. A maximum of 14 facilities may be utilized within a single run. These 14 facilities may include any combination of the following facilities: (1) federal interim storage (FIS), (2) reprocessing (REP), (3) monitored retrievable storage (MRS), (4) geological disposal facilities (GDF). The movement of spent fuel/nuclear waste between these facilities is controlled by the user specification of loading and unloading rates, annual and maximum capacities and commodity characteristics (minimum age or heat constraints) for each individual facility. In addition, the user may specify varying levels of priority on the spent fuel/nuclear waste that will be eligible for movement within a given year. These levels of priority allow the user to preferentially move spent fuel from reactor sites that are experiencing a loss of full-core-reserve (FCR) margin in a given year or from reactors that may be in the final stages of decommissioning. The WASTES model utilizes the reactor specific data available from the PNL spent fuel database. This database provides reactor specific information on items such as spent fuel basin size, reactor location, and transportation cask preference (i.e., rail or truck cask). In addition, detailed discharge data is maintained that provides the number of assemblies, metric tons, and exposure for both historic and projected discharges at each reactor site

  18. Economic analysis of waste-to-energy industry in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Xin-Gang; Jiang, Gui-Wu; Li, Ang; Wang, Ling

    2016-02-01

    The generation of municipal solid waste is further increasing in China with urbanization and improvement of living standards. The "12th five-year plan" period (2011-2015) promotes waste-to-energy technologies for the harmless disposal and recycling of municipal solid waste. Waste-to-energy plant plays an important role for reaching China's energy conservation and emission reduction targets. Industrial policies and market prospect of waste-to-energy industry are described. Technology, cost and benefit of waste-to-energy plant are also discussed. Based on an economic analysis of a waste-to-energy project in China (Return on Investment, Net Present Value, Internal Rate of Return, and Sensitivity Analysis) the paper makes the conclusions. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Economic and employment potential in textile waste management of Faisalabad.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noman, Muhammad; Batool, Syeda Adila; Chaudhary, Muhammad Nawaz

    2013-05-01

    The aim of this study is to characterize the waste from the textile industry, to identify the sources and types of waste generation and to find out the economic and employment potential in this sector. Textile waste, its management, and the economic and employment potential in this sector are unrevealed facts in developing countries such as Pakistan. The textile industry is ranked first in export earning in Pakistan. Textile export of yarn and cloth from Faisalabad is US$3 billion per year. On average 161 325 people are employed in the textile sector in Faisalabad, of which 11 860 are involved in solid waste handling and management. The textile industries generate solid wastes such as fibre, metal, plastic and paper waste. A total of 794 209 kg day(-1) (289 886 285 kg year(-1)) solid waste is produced from this sector and purchased by cotton waste junkshop owners at US$125 027 day(-1) (US$45 634 855 year(-1)). Only pre-consumer textile waste is considered. Interestingly no waste is sent to landfill. The waste is first segregated into different categories/ types by hand and then weighed. Cotton waste is sold to brick kilns where it is used as an alternative fuel as it is cheaper than wood/coal. Iron scrap is sold in the junk market from where it is resold to recycling industries. Paper waste is recycled, minimizing the virgin material used for producing new paper products. Iron and plastic drums are returned to the chemical industries for refilling, thus decreasing the cost of dyes and decreasing the demand for new drums. Cutting rags are used for making different things such as ropes and underlay, it is also shredded and used as fillings for pillows and mattresses, thus improving waste management, reducing cost and minimizing the need for virgin material. As no system of quality control and no monitoring of subsequent products exist there is a need to carry out quality control and monitoring.

  20. Economic and environmental optimization of waste treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Münster, M; Ravn, H; Hedegaard, K; Juul, N; Ljunggren Söderman, M

    2015-04-01

    This article presents the new systems engineering optimization model, OptiWaste, which incorporates a life cycle assessment (LCA) methodology and captures important characteristics of waste management systems. As part of the optimization, the model identifies the most attractive waste management options. The model renders it possible to apply different optimization objectives such as minimizing costs or greenhouse gas emissions or to prioritize several objectives given different weights. A simple illustrative case is analysed, covering alternative treatments of one tonne of residual household waste: incineration of the full amount or sorting out organic waste for biogas production for either combined heat and power generation or as fuel in vehicles. The case study illustrates that the optimal solution depends on the objective and assumptions regarding the background system--illustrated with different assumptions regarding displaced electricity production. The article shows that it is feasible to combine LCA methodology with optimization. Furthermore, it highlights the need for including the integrated waste and energy system into the model. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Automated economic analysis model for hazardous waste minimization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dharmavaram, S.; Mount, J.B.; Donahue, B.A.

    1990-01-01

    The US Army has established a policy of achieving a 50 percent reduction in hazardous waste generation by the end of 1992. To assist the Army in reaching this goal, the Environmental Division of the US Army Construction Engineering Research Laboratory (USACERL) designed the Economic Analysis Model for Hazardous Waste Minimization (EAHWM). The EAHWM was designed to allow the user to evaluate the life cycle costs for various techniques used in hazardous waste minimization and to compare them to the life cycle costs of current operating practices. The program was developed in C language on an IBM compatible PC and is consistent with other pertinent models for performing economic analyses. The potential hierarchical minimization categories used in EAHWM include source reduction, recovery and/or reuse, and treatment. Although treatment is no longer an acceptable minimization option, its use is widespread and has therefore been addressed in the model. The model allows for economic analysis for minimization of the Army's six most important hazardous waste streams. These include, solvents, paint stripping wastes, metal plating wastes, industrial waste-sludges, used oils, and batteries and battery electrolytes. The EAHWM also includes a general application which can be used to calculate and compare the life cycle costs for minimization alternatives of any waste stream, hazardous or non-hazardous. The EAHWM has been fully tested and implemented in more than 60 Army installations in the United States

  2. Economics of food waste co-product exploitation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gremmen, H.G.J.

    2009-01-01

    The reasons why many valuable constituents of agro waste co-products have, until now, remained unexploited are explored with the help of data from two case studies of the EU FP6 project REPRO in order to find out if the technological results are economically viable. Economical constraints are

  3. Integrated environmental and economic assessment of waste management systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Martinez Sanchez, Veronica

    . However, the waste hierarchy does not consider the local needs/conditions of each geographical area, and it cannot be used to identify sustainable SWM options by itself. Environmental impact assessment can help with this task as holistic decision-support tool. Nevertheless, waste authorities need economic...... waste prevention (due to avoided food production) could be overtaken by the environmental loads associated with the alternative consumptions purchased with the savings generated from the prevented (unpurchased) food. This could be avoided if prevention campaigns were accompanied by other policies aiming......The Solid Waste Management (SWM) sector has evolved from a simple control of emissions towards a resource recovery sector while still being constrained by strict emission regulations. For that waste authorities are paying increased attention to the waste hierarchy as a set of priorities for solid...

  4. Low-level radioactive waste management: an economic assessment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Peery, R.J.

    1981-07-01

    This paper has presented an overview of the economics of low-level radioactive waste disposal. It is hoped that this paper will assist the states in their efforts to determine their approach to the management of low-level wastes. Although the economies of scale realized by a larger facility are emphasized, the conclusion is that every state and region must examine its need for low-level waste disposal services and consider the interrelated factors that affect the volume of waste to be disposed, including waste reduction techniques, interim storage for not a single recommended capacity for a facility, but an acknowledgement of contingencies. In theory, per cubic foot disposal costs decrease as facility size increases. But theory does not preclude a state from constructing its own site, or a region generating small volumes of waste from building a shared facility. All factors should be weighed before a site is chosen and its size is determined

  5. Economic and environmental optimization of waste treatment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Münster, Marie; Ravn, Hans; Hedegaard, Karsten

    2015-01-01

    options. The model renders it possible to apply different optimization objectives such as minimizing costs or greenhouse gas emissions or to prioritize several objectives given different weights. A simple illustrative case is analysed, covering alternative treatments of one tonne of residual household...... waste: incineration of the full amount or sorting out organic waste for biogas production for either combined heat and power generation or as fuel in vehicles. The case study illustrates that the optimal solution depends on the objective and assumptions regarding the background system - illustrated...... with different assumptions regarding displaced electricity production. The article shows that it is feasible to combine LCA methodology with optimization. Furthermore, it highlights the need for including the integrated waste and energy system into the model. © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved....

  6. Municipal Solid Waste Recycling an Action along with Resistive Economics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aram Tirgar

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Background and Objective: In the current situation, it seems that municipal solid waste recycling despite hygienic, economic and environmental aspects is important from sociopolitical aspect. The aim of this study was to determine waste recycling condition and the knowledge of households about resistive economics, as an action along with a policy.Materials and Methods: This descriptive and cross-sectional study was conducted among 330 family of Amirkola city in Mazandaran province during 2013. The samples were collected from 33 regions using cluster sampling method. The data was collected by means of researcher-made data collection sheet and analyzed using descriptive statistical indices and Chi- square test, and p<0.05 was considered as significant.Results: The results showed that the mean (SD of age were 39.1 (10.9 years and 176 (53% female. More than half of households (56.9% were recycling municipal solid waste (plastic, paper, glass, and food residue which the share of plastic, and paper were the highest. Only 59 (29% were familiar with resistive economics, but there was not any significant relation between waste recycling and their awareness of resistive economics.Conclusion: The limitation of knowledge about resistive economics, and their weakness of practice about waste recycling imply that the authorities should have definite programs in order to increase family information and participations in social issues.

  7. WASTES: a waste management logistics/economics model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McNair, G.W.; Shay, M.R.; Fletcher, J.F.; Cashwell, J.W.

    1985-02-01

    The WASTES model simulates a user defined system for nuclear waste transportation and storage at both temporary and long-term storage facilities. The model is written in FORTRAN 77 as an extension to the SLAM commercial simulation package (Pritsker and Pegden 1979). SLAM (Simulation Language for Alternative Modeling) is utilized in a discrete event mode to model the passage of spent fuel through the system. The system is initiated with individual reactor discharges of spent fuel as described in the reactor discharge data file or as supplied by the user. The reactor discharge file contains deterministic information on the date (year/month) and quantity of spent fuel discharges. From this point, the model is controlled by a combination of source originated and destination originated transfers. Source driven transfers occur when a reactor pool violates the full core reserve (FCR) storage margin or when the reactor is decommissioned. At these times, the source reactor checks destination facilities to see if they can accept material. A dry storage facility is assumed to exist for each reactor and is allowed to grow as necessary to contain spent fuel which cannot be shipped to any other facility. In this way the FCR margin is always maintained. Destination driven transfers occur when the annual capacity of a facility will not be met by full core reserve or decommissioning shipments. An attempt is made at the end of each calendar year to schedule enough shipments of spent fuel from facilities with non-critical storage capacity to fill the annual capacity of each destination facility. Allowable facility types are reprocessing plants, federal interim storage (FIS), monitored retrievable storage (MRS), and repositories. The number, capacities, location and priority for receipt of spent fuel is user specified. This report describes in detail the waste generating model, the waste facilities model, the transportation model and the basic transportation scheme

  8. Energetical and economical assessment of the waste heat problem

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Demicheli, U.; Voort, E. van der; Schneiders, A.; Zegers, P.

    1977-01-01

    Electrical power plants produce large quantities of low grade heat that remain unused. For ecological reasons this waste heat must be dispersed by means of expensive cooling devices. Waste heat could be used in acquacultural and agricultural complexes this replacing large amounts of primary energy. Energetical and economical aspects are discussed. The state of the art of these and other utilisations is outlined. A different approach to the problem is to reduce the production of waste heat. Various strategies to achieve this challenge are outlined and their actual state and possible future developments are discussed. Finally, the various most promising utilizations are examined from an energetical point of view

  9. TRU waste transport economics: an overview

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Edling, D.A.; Hopkins, D.R.; Walls, H.C.

    1978-01-01

    There are currently three predominant methods used to transport transuranium contaminated waste. These are: (1) ATMX Railcars--500 and 600 series, (2) Super Tigers, and (3) Poly Panthers. Both the ATMX-500 and 600 series railcars are massive doubly walled steel railcars which provide the equivalent protection of a Type B package. In ATMX-600 the rapid loading and unloading of the 9 x 9 x 50 feet cargo space is achieved by prepackaging the TRU waste into standard 20-foot steel cargo containers. The ATMX-500 railcars are divided into three inside bays, having dimensions of 16 (l) x 9.25 (w) x 6.25 (h) feet. A typical load consists of 128 55-gallon drums (however, space can accommodate 192 drums), 12 fiberglass boxes (4 x 4 x 7), or a combination of palletized drums and boxes. A Super Tiger is an overpack authorized for Type A, Type B, and large quantities of radioactive materials having outside dimensions of 8 x 8 x 20 feet. Maximum payload is approximately 28,700 lb with a gross weight of 45,000 lb. The primary factors influencing transport costs are examined including freight rates of transport mode, effective cargo (weight and volume) management, effective utilization of available space (package design), transport mileage, and rental fees or initial capital outlay. Miscellaneous factors are also examined

  10. ECONOMIC AND ENERGETICAL ANALYSIS OF IMPROVED WASTE UTILIZATION PLASMA TECHNOLOGY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Serghei VAMBOL

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. Energy and economic evaluation of the improved plasma waste utilization technological process, as well as an expediency substantiation of the use of improved plasma technology by comparing its energy consumption with other thermal methods of utilization. Methodology. Analysis of existing modern and advanced methods of waste management and its impact on environmental safety. Considering of energy and monetary costs to implement two different waste management technologies. Results. Studies have shown regular gasification ensure greater heating value due to differences, a significant amount of nitrogen than for plasma gasification. From the point of view of minimizing energy and monetary costs and environmental safety more promising is to offer advanced technology for plasma waste. To carry out the energy assessment of the appropriateness of the considered technologies-comparative calculation was carried out at the standard conditions. This is because in the processing of waste produced useful products, such as liquefied methane, synthetic gas (94% methane and a fuel gas for heating, suitable for sale that provides cost-effectiveness of this technology. Originality. Shown and evaluated ecological and economic efficiency of proposed improved plasma waste utilization technology compared with other thermal techniques. Practical value. Considered and grounded of energy and monetary costs to implement two different waste management technologies, namely ordinary gasification and using plasma generators. Proposed plasma waste utilization technology allows to obtain useful products, such as liquefied methane, synthetic gas and a fuel gas for heating, which are suitable for sale. Plant for improved plasma waste utilization technological process allows to compensate the daily and seasonal electricity and heat consumption fluctuations by allowing the storage of obtained fuel products.

  11. Economic evaluation of radiation processing in urban solid wastes treatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carassiti, F.; Lacquaniti, L.; Liuzzo, G.

    During the last few years, quite a number of studies have been done, or are still in course, on disinfection of urban liquid wastes by means of ionizing radiations. The experience gained by SANDIA pilot plant of irradiation on dried sewage sludge, together with the recently presented conceptual design of another plant handling granular solids, characterized by high efficiency and simple running, have shown the possibility of extending this process to the treatment of urban solid wastes. As a matter of fact, the problems connected to the pathogenic aspects of sludge handling are often similar to those met during the disposal of urban solid wastes. This is even more so in the case of their reuse in agriculture and zootechny. The present paper introduces the results of an analysis carried out in order to evaluate the economical advantage of inserting irradiation treatment in some process scheme for management of urban solid wastes. Taking as an example a comprehensive pattern of urban solid wastes management which has been analysed and estimated economically in previous works, we first evaluated the extra capital and operational costs due to the irradiation and then analysed economical justification, taking into account the increasing commercial value of the by-products.

  12. Economic analysis of radioactive waste storage and disposal projects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kleinen, P.J.; Starnes, R.B.

    1995-01-01

    Radioactive waste storage and disposal efforts present challenging issues for cost and economic analyses. In particular, legal requirements for states and compact areas to develop radioactive waste disposal sites, combined with closure of some sites, have placed urgency on planning, locating, and constructing storage and disposal sites. Cost analyses of potential projects are important to the decision processes. Principal objectives for cost analyses for projects are to identify all activities, covering the entire project life cycle, and to develop costs for those activities using methods that allow direct comparisons between competing project alternatives. For radioactive waste projects, long project lives ranging from tens of years to 100 or more years must be considered. Alternative, and competing, technologies, designs, and operating plans must be evaluated. Thorough base cost estimates must be made for all project phases: planning, development, licensing/permitting, construction, operations, and maintenance, closure, and post-closure/institutional care. Economic analysis procedures need to accommodate the specific features of each project alternative and facilitate cost comparisons between differing alternatives. Economic analysis assumptions must be developed to address the unusually long project lives involved in radioactive waste projects

  13. Use of economics methods in the field of radioactive wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lepine, Jacques.

    1981-01-01

    The broad principles of the discounted cash flow system which consists in introducing the time factor into the economic calculations are presented. The discounted cash flow (DCF) rate of return corresponds to the global balance between the offer of and demand for capital or between savings and investments. Examples of applications are given: DCF average cost of the nuclear kWh, the cubic metre of stored waste and the cubic metre saved by a reduction on volume. Optimisation is considered: that is to say the total DCF cost minimum of the processing, transport and storage of waste line. The method is limited by other criteria: safety, protection against radiations, political aspects. Nevertheless, it is useful to know their economic impact to avoid reaching prohibitive costs and to ensure that the decisions to come are consistent with those taken in the past [fr

  14. A survey of economic indices of plastic wastes recycling industry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Malek Hassanpour

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Numerous small recycling units of plastic wastes have been currently constructed heedless to study of economic indices in Iran. Pay attention to the prominent performance of the industrial sector for economic development and its priority for fortifying other sectors to implement job opportunities, survey of the economic indices beckon the stakeholders and industries owners. The main objective of this study was a survey of economic indices in small recycling unit of plastic wastes. Therefore, the practice of computing the economic indices was performed using empirical equations, professional experiences and observations in site of the industry in terms of sustainability performance. Current study had shown the indices values such as value-added percent, profit, annual income, breakeven point, value-added, output value, data value, variable cost of good unit and production costs were found 62%, $ 366558, $ 364292.6, $ 100.34, $ 423451.25, $ 255335.75, $ 678787, $ 389.65 and $ 314494.4 respectively. The breakeven point about 15.93%, the time of return on investment about 1.12 (13.7 months were represented that this industry slightly needs long time to afford the employed capital and starts making a profit.

  15. Nuclear Waste Disposal in France: the Contribution of Economic Analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Héraud , Jean-Alain; Ionescu , Oana

    2011-01-01

    This article addresses the following question: How to deal with uncertainty, emergence of new information and irreversibility in the decision process of the long-term disposal of radioactive waste? Intuitively, one might think that measures taken today are more relevant when they are ‡exible. We show that the theoretical economic insights supplements this intuition and more precisely we emphasize the real options theory as one means of valuing ‡exible strategies in the disposal of highly radi...

  16. Socio-economic impact of improper hospital waste management on waste disposal employees

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khan, M.R.; Raza, Z. L.

    2011-01-01

    Background: Improper disposal of hospital waste results in spread of disease to the community and its handlers. Objectives: To study the socio-economic impact of inappropriate disposal of hospital waste on the health of the waste disposal staff. Materials and Methods: Interviews were conducted from 50 hospital waste collectors of Lahore and using a pre-structured questionnaire, the information was filled. The data were statistically analyzed for frequencies, and cross tabulation. Results: The improper disposal of hospital waste lead to disease in 45 hospital waste collectors. Eighteen waste collectors were infected with respiratory diseases,14 with skin infection, 7 with tuberculosis and 6 with hepatitis. Only 8 workers were provided with special clothes by the hospital management. The chances of getting infection was high in those who were not provided with special clothes like, gowns, gloves and shoes as compared to those who were provided with these.The total cost of recovery for these diseases also varied with an amount of Rs. 68,340 for the treatment of hepatitis, Rs. 3,150 for tuberculosis, Rs. 1,500 for respiratory diseases and Rs. 1,000 for skin infection. Only 12 workers were given a small remuneration ranging from Rs.100-400 per month as compensation from the hospital administration. Conclusions: Use of protective clothing by the hospital waste disposal collectors can significantly reduce their exposure to the diseases. Policy message: Provision of clothing and gloves to the waste disposal collectors, would help significantly in reducing diseases like tuberculosis, hepatitis, respiratory diseases and skin infection. (author)

  17. Projection and enterprises controlling in domestic waste water econom

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Schröder Reinhard

    2000-03-01

    Full Text Available The development of the cost of communal waste water disposal is widely discussed among the population, among politicians and experts. Not only the absolute amount of the charged fees are the cause of concern, but also their increase over the last few years. As part of this thesis, the PC software SloVaKon, which facilitates project and operation decision, will be designed to apply the experience gained during the building and expansion of the waste water industry in Germany´s five new federal states to the conditions in the Slovak republic. For this, a comparison of both country´s topographical, technical, legal and economical conditions proved necessary.

  18. Economics of low-level radioactive waste disposal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schafer, J.; Jennrich, E.

    1983-01-01

    Regardless of who develops new low-level radioactive waste disposal sites or when, economics will play a role. To assist in this area the Department of Energy's Low-Level Radioactive Waste Management Program has developed a computer program, LLWECON, and data base for projecting disposal site costs. This program and its non-site specific data base can currently be used to compare the costs associated with various disposal site development, financing, and operating scenarios. As site specific costs and requirements are refined LLWECON will be able to calculate exact life cycle costs for each facility. While designed around shallow land burial, as practiced today, LLWECON is flexible and the input parameters discrete enough to be applicable to other disposal options. What the program can do is illustrated

  19. Economic instruments for solid waste management in South Africa: opportunities and constraints

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Nahman, Anton

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents results from a survey of waste management authorities regarding the opportunities and constraints associated with the implementation of economic instruments for solid waste management in South Africa. Almost all respondents felt...

  20. Waste-to-methanol: Process and economics assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iaquaniello, Gaetano; Centi, Gabriele; Salladini, Annarita; Palo, Emma; Perathoner, Siglinda; Spadaccini, Luca

    2017-11-01

    The waste-to-methanol (WtM) process and related economics are assessed to evidence that WtM is a valuable solution both from economic, strategic and environmental perspectives. Bio-methanol from Refuse-derived-fuels (RdF) has an estimated cost of production of about 110€/t for a new WtM 300t/d plant. With respect to waste-to-energy (WtE) approach, this solution allows various advantages. In considering the average market cost of methanol and the premium as biofuel, the WtM approach results in a ROI (Return of Investment) of about 29%, e.g. a payback time of about 4years. In a hybrid scheme of integration with an existing methanol plant from natural gas, the cost of production becomes a profit even without considering the cap for bio-methanol production. The WtM process allows to produce methanol with about 40% and 30-35% reduction in greenhouse gas emissions with respect to methanol production from fossil fuels and bio-resources, respectively. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Technical and economic aspects of waste heat utilization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Smolen Slavomir

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available The main aim of the following presentation is the comparison and evaluation of the conditions for waste heat utilization in Germany and in Poland. This paper presents synthetically the results of economic analysis of the different technical variants. The employment of heat pumps and other heat transformers, respectively, can reduce the energy consumption, but using of those technical possibilities depends mainly on the economic aspects. The main parameters of the financial calculations were the energy and equipment costs but beyond it a number of other factors were also considered and compared, for example calculation interests, profit tax level and similar. Four different technical alternatives were analyzed, it is using of absorption heat pump, compression heat pump, heat transformer (absorption, and a special combined system with gas motor to drive of heat pump compressor. The capital value as main result of the investigations is in Poland generally lower because of relatively high investment cost and lower energy prices compared to the situation in Germany and West Europe. The basis for the presented comparative analysis was an industrial project in Germany which effected in development of concepts for waste heat using. .

  2. SOLID WASTE MANAGEMENT IN UKRAINE AS A FACTOR OF ECONOMIC PROGRESS

    OpenAIRE

    Лункіна, Т. І.; Каратай, Т. М.

    2017-01-01

    The article describes methods for recycling of municipal solid waste, their advantages and disad-vantages. Economically, the necessity of disposing of municipal solid waste and noted the relevance of this issue for our country. It highlighted the current situation and development trends in the sphere of waste management through the analysis of the «Concept of the national treatment program to waste». In the article the existent state of the system of handling with hard domestic wastes is anal...

  3. Designing an economic instrument for sustainable solid waste management in the household sector

    OpenAIRE

    Welivita, Indunee

    2014-01-01

    Household Solid Waste Management has become problematic in urban areas especially in developing countries like Sri Lanka due to increased waste generation and financial constraints. The main objective of this research was to design an economic instrument with policy suggestions in order to address the household solid waste management problem in Dehiwala – the Mt. Lavinia Municipal Council area in Sri Lanka. In order to reduce the quantity of waste by encouraging sustainable solid waste manage...

  4. Integrated economic model of waste management: Case study for South Moravia region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jiří Hřebíček

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper introduces and discusses the developed integrated economic model of municipal waste management of the Czech Republic, which was developed by authors as a balanced network model for a set of sources (mostly municipalities of municipal solid waste connected with a set of chosen waste treatment facilities processing their waste. Model is implemented as a combination of several economic submodels including environmental and economic point of view. It enables to formulate the optimisation problem in a concise way and the resulting model is easily scalable. Model involves submodels of waste prevention, collection and transport optimization, submodels of waste energy utilization (incineration and biogas plants and material recycling (composting and submodel of landfilling. Its size (number of sources and facilities depends only upon available data. Its application is used in the case study of the South Moravia region with verification of using time series waste data. The results enable to improve decision making in waste management sector.

  5. Economic analysis of waste recycle process in perhydropolysiloxazane synthesis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yun, Huichan; Yeom, Seungjong; Yang, Dae Ryook

    2014-01-01

    The perhydropolysiloxazane (PHPS) solution has been widely used in the spin-on-dielectric (SOD) process to form silicon oxide layer on a wafer in semiconductor industries. To reduce the whole semiconductor manufacturing cost, the process of PHPS solution production requires high productivity as well as low production cost. A large portion of the PHPS solution production cost is attributed to the large usage of solvents (pyridine and xylene), because more than 20 times of solvents in mass are required to produce a unit mass of high purity PHPS solution. Therefore, we suggest several plausible solvent regeneration processes of organic solvent waste from the PHPS solution production, and their economics is evaluated for comparison

  6. Economic analysis of e-waste market under imperfect information

    OpenAIRE

    Prudence Dato

    2015-01-01

    Despite international regulations that prohibit the trans-boundary movement of electronic and electric waste (e-waste), non-reusable e-waste is often illegally mixed with reusable e-waste and results in being sent to developing countries. As developing countries are not well prepared to properly manage e-waste, this illegal trade has important negative externalities, and creates ‘environmental injustice’. The two main information problems on the e-waste market are imperfect monitoring and imp...

  7. Commercial high-level-waste management: options and economics. A comparative analysis of the ceramic and glass waste forms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McKisson, R.L.; Grantham, L.F.; Guon, J.; Recht, H.L.

    1983-01-01

    Results of an estimate of the waste management costs of the commercial high-level waste from a 3000 metric ton per year reprocessing plant show that the judicious use of the ceramic waste form can save about $2 billion during a 20-year operating campaign relative to the use of the glass waste form. This assumes PWR fuel is processed and the waste is encapsulated in 0.305-m-diam canisters with ultimate emplacement in a BWIP-type horizontal-borehole repository. The estimated total cost (capital and operating) of the management in the ceramic form is $2.0 billion, and that of the glass form is $4.0 billion. Waste loading and waste form density are the driving factors in that the low-waste loading (25%) and relatively low density (3.1 g/cm 3 ) characteristic of the glass form require several times as many canisters to handle a given waste throughput than is needed for the ceramic waste form whose waste loading capability exceeds 60% and whose waste density is nominally 5.2 g/cm 3 ) characteristic of the glass form requires several times as many canisters to handle a given waste throughput than is needed for the ceramic waste form whose waste loading capability exceeds 60% and whose waste density is nominally 5.2 g/cm 3 . The minimum-cost ceramic waste form has a 60 wt. % waste loading of commercial high-level waste and requires 25 years storage before emplacement in basalt with delayed backfill. Because of the process flexibility allowed by the availability of the high-waste loading of the ceramic form, the intermediate-level liquid waste stream can be mixed with the high-level liquid waste stream and economically processed and emplaced. The cost is greater by $0.3 billion than that of the best high-level liquid waste handling process sequence ($2.3 billion vs $2.0 billion), but this difference is less than the cost of the separate disposal of the intermediate-level liquid waste

  8. AN INVESTIGATION FOR ECONOMICAL WAY OF RECYCLE OF SOLID WASTES FROM A DORMITORY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nilüfer (NACAR KOÇER

    2005-03-01

    Full Text Available Collection, transportion, reuse, recycle and proper disposal solid wastes is major environmental problems for local administrations. At present, the most appropriate disposal method of solid waste from the point of view of economy and environment is recycle at the source. In this study the applicability of solid wastes recovery system which is one of the waste disposal methods for student dormitory wastes having economical values has been evaluated in Elazığ. The results of this study were evaluated and benefits of 'seperation of wastes at the source' system for student dormitory in Elazig were discussed and cost analysis of recovered materials was realized.

  9. The global economic and regulatory determinants of household food waste generation: A cross-country analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chalak, Ali; Abou-Daher, Chaza; Chaaban, Jad; Abiad, Mohamad G

    2016-02-01

    Food is generally wasted all along the supply chain, with an estimated loss of 35percent generated at the consumer level. Consequently, household food waste constitutes a sizable proportion of the total waste generated throughout the food supply chain. Yet such wastes vary drastically between developed and developing countries. Using data collected from 44 countries with various income levels, this paper investigates the impact of legislation and economic incentives on household food waste generation. The obtained results indicate that well-defined regulations, policies and strategies are more effective than fiscal measures in mitigating household food waste generation. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. An Economic Analysis of Municipal Solid Waste Management of Toyohashi City, Japan: Evidences from Environmental Kuznets Curve

    OpenAIRE

    Miyata, Yuzuru; Shibusawa, Hiroyuki; Hossain, Nahid

    2013-01-01

    The study of Toyohashi cityfs economic growth and resultant growth in municipal solid waste management were empirically examined by the relation between city economic growth, city expenditure for solid waste management and municipal solid waste. The growth in the economy and the population has increased discharge of municipal solid waste in Toyohashi city. The economic size of the city is identified as a strong explanatory variable. Various kinds of municipal solid waste were generated with ...

  11. Projection of Big Cities Waste Management and Cost Based on Economic and Demographic Factors in Indonesia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prajati, Gita; Padmi, Tri; Benno Rahardyan, dan

    2017-12-01

    Nowadays, solid waste management continues to be a major challenge in urban areas, especially in developing country. It is triggered by population growth, economic growth, industrialization and urbanization. Indonesia itselfs categorized into developing country. Indonesia's government has many program in order to increase the economic growth. One of them is MP3EI (Masterplan Percepatan dan Perluasan Pembangunan Ekonomi Indonesia. This program should be suppported by right waste management system. If Indonesia's waste management system can't afford the economic growth, it will trigger health and environmental problems. This study's purpose is to develop the socio-economic-environment model that can be used as a basis planning for the facility and cost of waste management systems. In this paper we used the development of Khajuria model test method. This method used six variables, which are GDP, population, population density, illiteracy, school's period and economic growth. The result showed that development of Khajuria test could explained the influence of economic and demographic factors to waste generation, 65.6%. The projection of waste generation shows that Pangkalpinang, Pekanbaru and Serang are the cities with the highest waste generation for the next five years. The number of dump truck and TPS in DKI Jakarata is the highest within another city, which is 39.37%. For the next five years, the waste management system in our study areas cost maximum 0.8% from GDP (Gross Domestic Products).

  12. Economic Feasibility for Recycling of Waste Crystalline Silicon Photovoltaic Modules

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Idiano D’Adamo

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Cumulative photovoltaic (PV power installed in 2016 was equal to 305 GW. Five countries (China, Japan, Germany, the USA, and Italy shared about 70% of the global power. End-of-life (EoL management of waste PV modules requires alternative strategies than landfill, and recycling is a valid option. Technological solutions are already available in the market and environmental benefits are highlighted by the literature, while economic advantages are not well defined. The aim of this paper is investigating the financial feasibility of crystalline silicon (Si PV module-recycling processes. Two well-known indicators are proposed for a reference 2000 tons plant: net present value (NPV and discounted payback period (DPBT. NPV/size is equal to −0.84 €/kg in a baseline scenario. Furthermore, a sensitivity analysis is conducted, in order to improve the solidity of the obtained results. NPV/size varies from −1.19 €/kg to −0.50 €/kg. The absence of valuable materials plays a key role, and process costs are the main critical variables.

  13. Application and design of an economizer for waste heat recovery in a cogeneration plant

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martić Igor I.

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Energy increase cost has required its more effective use. However, many industrial heating processes generate waste energy. Use of waste-heat recovery systems decreases energy consumption. This paper presents case study of waste heat recovering of the exhaust flue gas in a 1415 kWe cogeneration plant. This waste heat can be recovered by installing an economizer to heat the condensed and fresh water in thermal degasification unit and reduce steam use for maintaining the temperature of 105˚C for oxygen removal. Design methodology of economizer is presented.

  14. Effect of a food waste disposer policy on solid waste and wastewater management with economic implications of environmental externalities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maalouf, Amani; El-Fadel, Mutasem

    2017-11-01

    In this study, the carbon footprint of introducing a food waste disposer (FWD) policy was examined in the context of its implications on solid waste and wastewater management with economic assessment of environmental externalities emphasizing potential carbon credit and increased sludge generation. For this purpose, a model adopting a life cycle inventory approach was developed to integrate solid waste and wastewater management processes under a single framework and test scenarios for a waste with high organic food content typical of developing economies. For such a waste composition, the results show that a FWD policy can reduce emissions by nearly ∼42% depending on market penetration, fraction of food waste ground, as well as solid waste and wastewater management schemes, including potential energy recovery. In comparison to baseline, equivalent economic gains can reach ∼28% when environmental externalities including sludge management and emissions variations are considered. The sensitivity analyses on processes with a wide range in costs showed an equivalent economic impact thus emphasizing the viability of a FWD policy although the variation in the cost of sludge management exhibited a significant impact on savings. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Conversion of transuranic waste to low level waste by decontamination: a technical and economic evaluation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Allen, R.P.; Hazelton, R.F.

    1984-12-01

    A study was conducted to evaluate the technical and economic feasibility of using in-situ decontamination techniques to convert glove boxes and other large TRU-contaminated components directly into LLW. The results of the technical evaluation indicate that in-situ decontamination of these types of components to non-TRU levels is technically feasible. Applicable decontamination techniques include electropolishing, hand scrubbing, chemical washes/sprays, strippable coatings and Freon spray-cleaning. The removal of contamination from crevices and other holdup areas remains a problem, but may be solved through further advances in decontamination technology. Also, the increase in the allowable maximum TRU level from 10 nCi/g to 100 nCi/g as defined in DOE Order 5820.2 reduces the removal requirement and facilitates measurement of the remaining quantities. The major emphasis of the study was on a cost/benefit evaluation that included a review and update of previous analyses and evaluations of TRU-waste volume reduction and conversion options. The results of the economic evaluation show, for the assumptions used, that there is a definite cost incentive to size reduce large components, and that decontamination of sectioned material has become cost competitive with the size reduction options. In-situ decontamination appears to be the lowest cost option when based on routine-type operations conducted by well-trained and properly equipped personnel. 16 references, 1 figure, 7 tables

  16. Conceptual and economic foundations of strategic management of solid waste products

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leyla Borisovna Leonova

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available The article reviews existing global concept in the field of waste production and consumption.The purpose of this investigation is the development of a new hierarchy of waste mana-gement and adjustment of the existing waste management strategy, acceptable to Russia. To analyze the current situation of waste production and consumption there was studied foreign experience in waste management and considered the situation of waste in the Russian Federation and Sverdlovsk region. Analytical, statistical and theoretical methods of work were used.The new hierarchy of desirable waste management is based on the following order: selective collection of waste, particularly household, their recycling and thereby minimize them, and then their treatment and further disposal. This new hierarchy will significantly reduce the burden on the environment and land resources.The revised strategy for solid waste management should consist of 6 blocks, ranked in a logical sequence: organizational, legal, science and research, economic, controlling, educational. Each of them includes a list of activities. Term strategy implementation is 5 years, followed by a possible prolongation.To improve the efficiency of work in the field of solid waste management in Russia must be created a new waste recycling industry, which can be provided by necessary infrastructure for the collection, transportation, recycling and disposal of solid waste products. It is also required to monitor environmental pollution waste using geographic information systems and provide educational work among population and the leaders of the industrial and communal enterprises.In the article in addition to the world concept the authors took into account an economic component, which includes analysis of the costs of environmental protection measures and economic damage caused by waste disposal. The paper also provides an industry deformed structure of the Russian economy, which explains the inability to

  17. Social and economic aspects of radioactive waste disposal: considerations for institutional management

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    National Research Council Staff; Board on Radioactive Waste Management; Commission on Physical Sciences, Mathematics, and Applications; Division on Engineering and Physical Sciences; National Research Council; National Academy of Sciences

    1984-01-01

    ... for Institutional Management Panel on Social and Economic Aspects of Radioactive Waste Management Board on Radioactive Waste Management Commission on Physical Sciences, Mathematics, and Resources National Research Council NATIONAL ACADEMY PRESS Washington, D.C. 1984 Copyrightthe cannot be not from book, paper however, version for formatting, original authoritative ...

  18. Waste a necessary evil for economically impoverished communities in least developed countries (LCDc): a case study

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Mvuma, G

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available The nexus of rapid population growth and improved socio-economic status of a country have been established as having a close correlation to increasing quantities of wastes generated per capita. Various studies show that waste harvesters contribute...

  19. Low-level radioactive waste in the Midwest: an economic analysis of selected management options

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1983-06-01

    Possible economic scenarios for disposal of low-level radioactive waste generated in the Midwest are presented. Relative waste disposal site costs are estimated for each state separately, and for 5-state, 13-state, and 16-state regions. Costs for publicly and privately owned and operated sites are estimated as are incineration and transportation costs

  20. Economic Analysis of Waste Management in Nigeria | NDUKA ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The generation, utilization and disposal of wastes (which constitute environmental hazards) are highlighted in this paper as a network flow problem. In this configuration, we construct and solve as optimal network flow, the problem of minimizing the cost of disposing wastes from sources of generation to dumpsites.

  1. Economic analysis of solid waste management and drainage for ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Good solid waste management involves reducing volumes, improving collection, investing in drainage, replacing riverside and wetland dumping with engineered landfills, and identifying sustainable mechanisms to finance waste management. Research is needed to understand the potential impacts of climate change and ...

  2. ECONOMIC AND ENVIRONMENTAL EFFECTS OF COLLECTION AND PRIMARY RECYCLING OF PACKAGING WASTE FROM HYGIENE AND CLEANING PRODUCTS IN SERBIA

    OpenAIRE

    Žarko Vranjanac; Dragan Spasić

    2017-01-01

    Collection and primary recycling of packaging waste from hygiene and cleaning products occupy an important place in an integral waste management system. It is a fact that management of such waste helps reduce negative economic and environmental impact on one hand and helps bring direct and indirect benefits from collection and primary recycling of the packaging waste on the other hand. In order to obtain more comprehensive data on the economic effects of management of packaging waste fr...

  3. Accessories modifying based on plastic waste of shampoo bottle as home economic product

    Science.gov (United States)

    Setyowati, Erna; Sukesi, Siti

    2018-03-01

    Plastic is a waste that can not decompose by the soil and if its left without a good handling can pollute the environment. Plastic waste needs processing by the recycle bottles principle. Shampoo bottle is one of plastic waste with high density polyethylene type (HDPE). One of the innovation to recycling shampoo bottles waste into the new products whichbeneficially and aestheticallyform by engineered the buns accesories. Accessories are one of the tools used by most women, in the form of trinkets or ornaments which ajusted to the trend to beautify the look. Accessories from shampoo bottle waste can be obtained from household waste, beauty salon and the beauty program study by inculcating human beings' behavior by transforming waste into blessing while also increasing family income. Technique of making its by compiling through improvement of panelist team. The goal of this research is to engineering theaccessories based on shampoo bottle waste as home economics. The method are using experiment, observation and documentation, analysis using descriptive. The results obtained from the overall sensory test averaged at 93%, while the favored test averaged at 85.5%. The product can be ordered according to the desired design, but it takes a long time. Therefore accessories engineering from shampoo bottles waste-based can be used as home economics. The production of shampoo bottles waste-based accessories should improved its quality and quantity, to be marketed through the community, by the cooperation with accessories and bun craftsmen.

  4. Economic aspects of thermal treatment of solid waste in a sustainable WM system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Massarutto, Antonio

    2015-03-15

    Highlights: • Provides a comprehensive review of the applied economic literature dedicated to WtE. • Offers a detailed discussion of the main assumptions that characterize alternative positions. • Highlights the most robust achievements obtained by the applied economic research in this field. • Compares economic and non-economic valuation techniques. - Abstract: This paper offers a systematic review of the literature of the last 15 years, which applies economic analysis and theories to the issue of combustion of solid waste. Waste incineration has attracted the interest of economists in the first place concerning the comparative assessment of waste management options, with particular reference to external costs and benefits. A second important field of applied economic research concerns the market failures associated with the provision of thermal treatment of waste, that justify some deviation from the standard competitive market model. Our analysis discusses the most robust achievements and the more controversial areas. All in all, the economic perspective seems to confirm the desirability of assigning a prominent role to thermal treatments in an integrated waste management strategy. Probably the most interesting original contribution it has to offer concerns the refusal of categorical assumptions and too rigid priority ladders, emphasizing instead the need to consider site-specific circumstances that may favor one or another solution.

  5. Economic aspects of thermal treatment of solid waste in a sustainable WM system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Massarutto, Antonio

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • Provides a comprehensive review of the applied economic literature dedicated to WtE. • Offers a detailed discussion of the main assumptions that characterize alternative positions. • Highlights the most robust achievements obtained by the applied economic research in this field. • Compares economic and non-economic valuation techniques. - Abstract: This paper offers a systematic review of the literature of the last 15 years, which applies economic analysis and theories to the issue of combustion of solid waste. Waste incineration has attracted the interest of economists in the first place concerning the comparative assessment of waste management options, with particular reference to external costs and benefits. A second important field of applied economic research concerns the market failures associated with the provision of thermal treatment of waste, that justify some deviation from the standard competitive market model. Our analysis discusses the most robust achievements and the more controversial areas. All in all, the economic perspective seems to confirm the desirability of assigning a prominent role to thermal treatments in an integrated waste management strategy. Probably the most interesting original contribution it has to offer concerns the refusal of categorical assumptions and too rigid priority ladders, emphasizing instead the need to consider site-specific circumstances that may favor one or another solution

  6. Relation of waste generation and composition to socio-economic factors: a case study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bandara, Nilanthi J G J; Hettiaratchi, J Patrick A; Wirasinghe, S C; Pilapiiya, Sumith

    2007-12-01

    To develop an effective waste management strategy for a given region, it is important to know the amount of waste generated and the composition of the waste stream. Past research has shown that the amount of waste generated is proportional to the population and the average mean living standards or the average income of the people. In addition, other factors may affect the amount and composition of waste. These are climate, living habits, level of education, religious and cultural beliefs, and social and public attitudes. This paper presents the findings of a study carried out in a suburban municipal area in Sri Lanka to determine the solid waste generation rate and waste composition based on field surveys and to determine the related socio-economic factors. A database was developed that included information on the quantity and composition of waste generated in a sample of households in the study area over a time period. The collected data was analysed to relate waste generation and composition data to various socio-economic factors. Over 400 sample households were selected for the study using a stratified random sampling methodology based on municipal wards and property values. A technique that considers both the number of households in a particular income group (property value range) and the standard deviation of property values within a given income group was used to determine the appropriate sample size for each municipal ward. Through category and regression analyses, the quantities of waste and waste composition were related to several socio-economic factors. The paper describes the basis for the sample selection, the methodology adopted for data collection, the socio-economic parameters used for the analysis, and the relationships developed from the analysis.

  7. Economic optimization of waste treatment and energy production in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Münster, Marie; Ravn, Hans; Hedegaard, Karsten

    2013-01-01

    optimization objectives such as minimizing costs or greenhouse gas emissions or to prioritise several objectives given different weights. An illustrative case is analyzed, covering alternative treatments of 1 tonne residual household waste: incineration of the full amount or sorting out organic waste...... for biogas production for either CHP generation or as fuel in vehicles. The case study illustrates, that what is the optimal solution depends on the objective and assumptions regarding the background system – here illustrated with different assumptions regarding displaced electricity production. The article...... shows that it is feasible to combine LCA approaches with optimization and highlights the need for including the integrated waste and energy system into the model....

  8. Cogeneration from Poultry Industry Wastes -- Part II: Economic Analysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bianchi, M.; Cherubini, F.; Pascale, A. D.

    2003-01-01

    The availability of wet biomass as waste from a lot of industrial processes, from agriculture and farms and the need to meet the environmental standards force to investigate all options in order to dispose this waste. The possible treatments usually strongly depend on the biomass characteristics......, namely water content, density, organic content, heating value, etc. In particular some of these wastes can be burnt in special plants, using them as energy supply for different processes. The study carried out with this paper is concerned with the promising tilization of the organic wastes from...... an existing poultry industry as fuel. Different plant configurations have been considered in order to make use of the oil and of the meat and bone meal, which are the by-products of the chicken cooking process. In particular, the process plant can be integrated with an energy supply plant which can consist...

  9. Nutritional, Economic, and Environmental Costs of Milk Waste in a Classroom School Breakfast Program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blondin, Stacy A; Cash, Sean B; Goldberg, Jeanne P; Griffin, Timothy S; Economos, Christina D

    2017-04-01

    To measure fluid milk waste in a US School Breakfast in the Classroom Program and estimate its nutritional, economic, and environmental effects. Fluid milk waste was directly measured on 60 elementary school classroom days in a medium-sized, urban district. The US Department of Agriculture nutrition database, district cost data, and carbon dioxide equivalent (CO 2 e) emissions and water footprint estimates for fluid milk were used to calculate the associated nutritional, economic, and environmental costs. Of the total milk offered to School Breakfast Program participants, 45% was wasted. A considerably smaller portion of served milk was wasted (26%). The amount of milk wasted translated into 27% of vitamin D and 41% of calcium required of School Breakfast Program meals. The economic and environmental costs amounted to an estimated $274 782 (16% of the district's total annual School Breakfast Program food expenditures), 644 893 kilograms of CO 2 e, and 192 260 155 liters of water over the school year in the district. These substantial effects of milk waste undermine the School Breakfast Program's capacity to ensure short- and long-term food security and federal food waste reduction targets. Interventions that reduce waste are urgently needed.

  10. Discovering the energy, economic and environmental potentials of urban wastes: An input–output model for a metropolis case

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Song, Junnian; Yang, Wei; Li, Zhaoling; Higano, Yoshiro; Wang, Xian’en

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • A waste-to-energy system is constructed incorporating various urban wastes and technologies. • Waste-to-energy industries are formed and introduced into current socioeconomic system. • A novel input–output simulation model is developed and applied to a metropolis. • Complete energy, economic and environmental potentials of urban wastes are discovered. - Abstract: Tremendous amounts of wastes are generated in urban areas due to accelerating industrialization and urbanization. The current unreasonable waste disposal patterns and potential energy value of urban wastes necessitates the promotion of waste-to-energy implementation. This study is intent on discovering the complete energy, economic and environmental potentials of urban wastes taking municipal solid wastes, waste oil, organic wastewater and livestock manure into consideration. A waste-to-energy system is constructed incorporating these wastes and five waste-to-energy technologies. A novel input–output simulation model is developed and applied to a metropolis to introduce the waste-to-energy system into the current socioeconomic system and form five waste-to-energy industries. The trends in waste generation and energy recovery potential, economic benefits and greenhouse gas mitigation contribution for the study area are estimated and explored from 2011 to 2025. By 2025, biodiesel production and power generation could amount to 72.11 thousand t and 1.59 billion kW h respectively. Due to the highest energy recovery and the most subsidies, the organic wastewater biogas industry has the highest output and net profit, followed by the waste incineration power generation industry. In total 17.97 million t (carbon dioxide-equivalent) accumulative greenhouse gas emission could be mitigated. The organic wastewater biogas industry and waste incineration power generation industry are more advantageous for the study area in terms of better energy, economic and environmental performances. The

  11. Environmental and economic aspects of using marble fine waste in the manufacture of facing ceramic materials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zemlyanushnov Dmitriy Yur'evich

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available This work considers economic expediency of using marble fine waste in facing ceramic materials manufacture by three-dimensional coloring method. Adding marble fine waste to the charge mixture reduces the production cost of the final product. This waste has a positive impact on the intensification of drying clay rocks and raw as a whole, which increases production efficiency. Using marble fine waste as a coloring admixture makes it possible to manufacture more environmentally friendly construction material with the use of wastes of hazard class 3 instead of class 4. At the same time, disposal areas and environmental load in the territories of mining and marble processing reduce significantly. Replacing ferrous pigments with manganese oxide for marble fine waste reduces the cost of the final product and the manufacture of facing ceramic brick of a wide range of colors - from dark brown to yellow.

  12. Economic and technical advantages of high temperature processes in high level radioactive waste management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jouan, A.; Jacquet-Francillon, N.; Cler, M.

    1991-01-01

    The estimated waste management costs incurred for the three principal waste forms produced by reprocessing spent fuel are compared from a theoretical economic standpoint. The cost of vitrifying concentrated fission product solutions is considered first, together with the estimated additional costs of transportation and final storage in a geological repository. Fuel cladding waste treatments are then examined by comparing the relative costs of cementation, compaction and melting; processes for disposal of incinerable alpha-bearing wastes are also considered. In each case, the processes ensuring the greatest waste volume reduction not only result in the lowest management cost, but are also most effective in ensuring the highest possible containment quality for the final waste package

  13. Economic and technical advantages of high-temperature processes in high-level radioactive waste management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jouan, A.; Jacquet-Francillon, N.; Cler, M.; Chaudon, L.

    1991-01-01

    The estimated waste management costs incurred for the three principal waste forms produced by reprocessing spent fuel are compared from a theoretical economic standpoint. The cost of vitrifying concentrated fission product solutions is considered first, together with the estimated additional costs of transportation and final storage in a geological repository. Fuel cladding waste treatments are then examined by comparing the relative costs of cementation, compaction and melting; processes for disposal of incinerable alpha-bearing wastes are also considered. In each case, the processes ensuring the greatest waste volume reduction not only result in the lowest management cost, but are also most effective in ensuring the highest possible containment quality for the final waste package

  14. Economic instruments and waste policies in the Netherlands. Inventory and options for extended use

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oosterhuis, F.H.; Van Beukering, P.J.H.; Bartelings, H.; Linderhof, V.G.M.

    2009-03-01

    In recent years, the interest in the use of economic instruments in environmental policy has been growing, reflecting increasing awareness of their potential cost-effectiveness as well as the need to diversify the 'policy toolbox'. Waste policy is no exception to this tendency. The present study explores the opportunities for extended use of economic instruments for waste policy in the Netherlands, focusing on waste from households and the trade, services and government sector. Five economic instruments are specifically addressed: (1) Waste taxes; (2) Waste collection charges; (3) Taxes on raw materials and products; (4) Deposit-refund schemes; and (5) Subsidies and fiscal incentives. For each of these economic instruments, the study describes existing experiences (both in the Netherlands and abroad) and analyses the impact and feasibility of a variety of possible new applications. These case studies, which primarily serve as illustrations of the mechanisms and possible impacts, were selected so as to represent a wide range of instrument types, levels of intervention, positions in the value chain, and types of waste. Depending on the application area and data availability, the analysis is done by means of quantitative approaches (using general-equilibrium modelling and statistical analysis) or more qualitative approaches in which expert judgements are used.

  15. Fee-based solid waste collection in economically developing countries: The case of Accra metropolis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oduro-Appiah, K.

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Fee-based solid waste collection, a system that holds great promise to reducing the financial burden of solid waste management on the municipalities of developing countries is reviewed in this research study. It is to promote financial sustainability through partial or full cost sharing of solid waste collection services and intended to serve as a guide to policy makers and waste management authorities in Ghana and other countries with developing economies. Information through survey and questionnaires from residents across the socio-economic divide was collected to determine willingness and ability to pay for solid waste collection services. A critical assessment of the various capital and operational cost components that come into play in the collection process were considered and computed to determine the economic and social tariff that will be enough to offset the cost of collection, transportation and disposal of solid waste unto landfills. Residents of the metropolis have the ability and are willing to pay an economically affordable user charge of US$1.10 per household per month to offset and remove the financial burden of solid waste collection off the metropolitan assembly. Consistent and efficient collection service is recommended to ensure residents cooperation towards implementation of the system in Ghana.

  16. TECHNO – ECONOMIC ACCEPTABILITY ANALISYS OF WASTE DISPOSAL BY INJECTION INTO APPROPRIATE FORMATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vladislav Brkić

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available During exploration and production of oil and natural gas, various types of waste must be disposed in a permanent and safe way. There is a range of methods for processing and disposal of waste, such as disposal into landfills, solidification, namely chemical stabilization, thermal processing, appropriate formation injections uncovered by a deep well, disposal into salt domes and bioremediation. The method of waste disposal into appropriate formations is a method where strict geological and technical criteria must be satisfied when applied. A fundamental scientific hypothesis has been formulated whereby economic acceptability of the waste injection method, as a main method for waste disposal, is to be shown by an economic evaluation. The results of this research are relevant since there has been an intention in Croatia and worldwide to abandon wells permanently due to oil and gas reservoirs depletion and therefore it is essential to estimate economic impacts of the waste injection method application. In that way, profitability of using existing wells for waste disposal in oil industry has been increased, leading to the improvement of petroleum company’s business activities (the paper is published in Croatian.

  17. Environmental and economic analyses of waste disposal options for traditional markets in Indonesia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aye, Lu; Widjaya, E.R.

    2006-01-01

    Waste from traditional markets in Indonesia is the second largest stream of municipal solid waste after household waste. It has a higher organic fraction and may have greater potential to be managed on a business scale compared to household wastes. The attributed reason is that in general the wastes generated from traditional markets are more uniform, more concentrated and less hazardous than waste from other sources. This paper presents the results of environmental and economic assessments to compare the options available for traditional market waste disposal in Indonesia. The options compared were composting in labour intensive plants, composting in a centralised plant that utilised a simple wheel loader, centralised biogas production and landfill for electricity production. The current open dumping practice was included as the baseline case. A life cycle assessment (LCA) was used for environmental analysis. All options compared have lower environmental impacts than the current practice of open dumping. The biogas production option has the lowest environmental impacts. A cost-benefit analysis, which considered greenhouse gas savings, was used for the economic assessment. It was found that composting at a centralised plant is the most economically feasible option under the present Indonesian conditions. The approach reported in this study could be applied for 'a pre-feasibility first cut comparison' that includes environmental aspects in a decision-making framework for developing countries even though European emission factors were used

  18. Environmental and economic analyses of waste disposal options for traditional markets in Indonesia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aye, Lu; Widjaya, E R

    2006-01-01

    Waste from traditional markets in Indonesia is the second largest stream of municipal solid waste after household waste. It has a higher organic fraction and may have greater potential to be managed on a business scale compared to household wastes. The attributed reason is that in general the wastes generated from traditional markets are more uniform, more concentrated and less hazardous than waste from other sources. This paper presents the results of environmental and economic assessments to compare the options available for traditional market waste disposal in Indonesia. The options compared were composting in labour intensive plants, composting in a centralised plant that utilised a simple wheel loader, centralised biogas production and landfill for electricity production. The current open dumping practice was included as the baseline case. A life cycle assessment (LCA) was used for environmental analysis. All options compared have lower environmental impacts than the current practice of open dumping. The biogas production option has the lowest environmental impacts. A cost-benefit analysis, which considered greenhouse gas savings, was used for the economic assessment. It was found that composting at a centralised plant is the most economically feasible option under the present Indonesian conditions. The approach reported in this study could be applied for 'a pre-feasibility first cut comparison' that includes environmental aspects in a decision-making framework for developing countries even though European emission factors were used.

  19. Economic feasibility of ethanol production from biomass and waste resources via catalytic reaction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yeon, Sun-Hwa; Shin, Dae-Hyun; Nho, Nam-Sun; Shin, Kyoung-Hee; Jin, Chang-Soo

    2013-04-01

    An economic evaluation of ethanol (EtOH) production from a thermo-chemical process derived from biomass/waste feedstocks was conducted. The influence of feed amounts, catalytic conversions, and EtOH selling prices was examined as these are the major variables for the economic evaluation of biomass/wastes conversion to EtOH. Among the three feedstock systems of biomass, high-moisture municipal solid waste (MSW), and plastic waste, the plastic waste has far better economic feasibility, with a payback period of 2-5 years at maximum CO conversion (40%) from syngas to ethanol, due to its higher heating value in comparison with biomass and high-moisture MSW. The heating value of the feedstock is a key factor in determining the overall economic efficiency in a thermo-chemical EtOH production system. Furthermore, enhancement of the CO conversion (related to catalytic activity) from syngas to EtOH using a low cost catalyst is necessary to retain economic efficiency because the CO conversion and cost consideration of catalyst are crucial factors to reduce the payback period.

  20. Bridging legal and economic perspectives on interstate municipal solid waste disposal in the US

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Longo, Christine; Wagner, Jeffrey

    2011-01-01

    Research highlights: → Legal and economic opinions of free interstate trade of MSW in the US are reviewed. → Economic theory of landfill space as the article of commerce can align opinions. → Waste management policies implied by this economic theory are compared/contrasted. - Abstract: Managing municipal solid waste (MSW) within and across regions is a complex public policy problem. One challenge regards conceptualizing precisely what commodity is to be managed across space and time. The US Supreme Court view is that waste disposal is the article of commerce per se. Some justices, however, have argued that while waste disposal is the article of commerce, its interstate flow could be impeded by states on the grounds that they have the authority to regulate natural resource quality within their boundaries. The argument in this paper is that adopting the economic theory view of the article of commerce as landfill space brings the majority and dissenting US Supreme Court views-and the resulting sides of the public policy dispute-into closer alignment. We discuss waste management policy tools that emerge from this closer alignment that are more likely to both withstand judicial scrutiny and achieve economic efficiency.

  1. Financial and economic implications of solid waste management in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Descriptively, a large proportion of respondents strongly agreed that solid waste management has significant effect on internally generated revenue (IGR) and youth employment in the state. Consistently, the computed Z values laid between -1.96 and 1.96 of their critical values implying the acceptance of the two alternative ...

  2. Challenges when Performing Economic Optimization of Waste Treatment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Juul, Nina; Münster, Marie; Ravn, Hans

    2011-01-01

    on transport are one example but models focusing on energy production have also been developed as well as models which take into account the plants economies of scale, environmental impact, material recovery and social costs. Finally, models combining different criteria for selection of waste treatment methods...

  3. Extended producer responsibility for consumer waste: the gap between economic theory and implementation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dubois, Maarten

    2012-09-01

    Although economic theory supports the use of extended producer responsibility (EPR) to stimulate prevention and recycling of waste, EPR systems implemented in Europe are often criticized as a result of weak incentives for prevention and green product design. Using a stylized economic model, this article evaluates the efficiency of European EPR systems. The model reveals that the introduction of static collection targets creates a gap between theory and implementation. Static targets lead to inefficient market outcomes and weak incentives for prevention and green product design. The minimum collection targets should be complemented with a tax on producers for the non-collected waste fraction. Because such a tax internalizes the cost of waste disposal, more efficient price signals will lead to better incentives for waste management in a complex and dynamic market.

  4. Assessment of TEES reg sign applications for Wet Industrial Wastes: Energy benefit and economic analysis report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Elliott, D.C.; Scheer, T.H.

    1992-02-01

    Fundamental work is catalyzed biomass pyrolysis/gasification led to the Thermochemical Environmental Energy System (TEES{reg sign}) concept, a means of converting moist biomass feedstocks to high-value fuel gases such as methane. A low-temperature (350{degrees}C), pressurized (3100 psig) reaction environment and a nickel catalyst are used to reduce volumes of very high-moisture wastes such as food processing byproducts while producing useful quantities of energy. A study was conducted to assess the economic viability of a range of potential applications of the process. Cases examined included feedstocks of cheese whey, grape pomace, spent grain, and an organic chemical waste stream. The analysis indicated that only the organic chemical waste process is economically attractive in the existing energy/economic environment. However, food processing cases will become attractive as alternative disposal practices are curtailed and energy prices rise.

  5. Technical and Economic Problems Associated with the Development of Methods of Processing and Using Radioactive Waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thiriet, L.; Sauteron, J.; Oger, C.

    1968-01-01

    The paper briefly reviews the various techniques used in processing the radioactive wastes which unavoidably result from the generation of electric power from nuclear sources. The paper goes on to define the relative importance, in nuclear fuel cycles, of the problem raised by these wastes. Emphasis is placed on the economic influence of management policies on the cost of power generation, and hence on the relative position of nuclear energy. A substantial percentage of these wastes can be economically utilized. Attention is drawn to the major technical and economic features of the industry which will come into being as a result of this utilization. The major uses anticipated are discussed: radiation sources, heat sources, auxiliary power generation. The paper concludes that satisfactory solutions have already been found to these problems, and describes possible improvements. (author) [fr

  6. Mixed wastes management at Fernald: Making it happen quickly, economically and compliantly

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Witzeman, J.T.; Rast, D.M.

    1996-01-01

    At the end of calender year 1992, the Fernald Environmental Management Project (FEMP) had approximately 12,500 drums of mixed low-level waste in storage and the Fernald Environmental Restoration Management Corporation (FERMCO) had just begun to develop an aggressive project based program to treat and dispose of this mixed waste. By 1996 the FERMCO mixed waste management program had reduced the aforementioned 12,500 drums of waste once in inventory to approximately 5800 drums. Projects are currently in progress to completely eliminate the FEMP inventory of mixed waste. As a result of these initiatives and aggressive project management, the FEMP has become a model for mixed waste handling, treatment and disposal for DOE facilities. Mixed waste management has traditionally been viewed as a singular and complex environmental problem. FERMCO has adopted the viewpoint that treatment and disposal of mixed waste is an engineering project, to be executed in a disciplined fashion with timely and economic results. This approach allows the larger mixed waste management problem to be divided into manageable fractions and managed by project. Each project is managed by problem solving experts, project managers, in lieu of environmental experts. In the project approach, environmental regulations become project requirements for individual resolution, as opposed to what had formerly been viewed as technically unachievable environmental standards

  7. Thermal waste recovery at electric power plants in the European Economic Community

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1988-01-01

    The functioning of any thermal electric power plant (classic or nuclear) results in waste into the atmosphere of large quantities of heat at low temperature levels. The quantities of waste heat rejected by power plants are such that the size of the recovery operation (surface are of greenhouses or basins) is never limited by the waste heat flow. At present, there are 38 operations in service in the EEC nations using thermal waste from electric power plants, and 9 operations are in construction or projects that will soon materialize. The majority of these operations are today purely commercial and mainly concern: horticulture and market gardening in greenhouses, and freshwater aquaculture. The other applications are of much more doubtful profitability (building heating, agriculture), or remain for now still in the experimental stage (seawater aquaculture, waste heat irrigation, algae culture). The objective of this study is three-fold: to make an exhaustive inventory of all thermal waste recovery operations in service or in construction, and to make a detailed assessment; thanks to this inventory and by means of detailed case studies on the most representative operations, to realize a complete technical and economic analysis of these operations; and in view of the joint results of the assessment of operations and the technical and economic analysis, to extricate the technical and economic options to promote. Volume 2 contains 10 case studies.

  8. Economic assessment of a waste hydrogen utilization project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhou, H.; Wang, L.; Zhou, W.; Wu, J.; Wang, Q.

    1993-01-01

    This article reports an economic assessment on a hydride hydrogen recovery, purification, storage, transportation and application project (HRPSTA) set for a system including a nitrogenous fertilizer plant and a float glass factory. In this project, a pretreatment unit and metal hydride containers are used to recover and purify the hydrogen from the purge gas of the ammonia fertilizer plant and to transport and use the hydrogen in the tin bath in the float glass factory. Detailed economic assessment, cost analysis and a cash flow statement are presented, and financial net present value (NPV), as well as intrinsic rate of return (IRR), is calculated. The results shows that this project, which is feasible technologically, is profitable economically. (Author)

  9. WASTES II: Waste System Transportation and Economic Simulation. Version II. User's guide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shay, M.R.; Buxbaum, M.E.

    1986-02-01

    The WASTES II model was developed to provide detailed analyses beyond the capabilities of other available models. WASTES uses discrete event simulation techniques to model the generation of commercial spent nuclear fuel, the buildup of spent fuel inventories within the system, and the transportation requirements for the movement of radioactive waste throughout the system. The model is written in FORTRAN 77 as an extension to the SLAM commercial simulation language package. In addition to the pool storage and dry storage located at the reactors, the WASTES model provides a choice of up to ten other storage facilities of four different types. The simulation performed by WASTES may be controlled by a combination of source- and/or destination-controlled transfers that are requested by the code user. The user supplies shipping cask characteristics for truck or rail shipment casks. As part of the facility description, the user specifies which casks the facility can use. Shipments within the system can be user specified to occur optimally, or proximally. Optimized shipping can be used when exactly two destination facilities of the same facility type are open for receipt of fuel. Optimized shipping selects source/destination pairs so that the total shipping distance or total shipping costs in a given year are minimized when both facilities are fully utilized. Proximity shipping sequentially fills the closest facility to the source according to the shipment priorities without regard for the total annual shipments. This results in sub-optimal routing of waste material but can be used to approximate an optimal shipping strategy when more than two facilities of the same type are available to receive waste. WASTES is currently able to analyze each of the commercial spent fuel logistics scenarios specified in the 1985 DOE Mission Plan

  10. WASTES: Wastes system transportation and economic simulation: Version 2, Programmer's reference manual

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Buxbaum, M.E.; Shay, M.R.

    1986-11-01

    The WASTES Version II (WASTES II) Programmer's Reference Manual was written to document code development activities performed under the Monitored Retrievable Storage (MRS) Program at Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL). The manual will also serve as a valuable tool for programmers involved in maintenance of and updates to the WASTES II code. The intended audience for this manual are experienced FORTRAN programmers who have only a limited knowledge of nuclear reactor operation, the nuclear fuel cycle, or nuclear waste management practices. It is assumed that the readers of this manual have previously reviewed the WASTES II Users Guide published as PNL Report 5714. The WASTES II code is written in FORTRAN 77 as an extension to the SLAM commercial simulation package. The model is predominately a FORTRAN based model that makes extensive use of the SLAM file maintenance and time management routines. This manual documents the general manner in which the code is constructed and the interactions between SLAM and the WASTES subroutines. The functionality of each of the major WASTES subroutines is illustrated with ''block flow'' diagrams. The basic function of each of these subroutines, the algorithms used in them, and a discussion of items of particular note in the subroutine are reviewed in this manual. The items of note may include an assumption, a coding practice that particularly applies to a subroutine, or sections of the code that are particularly intricate or whose mastery may be difficult. The appendices to the manual provide extensive detail on the use of arrays, subroutines, included common blocks, parameters, variables, and files

  11. Polyethylene encapsulatin of nitrate salt wastes: Waste form stability, process scale-up, and economics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kalb, P.D.; Heiser, J.H. III; Colombo, P.

    1991-07-01

    A polyethylene encapsulation system for treatment of low-level radioactive, hazardous, and mixed wastes has been developed at Brookhaven National Laboratory. Polyethylene has several advantages compared with conventional solidification/stabilization materials such as hydraulic cements. Waste can be encapsulated with greater efficiency and with better waste form performance than is possible with hydraulic cement. The properties of polyethylene relevant to its long-term durability in storage and disposal environments are reviewed. Response to specific potential failure mechanisms including biodegradation, radiation, chemical attack, flammability, environmental stress cracking, and photodegradation are examined. These data are supported by results from extensive waste form performance testing including compressive yield strength, water immersion, thermal cycling, leachability of radioactive and hazardous species, irradiation, biodegradation, and flammability. The bench-scale process has been successfully tested for application with a number of specific problem'' waste streams. Quality assurance and performance testing of the resulting waste form confirmed scale-up feasibility. Use of this system at Rocky Flats Plant can result in over 70% fewer drums processed and shipped for disposal, compared with optimal cement formulations. Based on the current Rocky Flats production of nitrate salt per year, polyethylene encapsulation can yield an estimated annual savings between $1.5 million and $2.7 million, compared with conventional hydraulic cement systems. 72 refs., 23 figs., 16 tabs.

  12. Polyethylene encapsulatin of nitrate salt wastes: Waste form stability, process scale-up, and economics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kalb, P.D.; Heiser, J.H. III; Colombo, P.

    1991-07-01

    A polyethylene encapsulation system for treatment of low-level radioactive, hazardous, and mixed wastes has been developed at Brookhaven National Laboratory. Polyethylene has several advantages compared with conventional solidification/stabilization materials such as hydraulic cements. Waste can be encapsulated with greater efficiency and with better waste form performance than is possible with hydraulic cement. The properties of polyethylene relevant to its long-term durability in storage and disposal environments are reviewed. Response to specific potential failure mechanisms including biodegradation, radiation, chemical attack, flammability, environmental stress cracking, and photodegradation are examined. These data are supported by results from extensive waste form performance testing including compressive yield strength, water immersion, thermal cycling, leachability of radioactive and hazardous species, irradiation, biodegradation, and flammability. The bench-scale process has been successfully tested for application with a number of specific ''problem'' waste streams. Quality assurance and performance testing of the resulting waste form confirmed scale-up feasibility. Use of this system at Rocky Flats Plant can result in over 70% fewer drums processed and shipped for disposal, compared with optimal cement formulations. Based on the current Rocky Flats production of nitrate salt per year, polyethylene encapsulation can yield an estimated annual savings between $1.5 million and $2.7 million, compared with conventional hydraulic cement systems. 72 refs., 23 figs., 16 tabs

  13. Environmental and economic benefits of the recovery of materials in a municipal solid waste management system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Feo, Giovanni; Ferrara, Carmen; Finelli, Alessio; Grosso, Alberto

    2017-12-07

    The main aim of this study was to perform a Life cycle assessment study as well as an economic evaluation of the recovery of recyclable materials in a municipal solid waste management system. If citizens separate erroneously waste fractions, they produce both environmental and economic damages. The environmental and economic evaluation was performed for the case study of Nola (34.349 inhabitants) in Southern Italy, with a kerbside system that assured a source separation of 62% in 2014. The economic analysis provided a quantification of the economic benefits obtainable for the population in function of the achievable percentage of source separation. The comparison among the environmental performance of four considered scenarios showed that the higher the level of source separation was, the lower the overall impacts were. This occurred because, even if the impacts of the waste collection and transport increased, they were overcome by the avoided impacts of the recycling processes. Increasing the source separation by 1% could avoid the emission of 5 kg CO 2 eq. and 5 g PM10 for each single citizen. The economic and environmental indicators defined in this study provide simple and effective information useful for a wide-ranging audience in a behavioural change programme perspective.

  14. Economics v pragmatics: the control of radioactive wastes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miller, C.E. (Salford Univ. (UK). Environmental Health and Housing Div.)

    1990-01-01

    The economic principles lying behind the phrase ''as low as reasonably achievable'' (ALARA) are examined with respect to the indictment of British Nuclear Fuels following certain incidents in its Sellafield Reprocessing Plant in November 1983. Based on the evidence submitted to the trial it is argued that the ALARA approach is of questionable utility to the more sensitive areas of contemporary environmental management. (author).

  15. Economic evaluation of an electrochemical process for the recovery of metals from electronic waste.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diaz, Luis A; Lister, Tedd E

    2018-04-01

    As the market of electronic devices continues to evolve, the waste stream generated from antiquated technology is increasingly view as an alternative to substitute primary sources of critical a value metals. Nevertheless, the sustainable recovery of materials can only be achieved by environmentally friendly processes that are economically competitive with the extraction from mineral ores. Hence, This paper presents the techno-economic assessment for a comprehensive process for the recovery of metals and critical materials from e-waste, which is based in an electrochemical recovery (ER) technology. Economic comparison is performed with the treatment of e-waste via smelting, which is currently the primary route for recycling metals from electronics. Results indicate that the electrochemical recovery process is a competitive alternative for the recovery of value from electronic waste when compared with the traditional black Cu smelting process. A significantly lower capital investment, 2.9 kg e-waste per dollar of capital investment, can be achieved with the ER process vs. 1.3 kg per dollar in the black Cu smelting process. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Techno-economic and profitability analysis of food waste biorefineries at European level.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cristóbal, Jorge; Caldeira, Carla; Corrado, Sara; Sala, Serenella

    2018-03-07

    Food waste represents a potential source to produce value-added materials replacing the use of virgin ones. However, the use of food waste as feedstock in biorefineries is still at an early stage of development and studies assessing its economic viability at large scale are lacking in the literature. This paper presents a techno-economic and profitability analysis of four food waste biorefineries that use wastes from tomato, potato, orange, and olive processing as feedstock. The study includes the assessment of potentially available quantities of those waste flows in Europe. Due to the low technology readiness level of this kind of biorefineries, a screening methodology to estimate the investment and manufacturing costs as well as two profitability ratios (the return on investment and the payback time) was adopted. Results show that not all the waste feedstocks have the same potential. The most profitable options are those related to implementing fewer plants, namely concentrating the production and capitalising on economies of scale while being at risk of increasing externalities, e.g. due to logistics of the feedstocks. Copyright © 2018 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  17. Improved Economic Performance of Municipal Solid Waste Combustion Plants by Model Based Combustion Control

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Leskens, M.

    2013-01-01

    The combustion of municipal solid waste (MSW) is used for its inertisation, reduction of its volume and the conversion of its energy content into heat and/or electricity. Operation and control of modern large scale MSW combustion (MSWC) plants is determined by economic and environmental objectives

  18. Environmental and economic policy analysis of waste paper trade and recycling in India

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sharma, Vinod K.; van Beukering, P.J.H.; Nag, Barnali

    1997-01-01

    A comprehensive case study of Mumbai (Bombay), India was undertaken to investigate the economic, social and environmental impact of international trade of waste paper for recycling purposes between industrialised and developing countries. Analysis of a Western approach vis-a-vis informal policy for

  19. Economic assessment of a waste hydrogen utilization project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, L.; Zhou, H.; Zhou, W.; Wu, J.; Wang, Q.

    1993-01-01

    This paper reports the economic assessment on an hybrid hydrogen recovery, purification, storage, transportation and application project (HRPSTA) set for a system including a nitrogenous fertilizer plant and a float glass factory. A pretreatment unit and metal hydride containers are used to recover and purify the hydrogen from the purge gas of the ammonia fertilizer plant and to transport and use the hydrogen on the tin bath in the float glass factory. Cost analysis and cash flow statements are presented, and financial value and rate of return are calculated. The project is shown to be technologically and financially feasible. 1 fig., 4 tabs., 4 refs

  20. Process simulation and economic analysis of biodiesel production from waste cooking oil with membrane bioreactor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdurakhman, Yuanita Budiman; Putra, Zulfan Adi; Bilad, Muhammad Roil

    2017-10-01

    Pollution and shortage of clean energy supply are among major problems that are caused by rapid population growth. Due to this growth, waste cooking oil is one of the pollution sources. On the other hand, biodiesel appears to be one of the most promising and feasible energy sources as it emits less toxic pollutants and greenhouse gases than petroleum diesel. Thus, biodiesel production using waste cooking oil offers a two-in-one solution to cater pollution and energy issues. However, the conventional biodiesel production process using homogeneous base catalyst and stirred tank reactor is unable to produce high purity of biodiesel from waste cooking oil. It is due its sensitivity to free fatty acid (FFA) content in waste cooking oil and purification difficulties. Therefore, biodiesel production using heterogeneous acid catalyst in membrane reactor is suggested. The product of this process is fatty acid methyl esters (FAME) or biodiesel with glycerol as by-product. This project is aimed to study techno-economic feasibility of biodiesel production from waste cooking oil via heterogeneous acid catalyst in membrane reactor. Aspen HYSYS is used to accomplish this aim. Several cases, such as considering different residence times and the production of pharmaceutical (USP) grade glycerol, are evaluated and compared. Economic potential of these cases is calculated by considering capital expenditure, utilities cost, product and by-product sales, as well as raw material costs. Waste cooking oil, inorganic pressure-driven membrane and WAl is used as raw material, type of membrane and heterogeneous acid catalyst respectively. Based on literature data, FAME yield formulation is developed and used in the reactor simulation. Simulation results shows that economic potential increases by 30% if pharmaceutical (USP) grade glycerol is produced regardless the residence time of the reactor. In addition, there is no significant effect of residence time on the economic potential.

  1. Economic comparison of centralizing or decentralizing processing facilities for defense transuranic waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brown, C.M.

    1980-07-01

    This study is part of a set of analyses under direction of the Transuranic Waste Management Program designed to provide comprehensive, systematic methodology and support necessary to better understand options for national long-term management of transuranic (TRU) waste. The report summarizes activities to evaluate the economics of possible alternatives in locating facilities to process DOE-managed transuranic waste. The options considered are: (1) Facilities located at all major DOE TRU waste generating sites. (2) Two or three regional facilities. (3) Central processing facility at only one DOE site. The study concludes that processing at only one facility is the lowest cost option, followed, in order of cost, by regional then individual site processing

  2. SOME ECONOMIC AND ECOLOGIC ASPECTS OF WASTE MANAGEMENT IN A MIDDLE SIZED TOWN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Florin Dumescu

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Regulations of the European Union establish for local authorities obligations concerning waste management inside their area of competence. Carrying out these obligations need to connect result in economic and municipal fields to those in environment protection. After a short presentation of these obligations the paper contains a study of waste management in Lipova, a middle sized town in Arad County, Romania. The study is focused mainly on the waste dump of the town, which is planned to be shut down during the following years. This makes necessary to carry out preparing concerning waste management in the new conditions and also to assure environment protection on the actual emplacement after shutting down the existing dump.

  3. Techno-economic evaluation of a combined bioprocess for fermentative hydrogen production from food waste.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Wei; Fang, Jun; Liu, Zhixiang; Tang, Junhong

    2016-02-01

    In this study, the techno-economic evaluation of a combined bioprocess based on solid state fermentation for fermentative hydrogen production from food waste was carried out. The hydrogen production plant was assumed to be built in Hangzhou and designed for converting 3 ton food waste per day into hydrogen. The total capital cost (TCC) and the annual production cost (APC) were US$583092 and US$88298.1/year, respectively. The overall revenue after the tax was US$146473.6/year. The return on investment (ROI), payback period (PBP) and internal rate of return (IRR) of the plant were 26.75%, 5 years and 24.07%, respectively. The results exhibited that the combined bioprocess for hydrogen production from food waste was feasible. This is an important study for attracting investment and industrialization interest for hydrogen production from food waste in the industrial scale. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Report: future industrial solid waste management in pars Special Economic Energy Zone (PSEEZ), Iran.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mokhtarani, Babak; Moghaddam, Mohammad Reza Alavi; Mokhtarani, Nader; Khaledi, Hossein Jomeh

    2006-06-01

    The Pars Special Economic Energy Zone (PSEEZ) is located in the south of Iran, on the northern coastline of the Persian Gulf. This area was established in 1998 for the utilization of south Pars field oil and gas resources. This field is one of the largest gas resources in the world and contains about 6% of the total fossil fuels known. Petrochemical industries, gas refineries and downstream industries are being constructed in this area. At present there are three gas refineries in operation and five more gas refineries are under construction. In this study, different types of solid waste including municipal solid waste (MSW) and industrial wastes were investigated separately. The aim of the study was to focus on the management of the industrial wastes in order to minimize the environmental impact. In the first stage, the types and amounts of industrial waste in PSEEZ were evaluated by an inventory. The main types of industrial waste are oil products (fuel oil, light oil, lubricating oil), spent catalysts, adsorbents, resins, coke, wax and packaging materials. The waste management of PSEEZ is quite complex because of the different types of industry and the diversity of industrial residues. In some cases recycling/reuse of waste is the best option, but treatment and disposal are also necessary tools. Recently a design has been prepared for a disposal site in PSEEZ for the industrial waste that cannot be reused or recycled. The total surface area of this disposal site where the industrial waste should be tipped for the next 20 years was estimated to be about 42 000 m2.

  5. Economic and environmental review of Waste-to-Energy systems for municipal solid waste management in medium and small municipalities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernández-González, J M; Grindlay, A L; Serrano-Bernardo, F; Rodríguez-Rojas, M I; Zamorano, M

    2017-09-01

    The application of Directive 2008/98/CE on Municipal Solid Waste (MSW) implies the need to introduce technologies to generate energy from waste. Incineration, the most widely used method, is difficult to implement in low populated areas because it requires a large amount of waste to be viable (100,000 tons per year). This paper analyses the economic and environmental costs of different MSW-to-Energy technologies (WtE) in an area comprising of 13 municipalities in southern Spain. We analyse anaerobic digestion (Biomethanization), the production of solid recovered fuel (SRF) and gasification, and compare these approaches to the present Biological Mechanical Treatment (BMT) with elimination of the reject in landfill, and incineration with energy recovery. From an economic standpoint the implementation of WtE systems reduces the cost of running present BMT systems and incineration; gasification presents the lowest value. From the environmental standpoint, Life Cycle Assessment shows that any WtE alternatives, including incineration, present important advantages for the environment when compared to BMT. Finally, in order to select the best alternative, a multi-criteria method is applied, showing that anaerobic digestion is the optimal solution for the area studied. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Military construction program economic analysis manual: Sample economic analyses: Hazardous Waste Remedial Actions Program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1987-12-01

    This manual enables the US Air Force to comprehensively and systematically analyze alternative approaches to meeting its military construction requirements. The manual includes step-by-step procedures for completing economic analyses for military construction projects, beginning with determining if an analysis is necessary. Instructions and a checklist of the tasks involved for each step are provided; and examples of calculations and illustrations of completed forms are included. The manual explains the major tasks of an economic analysis, including identifying the problem, selecting realistic alternatives for solving it, formulating appropriate assumptions, determining the costs and benefits of the alternatives, comparing the alternatives, testing the sensitivity of major uncertainties, and ranking the alternatives. Appendixes are included that contain data, indexes, and worksheets to aid in performing the economic analyses. For reference, Volume 2 contains sample economic analyses that illustrate how each form is filled out and that include a complete example of the documentation required

  7. Biogas Production Potential from Economically Usable Green Waste

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sebastian Heintschel

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Biomass production for energy purposes on agricultural land competes with food production. This is a serious problem, considering the limited availability of farmland, rising demand for varied food products, demand for more organic crop production resulting in considerably reduced yields per area and the need for more environmentally sound agricultural practices meeting long-term sustainability criteria. Residual land currently not used for agricultural production has been considered a promising resource, but in terms of potentials, difficult to estimate for biomass for use in the energy sector. Biomass potentials associated with “green waste” from residual grasslands were assessed for Schwäbisch Hall County in the Federal State of Baden-Württemberg, Germany. Roadside edges, conservation grasslands subject to low intensity use (landscape maintenance sites, riparian stretches along ditches and streams, and municipal green spaces (public lawns, parks and sports fields were the area types considered. Data for biomass and biogas yields were either determined through a sampling program or obtained from the literature and through interviews with experts. In an iterative process and distinguishing between theoretical, technical and realized (economic potentials, unsuitable areas and fractions were subtracted from the theoretical potentials. Theoretical potentials for Schwäbisch Hall County were originally estimated at 21 million m3 of biogas. The results of the investigation suggest that a very high percentage of the theoretical residual biomass potential cannot be accessed due to various technical, legal, ecological or management (economic constraints. In fact, in the end, only municipal lawns and green spaces were found to provide suitable substrates. Current use of residual biomass in the model communities did not exceed 0.4% of the theoretical potentials. Provided all residual biomass available under current management practices

  8. The potential monetary benefits of reclaiming hazardous waste sites in the Campania region: an economic evaluation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cairns John

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Evaluating the economic benefit of reducing negative health outcomes resulting from waste management is of pivotal importance for designing an effective waste policy that takes into account the health consequences for the populations exposed to environmental hazards. Despite the high level of Italian and international media interest in the problem of hazardous waste in Campania little has been done to reclaim the land and the waterways contaminated by hazardous waste. Objective This study aims to reduce the uncertainty about health damage due to waste exposure by providing for the first time a monetary valuation of health benefits arising from the reclamation of hazardous waste dumps in Campania. Methods First the criteria by which the landfills in the Campania region, in particular in the two provinces of Naples and Caserta, have been classified are described. Then, the annual cases of premature death and fatal cases of cancers attributable to waste exposure are quantified. Finally, the present value of the health benefits from the reclamation of polluted land is estimated for each of the health outcomes (premature mortality, fatal cancer and premature mortality adjusted for the cancer premium. Due to the uncertainty about the time frame of the benefits arising from reclamation, the latency of the effects of toxic waste on human health and the lack of context specific estimates of the Value of Preventing a Fatality (VPF, extensive sensitivity analyses are performed. Results There are estimated to be 848 cases of premature mortality and 403 cases of fatal cancer per year as a consequence of exposure to toxic waste. The present value of the benefit of reducing the number of waste associated deaths after adjusting for a cancer premium is €11.6 billion. This value ranges from €5.4 to €20.0 billion assuming a time frame for benefits of 10 and 50 years respectively. Conclusion This study suggests that there is a strong

  9. Economic feasibility assessment of the Oak Ridge National Laboratory waste-heat polyculture concept

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Olszewski, M.

    1979-02-01

    An economic feasibility analysis was performed for a proposed waste-heat aquaculture system that uses a tilapia polyculture concept. The system is designed to use waste water nutrients to grow plankton which is fed to the fish. The system was judged to be economically viable if fish production costs of $1.32/kg (60 cents/lb) or lower were achieved for production rates that have been experimentally verified. The results of the analysis indicate that the system is economically viable if capital costs are annualized using a 15% fixed charge rate (FCR). Feasibility of the system at a 25% FCR depends upon aeration turnover time and system food conversion efficiency. Eliminating cages from the system design decreases the capital costs and improves the economic potential of the system. Additional capital cost reductions are possible if the aerators are removed from the system. However, expected fish production rates are also decreased and the system does not appear economically viable for a 25% FCR. System design modifications due to biological considerations included lining the algal pond with a plastic liner and using commercial fertilizers in place of organic waste streams. Lining the algal ponds did not affect the feasibility of the system at a 15% FCR but did result in the system becoming economically unattractive at a 25% FCR. The use of commercial fertilizers added 15 cents/kg (7 cents/lb) to the production but did not have serious adverse effects on the feasibility of the system. The system appears to have economic promise and should be examined further. Operation of a small expermental system to verify the estimated performance parameters is needed

  10. Study on engineering economics of China high-level radioactive waste geological disposal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Qu Jun; Guo Zongzhi; Yang Lirong; Hu Jiang

    2012-01-01

    In this paper, based on the research and analysis about the repository construction cost of the European, US and Japan, together with the concept design pattern of China's high level radioactive waste repository, the preliminary economic analysis of China is presented. Meanwhile, combining with China's nuclear power development layout and picking-up policy of spent fuel fund, the preliminary measurement concerning the capital resource of high level radioactive waste disposal is implemented, which contribute to the conclusion initiatively that the spent fuel fund could meet the need of the financial demand of disposal cost. (authors)

  11. Economic and ecological optimal strategies of management of the system of regional solid waste disposal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Samoylik Marina S.

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The article develops an economic and ecological model of optimal management of the system of solid waste disposal at the regional level, identifies its target functions and forms optimisation scenarios of management of this sphere with theoretically optimal parameters’ values. Based on the model of management of the sphere of solid waste disposal the article forms an algorithm of identification of optimal managerial strategies and mechanisms of their realisation, which allows solution of the set tasks of optimisation of development of the sphere of solid waste disposal at a given set of values and parameters of the state of the system for a specific type of life cycle of solid waste and different subjects of this sphere. The developed model has a number of feasible solutions and, consequently, offers selection of the best of them with consideration of target functions. The article conducts a SWOT analysis of the current state of solid waste disposal in the Poltava region and identifies a necessity of development of a relevant strategy on the basis of the developed economic and ecological model with consideration of optimisation of mutually opposite criteria: ecological risk for the population from the sphere of solid waste disposal and total expenditures for this sphere functioning. The article conducts modelling of this situation by basic (current situation and alternative scenarios and finds out that, at this stage, it is most expedient to build in the region four sorting lines and five regional solid waste grounds, while expenditures on this sphere are UAH 62.0 million per year, income from secondary raw material sales – UAH 71.2 per year and reduction of the ecological risk – UAH 13 million per year.

  12. Technical, institutional and economic factors important for developing a multinational radioactive waste repository

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1998-06-01

    Countries planning and implementing nuclear energy programmes should assume responsibility for the safe management and final disposal of radioactive waste from their programmes. However, there are countries whose radioactive waste volumes do not easily justify a national repository, and/or countries which do not have the resources or favorable natural conditions for waste disposal to dedicate to a national repository project. These countries would benefit from multinational co-operation for the disposal. Interest in the concept of a multinational repository for radioactive waste has been expressed by several Member States and the waste management community in the light of the potential benefit to the partner countries from the safety, technical and economic standpoints. However, such an approach involves many political and public acceptance issues and therefore a consensus among countries or regions concerned is a prerequisite. In this context, it was deemed appropriate that the IAEA access the technical, institutional, ethical and economic factors to be taken into account in the process of such consensus building. This report is intended to provide an assessment which can serve as a general basis for establishing a waste management policy and/or further assessing specific issues such as ownership and liability, institutional aspects and problems related to long term commitments. This report is divided into five sections where the first section gives background, objectives, scope and structure of the report. Section 2 discusses multinational repository concept in terms of needs and the role of a multinational repository, interaction between host and partner countries and formulation of a multinational repository. Section 3 identifies basic issues to be considered for establishing a multinational repository, and some specific issues relating to specific waste categories. Section 4 analyses potential benefits and challenges to be addresses in establishing a

  13. Towards sustainable consumption: A socio-economic analysis of household waste recycling outcomes in Hong Kong.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lo, Alex Y; Liu, Shuwen

    2018-05-15

    Many high-density cities struggle to find space for disposing municipal solid waste. Hong Kong is one of these cities, seeking to scale up waste recovery efforts as an alternative to disposal. However, territory-wide recovery initiatives do not account for socio-economic variations across place, leading to mixed outcomes among diverse communities. This study aims to investigate socio-economic effects on recycling behavior in a sample of subsidized rental housing estates. It constitutes an improvement from previous studies by using the entire estate as a unit of analysis and analyzing actual recycling outcomes, which have received limited attention from researchers. The analysis focused on the volume of recyclables collected from 158 public housing estates in Hong Kong, with an average population of 12,285. Results suggest that recycling outcomes vary with a limited set of socio-economic factors. Housing estates managed by a private property management company and populated by better off households collected more recyclables from their residents. Measures of absolute and relative recycling intensity achieved similar results. The findings will be useful for identifying residential communities requiring additional support for promoting waste separation and recycling. Differentiated policies for economically disadvantaged communities are warranted. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Economic analysis of a volume reduction/polyethylene solidification system for low-level radioactive wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kalb, P.D.; Colombo, P.

    1985-01-01

    A study was conducted at Brookhaven National Laboratory to determine the economic feasibility of a fluidized bed volume reduction/polyethylene solidification system for low-level radioactive wastes. These results are compared with the ''null'' alternative of no volume reduction and solidification of aqueous waste streams in hydraulic cement. The economic analysis employed a levelized revenue requirement (LRR) technique conducted over a ten year period. An interactive computer program was written to conduct the LRR calculations. Both of the treatment/solidification options were considered for a number of scenarios including type of plant (BWR or PWR) and transportation distance to the disposal site. If current trends in the escalation rates of cost components continue, the volume reduction/polyethylene solidification option will be cost effective for both BWRs and PWRs. Data indicate that a minimum net annual savings of $0.8 million per year (for a PWR shipping its waste 750 miles) and a maximum net annual savings of $9 million per year (for a BWR shipping its waste 2500 miles) can be achieved. A sensitivity analysis was performed for the burial cost escalation rate, which indicated that variation of this factor will impact the total levelized revenue requirement. The burial cost escalation rate which yields a break-even condition was determined for each scenario considered. 11 refs., 8 figs., 39 tabs

  15. Environmental and economic vision of plasma treatment of waste in Makkah

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galaly, Ahmed Rida; van Oost, Guido

    2017-10-01

    An environmental and economic assessment of the development of a plasma-chemical reactor equipped with plasma torches for the environmentally friendly treatment of waste streams by plasma is outlined with a view to the chemical and energetic valorization of the sustainability in the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia (KSA). This is especially applicable in the pilgrimage season in the city of Makkah, which is a major challenge since the amount of waste was estimated at about 750 thousand tons through Arabic Year 1435H (2015), and is growing at a rate of 3%-5% annually. According to statistics, the value of waste in Saudi Arabia ranges between 8 and 9 billion EUR. The Plasma-Treatment Project (PTP) encompasses the direct plasma treatment of all types of waste (from source and landfill), as well as an environmental vision and economic evaluation of the use of the gas produced for fuel and electricity production in KSA, especially in the pilgrimage season in the holy city Makkah. The electrical power required for the plasma-treatment process is estimated at 5000 kW (2000 kW used for the operation of the system and 3000 kW sold), taking into account the fact that: (1) the processing capacity of solid waste is 100 tons per day (2) and the sale of electricity amounts to 23.8 MW at 0.18 EUR per kWh. (3) The profit from the sale of electricity per year is estimated at 3.27 million EUR and the estimated profit of solid-waste treatment amounts to 6 million EUR per year and (4) the gross profit per ton of solid waste totals 8 million EUR per year. The present article introduces the first stage of the PTP, in Makkah in the pilgrimage season, which consists of five stages: (1) study and treatment of waste streams, (2) slaughterhouse waste treatment, (3) treatment of refuse-derived fuel, (4) treatment of car tires and (5) treatment of slag (the fifth stage associated with each stage from the four previous stages).

  16. ECONOMIC AND ENVIRONMENTAL EFFECTS OF COLLECTION AND PRIMARY RECYCLING OF PACKAGING WASTE FROM HYGIENE AND CLEANING PRODUCTS IN SERBIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Žarko Vranjanac

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Collection and primary recycling of packaging waste from hygiene and cleaning products occupy an important place in an integral waste management system. It is a fact that management of such waste helps reduce negative economic and environmental impact on one hand and helps bring direct and indirect benefits from collection and primary recycling of the packaging waste on the other hand. In order to obtain more comprehensive data on the economic effects of management of packaging waste from hygiene and cleaning products, this paper presents a methodology for calculating the relevant values associated with the waste. The paper also provides data on the amount, type, and market value of packaging waste from hygiene and cleaning products. Using the data on economic and environmental impact of the packaging waste from hygiene and cleaning products, as well as the data on economic benefits from this type of waste, it is possible to analyse the profitability of its collection and primary recycling in Serbia.

  17. Economic and environmental characterization of an evolving Li-ion battery waste stream.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xue; Gaustad, Gabrielle; Babbitt, Callie W; Bailey, Chelsea; Ganter, Matthew J; Landi, Brian J

    2014-03-15

    While disposal bans of lithium-ion batteries are gaining in popularity, the infrastructure required to recycle these batteries has not yet fully emerged and the economic motivation for this type of recycling system has not yet been quantified comprehensively. This study combines economic modeling and fundamental material characterization methods to quantify economic trade-offs for lithium ion batteries at their end-of-life. Results show that as chemistries transition from lithium-cobalt based cathodes to less costly chemistries, battery recovery value decreases along with the initial value of the raw materials used. For example, manganese-spinel and iron phosphate cathode batteries have potential material values 73% and 79% less than cobalt cathode batteries, respectively. A majority of the potentially recoverable value resides in the base metals contained in the cathode; this increases disassembly cost and time as this is the last portion of the battery taken apart. A great deal of compositional variability exists, even within the same cathode chemistry, due to differences between manufacturers with coefficient of variation up to 37% for some base metals. Cathode changes over time will result in a heavily co-mingled waste stream, further complicating waste management and recycling processes. These results aim to inform disposal, collection, and take-back policies being proposed currently that affect waste management infrastructure as well as guide future deployment of novel recycling techniques. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Techno-economical Analysis of High Level Waste Storage and Disposal Options

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bace, M.; Trontl, K.; Vrankic, K.

    2002-01-01

    Global warming and instability of gas and oil prices are redefining the role of nuclear energy in electrical energy production. A production of high-level radioactive waste (HLW), during the nuclear power plant operation and a danger of high level waste mitigation to the environment are considered by the public as a main obstacle of accepting the nuclear option. As economical and technical aspects of the back end of fuel cycle will affect the nuclear energy acceptance the techno-economical analysis of different methods for high level waste storage and disposal has to be performed. The aim of this paper is to present technical and economical characteristics of different HLW storage and disposal technologies. The final choice of a particular HLW management method is closely connected to the selection of a fuel cycle type: open or closed. Wet and dry temporary storage has been analyzed including different types of spent fuel pool capacity increase methods, different pool location (at reactor site and away from reactor site) as well as casks and vault system of dry storage. Since deep geological deposition is the only disposal method with a realistic potential, we focused our attention on that disposal technology. Special attention has been given to the new idea of international and regional disposal location. The analysis showed that a coexistence of different storage methods and deep geological deposition is expected in the future, regardless of the fuel cycle type. (author)

  19. Economic Development And Transfrontier Shipments Of Waste In Poland – Spatio-Temporal Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antczak Elżbieta

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the paper is to apply the spatio-temporal Environmental Kuznets Curve (SpEKC to test the relationship between economic growth and the amount of collected mixed municipal waste. The analysis was conducted at the level of sixty-six Polish sub-regions. The study contained selected environmental indicators. The dependent variable - the amount of municipal waste generated in kilograms per capita characterized the state of the environment. The GDP per capita in constant prices (as an explanatory variable presented the level of economic development of the sub-regions. In the empirical part of the research there were used spatial panel data models based on EKCs. It determined the levels of economic development, at which the amount of produced wastes has fallen or increased, depending on the wealth of the region. The application of different types of spatial weight matrices was an important element of this modelling. Data obtained the years 2005-2012. Models were estimated in the RCran package.

  20. Selection of Ecologically Efficient and Energetically Economic Engineering-Ecological System for Municipal Solid Wastes Transportation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bespalov Vadim

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Sanitary city cleaning is one of the most important sanitary and hygiene events, promoting protection of human health and environment. Sanitary cleaning includes a complex of works on solid municipal wastes (SMW collection, transportation, deactivation, processing and burial and urban territory cleaning. In order to improve the works on SMW handling and the ecological state of urban territories, enterprises of public and utility sphere operate, organizing all types of works listed above. However, processes of waste creation and accumulation are dynamic in their essence. Process of waste transportation depends on various factors. Management of this process often demands urgent correcting of earlier taken decisions or even cancellation of those decisions. Reasons of such changes could be of the most unpredictable nature, for example, traffic jams on motorways, vehicles breakage, repair works on the roads, etc. Thus, the enterprise (or, more precisely, the facilities serviced by it, the transport acting with the purpose of providing ecological safety to urban territories, is the source of E pollution by itself. One of the main stages of SMW handling is waste transportation, where sources of E pollution with wastes (accumulation points and enterprises on handling SMW are involved. That is why the solution of the pressing issue of increasing ecological safety of urban territories on the basis of ecologically efficient and energetically economic selection of engineering-ecological system of SMW transportation is represented in the article.

  1. Applying waste heat recovery system in a sewage sludge dryer – A technical and economic optimization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tańczuk, Mariusz; Kostowski, Wojciech; Karaś, Marcin

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • A modernization of waste heat recovery system in a sludge drying plant is proposed. • Energy performance analysis rejected the downsize case of modernization. • Optimal system sizes regarding Net Present Value and Net Present Value Ratio do not coincide. • Up to 683 MW h/y of chemical energy savings for optimal heat exchanger size. • Higher profitability for the larger heat exchanger cases: paybacks below 3.65 years. - Abstract: Drying of digested sewage sludge, as an important alternative to sludge disposal at dumping sites, should comply with the requirements of high energy efficiency as well as economic feasibility. The technical and economic optimization analysis of installing a waste process heat recovery unit in a medium-temperature belt dryer operated in a municipal waste water treatment plant was carried out. Inlet capacity of the plant is 1.83 Mg of wet sludge per hour. The post-process air was indicated as a source of waste heat and the configuration of a heat recovery system was proposed. The main objective of the research was to find the optimal size of a chosen type of waste heat recovery heat exchanger for preheating ambient air to the process. The maximization of Net Present Value, and, alternatively, also Net Present Value Ratio were selected for the objective function of the optimization procedure. Simulation of yearly operation of waste heat exchanger was made for a range of different heat exchanging areas (101–270 m 2 ) regarding given parameters of a post-process air and different temperatures of ambient air. Energy performance of the modernization was evaluated and economic indices were calculated for each of the analyzed cases. The location of the maximum of optimization function was found and the calculations show higher profitability of the cases with larger waste heat exchanger. It can be concluded that the location of optimum of the objective function is very sensitive to the price of natural gas supplied to the

  2. Economic appraisal of deployment schedules for high-level radioactive waste repositories

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Doan Phuong Hoai Linh

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The deep geological repository (DGR is considered as the definitive management solution for high-level waste (HLW. Countries defined different DGR implementation schedules, depending on their national context and political choices. We raise the question of the economic grounds of such political decisions by providing an economic analysis of different DGR schedules. We investigate the optimal timing for DGR commissioning based on available Nuclear Energy Agency (NEA data (2013. Two scenarios are considered: (1 rescheduling the deployment of a DGR with the same initial operational period, and (2 rescheduling the deployment of a DGR with a shorter operational period, i.e. initial closure date. Given the long timescales of such projects, we also take into account the discounting effect. The first finding is that it appears more economically favorable to extend the interim storage than to dispose of the HLW immediately. Countries which chose “immediate” disposal are willing to accept higher costs to quickly solve the problem. Another interesting result is that there is an optimal solution with respect to the length of DGR operational period and the waste flow for disposal. Based on data provided by the Organisation for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD/Nuclear Energy Agency (NEA, we find an optimal operating period of about 15 years with a flow of 2000 tHM/year.

  3. An engineering and economic analysis: Inductively coupled plasma mobile treatment of hazardous waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Detering, B.A.; McLlwain, M.E.

    1997-10-01

    This analysis considers the engineering and economic viability of an rf-plasma, mobile treatment process for remediation of hazardous waste located at remote sites in Alaska. A simple engineering process flowsheet is used to define the elements associated with the process and to identify major pieces of equipment. The proposed flowsheet and equipment are used to estimate capital and operational costs for four separate processing cases. These cases explore various operational situations, including moving equipment to a remote site, transporting wastes to a base site, and varying operational periods. Some cases consider variations in fuel costs known to exist across Alaska. Operational costs, capital equipment costs, and revenues are used to calculate pro-forma income statements. These income statements are used to predict economic viability. Based on the economic viability, the analysis suggests that processing of hydrocarbon-contaminated soils is more profitable when performed at remote sites as compared to at a home base. Processing of poly-chloro-biphenyl (PCB)-contaminated oil at a stationary site is more profitable as compared to remote treatment due to the cost of transporting the equipment. Over the range of fuel prices considered, higher fuel costs increase the per unit treatment price by ten percent. Based on the results of this analysis, an rf-plasma based process appears to be economically viable for remote treatment of hydrocarbon-contaminated soil, but less viable for treatment of PCB-contaminated oil

  4. Environmental and Economic Assessment of Swedish Municipal Solid Waste Management in a Systems Perspective

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eriksson, Ola

    2003-04-01

    strategic planning, decisions about larger investments and education in universities and within organisations. Systems analysis and models may be used in pre-planning procedures. A potential is a more general application (Technology Assessment) in predominantly waste- and biofuel based energy processes, but also for assessment of new technical components in a systems perspective. The methodology and systems approach developed within the systems analysis has here been transformed to an assessment of environmental, economic and technical performance of technical systems in a broad sense.

  5. Environmental and Economic Assessment of Swedish Municipal Solid Waste Management in a Systems Perspective

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eriksson, Ola

    2003-01-01

    strategic planning, decisions about larger investments and education in universities and within organisations. Systems analysis and models may be used in pre-planning procedures. A potential is a more general application (Technology Assessment) in predominantly waste- and biofuel based energy processes, but also for assessment of new technical components in a systems perspective. The methodology and systems approach developed within the systems analysis has here been transformed to an assessment of environmental, economic and technical performance of technical systems in a broad sense

  6. Techno-economic assessment of anaerobic digestion systems for agri-food wastes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lau, A.; Baldwin, S.; Wang, M. [British Colombia Univ., Vancouver, BC (Canada)

    2010-07-01

    Activities in British Columbia's Fraser Valley generate an estimated 3 million tones of agriculture and food wastes annually, of which 85 per cent are readily available for anaerobic digestion. The potential for energy generation from biogas through anaerobic digestion is approximately 30 MW. On-farm manure-based systems represent the most likely scenario for the development of anaerobic digestion in British Columbia in the near future. Off-farm food processing wastes may be an alternative option to large centralized industrial complexes. Odour control, pathogen reduction, improved water quality, reduced greenhouse gas emissions and reduced landfill usage are among the environmental benefits of anaerobic digestion. The economical benefits include power and heat generation, biogas upgrading, and further processing of the residues to produce compost or animal bedding. This paper described a newly developed anaerobic digestion (AD) calculator that helps users regarding their investment decision in AD facilities. The calculator classifies various technology options into several major types of AD systems. It also constructs kinetic and economic models for these systems and provides a fair estimation on biogas yield, digester volume, capital cost and annual income. The calculator takes into consideration factors such as the degradability of wastes with different compositions and different operating parameters.

  7. Complex processing and utilization of waste as the basis for sustainable economic development district

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V.М. Ilchenko

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The article describes the main environmental problems of Ukraine. The problems that are connected with complex processing and recycling, the example Dnieper economic paradise-one, which allows more detailed present environmental situation of the country at this stage. The article is used and analyzed recent environmental performance and the basic problems of on-disposal and recycling. Basic research methods: observation, analysis and comparison. The aim was to find ways to overcome the ecological crisis in Ukraine. As a result of the research, it was determined that most types of waste-tion prevail in Ukraine and found the best solutions to problems related to waste and their processing. It was possible to find the main problem that has caused serious environmental situation, and the main task for the country at this stage. The main problems and tasks Dnieper economic region. Also indicate how to save, due to complex processing waste. The article is very relevant and important because it is here that the basic problems and tasks of Ukraine concerning the ecological situation. It also focuses on eco-logical problems, which the government does not pay enough attention.

  8. PROBLEMS OF ENVIRONMENTAL AND ECONOMICAL ASSESSMENT OF INVESTMENT PROJECTS ON PROCESSING WASTES INTO CONSTRUCTION PRODUCTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tskhovrebov Eduard Stanislavovich

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Social and economical development, investing activities, and ensuring environmental safety are the main strategic components of sustainable development of the Russian Federation. Considering that any economic activities are related to using natural resources, and environmental impact, the economically and ecologically effective investments in modern competitive resources- and energy-saving, environment-safe industrial and other innovative technologies are the integral conditions of ensuring favorable conditions for life activities, achieving balance of the ecological-economic system of the country However, there is a number of environmental and business factors, which prevent full-scale implementation of modern resource-saving and environmental protection technologies in production, ensuring, on the one hand, achievement of pay-back of investments in the shortest times (economic result in the form of profit, and on the other hand, observation of all environmental, sanitary-and-hygienic, technical norms, demands and rules set forth by the legislation. At the stage of business planning, all the possible future environmental costs and environmental and financial damages caused by the manufacturing activities during implementation and post-implementation periods are not taken into account as a practice of assessment of environmental efficiency and practicality of investment projects. This article covers methodical and scientific methodological approaches to the solution of the given problem within the limits of development of recommendations on environmental and economic assessment of investment projects that would ensure environmental safety and economic efficiency of the investments. Results of own researches in the field, including the developed software for environmental and economic assessment of investment projects in the building industry, in the waste processing into secondary raw materials and products, which allows to analyze efficiency of

  9. The social rate of discount for nuclear waste storage: economics or ethics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schulze, W.D.; Brookshire, D.S.; Sandler, T.

    1981-01-01

    The traditional economic approach for evaluating alternative policies has been the use of benefit-cost analysis. Application of this tool, however, to broad social questions, such as the choice to store nuclear wastes, has been unsuccessful because of several philosophical and ethical problems raised, first, by the need to value risks to human life and, second, with valuing in present terms events which may occur thousands of years hence. This paper is an attempt to look beyond traditional ethical and economic perspective. Formal economic models of alternative decision criteria for nuclear waste storage are developed which are based on alternative ethical positions.In particlular, three ethical positions are developed for comparison to benefit-cost analysis. First, the utilitarian ethic is used to explore the notion that the proper goal for society is to pursue the greatest good for the greatest number. Secondly, a simplified libertarian viewpoint is explored where the protection of individual rights is more important than the good of the whole. The final ethical position is based upon the democratic ethic

  10. Pilot-based assessment of the economics of recycling construction demolition waste.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Srour, Issam M; Chehab, Ghassan R; El-Fadel, Mutasem; Tamraz, Sandy

    2013-11-01

    The significant amount of waste generated from construction demolition has become a chronic problem in many developing countries. Using data obtained from demolition contractors and various other sources, this paper proposes a framework for proper handling of construction demolition waste (CDW) to serve as a decision support tool in countries suffering from the lack of national CDW management guidelines. The framework is then demonstrated through a case study in the city of Beirut, Lebanon, and a sensitivity analysis is carried out to examine the economic feasibility of developing a recycling facility. The analysis showed that in order for a facility to be feasible, a gate fee should be charged in the presence of a market for recycled aggregates. The results confirm the significance of instigating and implementing legislation to control illegal dumping, constructing, and managing engineered landfills, and establishing markets for recycled CDW.

  11. Social and economical aspects in the selection of the site for the final Goiania waste repository

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Paschoa, A.S.; Tranjan Filho, A.; Rosenthal, J.J.

    2000-01-01

    Site selection criteria for low and intermediate level waste repositories are usually well established as far as the technological and scientific bases are concerned. However, social, cultural and economical aspects need to be examined on a case by case basis because there are many situations to be faced before succeeding to convince the public and authorities that a waste repository is to be built at any chosen site. In the specific case of Goiania there is an ongoing process that started several years ago, to make the repository accepted by local, state and national authorities, and to answer legitimate questions raised by significant segments of the population. This paper will summarise those more relevant aspects concerning the site selection process for the Goiania repository. (author)

  12. Strategies, technologies, and economics for managing greater-than-class C waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Danna, J.G.; Baird, R.D.; Chau, T.K.

    1994-01-01

    The Low-Level Radioactive Waste Policy Amendments Act 0f 1985, Public Law 99-240, transferred responsibility for disposing of Greater-Than-Class C (GTCC) low-level radioactive waste (LLW) generated by commercial licensees from the states to the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE). Development of permanent disposal capacity for GTCC LLW requires the evaluation of potential disposal concepts in terms of technical feasibility, economics, and institutional concerns. Previous studies have identified 13 potential GTCC LLW disposal concepts and have characterized volumes and types of GTCC LLW. Data from these studies, along with newly developed data pertaining to concept designs and hypothetical sites, were used to evaluate each concept's technical feasibility. An evaluation of the cost effectiveness of the technically feasible disposal concepts was also conducted

  13. Influence of legislative conditioned changes in waste management on economic viability of MSW-fuelled district heating system: Case study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tomić Tihomir

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available District heating systems represents one of the ways by which the European Union is trying to reach set goals in energy efficiency and security field. These systems allow the use of different energy sources including local energy sources such as waste and biomass. This paper provides economic viability assessment of using these fuels in the district heating system. Economic evaluation is based on regression analysis from data of existing plants and on the locally dependent data. Some of parameters that are dependent of local parameters are price and available fuel quantity, therefore these values are separately modelled; biomass as a function of location of the plant while municipal waste as a function of location and the time changes in waste quantity and composition which depend of socio-economic trends and legislation. This methodology is applied on the case of district heating plants in the City of Zagreb where internal rates of return are calculated for four considered scenarios. Results indicate that waste powered plant can improve its profitability by co-combusting other local wastes while economic viability is achieved by introduction of region wide waste management system. Reducing plant capacity, based on prognosis of waste generation, showed that these plants can be competitive with biomass plants.

  14. Thermo-economic analysis of steady state waste heat recovery in data centers using absorption refrigeration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ebrahimi, Khosrow; Jones, Gerard F.; Fleischer, Amy S.

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • Absorption refrigeration is powered by data center waste heat. • Waste heat from 3 to 5 server racks produces cooling for an additional rack. • An economic analysis shows the payback period can be as short as 4–5 months. - Abstract: This paper addresses the technical and economic issues associated with waste heat recovery in data centers through the use of absorption cooling machines. The theoretical possibility of utilizing the heat dissipated by a server, or a number of servers, to power an absorption system, which in turn produces cooling for other servers in the data center, is investigated. For this purpose, a steady-state thermodynamic model is developed to perform energy balance and exergy analyses for a novel configuration of an on-chip two-phase cooling system and an absorption refrigeration system. This combination is created by replacing the condenser in the on-chip cooling circuit with the generator of an absorption refrigeration cycle. The performance of the developed model in simulating both LiBr–water and water–ammonia absorption cooling systems is examined through verification of the model results against the reference data available in the literature. The verification indicates the superiority of LiBr–water absorption system for data center/server operating conditions. Therefore, a LiBr–water absorption refrigeration system is modeled in the novel combined heat recovery system. For these systems it is shown that the traditional definition for the coefficient of performance (COP) is not appropriate to evaluate the performance and, in its place, introduce a new figure of merit. Through a sensitivity analysis, the effects of server waste heat quality, server coolant type, solution peak concentration, solution heat exchanger effectiveness, evaporator temperature, and operating pressures on the performance of the novel system are investigated. Finally, using the thermodynamic model and cost information provided by the

  15. Feasibility and economic consequences of retrievable storage of radioactive waste in the deep underground

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Prij, J.; Heijdra, J.J.

    1995-01-01

    The economic consequences of retrievable storage have been investigated by comparing two extreme options of retrievable storage. In one option the storage facility is kept in operation, using minimal backfill of the storage galleries. In the other option the storage facility is completely backfilled, sealed and abandoned. In the second option construction of a new mine will be necessary in case of retrieval. The point in time has been determined when the second option will be cheapter than the first. This has been done for clary, granite and rocksalt as host formation, and both for vitrified waste and spent fuel. (orig.)

  16. Final report of the project performance assessment and economic evaluation of nuclear waste management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rasilainen, K.; Anttila, M.; Hautojaervi, A.

    1993-05-01

    The publication is the final report of project Performance Assessment and Economic Evaluation of Nuclear Waste Management (TOKA) at the Nuclear Engineering Laboratory of VTT (Technical Research Centre of Finland), forming part of the Publicly Financed Nuclear Waste Management Research Programme (JYT). The project covers safety and cost aspects of all phases of nuclear waste management. The main emphasis has been on developing an integrated system of models for performance assessment of nuclear waste repositories. During the four years the project has so far been in progress, the total amount of work has been around 14 person-years. Computer codes are the main tools in the project, they are either developed by the project team or acquired from abroad. In-house model development has been especially active in groundwater flow, near-field and migration modelling. The quantitative interpretation of Finnish tracer experiments in the laboratory and natural analogue studies at Palmottu support performance assessments via increased confidence in the migration concepts used. The performance assessment philosophy adopted by the team consists of deterministic modelling and pragmatic scenario analysis. This is supported by the long-term experience in practical performance assessment of the team, and in theoretical probabilistic modelling exercises. The radiological risks of spent fuel transportation from the Loviisa nuclear power plant to Russia have been analysed using a probabilistic computer code and Finnish traffic accident statistics. The project assists the authorities in the annual assessment of utility estimates of funding needs for future nuclear waste management operations. The models and methods used within the project are tested in international verification/validation projects

  17. Burden of industrial waste and potential for recycling: technological, economic and environmental aspects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mihajlović Ivan

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Many benefits resulting from the development of the heavy industry are, unfortunately, accompanied by many issues resulting from the process of generating the industrial waste. This manuscript is presenting the environmental consequences, resulting from long period of time of heavy industry production and exploring the possibilities to recycle some of the industrial waste generated during the period of more than one century of ore excavation and copper extraction in the region of Eastern Serbia, in the vicinity of city of Bor. First part of the manuscript is presenting the scope of environmental issues, resulting from the heavy industry in this region and the amounts and the structure of the industrial waste, generated in this area, as well as the influence of generated waste to the environment of the region. Second part of the manuscript is dealing with the potential to recycle and reuse some of this waste, analyzing technological, economic and environmental aspects at the same time. In the final segment of the paper, some practical examples will be addressed based on the research work conducted at both experimental and industrial level. Results presented in the manuscript are mostly collected during long term research of the project team from Technical faculty in Bor, University of Belgrade, in the field of environmental management. This way, this manuscript is based on review of the research papers authored or co-authored by the author of this work, dealing with water, soil and air pollution, published in leading international journals. Also, the manuscript is presenting the literature review of other international issues dealing with the environmental management issues in the vicinity of large industrial complexes. Parts of the research results, presented in this manuscript are financially supported by the Ministry of Education, Science and Technological development of Republic of Serbia, under the project TR34023.

  18. Economic and fiscal impacts of large-scale development projects: implications for nuclear waste repositories

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Leistritz, F.L.; Murdock, S.H.; Texas A and M Univ., College Station)

    1982-01-01

    This paper deals with the local economic and fiscal implications of siting high-level nuclear waste repositories in rural areas. The economic and fiscal effects of repository development fall into two categories: (1) standard impacts similar to those that would be associated with developing any large-scale industrial facility in an isolated area; (2) special impacts that result from the hazardous nature of the nuclear materials stored and from federal ownership of the facility. Standard economic and fiscal impacts include employment effects (direct and secondary), local income changes, alterations in community price structures, effects on community services, and changes in revenues and costs for local jurisdictions. Special impacts include the possibility of diminished activity in other basic economic sectors, negative effects on the area's long-term growth prospects and a consequent dampening of investment in the local trade an service sectors, additional costs for local jurisdictions (e.g., for preparing evacuation plans), and limited local tax revenues resulting from the tax-exempt status of the facility. These special effects are difficult to quantify and require additional analysis. 47 references, 1 figure, 4 tables

  19. Economic impacts of the total nuclear waste management program envisioned for the United States

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Busch, L.; Zielen, A.J.; Parry, S.J.S.

    1978-01-01

    This paper presents information on the costs of nuclear waste management and on the impacts of those costs on the price of power and on the capital and labor markets. It is assumed that the LWR would be the sole commercial reactor used through the year 2000. Two fuel cycle options are considered: the throwaway mode (spent fuel is waste), and the full recycle for comparison. Total costs are calculated for all facilities needed to store, package, and reposit all the spent fuel through the lifetime of 380 GW capacity installed by 2000 and operating for 30 y. The economic impact is: the price of power produced by the reactors would be increased by 1.4%; the capital for nuclear plants would apply to waste management; the average annual labor effort needed over the next 50 to 75 years is 3000 to 5000 man years; and the unit cost of spent fuel disposal is $129/kg ($119/kg for full recycle). 7 tables

  20. Markets and economics of mixed waste paper as a boiler fuel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lyons, J.K.; Kerstetter, J.D.

    1991-01-01

    Mixed waste paper (MWP) is the second largest component of the municipal solid waste steam disposal of in Washington State. Recent state legislation has mandated source separation of recycled material including MWP. The quantity collected will soon saturate both domestic and foreign markets. An alternative market could be as a fuel in existing combustors. The use of MWP as a fuel requires environmental and economic acceptance by potential users. MWP was analyzed for heavy metal concentrations and elemental composition and found to be similar to existing solid and fossil fuels burned in existing boilers. Existing regulations, however, may classify MWP as a municipal solid waste, thus increasing the capital and administrative costs of using this fuel. The cost of processing MWP into a fluff and a pellet was determined. Three existing facilities were studied to determine the capital and operating costs for them to use MWP fuel. In all cases, the cost of processing and transporting the fuel was greater than the break-even price that could be paid by the potential users

  1. Alternative management structures for municipal waste collection services: The influence of economic and political factors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Plata-Díaz, Ana María; Zafra-Gómez, José Luis; Pérez-López, Gemma; López-Hernández, Antonio Manuel

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • We analyzed the factors that influence on the restructuring of MSW services. • We evaluated five different alternatives for public and private service. • Our analysis covers a broad time horizon, 2002–2010. • We used a conditional fixed-effects logistic regression as the evaluation method. • Municipalities tend to contract out the MSW service in the presence of high costs and fiscal stress. - Abstract: Identifying and characterising the factors that determine why a local authority opts for a particular way of managing its waste collection service is an important issue, warranting research interest in the field of municipal solid waste (MSW) management. This paper presents empirical evidence spanning a broad time horizon (2002–2010) showing that economic and political factors impact in different ways on the provision of waste management services. We examine five alternatives in this area, including public and private service delivery formulas and, within each field, individual and joint options. Our findings highlight the importance of the service cost and that of the various indicators of fiscal stress as determinant factors of management decisions regarding the provision of MSW management services

  2. An environmental friendly animal waste disposal process with ammonia recovery and energy production: Experimental study and economic analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, Ye; Tan, Michelle Ting Ting; Chong, Clive; Xiao, Wende; Wang, Chi-Hwa

    2017-10-01

    Animal manure waste is considered as an environmental challenge especially in farming areas mainly because of gaseous emission and water pollution. Among all the pollutants emitted from manure waste, ammonia is of greatest concern as it could contribute to formation of aerosols in the air and could hardly be controlled by traditional disposal methods like landfill or composting. On the other hand, manure waste is also a renewable source for energy production. In this work, an environmental friendly animal waste disposal process with combined ammonia recovery and energy production was proposed and investigated both experimentally and economically. Lab-scale feasibility study results showed that 70% of ammonia in the manure waste could be converted to struvite as fertilizer, while solid manure waste was successfully gasified in a 10kW downdraft fixed-bed gasifier producing syngas with the higher heating value of 4.9MJ/(Nm 3 ). Based on experimental results, economic study for the system was carried out using a cost-benefit analysis to investigate the financial feasibility based on a Singapore case study. In addition, for comparison, schemes of gasification without ammonia removal and incineration were also studied for manure waste disposal. The results showed that the proposed gasification-based manure waste treatment process integrated with ammonia recovery was most financially viable. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Energy, economic and environmental (3E) analysis of waste-to-energy (WTE) strategies for municipal solid waste (MSW) management in Malaysia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tan, Sie Ting; Ho, Wai Shin; Hashim, Haslenda; Lee, Chew Tin; Taib, Mohd Rozainee; Ho, Chin Siong

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • 3E impact of WTE derived from MSW were performed. • MSW treatment technologies significantly effects the economic and environmental benefits of WTE. • Different scenarios are conducted based on the waste projections and production. • Comprehensive discussion on the trade-off of both incineration and anaerobic digestion for MSWM. - Abstract: The utilisation of municipal solid waste (MSW) for energy production has been implemented globally for many decades. Malaysia, however, is still highly dependent on landfills for MSW management. Because of the concern for greenhouse gases (GHG) emission and the scarcity of land, Malaysia has an urgent need for a better waste management strategy. This study aims to evaluate the energy, economic and environmental (3E) impact of waste-to-energy (WTE) for municipal solid waste management. An existing landfill in Malaysia is selected as the case study for consideration to adopt the advanced WTE technologies including the landfill gas recovery system (LFGRS), incineration, anaerobic digestion (AD), and gasification. The study presented an interactive comparison of different WTE scenarios and followed by further discussion on waste incineration and AD as the two potential WTE options in Malaysia. The 3E assessment reveals incineration as the superior technology choice when the production of electricity and heat were considered; however, AD is found to be more favourable under the consideration of electricity production only

  4. Assessment of TEES{reg_sign} applications for Wet Industrial Wastes: Energy benefit and economic analysis report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Elliott, D.C.; Scheer, T.H.

    1992-02-01

    Fundamental work is catalyzed biomass pyrolysis/gasification led to the Thermochemical Environmental Energy System (TEES{reg_sign}) concept, a means of converting moist biomass feedstocks to high-value fuel gases such as methane. A low-temperature (350{degrees}C), pressurized (3100 psig) reaction environment and a nickel catalyst are used to reduce volumes of very high-moisture wastes such as food processing byproducts while producing useful quantities of energy. A study was conducted to assess the economic viability of a range of potential applications of the process. Cases examined included feedstocks of cheese whey, grape pomace, spent grain, and an organic chemical waste stream. The analysis indicated that only the organic chemical waste process is economically attractive in the existing energy/economic environment. However, food processing cases will become attractive as alternative disposal practices are curtailed and energy prices rise.

  5. Thermal and economic analyses of a compact waste heat recovering system for the marine diesel engine using transcritical Rankine cycle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yang, Min-Hsiung

    2015-01-01

    Graphical abstract: Schematic diagram of the CWHRS for a marine diesel engine. - Highlights: • The economic optimization of a CWHRS of a marine engine is investigated. • The environmental protection refrigerant, R1234yf is used as the working fluid of the TRC system. • The optimal analysis and comparison of three models for waste heat recovering have been carried out. • The optimization of payback periods, CO 2 emission reducing and diesel oil saving are reported. - Abstract: The aim of this study is to investigate the economic performance of a novel compact waste heat recovering system for the marine diesel engine. The transcritical Rankine cycle is employed to convert the waste heat resources to useful work with R1234yf. To evaluate the utilizing efficiency and economic performance of waste heat resources, which are exhaust gas, cylinder cooling water and scavenge air cooling water, three operating models of the system are investigated and compared. The levelized energy cost, which represents the total cost per kilo-watt power, is employed to evaluate the economic performance of the system. The economic optimization and its corresponding optimal parameters of each operating model in the compact waste heat recovering system are obtained theoretically. The results show that the minimal levelized energy cost of the proposed system operated in Model I is the lowest of the three models, and then are Model II and Model III, which are 2.96% and 9.36% lower for, respectively. Similarly, the CO 2 emission reduction is the highest for Model I of the three models, and 21.6% and 30.1% lower are obtained for Model II and Model III, respectively. The compact waste heat recovering system operated in Model I has superiority on the payback periods and heavy diesel oil saving over the others. Finally, the correlations using specific work of working fluid and condensation temperature as parameters are proposed to assess the optimal conditions in economic performance

  6. Impact of mine waste dumps on growth and biomass of economically important crops.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mathiyazhagan, Narayanan; Natarajan, Devarajan

    2012-11-01

    The present study aimed to investigate the effect of magnesite and bauxite waste dumps on growth and biochemical parameters of some edible and economically important plants such as Vigna radiata, V. mungo, V. unguiculata, Eleusine coracana, Cajanus cajan, Pennisetum glaucum, Macrotyloma uniflorum, Oryza sativa, Sorghum bicolour, Sesamum indicum, Ricinus communis, Brassica juncea, Gossypium hirsutum and Jatropha curcas. The growth rate of all the crops was observed in the range of 75 to 100% in magnesite and 15 to 100% in bauxite mine soil. The moisture content of roots and shoots of all the crops were in the range of 24 to 77, 20 to 88% and 42 to 87, 59 to 88% respectively. The height of the crops was in the range of 2.6 to 48 cm in magnesite soil and 3 to 33 cm in bauxite soil. Thus the study shows that both mine soils reflects some physical and biomolecule impact on selected crops.

  7. A dynamic model for organic waste management in Quebec (D-MOWIQ) as a tool to review environmental, societal and economic perspectives of a waste management policy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hénault-Ethier, Louise; Martin, Jean-Philippe; Housset, Johann

    2017-08-01

    A dynamic systems model of organic waste management for the province of Quebec, Canada, was built. Six distinct modules taking into account social, economical and environmental issues and perspectives were included. Five scenarios were designed and tested to identify the potential consequences of different governmental and demographic combinations of decisions over time. Among these scenarios, one examines Quebec's organic waste management policy (2011-2015), while the other scenarios represent business as usual or emphasize ecology, economy or social benefits in the decision-making process. Model outputs suggest that the current governmental policy should yield favorable environmental benefits, energy production and waste valorization. The projections stemming from the current policy action plan approach the benefits gained by another scenario emphasizing the environmental aspects in the decision-making process. As expected, without the current policy and action plan in place, or business as usual, little improvements are expected in waste management compared to current trends, and strictly emphasizing economic imperatives does not favor sustainable organic waste management. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  8. Thermo-economic optimization of Regenerative Organic Rankine Cycle for waste heat recovery applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Imran, Muhammad; Park, Byung Sik; Kim, Hyouck Ju; Lee, Dong Hyun; Usman, Muhammad; Heo, Manki

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • Thermo-economic optimization of regenerative ORC is performed. • Optimization is performed using multi objective genetic algorithm. • Objective function is maximum cycle efficiency and minimum specific investment. • Evaporation pressure, pinch point and superheat are decision variables. • Sensitivity analysis is performed to investigate effect of decision variables. - Abstract: Organic Rankine Cycle (ORC) is low grade and waste heat conversion technology. The current article deal with the thermo-economic optimization of basic ORC and regenerative ORC for waste heat recovery applications under constant heat source condition. Thermal efficiency and specific investment cost of basic ORC, single stage regenerative and double stage regenerative ORC has been optimized by using Non-dominated Sorting Genetic Algorithm-II (NSGA-II). Maximum thermal efficiency and minimum specific investment cost were selected as objective functions and relative increase in thermal efficiency and cost has been analyzed taking the basic ORC as base case. The constraint set consist of evaporation pressure, superheat, pinch point temperature difference in evaporator and condenser. The optimization was performed for five different working fluids. The optimization result show that R245fa is best working under considered conditions and basic ORC has low specific investment cost and thermal efficiency compared to regenerative ORC. R245fa is low boiling organic fluid, which has high degree of thermal stability and compatible with common construction materials of ORC. The average increase in thermal efficiency from basic ORC to single stage regenerative ORC was 1.01% with an additional cost of 187 $/kW while from basic ORC to double stage regenerative ORC was 1.45% with an average increase in cost of 297 $/kW. The sensitivity analysis was also performed to investigate the effect of operating conditions which show that evaporation pressure has promising effect on thermal

  9. Thermo-Economic Performance Analysis of a Regenerative Superheating Organic Rankine Cycle for Waste Heat Recovery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhonghe Han

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available The Organic Rankine Cycle (ORC is a promising form of technology for recovering low-grade waste heat. In this study, a regenerative ORC system is established to recover the waste flue gas of 160 °C. Focusing on thermodynamic and economic performance while simultaneously considering the limitations of volume flow ratio (VFR and the effect of superheat, working fluid selection and parameter optimization have been investigated. The optimization of the evaporation temperature is carried out by analyzing the variation of net power output and specific investment cost (SIC. Then, the net power output, specific net power output, total exergy destruction rate, VFR, total capital cost, and levelized electricity cost (LEC are selected as criteria, and a fuzzy multi-criteria evaluation method is adopted to select a more suitable working fluid and determine the optimal degree of superheat. In addition, the preheating coefficient, latent heat coefficient, superheating coefficient, and internal heat coefficient were proposed to explore the effect of working fluid critical temperature on thermal efficiency. Research studies demonstrate that there is an optimal evaporation temperature, maximizing net power output and minimizing the SIC. Isohexane and butane have greater specific net power output due to greater latent heat. A suitable degree of superheat is not only conducive to improving the working capacity of working fluids, but also reduces the VFR, total capital cost, SIC, and LEC for different working fluids. Thus, the system’s thermodynamic and economic performance—as well as the operational stability—are improved. Among the six working fluids, butane exhibits the best comprehensive performance, and its optimal evaporation temperature and degree of superheat are 100 °C and 5 °C, respectively.

  10. Generalized economic model for evaluating disposal costs at a low-level waste disposal facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baird, R.D.; Rogers, V.C.

    1985-01-01

    An economic model is developed which can be used to evaluate cash flows associated with the development, operations, closure, and long-term maintenance of a proposed Low-Level Radioactive Waste disposal facility and to determine the unit disposal charges and unit surcharges which might result. The model includes the effects of nominal interest rate (rate of return on investment, or cost of capital), inflation rate, waste volume growth rate, site capacity, duration of various phases of the facility history, and the cash flows associated with each phase. The model uses standard discounted cash flow techniques on an after-tax basis to determine that unit disposal charge which is necessary to cover all costs and expenses and to generate an adequate rate of return on investment. It separately considers cash flows associated with post-operational activities to determine the required unit surcharge. The model is applied to three reference facilities to determine the respective unit disposal charges and unit surcharges, with various values of parameters. The sensitivity of the model results are evaluated for the unit disposal charge

  11. Solid waste from aluminum recycling process: characterization and reuse of its economically valuable constituents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shinzato, M C; Hypolito, R

    2005-01-01

    Due to economic advantages, many companies in Brazil recover Al from the process of crushing and water-leaching of secondary aluminum dross. Wastes from this process (non-metallic products and salts) are usually landfilled or disposed without treatment, causing many environmental damages. The purpose of this work is to investigate, in a recycling company sited in Sao Paulo metropolitan area (Brazil), the potential use of the non-metallic product (NMP) in the production of concrete blocks and to evaluate the presence of important chemical compounds that may be useful for other applications. Chemical and mineralogical analyses revealed that NMP is composed of refractory and abrasive oxides (alpha-Al2O3, MgAl2O4, SiO2) and an important source of transition alumina: alpha-Al(OH)3. Concrete blocks were made by adding two parts of NMP to one part of cement and four parts of sand. The blocks were tested according to the Brazilian standard (NBR7173/1982) and they passed dimension, humidity and absorption tests but not compressive strength tests. However, particular NMP constituents have accelerated the strength rate development of the blocks, thus decreasing working time. The commercial use of NMP can reduce the amount of discarded wastes contributing to environmental preservation.

  12. Techno-economic Comparison of Geological Disposal of Carbon Dioxide and Radioactive Waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2014-12-01

    The reduction of greenhouse gas emissions is an important prerequisite for sustainable development. The energy sector is a major contributor to such emissions, which are mostly from fossil fuel fired power plants acting as point sources of carbon dioxide (CO 2 ) discharges. For the last twenty years, the new technology of carbon capture and storage, which mitigates CO 2 emissions, has been considered in many IAEA Member States. This technology involves the removal of CO 2 from the combustion process and its disposal in geological formations, such as depleted oil or gas fields, saline aquifers or unmineable coal seams. A large scale energy supply option with low CO 2 emissions is nuclear power. The high level radioactive waste produced during nuclear power plant operation and decommissioning as well as in nuclear fuel reprocessing is also planned to be disposed of in deep geological formations. To further research and development in these areas and to compare and learn from the planning, development and implementation of these two underground waste disposal concepts, the IAEA launched the coordinated research project (CRP) Techno-economic Comparison of Ultimate Disposal Facilities for Carbon Dioxide and Radioactive Waste. The project started in 2008 and was completed in 2012. The project established an international network of nine institutions from nine IAEA Member States, representing both developing and developed countries. The CRP results compared the geological disposal facilities in the following areas: geology, environmental impacts, risk and safety assessment, monitoring, cost estimation, public perception, policy, regulation and institutions. This publication documents the outcome of the CRP and is structured into thematic chapters, covering areas analysed. Each chapter was prepared under the guidance of a lead author and involved co-authors from different Member States with diverse expertise in related areas. Participants drew on the results of earlier

  13. Environmental and economic evaluation of pre-disaster plans for disaster waste management: Case study of Minami-Ise, Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tabata, Tomohiro; Wakabayashi, Yohei; Tsai, Peii; Saeki, Takashi

    2017-03-01

    Although it is important that disaster waste be demolished and removed as soon as possible after a natural disaster, it is also important that its treatment is environmentally friendly and economic. Local municipalities do not conduct environmental and economic feasibility studies of pre-disaster waste management; nevertheless, pre-disaster waste management is extremely important to promote treatment of waste after natural disasters. One of the reasons that they cannot conduct such evaluations is that the methods and inventory data required for the environmental and economic evaluation does not exist. In this study, we created the inventory data needed for evaluation and constructed evaluation methods using life cycle assessment (LCA) and life cycle cost (LCC) methodologies for future natural disasters. We selected the Japanese town of Minami-Ise for the related case study. Firstly, we estimated that the potential disaster waste generation derived from dwellings would be approximately 554,000t. Based on this result, the land area required for all the temporary storage sites for storing the disaster waste was approximately 55ha. Although the public domain and private land area in this case study is sufficient, several sites would be necessary to transport waste to other sites with enough space because local space is scarce. Next, we created inventory data of each process such as waste transportation, operation of the temporary storage sites, and waste treatment. We evaluated the environmental burden and cost for scenarios in which the disaster waste derived from specified kinds of home appliances (refrigerators, washing machines, air-conditioners and TV sets) was transported, stored and recycled. In the scenario, CO 2 , SO x , NO X and PM emissions and total cost were 142t, 7kg, 257kg, 38kg and 1772 thousand USD, respectively. We also focused on SO x emission as a regional pollution source because transportation and operation of the temporary storage sites generates

  14. Development of computer program for the economic evaluation of the volume reduction system for the low-level radioactive waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yang, Jin Yeong; Lee, Kun Jai

    1994-01-01

    This study provides the basis for investigating the benefits of purchasing volume reduction equipment and includes the establishment of a volume reduction data base, the creation of the volume reduction cost analysis computer program PEEVR (Program of Economic Evaluation for the Volume Reduction), and a generic analysis designed to identify the major costs influencing the economics of the various equipment options. In treating the plant types and the wastes, this study considers that condensate polishing system is included or not in PWR and precoatcondensate polishing system, deep bed condensate polishing system in BWR and the 5 waste streams, i. e., compactibIe trash (COTRASH), ion exchange resin (IXRESIN), concentrate liquid (CONCLIQ), filter sludge (FSLUDGE), non compactible trash (COTRASH). This study uses the PVRR and LRR methods to create cost analysis and performs sensitivity analysis for the each cost variables and shows that future burial costs increases are the major factors in the economic evaluation

  15. Economic screening of renewable energy technologies: Incineration, anaerobic digestion, and biodiesel as applied to waste water scum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, Erik; Addy, Min; Ma, Huan; Chen, Paul; Ruan, Roger

    2016-12-01

    In the U.S., the total amount of municipal solid waste is continuously rising each year. Millions of tons of solid waste and scum are produced annually that require safe and environmentally sound disposal. The availability of a zero-cost energy source like municipal waste scum is ideal for several types of renewable energy technologies. However, the way the energy is produced, distributed and valued also contributes to the overall process sustainability. An economic screening method was developed to compare the potential energy and economic value of three waste-to-energy technologies; incineration, anaerobic digestion, and biodiesel. A St. Paul, MN wastewater treatment facility producing 3175 "wet" kilograms of scum per day was used as a basis of the comparison. After applying all theoretically available subsidies, scum to biodiesel was shown to have the greatest economic potential, valued between $491,949 and $610,624/year. The incineration of scum yielded the greatest reclaimed energy potential at 29billion kilojoules/year. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Economic evaluation of technology for a new generation biofuel production using wastes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koutinas, Athanasios; Kanellaki, Maria; Bekatorou, Argyro; Kandylis, Panagiotis; Pissaridi, Katerina; Dima, Agapi; Boura, Konstantina; Lappa, Katerina; Tsafrakidou, Panagiota; Stergiou, Panagiota-Yiolanda; Foukis, Athanasios; Gkini, Olga A; Papamichael, Emmanuel M

    2016-01-01

    An economic evaluation of an integrated technology for industrial scale new generation biofuel production using whey, vinasse, and lignocellulosic biomass as raw materials is reported. Anaerobic packed-bed bioreactors were used for organic acids production using initially synthetic media and then wastes. Butyric, lactic and acetic acid were predominately produced from vinasse, whey, and cellulose, respectively. Mass balance was calculated for a 16,000L daily production capacity. Liquid-liquid extraction was applied for recovery of the organic acids using butanol-1 as an effective extraction solvent which serves also as the alcohol for the subsequent enzyme-catalyzed esterification. The investment needed for the installation of the factory was estimated to about 1.7million€ with depreciation excepted at about 3months. For cellulosics, the installation investment was estimated to be about 7-fold higher with depreciation at about 1.5years. The proposed technology is an alternative trend in biofuel production. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  17. Modelling the correlations of e-waste quantity with economic increase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Awasthi, Abhishek Kumar; Cucchiella, Federica; D'Adamo, Idiano; Li, Jinhui; Rosa, Paolo; Terzi, Sergio; Wei, Guoyin; Zeng, Xianlai

    2018-02-01

    Waste from Electrical and Electronic Equipment (WEEE or e-waste) is regarded as one of the fastest growing waste streams in the world and is becoming an emerging issue owing to adverse consequences on the natural environment and the human health. This research article reveals the presence of a strong linear correlation among global e-waste generation and Gross Domestic Product. The obtained results indicate that the best fit for data can be reached by comparing e-waste collected volumes and GDP PPS. More in detail, an increase of 1000 GDP PPS means an additional 0.27kg of e-waste collected and 0.22kg of e-waste reused/recycled. Furthermore, for each additional citizen, there will be an increase of 7.7kg of e-waste collected and 6.2kg of e-waste reused/recycled. The better collection of e-waste acts an important role concerning the circular economy, and it can be an advantageous approach. Therefore, e-waste could be considered as an opportunity for recycling or recovery of valuable metals (e.g., copper, gold, silver, and palladium), given their significant content in precious metals than in mineral ores. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Assessment of economic instruments for countries with low municipal waste management performance: An approach based on the analytic hierarchy process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kling, Maximilian; Seyring, Nicole; Tzanova, Polia

    2016-09-01

    Economic instruments provide significant potential for countries with low municipal waste management performance in decreasing landfill rates and increasing recycling rates for municipal waste. In this research, strengths and weaknesses of landfill tax, pay-as-you-throw charging systems, deposit-refund systems and extended producer responsibility schemes are compared, focusing on conditions in countries with low waste management performance. In order to prioritise instruments for implementation in these countries, the analytic hierarchy process is applied using results of a literature review as input for the comparison. The assessment reveals that pay-as-you-throw is the most preferable instrument when utility-related criteria are regarded (wb = 0.35; analytic hierarchy process distributive mode; absolute comparison) mainly owing to its waste prevention effect, closely followed by landfill tax (wb = 0.32). Deposit-refund systems (wb = 0.17) and extended producer responsibility (wb = 0.16) rank third and fourth, with marginal differences owing to their similar nature. When cost-related criteria are additionally included in the comparison, landfill tax seems to provide the highest utility-cost ratio. Data from literature concerning cost (contrary to utility-related criteria) is currently not sufficiently available for a robust ranking according to the utility-cost ratio. In general, the analytic hierarchy process is seen as a suitable method for assessing economic instruments in waste management. Independent from the chosen analytic hierarchy process mode, results provide valuable indications for policy-makers on the application of economic instruments, as well as on their specific strengths and weaknesses. Nevertheless, the instruments need to be put in the country-specific context along with the results of this analytic hierarchy process application before practical decisions are made. © The Author(s) 2016.

  19. The importance of counting cows: Social and economic effects of a high-level nuclear waste repository in Texas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fleishman, J.; Brody, J.; Galavotti, C.

    1987-01-01

    Impact assessments that rely on existing records and extrapolation from broad geographic areas provide inadequate information about social and economic conditions important in siting a high-level nuclear waste repository. Texas has used an alternative approach, involving systematic surveys of representative samples of local residents, farm operators and businesses in the proposed site counties and comparison areas. Results show that this technique is useful in describing current economic conditions, including characteristics of key sectors of the economy, changes related to the siting process, and expectations that may influence investment. In addition, the surveys are useful in assessing the degree of consensus in local communities and in identifying possible differential effects of a repository on particular groups. They also provide a baseline for long-term monitoring of repository effects and contribute to their understanding of the underlying processes that shape public response to the nuclear waste program

  20. Multi-Objective Thermo-Economic Optimization Strategy for ORCs Applied to Subcritical and Transcritical Cycles for Waste Heat Recovery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Steven Lecompte

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Organic Rankine cycles (ORCs are an established technology to convert waste heat to electricity. Although several commercial implementations exist, there is still considerable potential for thermo-economic optimization. As such, a novel framework for designing optimized ORC systems is proposed based on a multi-objective optimization scheme in combination with financial appraisal in a post-processing step. The suggested methodology provides the flexibility to quickly assess several economic scenarios and this without the need of knowing the complex design procedure. This novel way of optimizing and interpreting results is applied to a waste heat recovery case. Both the transcritical ORC and subcritical ORC are investigated and compared using the suggested optimization strategy.

  1. Energy and economic analysis of total energy systems for residential and commercial buildings. [utilizing waste heat recovery techniques

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maag, W. L.; Bollenbacher, G.

    1974-01-01

    Energy and economic analyses were performed for an on-site power-plant with waste heat recovery. The results show that for any specific application there is a characteristic power conversion efficiency that minimizes fuel consumption, and that efficiencies greater than this do not significantly improve fuel consumption. This type of powerplant appears to be a reasonably attractive investment if higher fuel costs continue.

  2. Electricity production from anaerobic digestion of household organic waste in Ontario: techno-economic and GHG emission analyses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanscartier, David; Maclean, Heather L; Saville, Bradley

    2012-01-17

    The first Feed-in-Tariff (FiT) program in North America was recently implemented in Ontario, Canada to stimulate the generation of electricity from renewable sources. The life cycle greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions and economics of electricity generation through anaerobic digestion (AD) of household source-separated organic waste (HSSOW) are investigated within the FiT program. AD can potentially provide considerable GHG emission reductions (up to 1 t CO(2)eq/t HSSOW) at relatively low to moderate cost (-$35 to 160/t CO(2)eq) by displacing fossil electricity and preventing the emission of landfill gas. It is a cost-effective GHG mitigation option compared to some other FiT technologies (e.g., wind, solar photovoltaic) and provides unique additional benefits (waste diversion, nutrient recycling). The combination of electricity sales at a premium rate, savings in waste management costs, and economies of scale allow AD facilities processing >30,000 t/yr to be cost-competitive against landfilling. However, the FiT does not sufficiently support smaller-scale facilities that are needed as a transition to larger, more economically viable facilities. Refocusing of the FiT program and waste policies are needed to support the adoption of AD of HSSOW, which has not yet been developed in the Province, while more costly technologies (e.g., photovoltaic) have been deployed.

  3. Economics of defense high level waste management in the United States

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McDonell, W.R.

    1987-01-01

    Life-cycle costs of defense waste disposal, as presented in the foregoing sections, are summarized. Expressed as incremental costs per canister of waste deposited in a Federal geologic repository and per gallon of decontaminated salt solution immobilized in onsite concrete vaults, the tabulated values provide a measure of waste management costs relatively independent of the inventories of waste processed. Total values are about $350,000 per glass waste canister processed and $4.68 per gallon of decontaminated salt immobilized. These costs do not generally include contributions of fixed charges, such as capital costs, except in the case of transport and repository charges for which the quantities of waste handled determine allocation of fixed costs included in the fee assessments. 14 refs., 2 figs., 3 tabs

  4. Techno-Economic Assessment of Recycling BOF Offgas Cleaning System Solid Wastes by Using Zinc-Free Scrap

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Naiyang

    High zinc concentration in basic oxygen furnace (BOF) steelmaking offgas (OG) cleaning system solid wastes is one of the main barriers for recycling of the solid wastes in sintering — blast furnace ironmaking process. One of the possible solutions is to utilize zinc-free scrap in BOF steelmaking so that the BOF OG solid wastes will not be contaminated with zinc and can be recycled through sintering — blast furnace ironmaking. This paper describes a model for helping to decide whether to use zinc-free scrap in a BOF process. A model computing marginal price increment of zinc-free scrap is developed. The marginal price increment is proportional to value change of the BOF OG solid wastes after and before using zinc-free scrap, to ratio of BOF solid waste rate to purchased galvanized scrap rate, and to price of galvanized scrap. Due to the variations of consumption rate of purchased galvanized scrap and home galvanized scrap, iron ore price, landfill cost, and price of purchased galvanized scrap, using zinc-free scrap in a BOF process might be economically feasible for some ironmaking and steelmaking plants or in some particular market circumstances.

  5. Economic and environmental analysis of four different configurations of anaerobic digestion for food waste to energy conversion using LCA for: a food service provider case study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Franchetti, Matthew

    2013-07-15

    The US disposes of more than 34 million tons of food waste in landfills per year. As this food waste decomposes it generates methane gas and negatively contributes to global warming. Diverting theses organic food wastes from landfills and to emerging technologies will prevent these wastes and greenhouse gas emissions while at the same time generating a source renewable energy by collecting the emitted gases. From a waste prevention standpoint, instead of the food waste decomposing at local landfills, it is being converted into an energy source and the by-product may be used as a fertilizer (Fine and Hadas, 2012). The purpose of this study was to compare four different configurations of anaerobic digestion of organic waste to energy technologies from an economic, energy, and emissions standpoint using LCA via a case study at a large food services provider in Northwest Ohio, USA. The technologies studied included two-stage anaerobic digestion system using ultrasound pre-treating, two stage continuous combined thermophilic acidogenic hydrogenesis and mesophilic with recirculation of the digested sludge, long-term anaerobic digestion of food waste stabilized by trace elements, and single stage anaerobic digestion. Using LCA, these scenarios were compared to landfill disposal of the food waste. The findings from the case study indicated that implementing on-site waste to energy systems will result in lower operation costs and lower environmental impacts. In addition, a standardized environmental and economic comparison of competing food waste to energy technologies is provided. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Economics model for new low-level radioactive waste disposal sites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1983-12-01

    This report describes LLWECON, an interactive computer mode for evaluating financial factors involved in low-level radioactive waste disposal. The logic by which LLWECON calculates the final generator price (price per cubic foot the disposal site operator charges waste generators) is detailed. Required user input and hypothetical examples, covering sites with different capacities, and both public and private-sector development, are included

  7. Understanding the South African waste sector: The economic and employment opportunities it provides

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Godfrey, Linda K

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available sector revenue) and metropolitan municipalities (80.4% of public sector revenue). An estimated 62.0% of the total revenue generated from waste activities, was done so by companies which had been in the industry for more than 25 years. Young waste...

  8. Socio-economic and other non-radiological impacts of the near surface disposal of radioactive waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2002-09-01

    The objective of this report is to introduce, in a generic sense, the elements that could comprise a socio-economic and non-radiological environmental impact assessment. The various social, economic and environmental impacts that could be associated with surface and near surface disposal are discussed through factors that could apply at the local, regional or national level. Impact management is also discussed. The report also introduces concepts to help Member States develop their own approaches to undertaking impact assessment and management. The report is intended to complement IAEA documents on the technology and safety aspects of the near surface disposal of radioactive waste. The scope of this report includes a discussion of a range of social, economic and nonradiological environmental impacts relevant to surface and near surface disposal and illustrations of some impact management measures

  9. Economical and environmentally-friendly approaches for usage of onion (Allium cepa L.) waste.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, Kavita; Mahato, Neelima; Nile, Shivraj Hariram; Lee, Eul Tal; Lee, Yong Rok

    2016-08-10

    Onion (Allium cepa L.) is one of the most commonly cultivated crops across the globe, and its production is increasing every year due to increasing consumer demand. Simultaneously, huge amounts of waste are produced from different parts of the onion, which ultimately affect the environment in various ways. Hence, proper usage as well as disposal of this waste is important from the environmental aspect. This review summarizes various usage methods of onion waste material, and processes involved to achieve maximum benefits. Processing industries produce the largest amount of onion waste. Other sources are storage systems, domestic usage and cultivation fields. Particular emphasis has been given to the methods used for better extraction and usage of onion waste under specific topics: viz. organic synthesis, production of biogas, absorbent for pollutants and value added products.

  10. Environmental and socio-economic analysis of treatment of biological waste; Miljoe- och samhaellsekonomisk analys av behandling av biologiskt avfall

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ljungkvist, Hanna

    2008-01-15

    Biogas is a renewable fuel that can be extracted from anaerobic digestion of many different substrates, for example biological household waste. An alternative handling of the waste is to mix it with other wastes and incinerate it in a combined heat and power (CHP) plant. This study uses life cycle assessment to investigate which type of waste handling that is better from an environmental point of view, anaerobic digestion with biogas production or incineration. The results are based on a case study of a biogas production plant owned by the company Ragn-Sells in Vaenersborg. The alternative is incineration at a CHP plant in Gothenburg. Three different weighting methods were used, which produced different results on the detailed level. Overall however, the alternative with digestion and biogas production had significantly lower potential environmental impact than incineration according to all three methods. An economic valuation of the biogas production potential showed that the biggest societal savings would result from using all the produced biogas in heavy vehicles or to replace fuel oil for heating. However, since biogas is a high quality fuel it should be used as transportation fuel rather than for heating. By digestion and biogas production many potential services are gained from the organic waste. Waste volumes are reduced, emissions from the transport sector are reduced, local air quality is improved and valuable nutrients are returned to farmland through the organic fertilizer produced. The infrastructure and knowledge built up around the biogas system is also very valuable as a bridge to future gas based transport systems

  11. [Impact of Phosphogypsum Wastes on the Wheat Growth and CO2 Emissions and Evaluation of Economic-environmental Benefit].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Ji; Wu, Hong-sheng; Gao, Zhi-qiu; Shang, Xiao-xia; Zheng, Pei-hui; Yin, Jin; Kakpa, Didier; Ren, Qian-qi; Faustin, Ogou Katchele; Chen, Su-yun; Xu, Ya; Yao, Tong-yan; Ji, Wei; Qian, Jing-shan; Ma, Shi-jie

    2015-08-01

    Phosphogypsum is a phosphorus chemical waste which has not been managed and reused well, resultantly, causing environmental pollution and land-occupation. Phosphogypsum wastes were used as a soil amendment to assess the effect on wheat growth, yield and CO2 emissions from winter wheat fields. Its economic and environmental benefits were analyzed at the same time. The results showed that wheat yield was increased by 37.71% in the treatment of phosphogypsum of 2 100 kg x hm(-2). Compared with the control treatment, throughout the wheat growing season, CO2 emission was accumulatively reduced by 3% in the treatment of phosphogypsum waste of 1050 kg x hm(-2), while reduced by 8% , 10% , and 6% during the jointing stage, heading date and filling period of wheat, respectively; while CO2 emission was accumulatively reduced by 7% in the treatment of phosphogypsum waste of 2 100 kg x hm(-2) throughout the wheat growing season, as reduced by 11% , 4% , and 12% during the reviving wintering stage, heading date and filling period of wheat, respectively. It was better for CO2 emission reduction in the treatment of a larger amount of phosphogypsum waste. In the case of application of phosphogypsum waste residue within a certain range, the emission intensity of CO2 ( CO2 emissions of per unit of fresh weight or CO2 emissions of per unit of yield) , spike length, fresh weight and yield showed a significantly negative correlation--the longer the ear length, the greater fresh weight and yield and the lower the CO2 emissions intensity. As to the carbon trading, phosphogypsum utilization was of high economic and environmental benefits. Compared with the control, the ratio of input to output changed from 1: 8.3 to 1: 10.7, which in the same situation of investment the output could be increased by 28.92% ; phosphogypsum as a greenhouse gas reducing agent in the wheat field, it could decrease the cost and increase the environmental benefit totally about 290 yuan per unit of ton. The

  12. The economic impact of wasted prescription medication in an outpatient population of older adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morgan, T M

    2001-09-01

    The causes and costs of outpatient medication waste are not known. We report the results of a cross-sectional pilot survey of medication waste in a convenience sample of 73 New Hampshire retirement community residents aged 65 years or older. We used questionnaires and in-home pill counts to determine the annual occurrence of medication waste, defined as no intention to take leftover medicines prescribed within the past year. Mean individual annual cost of wasted medication was $30.47 (range = $0-$131.56). Waste represented 2.3% of total medication costs. The main causes for waste included: resolution of the condition for which the medication was prescribed (37.4%), patient-perceived ineffectiveness (22.6%), prescription change by the physician (15.8%), and patient-perceived adverse effects (14.4%). Individual costs were modest, but if $30 per person represents a low estimate of average annual waste, the US national cost for adults older than 65 years would top $1 billion per year.

  13. Economic assessment of greenhouse gas reduction through low-grade waste heat recovery using organic Rankine cycle (ORC)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Imran, Muhammad; Park, Byung Sik; Kim, Hyouck Ju; Usman, Muhammad [University of Science and Technology, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Dong Hyun [Korea Institute of Energy Research, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-02-15

    Low-grade waste heat recovery technologies reduce the environmental impact of fossil fuels and improve overall efficiency. This paper presents the economic assessment of greenhouse gas (GHG) reduction through waste heat recovery using organic Rankine cycle (ORC). The ORC engine is one of the mature low temperature heat engines. The low boiling temperature of organic working fluid enables ORC to recover low-temperature waste heat. The recovered waste heat is utilized to produce electricity and hot water. The GHG emissions for equivalent power and hot water from three fossil fuels-coal, natural gas, and diesel oil-are estimated using the fuel analysis approach and corresponding emission factors. The relative decrease in GHG emission is calculated using fossil fuels as the base case. The total cost of the ORC system is used to analyze the GHG reduction cost for each of the considered fossil fuels. A sensitivity analysis is also conducted to investigate the effect of the key parameter of the ORC system on the cost of GHG reduction. Throughout the 20-year life cycle of the ORC plant, the GHG reduction cost for R245fa is 0.02 $/kg to 0.04 $/kg and that for pentane is 0.04 $/kg to 0.05 $/kg. The working fluid, evaporation pressure, and pinch point temperature difference considerably affect the GHG emission.

  14. Thermal hydrolysis integration in the anaerobic digestion process of different solid wastes: energy and economic feasibility study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cano, R; Nielfa, A; Fdz-Polanco, M

    2014-09-01

    An economic assessment of thermal hydrolysis as a pretreatment to anaerobic digestion has been achieved to evaluate its implementation in full-scale plants. Six different solid wastes have been studied, among them municipal solid waste (MSW). Thermal hydrolysis has been tested with batch lab-scale tests, from which an energy and economic assessment of three scenarios is performed: with and without energy integration (recovering heat to produce steam in a cogeneration plant), finally including the digestate management costs. Thermal hydrolysis has lead to an increase of the methane productions (up to 50%) and kinetics parameters (even double). The study has determined that a proper energy integration design could lead to important economic savings (5 €/t) and thermal hydrolysis can enhance up to 40% the incomes of the digestion plant, even doubling them when digestate management costs are considered. In a full-scale MSW treatment plant (30,000 t/year), thermal hydrolysis would provide almost 0.5 M€/year net benefits. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. INCORPORATING ENVIRONMENTAL AND ECONOMIC CONSIDERATIONS INTO PROCESS DESIGN: THE WASTE REDUCTION (WAR) ALGORITHM

    Science.gov (United States)

    A general theory known as the WAste Reduction (WASR) algorithm has been developed to describe the flow and the generation of potential environmental impact through a chemical process. This theory integrates environmental impact assessment into chemical process design Potential en...

  16. Economic analysis of the expected environmental impact of the Single European Market through the transport, waste and energy sectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brutscher, S.

    1993-01-01

    Similarly to other studies the present dissertation presupposes that the Single European Market will lead to an increase in transport waste quantities, and energy consumption and consequently to greater environmental pollution. Of central importance here is the concept of ''expletive costs'' introduced in this paper which describes that damage to the natural and human environment which is not compensated. It forms out that the sectors of transport, waste, and energy alone will most probably send the expletive costs of the Single European Market into astronomic dimensions. In view of the interdependencies of these three sectors it seems doubtful whether the economic benefit to be expected from the establishment of the Single European Market can justify the additional environmental damage thus caused. (HP) [de

  17. An economic evaluation and assessment of environmental impact of the municipal solid waste management system for Taichung City in Taiwan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Yao-Jen; Chu, Chien-Wei; Lin, Min-Der

    2012-05-01

    Municipal solid waste management (MSWM) is an important environmental challenge and subject in urban planning. For sustainable MSWM strategies, the critical management factors to be considered include not only economic efficiency of MSW treatment but also life-cycle assessment of the environmental impact. This paper employed linear programming technique to establish optimal MSWM strategies considering economic efficiency and the air pollutant emissions during the life cycle of a MSWM system, and investigated the correlations between the economical optimization and pollutant emissions. A case study based on real-world MSW operating parameters in Taichung City is also presented. The results showed that the costs, benefits, streams of MSW, and throughputs of incinerators and landfills will be affected if pollution emission reductions are implemented in the MSWM strategies. In addition, the quantity of particulate matter is the best pollutant indicator for the MSWM system performance of emission reduction. In particular this model will assist the decision maker in drawing up a friendly MSWM strategy for Taichung City in Taiwan. Recently, life-cycle assessments of municipal solid waste management (MSWM) strategies have been given more considerations. However, what seems to be lacking is the consideration of economic factors and environmental impacts simultaneously. This work analyzed real-world data to establish optimal MSWM strategies considering economic efficiency and the air pollutant emissions during the life cycle of the MSWM system. The results indicated that the consideration of environmental impacts will affect the costs, benefits, streams of MSW, and throughputs of incinerators and landfills. This work is relevant to public discussion and may establish useful guidelines for the MSWM policies.

  18. Technical economical study for low and intermediate level radioactive wastes disposal in Cuba

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Suarez, G. Chales; Peralta Vital, J.L.; Castillo, R. Gil; Franklin Saburido, R.; Rodriguez Reyes, A.; Castillo Gomez, R.

    1997-01-01

    The wastes characteristics, the design of the repository, package of the radioactive wastes, as well as, the studies for sitting, conditioning and performance assessment in a preliminary stage are presented considering the perspectives to conclude and operate the Juragua Nuclear Power Station and development of nuclear application in Cuba. The practice and international experience, as well as, the recommendation from the IAEA[1-4] to perform these studies have been analysed

  19. Evaluation of Attitudes & Knowledge Regarding Municipal Waste among Students. Case study: Bucharest Academy of Economic Studies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valentina TÂRŢIU

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available As Maloney and Ward (1973 noted thirty eight years ago, “determining what the population knows regarding ecology, the environment and pollution; how they feel about it; what commitments they are willing to make and what commitments they do make are necessary steps that must be made before adopting any strategy that modifies behaviour and habits”. Taking into account that Romania is facing a great challenge to bring its waste management system in line with EU Directives and the key role of education in this process, the paper aims to explore through a questionnaire based survey: (1 the level of knowledge and awareness regarding municipal waste among students, their attitudes and willingness to act in waste related activities, (2 if there are significant differences regarding students awareness, knowledge and concern according to their gender, age, affiliation (faculty or job status. The paper is structured in four parts, namely: introduction, research methodology, results analysis and conclusions. The findings of this research study showed that the majority of students are generally aware of waste problems. It is important to note, however, that many respondents called for more information, frequent updates and reminders about waste management practices. Pro-environmental and recycling attitudes were shown to be generally positive among students from BAES. Used in the right way such findings might be essential in achieving the overall goal of improving waste management systems, whether it is a recycling scheme, composting scheme or refers to the improvement of environmental awareness process.

  20. Preliminary engineering and economic analysis of the fixation of high-level radioactive wastes in concrete

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Weeren, H.O.; Perona, J.J.

    1979-07-01

    This feasibility study was based on a waste fixation facility that would serve a reprocessing plant with a capacity of 5 metric tons of uranium per day (MTU/day). Postirradiation cooling times of 3 to 10 years prior to waste solidification were assumed. The waste solution would be concentrated, denitrated, mixed with cement, and cast under pressure in cylindrical canisters similar to those envisioned for a glass facility. The solidified waste grout would be vented, to allow the free water to escape, and then sealed. The filled canisters would be shipped to a geologic repository for permanent storage. Recent work with concretes formed under elevated temperatures and pressures (FUETAP) indicates that they are highly leach resistant. The operating costs were estimated for a waste fixation facility under several conditions. Operating costs for a glass fixation facility were also estimated and compared with the operating costs for a concrete fixation facility. The principal conclusion is that concrete could be an alternative to glass as a matrix for fixation of wastes with high heat-generation rates. The operating costs of an optimized concrete fixation process would probably not be greatly higher than the operating costs of a glass plant, and the capital costs would almost surely be lower. In addition, the concrete process is not a high-temperature process and would not have the consequent operating problems

  1. Enhancement of biogas production from food waste and sewage sludge - Environmental and economic life cycle performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eriksson, Ola; Bisaillon, Mattias; Haraldsson, Mårten; Sundberg, Johan

    2016-06-15

    Management of municipal solid waste is an efficient method to increase resource efficiency, as well as to replace fossil fuels with renewable energy sources due to that (1) waste to a large extent is renewable as it consists of food waste, paper, wood etc. and (2) when energy and materials are recovered from waste treatment, fossil fuels can be substituted. In this paper results from a comprehensive system study of future biological treatment of readily degradable waste in two Swedish regions are presented. Different collection and separation systems for food waste in households have been applied as well as technical improvements of the biogas process as to reduce environmental impact. The results show that central sorting of a mixed fraction into recyclables, combustibles, biowaste and inert is a competitive option compared to source separation. Use of pellets is beneficial compared to direct spreading as fertiliser. Fuel pellets seem to be the most favourable option, which to a large extent depends on the circumstances in the energy system. Separation and utilisation of nitrogen in the wet part of the digestion residue is made possible with a number of technologies which decreases environmental impact drastically, however to a substantial cost in some cases. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Economic considerations in the packaging of low-level radioactive waste for land disposal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mallory, Ch.W.

    1984-01-01

    Over the past few years there have been significant increases in the cost of disposal of low-level radioactive waste. Previously, disposal costs were primarily related to the volume of the waste. A present, surface radiation, specific activity and curie content have a major effect on costs and burial costs are no longer directly related to volume. A case study has been made to evaluate the cost of disposal in terms of ''$ per curie'' rather than ''$ per cubic foot''. With higher concentrations of specific activity, the unit costs of transportation, containers and burial are significantly reduced. Processes which increase the concentration of radioactive waste can be more beneficial than processes which only reduce volume. For concentrated waste, solidification can reduce the surface radiation of the containers. This allows casks to handle waste with higher initial specific activity and greater quantities of activity per shipment Burial charges are also reduced because of lower radiation surcharges on a ''$ per curie'' basis. Aging the waste reduces the radiation levels and can reduce disposal costs

  3. The Approach to Assessing Environmental, Social and Economic Effects of Radioactive Waste Management in the United Kingdom

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grinham, Russell

    2009-12-01

    The Nuclear Decommissioning Authority (NDA) is a non-departmental public body, which began operation in April 2005 with a remit to secure the decommissioning and clean-up of the UK's civil public sector nuclear sites. This remit was widened when the Government announced on 25 October 2006 that, following recommendations from the Committee on Radioactive Waste Management (CoRWM), higher activity wastes will be managed in the long-term through geological disposal. Government also announced that it would be giving the NDA the responsibility for planning and implementing geological disposal. A new directorate within the NDA was created, the Radioactive Waste Management Directorate (RWMD), to manage this new remit. RWMD's mission is to deliver geological disposal and provide radioactive waste management solutions. To achieve this mission, RWMD will: Engage with national and local governments and communities to identify a geological disposal facility site; Develop the specification, design, safety case and environmental and sustainability assessments for the disposal system and obtain regulatory support; In conjunction with waste producers, identify and deliver solutions to optimise the management of higher activity waste; Develop and maintain an effective organisation and secure resources to deliver the geological disposal facility programme; Obtain and maintain stakeholder support for our activities; Deliver a focused RandD programme to support geological disposal and optimised packaging solutions; and Seek sustainable, innovative and cost effective solutions that have public support and are in the best interest of the UK. The Government White Paper placed a requirement on the NDA to assess potential social, environmental and economic impacts of implementing a geological disposal facility using SA, SEA and EIA. This paper outlines the NDA's approach to achieving this requirement. Key elements of the approach are: A staged approach linked to the MRWS site selection

  4. Small hazardous waste generators in developing countries: use of stabilization/solidification process as an economic tool for metal wastewater treatment and appropriate sludge disposal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva, Marcos A R; Mater, Luciana; Souza-Sierra, Maria M; Corrêa, Albertina X R; Sperb, Rafael; Radetski, Claudemir M

    2007-08-25

    The aim of this study was to propose a profitable destination for an industrial sludge that can cover the wastewater treatment costs of small waste generators. Optimized stabilization/solidification technology was used to treat hazardous waste from an electroplating industry that is currently released untreated to the environment. The stabilized/solidified (S/S) waste product was used as a raw material to build concrete blocks, to be sold as pavement blocks or used in roadbeds and/or parking lots. The quality of the blocks containing a mixture of cement, lime, clay and waste was evaluated by means of leaching and solubility tests according to the current Brazilian waste regulations. Results showed very low metal leachability and solubility of the block constituents, indicating a low environmental impact. Concerning economic benefits from the S/S process and reuse of the resultant product, the cost of untreated heavy metal-containing sludge disposal to landfill is usually on the order of US$ 150-200 per tonne of waste, while 1tonne of concrete roadbed blocks (with 25% of S/S waste constitution) has a value of around US$ 100. The results of this work showed that the cement, clay and lime-based process of stabilization/solidification of hazardous waste sludge is sufficiently effective and economically viable to stimulate the treatment of wastewater from small industrial waste generators.

  5. Pyrolysis and co-composting of municipal organic waste in Bangladesh: A quantitative estimate of recyclable nutrients, greenhouse gas emissions, and economic benefits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mia, Shamim; Uddin, Md Ektear; Kader, Md Abdul; Ahsan, Amimul; Mannan, M A; Hossain, Mohammad Monjur; Solaiman, Zakaria M

    2018-02-10

    Waste causes environmental pollution and greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions when it is not managed sustainably. In Bangladesh, municipal organic waste (MOW) is partially collected and landfilled. Thus, it causes deterioration of the environment urging a recycle-oriented waste management system. In this study, we propose a waste management system through pyrolysis of selective MOW for biochar production and composting of the remainder with biochar as an additive. We estimated the carbon (C), nitrogen (N), phosphorus (P) and potassium (K) recycling potentials in the new techniques of waste management. Waste generation of a city was calculated using population density and per capita waste generation rate (PWGR). Two indicators of economic development, i.e., gross domestic product (GDP) and per capita gross national income (GNI) were used to adopt PWGR with a projected contribution of 5-20% to waste generation. The projected PWGR was then validated with a survey. The waste generation from urban areas of Bangladesh in 2016 was estimated between 15,507 and 15,888 t day -1 with a large share (∼75%) of organic waste. Adoption of the proposed system could produce 3936 t day -1 biochar blended compost with an annual return of US $210 million in 2016 while it could reduce GHG emission substantially (-503 CO 2 e t -1 municipal waste). Moreover, the proposed system would able to recover ∼46%, 54%, 54% and 61% of total C, N, P and K content in the initial waste, respectively. We also provide a projection of waste generation and nutrient recycling potentials for the year 2035. The proposed method could be a self-sustaining policy option for waste management as it would generate ∼US$51 from each tonne of waste. Moreover, a significant amount of nutrients can be recycled to agriculture while contributing to the reduction in environmental pollution and GHG emission. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. National economic models of industrial water use and waste treatment. [technology transfer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thompson, R. G.; Calloway, J. A.

    1974-01-01

    The effects of air emission and solid waste restrictions on production costs and resource use by industry is investigated. A linear program is developed to analyze how resource use, production cost, and waste discharges in different types of production may be affected by resource limiting policies of the government. The method is applied to modeling ethylene and ammonia plants at the design stage. Results show that the effects of increasingly restrictive wastewater effluent standards on increased energy use were small in both plants. Plant models were developed for other industries and the program estimated effects of wastewater discharge policies on production costs of industry.

  7. Bioprocessing papaya processing waste for potential aquaculture feed supplement--economic and nutrient analysis with shrimp feeding trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang, H Y; Yang, P Y; Dominy, W G; Lee, C S

    2010-10-01

    Papaya processing waste (PPW), a major fruit processing waste in the Hawaii islands, served as substrate for yeast (Saccharomyces cerevisiae) growth. The fermented PPW products containing nutrients of 45% crude protein and various fat, fiber, lignin, cellulose, and minerals were advantages to nutrients of yeast alone. Three experimental diets controlled at 35% protein formulation containing different levels of inclusion of PPW products and a commercial control diet were fed to shrimps for 8 weeks. The 50% inclusion of PPW diets were comparable to commercial feed in weight, growth, feed conversion ratio (FCR) and survival rate. Such bioprocess treatment system would be economically feasible with the control of annual cost and increase of the amount of PPW treated. The selling price of PPW products and annual operation and maintenance cost were the most influential factors to additional profits. This study presented a promising alternative for environmental-friendly treatment of organic wastes as well as the sustainability of local agriculture and aquaculture industries. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Socio-economic aspects and public opinion concerning radioactive waste sites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gonzalez, V.

    1998-01-01

    Spain has nine nuclear power units in operation covering 33% of the country's electricity consumption. Radioactive waste management in Spain is carried out by Empresa Nacional de Residuos Radiactivos, S.A. (ENRESA), a public sector company created by the Government in 1984. ENRESA has developed a management system for low and intermediate level waste. For spent fuel and high level waste, it has enlarged the capacity of the reactor pools and has licensed, in the United States and in Spain, a dual-use container for use in case the capacity of any pool is exhausted before the end of the reactor's service life. In Spain, as in all other countries, there is public opposition to radioactive waste management. This opposition is basically attributable to the lack of objective information causing the public to base its opinion on the alarmist approach taken by the mass media reports on radioactivity or nuclear power plants. ENRESA has had to conduct its activities in this context, pursuing an active policy of communication and information. (author)

  9. THE WASTE REDUCTION (WAR) ALGORITHM: ENVIRONMENTAL IMPACTS, ENERGY CONSUMPTION, AND ENGINEERING ECONOMICS

    Science.gov (United States)

    A general theory known as the WAste Reduction (WAR) algorithm has been developed to describe the flow and the generation of potential environmental impact through a chemical process. This theory defines potential environmental impact indexes that characterize the generation and t...

  10. Techno-economic evaluation of high temperature pyrolysis processes for mixed plastic waste.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Westerhout, R.W.J.; Westerhout, R.W.J.; van Koningsbruggen, M.P.; van der Ham, Aloysius G.J.; Kuipers, J.A.M.; van Swaaij, Willibrordus Petrus Maria

    1998-01-01

    Three pyrolysis processes for Mixed Plastic Waste (MPW) with different reactors (Bubbling Fluidized Bed, Circulating Fluidized Bed and Rotating Cone Reactor, respectively BFB, CFB and RCR) were designed and evaluated. The estimated fixed capital investment for a 50 kton/year MPW pyrolysis plant

  11. Analysis of economic impacts on waste management and disposal in different nuclear fuel cycles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1979-09-01

    The costs for waste management and disposal have been estimated for the comparison of the seven reference fuel cycles selected by INFCE working group 7, covering the waste management of all steps in each fuel cycle: mining and milling, conversion and enrichment, fuel fabrication, reactor operation, reprocessing or spent fuel packaging, and disposal in a geologic formation (salt or hard rock). Values for a large variety of parameters had to be assumed. The cost figures as broken down in detail in the report have been calculated for an electricity production of 50 Gigawatt-years per year. The sum totals amount to about 8 to 17 million US (as of January 1, 1978) per Gigawattyear electricity produced, depending on the fuel cycle and on the geologic host formation of the repository. No savings should be obtained for a larger capacity, but a capacity of 10 Gigawatt would entail figures 10 to 25% higher. This result has to be seen under the perspective of the sometimes conservative and arbitrary assumptions of WG 7 with respect to waste arisings and their disposal. Furthermore, as compared to the revenues for the electricity sold, the relative difference between the reference fuel cycles in costs of waste management and disposal does not appear to be significant, as they range only from 1 to 2% of the total electricity costs

  12. Round-bale feeder design affects hay waste and economics during horse feeding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martinson, K; Wilson, J; Cleary, K; Lazarus, W; Thomas, W; Hathaway, M

    2012-03-01

    Many horse owners find round bales convenient, less labor intensive, and more affordable than other hay types, but report an inability to control horse BW gain and excessive hay waste. The objectives were to compare hay waste, hay intake, and payback of 9 round-bale feeders and a no-feeder control when used during horse feeding. Nine round-bale feeders were tested: Cinch Net, Cone, Covered Cradle, Hayhut, Hay Sleigh, Ring, Tombstone, Tombstone Saver, and Waste Less. Each feeder design was placed on the ground in a dirt paddock. Five groups of 5 horses were fed in rotation for a 4-d period with each feeder. Every fourth day, groups were rotated among paddocks and a new round bale was placed in each feeder. In the 5 paddocks used, 5 feeders were installed for d 1 through 20, and the remaining 4 feeders and no-feeder control were installed for d 21 through 40. Groups of horses were sequentially assigned to feeders using two 5 × 5 Latin squares, the first for d 1 through 20, the second for d 21 through 40. Horse groups of similar age, BW, breed, and sex were formed from 25 Quarter Horse and Thoroughbred geldings and open mares (means: 11 yr; 541 kg of BW). Hay on the ground surrounding the feeder was collected daily, dried, and weighed. The total amount of hay removed around each feeder for a 4-d period was considered waste. Dry matter intake was estimated as the difference between hay disappearance and waste. Number of months for the reduction in waste to repay feeder cost (payback) were calculated using hay valued at $110/t, and improved feeder efficiency over the control. Feeder design did not affect hay intake (P > 0.05); all feeders resulted in an estimated hay intake of 2.0 to 2.4% BW; the no-feeder control resulted in a reduced intake of 1.3% BW (P = 0.001). Mean percentage of hay waste differed among feeders (P payback (P payback, but not estimated hay intake or BW change during horse feeding.

  13. Waste Soybean Oil and Corn Steep Liquor as Economic Substrates for Bioemulsifier and Biodiesel Production by Candida lipolytica UCP 0998.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Souza, Adriana Ferreira; Rodriguez, Dayana M; Ribeaux, Daylin R; Luna, Marcos A C; Lima E Silva, Thayse A; Andrade, Rosileide F Silva; Gusmão, Norma B; Campos-Takaki, Galba M

    2016-09-23

    Almost all oleaginous microorganisms are available for biodiesel production, and for the mechanism of oil accumulation, which is what makes a microbial approach economically competitive. This study investigated the potential that the yeast Candida lipolytica UCP0988, in an anamorphous state, has to produce simultaneously a bioemulsifier and to accumulate lipids using inexpensive and alternative substrates. Cultivation was carried out using waste soybean oil and corn steep liquor in accordance with 2² experimental designs with 1% inoculums (10⁷ cells/mL). The bioemulsifier was produced in the cell-free metabolic liquid in the late exponential phase (96 h), at Assay 4 (corn steep liquor 5% and waste soybean oil 8%), with 6.704 UEA, IE24 of 96.66%, and showed an anionic profile. The emulsion formed consisted of compact small and stable droplets (size 0.2-5 µm), stable at all temperatures, at pH 2 and 4, and 2% salinity, and showed an ability to remove 93.74% of diesel oil from sand. The displacement oil (ODA) showed 45.34 cm² of dispersion (central point of the factorial design). The biomass obtained from Assay 4 was able to accumulate lipids of 0.425 g/g biomass (corresponding to 42.5%), which consisted of Palmitic acid (28.4%), Stearic acid (7.7%), Oleic acid (42.8%), Linoleic acid (19.0%), and γ-Linolenic acid (2.1%). The results showed the ability of C. lipopytica to produce both bioemulsifier and biodiesel using the metabolic conversion of waste soybean oil and corn steep liquor, which are economic renewable sources.

  14. Waste Soybean Oil and Corn Steep Liquor as Economic Substrates for Bioemulsifier and Biodiesel Production by Candida lipolytica UCP 0998

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adriana Ferreira Souza

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Almost all oleaginous microorganisms are available for biodiesel production, and for the mechanism of oil accumulation, which is what makes a microbial approach economically competitive. This study investigated the potential that the yeast Candida lipolytica UCP0988, in an anamorphous state, has to produce simultaneously a bioemulsifier and to accumulate lipids using inexpensive and alternative substrates. Cultivation was carried out using waste soybean oil and corn steep liquor in accordance with 22 experimental designs with 1% inoculums (107 cells/mL. The bioemulsifier was produced in the cell-free metabolic liquid in the late exponential phase (96 h, at Assay 4 (corn steep liquor 5% and waste soybean oil 8%, with 6.704 UEA, IE24 of 96.66%, and showed an anionic profile. The emulsion formed consisted of compact small and stable droplets (size 0.2–5 µm, stable at all temperatures, at pH 2 and 4, and 2% salinity, and showed an ability to remove 93.74% of diesel oil from sand. The displacement oil (ODA showed 45.34 cm2 of dispersion (central point of the factorial design. The biomass obtained from Assay 4 was able to accumulate lipids of 0.425 g/g biomass (corresponding to 42.5%, which consisted of Palmitic acid (28.4%, Stearic acid (7.7%, Oleic acid (42.8%, Linoleic acid (19.0%, and γ-Linolenic acid (2.1%. The results showed the ability of C. lipopytica to produce both bioemulsifier and biodiesel using the metabolic conversion of waste soybean oil and corn steep liquor, which are economic renewable sources.

  15. Evaluation of operational, economic, and environmental performance of mixed and selective collection of municipal solid waste: Porto case study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teixeira, Carlos A; Russo, Mário; Matos, Cristina; Bentes, Isabel

    2014-12-01

    This article describes an accurate methodology for an operational, economic, and environmental assessment of municipal solid waste collection. The proposed methodological tool uses key performance indicators to evaluate independent operational and economic efficiency and performance of municipal solid waste collection practices. These key performance indicators are then used in life cycle inventories and life cycle impact assessment. Finally, the life cycle assessment environmental profiles provide the environmental assessment. We also report a successful application of this tool through a case study in the Portuguese city of Porto. Preliminary results demonstrate the applicability of the methodological tool to real cases. Some of the findings focus a significant difference between average mixed and selective collection effective distance (2.14 km t(-1); 16.12 km t(-1)), fuel consumption (3.96 L t(-1); 15.37 L t(-1)), crew productivity (0.98 t h(-1) worker(-1); 0.23 t h(-1) worker(-1)), cost (45.90 € t(-1); 241.20 € t(-1)), and global warming impact (19.95 kg CO2eq t(-1); 57.47 kg CO2eq t(-1)). Preliminary results consistently indicate: (a) higher global performance of mixed collection as compared with selective collection; (b) dependency of collection performance, even in urban areas, on the waste generation rate and density; (c) the decline of selective collection performances with decreasing source-separated material density and recycling collection rate; and (d) that the main threats to collection route efficiency are the extensive collection distances, high fuel consumption vehicles, and reduced crew productivity. © The Author(s) 2014.

  16. Military construction program economic analysis manual: Text and appendixes: Hazardous Waste Remedial Actions Program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1987-12-01

    This manual enables the US Air Force to comprehensively and systematically analyze alternative approaches to meeting its military construction requirements. The manual includes step-by-step procedures for completing economic analyses for military construction projects, beginning with determining if an analysis is necessary. Instructions and a checklist of the tasks involved for each step are provided; and examples of calculations and illustrations of completed forms are included. The manual explains the major tasks of an economic analysis, including identifying the problem, selecting realistic alternatives for solving it, formulating appropriate assumptions, determining the costs and benefits of the alternatives, comparing the alternatives, testing the sensitivity of major uncertainties, and ranking the alternatives. Appendixes are included that contain data, indexes, and worksheets to aid in performing the economic analyses. For reference, Volume 2 contains sample economic analyses that illustrate how each form is filled out and that include a complete example of the documentation required. 6 figs., 12 tabs

  17. Assessing social and economic effects of perceived risk: Workshop summary: Draft: BWIP Repository Project. [Basalt Waste Isolation Program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nealey, S.M.; Liebow, E.B. (eds.)

    1988-03-01

    The US Department of Energy sponsored a one-day workshop to discuss the complex dimensions of risk judgment formation and the assessment of social and economic effects of risk perceptions related to the permanent underground storage of highly radioactive waste from commercial nuclear power plants. Affected parties have publicly expressed concerns about potentially significant risk-related effects of this approach to waste management. A selective review of relevant literature in psychology, decision analysis, economics, sociology, and anthropology was completed, along with an examination of decision analysis techniques that might assist in developing suitable responses to public risk-related concerns. The workshop was organized as a forum in which a set of distinguished experts could exchange ideas and observations about the problems of characterizing the effects of risk judgments. Out of the exchange emerged the issues or themes of problems with probabilistic risk assessment techniques are evident; differences exist in the way experts and laypersons view risk, and this leads to higher levels of public concern than experts feel are justified; experts, risk managers, and decision-makers sometimes err in assessing risk and in dealing with the public; credibility and trust are important contributing factors in the formation of risk judgments; social and economic consequences of perceived risk should be properly anticipated; improvements can be made in informing the public about risk; the role of the public in risk assessment, risk management and decisions about risk should be reconsidered; and mitigation and compensation are central to resolving conflicts arising from divergent risk judgments. 1 tab.

  18. Biodigester economic viability for electrical power production using biogas from swine waste

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cervi, Ricardo Ghantous; Esperancini, Maura Seiko Tsutsui; Bueno, Osmar de Carvalho [Universidade Estadual Paulista (FCA/UNESP), Botucatu, SP (Brazil). Fac. de Ciencias Agronomicas], E-mail: ricardogc@fca.unesp.br; Souza, Samuel Nelson Melegari de [Universidade Estadual do Oeste do Parana (CCET/UNIOESTE), Cascavel, PR (Brazil). Centro de Ciencias Exatas e Tecnologicas

    2008-07-01

    The increase of energy use in agriculture and the raising prices of electricity demand studies on alternate sources of energy and improvement on biogas use efficiency so that agricultural activities become more competitive. Biogas production through anaerobic biodigestion represents an important breakthrough for the problem of swine waste and energy availability for rural areas. This work aimed to analyze the economy on biodigester investment for electrical power production using biogas from anaerobic biodigestion of swine waste. Two factors were used for this evaluation: the cost of electrical power production through biogas and time for equipment investment return. Results show that investment return time can be only 2.45 years for electrical power at peak time. (author)

  19. Desulfurization of chemical waste gases and flue gases with economic utilization of air pollutants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Asperger, K.; Wischnewski, W.

    1983-09-01

    The technological state of recovery of sulfur dioxide from waste and flue gases in the GDR is discussed. Two examples of plants are presented: a pyrosulfuric acid plant in Coswig, recovering sulfur dioxide from gases by absorption with sodium hydroxide, followed by catalytic oxidation to sulfur trioxide, and a plant for waste sulfuric acid recovery from paraffin refining, where the diluted waste acid is sprayed into a furnace and recovered by an ammonium-sulfite-bisulfite solution from the combustion gas (with 4 to 10% sulfur dioxide content). Investment and operation costs as well as profits of both plants are given. Methods employed for power plant flue gas desulfurization in major industrial countries are further assessed: about 90% of these methods uses wet flue gas scrubbing with lime. In the USA flue gas from 25,000 MW of power plant capacity is desulfurized. In the USSR, a 35,000 m/sup 3//h trial plant at Severo-Donetzk is operating using lime, alkali and magnesite. At the 150 MW Dorogobush power plant in the USSR a desulfurization plant using a cyclic ammonia process is under construction.

  20. Thermo Dynamics and Economics Evaluations: Substitution of the Extraction Steam with the Wasted Heat of Flue Gas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hao, Lifen; Qiu, Lixia; Li, Jinping; Li, Dongxiong

    2018-01-01

    A new heat supplying system is proposed that utilizes the exhausted gas of the boiler to substitute the extraction steam from the turbine as the driving force for the adsorption heat pump regarding the recovery of the condensation heat of power plant. However, our system is not subject to the low efficiency of wasted heat utilization due to the low temperature of flue gas, which hence possesses higher performance in COP factors in the utilization of heat than that of the conventional techniques of using flues gas, so the amount of extracted gas from turbine can be reduced and the power generate rate be enhanced. Subsequently, detailed evaluation of the performance of this system in the point of views of thermodynamics and economics are presented in this work. For the instance of a 330 MW heat supply unit, 5 sample cities are chosen to demonstrate and confirm our economic analysis. It is revealed that when the heating coefficient of the heat pump is 1.8, the investment payback periods for these 5 cities are within the range of 2.4 to 4.8 years, which are far below the service year of the heat pump, demonstrating remarkable economic benefits for our system.

  1. Technical and Economical Viability of Biodiesel Production using Waste Vegetable Edible Oil from the Oporto Metropolitan Area

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Neves, A. [Petrogal, Lisboa (Portugal); Vilarinho, P. [CIRELIUS, Avintes (Portugal); C. Pinho, C. [Faculdade de Engenharia da Universidade do Porto (CEFT-DEMEGI) (Portugal)

    2009-07-01

    The technical and economical viability of using waste vegetable edible oils available in the Oporto Metropolitan Area (AMP) for biodiesel production, is analysed. For an yearly waste production of 20,000 t, the annual biodiesel production was calculated through the stoichiometric 1/1.05 (w/w) and the empirical 1/1 (w/w) transterification rate. Taking as reference the petrodiesel annual consumption values in the AMP, it was found that the rate of replacement of petrodiesel by biodiesel would change from 5.7 % to 2.2 % for the period of 1990 to 2003, due to the increase on the number of vehicles using diesel engines. The reduction of CO2 emissions for the replacement of 1 kg of petrodiesel is in the 2.4 kg to 3.2 kg range and the corresponding maximum financial benefit was of the order of 1.2 MEuro per year. The amounts of raw materials and input energy for processing were also determined for the 1990 to 2003 period, for transterification by the methylic and by the ethylic path; the methylic path is the best in all aspects. Through an energy balance for the annual production value of 20,000 t of biodiesel, it was found that the viability and sustainability of biodiesel production through waste oils is better than through virgin vegetable oils. There is a primary energy production of 18,917 tep for methyl ester and of 19,012 tep for the ethyl ester, equivalent to about 18,786 t of crude or 150,511 barrels of crude. Finally it is presented the economic and financial study for a 20,000 t/year biodiesel plant, working in a complementary regime of transterification and hydrosterification processes. The sensibility study allowed the comparison and evaluation of different scenarios. The economic viability of such biodiesel plant is highly dependent upon the cost of raw material and the biodiesel selling price. For an initial investment of 6,000,000 Euro, at the end of ten years it results in a NPV of about 28,000,000 Euro, with an internal rate of return (IRR) of 33 % and a

  2. Used CANDU fuel waste consumed and eliminated: environmentally responsible, economically sound, energetically enormous

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ottensmeyer, P.

    2012-01-01

    The 43,800 tonnes of currently stored CANDU nuclear fuel waste can all be consumed in fast-neutron reactors (FNRs) to reduce its long-term radioactive burden 100,000 times while extracting about 130 times more nuclear energy than the prodigious amounts that have already been gained from the fuel in CANDU reactors. The cost of processing CANDU fuel for use in FNRs plus the cost of recycling the FNR fuel is about 2.5 times less on a per kWh energy basis than the currently projected cost of disposal of 3.6 million used CANDU fuel bundles in a deep geological repository. (author)

  3. Perceived risk, stigma, and potential economic impacts of a high-level nuclear waste repository in Nevada

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Slovic, P.; Layman, M.; Kraus, N.N.; Chalmers, J.; Gesel, G.; Flynn, J.

    1989-07-01

    This paper describes a program of research designed to assess the potential impacts of a high-level nuclear waste repository at Yucca Mountain, Nevada, upon tourism, retirement and job-related migration, and business development in Las Vegas and the state. Adverse economic impacts may be expected to result from two related social processes. One has to do with perceptions of risk and socially amplified reactions to ''unfortunate events'' associated with the repository (major and minor accidents, discoveries of radiation releases, evidence of mismanagement, attempts to sabotage or disrupt the facility, etc.). The second process that may trigger significant adverse impacts is that of stigmatization. The conceptual underpinnings of risk perception, social amplification, and stigmatization are discussed in this paper and empirical data are presented to demonstrate how nuclear images associated with Las Vegas and the State of Nevada might trigger adverse effects on tourism, migration, and business development

  4. An assessment of the economics and market opportunities for municipal solid waste fired combined heat and power applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Frith, D.P.; Toothill, S.J.

    1995-01-01

    This study examines the issues surrounding the development of CHP applications of MSW combustion plants, and in particular the opportunities for new projects. The specific objectives of the study were as follows: (i) To assess the economics of CHP applications of MSW plant at three scales of operation, with waste throughputs of 400,000, 200,000 and 100,000 tonnes per year. (ii) To report on the market opportunities and barriers to implementation for such applications in the UK. (iii) To report on the commercial development of three such applications (case studies) in the UK and to examine the environmental benefits of such applications, with particular respect to greenhouse gas emissions. (author)

  5. Implementation of waste-to-energy options in landfill-dominated countries: Economic evaluation and GHG impact.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aracil, Cristina; Haro, Pedro; Fuentes-Cano, Diego; Gómez-Barea, Alberto

    2018-03-30

    The economic and environmental impact of several waste-to-energy (WtE) schemes to produce electricity from municipal solid waste (MSW) refuse is evaluated and compared with landfill disposal. Both incineration and gasification alternatives are considered. The gasification option includes three different configurations: (1) a fluidized bed gasifier (FBG) with internal combustion engine (ICE), (2) a FBG with organic Rankine cycle (ORC) and (3) a grate gasifier with steam Rankine cycle (SRC). The study is primarily applied to regions where the management system is based on Mechanical Biological Treatment (MBT) plants, generating a large share of refuse (>70%), which is currently landfilled. The specific case of Andalusia, a region in the south of Spain with 23 MBT plants distributed over a region of 87.000 km 2 , where about 80% of municipal solid waste (MSW) is currently landfilled, is taken as main reference; thereafter, the study is further extended to preliminary assess other regions of some European landfill-dominated countries with similar characteristics. The results show that both incineration and gasification improve landfill disposal, contributing favorably to greenhouse gas (GHG) reduction and fulfilling EU environmental regulations, although the three gasification options analyzed yield lower GHG emissions than incineration. In addition, gasification enables better integration of WtE into existing MBT plants, especially in the particular case of Andalusia, where MBT plants are widespread on the region, making it a more promising option than incineration, which is mainly based on large centralized plants, and less socially accepted. From the options analyzed, the WtE scheme based on FBG with ICE gives the highest profitability for a given gate fee, due to much higher electrical efficiency. However, FBG with ORC seems to be a better option in the short-term for landfill-dominated countries, due to its higher technical reliability and the low gate fee

  6. Utilization of biogas produced by anaerobic digestion of agro-industrial waste: Energy, economic and environmental effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hublin, Andrea; Schneider, Daniel Rolph; Džodan, Janko

    2014-07-01

    Anaerobic digestion of agro-industrial waste is of significant interest in order to facilitate a sustainable development of energy supply. Using of material and energy potentials of agro-industrial waste, in the framework of technical, economic, and ecological possibilities, contributes in increasing the share of energy generated from renewable energy sources. The paper deals with the benefits arising from the utilization of biogas produced by co-digestion of whey and cow manure. The advantages of this process are the profitability of the plant and the convenience in realizing an anaerobic digestion plant to produce biogas that is enabled by the benefits from the sale of electric energy at favorable prices. Economic aspects are related to the capital cost (€ 2,250,000) of anaerobic digestion treatment in a biogas plant with a 300 kW power and 510 kW heating unit in a medium size farm (450 livestock units). Considering the optimum biogas yield of 20.7 dm(3) kg(-1) of wet substrate and methane content in the biogas obtained of 79%, the anaerobic process results in a daily methane production of 2,500 kg, with the maximum power generation of 2,160,000 kWh y(-1) and heat generation of 2,400,000 kWh y(-1) The net present value (NPV), internal rate of return (IRR) and payback period for implementation of profitable anaerobic digestion process is evaluated. Ecological aspects related to carbon dioxide (CO2) and methane (CH4) emission reduction are assessed. © The Author(s) 2014.

  7. Impact of rinsing in pesticide packaging waste management: Economic and environmental benefits

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marčeta Una

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Pesticides have become dailiness due to inevitable application of these preparations in agricultural activities, with the consequence of generation of large amounts of waste packaging. Impact on the environment and expenses of management of packaging waste can be minimized if the packaging is immediately rinsed after the application of devices and if identified as non-hazardous. Besides, financial losses may be reduced by maximum utilization of the preparation. Considering these two financial aspects this work shows evaluation of quantitative losses of preparations if the triple rising method is not applied. The research was conducted in two phases. Phase I included the examination of the impact of different formulations of the same volume on quantitative and financial losses. Based on the results of the first phase of the research, it was noted that the SC formulation is the most interesting to study because this type of formulation has the highest percentage of residue, as well as the fact that the highest annual consumption is noted percisely in this preparation group. This paper presents the results which indicate the impact of packaging volume of SC formulation (ALVERDE 240 SC, INTERMEZZO and ANTRE PLUS on percentage of preparation residue in packaging if there was no rinsing. The results have shown that the quantitative loss is inversely proportional to the volume of packaging, while financial losses do not only depend on the percentage of residue but also on price and quantity of utilization of preparations.

  8. Economics of a small-volume low-level radioactive waste disposal facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1993-04-01

    This report was prepared by the US Department of Energy National Low-Level Waste Management Program to present the results of a life-cycle cost analysis of a low-level radioactive waste disposal facility, including all support facilities, beginning in the preoperational phase and continuing through post-closure care. The disposal technology selected for this report is earth-covered concrete vaults, which use reinforced concrete vaults constructed above grade and an earth cover constructed at the end of the operational period for permanent closure. The report develops a design, cost estimate, and schedule for the base case and eight alternative scenarios involving changes in total disposal capacity, operating life, annual disposal rate, source of financing and long-term interest rates. The purpose of this analysis of alternatives is to determine the sensitivity of cost to changes in key analytical or technical parameters, thereby evaluating the influence of a broad range of conditions. The total estimated cost of each alternative is estimated and a unit disposal charge is developed

  9. Development of an efficient and economic small scale management scheme for low-and intermediate level radioactive waste and its impact on the environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Salomon, A.Ph.; Panem, J.A.; Manalastas, H.C.; Cortez, S.L.; Paredes, C.H.; Bartolome, Z.M.

    1976-05-01

    This paper is a preliminary report on the evolution of a pilot-scale management system for low-and intermediate level radioactive wastes to provide adequate protection to the public as well as maintain the equilibrium in the human environment. Discussions on the waste management and disposal scheme proposals, assessment of waste treatment requirements of the Atomic Research Center, Philippine Atomic Energy Commission, previous experiences in the handling and management of radioactive wastes, current practices and alternatives to meet waste management problems and research studies on waste treatment are presented. In the selection of a chemical treatment process for ARC, comparative studies on the different waste processing methods or combination of processes that will be most suitable for the waste requirements of the Center are now in progress. The decontamination efficiency and economy of the lime-soda, ferrocyanide phosphate and ferric hydroxide methods are being compared. Jar experiments were conducted in the Lime-Soda Process to establish the optima conditions for certain parameter required in order to achieve an efficient and economical treatment system applicable to the local conditions for attaining maximum removal of contamination; maximum settling time - 5 hours after treatment, optimum pH-11, 2:3 ppm ratio of Ca +2 to Co 3 -2 concentration, concentration of dosing reagents can further be increased beyond 160 ppm Ca +2 and 240 ppm Co 3 -2 . Cobalt contamination can be removed with lime-soda treatment aside from strontium

  10. Technical and economical aspects of a large and a small plant for irradiation of liquid waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Herrnhut, H.; Marsch, U.; Bosshard, E.

    1976-01-01

    Description of the further development of the irradiation plant for sewage sludge which is in operation at the sewage water treatment plant of the Abwasserverband Ampergruppe at Geiselbullach. Taking into consideration the operating experience, the conception of the plant was optimized, the design was simplified. The loading and reloading of the radioactive sources could now be carried out during operation of the plant. The economical aspects were considered too and the calculated cost of the treatment was summarized in a table. (author)

  11. Process design and economic evaluation of green extraction methods for recovery of astaxanthin from shrimp waste

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Razi Parjikolaei, Behnaz; Errico, Massimiliano; El-Houri, Rime Bahij

    2017-01-01

    (ASX) from shrimp processing waste. The feasibility of commercial use of the green solvents under plausible process conditions is compared to extraction with a mixture of hexane: isopropanol (Hex:IPA). The process flowsheets describing these processes were modelled by means of SuperPro Designer...... processes with SF or the methyl ester of SF (ME-SF) was 2.5 and 153 ppm with a production cost of 0.06 and 0.16 $/mg of ASX, respectively. In addition, shrimp feed production was considered as a feasible application of the low concentration ASX obtained by SF extraction. A combination of ASX extracted...... with SF and synthetic ASX yielded a shrimp feed production cost comparable to the current market price. The calculated feed price based on the ASX production cost of the other green processes, ME-SF and SCFE, resulted in a significantly higher production cost....

  12. The technology and economics of treating waste water with electron beam radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cleland, M.R.

    1976-01-01

    The use of ionizing radiation from electron beam accelerators is considered in this paper for the disinfection of waste water. Combinations of radiation with oxygen, chlorine, heat and retention media are discussed as possible methods to reduce the dosage requirements and the treatment costs. The production of ozone by the irradiation of oxygen is also evaluated as an alternative method of using this form of energy. The capital and operating costs for large electron beam facilities are analyzed to show the favorable trends with rising power levels. Cost comparisons between 'conventional' disinfection processes and two radiation processes are presented and discussed. The results of these cost analyses support the premise that electron beam radiation should be evaluated as a likely competitor to ozonation or carbon filtration for large sewage treatment plants. (orig.) [de

  13. The technology and economics of treating waste water with electron beam radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cleland, M.R.

    1976-01-01

    The use of ionizing radiation from electron beam accelerators is considered in this paper for the disinfection of waste water. Combinations of radiation with oxygen, chlorine, heat and retention media are discussed as possible methods to reduce the dosage requirements and the treatment costs. The production of ozone by the irradiation of oxygen is also evaluated as an alternative method of using this form of energy. The capital and operating costs for large electron beam facilities are analyzed to show the favorable trends with rising power levels. Cost comparisons between conventional disinfection processes and two radiation processes are presented and discussed. The results of these cost analyses support the premise that electron beam radiation should be evaluated as a likely competitor to ozonation or carbon filtration for large sewage treatment plants. (author)

  14. Techno-economic evaluation of biodiesel production from waste cooking oil--a case study of Hong Kong.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karmee, Sanjib Kumar; Patria, Raffel Dharma; Lin, Carol Sze Ki

    2015-02-18

    Fossil fuel shortage is a major challenge worldwide. Therefore, research is currently underway to investigate potential renewable energy sources. Biodiesel is one of the major renewable energy sources that can be obtained from oils and fats by transesterification. However, biodiesel obtained from vegetable oils as feedstock is expensive. Thus, an alternative and inexpensive feedstock such as waste cooking oil (WCO) can be used as feedstock for biodiesel production. In this project, techno-economic analyses were performed on the biodiesel production in Hong Kong using WCO as a feedstock. Three different catalysts such as acid, base, and lipase were evaluated for the biodiesel production from WCO. These economic analyses were then compared to determine the most cost-effective method for the biodiesel production. The internal rate of return (IRR) sensitivity analyses on the WCO price and biodiesel price variation are performed. Acid was found to be the most cost-effective catalyst for the biodiesel production; whereas, lipase was the most expensive catalyst for biodiesel production. In the IRR sensitivity analyses, the acid catalyst can also acquire acceptable IRR despite the variation of the WCO and biodiesel prices.

  15. Techno-Economic Evaluation of Biodiesel Production from Waste Cooking Oil—A Case Study of Hong Kong

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karmee, Sanjib Kumar; Patria, Raffel Dharma; Lin, Carol Sze Ki

    2015-01-01

    Fossil fuel shortage is a major challenge worldwide. Therefore, research is currently underway to investigate potential renewable energy sources. Biodiesel is one of the major renewable energy sources that can be obtained from oils and fats by transesterification. However, biodiesel obtained from vegetable oils as feedstock is expensive. Thus, an alternative and inexpensive feedstock such as waste cooking oil (WCO) can be used as feedstock for biodiesel production. In this project, techno-economic analyses were performed on the biodiesel production in Hong Kong using WCO as a feedstock. Three different catalysts such as acid, base, and lipase were evaluated for the biodiesel production from WCO. These economic analyses were then compared to determine the most cost-effective method for the biodiesel production. The internal rate of return (IRR) sensitivity analyses on the WCO price and biodiesel price variation are performed. Acid was found to be the most cost-effective catalyst for the biodiesel production; whereas, lipase was the most expensive catalyst for biodiesel production. In the IRR sensitivity analyses, the acid catalyst can also acquire acceptable IRR despite the variation of the WCO and biodiesel prices. PMID:25809602

  16. Techno-Economic Evaluation of Biodiesel Production from Waste Cooking Oil—A Case Study of Hong Kong

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sanjib Kumar Karmee

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Fossil fuel shortage is a major challenge worldwide. Therefore, research is currently underway to investigate potential renewable energy sources. Biodiesel is one of the major renewable energy sources that can be obtained from oils and fats by transesterification. However, biodiesel obtained from vegetable oils as feedstock is expensive. Thus, an alternative and inexpensive feedstock such as waste cooking oil (WCO can be used as feedstock for biodiesel production. In this project, techno-economic analyses were performed on the biodiesel production in Hong Kong using WCO as a feedstock. Three different catalysts such as acid, base, and lipase were evaluated for the biodiesel production from WCO. These economic analyses were then compared to determine the most cost-effective method for the biodiesel production. The internal rate of return (IRR sensitivity analyses on the WCO price and biodiesel price variation are performed. Acid was found to be the most cost-effective catalyst for the biodiesel production; whereas, lipase was the most expensive catalyst for biodiesel production. In the IRR sensitivity analyses, the acid catalyst can also acquire acceptable IRR despite the variation of the WCO and biodiesel prices.

  17. Waste-to-biofuel integrated system and its comprehensive techno-economic assessment in wastewater treatment plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xin, Chunhua; Addy, Min M; Zhao, Jinyu; Cheng, Yanling; Ma, Yiwei; Liu, Shiyu; Mu, Dongyan; Liu, Yuhuan; Chen, Paul; Ruan, Roger

    2018-02-01

    Combining wastewater treatment and biofuel production is considered the cost-effective way for better waste remediation and lowering the environmental impact for biofuel production. In this study, an innovative integrated system incorporating sludge, scum and centrate treatment and biofuel production was developed. A comprehensive techno-economic analysis was conducted to evaluate the technology and economic feasibility of the integrated system with the consideration of biofuel production, wastewater treatment improvement, tax credits, carbon credit, and coproducts utilization. Benefited from the integrated system that the intermediate byproducts can be used in between the sub-systems, such as the glycerol generated from the scum-to-biodiesel production can be used as an organic carbon for the centrate-to-algae production, the estimated breakeven selling price of the bio-oil ($1.85/gallon) is very close to the 5-year averaged crude oil price. The assessment result showed the payback period and the IRRs of the integrated system are superior in comparison with others. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Thermo-Economic Analysis of Zeotropic Mixtures and Pure Working Fluids in Organic Rankine Cycles for Waste Heat Recovery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Florian Heberle

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available We present a thermo-economic analysis of an Organic Rankine Cycle (ORC for waste heat recovery. A case study for a heat source temperature of 150 °C and a subcritical, saturated cycle is performed. As working fluids R245fa, isobutane, isopentane, and the mixture of isobutane and isopentane are considered. The minimal temperature difference in the evaporator and the condenser, as well as the mixture composition are chosen as variables in order to identify the most suitable working fluid in combination with optimal process parameters under thermo-economic criteria. In general, the results show that cost-effective systems have a high minimal temperature difference ΔTPP,C at the pinch-point of the condenser and a low minimal temperature difference ΔTPP,E at the pinch-point of the evaporator. Choosing isobutane as the working fluid leads to the lowest costs per unit exergy with 52.0 €/GJ (ΔTPP,E = 1.2 K; ΔTPP,C = 14 K. Considering the major components of the ORC, specific costs range between 1150 €/kW and 2250 €/kW. For the zeotropic mixture, a mole fraction of 90% isobutane leads to the lowest specific costs per unit exergy. A further analysis of the ORC system using isobutane shows high sensitivity of the costs per unit exergy for the selected cost estimation methods and for the isentropic efficiency of the turbine.

  19. Realization of a technical and economic referential of units of organic waste processing by methanization with and without biogas valorization. Study report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2010-01-01

    Based on a literature survey and on the analysis of results obtained in operating installations in different countries (Germany, Denmark, France, Netherlands, and Switzerland), this study concerns the methanization of different substrates: domestic wastes, sludge from sewage processing plants, industrial wastes and effluents, agricultural wastes and effluents. This synthetic report describes the current status of methanization in terms of regulatory framework (for renewable energies, and for waste management, digestion residues and compost valorization in Europe and in the studied countries), and in terms of actual production and variety of base products. It gives an overview of the available technical solutions, of the products they use, and of the associated investment costs. These techniques are: completely stirred tank reactor (SCTR), upflow anaerobic sludge blanket (UASB), internal circulation (IC), 'piston', batch, percolation, contact, fluidized bed, and anaerobic filter. It reports a synthesis of answers given to a questionnaire about technical and economic aspects

  20. Ecological, energetic and economical comparison of fermentation, composting and incineration of solid biogenic waste materials; Oekologischer, energetischer und oekonomischer Vergleich von Vergaerung, Kompostierung und Verbrennung fester biogener Abfallstoffe

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Edelmann, W. [Arbeitsgemeinschaft Bioenergie GmbH, Arbi, Baar (Switzerland); Schleiss, K. [Umwelt- und Kompostberatung Schleiss, Baar (Switzerland)

    2001-07-01

    This study compares different technologies for the treatment of biogenic wastes, including open windrow and enclosed tunnel composting, anaerobic digestion, the combination of both these methods and burning in waste incineration plants. The methods are compared from the points of view of environmental impact, energy use and production, and economics. The environmental impact, calculated for normalised quantities of waste using the 'Ecoindicator 95+' tool, are discussed and the methane and carbon dioxide emissions of the different methods of treatment are compared. Also, the considerable differences to be found in the energy balances of the different systems are discussed in the light of efforts to substitute nuclear and fossil-fuel generated power. Cost and energetic comparisons are also made between compost and artificial fertilisers. The report is concluded with recommendations for adapting bio-technological methods for the treatment of wastes with an emphasis on anaerobic processes.

  1. Co-operation and Competition in Regional Economic Development Associated with Radioactive Waste Management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Webler, Thomas

    2009-01-01

    Competition and co-operation appear in many different social venues. The author gives a variety of examples of co-operative behaviour in economics, politics, research, and everyday life activities such as sports. These four diverse examples illustrate the variety of forms that co-operation may take such as tacit co-operation, incremental co-operation, deep co-operation, etc. The links with the form of democracy (adversary democracy or consensual democracy) are also pointed. However, as with so many other things in life, the key is to the question of co-operation or competition is balance. Co-operation and competition are dialectical opposites. They create and maintain and define each other; they each are incomplete without the other

  2. Techno-economic and environmental analysis of a thermal treatment technology for the generation of electrical energy by municipal solid waste from the zone of Los Santos

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carranza Campos, Kevin; Monge Leiva, Matias

    2014-01-01

    A technical, economic and environmental assessment is realized of a thermal treatment technology. The energetic valorization from municipal solid waste and electric power generation in the zone of Los Santos, Costa Rica, are made by the multicriteria hierarchical analysis methodology. The national and cantonal situation is examined in the integral management of municipal solid waste (GIRS), with emphasis on the cantons from the zone of Los Santos. A comparative analysis is developed among some cantons of Costa Rica that have had GIRS studies, and the zone of Los Santos to know the fraction of municipal solid waste that can be valued energetically and calorific power that present. The similarity in the characterization, composition and physico-chemical properties is determined in the study of residues between the cantons analyzed and the zone of Los Santos. The legislation relating the waste processing is analyzed, according Law 8839 for integral management of waste and laws similar to the implementation of a power generation plant. An analysis is developed for the environmental compliance of thermal treatment technologies, including aspects for control of contaminants. The main technologies of energy valorization from waste are investigated and some real cases of Latin America and the world are exposed. A thermal treatment technology of municipal solid waste is selected through a decision-making methodology to evaluate technical, environmental and economic aspects. Operation requirements and functioning of the devices that conform a power generation plant are described by municipal solid waste of the technology selected. The economic viability of the selected proposal has determined by an economic analysis, to extend on the most influential aspects developing alternative scenarios. The diagnosis of the situation of solid waste in the zone of Los Santos has specified that the cardboard, paper and plastics have been the most adequate for the thermal utilization

  3. The effects of recycling loops in food waste management in Japan: Based on the environmental and economic evaluation of food recycling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Takata, Miki; Fukushima, Kazuyo; Kino-Kimata, Noriko; Nagao, Norio; Niwa, Chiaki; Toda, Tatsuki

    2012-01-01

    In Japan, a revised Food Recycling Law went into effect in 2007 to promote a “recycling loop” that requires food industries to purchase farm products that are grown using food waste-derived compost/animal feed. To realize and expand food recycling, it is necessary to evaluate how the recycling facilities work in the recycling loop. The purpose of this study is to assess the environmental and economic efficiency of the food recycling facilities that are involved in the recycling loop, which are also known as looped facilities. The global warming potential and running cost of five looped facilities were evaluated by LCA (life cycle assessment) and LCC (life cycle cost) approaches: machine integrated compost, windrow compost, liquid feed, dry feed, and bio-gasification. The LCA results showed low total GHG (greenhouse gas) emissions of − 126 and − 49 kg-CO 2 /t-waste, respectively, for dry feed and bio-gasification facilities, due to a high substitution effect. The LCC study showed a low running cost for composting facilities of − 15,648 and − 18,955 yen/t-waste, respectively, due to high revenue from the food waste collection. It was found that the mandatory reporting of food waste emitters to the government increased collection fees; however, the collection fee in animal feed facilities was relatively low because food waste was collected at a low price or nutritious food waste was purchased to produce quality feed. In the characterisation survey of various treatment methods, the composting facilities showed a relatively low environmental impact and a high economic efficiency. Animal feed facilities had a wide distribution of the total GHG emissions, depending on both the energy usage during the drying process and the substitution effect, which were related to the water content of the food waste and the number of recycled products. In comparison with incineration, the majority of the food recycling facilities showed low GHG emissions and economic

  4. The effects of recycling loops in food waste management in Japan: Based on the environmental and economic evaluation of food recycling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Takata, Miki [Graduate School of Engineering, Soka University, Hachioji, Tokyo 192-8577 (Japan); Fukushima, Kazuyo [Watanabe Oyster Laboratory Co., Ltd, Hachioji, Tokyo 192-0154 (Japan); Kino-Kimata, Noriko [Graduate School of Engineering, Soka University, Hachioji, Tokyo 192-8577 (Japan); Nagao, Norio [Institute of Bioscience, Universiti Putra Malaysia, 43400 UPM Serdang, Selangor (Malaysia); Niwa, Chiaki [Graduate School of Engineering, Soka University, Hachioji, Tokyo 192-8577 (Japan); Toda, Tatsuki, E-mail: toda@soka.ac.jp [Graduate School of Engineering, Soka University, Hachioji, Tokyo 192-8577 (Japan)

    2012-08-15

    In Japan, a revised Food Recycling Law went into effect in 2007 to promote a 'recycling loop' that requires food industries to purchase farm products that are grown using food waste-derived compost/animal feed. To realize and expand food recycling, it is necessary to evaluate how the recycling facilities work in the recycling loop. The purpose of this study is to assess the environmental and economic efficiency of the food recycling facilities that are involved in the recycling loop, which are also known as looped facilities. The global warming potential and running cost of five looped facilities were evaluated by LCA (life cycle assessment) and LCC (life cycle cost) approaches: machine integrated compost, windrow compost, liquid feed, dry feed, and bio-gasification. The LCA results showed low total GHG (greenhouse gas) emissions of - 126 and - 49 kg-CO{sub 2}/t-waste, respectively, for dry feed and bio-gasification facilities, due to a high substitution effect. The LCC study showed a low running cost for composting facilities of - 15,648 and - 18,955 yen/t-waste, respectively, due to high revenue from the food waste collection. It was found that the mandatory reporting of food waste emitters to the government increased collection fees; however, the collection fee in animal feed facilities was relatively low because food waste was collected at a low price or nutritious food waste was purchased to produce quality feed. In the characterisation survey of various treatment methods, the composting facilities showed a relatively low environmental impact and a high economic efficiency. Animal feed facilities had a wide distribution of the total GHG emissions, depending on both the energy usage during the drying process and the substitution effect, which were related to the water content of the food waste and the number of recycled products. In comparison with incineration, the majority of the food recycling facilities showed low GHG emissions and economic

  5. The effects of recycling loops in food waste management in Japan: based on the environmental and economic evaluation of food recycling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takata, Miki; Fukushima, Kazuyo; Kino-Kimata, Noriko; Nagao, Norio; Niwa, Chiaki; Toda, Tatsuki

    2012-08-15

    In Japan, a revised Food Recycling Law went into effect in 2007 to promote a "recycling loop" that requires food industries to purchase farm products that are grown using food waste-derived compost/animal feed. To realize and expand food recycling, it is necessary to evaluate how the recycling facilities work in the recycling loop. The purpose of this study is to assess the environmental and economic efficiency of the food recycling facilities that are involved in the recycling loop, which are also known as looped facilities. The global warming potential and running cost of five looped facilities were evaluated by LCA (life cycle assessment) and LCC (life cycle cost) approaches: machine integrated compost, windrow compost, liquid feed, dry feed, and bio-gasification. The LCA results showed low total GHG (greenhouse gas) emissions of -126 and -49 kg-CO(2)/t-waste, respectively, for dry feed and bio-gasification facilities, due to a high substitution effect. The LCC study showed a low running cost for composting facilities of -15,648 and -18,955 yen/t-waste, respectively, due to high revenue from the food waste collection. It was found that the mandatory reporting of food waste emitters to the government increased collection fees; however, the collection fee in animal feed facilities was relatively low because food waste was collected at a low price or nutritious food waste was purchased to produce quality feed. In the characterisation survey of various treatment methods, the composting facilities showed a relatively low environmental impact and a high economic efficiency. Animal feed facilities had a wide distribution of the total GHG emissions, depending on both the energy usage during the drying process and the substitution effect, which were related to the water content of the food waste and the number of recycled products. In comparison with incineration, the majority of the food recycling facilities showed low GHG emissions and economic effectiveness. This

  6. Feed efficiency improvement and aquaculture waste conversion to economically valuable product

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Enang Harris

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Fish farmer cannot reduce feed price, however they can reduce feed cost for fish producing. Feed cost is highly determined by feeding rate (FR; whether in maximum FR or restricted FR, and dissolved oxygen level in water. The present paper reviews a detail explanation concerning both factors on feed efficiency. Amongst other water quality parameters, oxygen is the most important factor and therefore must be closely monitored. Moreover, dissolved oxygen cannot be detected only by visual observation. Biofloc technology and PAS (partitioned aquaculture system can change waste into bacteria and phytoplankton biomass which can be further utilized as fish feed. The major difference between these systems is in the oxygen requirement. This paper also presents some experiment results and preliminary applications in field scale that have been performed in Indonesia.Keywords: feeding rate, oxygen, feed efficiency. ABSTRAKPembudidaya ikan tidak bisa menurunkan harga pakan, tetapi dapat menurunkan biaya pakan untuk memproduksi ikan. Biaya pakan sangat ditentukan oleh feeding rate (FR; apakah ”maksimum FR” atau ”restricted FR”, dan oksigen terlarut dalam air. Dalam artikel ini diuraikan secara rinci mengenai pengaruh kedua faktor tersebut terhadap efisiensi pakan. Oksigen merupakan faktor yang paling penting di antara kualitas air, oleh karena itu kadar oksigen terlarut harus diukur. Oksigen terlarut tidak dapat dideteksi dengan panca indera manusia. Teknologi biofloc dan PAS (partitioned aquaculture system mampu mengubah limbah jadi bakteri dan fitoplankton yang siap untuk menjadi makanan ikan. Perbedaannya antara kedua sistem terletak pada kebutuhan oksigen. Artikel ini juga memuat hasil percobaan dan praktik rintisan skala lapangan yang telah dilaksanakan di Indonesia.Kata kunci: feeding rate, oksigen, efisiensi pakan.

  7. Rescuing Food from the Organics Waste Stream to Feed the Food Insecure: An Economic and Environmental Assessment of Australian Food Rescue Operations Using Environmentally Extended Waste Input-Output Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christian John Reynolds

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available In this paper we investigate the economic and environmental efficiency of charities and NGO’s “rescuing” food waste, using a 2008 case study of food rescue organisations in Australia. We quantify the tonnages, costs, and environmental impact of food rescued, and then compare food rescue to other food waste disposal methods composting and landfill. To our knowledge this is the first manuscript to comprehend the psychical flows of charity within an Input-Output framework—treating the charity donations as a waste product. We found that 18,105 tonnes of food waste was rescued, and calculate that food rescue operations generate approximately six kilograms of food waste per tonne of food rescued, at a cost of US$222 per tonne of food rescued. This a lower cost than purchasing a tonne of comparable edible food at market value. We also found that per US dollar spent on food rescue, edible food to the value of US$5.71 (1863 calories was rescued. Likewise, every US dollar spent on food rescue redirected food that represented 6.6 m3 of embodied water, 40.13 MJ of embodied energy, and 7.5 kilograms of embodied greenhouse gasses (CO2 equivalents from being sent to landfill or composting, and into mouths of the food insecure. We find that food rescue—though more economically costly than landfill or composting—is a lower cost method of obtaining food for the food insecure than direct purchasing.

  8. A new green process for biodiesel production from waste oils via catalytic distillation using a solid acid catalyst – Modeling, economic and environmental analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aashish Gaurav

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available The challenges in the chemical processing industry today are environmental concerns, energy and capital costs. Catalytic distillation (CD is a green reactor technology which combines a catalytic reaction and separation via distillation in the same distillation column. Utilization of CD in chemical process development could result in capital and energy savings, and the reduction of greenhouse gases. The efficacy of CD and the economic merits, in terms of energy and equipment savings, brought by CD for the production of biodiesel from waste oil such as yellow grease is quantified. Process flow sheets for industrial routes for an annual production of 10 million gallon ASTM purity biodiesel in a conventional process (reactor followed by distillation and CD configurations are modeled in Aspen Plus. Material and energy flows, as well as sized unit operation blocks, are used to conduct an economic assessment of each process. Total capital investment, total operating and utility costs are calculated for each process. The waste oil feedstock is yellow grease containing both triglyceride and free fatty acid. Both transesterification and esterification reactions are considered in the process simulations. Results show a significant advantage of CD compared to a conventional biodiesel processes due to the reduction of distillation columns, waste streams and greenhouse gas emissions. The significant savings in capital and energy costs together with the reduction of greenhouse gases demonstrate that process intensification via CD is a feasible and new green process for the biodiesel production from waste oils. Keywords: Yellow grease, Catalytic distillation, Aspen plus economic analyzer, Process intensification

  9. Technical-economic-ecological analysis of hydrothermal carbonisation (HTC) of green waste and subsequent use options

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zeymer, Martin; Meisel, Kathleen; Clemens, Andreas

    2015-01-01

    Hydrothermal Carbonisation (HTC) is an innovative process to convert biogenic residual materials from municipalities into high-quality biogenic solid fuels (charcoal). However, this entails increasing fuel costs. Especially high capital costs and a lower capacity factor of innovative processes as well as the pelletising of the charcoal are the main cost drivers. Hence an on-site utilisation of the charcoal without pelletising, e.g. for heat generation, has a high cost reduction potential. Due to the higher capital costs of solid fuel boilers and fuel storage compared to oil and gas boilers, a high degree of capacity utilisation should be pursued to reduce the fixed cost share and, by this means, lower the levelised costs of heat. Currently, the Hydrothermal Carbonisation conversion process is expensive. Therefore, using the charcoal for heat production is not competitive compared to other fossil or biofuels. The high development and cost reduction potential of this innovative process may have a positive economic impact on future utilisation.

  10. Perceived risk, stigma, and potential economic impacts of a high-level nuclear waste repository in Nevada.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slovic, P; Layman, M; Kraus, N; Flynn, J; Chalmers, J; Gesell, G

    1991-12-01

    This study investigates the potential impacts of the proposed nuclear waste repository at Yucca Mountain, Nevada, upon tourism, retirement and job-related migration, and business development in Las Vegas and the state. Adverse impacts may be expected to result from perceptions of risk, stigmatization, and socially amplified reactions to "unfortunate events" associated with the repository (major and minor accidents, discoveries of radiation releases, evidence of mismanagement, attempts to sabotage or disrupt the facility, etc.). The conceptual underpinnings of risk perception, stigmatization, and social amplification are discussed and empirical data are presented to demonstrate how nuclear images associated with Las Vegas and the State of Nevada might trigger adverse economic effects. The possibility that intense negative imagery associated with the repository may cause significant harm to Nevada's economy can no longer be ignored by serious attempts to assess the risks and impacts of this unique facility. The behavioral processes described here appear relevant as well to the social impact assessment of any proposed facility that produces, uses, transports, or disposes of hazardous materials.

  11. Economic and environmental sustainability of an AnMBR treating urban wastewater and organic fraction of municipal solid waste.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pretel, R; Moñino, P; Robles, A; Ruano, M V; Seco, A; Ferrer, J

    2016-09-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the economic and environmental sustainability of a submerged anaerobic membrane bioreactor (AnMBR) treating urban wastewater (UWW) and organic fraction of municipal solid waste (OFMSW) at ambient temperature in mild/hot climates. To this aim, power requirements, energy recovery from methane (biogas methane and methane dissolved in the effluent), consumption of reagents for membrane cleaning, and sludge handling (polyelectrolyte and energy consumption) and disposal (farmland, landfilling and incineration) were evaluated within different operating scenarios. Results showed that, for the operating conditions considered in this study, AnMBR technology is likely to be a net energy producer, resulting in considerable cost savings (up to €0.023 per m(3) of treated water) when treating low-sulphate influent. Life cycle analysis (LCA) results revealed that operating at high sludge retention times (70 days) and treating UWW jointly with OFMSW enhances the overall environmental performance of AnMBR technology. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Perceived risk, stigma, and potential economic impacts of a high-level nuclear waste repository in Nevada

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Slovic, P.; Layman, M.; Kraus, N.; Flynn, J.; Chalmers, J.; Gesell, G.

    1991-01-01

    This study investigates the potential impacts of the proposed nuclear waste repository at Yucca Mountain, Nevada, upon tourism, retirement and job-related migration, and business development in Las Vegas and the state. Adverse impacts may be expected to result from perceptions of risk, stigmatization, and socially amplified reactions to 'unfortunate events' associated with the repository (major and minor accidents, discoveries of radiation releases, evidence of mismanagement, attempts to sabotage or disrupt the facility, etc.). The conceptual underpinnings of risk perception, stigmatization, and social amplification are discussed and empirical data are presented to demonstrate how nuclear images associated with Las Vegas and the State of Nevada might trigger adverse economic effects. The possibility that intense negative imagery associated with the repository may cause significant harm to Nevada's economy can no longer be ignored by serious attempts to assess the risks and impacts of this unique facility. The behavioral processes described here appear relevant as well to the social impact assessment of any proposed facility that produces, uses, transports, or disposes of hazardous materials

  13. Assessment of Economic Condition Impact on People's Awareness, Attitudes and Practices Towards Recycling of Solid Wastes, a Case Study in Tabriz

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Farzaneh Baghal Asghari

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Background and Objectives : Waste production is an integral part of human life. Besides reduction in waste production, one of the most important strategies solid waste management is solid waste recycling which has environmental and economic benefits. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the knowledge, attitude and practice (KAP of Tabriz citizens to participate in recycling. Material and Methods : This cross-sectional study involved 450 samples, in three different regions of Tabriz with high, average and low income levels (150 from each district, selected by systematic sampling. The relevant data were collected by questionnaires and were analyzed in SPSS and Excel software.  Results : The results of this study showed that the majority of Tabriz citizens had acceptable information about waste and recycling. Average knowledge, attitude and practices of the various regions were 86.8%, 75.6% and 59% respectively. There was no significant association in this field in three different regions (p.value > 0.05. Comparing the regions, education and welfare of the residents had no effect on the willingness to participate in recycling programs. : Conclusion: The results of the study reflect the community's readiness to accept the change and management of Municipal Solid Waste (MSW in the recycling programs. Consequently, recycling would be implemented successfully if organizations (e.g. municipalities, health center, education... have been coordinated and collaborated with citizens. ​

  14. The Waste Wise Schools Program: Evidence of Educational, Environmental, Social and Economic Outcomes at the School and Community Level

    Science.gov (United States)

    Armstrong, Patricia; Sharpley, Brian; Malcolm, Stephen

    2004-01-01

    The Waste Wise Schools Program was established by EcoRecycle Victoria to implement waste and litter education in Victorian schools. It is now operating in over 900 schools in Victoria and 300 schools in other Australian states / territories. This paper provides detailed case studies of two active schools in the Waste Wise Schools Program and…

  15. Historical perspective, economic analysis, and regulatory analysis of the impacts of waste partitioning-transmutation on the disposal of radioactive wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Forsberg, C.W.; Croff, A.G.; Kocher, D.C.

    1990-10-01

    Partitioning-transmutation, sometimes called actinide burning, is an alternative approach to high-level radioactive waste management. It consists of removing long-lived radionuclides from wastes and destroying those radionuclides, thus reducing the long-term hazards of radioactive waste. It was studied in detail in the 1970's. New developments in technology and other factors are resulting in a reexamination of this waste management option. This report consists of three papers which summarize the historical work, update the analysis of the costs of waste disposal, and describe current regulatory requirements which might be impacted by P-T. The papers provide a starting point for future research on P-T. 152 refs., 2 figs., 19 tabs

  16. The opportunities to build institutional and economic "value loops" which will internalize opportunities for circular economics : A case study of household waste management in centre Ivry – Paris XIII.

    OpenAIRE

    Doussoulin bustos , Jean Pierre

    2017-01-01

    1. Introduction : This thesis attempts to evaluate the opportunities of the circular economy at the territorial scale and to engage the role of biogeochemical cycles, economic systems and the institutional boundaries between the environment and the economy, during the transformation project of the waste treatment center at Ivry-Paris XVIII. To achieve this thesis, three different dimensions can be taken into consideration. The first one, inspired by the definition of biosphere proposed by Ver...

  17. The economic case for low carbon waste management in rapidly growing cities in the developing world: The case of Palembang, Indonesia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Papargyropoulou, Effie; Colenbrander, Sarah; Sudmant, Andrew Heshedahl; Gouldson, Andy; Tin, Lee Chew

    2015-11-01

    The provision of appropriate waste management is not only an indicator of development but also of broader sustainability. This is particularly relevant to expanding cities in developing countries faced with rising waste generation and associated environmental health problems. Despite these urgent issues, city authorities often lack the evidence required to make well-informed decisions. This study evaluates the carbon and economic performance of low-carbon measures in the waste sector at a city level, within the context of a developing country. Palembang in Indonesia is used as a case of a medium-sized city in a newly industrialized country, with relevance to other similar cities in the developing world. Evidence suggests that the waste sector can achieve substantial carbon emission reductions, and become a carbon sink, in a cost effective way. Hence there is an economic case for a low carbon development path for Palembang, and possibly for other cities in developing and developed countries facing similar challenges. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Search for a new economic optimum in the management of household waste in Tiaret city (western Algeria).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asnoune, M; Abdelmalek, F; Djelloul, A; Mesghouni, K; Addou, A

    2016-11-01

    In household waste matters, the objective is always to conceive an optimal integrated system of management, where the terms 'optimal' and 'integrated' refer generally to a combination between the waste and the techniques of treatment, valorization and elimination, which often aim at the lowest possible cost. The management optimization of household waste using operational methodologies has not yet been applied in any Algerian district. We proposed an optimization of the valorization of household waste in Tiaret city in order to lower the total management cost. The methodology is modelled by non-linear mathematical equations using 28 variables of decision and aims to assign optimally the seven components of household waste (i.e. plastic, cardboard paper, glass, metals, textiles, organic matter and others) among four centres of treatment [i.e. waste to energy (WTE) or incineration, composting (CM), anaerobic digestion (ANB) or methanization and landfilling (LF)]. The analysis of the obtained results shows that the variation of total cost is mainly due to the assignment of waste among the treatment centres and that certain treatment cannot be applied to household waste in Tiaret city. On the other hand, certain techniques of valorization have been favoured by the optimization. In this work, four scenarios have been proposed to optimize the system cost, where the modelling shows that the mixed scenario (the three treatment centres CM, ANB, LF) suggests a better combination of technologies of waste treatment, with an optimal solution for the system (cost and profit). © The Author(s) 2016.

  19. Study of technical, economic and environmental feasibility of industrial scale production of nanocellulose obtained from the agroindustrial wastes from pineapple peel (Ananas comosus)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Camacho Elizondo, Melissa

    2013-01-01

    Technical, economic and environmental study is realized to determine the feasibility of the industrial production of nanocellulose, from agroindustrial wastes of pineapple (Ananas comosus) market oriented of plastic packaging. The market bibliographical studies (national and international) and real capacities of national institutions have determined the most adequate and competitive method for the production of nanocellulose. The conditions to produce nanocellulose are described from agroindustrial wastes of pineapple in an industrial scale, according with the predominant factors in the plastic market. The equilibrium point, cost and price of nanocellulose produced are analyzed for the national market of plastics. The producing unit implemented is evaluated within the general framework of national and international economy and market to contribute the conditions that may to affect the feasibility and profitability of the project. The technical study has demonstrated to count with the adequate technology for the project execution. The economic study of the project has indicated to be economically profitable, considering the results of the NPV ($ 110 031,73), IRR (46,42%) and MARR (19,19%). The SuperPro Designer program has been used as a tool to corroborate the results in the technical-economic study and these have shown that the project has been feasible [es

  20. “I would rather have a decent job”: Potential barriers preventing street-waste pickers from improving their socio-economic conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kotie Viljoen

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available As a result of the high levels of unemployment in South Africa, many unskilled people are forced to resort to a variety of income-generating activities in the informal economy. The activity of collecting and selling recyclables presents virtually no barriers to entry, making it a viable option. Very little research focusing on street-waste pickers has been undertaken, and, when it has been conducted, it has mostly taken the form of case studies. This paper reports the results of the first countrywide research into the potential barriers that prevent street-waste pickers from improving their socio-economic circumstances. The study used a mixedmethod approach. Structured interviews were conducted between April 2011 and June 2012 with 914 streetwaste pickers and 69 buy-back centres in 13 major cities across all nine provinces in South Africa. Low levels of schooling, limited language proficiency, uncertain and low levels of income, as well as limited access to basic social needs make it difficult for waste pickers to move upwards in the hierarchy of the informal economy. The unique set of socio-economic circumstances in which street-waste pickers operate in the various cities and towns in South Africa make the design of any possible policy interventions a complex one. Policymakers will have to take note of the interdependence of the barriers identified in this research. Failing to do so may cause policies that are aimed at supporting street-waste pickers to achieve the exact opposite, and, ironically, deprive these pickers of their livelihood.

  1. 17. Dialogue on waste management MV. Current developments in waste and resources economics. Proceedings; 17. DIALOG Abfallwirtschaft MV. Aktuelle Entwicklungen in der Abfall- und Ressourcenwirtschaft. Tagungsband

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nelles, Michael (ed.)

    2016-08-01

    This proceedings of 17th DIALOG Waste Management Mecklenburg-Western Pomerania contains 13 lectures. The topics were: Phosphorus recycling of wastewater and sewage sludge (Robert Ristow); Current waste legislation developments (Wolfgang Siederer); Further development of the recycling industry (Andreas Bruckschen); Resource-efficient recycling business - a challenge for municipalities (Holger Thaerichen); Brick Recycling (Anette Mueller); Who has the buck? competence and responsibility in collection, transportation and recycling of waste electrical equipment (Hans-Bernhard Rhein); Recovery of biogenic waste - Development, status and prospects (Martin Kranert); Experience in the bio-waste collection in the district of Western Pomerania-Ruegen (Torsten Ewert); Biowaste concept of OVVD GmbH (Stephan Schuett); Quo vadis BAWA Schwerinum? Biowaste treatment facility Schwerin - first operation experience (Andreas Lange); Future marketing opportunities for compost (Anke Boisch); Status and prospects of waste and substance flow management (Michael Nelles); Development of separate collection of biowaste quantities in Mecklenburg-Western Pomerania. [German] Dieser Tagungsband von der 17. DIALOG Abfallwirtschaft Mecklenburg-Vorpommern in Rostock enthaelt 13 Vortraege. Die Themen waren: Phosphor-Recycling aus Abwasser und Klaerschlamm (Robert Ristow); Aktuelle abfallrechtliche Entwicklungen (Wolfgang Siederer); Weiterentwicklung der Recyclingwirtschaft (Andreas Bruckschen); Ressourceneffiziente Wertstoffwirtschaft ? eine Herausforderung fuer die Kommunen (Holger Thaerichen); Ziegelrecycling (Anette Mueller et. al.); Wer hat den schwarzen Peter? Zustaendigkeiten und Verantwortlichkeiten bei Sammlung, Transport und Verwertung von Elektroaltgeraeten (Hans-Bernhard Rhein); Verwertung biogener Abfaelle - Entwicklung, Stand und Perspektiven (Martin Kranert); Erfahrungen bei der Bioabfallerfassung im Landkreis Vorpommern-Ruegen (Torsten Ewert); Bioabfallkonzept der OVVD GmbH (Stephan

  2. Techno-economic analysis of a food waste valorization process via microalgae cultivation and co-production of plasticizer, lactic acid and animal feed from algal biomass and food waste.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kwan, Tsz Him; Pleissner, Daniel; Lau, Kin Yan; Venus, Joachim; Pommeret, Aude; Lin, Carol Sze Ki

    2015-12-01

    A techno-economic study of food waste valorization via fungal hydrolysis, microalgae cultivation and production of plasticizer, lactic acid and animal feed was simulated and evaluated by Super-Pro Designer®. A pilot-scale plant was designed with a capacity of 1 metric ton day(-1) of food waste with 20 years lifetime. Two scenarios were proposed with different products: Scenario (I) plasticizer & lactic acid, Scenario (II) plasticizer & animal feed. It was found that only Scenario I was economically feasible. The annual net profits, net present value, payback period and internal rate of return were US$ 422,699, US$ 3,028,000, 7.56 years and 18.98%, respectively. Scenario II was not economic viable due to a deficit of US$ 42,632 per year. Sensitivity analysis showed that the price of lactic acid was the largest determinant of the profitability in Scenario I, while the impact of the variables was very close in Scenario II. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Construction Waste Recycling Technologies: How to Define and Assess Their Economic, Environmental and Social Effects by the use of Input-Output Analysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bozhilova-Kisheva, Kossara Petrova; Olsen, Stig Irving

    2012-01-01

    Concrete is one of the most important building materials and it entails a big environmental impact making recycling relevant from an environmental perspective. Recycling of construction and demolition waste (CDW) containing concrete is being performed in the Netherlands resulting in recycled...... for use in buildings is being developed and its impacts assessed under different scenarios. The assessment of the impacts, though, depends on how they are defined: is it only environmental impacts and economic profit, which are assessed? Does concrete recycling have other impacts, e.g. social...... aggregates that due to the less quality are used mainly in road construction and less in buildings. Within the EU FP7 project Advanced Technologies for the Production of Cement and Clean Aggregates from Construction and Demolition Waste (C2CA), an innovative technology for CDW recycling to clean aggregates...

  4. AGRO-INDUSTRIAL WASTE SUSTAINABLE MANAGEMENT – A POTENTIAL SOURCE OF ECONOMIC BENEFITS TO PALM OIL MILLS IN MALAYSIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wai Loan Liew

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Over the decades the palm oil industry has managed some challen ging environmental concerns regarding land transformation and degradation, increas e in eutrophication, changing habitats of wildlife, pesticides runoff into inland wa tercourses, and probable climate change. Countries producing palm oil desire to do so in a more sustainable way that will leave the environment evergreen. Therefore this paper aims to encourage sustainable management of agro-industrial waste and its potenti al in making financial returns from the same waste. Hence, the study was conducted with the participation of seven local palm oil mills having different capacities and oper ation age. Attention was given to milling waste as they could cause serious environmenta l menace if unattended to properly. Milling waste includ es lignocellulosic palm biomas s namely the empty fruit bunches (EFB, oil palm shell (OPS, mesocarp fibres, pal m oil mill effluent (POME, and palm oil mill sludge (POMS, as well as solid waste generated from the further processing of these biomass into the palm oil fuel ashe s (POFA and palm oil clinkers (POC. The opportunities available to the Malaysian pa lm oil industry and the financial benefits which may accr ue from waste generated during palm oil production process cannot be over emphasized.

  5. Images of a place and vacation preferences: Implications of the 1989 surveys for assessing the economic impacts of a nuclear waste repository in Nevada

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Slovic, P.; Layman, M.; Flynn, J.H.

    1990-11-01

    In July, 1989 the authors produced a report titled Perceived Risk, Stigma, and Potential Economic Impacts of a High-Level Nuclear-Waste Repository in Nevada (Slovic et al., 1989). That report described a program of research designed to assess the potential impacts of a high-level nuclear waste repository at Yucca Mountain, Nevada upon tourism, retirement and job-related migration, and business development in Las Vegas and the state. It was concluded that adverse economic impacts potentially may result from two related social processes. Specifically, the study by Slovic et al. employed analyses of imagery in order to overcome concerns about the validity of direct questions regarding the influence of a nuclear-waste repository at Yucca Mountain upon a person's future behaviors. During the latter months of 1989, data were collected in three major telephone surveys, designed to achieve the following objectives: (1) to replicate the results from the Phoenix, Arizona, surveys using samples from other populations that contribute to tourism, migration, and development in Nevada; (2) to retest the original Phoenix respondents to determine the stability of their images across an 18-month time period and to determine whether their vacation choices subsequent to the first survey were predictable from the images they produced in that original survey; (3) to elicit additional word-association images for the stimulus underground nuclear waste repository in order to determine whether the extreme negative images generated by the Phoenix respondents would occur with other samples of respondents; and (4) to develop and test a new method for imagery elicitation, based upon a rating technique rather than on word associations. 2 refs., 8 figs., 13 tabs

  6. Waste Not, Want Not: Analyzing the Economic and Environmental Viability of Waste-to-Energy (WTE) Technology for Site-Specific Optimization of Renewable Energy Options

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Funk, K.; Milford, J.; Simpkins, T.

    2013-02-01

    Waste-to-energy (WTE) technology burns municipal solid waste (MSW) in an environmentally safe combustion system to generate electricity, provide district heat, and reduce the need for landfill disposal. While this technology has gained acceptance in Europe, it has yet to be commonly recognized as an option in the United States. Section 1 of this report provides an overview of WTE as a renewable energy technology and describes a high-level model developed to assess the feasibility of WTE at a site. Section 2 reviews results from previous life cycle assessment (LCA) studies of WTE, and then uses an LCA inventory tool to perform a screening-level analysis of cost, net energy production, greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions, and conventional air pollution impacts of WTE for residual MSW in Boulder, Colorado. Section 3 of this report describes the federal regulations that govern the permitting, monitoring, and operating practices of MSW combustors and provides emissions limits for WTE projects.

  7. Economic growth, CO2 emissions, renewable waste and FDI relation in Pakistan: New evidences from 3SLS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bakhsh, Khuda; Rose, Sobia; Ali, Muhammad Faisal; Ahmad, Najid; Shahbaz, Muhammad

    2017-07-01

    First attempt has been made to find the effects of foreign direct investment on environmental pollution and economic growth, in addition to finding the determinants of foreign direct investment inflows in Pakistan using the annual data set for the period of 1980-2014. Simultaneous equation model has been used to find relation between the variables of concern. Results from technique and composition effects show that increase in economic growth leads towards more pollution emissions. Scale effect shows stock of capital and labor have positive effect on the economic growth of Pakistan while pollution has negative effect on growth. In case of capital accumulation effect, economic growth and foreign direct investment have positive and significant effect on stock of capital. Although increase in economic growth increases pollution, however, economic growth declines as pollution crosses a certain limit. Foreign direct investment is also found positively related with pollution. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. The MRS [Monitored Retrievable Storage] task force: Economic and non-economic incentives for local public acceptance of a proposed nuclear waste packaging and storage facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Peelle, E.

    1987-03-01

    A joint Oak Ridge - Roane County citizen task force (TF) evaluated the Department of Energy's (DOE) proposal to site a Monitored Retrievable Storage facility in Tennessee in terms of environmental, transportation, and socioeconomic impacts. The case study examines how the TF used mitigation, compensation and incentives (economic and non-economic) to address the problem of distrust of DOE and to change the net local impact balance from negative to positive. Intensive group interaction during their investigations and development of trust within the TF led to consensus decisions on safety and conditional acceptance. DOE accepted most of the TF conditions after informal negotiations. The siting process was stopped by extensive state-wide opposition resulting in legal challenge by the state and vetoes by the governor and state legislature

  9. Fact versus fiction. The socio-economic benefits to be found in teaching critical thinking skills on nuclear waste issues in public schools

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anderson, H.

    1984-01-01

    The safe storage of radioactive wastes has been the topic of much heated debate. Many of the concerns raised demonstrate that the public is poorly informed about nuclear matters, bewildered by conflicting testimony and lacking the intellectual skills required to discriminate between statements of fact versus opinion or motive. Recently, the National Council for the Social Studies (NCSS) adopted a set of guidelines intended to encourage a stronger emphasis on urgent science-related social issues in the classroom and to provide for social studies teachers, rational and structure for the presentation of these issues. In this way, the NCSS is moving to meet the needs of the community for greater technological awareness. NCSS believes students need instruction and strategies for evaluating science-related material intelligently. As a case study in point, the topic ''Nuclear Waste: A Science Related Social Issue of Urgent Concern'' was brought before a recent NCSS national meeting. This paper discusses strategies for dealing with nuclear waste issues in the classroom and the potential socio-economic benefits to be found in dispelling myths surrounding nuclear issues

  10. Municipal Solid Waste (MSW) to Liquid Fuels Synthesis, Volume 2: A Techno-economic Evaluation of the Production of Mixed Alcohols

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jones, Susanne B.; Zhu, Yunhua; Valkenburt, Corinne

    2009-05-01

    Biomass is a renewable energy resource that can be converted into liquid fuel suitable for transportation applications and thus help meet the Energy Independence and Security Act renewable energy goals (U.S. Congress 2007). However, biomass is not always available in sufficient quantity at a price compatible with fuels production. Municipal solid waste (MSW) on the other hand is readily available in large quantities in some communities and is considered a partially renewable feedstock. Furthermore, MSW may be available for little or no cost. This report provides a techno-economic analysis of the production of mixed alcohols from MSW and compares it to the costs for a wood based plant. In this analysis, MSW is processed into refuse derived fuel (RDF) and then gasified in a plant co-located with a landfill. The resulting syngas is then catalytically converted to mixed alcohols. At a scale of 2000 metric tons per day of RDF, and using current technology, the minimum ethanol selling price at a 10% rate of return is approximately $1.85/gallon ethanol (early 2008 $). However, favorable economics are dependent upon the toxicity characteristics of the waste streams and that a market exists for the by-product scrap metal recovered from the RDF process.

  11. Analysis of Economical and Environmental Costs for the Selection of Municipal Solid Waste Treatment and Disposal Scenarios through Multicriteria Analysis (ELECTRE Method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lorena De Medina-Salas

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Decision-making for the selection of treatment alternatives and landfilling of municipal solid waste (MSW is based on the experience and judgment of those management responsible, without considering multicriteria analysis. Therefore, the purpose of this research was to determine the treatment scenario and landfilling of MSW with the lowest environmental and economic costs in a medium-sized city. The methodology included the definition and data processing of the project (population, generation, and composition of MSW, for 16 years. In the design of scenarios, recycling, composting, incineration with energy recovery, and landfilling treatments were proposed; later, the combinations of treatments for each type of residue were generated. The results showed 36 scenarios, then the ELECTRE method was applied to the five with the lowest economical and environmental costs. Finally from the latter, one dominant scenario was determined: organic waste in composting; plastic, paper, and glass in recycling; and ‘others’ in landfilling. It is concluded that the final decision on the scenario is adapted to the particular conditions of the locality.

  12. Rethinking the waste hierarchy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rasmussen, C.; Vigsoe, D. (eds.)

    2005-03-01

    There is an increasing need to couple environmental and economic considerations within waste management. Consumers and companies alike generate ever more waste. The waste-policy challenges of the future lie in decoupling growth in waste generation from growth in consumption, and in setting priorities for the waste management. This report discusses the criteria for deciding priorities for waste management methods, and questions the current principles of EU waste policies. The basis for the discussion is the so-called waste hierarchy which has dominated the waste policy in the EU since the mid-1970s. The waste hierarchy ranks possible methods of waste management. According to the waste hierarchy, the very best solution is to reduce the amount of waste. After that, reuse is preferred to recycling which, in turn, is preferred to incineration. Disposal at a landfill is the least favourable solution. (BA)

  13. Municipal solid waste management in rural areas and small counties: an economic analysis using contingent valuation to estimate willingness to pay for Yunnan, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Hua; He, Jie; Kim, Yoonhee; Kamata, Takuya

    2014-08-01

    Municipal solid waste management (SWM) is a major challenge for local governments in rural China. One key issue is the low priority assigned by the local government which is faced with limited financing capacity. We conducted an economic analysis in Eryuan, a poor county in Yunnan, China, where the willingness- to- pay (WTP) for an improved solid waste collection and disposal service was valuated and compared with project cost. Similar to most previous studies in developing countries, this study found that the mean WTP is approximately 1% of the household income. The economic internal rate of return of the project is about 5%, which signifies the estimated social benefit to be already higher than the project cost. Moreover, we believe our estimation of social benefit to be a conservative one since our study only focuses on the local people who will be directly served by the project; wider positive externality of the project, such as CO2 emission reduction and groundwater pollution alleviation, etc., whose impact most probably surpass the frontier of Eryuan county, are not considered explicitly in our survey. The analysis also reveals that the poorest households are not only willing to pay more than the rich households in terms of percentage income but are also willing to pay no less than the rich in terms of absolute value in locations where solid waste services are unavailable. This result reveals the fact that the poorest households have stronger demands for public SWM services, whereas the rich may have the ability to employ private solutions. © The Author(s) 2014.

  14. Proposed waste isolation pilot project (WIPP) and impacts in the state of New Mexico: a socio-economic analysis. Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cummings, R.D.; Burness, H.S.; Norton, R.D.

    1981-04-01

    This document is a final report for research conducted concerning the socio-economic impacts in the State of New Mexico that might attend the construction and operation of the proposed Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP). The proposed site for the WIPP, known as the Los Medanos site, is in Southeastern New Mexico's Eddy County, some 25 miles east of Carlsbad, New Mexico and some 40 miles from Hobbs, New Mexico, in adjacent Lea County. The purpose as set out in the US Department of Energy's environmental impact statements is for storage of TRU waste from the US defense program and the construction of a research and development area for experiments concerning the isolation of all types of nuclear waste in salt. The intended purpose of the study is to identify, measure (when possible) and assess the range of potential socio-economic impacts in the State that may be attributable to the WIPP. Every effort has been made by the authors to approach this task in an objective manner. In efforts to provide an objective analysis of the WIPP, however, particular attention was required in providing a comprehensive review of potential impacts. This means that however unlikely an impact might seem, the authors have purposely avoided pre-judging the potential magnitude of the impact and have applied their best efforts to measure it. On the other hnd, this study is not intended to provide a definitive calculation regarding the net balance of WIPP-related benefits and costs. To help ensure objectivity, two advisory boards, Technical Advisory Board and Public Advisory Board, were formed at the outset of the project for the purpose of providing periodic reviews of research efforts

  15. ECONOMY, ECONOMICS, ECONOMIC, ECONOMICAL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sim Monica Ariana

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available To speak and understand a language means - among many other things - knowing the words of that language. The average speaker knows, hears, understands and uses thousands of words daily. But does he use them appropriately? That is why this paper is about words and meanings. More specifically, it deals with the internal structure of complex words, i.e. derivatives. The purpose of the paper is to enable students and potentially other individuals dealing with English language on business basis to engage in their own analyses of some aspects of the language, namely the family tree of the word economy. After having read the paper, the reader should be familiar with the necessary knowledge regarding differences between meanings, misuse and actual sense of words deriving from economy, be able to systematically analyze data and relate his own findings on theoretical language problems. English is used by hundreds of millions speakers and still there is always need for improving our knowledge continuously. Knowing and speaking approximate English may not be enough at an advanced level as in the case of students who prepare themselves for careers that involve proficient communication in a foreign language on specific business issues. This is where the idea of such a paper appeared: students of the Faculty of Economic Sciences talk about economy and all the other terms deriving from it, with approximate knowledge of their meaning, without even being aware that some ‘minor' suffixes like –ic, -ical, -ics etc. really matter and do make a difference. Consequently, we started our teaching of Business English lecture in September 2012 with a working sheet based on the terms economic/ economical/ economics/ economy to assess students' awareness of these terms. The result was not a surprise as more than 90% misused economical instead of economic. That seemed a perfect introduction for students in economics. From that moment on, the building of their specific

  16. SOCIO-ECONOMIC DEVELOPMENT OF THE CENTRAL FEDERAL DISTRICT OF RUSSIAN FEDERATION WITH METHODOLOGICAL ASPECTS OF INNOVATION WASTE MANAGEMENT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L.A. Shilova

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available The author proposed a method to improve the mechanism for assessing the ecological safety of territories with regional geo-environmental tensions, social and environmental performance. The necessity to assess the re-use of material and natural resources and to provide business entities right to change the fees for environmental pollution by industrial wastes, if they are re-used in different industries.

  17. AGRO-INDUSTRIAL WASTE SUSTAINABLE MANAGEMENT – A POTENTIAL SOURCE OF ECONOMIC BENEFITS TO PALM OIL MILLS IN MALAYSIA

    OpenAIRE

    Wai Loan Liew; Khalida Muda; Mohd. Azraai; Augustine Chioma Affam; Soh Kheang

    2017-01-01

    Over the decades the palm oil industry has managed some challen ging environmental concerns regarding land transformation and degradation, increas e in eutrophication, changing habitats of wildlife, pesticides runoff into inland wa tercourses, and probable climate change. Countries producing palm oil desire to do so in a more sustainable way that will leave the environment evergreen. Therefore this paper aims to encourage sustainable management of agro-industrial waste and ...

  18. Techno-Economic Evaluation of Biodiesel Production from Waste Cooking Oil?A Case Study of Hong Kong

    OpenAIRE

    Karmee, Sanjib Kumar; Patria, Raffel Dharma; Lin, Carol Sze Ki

    2015-01-01

    Fossil fuel shortage is a major challenge worldwide. Therefore, research is currently underway to investigate potential renewable energy sources. Biodiesel is one of the major renewable energy sources that can be obtained from oils and fats by transesterification. However, biodiesel obtained from vegetable oils as feedstock is expensive. Thus, an alternative and inexpensive feedstock such as waste cooking oil (WCO) can be used as feedstock for biodiesel production. In this project, techno-eco...

  19. Management of waste heat at nuclear power plants: Its potential impact on the environment and its possible economic use

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tsai, Y.H.

    1987-01-01

    The efficacy of the disposal of waste heat from nuclear power plants by means of once-through and closed-cycle cooling systems is examined in the context of the physical aspects of water quality standards and guidelines for thermal discharges. Typical thermal standards for each of the four classes of water bodies (rivers, lakes, estuaries, and coastal waters) are identified. Examples of thermal standards established for once-through cooling on open coastal waters are presented. The design and general layout of various types of cooling systems are reviewed. The advantages and disadvantages of each of the cooling systems are presented, with particular emphasis on the discussion of potential environmental impacts. Modeling techniques available for impact assessment are presented. Proper selection and application of the models depend on the availability of site characteristics and understanding of the modeling techniques. Guidelines for choosing an appropriate model are presented. Various methods have been developed for the beneficial use of waste heat largely dissipated to the environment. Examples and associated problems of waste-heat utilization are discussed for agricultural, industrial, aquacultural, and residential uses

  20. Improvement of the Koradi parallel algorithm for molecular dynamics and application to the economic organization and optimization of recycling costs of waste electrical and electronic equipment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cabria, I.; Queiruga, D.

    2005-09-01

    A parallel algorithm for molecular dynamics, MD, the Koradi point-centered decomposition algorithm, especially designed for inhomogeneous systems, is improved and applied to the organization and optimization of recycling costs of Waste Electrical and Electronic Equipment, WEEE, and also to systems of atoms. This organization requires the numbers and locations of storage centers and recycling plants of the WEEE that minimize the recycling cost. The Koradi algorithm finds these optimal numbers and locations, dealing very fast with large numbers of data, in contrast with other methods. The changes of the original algorithm (different ways of generating the initial centers and especially the requirement of location convergence) improve its performance for this economic problem and also for MD simulations.

  1. Prevalence of intestinal parasites among workers involved in collection, transportation and recycling of wastes in the Pars Special Economic Energy Zone, Bushehr

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MoradAli Fouladvand

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Intestinal parasitic infections are of one most important problems in developing countries and job is one of the most important factors determining the rate of intestinal parasitic infections. Persons who deal with waste elimination and recycling, due to close contact with infectious sources are more likely to be infected than others. Because of industrialization, population density and immigrants residing in Assaluyeh region , and due to the lack of history of a study for intestinal parasitic infection, the prevalence rate of intestinal parasitic infections among workers in the collection, transportation and recycling of wastes in the Pars Special Economic Energy Zone was evaluated. Material and methods: In a descriptive cross-sectional study, demographic questionaire was completed for each person, Stool samples were taken and sample containers were transferred to parasitology research laboratory of university. Samples were examined for intestinal parasites by preparing direct smear (wet mount and formalin-ether sedimentation technique. Data were collected by questionnaire and analyzed using SPSS 15.0 software and Chi square test. Results: The results showed that 37.3% of samples were infected at least with one intestinal parasite, 10.7% of samples were infected with more than one parasite. Giardia lamblia (6% and Entamoeba coli (13/4%, showed the highest infection rate among all parasite species. Prevalence rate of intestinal parasites in worker from Nakhl-e- Taghi municipality was higher than other region of the study area. Conclusion : Job type and duration of contact with infectious source play important roles in determining rate of intestinal parasitic infection. Workers involved in collection, transportation and recycling of wastes are more at risk of intestinal parasitic infections than others. Therfore, providing personal protective equipments and health education in this group can play an important role in community

  2. Development of Natural Gas Fired Combined Cycle Plant for Tri-Generation of Power, Cooling and Clean Water Using Waste Heat Recovery: Techno-Economic Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gowtham Mohan

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Tri-generation is one of the most efficient ways for maximizing the utilization of available energy. Utilization of waste heat (flue gases liberated by the Al-Hamra gas turbine power plant is analyzed in this research work for simultaneous production of: (a electricity by combining steam rankine cycle using heat recovery steam generator (HRSG; (b clean water by air gap membrane distillation (AGMD plant; and (c cooling by single stage vapor absorption chiller (VAC. The flue gases liberated from the gas turbine power cycle is the prime source of energy for the tri-generation system. The heat recovered from condenser of steam cycle and excess heat available at the flue gases are utilized to drive cooling and desalination cycles which are optimized based on the cooling energy demands of the villas. Economic and environmental benefits of the tri-generation system in terms of cost savings and reduction in carbon emissions were analyzed. Energy efficiency of about 82%–85% is achieved by the tri-generation system compared to 50%–52% for combined cycles. Normalized carbon dioxide emission per MW·h is reduced by 51.5% by implementation of waste heat recovery tri-generation system. The tri-generation system has a payback period of 1.38 years with cumulative net present value of $66 million over the project life time.

  3. Converting the organic fraction of solid waste from the city of Abu Dhabi to valuable products via dark fermentation--Economic and energy assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonk, Fabian; Bastidas-Oyanedel, Juan-Rodrigo; Schmidt, Jens Ejbye

    2015-06-01

    Landfilling the organic fraction of municipal solid waste (OFMSW) leads to greenhouse gas emissions and loss of valuable resources. Sustainable and cost efficient solutions need to be developed to solve this problem. This study evaluates the feasibility of using dark fermentation (DF) to convert the OFMSW to volatile fatty acids (VFAs), fertilizer and H2. The VFAs in the DF effluent can be used directly as substrate for subsequent bioprocesses or purified from the effluent for industrial use. DF of the OFMSW in Abu Dhabi will be economically sustainable once VFA purification can be accomplished on large scale for less than 15USD/m(3)(effluent). With a VFA minimum selling price of 330 USD/tCOD, DF provides a competitive carbon source to sugar. Furthermore, DF is likely to use less energy than conventional processes that produce VFAs, fertilizer and H2. This makes DF of OFMSW a promising waste treatment technology and biorefinery platform. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Thermo-economic analysis and optimization of a combined cooling and power (CCP) system for engine waste heat recovery

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xia, Jiaxi; Wang, Jiangfeng; Lou, Juwei; Zhao, Pan; Dai, Yiping

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • A combined cooling and power system was proposed for engine waste heat recovery. • Effects of key parameters on thermodynamic performance of the system were studied. • Exergoeconomic parameter analysis was performed for the system. • A single-objective optimization by means of genetic algorithm was carried out. - Abstract: A combined cooling and power (CCP) system is developed, which comprises a CO 2 Brayton cycle (BC), an organic Rankine cycle (ORC) and an ejector refrigeration cycle for the cascade utilization of waste heat from an internal combustion engine. By establishing mathematical model to simulate the overall system, thermodynamic analysis and exergoeconomic analysis are conducted to examine the effects of five key parameters including the compressor pressure ratio, the compressor inlet temperature, the BC turbine inlet temperature, the ORC turbine inlet pressure and the ejector primary flow pressure on system performance. What’s more, a single-objective optimization by means of genetic algorithm (GA) is carried out to search the optimal system performance from viewpoint of exergoeconomic. Results show that the increases of the BC turbine inlet temperature, the ORC turbine inlet pressure and the ejector primary flow pressure are benefit to both thermodynamic and exergoeconimic performances of the CCP system. However, the rises in compressor pressure ratio and compressor inlet temperature will lead to worse system performances. By the single-objective optimization, the lowest average cost per unit of exergy product for the overall system is obtained.

  5. Civil nuclear and responsibilities related to radioactive wastes. The 'cumbersome' wastes of the civil nuclear; The Parliament and the management of wastes from the civil nuclear; The Swiss legal framework related to the shutting down of nuclear power stations and to the management of radioactive wastes; Economic theory and management of radioactive wastes: to dare the conflict

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rambour, Muriel; Pauvert, Bertrand; Zuber-Roy, Celine; Thireau, Veronique

    2015-01-01

    This publication presents the contributions to a research seminar organised by the European Centre of research on Risk, Collective Accident and Disasters Law (CERDACC) on the following theme: civil nuclear and responsibilities related to radioactive wastes. Three main thematic issues have been addressed: the French legal framework for waste processing, the comparison with the Swiss case, and the controversy about the exposure of societies to waste-induced risks. The first contribution addressed the cumbersome wastes of the civil nuclear industry: characterization and management solutions, the hypothesis of reversibility of the storage of radioactive wastes. The second one comments the commitment of the French Parliament in the management of wastes of the civil nuclear industry: role of Parliamentary Office of assessment of scientific and technological choices (OPECST) to guide law elaboration, assessment by the Parliament of the management of nuclear wastes (history and evolution of legal arrangements). The next contribution describes the Swiss legal framework for the shutting down of nuclear power stations (decision and decommissioning) and for the management of radioactive wastes (removal, financing). The last contribution discusses the risk related to nuclear waste management for citizen and comments how economists address this issue

  6. Perceived risk, stigma, and potential economic impacts of a high-level nuclear waste repository in Nevada

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Slovic, P.

    1989-01-01

    This paper addresses the potential for the proposed Yucca Mountain repository to have serious adverse economic impacts on the city of Las Vegas and the State of Nevada. Adverse economic impacts may be expected to result from two related social processes. One has to do with perceptions of risk and socially amplified reactions to unfortunate events associated with the repository (major and minor accidents, discoveries of radiation releases, evidence of mismanagement, attempts to sabotage or disrupt the facility, etc.). The second process that may trigger significant adverse impacts is that of stigmatization. The conceptual underpinnings of risk perception, social amplification, and stigma are discussed in this paper and empirical data are presented to demonstrate how nuclear images associated with Las Vegas and the State of Nevada might trigger adverse effects on tourism, migration, and business development

  7. Introduction to Waste Management

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Thomas Højlund

    2011-01-01

    Solid waste management is as old as human civilization, although only considered an engineering discipline for about one century. The change from the previous focus on public cleansing of the cities to modern waste management was primarily driven by industrialization, which introduced new materials...... and chemicals, dramatically changing the types and composition of waste, and by urbanization making waste management in urban areas a complicated and costly logistic operation. This book focuses on waste that commonly appears in the municipal waste management system. This chapter gives an introduction to modern...... waste management, including issues as waste definition, problems associated with waste, waste management criteria and approaches to waste management. Later chapters introduce aspects of engineering (Chapter 1.2), economics (Chapter 1.3) and regulation (Chapter 1.4)....

  8. A crisis in waste management, economic vitality, and a coastal marine environment: Boston Harbor and Massachusetts Bay

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manheim, F. T.; Butman, B.

    1994-01-01

    Discharge of sewage sludge and effluent from 43 communities in the greater Boston metropolitan area has helped make the harbor one of the most polluted in the nation. As part of a court-mandated plan to end pollution of the harbor, effluent will no longer be discharged into the harbor, but instead, by 1995 it will be discharged into Massachusetts Bay through a record-long 15.34 km tunnel. By the year 2000 all of the sewage is scheduled to recive full secondary treatment. The public is concerned about long-term effects of the new ocean outfall on the environment, including Cape Cod Bay and Stellwagen Bank, which is an important habitat for whales and a newly designated national marine sanctuary. The bay has been additionally stressed by dumping of low-level radioactive and other hazardous wastes during the 1950s and 1960s. -from Authors

  9. CHARACTERISTICS AND HOUSEHOLD TOXIC HAZARDOUS WASTE GENERATION BASED ON ECONOMIC STATUS AND TOPOGRAPHIC REGIONS IN SEMARANG CITY, INDONESIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elanda Fikri

    2017-09-01

    The largest characteristic of HTHW in Semarang City is infectious (79%, further Poisonous (13%, Combustible (6% and Corrosive (2%. While HTHW generation is 0.01 kg/person/day (5.1% MSW. Statistical test result showed there was significant difference (p-value : 0.001 between HTHW generation based on economic level, but there was no significant difference (p-value :0.442 between HTHW characteristics in Semarang city. Level of education, occupation, income level and lifestyle may become potential factor in difference characteristics and HTHW generation in Semarang city.

  10. Multi-objective optimization of a combined steam-organic Rankine cycle based on exergy and exergo-economic analysis for waste heat recovery application

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nazari, Navid; Heidarnejad, Parisa; Porkhial, Soheil

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • Exergo-economic optimization of combined steam-organic cycle is performed. • Genetic algorithm is used to perform multi-objective optimization. • Total product cost rate and exergy efficiency were selected as the objective function. • Three different organic fluids (R124, R152a andR134a) were chosen to monitor the system performance. • A parametric study is done using three different decision variables. - Abstract: In this paper, a combined steam-organic Rankine cycle is proposed to recover the waste heat of a gas turbine. Proposed combined system includes a subcritical steam Rankine cycle that is coupled with a transcritical organic Rankine cycle. Three different organic fluids such as R124, R152a, and R134a are selected to monitor the thermodynamic and exergo-economic performance of the system. Results show that maximum exergy efficiency and minimum total product cost rate of a studied system for the base case condition are 57.62% and 396.7 ($/h) for the combined cycle with R124 and R152a, respectively. Also, a parametric study is performed to investigate the effects of key parameters including steam turbine inlet pressure, organic turbine inlet pressure, organic preheater pinch temperature and organic condensation temperature on exergetic efficiency and total product cost rate of the system. Finally, the Genetic algorithm is employed to conduct a multi-objective optimization of the system with two objective functions including exergy efficiency and total product cost rate. The results of optimization revealed that combined cycle with R152a has the best performance from thermodynamic and exergo-economic viewpoint among analyzed fluids.

  11. Thermo-economic optimization of low-grade waste heat recovery in Yazd combined-cycle power plant (Iran) by a CO2 transcritical Rankine cycle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Amini, Ali; Mirkhani, Nima; Pakjesm Pourfard, Pedram; Ashjaee, Mehdi; Khodkar, Mohammad Amin

    2015-01-01

    A transcritical CO 2 Rankine cycle is proposed for recovering low-grade waste heat of Yazd combined-cycle power plant in Iran. Each power generation module of this plant consists of two 159 MW Siemens SGT-5-2000E gas turbines and one 132 MW steam turbine. Reducing exhaust gas temperature from 150 °C to 70 °C, the plant can generate excessive power. From thermodynamics approach, it is demonstrated that by fixing the maximum temperature at 145 °C and varying the maximum pressure, the efficiency and the net power output are maximized at P max  = 185 bar. In the aforementioned operating point, about 6.3 MW is retained for the selected power plant with a nominal 450 MW of power generation. A more actual case considering thermodynamic losses and economic considerations is then investigated. Genetic algorithm is implanted to conduct a parametric optimization to maximize the benefit-cost ratio which is defined on the basis of total bare module cost and net power output. The results indicate that the cycle costs are more influenced by the maximum pressure rather than the maximum temperature. Through this parametric optimization, the CO 2 cycle can produce about 4.04 MW. This is about 0.9% of the plant capacity and increases the total efficiency about 0.4%. - Highlights: • CO 2 transcritical Rankine cycle is used to recover heat in Yazd 450 MW power plant. • The cycle behavior is examined as its maximum temperature and maximum pressure vary. • 6.3 MW could be retained for the plant on the basis of ideal thermodynamic behavior. • Thermo-economic optimization is conducted subject to actual operating conditions. • 4.04 MW is recovered considering the actual thermo-economic conditions

  12. The evolution of the Italian EPR system for the management of household Waste Electrical and Electronic Equipment (WEEE). Technical and economic performance in the spotlight.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Favot, Marinella; Veit, Raphael; Massarutto, Antonio

    2016-10-01

    In this paper we analyse the Italian collective system for the management of household Waste Electrical and Electronic Equipment (WEEE), and its evolution over time, following the European Directives on WEEE, which include the Extended Producer Responsibility (EPR). The analysis focuses on the technical and economic performance of WEEE compliance organisations (consortia), as they are the key players in the Italian EPR regime. Economic results have not usually been provided in previous studies, due to the lack of available data. This study overcomes this problem by accessing the financial statements for the years 2009-2014 of all consortia. The main conclusions of the study are: The Italian EPR system barely exceeded the technical target of the first WEEE Directive (4kg per capita). Improvements are necessary to achieve the target set for 2019 by the Recast Directive. The economic performance of the Italian EPR regime improved significantly over time. The fees charged per tonne of WEEE collected decreased by almost 43% from 652 Euro per tonne in 2009 to 374 Euro per tonne in 2014, while the fees per tonne put on the market (POM) were 134 Euro in 2009 and 104 Euro in 2014. The results prove the theory which states that, competing consortia use the learning effects to reduce the contribution fees for producers rather than to increase the quantity collected. Municipalities remain the most important actor in WEEE collection operations. Consortia compensate municipalities with a reimbursement that ranges between 28 and 38 Euros per tonne collected. These repayments cover only partially their costs. Additional studies should investigate their role. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Mine waste management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hutchinson, I.P.G.; Ellison, R.D.

    1992-01-01

    This book reports on mine waste management. Topics covered include: Performance review of modern mine waste management units; Mine waste management requirements; Prediction of acid generation potential; Attenuation of chemical constituents; Climatic considerations; Liner system design; Closure requirements; Heap leaching; Ground water monitoring; and Economic impact evaluation

  14. SOCIO-ECONOMIC AND ENVIRONMENTAL SIGNIFICANCE STRATEGIC MANAGEMENT OF PROCESSING WASTE OF SERBIAN, FOR EXAMPLE IN PELLET

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    SLOBODAN POPOVIĆ

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Changes in the mindset of people in the first decade of the new millennium have resulted in treatment escaping objects and things in terms of a complete transformation into useful products. Such approach is essential to so-called access. Green economy, which is substantially wider than most developed economies towards a growing number of countries, and in recent years, and penetrates to the former Yugoslavia. These processes are especially present in the countries that are on a par to the EU or by opening chapter of EU accession, and the changing legal and other frameworks to make up a system that is acceptable to the EU. Generally speaking, it is increasing the general level of responsibility of nation states towards the common good. Multidisciplinary approach is becoming a trend to cover all issues, including the issue of sustainable development, green economy, employment based on the exploitation of raw materials and trendsetting products that are thrown in landfills and others. The aim is to highlight the importance of processing less hazardous waste into a useful product, which can substantially change the approach to the classical approach to the economy, a new approach oriented towards creating benefits of the green approach to countries in transition, which is in line with the principles developed by the EU.

  15. Techno-economic analysis of lipase enzyme production from agro-industry waste with solid state fermentation method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hidayatullah, I. M.; Arbianti, R.; Utami, T. S.; Suci, M.; Sahlan, M.; Wijanarko, A.; Gozan, M.; Hermansyah, H.

    2018-03-01

    Needs for this kind of catalyst derived from biological raw materials (biocatalysts) has increased along with development of products based on eco-friendly. To achieve the needs of biocatalyst (enzyme), large production is necessary. This study aimed to get the best conditions and design equipment to produce lipase enzyme based on solid state fermentation using SuperPro Designer v9.0. Several equipment such as Tray Bioreactor, Mixing Tank 1, Filter Press, centrifuge, Mixing Tank 2, and a dryer have been improved during the simulation. Economic analysis in the form of NPV, IRR, Payback Period, and the Benefit Cost Ratio was evaluated respectively. The result showed that production of 10 kg enzyme with NPV Rp112.796.147.423,00; IRR 54.20%; Payback Period 1.95 years; and Benefit Cost Ratio of 3.36 was more advantageous.

  16. Technical and economic analysis of electricity generation from forest, fossil, and wood-waste fuels in a Finnish heating plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Palander, Teijo

    2011-01-01

    The Finnish energy industry is subject to policy decisions regarding renewable energy production and energy efficiency. Conventional electricity generation has environmental side-effects that may cause global warming. Renewable fuels are superior because they offer near-zero net emissions. In this study, I investigated a heating mill's ability to generate electricity from forest fuels in southern Finland on a 1-year strategic decision-making horizon. I solved the electricity generation problem using optimization of the energy products and fuel mixtures based on energy efficiency and forest technology. The decision environment was complicated by the sequence-dependent procurement chains for forest fuels. The optimal product and fuel mixtures were selected by minimizing procurement costs, maximizing production revenues, and minimizing energy losses. The combinatorial complexity of the problem required the use of adaptive techniques to solve a multiple-objective linear programming system with industrial relevance. I discuss the properties of the decision-support system and methodology and illustrate pricing of electricity generation based on real industrial data. The electricity-generation, -purchase, and -sales decisions are made based on a comprehensive technical and economic analysis that accounts for procurement of local forest fuels in a holistic supply chain model. -- Highlights: → I use adaptive techniques to solve a multiple-objective linear programming system with industrial relevance. → I investigated a heating mill's ability to generate electricity from forest fuels. → The electricity-generation, -purchase, and -sales decisions are made based on a comprehensive technical and economic analysis. → The optimal product and fuel mixtures were selected by minimizing procurement costs, maximizing production revenues, and minimizing energy losses.

  17. Radioactive wastes of Nuclear Industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1995-01-01

    This conference studies the radioactive waste of nuclear industry. Nine articles and presentations are exposed here; the action of the direction of nuclear installations safety, the improvement of industrial proceedings to reduce the waste volume, the packaging of radioactive waste, the safety of radioactive waste disposal and environmental impact studies, a presentation of waste coming from nuclear power plants, the new waste management policy, the international panorama of radioactive waste management, the international transport of radioactive waste, finally an economic analysis of the treatment and ultimate storage of radioactive waste. (N.C.)

  18. Carbonated water (CW) process waste reuse for ammonium-uranyl-carbonate (AUC) production and its gains on the environmental, economic and social aspects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carnaval, Joao Paulo R.; Santos, Rafael D. dos; Barbosa, Rodrigo A.; Lauer, Sergio

    2013-01-01

    In the INB nuclear fuel cycle, the pellets production is based on UO 2 powder made by AUC (Ammonium-Uranyl-Carbonate) route. AUC formation occurs by fluidising of UF 6 , NH 3 and CO 2 in a vase containing usually pure water, and this exothermal reaction has AUC as direct product. The mass formed is filtered, washed with CW, washed again with methano solution, dried with air and conducted to the fluidized bed furnace, to be converted to UO 2 powder. At this point, the dried AUC decompounds to UO 3 , NH 3 and C0 2 , these 2 gases are absorbed at the gases washer, formin go the carbonated water (CW), whit is basically a (NH 4 ) 2 CO 3 solution. The UO 2+x is reduced and stabilized to UO 2 powder, which is conducted to pellets production. During the process, a considerable amount of this aqueous waste is generated and goes for effluent treatment. After that, the solution is sent for spray-dryer for power formation, and stock. This treatment demands equipment, energy and time, representing considerable costs of the company beyond the human risks involved on the drying step. The purpose of this work is to present a study of the carbonated water use as substitute of pure water in the AUC formation step. At this point, tests were made varying the CW loads for the AUC precipitation, and the control was made by the UO 2 powder properties. The carbonated water used for AUC precipitation has been tested at several levels and the results has demonstrated full viability to become a definitive process step (INB, Resende site). It has been demonstrated the great resources economy caused by the waste reuse and the guarantee product quality. This represents such an environmental gain and also economic and social aspects got improved. (author)

  19. Assessment of the impact of a nuclear waste repository at Yucca Mountain on the economic development potential of Las Vegas, Clark County, and the surrounding area

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boyle, M.R.

    1989-01-01

    Growth Strategies Organization has completed an assessment of the Las Vegas MSA's competitiveness in the attraction of new business facilities to the area. That report found that under current business climate conditions and in the present economic development market place, the region is a competitive site for about one hundred of the six hundred types of primary businesses studied. It is almost competitive as a location for another 80 to 90 types of businesses and is a marginal choice for another 200 business groups. In other words, Clark County, as is, fully satisfies the basic requirements of almost a sixth of the businesses in this study. With minor improvements in areas such as the skill mix of its work force and the quality of its educational facilities and with an effective campaign to improve the area's image, the Las Vegas area could become a competitive location for about two-thirds of all business groups -- a very large shift in marketability. The proposed nuclear waste repository that he Federal government has proposed for siting at Yucca Mountain more than a hundred miles from Las Vegas would become operational after the turn of the century, more than fifteen years from now. Its influence on business investment decisions would be felt in the mid- to late-1990s if the final decision were made and announced. To measure that impact it would be desirable to establish a baseline that reflects Clark County's competitiveness as a business facility location in the middle of the next decade. In constructing that baseline, several variables could be considered -- changes in business climate conditions in the area other than the nuclear waste repository; and changes in the location decision process itself resulting from changes in technology and in market pressures

  20. Economical assessment of the design, construction and operation of open-bed biofilters for waste gas treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prado, O J; Gabriel, D; Lafuente, J

    2009-06-01

    A protocol was developed with the purpose of assessing the main costs implied in the set-up, operation and maintenance of a waste gas-treating conventional biofilter. The main operating parameters considered in the protocol were the empty bed residence time and the gas flow rate. A wide variety of investment and operating costs were considered. In order to check its reliability, the protocol was applied to a number of scenarios, with biofilter volumes ranging from 8.3 to 4000 m(3). Results show that total annualized costs were between 20,000 and 220,000 euro/year and directly dependent, among other factors, on the size of the system. Total investment and operating costs for average-size compost biofilters were around 60,000 euro and 20,000 euro/year, respectively, which are concordant with actual costs. Also, a sensitivity analysis was performed in order to assess the relative influence of a series of selected costs. Results prove that operating costs are those that influence the total annual costs to a higher extent. Also, packing material replacement costs contribute significantly to the total yearly costs in biofilters with a volume higher than 800 m(3). Among operating costs, the electricity consumption is the main influencing factor in biofilters with a gas flow rate above 50,000 m(3)/h, while labor costs are critical at lower gas flow rates. In addition, the use of a variety of packing materials commonly employed in biofiltration was assessed. According to the results obtained, special attention should be paid to the packing material selected, as it is the main parameter influencing the medium replacement costs, and one of the main factors affecting investment costs.

  1. Technical and economical evaluation of the alcohol production from cassava fibrous waste using pectinase as a complementary enzyme; Avaliacao tecnico-economica da producao de etanol de farelo de mandioca, utilizando pectinase como enzima complementar

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Leonel, Magali; Cereda, Marney P. [UNESP, Botucatu, SP (Brazil). Faculdade de Ciencias Agronomicas

    1998-06-01

    Cassava fibrous waste is generated during starch manufactured as a solid waste used mainly for animal feeding. The process of the alcohol production from cassava fibrous waste using pectinase as a complementary enzyme in the hydrolysis process was technically and economically analyzed in this work. The addition of nutrients on the fermentation wort was also analyzed. The fibrous waste, the final fibrous residue after hydrolysis and the fermentation wort were characterized in their physical-chemistry composition and profile of sugars. The cassava fibrous waste had 80% starch, 11.5% fiber, 1.14% ash, 0,85% protein and 0.45% of the sugars. In the hydrolysis process it was obtained a conversion of 86.31 of initial starch and 80% of the total sugars yield considered as 100%. The solid fibrous residue generated after hydrolysis had 37% of the starch, 30% of total sugars and 30% of fibers in dry basis. The data indicated that 75% of the raw material was hydrolyzed. The fermentation wort had 13 deg Brix of extract and it was not necessary to concentrate it. The data showed that the maximum of alcohol is formed after 48 h of fermentation and the addition of nutrients reduced the fermentation time in 8 hours. There was not expressive difference in the fermentation yield with and without addition of nutrients. The average yield of the conversion starch to alcohol was 51.6%. The cost analysis indicated that this process is economically possible. (author)

  2. Tactical techno-economic analysis of electricity generation from forest, fossil, and wood waste fuels in a heating plant

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Palander Teijo

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The Finnish energy industry is subject to policy decisions regarding renewable energy production and energy efficiency regulation. Conventional electricity generation has environmental side-effects that may cause global warming. Renewable fuels are superior because they offer near-zero net emissions. In this study, we investigated a heating mill's ability to generate electricity from forest fuels in southern Finland on a 1-year strategic decision-making horizon. The electricity-generation, -purchase, and -sales decisions are made using three different energy efficiency and forest technology rates. Then the decision environment was complicated by the sequence-dependent procurement chains for forest fuels (below-ground on a tactical decision-making horizon. With this aim, fuel data of three forest fuel procurement teams were collected for 3 months. The strategic fuel procurement decisions were adjusted to the changed decision environment based on a tactical techno-economic analysis using forest technology rates. The optimal energy product and fuel mixtures were solved by minimizing procurement costs, maximizing production revenues, and minimizing energy losses.

  3. Legal incentives for minimizing waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Clearwater, S.W.; Scanlon, J.M.

    1991-01-01

    Waste minimization, or pollution prevention, has become an integral component of federal and state environmental regulation. Minimizing waste offers many economic and public relations benefits. In addition, waste minimization efforts can also dramatically reduce potential criminal requirements. This paper addresses the legal incentives for minimizing waste under current and proposed environmental laws and regulations

  4. Waste management at an electronic industry. Proposal for environmental and economical optimisation; La gestione dei rifiuti di un'industria elettronica. Proposta di ottimizzazione ambientale ed economica

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gavasci, R.; Lombardi, F.; Spizzirri, M. [Rome Univ. Tor Vergata, Rome (Italy). Dipt. di Ingegneria Civile; Polettini, A. [Rome Univ. La Sapienza, Rome (Italy). Dipt. Idraulica, Trasporti e Strade

    2001-04-01

    The present paper deals with a study carried out at an Italian electronic industry which produces a special kind of microchip (dynamic memories, DRAM). As a first investigation stage, the current operational costs for management and treatment of the solid and liquid residues produced by the industry were evaluated. Based on such evaluations and taking both management and technical issues into account, the study allowed a number of changes to the current waste treatment and disposal system to be singled out, and the optimal solution with a view to both economical and environmental aspects to be assessed. [Italian] Il presente lavoro e' frutto di un'indagine condotta presso un'industria elettronica italiana specializzata nella produzione di una particolare tipologia di microchip (memorie dinamiche, DRAM). Lo studio e' stato innanzitutto volto ad un'analisi preliminare dei costi operativi attuali relativi alla gestione e al trattamento dei residui solidi e liquidi del processo produttivo. Sulla scorta di tale analisi e tenendo in considerazione aspetti di natura sia gestionale che impiantistica, l'indagine ha consentito di individuare possibili variazioni da apportare all'attuale sistema di trattamento e smaltimento dei rifiuti prodotti dallo stabilimento industriale definendo la soluzione ottimale dal punto di vista economico e ambientale.

  5. Novel integrated mechanical biological chemical treatment (MBCT) systems for the production of levulinic acid from fraction of municipal solid waste: A comprehensive techno-economic analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sadhukhan, Jhuma; Ng, Kok Siew; Martinez-Hernandez, Elias

    2016-09-01

    This paper, for the first time, reports integrated conceptual MBCT/biorefinery systems for unlocking the value of organics in municipal solid waste (MSW) through the production of levulinic acid (LA by 5wt%) that increases the economic margin by 110-150%. After mechanical separation recovering recyclables, metals (iron, aluminium, copper) and refuse derived fuel (RDF), lignocelluloses from remaining MSW are extracted by supercritical-water for chemical valorisation, comprising hydrolysis in 2wt% dilute H2SO4 catalyst producing LA, furfural, formic acid (FA), via C5/C6 sugar extraction, in plug flow (210-230°C, 25bar, 12s) and continuous stirred tank (195-215°C, 14bar, 20min) reactors; char separation and LA extraction/purification by methyl isobutyl ketone solvent; acid/solvent and by-product recovery. The by-product and pulping effluents are anaerobically digested into biogas and fertiliser. Produced biogas (6.4MWh/t), RDF (5.4MWh/t), char (4.5MWh/t) are combusted, heat recovered into steam generation in boiler (efficiency: 80%); on-site heat/steam demand is met; balance of steam is expanded into electricity in steam turbines (efficiency: 35%). Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Economical production of poly(γ-glutamic acid) using untreated cane molasses and monosodium glutamate waste liquor by Bacillus subtilis NX-2.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Dan; Feng, Xiaohai; Zhou, Zhe; Zhang, Yang; Xu, Hong

    2012-06-01

    The production of poly(γ-glutamic acid) by Bacillus subtilis NX-2 from cane molasses and monosodium glutamate waste liquor (MGWL) was studied for the first time in this work. When batch fermentation was carried out with untreated molasses, 33.6±0.37 g L(-1) PGA was obtained with a productivity of 0.46±0.006 g L(-1) h(-1). In order to minimize the substrate inhibition, fed-batch fermentation was performed with untreated or hydrolyzed molasses in 7.5 L bioreactor, giving 50.2±0.53 and 51.1±0.51 g L(-1) of PGA at 96 h, respectively. Further studies were carried out by using MGWL as another carbon source, resulting in a PGA concentration of 52.1±0.52 g L(-1) with a productivity of 0.54±0.003 g L(-1) h(-1). These results suggest that the low-cost cane molasses and MGWL can be used for the environmental-friendly and economical production of PGA by B. subtilis NX-2. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Socio-economic considerations of converting food waste into biogas on a household level in Indonesia: The case of the city of Bandung

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Amir, Encep; Hophmayer Tokich, Sharon; Kurnani, Tubagus Benito Achmad

    2016-01-01

    Household waste is a serious environmental problem in Indonesia, especially in urban areas. Since 2010, biogas production from food waste has been introduced to reduce waste and provided an alternative to liquid petroleum gas (LPG) as cooking fuel in a pilot project in Bandung. Although the produced

  8. Ecological economics and economic growth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Victor, Peter A

    2010-01-01

    Boulding's 1966 paper on the economics of spaceship Earth established the framework for ecological economics and an understanding of economic growth. In ecological economics, economies are conceptualized as open subsystems of the closed biosphere and are subject to biophysical laws and constraints. Economic growth measured as an increase in real gross domestic product (GDP) has generally been associated with increases in the use of energy and materials and the generation of wastes. Scale, composition, and technology are the proximate determinants of environmental impacts. They are often reduced to two: scale (GDP) and intensity (impact per unit GDP). New work described in this paper defines "green" growth as intensity that declines faster than scale increases. Similarly, "brown" growth occurs when intensity declines more slowly than increases in scale, and "black" growth happens when both scale and intensity increase. These concepts are then related to the environmental Kuznets curve, which can be understood as a transition from brown to green growth. Ecological economics provides a macroperspective on economic growth. It offers broad policy principles, and it challenges the primacy of economic growth as a policy objective, but many important questions remain.

  9. Mixed waste management options

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Owens, C.B.; Kirner, N.P.

    1992-01-01

    Currently, limited storage and treatment capacity exists for commercial mixed waste streams. No commercial mixed waste disposal is available, and it has been estimated that if and when commercial mixed waste disposal becomes available, the costs will be high. If high disposal fees are imposed, generators may be willing to apply extraordinary treatment or regulatory approaches to properly dispose of their mixed waste. This paper explores the feasibility of several waste management scenarios and management options. Existing data on commercially generated mixed waste streams are used to identify the realm of mixed waste known to be generated. Each waste stream is evaluated from both a regulatory and technical perspective in order to convert the waste into a strictly low-level radioactive or a hazardous waste. Alternative regulatory approaches evaluated in this paper include a delisting petition) no migration petition) and a treatability variance. For each waste stream, potentially available treatment options are identified that could lead to these variances. Waste minimization methodology and storage for decay are also considered. Economic feasibility of each option is discussed broadly. Another option for mixed waste management that is being explored is the feasibility of Department of Energy (DOE) accepting commercial mixed waste for treatment, storage, and disposal. A study has been completed that analyzes DOE treatment capacity in comparison with commercial mixed waste streams. (author)

  10. Technical-and-economic analysis and optimization of the full flow charts of processing of radioactive wastes on a polyfunctional plant of pyrochemical processing of the spent nuclear fuel of fast reactors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gupalo, V. S.; Chistyakov, V. N.; Kormilitsyn, M. V.; Kormilitsyna, L. A.; Osipenko, A. G.

    2015-12-01

    When considering the full flow charts of processing of radioactive wastes (RAW) on a polyfunctional plant of pyrochemical processing of the spent nuclear fuel of NIIAR fast reactors, we corroborate optimum technical solutions for the preparation of RAW for burial from a standpoint of heat release, dose formation, and technological storage time with allowance for technical-and-economic and ecological indices during the implementation of the analyzed technologies and equipment for processing of all RAW fluxes.

  11. Development of an efficient and economical small scale management scheme for low and intermediate-Level radioactive waste and its impact on the environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Salomon, A.Ph.; Panem, J.A.; Manalastas, H.C.; Cortez, S. L.; Paredes, C.H.; Bartolome, Z.M.

    1976-05-01

    This paper describes the efforts made towards the establishment of a pilot-scale management system for the low and intermediate-level radioactive wastes of the Atomic Research Center. The past and current practices in handling radioactive wastes are discussed and the assessment of their capabilities to meet the projections on the waste production is presented. The future waste management requirements of the Center was evaluated and comparative studies on the Lime-Soda and Phosphate Processes were conducted on simulated and raw liquid wastes with initial activity ranging from 10 -4 uCi/ml to 10 -2 uCi/ml, to establish the ideal parameters for best attaining maximum removal of radioactivity in liquids. The effectiveness of treatment was evaluated in terms of the decontamination factor, DF, obtained

  12. Glass and nuclear wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sombret, C.

    1982-10-01

    Glass shows interesting technical and economical properties for long term storage of solidified radioactive wastes by vitrification or embedding. Glass composition, vitrification processes, stability under irradiation, thermal stability and aqueous corrosion are studied [fr

  13. Greening waste management

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Godfrey, Linda K

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available by issues of population growth and urbanisation; increasing quantity and complexity of waste; climate change; carbon economics; resource scarcity; commodity prices; energy security; globalisation; job creation; and tightening regulation (DST, 2014a...

  14. The food waste hierarchy as a framework for the management of food surplus and food waste

    OpenAIRE

    Papargyropoulou, E; Lozano, R; Steinberger, JK; Wright, N; Ujang, ZB

    2014-01-01

    The unprecedented scale of food waste in global food supply chains is attracting increasing attention due to its environmental, social and economic impacts. Drawing on interviews with food waste specialists, this study construes the boundaries between food surplus and food waste, avoidable and unavoidable food waste, and between waste prevention and waste management. This study suggests that the first step towards a more sustainable resolution of the food waste issue is to adopt a sustainable...

  15. The Influence of the Solid Waste Landfill Existence on the Environmental and Economic Situation of Petrůvky Village (Czechia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lichovníková Veronika

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The landfill of municipal solid waste is a waste management equipment that can represent the risks to the environment because it serves a waste disposal, and thus there is a risk of potential leakage of undesirable substances into the surrounding (mainly aquaeous environment. This risk is minimized when a precise construction and subsequent operation and closure of landfills are abided. And thus a negative impact on the surrounding components of the environment is eliminated. The landfill represents a considerable source of funds for the operating community. The acquired funds can then be used for the reconstruction of public municipal buildings, municipal greenery revitalization, maintainance of public utilities, or improvement of public amenities and as a support for voluntary associations. MWS Petrůvky is an example of such a waste disposal facility, which was founded in 1994 and whose operation is a significant income used to support rural development.

  16. Introduction to Waste Engineering

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Thomas Højlund

    2011-01-01

    Solid waste management as introduced in Chapter 1.1 builds in many ways on engineering. Waste engineering here means the skills and ability to understand quantitatively how a waste management system works in such a detail that waste management can be planned, facilities can be designed and sited...... and systems can be operated in a way that is environmentally sound, technical feasible, economically efficient and socially acceptable. This applies to all scales of relevance: (1) national surveys of energy use and material flows determining the frame for politically setting goals in waste management, (2......) regional plans for waste management, including (3) the selection of main management technologies and siting of facilities, (4) the design of individual technological units and, for example, (5) the operation of recycling schemes within a municipality. This chapter gives an introduction to waste engineering...

  17. Waste Transfer Stations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Thomas Højlund

    2011-01-01

    tion and transport is usually the most costly part of any waste management system; and when waste is transported over a considerable distance or for a long time, transferring the waste from the collection vehicles to more efficient transportation may be economically beneficial. This involves...... a transfer station where the transfer takes place. These stations may also be accessible by private people, offering flexibility to the waste system, including facilities for bulky waste, household hazardous waste and recyclables. Waste transfer may also take place on the collection route from small...... satellite collection vehicles to large compacting vehicles that cannot effectively travel small streets and alleys within the inner city or in residential communities with narrow roads. However, mobile transfer is not dealt with in this chapter, which focuses on stationary transfer stations. This chapter...

  18. Economic valuation of the pollution effects of dumping municipal solid waste. The case of the urban agglomeration of Gran Mendoza, Argentina

    OpenAIRE

    Verónica Farreras; Carolina Lauro

    2016-01-01

    Most municipal solid waste (MSW) landfills in Latin America lack the infrastructure for proper pollution control. This paper estimates the social welfare effects of possible environmental impacts of waste landfills. The discrete choice experiment was applied to elicit social values for the effects of MSW dumping on water quality, air quality and proliferation of vectors in the agglomeration of Gran Mendoza (Argentina). A decrease in water quality –the impact of MSW dumping that the population...

  19. Technical and Economic Problems Associated with the Development of Methods of Processing and Using Radioactive Waste; Problemes techniques et economiques lies au developpement des methodes de traitement et d'utilisation des dechets radioactifs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thiriet, L.; Sauteron, J.; Oger, C. [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Fontenay-Aux-Roses (France). Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires

    1968-07-01

    The paper briefly reviews the various techniques used in processing the radioactive wastes which unavoidably result from the generation of electric power from nuclear sources. The paper goes on to define the relative importance, in nuclear fuel cycles, of the problem raised by these wastes. Emphasis is placed on the economic influence of management policies on the cost of power generation, and hence on the relative position of nuclear energy. A substantial percentage of these wastes can be economically utilized. Attention is drawn to the major technical and economic features of the industry which will come into being as a result of this utilization. The major uses anticipated are discussed: radiation sources, heat sources, auxiliary power generation. The paper concludes that satisfactory solutions have already been found to these problems, and describes possible improvements. (author) [French] La communication rappelle d'abord succinctement les differentes techniques de traitement des dechets radioactifs resultant necessairement de la production d'electricite d'origine nucleaire. On situe ensuite l'importance du probleme pose par ces residus dans le cycle du combustible nucleaire. On fait ressortir l'influence economique du choix des methodes de gestion sur le cout de production de l'energie, et par consequent sur la place devolue a l'energie nucleaire. Une part importante de ces dechets peut faire l'objet d'une utilisation rentable de l'industrie qui naitra de cette utilisation. Les principales applications envisagees sont evoquees: sources d'irradiation, sources chauffantes, generateurs auxiliaires d'energie. On conclut que d'ores et deja des solutions satisfaisantes ont ete apportees a ces problemes, et l'on decrit les perspectives d'amelioration concevables. (auteur)

  20. e-Waste Management Scenarios in Malaysia

    OpenAIRE

    Fatihah Suja; Rakmi Abdul Rahman; Arij Yusof; Mohd Shahbudin Masdar

    2014-01-01

    e-Waste, or electronic waste, disposal that is uncontrolled can be harmful to human health and the environment because e-waste contains toxic substances and heavy metals. However, if the waste is properly managed, it can become a business opportunity that produces high returns because e-waste also contains valuable materials, such as gold, silver, platinum, and palladium. The government of Malaysia wants to ensure the safe, effective, and economically beneficial management of e-waste in Malay...

  1. A gestão integrada de resíduos sólidos urbanos - perspectiva ambiental e económico-energética The urban solid waste integrated management environmental and economic-energetic perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jaime Filipe Borges Puna

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available The importance of urban solid waste integrated systems is characterized by the several components of these systems, which are, basically, formed by physical, chemical and biological methods. This article, characterizes these methods and, which is also important, identifies the several and potential environmental impacts of those techniques. It's also extremely important to make a study of the economic rentability of those infrastructures and, also, characterize the quantitative energetic contributions of some components of these systems. This study was analysed and their results are presented in this article.

  2. Waste to wealth

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sivapalan Kathiravale; Muhd Noor Muhd Yunus

    2010-01-01

    We currently live in a world where depletion of resources is beyond control. The call for sustainable development both environmentally and economically is spelt out loud and clear. Hence, the current and future generations must ensure that all resources shall be preserved, fully utilized and well managed. Waste generation has been part and parcel of man kinds pursuit for development, be it in social or economic activities. Municipal Solid Waste (MSW) is an example of socio-economic activities that entails with waste generation. Generation rates of MSW vary according to the economic and social standing of a country. This in return will also affect the management style of the MSW generated. Generally, the higher income countries generated more waste, recycle more and have the money to employ new technology to treat their waste. As for the lower income countries, the waste generated is more organic in nature, which calls for lesser recycling, whereas disposal is by open dumping. The effects of this naturally would mean that in the lower income countries pollution to the water and air is huge as compare to the more developed countries. However on the other hand, does waste alone generate harmful gasses that pollute the world or does manufacturing, transportation and power production, which is rampant in the more industrialized countries contributing more towards pollution? This subject is argumentative and could be discussed at length. However, the environment cannot wait for the population to debate on the above matter. Action needs to be taken in a world where economic power determines the treatment method. Hence, the idea of recovering all 'wealth' in the waste is essential to ensure that even the poorest countries could benefit from all waste management technologies. For this to work, recycling, reuse and recovery of energy is essential in an integrated approach towards waste management. This would also mean that many environmental disasters could be avoided

  3. Integrated application of river water quality modelling and cost-benefit analysis to optimize the environmental economical value based on various aquatic waste load reduction strategies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Chen-Yu; Fan, Chihhao

    2017-04-01

    improvements in BOD, SS and NH3-N were estimated as 36.2%, 27.7% and 29.2%, respectively. The net present value (i.e., economical-based environmental impact) becomes positive in the sixtieth year following the original government planning. We designed two scenarios for further comparison: (i) treatment efficiency improvement of pollution control facilities, and (ii) biogas-based power generation using livestock manure. If government budget is not a limiting factor, improving the efficiency of sewage treatment plants can make the occurrence of balance between payments and revenues (i.e., net present value in this study) three years earlier. For the biogas-based power generation scenario, if all pig farms with livestock number >2000 install the on-site power generation equipment, BOD will further improve by 9% and the time span of payback period will be shortened by 1 year. If all the manure waste from pig-farms is collected for subsequent electricity generation, the BOD river pollution index is estimated to improve to lightly-polluted category for more than half the length of Erhjen Creek. In short, water quality modelling technique not only can assess the contributions of related projects, but establish a practical pollution reduction strategy using cost-benefit analysis, which allows decision-maker to find a suitable pollution reduction plan to exhibit most benefits in river water quality.

  4. HOW THE ROCKY FLATS ENVIRONMENTAL TECHNOLOGY SITE DEVELOPED A NEW WASTE PACKAGE USING A POLYUREA COATING THAT IS SAFELY AND ECONOMICALLY ELIMINATING SIZE REDUCTION OF LARGE ITEMS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dorr, Kent A.; Hogue, Richard S.; Kimokeo, Margaret K.

    2003-01-01

    One of the major challenges involved in closing the Rocky Flats Environmental Technology Site (RFETS) is the disposal of extremely large pieces of contaminated production equipment and building debris. Past practice has been to size reduce the equipment into pieces small enough to fit into approved, standard waste containers. Size reducing this equipment is extremely expensive, and exposes workers to high-risk tasks, including significant industrial, chemical, and radiological hazards. RFETS has developed a waste package using a Polyurea coating for shipping large contaminated objects. The cost and schedule savings have been significant

  5. Techno-economic assessment of boiler feed water production by membrane distillation with reuse of thermal waste energy from cooling water

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kuipers, N.J.M.; Leerdam, R.C. van; Medevoort, J. van; Tongeren, W.G.J.M. van; Verhasselt, B.; Verelst, L.; Vermeersch, M.; Corbisier, D.

    2015-01-01

    The European KIC-Climate project Water and Energy for Climate Change (WE4CC) aims at the technical demonstration, business case evaluation and implementation of new value chains for the production of high-quality water using low-grade thermal waste energy from cooling water. A typical large-scale

  6. Solid wastes research in South Africa

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Noble, RG

    1976-06-01

    Full Text Available The importance of solid wastes management in environmental pollution control cannot be over-emphasised. Increased socio-economic development in South Africa has brought with it increasing volumes of urban, industrial and agricultural wastes...

  7. Nuclear fuel cycle waste recycling technology deverlopment - Radioactive metal waste recycling technology development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oh, Won Zin; Moon, Jei Kwon; Jung, Chong Hun; Park, Sang Yoon

    1998-08-01

    With relation to recycling of the radioactive metal wastes which are generated during operation and decommissioning of nuclear facilities, the following were described in this report. 1. Analysis of the state of the art on the radioactive metal waste recycling technologies. 2. Economical assessment on the radioactive metal waste recycling. 3. Process development for radioactive metal waste recycling, A. Decontamination technologies for radioactive metal waste recycling. B. Decontamination waste treatment technologies, C. Residual radioactivity evaluation technologies. (author). 238 refs., 60 tabs., 79 figs

  8. Radioactive wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boegly, W.J.; Alexander, H.J.

    1983-01-01

    A literature review on studies concerning radioactive wastes is presented. Literature on radioactive wastes available from the National Technical Information Service, Washington, DC, was not included in the review. Studies were reviewed that dealt with general programs for radioactive wastes; isolation of radioactive wastes; waste management; waste storage; environmental transport; transportation; risk assessment; and remedial action are reviewed

  9. Some economic and environmental considerations about the feasibility of a MSW (Municipal Solid Wastes) incinerator with energy recovery in the province of Cosenza

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nicoletti, G.; Anile, F.; Marandola, C.

    1998-01-01

    From new years, also in Italy is increasing the awareness of the not deferability of the problems about energetic consumption and with environmental pollution. In this contest, in the present note it's pointed out the risk of the sell of unloading of the MSW (Municipal Solid Wastes) and also the importance of legislative directions promulgate recently to face correctly the problem. In this work is considered the qualitative-quantitative aspects of the municipal solid wastes in the province of Cosenza with some reference to the experiences made in this sector. It's also shown that a MSW incinerator with energy recovery is principally characterized for a strong contribution to the environmental healing and, in second step, but not less important, for a energetic saving of the fossil fuels [it

  10. Economic valuation of the pollution effects of dumping municipal solid waste. The case of the urban agglomeration of Gran Mendoza, Argentina

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Verónica Farreras

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Most municipal solid waste (MSW landfills in Latin America lack the infrastructure for proper pollution control. This paper estimates the social welfare effects of possible environmental impacts of waste landfills. The discrete choice experiment was applied to elicit social values for the effects of MSW dumping on water quality, air quality and proliferation of vectors in the agglomeration of Gran Mendoza (Argentina. A decrease in water quality –the impact of MSW dumping that the population is most concerned about– was estimated to cost each household 182.49 Argentinean pesos (United States Dollar 20.48 on average per year in terms of welfare loss (2015 value. This information may be useful for policy makers and environmental managers in the design of their programs and activities. CC BY-NC-SA Gestión y Ambiente (2016.

  11. Waste Sites - Municipal Waste Operations

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC Education | GIS Inventory — A Municipal Waste Operation is a DEP primary facility type related to the Waste Management Municipal Waste Program. The sub-facility types related to Municipal Waste...

  12. Solid waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1995-01-01

    The article drawn up within the framework of 'the assessment of the state of the environment in Lebanon' provides an overview of solid waste management, and assesses future wastes volume and waste disposal issues.In particular it addresses the following concerns: - Long term projections of solid waste arisings (i.e. domestic, industrial, such commercial wastes, vehicle types, construction waste, waste oils, hazardous toxic wastes and finally hospital and clinical wastes) are described. - Appropriate disposal routes, and strategies for reducing volumes for final disposal - Balance between municipal and industrial solid waste generation and disposal/treatment and - environmental impacts (aesthetics, human health, natural environment )of existing dumps, and the potential impact of government plans for construction of solid waste facilities). Possible policies for institutional reform within the waste management sector are proposed. Tables provides estimations of generation rates and distribution of wastes in different regions of Lebanon. Laws related to solid waste management are summarized

  13. Infrastructure needs for waste management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Takahashi, M.

    2001-01-01

    National infrastructures are needed to safely and economically manage radioactive wastes. Considerable experience has been accumulated in industrialized countries for predisposal management of radioactive wastes, and legal, regulatory and technical infrastructures are in place. Drawing on this experience, international organizations can assist in transferring this knowledge to developing countries to build their waste management infrastructures. Infrastructure needs for disposal of long lived radioactive waste are more complex, due to the long time scale that must be considered. Challenges and infrastructure needs, particularly for countries developing geologic repositories for disposal of high level wastes, are discussed in this paper. (author)

  14. Environmental benefits and value chain economics at biogas production, phase II. Food waste and manure; Miljoenytte og verdikjedeoekonomi ved biogassproduksjon, fase II. Matavfall og husdyrgjoedsel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moeller, Hanne; Arnoey, Silje; Modahl, Ingunn Saur; Morken, John; Briseid, Tormod; Hanssen, Ole Joergen; Soerby, Ivar

    2012-07-01

    The main objective has been to develop an environmental model and an economic model for the entire value chain for the production of biogas and digestate processing. The results will contribute to better decision making in the planning of new biogas plants in Norway. Shortened version.(eb)

  15. Waste management - sewage - special wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1987-01-01

    The 27 papers represent a cross-section of the subject waste management. Particular attention is paid to the following themes: waste avoidance, waste product utilization, household wastes, dumping technology, sewage sludge treatments, special wastes, seepage from hazardous waste dumps, radioactive wastes, hospital wastes, purification of flue gas from waste combustion plants, flue gas purification and heavy metals, as well as combined sewage sludge and waste product utilization. The examples given relate to plants in Germany and other European countries. 12 papers have been separately recorded in the data base. (DG) [de

  16. Economic implications of locating a nuclear waste repository in Texas. Hearing before the Subcommittee on Nuclear Regulation of the Committee on Environment and Public Works, United States Senate, Ninety-Ninth Congress, First Session, February 11, 1985, Hereford, TX

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1985-01-01

    Ten witnesses representing Texas industries and agriculture spoke at a field hearing in Hereford, Texas on the selection of Deaf Smith County as one of the three potential repository sites for spent fuel and high-level radioactive wastes. Safety and the potential for ground water contamination were major arguments of the opponents to the location. DOE spokesman William Purcell advised that no material will be placed in the repository until the turn of the century and then after a lengthy public licensing procedure. Other concerns were the socio-economic impacts on the surrounding area and the possible damage to agriculture if either soil or water contamination should occur. Additional statements submitted for the record follow the testimony

  17. Studies on the optimal disposal of radioactive wastes with special attention to the thermal influence on the surrounding salt bed and to economic aspects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kunstman, A.S.; Urbanczyk, K.M.; Wierzchon, J.K.

    1980-01-01

    This paper presents the method commonly applied in Poland of forecasting the thermal character of an underground high-level radioactive waste repository. It is used for optimizing the mine excavation configuration as well as the order of storage. This method is shown with an example of the research results for the central radioactive waste repository. A short description of the designed repository as well as a comparison of expenditure for underground and surface repositories is given. The method shown in this paper of forecasting the temperature rise in the repository is based on the superposition of the analytical integral solutions of the heat conductivity equation for a single canister - the heat source. The detailed computer tabulation of these solutions enables forecasting the possibility of fast temperature increase at any repository point and at any time, taking into consideration localization and storage time for each of the thousands of stored canisters individually. In the repository design phase this allows the speedy investigation of various variants in the configuration of the placement and transportation corridors as well as the choice of a variant ensuring the best utilization of the repository area and also suitable working conditions for both mining and placement crews. (author)

  18. Design and Economic Analysis of a Heating/Absorption Cooling System Operating with Municipal Solid Waste Digester: A Case Study of Gazi University

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coşar, Gökhan; Pooyanfar, Mirparham; Amirabedin, Ehsan; Topal, Hüseyin

    2013-12-01

    Recovering energy from municipal solid waste (MSW) is one of the most important issues of energy management in developed countries. This raises even more interest as world fossil fuel reserves diminish and fuel prices rise. Being one of main processes of waste disposal, anaerobic digestion can be used as a means to reduce fossil fuel and electricity consumption as well as reducing emissions. With growing demand for cooling in Turkey, especially during warm seasons and considering the energy costs, utilizing heat-driven absorption cooling systems coupled with an anaerobic digester for local cooling purposes is a potentially interesting alternative for electricity driven compression cooling. The aim of this article is to study the viability of utilizing biogas obtained from MSW anaerobic digestion as the main fuel for heating facilities of Gazi University, Turkey and also the energy source for an absorption cooling system designed for the central library of the aforementioned campus. The results prove that the suggested system is sustainably and financially appealing and has the potential to replace the conventional electricity driven cooling systems with a reasonable net present worth; moreover, it can notably reduce carbon dioxide emissions.

  19. Analysis of Economic Viability for Solid Urban Waste Treatment Systems in the Municipality of Marechal Cândido Rondon – PR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anderson Giovane Sontag

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The disposal of solid residues has been a critical factor in urban management. Sanitary landfilling treatment systems predominate, but new alternatives have been developed, supported by high-tech. Nevertheless, financial investment exerts a strong restriction to that choice. Thus, is it economically viable to implement an Alfa equipment to replace sanitary landfills? This study aimed to measure the costs of landfilling and to implement a heat treatment system. The methodology was an applied and exploratory research characterized as a case study in the municipality of Marechal Cândido Rondon, in the State of Paraná. The results demonstrate that such a replacement is not economically viable, and sanitary landfilling is still the chosen method.. The new technology has a great environmental and social potential, essentially in the cities where physical space is very restricted or costly.

  20. Waste statistics 2004

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2006-04-07

    The 2004 reporting to the ISAG comprises 394 plants owned by 256 enterprises. In 2003, reports covered 403 plants owned by 273 enterprises. Waste generation in 2004 is compared to targets for 2008 in the government's Waste Strategy 2005-2008. The following summarises waste generation in 2004: 1) In 2004, total reported waste arisings amounted to 13,359,000 tonnes, which is 745,000 tonnes, or 6 per cent, more than in 2003. 2) If amounts of residues from coal-fired power plants are excluded from statistics, waste arisings in 2004 were 12,179,000 tonnes, which is a 9 per cent increase from 2003. 3) If amounts of residues from coal-fired power plants and waste from the building and construction sector are excluded from statistics, total waste generation in 2004 amounted to 7,684,000 tonnes, which is 328,000 tonnes, or 4 per cent, more than in 2002. In other words, there has been an increase in total waste arisings, if residues and waste from building and construction are excluded. Waste from the building and construction sector is more sensitive to economic change than most other waste. 4) The total rate of recycling was 65 per cent. The 2008 target for recycling is 65 per cent. The rate of recycling in 2003 was also 65 per cent. 5) The total amount of waste led to incineration amounted to 26 per cent, plus an additional 1 per cent left in temporary storage to be incinerated at a later time. The 2008 target for incineration is 26 per cent. These are the same percentage figures as applied to incineration and storage in 2003. 6) The total amount of waste led to landfills amounted to 8 per cent, which is one percentage point better than the overall landfill target of a maximum of 9 per cent landfilling in 2008. Also in 2003, 8 per cent of the waste was landfilled. 7) The targets for treatment of waste from individual sectors are still not being met: too little waste from households and the service sector is being recycled, and too much waste from industry is being

  1. FOUNDRY WASTE MANAGEMENT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Borut Kosec

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available Waste management in foundries is gaining a higher ecological and economical importance. Waste is becoming an increasingly traded product, where excellent profits can be made. Due to the cost reduction and successful business operation in companies, waste has to be regenerated and used again as a material to the maximum possible extent. Such research is long lasting and expensive and is a great challenge for companies. In the frame of our research, a total waste management case study for the Slovenian foundry Feniks was carried out. From the sustainable development point of view, waste management is most suitable, since it ensures the material utilization of waste, reduces the consumption of natural renewable or non-renewable resources and makes efficient production capacity utilization possible. Properly treated ecologically safe waste with a suitable physical characteristic, long-term existence, is a substitute for natural materials. Sand, dust, slag and other mineral waste from foundries are increasingly being used as materials in other industries. The foundry Feniks was awarded with certification of the environmental management system according to the standard SIST EN ISO 14001 and confirmed its environmental credentials.

  2. Waste management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chmielewska, E.

    2010-01-01

    In this chapter formation of wastes and basic concepts of non-radioactive waste management are explained. This chapter consists of the following parts: People in Peril; Self-regulation of nature as a guide for minimizing and recycling waste; The current waste management situation in the Slovak Republic; Categorization and determination of the type of waste in legislative of Slovakia; Strategic directions waste management in the Slovak Republic.

  3. Economics and business economics.

    OpenAIRE

    Francesco Silva

    1993-01-01

    The comparison between Economics and Business Management allows the clarification of some of their characteristics and limits as regards method, language, and objectives. Secondly, it allows the verification of the reciprocal contribution relating to research. For such a comparison, the object of study, the method, and the objectives of Economics and Business Management are taken into consideration distinguishing; so far as Business Management is concerned, between the Italian and American tr...

  4. Concept for Underground Disposal of Nuclear Waste

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bowyer, J. M.

    1987-01-01

    Packaged waste placed in empty oil-shale mines. Concept for disposal of nuclear waste economically synergistic with earlier proposal concerning backfilling of oil-shale mines. New disposal concept superior to earlier schemes for disposal in hard-rock and salt mines because less uncertainty about ability of oil-shale mine to contain waste safely for millenium.

  5. Solid Waste Market Distortions and Recycling

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bartelings, H.; Dellink, R.B.; Ierland, van E.C.

    2006-01-01

    Solid waste management is an important topic in environmental economics, and there is a need for providing better incentives to further optimize the chain of materials and waste. We investigate market distortions caused by flat fee pricing in the solid waste market and we show how flat fee pricing

  6. Commercial nuclear-waste management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Andress, D.A.

    1981-04-01

    This report is primarily concerned with nuclear waste generated by commercial power operations. It is clear, however, that the total generation of commercial nuclear waste does not tell the whole story, there are sizeable stockpiles of defense nuclear wastes which will impact areas such as total nuclide exposure to the biosphere and the overall economics of waste disposal. The effects of these other nuclear waste streams can be factored in as exogenous inputs. Their generation is essentially independent of nuclear power operations. The objective of this report is to assess the real-world problems associated with nuclear waste management and to design the analytical framework, as appropriate, for handling nuclear waste management issues in the International Nuclear Model. As such, some issues that are not inherently quantifiable, such as the development of environmental Impact Statements to satisfy the National Environmental Protection Act requirements, are only briefly mentioned, if at all

  7. Realization of a technical and economic referential of units of organic waste processing by methanization with and without biogas valorization. Study report; Realisation d'un referentiel technique et economique d'unites de traitement de dechets organiques par methanisation avec et sans valorisation du biogaz. Rapport d'etude

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2010-07-01

    Based on a literature survey and on the analysis of results obtained in operating installations in different countries (Germany, Denmark, France, Netherlands, and Switzerland), this study concerns the methanization of different substrates: domestic wastes, sludge from sewage processing plants, industrial wastes and effluents, agricultural wastes and effluents. This synthetic report describes the current status of methanization in terms of regulatory framework (for renewable energies, and for waste management, digestion residues and compost valorization in Europe and in the studied countries), and in terms of actual production and variety of base products. It gives an overview of the available technical solutions, of the products they use, and of the associated investment costs. These techniques are: completely stirred tank reactor (SCTR), upflow anaerobic sludge blanket (UASB), internal circulation (IC), 'piston', batch, percolation, contact, fluidized bed, and anaerobic filter. It reports a synthesis of answers given to a questionnaire about technical and economic aspects

  8. A two-step continuous ultrasound assisted production of biodiesel fuel from waste cooking oils: a practical and economical approach to produce high quality biodiesel fuel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thanh, Le Tu; Okitsu, Kenji; Sadanaga, Yasuhiro; Takenaka, Norimichi; Maeda, Yasuaki; Bandow, Hiroshi

    2010-07-01

    A transesterification reaction of waste cooking oils (WCO) with methanol in the presence of a potassium hydroxide catalyst was performed in a continuous ultrasonic reactor of low-frequency 20 kHz with input capacity of 1 kW, in a two-step process. For the first step, the transesterification was carried out with the molar ratio of methanol to WCO of 2.5:1, and the amount of catalyst 0.7 wt.%. The yield of fatty acid methyl esters (FAME) was about 81%. A yield of FAME of around 99% was attained in the second step with the molar ratio of methanol to initial WCO of 1.5:1, and the amount of catalyst 0.3 wt.%. The FAME yield was extremely high even at the short residence time of the reactants in the ultrasonic reactor (less than 1 min for the two steps) at ambient temperature, and the total amount of time required to produce biodiesel was 15h. The quality of the final biodiesel product meets the standards JIS K2390 and EN 14214 for biodiesel fuel. Copyright (c) 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Enhancement of waste activated sludge (WAS) anaerobic digestion by means of pre- and intermediate treatments. Technical and economic analysis at a full-scale WWTP.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campo, Giuseppe; Cerutti, Alberto; Zanetti, Mariachiara; Scibilia, Gerardo; Lorenzi, Eugenio; Ruffino, Barbara

    2017-05-16

    Anaerobic digestion (AD) is the most commonly applied end-treatment for the excess of waste activated sludge (WAS) generated in biological wastewater treatment processes. The efficacy of different typologies of pre-treatments in liberating intra-cellular organic substances and make them more usable for AD was demonstrated in several studies. However, the production of new extracellular polymeric substances (EPSs) that occur during an AD process, due to microbial metabolism, self-protective reactions and cell lysis, partially neutralizes the benefit of pre-treatments. The efficacy of post- and inter-stage treatments is currently under consideration to overcome the problems due to this unavoidable byproduct. This work compares three scenarios in which low-temperature (WWTP, 2,000,000 p.e.). It was demonstrated that the introduction of thermal or hybrid pre-treatments could increase the revenues from the electricity sale by between 13% and 25%, in comparison with the present scenario (no lysis treatments). Conversely, intermediate treatments on a 7-day digestate could provide a gain of 26% or 32%, depending on the process temperature (70 or 90 °C). Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Performance comparison and economics analysis of waste stabilization ponds and horizontal subsurface flow constructed wetlands treating domestic wastewater: a case study of the Juja sewage treatment works.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mburu, Njenga; Tebitendwa, Sylvie M; van Bruggen, Johan J A; Rousseau, Diederik P L; Lens, Piet N L

    2013-10-15

    The performance, effluent quality, land area requirement, investment and operation costs of a full-scale waste stabilization pond (WSP) and a pilot scale horizontal subsurface flow constructed wetland (HSSF-CW) at Jomo Kenyatta University of Agriculture and Technology (JKUAT) were investigated between November 2010 to January 2011. Both systems gave comparable medium to high levels of organic matter and suspended solids removal. However, the WSP showed a better removal for Total Phosphorus (TP) and Ammonium (NH4(+)-N). Based on the population equivalent calculations, the land area requirement per person equivalent of the WSP system was 3 times the area that would be required for the HSSF-CW to treat the same amount of wastewater. The total annual cost estimates consisting of capital, operation and maintenance (O&M) costs were comparable for both systems. However, the evaluation of the capital cost of either system showed that it is largely influenced by the size of the population served, local cost of land and the construction materials involved. Hence, one can select either system in terms of treatment efficiency. When land is available other factor including the volume of wastewater or the investment, and O&M costs determine the technology selection. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Hazardous waste minimization challenge in autocomponent industry, West Java, Indonesia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Handayani, L.; Moersidik, S. S.

    2017-05-01

    Modern industries have managed their hazardous waste through hazardous waste management with End of Pipe approach. As part of the most robust industry, autocomponent industry have to manage their hazardous waste from production process. To meet sustainable manufacturing, waste minimization is required. Hazardous waste minimization in practice is relatively difficult to implemented. This paper explore hazardous waste management and waste minimization activity in one of autocomponent industry in Indonesia. Hazardous waste minimization regulation also explain in this paper. Regarding waste minimization implementation there were some obstacle such as lack of awareness and knowledge, lack of time and economic factor

  12. More value from food waste

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kim, Mi Sun; Na, Jeong-Geol; Lee, Mo-Kwon

    2016-01-01

    Anaerobic digestion (AD) is one of the traditional technologies for treating organic solid wastes, but its economic benefit is sometimes questioned. To increase the economic feasibility of the treatment process, the aim of this study was to recover not only biogas from food waste but lactic acid...... (LA) as well. At first, LA fermentation of food waste (FW) was conducted using an indigenous mixed culture. During the operation, temperature was gradually increased from 35 C to 55 C, with the highest performance attained at 50 C. At 50 C and hydraulic retention time (HRT) of 1.0 d, LA concentration...

  13. Nuclear economics: Issues and facts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hudson, C.R.

    1993-01-01

    Nuclear economics has become on the more prominent topics related to nuclear power. Beyond the subjects of nuclear safety and waste disposal, questions and concerns of nuclear power economics have emerged with growing frequency in utility board rooms, in state and federal regulatory proceedings, and in the media. What has caused nuclear power economics to become such a popular topic? This paper addresses issues and facts related to historical nuclear plant costs, new nuclear plant projections, and warning signals for future plants

  14. Monitoring of wastes containing plutonium. Necessity and method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sousselier, Y.; Pottier, P.

    1979-01-01

    Importance of problems set by wastes containing plutonium is rapidly growing. Plutonium is not a waste, recycling limits heavily the quantity of plutonium to be stored with wastes. Optimized waste management must take definitive storage and economical limits of plutonium recovery into account. Waste monitoring is a must for safety, economy and waste management. Methods used require reliability, simplicity, sensibility and accuracy particularly for threshold detection [fr

  15. Residential Waste

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Thomas Højlund; Fruergaard, Thilde; Matsufuji, Y.

    2011-01-01

    are discussed in this chapter. Characterizing residential waste is faced with the problem that many residences already divert some waste away from the official collection systems, for example performing home composting of vegetable waste and garden waste, having their bundled newspaper picked up by the scouts...... twice a year or bringing their used furniture to the flea markets organized by charity clubs. Thus, much of the data available on residential waste represents collected waste and not necessarily all generated waste. The latter can only be characterized by careful studies directly at the source...

  16. PERUBAHAN FISIK KERUANGAN DAN SOSIAL EKONOMI MASYARAKAT DI KAWASAN SEKITAR TEMPAT PEMBUANGAN AKHIR SAMPAH BANTARGEBANG KOTA BEKASI (Physical Environmental and Social Economic Changing in Bantargebang Solid Waste Dumping Site Area Surrounding Bekasi City

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nila Kesuma

    2003-07-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRAK Penelitian ini bertujuan untuk mengidentifikasi dan menjelaskan perubahan fisik keruangan dan sosial ekonomi masyarakat di kawasan sekitar TPA Sampah Bantargebang. Metode penelitian yang digunakan adalah gabungan metode kualitatif dengan metode kuantitatif dengan pendekatan rasionalitas, yaitu data dan informasi dilapangan dikomparasikan dengan teori dan konsep yang berhubungan dengan masalah yang diteliti. Hasil penelitian dan pembahasan menunjukkan bahwa: (1 terdapat perubahan fisik keruangan di walayah penelitian yang ditandai dengan bertambahnya area terbangun, yaitu tumbuhnya tempat-tempat permukiman pemulung warung-warung, rumah-rumah penduduk, bertambah panjang dan lebarnya jalan, serta menurunnya kualitas air tanah, udara dan kesuburan lahan; (2 terdapat perubahan pada kondis; sosial masyarakat yang ditandai dengan bertambahnya jumlah penduduk, kegiatan ekonomi atau lapangan kerja, rendahnya angka partisipasi kasar pada setiap tingkat pendidikan, menurunnya derajat kesehatan masyarakat, serta terganggunya kenyamanan lingkungan yang akhirnya mengurangi kesejahteraan masyarakat; (3 terdapat perubahan pada ekonomi penduduk ke arah yang lebih baik, yang ditandai dengan meningkatnya jumlah pendapatan dan terbukanya peluang mengembangkan usaha sampingan. Berdasarkan hal tersebut dapat disimpulkan bahwa bagi lingkungan sekitar dan masyarakat di wilayah penelitian sebara umum keberadaan TPA Sampah Bantargebang lebih memberikan pengaruh negatif daripada positif.   ABSTRACT This research aims to identify and to explain physical spatial and social economic community changing in the Bantargebang Solid Waste Dumping site area  and it surroundings. The research used deductive rational approach, with a combination of quantitative and qualitative methods, i.e. comparison between data and information collected in the field, and the concept and theory related to the subject. The research identified physical, social, and economic changes. The

  17. Radioactive waste management in Korea

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Ik Hwan

    1997-01-01

    In order to meet the increasing energy demand in Korea, continuous promotion of nuclear power program will be inevitable in the future. However, the use of nuclear energy eventually requires effective and reliable radioactive waste management. For the safe and economical management of radioactive waste, first of all, volume reduction is essentially required and hence the development of related technologies continuously be pursued. A site for overall radioactive waste management has to be secured in Korea. KEPCO-NETEC will improve public understanding by reinforcing PA and will maintain transparency of radioactive waste management. (author). 1 fig

  18. Co-Digestion of the Organic Fraction of Municipal Waste With Other Waste Types

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hartmann, H.; Angelidaki, Irini; Ahring, Birgitte Kiær

    2002-01-01

    Several characteristics make anaerobic digestion of the organic fraction of municipal solid waste (OFMSW) difficult. By co-digestion of OFMSW with several other waste types it will be possible to optimize the anaerobic process by waste management. The co-digestion concept involves the treatment...... of several waste types in a single treatment facility. By combining many types of waste it will be possible to treat a wider range of organic waste types by the anaerobic digestion process (figure 1). Furthermore, co-digestion enables the treatment of organic waste with a high biogas potential that makes...... the operation of biogas plants more economically feasible (Ahring et al., 1992a). Thus, co-digestion gives a new attitude to the evaluation of waste: since anaerobic digestion of organic waste is both a waste stabilization method and an energy gaining process with production of a fertilizer, organic waste...

  19. Household waste compositional analysis variation from insular communities in the framework of waste prevention strategy plans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zorpas, Antonis A; Lasaridi, Katia; Voukkali, Irene; Loizia, Pantelitsa; Chroni, Christina

    2015-04-01

    Waste management planning requires reliable data regarding waste generation, affecting factors on waste generation and forecasts of waste quantities based on facts. In order to decrease the environmental impacts of waste management the choice of prevention plan as well as the treatment method must be based on the features of the waste that are produced in a specific area. Factors such as culture, economic development, climate, and energy sources have an impact on waste composition; composition influences the need of collecting waste more or less frequently of waste collection and disposition. The research question was to discover the main barriers concerning the compositional analysis in Insular Communities under warm climate conditions and the findings from this study enabled the main contents of a waste management plan to be established. These included advice to residents on waste minimisation, liaison with stakeholders and the expansion of kerbside recycling schemes. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Ethanol from mixed waste paper

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kerstetter, J.D.; Lyons, J.K.

    1991-01-01

    The technology, markets, and economics for converting mixed waste paper to ethanol in Washington were assessed. The status of enzymatic and acid hydrolysis projects were reviewed. The market for ethanol blended fuels in Washington shows room for expansion. The economics for a hypothetical plant using enzymatic hydrolysis were shown to be profitable

  1. Unlocking energy from waste

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Montemurro, M. [Alter-Nrg, Calgary, AB (Canada)

    2007-07-15

    Plasma gasification plants at various international locations are now being used to convert municipal solid waste (MSW), tires, hazardous waste and sewage sludge into sustainable energy sources. Only 3 per cent of the a proximately 33 million tonnes of waste generated by Canadians each year is incinerated. This article argued that plasma gasification should be widely implemented in order to responsibly dispose of waste as well as to meet the growing need for clean sources of alternative energy. During the gasification process, heat is used to break down the molecular structure of carbon-containing materials and convert them into synthesis gas. Gasification occurs in an oxygen-starved environment so that the gas is vaporized instead of burned. Harmful air emissions are virtually eliminated due to the high temperatures used during the gasification process. Power output for MSWs used in the gasification process is approximately 200 kWh per tonne of waste processed. Plasma gasification is currently being used at a facility in Japan to process sewage sludge and MSW. Plasma direct melting reactor (PDMR) technology is used at the facility to melt the inert components of the waste feedstock into benign vitreous slag, while at the same time gasifying the organic components into synthetic gas. It was concluded that plasma gasification is an economical and environmentally friendly alternative to traditional forms of waste processing and power generation. 2 figs.

  2. Management of agricultural waste for removal of heavy metals from aqueous solution: adsorption behaviors, adsorption mechanisms, environmental protection, and techno-economic analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elhafez, S E Abd; Hamad, H A; Zaatout, A A; Malash, G F

    2017-01-01

    In the last decades, Egypt has been suffering from the phenomenon of black cloud resulting from burning rice husk and increasing the demand for water leading to the water crisis. An alternative, low-value and surplus agricultural byproduct (rice husk, RH) has an enormous potential for the removal of Cu(II) ions from water. The present study focuses on the chance of the use of rice husk as a bio-adsorbent without any chemical treatment instead of burning it and soiling the environment. The elemental, structural, morphological, surface functional, thermal, and textural characteristics of RH are determined by XRF, XRD, SEM, FT-IR, TGA, and BET surface area, respectively, and contributed to the understanding of the adsorption mechanism of Cu(II) ions in aqueous solution. Also, the performance analysis, adsorption mechanism, influencing factors, favorable conditions, etc. are discussed in this article. The results obtained from optimization by batch mode are achieved under the following conditions: initial concentration, 150 ppm; amount of rice husk, 1 g; average particle size, 0.25 mm; temperature, 25 °C; pH, 4; agitation rate, 180 rpm; and contact time, 60 min. RH exhibits a high degree of selectivity for Cu(II) adsorption. The adsorption isotherm is fitted well with Langmuir and Freundlich models with R 2 0.998 and 0.997, respectively. The adsorption is well governed by the pseudo-second-order kinetics. It is observed that the rate of adsorption improves with decreasing temperature, and the process is exothermic and non-spontaneous. Particular attention has being paid to factors as production processes, fixed/operational cost, production cost, and profit. The techno-economical analysis is presented in this study that provides precise demands on capital for a fixed investment, provisions for operational capital, and finally provisions for revenue. The social, economical, and environmental benefits by industrial point of view using low-cost adsorbent are also

  3. ORGANIC WASTE USED IN AGRICULTURAL BIOGAS PLANTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joanna Kazimierowicz

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Treatment of organic waste is an ecological and economical problem. Searching method for disposal of these wastes, interest is methane fermentation. The use of this process in agricultural biogas plants allows disposal of hazardous waste, obtaining valuable fertilizer, while the production of ecologically clean fuel – biogas. The article presents the characteristics of organic waste from various industries, which make them suitable for use as substrates in agricultural biogas plants.

  4. Unit-pricing: Minimising Christchurch Domestic Waste

    OpenAIRE

    Tait, Peter R.

    2004-01-01

    One economic tool that can aid in the achievement of waste minimisation targets is unit-pricing. Unit-pricing in the waste management sector refers to a pricing system that charges households for their collection and disposal service relative to the amount of waste disposed by the household. This research investigates the potential impact of implementing a unit-pricing policy for domestic waste collection and disposal services in Christchurch. Data is collected using a Contingent Valuation su...

  5. Technology applications for radioactive waste minimization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Devgun, J.S.

    1994-01-01

    The nuclear power industry has achieved one of the most successful examples of waste minimization. The annual volume of low-level radioactive waste shipped for disposal per reactor has decreased to approximately one-fifth the volume about a decade ago. In addition, the curie content of the total waste shipped for disposal has decreased. This paper will discuss the regulatory drivers and economic factors for waste minimization and describe the application of technologies for achieving waste minimization for low-level radioactive waste with examples from the nuclear power industry

  6. Benefits of a formal waste management program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wolfe, R.A.

    1974-01-01

    The proper management of waste is of vital importance in the conservation of our environment. Mound Laboratory, which is operated by Monsanto Research Corporation for the U. S. Atomic Energy Commission, has embarked upon a waste management program designed to assure that the generation, processing, storage, and disposal of waste is conducted in such a manner as to have a minimum impact on the environment. The organizational approach taken toward waste management is discussed and some of the benefits of the waste management program at Mound Laboratory are described. Ithas been shown that the utilization of proper waste management techniques can have economic, as well as environmental protection, benefits. (U.S.)

  7. The Radioactive Waste Management at Studsvik

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hedlund, R.; Lindskog, A.

    1966-04-15

    The report was originally prepared as a contribution to the discussions in an IAEA panel on economics of radioactive waste management held in Vienna from 13 - 17 December 1965. It contains the answers and comments to the questions of a questionnaire for the panel concerning the various operations associated with the management (collection, transport, treatment, discharge, storage, and operational monitoring) of: - radioactive liquid wastes, except high-level effluents from reactor fuel recovering operations; - solid wastes, except those produced from treatment of high level wastes; - gaseous wastes produced from treatment of the foregoing liquid and solid wastes; - equipment decontamination facilities and radioactive laundries.

  8. Bioremediation and degradation of CCA-treated wood waste.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barbara L Illman; Vina W. Yang

    2004-01-01

    Bioprocessing CCA wood waste is an efficient and economical alternative to depositing the waste in landfills, especially if landfill restrictions on CCA waste are imposed nation wide. We have developed bioremediation and degradation technologies for microbial processing of CCA waste. The technologies are based on specially formulated inoculum of wood decay fungi,...

  9. User requirements for innovative nuclear reactors and fuel cycle technologies in the area of economics, environment, safety, waste management, proliferation resistance and cross cutting issues, and methodology for innovative technologies assessment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kupitz, Juergen; Depisch, Frank; Allan, Colin

    2003-01-01

    The IAEA General Conference in 2000 has invited ''all interested Member States to combine their efforts under the aegis of the Agency in considering the issues of the nuclear fuel cycle, in particular by examining innovative and proliferation-resistant nuclear technology''. In response to this invitation, the IAEA initiated an ''International Project on Innovative Nuclear Reactors and Fuel Cycles'', INPRO. The overall objectives of INPRO is to help to ensure that nuclear energy is available to contribute in fulfilling in a sustainable manner energy needs in the 21st century, and to bring together all interested Member States, both technology holders and technology users, to consider jointly the international and national actions required to achieve desired innovations in nuclear reactors and fuel cycles that use sound and economically competitive technology. Phase-I of INPRO was initiated in May 2001. During Phase-I, work was subdivided in two sub phase: Phase 1A (finished in June 2003) and Phase 1B (started in June 2003). Phase 1A dealt with the definition of Basic Principles, User Requirements and Criteria, and the development of a methodology for the evaluation of innovative nuclear technologies. In Phase 1A, task groups for several areas were established: (a) Prospects and Potentials of Nuclear Power, (b) Economics; (c) Sustainability and Environment, (d) Safety of Nuclear Installations, (e) Waste Management, (f) Proliferation Resistance, (g) Crosscutting issues and (h) for the Methodology for Assessment. In Phase-IB evaluations of innovative nuclear energy technologies will be performed by Member States against the INPRO Basic Principles, User Requirements and Criteria. This paper summarizes the results achieved in the Phase 1A of INPRO and is a cooperative effort of the INPRO team, consisting of all INPRO cost free experts and task managers. (author)

  10. Waste management, waste resource facilities and waste conversion processes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Demirbas, Ayhan

    2011-01-01

    In this study, waste management concept, waste management system, biomass and bio-waste resources, waste classification, and waste management methods have been reviewed. Waste management is the collection, transport, processing, recycling or disposal, and monitoring of waste materials. A typical waste management system comprises collection, transportation, pre-treatment, processing, and final abatement of residues. The waste management system consists of the whole set of activities related to handling, treating, disposing or recycling the waste materials. General classification of wastes is difficult. Some of the most common sources of wastes are as follows: domestic wastes, commercial wastes, ashes, animal wastes, biomedical wastes, construction wastes, industrial solid wastes, sewer, biodegradable wastes, non-biodegradable wastes, and hazardous wastes.

  11. Energy from wastes and the private waste contracting industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Burnett, J.S.

    1993-01-01

    The focus of this ongoing work is the utilisation of general non hazardous industrial and commercial waste as an energy or fuel source. Whereas much of the existing experience in energy from waste (EFW) is related to municipal solid wastes (MSW), there is very little direct experience with these other waste streams and the shortage of reliable information in this field is notoriously lacking. It is important to have a good understanding of the private waste contracting industry (pwci) in order to establish the conditions under which energy from waste technologies may play an economically and technically feasible role within that industry's development. The Non Fossil Fuel Obligation (NFFO) has encouraged entrepreneurial interest through premium payments for electricity generated from renewable sources. (author)

  12. An overview of waste crime, its characteristics, and the vulnerability of the EU waste sector.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baird, J; Curry, R; Cruz, P

    2014-02-01

    While waste is increasingly viewed as a resource to be globally traded, increased regulatory control on waste across Europe has created the conditions where waste crime now operates alongside a legitimate waste sector. Waste crime,is an environmental crime and a form of white-collar crime, which exploits the physical characteristics of waste, the complexity of the collection and downstream infrastructure, and the market opportunities for profit. This paper highlights some of the factors which make the waste sector vulnerable to waste crime. These factors include new legislation and its weak regulatory enforcement, the economics of waste treatment, where legal and safe treatment of waste can be more expensive than illegal operations, the complexity of the waste sector and the different actors who can have some involvement, directly or indirectly, in the movement of illegal wastes, and finally that waste can be hidden or disguised and creates an opportunity for illegal businesses to operate alongside legitimate waste operators. The study also considers waste crime from the perspective of particular waste streams that are often associated with illegal shipment or through illegal treatment and disposal. For each, the nature of the crime which occurs is shown to differ, but for each, vulnerabilities to waste crime are evident. The paper also describes some approaches which can be adopted by regulators and those involved in developing new legislation for identifying where opportunities for waste crime occurs and how to prevent it.

  13. The food waste hierarchy as a framework for the management of food surplus and food waste

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Papargyropoulou, Effie; Lozano, Rodrigo; K. Steinberger, Julia; Wright, Nigel; Ujang, Zaini Bin

    2014-01-01

    The unprecedented scale of food waste in global food supply chains is attracting increasing attention due to its environmental, social and economic impacts. Drawing on interviews with food waste specialists, this study construes the boundaries between food surplus and food waste, avoidable and

  14. Waste predisposal management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2005-01-01

    All Member States have to a large or small extent nuclear activities that generate radioactive wastes. Hospitals, research in biomedicine or in agriculture, and some industrial applications, beside other large nuclear activities such as Nuclear Power Plants and Nuclear Research, generate unconditioned liquid or solid radioactive wastes that have to be treated, conditioned and stored prior final disposal. Countries with small nuclear activities require of organizations and infrastructure as to be able to manage, in a safe manner, the wastes that they generate. Predisposal management of radioactive waste is any step carried out to convert raw waste into a stable form suitable for the safe disposal, such as pre-treatment, treatment, storage and relevant transport. Transport of radioactive waste do not differ, in general, from other radioactive material and so are not considered within the scope of this fact sheet (Nevertheless the Agency, within the Nuclear Safety Department, has created a special Unit that might give advise Member States in this area). Predisposal management is comprised of a set of activities whose implementation may take some time. In most of the cases, safety issues and strategic and economical considerations have to be solved prior the main decisions are taken. The International Atomic Energy Agency provides assistance for the management of radioactive waste at national and operating level, in the definition and/or implementation of the projects. The services could include, but are not limited to guidance in the definition of national waste management strategy and its implementation, definition of the most adequate equipment and practices taking into account specific Member State conditions, as well as assisting in the procurement, technical expertise for the evaluation of current status of operating facilities and practical guidance for the implementation of corrective actions, assistance in the definition of waste acceptance criteria for

  15. Issue briefs on low-level radioactive wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1981-01-01

    This report contains 4 Issue Briefs on low-level radioactive wastes. They are entitled: Handling, Packaging, and Transportation, Economics of LLW Management, Public Participation and Siting, and Low Level Waste Management

  16. Managing soil moisture on waste burial sites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anderson, J.E.; Ratzlaff, T.D.

    1991-11-01

    Shallow land burial is a common method of disposing of industrial, municipal, and low-level radioactive waste. The exclusion of water from buried wastes is a primary objective in designing and managing waste disposal sites. If wastes are not adequately isolated, water from precipitation may move through the landfill cover and into the wastes. The presence of water in the waste zone may promote the growth of plant roots to that depth and result in the transport of toxic materials to above-ground foliage. Furthermore, percolation of water through the waste zone may transport contaminants into ground water. This report presents results from a field study designed to assess the the potential for using vegetation to deplete soil moisture and prevent water from reaching buried wastes at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL). Our results show that this approach may provide an economical means of limiting the intrusion of water on waste sites

  17. Management of NORM/TENORM Waste from Non Nuclear Industries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Djarot S Wisnubroto

    2003-01-01

    Management of NORM/TENORM waste is now to be an issue and discussed in many international conferences and seminars. This paper describes the status of the management of NORM/TENORM waste including the origin of the waste, regulations and assessment of waste disposal. Several countries have established the regulation for NORM/TENORM waste; however the IAEA has not yet published guideline for management of NORM/TENORM. There are many options for disposal of NORM/TENORM waste based on standard of the radioactive waste disposal. The decision and policy on management of NORM/TENORM waste must be conducted carefully due to the social and economical impacts. (author)

  18. Conditioning of alpha bearing wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1991-01-01

    Alpha bearing wastes are generated during the reprocessing of spent fuel, mixed oxide fuel fabrication, decommissioning and other activities. The safe and effective management of these wastes is of particular importance owing to the radiotoxicity and long lived characteristics of certain transuranic (TRU) elements. The management of alpha bearing wastes involves a number of stages which include collection, characterization, segregation, treatment, conditioning, transport, storage and disposal. This report describes the currently available matrices and technologies for the conditioning of alpha wastes and relates them to their compatibility with the other stages of the waste management process. The selection of a specific immobilization process is dependent on the waste treatment state and the subsequent handling, transport, storage and disposal requirements. The overall objectives of immobilization are similar for all waste producers and processors, which are to produce: (a) Waste forms with sufficient mechanical, physical and chemical stability to satisfy all stages of handling, transport and storage (referred to as the short term requirements), and (b) Waste forms which will satisfy disposal requirements and inhibit the release of radionuclides to the biosphere (referred to as the long term requirements). Cement and bitumen processes have already been successfully applied to alpha waste conditioning on the industrial scale in many of the IAEA Member States. Cement systems based on BFS and pozzolanic cements have emerged as the principal encapsulation matrices for the full range of alpha bearing wastes. Alternative technologies, such as polymers and ceramics, are being developed for specific waste streams but are unlikely to meet widespread application owing to cost and process complexity. The merits of alpha waste conditioning are improved performance in transport, storage and disposal combined with enhanced public perception of waste management operations. These

  19. Quantum economics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vukotić Veselin

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The globalization is breaking-down the idea of national state, which was the base for the development of economic theory which is dominant today. Global economic crisis puts emphasis on limited possibilities of national governments in solving economic problems and general problems of society. Does it also mean that globalization and global economic crisis points out the need to think about new economic theory and new understanding of economics? In this paper I will argue that globalization reveals the need to change dominant economic paradigm - from traditional economic theory (mainstream with macroeconomic stability as the goal of economic policy, to the “quantum economics“, which is based on “economic quantum” and immanent to the increase of wealth (material and non-material of every individual in society and promoting set of values immanent to the wealth increase as the goal of economic policy. Practically the question is how we can use global market for our development!

  20. Economic aspects of metals recover

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wieczorek, Daria; Kwaśniewska, Dobrawa

    2018-03-01

    One of the modern economy models is circular economy in which wastes should be considered as resource and used in an efficient and sustainable way. This also concerns to metals included in scraps. However, the need for metal recovery from waste is not only the result of the latest economic trends but also the result of large and constantly changing demand for metals. Shrinking natural sources of metals, concentrations of ores in small number of countries in the world and resulting from this dependence on import, geopolitical situation, new technologies demands are only a few most important determinants that have been changing the structure of the metal market over years. In this chapter, authors focused on the presentation of economic aspects of metal recovery from various sources. The chapter presents the characteristic of metal market elements (supply, demand and price) and changes that took place over decades, underlining the structure of precious and highly desirable metal market elements. Balance between the demand and supply ensures price stability and rationalizes inflation. However, growing demand on many means that secure supply chains, such as recycling and material recovery, are essential to ensure continuity in the supply chain and guarantee unrestricted technological progress and innovation. The data included in this chapter presents also the concentration of different metals and group of metals in wastes pointing that recycling of waste can become one of the possibilities of acquiring missing and critical metals. Metal-laden wastes include a few groups: waste electrical and electronic equipments, catalysts of different application, introduced on chemical, petrochemical or automotive market, galvanic wastes and wastewaters. The profitability assessment of recycling processes is very complicated. Nevertheless cited data shows that profitability of recovery depends on the metal analyzed and the type of waste. It must be underline that an optimized

  1. Waste management

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bruun Hansen, Karsten; Jamison, Andrew

    2000-01-01

    The case study deals with public accountability issues connected to household waste management in the municipality of Copenhagen, Denmark.......The case study deals with public accountability issues connected to household waste management in the municipality of Copenhagen, Denmark....

  2. Addressing food waste reduction in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Halloran, Afton Marina Szasz; Clement, Jesper; Kornum, Niels

    2014-01-01

    Global food demand is driven by population and economic growth, and urbanization. One important instrument to meet this increasing demand and to decrease the pressure on food production is to minimize food losses and food waste. Food waste and loss is a major societal, economic, nutritional...... and environmental challenge. Using the case of Denmark, this paper analyses causes of food waste, and discusses how different stakeholders address the prevention and reuse of the €1.18. billion of annual edible food waste. Currently, the majority of food waste is still incinerated with energy recovery. However......, improvements in technology have made it more efficient to utilize food waste for biogas and compost, which improves nutrient cycling through the food system. Major efforts to address food waste in Denmark have mainly been promoted through civil society groups with governmental support, as well as by industry...

  3. The radioactive waste management conference

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fareeduddin, S.; Hirling, J.

    1983-01-01

    The international conference on radioactive waste management was held in Seattle, Washington, from 16 to 20 May 1983. The response was gratifying, reflecting world-wide interest: it was attended by 528 participants from 29 Member States of the IAEA and eight international organizations. The conference programme was structured to permit reviews and presentation of up-to-date information on five major topics: - waste management policy and its implementation: national and international approaches; legal, economic, environmental, and social aspects (four sessions with 27 papers from 16 countries and four international organizations); - handling, treatment, and conditioning of wastes from nuclear facilities, nuclear power plants and reprocessing plants, including the handling and treatment of gaseous wastes and wastes of specific types (five sessions with 35 papers); - storage and underground disposal of radioactive wastes: general, national concepts, underground laboratories, and designs of repositories for high-level, and low- and intermediate-level waste disposal (five sessions with 35 papers); - environmental and safety assessment of waste management systems: goals methodologies, assessments for geological repositories, low- and intermediate-level wastes, and mill tailings (four sessions with 26 papers); - radioactive releases to the environment from nuclear operations: status and perspectives, environmental transport processes, and control of radioactive waste disposal into the environment (three sessions with 23 papers)

  4. Waste disposal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Neerdael, B.; Marivoet, J.; Put, M.; Verstricht, J.; Van Iseghem, P.; Buyens, M.

    1998-01-01

    The primary mission of the Waste Disposal programme at the Belgian Nuclear Research Centre SCK/CEN is to propose, develop, and assess solutions for the safe disposal of radioactive waste. In Belgium, deep geological burial in clay is the primary option for the disposal of High-Level Waste and spent nuclear fuel. The main achievements during 1997 in the following domains are described: performance assessment, characterization of the geosphere, characterization of the waste, migration processes, underground infrastructure

  5. Food waste

    OpenAIRE

    Marešová, Adéla

    2014-01-01

    This thesis looks into issues related to food waste and consists of a theoretical and a practical part. Theoretical part aims to provide clear and complex definition of wood waste related problems, summarize current findings in Czech and foreign sources. Introduction chapter explains important terms and legal measures related to this topic. It is followed by description of causes, implications and possibilities in food waste reduction. Main goal of practical part is analyzing food waste in Cz...

  6. Waste incineration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rumplmayr, A.; Sammer, G.

    2001-01-01

    Waste incineration can be defined as the thermal conversion processing of solid waste by chemical oxidation. The types of wastes range from solid household waste and infectious hospital waste through to toxic solid, liquid and gaseous chemical wastes. End products include hot incineration gases, composed primarily of nitrogen, carbon dioxide, water vapor and to a smaller extend of non-combustible residue (ash) and air pollutants (e. g. NO x ). Energy can be recovered by heat exchange from the hot incineration gases, thus lowering fossil fuel consumption that in turn can reduce emissions of greenhouse gases. Burning of solid waste can fulfil up to four distinctive objectives (Pera, 2000): 1. Volume reduction: volume reduction of about 90 %, weight reduction of about 70 %; 2. Stabilization of waste: oxidation of organic input; 3. Recovery of energy from waste; 4. Sanitization of waste: destruction of pathogens. Waste incineration is not a means to make waste disappear. It does entail emissions into air as well as water and soil. The generated solid residues are the topic of this task force. Unlike other industrial processes discussed in this platform, waste incineration is not a production process, and is therefore not generating by-products, only residues. Residues that are isolated from e. g. flue gas, are concentrated in another place and form (e. g. air pollution control residues). Hence, there are generally two groups of residues that have to be taken into consideration: residues generated in the actual incineration process and others generated in the flue gas cleaning system. Should waste incineration finally gain public acceptance, it will be necessary to find consistent regulations for both sorts of residues. In some countries waste incineration is seen as the best option for the treatment of waste, whereas in other countries it is seen very negative. (author)

  7. Nuclear wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2004-01-01

    Here is made a general survey of the situation relative to radioactive wastes. The different kinds of radioactive wastes and the different way to store them are detailed. A comparative evaluation of the situation in France and in the world is made. The case of transport of radioactive wastes is tackled. (N.C.)

  8. Periodical Economics

    OpenAIRE

    King, Andrew

    2016-01-01

    This is the first overview of the economics of nineteenth-century periodicals and newspapers. While media economics is an established field in business studies, the chapter redefines economics by looking at value systems including capitalist ones but no confined to them. Original case studies are offered as models for research into the economics of nineteenth-century print culture.

  9. Economic viability of anaerobic digestion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wellinger, A. [INFOENERGIE, Ettenhausen (Switzerland)

    1996-01-01

    The industrial application of anaerobic digestion is a relatively new, yet proven waste treatment technology. Anaerobic digestion reduces and upgrades organic waste, and is a good way to control air pollution as it reduces methane and nitrous gas emissions. For environmental and energy considerations, anaerobic digestion is a nearly perfect waste treatment process. However, its economic viability is still in question. A number of parameters - type of waste (solid or liquid), digester system, facility size, product quality and end use, environmental requirements, cost of alternative treatments (including labor), and interest rates - define the investment and operating costs of an anaerobic digestion facility. Therefore, identical facilities that treat the same amount and type of waste may, depending on location, legislation, and end product characteristics, reveal radically different costs. A good approach for evaluating the economics of anaerobic digestion is to compare it to treatment techniques such as aeration or conventional sewage treatment (for industrial wastewater), or composting and incineration (for solid organic waste). For example, the cost (per ton of waste) of in-vessel composting with biofilters is somewhat higher than that of anaerobic digestion, but the investment costs 1 1/2 to 2 times more than either composting or anaerobic digestion. Two distinct advantages of anaerobic digestion are: (1) it requires less land than either composting or incinerating, which translates into lower costs and milder environmental and community impacts (especially in densely populated areas); and (2) it produces net energy, which can be used to operate the facility or sold to nearby industries.

  10. Nuclear waste handbook. Elements for a debate on nuclear wastes in France

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2005-01-01

    This handbook contains a set of sheets discussing the different aspects associated with the nuclear waste issue: materials and risks (nuclear material and waste characterization and associated risks), choice and indicators (the French reprocessing-recycling option, valuable and ultimate wastes, long life waste management, long life waste indicators), flows and stocks (flows in the present management, stored, conditioned, waiting and valuable wastes). It also describes the regulatory environment (its principles and gaps) and researches. Then, it proposes a prospective view in terms of electricity production strategies, energy scenarios and technological strategies, nuclear materials with respect to the different scenarios. The decision process and economical and international aspects are finally discussed

  11. Economics of ALMR deployment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Delene, J.G.; Fuller, L.C.; Hudson, C.R.

    1994-01-01

    The Advanced Liquid Metal Reactor (ALMR) has the potential to extend the economic life of the nuclear option and of reducing the number of high level waste repositories which will eventually be needed in an expanding nuclear economy. This paper reports on an analysis which models and evaluates the economics of the use of ALMRs as a component of this country's future electricity generation mix. The ALMR concept has the ability to utilize as fuel the fissile material contained in previously irradiated nuclear fuel (i.e., spent fuel) or from surplus weapons grade material. While not a requirement for the successful deployment of ALMR power plant technology, the reprocessing of spent fuel from light water reactors (LWR) is necessary for any rapid introduction of ALMR power plants. In addition, the reprocessing of LWR spent fuel may reduce the number of high level waste repositories needed in the future by burning the long-lived actinides produced in the fission process. With this study, the relative economics of a number of potential scenarios related to these issues are evaluated. While not encompassing the full range of all possibilities, the cases reported here provide an indication of the potential costs, timings, and relative economic attractiveness of ALMR deployment

  12. Hazardous Medical Waste Management as a Public Health Issue

    OpenAIRE

    Marinković, Natalija; Vitale, Ksenija; Afrić, Ivo; Janev Holcer, Nataša

    2005-01-01

    The amount of waste produced is connected with the degree of a country’s economic development; more developed countries produce more waste. This paper reviews the quantities, manipulation and treatment methods of medical waste in Croatia, as well as hazardous potentials of medical waste for human health. Medical waste must be collected and sorted in containers suitable for its characteristics, amount, means of transportation and treatment method in order to prevent contact with environment an...

  13. DISPOSAL OF LOW AND INTERMEDIATE LEVEL WASTE IN HUNGARY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bálint Nős

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available There are two operating facilities for management of low and intermediate level radioactive waste in Hungary. Experience with radioactive waste has a relatively long history and from its legacy some problems are to be solved, like the question of the historical waste in the Radioactive Waste Treatment and Disposal Facility (RWTDF. Beside the legacy problems the current waste arising from the Nuclear Power Plant (NPP has to be dealt with a safe and economically optimized way.

  14. Consumer-related food waste: causes and potential for action

    OpenAIRE

    Aschemann-Witzel, Jessica; de Hooge, Ilona; Amani, Pegah; Bech-Larsen, Tino; Oostindjer, Marije

    2015-01-01

    - In the past decade, food waste has received increased attention on both academic and societal levels. As a cause of negative economic, environmental and social effects, food waste is considered to be one of the sustainability issues that needs to be addressed. In developed countries, consumers are one of the biggest sources of food waste. To successfully reduce consumer-related food waste, it is necessary to have a clear understanding of the factors influencing food waste-related consume...

  15. Household waste compositional analysis variation from insular communities in the framework of waste prevention strategy plans

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zorpas, Antonis A., E-mail: antonis.zorpas@ouc.ac.cy [Cyprus Open University, Faculty of Pure and Applied Science, Environmental Conservation and Management, P.O. Box 12794, 2252 Latsia, Nicosia (Cyprus); Lasaridi, Katia, E-mail: klasaridi@hua.gr [Harokopio University, Department of Geography, 70 El. Venizelou, 176 71 Athens, Kallithea (Greece); Voukkali, Irene [Institute of Environmental Technology and Sustainable Development, ENVITECH LTD, Department of Research and Development, P.O. Box 34073, 5309 (Cyprus); Loizia, Pantelitsa, E-mail: irenevoukkali@envitech.org [Institute of Environmental Technology and Sustainable Development, ENVITECH LTD, Department of Research and Development, P.O. Box 34073, 5309 (Cyprus); Chroni, Christina [Harokopio University, Department of Geography, 70 El. Venizelou, 176 71 Athens, Kallithea (Greece)

    2015-04-15

    Highlights: • Waste framework directive has set clear waste prevention procedures. • Household Compositional analysis. • Waste management plans. • Zero waste approach. • Waste generation. - Abstract: Waste management planning requires reliable data regarding waste generation, affecting factors on waste generation and forecasts of waste quantities based on facts. In order to decrease the environmental impacts of waste management the choice of prevention plan as well as the treatment method must be based on the features of the waste that are produced in a specific area. Factors such as culture, economic development, climate, and energy sources have an impact on waste composition; composition influences the need of collecting waste more or less frequently of waste collection and disposition. The research question was to discover the main barriers concerning the compositional analysis in Insular Communities under warm climate conditions and the findings from this study enabled the main contents of a waste management plan to be established. These included advice to residents on waste minimisation, liaison with stakeholders and the expansion of kerbside recycling schemes.

  16. Household waste compositional analysis variation from insular communities in the framework of waste prevention strategy plans

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zorpas, Antonis A.; Lasaridi, Katia; Voukkali, Irene; Loizia, Pantelitsa; Chroni, Christina

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • Waste framework directive has set clear waste prevention procedures. • Household Compositional analysis. • Waste management plans. • Zero waste approach. • Waste generation. - Abstract: Waste management planning requires reliable data regarding waste generation, affecting factors on waste generation and forecasts of waste quantities based on facts. In order to decrease the environmental impacts of waste management the choice of prevention plan as well as the treatment method must be based on the features of the waste that are produced in a specific area. Factors such as culture, economic development, climate, and energy sources have an impact on waste composition; composition influences the need of collecting waste more or less frequently of waste collection and disposition. The research question was to discover the main barriers concerning the compositional analysis in Insular Communities under warm climate conditions and the findings from this study enabled the main contents of a waste management plan to be established. These included advice to residents on waste minimisation, liaison with stakeholders and the expansion of kerbside recycling schemes

  17. Radioactive waste management: yesterday, today and tomorrow

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Prince, A.T.

    1977-10-01

    The public believes that there is a radioactive waste problem, but knowledge in the field is so well advanced that the only problem left is how to choose the most economically effective method among many available. Tailings from uranium ore processing could be made harmless by removing the majority of the radium and storing the remaining waste in well-designed retention areas. Non-fuel reactor wastes may be handled by incineraton, reverse osmosis, and evaporation in a central waste management centre. The dry storage of spent fuel in concrete cannisters is being investigated. Ultimate disposal of high-level wastes will be in deep, stable geologic formations. (LL)

  18. Western economics versus Buddhist economics

    OpenAIRE

    Laszlo Zsolnai

    2007-01-01

    The paper explores Buddhist economics as a major alternative to the Western economic mindset. Buddhism is centred on want negation and purification of the human character. Buddhist economics, developed by Schumacher, Payutto, Welford and others, challenges the basic principles of modern Western economics: (1) profit-maximisation, (2) cultivating desires, (3) introducing markets, (4) instrumental use of the world, and (5) self-interest-based ethics. Buddhist economics proposes alternative prin...

  19. Radioactive waste management practices in India

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Raj, Kanwar

    2012-01-01

    Different countries around the globe, especially those involved in nuclear power plant operation, spent fuel reprocessing, nuclear research activities and diverse nuclear applications; generate large inventory of radioactive wastes. These waste streams generated during various stages of nuclear fuel cycle are of different categories, which require special care for handling, treatment and conditioning. Conventional treatment and conditioning methods may not be efficient for various type of waste; therefore special options may be required to manage these waste streams. Presently, Indian waste management fraternity is focused to minimize the volume of the waste to be finally disposed off, by partitioning radionuclides, regenerating separation media and re-using as much of the waste components as possible and economically feasible. This approach, together with the reuse/recycling strategy, seems to represent a robust waste treatment strategy for the future

  20. EDITORIAL Strengthening the Link between Economic ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    kim

    wealth and achieve economic development on the one hand. On the other ... The solid waste collection service coverage in Addis ... Wastes discharged from industries often contain heavy metals and organic chemicals that spoil the water eco-system and put human health at risk through the food chain. There is a growing.

  1. Disposal and recovery of waste paper in South Africa

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Brooks, GR

    1977-04-01

    Full Text Available firm of techno-economic consultants on behalf of the Group for Techno-Economic Studies (IRS, CSIR) which provided the financial support for this survey, as well as for the preceding survey on plastic wastes....

  2. Economics of national waste terminal storage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1979-02-01

    This topical report integrates two separate studies performed in FY 1978: spent fuel pricing studies which have previously been reported in Y/OWI/SUB-78/42512/2, and cost analysis studies reported in Y/OWI/SUB-78/42512/1. The cost analysis studies, which are parametric in nature, have been used to generate pricing estimates using the methodologies developed for the pricing studies. 8 figures, 16 tables

  3. Waste acid detoxification and reclamation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brouns, T.M.; Stewart, T.L.

    1988-01-01

    Economically feasible processes that reduce the volume, quantity, and toxicity of metal-bearing waste acids by reclaiming, reusing, and recycling spent acids and metal salts are being developed and demonstrated. The acids used in the demonstrations are generated during metal-finishing operations used in nuclear fuel fabrication; HF-HNO 3 , HNO 3 , and HNO 3 -H 2 SO 4 wastes result from Zr etching, Cu stripping, and chemical milling of U. At discharge, wastes contain high concentrations of acid and one major metal impurity. The waste minimization process used to reclaim acid from these three streams incorporates three processes for acid regeneration and reclamation. Normally, HNO 3 remains in the bottoms when an aqueous acid solution is distilled; however, in the presence of H 2 SO 4 , HNO 3 will distill to the overhead stream. In this process, nitrates and fluorides present as free acid and metal salts can be reclaimed as acid for recycle to the metal-finishing processes. Uranium present in the chemical milling solution can be economically recovered from distillation bottoms and refined. Using acid distillation, the volume of chemical milling solution discharged as waste can be reduced by as much as 60% depending on the H 2 SO 4 concentration. A payback period of 2.2 years has been estimated for this process. The development and demonstration of precipitation and distillation processes for detoxification and reclamation of waste acid is supported by the US Department of Energy's Hazardous Waste Remedial Actions Program (HAZWRAP)

  4. Organic household waste - incineration or recycling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2003-01-01

    The Danish Environmental Protection Agency has carried out a cost benefit analysis of the consequences of increasing recycling of organic household waste. In the cost benefit analysis both the economic consequences for the affected parties and the welfare-economic consequences for the society as a whole have been investigated. In the welfare-economic analysis the value of the environmental effects has been included. The analysis shows that it is more expensive for the society to recycle organic household waste by anaerobic digestion or central composting than by incineration. Incineration is the cheapest solution for the society, while central composting is the most expensive. Furthermore, technical studies have shown that there are only small environmental benefits connected with anaerobic digestion of organic waste compared with incineration of the waste. The primary reason for recycling being more expensive than incineration is the necessary, but cost-intensive, dual collection of the household waste. Treatment itself is cheaper for recycling compared to incinerating. (BA)

  5. Internet economics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Henten, Anders; Skouby, Knud Erik; Øst, Alexander Gorm

    1997-01-01

    A paper on the economics of the Internet with respect to end user pricing and pricing og interconnect.......A paper on the economics of the Internet with respect to end user pricing and pricing og interconnect....

  6. Industrial Waste

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Thomas Højlund

    2011-01-01

    of the industrial waste may in periods, depending on market opportunities and prices, be traded as secondary rawmaterials. Production-specificwaste from primary production, for example steel slag, is not included in the current presentation. In some countries industries must be approved or licensed and as part......Industrial waste is waste from industrial production and manufacturing. Industry covers many industrial sectors and within each sector large variations are found in terms of which raw materials are used, which production technology is used and which products are produced. Available data on unit...... generation rates and material composition as well as determining factors are discussed in this chapter. Characterizing industrial waste is faced with the problem that often only a part of the waste is handled in the municipal waste system, where information is easily accessible. In addition part...

  7. Nuclear waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1990-01-01

    Each year, nuclear power plants, businesses, hospitals, and universities generate more than 1 million cubic feet of hardware, rags, paper, liquid waste, and protective clothing that have been contaminated with radioactivity. While most of this waste has been disposed of in facilities in Nevada, South Carolina, and Washington state, recent legislation made the states responsible - either individually, or through groups of states called compacts - for developing new disposal facilities. This paper discusses the states' progress and problems in meeting facility development milestones in the law, federal and state efforts to resolve issues related to mixed waste (low-level waste that also contains hazardous chemicals) and waste with very low levels of radioactivity, and the Department of Energy's progress in discharging the federal government's responsibility under the law to manage the most hazardous low-level waste

  8. Waste Generation in Denmark 1994-2005

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brix, Louise Lykke; Bentzen, Jan Børsen

    In recent years the amount of waste generated by Danish firms has increased significantly. In the present analysis we use the decomposition analysis, which has been widely used in the energy economics literature to explain the mechanisms influencing energy consumption and CO2 emissions....... In this paper the methodology is transferred to the topic of waste generation and is used to analyse why the amount of business waste is increasing. The empirical application is related to data for the volumes of waste generated in the Danish economy for the main sectors as well as the manufacturing sector...... covering the time span 1994-2005 has been included. By means of the Log-Mean Divisia Index Method (LMDI) an algebraic decomposition of the data for the waste amounts generated is performed. This methodology separates the increases in waste amounts into effects related to economic activity, industrial...

  9. Institutional Economics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samuels, Warren J.

    1984-01-01

    Institutional economics remains a viable alternative approach to economics. It stresses power, technology, and a holistic and evolutionary approach while critiquing the neoclassical approach. General features of institutional economics are examined, and the work of institutionalists in specific areas is discussed. (RM)

  10. Waste indicators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dall, O.; Lassen, C.; Hansen, E.

    2003-01-01

    The Waste Indicator Project focuses on methods to evaluate the efficiency of waste management. The project proposes the use of three indicators for resource consumption, primary energy and landfill requirements, based on the life-cycle principles applied in the EDIP Project. Trial runs are made With the indicators on paper, glass packaging and aluminium, and two models are identified for mapping the Danish waste management, of which the least extensive focuses on real and potential savings. (au)

  11. Wasting away

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Salzman, L.

    1978-01-01

    The problems of radioactive waste disposal are discussed, with particular reference to the following: radiation hazards from uranium mill tailings; disposal and storage of high-level wastes from spent fuel elements and reprocessing; low-level wastes; decommissioning of aged reactors; underground disposal, such as in salt formations; migration of radioactive isotopes, for example into ground water supplies or into the human food chain. (U.K.)

  12. Waste indicators

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dall, O.; Lassen, C.; Hansen, E. [Cowi A/S, Lyngby (Denmark)

    2003-07-01

    The Waste Indicator Project focuses on methods to evaluate the efficiency of waste management. The project proposes the use of three indicators for resource consumption, primary energy and landfill requirements, based on the life-cycle principles applied in the EDIP Project. Trial runs are made With the indicators on paper, glass packaging and aluminium, and two models are identified for mapping the Danish waste management, of which the least extensive focuses on real and potential savings. (au)

  13. Waste Incinerator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1994-05-01

    This book deals with plan and design of waste incinerator, which includes process outline of waste, method of measure, test, analysis, combustion way and classification of incineration facilities, condition of combustion and incineration, combustion calculation and heat calculation, ventilation and flow resistivity, an old body and component materials of supplementary installation, attached device, protection of pollution of incineration ash and waste gas, deodorization, prevention of noise in incineration facility, using heat and electric heat, check order of incineration plan.

  14. Study on the development of an efficient and economical small scale management scheme for low and intermediate level radioactive wastes and its impact on the environment. Part of a coordinated programme

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bartolome, Z.

    1976-05-01

    Efforts were made towards the establishment of a pilot-scale management system for the low and intermediate-level radioactive wastes of the Atomic Research Center. Practices in handling radioactive wastes are discussed and the assessment of their capabilities to meet the projections on the waste production is presented. The future waste management requirements of the Center was evaluated and comparative studies on the Lime-Soda and Phosphate Processes were conducted on simulated and raw liquid wastes with initial activity ranging from 10 -4 uCi/ml to 10 -2 uCi/ml, to establish the ideal parameters for best attaining maximum removal of radioactivity in liquids. The effectiveness of treatment was evaluated in terms of the decontamination factor, DF, obtained

  15. Alternatives for Future Waste Management in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Møller Andersen, Frits; Cimpan, Ciprian; Dall, Ole

    The TOPWASTE project has addressed the challenges of planning robust solutions for future waste management. The purpose was to identify economic and environmentally optimal solutions ‐ taking into account different scenarios for the development of the surrounding systems, such as the energy system...... on comparison of greenhouse gas emissions associated with different waste management alternatives 4. A new tool for techno‐economic modelling of central sorting plants. The project has furthermore contributed with method development on evaluation of critical resources as well as analyses of economic...... and organisational factors with influence on the future waste management. The results of the project clearly show the importance of taking scenarios for the future development of surrounding systems into account when deciding how the future waste management should be, both when it comes to the economic...

  16. Focus Cities : Economic Incentives for Improving Water, Sanitation ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Focus Cities : Economic Incentives for Improving Water, Sanitation and Solid Waste Services in Jakarta (Indonesia). Since 2001 Indonesia has been ... Sewer networks serve only a small proportion of the population, solid waste collection is inconsistent and waste disposal sites are inadequate. Cholera and malaria are ...

  17. FRIDA: A model for the generation and handling of solid waste in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Helge V.; Møller Andersen, Frits

    2012-01-01

    Since 1994, Danish waste treatment plants have been obliged to report to the Danish EPA the annual amounts of waste treated. Applying these data, we analyse the development, link amounts of waste to economic and demographic variables, and present a model for the generation and treatment of waste...... in Denmark. Using the model and official projections of the economic development, a baseline projection for the generation and treatment of waste is presented. © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved....

  18. Socioeconomic and institutional considerations for waste management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Finley, J.R.

    1980-01-01

    Principal activities of the socio-economic program at the Office of Nuclear Waste Isolation are discussed. The social and economic impacts of repository development are classified as standard (those which would be associated with any large mining project) and special (those which are unique to the construction and operation of a nuclear waste facility). These are discussed. Research is being conducted to identify possible impact mitigation strategies

  19. Agricultural waste concept, generation, utilization and management ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Agricultural wastes are non-product outputs of production and processing of agricultural products that may contain material that can benefit man but whose economic values are less than the cost of collection, transportation, and processing for beneficial use. Estimates of agricultural waste arising are rare, but they are ...

  20. Preparation Of Charcoal Using Agricultural Wastes | Bogale ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Conclusion: As compared to wood charcoal the charcoal briquette produced from agricultural wastes are economical, environmentally friendly, healthy (no smoke at all) and reduce impact of deforestation. Key words: Pollution, deforestation, extruder, carbonizer, wood charcoal, briquette charcoal, agricultural wastes, ...

  1. Qualitative Economics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fast, Michael; Clark, Woodrow

    2012-01-01

    Focus in this paper is on building a science of economics, grounded in understanding of organizations and what is beneath the surface of economic structures and activities. As a science Economics should be concerned with its assumptions, logic and lines of arguments, and how to develop theories...... and formulate ideas of reality. There is a disconnection between a science of economics focuses on structures and universal laws from what is experienced in everyday of life of business activity. The everyday of life of business is processual, dynamic and contradictional. This discussion of how to understand...... the everyday economic life is the central issue and is discussed from the perspective of interactionism. It is a perspective developed from the Lifeworld philosophical traditions, such as symbolic interactionism and phenomenology, seeking to develop the thinking of economics. The argument is that economics...

  2. Sawmill "Waste"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fred C. Simmons; Adna R. Bond

    1955-01-01

    Sawmills have the reputation of being very wasteful in converting logs and bolts into lumber and timbers. Almost everyone has seen the great heaps of sawdust and slabs that collect at sawmills. Frequently the question is asked, "Why doesn't somebody do something about this terrible waste of wood?"

  3. Economic Studies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. V. Kholopov

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The establishment of the School of Economic Science at MGIMO was due to the necessity of the world economy research, and the need to prepare highly skilled specialists in international economics. The school is developing a number of areas, which reflect the Faculty structure. - Economic theory is one of the most important research areas, a kind of foundation of the School of Economic Science at MGIMO. Economic theory studies are carried out at the chair of Economic theory. "The course of economic theory" textbook was published in 1991, and later it was reprinted seven times. Over the past few years other textbooks and manuals have been published, including "Economics for Managers" by Professor S.N. Ivashkovskaya, which survived through five editions; "International Economics" - four editions and "History of Economic Thought" - three editions. - International Economic Relations are carried out by the Department of International Economic Relations and Foreign Economic Activity. Its establishment is associated with the prominent economist N.N. Lyubimov. In 1957 he with his colleagues published the first textbook on the subject which went through multiple republications. The editorial team of the textbook subsequently formed the pride of Soviet economic science - S.M. Menshikov, E.P. Pletnev, V.D. Schetinin. Since 2007, the chair of Foreign Economic Activities led by Doctor of Economics, Professor I. Platonova has been investigating the problems of improving the architecture of foreign economic network and the international competitiveness of Russia; - The history of the study of problems of the world economy at MGIMO begins in 1958 at the chair baring the same name. Since 1998, the department has been headed by Professor A. Bulatov; - The study of international monetary relations is based on the chair of International Finance, and is focused on addressing the fundamental scientific and practical problems; - The chair "Banks, monetary circulation

  4. Report realized on behalf of the economic affairs, the environment and the territory commission on the law project, after urgency declaration, of the program relative to the sustainable management of materials and radioactive wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Birraux, C.

    2006-03-01

    In 1991 the France decided to intensify its researches in the high activity radioactive wastes management domain. The law of the 30 December 1991 relative to the radioactive wastes management, decided that a period of 15 years would be devoted to the research of very long dated solutions. Taking into account these researches, a law project has been composed. After a recall of the today situation of radioactive materials and wastes in France and the knowledge since 1991, this document presents the law project. (A.L.B.)

  5. Nuclear waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1996-01-01

    The NEA Nuclear Waste Bulletin has been prepared by the Radiation Protection and Waste Management Division of the OECD Nuclear Energy Agency to provide a means of communication amongst the various technical and policy groups within the waste management community. In particular, it is intended to provide timely and concise information on radioactive waste management activities, policies and programmes in Member countries and at the NEA. It is also intended that the Bulletin assists in the communication of recent developments in a variety of areas contributing to the development of acceptable technology for the management and disposal of nuclear waste (e.g., performance assessment, in-situ investigations, repository engineering, scientific data bases, regulatory developments, etc)

  6. Nuclear waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1992-05-01

    The Nuclear Waste Policy Act of 1982, as amended in 1987, directed the Secretary of Energy to, among other things, investigate Yucca Mountain, Nevada, as a potential site for permanently disposing of highly radioactive wastes in an underground repository. In April 1991, the authors testified on Yucca Mountain project expenditures before your Subcommittee. Because of the significance of the authors findings regrading DOE's program management and expenditures, you asked the authors to continue reviewing program expenditures in depth. As agreed with your office, the authors reviewed the expenditures of project funds made available to the Department of Energy's (DOE) Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, which is the lead project contractor for developing a nuclear waste package that wold be used for disposing of nuclear waste at Yucca Mountain. This report discusses the laboratory's use of nuclear waste funds to support independent research projects and to manage Yucca Mountain project activities. It also discusses the laboratory's project contracting practices

  7. Household waste disposal in Mekelle city, Northern Ethiopia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tadesse Woeldesenbet, T.; Ruijs, A.J.W.; Hagos, F.

    2008-01-01

    In many cities of developing countries, such as Mekelle (Ethiopia), waste management is poor and solid wastes are dumped along roadsides and into open areas, endangering health and attracting vermin. The effects of demographic factors, economic and social status, waste and environmental attributes

  8. Exploring Food Waste : The Role of Health Motivation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Drijfhout, Marit; van Doorn, Jenny; van Ittersum, Koert; Moreau, Page; Puntoni, Stefano

    2016-01-01

    One-third of all edible food products for human consumption is wasted or lost in the supply chain, with negative social, economic and environmental consequences. Although consumers are the single largest contributors to food waste in industrialized countries, food waste has not received much

  9. Economics of food irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kunstadt, P.; Steeves, C.; Beaulieu, D.

    1993-01-01

    The number of products being radiation processed worldwide is constantly increasing and today includes such diverse items as medical disposables, fruits and vegetables, spices, meats, seafoods and waste products. This range of products to be processed has resulted in a wide range of irradiator designs and capital and operating cost requirements. This paper discusses the economics of low dose food irradiation applications and the effects of various parameters on unit processing costs. It provides a model for calculating specific unit processing costs by correlating known capital costs with annual operating costs and annual throughputs. It is intended to provide the reader with a general knowledge of how unit processing costs are derived. (author)

  10. Fermentation of household wastes and industrial waste water; Vergaerung von haeuslichen Abfaellen und Industrieabwaessern

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Edelmann, W. [Arbeitsgemeinschaft Bioenergie ' arbi' , Maschwanden (Switzerland); Engeli, H. [Probag AG, Dietikon (Switzerland); Glauser, M. [Biol-Conseils SA, Neuchatel (Switzerland); Hofer, H. [HTH-Verfahrenstechnik, Winterthur (Switzerland); Membrez, Y. [EREP SA, Aclens (Switzerland); Meylan, J.-H. [Lausanne (Switzerland); Schwitzguebel, J.-P. [Swiss Federal Institute of Technology (EPFL), Genie biologique, Lausanne (Switzerland)

    1993-07-01

    This comprehensive brochure reviews various technologies for the environment-friendly treatment of organic wastes and residues. The principles of anaerobic digestion are discussed. Authorities, planners and engineers concerned with waste treatment are provided with an overview of current technology in the organic wastes area. The brochure emphasises the importance of fermentation processes in waste treatment, discusses the legal pre-requisites for biogas production, lists the biological and process-oriented fundamentals of fermentation and examines the energy potential of biogenic wastes and waste water. Further, details are given on the treatment of both industrial waste water and solid organic wastes and, finally, the economics of fermentation is examined. Useful data is presented in table form and the various processes described are illustrated by schematics and flow diagrams. An appendix lists suggestions for further reading on the subject.

  11. Waste incineration. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Egede Rasmussen, Anja

    2004-06-15

    This prepatory thesis is a literature study on the incineration of waste. It deals with the concepts of municipal solid waste, the composition and combustion of it. A main focus is on the European emission regulations and the formation of dioxins, as well as a big effort is put into the treatment of solid residues from municipal solid waste incineration. In the latter area, concepts of treatment, such as physical and chemical separations, solidification and stabilization techniques, thermal methods, and extraction methods have been discussed. Evaluation of possible methods of treatment has been done, but no conclusions made of which is the best. Though, indications exist that especially two methods have shown positive qualities and must be further investigated. These methods are the acid extraction and sulfide stabilization (AES) process and the phosphate stabilization method of WES-PHix. Economic potentials of the two methods have been evaluated, and with the information obtained, it seems that the price for treatment and later landfilling of a material with improved leaching characteristics, will be approximately the same as the presently most used solution of export to Norway. However, more tests, investigations and economic evaluations are necessary in order for support of the findings in this work. (au)

  12. Behavioral Economics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niileksela, Christopher R.; Kaplan, Brent A.

    2013-01-01

    In recent years, behavioral economics has gained much attention in psychology and public policy. Despite increased interest and continued basic experimental studies, the application of behavioral economics to therapeutic settings remains relatively sparse. Using examples from both basic and applied studies, we provide an overview of the principles comprising behavioral economic perspectives and discuss implications for behavior analysts in practice. A call for further translational research is provided. PMID:25729506

  13. Economic Darwinism

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sloth, Birgitte; Whitta-Jacobsen, Hans Jørgen

    2011-01-01

    We define an evolutionary process of "economic Darwinism" for playing the field, symmetric games. The process captures two forces. One is "economic selection": if current behavior leads to payoff differences, behavior yielding lowest payoff has strictly positive probability of being replaced...... in the literature. Using this result, we demonstrate that generally under positive (negative) externalities, economic Darwinism implies even more under- (over-)activity than does Nash equilibrium....

  14. Economic Darwinism

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sloth, Birgitte; Whitta-Jacobsen, Hans Jørgen

    We define an evolutionary process of “economic Darwinism” for playing-the-field, symmetric games. The process captures two forces. One is “economic selection”: if current behavior leads to payoff differences, behavior yielding lowest payoff has strictly positive probability of being replaced...... in the literature. Using this result, we demonstrate that generally under positive (negative) externalities, economic Darwinism implies even more under- (over-) activity than does Nash equilibrium...

  15. Recycling Solid Waste in Chattanooga

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vredeveld, Ruth; Martin, Robin

    1973-01-01

    Students undertook a group project in collaboration with city officials to study garbage types in the community and possibilities of recycling solid wastes. Data collected from various sources revealed that public attitude was favorable for recycling efforts and that it was feasible economically. (PS)

  16. ECOLOGICAL ECONOMICS VS ECONOMIC(AL ECOLOGY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Kharlamova

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Currently world faces the dilemma – ecological economy or economic(al ecology. The researchers produce hundreds of surveys on the topic. However the analyses of recent most cited simulations had shown the diversity of results. Thus, for some states the Kuznets environmental curve has place, for others – no. Same could be said about different years for the same state. It provokes the necessity of drawing new group analyses to reveal the tendencies and relationships between economic and environmental factors. Most flexible and mirror factor of environmental sustainability is the volume of CO2 emissions. The econometric analysis was used for detecting the economic impact on this indicator at the global level and in the spectra of group of states depending on their income. The hypothesis of the existence of environmental Kuznets curve for the analysed data is rejected. Real GDP per capita impact on carbon dioxide emissions is considered only at the global level. The impact of openness of the economy is weak. Rejection happened also to the hypothesis that for the developed countries there is a reverse dependence between the environmental pollution and economic openness. Indicator “energy consumption per capita” impacts on greenhouse gas emissions only in countries with high income. Whereby it should be noted that the more developed a country is, the more elastic is this influence. These results have a potential usage for environmental policy regulation and climate strategy.

  17. Qualitative Economics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fast, Michael; Clark II, Woodrow W

                         This book is about science -- specifically, the science of economics. Or lack thereof is more accurate. The building of any science, let alone economics, is grounded in the understanding of what is beneath the "surface" of economics. Science, and hence economics, should...... be concerned with formulating ideas that express theories which produce descriptions of how to understand phenomenon and real world experiences.                       Economics must become a science, because the essence of economics in terms of human actions, group interactions and communities are in need...... of scientific inquiry. Academics and scholars need a scientific perspective that can hypothesize, theorize document, understand and analyze human dynamics from the individual to more societal interactions. And that is what qualitative economics does; it can make economics into becoming a science. The economic...

  18. Waste management, ultimate waste disposal and the fuel cycle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rengeling, H.W.

    1991-01-01

    The four main steps of waste management are: interim storage of spent fuel elements, reprocessing of spent fuels and recycling of recovered nuclear materials, direct, ultimate disposal of waste that cannot or should not be reprocessed for technical or economic reasons, disposal of radioactive waste. The expert opinion focusses on ultimate disposal as the most problematic step, stating the legal problems arising from ultimate disposal being carried out by private, licensed contractors, or completely under civil law, discussing the two possibilities also from the point of view of constitutional law and legal policy. Other aspects examined are: distribution of responsibilities, harmonization and systematization of legal provisions; principles to be applied to an evidence to be produced for due waste management; the financing of ultimate disposal: special levies, licence fees, taxes, levies for pollution control. The expert opinion considers special levies as a control measure to be the right instrument in case of ultimate disposal being placed into private hands. (HSCH) [de

  19. Waste management in a sustainable society

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ascari, Sergio; Milan, Univ. ''Bocconi''

    1997-01-01

    This paper summarises the environmental economics debate about sustainable management of solid wastes. Sustainable levels of solid waste generation, recycling and disposal cannot be set by general criteria, but priorities are better defined locally. Preferable solutions are mostly determined by market forces once economic instruments are introduced in order to compel agents to incorporate environmental costs and benefits into their decisions. Greater care should be devoted to dangerous wastes, where schemes may be devised to subsidize not only recovery and recycling but environmentally safe disposal as well; these may be financed by raw materials levies

  20. Radioactive waste management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Strohl, P.

    1985-01-01

    The OECD Nuclear Energy Agency (NEA) attaches considerable importance to its cooperation with Japan. It was said in the annual conference in 1977 that the presentation of the acceptable policy regarding radioactive waste management is the largest single factor for gaining public confidence when nuclear power is adopted with assurance. The risk connected with radioactive wastes was often presented as the major obstacle to the development of nuclear energy, however, an overall impression of optimism and confidence prevailed by the technical appraisal of the situation in this field by the committee of the NEA. This evolution can be easily explained by the significant progress achieved in radioactive waste management both at the technical level and with respect to the implementation of special legislation and the establishment of specialized institutions and financing schemes. More research will focus on the optimization of the technical, safety and economic aspects of specific engineering designs at specific sites on the long term isolation of wastes, and the NEA contributes to this general effort. The implementation of disposal programs is also in progress. (Kako, I.)

  1. Stock flow diagram analysis on solid waste management in Malaysia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zulkipli, Faridah; Nopiah, Zulkifli Mohd; Basri, Noor Ezlin Ahmad; Kie, Cheng Jack

    2016-10-01

    The effectiveness on solid waste management is a major importance to societies. Numerous generation of solid waste from our daily activities has risked for our communities. These due to rapid population grow and advance in economic development. Moreover, the complexity of solid waste management is inherently involved large scale, diverse and element of uncertainties that must assist stakeholders with deviating objectives. In this paper, we proposed a system dynamics simulation by developing a stock flow diagram to illustrate the solid waste generation process and waste recycle process. The analysis highlights the impact on increasing the number of population toward the amount of solid waste generated and the amount of recycled waste. The results show an increment in the number of population as well as the amount of recycled waste will decrease the amount of waste generated. It is positively represent the achievement of government aim to minimize the amount of waste to be disposed by year 2020.

  2. Compositional data analysis of household food waste in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Edjabou, Vincent Maklawe Essonanawe; Pivnenko, Kostyantyn; Petersen, Claus

    Food waste is a growing public concern because the food production and distribution exert enormous pressure on natural resources such as land, water and energy, and leads to significant environmental, societal and economic impacts. Thus, the European Commission has aimed to reduce to 50% the total...... amount of discarded edible food waste by 2020 within the European Union (EU) Member States. Reliable data on food waste and a better understanding of the food waste generation patterns are crucial for planning the avoidable food waste reduction and an environmental sound treatment of unavoidable food...... waste. Although, food waste composition carries relative information, no attempt was made to analysis food waste composition as compositional data. Thus the relationship between food waste fractions has been analysed by mean of Pearson correlation test and log-ratio analysis. The food waste data...

  3. E-waste recycling: where does it go from here?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Kai; Schnoor, Jerald L; Zeng, Eddy Y

    2012-10-16

    E-waste recycling has become a hotly debated global issue. This study, using China as a case study, analyzes the environmental, economic, and social implications of e-waste recycling in the developing world. More practical approaches, taking into account local economic and social conditions and the principles of Extended Producer Responsibility, are recommended to alleviate the increasing environmental disruption from improper e-waste disposal.

  4. Standardization of radioactive waste categories

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1970-01-01

    A large amount of information about most aspects of radioactive waste management has been accumulated and made available to interested nations in recent years. The efficiency of this service has been somewhat hampered because the terminology used to describe the different types of radioactive waste has varied from country to country and indeed from installation to installation within a given country. This publication is the outcome of a panel meeting on Standardization of Radioactive Waste Categories. It presents a simple standard to be used as a common language between people working in the field of waste management at nuclear installations. The purpose of the standard is only to act as a practical tool for increasing efficiency in communicating, collecting and assessing technical and economical information in the common interest of all nations and the developing countries in particular. 20 refs, 1 fig., 3 tabs

  5. Optimising conventional treatment of domestic waste water: quality, required surface area, solid waste minimisation and biogas production for medium and small-scale applications

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Szewczuk, S

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Municipal waste water, or sewage, is a combination of domestic and industrial effluent. The increasing volume of sewage due to urbanisation and economic growth places pressure on the treatment performance of existing waste treatment systems...

  6. "New Economics"?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Jørgen Ulff-Møller

    1999-01-01

    The United States, the United Kingdom and Denmark have all enjoyed a long period of high stable growth and low inflation in the 1990s. Attempts to determine the implications of this have led to the so-called "New Economics", whose advocates claim that the relationship between economic growth...

  7. Qualitative Economics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fast, Michael; Clark II, Woodrow W

    2013-01-01

    of interactionism (Blumer 1969). It is a perspective developed from the Lifeworld philosophical traditions, such as symbolic interactionism and phenomenology, seeking to develop the thinking of economics through the use of linguistics (Clark and Fast 2008). The argument is that economics first of all is about two...

  8. Health economics

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Economic evaluation is a comparative analysis of costs and consequences of at least two or more interventions into HIV/AIDS, for example. There are five main economic evaluation methods: cost minimization analysis; output maximization analysis; cost-effectiveness analysis; cost-utility analysis; and cost-benefit analysis.

  9. Advanced radioactive waste compaction techniques: Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Volodzko, M.; McGrath, R.N.; Kinsman, J.F.; Palo, W.J.

    1988-08-01

    The purpose of this test program is to provide definitive information on the volume reduction capabilities of conventional compactors used in the nuclear industry for the treatment of dry active waste and the effects of preshredding on compaction. The test program presents comprehensive data on compacted densities of dry active waste collected at five facilities generating this waste and using conventional compactors. Waste materials presently classified as ''non-compactable'' which would lend themselves to preshredding and compaction are identified. An ALARA evaluation of shredding operations and an economic evaluation of preshredding prior to compaction are also presented. 32 figs., 72 tabs

  10. Nuclear waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1989-01-01

    This paper reviews the Department of Energy's management of underground single-shell waste storage tanks at its Hanford, Washington, site. The tanks contain highly radioactive and nonradioactive hazardous liquid and solid wastes from nuclear materials production. Hundreds of thousands of gallons of these wastes have leaked, contaminating the soil, and a small amount of leaked waste has reached the groundwater. DOE does not collect sufficient data to adequately trace the migration of the leaks through the soil, and studies predicting the eventual environmental impact of tank leaks do not provide convincing support for DOE's conclusion that the impact will be low or nonexistent. DOE can do more to minimize the environmental risks associated with leaks. To reduce the environmental impact of past leaks, DOE may be able to install better ground covering over the tanks to reduce the volume of precipitation that drains through the soil and carries contaminants toward groundwater

  11. Waste Facilities

    Data.gov (United States)

    Vermont Center for Geographic Information — This dataset was developed from the Vermont DEC's list of certified solid waste facilities. It includes facility name, contact information, and the materials...

  12. Households willingness to pay for improved solid waste management

    OpenAIRE

    S. Akhtar; A.S. Ahmad; M.I. Qureshi; S. Shahraz

    2017-01-01

    Waste is a byproduct of human life. Nowadays, municipal solid waste is being produced in excessive amounts and in this way, both developing and developed countries are facing challenges regarding generation of waste. Economic development, urbanization and improved living standards in cities have contributed to increase in the amount and complexity of solid waste produced. The present study was conducted in the residential area of main Boulevard Gulberg, Lahore to determine the present methods...

  13. Functional Glasses and Glass-ceramics Derived from Industrial Waste

    OpenAIRE

    Rama Krishna Satish, Chinnam

    2014-01-01

    Wastes from industrial processes and energy generation facilities pose environment and health issues. Diversion of wastes from landfill to favour reuse or recycling options and towards the fabrication of marketable products is of high economic and ecologic interest. Moreover safe recycling of industrial wastes is necessary and even vital to our society because of the increasing volume being generated. Glasses and glass–ceramics (GCs) attract particular interest in waste recycli...

  14. Compositional data analysis of household food waste in Denmark

    OpenAIRE

    Edjabou, Vincent Maklawe Essonanawe; Pivnenko, Kostyantyn; Petersen, Claus; Scheutz, Charlotte; Astrup, Thomas Fruergaard

    2015-01-01

    Food waste is a growing public concern because the food production and distribution exert enormous pressure on natural resources such as land, water and energy, and leads to significant environmental, societal and economic impacts. Thus, the European Commission has aimed to reduce to 50% the total amount of discarded edible food waste by 2020 within the European Union (EU) Member States. Reliable data on food waste and a better understanding of the food waste generation patterns are crucial f...

  15. Biomass and waste management. Chances, risks, perspectives; Biomasse und Abfallwirtschaft. Chancen, Risiken, Perspektiven

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fricke, K.; Burth, M.; Wallmann, R. (eds.)

    2002-07-01

    The meeting ''Biomass and waste management'' dealt with the following topics: Biodegradable wastes, their collection and sorting, cooperation with agriculture, waste processing, fermentation, biogas, thermal treatments,power generation, use as fertilizers, economics, ecology, fees, national and international waste market. (uke)

  16. Integrated solid waste management in megacities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.A. Abdoli

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Rapid urbanization and industrialization, population growth and economic growth in developing countries make management of municipal solid waste more complex comparing with developed countries. Furthermore, the conventional municipal solid waste management approach often is reductionists, not tailored to handle complexity. Therefore, the need to a comprehensive and multi-disciplinary approach regarding the municipal solid waste management problems is increasing. The concept of integrated solid waste management is accepted for this aim all over the world. This paper analyzes the current situation as well as opportunities and challenges regarding municipal solid waste management in Isfahan according to the integrated solid waste management framework in six aspects: environmental, political/legal, institutional, socio-cultural, financial/economic, technical and performance aspects. Based on the results obtained in this analysis, the main suggestions for future integrated solid waste management of Isfahan are as i promoting financial sustainability by taking the solid waste fee and reducing the expenses through the promoting source collection of recyclable materials, ii improving compost quality and also marketing the compost products simultaneously, iii promoting the private sector involvements throughout the municipal solid waste management system.

  17. Nuclear wastes management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2005-01-01

    This document is the proceedings of the debate that took place at the French Senate on April 13, 2005 about the long-term French policy of radioactive wastes management. The different points tackled during the debate concern: the 3 axes of research of the 1991 law, the public acceptance about the implementation of repositories, the regional economic impact, the cost and financing, the lack of experience feedback, the reversibility or irreversibility of the storage, the share of nuclear energy in the sustainable development policy, the European Pressurized Reactor (EPR) project, the privatization of Electricite de France (EdF) etc. (J.S.)

  18. Separations: The path to waste minimization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bell, J.T.

    1992-01-01

    Waste materials usually are composed of large amounts of innocuous and frequently useful components mixed with lesser amounts of one or more hazardous components. The ultimate path to waste minimization is the separation of the lesser quantities of hazardous components from the innocuous components, and then recycle the useful components. This vision is so simple that everyone would be expected to properly manage waste. Several parameters interfere with this proper waste management, which encourages the open-quotes sweep it under the rugclose quotes or the open-quotes bury it allclose quotes attitudes, both of which delay and complicate proper waste management. The two primary parameters that interfere with proper waste management are: economics drives a process to a product without concerns of waste minimization, and emergency needs for immediate production of a product usually delays proper waste management. A third parameter in recent years is also interfering with proper waste management: quick relief of waste insults to political and public perceptions is promoting the open-quotes bury it allclose quotes attitude. A fourth parameter can promote better waste management for any scenario that suffers either or all of the first three parameters: separations technology can minimize wastes when the application of this technology is not voided by influence of the first three parameters. The US Department of Energy's management of nuclear waste has been seriously affected by the above four parameters. This paper includes several points about how the generation and management of DOE wastes have been, and continue to be, affected by these parameters. Particular separations technologies for minimizing the DOE wastes that must be stored for long periods are highlighted

  19. Report realized by the commission of the economical Affairs on the law project, adopted by the National Assembly after urgency declaration, of the program relative to the sustainable management of the radioactive materials and wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Revol, H.

    2006-01-01

    In the framework of a sustainable development and of the nuclear energy development, the France decided by the law of the 30 December 1991, to study three axis or researches: the radioactive wastes transmutation, their deep underground disposal and their storage during ten years. Today, after evaluation of the researches results a law project on the sustainable management of the radioactive materials and wastes, has been prepared. This document is the approval of the law project and presents some amendments. (A.L.B.)

  20. Tribal Waste Management Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    The EPA’s Tribal Waste Management Program encourages environmentally sound waste management practices that promote resource conservation through recycling, recovery, reduction, clean up, and elimination of waste.

  1. Economic aspects

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kooten, van G.C.

    2004-01-01

    This new collection of essays by leading Canadian scientists, engineers, social scientists, and humanists offers an overview and assessment of climate change and its impacts on Canada from physical, social, technological, economic, political, and ethical / religious perspectives. Interpreting and

  2. Circulation economics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ingebrigtsen, Stig; Jakobsen, Ove

    2006-01-01

    sustainability. To illustrate the theoretical discussion, the paper gives some practical examples from the reprocessing industry in Norway. Findings - The paper finds, first, effective and efficient use of natural resources is necessary to implement circular value chains. Second, sustainable development...... presupposes a perspective integrating economic, natural and cultural values. Third, to organize the interplay between all stakeholders we introduce an arena for communicative cooperation. Originality/value - The paper concludes that circulation economics presupposes a change in paradigm, from a mechanistic...

  3. Behavioral Economics

    OpenAIRE

    Sendhil Mullainathan; Richard H. Thaler

    2000-01-01

    Behavioral Economics is the combination of psychology and economics that investigates what happens in markets in which some of the agents display human limitations and complications. We begin with a preliminary question about relevance. Does some combination of market forces, learning and evolution render these human qualities irrelevant? No. Because of limits of arbitrage less than perfect agents survive and influence market outcomes. We then discuss three important ways in which humans devi...

  4. Building economics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, D.O.(red.)

    Publikationen er på engelsk. Den omfatter alle indlæg på det fjerde internationale symposium om byggeøkonomi, der blev arrangeret af SBI for det internationale byggeforskningsråd CIB. De fem bind omhandler: Methods of Economic Evaluation, Design Optimization, Ressource Utilization, The Building...... Market og Economics and Technological Forecasting in Construction. Et indledende bind bringer statusrapporter for de fem forskningsområder, og det sidste bind sammenfatter debatten på symposiet....

  5. Household food waste in Nordic countries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gjerris, Mickey; Gaiani, Silvia

    2013-01-01

    This study focuses on food waste generated by households in four Nordic countries: Finland, Denmark, Norway, and Sweden. Based on existing literature we present (A) comparable data on amounts and monetary value of food waste; (B) explanations for food waste at household level; (C) a number...... of public and private initiatives at national levels aiming to reduce food waste; and (D) a discussion of ethical issues related to food waste with a focus on possible contributions from ecocentric ethics. We argue that reduction of food waste at household level, which has an impact on issues...... such as climate change and unjust distribution of food resources, needs to be based on an appreciative and relational understanding of nature and food and not only on economic and moralizing arguments. This is done by drawing on an ecocentric perspective where food is seen as one of the areas where new narratives...

  6. Waste Heat to Power Market Assessment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Elson, Amelia [ICF International, Fairfax, VA (United States); Tidball, Rick [ICF International, Fairfax, VA (United States); Hampson, Anne [ICF International, Fairfax, VA (United States)

    2015-03-01

    Waste heat to power (WHP) is the process of capturing heat discarded by an existing process and using that heat to generate electricity. In the industrial sector, waste heat streams are generated by kilns, furnaces, ovens, turbines, engines, and other equipment. In addition to processes at industrial plants, waste heat streams suitable for WHP are generated at field locations, including landfills, compressor stations, and mining sites. Waste heat streams are also produced in the residential and commercial sectors, but compared to industrial sites these waste heat streams typically have lower temperatures and much lower volumetric flow rates. The economic feasibility for WHP declines as the temperature and flow rate decline, and most WHP technologies are therefore applied in industrial markets where waste heat stream characteristics are more favorable. This report provides an assessment of the potential market for WHP in the industrial sector in the United States.

  7. Progress and challenges to the global waste management system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Jagdeep; Laurenti, Rafael; Sinha, Rajib; Frostell, Björn

    2014-09-01

    Rapid economic growth, urbanization and increasing population have caused (materially intensive) resource consumption to increase, and consequently the release of large amounts of waste to the environment. From a global perspective, current waste and resource management lacks a holistic approach covering the whole chain of product design, raw material extraction, production, consumption, recycling and waste management. In this article, progress and different sustainability challenges facing the global waste management system are presented and discussed. The study leads to the conclusion that the current, rather isolated efforts, in different systems for waste management, waste reduction and resource management are indeed not sufficient in a long term sustainability perspective. In the future, to manage resources and wastes sustainably, waste management requires a more systems-oriented approach that addresses the root causes for the problems. A specific issue to address is the development of improved feedback information (statistics) on how waste generation is linked to consumption. © The Author(s) 2014.

  8. Characterization of transuranic solid wastes from a plutonium processing facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mulkin, R.

    1975-06-01

    Transuranic-contaminated wastes generated in the processing areas of the Plutonium Chemistry and Metallurgy Group at the Los Alamos Scientific Laboratory (LASL) were studied in detail to identify their chemical and physical composition. Nondestructive Assay (NDA) equipment was developed to measure transuranic activity at the 10-nCi/g level in low-density residues typically found in room-generated waste. This information will supply the Waste Management Program with a more positive means of identifying concerns in waste storage and the challenge of optimizing the system of waste form, packaging, and environment of the storage area for 20-yr retrievable waste. A positive method of measuring transuranic activity in waste at the 10-nCi/g level will eliminate the need for administrative control in a sensitive area, and will provide the economic advantage of minimizing the volume of waste stored as retrievable waste. (U.S.)

  9. An essay on: management of industrial waste, an engineer's viewpoint

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Raphael, M.A.

    1995-01-01

    Industrial waste and industrial waste management are described, with economic considerations and recommendations for an industrial waste management program applicable in Lebanon. Different conceptual systems for industrial waste management are presented: - The O effluent industrial plant, an electric manufacturing plant with mass and energy balance. - The industrial complexing concept where environmentally balanced and compatible, industries are located in one area. Waste effluents from one plant can be used as raw material for another plant. - A standard petroleum waste recovery plant to cope with local requirements complementary to the proposed sanitary waste treatment plant in Lebanon. Major sources of industrial waste in Lebanon are analyzed:local process industries, hospitals, laboratories, petroleum industries and power generation, are the major sources cited. For each source the level of treatment is indicated. Tables and appendixes on waste treatment and management along with the ISO 9000 series are presented. 10 refs. 3 figs

  10. The UK waste input-output table: Linking waste generation to the UK economy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salemdeeb, Ramy; Al-Tabbaa, Abir; Reynolds, Christian

    2016-10-01

    In order to achieve a circular economy, there must be a greater understanding of the links between economic activity and waste generation. This study introduces the first version of the UK waste input-output table that could be used to quantify both direct and indirect waste arisings across the supply chain. The proposed waste input-output table features 21 industrial sectors and 34 waste types and is for the 2010 time-period. Using the waste input-output table, the study results quantitatively confirm that sectors with a long supply chain (i.e. manufacturing and services sectors) have higher indirect waste generation rates compared with industrial primary sectors (e.g. mining and quarrying) and sectors with a shorter supply chain (e.g. construction). Results also reveal that the construction, mining and quarrying sectors have the highest waste generation rates, 742 and 694 tonne per £1m of final demand, respectively. Owing to the aggregated format of the first version of the waste input-output, the model does not address the relationship between waste generation and recycling activities. Therefore, an updated version of the waste input-output table is expected be developed considering this issue. Consequently, the expanded model would lead to a better understanding of waste and resource flows in the supply chain. © The Author(s) 2016.

  11. Household food waste to wastewater or to solid waste? That is the question.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diggelman, Carol; Ham, Robert K

    2003-12-01

    Decision makers need sound analyses of economic and environmental impacts of options for managing household food waste. Food waste impacts public health (it rots, smells, and attracts rodents) and costs (it drives collection frequency). A life cycle inventory is used to quantify total materials, energy, costs and environmental flows for three municipal solid waste systems (collection followed by compost, waste-to-energy or landfill) and two wastewater systems (kitchen food waste disposer followed by rural on-site or municipal wastewater treatment) for food waste management. Inventory parameters are expressed per 100 kg of food waste (wet weight) to place data on a normalised basis for comparison. System boundaries include acquisition, use and decommissioning. Parameters include inputs (land, materials, water) and output emissions to air, water and land. Parameters are ranked simply from high to low. Ranking highest overall was the rural wastewater system, which has a high amount of food waste and carrier water relative to the total throughput over its design life. Waste-to-energy was second; burning food waste yields little exportable energy and is costly. Next, municipal wastewater tied with landfill. Municipal wastewater is low for land, material, energy and cost, but is highest for food waste by-product (sludge). Landfill ranks low for air emissions and cost. Compost ranks lowest; it has the lowest material and water inputs and generates the least wastewater and waterborne waste.

  12. Electrochemical/Pyrometallurgical Waste Stream Processing and Waste Form Fabrication

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Steven Frank; Hwan Seo Park; Yung Zun Cho; William Ebert; Brian Riley

    2015-07-01

    This report summarizes treatment and waste form options being evaluated for waste streams resulting from the electrochemical/pyrometallurgical (pyro ) processing of used oxide nuclear fuel. The technologies that are described are South Korean (Republic of Korea – ROK) and United States of America (US) ‘centric’ in the approach to treating pyroprocessing wastes and are based on the decade long collaborations between US and ROK researchers. Some of the general and advanced technologies described in this report will be demonstrated during the Integrated Recycle Test (IRT) to be conducted as a part of the Joint Fuel Cycle Study (JFCS) collaboration between US Department of Energy (DOE) and ROK national laboratories. The JFCS means to specifically address and evaluated the technological, economic, and safe guard issues associated with the treatment of used nuclear fuel by pyroprocessing. The IRT will involve the processing of commercial, used oxide fuel to recover uranium and transuranics. The recovered transuranics will then be fabricated into metallic fuel and irradiated to transmutate, or burn the transuranic elements to shorter lived radionuclides. In addition, the various process streams will be evaluated and tested for fission product removal, electrolytic salt recycle, minimization of actinide loss to waste streams and waste form fabrication and characterization. This report specifically addresses the production and testing of those waste forms to demonstrate their compatibility with treatment options and suitability for disposal.

  13. Conflicts concerning sites for waste treatment and waste disposal plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Werbeck, N.

    1993-01-01

    The erection of waste treatment and waste disposal flants increasingly meets with the disapproval of local residents. This is due to three factors: Firstly, the erection and operation of waste treatment plants is assumed to necessarily entail harmful effects and risks, which may be true or may not. Secondly, these disadvantages are in part considered to be non-compensable. Thirdly, waste treatment plants have a large catchment area, which means that more people enjoy their benefits than have to suffer their disadvantages. If residents in the vicinity of such plants are not compensated for damage sustained or harmed in ways that cannot be compensated for it becomes a rational stance for them, while not objecting to waste treatment and waste disposal plants in principle to object to their being in their own neighbourhood. The book comprehensively describes the subject area from an economic angle. The causes are analysed in detail and an action strategy is pointed, out, which can help to reduce acceptance problems. The individual chapters deal with emissions, risk potentials, optimization calculus considering individual firms or persons and groups of two or more firms or persons, private-economy approaches for the solving of site selection conflicts, collective decision-making. (orig./HSCH) [de

  14. Radioactive wastes. The management of nuclear wastes. Waste workshop, first half-year - Year 2013-2014

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Esteoulle, Lucie; Rozwadowski, Elodie; Duverger, Clara

    2014-01-01

    The first part of this report first presents radioactive wastes with their definition, and their classification (radioactivity level, radioactive half-life). It addresses the issue of waste storage by presenting the different types of storage used since the 1950's (offshore storage, surface warehousing, storage in deep geological layer), and by discussing the multi-barrier approach used for storage safety. The authors then present the French strategy which is defined in the PNGMDR to develop new management modes on the long term, to improve existing management modes, and to take important events which occurred between 2010 and 2012 into account. They also briefly present the Cigeo project (industrial centre of geological storage), and evoke controversies related to the decision to locate this project in Bure (existence of geological cracks and defects, stability and tightness of the clay layer, geothermal potential of the region, economic cost). The second part proposes an overview of the issue of nuclear waste management. The author recalls the definition of a radioactive waste, indicates the origins of these wastes and their classification. She proposes a history of the radioactive waste: discovery of radioactivity, military industrialisation and awareness of the dangerousness of radioactive wastes, nuclear wastes and recent incidents (West Valley, La Hague, Windscale). An overview of policies of nuclear waste management is given: immersion of radioactive wastes, major accidental releases, solutions on the short term and on the medium term

  15. Voodoo Economics:Voodoo Economics

    OpenAIRE

    Briones Alonso, Elena

    2017-01-01

    This dissertation collects three essays that aim to contribute to the field of cultural economics. There is growing recognition among economists and policy makers that culture matters for economic development, but in many cases this trend has not resulted in a thorough understanding of the role of culture, or a proper integration of existing knowledge in policy. This is particularly true for the area of food security. The second chapter addresses this issue by reviewing existing cross-discipl...

  16. Waste processing air cleaning

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kriskovich, J.R.

    1998-01-01

    Waste processing and preparing waste to support waste processing relies heavily on ventilation. Ventilation is used at the Hanford Site on the waste storage tanks to provide confinement, cooling, and removal of flammable gases

  17. Radioactive Waste Management Strategy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2002-01-01

    This strategy defines methods and means how collect, transport and bury radioactive waste safely. It includes low level radiation waste and high level radiation waste. In the strategy are foreseen main principles and ways of storage radioactive waste

  18. Waste minimization applications at a remediation site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Allmon, L.A.

    1995-01-01

    The Fernald Environmental Management Project (FEMP) owned by the Department of Energy was used for the processing of uranium. In 1989 Fernald suspended production of uranium metals and was placed on the National Priorities List (NPL). The site's mission has changed from one of production to environmental restoration. Many groups necessary for producing a product were deemed irrelevant for remediation work, including Waste Minimization. Waste Minimization does not readily appear to be applicable to remediation work. Environmental remediation is designed to correct adverse impacts to the environment from past operations and generates significant amounts of waste requiring management. The premise of pollution prevention is to avoid waste generation, thus remediation is in direct conflict with this premise. Although greater amounts of waste will be generated during environmental remediation, treatment capacities are not always available and disposal is becoming more difficult and costly. This creates the need for pollution prevention and waste minimization. Applying waste minimization principles at a remediation site is an enormous challenge. If the remediation site is also radiologically contaminated it is even a bigger challenge. Innovative techniques and ideas must be utilized to achieve reductions in the amount of waste that must be managed or dispositioned. At Fernald the waste minimization paradigm was shifted from focusing efforts on source reduction to focusing efforts on recycle/reuse by inverting the EPA waste management hierarchy. A fundamental difference at remediation sites is that source reduction has limited applicability to legacy wastes but can be applied successfully on secondary waste generation. The bulk of measurable waste reduction will be achieved by the recycle/reuse of primary wastes and by segregation and decontamination of secondary wastestreams. Each effort must be measured in terms of being economically and ecologically beneficial

  19. The management of radioactive waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1991-08-01

    One of the key questions asked about nuclear power production is whether the industry can manage its waste safely and economically. Management must take account of long term safety, since some radioisotopes take a very long time to decay. This long term decay, which can take millions of years, focused attention for the first time on the need for some wastes to be managed for a very long time beyond the lifetime of those who generated the waste. This paper reviews what the different types of waste are, what the technical consensus is on the requirements for their safe management, and how the present state of knowledge developed. It describes how radioactive waste management is practised and planned within the fuel cycle and indicates the moderate scale of the costs in relation to the total cost of producing electricity. Country annexes give more information about what is being done in a selection of countries, in order to indicate how radioactive waste management is carried out in practice. (Author)

  20. Dukovany radioactive waste disposal facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Horyna, J.

    1998-01-01

    The most significant source of radioactive wastes in the Czech Republic is the operation of nuclear power plant. The original NPP design included only storage of concentrates and unsorted solid wastes in the nuclear power plant. Our concept of waste management from nuclear power plant operation has been gradually developed and it consists of solidification of radioactive concentrates, volume reduction of solid wastes by compressing and disposal of conditioned wastes in surface concrete vaults. The most significant part of the arising waste was assumed to be evaporator concentrates. in the design of the NPP it has been assumed that up to 1% of fuel element cladding may fail. With a sufficient number of natural and man-made barriers, the release of radioactive material will be limited and delayed, its migration retarded and its concentration sufficiently diluted to assure that the impact will remain in prescribed levels. Initial site selection studies started in the later seventies taking into account social, economic conditions and requirements for the protection of nature. After performed area surveys, the site near the constructed NPP Dukovany has been chosen. Safety assessment of Dukovany repository has been based on 3 critical scenarios: -groundwater transport to the nearest water supply, -Intrusion after end of institutional control, -dwelling on the site after end of institutional control. Compartment models based on the scenarios described above were formulated to estimate committed effective equivalent dose due to different exposure ways. (author)

  1. Management of radioactive wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2005-01-01

    The law from December 30, 1991, precisely defines 3 axes of researches for the management of high level and long-lived radioactive wastes: separation/transmutation, surface storage and underground disposal. A global evaluation report about these researches is to be supplied in 2006 by the French government to the Parliament. A first synthesis of the knowledge gained after 14 years of research has led the national commission of the public debate (CNDP) to organize a national debate about the general options of management of high-level and long-lived radioactive wastes before the 2006 date line. The debate comprises 4 public hearings (September 2005: Bar-le-Duc, Saint-Dizier, Pont-du-Gard, Cherbourg), 12 round-tables (October and November 2005: Paris, Joinville, Caen, Nancy, Marseille), a synthesis meeting (December 2005, Dunkerque) and a closing meeting (January 2006, Lyon). This document is the synthesis of the round table debates which took place at Joinville, i.e. in the same area as the Bure underground laboratory of Meuse/Haute-Marne. Therefore, the discussion focuses more on the local impacts of the setting up of a waste disposal facility (environmental aspects, employment, economic development). (J.S.)

  2. Stigma and radioactive waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mitchell, R.C.

    1988-01-01

    Stigma is a special impact of radioactive waste disposal resulting from the perceptions of risk people have of nuclear waste. In this case, stigma is the devaluing or discrediting of a person, group, or geographical area because of proximity to a nuclear waste disposal site, resulting in negative consequences for the individual and collective (e.g., local economy, community relations, perceived quality of life). As part of a social and economic impact assessment of the proposed HLWR at Hanford Site, WA for Washington State, focus groups were conducted in the Tri-Cities near Hanford to identify stigma effects. Results from the groups showed strong evidence of individual impacts of stigmatization: local residents described prejudice towards them because they live near Hanford which appeared to affect their self-respect, the use of the phrase glowing in the dark by outsiders to symbolize the stigma, and showed concern about the possibility that local products might suffer from reduced demand because of products becoming associated with radioactivity in the public's mind. These results indicate that stigma effects are real and should be studied in research and assessments

  3. Waste derived bioeconomy in India: A perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    S, Venkata Mohan; P, Chiranjeevi; Dahiya, Shikha; A, Naresh Kumar

    2018-01-25

    Environmental and climatic change issues, population explosion, rapid urbanisation, depletion of fossil reserves, need for energy security, huge waste generation, etc. are some of the inherent issues associated with the fossil based linear economy which need greater attention. In this context, the world is gradually transforming from fossil-based economy to a sustainable circular bio-economy. The biogenic waste which is generated in enormous quanties in India can be considered as potential feedstock for structuring the bio-based economy. This communication depicts the need for developing waste derived bioeconomy in the Indian perspective. Waste is now being perceived as a resource with value and believed to supplement petroleum feedstock to a great extent if properly utilized. The necessity to introduce waste as the core element for the future economic models which also allows sustainable development is discussed. The review also establishes drivers for the bioeconomy and structures the waste derived bioeconomy in a sustainable format to address the futuristic needs, scope and opportunities envisaged in the business and economic realm. The enabling technologies/processes that can be applied for biogenic wastes valorisation are elaborated. Circularizing the economy in a waste biorefinery model for the production of biobased products including bioenergy is discussed. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Energy economics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Babusiaux, D.

    2005-01-01

    The energy demand is strongly conditioned by the consuming equipments. Depending on the uses, some energy sources can be substituted, while for some others the choice is limited or impossible. The energy offer comes mainly from non-renewable resources, and taking into consideration the geographical localization of these resources, economics are geopolitics are indissociable despite the development of markets. Necessary for the economic development, energy cannot be consumed without impact on the environment, which raises some worrying questions, like the one of global warming. (J.S.)

  5. Airship economics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neumann, R. D.; Hackney, L. R. M.

    1975-01-01

    Projected operating and manufacturing costs of a large airship design which are considered practical with today's technology and environment are discussed. Data and information developed during an 18-month study on the question of feasibility, engineering, economics and production problems related to a large metalclad type airship are considered. An overview of other classic airship designs are provided, and why metalclad was selected as the most prudent and most economic design to be considered in the 1970-80 era is explained. Crew operation, ATC and enroute requirements are covered along with the question of handling, maintenance and application of systems to the large airship.

  6. Hazardous waste, impact on health and environment for development of better waste management strategies in future in India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Misra, Virendra; Pandey, S D

    2005-04-01

    Industry has become an essential part of modern society, and waste production is an inevitable outcome of the developmental activities. A material becomes waste when it is discarded without expecting to be compensated for its inherent value. These wastes may pose a potential hazard to the human health or the environment (soil, air, water) when improperly treated, stored, transported or disposed off or managed. Currently in India even though hazardous wastes, emanations and effluents are regulated, solid wastes often are disposed off indiscriminately posing health and environmental risk. In view of this, management of hazardous wastes including their disposal in environment friendly and economically viable way is very important and therefore suggestions are made for developing better strategies. Out of the various categories of the wastes, solid waste contributes a major share towards environmental degradation. The present paper outlines the nature of the wastes, waste generating industries, waste characterization, health and environmental implications of wastes management practices, steps towards planning, design and development of models for effective hazardous waste management, treatment, approaches and regulations for disposal of hazardous waste. Appraisal of the whole situation with reference to Indian scenario is attempted so that a better cost-effective strategies for waste management be evolved in future.

  7. Poultry Waste Management Techniques in Urban Agriculture and its Implications: A Case of Metropolitan Lagos, Nigeria

    OpenAIRE

    Vide Adedayo

    2012-01-01

    This study examines the existing poultry waste management and utilization technique in urban vegetable farms. It analyses the implications of the management pattern on yield and revenue and further determines the socio-economic differentials of farmers on management pattern. Socio-economic survey was carried out to determine relationship between socio economic characteristics of farmers and poultry waste management while field experiments and estimations were done to determine poultry waste p...

  8. Human waste

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Amin, Md Nurul; Kroeze, Carolien; Strokal, Maryna

    2017-01-01

    Many people practice open defecation in south Asia. As a result, lot of human waste containing nutrients such as nitrogen (N) and phosphorus (P) enter rivers. Rivers transport these nutrients to coastal waters, resulting in marine pollution. This source of nutrient pollution is, however, ignored in

  9. Waste disposal

    CERN Multimedia

    2006-01-01

    We should like to remind you that you can have all commonplace, conventional waste (combustible, inert, wood, etc.) disposed of by the TS-FM Group. Requests for the removal of such waste should be made by contacting FM Support on tel. 77777 or by e-mail (Fm.Support@cern.ch). For requests to be acted upon, the following information must be communicated to FM Support: budget code to be debited for the provision and removal of the skip / container. type of skip required (1m3, 4 m3, 7 m3, 15 m3, 20 m3, 30 m3). nature of the waste to be disposed of (bulky objects, cardboard boxes, etc.). building concerned. details of requestor (name, phone number, department, group, etc.). We should also like to inform you that the TS-FM Group can arrange for waste to be removed from work-sites for firms under contract to CERN, provided that the prior authorisation of the CERN Staff Member in charge of the contract is obtained and the relevant disposal/handling charges are paid. You are reminded that the selective sorting o...

  10. Waste disposal

    CERN Multimedia

    2006-01-01

    We should like to remind you that you can have all commonplace, conventional waste (combustible, inert, wood, etc.) disposed of by the TS-FM Group. Requests for the removal of such waste should be made by contacting FM Support on tel. 77777 or by e-mail (Fm.Support@cern.ch). For requests to be acted upon, the following information must be communicated to FM Support: budget code to be debited for the provision and removal of the skip / container; type of skip required (1m3, 4 m3, 7 m3, 15 m3, 20 m3, 30 m3); nature of the waste to be disposed of (bulky objects, cardboard boxes, etc.); building concerned; details of requestor (name, phone number, department, group, etc.). We should also like to inform you that the TS-FM Group can arrange for waste to be removed from work-sites for firms under contract to CERN, provided that the prior authorisation of the CERN Staff Member in charge of the contract is obtained and the relevant disposal/handling charges are paid. You are reminded that the selective sorting...

  11. Construction and demolition waste indicators.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mália, Miguel; de Brito, Jorge; Pinheiro, Manuel Duarte; Bravo, Miguel

    2013-03-01

    The construction industry is one of the biggest and most active sectors of the European Union (EU), consuming more raw materials and energy than any other economic activity. Furthermore, construction waste is the commonest waste produced in the EU. Current EU legislation sets out to implement construction and demolition waste (CDW) prevention and recycling measures. However it lacks tools to accelerate the development of a sector as bound by tradition as the building industry. The main objective of the present study was to determine indicators to estimate the amount of CDW generated on site both globally and by waste stream. CDW generation was estimated for six specific sectors: new residential construction, new non-residential construction, residential demolition, non-residential demolition, residential refurbishment, and non-residential refurbishment. The data needed to develop the indicators was collected through an exhaustive survey of previous international studies. The indicators determined suggest that the average composition of waste generated on site is mostly concrete and ceramic materials. Specifically for new residential and new non-residential construction the production of concrete waste in buildings with a reinforced concrete structure lies between 17.8 and 32.9 kg m(-2) and between 18.3 and 40.1 kg m(-2), respectively. For the residential and non-residential demolition sectors the production of this waste stream in buildings with a reinforced concrete structure varies from 492 to 840 kg m(-2) and from 401 to 768 kg/m(-2), respectively. For the residential and non-residential refurbishment sectors the production of concrete waste in buildings lies between 18.9 and 45.9 kg/m(-2) and between 18.9 and 191.2 kg/m(-2), respectively.

  12. Evaluation of technical, economic and financial feasibility for recycling and reprocessing of radioactive waste from a remediation work of low and medium activity for the extraction of heavy minerals - 59231

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Raposo de Almeida, Rodrigo; Mortagua, Valter J.G.

    2012-01-01

    Document available in abstract form only. Full text of publication follows: This paper aims to present the methodology and criteria used for the destination, discard and reuse of waste from the remediation activities of soil contaminated by radioactive waste of low activity in the USIN Plant. The site is located in Sao Paulo city, the city with the largest population of Brazil, with approximately 11 million inhabitants. As the environmental agency in Sao Paulo state, in this neighborhood there are several cases of severe contamination of soil and groundwater. The situation of contamination is so severe that it is forbidden the use of groundwater in the region for an indefinite period. Site of the plant running in a monazite processing plant for extraction of rare earths, have been filed across the land several fractions of soil containing monazite sand. In order to guide the remediation of the area for unrestricted use, was a plan for remediation of radioactive waste characterization based on geological, hydrogeological and environmental extensive in the area. From the calculation of the dose was established that the fractions of soil with concentrations of 226 Ra and 228 Ra below 0.5 Bq/g result in additional effective dose less than 1.0 mSv/yr and therefore can be kept on the ground

  13. ATW economics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Krakowski, R.A.

    1993-01-01

    A parametric systems model of the ATW [Accelerator Transmutation of (Nuclear) Waste] has been used to examine key system tradeoffs and design drivers on the basis of unit costs. This model has been applied primarily to the aqueous-slurry blanket concept for an ATW that generates net-electric power from the fissioning of spent reactor fuel. An important goal of this study is the development of essential parametric tradeoff studies to aid in any eventual engineering design of an ATW that would burn and generate net- electric power from spent reactor fuel

  14. Hazwaste economics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bishop, J.

    1989-01-01

    Managing the nation's hazardous substances and wastes is a multibillion dollar industry, and it is growing exponentially year by year. In 1987, EPA carried out its business with a $2.5 billion budget; this year, Congress allocated the Agency more than $5 billion to continue directing the massive maintenance and cleanup work mandated by RCRA, CERCLA and a variety of other environmental laws. This paper reports that despite what appears to be only a murky public understanding of the issues and costs involved for generators and the society at large, there is every sign that more laws will be passed, enforcement will become more rigorous and compliance costs will grow

  15. Mystical Economics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marin Dinu

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available The world envisioned by Economics resembles the Garden of Eden, where everything came from God, the pre-primordial sin people having nothing else to do but wait for the natural rhythms, set by the invisible hand, which is moved by the will and the power of the Creator.

  16. Environmental Economics

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    David Glover, Bhim Adhikari, Isabelle Proulx

    Binswanger, H.P. (1991). “Brazilian Policies that Encourage Deforestation in the. Amazon”, World Development, 19 (7): 821-829. Panayotou, T. (1993). Green Markets: The Economics of Sustainable Development,. ICS Press, Ithaca, NY, États-Unis. Teitenberg, T et L. Lewis (2009). Environmental and Natural Resource ...

  17. Resource Economics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conrad, Jon M.

    2000-01-01

    Resource Economics is a text for students with a background in calculus, intermediate microeconomics, and a familiarity with the spreadsheet software Excel. The book covers basic concepts, shows how to set up spreadsheets to solve dynamic allocation problems, and presents economic models for fisheries, forestry, nonrenewable resources, stock pollutants, option value, and sustainable development. Within the text, numerical examples are posed and solved using Excel's Solver. These problems help make concepts operational, develop economic intuition, and serve as a bridge to the study of real-world problems of resource management. Through these examples and additional exercises at the end of Chapters 1 to 8, students can make dynamic models operational, develop their economic intuition, and learn how to set up spreadsheets for the simulation of optimization of resource and environmental systems. Book is unique in its use of spreadsheet software (Excel) to solve dynamic allocation problems Conrad is co-author of a previous book for the Press on the subject for graduate students Approach is extremely student-friendly; gives students the tools to apply research results to actual environmental issues

  18. Economic impact

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Technology Transfer Department

    2001-06-01

    In federal fiscal year 2000 (FY00), Berkeley Lab had 4,347 full- and part-time employees. In addition, at any given time of the year, there were more than 1,000 Laboratory guests. These guests, who also reside locally, have an important economic impact on the nine-county Bay Area. However, Berkeley Lab's total economic impact transcends the direct effects of payroll and purchasing. The direct dollars paid to the Lab's employees in the form of wages, salaries, and benefits, and payments made to contractors for goods and services, are respent by employees and contractors again and again in the local and greater economy. Further, while Berkeley Lab has a strong reputation for basic scientific research, many of the Lab's scientific discoveries and inventions have had direct application in industry, spawning new businesses and creating new opportunities for existing firms. This analysis updates the Economic Impact Analysis done in 1996, and its purpose is to describe the economic and geographic impact of Laboratory expenditures and to provide a qualitative understanding of how Berkeley Lab impacts and supports the local community. It is intended as a guide for state, local, and national policy makers as well as local community members. Unless otherwise noted, this analysis uses data from FY00, the most recent year for which full data are available.

  19. Environmental Economics

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    David Glover, Bhim Adhikari and Isabelle Proulx

    The Environmental Economics program aims to identify the underlying causes of environmental degradation and design responses that are effective, efficient, and equitable. Finding solutions to environmental problems is an interdisciplinary task, but economists can contribute to this work by estimating the monetary value of ...

  20. Nuclear waste vs. democracy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Treichel, J. [Nevada Nuclear Waste Task Force, Las Vegas (United States)

    1999-04-01

    In the United States the storage and disposal of high-level nuclear waste is a highly contentious issue because under current plans the public is subjected to unaccepted, involuntary risks. The proposed federal policy includes the forced siting of a repository and interim storage facilities in Nevada, and the transport of waste across the entire nation through large cities and within 2 mile of over 50 million people. At its destination in Nevada, the residents would face coexistence with a facility housing highly radioactive wastes that remain dangerous for many thousands of years. Scientific predictions about the performance and safety of these facilities is highly uncertain and the people foresee possibly catastrophic threats to their health, safety and economic well-being for generations to come. The public sees this currently proposed plan as one that seeks to maximise the profits of the commercial nuclear industry through imposing risk and sacrifice to communities who reap no benefit. And there is no evidence that this plan is actually a solution to the problem. The American public has never had the opportunity to participate in the nuclear waste debate and government plans are presented to people as being necessary and inevitable. To allow democracy into the decisions could be costly to the nuclear industry and it might thwart the government program, but that is the nature of democracy. If the utilities are established to provide a public service, and the government is founded on the principle of public representation, then the nuclear waste debate must conform to those requirements. What we see in this case is a continuing change of rule and law to accommodate a corporate power and the subrogation of national principle. The result of this situation has been that the public exercises its only option - which is obstructing the federal plan. Because the odds are so heavily stacked in favour of government and industry and average citizens have so little access

  1. Nuclear waste vs. democracy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Treichel, J.

    1999-01-01

    In the United States the storage and disposal of high-level nuclear waste is a highly contentious issue because under current plans the public is subjected to unaccepted, involuntary risks. The proposed federal policy includes the forced siting of a repository and interim storage facilities in Nevada, and the transport of waste across the entire nation through large cities and within 2 mile of over 50 million people. At its destination in Nevada, the residents would face coexistence with a facility housing highly radioactive wastes that remain dangerous for many thousands of years. Scientific predictions about the performance and safety of these facilities is highly uncertain and the people foresee possibly catastrophic threats to their health, safety and economic well-being for generations to come. The public sees this currently proposed plan as one that seeks to maximise the profits of the commercial nuclear industry through imposing risk and sacrifice to communities who reap no benefit. And there is no evidence that this plan is actually a solution to the problem. The American public has never had the opportunity to participate in the nuclear waste debate and government plans are presented to people as being necessary and inevitable. To allow democracy into the decisions could be costly to the nuclear industry and it might thwart the government program, but that is the nature of democracy. If the utilities are established to provide a public service, and the government is founded on the principle of public representation, then the nuclear waste debate must conform to those requirements. What we see in this case is a continuing change of rule and law to accommodate a corporate power and the subrogation of national principle. The result of this situation has been that the public exercises its only option - which is obstructing the federal plan. Because the odds are so heavily stacked in favour of government and industry and average citizens have so little access

  2. Encapsulation of hazardous wastes into agglomerates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guloy, A.

    1992-01-01

    The objective of this study was to investigate the feasibility of using the cementitious properties and agglomeration characteristics of coal conversion byproducts to encapsulate and immobilize hazardous waste materials. The intention was to establish an economical way of co-utilization and co-disposal of wastes. In addition, it may aid in the eradication of air pollution problems associated with the fine-powdery nature of fly ash. Encapsulation into agglomerates is a novel approach of treating toxic waste. Although encapsulation itself is not a new concept, existing methods employ high-cost resins that render them economically unfeasible. In this investigation, the toxic waste was contained in a concrete-like matrix whereby fly ash and other cementitious waste materials were utilized. The method incorporates the principles of solidification, stabilization and agglomeration. Another aspect of the study is the evaluation of the agglomeration as possible lightweight aggregates. Since fly ash is commercially used as an aggregate, it would be interesting to study the effect of incorporating toxic wastes in the strength development of the granules. In the investigation, the fly ash self-cementation process was applied to electroplating sludges as the toxic waste. The process hoped to provide a basis for delisting of the waste as hazardous and, thereby greatly minimize the cost of its disposal. Owing to the stringent regulatory requirements for hauling and disposal of hazardous waste, the cost of disposal is significant. The current practice for disposal is solidifying the waste with portland cement and dumping the hardened material in the landfill where the cost varies between $700--950/ton. Partially replacing portland cement with fly ash in concrete has proven beneficial, therefore applying the same principles in the treatment of toxic waste looked very promising

  3. Innovative technologies for managing oil field waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Veil, J.A.

    2003-01-01

    Each year, the oil industry generates millions of barrels of wastes that need to be properly managed. For many years, most oil field wastes were disposed of at a significant cost. However, over the past decade, the industry has developed many processes and technologies to minimize the generation of wastes and to more safely and economically dispose of the waste that is generated. Many companies follow a three-tiered waste management approach. First, companies try to minimize waste generation when possible. Next, they try to find ways to reuse or recycle the wastes that are generated. Finally, the wastes that cannot be reused or recycled must be disposed of. Argonne National Laboratory (Argonne) has evaluated the feasibility of various oil field waste management technologies for the U.S. Department of Energy. This paper describes four of the technologies Argonne has reviewed. In the area of waste minimization, the industry has developed synthetic-based drilling muds (SBMs) that have the desired drilling properties of oil-based muds without the accompanying adverse environmental impacts. Use of SBMs avoids significant air pollution from work boats hauling offshore cuttings to shore for disposal and provides more efficient drilling than can be achieved with water-based muds. Downhole oil/water separators have been developed to separate produced water from oil at the bottom of wells. The produced water is directly injected to an underground formation without ever being lifted to the surface, thereby avoiding potential for groundwater or soil contamination. In the area of reuse/recycle, Argonne has worked with Southeastern Louisiana University and industry to develop a process to use treated drill cuttings to restore wetlands in coastal Louisiana. Finally, in an example of treatment and disposal, Argonne has conducted a series of four baseline studies to characterize the use of salt caverns for safe and economic disposal of oil field wastes.

  4. [Economic crime].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dinitz, S

    1976-01-01

    Economic crime, often also referred to as white collar crime, is one of the most incidious and predatory of offenses. Unlike street crime, for which there may well be some protection, the average citizen is completely at the mercy of the perpetrators of economic crimes. The concept of white collar crime was first identified by Edwin H. Sutherland. He dealt with the problem as a violation of trust involving either or both misrepresentation and duplicity. He argued for the use of criminal sanctions rather than civil remedies as a means of dealing with white collar offenses. Sutherland's views were attacked by the legal profession, by sociologists and criminologists and by public opinion specialists. They contended that an act treated in civil court is not a crime; that criminals are those persons who are defined as such and white collar criminals are neither so defined nor do they define themselves as criminals and, finally, that economic crime is universal. Can anyone be criminal, then, ask the critics? A number of studies by Clinard, Quinney, Black, Ball, Cressey, Newman and others have translated the interest in white collar crime into empirical terms. The last thirty-five years have also witnessed the elaboration and alteration of the theory itself. Geis' work has been particularly important in this respect. His "street" versus "suite" crime is a useful dichotomy. Most important, however, have been the monograph and papers by Herbert Edelhertz who has conceptualized the issues on various levels - from consumer fraud to the illegal activities of the multinational corporation. This article is concerned with the exposition of the theory and research in the field. Most significant, the paper raises serious doubts whether the problem of economic crime can be researched and studied; it raises even more difficult issues concerning the legal and sociological implications of economic crime and of its prevention, management and control.

  5. Energy from biomass and waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1991-01-01

    This report provides a review of the Commission of the European Communities (CEC) Energy Demonstration Programme in the sector of Energy from biomass and waste, and examines the current status of the energy technologies associated with the sector, in relation to projects supported under the Programme, those included under various national programmes and by reference to the published literature. Detailed overviews of five sub-categories represented in the Energy from biomass and waste sector are presented to illustrate their relative significance in terms of estimated energy potential, technological and economic status and the nature of future research, development and demonstration needs. Finally the potential role of the biomass and waste energy technologies in meeting the energy needs of the developing world is discussed. 33 refs; 2 figs; 11 tabs

  6. Financing waste to energy plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Woodward, A.

    1991-01-01

    Waste-to-energy projects are going ahead in the U.K., they are being project financed and they will make a valuable contribution to environmentally acceptable waste disposal and clean energy within the U.K. Starting from the premise that project sponsors must compete for funds therefore behoves the project sponsor to adapt his proposal to the needs of the investor rather than the other way around. Some of the major potential suppliers of funds are briefly surveyed. It is concluded that waste-to-energy projects do not fit easily into the business plans of venture capital companies, pension funds and banks. Projects must be reworked so that a more favourable opportunity can be offered to potential funders. Ways of achieving this through improved economics and reductions in risk and uncertainty are examined. (author)

  7. Fuel reprocessing and waste management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Philippone, R.L.; Kaiser, R.A.

    1989-01-01

    Because of different economic, social and political factors, there has been a tendency to compartmentalize the commercial nuclear power industry into separate power and fuel cycle operations to a greater degree in some countries compared to other countries. The purpose of this paper is to describe how actions in one part of the industry can affect the other parts and recommend an overall systems engineering approach which incorporates more cooperation and coordination between individual parts of the fuel cycle. Descriptions are given of the fuel cycle segments and examples are presented of how a systems engineering approach has benefitted the fuel cycle. Descriptions of fuel reprocessing methods and the waste forms generated are given. Illustrations are presented describing how reprocessing options affect waste management operations and how waste management decisions affect reprocessing

  8. Effluent treatment and waste disposal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1990-01-01

    In recent years there has been a great increase in the attention given to environmental matters by the public, media and Government. This has been reflected in the increased stature of environmental pressure groups and the introduction of new regulatory bodies and procedures. However, the satisfactory treatment and disposal of waste depends ultimately upon the development and employment of efficient low cost processes, and the enforcement of effective legislation. This Conference organised by the Yorkshire Branch of IChemE in association with the Institution's Environmental Protection Subject Group, will address the areas of waste monitoring, developments in pollution control processes and process economics and will look forward to future trends in waste disposal. It will also consider the impact of recent legislation upon the process industries. (author)

  9. Food waste and food processing waste for biohydrogen production: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yasin, Nazlina Haiza Mohd; Mumtaz, Tabassum; Hassan, Mohd Ali; Abd Rahman, Nor'Aini

    2013-11-30

    Food waste and food processing wastes which are abundant in nature and rich in carbon content can be attractive renewable substrates for sustainable biohydrogen production due to wide economic prospects in industries. Many studies utilizing common food wastes such as dining hall or restaurant waste and wastes generated from food processing industries have shown good percentages of hydrogen in gas composition, production yield and rate. The carbon composition in food waste also plays a crucial role in determining high biohydrogen yield. Physicochemical factors such as pre-treatment to seed culture, pH, temperature (mesophilic/thermophilic) and etc. are also important to ensure the dominance of hydrogen-producing bacteria in dark fermentation. This review demonstrates the potential of food waste and food processing waste for biohydrogen production and provides a brief overview of several physicochemical factors that affect biohydrogen production in dark fermentation. The economic viability of biohydrogen production from food waste is also discussed. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Nuclear energy. Economical aspects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Legee, F.

    2010-01-01

    This document present 43 slides of a power point presentation containing detailed data on economical and cost data for nuclear energy and nuclear power plants: evolution from 1971 to 2007 of world total primary energy supply, development of nuclear energy in the world, nuclear power plants in the world in 2009, service life of nuclear power plants and its extension; nuclear energy market and perspectives at 2030, the EPR concept (generation III) and its perspectives at 2030 in the world; cost assessment (power generation cost, nuclear power generation cost, costs due to nuclear safety, comparison of investment costs for gas, coal and nuclear power generation, costs for building a nuclear reactor and general cost; cost for the entire fuel cycle, the case of the closed cycle with recycling (MOX); costs for radioactive waste storage; financial costs and other costs such as environmental impacts, strategic stocks, comparative evaluation of the competitiveness of nuclear versus coal and gas

  11. "Creative destruction" and the economy of Waste

    OpenAIRE

    Ruggiero, Vincenzo

    2013-01-01

    Starting off with some examples of illegal dumping of waste, the author examines the relationship between the official economy and organised crime. At the core of ‘creative destruction’, in his argument, are not only conventional illegal practices, but entrepreneurial initiative per se, revolving around notions of limitless growth and obsessive, infinite, development. Ultimately, it is economic thought itself which may be held ideologically and empirically responsible for an economy of waste ...

  12. Waste heat utilization in industrial processes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weichsel, M.; Heitmann, W.

    1978-01-01

    A survey is given of new developments in heat exchangers and heat pumps. With respect to practical applications, internal criteria for plant operation are discussed. Possibilities of government support are pointed out. Waste heat steam generators and waste heat aggregates for hot water generation or in some cases for steam superheating are used. The possibilities of utilization can be classified according to the economic improvements and according to their process applications, for example, gascooling. Examples are presented for a large variety of applications.

  13. Management of Hazardous Waste and Contaminated Land

    OpenAIRE

    Hilary Sigman; Sarah Stafford

    2010-01-01

    Regulation of hazardous waste and cleanup of contaminated sites are two major components of modern public policy for environmental protection. We review the literature on these related areas, with emphasis on empirical analyses. Researchers have identified many behavioral responses to regulation of hazardous waste, including changes in the location of economic activity. However, the drivers behind compliance with these costly regulations remain a puzzle, as most research suggests a limited ro...

  14. Magnetic Density Separation of Polyolefin Wastes

    OpenAIRE

    Hu, B.

    2014-01-01

    Polymer recycling has significantly positive impacts on the environment, economics and society. Using recycled polymer to replace virgins reduces the growing amount of post-consumer polymer wastes, decreases the demand for fossil fuel and creates local jobs. As the most used polymer types, polyolefins certainly have attracted attention of recycling. Mechanical sorting has been pointed out as the preferred route for the recovery of relatively clean and homogeneous plastic waste streams. Wherea...

  15. Household waste disposal in Mekelle city, Northern Ethiopia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tadesse, Tewodros; Ruijs, Arjan; Hagos, Fitsum

    2008-01-01

    In many cities of developing countries, such as Mekelle (Ethiopia), waste management is poor and solid wastes are dumped along roadsides and into open areas, endangering health and attracting vermin. The effects of demographic factors, economic and social status, waste and environmental attributes on household solid waste disposal are investigated using data from household survey. Household level data are then analyzed using multinomial logit estimation to determine the factors that affect household waste disposal decision making. Results show that demographic features such as age, education and household size have an insignificant impact over the choice of alternative waste disposal means, whereas the supply of waste facilities significantly affects waste disposal choice. Inadequate supply of waste containers and longer distance to these containers increase the probability of waste dumping in open areas and roadsides relative to the use of communal containers. Higher household income decreases the probability of using open areas and roadsides as waste destinations relative to communal containers. Measures to make the process of waste disposal less costly and ensuring well functioning institutional waste management would improve proper waste disposal

  16. Household waste disposal in Mekelle city, Northern Ethiopia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tadesse, Tewodros; Ruijs, Arjan; Hagos, Fitsum

    2008-01-01

    In many cities of developing countries, such as Mekelle (Ethiopia), waste management is poor and solid wastes are dumped along roadsides and into open areas, endangering health and attracting vermin. The effects of demographic factors, economic and social status, waste and environmental attributes on household solid waste disposal are investigated using data from household survey. Household level data are then analyzed using multinomial logit estimation to determine the factors that affect household waste disposal decision making. Results show that demographic features such as age, education and household size have an insignificant impact over the choice of alternative waste disposal means, whereas the supply of waste facilities significantly affects waste disposal choice. Inadequate supply of waste containers and longer distance to these containers increase the probability of waste dumping in open areas and roadsides relative to the use of communal containers. Higher household income decreases the probability of using open areas and roadsides as waste destinations relative to communal containers. Measures to make the process of waste disposal less costly and ensuring well functioning institutional waste management would improve proper waste disposal.

  17. Conspicuous Waste and Representativeness Heuristic

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tatiana M. Shishkina

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The article deals with the similarities between conspicuous waste and representativeness heuristic. The conspicuous waste is analyzed according to the classic Veblen’ interpretation as a strategy to increase social status through conspicuous consumption and conspicuous leisure. In “The Theory of the Leisure Class” Veblen introduced two different types of utility – conspicuous and functional. The article focuses on the possible benefits of the analysis of conspicuous utility not only in terms of institutional economic theory, but also in terms of behavioral economics. To this end, the representativeness heuristics is considered, on the one hand, as a way to optimize the decision-making process, which allows to examine it in comparison with procedural rationality by Simon. On the other hand, it is also analyzed as cognitive bias within the Kahneman and Twersky’ approach. The article provides the analysis of the patterns in the deviations from the rational behavior strategy that could be observed in case of conspicuous waste both in modern market economies in the form of conspicuous consumption and in archaic economies in the form of gift-exchange. The article also focuses on the marketing strategies for luxury consumption’ advertisement. It highlights the impact of the symbolic capital (in Bourdieu’ interpretation on the social and symbolic payments that actors get from the act of conspicuous waste. This allows to perform a analysis of conspicuous consumption both as a rational way to get the particular kind of payments, and, at the same time, as a form of institutionalized cognitive bias.

  18. Consumer-Related Food Waste: Causes and Potential for Action

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aschemann-Witzel, Jessica; Hooge, Ilona de; Amani, Pegah

    2015-01-01

    interviews on factors causing consumer-related food waste in households and supply chains. Results show that consumers’ motivation to avoid food waste, their management skills of food provisioning and food handling and their trade-offs between priorities have an extensive influence on their food waste......In the past decade, food waste has received increased attention on both academic and societal levels. As a cause of negative economic, environmental and social effects, food waste is considered to be one of the sustainability issues that needs to be addressed. In developed countries, consumers...

  19. Waste incineration industry and development policies in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yun; Zhao, Xingang; Li, Yanbin; Li, Xiaoyu

    2015-12-01

    The growing pollution from municipal solid waste due to economic growth and urbanization has brought great challenge to China. The main method of waste disposal has gradually changed from landfill to incineration, because of the enormous land occupation by landfills. The paper presents the results of a study of the development status of the upstream and downstream of the waste incineration industry chain in China, reviews the government policies for the waste incineration power industry, and provides a forecast of the development trend of the waste incineration industry. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Final disposal of nuclear waste. An investigated issue

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Palmu, J.; Nikula, A.

    1996-01-01

    Since 1978, the nuclear power companies have co-ordinated joint studies of nuclear waste disposal through the Nuclear Waste Commission of Finnish Power Companies. The studies are done primarily to gather basic data, with a view to implementing nuclear waste management in a safe, economical and timely way. The power companies' research, development and design work with regard to nuclear waste has been progressing according to the schedule set by the Government, and Finland has received international recognition for its advanced nuclear waste management programme. Last year, the nuclear power companies set up a joint company, Posiva Oy, to manage the final disposal of spent uranium fuel. (orig.)