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Sample records for economic tools algorithms

  1. Advanced Fuel Cycle Economic Tools, Algorithms, and Methodologies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    David E. Shropshire

    2009-05-01

    The Advanced Fuel Cycle Initiative (AFCI) Systems Analysis supports engineering economic analyses and trade-studies, and requires a requisite reference cost basis to support adequate analysis rigor. In this regard, the AFCI program has created a reference set of economic documentation. The documentation consists of the “Advanced Fuel Cycle (AFC) Cost Basis” report (Shropshire, et al. 2007), “AFCI Economic Analysis” report, and the “AFCI Economic Tools, Algorithms, and Methodologies Report.” Together, these documents provide the reference cost basis, cost modeling basis, and methodologies needed to support AFCI economic analysis. The application of the reference cost data in the cost and econometric systems analysis models will be supported by this report. These methodologies include: the energy/environment/economic evaluation of nuclear technology penetration in the energy market—domestic and internationally—and impacts on AFCI facility deployment, uranium resource modeling to inform the front-end fuel cycle costs, facility first-of-a-kind to nth-of-a-kind learning with application to deployment of AFCI facilities, cost tradeoffs to meet nuclear non-proliferation requirements, and international nuclear facility supply/demand analysis. The economic analysis will be performed using two cost models. VISION.ECON will be used to evaluate and compare costs under dynamic conditions, consistent with the cases and analysis performed by the AFCI Systems Analysis team. Generation IV Excel Calculations of Nuclear Systems (G4-ECONS) will provide static (snapshot-in-time) cost analysis and will provide a check on the dynamic results. In future analysis, additional AFCI measures may be developed to show the value of AFCI in closing the fuel cycle. Comparisons can show AFCI in terms of reduced global proliferation (e.g., reduction in enrichment), greater sustainability through preservation of a natural resource (e.g., reduction in uranium ore depletion), value from

  2. Benchmarking of nuclear economics tools

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moore, Megan; Korinny, Andriy; Shropshire, David; Sadhankar, Ramesh

    2017-01-01

    Highlights: • INPRO and GIF economic tools exhibited good alignment in total capital cost estimation. • Subtle discrepancies in the cost result from differences in financing and the fuel cycle assumptions. • A common set of assumptions was found to reduce the discrepancies to 1% or less. • Opportunities for harmonisation of economic tools exists. - Abstract: Benchmarking of the economics methodologies developed by the Generation IV International Forum (GIF) and the International Atomic Energy Agency’s International Project on Innovative Nuclear Reactors and Fuel Cycles (INPRO), was performed for three Generation IV nuclear energy systems. The Economic Modeling Working Group of GIF developed an Excel based spreadsheet package, G4ECONS (Generation 4 Excel-based Calculation Of Nuclear Systems), to calculate the total capital investment cost (TCIC) and the levelised unit energy cost (LUEC). G4ECONS is sufficiently generic in the sense that it can accept the types of projected input, performance and cost data that are expected to become available for Generation IV systems through various development phases and that it can model both open and closed fuel cycles. The Nuclear Energy System Assessment (NESA) Economic Support Tool (NEST) was developed to enable an economic analysis using the INPRO methodology to easily calculate outputs including the TCIC, LUEC and other financial figures of merit including internal rate of return, return of investment and net present value. NEST is also Excel based and can be used to evaluate nuclear reactor systems using the open fuel cycle, MOX (mixed oxide) fuel recycling and closed cycles. A Super Critical Water-cooled Reactor system with an open fuel cycle and two Fast Reactor systems, one with a break-even fuel cycle and another with a burner fuel cycle, were selected for the benchmarking exercise. Published data on capital and operating costs were used for economics analyses using G4ECONS and NEST tools. Both G4ECONS and

  3. Economic dispatch using chaotic bat algorithm

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Adarsh, B.R.; Raghunathan, T.; Jayabarathi, T.; Yang, Xin-She

    2016-01-01

    This paper presents the application of a new metaheuristic optimization algorithm, the chaotic bat algorithm for solving the economic dispatch problem involving a number of equality and inequality constraints such as power balance, prohibited operating zones and ramp rate limits. Transmission losses and multiple fuel options are also considered for some problems. The chaotic bat algorithm, a variant of the basic bat algorithm, is obtained by incorporating chaotic sequences to enhance its performance. Five different example problems comprising 6, 13, 20, 40 and 160 generating units are solved to demonstrate the effectiveness of the algorithm. The algorithm requires little tuning by the user, and the results obtained show that it either outperforms or compares favorably with several existing techniques reported in literature. - Highlights: • The chaotic bat algorithm, a new metaheuristic optimization algorithm has been used. • The problem solved – the economic dispatch problem – is nonlinear, discontinuous. • It has number of equality and inequality constraints. • The algorithm has been demonstrated to be applicable on high dimensional problems.

  4. Innovative algorithms and tools summary and outlook

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fine, V.E.; Naumann, N.A.

    2003-01-01

    This contribution provides a summary of the 'Session IV: Innovative Algorithms and Tools'. The 'tools' portion of the session IV comprised three oral sessions, 12 talks by seven speakers, and three posters. The algorithmic part was covered by 15 talks and three poster presentations. We will try to give a summary of the main development directions, and state our personal views and interpretation on it as well as an outlook

  5. JPSS CGS Tools For Rapid Algorithm Updates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, D. C.; Grant, K. D.

    2011-12-01

    Northrop Grumman have developed tools and processes to enable changes to be evaluated, tested, and moved into the operational baseline in a rapid and efficient manner. This presentation will provide an overview of the tools available to the Cal/Val teams to ensure rapid and accurate assessment of algorithm changes, along with the processes in place to ensure baseline integrity. [1] K. Grant and G. Route, "JPSS CGS Tools for Rapid Algorithm Updates," NOAA 2011 Satellite Direct Readout Conference, Miami FL, Poster, Apr 2011. [2] K. Grant, G. Route and B. Reed, "JPSS CGS Tools for Rapid Algorithm Updates," AMS 91st Annual Meeting, Seattle WA, Poster, Jan 2011. [3] K. Grant, G. Route and B. Reed, "JPSS CGS Tools for Rapid Algorithm Updates," AGU 2010 Fall Meeting, San Francisco CA, Oral Presentation, Dec 2010.

  6. NPOESS Tools for Rapid Algorithm Updates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Route, G.; Grant, K. D.; Hughes, B.; Reed, B.

    2009-12-01

    The National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA), Department of Defense (DoD), and National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) are jointly acquiring the next-generation weather and environmental satellite system; the National Polar-orbiting Operational Environmental Satellite System (NPOESS). NPOESS replaces the current Polar-orbiting Operational Environmental Satellites (POES) managed by NOAA and the Defense Meteorological Satellite Program (DMSP) managed by the DoD. The NPOESS satellites carry a suite of sensors that collect meteorological, oceanographic, climatological, and solar-geophysical observations of the earth, atmosphere, and space. The ground data processing segment for NPOESS is the Interface Data Processing Segment (IDPS), developed by Raytheon Intelligence and Information Systems. The IDPS processes both NPP and NPOESS satellite data to provide environmental data products to NOAA and DoD processing centers operated by the United States government. Northrop Grumman Aerospace Systems Algorithms and Data Products (A&DP) organization is responsible for the algorithms that produce the EDRs, including their quality aspects. As the Calibration and Validation activities move forward following both the NPP launch and subsequent NPOESS launches, rapid algorithm updates may be required. Raytheon and Northrop Grumman have developed tools and processes to enable changes to be evaluated, tested, and moved into the operational baseline in a rapid and efficient manner. This presentation will provide an overview of the tools available to the Cal/Val teams to ensure rapid and accurate assessment of algorithm changes, along with the processes in place to ensure baseline integrity.

  7. Economic dispatch optimization algorithm based on particle diffusion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Han, Li; Romero, Carlos E.; Yao, Zheng

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • A dispatch model that considers fuel, emissions control and wind power cost is built. • An optimization algorithm named diffusion particle optimization (DPO) is proposed. • DPO was used to analyze the impact of wind power risk and emissions on dispatch. - Abstract: Due to the widespread installation of emissions control equipment in fossil fuel-fired power plants, the cost of emissions control needs to be considered, together with the plant fuel cost, in providing economic power dispatch of those units to the grid. On the other hand, while using wind power decreases the overall power generation cost for the power grid, it poses a risk to a traditional grid, because of its inherent stochastic characteristics. Therefore, an economic dispatch optimization model needs to consider all of the fuel cost, emissions control cost and wind power cost for each of the generating unit conforming the fleet that meets the required grid power demand. In this study, an optimization algorithm referred as diffusion particle optimization (DPO) is proposed to solve such complex optimization problem. In this algorithm, Brownian motion theory is used to guide the movement of particles so that the particles can search for an optimal solution over the entire definition region. Several benchmark functions and power grid system data were used to test the performance of DPO, and compared to traditional algorithms used for economic dispatch optimization, such as, particle swarm optimization and artificial bee colony algorithm. It was found that DPO has less probability to be trapped in local optimums. According to results of different power systems DPO was able to find economic dispatch solutions with lower costs. DPO was also used to analyze the impact of wind power risk and fossil unit emissions coefficients on power dispatch. The result are encouraging for the use of DPO as a dynamic tool for economic dispatch of the power grid.

  8. Commodities Trading: An Essential Economic Tool.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Welch, Mary A., Ed.

    1989-01-01

    This issue focuses on commodities trading as an essential economic tool. Activities include critical thinking about marketing decisions and discussion on how futures markets and options are used as important economic tools. Discussion questions and a special student project are included. (EH)

  9. Economic environmental dispatch using BSA algorithm

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jihane, Kartite; Mohamed, Cherkaoui

    2018-05-01

    Economic environmental dispatch problem (EED) is an important issue especially in the field of fossil fuel power plant system. It allows the network manager to choose among different units the most optimized in terms of fuel costs and emission level. The objective of this paper is to minimize the fuel cost with emissions constrained; the test is conducted for two cases: six generator unit and ten generator unit for the same power demand 1200Mw. The simulation has been computed in MATLAB and the result shows the robustness of the Backtracking Search optimization Algorithm (BSA) and the impact of the load demand on the emission.

  10. Adaptive engineering management tools of enterprise economic security

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G.E. Krokhicheva

    2018-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper discusses the organizational and methodological foundations and methods exploited to forecast, analyze and scale down threats and risks in the sphere of economic security, to solve the adaptation problems, to implement and to evaluate of the potency of protective measures. The object of the conducted research is associated with various economic activities of the commercial enterprises affiliated in Rostov region. A suggested model of the formation and functioning of adaptive engineering tools for managing economic security in the form of derivative balance of the enterprise resources and the sources of their formation will allow the proprietors, executive board and mana-gerial staff to obtain necessary information within the requested context regarding the enterprise vital economic interests. In addition, the paper pays attention to the methodological aspects of accounting description and estimation of the iterative achievements to meet the desired adaptation results, implemented within the framework of the described iterative algorithm aimed at ensuring strategic prediction.

  11. Differential Forms: A New Tool in Economics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mimkes, Jürgen

    Econophysics is the transfer of methods from natural to socio-economic sciences. This concept has first been applied to finance1, but it is now also used in various applications of economics and social sciences [2,3]. The present paper focuses on problems in macro economics and growth. 1. Neoclassical theory [4, 5] neglects the “ex post” property of income and growth. Income Y(K, L) is assumed to be a function of capital and labor. But functions cannot model the “ex post” character of income. 2. Neoclassical theory is based on a Cobb Douglas function [6] with variable elasticity α, which may be fitted to economic data. But an undefined elasticity α leads to a descriptive rather than a predictive economic theory. The present paper introduces a new tool - differential forms and path dependent integrals - to macro economics. This is a solution to the problems above: 1. The integral of not exact differential forms is path dependent and can only be calculated “ex post” like income and economic growth. 2. Not exact differential forms can be made exact by an integrating factor, this leads to a new, well defined, unique production function F and a predictive economic theory.

  12. Economic and Financial Analysis Tools | Energy Analysis | NREL

    Science.gov (United States)

    Economic and Financial Analysis Tools Economic and Financial Analysis Tools Use these economic and . Job and Economic Development Impact (JEDI) Model Use these easy-to-use, spreadsheet-based tools to analyze the economic impacts of constructing and operating power generation and biofuel plants at the

  13. Combined heat and power economic dispatch by harmony search algorithm

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vasebi, A.; Bathaee, S.M.T. [Power System Research Laboratory, Department of Electrical and Electronic Engineering, K.N.Toosi University of Technology, 322-Mirdamad Avenue West, 19697 Tehran (Iran); Fesanghary, M. [Department of Mechanical Engineering, Amirkabir University of Technology, 424-Hafez Avenue, Tehran (Iran)

    2007-12-15

    The optimal utilization of multiple combined heat and power (CHP) systems is a complicated problem that needs powerful methods to solve. This paper presents a harmony search (HS) algorithm to solve the combined heat and power economic dispatch (CHPED) problem. The HS algorithm is a recently developed meta-heuristic algorithm, and has been very successful in a wide variety of optimization problems. The method is illustrated using a test case taken from the literature as well as a new one proposed by authors. Numerical results reveal that the proposed algorithm can find better solutions when compared to conventional methods and is an efficient search algorithm for CHPED problem. (author)

  14. Genetic Algorithm Based Economic Dispatch with Valve Point Effect

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Park, Jong Nam; Park, Kyung Won; Kim, Ji Hong; Kim, Jin O [Hanyang University (Korea, Republic of)

    1999-03-01

    This paper presents a new approach on genetic algorithm to economic dispatch problem for valve point discontinuities. Proposed approach in this paper on genetic algorithms improves the performance to solve economic dispatch problem for valve point discontinuities through improved death penalty method, generation-apart elitism, atavism and sexual selection with sexual distinction. Numerical results on a test system consisting of 13 thermal units show that the proposed approach is faster, more robust and powerful than conventional genetic algorithms. (author). 8 refs., 10 figs.

  15. Innovative Software Algorithms and Tools parallel sessions summary

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gaines, Irwin

    2001-01-01

    A variety of results were presented in the poster and 5 parallel sessions of the Innovative Software, Algorithms and Tools (ISAT) sessions. I will briefly summarize these presentations and attempt to identify some unifying trends

  16. Algorithmic tools for interpreting vital signs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rathbun, Melina C; Ruth-Sahd, Lisa A

    2009-07-01

    Today's complex world of nursing practice challenges nurse educators to develop teaching methods that promote critical thinking skills and foster quick problem solving in the novice nurse. Traditional pedagogies previously used in the classroom and clinical setting are no longer adequate to prepare nursing students for entry into practice. In addition, educators have expressed frustration when encouraging students to apply newly learned theoretical content to direct the care of assigned patients in the clinical setting. This article presents algorithms as an innovative teaching strategy to guide novice student nurses in the interpretation and decision making related to vital sign assessment in an acute care setting.

  17. An improved harmony search algorithm for power economic load dispatch

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Santos Coelho, Leandro dos [Pontifical Catholic University of Parana, PUCPR, Industrial and Systems Engineering Graduate Program, PPGEPS, Imaculada Conceicao, 1155, 80215-901 Curitiba, PR (Brazil)], E-mail: leandro.coelho@pucpr.br; Mariani, Viviana Cocco [Pontifical Catholic University of Parana, PUCPR, Department of Mechanical Engineering, PPGEM, Imaculada Conceicao, 1155, 80215-901 Curitiba, PR (Brazil)], E-mail: viviana.mariani@pucpr.br

    2009-10-15

    A meta-heuristic algorithm called harmony search (HS), mimicking the improvisation process of music players, has been recently developed. The HS algorithm has been successful in several optimization problems. The HS algorithm does not require derivative information and uses stochastic random search instead of a gradient search. In addition, the HS algorithm is simple in concept, few in parameters, and easy in implementation. This paper presents an improved harmony search (IHS) algorithm based on exponential distribution for solving economic dispatch problems. A 13-unit test system with incremental fuel cost function taking into account the valve-point loading effects is used to illustrate the effectiveness of the proposed IHS method. Numerical results show that the IHS method has good convergence property. Furthermore, the generation costs of the IHS method are lower than those of the classical HS and other optimization algorithms reported in recent literature.

  18. An improved harmony search algorithm for power economic load dispatch

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Coelho, Leandro dos Santos [Pontifical Catholic Univ. of Parana, PUCPR, Industrial and Systems Engineering Graduate Program, PPGEPS, Imaculada Conceicao, 1155, 80215-901 Curitiba, PR (Brazil); Mariani, Viviana Cocco [Pontifical Catholic Univ. of Parana, PUCPR, Dept. of Mechanical Engineering, PPGEM, Imaculada Conceicao, 1155, 80215-901 Curitiba, PR (Brazil)

    2009-10-15

    A meta-heuristic algorithm called harmony search (HS), mimicking the improvisation process of music players, has been recently developed. The HS algorithm has been successful in several optimization problems. The HS algorithm does not require derivative information and uses stochastic random search instead of a gradient search. In addition, the HS algorithm is simple in concept, few in parameters, and easy in implementation. This paper presents an improved harmony search (IHS) algorithm based on exponential distribution for solving economic dispatch problems. A 13-unit test system with incremental fuel cost function taking into account the valve-point loading effects is used to illustrate the effectiveness of the proposed IHS method. Numerical results show that the IHS method has good convergence property. Furthermore, the generation costs of the IHS method are lower than those of the classical HS and other optimization algorithms reported in recent literature. (author)

  19. An improved harmony search algorithm for power economic load dispatch

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Santos Coelho, Leandro dos; Mariani, Viviana Cocco

    2009-01-01

    A meta-heuristic algorithm called harmony search (HS), mimicking the improvisation process of music players, has been recently developed. The HS algorithm has been successful in several optimization problems. The HS algorithm does not require derivative information and uses stochastic random search instead of a gradient search. In addition, the HS algorithm is simple in concept, few in parameters, and easy in implementation. This paper presents an improved harmony search (IHS) algorithm based on exponential distribution for solving economic dispatch problems. A 13-unit test system with incremental fuel cost function taking into account the valve-point loading effects is used to illustrate the effectiveness of the proposed IHS method. Numerical results show that the IHS method has good convergence property. Furthermore, the generation costs of the IHS method are lower than those of the classical HS and other optimization algorithms reported in recent literature.

  20. Secured Economic Dispatch Algorithm using GSDF Matrix

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Slimane SOUAG

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available In this paper we present a new method for solving the secured power flow problem by the economic dispatch using DC power flow method and Generation Shift Distribution Factor (GSDF. A graphical interface in LabVIEW has been created as a virtual instrument. Hence the DC power flow reduces the power flow problem to a set of linear equations, which make the iterative calculation very fast and the GSFD matrix present the effects of single and multiple generator MW change on the transmission line. The effectiveness of the method developed is identified through its application to an IEEE-14 bus test system. The calculation results show excellent performance of the proposed method, in regard to computation time and quality of results.

  1. Tools and Algorithms for the Construction and Analysis of Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    This book constitutes the refereed proceedings of the 10th International Conference on Tools and Algorithms for the Construction and Analysis of Systems, TACAS 2004, held in Barcelona, Spain in March/April 2004. The 37 revised full papers and 6 revised tool demonstration papers presented were car...

  2. Applicability of genetic algorithms to parameter estimation of economic models

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcel Ševela

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper concentrates on capability of genetic algorithms for parameter estimation of non-linear economic models. In the paper we test the ability of genetic algorithms to estimate of parameters of demand function for durable goods and simultaneously search for parameters of genetic algorithm that lead to maximum effectiveness of the computation algorithm. The genetic algorithms connect deterministic iterative computation methods with stochastic methods. In the genteic aůgorithm approach each possible solution is represented by one individual, those life and lifes of all generations of individuals run under a few parameter of genetic algorithm. Our simulations resulted in optimal mutation rate of 15% of all bits in chromosomes, optimal elitism rate 20%. We can not set the optimal extend of generation, because it proves positive correlation with effectiveness of genetic algorithm in all range under research, but its impact is degreasing. The used genetic algorithm was sensitive to mutation rate at most, than to extend of generation. The sensitivity to elitism rate is not so strong.

  3. Annealed Demon Algorithms Solving the Environmental / Economic Dispatch Problem

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aristidis VLACHOS

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents an efficient and reliable Annealed Demon (AD algorithm for the Environmental/Economic Dispatch (EEB problem. The EED problem is a multi-objective non-linear optimization problem with constraints. This problem is one of the fundamentals issues in power system operation. The system of generation associates thermal generators and emissions which involves sulphur oxides (SO2 and nitrogen oxides (NOx. The aim is to minimize total fuel cost of the system and control emission. The proposed AD algorithm is applied for EED of a simple power system.

  4. Tools and Algorithms for the Construction and Analysis of Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    This book constitutes the refereed proceedings of the 10th International Conference on Tools and Algorithms for the Construction and Analysis of Systems, TACAS 2004, held in Barcelona, Spain in March/April 2004. The 37 revised full papers and 6 revised tool demonstration papers presented were...... carefully reviewed and selected from a total of 162 submissions. The papers are organized in topical sections on theorem proving, probabilistic model checking, testing, tools, explicit state and Petri nets, scheduling, constraint solving, timed systems, case studies, software, temporal logic, abstraction...

  5. DIDADTIC TOOLS FOR THE STUDENTS’ ALGORITHMIC THINKING DEVELOPMENT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. P. Pushkaryeva

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Modern engineers must possess high potential of cognitive abilities, in particular, the algorithmic thinking (AT. In this regard, the training of future experts (university graduates of technical specialities has to provide the knowledge of principles and ways of designing of various algorithms, abilities to analyze them, and to choose the most optimal variants for engineering activity implementation. For full formation of AT skills it is necessary to consider all channels of psychological perception and cogitative processing of educational information: visual, auditory, and kinesthetic.The aim of the present research is theoretical basis of design, development and use of resources for successful development of AT during the educational process of training in programming.Methodology and research methods. Methodology of the research involves the basic thesis of cognitive psychology and information approach while organizing the educational process. The research used methods: analysis; modeling of cognitive processes; designing training tools that take into account the mentality and peculiarities of information perception; diagnostic efficiency of the didactic tools. Results. The three-level model for future engineers training in programming aimed at development of AT skills was developed. The model includes three components: aesthetic, simulative, and conceptual. Stages to mastering a new discipline are allocated. It is proved that for development of AT skills when training in programming it is necessary to use kinesthetic tools at the stage of mental algorithmic maps formation; algorithmic animation and algorithmic mental maps at the stage of algorithmic model and conceptual images formation. Kinesthetic tools for development of students’ AT skills when training in algorithmization and programming are designed. Using of kinesthetic training simulators in educational process provide the effective development of algorithmic style of

  6. Applied economic model development algorithm for electronics company

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mikhailov I.

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this paper is to report about received experience in the field of creating the actual methods and algorithms that help to simplify development of applied decision support systems. It reports about an algorithm, which is a result of two years research and have more than one-year practical verification. In a case of testing electronic components, the time of the contract conclusion is crucial point to make the greatest managerial mistake. At this stage, it is difficult to achieve a realistic assessment of time-limit and of wage-fund for future work. The creation of estimating model is possible way to solve this problem. In the article is represented an algorithm for creation of those models. The algorithm is based on example of the analytical model development that serves for amount of work estimation. The paper lists the algorithm’s stages and explains their meanings with participants’ goals. The implementation of the algorithm have made possible twofold acceleration of these models development and fulfilment of management’s requirements. The resulting models have made a significant economic effect. A new set of tasks was identified to be further theoretical study.

  7. Genetic Algorithms vs. Artificial Neural Networks in Economic Forecasting Process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicolae Morariu

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper aims to describe the implementa-tion of a neural network and a genetic algorithm system in order to forecast certain economic indicators of a free market economy. In a free market economy forecasting process precedes the economic planning (a management function, providing important information for the result of the last process. Forecasting represents a starting point in setting of target for a firm, an organization or even a branch of the economy. Thus, the forecasting method used can influence in a significant mode the evolution of an entity. In the following we will describe the forecasting of an economic indicator using two intelligent systems. The difference between the results obtained by this two systems are described in chapter IV.

  8. Parallel genetic algorithm as a tool for nuclear reactors reload

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Santos, Darley Roberto G.; Schirru, Roberto

    1999-01-01

    This work intends to present a tool which can be used by designers in order to get better solutions, in terms of computational costs, to solve problems of nuclear reactor reloads. It is known that the project of nuclear fuel reload is a complex combinatorial one. Generally, iterative processes are the most used ones because they generate answers to satisfy all restrictions. The model presented here uses Artificial Intelligence techniques, more precisely Genetic Algorithms techniques, mixed with parallelization techniques.Test of the tool presented here were highly satisfactory, due to a considerable reduction in computational time. (author)

  9. Tools and Algorithms for Construction and Analysis of Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    This book constitutes the refereed proceedings of the 6th International Conference on Tools and Algorithms for the Construction and Analysis of Systems, TACAS 2000, held as part of ETAPS 2000 in Berlin, Germany, in March/April 2000. The 33 revised full papers presented together with one invited...... paper and two short tool descriptions were carefully reviewed and selected from a total of 107 submissions. The papers are organized in topical sections on software and formal methods, formal methods, timed and hybrid systems, infinite and parameterized systems, diagnostic and test generation, efficient...

  10. Administrative and economic tools of environmental protection

    OpenAIRE

    Staničová, Anna

    2010-01-01

    This diploma thesis deals with administrative and economic instruments of environmental protection, which represent the most important groups of instruments of environmental protection. Administrative and economic instruments are means and methods that affect human behavior in relation to environment. The thesis is systematically divided into two main parts and each of them is subdivided into chapters and subchapters. The first part of the thesis is focused generally and provides overview of ...

  11. Introduction to genetic algorithms as a modeling tool

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wildberger, A.M.; Hickok, K.A.

    1990-01-01

    Genetic algorithms are search and classification techniques modeled on natural adaptive systems. This is an introduction to their use as a modeling tool with emphasis on prospects for their application in the power industry. It is intended to provide enough background information for its audience to begin to follow technical developments in genetic algorithms and to recognize those which might impact on electric power engineering. Beginning with a discussion of genetic algorithms and their origin as a model of biological adaptation, their advantages and disadvantages are described in comparison with other modeling tools such as simulation and neural networks in order to provide guidance in selecting appropriate applications. In particular, their use is described for improving expert systems from actual data and they are suggested as an aid in building mathematical models. Using the Thermal Performance Advisor as an example, it is suggested how genetic algorithms might be used to make a conventional expert system and mathematical model of a power plant adapt automatically to changes in the plant's characteristics

  12. Nonsmooth Optimization Algorithms, System Theory, and Software Tools

    Science.gov (United States)

    1993-04-13

    Optimization Algorithms, System Theory , and Scftware Tools" AFOSR-90-OO68 L AUTHOR($) Elijah Polak -Professor and Principal Investigator 7. PERFORMING...NSN 754Q-01-2W0-S500 Standard Form 295 (69O104 Draft) F’wsa*W by hA Sit 230.1""V AFOSR-90-0068 NONSMO0 TH OPTIMIZA TION A L GORI THMS, SYSTEM THEORY , AND

  13. An FMS Dynamic Production Scheduling Algorithm Considering Cutting Tool Failure and Cutting Tool Life

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Setiawan, A; Wangsaputra, R; Halim, A H; Martawirya, Y Y

    2016-01-01

    This paper deals with Flexible Manufacturing System (FMS) production rescheduling due to unavailability of cutting tools caused either of cutting tool failure or life time limit. The FMS consists of parallel identical machines integrated with an automatic material handling system and it runs fully automatically. Each machine has a same cutting tool configuration that consists of different geometrical cutting tool types on each tool magazine. The job usually takes two stages. Each stage has sequential operations allocated to machines considering the cutting tool life. In the real situation, the cutting tool can fail before the cutting tool life is reached. The objective in this paper is to develop a dynamic scheduling algorithm when a cutting tool is broken during unmanned and a rescheduling needed. The algorithm consists of four steps. The first step is generating initial schedule, the second step is determination the cutting tool failure time, the third step is determination of system status at cutting tool failure time and the fourth step is the rescheduling for unfinished jobs. The approaches to solve the problem are complete-reactive scheduling and robust-proactive scheduling. The new schedules result differences starting time and completion time of each operations from the initial schedule. (paper)

  14. Economic modeling using evolutionary algorithms : the effect of binary encoding of strategies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Waltman, L.R.; Eck, van N.J.; Dekker, Rommert; Kaymak, U.

    2011-01-01

    We are concerned with evolutionary algorithms that are employed for economic modeling purposes. We focus in particular on evolutionary algorithms that use a binary encoding of strategies. These algorithms, commonly referred to as genetic algorithms, are popular in agent-based computational economics

  15. NPP/NPOESS Tools for Rapid Algorithm Updates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Route, G.; Grant, K. D.; Hughes, R.

    2010-12-01

    The National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA), Department of Defense (DoD), and National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) are jointly acquiring the next-generation weather and environmental satellite system; the National Polar-orbiting Operational Environmental Satellite System (NPOESS). NPOESS replaces the current Polar-orbiting Operational Environmental Satellites (POES) managed by NOAA and the Defense Meteorological Satellite Program (DMSP) managed by the DoD. The NPOESS Preparatory Project (NPP) and NPOESS satellites will carry a suite of sensors that collect meteorological, oceanographic, climatological, and solar-geophysical observations of the earth, atmosphere, and space. The ground data processing segment for NPOESS is the Interface Data Processing Segment (IDPS), developed by Raytheon Intelligence and Information Systems. The IDPS processes both NPP and NPOESS satellite data to provide environmental data products to NOAA and DoD processing centers operated by the United States government. The Northrop Grumman Aerospace Systems (NGAS) Algorithms and Data Products (A&DP) organization is responsible for the algorithms that produce the Environmental Data Records (EDRs), including their quality aspects. As the Calibration and Validation (Cal/Val) activities move forward following both the NPP launch and subsequent NPOESS launches, rapid algorithm updates may be required. Raytheon and Northrop Grumman have developed tools and processes to enable changes to be evaluated, tested, and moved into the operational baseline in a rapid and efficient manner. This presentation will provide an overview of the tools available to the Cal/Val teams to ensure rapid and accurate assessment of algorithm changes, along with the processes in place to ensure baseline integrity.

  16. Computational Tools and Algorithms for Designing Customized Synthetic Genes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nathan eGould

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Advances in DNA synthesis have enabled the construction of artificial genes, gene circuits, and genomes of bacterial scale. Freedom in de-novo design of synthetic constructs provides significant power in studying the impact of mutations in sequence features, and verifying hypotheses on the functional information that is encoded in nucleic and amino acids. To aid this goal, a large number of software tools of variable sophistication have been implemented, enabling the design of synthetic genes for sequence optimization based on rationally defined properties. The first generation of tools dealt predominantly with singular objectives such as codon usage optimization and unique restriction site incorporation. Recent years have seen the emergence of sequence design tools that aim to evolve sequences toward combinations of objectives. The design of optimal protein coding sequences adhering to multiple objectives is computationally hard, and most tools rely on heuristics to sample the vast sequence design space. In this review we study some of the algorithmic issues behind gene optimization and the approaches that different tools have adopted to redesign genes and optimize desired coding features. We utilize test cases to demonstrate the efficiency of each approach, as well as identify their strengths and limitations.

  17. Computational Tools and Algorithms for Designing Customized Synthetic Genes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gould, Nathan [Department of Computer Science, The College of New Jersey, Ewing, NJ (United States); Hendy, Oliver [Department of Biology, The College of New Jersey, Ewing, NJ (United States); Papamichail, Dimitris, E-mail: papamicd@tcnj.edu [Department of Computer Science, The College of New Jersey, Ewing, NJ (United States)

    2014-10-06

    Advances in DNA synthesis have enabled the construction of artificial genes, gene circuits, and genomes of bacterial scale. Freedom in de novo design of synthetic constructs provides significant power in studying the impact of mutations in sequence features, and verifying hypotheses on the functional information that is encoded in nucleic and amino acids. To aid this goal, a large number of software tools of variable sophistication have been implemented, enabling the design of synthetic genes for sequence optimization based on rationally defined properties. The first generation of tools dealt predominantly with singular objectives such as codon usage optimization and unique restriction site incorporation. Recent years have seen the emergence of sequence design tools that aim to evolve sequences toward combinations of objectives. The design of optimal protein-coding sequences adhering to multiple objectives is computationally hard, and most tools rely on heuristics to sample the vast sequence design space. In this review, we study some of the algorithmic issues behind gene optimization and the approaches that different tools have adopted to redesign genes and optimize desired coding features. We utilize test cases to demonstrate the efficiency of each approach, as well as identify their strengths and limitations.

  18. Computational Tools and Algorithms for Designing Customized Synthetic Genes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gould, Nathan; Hendy, Oliver; Papamichail, Dimitris

    2014-01-01

    Advances in DNA synthesis have enabled the construction of artificial genes, gene circuits, and genomes of bacterial scale. Freedom in de novo design of synthetic constructs provides significant power in studying the impact of mutations in sequence features, and verifying hypotheses on the functional information that is encoded in nucleic and amino acids. To aid this goal, a large number of software tools of variable sophistication have been implemented, enabling the design of synthetic genes for sequence optimization based on rationally defined properties. The first generation of tools dealt predominantly with singular objectives such as codon usage optimization and unique restriction site incorporation. Recent years have seen the emergence of sequence design tools that aim to evolve sequences toward combinations of objectives. The design of optimal protein-coding sequences adhering to multiple objectives is computationally hard, and most tools rely on heuristics to sample the vast sequence design space. In this review, we study some of the algorithmic issues behind gene optimization and the approaches that different tools have adopted to redesign genes and optimize desired coding features. We utilize test cases to demonstrate the efficiency of each approach, as well as identify their strengths and limitations.

  19. Have Economic Educators Embraced Social Media as a Teaching Tool?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Bahrani, Abdullah; Patel, Darshak; Sheridan, Brandon J.

    2017-01-01

    In this article, the authors discuss the results of a study of the perceptions of a national sample of economics faculty members from various institutions regarding the use of social media as a teaching tool in and out of the economics classroom. In the past few years, social media has become globally popular, and its use is ubiquitous among…

  20. Algorithms: economical computation of functions of real matrices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Weiss, Z.

    1991-01-01

    An algorithm is presented which economizes on the calculation of F(a), where A is a real matrix and F(x) a real valued function of x, using spectral analysis. Assuming the availability of the software for the calculation of the complete set of eigenvalues and eigen vectors of A, it is shown that the complex matrix arithmetics involved in subsequent operations leading from A to F(A) can be reduced to the size comparable with the analogous problem in real matrix arithmetics. Saving in CPU time and storage has been achieved by utilizing explicitly the property that complex eigenvalues of a real matrix appear in pairs of complex conjugated numbers. (author)

  1. Static economic dispatch incorporating wind farm using Flower pollination algorithm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suresh Velamuri

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Renewable energy is one of the clean and cheapest forms of energy which helps in minimizing the carbon foot print. Due to the less environmental impact and economic issues integration of renewable energy sources with the existing network gained attention. In this paper, the impact of wind energy is analysed in a power system network using static economic dispatch (SED. The wind energy is integrated with the existing thermal systems. Here, the generation scheduling is optimized using Flower pollination algorithm (FPA due to its robustness in solving nonlinear problems. Integration of wind power in the existing system increases the complexity due to its stochastic nature. Weibull distribution function is used for solving the stochastic nature of wind. Scenarios without and with wind power penetration are discussed in detail. The analysis is carried out by considering the losses and installing the wind farm at different locations in the system. The proposed methodology is tested and validated on a standard IEEE 30 bus system.

  2. ECONOMIC MECHANISMS OF POPULATION PROTECTION AGAINST PENSION RISKS AS A TOOL FOR SOCIO-ECONOMIC DEVELOPMENT OF THE REGION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lyubov V. Grigoryeva

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available The problem of finding effective economic instruments for socio-economic development of the regions has recently become of increasing relevance. Strengthening the regional differentiation, highlighting the leading and lagging regions, the lack of own resources in the regions has forced regional authorities to use new instruments of territorial development, in particular, economic mechanisms of protection against pension risks. The use of these mechanisms has a dual effect (economic and social, due to the attraction of the regions with additional financial resources in the form of “long money” and increasing the protection of citizens against pension risks (the increase in the level of pension payments. The analysis of the current use of economic mechanisms of protection against pension risks in the regions of the Southern Federal District helped to articulate key issues of their use, in particular, low pension literacy of the population, distrust towards specialized financial institutions, the investment policy of the regions does not take into account the possibility of attracting private pension funds into regional projects, and there is no mechanism to support regional National Pension Fund. Territorial analysis revealed the potential application of economic mechanisms to protect against pension risks in the regions of the Southern Federal District as a tool for socio-economic development, which is based on the existence of regional pension funds and insurance companies (providing services for pension insurance, as well as participation in private pension provision. The Krasnodar, Rostov and Volgograd regions have the highest potential among the regions of the Southern Federal District, as there already exist regional National Pension Fund, and the participation in private pension insurance is confirmed by the statistics of the contributions paid. The study of existing economic mechanisms to protect against pension risks will provide the

  3. Economic Consequence Analysis of Disasters: The ECAT Software Tool

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rose, Adam; Prager, Fynn; Chen, Zhenhua; Chatterjee, Samrat; Wei, Dan; Heatwole, Nathaniel; Warren, Eric

    2017-04-15

    This study develops a methodology for rapidly obtaining approximate estimates of the economic consequences from numerous natural, man-made and technological threats. This software tool is intended for use by various decision makers and analysts to obtain estimates rapidly. It is programmed in Excel and Visual Basic for Applications (VBA) to facilitate its use. This tool is called E-CAT (Economic Consequence Analysis Tool) and accounts for the cumulative direct and indirect impacts (including resilience and behavioral factors that significantly affect base estimates) on the U.S. economy. E-CAT is intended to be a major step toward advancing the current state of economic consequence analysis (ECA) and also contributing to and developing interest in further research into complex but rapid turnaround approaches. The essence of the methodology involves running numerous simulations in a computable general equilibrium (CGE) model for each threat, yielding synthetic data for the estimation of a single regression equation based on the identification of key explanatory variables (threat characteristics and background conditions). This transforms the results of a complex model, which is beyond the reach of most users, into a "reduced form" model that is readily comprehensible. Functionality has been built into E-CAT so that its users can switch various consequence categories on and off in order to create customized profiles of economic consequences of numerous risk events. E-CAT incorporates uncertainty on both the input and output side in the course of the analysis.

  4. Panorama 2018 - Overview of economic carbon pricing tools worldwide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Coussy, Paula

    2018-01-01

    The Paris Agreement signed at COP21 came into effect in November 2016. This agreement aims to hold the increase in global average temperature to below 2 deg. C and pursue efforts to limit the rise to 1.5 deg. C by 2100. Governments and local jurisdictions must now implement an economic and regulatory framework to encourage greenhouse gas reductions. One of the economic tools available is carbon pricing. It varies greatly in form and value at international level and is deployed in all sectors of the economy. (author)

  5. Panorama 2017 - Overview of economic carbon pricing tools worldwide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Coussy, Paula

    2017-06-01

    The Paris Agreement signed at COP21 came into effect in November 2016. This agreement aims to hold the increase in global average temperature to below 2 deg. C and pursue efforts to limit the rise to 1.5 deg. C by 2100. Governments and local jurisdictions must now implement an economic and regulatory framework to encourage greenhouse gas reductions. One of the economic tools available is carbon pricing. It varies greatly in form and value at international level and is deployed in all sectors of the economy

  6. Clustering Algorithm As A Planning Support Tool For Rural Electrification Optimization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ronaldo Pornillosa Parreno Jr

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract In this study clustering algorithm was developed to optimize electrification plans by screening and grouping potential customers to be supplied with electricity. The algorithm provided adifferent approach in clustering problem which combines conceptual and distance-based clustering algorithmsto analyze potential clusters using spanning tree with the shortest possible edge weight and creating final cluster trees based on the test of inconsistency for the edges. The clustering criteria consists of commonly used distance measure with the addition of household information as basis for the ability to pay ATP value. The combination of these two parameters resulted to a more significant and realistic clusters since distance measure alone could not take the effect of the household characteristics in screening the most sensible groupings of households. In addition the implications of varying geographical features were incorporated in the algorithm by using routing index across the locations of the households. This new approach of connecting the households in an area was applied in an actual case study of one village or barangay that was not yet energized. The results of clustering algorithm generated cluster trees which could becomethetheoretical basis for power utilities to plan the initial network arrangement of electrification. Scenario analysis conducted on the two strategies of clustering the households provideddifferent alternatives for the optimization of the cost of electrification. Futhermorethe benefits associated with the two strategies formulated from the two scenarios was evaluated using benefit cost ratio BC to determine which is more economically advantageous. The results of the study showed that clustering algorithm proved to be effective in solving electrification optimization problem and serves its purpose as a planning support tool which can facilitate electrification in rural areas and achieve cost-effectiveness.

  7. Economic Tools for Managing Nitrogen in Coastal Watersheds ...

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watershed managers are interested in using economics to communicate the value of estuarine resources to the wider community, determine the most cost-effective means to reduce nitrogen pollution, and evaluate the benefits of taking action to improve coastal ecosystems. We spoke to coastal watershed managers who had commissioned economic studies and found that they were largely satisfied with the information and their ability to communicate the importance of coastal ecosystems. However, while managers were able to use these studies as communication tools, methods used in some studies were inconsistent with what some economists consider best practices. In addition, many watershed managers are grappling with how to implement nitrogen management activities in a way that is both cost-effective and achieves environmental goals, while maintaining public support. These and other issues led to this project. Our intent is to provide information to watershed managers and others interested in watershed management – such as National Estuary Programs, local governments, or nongovernmental organizations – on economic tools for managing nitrogen in coastal watersheds, and to economists and other analysts who are interested in assisting them in meeting their needs. Watershed management requires balancing scientific, political, and social issues to solve environmental problems. This document summarizes questions that watershed managers have about using economic analysis, and g

  8. OPTIMIZING USABILITY OF AN ECONOMIC DECISION SUPPORT TOOL: PROTOTYPE OF THE EQUIPT TOOL.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheung, Kei Long; Hiligsmann, Mickaël; Präger, Maximilian; Jones, Teresa; Józwiak-Hagymásy, Judit; Muñoz, Celia; Lester-George, Adam; Pokhrel, Subhash; López-Nicolás, Ángel; Trapero-Bertran, Marta; Evers, Silvia M A A; de Vries, Hein

    2018-01-01

    Economic decision-support tools can provide valuable information for tobacco control stakeholders, but their usability may impact the adoption of such tools. This study aims to illustrate a mixed-method usability evaluation of an economic decision-support tool for tobacco control, using the EQUIPT ROI tool prototype as a case study. A cross-sectional mixed methods design was used, including a heuristic evaluation, a thinking aloud approach, and a questionnaire testing and exploring the usability of the Return of Investment tool. A total of sixty-six users evaluated the tool (thinking aloud) and completed the questionnaire. For the heuristic evaluation, four experts evaluated the interface. In total twenty-one percent of the respondents perceived good usability. A total of 118 usability problems were identified, from which twenty-six problems were categorized as most severe, indicating high priority to fix them before implementation. Combining user-based and expert-based evaluation methods is recommended as these were shown to identify unique usability problems. The evaluation provides input to optimize usability of a decision-support tool, and may serve as a vantage point for other developers to conduct usability evaluations to refine similar tools before wide-scale implementation. Such studies could reduce implementation gaps by optimizing usability, enhancing in turn the research impact of such interventions.

  9. Sounds unheard of evolutionary algorithms as creative tools for the contemporary composer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dahlstedt, Palle

    2004-01-01

    Evolutionary algorithms are studied as tools for generating novel musical material in the form of musical scores and synthesized sounds. The choice of genetic representation defines a space of potential music. This space is explored using evolutionary algorithms, in search of useful musical mater...... composed with the tools described in the thesis are presented....

  10. Zombie algorithms: a timesaving remote sensing systems engineering tool

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ardanuy, Philip E.; Powell, Dylan C.; Marley, Stephen

    2008-08-01

    In modern horror fiction, zombies are generally undead corpses brought back from the dead by supernatural or scientific means, and are rarely under anyone's direct control. They typically have very limited intelligence, and hunger for the flesh of the living [1]. Typical spectroradiometric or hyperspectral instruments providess calibrated radiances for a number of remote sensing algorithms. The algorithms typically must meet specified latency and availability requirements while yielding products at the required quality. These systems, whether research, operational, or a hybrid, are typically cost constrained. Complexity of the algorithms can be high, and may evolve and mature over time as sensor characterization changes, product validation occurs, and areas of scientific basis improvement are identified and completed. This suggests the need for a systems engineering process for algorithm maintenance that is agile, cost efficient, repeatable, and predictable. Experience on remote sensing science data systems suggests the benefits of "plug-n-play" concepts of operation. The concept, while intuitively simple, can be challenging to implement in practice. The use of zombie algorithms-empty shells that outwardly resemble the form, fit, and function of a "complete" algorithm without the implemented theoretical basis-provides the ground systems advantages equivalent to those obtained by integrating sensor engineering models onto the spacecraft bus. Combined with a mature, repeatable process for incorporating the theoretical basis, or scientific core, into the "head" of the zombie algorithm, along with associated scripting and registration, provides an easy "on ramp" for the rapid and low-risk integration of scientific applications into operational systems.

  11. Early Termination of Dantzig-Wolfe Algorithm for Economic MPC

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Standardi, Laura; Sokoler, Leo Emil; Poulsen, Niels Kjølstad

    2013-01-01

    In this paper we apply the Economic Model Predictive Control (MPC) for balancing the power supply and demand in the future power systems in the most economic way. The control problem is formulated as a linear program, having a block-angular structure solved by the implementation of the Dantzig...

  12. Enhanced clinical pharmacy service targeting tools: risk-predictive algorithms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    El Hajji, Feras W D; Scullin, Claire; Scott, Michael G; McElnay, James C

    2015-04-01

    This study aimed to determine the value of using a mix of clinical pharmacy data and routine hospital admission spell data in the development of predictive algorithms. Exploration of risk factors in hospitalized patients, together with the targeting strategies devised, will enable the prioritization of clinical pharmacy services to optimize patient outcomes. Predictive algorithms were developed using a number of detailed steps using a 75% sample of integrated medicines management (IMM) patients, and validated using the remaining 25%. IMM patients receive targeted clinical pharmacy input throughout their hospital stay. The algorithms were applied to the validation sample, and predicted risk probability was generated for each patient from the coefficients. Risk threshold for the algorithms were determined by identifying the cut-off points of risk scores at which the algorithm would have the highest discriminative performance. Clinical pharmacy staffing levels were obtained from the pharmacy department staffing database. Numbers of previous emergency admissions and admission medicines together with age-adjusted co-morbidity and diuretic receipt formed a 12-month post-discharge and/or readmission risk algorithm. Age-adjusted co-morbidity proved to be the best index to predict mortality. Increased numbers of clinical pharmacy staff at ward level was correlated with a reduction in risk-adjusted mortality index (RAMI). Algorithms created were valid in predicting risk of in-hospital and post-discharge mortality and risk of hospital readmission 3, 6 and 12 months post-discharge. The provision of ward-based clinical pharmacy services is a key component to reducing RAMI and enabling the full benefits of pharmacy input to patient care to be realized. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  13. Simultaneous Scheduling of Jobs, AGVs and Tools Considering Tool Transfer Times in Multi Machine FMS By SOS Algorithm

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sivarami Reddy, N.; Ramamurthy, D. V., Dr.; Prahlada Rao, K., Dr.

    2017-08-01

    This article addresses simultaneous scheduling of machines, AGVs and tools where machines are allowed to share the tools considering transfer times of jobs and tools between machines, to generate best optimal sequences that minimize makespan in a multi-machine Flexible Manufacturing System (FMS). Performance of FMS is expected to improve by effective utilization of its resources, by proper integration and synchronization of their scheduling. Symbiotic Organisms Search (SOS) algorithm is a potent tool which is a better alternative for solving optimization problems like scheduling and proven itself. The proposed SOS algorithm is tested on 22 job sets with makespan as objective for scheduling of machines and tools where machines are allowed to share tools without considering transfer times of jobs and tools and the results are compared with the results of existing methods. The results show that the SOS has outperformed. The same SOS algorithm is used for simultaneous scheduling of machines, AGVs and tools where machines are allowed to share tools considering transfer times of jobs and tools to determine the best optimal sequences that minimize makespan.

  14. A Decomposition Algorithm for Mean-Variance Economic Model Predictive Control of Stochastic Linear Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sokoler, Leo Emil; Dammann, Bernd; Madsen, Henrik

    2014-01-01

    This paper presents a decomposition algorithm for solving the optimal control problem (OCP) that arises in Mean-Variance Economic Model Predictive Control of stochastic linear systems. The algorithm applies the alternating direction method of multipliers to a reformulation of the OCP...

  15. Methods and Algorithms for Economic MPC in Power Production Planning

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sokoler, Leo Emil

    in real-time. A generator can represent a producer of electricity, a consumer of electricity, or possibly both. Examples of generators are heat pumps, electric vehicles, wind turbines, virtual power plants, solar cells, and conventional fuel-fired thermal power plants. Although this thesis is mainly...... concerned with EMPC for minutes-ahead production planning, we show that the proposed EMPC scheme can be extended to days-ahead planning (including unit commitment) as well. The power generation from renewable energy sources such as wind and solar power is inherently uncertain and variable. A portfolio...... design an algorithm based on the alternating direction method of multipliers (ADMM) to solve input-constrained OCPs with convex objective functions. The OCPs that occur in EMPC of dynamically decoupled subsystems, e.g. power generators, have a block-angular structure. Subsystem decomposition algorithms...

  16. Harmony search algorithm for solving combined heat and power economic dispatch problems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Khorram, Esmaile, E-mail: eskhor@aut.ac.i [Department of Applied Mathematics, Faculty of Mathematics and Computer Science, Amirkabir University of Technology, No. 424, Hafez Ave., 15914 Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Jaberipour, Majid, E-mail: Majid.Jaberipour@gmail.co [Department of Applied Mathematics, Faculty of Mathematics and Computer Science, Amirkabir University of Technology, No. 424, Hafez Ave., 15914 Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

    2011-02-15

    Economic dispatch (ED) is one of the key optimization problems in electric power system operation. The problem grows complex if one or more units produce both power and heat. Combined heat and power economic dispatch (CHPED) problem is a complicated problem that needs powerful methods to solve. This paper presents a harmony search (EDHS) algorithm to solve CHPED. Some standard examples are presented to demonstrate the effectiveness of this algorithm in obtaining the optimal solution. In all cases, the solutions obtained using EDHS algorithm are better than those obtained by other methods.

  17. Application of multiple tabu search algorithm to solve dynamic economic dispatch considering generator constraints

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pothiya, Saravuth; Ngamroo, Issarachai; Kongprawechnon, Waree

    2008-01-01

    This paper presents a new optimization technique based on a multiple tabu search algorithm (MTS) to solve the dynamic economic dispatch (ED) problem with generator constraints. In the constrained dynamic ED problem, the load demand and spinning reserve capacity as well as some practical operation constraints of generators, such as ramp rate limits and prohibited operating zone are taken into consideration. The MTS algorithm introduces additional mechanisms such as initialization, adaptive searches, multiple searches, crossover and restarting process. To show its efficiency, the MTS algorithm is applied to solve constrained dynamic ED problems of power systems with 6 and 15 units. The results obtained from the MTS algorithm are compared to those achieved from the conventional approaches, such as simulated annealing (SA), genetic algorithm (GA), tabu search (TS) algorithm and particle swarm optimization (PSO). The experimental results show that the proposed MTS algorithm approaches is able to obtain higher quality solutions efficiently and with less computational time than the conventional approaches

  18. Lot-sizing algorithms with applications to engineering and economics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vidal, Rene Victor Valqui; Ferreira, Jose S.

    1984-01-01

    of time-varying parameters. A comparison of the efficiency of the new solution procedures with well-known methods is developed. New applications of the techniques described within the fields of engineering (optimal design of a pump-pipe system) and economics (a model for import-planning) are referred to...

  19. Heat Transfer Search Algorithm for Non-convex Economic Dispatch Problems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hazra, Abhik; Das, Saborni; Basu, Mousumi

    2018-03-01

    This paper presents Heat Transfer Search (HTS) algorithm for the non-linear economic dispatch problem. HTS algorithm is based on the law of thermodynamics and heat transfer. The proficiency of the suggested technique has been disclosed on three dissimilar complicated economic dispatch problems with valve point effect; prohibited operating zone; and multiple fuels with valve point effect. Test results acquired from the suggested technique for the economic dispatch problem have been fitted to that acquired from other stated evolutionary techniques. It has been observed that the suggested HTS carry out superior solutions.

  20. Assistance tool commissioner of new algorithms of systems planning of therapy with ionizing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reinado, D.; Ricos, B.; Alonso, S.; Chinillach, N.; Bellido, P.; Tortosa, R.

    2013-01-01

    The Commissioner of a new scheduling algorithm is associated with a high number of hours of work and measures. In order to optimize the development of the Commissioner for the AAA algorithms and Acuros XB within planning Eclipse (V.10) system marketed by Varian and have developed a tool in Microsoft Excel format where the different tests have been included to perform. (Author)

  1. A dataflow analysis tool for parallel processing of algorithms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Robert L., III

    1993-01-01

    A graph-theoretic design process and software tool is presented for selecting a multiprocessing scheduling solution for a class of computational problems. The problems of interest are those that can be described using a dataflow graph and are intended to be executed repetitively on a set of identical parallel processors. Typical applications include signal processing and control law problems. Graph analysis techniques are introduced and shown to effectively determine performance bounds, scheduling constraints, and resource requirements. The software tool is shown to facilitate the application of the design process to a given problem.

  2. A Linear Algorithm for Black Scholes Economic Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dumitru FANACHE

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available The pricing of options is a very important problem encountered in financial domain. The famous Black-Scholes model provides explicit closed form solution for the values of certain (European style call and put options. But for many other options, either there are no closed form solution, or if such closed form solutions exist, the formulas exhibiting them are complicated and difficult to evaluate accurately by conventional methods. The aim of this paper is to study the possibility of obtaining the numerical solution for the Black-Scholes equation in parallel, by means of several processors, using the finite difference method. A comparison between the complexity of the parallel algorithm and the serial one is given.

  3. A new accurate curvature matching and optimal tool based five-axis machining algorithm

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lin, Than; Lee, Jae Woo; Bohez, Erik L. J.

    2009-01-01

    Free-form surfaces are widely used in CAD systems to describe the part surface. Today, the most advanced machining of free from surfaces is done in five-axis machining using a flat end mill cutter. However, five-axis machining requires complex algorithms for gouging avoidance, collision detection and powerful computer-aided manufacturing (CAM) systems to support various operations. An accurate and efficient method is proposed for five-axis CNC machining of free-form surfaces. The proposed algorithm selects the best tool and plans the tool path autonomously using curvature matching and integrated inverse kinematics of the machine tool. The new algorithm uses the real cutter contact tool path generated by the inverse kinematics and not the linearized piecewise real cutter location tool path

  4. Improved differential evolution algorithms for handling economic dispatch optimization with generator constraints

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Coelho, Leandro dos Santos; Mariani, Viviana Cocco

    2007-01-01

    Global optimization based on evolutionary algorithms can be used as the important component for many engineering optimization problems. Evolutionary algorithms have yielded promising results for solving nonlinear, non-differentiable and multi-modal optimization problems in the power systems area. Differential evolution (DE) is a simple and efficient evolutionary algorithm for function optimization over continuous spaces. It has reportedly outperformed search heuristics when tested over both benchmark and real world problems. This paper proposes improved DE algorithms for solving economic load dispatch problems that take into account nonlinear generator features such as ramp rate limits and prohibited operating zones in the power system operation. The DE algorithms and its variants are validated for two test systems consisting of 6 and 15 thermal units. Various DE approaches outperforms other state of the art algorithms reported in the literature in solving load dispatch problems with generator constraints

  5. ESHOPPS: A COMPUTATIONAL TOOL TO AID THE TEACHING OF SHORTEST PATH ALGORITHMS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. J. de A. LIMA

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available The development of a computational tool called EShoPPS – Environment for Shortest Path Problem Solving, which is used to assist students in understanding the working of Dijkstra, Greedy search and A*(star algorithms is presented in this paper. Such algorithms are commonly taught in graduate and undergraduate courses of Engineering and Informatics and are used for solving many optimization problems that can be characterized as Shortest Path Problem. The EShoPPS is an interactive tool that allows students to create a graph representing the problem and also helps in developing their knowledge of each specific algorithm. Experiments performed with 155 students of undergraduate and graduate courses such as Industrial Engineering, Computer Science and Information Systems have shown that by using the EShoPPS tool students were able to improve their interpretation of investigated algorithms.

  6. A Parallel Adaptive Particle Swarm Optimization Algorithm for Economic/Environmental Power Dispatch

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jinchao Li

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available A parallel adaptive particle swarm optimization algorithm (PAPSO is proposed for economic/environmental power dispatch, which can overcome the premature characteristic, the slow-speed convergence in the late evolutionary phase, and lacking good direction in particles’ evolutionary process. A search population is randomly divided into several subpopulations. Then for each subpopulation, the optimal solution is searched synchronously using the proposed method, and thus parallel computing is realized. To avoid converging to a local optimum, a crossover operator is introduced to exchange the information among the subpopulations and the diversity of population is sustained simultaneously. Simulation results show that the proposed algorithm can effectively solve the economic/environmental operation problem of hydropower generating units. Performance comparisons show that the solution from the proposed method is better than those from the conventional particle swarm algorithm and other optimization algorithms.

  7. Multiobjective Economic Load Dispatch in 3-D Space by Genetic Algorithm

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jain, N. K.; Nangia, Uma; Singh, Iqbal

    2017-10-01

    This paper presents the application of genetic algorithm to Multiobjective Economic Load Dispatch (MELD) problem considering fuel cost, transmission losses and environmental pollution as objective functions. The MELD problem has been formulated using constraint method. The non-inferior set for IEEE 5, 14 and 30-bus system has been generated by using genetic algorithm and the target point has been obtained by using maximization of minimum relative attainments.

  8. A recursive economic dispatch algorithm for assessing the cost of thermal generator schedules

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wong, K.P.; Doan, K.

    1992-01-01

    This paper develops an efficient, recursive algorithm for determining the economic power dispatch of thermal generators within the unit commitment environment. A method for incorporating the operation limits of all on-line generators and limits due to ramping generators is developed in the paper. The developed algorithm is amenable for computer implementation using the artificial intelligence programming language, Prolog. The performance of the developed algorithm is demonstrated through its application to evaluate the costs of dispatching 13 thermal generators within a generator schedule in a 24-hour schedule horizon

  9. Symbiotic organisms search algorithm for dynamic economic dispatch with valve-point effects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sonmez, Yusuf; Kahraman, H. Tolga; Dosoglu, M. Kenan; Guvenc, Ugur; Duman, Serhat

    2017-05-01

    In this study, symbiotic organisms search (SOS) algorithm is proposed to solve the dynamic economic dispatch with valve-point effects problem, which is one of the most important problems of the modern power system. Some practical constraints like valve-point effects, ramp rate limits and prohibited operating zones have been considered as solutions. Proposed algorithm was tested on five different test cases in 5 units, 10 units and 13 units systems. The obtained results have been compared with other well-known metaheuristic methods reported before. Results show that proposed algorithm has a good convergence and produces better results than other methods.

  10. A new modified artificial bee colony algorithm for the economic dispatch problem

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Secui, Dinu Calin

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • A new modified ABC algorithm (MABC) is proposed to solve the EcD/EmD problem. • Valve-point effects, ramp-rate limits, POZ, transmission losses were considered. • The algorithm is tested on four systems having 6, 13, 40 and 52 thermal units. • MABC algorithm outperforms several optimization techniques. - Abstract: In this paper a new modified artificial bee colony algorithm (MABC) is proposed to solve the economic dispatch problem by taking into account the valve-point effects, the emission pollutions and various operating constraints of the generating units. The MABC algorithm introduces a new relation to update the solutions within the search space, in order to increase the algorithm ability to avoid premature convergence and to find stable and high quality solutions. Moreover, to strengthen the MABC algorithm performance, it is endowed with a chaotic sequence generated by both a cat map and a logistic map. The MABC algorithm behavior is investigated for several combinations resulting from three generating modalities of the chaotic sequences and two selection schemes of the solutions. The performance of the MABC variants is tested on four systems having six units, thirteen units, forty units and fifty-two thermal generating units. The comparison of the results shows that the MABC variants have a better performance than the classical ABC algorithm and other optimization techniques

  11. Hydro-Thermal-Wind Generation Scheduling Considering Economic and Environmental Factors Using Heuristic Algorithms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suresh K. Damodaran

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Hydro-thermal-wind generation scheduling (HTWGS with economic and environmental factors is a multi-objective complex nonlinear power system optimization problem with many equality and inequality constraints. The objective of the problem is to generate an hour-by-hour optimum schedule of hydro-thermal-wind power plants to attain the least emission of pollutants from thermal plants and a reduced generation cost of thermal and wind plants for a 24-h period, satisfying the system constraints. The paper presents a detailed framework of the HTWGS problem and proposes a modified particle swarm optimization (MPSO algorithm for evolving a solution. The competency of selected heuristic algorithms, representing different heuristic groups, viz. the binary coded genetic algorithm (BCGA, particle swarm optimization (PSO, improved harmony search (IHS, and JAYA algorithm, for searching for an optimal solution to HTWGS considering economic and environmental factors was investigated in a trial system consisting of a multi-stream cascaded system with four reservoirs, three thermal plants, and two wind plants. Appropriate mathematical models were used for representing the water discharge, generation cost, and pollutant emission of respective power plants incorporated in the system. Statistical analysis was performed to check the consistency and reliability of the proposed algorithm. The simulation results indicated that the proposed MPSO algorithm provided a better solution to the problem of HTWGS, with a reduced generation cost and the least emission, when compared with the other heuristic algorithms considered.

  12. Algorithms and tools for system identification using prior knowledge

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lindskog, P.

    1994-01-01

    One of the hardest problems in system identification is that of model structure selection. In this thesis two different kinds of a priori process knowledge are used to address this fundamental problem. Concentrating on linear model structures, the first prior advantage of is knowledge about the systems' dominating time constants and resonance frequencies. The idea is to generalize FIR modelling by replacing the usual delay operator with discrete so-called Laguerre or Kautz filters. The generalization is such that stability, the linear regression structure and the approximation ability of the FIR model structure is retained, whereas the prior is used to reduce the number of parameters needed to arrive at a reasonable model. Tailorized and efficient system identification algorithms for these model structures are detailed in this work. The usefulness of the proposed methods is demonstrated through concrete simulation and application studies. The other approach is referred to as semi-physical modelling. The main idea is to use simple physical insight into the application, often in terms of a set of unstructured equations, in order to come up with suitable nonlinear transformation of the raw measurements, so as to allow for a good model structure. Semi-physical modelling is less ''ambitious'' than physical modelling in that no complete physical structure is sought, just combinations of inputs and outputs that can be subjected to more or less standard model structures, such as linear regressions. The suggested modelling procedure shows a first step where symbolic computations are employed to determine a suitable model structure - a set of regressors. We show how constructive methods from commutative and differential algebra can be applied for this. Subsequently, different numerical schemes for finding a subset of ''good'' regressors and for estimating the corresponding linear-in-the-parameters model are discussed. 107 refs, figs, tabs

  13. A new simulation tool for testing smart home recognition algorithms

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bouchard, K.; Ajroud, A.; Bouchard, B.; Bouzouane, A. [Chicoutimi Univ. du Quebec, Saguenay, PQ (Canada)

    2010-08-13

    Smart home technologies are being actively researched. However, many scientists studying this topic of research do not own smart home infrastructure, and therefore, are unable to conduct proper experiments in a concrete environment with real data. In order to address this problem and to help researchers working in the field of activity recognition, this paper presented a novel and flexible three-dimensional smart home infrastructure simulator called SIMACT developed in Java. The paper discussed the proposed simulator including the software architecture, implementation, and scripting. It also discussed the actual initiative to gather real data that would be incorporated in the simulator as real case pre-recorded scenarios. An overview of related work and future developments were also presented. It was concluded that SIMACT is a user-friendly three-dimensional animated simulator that offers a simple interface that could be easily adapted to individual needs and could become a very useful tool for the community with its XML scripting language, many options, customizable three-dimensional frame and its set of pre-defined real case scenarios. 18 refs., 4 figs.

  14. Tools for Analyzing Computing Resource Management Strategies and Algorithms for SDR Clouds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marojevic, Vuk; Gomez-Miguelez, Ismael; Gelonch, Antoni

    2012-09-01

    Software defined radio (SDR) clouds centralize the computing resources of base stations. The computing resource pool is shared between radio operators and dynamically loads and unloads digital signal processing chains for providing wireless communications services on demand. Each new user session request particularly requires the allocation of computing resources for executing the corresponding SDR transceivers. The huge amount of computing resources of SDR cloud data centers and the numerous session requests at certain hours of a day require an efficient computing resource management. We propose a hierarchical approach, where the data center is divided in clusters that are managed in a distributed way. This paper presents a set of computing resource management tools for analyzing computing resource management strategies and algorithms for SDR clouds. We use the tools for evaluating a different strategies and algorithms. The results show that more sophisticated algorithms can achieve higher resource occupations and that a tradeoff exists between cluster size and algorithm complexity.

  15. Model-based fault diagnosis techniques design schemes, algorithms, and tools

    CERN Document Server

    Ding, Steven

    2008-01-01

    The objective of this book is to introduce basic model-based FDI schemes, advanced analysis and design algorithms, and the needed mathematical and control theory tools at a level for graduate students and researchers as well as for engineers. This is a textbook with extensive examples and references. Most methods are given in the form of an algorithm that enables a direct implementation in a programme. Comparisons among different methods are included when possible.

  16. A simple two stage optimization algorithm for constrained power economic dispatch

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huang, G.; Song, K.

    1994-01-01

    A simple two stage optimization algorithm is proposed and investigated for fast computation of constrained power economic dispatch control problems. The method is a simple demonstration of the hierarchical aggregation-disaggregation (HAD) concept. The algorithm first solves an aggregated problem to obtain an initial solution. This aggregated problem turns out to be classical economic dispatch formulation, and it can be solved in 1% of overall computation time. In the second stage, linear programming method finds optimal solution which satisfies power balance constraints, generation and transmission inequality constraints and security constraints. Implementation of the algorithm for IEEE systems and EPRI Scenario systems shows that the two stage method obtains average speedup ratio 10.64 as compared to classical LP-based method

  17. An algorithm and a Tool for Wavelength Allocation in OMS-SP Ring Architecture

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Riaz, Muhammad Tahir; Pedersen, Jens Myrup; Madsen, Ole Brun

    2006-01-01

    OMS-SP ring is one of the well known architectures in Wavelength Division Multiplexing based optical fiber networks. The architecture supports a restorable full mesh in an optical fiber ring using multiple light wavelengths. The paper presents an algorithm to allocate wavelengths in the OMS-SP ri...... architecture. A tool is also introduced which implements the algorithm and assigns wavelengths. The proposed algorithm uses fewer number of wavelengths than the classical allocation method. The algorithm is described and results are presented.......OMS-SP ring is one of the well known architectures in Wavelength Division Multiplexing based optical fiber networks. The architecture supports a restorable full mesh in an optical fiber ring using multiple light wavelengths. The paper presents an algorithm to allocate wavelengths in the OMS-SP ring...

  18. ANN-Benchmarks: A Benchmarking Tool for Approximate Nearest Neighbor Algorithms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aumüller, Martin; Bernhardsson, Erik; Faithfull, Alexander

    2017-01-01

    This paper describes ANN-Benchmarks, a tool for evaluating the performance of in-memory approximate nearest neighbor algorithms. It provides a standard interface for measuring the performance and quality achieved by nearest neighbor algorithms on different standard data sets. It supports several...... visualise these as images, Open image in new window plots, and websites with interactive plots. ANN-Benchmarks aims to provide a constantly updated overview of the current state of the art of k-NN algorithms. In the short term, this overview allows users to choose the correct k-NN algorithm and parameters...... for their similarity search task; in the longer term, algorithm designers will be able to use this overview to test and refine automatic parameter tuning. The paper gives an overview of the system, evaluates the results of the benchmark, and points out directions for future work. Interestingly, very different...

  19. Cross entropy-based memetic algorithms: An application study over the tool switching problem

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jhon Edgar Amaya

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a parameterized schema for building memetic algorithms based on cross-entropy (CE methods. This novel schema is general in nature, and features multiple probability mass functions and Lamarckian learning. The applicability of the approach is assessed by considering the Tool Switching Problem, a complex combinatorial problem in the field of Flexible Manufacturing Systems. An exhaustive evaluation (including techniques ranging from local search and evolutionary algorithms to constructive methods provides evidence of the effectiveness of CE-based memetic algorithms.

  20. A new honey bee mating optimization algorithm for non-smooth economic dispatch

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Niknam, Taher; Mojarrad, Hasan Doagou; Meymand, Hamed Zeinoddini; Firouzi, Bahman Bahmani

    2011-01-01

    The non-storage characteristics of electricity and the increasing fuel costs worldwide call for the need to operate the systems more economically. Economic dispatch (ED) is one of the most important optimization problems in power systems. ED has the objective of dividing the power demand among the online generators economically while satisfying various constraints. The importance of economic dispatch is to get maximum usable power using minimum resources. To solve the static ED problem, honey bee mating algorithm (HBMO) can be used. The basic disadvantage of the original HBMO algorithm is the fact that it may miss the optimum and provide a near optimum solution in a limited runtime period. In order to avoid this shortcoming, we propose a new method that improves the mating process of HBMO and also, combines the improved HBMO with a Chaotic Local Search (CLS) called Chaotic Improved Honey Bee Mating Optimization (CIHBMO). The proposed algorithm is used to solve ED problems taking into account the nonlinear generator characteristics such as prohibited operation zones, multi-fuel and valve-point loading effects. The CIHBMO algorithm is tested on three test systems and compared with other methods in the literature. Results have shown that the proposed method is efficient and fast for ED problems with non-smooth and non-continuous fuel cost functions. Moreover, the optimal power dispatch obtained by the algorithm is superior to previous reported results. -- Research highlights: →Economic dispatch. →Reducing electrical energy loss. →Saving electrical energy. →Optimal operation.

  1. Entropic algorithms and the lid method as exploration tools for complex landscapes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Barettin, Daniele; Sibani, Paolo

    2011-01-01

    to a single valley, are key to understand the dynamical properties of such systems. In this paper we combine the lid algorithm, a tool for landscape exploration previously applied to a range of models, with the Wang-Swendsen algorithm. To test this improved exploration tool, we consider a paradigmatic complex...... system, the Edwards-Andersom model in two and three spatial dimension. We find a striking difference between the energy dependence of the local density of states in the two cases: nearly flat in the first case, and nearly exponential in the second. The lid dependence of the data is analyzed to estimate...

  2. Economic Load Dispatch Unit Pembangkit Termal Mempertimbangkan Penambahan Pembangkit Tenaga Angin Dengan Menggunakan Firefly Algorithm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ridho Syahrial Ibrahim

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Maraknya isu global warming serta keterbatasan sumber daya alam membuat mulai banyaknya dibangun pembangkit-pembangkit listrik dengan renewable energy, salah satunya adalah pembangkit tenaga angin. Pada jurnal ini, firefly algorithm diterapkan untuk mengoptimasi total biaya pembangkitan 2 buah sistem uji, tanpa dan dengan mempertimbangkan penambahan tenaga angin. Hasil simulasi menunjukkan bahwa dengan penambahan pembangkit tenaga angin ke dalam sistem tenaga listrik, total biaya pembangkitan tidak selalu lebih murah. Selain itu, hasil simulasi juga menunjukkan bahwa firefly algorithm sebagai metode optimasi dapat menyelesaikan permasalahan economic load dispatch (ELD lebih baik dibandingkan metode lain yang sudah dilakukan, yaitu particle swarm optimization (PSO, bat algorithm (BA, biogeography-based optimization (BBO dan plant growth simulation algorithm (PGSA dengan persentase selisih nilai penghematan total biaya berkisar antara 0.32% ($50 hingga 9.27% ($11884.

  3. Optimal Economic Operation of Islanded Microgrid by Using a Modified PSO Algorithm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yiwei Ma

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available An optimal economic operation method is presented to attain a joint-optimization of cost reduction and operation strategy for islanded microgrid, which includes renewable energy source, the diesel generator, and battery storage system. The optimization objective is to minimize the overall generating cost involving depreciation cost, operation cost, emission cost, and economic subsidy available for renewable energy source, while satisfying various equality and inequality constraints. A novel dynamic optimization process is proposed based on two different operation control modes where diesel generator or battery storage acts as the master unit to maintain the system frequency and voltage stability, and a modified particle swarm optimization algorithm is applied to get faster solution to the practical economic operation problem of islanded microgrid. With the example system of an actual islanded microgrid in Dongao Island, China, the proposed models, dynamic optimization strategy, and solution algorithm are verified and the influences of different operation strategies and optimization algorithms on the economic operation are discussed. The results achieved demonstrate the effectiveness and feasibility of the proposed method.

  4. A Modified Artificial Bee Colony Algorithm Application for Economic Environmental Dispatch

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tarafdar Hagh, M.; Baghban Orandi, Omid

    2018-03-01

    In conventional fossil-fuel power systems, the economic environmental dispatch (EED) problem is a major problem that optimally determines the output power of generating units in a way that cost of total production and emission level be minimized simultaneously, and at the same time all the constraints of units and system are satisfied properly. To solve EED problem which is a non-convex optimization problem, a modified artificial bee colony (MABC) algorithm is proposed in this paper. This algorithm by implementing weighted sum method is applied on two test systems, and eventually, obtained results are compared with other reported results. Comparison of results confirms superiority and efficiency of proposed method clearly.

  5. BONDI-97 A novel neutron energy spectrum unfolding tool using a genetic algorithm

    CERN Document Server

    Mukherjee, B

    1999-01-01

    The neutron spectrum unfolding procedure using the count rate data obtained from a set of Bonner sphere neutron detectors requires the solution of the Fredholm integral equation of the first kind by using complex mathematical methods. This paper reports a new approach for the unfolding of neutron spectra using the Genetic Algorithm tool BONDI-97 (BOnner sphere Neutron DIfferentiation). The BONDI-97 was used as the input for Genetic Algorithm engine EVOLVER to search for a globally optimised solution vector from a population of randomly generated solutions. This solution vector corresponds to the unfolded neutron energy spectrum. The Genetic Algorithm engine emulates the Darwinian 'Survival of the Fittest' strategy, the key ingredient of the 'Theory of Evolution'. The spectra of sup 2 sup 4 sup 1 Am/Be (alpha,n) and sup 2 sup 3 sup 9 Pu/Be (alpha,n) neutron sources were unfolded using the BONDI-97 tool. (author)

  6. Short term economic emission power scheduling of hydrothermal energy systems using improved water cycle algorithm

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Haroon, S.S.; Malik, T.N.

    2017-01-01

    Due to the increasing environmental concerns, the demand of clean and green energy and concern of atmospheric pollution is increasing. Hence, the power utilities are forced to limit their emissions within the prescribed limits. Therefore, the minimization of fuel cost as well as exhaust gas emissions is becoming an important and challenging task in the short-term scheduling of hydro-thermal energy systems. This paper proposes a novel algorithm known as WCA-ER (Water Cycle Algorithm with Evaporation Rate) to inspect the short term EEPSHES (Economic Emission Power Scheduling of Hydrothermal Energy Systems). WCA has its ancestries from the natural hydrologic cycle i.e. the raining process forms streams and these streams start flowing towards the rivers which finally flow towards the sea. The worth of WCA-ER has been tested on the standard economic emission power scheduling of hydrothermal energy test system consisting of four hydropower and three thermal plants. The problem has been investigated for the three case studies (i) ECS (Economic Cost Scheduling), (ii) ES (Economic Emission Scheduling) and (iii) ECES (Economic Cost and Emission Scheduling). The results obtained show that WCA-ER is superior to many other methods in the literature in bringing lower fuel cost and emissions. (author)

  7. A Dantzig-Wolfe Decomposition Algorithm for Linear Economic MPC of a Power Plant Portfolio

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Standardi, Laura; Edlund, Kristian; Poulsen, Niels Kjølstad

    2012-01-01

    Future power systems will consist of a large number of decentralized power producers and a large number of controllable power consumers in addition to stochastic power producers such as wind turbines and solar power plants. Control of such large scale systems requires new control algorithms....... In this paper, we formulate the control of such a system as an Economic Model Predictive Control (MPC) problem. When the power producers and controllable power consumers have linear dynamics, the Economic MPC may be expressed as a linear program and we apply Dantzig-Wolfe decomposition for solution...

  8. The Use of Economic Impact Studies as a Service Learning Tool in Undergraduate Business Programs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Misner, John M.

    2004-01-01

    This paper examines the use of community based economic impact studies as service learning tools for undergraduate business programs. Economic impact studies are used to measure the economic benefits of a variety of activities such as community redevelopment, tourism, and expansions of existing facilities for both private and public producers.…

  9. Springback Simulation and Tool Surface Compensation Algorithm for Sheet Metal Forming

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shen Guozhe; Hu Ping; Zhang Xiangkui; Chen Xiaobin; Li Xiaoda

    2005-01-01

    Springback is an unquenchable forming defect in the sheet metal forming process. How to calculate springback accurately is a big challenge for a lot of FEA software. Springback compensation makes the stamped final part accordant with the designed part shape by modifying tool surface, which depends on the accurate springback amount. How ever, the meshing data based on numerical simulation is expressed by nodes and elements, such data can not be supplied directly to tool surface CAD data. In this paper, a tool surface compensation algorithm based on numerical simulation technique of springback process is proposed in which the independently developed dynamic explicit springback algorithm (DESA) is used to simulate springback amount. When doing the tool surface compensation, the springback amount of the projected point can be obtained by interpolation of the springback amount of the projected element nodes. So the modified values of tool surface can be calculated reversely. After repeating the springback and compensation calculations for 1∼3 times, the reasonable tool surface mesh is gained. Finally, the FEM data on the compensated tool surface is fitted into the surface by CAD modeling software. The examination of a real industrial part shows the validity of the present method

  10. A Dantzig-Wolfe decomposition algorithm for linear economic model predictive control of dynamically decoupled subsystems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sokoler, Leo Emil; Standardi, Laura; Edlund, Kristian

    2014-01-01

    This paper presents a warm-started Dantzig–Wolfe decomposition algorithm tailored to economic model predictive control of dynamically decoupled subsystems. We formulate the constrained optimal control problem solved at each sampling instant as a linear program with state space constraints, input...... limits, input rate limits, and soft output limits. The objective function of the linear program is related directly to the cost of operating the subsystems, and the cost of violating the soft output constraints. Simulations for large-scale economic power dispatch problems show that the proposed algorithm...... is significantly faster than both state-of-the-art linear programming solvers, and a structure exploiting implementation of the alternating direction method of multipliers. It is also demonstrated that the control strategy presented in this paper can be tuned using a weighted ℓ1-regularization term...

  11. Demystifying the role of copyright as a tool for economic ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    RV

    ... regard is one of creating a conducive environment through political (and economic) stability, and not one of actually ..... Coach 2010 ..... influenced by the civil law tradition, have incorporated bad civil law elements into English copyright law ...

  12. Accelerated bridge construction (ABC) decision making and economic modeling tool.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-12-01

    In this FHWA-sponsored pool funded study, a set of decision making tools, based on the Analytic Hierarchy Process (AHP) was developed. This tool set is prepared for transportation specialists and decision-makers to determine if ABC is more effective ...

  13. Algorithms

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    polynomial) division have been found in Vedic Mathematics which are dated much before Euclid's algorithm. A programming language Is used to describe an algorithm for execution on a computer. An algorithm expressed using a programming.

  14. Heuristic algorithms for solving of the tool routing problem for CNC cutting machines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chentsov, P. A.; Petunin, A. A.; Sesekin, A. N.; Shipacheva, E. N.; Sholohov, A. E.

    2015-11-01

    The article is devoted to the problem of minimizing the path of the cutting tool to shape cutting machines began. This problem can be interpreted as a generalized traveling salesman problem. Earlier version of the dynamic programming method to solve this problem was developed. Unfortunately, this method allows to process an amount not exceeding thirty circuits. In this regard, the task of constructing quasi-optimal route becomes relevant. In this paper we propose options for quasi-optimal greedy algorithms. Comparison of the results of exact and approximate algorithms is given.

  15. A Fast Inspection of Tool Electrode and Drilling Depth in EDM Drilling by Detection Line Algorithm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Kuo-Yi

    2008-08-21

    The purpose of this study was to develop a novel measurement method using a machine vision system. Besides using image processing techniques, the proposed system employs a detection line algorithm that detects the tool electrode length and drilling depth of a workpiece accurately and effectively. Different boundaries of areas on the tool electrode are defined: a baseline between base and normal areas, a ND-line between normal and drilling areas (accumulating carbon area), and a DD-line between drilling area and dielectric fluid droplet on the electrode tip. Accordingly, image processing techniques are employed to extract a tool electrode image, and the centroid, eigenvector, and principle axis of the tool electrode are determined. The developed detection line algorithm (DLA) is then used to detect the baseline, ND-line, and DD-line along the direction of the principle axis. Finally, the tool electrode length and drilling depth of the workpiece are estimated via detected baseline, ND-line, and DD-line. Experimental results show good accuracy and efficiency in estimation of the tool electrode length and drilling depth under different conditions. Hence, this research may provide a reference for industrial application in EDM drilling measurement.

  16. Algorithms and programming tools for image processing on the MPP:3

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reeves, Anthony P.

    1987-01-01

    This is the third and final report on the work done for NASA Grant 5-403 on Algorithms and Programming Tools for Image Processing on the MPP:3. All the work done for this grant is summarized in the introduction. Work done since August 1986 is reported in detail. Research for this grant falls under the following headings: (1) fundamental algorithms for the MPP; (2) programming utilities for the MPP; (3) the Parallel Pascal Development System; and (4) performance analysis. In this report, the results of two efforts are reported: region growing, and performance analysis of important characteristic algorithms. In each case, timing results from MPP implementations are included. A paper is included in which parallel algorithms for region growing on the MPP is discussed. These algorithms permit different sized regions to be merged in parallel. Details on the implementation and peformance of several important MPP algorithms are given. These include a number of standard permutations, the FFT, convolution, arbitrary data mappings, image warping, and pyramid operations, all of which have been implemented on the MPP. The permutation and image warping functions have been included in the standard development system library.

  17. Evolutionary algorithms for multi-objective energetic and economic optimization in thermal system design

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Toffolo, A.; Lazzaretto, A.

    2002-01-01

    Thermoeconomic analyses in thermal system design are always focused on the economic objective. However, knowledge of only the economic minimum may not be sufficient in the decision making process, since solutions with a higher thermodynamic efficiency, in spite of small increases in total costs, may result in much more interesting designs due to changes in energy market prices or in energy policies. This paper suggests how to perform a multi-objective optimization in order to find solutions that simultaneously satisfy exergetic and economic objectives. This corresponds to a search for the set of Pareto optimal solutions with respect to the two competing objectives. The optimization process is carried out by an evolutionary algorithm, that features a new diversity preserving mechanism using as a test case the well-known CGAM problem. (author)

  18. A new algorithm for combined dynamic economic emission dispatch with security constraints

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arul, R.; Velusami, S.; Ravi, G.

    2015-01-01

    The primary objective of CDEED (combined dynamic economic emission dispatch) problem is to determine the optimal power generation schedule for the online generating units over a time horizon considered and simultaneously minimizing the emission level and satisfying the generators and system constraints. The CDEED problem is bi-objective optimization problem, where generation cost and emission are considered as two competing objective functions. This bi-objective CDEED problem is represented as a single objective optimization problem by assigning different weights for each objective functions. The weights are varied in steps and for each variation one compromise solution are generated and finally fuzzy based selection method is used to select the best compromise solution from the set of compromise solutions obtained. In order to reflect the test systems considered as real power system model, the security constraints are also taken into account. Three new versions of DHS (differential harmony search) algorithms have been proposed to solve the CDEED problems. The feasibility of the proposed algorithms is demonstrated on IEEE-26 and IEEE-39 bus systems. The result obtained by the proposed CSADHS (chaotic self-adaptive differential harmony search) algorithm is found to be better than EP (evolutionary programming), DHS, and the other proposed algorithms in terms of solution quality, convergence speed and computation time. - Highlights: • In this paper, three new algorithms CDHS, SADHS and CSADHS are proposed. • To solve DED with emission, poz's, spinning reserve and security constraints. • Results obtained by the proposed CSADHS algorithm are better than others. • The proposed CSADHS algorithm has fast convergence characteristic than others

  19. CONSIDERATIONS ON FISCAL POLICY AS A TOOL OF ECONOMIC RECOVERY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stoichin Elena Mădălina

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available One of the most important components of social and economic life is the public finances, with direct implications on the formation and distribution of gross domestic product. State, in order to establish their own funds to set up the concept according to which, any natural or legal person carrying out an income or owns a dime in the category of those taxable in the State due to tax or duty. Starting from these considerations, the paper analyses, on the one side, the influencing factors and effects of increasing fiscal pressure, and, on the other side, the role of fiscal policy in the economic relaunch.

  20. Ecological and resource economics as ecosystem management tools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stephen Farber; Dennis. Bradley

    1999-01-01

    Economic pressures on ecosystems will only intensify in the future. Increased population levels, settlement patterns, and increased incomes will raise the demands for ecosystem resources and their services. The pressure to transform ecosystem natural assets into marketable commodities, whether by harvesting and mining resources or altering landscapes through...

  1. Textile designs and fashion as strategic resource tools for economic ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Textile designs and fashion no doubt should be a part of the culture and economy of the development of a nation like Nigeria. There is no gainsaying the fact that all of the instruments of advancement of any nation, economy is predominant. The economic drive of any nation is majorly routed on generation of income from ...

  2. A simulator-independent optimization tool based on genetic algorithm applied to nuclear reactor design

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abreu Pereira, Claudio Marcio Nascimento do; Schirru, Roberto; Martinez, Aquilino Senra

    1999-01-01

    Here is presented an engineering optimization tool based on a genetic algorithm, implemented according to the method proposed in recent work that has demonstrated the feasibility of the use of this technique in nuclear reactor core designs. The tool is simulator-independent in the sense that it can be customized to use most of the simulators which have the input parameters read from formatted text files and the outputs also written from a text file. As the nuclear reactor simulators generally use such kind of interface, the proposed tool plays an important role in nuclear reactor designs. Research reactors may often use non-conventional design approaches, causing different situations that may lead the nuclear engineer to face new optimization problems. In this case, a good optimization technique, together with its customizing facility and a friendly man-machine interface could be very interesting. Here, the tool is described and some advantages are outlined. (author)

  3. The West Midlands breast cancer screening status algorithm - methodology and use as an audit tool.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lawrence, Gill; Kearins, Olive; O'Sullivan, Emma; Tappenden, Nancy; Wallis, Matthew; Walton, Jackie

    2005-01-01

    To illustrate the ability of the West Midlands breast screening status algorithm to assign a screening status to women with malignant breast cancer, and its uses as a quality assurance and audit tool. Breast cancers diagnosed between the introduction of the National Health Service [NHS] Breast Screening Programme and 31 March 2001 were obtained from the West Midlands Cancer Intelligence Unit (WMCIU). Screen-detected tumours were identified via breast screening units, and the remaining cancers were assigned to one of eight screening status categories. Multiple primaries and recurrences were excluded. A screening status was assigned to 14,680 women (96% of the cohort examined), 110 cancers were not registered at the WMCIU and the cohort included 120 screen-detected recurrences. The West Midlands breast screening status algorithm is a robust simple tool which can be used to derive data to evaluate the efficacy and impact of the NHS Breast Screening Programme.

  4. A solution to the economic dispatch using EP based SA algorithm on large scale power system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Christober Asir Rajan, C. [Department of EEE, Pondicherry Engineering College, Pondicherry 605 014 (India)

    2010-07-15

    This paper develops a new approach for solving the Economic Load Dispatch (ELD) using an integrated algorithm based on Evolutionary Programming (EP) and Simulated Annealing (SA) on large scale power system. Classical methods employed for solving Economic Load Dispatch are calculus-based. For generator units having quadratic fuel cost functions, the classical techniques ignore or flatten out the portions of the incremental fuel cost curves and so may be have difficulties in the determination of the global optimum solution for non-differentiable fuel cost functions. To overcome these problems, the intelligent techniques, namely, Evolutionary Programming and Simulated Annealing are employed. The above said optimization techniques are capable of determining the global or near global optimum dispatch solutions. The validity and effectiveness of the proposed integrated algorithm has been tested with 66-bus Indian utility system, IEEE 5-bus, 30-bus, 118-bus system. And the test results are compared with the results obtained from other methods. Numerical results show that the proposed integrated algorithm can provide accurate solutions within reasonable time for any type of fuel cost functions. (author)

  5. A novel evolutionary algorithm for dynamic economic dispatch with energy saving and emission reduction in power system integrated wind power

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liao, Gwo-Ching

    2011-01-01

    An optimization algorithm is proposed in this paper to solve the economic dispatch problem that includes wind farm using the Chaotic Quantum Genetic Algorithm (CQGA). In addition to the detailed models of economic dispatch introduction and their associated constraints, the wind power effect is also included in this paper. The chaotic quantum genetic algorithm used to solve the economic dispatch process and discussed with real scenarios used for the simulation tests. After comparing the proposed algorithm with several other algorithms commonly used to solve optimization problems, the results show that the proposed algorithm is able to find the optimal solution quickly and accurately (i.e. to obtain the minimum cost for power generation in the shortest time). At the end, the impact to the total cost savings for power generation after adding (or not adding) wind power generation is also discussed. The actual implementation results prove that the proposed algorithm is economical, fast and practical. They are quite valuable for further research. -- Research highlights: → Quantum Genetic Algorithm can effectively improve the global search ability. → It can achieve the real objective of the global optimal solutions. → The CPU computation time is less than that other algorithms adopted in this paper.

  6. The chaotic global best artificial bee colony algorithm for the multi-area economic/emission dispatch

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Secui, Dinu Calin

    2015-01-01

    This paper suggests a chaotic optimizing method, based on the GBABC (global best artificial bee colony algorithm), where the random sequences used in updating the solutions of this algorithm are replaced with chaotic sequences generated by chaotic maps. The new algorithm, called chaotic CGBABC (global best artificial bee colony algorithm), is used to solving the multi-area economic/emission dispatch problem taking into consideration the valve-point effects, the transmission line losses, multi-fuel sources, prohibited operating zones, tie line capacity and power transfer cost between different areas of the system. The behaviour of the CGBABC algorithm is studied considering ten chaotic maps both one-dimensional and bi-dimensional, with various probability density functions. The CGBABC algorithm's performance including a variety of chaotic maps is tested on five systems (6-unit, 10-unit, 16-unit, 40-unit and 120-unit) with different characteristics, constraints and sizes. The results comparison highlights a hierarchy in the chaotic maps included in the CGBABC algorithm and shows that it performs better than the classical ABC algorithm, the GBABC algorithm and other optimization techniques. - Highlights: • A chaotic global best ABC algorithm (CGBABC) is presented. • CGBABC is applied for solving the multi-area economic/emission dispatch problem. • Valve-point effects, multi-fuel sources, POZ, transmission losses were considered. • The algorithm is tested on five systems having 6, 10, 16, 40 and 120 thermal units. • CGBABC algorithm outperforms several optimization techniques.

  7. Continuous grasp algorithm applied to economic dispatch problem of thermal units

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vianna Neto, Julio Xavier [Pontifical Catholic University of Parana - PUCPR, Curitiba, PR (Brazil). Undergraduate Program at Mechatronics Engineering; Bernert, Diego Luis de Andrade; Coelho, Leandro dos Santos [Pontifical Catholic University of Parana - PUCPR, Curitiba, PR (Brazil). Industrial and Systems Engineering Graduate Program, LAS/PPGEPS], e-mail: leandro.coelho@pucpr.br

    2010-07-01

    The economic dispatch problem (EDP) is one of the fundamental issues in power systems to obtain benefits with the stability, reliability and security. Its objective is to allocate the power demand among committed generators in the most economical manner, while all physical and operational constraints are satisfied. The cost of power generation, particularly in fossil fuel plants, is very high and economic dispatch helps in saving a significant amount of revenue. Recently, as an alternative to the conventional mathematical approaches, modern heuristic optimization techniques such as simulated annealing, evolutionary algorithms, neural networks, ant colony, and tabu search have been given much attention by many researchers due to their ability to find an almost global optimal solution in EDPs. On other hand, continuous GRASP (C-GRASP) is a stochastic local search meta-heuristic for finding cost-efficient solutions to continuous global optimization problems subject to box constraints. Like a greedy randomized adaptive search procedure (GRASP), a C-GRASP is a multi-start procedure where a starting solution for local improvement is constructed in a greedy randomized fashion. The C-GRASP algorithm is validated for a test system consisting of fifteen units, test system that takes into account spinning reserve and prohibited operating zones constrains. (author)

  8. An Efficient Meta Heuristic Algorithm to Solve Economic Load Dispatch Problems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R Subramanian

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The Economic Load Dispatch (ELD problems in power generation systems are to reduce the fuel cost by reducing the total cost for the generation of electric power. This paper presents an efficient Modified Firefly Algorithm (MFA, for solving ELD Problem. The main objective of the problems is to minimize the total fuel cost of the generating units having quadratic cost functions subjected to limits on generator true power output and transmission losses. The MFA is a stochastic, Meta heuristic approach based on the idealized behaviour of the flashing characteristics of fireflies. This paper presents an application of MFA to ELD for six generator test case system. MFA is applied to ELD problem and compared its solution quality and computation efficiency to Genetic algorithm (GA, Differential Evolution (DE, Particle swarm optimization (PSO, Artificial Bee Colony optimization (ABC, Biogeography-Based Optimization (BBO, Bacterial Foraging optimization (BFO, Firefly Algorithm (FA techniques. The simulation result shows that the proposed algorithm outperforms previous optimization methods.

  9. Comparison between dynamic programming and genetic algorithm for hydro unit economic load dispatch

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bin Xu

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available The hydro unit economic load dispatch (ELD is of great importance in energy conservation and emission reduction. Dynamic programming (DP and genetic algorithm (GA are two representative algorithms for solving ELD problems. The goal of this study was to examine the performance of DP and GA while they were applied to ELD. We established numerical experiments to conduct performance comparisons between DP and GA with two given schemes. The schemes included comparing the CPU time of the algorithms when they had the same solution quality, and comparing the solution quality when they had the same CPU time. The numerical experiments were applied to the Three Gorges Reservoir in China, which is equipped with 26 hydro generation units. We found the relation between the performance of algorithms and the number of units through experiments. Results show that GA is adept at searching for optimal solutions in low-dimensional cases. In some cases, such as with a number of units of less than 10, GA's performance is superior to that of a coarse-grid DP. However, GA loses its superiority in high-dimensional cases. DP is powerful in obtaining stable and high-quality solutions. Its performance can be maintained even while searching over a large solution space. Nevertheless, due to its exhaustive enumerating nature, it costs excess time in low-dimensional cases.

  10. Eviromental Economic and Technological Residues Management Demands: An Optimization Tool.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marisa Soares Borges

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Industrial residues management is a very demanding task since many different goals must be achieved. The combination of different approaches used by people from different stuff is very challenging activity that can misuse the residues potential value and applicability. An interactive WEB base tool, to integrate different sectors and overcome residues management difficulties will be presented. The system must be loaded with all data concerning the residue life cycle, and through data integration and modeling routine will give the best alternative as output. As wider and complete the system data becomes, by information loading from differen t segment, more efficient the residues management becomes. The user friendly tool will encourage the participation of industries, labs and research institutions to obtain qualified information about industrial residues inventory, raw materials recovery, characteristics, treatment and alternative uses, to achieve residues management sustainability.

  11. A constriction factor based particle swarm optimisation algorithm to solve the economic dispatch problem including losses

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Young, Steven; Montakhab, Mohammad; Nouri, Hassan

    2011-07-15

    Economic dispatch (ED) is one of the most important problems to be solved in power generation as fractional percentage fuel reductions represent significant cost savings. ED wishes to optimise the power generated by each generating unit in a system in order to find the minimum operating cost at a required load demand, whilst ensuring both equality and inequality constraints are met. For the process of optimisation, a model must be created for each generating unit. The particle swarm optimisation technique is an evolutionary computation technique with one of the most powerful methods for solving global optimisation problems. The aim of this paper is to add in a constriction factor to the particle swarm optimisation algorithm (CFBPSO). Results show that the algorithm is very good at solving the ED problem and that CFBPSO must be able to work in a practical environment and so a valve point effect with transmission losses should be included in future work.

  12. Artificial bee colony algorithm for economic load dispatch with wind power energy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Safari Amin

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents an efficient Artificial Bee Colony (ABC algorithm for solving large scale economic load dispatch (ELD problems in power networks. To realize the ELD, the valve-point loading effect, system load demand, power losses, ramp rate limits and prohibited operation zones are considered here. Simulations were performed on four different power systems with 3, 6, 15 and 40 generating units and the results are compared with two forms of power systems, one power system is with a wind power generator and other power system is without a wind power generator. The results of this study reveal that the proposed approach is able to find appreciable ELD solutions than those of previous algorithms.

  13. A hybrid multi-objective cultural algorithm for short-term environmental/economic hydrothermal scheduling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lu Youlin; Zhou Jianzhong; Qin Hui; Wang Ying; Zhang Yongchuan

    2011-01-01

    Research highlights: → Multi-objective optimization model of short-term environmental/economic hydrothermal scheduling. → A hybrid multi-objective cultural algorithm (HMOCA) is presented. → New heuristic constraint handling methods are proposed. → Better quality solutions by reducing fuel cost and emission effects simultaneously are obtained. -- Abstract: The short-term environmental/economic hydrothermal scheduling (SEEHS) with the consideration of multiple objectives is a complicated non-linear constrained optimization problem with non-smooth and non-convex characteristics. In this paper, a multi-objective optimization model of SEEHS is proposed to consider the minimal of fuel cost and emission effects synthetically, and the transmission loss, the water transport delays between connected reservoirs as well as the valve-point effects of thermal plants are taken into consideration to formulate the problem precisely. Meanwhile, a hybrid multi-objective cultural algorithm (HMOCA) is presented to deal with SEEHS problem by optimizing both two objectives simultaneously. The proposed method integrated differential evolution (DE) algorithm into the framework of cultural algorithm model to implement the evolution of population space, and two knowledge structures in belief space are redefined according to the characteristics of DE and SEEHS problem to avoid premature convergence effectively. Moreover, in order to deal with the complicated constraints effectively, new heuristic constraint handling methods without any penalty factor settings are proposed in this paper. The feasibility and effectiveness of the proposed HMOCA method are demonstrated by two case studies of a hydrothermal power system. The simulation results reveal that, compared with other methods established recently, HMOCA can get better quality solutions by reducing fuel cost and emission effects simultaneously.

  14. Economic Analysis on Value Chain of Taxi Fleet with Battery-Swapping Mode Using Multiobjective Genetic Algorithm

    OpenAIRE

    Ning, Guobao; Zhen, Zijian; Wang, Peng; Li, Yang; Yin, Huaixian

    2012-01-01

    This paper presents an economic analysis model on value chain of taxi fleet with battery-swapping mode in a pilot city. In the model, economic benefits of charging-swapping station group, taxi company, and taxi driver in the region have been taken into consideration. Thus, the model is a multiobjective function and multiobjective genetic algorithm is used to solve this problem. According to the real data collected from the pilot city, the multiobjective genetic algorithm is tested as an effec...

  15. Process planning optimization on turning machine tool using a hybrid genetic algorithm with local search approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuliang Su

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available A turning machine tool is a kind of new type of machine tool that is equipped with more than one spindle and turret. The distinctive simultaneous and parallel processing abilities of turning machine tool increase the complexity of process planning. The operations would not only be sequenced and satisfy precedence constraints, but also should be scheduled with multiple objectives such as minimizing machining cost, maximizing utilization of turning machine tool, and so on. To solve this problem, a hybrid genetic algorithm was proposed to generate optimal process plans based on a mixed 0-1 integer programming model. An operation precedence graph is used to represent precedence constraints and help generate a feasible initial population of hybrid genetic algorithm. Encoding strategy based on data structure was developed to represent process plans digitally in order to form the solution space. In addition, a local search approach for optimizing the assignments of available turrets would be added to incorporate scheduling with process planning. A real-world case is used to prove that the proposed approach could avoid infeasible solutions and effectively generate a global optimal process plan.

  16. Special Section on "Tools and Algorithms for the Construction and Analysis of Systems"

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2006-01-01

    in the Lecture Notes in Computer Science series published by Springer. TACAS is a forum for researchers, developers and users interested in rigorously based tools for the construction and analysis of systems. The conference serves to bridge the gaps between different communities – including but not limited......This special section contains the revised and expanded versions of eight of the papers from the 10th International Conference on Tools and Algorithms for the Construction and Analysis of Systems (TACAS) held in March/April 2004 in Barcelona, Spain. The conference proceedings appeared as volume 2988...... to those devoted to formal methods, software and hardware verification, static analysis, programming languages, software engineering, real-time systems, and communications protocols – that share common interests in, and techniques for, tool development. Other more theoretical papers from the conference...

  17. The Index of Sustainable Economic Welfare (ISEW) as a tool in the sustainabledevelopment – Poland case

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Swiatkowska, Marta

    2008-01-01

    The research is based on the index of sustainable economic welfare (ISEW) as a tool in the sustainable development. The new index was developed to answer the growing number of critiques over the GDP indicator which measures only the economic activity of a

  18. Algorithms

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    to as 'divide-and-conquer'. Although there has been a large effort in realizing efficient algorithms, there are not many universally accepted algorithm design paradigms. In this article, we illustrate algorithm design techniques such as balancing, greedy strategy, dynamic programming strategy, and backtracking or traversal of ...

  19. Improved fuel design economics - a new evaluation tool

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aboudara, J.L.

    1987-01-01

    Advanced fuel design technology is now beginning to be implemented with new reload regions for large pressurized water reactors. Until recently there has not been an integrated computer modeling product that would allow easy assessment of the economics of various advanced fuel design alternatives now available to utilities. The Fuel Cycle Scoping System (FCSS) was designed to fill this need. The FCSS is a personnel computer (PC) software package that is used to evaluate alternative strategies for supplying and using nuclear fuel in nuclear power reactors. The FCSS is an extremely flexible package that permits evaluation of in-core and out-of-core fuel management strategy options. For each strategy option, unit and reactor operating assumptions and assumptions for uranium supply, conversion, enrichment, fabrication, and spent fuel disposal can be made

  20. A GIS tool for the economic assessment of renewable technologies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mahmmud, F.; Woods, J.; Watson, S.; Halliday, J.; Hossain, J.

    1997-01-01

    A Geographical Information System (GIS) has the potential to analyse a large area for the optimum selection and siting of renewable energy systems. This paper reports on a GIS based scheme for the economic assessment of a selected number of wind and photovoltaic systems in the state of Karnataka, in India. This involved the implementation of an appropriate GIS methodology. The preparation of the GIS database is often the most arduous task in GIS operations. Thus, a description of the GIS methodology and the preparation of the database for the analysis of a selection of wind and photovoltaic systems is given. This approach has enabled the identification of the high potential areas in terms of the levelised electricity costs. An overall assessment of the region for present and future scenarios is also given. (author)

  1. Value chain analysis of CO2 storage by using the Ecco tool: Storage economics

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Loeve, D.; Bos, C.; Chitu, A.; Loveseth, S.; Wahl, P.E.; Coussy, P.; Eickhoff, C.

    2013-01-01

    The ECCO Tool [1, 2] has been developed in the “ECCO – European value chain for CO2” project [3]. ECCO was a collaborating project under the 7th framework programme for research of the EU. The ECCO Tool is a software program designed to evaluate quantitatively the post-tax economics of Carbon

  2. Multi-objective optimum design of fast tool servo based on improved differential evolution algorithm

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhu, Zhiwei; Zhou, Xiaoqin; Liu, Qiang; Zhao, Shaoxin

    2011-01-01

    The flexure-based mechanism is a promising realization of fast tool servo (FTS), and the optimum determination of flexure hinge parameters is one of the most important elements in the FTS design. This paper presents a multi-objective optimization approach to optimizing the dimension and position parameters of the flexure-based mechanism, which is based on the improved differential evolution algorithm embedding chaos and nonlinear simulated anneal algorithm. The results of optimum design show that the proposed algorithm has excellent performance and a well-balanced compromise is made between two conflicting objectives, the stroke and natural frequency of the FTS mechanism. The validation tests based on finite element analysis (FEA) show good agreement with the results obtained by using the proposed theoretical algorithm of this paper. Finally, a series of experimental tests are conducted to validate the design process and assess the performance of the FTS mechanism. The designed FTS reaches up to a stroke of 10.25 μm with at least 2 kHz bandwidth. Both of the FEA and experimental results demonstrate that the parameters of the flexure-based mechanism determined by the proposed approaches can achieve the specified performance and the proposed approach is suitable for the optimum design of FTS mechanism and of excellent performances

  3. Development of Gis Tool for the Solution of Minimum Spanning Tree Problem using Prim's Algorithm

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dutta, S.; Patra, D.; Shankar, H.; Alok Verma, P.

    2014-11-01

    minimum spanning tree (MST) of a connected, undirected and weighted network is a tree of that network consisting of all its nodes and the sum of weights of all its edges is minimum among all such possible spanning trees of the same network. In this study, we have developed a new GIS tool using most commonly known rudimentary algorithm called Prim's algorithm to construct the minimum spanning tree of a connected, undirected and weighted road network. This algorithm is based on the weight (adjacency) matrix of a weighted network and helps to solve complex network MST problem easily, efficiently and effectively. The selection of the appropriate algorithm is very essential otherwise it will be very hard to get an optimal result. In case of Road Transportation Network, it is very essential to find the optimal results by considering all the necessary points based on cost factor (time or distance). This paper is based on solving the Minimum Spanning Tree (MST) problem of a road network by finding it's minimum span by considering all the important network junction point. GIS technology is usually used to solve the network related problems like the optimal path problem, travelling salesman problem, vehicle routing problems, location-allocation problems etc. Therefore, in this study we have developed a customized GIS tool using Python script in ArcGIS software for the solution of MST problem for a Road Transportation Network of Dehradun city by considering distance and time as the impedance (cost) factors. It has a number of advantages like the users do not need a greater knowledge of the subject as the tool is user-friendly and that allows to access information varied and adapted the needs of the users. This GIS tool for MST can be applied for a nationwide plan called Prime Minister Gram Sadak Yojana in India to provide optimal all weather road connectivity to unconnected villages (points). This tool is also useful for constructing highways or railways spanning several

  4. A modified Symbiotic Organisms Search algorithm for large scale economic dispatch problem with valve-point effects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Secui, Dinu Calin

    2016-01-01

    This paper proposes a new metaheuristic algorithm, called Modified Symbiotic Organisms Search (MSOS) algorithm, to solve the economic dispatch problem considering the valve-point effects, the prohibited operating zones (POZ), the transmission line losses, multi-fuel sources, as well as other operating constraints of the generating units and power system. The MSOS algorithm introduces, in all of its phases, new relations to update the solutions to improve its capacity of identifying stable and of high-quality solutions in a reasonable time. Furthermore, to increase the capacity of exploring the MSOS algorithm in finding the most promising zones, it is endowed with a chaotic component generated by the Logistic map. The performance of the modified algorithm and of the original algorithm Symbiotic Organisms Search (SOS) is tested on five systems of different characteristics, constraints and dimensions (13-unit, 40-unit, 80-unit, 160-unit and 320-unit). The results obtained by applying the proposed algorithm (MSOS) show that this has a better performance than other techniques of optimization recently used in solving the economic dispatch problem with valve-point effects. - Highlights: • A new modified SOS algorithm (MSOS) is proposed to solve the EcD problem. • Valve-point effects, ramp-rate limits, POZ, multi-fuel sources, transmission losses were considered. • The algorithm is tested on five systems having 13, 40, 80, 160 and 320 thermal units. • MSOS algorithm outperforms many other optimization techniques.

  5. Combined heat and power economic dispatch by a fish school search algorithm

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Santos, Leonardo Trigueiro dos; Costa e Silva, Marsil de Athayde [Undergraduate in Mechatronics Engineering, Pontifical Catholic University of Parana, Curitiba, PR (Brazil); Coelho, Leandro dos Santos [Industrial and Systems Engineering Graduate Program, PPGEPS, Pontifical Catholic University of Parana, Curitiba, PR (Brazil)], e-mail: leandro.coelho@pucpr.br

    2010-07-01

    The conversion of primary fossil fuels, such as coal and gas, to electricity is a a relatively inefficient process. Even the most modern combined cycle plants can only achieve efficiencies of between 50-60%. A great portion of the energy wasted in this conversion process is released to the environment as waste heat. The principle of combined heat and power, also known as cogeneration, is to recover and make beneficial use of this heat, significantly raising the overall efficiency of the conversion process. However, the optimal utilization of multiple combined heat and power systems is a complicated problem which needs powerful methods to solve. This paper presents a fish school search (FSS) algorithm to solve the combined heat and power economic dispatch problem. FSS is a novel approach recently proposed to perform search in complex optimization problems. Some simulations presented in the literature indicated that FSS can outperform many bio-inspired algorithms, mainly in multimodal functions. The search process in FSS is carried out by a population of limited-memory individuals - the fishes. Each fish represents a possible solution to the problem. Similarly to particle swarm optimization or genetic algorithm, search guidance in FSS is driven by the success of some individual members of the population. A four-unit system proposed recently which is a benchmark case in the power systems field has been validated as a case study in this paper. (author)

  6. Short-term economic environmental hydrothermal scheduling using improved multi-objective gravitational search algorithm

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li, Chunlong; Zhou, Jianzhong; Lu, Peng; Wang, Chao

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • Improved multi-objective gravitational search algorithm. • An elite archive set is proposed to guide evolutionary process. • Neighborhood searching mechanism to improve local search ability. • Adopt chaotic mutation for avoiding premature convergence. • Propose feasible space method to handle hydro plant constrains. - Abstract: With growing concerns about energy and environment, short-term economic environmental hydrothermal scheduling (SEEHS) plays a more and more important role in power system. Because of the two objectives and various constraints, SEEHS is a complex multi-objective optimization problem (MOOP). In order to solve the problem, we propose an improved multi-objective gravitational search algorithm (IMOGSA) in this paper. In IMOGSA, the mass of the agent is redefined by multiple objectives to make it suitable for MOOP. An elite archive set is proposed to keep Pareto optimal solutions and guide evolutionary process. For balancing exploration and exploitation, a neighborhood searching mechanism is presented to cooperate with chaotic mutation. Moreover, a novel method based on feasible space is proposed to handle hydro plant constraints during SEEHS, and a violation adjustment method is adopted to handle power balance constraint. For verifying its effectiveness, the proposed IMOGSA is applied to a hydrothermal system in two different case studies. The simulation results show that IMOGSA has a competitive performance in SEEHS when compared with other established algorithms

  7. Multidisciplinary Design, Analysis, and Optimization Tool Development Using a Genetic Algorithm

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pak, Chan-gi; Li, Wesley

    2009-01-01

    Multidisciplinary design, analysis, and optimization using a genetic algorithm is being developed at the National Aeronautics and Space Administration Dryden Flight Research Center (Edwards, California) to automate analysis and design process by leveraging existing tools to enable true multidisciplinary optimization in the preliminary design stage of subsonic, transonic, supersonic, and hypersonic aircraft. This is a promising technology, but faces many challenges in large-scale, real-world application. This report describes current approaches, recent results, and challenges for multidisciplinary design, analysis, and optimization as demonstrated by experience with the Ikhana fire pod design.!

  8. Gentree of Tool for Syntactic Analysis Based On Younger Cocke Kasami Algorithm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    - Wijanarto

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Syntactic analysis is a series of processes in order to validate a string that is received by a language. Understanding the process of reduction rules to become a tree is the part that is difficult to explain. This paper describes the results of the design tool to automate an input string into a decrease in the rules to trees in the visualized with images either in the form of files or display, performance evaluation tools and analysis of students' understanding of the tool by the algorithm Cocke Younger Kasami (cyk was selected as one of the cases for parsing techniques in the Context Free Grammar (CFG in the form of Chomsky Normal Form (CNF. These results indicate that the model successfully implemented into the application named genTree (Generator Tree, application performance gained a significant number of measurements of the variations in the complexity of the grammar and the input string by 29.13% with the complexities 7 and 8:50% with the complexity of 20, while for long input string against time processing algorithm can be a value of 3.3 and 66.98% as well as 29 and 6:19%, also obtained differences in the ability of the t-test on a group of students control against the experimental group with a value of t = 5.336 with df 74, p value of 0.001 , on the level of signfikansi 0.05% (5%. Also terapat increase in the percentage of correct answers was 58% in the variation of difficulty, 83% of the variation was easy. Sebalikanya wrong answer decline by 60% in difficult variation, the variation was 100% and 57% for easy variation. Recently there is a change decrease in the percentage of students who are not doing as much as 60% in the variation of difficulty, 44% of the variation was 13% on the variations easily can be concluded that the applications run efficiently and optimally, but also can effectively improve students' understanding in beajar automata with case cyk algorithm. Keywords—Tool, Analysis, Syntax, Algorithms, Trees

  9. Use of a quality improvement tool, the prioritization matrix, to identify and prioritize triage software algorithm enhancement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    North, Frederick; Varkey, Prathiba; Caraballo, Pedro; Vsetecka, Darlene; Bartel, Greg

    2007-10-11

    Complex decision support software can require significant effort in maintenance and enhancement. A quality improvement tool, the prioritization matrix, was successfully used to guide software enhancement of algorithms in a symptom assessment call center.

  10. Scalability of Comparative Analysis, Novel Algorithms and Tools (MICW - Metagenomics Informatics Challenges Workshop: 10K Genomes at a Time)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mavrommatis, Kostas

    2011-10-12

    DOE JGI's Kostas Mavrommatis, chair of the Scalability of Comparative Analysis, Novel Algorithms and Tools panel, at the Metagenomics Informatics Challenges Workshop held at the DOE JGI on October 12-13, 2011.

  11. Optimization of IBF parameters based on adaptive tool-path algorithm

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deng, Wen Hui; Chen, Xian Hua; Jin, Hui Liang; Zhong, Bo; Hou, Jin; Li, An Qi

    2018-03-01

    As a kind of Computer Controlled Optical Surfacing(CCOS) technology. Ion Beam Figuring(IBF) has obvious advantages in the control of surface accuracy, surface roughness and subsurface damage. The superiority and characteristics of IBF in optical component processing are analyzed from the point of view of removal mechanism. For getting more effective and automatic tool path with the information of dwell time, a novel algorithm is proposed in this thesis. Based on the removal functions made through our IBF equipment and the adaptive tool-path, optimized parameters are obtained through analysis the residual error that would be created in the polishing process. A Φ600 mm plane reflector element was used to be a simulation instance. The simulation result shows that after four combinations of processing, the surface accuracy of PV (Peak Valley) value and the RMS (Root Mean Square) value was reduced to 4.81 nm and 0.495 nm from 110.22 nm and 13.998 nm respectively in the 98% aperture. The result shows that the algorithm and optimized parameters provide a good theoretical for high precision processing of IBF.

  12. Modified Cuckoo Search Algorithm for Solving Nonconvex Economic Load Dispatch Problems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thang Trung Nguyen

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents the application of modified cuckoo search algorithm (MCSA for solving economic load dispatch (ELD problems. The MCSA method is developed to improve the search ability and solution quality of the conventional CSA method. In the MCSA, the evaluation of eggs has divided the initial eggs into two groups, the top egg group with good quality and the abandoned group with worse quality. Moreover, the value of the updated step size in MCSA is adapted as generating a new solution for the abandoned group and the top group via the Levy flights so that a large zone is searched at the beginning and a local zone is foraged as the maximum number of iterations is nearly reached. The MCSA method has been tested on different systems with different characteristics of thermal units and constraints. The result comparison with other methods in the literature has indicated that the MCSA method can be a powerful method for solving the ELD.

  13. Hybrid SOA-SQP algorithm for dynamic economic dispatch with valve-point effects

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sivasubramani, S.; Swarup, K.S. [Department of Electrical Engineering, Indian Institute of Technology Madras, Chennai 600036 (India)

    2010-12-15

    This paper proposes a hybrid technique combining a new heuristic algorithm named seeker optimization algorithm (SOA) and sequential quadratic programming (SQP) method for solving dynamic economic dispatch problem with valve-point effects. The SOA is based on the concept of simulating the act of human searching, where the search direction is based on the empirical gradient (EG) by evaluating the response to the position changes and the step length is based on uncertainty reasoning by using a simple fuzzy rule. In this paper, SOA is used as a base level search, which can give a good direction to the optimal global region and SQP as a local search to fine tune the solution obtained from SOA. Thus SQP guides SOA to find optimal or near optimal solution in the complex search space. Two test systems i.e., 5 unit with losses and 10 unit without losses, have been taken to validate the efficiency of the proposed hybrid method. Simulation results clearly show that the proposed method outperforms the existing method in terms of solution quality. (author)

  14. Algorithms

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    ticians but also forms the foundation of computer science. Two ... with methods of developing algorithms for solving a variety of problems but ... applications of computers in science and engineer- ... numerical calculus are as important. We will ...

  15. PCTFPeval: a web tool for benchmarking newly developed algorithms for predicting cooperative transcription factor pairs in yeast.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lai, Fu-Jou; Chang, Hong-Tsun; Wu, Wei-Sheng

    2015-01-01

    Computational identification of cooperative transcription factor (TF) pairs helps understand the combinatorial regulation of gene expression in eukaryotic cells. Many advanced algorithms have been proposed to predict cooperative TF pairs in yeast. However, it is still difficult to conduct a comprehensive and objective performance comparison of different algorithms because of lacking sufficient performance indices and adequate overall performance scores. To solve this problem, in our previous study (published in BMC Systems Biology 2014), we adopted/proposed eight performance indices and designed two overall performance scores to compare the performance of 14 existing algorithms for predicting cooperative TF pairs in yeast. Most importantly, our performance comparison framework can be applied to comprehensively and objectively evaluate the performance of a newly developed algorithm. However, to use our framework, researchers have to put a lot of effort to construct it first. To save researchers time and effort, here we develop a web tool to implement our performance comparison framework, featuring fast data processing, a comprehensive performance comparison and an easy-to-use web interface. The developed tool is called PCTFPeval (Predicted Cooperative TF Pair evaluator), written in PHP and Python programming languages. The friendly web interface allows users to input a list of predicted cooperative TF pairs from their algorithm and select (i) the compared algorithms among the 15 existing algorithms, (ii) the performance indices among the eight existing indices, and (iii) the overall performance scores from two possible choices. The comprehensive performance comparison results are then generated in tens of seconds and shown as both bar charts and tables. The original comparison results of each compared algorithm and each selected performance index can be downloaded as text files for further analyses. Allowing users to select eight existing performance indices and 15

  16. A Homogeneous and Self-Dual Interior-Point Linear Programming Algorithm for Economic Model Predictive Control

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sokoler, Leo Emil; Frison, Gianluca; Skajaa, Anders

    2015-01-01

    We develop an efficient homogeneous and self-dual interior-point method (IPM) for the linear programs arising in economic model predictive control of constrained linear systems with linear objective functions. The algorithm is based on a Riccati iteration procedure, which is adapted to the linear...... system of equations solved in homogeneous and self-dual IPMs. Fast convergence is further achieved using a warm-start strategy. We implement the algorithm in MATLAB and C. Its performance is tested using a conceptual power management case study. Closed loop simulations show that 1) the proposed algorithm...

  17. Thermo-economic multi-objective optimization of solar dish-Stirling engine by implementing evolutionary algorithm

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ahmadi, Mohammad H.; Sayyaadi, Hoseyn; Mohammadi, Amir H.; Barranco-Jimenez, Marco A.

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: • Thermo-economic multi-objective optimization of solar dish-Stirling engine is studied. • Application of the evolutionary algorithm is investigated. • Error analysis is done to find out the error through investigation. - Abstract: In the recent years, remarkable attention is drawn to Stirling engine due to noticeable advantages, for instance a lot of resources such as biomass, fossil fuels and solar energy can be applied as heat source. Great number of studies are conducted on Stirling engine and finite time thermo-economic is one of them. In the present study, the dimensionless thermo-economic objective function, thermal efficiency and dimensionless power output are optimized for a dish-Stirling system using finite time thermo-economic analysis and NSGA-II algorithm. Optimized answers are chosen from the results using three decision-making methods. Error analysis is done to find out the error through investigation

  18. Optimization of dynamic economic dispatch with valve-point effect using chaotic sequence based differential evolution algorithms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    He Dakuo; Dong Gang; Wang Fuli; Mao Zhizhong

    2011-01-01

    A chaotic sequence based differential evolution (DE) approach for solving the dynamic economic dispatch problem (DEDP) with valve-point effect is presented in this paper. The proposed method combines the DE algorithm with the local search technique to improve the performance of the algorithm. DE is the main optimizer, while an approximated model for local search is applied to fine tune in the solution of the DE run. To accelerate convergence of DE, a series of constraints handling rules are adopted. An initial population obtained by using chaotic sequence exerts optimal performance of the proposed algorithm. The combined algorithm is validated for two test systems consisting of 10 and 13 thermal units whose incremental fuel cost function takes into account the valve-point loading effects. The proposed combined method outperforms other algorithms reported in literatures for DEDP considering valve-point effects.

  19. Tool path planning of hole-making operations in ejector plate of injection mould using modified shuffled frog leaping algorithm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amol M. Dalavi

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Optimization of hole-making operations in manufacturing industry plays a vital role. Tool travel and tool switch planning are the two major issues in hole-making operations. Many industrial applications such as moulds, dies, engine block, automotive parts etc. requires machining of large number of holes. Large number of machining operations like drilling, enlargement or tapping/reaming are required to achieve the final size of individual hole, which gives rise to number of possible sequences to complete hole-making operations on the part depending upon the location of hole and tool sequence to be followed. It is necessary to find the optimal sequence of operations which minimizes the total processing cost of hole-making operations. In this work, therefore an attempt is made to reduce the total processing cost of hole-making operations by applying relatively new optimization algorithms known as shuffled frog leaping algorithm and proposed modified shuffled frog leaping algorithm for the determination of optimal sequence of hole-making operations. An industrial application example of ejector plate of injection mould is considered in this work to demonstrate the proposed approach. The obtained results by the shuffled frog leaping algorithm and proposed modified shuffled frog leaping algorithm are compared with each other. It is seen from the obtained results that the results of proposed modified shuffled frog leaping algorithm are superior to those obtained using shuffled frog leaping algorithm.

  20. Diagnostic tests and algorithms used in the investigation of haematuria: systematic reviews and economic evaluation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodgers, M; Nixon, J; Hempel, S; Aho, T; Kelly, J; Neal, D; Duffy, S; Ritchie, G; Kleijnen, J; Westwood, M

    2006-06-01

    of false results, but evidence was lacking regarding the accuracy of routine microscopy and estimates were adopted for the model. The model for imaging the upper urinary tract showed that US detects more tumours than IVU at one-third of the cost, and is also associated with fewer false results. For any cause of haematuria, CT was shown to have a mean incremental cost-effectiveness ratio of pounds sterling 9939 in comparison with the next best option, US. When US is followed up with CT for negative results with persistent haematuria, it dominates the initial use of CT alone, with a saving of pounds sterling 235,000 for the evaluation of 1000 patients. The model for investigation of the lower urinary tract showed that for low-risk patients the use of immediate cystoscopy could be avoided if cystoscopy were used for follow-up patients with a negative initial test using tumour markers and/or cytology, resulting in a saving of pounds sterling 483,000 for the evaluation of 1000 patients. The clinical and economic impact on delayed detection of both upper and lower urinary tract tumours through the use of follow-up testing should be evaluated in future studies. There are insufficient data currently available to derive an evidence-based algorithm of the diagnostic pathway for haematuria. A hypothetical algorithm based on the opinion and practice of clinical experts in the review team, other published algorithms and the results of economic modelling is presented in this report. This algorithm is presented, for comparative purposes, alongside current US and UK guidelines. The ideas contained in these algorithms and the specific questions outlined should form the basis of future research. Quality assessment of the diagnostic accuracy studies included in this review highlighted several areas of deficiency.

  1. U.S. - GERMAN BILATERAL WORKING GROUP WORKSHOP ON: ECONOMIC TOOLS FOR SUSTAINABLE BROWNFIELDS REDEVELOPMENT

    Science.gov (United States)

    This CD-ROM contains information from a two-day workshop discussing innovative brownfields financing and economic strategies in the United States and Germany. A special emphasis was given to the identification of advantages and disadvantages of different financial tools, economi...

  2. ADVISHE: A new tool to report validation of health-economic decision models

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vemer, P.; Corro Ramos, I.; Van Voorn, G.; Al, M.J.; Feenstra, T.L.

    2014-01-01

    Background: Modelers and reimbursement decision makers could both profit from a more systematic reporting of the efforts to validate health-economic (HE) models. Objectives: Development of a tool to systematically report validation efforts of HE decision models and their outcomes. Methods: A gross

  3. Towards a New Approach of the Economic Intelligence Process: Basic Concepts, Analysis Methods and Informational Tools

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sorin Briciu

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available One of the obvious trends in current business environment is the increased competition. In this context, organizations are becoming more and more aware of the importance of knowledge as a key factor in obtaining competitive advantage. A possible solution in knowledge management is Economic Intelligence (EI that involves the collection, evaluation, processing, analysis, and dissemination of economic data (about products, clients, competitors, etc. inside organizations. The availability of massive quantities of data correlated with advances in information and communication technology allowing for the filtering and processing of these data provide new tools for the production of economic intelligence.The research is focused on innovative aspects of economic intelligence process (models of analysis, activities, methods and informational tools and is providing practical guidelines for initiating this process. In this paper, we try: (a to contribute to a coherent view on economic intelligence process (approaches, stages, fields of application; b to describe the most important models of analysis related to this process; c to analyze the activities, methods and tools associated with each stage of an EI process.

  4. Improved algorithms and advanced features of the CAD to MC conversion tool McCad

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lu, L.; Fischer, U.; Pereslavtsev, P.

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: •The latest improvements of the McCad conversion approach including decomposition and void filling algorithms is presented. •An advanced interface for the materials editing and assignment has been developed and added to the McCAD GUI. •These improvements have been tested and successfully applied to DEMO and ITER NBI (Neutral Beam Injector) applications. •The performance of the CAD model conversion process is shown to be significantly improved. -- Abstract: McCad is a geometry conversion tool developed at KIT to enable the automatic bi-directional conversions of CAD models into the Monte Carlo (MC) geometries utilized for neutronics calculations (CAD to MC) and, reversed (MC to CAD), for visualization purposes. The paper presents the latest improvements of the conversion algorithms including improved decomposition, void filling and an advanced interface for the materials editing and assignment. The new implementations and features were tested on fusion neutronics applications to the DEMO and ITER NBI (Neutral Beam Injector) models. The results demonstrate greater stability and enhanced efficiency of McCad conversion process

  5. Methodology, Algorithms, and Emerging Tool for Automated Design of Intelligent Integrated Multi-Sensor Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andreas König

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available The emergence of novel sensing elements, computing nodes, wireless communication and integration technology provides unprecedented possibilities for the design and application of intelligent systems. Each new application system must be designed from scratch, employing sophisticated methods ranging from conventional signal processing to computational intelligence. Currently, a significant part of this overall algorithmic chain of the computational system model still has to be assembled manually by experienced designers in a time and labor consuming process. In this research work, this challenge is picked up and a methodology and algorithms for automated design of intelligent integrated and resource-aware multi-sensor systems employing multi-objective evolutionary computation are introduced. The proposed methodology tackles the challenge of rapid-prototyping of such systems under realization constraints and, additionally, includes features of system instance specific self-correction for sustained operation of a large volume and in a dynamically changing environment. The extension of these concepts to the reconfigurable hardware platform renders so called self-x sensor systems, which stands, e.g., for self-monitoring, -calibrating, -trimming, and -repairing/-healing systems. Selected experimental results prove the applicability and effectiveness of our proposed methodology and emerging tool. By our approach, competitive results were achieved with regard to classification accuracy, flexibility, and design speed under additional design constraints.

  6. Physics and Algorithm Enhancements for a Validated MCNP/X Monte Carlo Simulation Tool, Phase VII

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McKinney, Gregg W.

    2012-01-01

    Currently the US lacks an end-to-end (i.e., source-to-detector) radiation transport simulation code with predictive capability for the broad range of DHS nuclear material detection applications. For example, gaps in the physics, along with inadequate analysis algorithms, make it difficult for Monte Carlo simulations to provide a comprehensive evaluation, design, and optimization of proposed interrogation systems. With the development and implementation of several key physics and algorithm enhancements, along with needed improvements in evaluated data and benchmark measurements, the MCNP/X Monte Carlo codes will provide designers, operators, and systems analysts with a validated tool for developing state-of-the-art active and passive detection systems. This project is currently in its seventh year (Phase VII). This presentation will review thirty enhancements that have been implemented in MCNPX over the last 3 years and were included in the 2011 release of version 2.7.0. These improvements include 12 physics enhancements, 4 source enhancements, 8 tally enhancements, and 6 other enhancements. Examples and results will be provided for each of these features. The presentation will also discuss the eight enhancements that will be migrated into MCNP6 over the upcoming year.

  7. Introducing GEOPHIRES v2.0: Updated Geothermal Techno-Economic Simulation Tool: Preprint

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Beckers, Koenraad J [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); McCabe, Kevin [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)

    2018-02-16

    This paper presents an updated version of the geothermal techno-economic simulation tool GEOPHIRES (GEOthermal Energy for Production of Heat and electricity (IR) Economically Simulated). GEOPHIRES combines reservoir, wellbore, surface plant and economic models to estimate the capital, and operation and maintenance costs, lifetime energy production, and overall levelized cost of energy of a geothermal plant. The available end-use options are electricity, direct-use heat and cogeneration. The main updates in the new version include conversion of the source code from FORTRAN to Python, the option to couple to an external reservoir simulator, updated cost correlations, and more flexibility in selecting the time step and number of injection and production wells. An overview of all the updates and two case-studies to illustrate the tool's new capabilities are provided in this paper.

  8. Introducing GEOPHIRES v2.0: Updated Geothermal Techno-Economic Simulation Tool

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Beckers, Koenraad J [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); McCabe, Kevin [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)

    2018-02-14

    This paper presents an updated version of the geothermal techno-economic simulation tool GEOPHIRES (GEOthermal energy for Production of Heat and electricity ('IR') Economically Simulated). GEOPHIRES combines engineering models of the reservoir, wellbores, and surface plant facilities of a geothermal plant with an economic model to estimate the capital and operation and maintenance costs, lifetime energy production, and overall levelized cost of energy. The available end-use options are electricity, direct-use heat, and cogeneration. The main updates in the new version include conversion of the source code from FORTRAN to Python, the option to import temperature data (e.g., measured or from stand-alone reservoir simulator), updated cost correlations, and more flexibility in selecting the time step and number of injection and production wells. In this paper, we provide an overview of all the updates and two case studies to illustrate the tool's new capabilities.

  9. Algorithms

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    algorithm design technique called 'divide-and-conquer'. One of ... Turtle graphics, September. 1996. 5. ... whole list named 'PO' is a pointer to the first element of the list; ..... Program for computing matrices X and Y and placing the result in C *).

  10. Algorithms

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    algorithm that it is implicitly understood that we know how to generate the next natural ..... Explicit comparisons are made in line (1) where maximum and minimum is ... It can be shown that the function T(n) = 3/2n -2 is the solution to the above ...

  11. An Accurate FFPA-PSR Estimator Algorithm and Tool for Software Effort Estimation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Senthil Kumar Murugesan

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Software companies are now keen to provide secure software with respect to accuracy and reliability of their products especially related to the software effort estimation. Therefore, there is a need to develop a hybrid tool which provides all the necessary features. This paper attempts to propose a hybrid estimator algorithm and model which incorporates quality metrics, reliability factor, and the security factor with a fuzzy-based function point analysis. Initially, this method utilizes a fuzzy-based estimate to control the uncertainty in the software size with the help of a triangular fuzzy set at the early development stage. Secondly, the function point analysis is extended by the security and reliability factors in the calculation. Finally, the performance metrics are added with the effort estimation for accuracy. The experimentation is done with different project data sets on the hybrid tool, and the results are compared with the existing models. It shows that the proposed method not only improves the accuracy but also increases the reliability, as well as the security, of the product.

  12. Vibration suppression in cutting tools using collocated piezoelectric sensors/actuators with an adaptive control algorithm

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Radecki, Peter P [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Farinholt, Kevin M [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Park, Gyuhae [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Bement, Matthew T [Los Alamos National Laboratory

    2008-01-01

    The machining process is very important in many engineering applications. In high precision machining, surface finish is strongly correlated with vibrations and the dynamic interactions between the part and the cutting tool. Parameters affecting these vibrations and dynamic interactions, such as spindle speed, cut depth, feed rate, and the part's material properties can vary in real-time, resulting in unexpected or undesirable effects on the surface finish of the machining product. The focus of this research is the development of an improved machining process through the use of active vibration damping. The tool holder employs a high bandwidth piezoelectric actuator with an adaptive positive position feedback control algorithm for vibration and chatter suppression. In addition, instead of using external sensors, the proposed approach investigates the use of a collocated piezoelectric sensor for measuring the dynamic responses from machining processes. The performance of this method is evaluated by comparing the surface finishes obtained with active vibration control versus baseline uncontrolled cuts. Considerable improvement in surface finish (up to 50%) was observed for applications in modern day machining.

  13. Condition monitoring of face milling tool using K-star algorithm and histogram features of vibration signal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C.K. Madhusudana

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available This paper deals with the fault diagnosis of the face milling tool based on machine learning approach using histogram features and K-star algorithm technique. Vibration signals of the milling tool under healthy and different fault conditions are acquired during machining of steel alloy 42CrMo4. Histogram features are extracted from the acquired signals. The decision tree is used to select the salient features out of all the extracted features and these selected features are used as an input to the classifier. K-star algorithm is used as a classifier and the output of the model is utilised to study and classify the different conditions of the face milling tool. Based on the experimental results, K-star algorithm is provided a better classification accuracy in the range from 94% to 96% with histogram features and is acceptable for fault diagnosis.

  14. An improved Pattern Search based algorithm to solve the Dynamic Economic Dispatch problem with valve-point effect

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alsumait, J.S.; Qasem, M.; Sykulski, J.K.; Al-Othman, A.K.

    2010-01-01

    In this paper, an improved algorithm based on Pattern Search method (PS) to solve the Dynamic Economic Dispatch is proposed. The algorithm maintains the essential unit ramp rate constraint, along with all other necessary constraints, not only for the time horizon of operation (24 h), but it preserves these constraints through the transaction period to the next time horizon (next day) in order to avoid the discontinuity of the power system operation. The Dynamic Economic and Emission Dispatch problem (DEED) is also considered. The load balance constraints, operating limits, valve-point loading and network losses are included in the models of both DED and DEED. The numerical results clarify the significance of the improved algorithm and verify its performance.

  15. Techno-economic optimization of a shell and tube heat exchanger by genetic and particle swarm algorithms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sadeghzadeh, H.; Ehyaei, M.A.; Rosen, M.A.

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • Calculating pressure drop and heat transfer coefficient by Delaware method. • The accuracy of the Delaware method is more than the Kern method. • The results of the PSO are better than the results of the GA. • The optimization results suggest that yields the best and most economic optimization. - Abstract: The use of genetic and particle swarm algorithms in the design of techno-economically optimum shell-and-tube heat exchangers is demonstrated. A cost function (including costs of the heat exchanger based on surface area and power consumption to overcome pressure drops) is the objective function, which is to be minimized. Selected decision variables include tube diameter, central baffles spacing and shell diameter. The Delaware method is used to calculate the heat transfer coefficient and the shell-side pressure drop. The accuracy and efficiency of the suggested algorithm and the Delaware method are investigated. A comparison of the results obtained by the two algorithms shows that results obtained with the particle swarm optimization method are superior to those obtained with the genetic algorithm method. By comparing these results with those from various references employing the Kern method and other algorithms, it is shown that the Delaware method accompanied by genetic and particle swarm algorithms achieves more optimum results, based on assessments for two case studies

  16. Algorithms

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    will become clear in the next article when we discuss a simple logo like programming language. ... Rod B may be used as an auxiliary store. The problem is to find an algorithm which performs this task. ... No disks are moved from A to Busing C as auxiliary rod. • move _disk (A, C);. (No + l)th disk is moved from A to C directly ...

  17. ProBiS tools (algorithm, database, and web servers) for predicting and modeling of biologically interesting proteins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Konc, Janez; Janežič, Dušanka

    2017-09-01

    ProBiS (Protein Binding Sites) Tools consist of algorithm, database, and web servers for prediction of binding sites and protein ligands based on the detection of structurally similar binding sites in the Protein Data Bank. In this article, we review the operations that ProBiS Tools perform, provide comments on the evolution of the tools, and give some implementation details. We review some of its applications to biologically interesting proteins. ProBiS Tools are freely available at http://probis.cmm.ki.si and http://probis.nih.gov. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Dynamic Harmony Search with Polynomial Mutation Algorithm for Valve-Point Economic Load Dispatch

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Karthikeyan

    2015-01-01

    mutation (DHSPM algorithm to solve ORPD problem. In DHSPM algorithm the key parameters of HS algorithm like harmony memory considering rate (HMCR and pitch adjusting rate (PAR are changed dynamically and there is no need to predefine these parameters. Additionally polynomial mutation is inserted in the updating step of HS algorithm to favor exploration and exploitation of the search space. The DHSPM algorithm is tested with three power system cases consisting of 3, 13, and 40 thermal units. The computational results show that the DHSPM algorithm is more effective in finding better solutions than other computational intelligence based methods.

  19. Enhancement of combined heat and power economic dispatch using self adaptive real-coded genetic algorithm

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Subbaraj, P. [Kalasalingam University, Srivilliputhur, Tamilnadu 626 190 (India); Rengaraj, R. [Electrical and Electronics Engineering, S.S.N. College of Engineering, Old Mahabalipuram Road, Thirupporur (T.K), Kalavakkam, Kancheepuram (Dist.) 603 110, Tamilnadu (India); Salivahanan, S. [S.S.N. College of Engineering, Old Mahabalipuram Road, Thirupporur (T.K), Kalavakkam, Kancheepuram (Dist.) 603 110, Tamilnadu (India)

    2009-06-15

    In this paper, a self adaptive real-coded genetic algorithm (SARGA) is implemented to solve the combined heat and power economic dispatch (CHPED) problem. The self adaptation is achieved by means of tournament selection along with simulated binary crossover (SBX). The selection process has a powerful exploration capability by creating tournaments between two solutions. The better solution is chosen and placed in the mating pool leading to better convergence and reduced computational burden. The SARGA integrates penalty parameterless constraint handling strategy and simultaneously handles equality and inequality constraints. The population diversity is introduced by making use of distribution index in SBX operator to create a better offspring. This leads to a high diversity in population which can increase the probability towards the global optimum and prevent premature convergence. The SARGA is applied to solve CHPED problem with bounded feasible operating region which has large number of local minima. The numerical results demonstrate that the proposed method can find a solution towards the global optimum and compares favourably with other recent methods in terms of solution quality, handling constraints and computation time. (author)

  20. Parallel Multi-Objective Genetic Algorithm for Short-Term Economic Environmental Hydrothermal Scheduling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhong-Kai Feng

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available With the increasingly serious energy crisis and environmental pollution, the short-term economic environmental hydrothermal scheduling (SEEHTS problem is becoming more and more important in modern electrical power systems. In order to handle the SEEHTS problem efficiently, the parallel multi-objective genetic algorithm (PMOGA is proposed in the paper. Based on the Fork/Join parallel framework, PMOGA divides the whole population of individuals into several subpopulations which will evolve in different cores simultaneously. In this way, PMOGA can avoid the wastage of computational resources and increase the population diversity. Moreover, the constraint handling technique is used to handle the complex constraints in SEEHTS, and a selection strategy based on constraint violation is also employed to ensure the convergence speed and solution feasibility. The results from a hydrothermal system in different cases indicate that PMOGA can make the utmost of system resources to significantly improve the computing efficiency and solution quality. Moreover, PMOGA has competitive performance in SEEHTS when compared with several other methods reported in the previous literature, providing a new approach for the operation of hydrothermal systems.

  1. An Effective Framework For Economic Dispatch Using Modified Harmony Search Algorithm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Advik Kumar

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available The effects of ever-increasing wind power generation for solving the economic dispatch ED problem have led to high penetration of renewable energy source in new power systems. Continuing search for better utilizing of wind turbine associated with thermal sources to find the optimal allocation of output power is necessary in which pro-vide more reliability and efficiency. Dynamic nature of wind energy has imposed uncertainties characteristics in the poser systems. To deal with this problem an effective probabilistic method to investigate all unpredictability would be a good idea to make more realistic analysis. This paper presents a heuristics optimization method based on harmony search HS algorithm to solve non-convex ED problems while uncertainties effects caused by wind turbines are considered. To involve a realistic analysis as a more practical investigation the proposed probabilistic ED PED approach includes prohibited operating zone POZ system spinning reserve ramp rate limits variety of fuel is considered in this studies. Point Estimate Method PEM as a proposed PED model the uncertainties of wind speed for wind turbines to present better realization to the problem. Optimal solution are presented for vari-ous test system and these solutions demonstrate the benefits of our approach in terms of cost over existing ED techniques.

  2. IT Tools and their Use in Strategy Creation in Respect of Economic Results of a Company

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ladislav Pálka

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose of the article: The article analyzes the current state of information technology in terms of their use in a strategy creation of a company in relation to monitoring the economic results of a company. It investigates, identifies and evaluates the overall situation of the concept and principles of these tools, their effectiveness in drawing up the strategy and strategic company goals, the ability to perform a variety of economic analysis without the need of a complex operation and understanding, but also for an effective evaluation of data for a planning support, management and deciding of management components, leading to the overall success of a company. The reason for this monitoring is a considerable difference between strategic company planning and its real results. Methodology/methods: In terms of methodology, the literature review of the current state of the issue has been used. – Primary: interviews, observations, expert estimation. – Secondary: evaluation of the data from the database of IS, documentation of seminars. – Quantitative Research: mapping the orientation of the issue, the confrontation with the theory. – Qualitative research: projective, structured interview (by users and suppliers. Scientific aim: The main aim of the work is to solve the problems of management and evaluation of the economic process in respect of information technology tools in connection with the formation of corporate strategy and monitoring of financial results of the company. The reason for selecting of the above-mentioned issue is the fact that information technology resources are currently not used in the creation of corporate strategy, specifically in the area of economic goals. Findings: To describe the situation in the region and to clearly define the basic problems used as a basis for the use of IT support tools in creation of corporate strategy, namely economic goals and the use of feedback of information support tools for assessing

  3. Towards an Advanced Modelling of Complex Economic Phenomena Pretopological and Topological Uncertainty Research Tools

    CERN Document Server

    Aluja, Jaime Gil

    2012-01-01

    Little by little we are being provided with an arsenal of operative instruments of a non-numerical nature, in the shape of models and algorithms, capable of providing answers to the “aggressions” which our economics and management systems must withstand, coming from an environment full of turmoil.   In the work which we are presenting, we dare to propose a set of elements from which we hope arise focuses capable of renewing those structures of economic thought which are upheld by the geometrical idea.   The concepts of pretopology and topology, habitually marginalized in economics and management studies, have centred our interest in recent times.  We consider that it is not possible to conceive formal structures capable of representing the Darwinism concept of economic behaviour today without recurring to this fundamental generalisation of metric spaces.   In our attempts to find a solid base to the structures proposed for the treatment of economic phenomena, we have frequently resorted to the theory ...

  4. Utilization of debate as an educational tool to learn health economics for dental students in Malaysia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khan, Saad A; Omar, Hanan; Babar, Muneer Gohar; Toh, Chooi G

    2012-12-01

    Health economics, a special branch of science applying economic principles to the health delivery system, is a relatively young subdiscipline. The literature is scanty about teaching health economics in the medical and dental fields. Delivery methods of this topic vary from one university to another, with lectures, seminars, and independent learning reported as teaching/learning tools used for the topic. Ideally, debates should foster the development of logical reasoning and communication skills. Health economics in dentistry is taught under the community oral health module that constitutes part of an outcome-based dental curriculum in a private dental school in Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia. For this study, the students were divided into two groups: active participants (active debaters) and supporting participants (nonactive debaters). The debate style chosen for this activity was parliamentary style. Active and nonactive debaters' perceptions were evaluated before and after the activity through a structured questionnaire using a five-point rating scale addressing the topic and perceptions about debate as an educational tool. Cronbach's alpha coefficient was used as a measure of internal consistency for the questionnaire items. Among a total of eighty-two third-year dental students of two successive cohorts (thirty-eight students and forty-four students), seventy-three completed the questionnaire, yielding a response rate of 89 percent. Students' responses to the questionnaire were analyzed with the Kruskal-Wallis analysis of variance test. Results revealed that the students felt that their interest in debate, knowledge of the topic, and reinforcement of the previous knowledge had improved following participation in the debate. Within the limitations of this study, it can be concluded that debate was a useful tool in teaching health economics to dental students.

  5. Retro-Techno-Economic Analysis: Using (Bio)Process Systems Engineering Tools to Attain Process Target Values

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Furlan, Felipe F.; Costa, Caliane B B; Secchi, Argimiro R.

    2016-01-01

    Economic analysis, allied to process systems engineering tools, can provide useful insights about process techno-economic feasibility. More interestingly, rather than being used to evaluate specific process conditions, this techno-economic analysis can be turned upside down to achieve target valu...

  6. Forest FIRE and FIRE wood : tools for tree automata and tree algorithms

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cleophas, L.G.W.A.; Piskorski, J.; Watson, B.W.; Yli-Jyrä, A.

    2009-01-01

    Pattern matching, acceptance, and parsing algorithms on node-labeled, ordered, ranked trees ('tree algorithms') are important for applications such as instruction selection and tree transformation/term rewriting. Many such algorithms have been developed. They often are based on results from such

  7. DWFS: A Wrapper Feature Selection Tool Based on a Parallel Genetic Algorithm

    KAUST Repository

    Soufan, Othman

    2015-02-26

    Many scientific problems can be formulated as classification tasks. Data that harbor relevant information are usually described by a large number of features. Frequently, many of these features are irrelevant for the class prediction. The efficient implementation of classification models requires identification of suitable combinations of features. The smaller number of features reduces the problem\\'s dimensionality and may result in higher classification performance. We developed DWFS, a web-based tool that allows for efficient selection of features for a variety of problems. DWFS follows the wrapper paradigm and applies a search strategy based on Genetic Algorithms (GAs). A parallel GA implementation examines and evaluates simultaneously large number of candidate collections of features. DWFS also integrates various filteringmethods thatmay be applied as a pre-processing step in the feature selection process. Furthermore, weights and parameters in the fitness function of GA can be adjusted according to the application requirements. Experiments using heterogeneous datasets from different biomedical applications demonstrate that DWFS is fast and leads to a significant reduction of the number of features without sacrificing performance as compared to several widely used existing methods. DWFS can be accessed online at www.cbrc.kaust.edu.sa/dwfs.

  8. Model-Based Fault Diagnosis Techniques Design Schemes, Algorithms and Tools

    CERN Document Server

    Ding, Steven X

    2013-01-01

    Guaranteeing a high system performance over a wide operating range is an important issue surrounding the design of automatic control systems with successively increasing complexity. As a key technology in the search for a solution, advanced fault detection and identification (FDI) is receiving considerable attention. This book introduces basic model-based FDI schemes, advanced analysis and design algorithms, and mathematical and control-theoretic tools. This second edition of Model-Based Fault Diagnosis Techniques contains: ·         new material on fault isolation and identification, and fault detection in feedback control loops; ·         extended and revised treatment of systematic threshold determination for systems with both deterministic unknown inputs and stochastic noises; addition of the continuously-stirred tank heater as a representative process-industrial benchmark; and ·         enhanced discussion of residual evaluation in stochastic processes. Model-based Fault Diagno...

  9. DWFS: A Wrapper Feature Selection Tool Based on a Parallel Genetic Algorithm

    KAUST Repository

    Soufan, Othman; Kleftogiannis, Dimitrios A.; Kalnis, Panos; Bajic, Vladimir B.

    2015-01-01

    Many scientific problems can be formulated as classification tasks. Data that harbor relevant information are usually described by a large number of features. Frequently, many of these features are irrelevant for the class prediction. The efficient implementation of classification models requires identification of suitable combinations of features. The smaller number of features reduces the problem's dimensionality and may result in higher classification performance. We developed DWFS, a web-based tool that allows for efficient selection of features for a variety of problems. DWFS follows the wrapper paradigm and applies a search strategy based on Genetic Algorithms (GAs). A parallel GA implementation examines and evaluates simultaneously large number of candidate collections of features. DWFS also integrates various filteringmethods thatmay be applied as a pre-processing step in the feature selection process. Furthermore, weights and parameters in the fitness function of GA can be adjusted according to the application requirements. Experiments using heterogeneous datasets from different biomedical applications demonstrate that DWFS is fast and leads to a significant reduction of the number of features without sacrificing performance as compared to several widely used existing methods. DWFS can be accessed online at www.cbrc.kaust.edu.sa/dwfs.

  10. A Web-Based Tool to Interpolate Nitrogen Loading Using a Genetic Algorithm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Youn Shik Park

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Water quality data may not be collected at a high frequency, nor over the range of streamflow data. For instance, water quality data are often collected monthly, biweekly, or weekly, since collecting and analyzing water quality samples are costly compared to streamflow data. Regression models are often used to interpolate pollutant loads from measurements made intermittently. Web-based Load Interpolation Tool (LOADIN was developed to provide user-friendly interfaces and to allow use of streamflow and water quality data from U.S. Geological Survey (USGS via web access. LOADIN has a regression model assuming that instantaneous load is comprised of the pollutant load based on streamflow and the pollutant load variation within the period. The regression model has eight coefficients determined by a genetic algorithm with measured water quality data. LOADIN was applied to eleven water quality datasets from USGS gage stations located in Illinois, Indiana, Michigan, Minnesota, and Wisconsin states with drainage areas from 44 km2 to 1,847,170 km2. Measured loads were calculated by multiplying nitrogen data by streamflow data associated with measured nitrogen data. The estimated nitrogen loads and measured loads were evaluated using Nash-Sutcliffe Efficiency (NSE and coefficient of determination (R2. NSE ranged from 0.45 to 0.91, and R2 ranged from 0.51 to 0.91 for nitrogen load estimation.

  11. Implementation of an Evidence-Based and Content Validated Standardized Ostomy Algorithm Tool in Home Care: A Quality Improvement Project.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bare, Kimberly; Drain, Jerri; Timko-Progar, Monica; Stallings, Bobbie; Smith, Kimberly; Ward, Naomi; Wright, Sandra

    Many nurses have limited experience with ostomy management. We sought to provide a standardized approach to ostomy education and management to support nurses in early identification of stomal and peristomal complications, pouching problems, and provide standardized solutions for managing ostomy care in general while improving utilization of formulary products. This article describes development and testing of an ostomy algorithm tool.

  12. Operation management of daily economic dispatch using novel hybrid particle swarm optimization and gravitational search algorithm with hybrid mutation strategy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yan; Huang, Song; Ji, Zhicheng

    2017-07-01

    This paper presents a hybrid particle swarm optimization and gravitational search algorithm based on hybrid mutation strategy (HGSAPSO-M) to optimize economic dispatch (ED) including distributed generations (DGs) considering market-based energy pricing. A daily ED model was formulated and a hybrid mutation strategy was adopted in HGSAPSO-M. The hybrid mutation strategy includes two mutation operators, chaotic mutation, Gaussian mutation. The proposed algorithm was tested on IEEE-33 bus and results show that the approach is effective for this problem.

  13. Socio-economic analysis: a tool for assessing the potential of nanotechnologies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brignon, Jean-Marc

    2011-01-01

    Cost-Benefit Analysis (CBA) has a long history, especially in the USA, of being used for the assessment of new regulation, new infrastructure and more recently for new technologies. Under the denomination of Socio-Economic Analysis (SEA), this concept is used in EU safety and environmental regulation, especially for the placing of chemicals on the market (REACh regulation) and the operation of industrial installations (Industrial Emissions Directive). As far as REACh and other EU legislation apply specifically to nanomaterials in the future, SEA might become an important assessment tool for nanotechnologies. The most important asset of SEA regarding nanomaterials, is the comparison with alternatives in socio-economic scenarios, which is key for the understanding of how a nanomaterial 'socially' performs in comparison with its alternatives. 'Industrial economics' methods should be introduced in SEAs to make industry and the regulator share common concepts and visions about economic competitiveness implications of regulating nanotechnologies, SEA and Life Cycle Analysis (LCA) can complement each other : Socio-Economic LCA are increasingly seen as a complete assessment tool for nanotechnologies, but the perspective between Social LCA and SEA are different and the respective merits and limitations of both approaches should be kept in mind. SEA is a 'pragmatic regulatory impact analysis', that uses a cost/benefit framework analysis but remains open to other disciplines than economy, and open to the participation of stakeholders for the construction of scenarios of the deployment of technologies and the identification of alternatives. SEA is 'pragmatic' in the sense that it is driven by the purpose to assess 'what happens' with the introduction of nanotechnology, and uses methodologies such as Life Cycle Analysis only as far as they really contribute to that goal. We think that, being pragmatic, SEA is also adaptative, which is a key quality to handle the novelty of

  14. Socio-economic analysis: a tool for assessing the potential of nanotechnologies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brignon, Jean-Marc

    2011-07-01

    Cost-Benefit Analysis (CBA) has a long history, especially in the USA, of being used for the assessment of new regulation, new infrastructure and more recently for new technologies. Under the denomination of Socio-Economic Analysis (SEA), this concept is used in EU safety and environmental regulation, especially for the placing of chemicals on the market (REACh regulation) and the operation of industrial installations (Industrial Emissions Directive). As far as REACh and other EU legislation apply specifically to nanomaterials in the future, SEA might become an important assessment tool for nanotechnologies. The most important asset of SEA regarding nanomaterials, is the comparison with alternatives in socio-economic scenarios, which is key for the understanding of how a nanomaterial "socially" performs in comparison with its alternatives. "Industrial economics" methods should be introduced in SEAs to make industry and the regulator share common concepts and visions about economic competitiveness implications of regulating nanotechnologies, SEA and Life Cycle Analysis (LCA) can complement each other : Socio-Economic LCA are increasingly seen as a complete assessment tool for nanotechnologies, but the perspective between Social LCA and SEA are different and the respective merits and limitations of both approaches should be kept in mind. SEA is a "pragmatic regulatory impact analysis", that uses a cost/benefit framework analysis but remains open to other disciplines than economy, and open to the participation of stakeholders for the construction of scenarios of the deployment of technologies and the identification of alternatives. SEA is "pragmatic" in the sense that it is driven by the purpose to assess "what happens" with the introduction of nanotechnology, and uses methodologies such as Life Cycle Analysis only as far as they really contribute to that goal. We think that, being pragmatic, SEA is also adaptative, which is a key quality to handle the novelty of

  15. Economic Analysis on Value Chain of Taxi Fleet with Battery-Swapping Mode Using Multiobjective Genetic Algorithm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guobao Ning

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents an economic analysis model on value chain of taxi fleet with battery-swapping mode in a pilot city. In the model, economic benefits of charging-swapping station group, taxi company, and taxi driver in the region have been taken into consideration. Thus, the model is a multiobjective function and multiobjective genetic algorithm is used to solve this problem. According to the real data collected from the pilot city, the multiobjective genetic algorithm is tested as an effective method to solve this problem. Furthermore, the effects of price of electricity, price of battery package, life cycle of battery package, cost of battery-swapping devices and infrastructure, and driving mileage per day on the benefits of value holders are analyzed, which provide theoretical and practical reference for the deployment of electric vehicles, for the national subsidy criteria adjusment, technological innovation instruction, commercial mode selection, and infrastructure construction.

  16. Integration of life cycle assessment software with tools for economic and sustainability analyses and process simulation for sustainable process design

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kalakul, Sawitree; Malakul, Pomthong; Siemanond, Kitipat

    2014-01-01

    The sustainable future of the world challenges engineers to develop chemical process designs that are not only technically and economically feasible but also environmental friendly. Life cycle assessment (LCA) is a tool for identifying and quantifying environmental impacts of the chemical product...... with other process design tools such as sustainable design (SustainPro), economic analysis (ECON) and process simulation. The software framework contains four main tools: Tool-I is for life cycle inventory (LCI) knowledge management that enables easy maintenance and future expansion of the LCI database; Tool...... and/or the process that makes it. It can be used in conjunction with process simulation and economic analysis tools to evaluate the design of any existing and/or new chemical-biochemical process and to propose improvement options in order to arrive at the best design among various alternatives...

  17. Understanding the stakeholders' intention to use economic decision-support tools: A cross-sectional study with the tobacco return on investment tool.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheung, Kei Long; Evers, Silvia M A A; Hiligsmann, Mickaël; Vokó, Zoltán; Pokhrel, Subhash; Jones, Teresa; Muñoz, Celia; Wolfenstetter, Silke B; Józwiak-Hagymásy, Judit; de Vries, Hein

    2016-01-01

    Despite an increased number of economic evaluations of tobacco control interventions, the uptake by stakeholders continues to be limited. Understanding the underlying mechanism in adopting such economic decision-support tools by stakeholders is therefore important. By applying the I-Change Model, this study aims to identify which factors determine potential uptake of an economic decision-support tool, i.e., the Return on Investment tool. Stakeholders (decision-makers, purchasers of services/pharma products, professionals/service providers, evidence generators and advocates of health promotion) were interviewed in five countries, using an I-Change based questionnaire. MANOVA's were conducted to assess differences between intenders and non-intenders regarding beliefs. A multiple regression analysis was conducted to identify the main explanatory variables of intention to use an economic decision-support tool. Ninety-three stakeholders participated. Significant differences in beliefs were found between non-intenders and intenders: risk perception, attitude, social support, and self-efficacy towards using the tool. Regression showed that demographics, pre-motivational, and motivational factors explained 69% of the variation in intention. This study is the first to provide a theoretical framework to understand differences in beliefs between stakeholders who do or do not intend to use economic decision-support tools, and empirically corroborating the framework. This contributes to our understanding of the facilitators and barriers to the uptake of these studies. Copyright © 2015 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  18. Toward a synthetic economic systems modeling tool for sustainable exploitation of ecosystems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richardson, Colin; Courvisanos, Jerry; Crawford, John W

    2011-02-01

    Environmental resources that underpin the basic human needs of water, energy, and food are predicted to become in such short supply by 2050 that global security and the well-being of millions will be under threat. These natural commodities have been allowed to reach crisis levels of supply because of a failure of economic systems to sustain them. This is largely because there have been no means of integrating their exploitation into any economic model that effectively addresses ecological systemic failures in a way that provides an integrated ecological-economic tool that can monitor and evaluate market and policy targets. We review the reasons for this and recent attempts to address the problem while identifying outstanding issues. The key elements of a policy-oriented economic model that integrates ecosystem processes are described and form the basis of a proposed new synthesis approach. The approach is illustrated by an indicative case study that develops a simple model for rainfed and irrigated food production in the Murray-Darling basin of southeastern Australia. © 2011 New York Academy of Sciences.

  19. INCORPORATING ENVIRONMENTAL AND ECONOMIC CONSIDERATIONS INTO PROCESS DESIGN: THE WASTE REDUCTION (WAR) ALGORITHM

    Science.gov (United States)

    A general theory known as the WAste Reduction (WASR) algorithm has been developed to describe the flow and the generation of potential environmental impact through a chemical process. This theory integrates environmental impact assessment into chemical process design Potential en...

  20. System capacity and economic modeling computer tool for satellite mobile communications systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wiedeman, Robert A.; Wen, Doong; Mccracken, Albert G.

    1988-01-01

    A unique computer modeling tool that combines an engineering tool with a financial analysis program is described. The resulting combination yields a flexible economic model that can predict the cost effectiveness of various mobile systems. Cost modeling is necessary in order to ascertain if a given system with a finite satellite resource is capable of supporting itself financially and to determine what services can be supported. Personal computer techniques using Lotus 123 are used for the model in order to provide as universal an application as possible such that the model can be used and modified to fit many situations and conditions. The output of the engineering portion of the model consists of a channel capacity analysis and link calculations for several qualities of service using up to 16 types of earth terminal configurations. The outputs of the financial model are a revenue analysis, an income statement, and a cost model validation section.

  1. The Biobank Economic Modeling Tool (BEMT): Online Financial Planning to Facilitate Biobank Sustainability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Odeh, Hana; Miranda, Lisa; Rao, Abhi; Vaught, Jim; Greenman, Howard; McLean, Jeffrey; Reed, Daniel; Memon, Sarfraz; Fombonne, Benjamin; Guan, Ping

    2015-01-01

    Background: Biospecimens are essential resources for advancing basic and translational research. However, there are little data available regarding the costs associated with operating a biobank, and few resources to enable their long-term sustainability. To support the research community in this effort, the National Institutes of Health, National Cancer Institute's Biorepositories and Biospecimen Research Branch has developed the Biobank Economic Modeling Tool (BEMT). The tool is accessible at http://biospecimens.cancer.gov/resources/bemt.asp. Methods: To obtain market-based cost information and to inform the development of the tool, a survey was designed and sent to 423 biobank managers and directors across the world. The survey contained questions regarding infrastructure investments, salary costs, funding options, types of biospecimen resources and services offered, as well as biospecimen pricing and service-related costs. Results: A total of 106 responses were received. The data were anonymized, aggregated, and used to create a comprehensive database of cost and pricing information that was integrated into the web-based tool, the BEMT. The BEMT was built to allow the user to input cost and pricing data through a seven-step process to build a cost profile for their biobank, define direct and indirect costs, determine cost recovery fees, perform financial forecasting, and query the anonymized survey data from comparable biobanks. Conclusion: A survey was conducted to obtain a greater understanding of the costs involved in operating a biobank. The anonymized survey data was then used to develop the BEMT, a cost modeling tool for biobanks. Users of the tool will be able to create a cost profile for their biobanks' specimens, products and services, establish pricing, and allocate costs for biospecimens based on percent cost recovered, and perform project-specific cost analyses and financial forecasting. PMID:26697911

  2. The Biobank Economic Modeling Tool (BEMT): Online Financial Planning to Facilitate Biobank Sustainability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Odeh, Hana; Miranda, Lisa; Rao, Abhi; Vaught, Jim; Greenman, Howard; McLean, Jeffrey; Reed, Daniel; Memon, Sarfraz; Fombonne, Benjamin; Guan, Ping; Moore, Helen M

    2015-12-01

    Biospecimens are essential resources for advancing basic and translational research. However, there are little data available regarding the costs associated with operating a biobank, and few resources to enable their long-term sustainability. To support the research community in this effort, the National Institutes of Health, National Cancer Institute's Biorepositories and Biospecimen Research Branch has developed the Biobank Economic Modeling Tool (BEMT). The tool is accessible at http://biospecimens.cancer.gov/resources/bemt.asp. To obtain market-based cost information and to inform the development of the tool, a survey was designed and sent to 423 biobank managers and directors across the world. The survey contained questions regarding infrastructure investments, salary costs, funding options, types of biospecimen resources and services offered, as well as biospecimen pricing and service-related costs. A total of 106 responses were received. The data were anonymized, aggregated, and used to create a comprehensive database of cost and pricing information that was integrated into the web-based tool, the BEMT. The BEMT was built to allow the user to input cost and pricing data through a seven-step process to build a cost profile for their biobank, define direct and indirect costs, determine cost recovery fees, perform financial forecasting, and query the anonymized survey data from comparable biobanks. A survey was conducted to obtain a greater understanding of the costs involved in operating a biobank. The anonymized survey data was then used to develop the BEMT, a cost modeling tool for biobanks. Users of the tool will be able to create a cost profile for their biobanks' specimens, products and services, establish pricing, and allocate costs for biospecimens based on percent cost recovered, and perform project-specific cost analyses and financial forecasting.

  3. Thermo-economic design optimization of parabolic trough solar plants for industrial process heat applications with memetic algorithms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Silva, R.; Berenguel, M.; Pérez, M.; Fernández-Garcia, A.

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • A thermo-economic optimization of a parabolic-trough solar plant for industrial process heat applications is developed. • An analysis of the influence of economic cost functions on optimal design point location is presented. • A multi-objective optimization approach to the design routine is proposed. • A sensitivity analysis of the optimal point location to economic, operational, and ambient conditions is developed. • Design optimization of a parabolic trough plant for a reference industrial application is developed. - Abstract: A thermo-economic design optimization of a parabolic trough solar plant for industrial processes with memetic algorithms is developed. The design domain variables considered in the optimization routine are the number of collectors in series, number of collector rows, row spacing, and storage volume. Life cycle savings, levelized cost of energy, and payback time objective functions are compared to study the influence on optimal design point location. Furthermore a multi-objective optimization approach is proposed to analyze the design problem from a multi-economic criteria point of view. An extensive set of optimization cases are performed to estimate the influence of fuel price trend, plant location, demand profile, operation conditions, solar field orientation, and radiation uncertainty on optimal design. The results allow quantifying as thermo-economic design optimization based on short term criteria as the payback time leads to smaller plants with higher solar field efficiencies and smaller solar fractions, while the consideration of optimization criteria based on long term performance of the plants, as life cycle savings based optimization, leads to the reverse conclusion. The role of plant location and future evolution of gas prices in the thermo-economic performance of the solar plant has been also analyzed. Thermo-economic optimization of a parabolic trough solar plant design for the reference industrial

  4. Rapid mental computation system as a tool for algorithmic thinking of elementary school students development

    OpenAIRE

    Ziatdinov, Rushan; Musa, Sajid

    2013-01-01

    In this paper, we describe the possibilities of using a rapid mental computation system in elementary education. The system consists of a number of readily memorized operations that allow one to perform arithmetic computations very quickly. These operations are actually simple algorithms which can develop or improve the algorithmic thinking of pupils. Using a rapid mental computation system allows forming the basis for the study of computer science in secondary school.

  5. An interactive economic GIS tool for Europe using map objects for Java

    Science.gov (United States)

    Srinivasan, Vaishnavi

    Europe is one of the world's seven continents, which has approximately 50 countries and all are rich in culture, traditions, economy, biodiversity, among other things. This thesis focuses on creating a GIS application about Europe which will give an overview of Europe in various aspects. It covers 50 countries including financial centers, currency used, population, GDP growth, private banks, central banks, stock exchange, coat of arms and flags for each country, using the HotLink Tool. A reference link is also provided for detailed understanding of the above mentioned aspects. The other part of the thesis mainly focuses on the economics of the European Union as well as each country independently, which gives a thorough knowledge about the current investment climate in Europe. A part of this idea is to ensure transparency after the financial crisis in 2008. Further the capital markets of the European Union and other European countries are brought to light to provide a clear picture of their present financial situation. The application can help in improving policy and decision making, foreign investments, business environment for various development organizations. So this GIS application will be an effective tool for customers to understand the risks in investments by learning about the economic conditions of Europe.

  6. Kinect as a Tool for Gait Analysis: Validation of a Real-Time Joint Extraction Algorithm Working in Side View

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cippitelli, Enea; Gasparrini, Samuele; Spinsante, Susanna; Gambi, Ennio

    2015-01-01

    The Microsoft Kinect sensor has gained attention as a tool for gait analysis for several years. Despite the many advantages the sensor provides, however, the lack of a native capability to extract joints from the side view of a human body still limits the adoption of the device to a number of relevant applications. This paper presents an algorithm to locate and estimate the trajectories of up to six joints extracted from the side depth view of a human body captured by the Kinect device. The algorithm is then applied to extract data that can be exploited to provide an objective score for the “Get Up and Go Test”, which is typically adopted for gait analysis in rehabilitation fields. Starting from the depth-data stream provided by the Microsoft Kinect sensor, the proposed algorithm relies on anthropometric models only, to locate and identify the positions of the joints. Differently from machine learning approaches, this solution avoids complex computations, which usually require significant resources. The reliability of the information about the joint position output by the algorithm is evaluated by comparison to a marker-based system. Tests show that the trajectories extracted by the proposed algorithm adhere to the reference curves better than the ones obtained from the skeleton generated by the native applications provided within the Microsoft Kinect (Microsoft Corporation, Redmond, WA, USA, 2013) and OpenNI (OpenNI organization, Tel Aviv, Israel, 2013) Software Development Kits. PMID:25594588

  7. Kinect as a Tool for Gait Analysis: Validation of a Real-Time Joint Extraction Algorithm Working in Side View

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Enea Cippitelli

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The Microsoft Kinect sensor has gained attention as a tool for gait analysis for several years. Despite the many advantages the sensor provides, however, the lack of a native capability to extract joints from the side view of a human body still limits the adoption of the device to a number of relevant applications. This paper presents an algorithm to locate and estimate the trajectories of up to six joints extracted from the side depth view of a human body captured by the Kinect device. The algorithm is then applied to extract data that can be exploited to provide an objective score for the “Get Up and Go Test”, which is typically adopted for gait analysis in rehabilitation fields. Starting from the depth-data stream provided by the Microsoft Kinect sensor, the proposed algorithm relies on anthropometric models only, to locate and identify the positions of the joints. Differently from machine learning approaches, this solution avoids complex computations, which usually require significant resources. The reliability of the information about the joint position output by the algorithm is evaluated by comparison to a marker-based system. Tests show that the trajectories extracted by the proposed algorithm adhere to the reference curves better than the ones obtained from the skeleton generated by the native applications provided within the Microsoft Kinect (Microsoft Corporation, Redmond,WA, USA, 2013 and OpenNI (OpenNI organization, Tel Aviv, Israel, 2013 Software Development Kits.

  8. Using Economic Impact Models as an Educational Tool in Community Economic Development Programming: Lessons from Pennsylvania and Wisconsin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shields, Martin; Deller, Steven C.

    2003-01-01

    Outlines an educational process designed to help provide communities with economic, social, and political information using community economic impact modeling. Describes the process of community meetings using economic impact, community demographics, and fiscal impact modules and the local preconditions that help make the process successful. (SK)

  9. New Mathematical Model and Algorithm for Economic Lot Scheduling Problem in Flexible Flow Shop

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. Zohali

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available This paper addresses the lot sizing and scheduling problem for a number of products in flexible flow shop with identical parallel machines. The production stages are in series, while separated by finite intermediate buffers. The objective is to minimize the sum of setup and inventory holding costs per unit of time. The available mathematical model of this problem in the literature suffers from huge complexity in terms of size and computation. In this paper, a new mixed integer linear program is developed for delay with the huge dimentions of the problem. Also, a new meta heuristic algorithm is developed for the problem. The results of the numerical experiments represent a significant advantage of the proposed model and algorithm compared with the available models and algorithms in the literature.

  10. Development and analysis of an economizer control strategy algorithm to promote an opportunity for energy savings in air conditioning installations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Neto, Jose H.M.; Azevedo, Walter L. [Centro Federal de Educacao Tecnologica de Minas Gerais (CEFET), Belo Horizonte, MG (Brazil). Dept. de Engenharia Mecanica]. E-mail: henrique@daem.des.cefetmg.br

    2000-07-01

    This work presents an algorithm control strategy denominated enthalpy economizer. The objective of this algorithm strategy is to determine the adequate fractions of outside and return air flowrates entering a cooling coil based on the analysis of the outside, return and supply air enthalpies, rather than on the analysis of the dry bulb temperatures. The proposed algorithm predicts the actual opening position of the outside and return air dampers in order to provide the lower mixing air enthalpy. First, the psychometrics properties of the outside and return air are calculated from actual measurements of the dry and wet bulb temperatures. Then, three distinct cases are analyzed: the enthalpy of the outside air is lower than the enthalpy of the supply air (free cooling); the enthalpy of the outside air is higher than the enthalpy of the return air; the enthalpy of the outside air is lower than the enthalpy of the return air and higher than the temperature of the supply air. Different outside air conditions were selected in order to represent typical weather data of Brazilians cities, as well as typical return air conditions. It was found that the enthalpy control strategy could promote an opportunity for energy savings mainly during mild nights and wintertime periods as well as during warm afternoons and summertime periods, depending on the outside air relative humidity. The proposed algorithm works well and can be integrated in some commercial automation software to reduce energy consumption and electricity demand. (author)

  11. Environmental/economic dispatch problem of power system by using an enhanced multi-objective differential evolution algorithm

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lu Youlin; Zhou Jianzhong; Qin Hui; Wang Ying; Zhang Yongchuan

    2011-01-01

    An enhanced multi-objective differential evolution algorithm (EMODE) is proposed in this paper to solve environmental/economic dispatch (EED) problem by considering the minimal of fuel cost and emission effects synthetically. In the proposed algorithm, an elitist archive technique is adopted to retain the non-dominated solutions obtained during the evolutionary process, and the operators of DE are modified according to the characteristics of multi-objective optimization problems. Moreover, in order to avoid premature convergence, a local random search (LRS) operator is integrated with the proposed method to improve the convergence performance. In view of the difficulties of handling the complicated constraints of EED problem, a new heuristic constraints handling method without any penalty factor settings is presented. The feasibility and effectiveness of the proposed EMODE method is demonstrated for a test power system. Compared with other methods, EMODE can get higher quality solutions by reducing the fuel cost and the emission effects synthetically.

  12. THE WASTE REDUCTION (WAR) ALGORITHM: ENVIRONMENTAL IMPACTS, ENERGY CONSUMPTION, AND ENGINEERING ECONOMICS

    Science.gov (United States)

    A general theory known as the WAste Reduction (WAR) algorithm has been developed to describe the flow and the generation of potential environmental impact through a chemical process. This theory defines potential environmental impact indexes that characterize the generation and t...

  13. Developing an eye-tracking algorithm as a potential tool for early diagnosis of autism spectrum disorder in children.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Natalia I Vargas-Cuentas

    Full Text Available Autism spectrum disorder (ASD currently affects nearly 1 in 160 children worldwide. In over two-thirds of evaluations, no validated diagnostics are used and gold standard diagnostic tools are used in less than 5% of evaluations. Currently, the diagnosis of ASD requires lengthy and expensive tests, in addition to clinical confirmation. Therefore, fast, cheap, portable, and easy-to-administer screening instruments for ASD are required. Several studies have shown that children with ASD have a lower preference for social scenes compared with children without ASD. Based on this, eye-tracking and measurement of gaze preference for social scenes has been used as a screening tool for ASD. Currently available eye-tracking software requires intensive calibration, training, or holding of the head to prevent interference with gaze recognition limiting its use in children with ASD.In this study, we designed a simple eye-tracking algorithm that does not require calibration or head holding, as a platform for future validation of a cost-effective ASD potential screening instrument. This system operates on a portable and inexpensive tablet to measure gaze preference of children for social compared to abstract scenes. A child watches a one-minute stimulus video composed of a social scene projected on the left side and an abstract scene projected on the right side of the tablet's screen. We designed five stimulus videos by changing the social/abstract scenes. Every child observed all the five videos in random order. We developed an eye-tracking algorithm that calculates the child's gaze preference for the social and abstract scenes, estimated as the percentage of the accumulated time that the child observes the left or right side of the screen, respectively. Twenty-three children without a prior history of ASD and 8 children with a clinical diagnosis of ASD were evaluated. The recorded video of the child´s eye movement was analyzed both manually by an observer

  14. New HIV Testing Algorithm: Promising Tool in the Fight Against HIV

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    In this podcast, CDC’s Dr. Phil Peters discusses the new HIV testing algorithm and how this latest technology can improve the diagnosis of acute HIV infection. Early detection of HIV is critical to saving lives, getting patients into treatment, and preventing transmission.

  15. A Hybrid Genetic-Algorithm Space-Mapping Tool for the Optimization of Antennas

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pantoja, Mario Fernández; Meincke, Peter; Bretones, Amelia Rubio

    2007-01-01

    A hybrid global-local optimization technique for the design of antennas is presented. It consists of the subsequent application of a genetic algorithm (GA) that employs coarse models in the simulations and a space mapping (SM) that refines the solution found in the previous stage. The technique...

  16. Algorithms and programming tools for image processing on the MPP, part 2

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reeves, Anthony P.

    1986-01-01

    A number of algorithms were developed for image warping and pyramid image filtering. Techniques were investigated for the parallel processing of a large number of independent irregular shaped regions on the MPP. In addition some utilities for dealing with very long vectors and for sorting were developed. Documentation pages for the algorithms which are available for distribution are given. The performance of the MPP for a number of basic data manipulations was determined. From these results it is possible to predict the efficiency of the MPP for a number of algorithms and applications. The Parallel Pascal development system, which is a portable programming environment for the MPP, was improved and better documentation including a tutorial was written. This environment allows programs for the MPP to be developed on any conventional computer system; it consists of a set of system programs and a library of general purpose Parallel Pascal functions. The algorithms were tested on the MPP and a presentation on the development system was made to the MPP users group. The UNIX version of the Parallel Pascal System was distributed to a number of new sites.

  17. Semer: a simple calculational tool for the economic evaluations of reactor systems and associated innovations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nisan, S. [CEA Cadarache, Nuclear Reactor Directorate, DRN, Dept. of Reactor Studies, DER, Reactor and Innovative Systems Service, SERSI, 13 - Saint Paul lez Durance (France); Rouyer, J.L. [Electricite de France (EDF), Pole Industrie, Div. Ingenierie et Services, 93 - Saint-Denis (France)

    2001-07-01

    This paper summarises part of our on-going investigations on the economic evaluations of various nuclear and fossil energy systems and related innovations. These investigations are principally concerned with the development of the code system SEMER and its validation. SEMER has been developed to furnish top management and project leaders a simple tool for cost evaluations enabling a choice between competitive technological options. The cost evaluation models, actually integrated in the SEMER system, already cover a very wide range of electricity producing systems and, where relevant, their associated fuel cycles: The ''global models'', allowing rapid but relatively approximate overall cost estimations (about 15 % error). These include: Almost all the electricity producing systems using fossil energies (Oil, Coal, Gas, including gas turbines with combined cycles); Nuclear reactor systems including all the French PWRs, HTRs, Compact PWRs, and PWRs for nuclear propulsion systems. (author)

  18. Semer: a simple calculational tool for the economic evaluations of reactor systems and associated innovations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nisan, S.; Rouyer, J.L.

    2001-01-01

    This paper summarises part of our on-going investigations on the economic evaluations of various nuclear and fossil energy systems and related innovations. These investigations are principally concerned with the development of the code system SEMER and its validation. SEMER has been developed to furnish top management and project leaders a simple tool for cost evaluations enabling a choice between competitive technological options. The cost evaluation models, actually integrated in the SEMER system, already cover a very wide range of electricity producing systems and, where relevant, their associated fuel cycles: The ''global models'', allowing rapid but relatively approximate overall cost estimations (about 15 % error). These include: Almost all the electricity producing systems using fossil energies (Oil, Coal, Gas, including gas turbines with combined cycles); Nuclear reactor systems including all the French PWRs, HTRs, Compact PWRs, and PWRs for nuclear propulsion systems. (author)

  19. GENDER DISPARITIES REGARDING WAGE AS A MOTIVATIONAL TOOL IN THE CURRENT ECONOMIC CONTEXT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    DEMYEN SUZANA

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available The deepening process of globalization, negative trends regarding demographic evolution both nationally and internationally, also the emigration phenomenon and the long-term effects of the economic crisis, are the main challenges in terms of creating a general support and to encourage a fair and effective management of human resources, regardless of the industry they are developing their activity. Motivation consists in a series of problems that need to be solved in order to generate both individual and team performance, and wage is seen as one of the most important motivational tools. Though we have witnessed a less serious gap between wages according to the gender criterion, still there can be identified certain issues that need to be solved regardless the most recent trends in management

  20. Impact of population and economic growth on carbon emissions in Taiwan using an analytic tool STIRPAT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jong-Chao Yeh

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Carbon emission has increasingly become an issue of global concern because of climate change. Unfortunately, Taiwan was listed as top 20 countries of carbon emission in 2014. In order to provide appropriate measures to control carbon emission, it appears that there is an urgent need to address how such factors as population and economic growth impact the emission of carbon dioxide in any developing countries. In addition to total population, both the percentages of population living in urban area (i.e., urbanization percentage, and non-dependent population may also serve as limiting factors. On the other hand, the total energy-driven gross domestic production (GDP and the percentage of GDP generated by the manufacturing industries are assessed to see their respective degree of impact on carbon emission. Therefore, based on the past national data in the period 1990–2014 in Taiwan, an analytic tool of Stochastic Impacts by Regression on Population, Affluence and Technology (STIRPAT was employed to see how well those aforementioned factors can describe their individual potential impact on global warming, which is measured by the total amount of carbon emission into the atmosphere. Seven scenarios of STIRPAT model were proposed and tested statistically for the significance of each proposed model. As a result, two models were suggested to predict the impact of carbon emission due to population and economic growth by the year 2025 in Taiwan.

  1. Development and evaluation of an algorithm-based tool for Medication Management in nursing homes: the AMBER study protocol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erzkamp, Susanne; Rose, Olaf

    2018-04-20

    Residents of nursing homes are susceptible to risks from medication. Medication Reviews (MR) can increase clinical outcomes and the quality of medication therapy. Limited resources and barriers between healthcare practitioners are potential obstructions to performing MR in nursing homes. Focusing on frequent and relevant problems can support pharmacists in the provision of pharmaceutical care services. This study aims to develop and evaluate an algorithm-based tool that facilitates the provision of Medication Management in clinical practice. This study is subdivided into three phases. In phase I, semistructured interviews with healthcare practitioners and patients will be performed, and a mixed methods approach will be chosen. Qualitative content analysis and the rating of the aspects concerning the frequency and relevance of problems in the medication process in nursing homes will be performed. In phase II, a systematic review of the current literature on problems and interventions will be conducted. The findings will be narratively presented. The results of both phases will be combined to develop an algorithm for MRs. For further refinement of the aspects detected, a Delphi survey will be conducted. In conclusion, a tool for clinical practice will be created. In phase III, the tool will be tested on MRs in nursing homes. In addition, effectiveness, acceptance, feasibility and reproducibility will be assessed. The primary outcome of phase III will be the reduction of drug-related problems (DRPs), which will be detected using the tool. The secondary outcomes will be the proportion of DRPs, the acceptance of pharmaceutical recommendations and the expenditure of time using the tool and inter-rater reliability. This study intervention is approved by the local Ethics Committee. The findings of the study will be presented at national and international scientific conferences and will be published in peer-reviewed journals. DRKS00010995. © Article author(s) (or their

  2. Object-Oriented Economic Power Dispatch of Electrical Power System with minimum pollution using a Genetic Algorithm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. Bouktir

    2005-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents solution of optimal power flow (OPF problem of electrical power system via a genetic algorithm of real type. The objective is to minimize the total fuel cost of generation and environmental pollution caused by fossil based thermal generating units and also maintain an acceptable system performance in terms of limits on generator real and reactive power outputs, bus voltages, shunt capacitors/reactors, transformers tap-setting and power flow of transmission lines. CPU times can be reduced by decomposing the optimization constraints to active constraints that affect directly the cost function manipulated directly the GA, and passive constraints such as generator bus voltages and transformer tap setting maintained in their soft limits using a conventional constraint load flow. The algorithm was developed in an Object Oriented fashion, in the C++ programming language. This option satisfies the requirements of flexibility, extensibility, maintainability and data integrity. The economic power dispatch is applied to IEEE 30-bus model system (6-generator, 41-line and 20-load. The numerical results have demonstrate the effectiveness of the stochastic search algorithms because its can provide accurate dispatch solutions with reasonable time. Further analyses indicate that this method is effective for large-scale power systems.

  3. Genetic algorithms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Lui; Bayer, Steven E.

    1991-01-01

    Genetic algorithms are mathematical, highly parallel, adaptive search procedures (i.e., problem solving methods) based loosely on the processes of natural genetics and Darwinian survival of the fittest. Basic genetic algorithms concepts are introduced, genetic algorithm applications are introduced, and results are presented from a project to develop a software tool that will enable the widespread use of genetic algorithm technology.

  4. Economic incentives as a policy tool to promote safety and health at work.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kankaanpää, Eila

    2010-06-01

    Incentives are regarded as a promising policy tool for promoting occupational safety and health (OSH). This article discusses the potential of different kinds of incentives in light of economic theory and evidence from research. When incentives are used as a policy tool, it implies the existance of an institution that has both the interest and the power to apply incentives to stakeholders, usually to employers. Governments can subsidize employers' investments in OSH with subsidies and tax structures. These incentives are successful only if the demand for OSH responds to the change in the price of OSH investments and if the suppliers of OSH are able to increase their production smoothly. Otherwise, the subsidy will only lead to higher prices for OSH goods. Both public and private insurance companies can differentiate insurance premiums according to claim behavior in the past (experience rating). There is evidence that this can effectively lower the frequency of claims, but not the severity of cases. This papers concludes that incentives do not directly lead to improvement. When incentives are introduced, their objective(s) should be clear and the end result (ie what the incentive aims to promote) should be known to be effective in achieving healthy and safe workplaces.

  5. New HIV Testing Algorithm: Promising Tool in the Fight Against HIV

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2016-09-21

    In this podcast, CDC’s Dr. Phil Peters discusses the new HIV testing algorithm and how this latest technology can improve the diagnosis of acute HIV infection. Early detection of HIV is critical to saving lives, getting patients into treatment, and preventing transmission.  Created: 9/21/2016 by National Center for HIV/AIDS, Viral Hepatitis, STD and TB Prevention (NCHHSTP), • Division of HIV/AIDS Prevention (DHAP).   Date Released: 9/21/2016.

  6. Intelligent cloud computing security using genetic algorithm as a computational tools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Razuky AL-Shaikhly, Mazin H.

    2018-05-01

    An essential change had occurred in the field of Information Technology which represented with cloud computing, cloud giving virtual assets by means of web yet awesome difficulties in the field of information security and security assurance. Currently main problem with cloud computing is how to improve privacy and security for cloud “cloud is critical security”. This paper attempts to solve cloud security by using intelligent system with genetic algorithm as wall to provide cloud data secure, all services provided by cloud must detect who receive and register it to create list of users (trusted or un-trusted) depend on behavior. The execution of present proposal has shown great outcome.

  7. Design and economic optimization of shell and tube heat exchangers using Artificial Bee Colony (ABC) algorithm

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sencan Sahin, Arzu; Kilic, Bayram; Kilic, Ulas

    2011-01-01

    Highlights: → Artificial Bee Colony for shell and tube heat exchanger optimization is used. → The total cost is minimized by varying design variables. → This new approach can be applied for optimization of heat exchangers. - Abstract: In this study, a new shell and tube heat exchanger optimization design approach is developed. Artificial Bee Colony (ABC) has been applied to minimize the total cost of the equipment including capital investment and the sum of discounted annual energy expenditures related to pumping of shell and tube heat exchanger by varying various design variables such as tube length, tube outer diameter, pitch size, baffle spacing, etc. Finally, the results are compared to those obtained by literature approaches. The obtained results indicate that Artificial Bee Colony (ABC) algorithm can be successfully applied for optimal design of shell and tube heat exchangers.

  8. Design and economic optimization of shell and tube heat exchangers using Artificial Bee Colony (ABC) algorithm

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sencan Sahin, Arzu, E-mail: sencan@tef.sdu.edu.tr [Department of Mechanical Education, Technical Education Faculty, Sueleyman Demirel University, 32260 Isparta (Turkey); Kilic, Bayram, E-mail: bayramkilic@hotmail.com [Bucak Emin Guelmez Vocational School, Mehmet Akif Ersoy University, Bucak (Turkey); Kilic, Ulas, E-mail: ulaskilic@mehmetakif.edu.tr [Bucak Emin Guelmez Vocational School, Mehmet Akif Ersoy University, Bucak (Turkey)

    2011-10-15

    Highlights: {yields} Artificial Bee Colony for shell and tube heat exchanger optimization is used. {yields} The total cost is minimized by varying design variables. {yields} This new approach can be applied for optimization of heat exchangers. - Abstract: In this study, a new shell and tube heat exchanger optimization design approach is developed. Artificial Bee Colony (ABC) has been applied to minimize the total cost of the equipment including capital investment and the sum of discounted annual energy expenditures related to pumping of shell and tube heat exchanger by varying various design variables such as tube length, tube outer diameter, pitch size, baffle spacing, etc. Finally, the results are compared to those obtained by literature approaches. The obtained results indicate that Artificial Bee Colony (ABC) algorithm can be successfully applied for optimal design of shell and tube heat exchangers.

  9. Tools of Realization of Social Responsibility of Industrial Business for Sustainable Socio-economic Development of Mining Region's Rural Territory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jurzina, Tatyana; Egorova, Natalia; Zaruba, Natalia; Kosinskij, Peter

    2017-11-01

    Modern conditions of the Russian economy do especially relevant questions of social responsibility of industrial business of the mining region for sustainable social and economic development of rural territories that demands search of the new strategy, tools, ways for positioning and increase in competitiveness of the enterprises, which are carrying out the entrepreneurial activity in this territory. The article opens problems of an influence of the industrial enterprises on the territory of presence, reasons the theoretical base directed to the formation of practical tools (mechanism) providing realization of social responsibility of business for sustainable social and economic development of rural territories of the mining region.

  10. Tools of Realization of Social Responsibility of Industrial Business for Sustainable Socio-economic Development of Mining Region's Rural Territory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jurzina Tatyana

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Modern conditions of the Russian economy do especially relevant questions of social responsibility of industrial business of the mining region for sustainable social and economic development of rural territories that demands search of the new strategy, tools, ways for positioning and increase in competitiveness of the enterprises, which are carrying out the entrepreneurial activity in this territory. The article opens problems of an influence of the industrial enterprises on the territory of presence, reasons the theoretical base directed to the formation of practical tools (mechanism providing realization of social responsibility of business for sustainable social and economic development of rural territories of the mining region.

  11. Data and software tools for gamma radiation spectral threat detection and nuclide identification algorithm development and evaluation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Portnoy, David; Fisher, Brian; Phifer, Daniel

    2015-01-01

    The detection of radiological and nuclear threats is extremely important to national security. The federal government is spending significant resources developing new detection systems and attempting to increase the performance of existing ones. The detection of illicit radionuclides that may pose a radiological or nuclear threat is a challenging problem complicated by benign radiation sources (e.g., cat litter and medical treatments), shielding, and large variations in background radiation. Although there is a growing acceptance within the community that concentrating efforts on algorithm development (independent of the specifics of fully assembled systems) has the potential for significant overall system performance gains, there are two major hindrances to advancements in gamma spectral analysis algorithms under the current paradigm: access to data and common performance metrics along with baseline performance measures. Because many of the signatures collected during performance measurement campaigns are classified, dissemination to algorithm developers is extremely limited. This leaves developers no choice but to collect their own data if they are lucky enough to have access to material and sensors. This is often combined with their own definition of metrics for measuring performance. These two conditions make it all but impossible for developers and external reviewers to make meaningful comparisons between algorithms. Without meaningful comparisons, performance advancements become very hard to achieve and (more importantly) recognize. The objective of this work is to overcome these obstacles by developing and freely distributing real and synthetically generated gamma-spectra data sets as well as software tools for performance evaluation with associated performance baselines to national labs, academic institutions, government agencies, and industry. At present, datasets for two tracks, or application domains, have been developed: one that includes temporal

  12. Data and software tools for gamma radiation spectral threat detection and nuclide identification algorithm development and evaluation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Portnoy, David; Fisher, Brian; Phifer, Daniel

    2015-06-01

    The detection of radiological and nuclear threats is extremely important to national security. The federal government is spending significant resources developing new detection systems and attempting to increase the performance of existing ones. The detection of illicit radionuclides that may pose a radiological or nuclear threat is a challenging problem complicated by benign radiation sources (e.g., cat litter and medical treatments), shielding, and large variations in background radiation. Although there is a growing acceptance within the community that concentrating efforts on algorithm development (independent of the specifics of fully assembled systems) has the potential for significant overall system performance gains, there are two major hindrances to advancements in gamma spectral analysis algorithms under the current paradigm: access to data and common performance metrics along with baseline performance measures. Because many of the signatures collected during performance measurement campaigns are classified, dissemination to algorithm developers is extremely limited. This leaves developers no choice but to collect their own data if they are lucky enough to have access to material and sensors. This is often combined with their own definition of metrics for measuring performance. These two conditions make it all but impossible for developers and external reviewers to make meaningful comparisons between algorithms. Without meaningful comparisons, performance advancements become very hard to achieve and (more importantly) recognize. The objective of this work is to overcome these obstacles by developing and freely distributing real and synthetically generated gamma-spectra data sets as well as software tools for performance evaluation with associated performance baselines to national labs, academic institutions, government agencies, and industry. At present, datasets for two tracks, or application domains, have been developed: one that includes temporal

  13. A Robust and Efficient Algorithm for Tool Recognition and Localization for Space Station Robot

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lingbo Cheng

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper studies a robust target recognition and localization method for a maintenance robot in a space station, and its main goal is to solve the target affine transformation caused by microgravity and the strong reflection and refraction of sunlight and lamplight in the cabin, as well as the occlusion of other objects. In this method, an Affine Scale Invariant Feature Transform (Affine-SIFT algorithm is proposed to extract enough local feature points with a fully affine invariant, and the stable matching point is obtained from the above point for target recognition by the selected Random Sample Consensus (RANSAC algorithm. Then, in order to localize the target, the effective and appropriate 3D grasping scope of the target is defined, and we determine and evaluate the grasping precision with the estimated affine transformation parameters presented in this paper. Finally, the threshold of RANSAC is optimized to enhance the accuracy and efficiency of target recognition and localization, and the scopes of illumination, vision distance and viewpoint angle for robot are evaluated to obtain effective image data by Root-Mean-Square Error (RMSE. An experimental system to simulate the illumination environment in a space station is established. Enough experiments have been carried out, and the experimental results show both the validity of the proposed definition of the grasping scope and the feasibility of the proposed recognition and localization method.

  14. A modified gravitational search algorithm based on a non-dominated sorting genetic approach for hydro-thermal-wind economic emission dispatching

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen, Fang; Zhou, Jianzhong; Wang, Chao; Li, Chunlong; Lu, Peng

    2017-01-01

    Wind power is a type of clean and renewable energy, and reasonable utilization of wind power is beneficial to environmental protection and economic development. Therefore, a short-term hydro-thermal-wind economic emission dispatching (SHTW-EED) problem is presented in this paper. The proposed problem aims to distribute the load among hydro, thermal and wind power units to simultaneously minimize economic cost and pollutant emission. To solve the SHTW-EED problem with complex constraints, a modified gravitational search algorithm based on the non-dominated sorting genetic algorithm-III (MGSA-NSGA-III) is proposed. In the proposed MGSA-NSGA-III, a non-dominated sorting approach, reference-point based selection mechanism and chaotic mutation strategy are applied to improve the evolutionary process of the original gravitational search algorithm (GSA) and maintain the distribution diversity of Pareto optimal solutions. Moreover, a parallel computing strategy is introduced to improve the computational efficiency. Finally, the proposed MGSA-NSGA-III is applied to a typical hydro-thermal-wind system to verify its feasibility and effectiveness. The simulation results indicate that the proposed algorithm can obtain low economic cost and small pollutant emission when dealing with the SHTW-EED problem. - Highlights: • A hybrid algorithm is proposed to handle hydro-thermal-wind power dispatching. • Several improvement strategies are applied to the algorithm. • A parallel computing strategy is applied to improve computational efficiency. • Two cases are analyzed to verify the efficiency of the optimize mode.

  15. TECHNOLOGICAL ELEMENTS OF THE SYSTEM OF STRATEGIC PLANNING AS TOOLS FOR PROVIDING THE ECONOMIC DEVELOPMENT OF THE SERVICES SPHERE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. V. Gromov

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Topicality article is to determine the composition of the technological elements of the strategic planning system, the interaction of which is aimed at achieving the planned economic results in the changing factors influence macro microenvironments on the activities of institutions and economic activities of services. The articles structurally is made on the basis of respect for the logical sequence of interactions of technological elements of strategic planning and combat their negative factors of external and internal environment. Active interaction of technological elements of strategic planning tools is to ensure long-term development planning authorities of economic entities, economic activities service sector for sustainable economic growth. Contribution of the author in the scope of this article is to generalize the definition of the target composition and installation of technological elements of strategic planning and development institutions and industry components of the service sector.

  16. Estimation of tool wear length in finish milling using a fuzzy inference algorithm

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ko, Tae Jo; Cho, Dong Woo

    1993-10-01

    The geometric accuracy and surface roughness are mainly affected by the flank wear at the minor cutting edge in finish machining. A fuzzy estimator obtained by a fuzzy inference algorithm with a max-min composition rule to evaluate the minor flank wear length in finish milling is introduced. The features sensitive to minor flank wear are extracted from the dispersion analysis of a time series AR model of the feed directional acceleration of the spindle housing. Linguistic rules for fuzzy estimation are constructed using these features, and then fuzzy inferences are carried out with test data sets under various cutting conditions. The proposed system turns out to be effective for estimating minor flank wear length, and its mean error is less than 12%.

  17. Optimal design of nanoplasmonic materials using genetic algorithms as a multiparameter optimization tool.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yelk, Joseph; Sukharev, Maxim; Seideman, Tamar

    2008-08-14

    An optimal control approach based on multiple parameter genetic algorithms is applied to the design of plasmonic nanoconstructs with predetermined optical properties and functionalities. We first develop nanoscale metallic lenses that focus an incident plane wave onto a prespecified, spatially confined spot. Our results illustrate the mechanism of energy flow through wires and cavities. Next we design a periodic array of silver particles to modify the polarization of an incident, linearly polarized plane wave in a desired fashion while localizing the light in space. The results provide insight into the structural features that determine the birefringence properties of metal nanoparticles and their arrays. Of the variety of potential applications that may be envisioned, we note the design of nanoscale light sources with controllable coherence and polarization properties that could serve for coherent control of molecular, electronic, or electromechanical dynamics in the nanoscale.

  18. A New Tool for CME Arrival Time Prediction using Machine Learning Algorithms: CAT-PUMA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Jiajia; Ye, Yudong; Shen, Chenglong; Wang, Yuming; Erdélyi, Robert

    2018-03-01

    Coronal mass ejections (CMEs) are arguably the most violent eruptions in the solar system. CMEs can cause severe disturbances in interplanetary space and can even affect human activities in many aspects, causing damage to infrastructure and loss of revenue. Fast and accurate prediction of CME arrival time is vital to minimize the disruption that CMEs may cause when interacting with geospace. In this paper, we propose a new approach for partial-/full halo CME Arrival Time Prediction Using Machine learning Algorithms (CAT-PUMA). Via detailed analysis of the CME features and solar-wind parameters, we build a prediction engine taking advantage of 182 previously observed geo-effective partial-/full halo CMEs and using algorithms of the Support Vector Machine. We demonstrate that CAT-PUMA is accurate and fast. In particular, predictions made after applying CAT-PUMA to a test set unknown to the engine show a mean absolute prediction error of ∼5.9 hr within the CME arrival time, with 54% of the predictions having absolute errors less than 5.9 hr. Comparisons with other models reveal that CAT-PUMA has a more accurate prediction for 77% of the events investigated that can be carried out very quickly, i.e., within minutes of providing the necessary input parameters of a CME. A practical guide containing the CAT-PUMA engine and the source code of two examples are available in the Appendix, allowing the community to perform their own applications for prediction using CAT-PUMA.

  19. Modeling and thermo-economic optimization of heat recovery heat exchangers using a multimodal genetic algorithm

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ghazi, M.; Ahmadi, P.; Sotoodeh, A.F.; Taherkhani, A.

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: ► Comprehensive thermodynamic modeling of a dual pressure HRSG with duct burners. ► Thermoeconomic performance assessment of the system. ► To find the best design parameters of the HRSG using a genetic algorithm. - Abstract: In the present study a comprehensive thermodynamic modeling of a dual pressure combined cycle power plant is performed. Moreover, an optimization study to find the best design parameters is carried out. Total cost per unit of produced steam exergy is defined as the objective function. The objective function includes capital or investment cost, operational and maintenance cost, and the corresponding cost of the exergy destruction. This objective function is minimized while satisfying a group of constraints. For this study, design variables are high and low drum pressures, steam mass flow rates, pinch point temperature differences and the duct burner fuel consumption flow rate. The variations of design parameters with the inlet hot gas enthalpy and exergy unit price are also shown. Finally the sensitivity analysis of change in design parameters with change in fuel and investment cost is performed. The results show that with increasing the exergy unit cost, the optimum values of design parameters are selected such that to decrease the objective function. Furthermore it is found that at higher inlet gas enthalpy, the required heat transfer surface area (and its corresponding capital cost) increases

  20. MATHEMATICAL METHODS AND TOOLS OF TRENDS’ RESEARCH IN THE EVOLUTIONARY DEVELOPMENT OF THE NATURAL AND ECONOMIC PROCESSES

    OpenAIRE

    Kymratova A. M.

    2015-01-01

    The present study was carried out in the view of the fact that there is no more or less complete theory of time series prediction memory to date. This determines the urgency and necessity of the development of new mathematical methods and algorithms to detect possible potential predictability of the series with the memory and the construction of adequate predictive models. Classical methods of forecasting economic time series are based on the mathematical apparatus of econometrics. It is carr...

  1. Improved quantum-inspired evolutionary algorithm with diversity information applied to economic dispatch problem with prohibited operating zones

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vianna Neto, Julio Xavier; Andrade Bernert, Diego Luis de; Santos Coelho, Leandro dos

    2011-01-01

    The objective of the economic dispatch problem (EDP) of electric power generation, whose characteristics are complex and highly nonlinear, is to schedule the committed generating unit outputs so as to meet the required load demand at minimum operating cost while satisfying all unit and system equality and inequality constraints. Recently, as an alternative to the conventional mathematical approaches, modern meta-heuristic optimization techniques have been given much attention by many researchers due to their ability to find an almost global optimal solution in EDPs. Research on merging evolutionary computation and quantum computation has been started since late 1990. Inspired on the quantum computation, this paper presented an improved quantum-inspired evolutionary algorithm (IQEA) based on diversity information of population. A classical quantum-inspired evolutionary algorithm (QEA) and the IQEA were implemented and validated for a benchmark of EDP with 15 thermal generators with prohibited operating zones. From the results for the benchmark problem, it is observed that the proposed IQEA approach provides promising results when compared to various methods available in the literature.

  2. Improved quantum-inspired evolutionary algorithm with diversity information applied to economic dispatch problem with prohibited operating zones

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vianna Neto, Julio Xavier, E-mail: julio.neto@onda.com.b [Pontifical Catholic University of Parana, PUCPR, Undergraduate Program at Mechatronics Engineering, Imaculada Conceicao, 1155, Zip code 80215-901, Curitiba, Parana (Brazil); Andrade Bernert, Diego Luis de, E-mail: dbernert@gmail.co [Pontifical Catholic University of Parana, PUCPR, Industrial and Systems Engineering Graduate Program, LAS/PPGEPS, Imaculada Conceicao, 1155, Zip code 80215-901, Curitiba, Parana (Brazil); Santos Coelho, Leandro dos, E-mail: leandro.coelho@pucpr.b [Pontifical Catholic University of Parana, PUCPR, Industrial and Systems Engineering Graduate Program, LAS/PPGEPS, Imaculada Conceicao, 1155, Zip code 80215-901, Curitiba, Parana (Brazil)

    2011-01-15

    The objective of the economic dispatch problem (EDP) of electric power generation, whose characteristics are complex and highly nonlinear, is to schedule the committed generating unit outputs so as to meet the required load demand at minimum operating cost while satisfying all unit and system equality and inequality constraints. Recently, as an alternative to the conventional mathematical approaches, modern meta-heuristic optimization techniques have been given much attention by many researchers due to their ability to find an almost global optimal solution in EDPs. Research on merging evolutionary computation and quantum computation has been started since late 1990. Inspired on the quantum computation, this paper presented an improved quantum-inspired evolutionary algorithm (IQEA) based on diversity information of population. A classical quantum-inspired evolutionary algorithm (QEA) and the IQEA were implemented and validated for a benchmark of EDP with 15 thermal generators with prohibited operating zones. From the results for the benchmark problem, it is observed that the proposed IQEA approach provides promising results when compared to various methods available in the literature.

  3. Improved quantum-inspired evolutionary algorithm with diversity information applied to economic dispatch problem with prohibited operating zones

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Neto, Julio Xavier Vianna [Pontifical Catholic University of Parana, PUCPR, Undergraduate Program at Mechatronics Engineering, Imaculada Conceicao, 1155, Zip code 80215-901, Curitiba, Parana (Brazil); Bernert, Diego Luis de Andrade; Coelho, Leandro dos Santos [Pontifical Catholic University of Parana, PUCPR, Industrial and Systems Engineering Graduate Program, LAS/PPGEPS, Imaculada Conceicao, 1155, Zip code 80215-901, Curitiba, Parana (Brazil)

    2011-01-15

    The objective of the economic dispatch problem (EDP) of electric power generation, whose characteristics are complex and highly nonlinear, is to schedule the committed generating unit outputs so as to meet the required load demand at minimum operating cost while satisfying all unit and system equality and inequality constraints. Recently, as an alternative to the conventional mathematical approaches, modern meta-heuristic optimization techniques have been given much attention by many researchers due to their ability to find an almost global optimal solution in EDPs. Research on merging evolutionary computation and quantum computation has been started since late 1990. Inspired on the quantum computation, this paper presented an improved quantum-inspired evolutionary algorithm (IQEA) based on diversity information of population. A classical quantum-inspired evolutionary algorithm (QEA) and the IQEA were implemented and validated for a benchmark of EDP with 15 thermal generators with prohibited operating zones. From the results for the benchmark problem, it is observed that the proposed IQEA approach provides promising results when compared to various methods available in the literature. (author)

  4. A proposed tool to integrate environmental and economical assessments of products

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Senthil, Kumaran D.; Ong, S.K.; Nee, A.Y.C.; Tan, Reginald B.H.

    2003-01-01

    An attempt has been made to interpret the outcomes of a Life Cycle Assessment (LCA) in terms of environmental costs. This attempt ensures the environmental accountability of the products while LCA ensures their eco-friendly nature. Keeping this as an objective, a Life Cycle Environmental Cost Analysis (LCECA) model was developed. This new tool incorporates costing into the LCA practice. This model prescribes a life cycle environmental cost model to estimate and correlate the effects of these costs in all the life cycle stages of the product. The newly developed categories of eco-costs are: costs of effluent treatment/control/disposal, environmental management systems, eco-taxes, rehabilitation, energy and savings of recycling and reuse strategies. The mathematical model of LCECA determines quantitative expressions between the total cost of products and the various eco-costs. The eco-costs of the alternatives are compared with the computational LCECA model. This method enables the environmental as well as the economic assessment of products, which leads to cost-effective, eco-friendly design of products

  5. New algorithms for motion error detection of numerical control machine tool by laser tracking measurement on the basis of GPS principle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Jindong; Chen, Peng; Deng, Yufen; Guo, Junjie

    2018-01-01

    As a three-dimensional measuring instrument, the laser tracker is widely used in industrial measurement. To avoid the influence of angle measurement error on the overall measurement accuracy, the multi-station and time-sharing measurement with a laser tracker is introduced on the basis of the global positioning system (GPS) principle in this paper. For the proposed method, how to accurately determine the coordinates of each measuring point by using a large amount of measured data is a critical issue. Taking detecting motion error of a numerical control machine tool, for example, the corresponding measurement algorithms are investigated thoroughly. By establishing the mathematical model of detecting motion error of a machine tool with this method, the analytical algorithm concerning on base station calibration and measuring point determination is deduced without selecting the initial iterative value in calculation. However, when the motion area of the machine tool is in a 2D plane, the coefficient matrix of base station calibration is singular, which generates a distortion result. In order to overcome the limitation of the original algorithm, an improved analytical algorithm is also derived. Meanwhile, the calibration accuracy of the base station with the improved algorithm is compared with that with the original analytical algorithm and some iterative algorithms, such as the Gauss-Newton algorithm and Levenberg-Marquardt algorithm. The experiment further verifies the feasibility and effectiveness of the improved algorithm. In addition, the different motion areas of the machine tool have certain influence on the calibration accuracy of the base station, and the corresponding influence of measurement error on the calibration result of the base station depending on the condition number of coefficient matrix are analyzed.

  6. Women Empowerment and Participation in Economic Activities: Indispensable Tools for Self-Reliance and Development of Nigerian Society

    Science.gov (United States)

    E. N., Ekesionye; A. N., Okolo

    2012-01-01

    The objective of the study was to examine women empowerment and participation in economic activities as tools for self-reliance and development of the Nigerian society. Research questions and hypothesis were used to guide the study. Structured questionnaire was used as the major instrument for data collection. Copies of questionnaires were…

  7. Economic Statistical Design of Variable Sampling Interval X¯$\\overline X $ Control Chart Based on Surrogate Variable Using Genetic Algorithms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lee Tae-Hoon

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available In many cases, a X¯$\\overline X $ control chart based on a performance variable is used in industrial fields. Typically, the control chart monitors the measurements of a performance variable itself. However, if the performance variable is too costly or impossible to measure, and a less expensive surrogate variable is available, the process may be more efficiently controlled using surrogate variables. In this paper, we present a model for the economic statistical design of a VSI (Variable Sampling Interval X¯$\\overline X $ control chart using a surrogate variable that is linearly correlated with the performance variable. We derive the total average profit model from an economic viewpoint and apply the model to a Very High Temperature Reactor (VHTR nuclear fuel measurement system and derive the optimal result using genetic algorithms. Compared with the control chart based on a performance variable, the proposed model gives a larger expected net income per unit of time in the long-run if the correlation between the performance variable and the surrogate variable is relatively high. The proposed model was confined to the sample mean control chart under the assumption that a single assignable cause occurs according to the Poisson process. However, the model may also be extended to other types of control charts using a single or multiple assignable cause assumptions such as VSS (Variable Sample Size X¯$\\overline X $ control chart, EWMA, CUSUM charts and so on.

  8. Thermal-economic optimisation of a CHP gas turbine system by applying a fit-problem genetic algorithm

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferreira, Ana C. M.; Teixeira, Senhorinha F. C. F.; Silva, Rui G.; Silva, Ângela M.

    2018-04-01

    Cogeneration allows the optimal use of the primary energy sources and significant reductions in carbon emissions. Its use has great potential for applications in the residential sector. This study aims to develop a methodology for thermal-economic optimisation of small-scale micro-gas turbine for cogeneration purposes, able to fulfil domestic energy needs with a thermal power out of 125 kW. A constrained non-linear optimisation model was built. The objective function is the maximisation of the annual worth from the combined heat and power, representing the balance between the annual incomes and the expenditures subject to physical and economic constraints. A genetic algorithm coded in the java programming language was developed. An optimal micro-gas turbine able to produce 103.5 kW of electrical power with a positive annual profit (i.e. 11,925 €/year) was disclosed. The investment can be recovered in 4 years and 9 months, which is less than half of system lifetime expectancy.

  9. Adaptive learning by genetic algorithms analytical results and applications to economic models

    CERN Document Server

    Dawid, Herbert

    1999-01-01

    The fact that I have the opportunity to present a second edition of this monograph is an indicator for the growing size of the community concerned with agent-based computational economics. The rapid developments in this field make it very difficult to keep a volume like this, which is partly devoted to surveying the literature, up to date. I have done my best to incorporate the relevant new developments in this revised edition but it is in the nature of such a work that the selection of material covered is biased by the authors personal interest and his informational constraints. My apologies go to all researchers in this field whose work is not or not adequately represented in this book. Besides the correction of some errors and typos several additions have been made. In the literature survey sections 2.4 (which was also reorganized) and 3.5 new material was added. I have also added a new section in chapter 3 which deals with the question how well empirically observed phenomena can be explained by GA simulat...

  10. TMsim: An Algorithmic Tool for the Parametric and Worst-Case Simulation of Systems with Uncertainties

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Riccardo Trinchero

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a general purpose, algebraic tool—named TMsim—for the combined parametric and worst-case analysis of systems with bounded uncertain parameters. The tool is based on the theory of Taylor models and represents uncertain variables on a bounded domain in terms of a Taylor polynomial plus an interval remainder accounting for truncation and round-off errors. This representation is propagated from inputs to outputs by means of a suitable redefinition of the involved calculations, in both scalar and matrix form. The polynomial provides a parametric approximation of the variable, while the remainder gives a conservative bound of the associated error. The combination between the bound of the polynomial and the interval remainder provides an estimation of the overall (worst-case bound of the variable. After a preliminary theoretical background, the tool (freely available online is introduced step by step along with the necessary theoretical notions. As a validation, it is applied to illustrative examples as well as to real-life problems of relevance in electrical engineering applications, specifically a quarter-car model and a continuous-time linear equalizer.

  11. Efficient ecologic and economic operational rules for dammed systems by means of nondominated sorting genetic algorithm II

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niayifar, A.; Perona, P.

    2015-12-01

    River impoundment by dams is known to strongly affect the natural flow regime and in turn the river attributes and the related ecosystem biodiversity. Making hydropower sustainable implies to seek for innovative operational policies able to generate dynamic environmental flows while maintaining economic efficiency. For dammed systems, we build the ecological and economical efficiency plot for non-proportional flow redistribution operational rules compared to minimal flow operational. As for the case of small hydropower plants (e.g., see the companion paper by Gorla et al., this session), we use a four parameters Fermi-Dirac statistical distribution to mathematically formulate non-proportional redistribution rules. These rules allocate a fraction of water to the riverine environment depending on current reservoir inflows and storage. Riverine ecological benefits associated to dynamic environmental flows are computed by integrating the Weighted Usable Area (WUA) for fishes with Richter's hydrological indicators. Then, we apply nondominated sorting genetic algorithm II (NSGA-II) to an ensemble of non-proportional and minimal flow redistribution rules in order to generate the Pareto frontier showing the system performances in the ecologic and economic space. This fast and elitist multiobjective optimization method is eventually applied to a case study. It is found that non-proportional dynamic flow releases ensure maximal power production on the one hand, while conciliating ecological sustainability on the other hand. Much of the improvement in the environmental indicator is seen to arise from a better use of the reservoir storage dynamics, which allows to capture, and laminate flood events while recovering part of them for energy production. In conclusion, adopting such new operational policies would unravel a spectrum of globally-efficient performances of the dammed system when compared with those resulting from policies based on constant minimum flow releases.

  12. Algorithms for optimized maximum entropy and diagnostic tools for analytic continuation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bergeron, Dominic; Tremblay, A.-M. S.

    2016-08-01

    Analytic continuation of numerical data obtained in imaginary time or frequency has become an essential part of many branches of quantum computational physics. It is, however, an ill-conditioned procedure and thus a hard numerical problem. The maximum-entropy approach, based on Bayesian inference, is the most widely used method to tackle that problem. Although the approach is well established and among the most reliable and efficient ones, useful developments of the method and of its implementation are still possible. In addition, while a few free software implementations are available, a well-documented, optimized, general purpose, and user-friendly software dedicated to that specific task is still lacking. Here we analyze all aspects of the implementation that are critical for accuracy and speed and present a highly optimized approach to maximum entropy. Original algorithmic and conceptual contributions include (1) numerical approximations that yield a computational complexity that is almost independent of temperature and spectrum shape (including sharp Drude peaks in broad background, for example) while ensuring quantitative accuracy of the result whenever precision of the data is sufficient, (2) a robust method of choosing the entropy weight α that follows from a simple consistency condition of the approach and the observation that information- and noise-fitting regimes can be identified clearly from the behavior of χ2 with respect to α , and (3) several diagnostics to assess the reliability of the result. Benchmarks with test spectral functions of different complexity and an example with an actual physical simulation are presented. Our implementation, which covers most typical cases for fermions, bosons, and response functions, is available as an open source, user-friendly software.

  13. THE CONCEPT OF USING EVOLUTIONARY ALGORITHMS AS TOOLS FOR OPTIMAL PLANNING OF MULTIMODAL COMPOSITION IN THE DIDACTIC TEXTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marek A. Jakubowski

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available At the beginning we would like to provide a short description of the new theory of learning in the digital age called connectivism. It is the integration of principles explored by the following theories: chaos, network, complexity and self-organization. Next, we describe in short new visual solutions for the teaching of writing so called multimodal literacy 5–11. We define and describe the following notions: multimodal text and original theory so called NOS (non-optimum systems methodology as a basis for new methods of visual solutions at the classes and audiovisual texts applications. Especially, we would like to emphasize the tremendous usefulness of evolutionary algorithms VEGA and NSGA as tools for optimal planning of multimodal composition in teaching texts. Finally, we give some examples of didactic texts for classrooms, which provide a deep insight into learning skills and tasks needed in the Internet age.

  14. N2A: a computational tool for modeling from neurons to algorithms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fredrick eRothganger

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The exponential increase in available neural data has combined with the exponential growth in computing (Moore’s law to create new opportunities to understand neural systems at large scale and high detail. The ability to produce large and sophisticated simulations has introduced unique challenges to neuroscientists. Computational models in neuroscience are increasingly broad efforts, often involving the collaboration of experts in different domains. Furthermore, the size and detail of models have grown to levels for which understanding the implications of variability and assumptions is no longer trivial. Here, we introduce the model design platform N2A which aims to facilitate the design and validation of biologically realistic models. N2A uses a hierarchical representation of neural information to enable the integration of models from different users. N2A streamlines computational validation of a model by natively implementing standard tools in sensitivity analysis and uncertainty quantification. The part-relationship representation allows both network-level analysis and dynamical simulations. We will demonstrate how N2A can be used in a range of examples, including a simple Hodgkin-Huxley cable model, basic parameter sensitivity of an 80/20 network, and the expression of the structural plasticity of a growing dendrite and stem cell proliferation and differentiation.

  15. Economics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palley, Paul D; Parcero, Miriam E

    2016-10-01

    A review of literature in the calendar year 2015 dedicated to environmental policies and sustainable development, and economic policies. This review is divided into these sections: sustainable development, irrigation, ecosystems and water management, climate change and disaster risk management, economic growth, water supply policies, water consumption, water price regulation, and water price valuation.

  16. The Parallel SBAS-DInSAR algorithm: an effective and scalable tool for Earth's surface displacement retrieval

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zinno, Ivana; De Luca, Claudio; Elefante, Stefano; Imperatore, Pasquale; Manunta, Michele; Casu, Francesco

    2014-05-01

    Differential Synthetic Aperture Radar Interferometry (DInSAR) is an effective technique to estimate and monitor ground displacements with centimetre accuracy [1]. In the last decade, advanced DInSAR algorithms, such as the Small Baseline Subset (SBAS) [2] one that is aimed at following the temporal evolution of the ground deformation, showed to be significantly useful remote sensing tools for the geoscience communities as well as for those related to hazard monitoring and risk mitigation. DInSAR scenario is currently characterized by the large and steady increasing availability of huge SAR data archives that have a broad range of diversified features according to the characteristics of the employed sensor. Indeed, besides the old generation sensors, that include ERS, ENVISAT and RADARSAT systems, the new X-band generation constellations, such as COSMO-SkyMed and TerraSAR-X, have permitted an overall study of ground deformations with an unprecedented detail thanks to their improved spatial resolution and reduced revisit time. Furthermore, the incoming ESA Sentinel-1 SAR satellite is characterized by a global coverage acquisition strategy and 12-day revisit time and, therefore, will further contribute to improve deformation analyses and monitoring capabilities. However, in this context, the capability to process such huge SAR data archives is strongly limited by the existing DInSAR algorithms, which are not specifically designed to exploit modern high performance computational infrastructures (e.g. cluster, grid and cloud computing platforms). The goal of this paper is to present a Parallel version of the SBAS algorithm (P-SBAS) which is based on a dual-level parallelization approach and embraces combined parallel strategies [3], [4]. A detailed description of the P-SBAS algorithm will be provided together with a scalability analysis focused on studying its performances. In particular, a P-SBAS scalability analysis with respect to the number of exploited CPUs has

  17. A New Tool for Environmental and Economic Optimization of Hydropower Operations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saha, S.; Hayse, J. W.

    2012-12-01

    As part of a project funded by the U.S. Department of Energy, researchers from Argonne, Oak Ridge, Pacific Northwest, and Sandia National Laboratories collaborated on the development of an integrated toolset to enhance hydropower operational decisions related to economic value and environmental performance. As part of this effort, we developed an analytical approach (Index of River Functionality, IRF) and an associated software tool to evaluate how well discharge regimes achieve ecosystem management goals for hydropower facilities. This approach defines site-specific environmental objectives using relationships between environmental metrics and hydropower-influenced flow characteristics (e.g., discharge or temperature), with consideration given to seasonal timing, duration, and return frequency requirements for the environmental objectives. The IRF approach evaluates the degree to which an operational regime meets each objective and produces a score representing how well that regime meets the overall set of defined objectives. When integrated with other components in the toolset that are used to plan hydropower operations based upon hydrologic forecasts and various constraints on operations, the IRF approach allows an optimal release pattern to be developed based upon tradeoffs between environmental performance and economic value. We tested the toolset prototype to generate a virtual planning operation for a hydropower facility located in the Upper Colorado River basin as a demonstration exercise. We conducted planning as if looking five months into the future using data for the recently concluded 2012 water year. The environmental objectives for this demonstration were related to spawning and nursery habitat for endangered fishes using metrics associated with maintenance of instream habitat and reconnection of the main channel with floodplain wetlands in a representative reach of the river. We also applied existing mandatory operational constraints for the

  18. 'SINAMI': a tool for the economic evaluation of forest fire management programs in Mediterranean ecosystems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Francisco Rodriguez y Silva; Armando Gonzalez-Caban

    2010-01-01

    Historically, in Spain and most European countries, forest fire budgets have never been subjected to an objective and rigorous economic analysis indicative of the returns on investments in fire management protection programs. Thus far we have witnessed expansive growth of costs without any investment planning. New economic realities and more focussed oversight by...

  19. Economism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Simons

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Modern society is characterised not only by a fascination with scientific technology as a means of solving all problems, especially those that stand in the way of material progress (technicism, but also by an obsessive interest in everything that has to do with money (economism or mammonism. The article discusses the relationship between technicism and economism, on the basis of their relationship to utilitarian thinking: the quest for the greatest happiness for the greatest number of people. Recent major studies of neo-liberalism (seen as an intensification of utilitarianism by Laval and Dardot are used as reference to the development of utilitarianism. It is suggested that the western view of the world, as expressed in economism and technicism, with a utilitarian ethics, features three absolutisations: those of theoretical thinking, technology and economics. In a second part, the article draws on the framework of reformational philosophy to suggest an approach that, in principle, is not marred by such absolutisations.

  20. Pathology economic model tool: a novel approach to workflow and budget cost analysis in an anatomic pathology laboratory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muirhead, David; Aoun, Patricia; Powell, Michael; Juncker, Flemming; Mollerup, Jens

    2010-08-01

    The need for higher efficiency, maximum quality, and faster turnaround time is a continuous focus for anatomic pathology laboratories and drives changes in work scheduling, instrumentation, and management control systems. To determine the costs of generating routine, special, and immunohistochemical microscopic slides in a large, academic anatomic pathology laboratory using a top-down approach. The Pathology Economic Model Tool was used to analyze workflow processes at The Nebraska Medical Center's anatomic pathology laboratory. Data from the analysis were used to generate complete cost estimates, which included not only materials, consumables, and instrumentation but also specific labor and overhead components for each of the laboratory's subareas. The cost data generated by the Pathology Economic Model Tool were compared with the cost estimates generated using relative value units. Despite the use of automated systems for different processes, the workflow in the laboratory was found to be relatively labor intensive. The effect of labor and overhead on per-slide costs was significantly underestimated by traditional relative-value unit calculations when compared with the Pathology Economic Model Tool. Specific workflow defects with significant contributions to the cost per slide were identified. The cost of providing routine, special, and immunohistochemical slides may be significantly underestimated by traditional methods that rely on relative value units. Furthermore, a comprehensive analysis may identify specific workflow processes requiring improvement.

  1. Economic justification of robotic systems using graphical simulation as a tool

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bennett, P.C.

    1995-01-01

    This paper outlines the simulation and analysis approach taken to address radiation dose reduction using robotic automation from the operational and economic standpoints for the DOE Civilian Radioactive Waste Management system and for the transuranic wave loading facilities within the DOE complex. Simulations of the robotic operations using validated software are described. These simulations provide through-put, capital and operating costs for an economic benefit-cost analysis. Benefit-cost analysis results are also presented

  2. Market Regulators of Service Spheres Innovative Development as a Tool of Regional Socio-Economic Policy

    OpenAIRE

    Pugacheva, Anna S.; Filippova, Viktoriya P.; Kon, Andrei Y.; Dorzhieva, Lyudmila B.; Silchenok, Igor S.; Pugacheva, Natalya B.; Lunev, Alexander N.; Mustafina, Alfiya A.

    2016-01-01

    The relevance of the study is conditioned by the innovative development of service spheres as the reduction of territorial social and economic differentiation to the level, due to objective differences of the regions and to balance of their revenue base and expenditure commitments. The service sector is one of the most dynamic and growing segments of regional markets and one of the characteristics of effective socio-economic policy in the region. Innovative development of service spheres as a...

  3. State regulation as a tool for improving the economic security of the regions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu. M. Sokolinskaya

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Providing economic security for the development of regions, increasing their competitiveness, risk-free and sustainable activities are the main tasks of the regional program of social and economic development, which occupies a special place in the system of instruments for public management of these processes. The program of social and economic development is a unique strategy of the region aimed at security and optimization of the spatial structure and relations between the center and the regions in order to ensure economic security and growth by maximizing the effective use of existing internal and external factors. The institutional influence of the state in order to improve the economic security of regions and enterprises occurs palliatively when the business of the region is supported in direct – subsidies, and more often indirectly – compliance with the laws and regulations of the Russian Federation and the region, on the principles of institutional and market synergies. Adaptation of enterprises in the region to the market is difficult, when specific socio-organizational, economic, technical and technological, scientific, information activities in their interrelations function in the field of Russian laws. The search for ways to improve the economic security of the Russian Federation, regions and enterprises takes place in the context of global integration through the improvement of the mechanism of state regulation. An important task of the current stage of economic security of the country and regions is the construction of a system of its institutional organization that would be able to balance the levers of government with the opportunities of private enterprises, provide a quality level of providing the business with protection from terrorism, predation, financial risks, legal competition etc.

  4. Organization of international sporting events as a country’s promotional economic image tool

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Božo Skoko

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available The article concentrates on the important aspect of image in a country’s political and economic objectives and deals with the role of sports in managing countries as brands. Analyzing the biggest sporting events in the world, such as the Olympic Games, football (soccer championships and others, authors attempt to detect and display their economic and promotional potential for host cities and countries as well as for participating nations. Special focus is on global media, which are essential in "creating" the events, transferring images and communicating impressions of the host city/country to the global public. The authors conclude that the most important role is that of the organizers, whose creativity and capabilities will for the most part determine the promotional and economic contribution of hosting such a sporting event. Activities prior to the main event and those following the event are also of great importance for the host country.

  5. Technical and economical tools to assess customer demand response in the commercial sector

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alvarez Bel, Carlos; Ortega, Manuel Alcazar; Escriva, Guillermo Escriva [Institute for Energy Engineering, Universidad Politecnica de Valencia, Camino de Vera, s/n, edificio 8E, escalera F, 5a planta. 46022 Valencia (Spain); Gabaldon Marin, Antonio [Dept. of Electrical Engineering, Universidad Politecnica de Cartagena, Campus de la Muralla al Mar. 30202 Cartagena (Spain)

    2009-10-15

    The authors present a methodology to evaluate and quantify the economic parameters (costs and benefits) attached to customer electricity consumption by analyzing the service provided by the different ''pieces'' of absorbed electricity. The first step of this methodology is to perform a process oriented market segmentation to identify segments according to their flexibility potential. After that, a procedure based on comprehensive simulations to identify and quantify the actual demand that can be managed in the short term is presented and, finally, the required economic analysis is performed. The methodology, which is demonstrated with some applications to the commercial sector, not only helps the customers to integrate in flexible distribution systems but also offers the necessary economical parameters for them to integrate in electricity markets. (author)

  6. The economical contracting management in Agricultural Cooperatives: tools for evaluating their performance.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rafael Enrique Viña Echevarría

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The economic and management contracts involve strategic actions, legal and operational purposes that make possible to convert the goal of an organization on results that express the fulfillment of the mandates and satisfies customers on the basis of the duties and obligations set out in the negotiating document. This article aims to get inside into the performance evaluation of the management of the recruitment of Agricultural Cooperatives and to reflex about the insufficiencies evidenced in this process. To which we developed a theoretical valuation and economic procurement praxiological showing a group of deficiencies that have impacted in the contracts management The study was able to obtain, process, analyze, interpret and argue the problems associated with economic contracting and justify the need to propose a system of indicators to assess recruitment management Agricultural Cooperatives in the province of Sancti Spiritus, the results revealed the ineffectiveness of the process and the negative impact on the productive base.

  7. Technical and economical tools to assess customer demand response in the commercial sector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alvarez Bel, Carlos; Ortega, Manuel Alcazar; Escriva, Guillermo Escriva; Gabaldon Marin, Antonio

    2009-01-01

    The authors present a methodology to evaluate and quantify the economic parameters (costs and benefits) attached to customer electricity consumption by analyzing the service provided by the different ''pieces'' of absorbed electricity. The first step of this methodology is to perform a process oriented market segmentation to identify segments according to their flexibility potential. After that, a procedure based on comprehensive simulations to identify and quantify the actual demand that can be managed in the short term is presented and, finally, the required economic analysis is performed. The methodology, which is demonstrated with some applications to the commercial sector, not only helps the customers to integrate in flexible distribution systems but also offers the necessary economical parameters for them to integrate in electricity markets. (author)

  8. The cost of clinical mastitis in the first 30 days of lactation: An economic modeling tool.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rollin, E; Dhuyvetter, K C; Overton, M W

    2015-12-01

    Clinical mastitis results in considerable economic losses for dairy producers and is most commonly diagnosed in early lactation. The objective of this research was to estimate the economic impact of clinical mastitis occurring during the first 30 days of lactation for a representative US dairy. A deterministic partial budget model was created to estimate direct and indirect costs per case of clinical mastitis occurring during the first 30 days of lactation. Model inputs were selected from the available literature, or when none were available, from herd data. The average case of clinical mastitis resulted in a total economic cost of $444, including $128 in direct costs and $316 in indirect costs. Direct costs included diagnostics ($10), therapeutics ($36), non-saleable milk ($25), veterinary service ($4), labor ($21), and death loss ($32). Indirect costs included future milk production loss ($125), premature culling and replacement loss ($182), and future reproductive loss ($9). Accurate decision making regarding mastitis control relies on understanding the economic impacts of clinical mastitis, especially the longer term indirect costs that represent 71% of the total cost per case of mastitis. Future milk production loss represents 28% of total cost, and future culling and replacement loss represents 41% of the total cost of a case of clinical mastitis. In contrast to older estimates, these values represent the current dairy economic climate, including milk price ($0.461/kg), feed price ($0.279/kg DM (dry matter)), and replacement costs ($2,094/head), along with the latest published estimates on the production and culling effects of clinical mastitis. This economic model is designed to be customized for specific dairy producers and their herd characteristics to better aid them in developing mastitis control strategies. Copyright © 2015 The Authors. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Laboratory Experiments as a Tool in the Empirical Economic Analysis of High-Expectation Entrepreneurship

    Science.gov (United States)

    Curley, Martin; Formica, Piero

    2008-01-01

    High-expectation start-ups are firms launched by entrepreneurs with high ambitions for growth. The encounter between new technology and entrepreneurship that characterizes such new ventures has a significant impact on the nature and speed of economic development, driving the growth of high-technology industries and helping to make the economic…

  10. New CSIR tool produces detailed maps of SA’s economic geography

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Mass media

    2007-10-01

    Full Text Available A new digital mapping and geographic analysis platform (GAP) is enabling researchers and decision-makers to estimate the spatial distribution of economic activity in South Africa in greater detail than ever before. The result of an 18 month...

  11. Forestry-based biomass economic and financial information and tools: An annotated bibliography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dan Loeffler; Jason Brandt; Todd Morgan; Greg Jones

    2010-01-01

    This annotated bibliography is a synthesis of information products available to land managers in the western United States regarding economic and financial aspects of forestry-based woody biomass removal, a component of fire hazard and/or fuel reduction treatments. This publication contains over 200 forestry-based biomass papers, financial models, sources of biomass...

  12. Teaching and Learning about Economics and Business Using Web GIS Tools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kerski, Joseph J.

    2017-01-01

    Teaching about economics and business has a long tradition in geography. Planning the optimal site for a business or service in a community; examining the demographics and behavior of a certain target market; studying supply chain management to build a specific product such as a mobile phone or a piece of furniture; and examining median income by…

  13. Incorporating transportation network modeling tools within transportation economic impact studies of disasters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yi Wen

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Transportation system disruption due to a disaster results in "ripple effects" throughout the entire transportation system of a metropolitan region. Many researchers have focused on the economic costs of transportation system disruptions in transportation-related industries, specifïcally within commerce and logistics, in the assessment of the regional economic costs. However, the foundation of an assessment of the regional economic costs of a disaster needs to include the evaluation of consumer surplus in addition to the direct cost for reconstruction of the regional transportation system. The objective of this study is to propose a method to estimate the regional consumer surplus based on indirect economic costs of a disaster on intermodal transportation systems in the context of diverting vehicles and trains. The computational methods used to assess the regional indirect economic costs sustained by the highway and railroad system can utilize readily available state departments of transportation (DOTs and metropolitan planning organizations (MPOs traffic models allowing prioritization of regional recovery plans after a disaster and strengthening of infrastructure before a disaster. Hurricane Katrina is one of the most devastating hurricanes in the history of the United States. Due to the significance of Hurricane Katrina, a case study is presented to evaluate consumer surplus in the Gulf Coast Region of Mississippi. Results from the case study indicate the costs of rerouting and congestion delays in the regional highway system and the rent costs of right-of-way in the regional railroad system are major factors of the indirect costs in the consumer surplus.

  14. A Performance Measurement Tool Leading Wastewater Treatment Plants toward Economic Efficiency and Sustainability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrea Guerrini

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Wastewater treatment is an important link in the water cycle that allows for water sanitation and reuse, facilitates energy generation, and allows for the recovery of products from waste. The scientific community has paid significant attention to wastewater treatment, especially from a technical point of view. Extensive literature is available on new technologies, processes, and materials to improve wastewater treatment. However, scant studies have been conducted in the management field focusing on the development of a performance measurement tool that supports plant managers. The current article addresses this literature gap, developing a reporting tool that integrates technical and cost measures and implements it in a large wastewater utility. The tool successfully identifies cause and effect linkages among key plant performance drivers and supports management in finding activities with poor performance and allows them to delay non-relevant measures of control.

  15. Economic viability in concrete dams by multivariable regression tool for implantation of small hydroelectric plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lima, Reginaldo Agapito de; Ribeiro Junior, Leopoldo Uberto

    2010-01-01

    For implantation of a SHP, the barrage is the main structure where its sizing represents from 30% - 50% of general cost of civil works. Considering this it is very important to have a fast, didactic and accurate tool for elaborating a budget, also allowing a quantitative analysis of inherent cost for civil building of barrages concrete made for small hydropower plants. In face of this, the multi changing regression tool is very important as it allows a fast and correct establishing of preliminary costs, even approximate, for estimates of barrages in concrete cost, enabling to ease the budget, guiding feasibility decisions for selecting or neglecting new alternatives of fall. (author)

  16. Erratum to ''Johnson's algorithm : A key to solve optimally or approximately flowshop scheduling problems with unavailability periods'' [International Journal of Production Economics 121 (2009) 81-87

    OpenAIRE

    Rapine , Christophe

    2013-01-01

    International audience; In Allaoui H., Artiba A, ''Johnson's algorithm : A key to solve optimally or approximately flowshop scheduling problems with unavailability periods'' [International Journal of Production Economics 121 (2009)] the authors propose optimality conditions for the Johnson sequence in presence of one unavailability period on the first machine and pretend for a performance guarantee of 2 when several unavailability periods may occur. We establish in this note that these condit...

  17. Internal Audit as a Tool for Combating Economic Fraud. Case Study of the Misappropriation Process of Company’s Assets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michał Falkowski

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available The paper deals with the problem of economic fraud and the role of Internal Audit as a tool for preventing it. As the economic downturn intensifies, the possibility of disputes and other difficulties arises more frequently. More often employees and contracting parties try to shift their own losses on to other economic entities. When internal rules are broken or either are not established, organizations are exposed to risks and problems that they are often not used to dealing with. As the analyzed case study showed threats of an economic fraud can come also from inside the company. Embezzlement concerning expense reimbursement is one of the most “popular” ways to steal money from inside the company. To prevent such situations from happening Internal Audit Unit has to perform assurance and consulting actions to deter this particular and any other type of fraud. When the actual fraud occurs an important element, is the properly divide roles between an internal auditor and the forensic specialist who is adequately prepared to lead the investigation, find evidence, and bring fraudsters to justice.

  18. Dementia Population Risk Tool (DemPoRT): study protocol for a predictive algorithm assessing dementia risk in the community.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fisher, Stacey; Hsu, Amy; Mojaverian, Nassim; Taljaard, Monica; Huyer, Gregory; Manuel, Douglas G; Tanuseputro, Peter

    2017-10-24

    The burden of disease from dementia is a growing global concern as incidence increases dramatically with age, and average life expectancy has been increasing around the world. Planning for an ageing population requires reliable projections of dementia prevalence; however, existing population projections are simple and have poor predictive accuracy. The Dementia Population Risk Tool (DemPoRT) will predict incidence of dementia in the population setting using multivariable modelling techniques and will be used to project dementia prevalence. The derivation cohort will consist of elderly Ontario respondents of the Canadian Community Health Survey (CCHS) (2001, 2003, 2005 and 2007; 18 764 males and 25 288 females). Prespecified predictors include sociodemographic, general health, behavioural, functional and health condition variables. Incident dementia will be identified through individual linkage of survey respondents to population-level administrative healthcare databases (1797 and 3281 events, and 117 795 and 166 573 person-years of follow-up, for males and females, respectively, until 31 March 2014). Using time of first dementia capture as the primary outcome and death as a competing risk, sex-specific proportional hazards regression models will be estimated. The 2008/2009 CCHS survey will be used for validation (approximately 4600 males and 6300 females). Overall calibration and discrimination will be assessed as well as calibration within predefined subgroups of importance to clinicians and policy makers. Research ethics approval has been granted by the Ottawa Health Science Network Research Ethics Board. DemPoRT results will be submitted for publication in peer-review journals and presented at scientific meetings. The algorithm will be assessable online for both population and individual uses. ClinicalTrials.gov NCT03155815, pre-results. © Article author(s) (or their employer(s) unless otherwise stated in the text of the article) 2017. All rights reserved. No

  19. Incorporation of a health economic modelling tool into public health commissioning: Evidence use in a politicised context.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanders, Tom; Grove, Amy; Salway, Sarah; Hampshaw, Susan; Goyder, Elizabeth

    2017-08-01

    This paper explores how commissioners working in an English local government authority (LA) viewed a health economic decision tool for planning services in relation to diabetes. We conducted 15 interviews and 2 focus groups between July 2015 and February 2016, with commissioners (including public health managers, data analysts and council members). Two overlapping themes were identified explaining the obstacles and enablers of using such a tool in commissioning: a) evidence cultures, and b) system interdependency. The former highlighted the diverse evidence cultures present in the LA with politicians influenced by the 'soft' social care agendas affecting their local population and treating local opinion as evidence, whilst public health managers prioritised the scientific view of evidence informed by research. System interdependency further complicated the decision making process by recognizing interlinking with departments and other disease groups. To achieve legitimacy within the commissioning arena health economic modelling needs to function effectively in a highly politicised environment where decisions are made not only on the basis of research evidence, but on grounds of 'soft' data, personal opinion and intelligence. In this context decisions become politicised, with multiple opinions seeking a voice. The way that such decisions are negotiated and which ones establish authority is of importance. We analyse the data using Larson's (1990) discursive field concept to show how the tool becomes an object of research push and pull likely to be used instrumentally by stakeholders to advance specific agendas, not a means of informing complex decisions. In conclusion, LA decision making is underpinned by a transactional business ethic which is a further potential 'pull' mechanism for the incorporation of health economic modelling in local commissioning. Crown Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Twitter as a teaching tool in the Social Sciences faculties. A case study from the Economic History

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Misael Arturo López Zapico

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available 0 0 1 127 701 USAL 5 1 827 14.0 Normal 0 21 false false false ES JA X-NONE /* Style Definitions */ table.MsoNormalTable {mso-style-name:"Tabla normal"; mso-tstyle-rowband-size:0; mso-tstyle-colband-size:0; mso-style-noshow:yes; mso-style-priority:99; mso-style-parent:""; mso-padding-alt:0cm 5.4pt 0cm 5.4pt; mso-para-margin-top:0cm; mso-para-margin-right:0cm; mso-para-margin-bottom:10.0pt; mso-para-margin-left:0cm; line-height:115%; mso-pagination:widow-orphan; font-size:11.0pt; font-family:Calibri; mso-ascii-font-family:Calibri; mso-ascii-theme-font:minor-latin; mso-hansi-font-family:Calibri; mso-hansi-theme-font:minor-latin; mso-ansi-language:ES; mso-fareast-language:EN-US;} The increasing use of social networking among university students ease the way for teachers to use these kinds of tools towards achieving the objectives set in the European Higher Education Area. In this sense, Twitter appears as a highly versatile learning tool that perfectly fits with the skill-based education approach, as evidenced by the literature. This paper describes the methodology, as well as, discusses the results of three experiments that took place during the 2011-2012 Academic Year at the School of Economics and Business of the University of Oviedo. Twitter was used during those experiments to debate the today’s economic crisis. The indicators obtained are used to conclude that microblogging services are a proper tool not only for teaching Economic History but also for doing so for any Social Sciences.

  1. Economic tools for biodiversity. An elaboration of TEEB recommendations with regard to the Taskforce Biodiversity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Davidson, M.D.; Bergsma, G.C.; Blom, M.J.

    2011-07-01

    The working group on Economic Instruments of the Biodiversity and Natural Resources Task Force addressed the question how the recommendations of the report of the United Nations 'The Economics of Ecosystems and Biodiversity' (TEEB) can be realized in the Netherlands. A selection of topics has been made for which policy proposals are developed which might be promising and can lead to a better protection of the biodiversity. The following proposals were investigated and/or elaborated: decrease of the social discount rate; further greening of the tax system; import levy on bulk commodities; taxes on non-sustainable wood; levy on the use of open space; differential tax on animal proteins; and a revision of biomass incentives. [nl

  2. Collaborative innovation as a tool for environmental, economic and social sustainability in regional governance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Torfing, Jacob; Hofstad, Hege

    2015-01-01

    solutions to common problems. The paper analyses the efforts of Norwegian regions to enhance collaborative innovation through the formation of interactive governance arenas. It compares three different policy areas in order to better understand how different forms of interactive governance enhance...... collaborative innovation for economic, social and environmental sustainability. The ultimate goal is to assess the ability and potential of Norwegian regions to solve wicked and unruly problems through collaborative innovation.......In the Scandinavian countries, the regional level of governance is neither the locus of large-scale policy reforms nor a significant provider of welfare to citizens. Nevertheless, it has some important policy tasks in the area of environmental, economic, and social sustainability. These policy...

  3. Internship – tool for improving the employability of Economic Science graduates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silvia SUMEDREA

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Romania's economy has undergone major changes as a result of various technological, economic and social factors, so that the labor market has undergone major changes too, which puts more acute the problem of youth employability. The article presents the results of a project to develop human resources financed by European Union funds aimed at improving the way students realize internship, the ultimate goal of implementation of the project being to accustom students with employers' demands and rigors of a job to thus contribute to increasing the employability of future graduates of economic studies. Internship results are presented by taking into account the students’ opinions and some suggestions are made in order to improve this activity in the future.

  4. QChain - integrating social, environmental and economic value: a tool to support innovation in production chains

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kassahun, A.; Chatenier, du E.; Bots, P.W.G.; Hofstede, Gert Jan; Bloemhof, J.M.; Scholten, H.; Korver, S.; Beulens, A.J.M.

    2011-01-01

    Today's consumers increasingly demand products that are produced sustainably and ethically. As a result, businesses need to address sustainability and social responsibility issues and find a proper balance between people, planet and profit (PPP) aspects of their production chains. Software tools can

  5. GENDER DISPARITIES REGARDING WAGE AS A MOTIVATIONAL TOOL IN THE CURRENT ECONOMIC CONTEXT

    OpenAIRE

    DEMYEN SUZANA; LALA POPA ION

    2014-01-01

    The deepening process of globalization, negative trends regarding demographic evolution both nationally and internationally, also the emigration phenomenon and the long-term effects of the economic crisis, are the main challenges in terms of creating a general support and to encourage a fair and effective management of human resources, regardless of the industry they are developing their activity. Motivation consists in a series of problems that need to be solved in order to g...

  6. IEA SHC Task 42/ECES Annex 29 – A Simple Tool for the Economic Evaluation of Thermal Energy Storages

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rathgeber, Christoph; Hiebler, Stefan; Lävemann, Eberhard

    2016-01-01

    Within the framework of IEA SHC Task 42 / ECES Annex 29, a simple tool for the economic evaluation of thermal energy storages has been developed and tested on various existing storages. On that account, the storage capacity costs (costs per installed storage capacity) of thermal energy storages...... have been evaluated via a Top-down and a Bottom-up approach. The Top-down approach follows the assumption that the costs of energy supplied by the storage should not exceed the costs of energy from the market. The maximum acceptable storage capacity costs depend on the interest rate assigned...

  7. Japan – China: Official Development Assistance as a Tool of Economic Interaction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eugene Borisovich Kovrigin

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available The paper deals with the outstanding role and implications of Japan’s ODA to the People’s Republic of China in the bilateral relations from the early 1980s till its termination in the 2000s. Being by far the biggest single provider of low-interest loans and grants to a state with a totally different political system Japan sought to achieve its own economic and political aims. The controversial nature of government financial flows from Tokyo to Beijing resulted in substantial economic gains (foreign trade and direct investment and vice versa a disappointment in the political realm. The paper reveals peculiarities of Japan’s ODA to the PRC in the framework of international economic relations, its significance for the modernization of China’s industrial and social infrastructure, unparalleled conditions for receiving Japanese aid which were imposed by China’s authorities, the change of public opinion in Japan towards the problem, etc. The article also explores the current transformation of China from the status of leading recipient of Japanese assistance to Japan’s successful «competitor» as a donor of financial resources and technical assistance to the numerous nations of Africa, Southeast Asia and other regions

  8. The South Florida Ecosystem Portfolio Model - A Map-Based Multicriteria Ecological, Economic, and Community Land-Use Planning Tool

    Science.gov (United States)

    Labiosa, William B.; Bernknopf, Richard; Hearn, Paul; Hogan, Dianna; Strong, David; Pearlstine, Leonard; Mathie, Amy M.; Wein, Anne M.; Gillen, Kevin; Wachter, Susan

    2009-01-01

    The South Florida Ecosystem Portfolio Model (EPM) prototype is a regional land-use planning Web tool that integrates ecological, economic, and social information and values of relevance to decision-makers and stakeholders. The EPM uses a multicriteria evaluation framework that builds on geographic information system-based (GIS) analysis and spatially-explicit models that characterize important ecological, economic, and societal endpoints and consequences that are sensitive to regional land-use/land-cover (LULC) change. The EPM uses both economics (monetized) and multiattribute utility (nonmonetized) approaches to valuing these endpoints and consequences. This hybrid approach represents a methodological middle ground between rigorous economic and ecological/ environmental scientific approaches. The EPM sacrifices some degree of economic- and ecological-forecasting precision to gain methodological transparency, spatial explicitness, and transferability, while maintaining credibility. After all, even small steps in the direction of including ecosystem services evaluation are an improvement over current land-use planning practice (Boyd and Wainger, 2003). There are many participants involved in land-use decision-making in South Florida, including local, regional, State, and Federal agencies, developers, environmental groups, agricultural groups, and other stakeholders (South Florida Regional Planning Council, 2003, 2004). The EPM's multicriteria evaluation framework is designed to cut across the objectives and knowledge bases of all of these participants. This approach places fundamental importance on social equity and stakeholder participation in land-use decision-making, but makes no attempt to determine normative socially 'optimal' land-use plans. The EPM is thus a map-based set of evaluation tools for planners and stakeholders to use in their deliberations of what is 'best', considering a balancing of disparate interests within a regional perspective. Although

  9. Debt swapping as a tool for economic and social stabilization in Russia's closed nuclear cities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    JL Fuller; KM Leek

    2000-01-01

    The magnitude of Russian foreign debt, both official bilateral and commercial, compounded by collapse of the Russian economic system, is an obstacle in preventing the Russian Federation from effectively increasing the domestic priority of drawing down its nuclear weapons complex and providing a healthy, competitive environment to its nuclear cities. Debt-for-nature swaps, introduced in the early 1980s, provide debtor nations with a means of converting a portion of foreign debt into local currency, often at steep discounts, to use for purposes such as environmental protection that serve both a domestic and international need. This paper presents the debt-for-nature concept as a model for providing an infusion of funds to further U.S. and international nonproliferation objectives to help stabilize Russian closed city economic conditions through direct work on proliferation problems and remediation of the environment. A specific proposal is presented to demonstrate the utility and efficacy of the dept swap concept through initial collaboration with the city administration of Ozersk. The purpose of the proposal is to facilitate making Ozersk a safe, healthy competitive city, providing useful employment for its scientists and population and converting its superior infrastructure into productive activities

  10. Design and economic investigation of shell and tube heat exchangers using Improved Intelligent Tuned Harmony Search algorithm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oguz Emrah Turgut

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available This study explores the thermal design of shell and tube heat exchangers by using Improved Intelligent Tuned Harmony Search (I-ITHS algorithm. Intelligent Tuned Harmony Search (ITHS is an upgraded version of harmony search algorithm which has an advantage of deciding intensification and diversification processes by applying proper pitch adjusting strategy. In this study, we aim to improve the search capacity of ITHS algorithm by utilizing chaotic sequences instead of uniformly distributed random numbers and applying alternative search strategies inspired by Artificial Bee Colony algorithm and Opposition Based Learning on promising areas (best solutions. Design variables including baffle spacing, shell diameter, tube outer diameter and number of tube passes are used to minimize total cost of heat exchanger that incorporates capital investment and the sum of discounted annual energy expenditures related to pumping and heat exchanger area. Results show that I-ITHS can be utilized in optimizing shell and tube heat exchangers.

  11. Development of an integrated economic decision-support tool for the remediation of contaminated sites. Overview note

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Samson, R.; Bage, G.

    2004-05-01

    This report concludes the first design phase of an innovative software tool which, when completed, will allow managers of contaminated sites to make optimal decisions with respect to site remediation. The principal objective of the project was to develop the foundations for decision-support software (SITE VII) which will allow a comprehensive and rigorous approach to the comparison of remediation scenarios for sites contaminated with petroleum hydrocarbons. During this first phase of the project, the NSERC Industrial Chair in Site Remediation and Management of the Ecole Polytechnique de Montreal has completed four stages in the design of a decision-support tool that could be applied by any site manager using a simple computer. These four stages are: refinement of a technico-economic evaluation model; development of databases for five soil remediation technologies; design of a structure for integration of the databases with the technico-economic model; and simulation of the remediation of a contaminated site using the technico-economic model and a subset of the databases. In the interim report, the emphasis was placed on the development of the technico-economic model, supported by a very simple, single-technology simulation of remediation. In the present report, the priority is placed on the integration of the different components required for the creation of decision-support software based on the technico-economic model. An entire chapter of this report is devoted to elaborating the decision structure of the software. The treatment of information within the software is shown schematically and explained step-by-step. Five remediation technologies are handled by the software: three in-situ technologies (bio-venting, bio-slurping, bio-sparging) and two ex-situ technologies (thermal desorption, Bio-pile treatment). A technology file has been created for each technology, containing a brief description of the technology, its performance, its criteria of applicability

  12. Methods and Algorithms for Computer-aided Engineering of Die Tooling of Compressor Blades from Titanium Alloy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khaimovich, A. I.; Khaimovich, I. N.

    2018-01-01

    The articles provides the calculation algorithms for blank design and die forming fitting to produce the compressor blades for aircraft engines. The design system proposed in the article allows generating drafts of trimming and reducing dies automatically, leading to significant reduction of work preparation time. The detailed analysis of the blade structural elements features was carried out, the taken limitations and technological solutions allowed to form generalized algorithms of forming parting stamp face over the entire circuit of the engraving for different configurations of die forgings. The author worked out the algorithms and programs to calculate three dimensional point locations describing the configuration of die cavity.

  13. THE FLEXIBLE BUDGET– BASIC TOOL OF THE MANAGEMENT CONTROL IN THE ECONOMIC ENTITIES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mariana RADU

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available In the content of this article we emphasize the importance of flexible budgeting of expenses for an economic entity. We focused on indirect costs of production, since they include both variable costs and fixed costs, and the way of their budgeting is different. In the first part of the paper we illustrate how to prepare a flexible budget for more predictable levels of activity, and in the second part, we show how to recalculate budgeted expenses for the actual volume of activity. The budget recalculated for the actual volume of activity allows the comparison, in the correct way, of expenditure forecast to those actually incurred, expenses that relate to the same volume of activity.

  14. Foreign language as a tool for professional mobility development for students specialising in economics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Polenova Anna, YU.

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The paper considers the practical aspects of professional mobility development for students specializing in Economics by means of foreign language. It is noted that the potential of a foreign language is not used in full since training in this discipline is delivered separately with the development of professional competence of the future expert. The article analyzes the existing experience of teaching English at non- linguistic faculties using CLIL (Content and Language Integrated Learning approach. The article suggests the ways of professional mobility development by means of foreign language. It discusses the advantages of innovative teaching, which is aimed at meeting the professional and educational needs of students, the development of professional mobility and creative thinking. It is concluded that studying a foreign language and non-language subject at the same time is an additional means to achieve high educational outcomes.

  15. Implementation of Economic Value Added and Market Value Added Analysis as Valuation Tools of Invest Feasibility

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Achmad Daengs GS

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available For the investors, financial statement is a benchmark of investors in assessing the company's performance. In fact, investors are not always receiving the accurate company's financial statements information and its levels of fairness are in doubt. The financial statement analysis with using financial ratios is not enough. The investors may need to use alternatives financial statement analyses techniques that reflect the actual company's performance. Therefore, both of the investors and the prospective can use Economic Value Added (EVA and Market Value Added (MVA analysis. With these technical analyses, the investors may know the company's performance where they are invested or to be used as a place to invest whether it has value added or not. With the results of these analyses, it is the expected for the investors to be more confident in making decision whether to buy, sell or hold the ownership in the company.

  16. The Monte Carlo method as a tool for statistical characterisation of differential and additive phase shifting algorithms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miranda, M; Dorrio, B V; Blanco, J; Diz-Bugarin, J; Ribas, F

    2011-01-01

    Several metrological applications base their measurement principle in the phase sum or difference between two patterns, one original s(r,φ) and another modified t(r,φ+Δφ). Additive or differential phase shifting algorithms directly recover the sum 2φ+Δφ or the difference Δφ of phases without requiring prior calculation of the individual phases. These algorithms can be constructed, for example, from a suitable combination of known phase shifting algorithms. Little has been written on the design, analysis and error compensation of these new two-stage algorithms. Previously we have used computer simulation to study, in a linear approach or with a filter process in reciprocal space, the response of several families of them to the main error sources. In this work we present an error analysis that uses Monte Carlo simulation to achieve results in good agreement with those obtained with spatial and temporal methods.

  17. Rapid Mental Сomputation System as a Tool for Algorithmic Thinking of Elementary School Students Development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rushan Ziatdinov

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, we describe the possibilities of using a rapid mental computation system in elementary education. The system consists of a number of readily memorized operations that allow one to perform arithmetic computations very quickly. These operations are actually simple algorithms which can develop or improve the algorithmic thinking of pupils. Using a rapid mental computation system allows forming the basis for the study of computer science in secondary school.

  18. Use of Culture as Economic Developmen Tool and the Role of Enviromental Educacion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dionis Mauri Penning Blank

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Phenomena like the culturalization of contemporary cities and the mercantilism of cultural heritage are current issues that require further exploration and understanding. Thus, the objective of this research work was to present the environmental education, translated in the ideals of an ecological citizen able to identify, discuss and act as a solution for addressing these phenomena and its negative effects, such as uniqueness, loss local memory and gentrification. The property occupies a privileged position in the settings of cultural legitimacy, in the reflections on identity and the social bond policies. In societies of consumption and mass culture, the use of heritage, its interpretation and even your simulation are to be local development instruments and national. Consequently, environmental education is revealed as a tool capable of providing the proper use of culture as urban revitalization instrument.

  19. A Hybrid Algorithm for Solving the Economic Lot and Delivery Scheduling Problem in the Common Cycle Case

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ju, Suquan; Clausen, Jens

    2004-01-01

    The ELDSP problem is a combined lot sizing and sequencing problem. A supplier produces and delivers components of different component types to a consumer in batches. The task is to determine the cycle time, i.e. that time between deliveries, which minimizes the total cost per time unit. This incl......The ELDSP problem is a combined lot sizing and sequencing problem. A supplier produces and delivers components of different component types to a consumer in batches. The task is to determine the cycle time, i.e. that time between deliveries, which minimizes the total cost per time unit....... This includes the determination of the production sequence of the component types within each cycle. We investigate the computational behavior of two published algorithms, a heuristic and an optimal algorithm. With large number of component types, the optimal algorithm has long running times. We devise a hybrid...

  20. A planning tool for tree species selection and planting schedule in forestation projects considering environmental and socio-economic benefits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rollan, Catherine Denise; Li, Richard; San Juan, Jayne Lois; Dizon, Liezel; Ong, Karl Benedict

    2018-01-15

    Species selection is a crucial step in the planning phase of forestation programs given its impact on the results and on stakeholder interactions. This study develops a planning tool for forestation programs that incorporates the selection of tree species and the scheduling of planting and harvesting, while balancing the maximization of the carbon sequestered and income realized, into the forestation decision-making and planning process. The validation of the goal programming model formulated demonstrates that the characteristics of natural tree species along with the behavior of growth and timing of yield are significant factors in achieving the environmental and socio-economic aspirations. The proposed model is therefore useful in gauging species behavior and performance over time. Sensitivity analysis was also conducted where the behavior of the income generated and carbon sequestered with respect to the external factors such as carbon market prices, percentage area allocated for protection and discount factor was assessed. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Public outlook on small and medium enterprises as a strategic tool for economic growth and job creation in South Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lawrence Mpele Lekhanya

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available In spite of the key role played by the Small and Medium enterprises in economic development, there has been little effort to look at what needs to be done to improve survival and growth of SMEs. There is still a general lack of in-depth understanding from policy makers and other relevant stakeholders of how SMEs can be used as a strategic tool for economic growth and job creation in South Africa. These misperceptions and misunderstand leads to continuous failure to SMEs survival and growth. This study seeks to address this research gap. The study investigates the public views on what needs to be done to grow South African economy through the development of SMEs. Quantitative research approach was used to collect and analyse data for the study. Primary data was collected from four (4 provinces of South Africa. 230 people participated in the study. Questionnaires were emailed to each respondent and follow-ups were made via telephone. It was found that many SMEs fail within five years of their existence due to the various reasons. The most critical of these were related to lack of access to finance, lack of management experience as well as human capital. Study further revealed that most the SMEs owners/managers do not have business management related skills but rather they are just ordinary entrepreneurs

  2. The transmission tariff - the economic tool for the network infrastructure development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Popescu, Vifor Bogdan; Cirlan, Florica; Mihailescu, Florentina

    2004-01-01

    The free access to the transmission network is one of the key elements of the electricity market development both at the national and regional levels. The operation of the electricity market needs the appropriate development of its basic infrastructure, the transmission network. In the frame work of the electricity market, the network ensures the electricity transmission under reliable conditions, from the generators to the suppliers and eligible consumers and creates market opportunities for its users. One of the main market tools, which may influence the optimal development of the network structure, by an efficient location signal of the large consumers and generators, is the pricing system. The overall costs of the Transmission System Operator (TSO) for providing the transmission service may be distinctly focused by categories as follows: - Costs of the existing transmission network (fixed costs), maintenance and operation costs, capital costs; - Costs of electricity losses (variable costs); - Development costs needed to eliminate the network congestion (variable costs). The recovery of all costs involved by the transmission service is based on regulated tariff system approved by ANRE. By the tariff system, the transmission and system operator aims both to cover the transmission service cost and provide locational signals for all market players which should lead to the efficient grid operation as well as to the optimal development of its structure. The tariff values reflect the polarization existing in the Romanian Power System (PS), namely: surplus power in the South area of the PS (4G zone) and a power deficit in the North areas of the PS (2G and 5G zones). Electricity demand is more evenly distributed in the territory than the electricity generated. This assertion is based on the following statement: - the tariffs value range of electricity delivered in the transmission network is wider, between 1.13 and 2.39 USD/MWh (51%) than the one related to the zones of

  3. Creating an anthropomorphic digital MR phantom—an extensible tool for comparing and evaluating quantitative imaging algorithms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bosca, Ryan J; Jackson, Edward F

    2016-01-01

    Assessing and mitigating the various sources of bias and variance associated with image quantification algorithms is essential to the use of such algorithms in clinical research and practice. Assessment is usually accomplished with grid-based digital reference objects (DRO) or, more recently, digital anthropomorphic phantoms based on normal human anatomy. Publicly available digital anthropomorphic phantoms can provide a basis for generating realistic model-based DROs that incorporate the heterogeneity commonly found in pathology. Using a publicly available vascular input function (VIF) and digital anthropomorphic phantom of a normal human brain, a methodology was developed to generate a DRO based on the general kinetic model (GKM) that represented realistic and heterogeneously enhancing pathology. GKM parameters were estimated from a deidentified clinical dynamic contrast-enhanced (DCE) MRI exam. This clinical imaging volume was co-registered with a discrete tissue model, and model parameters estimated from clinical images were used to synthesize a DCE-MRI exam that consisted of normal brain tissues and a heterogeneously enhancing brain tumor. An example application of spatial smoothing was used to illustrate potential applications in assessing quantitative imaging algorithms. A voxel-wise Bland–Altman analysis demonstrated negligible differences between the parameters estimated with and without spatial smoothing (using a small radius Gaussian kernel). In this work, we reported an extensible methodology for generating model-based anthropomorphic DROs containing normal and pathological tissue that can be used to assess quantitative imaging algorithms. (paper)

  4. Security constrained economic load dispatch in the presence of interline power flow controller using modified BAT algorithm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Y.N. Vijay Kumar

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The utilization of electrical energy due to urbanization and industrialization is increasing day by day, and due to this, there is chance of increasing the uncertainties in a given power system and that affects the economy of the country. The conventional power system in the presence of flexible AC transmission system (FACTS controllers is an alternative to solve this problem and can increase the power system capability to handle rapid changes in operating conditions of the system. In general, multi-line FACTS controllers are effective than single line FACTS controllers. In this paper, a detailed mathematical modeling of IPFC is presented and the effect of an optimal location is also analyzed. A novel optimization algorithm i.e. modified BAT algorithm is proposed to solve optimal power flow problem in the presence of IPFC including system constraints and device limits. The proposed methodology has been tested on standard test systems.

  5. GeneYenta: a phenotype-based rare disease case matching tool based on online dating algorithms for the acceleration of exome interpretation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gottlieb, Michael M; Arenillas, David J; Maithripala, Savanie; Maurer, Zachary D; Tarailo Graovac, Maja; Armstrong, Linlea; Patel, Millan; van Karnebeek, Clara; Wasserman, Wyeth W

    2015-04-01

    Advances in next-generation sequencing (NGS) technologies have helped reveal causal variants for genetic diseases. In order to establish causality, it is often necessary to compare genomes of unrelated individuals with similar disease phenotypes to identify common disrupted genes. When working with cases of rare genetic disorders, finding similar individuals can be extremely difficult. We introduce a web tool, GeneYenta, which facilitates the matchmaking process, allowing clinicians to coordinate detailed comparisons for phenotypically similar cases. Importantly, the system is focused on phenotype annotation, with explicit limitations on highly confidential data that create barriers to participation. The procedure for matching of patient phenotypes, inspired by online dating services, uses an ontology-based semantic case matching algorithm with attribute weighting. We evaluate the capacity of the system using a curated reference data set and 19 clinician entered cases comparing four matching algorithms. We find that the inclusion of clinician weights can augment phenotype matching. © 2015 WILEY PERIODICALS, INC.

  6. Evolutionary algorithm based optimization of hydraulic machines utilizing a state-of-the-art block coupled CFD solver and parametric geometry and mesh generation tools

    Science.gov (United States)

    S, Kyriacou; E, Kontoleontos; S, Weissenberger; L, Mangani; E, Casartelli; I, Skouteropoulou; M, Gattringer; A, Gehrer; M, Buchmayr

    2014-03-01

    An efficient hydraulic optimization procedure, suitable for industrial use, requires an advanced optimization tool (EASY software), a fast solver (block coupled CFD) and a flexible geometry generation tool. EASY optimization software is a PCA-driven metamodel-assisted Evolutionary Algorithm (MAEA (PCA)) that can be used in both single- (SOO) and multiobjective optimization (MOO) problems. In MAEAs, low cost surrogate evaluation models are used to screen out non-promising individuals during the evolution and exclude them from the expensive, problem specific evaluation, here the solution of Navier-Stokes equations. For additional reduction of the optimization CPU cost, the PCA technique is used to identify dependences among the design variables and to exploit them in order to efficiently drive the application of the evolution operators. To further enhance the hydraulic optimization procedure, a very robust and fast Navier-Stokes solver has been developed. This incompressible CFD solver employs a pressure-based block-coupled approach, solving the governing equations simultaneously. This method, apart from being robust and fast, also provides a big gain in terms of computational cost. In order to optimize the geometry of hydraulic machines, an automatic geometry and mesh generation tool is necessary. The geometry generation tool used in this work is entirely based on b-spline curves and surfaces. In what follows, the components of the tool chain are outlined in some detail and the optimization results of hydraulic machine components are shown in order to demonstrate the performance of the presented optimization procedure.

  7. Evolutionary algorithm based optimization of hydraulic machines utilizing a state-of-the-art block coupled CFD solver and parametric geometry and mesh generation tools

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kyriacou S; Kontoleontos E; Weissenberger S; Mangani L; Casartelli E; Skouteropoulou I; Gattringer M; Gehrer A; Buchmayr M

    2014-01-01

    An efficient hydraulic optimization procedure, suitable for industrial use, requires an advanced optimization tool (EASY software), a fast solver (block coupled CFD) and a flexible geometry generation tool. EASY optimization software is a PCA-driven metamodel-assisted Evolutionary Algorithm (MAEA (PCA)) that can be used in both single- (SOO) and multiobjective optimization (MOO) problems. In MAEAs, low cost surrogate evaluation models are used to screen out non-promising individuals during the evolution and exclude them from the expensive, problem specific evaluation, here the solution of Navier-Stokes equations. For additional reduction of the optimization CPU cost, the PCA technique is used to identify dependences among the design variables and to exploit them in order to efficiently drive the application of the evolution operators. To further enhance the hydraulic optimization procedure, a very robust and fast Navier-Stokes solver has been developed. This incompressible CFD solver employs a pressure-based block-coupled approach, solving the governing equations simultaneously. This method, apart from being robust and fast, also provides a big gain in terms of computational cost. In order to optimize the geometry of hydraulic machines, an automatic geometry and mesh generation tool is necessary. The geometry generation tool used in this work is entirely based on b-spline curves and surfaces. In what follows, the components of the tool chain are outlined in some detail and the optimization results of hydraulic machine components are shown in order to demonstrate the performance of the presented optimization procedure

  8. Assistance tool commissioner of new algorithms of systems planning of therapy with ionizing; Herramienta de asistencia en el comisionado de nuevos algoritmos de sistemas de planificacion de terapia con radiaciones ionizantes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reinado, D.; Ricos, B.; Alonso, S.; Chinillach, N.; Bellido, P.; Tortosa, R.

    2013-07-01

    The Commissioner of a new scheduling algorithm is associated with a high number of hours of work and measures. In order to optimize the development of the Commissioner for the AAA algorithms and Acuros XB within planning Eclipse (V.10) system marketed by Varian and have developed a tool in Microsoft Excel format where the different tests have been included to perform. (Author)

  9. Methods and tools to simulate the effect of economic instruments in complex water resources systems. Application to the Jucar river basin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lopez-Nicolas, Antonio; Pulido-Velazquez, Manuel

    2014-05-01

    The main challenge of the BLUEPRINT to safeguard Europe's water resources (EC, 2012) is to guarantee that enough good quality water is available for people's needs, the economy and the environment. In this sense, economic policy instruments such as water pricing policies and water markets can be applied to enhance efficient use of water. This paper presents a method based on hydro-economic tools to assess the effect of economic instruments on water resource systems. Hydro-economic models allow integrated analysis of water supply, demand and infrastructure operation at the river basin scale, by simultaneously combining engineering, hydrologic and economic aspects of water resources management. The method made use of the simulation and optimization hydroeconomic tools SIMGAMS and OPTIGAMS. The simulation tool SIMGAMS allocates water resources among the users according to priorities and operating rules, and evaluate economic scarcity costs of the system by using economic demand functions. The model's objective function is designed so that the system aims to meet the operational targets (ranked according to priorities) at each month while following the system operating rules. The optimization tool OPTIGAMS allocates water resources based on an economic efficiency criterion: maximize net benefits, or alternatively, minimizing the total water scarcity and operating cost of water use. SIMGAS allows to simulate incentive water pricing policies based on marginal resource opportunity costs (MROC; Pulido-Velazquez et al., 2013). Storage-dependent step pricing functions are derived from the time series of MROC values at a certain reservoir in the system. These water pricing policies are defined based on water availability in the system (scarcity pricing), so that when water storage is high, the MROC is low, while low storage (drought periods) will be associated to high MROC and therefore, high prices. We also illustrate the use of OPTIGAMS to simulate the effect of ideal water

  10. A design tool for direct and non-stochastic calculations of near-field radiative transfer in complex structures: The NF-RT-FDTD algorithm

    Science.gov (United States)

    Didari, Azadeh; Pinar Mengüç, M.

    2017-08-01

    Advances in nanotechnology and nanophotonics are inextricably linked with the need for reliable computational algorithms to be adapted as design tools for the development of new concepts in energy harvesting, radiative cooling, nanolithography and nano-scale manufacturing, among others. In this paper, we provide an outline for such a computational tool, named NF-RT-FDTD, to determine the near-field radiative transfer between structured surfaces using Finite Difference Time Domain method. NF-RT-FDTD is a direct and non-stochastic algorithm, which accounts for the statistical nature of the thermal radiation and is easily applicable to any arbitrary geometry at thermal equilibrium. We present a review of the fundamental relations for far- and near-field radiative transfer between different geometries with nano-scale surface and volumetric features and gaps, and then we discuss the details of the NF-RT-FDTD formulation, its application to sample geometries and outline its future expansion to more complex geometries. In addition, we briefly discuss some of the recent numerical works for direct and indirect calculations of near-field thermal radiation transfer, including Scattering Matrix method, Finite Difference Time Domain method (FDTD), Wiener Chaos Expansion, Fluctuating Surface Current (FSC), Fluctuating Volume Current (FVC) and Thermal Discrete Dipole Approximations (TDDA).

  11. Dementia Population Risk Tool (DemPoRT): study protocol for a predictive algorithm assessing dementia risk in the community

    OpenAIRE

    Fisher, Stacey; Hsu, Amy; Mojaverian, Nassim; Taljaard, Monica; Huyer, Gregory; Manuel, Douglas G; Tanuseputro, Peter

    2017-01-01

    Introduction The burden of disease from dementia is a growing global concern as incidence increases dramatically with age, and average life expectancy has been increasing around the world. Planning for an ageing population requires reliable projections of dementia prevalence; however, existing population projections are simple and have poor predictive accuracy. The Dementia Population Risk Tool (DemPoRT) will predict incidence of dementia in the population setting using multivariable modellin...

  12. Osiris: an object oriented software tool for modelling the logistics, economics and environmental impact of the nuclear fuel cycle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Millington, D.N.

    2003-01-01

    Osiris is a general purpose software tool which has been developed for performing studies of material usage, economics and environmental impacts associated with the nuclear fuel cycle. It is particularly suited to the analysis of complex multiple recycling scenarios featuring combinations of both existing and new reactor systems. A discrete event model is used to represent the movement of material batches around the fuel cycle due to the operations and timings of process plants. Nuclear materials are represented by state vectors, which undergo compositional changes due to radioactive decay and irradiation. A library of generic plant types is provided, which are declared and configured in order to represent specific plants. Reactors, front-end and back-end process plants, buffers, stores and material sources can be modelled. Fuel cycle scenarios are then constructed by defining the material flow paths between the plants. The plant parameters and flow paths can be altered dynamically over the course of a scenario in order to represent changes in recycling strategies and retirement and replacement of process plants. Discounted electricity costs can be determined by assigning unit costs to all capital investments, processes and raw materials. Radiotoxicity levels of waste streams can also be evaluated. The software was developed in C++ using objected oriented analysis and design methods. The use of abstraction and inheritance have enabled an open-ended fuel cycle modelling environment to be established, into which new reactor or plant models can readily be integrated. An overview of the object model, numerical modelling assumptions and the design and implementation of the software is presented. (author)

  13. A Refined Teaching-Learning Based Optimization Algorithm for Dynamic Economic Dispatch of Integrated Multiple Fuel and Wind Power Plants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Umamaheswari Krishnasamy

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Dynamic economic dispatch problem (DEDP for a multiple fuel power plant is a nonlinear and nonsmooth optimization problem when valve-point effects, multifuel effects, and ramp-rate limits are considered. Additionally wind energy is also integrated with the DEDP to supply the load for effective utilization of the renewable energy. Since the wind power may not be predicted, a radial basis function network (RBFN is presented to forecast a one-hour-ahead wind power to plan and ensure a reliable power supply. In this paper, a refined teaching-learning based optimization (TLBO is applied to minimize the overall cost of operation of wind-thermal power system. The TLBO is refined by integrating the sequential quadratic programming (SQP method to fine-tune the better solutions whenever discovered by the former method. To demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed hybrid TLBO-SQP method, a standard DEDP and one practical DEDP with wind power forecasted are tested based on the practical information of wind speed. Simulation results validate the proposed methodology which is reasonable by ensuring quality solution throughout the scheduling horizon for secure operation of the system.

  14. ViSAPy: a Python tool for biophysics-based generation of virtual spiking activity for evaluation of spike-sorting algorithms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hagen, Espen; Ness, Torbjørn V; Khosrowshahi, Amir; Sørensen, Christina; Fyhn, Marianne; Hafting, Torkel; Franke, Felix; Einevoll, Gaute T

    2015-04-30

    New, silicon-based multielectrodes comprising hundreds or more electrode contacts offer the possibility to record spike trains from thousands of neurons simultaneously. This potential cannot be realized unless accurate, reliable automated methods for spike sorting are developed, in turn requiring benchmarking data sets with known ground-truth spike times. We here present a general simulation tool for computing benchmarking data for evaluation of spike-sorting algorithms entitled ViSAPy (Virtual Spiking Activity in Python). The tool is based on a well-established biophysical forward-modeling scheme and is implemented as a Python package built on top of the neuronal simulator NEURON and the Python tool LFPy. ViSAPy allows for arbitrary combinations of multicompartmental neuron models and geometries of recording multielectrodes. Three example benchmarking data sets are generated, i.e., tetrode and polytrode data mimicking in vivo cortical recordings and microelectrode array (MEA) recordings of in vitro activity in salamander retinas. The synthesized example benchmarking data mimics salient features of typical experimental recordings, for example, spike waveforms depending on interspike interval. ViSAPy goes beyond existing methods as it includes biologically realistic model noise, synaptic activation by recurrent spiking networks, finite-sized electrode contacts, and allows for inhomogeneous electrical conductivities. ViSAPy is optimized to allow for generation of long time series of benchmarking data, spanning minutes of biological time, by parallel execution on multi-core computers. ViSAPy is an open-ended tool as it can be generalized to produce benchmarking data or arbitrary recording-electrode geometries and with various levels of complexity. Copyright © 2015 The Authors. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Mutagenesis Objective Search and Selection Tool (MOSST: an algorithm to predict structure-function related mutations in proteins

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Asenjo Juan A

    2011-04-01

    's primary sequence into a group of functionally non-disruptive amino acids and a second group of functionally deleterious amino acids. Conclusions With this approach, not only conserved amino acid positions in a protein family can be labeled as functionally relevant, but also non-conserved amino acid positions can be identified to have a physicochemically meaningful functional effect. These results become a discriminative tool in the selection and elaboration of rational mutagenesis strategies for the protein. They can also be used to predict if a given nsSNP, identified, for instance, in a genomic-scale analysis, can have a functional implication for a particular protein and which nsSNPs are most likely to be functionally silent for a protein. This analytical tool could be used to rapidly and automatically discard any irrelevant nsSNP and guide the research focus toward functionally significant mutations. Based on preliminary results and applications, this technique shows promising performance as a valuable bioinformatics tool to aid in the development of new protein variants and in the understanding of function-structure relationships in proteins.

  16. Methodological Tools for the Assessment of Ecological and Socio-Economic Environment in the Region within the Limits of the Sustainability of Biosphere

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aleksey Yuryevich Davankov

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The article is devoted to the study of ecological and socio-economic environment as well as the development of effective methodological tool for the assessment of its stability. This tool allows to ascertain the level of economic activity of the regions within the limits of the sustainability of biosphere. In the article, the regional system is considered as the total of industrial enterprises, social infrastructure and natural environment creating a specific territorial ecological and socio-economic environment, whose stability depends on the level of economic activity measured by the capacity of territorial ecosystem. The use of a technique for the comparative assessment of the energy indicators of economic activity creating a specific ecological and socio-economic environment of the region as well as of the indicator of the ecological capacity of the territory is proved. The ecological capacity of the territory enables to better estimate the level of the sustainability of the region within the limits of sustainability of biosphere. This method allows to forecast the development of the studied territory by the measurement of general energy flow on the basis of closed material and energy flows. The research revealed an indicator of the sustainability of ecological and socio-economic environment of Ural Federal District. Yamalo-Nenets Autonomous District is the most stable, the Chelyabinsk region is the least stable, which is associated with both natural conditions and the specificities of economic structure. The labour productivity indicator, expressed in energy units, has revealed regions with rich natural resources. It was found that in these regions, there are significant material flows in the electricity industry that leads to a large proportion of greenhouse gas emissions. The assessment of the demographic capacity fully correlates with the calculations of the stability indicator of the regional system and the analysis of labour

  17. NEMO. A novel techno-economic tool suite for simulating and optimizing solutions for grid integration of electric vehicles and charging stations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Erge, Thomas; Stillahn, Thies; Dallmer-Zerbe, Kilian; Wille-Haussmann, Bernhard [Frauenhofer Institut for Solar Energy Systems ISE, Freiburg (Germany)

    2013-07-01

    With an increasing use of electric vehicles (EV) grid operators need to predict energy flows depending on electromobility use profiles to accordingly adjust grid infrastructure and operation control accordingly. Tools and methodologies are required to characterize grid problems resulting from the interconnection of EV with the grid. The simulation and optimization tool suite NEMO (Novel E-MObility grid model) was developed within a European research project and is currently being tested using realistic showcases. It is a combination of three professional tools. One of the tools aims at a combined techno-economic design and operation, primarily modeling plants on contracts or the spot market, at the same time participating in balancing markets. The second tool is designed for planning grid extension or reinforcement while the third tool is mainly used to quickly discover potential conflicts of grid operation approaches through load flow analysis. The tool suite is used to investigate real showcases in Denmark, Germany and the Netherlands. First studies show that significant alleviation of stress on distribution grid lines could be achieved by few but intelligent restrictions to EV charging procedures.

  18. NEMO. A novel techno-economic tool suite for simulating and optimizing solutions for grid integration of electric vehicles and charging stations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Erge, Thomas; Stillahn, Thies; Dallmer-Zerbe, Kilian; Wille-Haussmann, Bernhard

    2013-01-01

    With an increasing use of electric vehicles (EV) grid operators need to predict energy flows depending on electromobility use profiles to accordingly adjust grid infrastructure and operation control accordingly. Tools and methodologies are required to characterize grid problems resulting from the interconnection of EV with the grid. The simulation and optimization tool suite NEMO (Novel E-MObility grid model) was developed within a European research project and is currently being tested using realistic showcases. It is a combination of three professional tools. One of the tools aims at a combined techno-economic design and operation, primarily modeling plants on contracts or the spot market, at the same time participating in balancing markets. The second tool is designed for planning grid extension or reinforcement while the third tool is mainly used to quickly discover potential conflicts of grid operation approaches through load flow analysis. The tool suite is used to investigate real showcases in Denmark, Germany and the Netherlands. First studies show that significant alleviation of stress on distribution grid lines could be achieved by few but intelligent restrictions to EV charging procedures.

  19. FINANCIAL-ECONOMIC INTEGRATION AS A TOOL FOR INCREASE OF INVESTMENT SUPPORT OF AGRO-INDUSTRIAL PRODUCTION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. R. Zakirova

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The article reveals the essence and systematizes the advantages of financial and economic integration. In the agro-industrial complex, this kind of integration contributes to attracting investments and reducing risks for investors, increasing the competitiveness and economic growth of the region. The relevance of the study is due to insufficiently researched remains many aspects of the functioning of integrated business systems in relation to individual industries, in particular, to agroindustrial production. The aim of the article is to study theoretical approaches to the essence of financial and economic integration in agro-industrial production and analyze the mechanism of investment support for the Russian agrarian sector, taking into account financial and economic integration. In preparing the article, general scientific methods of research were used: analysis and synthesis, generalization, comparison, classification. Results. The interpretation of financial and economic integration in Russian and foreign scientific publications is generalized. Distinctions of financial and economic integration are distinguished from other economic processes. The advantages of financial and economic integration for the economy and business entities are systematized. The importance of integrating industries and business entities in the agro-industrial complex, which is of strategic importance for ensuring Russia's food security, was noted. The branch structure of the agro-industrial complex is analyzed. The scheme of the integrated financial and economic mechanism in the agroindustrial complex is described. The importance of an optimal balance between cooperation and integration was underscored. The insufficiency of the methodological level of studies of agro-industrial integration is grounded. The components of the effect of financial and economic integration are considered. Positive effects of integration processes in the agroindustrial complex are

  20. Some strategic conclusions from an economic analysis of wind power based on simple and innovative methods and tools

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chabot, B.

    2001-01-01

    The fast development of wind power is based on improved performance of wind turbines and on higher profitability of wind power projects. Therefore, an economic analysis is necessary to quantify past and future progress. In this respect, the paper presents a simplified economic analysis method in order to assess present and future wind energy costs and in order to determine wind tariffs able to ensure a sustainable development of this technology. Perspectives and scenarios for the development of wind power are described up to 2020 in the case of France and in the 21. century for the world. (author)

  1. ECONOMIC MODEL AND TOOLS OF THE AIR PROTECTION MANAGEMENT BASED ON THE EXAMPLE OF A COKING PLANT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Danuta Hilse

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Legal-economic models of the air protection management at the Polish industrial plants, which take into account the regulations of the Act on “Environment protection law”, are far from being perfect. It is particularly noticeable in the coking industry where chargeable pollutions are chosen selectively, and unitary rates of emission charges are agreed at random. Tax deductions are not granted either to producers of fuel coke for reduction of pollutants emission in municipal-housing management after replacing coal with fuel coke. The proposed new economic model of the air protection management at coking plants eliminates the existing shortcomings.

  2. Development of a web-based tool for the assessment of health and economic outcomes of the European Innovation Partnership on Active and Healthy Ageing (EIP on AHA).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boehler, Christian E H; de Graaf, Gimon; Steuten, Lotte; Yang, Yaling; Abadie, Fabienne

    2015-01-01

    The European Innovation Partnership on Active and Healthy Ageing (EIP on AHA) is a European Commission led policy initiative to address the challenges of demographic change in Europe. For monitoring the health and economic impact of the social and technological innovations carried out by more than 500 stakeholder's groups ('commitments') participating in the EIP on AHA, a generic and flexible web-based monitoring and assessment tool is currently being developed. This paper describes the approach for developing and implementing this web-based tool, its main characteristics and capability to provide specific outcomes that are of value to the developers of an intervention, as well as a series of case studies planned before wider rollout. The tool builds up from a variety of surrogate endpoints commonly used across the diverse set of EIP on AHA commitments in order to estimate health and economic outcomes in terms of incremental changes in quality adjusted life years (QALYs) as well as health and social care utilisation. A highly adaptable Markov model with initially three mutually exclusive health states ('baseline health', 'deteriorated health' and 'death') provides the basis for the tool which draws from an extensive database of epidemiological, economic and effectiveness data; and also allows further customisation through remote data entry enabling more accurate and context specific estimation of intervention impact. Both probabilistic sensitivity analysis and deterministic scenario analysis allow assessing the impact of parameter uncertainty on intervention outcomes. A set of case studies, ranging from the pre-market assessment of early healthcare technologies to the retrospective analysis of established care pathways, will be carried out before public rollout, which is envisaged end 2015. Monitoring the activities carried out within the EIP on AHA requires an approach that is both flexible and consistent in the way health and economic impact is estimated across

  3. Effectiveness of United StatesLed Economic Sanctions as a Counterproliferation Tool Against Irans Nuclear Weapons Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-12-01

    Science and International Security, Secretaries Hillary Clinton and Condoleezza Rice 89 Wisconsin...17 III. ECONOMIC SANCTIONS AND ENFORCEMENT AGAINST IRAN .......19 A. REAGAN THROUGH CLINTON ...C. U.S. COUNTERPROLIFERATION POLICY The formation of U.S. counterproliferation policy can be traced to the Clinton Administration, largely as a

  4. VISUAL-SEVEIF, a tool for integrating fire behavior simulation and economic evaluation of the impact of Wildfires

    Science.gov (United States)

    Francisco Rodríguez y Silva; Juan Ramón Molina Martínez; Miguel Ángel Herrera Machuca; Jesús Mª Rodríguez Leal

    2013-01-01

    Progress made in recent years in fire science, particularly as applied to forest fire protection, coupled with the increased power offered by mathematical processors integrated into computers, has led to important developments in the field of dynamic and static simulation of forest fires. Furthermore, and similarly, econometric models applied to economic...

  5. Distance Learning as a Tool for Poverty Reduction and Economic Development: A Focus on China and Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larson, Richard C.; Murray, M. Elizabeth

    2008-01-01

    This paper uses case studies to focus on distance learning in developing countries as an enabler for economic development and poverty reduction. To provide perspective, we first review the history of telecottages, local technology-equipped facilities to foster community-based learning, which have evolved into "telecenters" or…

  6. Matching presentational tools' ontology to part-task demands to foster problem-solving in business economics

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Slof, Bert; Erkens, Gijsbert; Kirschner, Paul A.

    2011-01-01

    Slof, B., Erkens, G., & Kirschner, P. A. (2010, July). Matching representational tools’ ontology to part-task demands to foster problem-solving in business economics. In K. Gomez, L. Lyons, & J. Radinsky (Eds.), Learning in the Disciplines: Proceedings of the 9th International Conference of the

  7. Basis for a valuation of the Polish Exclusive Economic Zone of the Baltic Sea: Rationale and quest for tools

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jan Marcin Węsławski

    2006-03-01

    Full Text Available This paper summarises current knowledge of goods and servicesin the Polish Exclusive Economic Zone of the Baltic Sea ecosystem.It reviews specific properties of the Baltic that could be usedfor economic valuation. Goods and services range from the familiarresources of fish and minerals, which were valued with the ProductivityMethod, to less obvious services provided by the ecosystem suchas biofiltration in coastal sands, valued with either the ReplacementCost or Damage Cost Avoided methods. Disservices to the marineecosystem are also considered, e.g. erosion and coastal flooding,including the costs of planned mitigating measures. This paperemphasises the importance of using valuation methods to helpmake better-educated decisions for the sustainability of theBaltic Sea.

  8. Development and validation of a multilateral index to determine economic status in developing countries: the Patient Financial Eligibility Tool (PFET).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saba, Joseph; Audureau, Etienne; Bizé, Marion; Koloshuk, Barbara; Ladner, Joël

    2013-04-01

    The objective was to develop and validate a multilateral index to determine patient ability to pay for medication in low- and middle-income countries. Primary data were collected in 2009 from 117 cancer patients in China, India, Thailand, and Malaysia. The initial tool included income, expenditures, and assets-based items using ad hoc determined brackets. Principal components analysis was performed to determine final weights. Agreement (Kappa) was measured between results from the final tool and from an Impact Survey (IS) conducted after beginning drug therapy to quantify a patient's actual ability to pay in terms of number of drug cycles per year. The authors present the step-by-step methodology employed to develop the tool on a country-by-country basis. Overall Cronbach value was 0.84. Agreement between the Patient Financial Eligibility Tool (PFET) and IS was perfect (equal number of drug cycles) for 58.1% of patients, fair (1 cycle difference) for 29.1%, and poor (>1 cycle) for 12.8%. Overall Kappa was 0.76 (Ptool for determining an individual's ability to pay for medication. Combined with tiered models for patient participation in the cost of medication, it could help to increase access to high-priced products in developing countries.

  9. BARTER AS AN ALTERNATIVE TRADING AND FINANCING TOOL AND ITS IMPORTANCE FOR BUSINESSES IN TIMES OF ECONOMIC CRISIS

    OpenAIRE

    Uyan, Ozgul

    2017-01-01

    Purpose-Today, growing commercial and financialintegration between countries with globalization leads to intense competitionand global economic crises. Due to these developments, the companies have somedifficulties carrying on their business and managing the crises withtraditional marketing and financing techniques. So they are turning alternativemethods. One of them is barter system meaning buying and selling goods andservices without using money. Barter is an innovated form of exchange syst...

  10. Public sector procurement as strategic tool for black economic empowerment at Sedibeng District Municipality / Paulos Moeketsi Motsiri

    OpenAIRE

    Motsiri, Paulos Moeketsi

    2009-01-01

    The central objective of this study was to establish the extent to which public procurement, as applied at Sedibeng District Municipality, contributes to the development of designated suppliers. Previously, procurement was considered just another function of government responsible for purchasing and receiving goods. Currently, procurement is considered a strategic function that can be utilized by government to achieve certain policy objectives, such as Black Economic Empowerment (BEE) and Loc...

  11. Economic evaluation of the one-hour rule-out and rule-in algorithm for acute myocardial infarction using the high-sensitivity cardiac troponin T assay in the emergency department.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Apoorva Ambavane

    Full Text Available The 1-hour (h algorithm triages patients presenting with suspected acute myocardial infarction (AMI to the emergency department (ED towards "rule-out," "rule-in," or "observation," depending on baseline and 1-h levels of high-sensitivity cardiac troponin (hs-cTn. The economic consequences of applying the accelerated 1-h algorithm are unknown.We performed a post-hoc economic analysis in a large, diagnostic, multicenter study of hs-cTnT using central adjudication of the final diagnosis by two independent cardiologists. Length of stay (LoS, resource utilization (RU, and predicted diagnostic accuracy of the 1-h algorithm compared to standard of care (SoC in the ED were estimated. The ED LoS, RU, and accuracy of the 1-h algorithm was compared to that achieved by the SoC at ED discharge. Expert opinion was sought to characterize clinical implementation of the 1-h algorithm, which required blood draws at ED presentation and 1h, after which "rule-in" patients were transferred for coronary angiography, "rule-out" patients underwent outpatient stress testing, and "observation" patients received SoC. Unit costs were for the United Kingdom, Switzerland, and Germany. The sensitivity and specificity for the 1-h algorithm were 87% and 96%, respectively, compared to 69% and 98% for SoC. The mean ED LoS for the 1-h algorithm was 4.3h-it was 6.5h for SoC, which is a reduction of 33%. The 1-h algorithm was associated with reductions in RU, driven largely by the shorter LoS in the ED for patients with a diagnosis other than AMI. The estimated total costs per patient were £2,480 for the 1-h algorithm compared to £4,561 for SoC, a reduction of up to 46%.The analysis shows that the use of 1-h algorithm is associated with reduction in overall AMI diagnostic costs, provided it is carefully implemented in clinical practice. These results need to be prospectively validated in the future.

  12. Participatory Approach to Long-Term Socio-Economic Scenarios as Building Block of a Local Vulnerability and Risk Assessment Tool - The Case Study Lienz (East-Tyrol)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meyer, Ina; Eder, Brigitte; Hama, Michiko; Leitner, Markus

    2016-04-01

    Risks associated with climate change are mostly still understood and analyzed in a sector- or hazard-specific and rarely in a systemic, dynamic and scenario-based manner. In addition, socio-economic trends are often neglected in local vulnerability and risk assessments although they represent potential key determinants of risk and vulnerability. The project ARISE (Adaptation and Decision Support via Risk Management Through Local Burning Embers) aims at filling this gap by applying a participatory approach to socio-economic scenario building as building block of a local vulnerability assessment and risk management tool. Overall, ARISE aims at developing a decision support system for climate-sensitive iterative risk management as a key adaptation tool for the local level using Lienz in the East-Tyrol as a test-site City. One central building block is participatory socio-economic scenario building that - together with regionalized climate change scenarios - form a centrepiece in the process-oriented assessment of climate change risks and vulnerability. Major vulnerabilities and risks may stem from the economic performance, the socio-economic or socio-demographic developments or changes in asset exposition and not from climate change impacts themselves. The IPCC 5th assessment report underlines this and states that for most economic sectors, the impact of climate change may be small relative to the impacts of other driving forces such as changes in population growth, age, income, technology, relative prices, lifestyle, regulation, governance and many other factors in the socio-economy (Arent et al., 2014). The paper presents the methodology, process and results with respect to the building of long-term local socio-economic scenarios for the City of Lienz and the surrounding countryside. Scenarios were developed in a participatory approach using a scenario workshop that involved major stakeholders from the region. Participatory approaches are increasingly recognized as

  13. Introduction to Evolutionary Algorithms

    CERN Document Server

    Yu, Xinjie

    2010-01-01

    Evolutionary algorithms (EAs) are becoming increasingly attractive for researchers from various disciplines, such as operations research, computer science, industrial engineering, electrical engineering, social science, economics, etc. This book presents an insightful, comprehensive, and up-to-date treatment of EAs, such as genetic algorithms, differential evolution, evolution strategy, constraint optimization, multimodal optimization, multiobjective optimization, combinatorial optimization, evolvable hardware, estimation of distribution algorithms, ant colony optimization, particle swarm opti

  14. Predicting European Union recessions in the euro era: The yield curve as a forecasting tool of economic activity

    OpenAIRE

    Gogas, Periklis; Chionis, Dionisios; Pragkidis, Ioannis

    2009-01-01

    Several studies have established the predictive power of the yield curve, ie: the difference between long and short term bond rates, in terms of real economic activity, for the U.S. and various European countries. In this paper we use data from the European Union (EU15), ranging from 1994:Q1 to 2008:Q3. The seasonally adjusted real GDP is used to extract the long run trend and the cyclical component of the European output, while the European Central Bank’s euro area government benchmark bonds...

  15. Debt swapping as a tool for economic and social stabilization in Russia's closed nuclear cities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    JL Fuller; KM Leek

    2000-03-08

    The magnitude of Russian foreign debt, both official bilateral and commercial, compounded by collapse of the Russian economic system, is an obstacle in preventing the Russian Federation from effectively increasing the domestic priority of drawing down its nuclear weapons complex and providing a healthy, competitive environment to its nuclear cities. Debt-for-nature swaps, introduced in the early 1980s, provide debtor nations with a means of converting a portion of foreign debt into local currency, often at steep discounts, to use for purposes such as environmental protection that serve both a domestic and international need. This paper presents the debt-for-nature concept as a model for providing an infusion of funds to further U.S. and international nonproliferation objectives to help stabilize Russian closed city economic conditions through direct work on proliferation problems and remediation of the environment. A specific proposal is presented to demonstrate the utility and efficacy of the dept swap concept through initial collaboration with the city administration of Ozersk. The purpose of the proposal is to facilitate making Ozersk a safe, healthy competitive city, providing useful employment for its scientists and population and converting its superior infrastructure into productive activities.

  16. Management of gas releases with greenhouse effect: which economical tools?; Maitriser les emissions de gaz a effet de serre: quels instruments economiques?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lepeltier, Serge [Senat, Paris (France)

    2000-06-09

    The climatic change represents the most severe danger to the durable world development, public health and future prosperity. This document concerning the gas releases with greenhouse effect is a report of the Senate Planning delegation regarding the economic and fiscal tools envisaging abatement of releases of gases with greenhouse effect. These issues are presented in four chapters titled as follows: 1. Since the scientific evidencing, requirement of managing the releases of gas with greenhouse effect has been unanimously recognized at the summits of Rio (1992) and Kyoto (1997); 2. The economic theory suggests instruments for reducing the gas releases with greenhouse effect at a minimum cost; 3. Challenges and ways of international cooperation in the field of climatic change; 4. Joining the political will with the pragmatic use of the economic instruments at national scale. The document contains a synthesis of proposals directed towards the following goals: international negotiations relating to climatic change; creating the community framework of managing the gas releases resulting in greenhouse effect; establishing national measures for managing the gas releases leading to greenhouse effect; actions to be undertaken by the territorial collectivities.

  17. Turkish University Students’ Perceptions of the World Wide Web as a Learning Tool: An Investigation Based on Gender, Socio-Economic Background, and Web Experience

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erkan Tekinarslan

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available The main purpose of the study is to investigate Turkish undergraduate students’ perceptions of the Web as a learning tool and to analyze whether their perceptions differ significantly based on gender, socio-economic background, and Web experience. Data obtained from 722 undergraduate students (331 males and 391 females were used in the analyses. The findings indicated significant differences based on gender, socio-economic background, and Web experience. The students from higher socio-economic backgrounds indicated significantly higher attitude scores on the self-efficacy subscale of the Web attitude scale. Similarly, the male students indicated significantly higher scores on the self-efficacy subscale than the females. Also, the students with higher Web experience in terms of usage frequency indicated higher scores on all subscales (i.e., self-efficacy, affective, usefulness, Web-based learning. Moreover, the two-way ANOVA results indicated that the student’s PC ownership has significant main effects on their Web attitudes and on the usefulness, self-efficacy, and affective subscales.

  18. Projected 21st century coastal flooding in the Southern California Bight. Part 2: Tools for assessing climate change-driven coastal hazards and socio-economic impacts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erikson, Li; Barnard, Patrick; O'Neill, Andrea; Wood, Nathan J.; Jones, Jeanne M.; Finzi Hart, Juliette; Vitousek, Sean; Limber, Patrick; Hayden, Maya; Fitzgibbon, Michael; Lovering, Jessica; Foxgrover, Amy C.

    2018-01-01

    This paper is the second of two that describes the Coastal Storm Modeling System (CoSMoS) approach for quantifying physical hazards and socio-economic hazard exposure in coastal zones affected by sea-level rise and changing coastal storms. The modelling approach, presented in Part 1, downscales atmospheric global-scale projections to local scale coastal flood impacts by deterministically computing the combined hazards of sea-level rise, waves, storm surges, astronomic tides, fluvial discharges, and changes in shoreline positions. The method is demonstrated through an application to Southern California, United States, where the shoreline is a mix of bluffs, beaches, highly managed coastal communities, and infrastructure of high economic value. Results show that inclusion of 100-year projected coastal storms will increase flooding by 9–350% (an additional average 53.0 ± 16.0 km2) in addition to a 25–500 cm sea-level rise. The greater flooding extents translate to a 55–110% increase in residential impact and a 40–90% increase in building replacement costs. To communicate hazards and ranges in socio-economic exposures to these hazards, a set of tools were collaboratively designed and tested with stakeholders and policy makers; these tools consist of two web-based mapping and analytic applications as well as virtual reality visualizations. To reach a larger audience and enhance usability of the data, outreach and engagement included workshop-style trainings for targeted end-users and innovative applications of the virtual reality visualizations.

  19. Geosciences: an important tool for the ethical advancement and the economic and cultural development of our society

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vito Graziano, Gian

    2013-04-01

    The development of a society in economic, cultural and ethical terms is always linked to the growth of the scientific and technical knowledge. It follows that the downsizing of the scientific research brings to a slower growth or even, as it is happening these days in Italy, a real cultural decay. The consequences of the economic crisis are evident to everyone, but it is precisely in times of crisis that the best strategies to restart the economy and give new cultural perspectives to society are studied. The crisis is also contrasted with ideas and ability to put them into practice. This, however, also presupposes a different cultural approach, which has to also include a review of values and beliefs, and a redefinition of the objectives to be pursued. This approach is modeled on the basis of several positive experiences that a country can boast. Among these experiences, there are those arising from the scientific culture: geology, for example, such as chemistry, biology or other sciences, can help to change vision. The research and practice of Earth sciences have important implications on the life and activities of the population and therefore the geoscientists, as active subjects in the society, should question their role and responsibilities. They should be at the service of society, especially in the fields of prevention from natural hazards and valorization of georesources. In this sense they can give important indications for economy and development of their country. The Italian Council of Geologists (Consiglio Nazionale dei Geologi - CNG) acts with the aim of highlighting the social role of geoscientists, hoping for a new cultural Renaissance, which leads to new researches, without obscurantism or prejudices. In an authoritative way, the CNG intends to put this social role before any demand from the professional category. Therefore, it has recently presented its political Manifesto, geared essentially to the good governance of the territory, to all the

  20. Development of the Workplace Health Savings Calculator: a practical tool to measure economic impact from reduced absenteeism and staff turnover in workplace health promotion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baxter, Siyan; Campbell, Sharon; Sanderson, Kristy; Cazaly, Carl; Venn, Alison; Owen, Carole; Palmer, Andrew J

    2015-09-18

    Workplace health promotion is focussed on improving the health and wellbeing of workers. Although quantifiable effectiveness and economic evidence is variable, workplace health promotion is recognised by both government and business stakeholders as potentially beneficial for worker health and economic advantage. Despite the current debate on whether conclusive positive outcomes exist, governments are investing, and business engagement is necessary for value to be realised. Practical tools are needed to assist decision makers in developing the business case for workplace health promotion programs. Our primary objective was to develop an evidence-based, simple and easy-to-use resource (calculator) for Australian employers interested in workplace health investment figures. Three phases were undertaken to develop the calculator. First, evidence from a literature review located appropriate effectiveness measures. Second, a review of employer-facilitated programs aimed at improving the health and wellbeing of employees was utilised to identify change estimates surrounding these measures, and third, currently available online evaluation tools and models were investigated. We present a simple web-based calculator for use by employers who wish to estimate potential annual savings associated with implementing a successful workplace health promotion program. The calculator uses effectiveness measures (absenteeism and staff turnover rates) and change estimates sourced from 55 case studies to generate the annual savings an employer may potentially gain. Australian wage statistics were used to calculate replacement costs due to staff turnover. The calculator was named the Workplace Health Savings Calculator and adapted and reproduced on the Healthy Workers web portal by the Australian Commonwealth Government Department of Health and Ageing. The Workplace Health Savings Calculator is a simple online business tool that aims to engage employers and to assist participation

  1. Debt swapping as a tool for economic and social stabilization in Russia's closed nuclear cities (briefing paper)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    JL Fuller; KM Leek

    2000-03-08

    The next great issue on the Russian landscape will be management of its foreign debt. In the near future the United States will be called upon to lead an international program of debt restructuring to assist Russia in overcoming the burden of its debt trap. With debt service obligations equal to 50{percent} of 1999 revenues, Russia has virtually no chance of sustaining a program of economic recovery without debt relief (Hardt, 1999). With some form of debt restructuring a foregone conclusion, Russia, the United States, and world community have a vital stake in searching for creative ways to transform the inevitability of debt restructuring into something of value and constructive to Russia and the problems it faces. This was the rationale behind debt-for-nature swaps which emerged in the early 1980s in Latin American and Eastern Europe as a means of relieving developing nations of their crippling foreign debt. Debt-for-nature swaps served both domestic and international needs by converting a portion of foreign debt, often at steep discounts, into local currency that was then used to fund programs to preserve the environment. The debt swap mechanism provides the prospect of getting something of real value where nothing is expected. The Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) has proposed to use the same model to synergistically capitalize defense threat reduction activities and environmental remediation within Russia's closed nuclear cities. Preventing the emigration of nuclear technology, expertise, and hardware from these cities to subnational groups and countries of proliferation concern is one of the world's foremost pressing problems. It is in the best national security interest of the United states to assist Russia in overcoming the legacy of the Cold War by helping to address the catastrophic environmental and public health effects of nuclear production that negatively impact economic stabilization.

  2. Debt swapping as a tool for economic and social stabilization in Russia's closed nuclear cities (briefing paper)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    JL Fuller; KM Leek

    2000-01-01

    The next great issue on the Russian landscape will be management of its foreign debt. In the near future the United States will be called upon to lead an international program of debt restructuring to assist Russia in overcoming the burden of its debt trap. With debt service obligations equal to 50% of 1999 revenues, Russia has virtually no chance of sustaining a program of economic recovery without debt relief (Hardt, 1999). With some form of debt restructuring a foregone conclusion, Russia, the United States, and world community have a vital stake in searching for creative ways to transform the inevitability of debt restructuring into something of value and constructive to Russia and the problems it faces. This was the rationale behind debt-for-nature swaps which emerged in the early 1980s in Latin American and Eastern Europe as a means of relieving developing nations of their crippling foreign debt. Debt-for-nature swaps served both domestic and international needs by converting a portion of foreign debt, often at steep discounts, into local currency that was then used to fund programs to preserve the environment. The debt swap mechanism provides the prospect of getting something of real value where nothing is expected. The Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) has proposed to use the same model to synergistically capitalize defense threat reduction activities and environmental remediation within Russia's closed nuclear cities. Preventing the emigration of nuclear technology, expertise, and hardware from these cities to subnational groups and countries of proliferation concern is one of the world's foremost pressing problems. It is in the best national security interest of the United states to assist Russia in overcoming the legacy of the Cold War by helping to address the catastrophic environmental and public health effects of nuclear production that negatively impact economic stabilization

  3. A decision-making tool to determine economic feasibility and break-even prices for artisan cheese operations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Durham, Catherine A; Bouma, Andrea; Meunier-Goddik, Lisbeth

    2015-12-01

    Artisan cheese makers lack access to valid economic data to help them evaluate business opportunities and make important business decisions such as determining cheese pricing structure. The objective of this study was to utilize an economic model to evaluate the net present value (NPV), internal rate of return, and payback period for artisan cheese production at different annual production volumes. The model was also used to determine the minimum retail price necessary to ensure positive NPV for 5 different cheese types produced at 4 different production volumes. Milk type, cheese yield, and aging time all affected variable costs. However, aged cheeses required additional investment for aging space (which needs to be larger for longer aging times), as did lower yield cheeses (by requiring larger-volume equipment for pasteurization and milk handling). As the volume of milk required increased, switching from vat pasteurization to high-temperature, short-time pasteurization was necessary for low-yield cheeses before being required for high-yield cheeses, which causes an additional increase in investment costs. Because of these differences, high-moisture, fresh cow milk cheeses can be sold for about half the price of hard, aged goat milk cheeses at the largest production volume or for about two-thirds the price at the lowest production volume examined. For example, for the given model assumptions, at an annual production of 13,608kg of cheese (30,000 lb), a fresh cow milk mozzarella should be sold at a minimum retail price of $27.29/kg ($12.38/lb), whereas a goat milk Gouda needs a minimum retail price of $49.54/kg ($22.47/lb). Artisan cheese makers should carefully evaluate annual production volumes. Although larger production volumes decrease average fixed cost and improve production efficiency, production can reach volumes where it becomes necessary to sell through distributors. Because distributors might pay as little as 35% of retail price, the retail price needs

  4. Shedding light on food fraud: spectrophotometric and spectroscopic methods as a tool against economically motivated adulteration of food

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petronijević, R. B.; Velebit, B.; Baltić, T.

    2017-09-01

    Intentional modification of food or substitution of food ingredients with the aim of gaining profit is food fraud or economically motivated adulteration (EMA). EMA appeared in the food supply chain, and following the global expansion of the food market, has become a world-scale problem for the global economy. Food frauds have involved oils, milk and meat products, infant formula, honey, juices, spices, etc. New legislation was enacted in the last decade in order to fight EMA. Effective analytical methods for food fraud detection are few and still in development. The majority of the methods in common use today for EMA detection are time consuming and inappropriate for use on the production line or out of the laboratory. The next step in the evolution of analytical techniques to combat food fraud is development of fast, accurate methods applicable using portable or handheld devices. Spectrophotometric and spectroscopic methods combined with chemometric analysis, and perhaps in combination with other rapid physico-chemical techniques, could be the answer. This review discusses some analytical techniques based on spectrophotometry and spectroscopy, which are used to reveal food fraud and EMA.

  5. Etude Climat no. 38 'The economic tools of Chinese climate and energy policy at the time of the at the time of the 12. five-year plan'

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhou, Di; Delbosc, Anais

    2013-01-01

    Among the publications of CDC Climat Research, 'Climate Reports' offer in-depth analyses on a given subject. This issue addresses the following points: The largest developing country and the main source of GHG emissions in the world, China has undertaken in its 12. five-year plan (2011-2015) to strengthen the strategy initiated in the 11. five-year plan. It proposes making the Chinese economy more flexible - hence its change of name to five-year 'guide'-, particularly through increased use of market instruments. This change applies across all fields, including energy and climate policies. Economic instruments are especially expected to help achieve the 2020 strategic energy and climate objectives which China committed to at the Copenhagen Conference in 2009. The five-year plan forms a programmatic document requiring translation into law to develop details of the measures required to achieve the objectives set out. Following the publication of the 12. five-year plan, the Chinese central government therefore introduced a series of regulations to promote energy conservation and reduction of greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions, including at a regional and sectoral level. Local governments are particularly expected to participate, by incorporating progress in achieving their climate and energy policy objectives into the system of administrative appraisal. In relation to energy policy, the economic tools put in place exist side by side with pre-existing administrative tools and remain subject to very strong administrative control. They concern the adjustment of both the production pattern - reinforcement of exchanges of production rights and renewable energy production quotas - and the structure of energy consumption - market for energy savings certificates coordinated at a regional level. In terms of climate policy, the Chinese government is testing a range of instruments, including market and taxation mechanisms. The 12. five-year plan notably includes the development of a

  6. Image Montaging for Creating a Virtual Pathology Slide: An Innovative and Economical Tool to Obtain a Whole Slide Image.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Banavar, Spoorthi Ravi; Chippagiri, Prashanthi; Pandurangappa, Rohit; Annavajjula, Saileela; Rajashekaraiah, Premalatha Bidadi

    2016-01-01

    Background . Microscopes are omnipresent throughout the field of biological research. With microscopes one can see in detail what is going on at the cellular level in tissues. Though it is a ubiquitous tool, the limitation is that with high magnification there is a small field of view. It is often advantageous to see an entire sample at high magnification. Over the years technological advancements in optics have helped to provide solutions to this limitation of microscopes by creating the so-called dedicated "slide scanners" which can provide a "whole slide digital image." These scanners can provide seamless, large-field-of-view, high resolution image of entire tissue section. The only disadvantage of such complete slide imaging system is its outrageous cost, thereby hindering their practical use by most laboratories, especially in developing and low resource countries. Methods . In a quest for their substitute, we tried commonly used image editing software Adobe Photoshop along with a basic image capturing device attached to a trinocular microscope to create a digital pathology slide. Results . The seamless image created using Adobe Photoshop maintained its diagnostic quality. Conclusion . With time and effort photomicrographs obtained from a basic camera-microscope set up can be combined and merged in Adobe Photoshop to create a whole slide digital image of practically usable quality at a negligible cost.

  7. Algorithming the Algorithm

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mahnke, Martina; Uprichard, Emma

    2014-01-01

    Imagine sailing across the ocean. The sun is shining, vastness all around you. And suddenly [BOOM] you’ve hit an invisible wall. Welcome to the Truman Show! Ever since Eli Pariser published his thoughts on a potential filter bubble, this movie scenario seems to have become reality, just with slight...... changes: it’s not the ocean, it’s the internet we’re talking about, and it’s not a TV show producer, but algorithms that constitute a sort of invisible wall. Building on this assumption, most research is trying to ‘tame the algorithmic tiger’. While this is a valuable and often inspiring approach, we...

  8. Assessment of the Effects of Economic Sanctions on Iranians' Right to Health by Using Human Rights Impact Assessment Tool: A Systematic Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kokabisaghi, Fatemeh

    2018-01-20

    Over the years, economic sanctions have contributed to violation of right to health in target countries. Iran has been under comprehensive unilateral economic sanctions by groups of countries (not United Nations [UN]) in recent years. They have been intensified from 2012 because of international community's uncertainty about peaceful purpose of Iran's nuclear program and inadequacy of trust-building actions of this country. This review aimed to identify the humanitarian effects of the sanctions on the right of Iranians to health and the obligations of Iran and international community about it. To assess economic sanction policies and identify violated rights and the obligations of states according to international human rights laws, in this study, Human Rights Impact Assessments (HRIA) tool is used. Applying this tool requires collection of evidences regarding the situation of rights. To provide such evidence, a systematic review of literature which involved 55 papers retrieved from the web-based databases and official webpages of Iran's government and UN' health and human rights committees and organizations was done. All articles about the consequences of economic sanctions related to nuclear activities of Iran on welfare and health of Iranians published from January 2012 till February 2017 in English and Persian languages were included. Search terms were economic sanctions, embargoes, Iran, welfare, health and medicine. Additional studies were identified by cross checking the reference lists of accessed articles. All selected papers were abstracted and entered into a matrix describing study design and findings, and categorized into a framework of themes reflecting the areas covered (health and its determinants). According to HRIA framework, related obligations of Iran and other states about adverse effects of the sanctions on Iranians' right to health were extracted. The sanctions on Iran caused a fall of country's revenues, devaluation of national currency, and

  9. Assessment of the Effects of Economic Sanctions on Iranians’ Right to Health by Using Human Rights Impact Assessment Tool: A Systematic Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kokabisaghi, Fatemeh

    2018-01-01

    Background: Over the years, economic sanctions have contributed to violation of right to health in target countries. Iran has been under comprehensive unilateral economic sanctions by groups of countries (not United Nations [UN]) in recent years. They have been intensified from 2012 because of international community’s uncertainty about peaceful purpose of Iran’s nuclear program and inadequacy of trust-building actions of this country. This review aimed to identify the humanitarian effects of the sanctions on the right of Iranians to health and the obligations of Iran and international community about it. Methods: To assess economic sanction policies and identify violated rights and the obligations of states according to international human rights laws, in this study, Human Rights Impact Assessments (HRIA) tool is used. Applying this tool requires collection of evidences regarding the situation of rights. To provide such evidence, a systematic review of literature which involved 55 papers retrieved from the web-based databases and official webpages of Iran’s government and UN’ health and human rights committees and organizations was done. All articles about the consequences of economic sanctions related to nuclear activities of Iran on welfare and health of Iranians published from January 2012 till February 2017 in English and Persian languages were included. Search terms were economic sanctions, embargoes, Iran, welfare, health and medicine. Additional studies were identified by cross checking the reference lists of accessed articles. All selected papers were abstracted and entered into a matrix describing study design and findings, and categorized into a framework of themes reflecting the areas covered (health and its determinants). According to HRIA framework, related obligations of Iran and other states about adverse effects of the sanctions on Iranians’ right to health were extracted. Results: The sanctions on Iran caused a fall of country

  10. Integrating spatial support tools into strategic planning-SEA of the GMS North-South Economic Corridor Strategy and Action Plan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ramachandran, Pavit; Linde, Lothar

    2011-01-01

    The GMS countries, supported by the Asian Development Bank, have adopted a holistic, multidimensional approach to strengthen infrastructural linkages and facilitate cross border trade through (i) the establishment of a trans-boundary road connecting two economic nodes across marginalised areas, followed by 2) facilitation of environmentally and socially sound investments in these newly connected areas as a means to develop livelihoods. The North-South Economic Corridor is currently in its second phase of development, with investment opportunities to be laid out in the NSEC Strategy and Action Plan (SAP). It targets the ecologically and culturally sensitive border area between PR China's Yunnan Province, Northern Lao PDR, and Thailand. A trans-boundary, cross-sectoral Strategic Environmental Assessment was conducted to support the respective governments in assessing potential environmental and social impacts, developing alternatives and mitigation options, and feeding the findings back into the SAP writing process. Given the spatial dimension of corridor development-both with regard to opportunities and risks-particular emphasis was put in the application of spatial modelling tools to help geographically locate and quantify impacts as a means to guide interventions and set priorities.

  11. Potential Role of Social Impact Bond and Socially Responsible Investment Sukuk as Financial Tools that Can Help Address Issues of Poverty and Socio-Economic Insecurity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Syed Marwan Mujahid bin Syed Azman

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this paper is to highlight the potential of Social Impact Bond (SIB and Socially Responsible Investment (SRI sukuk as financial models that can be used to help alleviate the social problem of poverty and also potentially provide economic security for the society. From the review of literature, this paper takes case studies of SIB programmes and SRI sukuk, and relates them as programmes that can be used to address the issue of poverty and economic insecurity. The paper finds that there is a growing global interest in innovative financial tools such as SIB and SRI sukuk. Furthermore, the paper explicates that SIB and SRI sukuk models embody the spirit of social responsibility, which is one of the major essence that is currently missing in the Islamic finance industry practice. This paper is conceptual and exploratory in nature. Therefore, further empirical research can be done to provide better understanding and knowledge. Findings from this paper can be used as a reference to understand the concepts and mechanisms involved in SIB and SRI sukuk models. This paper contributes to the awareness of the emerging global interest in SIB and SRI. In addition, it highlights SIB and SRI sukuks’ potential contribution towards Islamic finance. Although SIB and SRI sukuk is gaining interest worldwide, it has not caught much attention of researchers and practitioners involved with Islamic finance. Therefore, this paper offers insight towards SIB and SRI sukuk, which is relatively unknown to academics and Islamic finance industry practitioners.

  12. GT-WGS: an efficient and economic tool for large-scale WGS analyses based on the AWS cloud service.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yiqi; Li, Gen; Ma, Mark; He, Fazhong; Song, Zhuo; Zhang, Wei; Wu, Chengkun

    2018-01-19

    Whole-genome sequencing (WGS) plays an increasingly important role in clinical practice and public health. Due to the big data size, WGS data analysis is usually compute-intensive and IO-intensive. Currently it usually takes 30 to 40 h to finish a 50× WGS analysis task, which is far from the ideal speed required by the industry. Furthermore, the high-end infrastructure required by WGS computing is costly in terms of time and money. In this paper, we aim to improve the time efficiency of WGS analysis and minimize the cost by elastic cloud computing. We developed a distributed system, GT-WGS, for large-scale WGS analyses utilizing the Amazon Web Services (AWS). Our system won the first prize on the Wind and Cloud challenge held by Genomics and Cloud Technology Alliance conference (GCTA) committee. The system makes full use of the dynamic pricing mechanism of AWS. We evaluate the performance of GT-WGS with a 55× WGS dataset (400GB fastq) provided by the GCTA 2017 competition. In the best case, it only took 18.4 min to finish the analysis and the AWS cost of the whole process is only 16.5 US dollars. The accuracy of GT-WGS is 99.9% consistent with that of the Genome Analysis Toolkit (GATK) best practice. We also evaluated the performance of GT-WGS performance on a real-world dataset provided by the XiangYa hospital, which consists of 5× whole-genome dataset with 500 samples, and on average GT-WGS managed to finish one 5× WGS analysis task in 2.4 min at a cost of $3.6. WGS is already playing an important role in guiding therapeutic intervention. However, its application is limited by the time cost and computing cost. GT-WGS excelled as an efficient and affordable WGS analyses tool to address this problem. The demo video and supplementary materials of GT-WGS can be accessed at https://github.com/Genetalks/wgs_analysis_demo .

  13. Explaining algorithms using metaphors

    CERN Document Server

    Forišek, Michal

    2013-01-01

    There is a significant difference between designing a new algorithm, proving its correctness, and teaching it to an audience. When teaching algorithms, the teacher's main goal should be to convey the underlying ideas and to help the students form correct mental models related to the algorithm. This process can often be facilitated by using suitable metaphors. This work provides a set of novel metaphors identified and developed as suitable tools for teaching many of the 'classic textbook' algorithms taught in undergraduate courses worldwide. Each chapter provides exercises and didactic notes fo

  14. Implementing cleaner production in an automotive company: an application of material input per unit of service tool to measure environmental and economic advantages

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Geraldo Cardoso de Oliveira Neto

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Environmental impact reduction has been a growing concern of the automotive industry. One of the main challenges is to implement Cleaner Production as a tool to reduce environmental impacts and provide financial profits. The purpose of this article was to evaluate the environmental impact and economic gains by implementing Cleaner Production, using an unexplored approach, in a company of the automotive sector. The research approach used was a case study, carried out by observation and semi-structured surveys. The production process chosen was updated, so technologies were changed to reduce biotic and abiotic disposal. For the analysis of environmental impacts, the ‘Material Input Per Unit of Service’ tool (MIPS was used, in which data was used to calculate: annual net profit; return on investment (% and return on investment for a period. The results showed that Cleaner Production implementation focusing on changing technology in the production process caused a 75% reduction in environmental impact, and a 62.7% decrease in production costs. Although of this study considers only one case to test the procedure applicability, it can be easily repeated in other more complex systems, by merely making the necessary adjustments due to the complexity of the processes involved.

  15. The Metropolis-Hastings algorithm, a handy tool for the practice of environmental model estimation : illustration with biochemical oxygen demand data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Franck Torre

    2001-02-01

    Full Text Available Environmental scientists often face situations where: (i stimulus-response relationships are non-linear; (ii data are rare or imprecise; (iii facts are uncertain and stimulus-responses relationships are questionable. In this paper, we focus on the first two points. A powerful and easy-to-use statistical method, the Metropolis-Hastings algorithm, allows the quantification of the uncertainty attached to any model response. This stochastic simulation technique is able to reproduce the statistical joint distribution of the whole parameter set of any model. The Metropolis-Hastings algorithm is described and illustrated on a typical environmental model: the biochemical oxygen demand (BOD. The aim is to provide a helpful guideline for further, and ultimately more complex, models. As a first illustration, the MH-method is also applied to a simple regression example to demonstrate to the practitioner the ability of the algorithm to produce valid results.

  16. Sound algorithms

    OpenAIRE

    De Götzen , Amalia; Mion , Luca; Tache , Olivier

    2007-01-01

    International audience; We call sound algorithms the categories of algorithms that deal with digital sound signal. Sound algorithms appeared in the very infancy of computer. Sound algorithms present strong specificities that are the consequence of two dual considerations: the properties of the digital sound signal itself and its uses, and the properties of auditory perception.

  17. Cardiovascular Disease Population Risk Tool (CVDPoRT): predictive algorithm for assessing CVD risk in the community setting. A study protocol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taljaard, Monica; Tuna, Meltem; Bennett, Carol; Perez, Richard; Rosella, Laura; Tu, Jack V; Sanmartin, Claudia; Hennessy, Deirdre; Tanuseputro, Peter; Lebenbaum, Michael; Manuel, Douglas G

    2014-10-23

    Recent publications have called for substantial improvements in the design, conduct, analysis and reporting of prediction models. Publication of study protocols, with prespecification of key aspects of the analysis plan, can help to improve transparency, increase quality and protect against increased type I error. Valid population-based risk algorithms are essential for population health planning and policy decision-making. The purpose of this study is to develop, evaluate and apply cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk algorithms for the population setting. The Ontario sample of the Canadian Community Health Survey (2001, 2003, 2005; 77,251 respondents) will be used to assess risk factors focusing on health behaviours (physical activity, diet, smoking and alcohol use). Incident CVD outcomes will be assessed through linkage to administrative healthcare databases (619,886 person-years of follow-up until 31 December 2011). Sociodemographic factors (age, sex, immigrant status, education) and mediating factors such as presence of diabetes and hypertension will be included as predictors. Algorithms will be developed using competing risks survival analysis. The analysis plan adheres to published recommendations for the development of valid prediction models to limit the risk of overfitting and improve the quality of predictions. Key considerations are fully prespecifying the predictor variables; appropriate handling of missing data; use of flexible functions for continuous predictors; and avoiding data-driven variable selection procedures. The 2007 and 2009 surveys (approximately 50,000 respondents) will be used for validation. Calibration will be assessed overall and in predefined subgroups of importance to clinicians and policymakers. This study has been approved by the Ottawa Health Science Network Research Ethics Board. The findings will be disseminated through professional and scientific conferences, and in peer-reviewed journals. The algorithm will be accessible

  18. Tool path in torus tool CNC machining

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    XU Ying

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available This paper is about tool path in torus tool CNC machining.The mathematical model of torus tool is established.The tool path planning algorithm is determined through calculation of the cutter location,boundary discretization,calculation of adjacent tool path and so on,according to the conversion formula,the cutter contact point will be converted to the cutter location point and then these points fit a toolpath.Lastly,the path planning algorithm is implemented by using Matlab programming.The cutter location points for torus tool are calculated by Matlab,and then fit these points to a toolpath.While using UG software,another tool path of free surface is simulated of the same data.It is drew compared the two tool paths that using torus tool is more efficient.

  19. Algorithmic cryptanalysis

    CERN Document Server

    Joux, Antoine

    2009-01-01

    Illustrating the power of algorithms, Algorithmic Cryptanalysis describes algorithmic methods with cryptographically relevant examples. Focusing on both private- and public-key cryptographic algorithms, it presents each algorithm either as a textual description, in pseudo-code, or in a C code program.Divided into three parts, the book begins with a short introduction to cryptography and a background chapter on elementary number theory and algebra. It then moves on to algorithms, with each chapter in this section dedicated to a single topic and often illustrated with simple cryptographic applic

  20. Fast geometric algorithms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Noga, M.T.

    1984-01-01

    This thesis addresses a number of important problems that fall within the framework of the new discipline of Computational Geometry. The list of topics covered includes sorting and selection, convex hull algorithms, the L 1 hull, determination of the minimum encasing rectangle of a set of points, the Euclidean and L 1 diameter of a set of points, the metric traveling salesman problem, and finding the superrange of star-shaped and monotype polygons. The main theme of all the work was to develop a set of very fast state-of-the-art algorithms that supersede any rivals in terms of speed and ease of implementation. In some cases existing algorithms were refined; for others new techniques were developed that add to the present database of fast adaptive geometric algorithms. What emerges is a collection of techniques that is successful at merging modern tools developed in analysis of algorithms with those of classical geometry

  1. A simple formulation and solution to the replacement problem: a practical tool to assess the economic cow value, the value of a new pregnancy, and the cost of a pregnancy loss.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cabrera, V E

    2012-08-01

    This study contributes to the research literature by providing a new formulation for the cow replacement problem, and it also contributes to the Extension deliverables by providing a user-friendly decision support system tool that would more likely be adopted and applied for practical decision making. The cow value, its related values of a new pregnancy and a pregnancy loss, and their associated replacement policies determine profitability in dairy farming. One objective of this study was to present a simple, interactive, dynamic, and robust formulation of the cow value and the replacement problem, including expectancy of the future production of the cow and the genetic gain of the replacement. The proven hypothesis of this study was that all the above requirements could be achieved by using a Markov chain algorithm. The Markov chain model allowed (1) calculation of a forward expected value of a studied cow and its replacement; (2) use of a single model (the Markov chain) to calculate both the replacement policies and the herd statistics; (3) use of a predefined, preestablished farm reproductive replacement policy; (4) inclusion of a farmer's assessment of the expected future performance of a cow; (5) inclusion of a farmer's assessment of genetic gain with a replacement; and (6) use of a simple spreadsheet or an online system to implement the decision support system. Results clearly demonstrated that the decision policies found with the Markov chain model were consistent with more complex dynamic programming models. The final user-friendly decision support tool is available at http://dairymgt.info/ → Tools → The Economic Value of a Dairy Cow. This tool calculates the cow value instantaneously and is highly interactive, dynamic, and robust. When a Wisconsin dairy farm was studied using the model, the solution policy called for replacing nonpregnant cows 11 mo after calving or months in milk (MIM) if in the first lactation and 9 MIM if in later lactations. The

  2. Multitemporal Modelling of Socio-Economic Wildfire Drivers in Central Spain between the 1980s and the 2000s: Comparing Generalized Linear Models to Machine Learning Algorithms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vilar, Lara; Gómez, Israel; Martínez-Vega, Javier; Echavarría, Pilar; Riaño, David; Martín, M Pilar

    2016-01-01

    The socio-economic factors are of key importance during all phases of wildfire management that include prevention, suppression and restoration. However, modeling these factors, at the proper spatial and temporal scale to understand fire regimes is still challenging. This study analyses socio-economic drivers of wildfire occurrence in central Spain. This site represents a good example of how human activities play a key role over wildfires in the European Mediterranean basin. Generalized Linear Models (GLM) and machine learning Maximum Entropy models (Maxent) predicted wildfire occurrence in the 1980s and also in the 2000s to identify changes between each period in the socio-economic drivers affecting wildfire occurrence. GLM base their estimation on wildfire presence-absence observations whereas Maxent on wildfire presence-only. According to indicators like sensitivity or commission error Maxent outperformed GLM in both periods. It achieved a sensitivity of 38.9% and a commission error of 43.9% for the 1980s, and 67.3% and 17.9% for the 2000s. Instead, GLM obtained 23.33, 64.97, 9.41 and 18.34%, respectively. However GLM performed steadier than Maxent in terms of the overall fit. Both models explained wildfires from predictors such as population density and Wildland Urban Interface (WUI), but differed in their relative contribution. As a result of the urban sprawl and an abandonment of rural areas, predictors like WUI and distance to roads increased their contribution to both models in the 2000s, whereas Forest-Grassland Interface (FGI) influence decreased. This study demonstrates that human component can be modelled with a spatio-temporal dimension to integrate it into wildfire risk assessment.

  3. Applying Genetic Algorithms and RIA technologies to the development of Complex-VRP Tools in real-world distribution of petroleum products

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonio Moratilla Ocaña

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Distribution problems had held a large body of research and development covering the VRP problem and its multiple characteristics, but few investigations examine it as an Information System, and far fewer as how it should be addressed from a development and implementation point of view. This paper describes the characteristics of a real information system for fuel distribution problems at country scale, joining the VRP research and development work using Genetic Algorithms, with the design of a Web based Information System. In this paper a view of traditional workflow in this area is shown, with a new approximation in which is based proposed system. Taking into account all constraint in the field, the authors have developed a VRPWeb-based solution using Genetic Algorithms with multiple web frameworks for each architecture layer, focusing on functionality and usability, in order to minimizing human error and maximizing productivity. To achieve these goals, authors have use SmartGWT as a powerful Web based RIA SPA framework with java integration, and multiple server frameworks and OSS based solutions,applied to development of a very complex VRP system for a logistics operator of petroleum products.

  4. Algorithmic mathematics

    CERN Document Server

    Hougardy, Stefan

    2016-01-01

    Algorithms play an increasingly important role in nearly all fields of mathematics. This book allows readers to develop basic mathematical abilities, in particular those concerning the design and analysis of algorithms as well as their implementation. It presents not only fundamental algorithms like the sieve of Eratosthenes, the Euclidean algorithm, sorting algorithms, algorithms on graphs, and Gaussian elimination, but also discusses elementary data structures, basic graph theory, and numerical questions. In addition, it provides an introduction to programming and demonstrates in detail how to implement algorithms in C++. This textbook is suitable for students who are new to the subject and covers a basic mathematical lecture course, complementing traditional courses on analysis and linear algebra. Both authors have given this "Algorithmic Mathematics" course at the University of Bonn several times in recent years.

  5. Development and implementation of a dynamic TES dispatch control component in a PV-CSP techno-economic performance modelling tool

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hansson, Linus; Guédez, Rafael; Larchet, Kevin; Laumert, Bjorn

    2017-06-01

    The dispatchability offered by thermal energy storage (TES) in concentrated solar power (CSP) and solar hybrid plants based on such technology presents the most important difference compared to power generation based only on photovoltaics (PV). This has also been one reason for recent hybridization efforts of the two technologies and the creation of Power Purchase Agreement (PPA) payment schemes based on offering higher payment multiples during daily hours of higher (peak or priority) demand. Recent studies involving plant-level thermal energy storage control strategies are however to a large extent based on pre-determined approaches, thereby not taking into account the actual dynamics of thermal energy storage system operation. In this study, the implementation of a dynamic dispatch strategy in the form of a TRNSYS controller for hybrid PV-CSP plants in the power-plant modelling tool DYESOPT is presented. In doing this it was attempted to gauge the benefits of incorporating a day-ahead approach to dispatch control compared to a fully pre-determined approach determining hourly dispatch only once prior to annual simulation. By implementing a dynamic strategy, it was found possible to enhance technical and economic performance for CSP-only plants designed for peaking operation and featuring low values of the solar multiple. This was achieved by enhancing dispatch control, primarily by taking storage levels at the beginning of every simulation day into account. The sequential prediction of the TES level could therefore be improved, notably for evaluated plants without integrated PV, for which the predicted storage levels deviated less than when PV was present in the design. While also featuring dispatch performance gains, optimal plant configurations for hybrid PV-CSP was found to present a trade-off in economic performance in the form of an increase in break-even electricity price when using the dynamic strategy which was offset to some extent by a reduction in

  6. The G4-ECONS Economic Evaluation Tool for Generation IV Reactor Systems and its Proposed Application to Deliberately Small Reactor Systems and Proposed New Nuclear Fuel Cycle Facilities. Annex IX

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2013-12-15

    At the outset of the international Generation IV programme, it was decided that the six candidate reactor systems will ultimately be evaluated on the basis of safety, sustainability, non-proliferation attributes, technical readiness and projected economics. It is likely that the same factors will influence the evaluation of deliberately small reactor systems1 and new fuel cycle facilities, such as reprocessing plants that are being considered under the more recent Global Nuclear Energy Partnership (GNEP). This annex describes how the development of an economic modelling system has evolved to address the issue of economic competitiveness for both the Generation IV and GNEP programmes. In 2004, the Generation IV Economic Modelling Working Group (EMWG) commissioned the development of a Microsoft Excel based model capable of calculating the levelized unit electricity cost (LUEC) in mills/kW.h (1 mill = $10{sup -3}) or $/MW.h for multiple types of reactor system being developed under the Generation IV programme. This overall modelling system is now called the Generation IV spreadsheet calculation of nuclear systems (G4-ECONS), and is being expanded to calculate costs of energy products in addition to electricity, such as hydrogen and desalinated water. A version has also been developed to evaluate the costs of products or services from fuel cycle facilities. The cost estimating methodology and algorithms are explained in detail in the Generation IV Cost Estimating Guidelines and in the G4-ECONS User's Manual. The model was constructed with relatively simple economic algorithms such that it could be used by almost any nation without regard to country specific taxation, cost accounting, depreciation or capital cost recovery methodologies. It was also designed with transparency to the user in mind (i.e. all algorithms and cell contents are visible to the user). A short description of version 1.0 G4-ECONS-R (reactor economics model) has also been published in the

  7. The G4-ECONS Economic Evaluation Tool for Generation IV Reactor Systems and its Proposed Application to Deliberately Small Reactor Systems and Proposed New Nuclear Fuel Cycle Facilities. Annex IX

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2013-01-01

    At the outset of the international Generation IV programme, it was decided that the six candidate reactor systems will ultimately be evaluated on the basis of safety, sustainability, non-proliferation attributes, technical readiness and projected economics. It is likely that the same factors will influence the evaluation of deliberately small reactor systems1 and new fuel cycle facilities, such as reprocessing plants that are being considered under the more recent Global Nuclear Energy Partnership (GNEP). This annex describes how the development of an economic modelling system has evolved to address the issue of economic competitiveness for both the Generation IV and GNEP programmes. In 2004, the Generation IV Economic Modelling Working Group (EMWG) commissioned the development of a Microsoft Excel based model capable of calculating the levelized unit electricity cost (LUEC) in mills/kW.h (1 mill = $10 -3 ) or $/MW.h for multiple types of reactor system being developed under the Generation IV programme. This overall modelling system is now called the Generation IV spreadsheet calculation of nuclear systems (G4-ECONS), and is being expanded to calculate costs of energy products in addition to electricity, such as hydrogen and desalinated water. A version has also been developed to evaluate the costs of products or services from fuel cycle facilities. The cost estimating methodology and algorithms are explained in detail in the Generation IV Cost Estimating Guidelines and in the G4-ECONS User's Manual. The model was constructed with relatively simple economic algorithms such that it could be used by almost any nation without regard to country specific taxation, cost accounting, depreciation or capital cost recovery methodologies. It was also designed with transparency to the user in mind (i.e. all algorithms and cell contents are visible to the user). A short description of version 1.0 G4-ECONS-R (reactor economics model) has also been published in the Proceedings of

  8. Total algorithms

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tel, G.

    We define the notion of total algorithms for networks of processes. A total algorithm enforces that a "decision" is taken by a subset of the processes, and that participation of all processes is required to reach this decision. Total algorithms are an important building block in the design of

  9. Development of Tier 1 screening tool for soil and groundwater vulnerability assessment in Korea using classification algorithm in a neural network

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shin, K. H.; Kim, K. H.; Ki, S. J.; Lee, H. G.

    2017-12-01

    The vulnerability assessment tool at a Tier 1 level, although not often used for regulatory purposes, helps establish pollution prevention and management strategies in the areas of potential environmental concern such as soil and ground water. In this study, the Neural Network Pattern Recognition Tool embedded in MATLAB was used to allow the initial screening of soil and groundwater pollution based on data compiled across about 1000 previously contaminated sites in Korea. The input variables included a series of parameters which were tightly related to downward movement of water and contaminants through soil and ground water, whereas multiple classes were assigned to the sum of concentrations of major pollutants detected. Results showed that in accordance with diverse pollution indices for soil and ground water, pollution levels in both media were strongly modulated by site-specific characteristics such as intrinsic soil and other geologic properties, in addition to pollution sources and rainfall. However, classification accuracy was very sensitive to the number of classes defined as well as the types of the variables incorporated, requiring careful selection of input variables and output categories. Therefore, we believe that the proposed methodology is used not only to modify existing pollution indices so that they are more suitable for addressing local vulnerability, but also to develop a unique assessment tool to support decision making based on locally or nationally available data. This study was funded by a grant from the GAIA project(2016000560002), Korea Environmental Industry & Technology Institute, Republic of Korea.

  10. Analyzing the effect of dynamic loads on economic dispatch in the presence of interline power flow controller using modified BAT algorithm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Y.N. Vijay Kumar

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Now a day, non-uniform increase of demand on a power system turns the research toward the dynamic analysis. In this paper, to perform dynamic analysis and to solve economic load dispatch problem using optimal power flow (OPF, four realistic load levels are considered. Further, the effectiveness of the objective has been enhanced in the presence of interline power flow controller (IPFC. An optimal location identification methodology for IPFC based on line stability index (LSI is also presented. The effect of ramp-rate limits on generations and the effect of dynamic loads on generation fuel cost and transmission losses are also analyzed on standard IEEE-30 bus and real time 23 bus test systems with supporting validations, numerical and graphical results.

  11. THE EUROPEAN SOCIETY FOR CLINICAL AND ECONOMIC ASPECTS OF OSTEOPOROSIS AND OSTEOARTHRITIS (ESCEO ALGORITHM FOR THE MANAGEMENT OF KNEE OSTEOARTHRITIS IS APPLICABLE TO RUSSIAN CLINICAL PRACTICE: A CONSENSUS STATEMENT OF LEADING RUSSIAN AND ESCEO OSTEOARTHRITIS EXPERTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. N. Denisov

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The European Society for Clinical and Economic Aspects of Osteoporosis and Osteoarthritis (ESCEO treatment algorithm for the management of knee osteoarthritis (OA, published in December 2014, provides practical guidance for the prioritization of interventions. This current paper represents an assessment and endorsement of the algorithm by Russian experts in OA for use in Russian clinical practice, with the aim of providing easy-to-follow advice on how to establish a treatment flow in patients with knee OA, in support of the clinicians’ individualized assessment of the patient. Medications recommended by the ESCEO algorithm are available in Russia. In step 1, background maintenance therapy with symptomatic slow-acting drugs for osteoarthritis (SYSADOA is advised, for which high-quality evidence is provided only for the formulations of patented crystalline glucosamine sulphate (pCGS (Rottapharm/Meda and prescription chondroitin sulfate. Paracetamol may be added for rescue analgesia only, due to limited efficacy and increasing safety signals. Topical non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs may provide additional symptomatic treatment with the same degree of efficacy as oral NSAIDs but without the systemic safety concerns. To be effective, topical NSAIDs must have high bioavailability, and among NSAIDs molecules like etofenamate have high absorption and bioavailability alongside evidence for accumulation in synovial tissues. Oral NSAIDs maintain a central role in step 2 advanced management of persistent symptoms. However, oral NSAIDs are highly heterogeneous in terms of gastrointestinal and cardiovascular safety profile, and patient stratification with careful treatment selection is advocated to maximize the risk: benefit ratio. Intra-articular hyaluronic acid as a next step provides sustained clinical benefit with effects lasting up to 6 months after a short-course of weekly injections. As a last step before surgery, the slow

  12. Modular Regularization Algorithms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jacobsen, Michael

    2004-01-01

    The class of linear ill-posed problems is introduced along with a range of standard numerical tools and basic concepts from linear algebra, statistics and optimization. Known algorithms for solving linear inverse ill-posed problems are analyzed to determine how they can be decomposed into indepen...

  13. Economics of Agroforestry

    Science.gov (United States)

    D. Evan Mercer; Frederick W. Cubbage; Gregory E. Frey

    2014-01-01

    This chapter provides principles, literature and a case study about the economics of agroforestry. We examine necessary conditions for achieving efficiency in agroforestry system design and economic analysis tools for assessing efficiency and adoptability of agroforestry. The tools presented here (capital budgeting, linear progranuning, production frontier analysis...

  14. A Placement Algorithm for Capital Items that Depreciate with Time

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wweru, R.M

    1999-01-01

    The replacement algorithm is centred on the prediction of the replacement cost and the determination of the most economical replacement policy. For items whose efficiency depreciates over their life spans e.g. machine tools, vehicles et.c; the prediction of costs involves those factors which contribute to increase operating cost, forced idle time, increase scrap, increased repair cost etc. The alternative to increased cost of operating an aging equipment is the cost of replacing the old equipment with a new one. There is some age at which the replacement of the old equipment is more economical than continuation (of the old one) at the increased operating cost (Johnson R D, Siskin B R, 1989). This algorithm uses certain cost relationships that are vital in minimization of total costs and is focused on capital equipment that depreciates with time as opposed to items with a probabilistic life span

  15. Development and validation of automatic tools for interactive recurrence analysis in radiation therapy: optimization of treatment algorithms for locally advanced pancreatic cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kessel, Kerstin A; Habermehl, Daniel; Jäger, Andreas; Floca, Ralf O; Zhang, Lanlan; Bendl, Rolf; Debus, Jürgen; Combs, Stephanie E

    2013-06-07

    In radiation oncology recurrence analysis is an important part in the evaluation process and clinical quality assurance of treatment concepts. With the example of 9 patients with locally advanced pancreatic cancer we developed and validated interactive analysis tools to support the evaluation workflow. After an automatic registration of the radiation planning CTs with the follow-up images, the recurrence volumes are segmented manually. Based on these volumes the DVH (dose volume histogram) statistic is calculated, followed by the determination of the dose applied to the region of recurrence and the distance between the boost and recurrence volume. We calculated the percentage of the recurrence volume within the 80%-isodose volume and compared it to the location of the recurrence within the boost volume, boost + 1 cm, boost + 1.5 cm and boost + 2 cm volumes. Recurrence analysis of 9 patients demonstrated that all recurrences except one occurred within the defined GTV/boost volume; one recurrence developed beyond the field border/outfield. With the defined distance volumes in relation to the recurrences, we could show that 7 recurrent lesions were within the 2 cm radius of the primary tumor. Two large recurrences extended beyond the 2 cm, however, this might be due to very rapid growth and/or late detection of the tumor progression. The main goal of using automatic analysis tools is to reduce time and effort conducting clinical analyses. We showed a first approach and use of a semi-automated workflow for recurrence analysis, which will be continuously optimized. In conclusion, despite the limitations of the automatic calculations we contributed to in-house optimization of subsequent study concepts based on an improved and validated target volume definition.

  16. Monitoring of the risk of farmland abandonment as an efficient tool to assess the environmental and socio-economic impact of the Common Agriculture Policy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Milenov, Pavel; Vassilev, Vassil; Vassileva, Anna; Radkov, Radko; Samoungi, Vessela; Dimitrov, Zlatomir; Vichev, Nikola

    2014-10-01

    Farmland abandonment (FLA) could be defined as the cessation of agricultural activities on a given surface of land (Pointereau et al., 2008). FLA, often associated with social and economic problems in rural areas, has significant environmental consequences. During the 1990s, millions of hectares of farmland in the new EU Member States, from Central and Eastern Europe, were abandoned as a result of the transition process from centralized and planned to market economy. The policy tools adopted gradually within the Common Agricultural Policy of the European Union (EU CAP), as well as the EU environmental and structural policies, aimed to prevent further expansion of this phenomenon and to facilitate the revival of the agriculture land, being abandoned (ComReg 1122/2009). The Agri-Environment (AGRI-ENV) component of the Core Information Service (CIS), developed within the scope of the FP7-funded project "geoland2" were designed to support the agricultural user community at pan-European and national levels by contributing to the improvement of more accurate and timely monitoring of the status of agricultural land use in Europe and its change. The purpose of the product 'Farmland abandonment', as part of the AGRI-ENV package, is to detect potentially abandoned agriculture land, based on multi-annual SPOT data with several acquisitions per year. It provides essential independent information on the status of the agricultural land as recorded in the Land Parcel Identification System (LPIS), which is one of the core instruments of the implementation of CAP. The production line is based on object-based image analysis and benefits from the extensive availability of Biophysical parameters derived from the satellite data (geoland2). The method detects/tracks those land (or so-called reference) parcels in the LPIS, holding significant amount of land agriculture found as potentially abandoned. Reference parcels with such change are flagged and reported, enabling the National

  17. Algorithms in Singular

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hans Schonemann

    1996-12-01

    Full Text Available Some algorithms for singularity theory and algebraic geometry The use of Grobner basis computations for treating systems of polynomial equations has become an important tool in many areas. This paper introduces of the concept of standard bases (a generalization of Grobner bases and the application to some problems from algebraic geometry. The examples are presented as SINGULAR commands. A general introduction to Grobner bases can be found in the textbook [CLO], an introduction to syzygies in [E] and [St1]. SINGULAR is a computer algebra system for computing information about singularities, for use in algebraic geometry. The basic algorithms in SINGULAR are several variants of a general standard basis algorithm for general monomial orderings (see [GG]. This includes wellorderings (Buchberger algorithm ([B1], [B2] and tangent cone orderings (Mora algorithm ([M1], [MPT] as special cases: It is able to work with non-homogeneous and homogeneous input and also to compute in the localization of the polynomial ring in 0. Recent versions include algorithms to factorize polynomials and a factorizing Grobner basis algorithm. For a complete description of SINGULAR see [Si].

  18. Non-invasive diagnostic assessment tools for the detection of liver fibrosis in patients with suspected alcohol-related liver disease: a systematic review and economic evaluation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stevenson, M; Lloyd-Jones, M; Morgan, M Y; Wong, R

    2012-01-01

    January 2010), HTA Database (from 1995 to January 2010), NHS Economic Evaluation Database (from 1995 to January 2010), Cumulative Index to Nursing and Allied Health Literature (from 1982 to January 2010), Web of Knowledge and Science Citation Index (from 1969 to January 2010). Study quality was assessed using the QUADAS (Quality Assessment of Diagnostic Accuracy Studies) checklist. Owing to the heterogeneity of the studies, no formal meta-analysis was undertaken. A de novo mathematical model was constructed to estimate the incremental costs and incremental quality-adjusted life-years (QALYs) associated with alternative strategies compared with a biopsy-all strategy. The tests are assessed first as a replacement for liver biopsy, and secondly as an additional test prior to liver biopsy. Thirty-six scenarios were assessed for each non-invasive test strategy, which varied the sensitivity of biopsy, the anxiety associated with biopsy, sensitivity and specificity values and whether or not the biopsy was percutaneous or transjugular. For each scenario, threshold levels were reported where biopsying all patients was more cost-effective than the strategy for two parameters (the decreased level of abstinence associated with the strategy compared with biopsying all and the level of incidental QALY gain associated with biopsy). No studies were identified that specifically assessed the ELF test, although a study was identified that evaluated the diagnostic accuracy of the European Liver Fibrosis Test (essentially, the ELF test with the addition of age to the algorithm) compared with biopsy. Three studies of FibroTest, no relevant studies of FibroMax, and six studies of FibroScan assessing accuracy compared with biopsy in patients with known or suspected alcohol-related liver disease were identified. In all studies, the number of patients with suspected ALD was small, meaning that the estimated sensitivities and specificities were not robust. No conclusive estimate of the cost per

  19. Artificial Neural Network Genetic Algorithm As Powerful Tool to Predict and Optimize In vitro Proliferation Mineral Medium for G × N15 Rootstock

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arab, Mohammad M.; Yadollahi, Abbas; Shojaeiyan, Abdolali; Ahmadi, Hamed

    2016-01-01

    One of the major obstacles to the micropropagation of Prunus rootstocks has, up until now, been the lack of a suitable tissue culture medium. Therefore, reformulation of culture media or modification of the mineral content might be a breakthrough to improve in vitro multiplication of G × N15 (garnem). We found artificial neural network in combination of genetic algorithm (ANN-GA) as a very precise and powerful modeling system for optimizing the culture medium, So that modeling the effects of MS mineral salts (NH4+, NO3-, PO42-, Ca2+, K+, SO42-, Mg2+, and Cl−) on in vitro multiplication parameters (the number of microshoots per explant, average length of microshoots, weight of calluses derived from the base of stem explants, and quality index of plantlets) of G × N15. Showed high R2 correlation values of 87, 91, 87, and 74 between observed and predicted values were found for these four growth parameters, respectively. According to the ANN-GA results, among the input variables, NH4+ and NO3- had the highest values of VSR in data set for the parameters studied. The ANN-GA showed that the best proliferation rate was obtained from medium containing (mM) 27.5 NO3-, 14 NH4+, 5 Ca2+, 25.9 K+, 0.7 Mg2+, 1.1 PO42-, 4.7 SO42-, and 0.96 Cl−. The performance of the medium optimized by ANN-GA, denoted as YAS (Yadollahi, Arab and Shojaeiyan), was compared to that of standard growth media for all Prunus rootstock, including the Murashige and Skoog (MS) medium, (specific media) EM, Quoirin and Lepoivre (QL) medium, and woody plant medium (WPM) Prunus. With respect to shoot length, shoot number per cultured explant and productivity (number of microshoots × length of microshoots), YAS was found to be superior to other media for in vitro multiplication of G × N15 rootstocks. In addition, our results indicated that by using ANN-GA, we were able to determine a suitable culture medium formulation to achieve the best in vitro productivity. PMID:27807436

  20. Artificial Neural Network Genetic Algorithm As Powerful Tool to Predict and Optimize In vitro Proliferation Mineral Medium for G × N15 Rootstock.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arab, Mohammad M; Yadollahi, Abbas; Shojaeiyan, Abdolali; Ahmadi, Hamed

    2016-01-01

    One of the major obstacles to the micropropagation of Prunus rootstocks has, up until now, been the lack of a suitable tissue culture medium. Therefore, reformulation of culture media or modification of the mineral content might be a breakthrough to improve in vitro multiplication of G × N15 (garnem). We found artificial neural network in combination of genetic algorithm (ANN-GA) as a very precise and powerful modeling system for optimizing the culture medium, So that modeling the effects of MS mineral salts ([Formula: see text], [Formula: see text], [Formula: see text], Ca 2+ , K + , [Formula: see text], Mg 2+ , and Cl - ) on in vitro multiplication parameters (the number of microshoots per explant, average length of microshoots, weight of calluses derived from the base of stem explants, and quality index of plantlets) of G × N15. Showed high R 2 correlation values of 87, 91, 87, and 74 between observed and predicted values were found for these four growth parameters, respectively. According to the ANN-GA results, among the input variables, [Formula: see text] and [Formula: see text] had the highest values of VSR in data set for the parameters studied. The ANN-GA showed that the best proliferation rate was obtained from medium containing (mM) 27.5 [Formula: see text], 14 [Formula: see text], 5 Ca 2+ , 25.9 K + , 0.7 Mg 2+ , 1.1 [Formula: see text], 4.7 [Formula: see text], and 0.96 Cl - . The performance of the medium optimized by ANN-GA, denoted as YAS (Yadollahi, Arab and Shojaeiyan), was compared to that of standard growth media for all Prunus rootstock, including the Murashige and Skoog (MS) medium, (specific media) EM, Quoirin and Lepoivre (QL) medium, and woody plant medium (WPM) Prunus . With respect to shoot length, shoot number per cultured explant and productivity (number of microshoots × length of microshoots), YAS was found to be superior to other media for in vitro multiplication of G × N15 rootstocks. In addition, our results indicated that by

  1. Economic modelling of diagnostic and treatment pathways in National Institute for Health and Care Excellence clinical guidelines: the Modelling Algorithm Pathways in Guidelines (MAPGuide) project.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lord, J; Willis, S; Eatock, J; Tappenden, P; Trapero-Bertran, M; Miners, A; Crossan, C; Westby, M; Anagnostou, A; Taylor, S; Mavranezouli, I; Wonderling, D; Alderson, P; Ruiz, F

    2013-12-01

    National Institute for Health and Care Excellence (NICE) clinical guidelines (CGs) make recommendations across large, complex care pathways for broad groups of patients. They rely on cost-effectiveness evidence from the literature and from new analyses for selected high-priority topics. An alternative approach would be to build a model of the full care pathway and to use this as a platform to evaluate the cost-effectiveness of multiple topics across the guideline recommendations. In this project we aimed to test the feasibility of building full guideline models for NICE guidelines and to assess if, and how, such models can be used as a basis for cost-effectiveness analysis (CEA). A 'best evidence' approach was used to inform the model parameters. Data were drawn from the guideline documentation, advice from clinical experts and rapid literature reviews on selected topics. Where possible we relied on good-quality, recent UK systematic reviews and meta-analyses. Two published NICE guidelines were used as case studies: prostate cancer and atrial fibrillation (AF). Discrete event simulation (DES) was used to model the recommended care pathways and to estimate consequent costs and outcomes. For each guideline, researchers not involved in model development collated a shortlist of topics suggested for updating. The modelling teams then attempted to evaluate options related to these topics. Cost-effectiveness results were compared with opinions about the importance of the topics elicited in a survey of stakeholders. The modelling teams developed simulations of the guideline pathways and disease processes. Development took longer and required more analytical time than anticipated. Estimates of cost-effectiveness were produced for six of the nine prostate cancer topics considered, and for five of eight AF topics. The other topics were not evaluated owing to lack of data or time constraints. The modelled results suggested 'economic priorities' for an update that differed from

  2. Biological control as a tool to mitigate economic impacts of facilitative ecological interactions between the giant reed and cattle fever ticks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Annual domestic impacts associated with introduced weeds are conservatively estimated at $27 billion, incorporating costs of weed management, crop losses and displacement of productive rangeland, and displacement of some environmental services. Estimating the total economic damage of invasive weed...

  3. Unconventional Algorithms: Complementarity of Axiomatics and Construction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gordana Dodig Crnkovic

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, we analyze axiomatic and constructive issues of unconventional computations from a methodological and philosophical point of view. We explain how the new models of algorithms and unconventional computations change the algorithmic universe, making it open and allowing increased flexibility and expressive power that augment creativity. At the same time, the greater power of new types of algorithms also results in the greater complexity of the algorithmic universe, transforming it into the algorithmic multiverse and demanding new tools for its study. That is why we analyze new powerful tools brought forth by local mathematics, local logics, logical varieties and the axiomatic theory of algorithms, automata and computation. We demonstrate how these new tools allow efficient navigation in the algorithmic multiverse. Further work includes study of natural computation by unconventional algorithms and constructive approaches.

  4. Advances in mathematical economics

    CERN Document Server

    Maruyama, Toru

    2015-01-01

    The series is designed to bring together those mathematicians who are seriously interested in getting new challenging stimuli from economic theories with those economists who are seeking effective mathematical tools for their research. A lot of economic problems can be formulated as constrained optimizations and equilibration of their solutions. Various mathematical theories have been supplying economists with indispensable machineries for these problems arising in economic theory. Conversely, mathematicians have been stimulated by various mathematical difficulties raised by economic theories.

  5. Advances in mathematical economics

    CERN Document Server

    Maruyama, Toru

    2014-01-01

    A lot of economic problems can be formulated as constrained optimizations and equilibration of their solutions. Various mathematical theories have been supplying economists with indispensable machineries for these problems arising in economic theory. Conversely, mathematicians have been stimulated by various mathematical difficulties raised by economic theories. The series is designed to bring together those mathematicians who are seriously interested in getting new challenging stimuli from economic theories with those economists who are seeking effective mathematical tools for their research.

  6. Advances in mathematical economics

    CERN Document Server

    Yamazaki, Akira

    2006-01-01

    A lot of economic problems can formulated as constrained optimizations and equilibration of their solutions. Various mathematical theories have been supplying economists with indispensable machineries for these problems arising in economic theory. Conversely, mathematicians have been stimulated by various mathematical difficulties raised by economic theories. The series is designed to bring together those mathematicians who were seriously interested in getting new challenging stimuli from economic theories with those economists who are seeking for effective mathematical tools for their researchers.

  7. Advances in mathematical economics

    CERN Document Server

    Yamazaki, Akira

    2006-01-01

    A lot of economic problems can formulated as constrained optimizations and equilibration of their solutions.Various mathematical theories have been supplying economists with indispensable machineries for these problems arising in economic theory. Conversely, mathematicians have been stimulated by various mathematical difficulties raised by economic theories. The series is designed to bring together those mathematicians who were seriously interested in getting new challenging stimuli from economic theories with those economists who are seeking for effective mathematical tools for their researchers.

  8. Advances in mathematical economics

    CERN Document Server

    Maruyama, Toru

    2017-01-01

    The series is designed to bring together those mathematicians who are seriously interested in getting new challenging stimuli from economic theories with those economists who are seeking effective mathematical tools for their research. A lot of economic problems can be formulated as constrained optimizations and equilibration of their solutions. Various mathematical theories have been supplying economists with indispensable machineries for these problems arising in economic theory. Conversely, mathematicians have been stimulated by various mathematical difficulties raised by economic theories.

  9. Advances in mathematical economics

    CERN Document Server

    Maruyama, Toru

    2016-01-01

    The series is designed to bring together those mathematicians who are seriously interested in getting new challenging stimuli from economic theories with those economists who are seeking effective mathematical tools for their research. A lot of economic problems can be formulated as constrained optimizations and equilibration of their solutions. Various mathematical theories have been supplying economists with indispensable machineries for these problems arising in economic theory. Conversely, mathematicians have been stimulated by various mathematical difficulties raised by economic theories.

  10. The greatest happiness of the greatest number? Policy actors' perspectives on the limits of economic evaluation as a tool for informing health care coverage decisions in Thailand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teerawattananon, Yot; Russell, Steve

    2008-09-26

    This paper presents qualitative findings from an assessment of the acceptability of using economic evaluation among policy actors in Thailand. Using cost-utility data from two economic analyses a hypothetical case scenario was created in which policy actors had to choose between two competing interventions to include in a public health benefit package. The two competing interventions, laparoscopic cholecystectomy (LC) for gallbladder disease versus renal dialysis for chronic renal disease, were selected because they highlighted conflicting criteria influencing the allocation of healthcare resources. Semi-structured interviews were conducted with 36 policy actors who play a major role in resource allocation decisions within the Thai healthcare system. These included 14 policy makers at the national level, five hospital directors, ten health professionals and seven academics. Twenty six out of 36 (72%) respondents were not convinced by the presentation of economic evaluation findings and chose not to support the inclusion of a proven cost-effective intervention (LC) in the benefit package due to ethical, institutional and political considerations. There were only six respondents, including three policy makers at national level, one hospital director, one health professional and one academic, (6/36, 17%) whose decisions were influenced by economic evaluation evidence. This paper illustrates limitations of using economic evaluation information in decision making priorities of health care, perceived by different policy actors. It demonstrates that the concept of maximising health utility fails to recognise other important societal values in making health resource allocation decisions.

  11. The greatest happiness of the greatest number? Policy actors' perspectives on the limits of economic evaluation as a tool for informing health care coverage decisions in Thailand

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Russell Steve

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background This paper presents qualitative findings from an assessment of the acceptability of using economic evaluation among policy actors in Thailand. Using cost-utility data from two economic analyses a hypothetical case scenario was created in which policy actors had to choose between two competing interventions to include in a public health benefit package. The two competing interventions, laparoscopic cholecystectomy (LC for gallbladder disease versus renal dialysis for chronic renal disease, were selected because they highlighted conflicting criteria influencing the allocation of healthcare resources. Methods Semi-structured interviews were conducted with 36 policy actors who play a major role in resource allocation decisions within the Thai healthcare system. These included 14 policy makers at the national level, five hospital directors, ten health professionals and seven academics. Results Twenty six out of 36 (72% respondents were not convinced by the presentation of economic evaluation findings and chose not to support the inclusion of a proven cost-effective intervention (LC in the benefit package due to ethical, institutional and political considerations. There were only six respondents, including three policy makers at national level, one hospital director, one health professional and one academic, (6/36, 17% whose decisions were influenced by economic evaluation evidence. Conclusion This paper illustrates limitations of using economic evaluation information in decision making priorities of health care, perceived by different policy actors. It demonstrates that the concept of maximising health utility fails to recognise other important societal values in making health resource allocation decisions.

  12. Algorithms in invariant theory

    CERN Document Server

    Sturmfels, Bernd

    2008-01-01

    J. Kung and G.-C. Rota, in their 1984 paper, write: "Like the Arabian phoenix rising out of its ashes, the theory of invariants, pronounced dead at the turn of the century, is once again at the forefront of mathematics". The book of Sturmfels is both an easy-to-read textbook for invariant theory and a challenging research monograph that introduces a new approach to the algorithmic side of invariant theory. The Groebner bases method is the main tool by which the central problems in invariant theory become amenable to algorithmic solutions. Students will find the book an easy introduction to this "classical and new" area of mathematics. Researchers in mathematics, symbolic computation, and computer science will get access to a wealth of research ideas, hints for applications, outlines and details of algorithms, worked out examples, and research problems.

  13. Algorithm for predicting death among older adults in the home care setting: study protocol for the Risk Evaluation for Support: Predictions for Elder-life in the Community Tool (RESPECT).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsu, Amy T; Manuel, Douglas G; Taljaard, Monica; Chalifoux, Mathieu; Bennett, Carol; Costa, Andrew P; Bronskill, Susan; Kobewka, Daniel; Tanuseputro, Peter

    2016-12-01

    Older adults living in the community often have multiple, chronic conditions and functional impairments. A challenge for healthcare providers working in the community is the lack of a predictive tool that can be applied to the broad spectrum of mortality risks observed and may be used to inform care planning. To predict survival time for older adults in the home care setting. The final mortality risk algorithm will be implemented as a web-based calculator that can be used by older adults needing care and by their caregivers. Open cohort study using the Resident Assessment Instrument for Home Care (RAI-HC) data in Ontario, Canada, from 1 January 2007 to 31 December 2013. The derivation cohort will consist of ∼437 000 older adults who had an RAI-HC assessment between 1 January 2007 and 31 December 2012. A split sample validation cohort will include ∼122 000 older adults with an RAI-HC assessment between 1 January and 31 December 2013. Predicted survival from the time of an RAI-HC assessment. All deaths (n≈245 000) will be ascertained through linkage to a population-based registry that is maintained by the Ministry of Health in Ontario. Proportional hazards regression will be estimated after assessment of assumptions. Predictors will include sociodemographic factors, social support, health conditions, functional status, cognition, symptoms of decline and prior healthcare use. Model performance will be evaluated for 6-month and 12-month predicted risks, including measures of calibration (eg, calibration plots) and discrimination (eg, c-statistics). The final algorithm will use combined development and validation data. Research ethics approval has been granted by the Sunnybrook Health Sciences Centre Review Board. Findings will be disseminated through presentations at conferences and in peer-reviewed journals. NCT02779309, Pre-results. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to

  14. Simple sorting algorithm test based on CUDA

    OpenAIRE

    Meng, Hongyu; Guo, Fangjin

    2015-01-01

    With the development of computing technology, CUDA has become a very important tool. In computer programming, sorting algorithm is widely used. There are many simple sorting algorithms such as enumeration sort, bubble sort and merge sort. In this paper, we test some simple sorting algorithm based on CUDA and draw some useful conclusions.

  15. The collaborative dictionary as a tool in the learning process of translation students: an experience of knowledge sharing within the field of economics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Laursen, Anne Lise; Duvå, Grete

    2002-01-01

    achieved during a semester of the French and Spanish translation studies at the Aarhus School of Business. The project is carried out at two different levels, i.e. an inferior level (bachelor level) and a superior level (master level). The subject domain of the project is economics....

  16. Genetic algorithms and Monte Carlo simulation for optimal plant design

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cantoni, M.; Marseguerra, M.; Zio, E.

    2000-01-01

    We present an approach to the optimal plant design (choice of system layout and components) under conflicting safety and economic constraints, based upon the coupling of a Monte Carlo evaluation of plant operation with a Genetic Algorithms-maximization procedure. The Monte Carlo simulation model provides a flexible tool, which enables one to describe relevant aspects of plant design and operation, such as standby modes and deteriorating repairs, not easily captured by analytical models. The effects of deteriorating repairs are described by means of a modified Brown-Proschan model of imperfect repair which accounts for the possibility of an increased proneness to failure of a component after a repair. The transitions of a component from standby to active, and vice versa, are simulated using a multiplicative correlation model. The genetic algorithms procedure is demanded to optimize a profit function which accounts for the plant safety and economic performance and which is evaluated, for each possible design, by the above Monte Carlo simulation. In order to avoid an overwhelming use of computer time, for each potential solution proposed by the genetic algorithm, we perform only few hundreds Monte Carlo histories and, then, exploit the fact that during the genetic algorithm population evolution, the fit chromosomes appear repeatedly many times, so that the results for the solutions of interest (i.e. the best ones) attain statistical significance

  17. Problem solving with genetic algorithms and Splicer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bayer, Steven E.; Wang, Lui

    1991-01-01

    Genetic algorithms are highly parallel, adaptive search procedures (i.e., problem-solving methods) loosely based on the processes of population genetics and Darwinian survival of the fittest. Genetic algorithms have proven useful in domains where other optimization techniques perform poorly. The main purpose of the paper is to discuss a NASA-sponsored software development project to develop a general-purpose tool for using genetic algorithms. The tool, called Splicer, can be used to solve a wide variety of optimization problems and is currently available from NASA and COSMIC. This discussion is preceded by an introduction to basic genetic algorithm concepts and a discussion of genetic algorithm applications.

  18. Economic Models and Algorithms for Distributed Systems

    CERN Document Server

    Neumann, Dirk; Altmann, Jorn; Rana, Omer F

    2009-01-01

    Distributed computing models for sharing resources such as Grids, Peer-to-Peer systems, or voluntary computing are becoming increasingly popular. This book intends to discover fresh avenues of research and amendments to existing technologies, aiming at the successful deployment of commercial distributed systems

  19. Denni Algorithm An Enhanced Of SMS (Scan, Move and Sort) Algorithm

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aprilsyah Lubis, Denni; Salim Sitompul, Opim; Marwan; Tulus; Andri Budiman, M.

    2017-12-01

    Sorting has been a profound area for the algorithmic researchers, and many resources are invested to suggest a more working sorting algorithm. For this purpose many existing sorting algorithms were observed in terms of the efficiency of the algorithmic complexity. Efficient sorting is important to optimize the use of other algorithms that require sorted lists to work correctly. Sorting has been considered as a fundamental problem in the study of algorithms that due to many reasons namely, the necessary to sort information is inherent in many applications, algorithms often use sorting as a key subroutine, in algorithm design there are many essential techniques represented in the body of sorting algorithms, and many engineering issues come to the fore when implementing sorting algorithms., Many algorithms are very well known for sorting the unordered lists, and one of the well-known algorithms that make the process of sorting to be more economical and efficient is SMS (Scan, Move and Sort) algorithm, an enhancement of Quicksort invented Rami Mansi in 2010. This paper presents a new sorting algorithm called Denni-algorithm. The Denni algorithm is considered as an enhancement on the SMS algorithm in average, and worst cases. The Denni algorithm is compared with the SMS algorithm and the results were promising.

  20. Algorithmic alternatives

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Creutz, M.

    1987-11-01

    A large variety of Monte Carlo algorithms are being used for lattice gauge simulations. For purely bosonic theories, present approaches are generally adequate; nevertheless, overrelaxation techniques promise savings by a factor of about three in computer time. For fermionic fields the situation is more difficult and less clear. Algorithms which involve an extrapolation to a vanishing step size are all quite closely related. Methods which do not require such an approximation tend to require computer time which grows as the square of the volume of the system. Recent developments combining global accept/reject stages with Langevin or microcanonical updatings promise to reduce this growth to V/sup 4/3/

  1. Combinatorial algorithms

    CERN Document Server

    Hu, T C

    2002-01-01

    Newly enlarged, updated second edition of a valuable text presents algorithms for shortest paths, maximum flows, dynamic programming and backtracking. Also discusses binary trees, heuristic and near optimums, matrix multiplication, and NP-complete problems. 153 black-and-white illus. 23 tables.Newly enlarged, updated second edition of a valuable, widely used text presents algorithms for shortest paths, maximum flows, dynamic programming and backtracking. Also discussed are binary trees, heuristic and near optimums, matrix multiplication, and NP-complete problems. New to this edition: Chapter 9

  2. Booklet for sub-national stakeholders heading towards the COP 21. Agricultural and forestry focus. Key concepts on the impacts of climate change, climate policies and economic tools: insight from French territories

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Depoues, Vivian; Leseur, Alexia; Bordier, Cecile; Foucherot, Claudine; Lacan, Lea; Planton, Serge; Blanchard, Michele; Lemonsu, Aude; Martin, Eric; Masson, Valery; Soubeyroux, Jean-Michel; Ouzeau, Gaelle; Dandin, Philippe; Pigeon, Gregoire; Duvernoy, Jerome; Mondon, Sylvain; Bodiguel, Aude; Gouthiere, Laurence; Martin-Phipps, Cecile; Archambault, Sabrina; Joubert, Marion; Madariaga, Nicole; Coste, Marie-Alexandra; Viguie, Vincent; Avner, Paolo; Cassen, Christophe; Guivarch, Celine; Salagnac, Jean-Luc; Carrega, Marie; Menager, Yann

    2015-11-01

    This report, released in the year of the Paris Climate 2015 summit (COP21), reviews concepts vital for understanding and acting to address climate change at a regional level. Based on the experience of French territories it presents 37 fact-sheets aimed at local players, providing concise and informative access to the most up-to-date knowledge. It also offers feedback on the impacts of climate change, climate policies at a global, European and French level, and economic tools supporting climate change mitigation and adaptation

  3. Monitoring the Implementation of State Regulation of National Economic Security

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hubarieva Iryna O.

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the article is to improve the methodological tools for monitoring the implementation of state regulation of national economic security. The approaches to defining the essence of the concept of “national economic security” are generalized. Assessment of the level of national economic security is a key element in monitoring the implementation of state regulation in this area. Recommendations for improving the methodology for assessing national economic security, the calculation algorithm of which includes four interrelated components (economic, political, social, spiritual one, suggests using analysis methods (correlation and cluster analysis, and taxonomy, which allows to determine the level and disproportion of development, can serve as a basis for monitoring the implementation of state regulation of national economic security. Such an approach to assessing national economic security makes it possible to determine the place (rank that a country occupies in a totality of countries, the dynamics of changing ranks over a certain period of time, to identify problem components, and monitor the effectiveness of state regulation of the national economic security. It the course of the research it was determined that the economic sphere is the main problem component of ensuring the security of Ukraine’s economy. The analysis made it possible to identify the most problematic partial indicators in the economic sphere of Ukraine: economic globalization, uneven economic development, level of infrastructure, level of financial market development, level of economic instability, macroeconomic stability. These indicators have a stable negative dynamics and a downward trend, which requires an immediate intervention of state bodies to ensure the national economic security.

  4. [Fostering of health economics in Germany].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ulrich, V

    2012-05-01

    Health economics is now well established in Germany with the aim to apply economic tools to answer problems in health and health care. After a short review of the international development of health economics and the development in Germany in particular, the article looks at selected recent topics of health economic analysis in Germany (economic evaluation, industrial economics, health and education).

  5. Tools for Economic Analysis of Patient Management Interventions in Heart Failure Cost-Effectiveness Model: A Web-based program designed to evaluate the cost-effectiveness of disease management programs in heart failure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reed, Shelby D; Neilson, Matthew P; Gardner, Matthew; Li, Yanhong; Briggs, Andrew H; Polsky, Daniel E; Graham, Felicia L; Bowers, Margaret T; Paul, Sara C; Granger, Bradi B; Schulman, Kevin A; Whellan, David J; Riegel, Barbara; Levy, Wayne C

    2015-11-01

    Heart failure disease management programs can influence medical resource use and quality-adjusted survival. Because projecting long-term costs and survival is challenging, a consistent and valid approach to extrapolating short-term outcomes would be valuable. We developed the Tools for Economic Analysis of Patient Management Interventions in Heart Failure Cost-Effectiveness Model, a Web-based simulation tool designed to integrate data on demographic, clinical, and laboratory characteristics; use of evidence-based medications; and costs to generate predicted outcomes. Survival projections are based on a modified Seattle Heart Failure Model. Projections of resource use and quality of life are modeled using relationships with time-varying Seattle Heart Failure Model scores. The model can be used to evaluate parallel-group and single-cohort study designs and hypothetical programs. Simulations consist of 10,000 pairs of virtual cohorts used to generate estimates of resource use, costs, survival, and incremental cost-effectiveness ratios from user inputs. The model demonstrated acceptable internal and external validity in replicating resource use, costs, and survival estimates from 3 clinical trials. Simulations to evaluate the cost-effectiveness of heart failure disease management programs across 3 scenarios demonstrate how the model can be used to design a program in which short-term improvements in functioning and use of evidence-based treatments are sufficient to demonstrate good long-term value to the health care system. The Tools for Economic Analysis of Patient Management Interventions in Heart Failure Cost-Effectiveness Model provides researchers and providers with a tool for conducting long-term cost-effectiveness analyses of disease management programs in heart failure. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Introduction to Economic Analysis

    OpenAIRE

    R. Preston McAfee

    2005-01-01

    This book presents introductory economics ("principles") material using standard mathematical tools, including calculus. It is designed for a relatively sophisticated undergraduate who has not taken a basic university course in economics. It also contains the standard intermediate microeconomics material and some material that ought to be standard but is not. The book can easily serve as an intermediate microeconomics text. The focus of this book is on the conceptual tools and not on fluff. M...

  7. Economic analysis model for total energy and economic systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shoji, Katsuhiko; Yasukawa, Shigeru; Sato, Osamu

    1980-09-01

    This report describes framing an economic analysis model developed as a tool of total energy systems. To prospect and analyze future energy systems, it is important to analyze the relation between energy system and economic structure. We prepared an economic analysis model which was suited for this purpose. Our model marks that we can analyze in more detail energy related matters than other economic ones, and can forecast long-term economic progress rather than short-term economic fluctuation. From view point of economics, our model is longterm multi-sectoral economic analysis model of open Leontief type. Our model gave us appropriate results for fitting test and forecasting estimation. (author)

  8. Autodriver algorithm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna Bourmistrova

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available The autodriver algorithm is an intelligent method to eliminate the need of steering by a driver on a well-defined road. The proposed method performs best on a four-wheel steering (4WS vehicle, though it is also applicable to two-wheel-steering (TWS vehicles. The algorithm is based on coinciding the actual vehicle center of rotation and road center of curvature, by adjusting the kinematic center of rotation. The road center of curvature is assumed prior information for a given road, while the dynamic center of rotation is the output of dynamic equations of motion of the vehicle using steering angle and velocity measurements as inputs. We use kinematic condition of steering to set the steering angles in such a way that the kinematic center of rotation of the vehicle sits at a desired point. At low speeds the ideal and actual paths of the vehicle are very close. With increase of forward speed the road and tire characteristics, along with the motion dynamics of the vehicle cause the vehicle to turn about time-varying points. By adjusting the steering angles, our algorithm controls the dynamic turning center of the vehicle so that it coincides with the road curvature center, hence keeping the vehicle on a given road autonomously. The position and orientation errors are used as feedback signals in a closed loop control to adjust the steering angles. The application of the presented autodriver algorithm demonstrates reliable performance under different driving conditions.

  9. A dynamic model for organic waste management in Quebec (D-MOWIQ) as a tool to review environmental, societal and economic perspectives of a waste management policy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hénault-Ethier, Louise; Martin, Jean-Philippe; Housset, Johann

    2017-08-01

    A dynamic systems model of organic waste management for the province of Quebec, Canada, was built. Six distinct modules taking into account social, economical and environmental issues and perspectives were included. Five scenarios were designed and tested to identify the potential consequences of different governmental and demographic combinations of decisions over time. Among these scenarios, one examines Quebec's organic waste management policy (2011-2015), while the other scenarios represent business as usual or emphasize ecology, economy or social benefits in the decision-making process. Model outputs suggest that the current governmental policy should yield favorable environmental benefits, energy production and waste valorization. The projections stemming from the current policy action plan approach the benefits gained by another scenario emphasizing the environmental aspects in the decision-making process. As expected, without the current policy and action plan in place, or business as usual, little improvements are expected in waste management compared to current trends, and strictly emphasizing economic imperatives does not favor sustainable organic waste management. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  10. Small hazardous waste generators in developing countries: use of stabilization/solidification process as an economic tool for metal wastewater treatment and appropriate sludge disposal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva, Marcos A R; Mater, Luciana; Souza-Sierra, Maria M; Corrêa, Albertina X R; Sperb, Rafael; Radetski, Claudemir M

    2007-08-25

    The aim of this study was to propose a profitable destination for an industrial sludge that can cover the wastewater treatment costs of small waste generators. Optimized stabilization/solidification technology was used to treat hazardous waste from an electroplating industry that is currently released untreated to the environment. The stabilized/solidified (S/S) waste product was used as a raw material to build concrete blocks, to be sold as pavement blocks or used in roadbeds and/or parking lots. The quality of the blocks containing a mixture of cement, lime, clay and waste was evaluated by means of leaching and solubility tests according to the current Brazilian waste regulations. Results showed very low metal leachability and solubility of the block constituents, indicating a low environmental impact. Concerning economic benefits from the S/S process and reuse of the resultant product, the cost of untreated heavy metal-containing sludge disposal to landfill is usually on the order of US$ 150-200 per tonne of waste, while 1tonne of concrete roadbed blocks (with 25% of S/S waste constitution) has a value of around US$ 100. The results of this work showed that the cement, clay and lime-based process of stabilization/solidification of hazardous waste sludge is sufficiently effective and economically viable to stimulate the treatment of wastewater from small industrial waste generators.

  11. Efficient RNA structure comparison algorithms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arslan, Abdullah N; Anandan, Jithendar; Fry, Eric; Monschke, Keith; Ganneboina, Nitin; Bowerman, Jason

    2017-12-01

    Recently proposed relative addressing-based ([Formula: see text]) RNA secondary structure representation has important features by which an RNA structure database can be stored into a suffix array. A fast substructure search algorithm has been proposed based on binary search on this suffix array. Using this substructure search algorithm, we present a fast algorithm that finds the largest common substructure of given multiple RNA structures in [Formula: see text] format. The multiple RNA structure comparison problem is NP-hard in its general formulation. We introduced a new problem for comparing multiple RNA structures. This problem has more strict similarity definition and objective, and we propose an algorithm that solves this problem efficiently. We also develop another comparison algorithm that iteratively calls this algorithm to locate nonoverlapping large common substructures in compared RNAs. With the new resulting tools, we improved the RNASSAC website (linked from http://faculty.tamuc.edu/aarslan ). This website now also includes two drawing tools: one specialized for preparing RNA substructures that can be used as input by the search tool, and another one for automatically drawing the entire RNA structure from a given structure sequence.

  12. Novel medical image enhancement algorithms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agaian, Sos; McClendon, Stephen A.

    2010-01-01

    In this paper, we present two novel medical image enhancement algorithms. The first, a global image enhancement algorithm, utilizes an alpha-trimmed mean filter as its backbone to sharpen images. The second algorithm uses a cascaded unsharp masking technique to separate the high frequency components of an image in order for them to be enhanced using a modified adaptive contrast enhancement algorithm. Experimental results from enhancing electron microscopy, radiological, CT scan and MRI scan images, using the MATLAB environment, are then compared to the original images as well as other enhancement methods, such as histogram equalization and two forms of adaptive contrast enhancement. An image processing scheme for electron microscopy images of Purkinje cells will also be implemented and utilized as a comparison tool to evaluate the performance of our algorithm.

  13. Elementary functions algorithms and implementation

    CERN Document Server

    Muller, Jean-Michel

    2016-01-01

    This textbook presents the concepts and tools necessary to understand, build, and implement algorithms for computing elementary functions (e.g., logarithms, exponentials, and the trigonometric functions). Both hardware- and software-oriented algorithms are included, along with issues related to accurate floating-point implementation. This third edition has been updated and expanded to incorporate the most recent advances in the field, new elementary function algorithms, and function software. After a preliminary chapter that briefly introduces some fundamental concepts of computer arithmetic, such as floating-point arithmetic and redundant number systems, the text is divided into three main parts. Part I considers the computation of elementary functions using algorithms based on polynomial or rational approximations and using table-based methods; the final chapter in this section deals with basic principles of multiple-precision arithmetic. Part II is devoted to a presentation of “shift-and-add” algorithm...

  14. Algorithmic Self

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Markham, Annette

    This paper takes an actor network theory approach to explore some of the ways that algorithms co-construct identity and relational meaning in contemporary use of social media. Based on intensive interviews with participants as well as activity logging and data tracking, the author presents a richly...... layered set of accounts to help build our understanding of how individuals relate to their devices, search systems, and social network sites. This work extends critical analyses of the power of algorithms in implicating the social self by offering narrative accounts from multiple perspectives. It also...... contributes an innovative method for blending actor network theory with symbolic interaction to grapple with the complexity of everyday sensemaking practices within networked global information flows....

  15. Estimation of electricity demand of Iran using two heuristic algorithms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Amjadi, M.H.; Nezamabadi-pour, H.; Farsangi, M.M.

    2010-01-01

    This paper deals with estimation of electricity demand of Iran based on economic indicators using Particle Swarm Optimization (PSO) Algorithm. The estimation is based on Gross Domestic Product (GDP), population, number of customers and average price electricity by developing two different estimation models: a linear model and a non-linear model. The proposed models are obtained based upon available actual data of 21 years; since 1980-2000. Then the models obtained are used to estimate the electricity demand of the target years; for a period of time e.g. 2001-2006 and the results obtained are compared with the actual demand during this period. Furthermore, to validate the results obtained by PSO, genetic algorithm (GA) is applied to solve the problem. The results show that the PSO is a useful optimization tool for solving the problem using two developed models and can be used as an alternative solution to estimate the future electricity demand.

  16. Effects of visualization on algorithm comprehension

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mulvey, Matthew

    Computer science students are expected to learn and apply a variety of core algorithms which are an essential part of the field. Any one of these algorithms by itself is not necessarily extremely complex, but remembering the large variety of algorithms and the differences between them is challenging. To address this challenge, we present a novel algorithm visualization tool designed to enhance students understanding of Dijkstra's algorithm by allowing them to discover the rules of the algorithm for themselves. It is hoped that a deeper understanding of the algorithm will help students correctly select, adapt and apply the appropriate algorithm when presented with a problem to solve, and that what is learned here will be applicable to the design of other visualization tools designed to teach different algorithms. Our visualization tool is currently in the prototype stage, and this thesis will discuss the pedagogical approach that informs its design, as well as the results of some initial usability testing. Finally, to clarify the direction for further development of the tool, four different variations of the prototype were implemented, and the instructional effectiveness of each was assessed by having a small sample participants use the different versions of the prototype and then take a quiz to assess their comprehension of the algorithm.

  17. Genetic algorithm essentials

    CERN Document Server

    Kramer, Oliver

    2017-01-01

    This book introduces readers to genetic algorithms (GAs) with an emphasis on making the concepts, algorithms, and applications discussed as easy to understand as possible. Further, it avoids a great deal of formalisms and thus opens the subject to a broader audience in comparison to manuscripts overloaded by notations and equations. The book is divided into three parts, the first of which provides an introduction to GAs, starting with basic concepts like evolutionary operators and continuing with an overview of strategies for tuning and controlling parameters. In turn, the second part focuses on solution space variants like multimodal, constrained, and multi-objective solution spaces. Lastly, the third part briefly introduces theoretical tools for GAs, the intersections and hybridizations with machine learning, and highlights selected promising applications.

  18. An algorithm of computing inhomogeneous differential equations for definite integrals

    OpenAIRE

    Nakayama, Hiromasa; Nishiyama, Kenta

    2010-01-01

    We give an algorithm to compute inhomogeneous differential equations for definite integrals with parameters. The algorithm is based on the integration algorithm for $D$-modules by Oaku. Main tool in the algorithm is the Gr\\"obner basis method in the ring of differential operators.

  19. Parallel algorithms

    CERN Document Server

    Casanova, Henri; Robert, Yves

    2008-01-01

    ""…The authors of the present book, who have extensive credentials in both research and instruction in the area of parallelism, present a sound, principled treatment of parallel algorithms. … This book is very well written and extremely well designed from an instructional point of view. … The authors have created an instructive and fascinating text. The book will serve researchers as well as instructors who need a solid, readable text for a course on parallelism in computing. Indeed, for anyone who wants an understandable text from which to acquire a current, rigorous, and broad vi

  20. Algorithm 865

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gustavson, Fred G.; Reid, John K.; Wasniewski, Jerzy

    2007-01-01

    We present subroutines for the Cholesky factorization of a positive-definite symmetric matrix and for solving corresponding sets of linear equations. They exploit cache memory by using the block hybrid format proposed by the authors in a companion article. The matrix is packed into n(n + 1)/2 real...... variables, and the speed is usually better than that of the LAPACK algorithm that uses full storage (n2 variables). Included are subroutines for rearranging a matrix whose upper or lower-triangular part is packed by columns to this format and for the inverse rearrangement. Also included is a kernel...

  1. CO2 taxes as economic tool for energy efficiency analysis of CO2 tax impact on energy efficiency projects in Latvia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Blumberga, D.; Blumberga, M.; Veidenbergs, I.

    2005-01-01

    The intended purpose of the carbon tax is to reduce CO 2 emissions. This tax can play a significant role in the implementation of energy saving projects. The paper evaluates three market mechanisms for reducing greenhouse gas emissions: joint implementation, emissions trading and CO 2 taxes. The first market mechanism - pilot phase of joint implementation (Activities Implemented Jointly) opened the minds of specialists to the GHG emission reduction potential of energy efficiency projects. The second mechanism was implemented after Latvia had accepted the National Allocation Plan to start emission trading. The third mechanism is based on the introduction of a carbon tax, which will come into force in Latvia in July 2005. This paper describes the potential impact of this tax that could promote development of energy efficiency projects. The authors worked out an evaluation methodology to calculate the impact of CO 2 taxes on emissions levels and the potential value of such taxes. The proposed methodology is applicable to district heating companies and governmental institutions, defining links between the energy efficiency and CO 2 taxes and showing ways of justifying these taxes both economically and environmentally. (authors)

  2. Community Economics

    OpenAIRE

    武藤, 宣道; Nobumichi, MUTOH

    2000-01-01

    This paper examines the new field of community economics with respect to Japan. A number of studies in community economics have already been produced in OECD countries including the United States. Although these are of great interest, each country has its own historical, socioeconomic context and must therefore develop its own approach to community economics. Community-oriented economics is neither macro-nor micro-economics in the standard economics textbook sense. Most community economics st...

  3. Template Generation and Selection Algorithms

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Guo, Y.; Smit, Gerardus Johannes Maria; Broersma, Haitze J.; Heysters, P.M.; Badaway, W.; Ismail, Y.

    The availability of high-level design entry tooling is crucial for the viability of any reconfigurable SoC architecture. This paper presents a template generation method to extract functional equivalent structures, i.e. templates, from a control data flow graph. By inspecting the graph the algorithm

  4. Linear feature detection algorithm for astronomical surveys - I. Algorithm description

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bektešević, Dino; Vinković, Dejan

    2017-11-01

    Computer vision algorithms are powerful tools in astronomical image analyses, especially when automation of object detection and extraction is required. Modern object detection algorithms in astronomy are oriented towards detection of stars and galaxies, ignoring completely the detection of existing linear features. With the emergence of wide-field sky surveys, linear features attract scientific interest as possible trails of fast flybys of near-Earth asteroids and meteors. In this work, we describe a new linear feature detection algorithm designed specifically for implementation in big data astronomy. The algorithm combines a series of algorithmic steps that first remove other objects (stars and galaxies) from the image and then enhance the line to enable more efficient line detection with the Hough algorithm. The rate of false positives is greatly reduced thanks to a step that replaces possible line segments with rectangles and then compares lines fitted to the rectangles with the lines obtained directly from the image. The speed of the algorithm and its applicability in astronomical surveys are also discussed.

  5. Designing algorithms using CAD technologies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alin IORDACHE

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available A representative example of eLearning-platform modular application, ‘Logical diagrams’, is intended to be a useful learning and testing tool for the beginner programmer, but also for the more experienced one. The problem this application is trying to solve concerns young programmers who forget about the fundamentals of this domain, algorithmic. Logical diagrams are a graphic representation of an algorithm, which uses different geometrical figures (parallelograms, rectangles, rhombuses, circles with particular meaning that are called blocks and connected between them to reveal the flow of the algorithm. The role of this application is to help the user build the diagram for the algorithm and then automatically generate the C code and test it.

  6. Immersive Algorithms: Better Visualization with Less Information

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bille, Philip; Gørtz, Inge Li

    2017-01-01

    Visualizing algorithms, such as drawings, slideshow presentations, animations, videos, and software tools, is a key concept to enhance and support student learning. A typical visualization of an algorithm show the data and then perform computation on the data. For instance, a standard visualization...

  7. Algorithmic chemistry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fontana, W.

    1990-12-13

    In this paper complex adaptive systems are defined by a self- referential loop in which objects encode functions that act back on these objects. A model for this loop is presented. It uses a simple recursive formal language, derived from the lambda-calculus, to provide a semantics that maps character strings into functions that manipulate symbols on strings. The interaction between two functions, or algorithms, is defined naturally within the language through function composition, and results in the production of a new function. An iterated map acting on sets of functions and a corresponding graph representation are defined. Their properties are useful to discuss the behavior of a fixed size ensemble of randomly interacting functions. This function gas'', or Turning gas'', is studied under various conditions, and evolves cooperative interaction patterns of considerable intricacy. These patterns adapt under the influence of perturbations consisting in the addition of new random functions to the system. Different organizations emerge depending on the availability of self-replicators.

  8. Quantum economics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vukotić Veselin

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The globalization is breaking-down the idea of national state, which was the base for the development of economic theory which is dominant today. Global economic crisis puts emphasis on limited possibilities of national governments in solving economic problems and general problems of society. Does it also mean that globalization and global economic crisis points out the need to think about new economic theory and new understanding of economics? In this paper I will argue that globalization reveals the need to change dominant economic paradigm - from traditional economic theory (mainstream with macroeconomic stability as the goal of economic policy, to the “quantum economics“, which is based on “economic quantum” and immanent to the increase of wealth (material and non-material of every individual in society and promoting set of values immanent to the wealth increase as the goal of economic policy. Practically the question is how we can use global market for our development!

  9. Development of Scaling Algorithms and Economic Evaluation for Non-Thermal Plasma Reactors - Adsorbant/Catalyzer Hybrid System for Control of NOx Released During Army and Related U.S. Department of Defense (DOD) Operations

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Urashima, K

    1998-01-01

    Computer code (SUENTP-J) to predict scale-up and economic evaluation of several eligible non-thermal plasma processes for air pollution control - electron beam process, pulsed corona process, and corona radical shower...

  10. [debridement algorithm].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marinović, Marin; Fumić, Nera; Laginja, Stanislava; Aldo, Ivanicić

    2014-10-01

    Prolonged life expectancy increases the proportion of elderly population. The incidence of injury increases with older age. A variety of comorbidities (circulation disorders, diabetes mellitus, metabolic imbalances, etc.) and reduced biological tissue regeneration potential that accompanies older age, lead to a higher prevalence of chronic wounds. This poses a significant health, social and economic burden upon the society. Injuries in the elderly demand significant involvement of medical and non-medical staff in the prehospital and hospital treatment of the injured, with high material consumption and reduced quality of life in these patients, their families and caregivers. Debridement is a crucial medical procedure in the treatment of acute and chronic wounds. The aim of debridement is removal of all residues in wound bed and environment. Debridement can be conducted several times when there is proper indication. There are several ways of debridement procedure, each having advantages and disadvantages. The method of debridement is chosen by the physician or other medical professional. It is based on wound characteristics and the physician's expertise and capabilities. In the same type of wound, various types of debridement can be combined, all with the aim of faster and better wound healing.

  11. Artificial Immune Systems as a Modern Tool for Solving Multi-Purpose Optimization Tasks in the Field of Logistics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Skitsko Volodymyr I.

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available The article investigates various aspects of the functioning of artificial immune systems and their using to solve different tasks. The analysis of the studied literature showed that nowadays there exist combinations of artificial immune systems, in particular with genetic algorithms, the particle swarm optimization method, artificial neural networks, etc., to solve different tasks. However, the solving of economic tasks is paid little attention. The article presents the basic terminology of artificial immune systems; the steps of the clonal selection algorithm are described, as well as a brief description of the negative selection algorithm, the immune network algorithm and the dendritic algorithm is given; conceptual aspects of the use of an artificial immune system for solving multi-purpose optimization problems are formulated, and an example of solving a problem in the field of logistics is described. Artificial immune systems as a means of solving various weakly structured, multi-criteria and multi-purpose economic tasks, in particular in the sphere of logistics, are a promising tool that requires further research. Therefore, it is advisable in the future to focus on the use of various existing immune algorithms for solving various economic problems.

  12. Algorithms as fetish: Faith and possibility in algorithmic work

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suzanne L Thomas

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Algorithms are powerful because we invest in them the power to do things. With such promise, they can transform the ordinary, say snapshots along a robotic vacuum cleaner’s route, into something much more, such as a clean home. Echoing David Graeber’s revision of fetishism, we argue that this easy slip from technical capabilities to broader claims betrays not the “magic” of algorithms but rather the dynamics of their exchange. Fetishes are not indicators of false thinking, but social contracts in material form. They mediate emerging distributions of power often too nascent, too slippery or too disconcerting to directly acknowledge. Drawing primarily on 2016 ethnographic research with computer vision professionals, we show how faith in what algorithms can do shapes the social encounters and exchanges of their production. By analyzing algorithms through the lens of fetishism, we can see the social and economic investment in some people’s labor over others. We also see everyday opportunities for social creativity and change. We conclude that what is problematic about algorithms is not their fetishization but instead their stabilization into full-fledged gods and demons – the more deserving objects of critique.

  13. Managament quality of tools in the planned housing casting

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jaworski J.

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available The Kaizen method of housing casting designing was presented in the paper. Algorithm making possibility of identification of tools limiting efficienty of tooling process was formulated. The system of tool management consisting of various was shown.

  14. Algorithmic Reflections on Choreography

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pablo Ventura

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available In 1996, Pablo Ventura turned his attention to the choreography software Life Forms to find out whether the then-revolutionary new tool could lead to new possibilities of expression in contemporary dance. During the next 2 decades, he devised choreographic techniques and custom software to create dance works that highlight the operational logic of computers, accompanied by computer-generated dance and media elements. This article provides a firsthand account of how Ventura’s engagement with algorithmic concepts guided and transformed his choreographic practice. The text describes the methods that were developed to create computer-aided dance choreographies. Furthermore, the text illustrates how choreography techniques can be applied to correlate formal and aesthetic aspects of movement, music, and video. Finally, the text emphasizes how Ventura’s interest in the wider conceptual context has led him to explore with choreographic means fundamental issues concerning the characteristics of humans and machines and their increasingly profound interdependencies.

  15. Environmental economics: Saving lives, money, and ecosystems ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    2010-10-07

    Oct 7, 2010 ... Environmental economics gives developing countries a unique tool to make ... provides decision-makers facing tough economic and environmental choices with vital ... Emerging economies a new force in international giving.

  16. Energy Storage Economics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Elgqvist, Emma M [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)

    2017-09-07

    This presentation provides an overview on energy storage economics including recent market trends, battery terminology and concepts, value streams, challenges, and an example of how photovoltaics and storage can be used to lower demand charges. It also provides an overview of the REopt Lite web tool inputs and outputs.

  17. Pseudo-deterministic Algorithms

    OpenAIRE

    Goldwasser , Shafi

    2012-01-01

    International audience; In this talk we describe a new type of probabilistic algorithm which we call Bellagio Algorithms: a randomized algorithm which is guaranteed to run in expected polynomial time, and to produce a correct and unique solution with high probability. These algorithms are pseudo-deterministic: they can not be distinguished from deterministic algorithms in polynomial time by a probabilistic polynomial time observer with black box access to the algorithm. We show a necessary an...

  18. Economic Theory, Economic Reality And Economic Policy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dmitry Evgenievich Sorokin

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available This paper analyzes the opposition between the «liberals» and «statists» in the Russian political and economic thought. It demonstrates that the economic liberalization is an absolute prerequisite for the transition to sustainable socio-economic development. Such development must rely on investment activities of the state, which in the current circumstances is a necessary but not sufficient measure for reversing the negative trends. The negative developments can be prevented only through implementation, along with the institutional changes in the economic area that form a strata of economically independent entrepreneurs-innovators, of no less profound transformation in political institutions aimed at democratization of public life

  19. Internet economics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Henten, Anders; Skouby, Knud Erik; Øst, Alexander Gorm

    1997-01-01

    A paper on the economics of the Internet with respect to end user pricing and pricing og interconnect.......A paper on the economics of the Internet with respect to end user pricing and pricing og interconnect....

  20. Economic Report of the President

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    1998-01-01

    .... To reverse this course, we took a new approach, putting in place a bold economic strategy designed to bring down the deficit and give America's workers the tools and training they need to help...

  1. Economic Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Recruitment Events Community Commitment Giving Campaigns, Drives Economic Development Employee Funded : Environmental Documents, Reports LANL Home Calendar Search Contacts Community » Economic Development LANL 75th logo Economic Development Los Alamos National Laboratory is committed to investing and partnering in

  2. Archimedean copula estimation of distribution algorithm based on artificial bee colony algorithm

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Haidong Xu; Mingyan Jiang; Kun Xu

    2015-01-01

    The artificial bee colony (ABC) algorithm is a com-petitive stochastic population-based optimization algorithm. How-ever, the ABC algorithm does not use the social information and lacks the knowledge of the problem structure, which leads to in-sufficiency in both convergent speed and searching precision. Archimedean copula estimation of distribution algorithm (ACEDA) is a relatively simple, time-economic and multivariate correlated EDA. This paper proposes a novel hybrid algorithm based on the ABC algorithm and ACEDA cal ed Archimedean copula estima-tion of distribution based on the artificial bee colony (ACABC) algorithm. The hybrid algorithm utilizes ACEDA to estimate the distribution model and then uses the information to help artificial bees to search more efficiently in the search space. Six bench-mark functions are introduced to assess the performance of the ACABC algorithm on numerical function optimization. Experimen-tal results show that the ACABC algorithm converges much faster with greater precision compared with the ABC algorithm, ACEDA and the global best (gbest)-guided ABC (GABC) algorithm in most of the experiments.

  3. Macro-economic environmental models

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wier, M.

    1993-01-01

    In the present report, an introduction to macro-economic environmental models is given. The role of the models as a tool for policy analysis is discussed. Future applications, as well as the limitations given by the data, are brought into focus. The economic-ecological system is described. A set of guidelines for implementation of the system in a traditional economic macro-model is proposed. The characteristics of empirical national and international environmental macro-economic models so far are highlighted. Special attention is paid to main economic causalities and their consequences for the environmental policy recommendations sat by the models. (au) (41 refs.)

  4. GRASP/Ada: Graphical Representations of Algorithms, Structures, and Processes for Ada. The development of a program analysis environment for Ada: Reverse engineering tools for Ada, task 2, phase 3

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cross, James H., II

    1991-01-01

    The main objective is the investigation, formulation, and generation of graphical representations of algorithms, structures, and processes for Ada (GRASP/Ada). The presented task, in which various graphical representations that can be extracted or generated from source code are described and categorized, is focused on reverse engineering. The following subject areas are covered: the system model; control structure diagram generator; object oriented design diagram generator; user interface; and the GRASP library.

  5. Current practices in economic appraisal

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mossink, J.C.M.

    2000-01-01

    By means of economic appraisal, the costs and the benefits of health, environment and safety management can be made clear, both at the national level and at the company level. As such it is a tool in advocating good practices. This paper explores the possibilities of economic appraisal for policy

  6. Advances in mathematical economics

    CERN Document Server

    Yamazaki, Akira

    2005-01-01

    A lot of economic problems can be formulated as constrained optimizations and equilibration of their solutions. Various mathematical theories have been supplying economists with indispensable machineries for these problems arising in economic theory. Conversely, mathematicians have been stimulated by various mathematical difficulties raised by economic theories. The series is designed to bring together those mathematicians who are seriously interested in getting new challenging stimuli from economic theories with those economists who are seeking effective mathematical tools for their research. The editorial board of this series comprises the following prominent economists and mathematicians: Managing Editors: S. Kusuoka (Univ. Tokyo), T. Maruyama (Keio Univ.). Editors: R. Anderson (U.C. Berkeley), C. Castaing (Univ. Montpellier), F.H. Clarke (Univ. Lyon I), G. Debreu (U.C. Berkeley), E. Dierker (Univ. Vienna), D. Duffie (Stanford Univ.), L.C. Evans (U.C. Berkeley), T. Fujimoto (Okayama Univ.), J.-M. Grandmont...

  7. A decision algorithm for patch spraying

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Svend; Heisel, Torben; Walter, Mette

    2003-01-01

    method that estimates an economic optimal herbicide dose according to site-specific weed composition and density is presented in this paper. The method was termed a ‘decision algorithm for patch spraying’ (DAPS) and was evaluated in a 5-year experiment, in Denmark. DAPS consists of a competition model......, a herbicide dose–response model and an algorithm that estimates the economically optimal doses. The experiment was designed to compare herbicide treatments with DAPS recommendations and the Danish decision support system PC-Plant Protection. The results did not show any significant grain yield difference...

  8. Hamiltonian Algorithm Sound Synthesis

    OpenAIRE

    大矢, 健一

    2013-01-01

    Hamiltonian Algorithm (HA) is an algorithm for searching solutions is optimization problems. This paper introduces a sound synthesis technique using Hamiltonian Algorithm and shows a simple example. "Hamiltonian Algorithm Sound Synthesis" uses phase transition effect in HA. Because of this transition effect, totally new waveforms are produced.

  9. Progressive geometric algorithms

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Alewijnse, S.P.A.; Bagautdinov, T.M.; de Berg, M.T.; Bouts, Q.W.; ten Brink, Alex P.; Buchin, K.A.; Westenberg, M.A.

    2015-01-01

    Progressive algorithms are algorithms that, on the way to computing a complete solution to the problem at hand, output intermediate solutions that approximate the complete solution increasingly well. We present a framework for analyzing such algorithms, and develop efficient progressive algorithms

  10. Progressive geometric algorithms

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Alewijnse, S.P.A.; Bagautdinov, T.M.; Berg, de M.T.; Bouts, Q.W.; Brink, ten A.P.; Buchin, K.; Westenberg, M.A.

    2014-01-01

    Progressive algorithms are algorithms that, on the way to computing a complete solution to the problem at hand, output intermediate solutions that approximate the complete solution increasingly well. We present a framework for analyzing such algorithms, and develop efficient progressive algorithms

  11. The Algorithmic Imaginary

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bucher, Taina

    2017-01-01

    the notion of the algorithmic imaginary. It is argued that the algorithmic imaginary – ways of thinking about what algorithms are, what they should be and how they function – is not just productive of different moods and sensations but plays a generative role in moulding the Facebook algorithm itself...... of algorithms affect people's use of these platforms, if at all? To help answer these questions, this article examines people's personal stories about the Facebook algorithm through tweets and interviews with 25 ordinary users. To understand the spaces where people and algorithms meet, this article develops...

  12. The BR eigenvalue algorithm

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Geist, G.A. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States). Computer Science and Mathematics Div.; Howell, G.W. [Florida Inst. of Tech., Melbourne, FL (United States). Dept. of Applied Mathematics; Watkins, D.S. [Washington State Univ., Pullman, WA (United States). Dept. of Pure and Applied Mathematics

    1997-11-01

    The BR algorithm, a new method for calculating the eigenvalues of an upper Hessenberg matrix, is introduced. It is a bulge-chasing algorithm like the QR algorithm, but, unlike the QR algorithm, it is well adapted to computing the eigenvalues of the narrowband, nearly tridiagonal matrices generated by the look-ahead Lanczos process. This paper describes the BR algorithm and gives numerical evidence that it works well in conjunction with the Lanczos process. On the biggest problems run so far, the BR algorithm beats the QR algorithm by a factor of 30--60 in computing time and a factor of over 100 in matrix storage space.

  13. Economic Studies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. V. Kholopov

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The establishment of the School of Economic Science at MGIMO was due to the necessity of the world economy research, and the need to prepare highly skilled specialists in international economics. The school is developing a number of areas, which reflect the Faculty structure. - Economic theory is one of the most important research areas, a kind of foundation of the School of Economic Science at MGIMO. Economic theory studies are carried out at the chair of Economic theory. "The course of economic theory" textbook was published in 1991, and later it was reprinted seven times. Over the past few years other textbooks and manuals have been published, including "Economics for Managers" by Professor S.N. Ivashkovskaya, which survived through five editions; "International Economics" - four editions and "History of Economic Thought" - three editions. - International Economic Relations are carried out by the Department of International Economic Relations and Foreign Economic Activity. Its establishment is associated with the prominent economist N.N. Lyubimov. In 1957 he with his colleagues published the first textbook on the subject which went through multiple republications. The editorial team of the textbook subsequently formed the pride of Soviet economic science - S.M. Menshikov, E.P. Pletnev, V.D. Schetinin. Since 2007, the chair of Foreign Economic Activities led by Doctor of Economics, Professor I. Platonova has been investigating the problems of improving the architecture of foreign economic network and the international competitiveness of Russia; - The history of the study of problems of the world economy at MGIMO begins in 1958 at the chair baring the same name. Since 1998, the department has been headed by Professor A. Bulatov; - The study of international monetary relations is based on the chair of International Finance, and is focused on addressing the fundamental scientific and practical problems; - The chair "Banks, monetary circulation

  14. Algorithmically specialized parallel computers

    CERN Document Server

    Snyder, Lawrence; Gannon, Dennis B

    1985-01-01

    Algorithmically Specialized Parallel Computers focuses on the concept and characteristics of an algorithmically specialized computer.This book discusses the algorithmically specialized computers, algorithmic specialization using VLSI, and innovative architectures. The architectures and algorithms for digital signal, speech, and image processing and specialized architectures for numerical computations are also elaborated. Other topics include the model for analyzing generalized inter-processor, pipelined architecture for search tree maintenance, and specialized computer organization for raster

  15. Management of Ecological and Economic Security of Industrial Enterprises

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivantsova Elena Anatolyevna

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was the modeling of ecological and economic security of production processes in an industrial plant using methods of fuzzy logic. The subject of the research – methods of modeling systems of ecological and economic security of industrial enterprises, based on the adaptation of fuzzy set theory to solve this problem. In the research process the following scientific methods and techniques were applied: scientific abstraction, analysis, synthesis, methods of grouping, comparison, etc. Along with the traditional methods the authors used the tools for simulation modeling, fuzzy sets systems, computer simulation MatLab. The informational and empirical basis of the research was formed on the basis of the data of the Federal service of state statistics and its territorial subdivisions of the Ministry of economic development of the Russian Federation, e-resources of the Internet, the research by Russian and foreign scientists, experts’ assesments. The article presents the author’s method of ensuring ecological and economic security in the enterprise by means of fuzzy logic, based on the quantitative assessment of indicators of threats in MatLab and results of visualization of fuzzy-multiple modeling of ecological and economic security. The algorithm of calculation of the conditional environmental pressures on water resources and the atmosphere, allowed to determine the dependence between the cost of wastewater treatment and economic damage from pollution and to evaluate the effectiveness of various conservation programs, and to analyze their impact on environmental sustainability. The authors also develop complex fuzzy models and implemented their software in the MatLab Fuzzy Logic Toolbox, which allowed to obtain an integrated assessment of the state of the enterprise environmental safety and comparisons of the values of these threats based on assessment. The author presents the author’s methodology and the evaluation

  16. Economic Darwinism

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sloth, Birgitte; Whitta-Jacobsen, Hans Jørgen

    2011-01-01

    We define an evolutionary process of "economic Darwinism" for playing the field, symmetric games. The process captures two forces. One is "economic selection": if current behavior leads to payoff differences, behavior yielding lowest payoff has strictly positive probability of being replaced...... in the literature. Using this result, we demonstrate that generally under positive (negative) externalities, economic Darwinism implies even more under- (over-)activity than does Nash equilibrium....

  17. Economic Darwinism

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sloth, Birgitte; Whitta-Jacobsen, Hans Jørgen

    We define an evolutionary process of “economic Darwinism” for playing-the-field, symmetric games. The process captures two forces. One is “economic selection”: if current behavior leads to payoff differences, behavior yielding lowest payoff has strictly positive probability of being replaced...... in the literature. Using this result, we demonstrate that generally under positive (negative) externalities, economic Darwinism implies even more under- (over-) activity than does Nash equilibrium...

  18. Qualitative Economics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fast, Michael; Clark, Woodrow

    2012-01-01

    the everyday economic life is the central issue and is discussed from the perspective of interactionism. It is a perspective developed from the Lifeworld philosophical traditions, such as symbolic interactionism and phenomenology, seeking to develop the thinking of economics. The argument is that economics...... and the process of thinking, e.g. the ontology and the epistemology. Keywords: qualitative, interaction, process, organizing, thinking, perspective, epistemology....

  19. ECOLOGICAL ECONOMICS VS ECONOMIC(AL ECOLOGY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Kharlamova

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Currently world faces the dilemma – ecological economy or economic(al ecology. The researchers produce hundreds of surveys on the topic. However the analyses of recent most cited simulations had shown the diversity of results. Thus, for some states the Kuznets environmental curve has place, for others – no. Same could be said about different years for the same state. It provokes the necessity of drawing new group analyses to reveal the tendencies and relationships between economic and environmental factors. Most flexible and mirror factor of environmental sustainability is the volume of CO2 emissions. The econometric analysis was used for detecting the economic impact on this indicator at the global level and in the spectra of group of states depending on their income. The hypothesis of the existence of environmental Kuznets curve for the analysed data is rejected. Real GDP per capita impact on carbon dioxide emissions is considered only at the global level. The impact of openness of the economy is weak. Rejection happened also to the hypothesis that for the developed countries there is a reverse dependence between the environmental pollution and economic openness. Indicator “energy consumption per capita” impacts on greenhouse gas emissions only in countries with high income. Whereby it should be noted that the more developed a country is, the more elastic is this influence. These results have a potential usage for environmental policy regulation and climate strategy.

  20. Qualitative Economics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fast, Michael; Clark II, Woodrow W

                         This book is about science -- specifically, the science of economics. Or lack thereof is more accurate. The building of any science, let alone economics, is grounded in the understanding of what is beneath the "surface" of economics. Science, and hence economics, should...... be concerned with formulating ideas that express theories which produce descriptions of how to understand phenomenon and real world experiences.                       Economics must become a science, because the essence of economics in terms of human actions, group interactions and communities are in need...... of scientific inquiry. Academics and scholars need a scientific perspective that can hypothesize, theorize document, understand and analyze human dynamics from the individual to more societal interactions. And that is what qualitative economics does; it can make economics into becoming a science. The economic...

  1. Water Economics and Policy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julio Berbel

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Economics plays a double role in the field of water management, firstly as a powerful analytical tool supporting water allocation and policy decisions, and secondly in the form of policy instruments (water pricing, markets, etc.. This Special Issue presents a platform for sharing results connecting excellent interdisciplinary research applied to different regional and sectoral problems around the world. The 22 peer-reviewed papers collected in this Special Issue have been grouped into five broad categories: Water valuation and accounting; Economic instruments; Cost effectiveness and cost-benefit analysis; and Water productivity and Governance. They are briefly presented.

  2. Complexity of Economical Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. P. Pavlos

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available In this study new theoretical concepts are described concerning the interpretation of economical complex dynamics. In addition a summary of an extended algorithm of nonlinear time series analysis is provided which is applied not only in economical time series but also in other physical complex systems (e.g. [22, 24]. In general, Economy is a vast and complicated set of arrangements and actions wherein agents—consumers, firms, banks, investors, government agencies—buy and sell, speculate, trade, oversee, bring products into being, offer services, invest in companies, strategize, explore, forecast, compete, learn, innovate, and adapt. As a result the economic and financial variables such as foreign exchange rates, gross domestic product, interest rates, production, stock market prices and unemployment exhibit large-amplitude and aperiodic fluctuations evident in complex systems. Thus, the Economics can be considered as spatially distributed non-equilibrium complex system, for which new theoretical concepts, such as Tsallis non extensive statistical mechanics and strange dynamics, percolation, nonGaussian, multifractal and multiscale dynamics related to fractional Langevin equations can be used for modeling and understanding of the economical complexity locally or globally.

  3. LG tools for asymmetric wargaming

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stilman, Boris; Yakhnis, Alex; Yakhnis, Vladimir

    2002-07-01

    Asymmetric operations represent conflict where one of the sides would apply military power to influence the political and civil environment, to facilitate diplomacy, and to interrupt specified illegal activities. This is a special type of conflict where the participants do not initiate full-scale war. Instead, the sides may be engaged in a limited open conflict or one or several sides may covertly engage another side using unconventional or less conventional methods of engagement. They may include peace operations, combating terrorism, counterdrug operations, arms control, support of insurgencies or counterinsurgencies, show of force. An asymmetric conflict can be represented as several concurrent interlinked games of various kinds: military, transportation, economic, political, etc. Thus, various actions of peace violators, terrorists, drug traffickers, etc., can be expressed via moves in different interlinked games. LG tools allow us to fully capture the specificity of asymmetric conflicts employing the major LG concept of hypergame. Hypergame allows modeling concurrent interlinked processes taking place in geographically remote locations at different levels of resolution and time scale. For example, it allows us to model an antiterrorist operation taking place simultaneously in a number of countries around the globe and involving wide range of entities from individuals to combat units to governments. Additionally, LG allows us to model all sides of the conflict at their level of sophistication. Intelligent stakeholders are represented by means of LG generated intelligent strategies. TO generate those strategies, in addition to its own mathematical intelligence, the LG algorithm may incorporate the intelligence of the top-level experts in the respective problem domains. LG models the individual differences between intelligent stakeholders. The LG tools make it possible to incorporate most of the known traits of a stakeholder, i.e., real personalities involved in

  4. Quantum Computation and Algorithms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Biham, O.; Biron, D.; Biham, E.; Grassi, M.; Lidar, D.A.

    1999-01-01

    It is now firmly established that quantum algorithms provide a substantial speedup over classical algorithms for a variety of problems, including the factorization of large numbers and the search for a marked element in an unsorted database. In this talk I will review the principles of quantum algorithms, the basic quantum gates and their operation. The combination of superposition and interference, that makes these algorithms efficient, will be discussed. In particular, Grover's search algorithm will be presented as an example. I will show that the time evolution of the amplitudes in Grover's algorithm can be found exactly using recursion equations, for any initial amplitude distribution

  5. "New Economics"?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Jørgen Ulff-Møller

    1999-01-01

    The United States, the United Kingdom and Denmark have all enjoyed a long period of high stable growth and low inflation in the 1990s. Attempts to determine the implications of this have led to the so-called "New Economics", whose advocates claim that the relationship between economic growth...

  6. Data structures and algorithm analysis in C++

    CERN Document Server

    Shaffer, Clifford A

    2011-01-01

    With its focus on creating efficient data structures and algorithms, this comprehensive text helps readers understand how to select or design the tools that will best solve specific problems. It uses Microsoft C++ as the programming language and is suitable for second-year data structure courses and computer science courses in algorithm analysis.Techniques for representing data are presented within the context of assessing costs and benefits, promoting an understanding of the principles of algorithm analysis and the effects of a chosen physical medium. The text also explores tradeoff issues, f

  7. Data structures and algorithm analysis in Java

    CERN Document Server

    Shaffer, Clifford A

    2011-01-01

    With its focus on creating efficient data structures and algorithms, this comprehensive text helps readers understand how to select or design the tools that will best solve specific problems. It uses Java as the programming language and is suitable for second-year data structure courses and computer science courses in algorithm analysis. Techniques for representing data are presented within the context of assessing costs and benefits, promoting an understanding of the principles of algorithm analysis and the effects of a chosen physical medium. The text also explores tradeoff issues, familiari

  8. Some multigrid algorithms for SIMD machines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dendy, J.E. Jr. [Los Alamos National Lab., NM (United States)

    1996-12-31

    Previously a semicoarsening multigrid algorithm suitable for use on SIMD architectures was investigated. Through the use of new software tools, the performance of this algorithm has been considerably improved. The method has also been extended to three space dimensions. The method performs well for strongly anisotropic problems and for problems with coefficients jumping by orders of magnitude across internal interfaces. The parallel efficiency of this method is analyzed, and its actual performance on the CM-5 is compared with its performance on the CRAY-YMP. A standard coarsening multigrid algorithm is also considered, and we compare its performance on these two platforms as well.

  9. Algorithms for the Computation of Debris Risk

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matney, Mark J.

    2017-01-01

    Determining the risks from space debris involve a number of statistical calculations. These calculations inevitably involve assumptions about geometry - including the physical geometry of orbits and the geometry of satellites. A number of tools have been developed in NASA’s Orbital Debris Program Office to handle these calculations; many of which have never been published before. These include algorithms that are used in NASA’s Orbital Debris Engineering Model ORDEM 3.0, as well as other tools useful for computing orbital collision rates and ground casualty risks. This paper presents an introduction to these algorithms and the assumptions upon which they are based.

  10. Algorithms for the Computation of Debris Risks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matney, Mark

    2017-01-01

    Determining the risks from space debris involve a number of statistical calculations. These calculations inevitably involve assumptions about geometry - including the physical geometry of orbits and the geometry of non-spherical satellites. A number of tools have been developed in NASA's Orbital Debris Program Office to handle these calculations; many of which have never been published before. These include algorithms that are used in NASA's Orbital Debris Engineering Model ORDEM 3.0, as well as other tools useful for computing orbital collision rates and ground casualty risks. This paper will present an introduction to these algorithms and the assumptions upon which they are based.

  11. Deconvolution algorithms applied in ultrasonics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Perrot, P.

    1993-12-01

    In a complete system of acquisition and processing of ultrasonic signals, it is often necessary at one stage to use some processing tools to get rid of the influence of the different elements of that system. By that means, the final quality of the signals in terms of resolution is improved. There are two main characteristics of ultrasonic signals which make this task difficult. Firstly, the signals generated by transducers are very often non-minimum phase. The classical deconvolution algorithms are unable to deal with such characteristics. Secondly, depending on the medium, the shape of the propagating pulse is evolving. The spatial invariance assumption often used in classical deconvolution algorithms is rarely valid. Many classical algorithms, parametric and non-parametric, have been investigated: the Wiener-type, the adaptive predictive techniques, the Oldenburg technique in the frequency domain, the minimum variance deconvolution. All the algorithms have been firstly tested on simulated data. One specific experimental set-up has also been analysed. Simulated and real data has been produced. This set-up demonstrated the interest in applying deconvolution, in terms of the achieved resolution. (author). 32 figs., 29 refs

  12. Genetic testing in the European Union: does economic evaluation matter?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Antoñanzas, Fernando; Rodríguez-Ibeas, R; Hutter, M F; Lorente, R; Juárez, C; Pinillos, M

    2012-10-01

    We review the published economic evaluation studies applied to genetic technologies in the EU to know the main diseases addressed by these studies, the ways the studies were conducted and to assess the efficiency of these new technologies. The final aim of this review was to understand the possibilities of the economic evaluations performed up to date as a tool to contribute to decision making in this area. We have reviewed a set of articles found in several databases until March 2010. Literature searches were made in the following databases: PubMed; Euronheed; Centre for Reviews and Dissemination of the University of York-Health Technology Assessment, Database of Abstracts of Reviews of Effects, NHS Economic Evaluation Database; and Scopus. The algorithm was "(screening or diagnosis) and genetic and (cost or economic) and (country EU27)". We included studies if they met the following criteria: (1) a genetic technology was analysed; (2) human DNA must be tested for; (3) the analysis was a real economic evaluation or a cost study, and (4) the articles had to be related to any EU Member State. We initially found 3,559 papers on genetic testing but only 92 articles of economic analysis referred to a wide range of genetic diseases matched the inclusion criteria. The most studied diseases were as follows: cystic fibrosis (12), breast and ovarian cancer (8), hereditary hemochromatosis (6), Down's syndrome (7), colorectal cancer (5), familial hypercholesterolaemia (5), prostate cancer (4), and thrombophilia (4). Genetic tests were mostly used for screening purposes, and cost-effectiveness analysis is the most common type of economic study. The analysed gene technologies are deemed to be efficient for some specific population groups and screening algorithms according to the values of their cost-effectiveness ratios that were below the commonly accepted threshold of 30,000€. Economic evaluation of genetic technologies matters but the number of published studies is still

  13. UTV Expansion Pack: Special-Purpose Rank-Revealing Algorithms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fierro, Ricardo D.; Hansen, Per Christian

    2005-01-01

    This collection of Matlab 7.0 software supplements and complements the package UTV Tools from 1999, and includes implementations of special-purpose rank-revealing algorithms developed since the publication of the original package. We provide algorithms for computing and modifying symmetric rank-r...... values of a sparse or structured matrix. These new algorithms have applications in signal processing, optimization and LSI information retrieval.......This collection of Matlab 7.0 software supplements and complements the package UTV Tools from 1999, and includes implementations of special-purpose rank-revealing algorithms developed since the publication of the original package. We provide algorithms for computing and modifying symmetric rank......-revealing VSV decompositions, we expand the algorithms for the ULLV decomposition of a matrix pair to handle interference-type problems with a rank-deficient covariance matrix, and we provide a robust and reliable Lanczos algorithm which - despite its simplicity - is able to capture all the dominant singular...

  14. Algorithms for Scheduling and Network Problems

    Science.gov (United States)

    1991-09-01

    time. We already know, by Lemma 2.2.1, that WOPT = O(log( mpU )), so if we could solve this integer program optimally we would be done. However, the...Folydirat, 15:177-191, 1982. [6] I.S. Belov and Ya. N. Stolin. An algorithm in a single path operations scheduling problem. In Mathematical Economics and

  15. An Empirical Derivation of the Run Time of the Bubble Sort Algorithm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonzales, Michael G.

    1984-01-01

    Suggests a moving pictorial tool to help teach principles in the bubble sort algorithm. Develops such a tool applied to an unsorted list of numbers and describes a method to derive the run time of the algorithm. The method can be modified to run the times of various other algorithms. (JN)

  16. Fermion cluster algorithms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chandrasekharan, Shailesh

    2000-01-01

    Cluster algorithms have been recently used to eliminate sign problems that plague Monte-Carlo methods in a variety of systems. In particular such algorithms can also be used to solve sign problems associated with the permutation of fermion world lines. This solution leads to the possibility of designing fermion cluster algorithms in certain cases. Using the example of free non-relativistic fermions we discuss the ideas underlying the algorithm

  17. Autonomous Star Tracker Algorithms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Betto, Maurizio; Jørgensen, John Leif; Kilsgaard, Søren

    1998-01-01

    Proposal, in response to an ESA R.f.P., to design algorithms for autonomous star tracker operations.The proposal also included the development of a star tracker breadboard to test the algorithms performances.......Proposal, in response to an ESA R.f.P., to design algorithms for autonomous star tracker operations.The proposal also included the development of a star tracker breadboard to test the algorithms performances....

  18. Ecological economics and economic growth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Victor, Peter A

    2010-01-01

    Boulding's 1966 paper on the economics of spaceship Earth established the framework for ecological economics and an understanding of economic growth. In ecological economics, economies are conceptualized as open subsystems of the closed biosphere and are subject to biophysical laws and constraints. Economic growth measured as an increase in real gross domestic product (GDP) has generally been associated with increases in the use of energy and materials and the generation of wastes. Scale, composition, and technology are the proximate determinants of environmental impacts. They are often reduced to two: scale (GDP) and intensity (impact per unit GDP). New work described in this paper defines "green" growth as intensity that declines faster than scale increases. Similarly, "brown" growth occurs when intensity declines more slowly than increases in scale, and "black" growth happens when both scale and intensity increase. These concepts are then related to the environmental Kuznets curve, which can be understood as a transition from brown to green growth. Ecological economics provides a macroperspective on economic growth. It offers broad policy principles, and it challenges the primacy of economic growth as a policy objective, but many important questions remain.

  19. Economic communication model set

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zvereva, Olga M.; Berg, Dmitry B.

    2017-06-01

    This paper details findings from the research work targeted at economic communications investigation with agent-based models usage. The agent-based model set was engineered to simulate economic communications. Money in the form of internal and external currencies was introduced into the models to support exchanges in communications. Every model, being based on the general concept, has its own peculiarities in algorithm and input data set since it was engineered to solve the specific problem. Several and different origin data sets were used in experiments: theoretic sets were estimated on the basis of static Leontief's equilibrium equation and the real set was constructed on the basis of statistical data. While simulation experiments, communication process was observed in dynamics, and system macroparameters were estimated. This research approved that combination of an agent-based and mathematical model can cause a synergetic effect.

  20. Development economics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roebuck, F.

    1992-01-01

    This paper discusses term development economics which refers to the economic evaluation of investment opportunities that occur after the discovery well is drilled and completed. with specific regard to the techniques used and the economic yardsticks available for investment decisions. Three potential situations are considered in this paper: the incorporation of development wells into the outcomes of the original exploration project, mutually exclusive or alternative investment opportunities, and the installation of improved or enhanced recovery projects during or at the end of the primary producing life of a property

  1. Simulation tools

    CERN Document Server

    Jenni, F

    2006-01-01

    In the last two decades, simulation tools made a significant contribution to the great progress in development of power electronics. Time to market was shortened and development costs were reduced drastically. Falling costs, as well as improved speed and precision, opened new fields of application. Today, continuous and switched circuits can be mixed. A comfortable number of powerful simulation tools is available. The users have to choose the best suitable for their application. Here a simple rule applies: The best available simulation tool is the tool the user is already used to (provided, it can solve the task). Abilities, speed, user friendliness and other features are continuously being improved—even though they are already powerful and comfortable. This paper aims at giving the reader an insight into the simulation of power electronics. Starting with a short description of the fundamentals of a simulation tool as well as properties of tools, several tools are presented. Starting with simplified models ...

  2. Statistics for economics

    CERN Document Server

    Naghshpour, Shahdad

    2012-01-01

    Statistics is the branch of mathematics that deals with real-life problems. As such, it is an essential tool for economists. Unfortunately, the way you and many other economists learn the concept of statistics is not compatible with the way economists think and learn. The problem is worsened by the use of mathematical jargon and complex derivations. Here's a book that proves none of this is necessary. All the examples and exercises in this book are constructed within the field of economics, thus eliminating the difficulty of learning statistics with examples from fields that have no relation to business, politics, or policy. Statistics is, in fact, not more difficult than economics. Anyone who can comprehend economics can understand and use statistics successfully within this field, including you! This book utilizes Microsoft Excel to obtain statistical results, as well as to perform additional necessary computations. Microsoft Excel is not the software of choice for performing sophisticated statistical analy...

  3. Economic impacts study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brunsen, W.; Worley, W.; Frost, E.

    1988-09-30

    This is a progress report on the first phase of a project to measure the economic impacts of a rapidly changing U.S. target base. The purpose of the first phase is to designate and test the macroeconomic impact analysis model. Criteria were established for a decision-support model. Additional criteria were defined for an interactive macroeconomic impact analysis model. After a review of several models, the Economic Impact Forecast System model of the U.S. Army Construction Research Laboratory was selected as the appropriate input-output tool that can address local and regional economic analysis. The model was applied to five test cases to demonstrate its utility and define possible revisions to meet project criteria. A plan for EIFS access was defined at three levels. Objectives and tasks for scenario refinement are proposed.

  4. A verified LLL algorithm

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Divasón, Jose; Joosten, Sebastiaan; Thiemann, René; Yamada, Akihisa

    2018-01-01

    The Lenstra-Lenstra-Lovász basis reduction algorithm, also known as LLL algorithm, is an algorithm to find a basis with short, nearly orthogonal vectors of an integer lattice. Thereby, it can also be seen as an approximation to solve the shortest vector problem (SVP), which is an NP-hard problem,

  5. Hydrologic-agronomic-economic model for the optimal operation of the Yaqui river reservoir system using genetic algorithms; Modelo hidrologico-agronomico-economico para la operacion optima del sistema de presas del rio Yaqui, usando algoritmos geneticos

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Minjares-Lugo, Jose Luis; Salmon-Castelo, Roberto Fernando; Oroz-Ramos, Lucas Antonio [Comision Nacional del Agua (Mexico); Cruz-Medina, Isidro Roberto [Instituto Tecnologico de Sonora (Mexico)

    2008-07-15

    The objective of this study is to develop an integrated hydrologic-agronomic-economic annual model for the optimal operation of the Yaqui River reservoir system to support irrigation and urban water supply in the watershed. The model solves for each year's water allocations by crop, maximizing annual agricultural income for a specified risk of reservoir shortages and spills. It accounts for adjustments in water supply arising from changes in precipitation and runoff uncertainty and from changes in water demand arising from variations in crop prices and production costs. Model predictions for the agricultural year 2000-2001 are compared with observed results to test the model's predictive ability. Results demonstrate that the model can be used to optimize and analyze reservoir system operation and for water resources management in the Irrigation District No. 041, providing a framework for improving the operation of a reservoir system, selecting an optimal cropping pattern according to its maximum economic benefits, and in the optimal monthly water releases from the reservoir system. The model considers the simultaneous operation of three dams and it is applied to the Irrigation District No. 041, Rio Yaqui. [Spanish] El objetivo de este estudio es desarrollar un modelo integral de optimizacion anual para definir la operacion del sistema de presas del rio Yaqui y la asignacion del volumen mensual de agua para la irrigacion de diferentes cultivos, asi como para satisfacer los requerimientos de uso urbano basado en las condiciones hidrologicas, agronomicas y economicas en la cuenca. El modelo maximiza los beneficios anuales netos del sector agricola, minimizando el riesgo de deficit o derrames en el sistema de presas; incluye cambios en el suministro de agua debido a la incertidumbre de las precipitaciones y del escurrimiento del rio y cambios en la demanda de agua provocados por la incertidumbre de los precios y costos de los cultivos. Se utilizaron datos del

  6. Environmental Economics

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    David Glover, Bhim Adhikari and Isabelle Proulx

    Economy and Environment Program for Southeast Asia. ERF. Economic ... economists can contribute to this work by estimating the monetary value of such environment-related benefits ... One of the few safe places to put money has been land, ...

  7. "New Economics"?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Jørgen Ulff-Møller

    1999-01-01

    The United States, the United Kingdom and Denmark have all enjoyed a long period of high stable growth and low inflation in the 1990s. Attempts to determine the implications of this have led to the so-called "New Economics", whose advocates claim that the relationship between economic growth and ...... and inflation has fundamentally changes. The following article tests this thesis against current data for the USA.......The United States, the United Kingdom and Denmark have all enjoyed a long period of high stable growth and low inflation in the 1990s. Attempts to determine the implications of this have led to the so-called "New Economics", whose advocates claim that the relationship between economic growth...

  8. Exploration economics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mcgill, R.E.

    1992-01-01

    This paper deals with determining the economic viability of the play or prospect. At the outset, one point is important. Preexploration economists are important because they enable geologists to see if their assumptions will prove profitable. Their assumptions must consider the full range of possible outcomes, even if only some portion of that range may contain prospects or plays that are estimated to be profitable. Play economics are preferable to prospect economics because, being the sum of several prospects, they give a broader view of the investment opportunity. Finally, remember that play and prospect economics are always slightly optimistic. They seldom include all of the exploration and overhead changes that must ultimately be borne by the successful prospects

  9. Adaptive Differential Evolution Approach for Constrained Economic Power Dispatch with Prohibited Operating Zones

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdellatif HAMOUDA

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Economic power dispatch (EPD is one of the main tools for optimal operation and planning of modern power systems. To solve effectively the EPD problem, most of the conventional calculus methods rely on the assumption that the fuel cost characteristic of a generating unit is a continuous and convex function, resulting in inaccurate dispatch. This paper presents the design and application of efficient adaptive differential evolution (ADE algorithm for the solution of the economic power dispatch problem, where the non-convex characteristics of the generators, such us prohibited operating zones and ramp rate limits of the practical generator operation are considered. The 26 bus benchmark test system with 6 units having prohibited operating zones and ramp rate limits was used for testing and validation purposes. The results obtained demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed method for solving the non-convex economic dispatch problem.

  10. Homo Oeconomicus and Behavioral Economics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Justyna Brzezicka

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Recent years have witnessed a growing interest in behavioral trends in both economic theory and practical applications. As a science with vast potential for explaining complex market behaviors, behavioral economics is drifting away from the classical model of homo oeconomicus deployed by mainstream economics. This paper discusses the significance and role of the homo oeconomicus model in light of behavioral economics. It analyzes the direction of changes affecting homo oeconomicus, examines the definition of anomalies within the context of behavioral economics and discusses the anomalous status of homo oeconomicus. The paper proposes a hypothesis that the attitude characterizing homo oeconomicus is unique and incidental. The presented interdisciplinary analysis relies on economics, behavioral economics, economic psychology, behavioral finance and the methodology of science to discuss the homo oeconomicus model. The paper reviews change trends in economics, which are largely propelled by advancements in behavioral economics. The key methodological tools deployed in this paper are theoretical analysis and a compilation of extensive research findings. The results were used to formulate new theories advocating the development of a modern approach to the homo oeconomicus model, recognizing its significance and the growing importance of behavioral economics.

  11. Nature-inspired optimization algorithms

    CERN Document Server

    Yang, Xin-She

    2014-01-01

    Nature-Inspired Optimization Algorithms provides a systematic introduction to all major nature-inspired algorithms for optimization. The book's unified approach, balancing algorithm introduction, theoretical background and practical implementation, complements extensive literature with well-chosen case studies to illustrate how these algorithms work. Topics include particle swarm optimization, ant and bee algorithms, simulated annealing, cuckoo search, firefly algorithm, bat algorithm, flower algorithm, harmony search, algorithm analysis, constraint handling, hybrid methods, parameter tuning

  12. Behavioral Economics

    OpenAIRE

    Sendhil Mullainathan; Richard H. Thaler

    2000-01-01

    Behavioral Economics is the combination of psychology and economics that investigates what happens in markets in which some of the agents display human limitations and complications. We begin with a preliminary question about relevance. Does some combination of market forces, learning and evolution render these human qualities irrelevant? No. Because of limits of arbitrage less than perfect agents survive and influence market outcomes. We then discuss three important ways in which humans devi...

  13. Building economics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, D.O.(red.)

    Publikationen er på engelsk. Den omfatter alle indlæg på det fjerde internationale symposium om byggeøkonomi, der blev arrangeret af SBI for det internationale byggeforskningsråd CIB. De fem bind omhandler: Methods of Economic Evaluation, Design Optimization, Ressource Utilization, The Building...... Market og Economics and Technological Forecasting in Construction. Et indledende bind bringer statusrapporter for de fem forskningsområder, og det sidste bind sammenfatter debatten på symposiet....

  14. Behavioral economics

    OpenAIRE

    Camerer, Colin F.

    2014-01-01

    Economics, like behavioral psychology, is a science of behavior, albeit highly organized human behavior. The value of economic concepts for behavioral psychology rests on (1) their empirical validity when tested in the laboratory with individual subjects and (2) their uniqueness when compared to established behavioral concepts. Several fundamental concepts are introduced and illustrated by reference to experimental data: open and closed economies, elastic and inelastic demand, and substitutio...

  15. VISUALIZATION OF PAGERANK ALGORITHM

    OpenAIRE

    Perhaj, Ervin

    2013-01-01

    The goal of the thesis is to develop a web application that help users understand the functioning of the PageRank algorithm. The thesis consists of two parts. First we develop an algorithm to calculate PageRank values of web pages. The input of algorithm is a list of web pages and links between them. The user enters the list through the web interface. From the data the algorithm calculates PageRank value for each page. The algorithm repeats the process, until the difference of PageRank va...

  16. Parallel sorting algorithms

    CERN Document Server

    Akl, Selim G

    1985-01-01

    Parallel Sorting Algorithms explains how to use parallel algorithms to sort a sequence of items on a variety of parallel computers. The book reviews the sorting problem, the parallel models of computation, parallel algorithms, and the lower bounds on the parallel sorting problems. The text also presents twenty different algorithms, such as linear arrays, mesh-connected computers, cube-connected computers. Another example where algorithm can be applied is on the shared-memory SIMD (single instruction stream multiple data stream) computers in which the whole sequence to be sorted can fit in the

  17. Modified Clipped LMS Algorithm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lotfizad Mojtaba

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract A new algorithm is proposed for updating the weights of an adaptive filter. The proposed algorithm is a modification of an existing method, namely, the clipped LMS, and uses a three-level quantization ( scheme that involves the threshold clipping of the input signals in the filter weight update formula. Mathematical analysis shows the convergence of the filter weights to the optimum Wiener filter weights. Also, it can be proved that the proposed modified clipped LMS (MCLMS algorithm has better tracking than the LMS algorithm. In addition, this algorithm has reduced computational complexity relative to the unmodified one. By using a suitable threshold, it is possible to increase the tracking capability of the MCLMS algorithm compared to the LMS algorithm, but this causes slower convergence. Computer simulations confirm the mathematical analysis presented.

  18. SIMULATION TOOLS FOR ELECTRICAL MACHINES MODELLING ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Dr Obe

    ABSTRACT. Simulation tools are used both for research and teaching to allow a good ... The solution provide an easy way of determining the dynamic .... incorporate an in-built numerical algorithm, ... to learn, versatile in application, enhanced.

  19. Loading pattern optimization using ant colony algorithm

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hoareau, Fabrice

    2008-01-01

    Electricite de France (EDF) operates 58 nuclear power plants (NPP), of the Pressurized Water Reactor type. The loading pattern optimization of these NPP is currently done by EDF expert engineers. Within this framework, EDF R and D has developed automatic optimization tools that assist the experts. LOOP is an industrial tool, developed by EDF R and D and based on a simulated annealing algorithm. In order to improve the results of such automatic tools, new optimization methods have to be tested. Ant Colony Optimization (ACO) algorithms are recent methods that have given very good results on combinatorial optimization problems. In order to evaluate the performance of such methods on loading pattern optimization, direct comparisons between LOOP and a mock-up based on the Max-Min Ant System algorithm (a particular variant of ACO algorithms) were made on realistic test-cases. It is shown that the results obtained by the ACO mock-up are very similar to those of LOOP. Future research will consist in improving these encouraging results by using parallelization and by hybridizing the ACO algorithm with local search procedures. (author)

  20. Glint Field Trial Results and Application to Glint Threshold Distance Algorithm

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Chevalier, William

    1998-01-01

    .... Glint threshold algorithm. Software adjustments would tentatively be made to the existing algorithm to improve glint threshold distance calculation accuracy, making the modified model a better iterative eye armor design tool...

  1. Voodoo Economics:Voodoo Economics

    OpenAIRE

    Briones Alonso, Elena

    2017-01-01

    This dissertation collects three essays that aim to contribute to the field of cultural economics. There is growing recognition among economists and policy makers that culture matters for economic development, but in many cases this trend has not resulted in a thorough understanding of the role of culture, or a proper integration of existing knowledge in policy. This is particularly true for the area of food security. The second chapter addresses this issue by reviewing existing cross-discipl...

  2. Tool for economic and environmental analysis of hybrid plants for district cooling and district heating - 'District cooling 2.0'. Final report and user guide; Vaerktoej til oekonomisk og miljoemaessig analyse af hybridanlaeg til fjernkoeling og fjernvarme. Fjernkoel 2.0. Slutrapport og brugermanual

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2013-03-15

    The purpose of the tool is to help bring district cooling solutions into consideration by facilitating rapid technical / economic and environmental analysis of district cooling solutions - also with heat pump operation. The tool is a screening tool intended for specific cases with actual data from reality. The tool can analyze the simultaneous production of heat and cooling, and use of storage can make district cooling even more profitable. It is also possible to analyze the importance of flexible electricity and heating prices and see how they can be utilized, including the calculation of the probable prices on heating and cooling, and investments. The tool can make calculations on the following plant types: - Systems with only cooling without cold storage; - Systems with only cooling with cold storage; - Systems with cooling and heating controlled by cooling - with heat storage; - Systems with heating and cooling controlled by heating - with heating and cooling storage; - Systems with cooling and heating with optimized management - with heat storage. The tool can also be used to make general assessments, for example, to analyze the importance of flexible electricity and heating prices of typical district cooling systems, and for that matter, heat pump systems. (LN)

  3. IGARSS 89: Canadian Symposium on Remote Sensing (12th) (Symposium Canadien sur la Teledetection): Quantitative Remote Sensing: An Economic Tool for the Nineties Held in Vancouver, Canada on 10-14 July 1989. Volume 2. Tuesday, July 11

    Science.gov (United States)

    1989-07-14

    active SAR calibration up bottom of lake, a flat desert, a surface of the target (Brunfeldt, 1982) is commonly used because still water or a largo place...Margalef, R., "Composicion y distribucion del Smith, and R. G. Steward, "Remote Sensing fitoplancton", Memoria , Sociedad de algorithms for

  4. Dynamic Uniform Scaling for Multiobjective Genetic Algorithms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Gerulf; Goldberg, David E.

    2004-01-01

    Before Multiobjective Evolutionary Algorithms (MOEAs) can be used as a widespread tool for solving arbitrary real world problems there are some salient issues which require further investigation. One of these issues is how a uniform distribution of solutions along the Pareto non-dominated front c...

  5. Dynamic Uniform Scaling for Multiobjective Genetic Algorithms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Gerulf; Goldberg, D.E.

    2004-01-01

    Before Multiobjective Evolutionary Algorithms (MOEAs) can be used as a widespread tool for solving arbitrary real world problems there are some salient issues which require further investigation. One of these issues is how a uniform distribution of solutions along the Pareto non-dominated front can...

  6. Semioptimal practicable algorithmic cooling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Elias, Yuval; Mor, Tal; Weinstein, Yossi

    2011-01-01

    Algorithmic cooling (AC) of spins applies entropy manipulation algorithms in open spin systems in order to cool spins far beyond Shannon's entropy bound. Algorithmic cooling of nuclear spins was demonstrated experimentally and may contribute to nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy. Several cooling algorithms were suggested in recent years, including practicable algorithmic cooling (PAC) and exhaustive AC. Practicable algorithms have simple implementations, yet their level of cooling is far from optimal; exhaustive algorithms, on the other hand, cool much better, and some even reach (asymptotically) an optimal level of cooling, but they are not practicable. We introduce here semioptimal practicable AC (SOPAC), wherein a few cycles (typically two to six) are performed at each recursive level. Two classes of SOPAC algorithms are proposed and analyzed. Both attain cooling levels significantly better than PAC and are much more efficient than the exhaustive algorithms. These algorithms are shown to bridge the gap between PAC and exhaustive AC. In addition, we calculated the number of spins required by SOPAC in order to purify qubits for quantum computation. As few as 12 and 7 spins are required (in an ideal scenario) to yield a mildly pure spin (60% polarized) from initial polarizations of 1% and 10%, respectively. In the latter case, about five more spins are sufficient to produce a highly pure spin (99.99% polarized), which could be relevant for fault-tolerant quantum computing.

  7. Synthesis algorithm of VLSI multipliers for ASIC

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chua, O. H.; Eldin, A. G.

    1993-01-01

    Multipliers are critical sub-blocks in ASIC design, especially for digital signal processing and communications applications. A flexible multiplier synthesis tool is developed which is capable of generating multiplier blocks for word size in the range of 4 to 256 bits. A comparison of existing multiplier algorithms is made in terms of speed, silicon area, and suitability for automated synthesis and verification of its VLSI implementation. The algorithm divides the range of supported word sizes into sub-ranges and provides each sub-range with a specific multiplier architecture for optimal speed and area. The algorithm of the synthesis tool and the multiplier architectures are presented. Circuit implementation and the automated synthesis methodology are discussed.

  8. Economic fables

    OpenAIRE

    Moran, Shane

    2010-01-01

    I had the good fortune to grow up in a wonderful area of Jerusalem, surrounded by a diverse range of people: Rabbi Meizel, the communist Sala Marcel, my widowed Aunt Hannah, and the intellectual Yaacovson. As far as I'm concerned, the opinion of such people is just as authoritative for making social and economic decisions as the opinion of an expert using a model. Part memoir, part crash-course in economic theory, this deeply engaging book by one of the world's foremost economists looks at ...

  9. SeqCompress: an algorithm for biological sequence compression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sardaraz, Muhammad; Tahir, Muhammad; Ikram, Ataul Aziz; Bajwa, Hassan

    2014-10-01

    The growth of Next Generation Sequencing technologies presents significant research challenges, specifically to design bioinformatics tools that handle massive amount of data efficiently. Biological sequence data storage cost has become a noticeable proportion of total cost in the generation and analysis. Particularly increase in DNA sequencing rate is significantly outstripping the rate of increase in disk storage capacity, which may go beyond the limit of storage capacity. It is essential to develop algorithms that handle large data sets via better memory management. This article presents a DNA sequence compression algorithm SeqCompress that copes with the space complexity of biological sequences. The algorithm is based on lossless data compression and uses statistical model as well as arithmetic coding to compress DNA sequences. The proposed algorithm is compared with recent specialized compression tools for biological sequences. Experimental results show that proposed algorithm has better compression gain as compared to other existing algorithms. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Recursive forgetting algorithms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Parkum, Jens; Poulsen, Niels Kjølstad; Holst, Jan

    1992-01-01

    In the first part of the paper, a general forgetting algorithm is formulated and analysed. It contains most existing forgetting schemes as special cases. Conditions are given ensuring that the basic convergence properties will hold. In the second part of the paper, the results are applied...... to a specific algorithm with selective forgetting. Here, the forgetting is non-uniform in time and space. The theoretical analysis is supported by a simulation example demonstrating the practical performance of this algorithm...

  11. ANT Advanced Neural Tool

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Labrador, I.; Carrasco, R.; Martinez, L.

    1996-07-01

    This paper describes a practical introduction to the use of Artificial Neural Networks. Artificial Neural Nets are often used as an alternative to the traditional symbolic manipulation and first order logic used in Artificial Intelligence, due the high degree of difficulty to solve problems that can not be handled by programmers using algorithmic strategies. As a particular case of Neural Net a Multilayer Perception developed by programming in C language on OS9 real time operating system is presented. A detailed description about the program structure and practical use are included. Finally, several application examples that have been treated with the tool are presented, and some suggestions about hardware implementations. (Author) 15 refs.

  12. ANT Advanced Neural Tool

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Labrador, I.; Carrasco, R.; Martinez, L.

    1996-01-01

    This paper describes a practical introduction to the use of Artificial Neural Networks. Artificial Neural Nets are often used as an alternative to the traditional symbolic manipulation and first order logic used in Artificial Intelligence, due the high degree of difficulty to solve problems that can not be handled by programmers using algorithmic strategies. As a particular case of Neural Net a Multilayer Perception developed by programming in C language on OS9 real time operating system is presented. A detailed description about the program structure and practical use are included. Finally, several application examples that have been treated with the tool are presented, and some suggestions about hardware implementations. (Author) 15 refs

  13. Fractal Landscape Algorithms for Environmental Simulations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mao, H.; Moran, S.

    2014-12-01

    Natural science and geographical research are now able to take advantage of environmental simulations that more accurately test experimental hypotheses, resulting in deeper understanding. Experiments affected by the natural environment can benefit from 3D landscape simulations capable of simulating a variety of terrains and environmental phenomena. Such simulations can employ random terrain generation algorithms that dynamically simulate environments to test specific models against a variety of factors. Through the use of noise functions such as Perlin noise, Simplex noise, and diamond square algorithms, computers can generate simulations that model a variety of landscapes and ecosystems. This study shows how these algorithms work together to create realistic landscapes. By seeding values into the diamond square algorithm, one can control the shape of landscape. Perlin noise and Simplex noise are also used to simulate moisture and temperature. The smooth gradient created by coherent noise allows more realistic landscapes to be simulated. Terrain generation algorithms can be used in environmental studies and physics simulations. Potential studies that would benefit from simulations include the geophysical impact of flash floods or drought on a particular region and regional impacts on low lying area due to global warming and rising sea levels. Furthermore, terrain generation algorithms also serve as aesthetic tools to display landscapes (Google Earth), and simulate planetary landscapes. Hence, it can be used as a tool to assist science education. Algorithms used to generate these natural phenomena provide scientists a different approach in analyzing our world. The random algorithms used in terrain generation not only contribute to the generating the terrains themselves, but are also capable of simulating weather patterns.

  14. Algorithms in Algebraic Geometry

    CERN Document Server

    Dickenstein, Alicia; Sommese, Andrew J

    2008-01-01

    In the last decade, there has been a burgeoning of activity in the design and implementation of algorithms for algebraic geometric computation. Some of these algorithms were originally designed for abstract algebraic geometry, but now are of interest for use in applications and some of these algorithms were originally designed for applications, but now are of interest for use in abstract algebraic geometry. The workshop on Algorithms in Algebraic Geometry that was held in the framework of the IMA Annual Program Year in Applications of Algebraic Geometry by the Institute for Mathematics and Its

  15. Shadow algorithms data miner

    CERN Document Server

    Woo, Andrew

    2012-01-01

    Digital shadow generation continues to be an important aspect of visualization and visual effects in film, games, simulations, and scientific applications. This resource offers a thorough picture of the motivations, complexities, and categorized algorithms available to generate digital shadows. From general fundamentals to specific applications, it addresses shadow algorithms and how to manage huge data sets from a shadow perspective. The book also examines the use of shadow algorithms in industrial applications, in terms of what algorithms are used and what software is applicable.

  16. Spectral Decomposition Algorithm (SDA)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Spectral Decomposition Algorithm (SDA) is an unsupervised feature extraction technique similar to PCA that was developed to better distinguish spectral features in...

  17. Quick fuzzy backpropagation algorithm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nikov, A; Stoeva, S

    2001-03-01

    A modification of the fuzzy backpropagation (FBP) algorithm called QuickFBP algorithm is proposed, where the computation of the net function is significantly quicker. It is proved that the FBP algorithm is of exponential time complexity, while the QuickFBP algorithm is of polynomial time complexity. Convergence conditions of the QuickFBP, resp. the FBP algorithm are defined and proved for: (1) single output neural networks in case of training patterns with different targets; and (2) multiple output neural networks in case of training patterns with equivalued target vector. They support the automation of the weights training process (quasi-unsupervised learning) establishing the target value(s) depending on the network's input values. In these cases the simulation results confirm the convergence of both algorithms. An example with a large-sized neural network illustrates the significantly greater training speed of the QuickFBP rather than the FBP algorithm. The adaptation of an interactive web system to users on the basis of the QuickFBP algorithm is presented. Since the QuickFBP algorithm ensures quasi-unsupervised learning, this implies its broad applicability in areas of adaptive and adaptable interactive systems, data mining, etc. applications.

  18. Portfolios of quantum algorithms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maurer, S M; Hogg, T; Huberman, B A

    2001-12-17

    Quantum computation holds promise for the solution of many intractable problems. However, since many quantum algorithms are stochastic in nature they can find the solution of hard problems only probabilistically. Thus the efficiency of the algorithms has to be characterized by both the expected time to completion and the associated variance. In order to minimize both the running time and its uncertainty, we show that portfolios of quantum algorithms analogous to those of finance can outperform single algorithms when applied to the NP-complete problems such as 3-satisfiability.

  19. Exact and Heuristic Algorithms for Runway Scheduling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malik, Waqar A.; Jung, Yoon C.

    2016-01-01

    This paper explores the Single Runway Scheduling (SRS) problem with arrivals, departures, and crossing aircraft on the airport surface. Constraints for wake vortex separations, departure area navigation separations and departure time window restrictions are explicitly considered. The main objective of this research is to develop exact and heuristic based algorithms that can be used in real-time decision support tools for Air Traffic Control Tower (ATCT) controllers. The paper provides a multi-objective dynamic programming (DP) based algorithm that finds the exact solution to the SRS problem, but may prove unusable for application in real-time environment due to large computation times for moderate sized problems. We next propose a second algorithm that uses heuristics to restrict the search space for the DP based algorithm. A third algorithm based on a combination of insertion and local search (ILS) heuristics is then presented. Simulation conducted for the east side of Dallas/Fort Worth International Airport allows comparison of the three proposed algorithms and indicates that the ILS algorithm performs favorably in its ability to find efficient solutions and its computation times.

  20. Economic considerations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Burns, W.A. Jr.

    1980-01-01

    A brief qualitative comparison of the technical differences between liquid membranes and three other technologies: biological treatment, ion exchange and solvent extraction is presented. It is shown how the differences can result in substantial economic advantages. For uranium recovery from phosphoric acid a lower organic loss is achieved by the liquid membrane than by the solvent extraction process. (U.K.)