WorldWideScience

Sample records for economic process requirements

  1. Economic analysis of solar industrial process heat systems: A methodology to determine annual required revenue and internal rate of return

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dickinson, W. C.; Brown, K. C.

    1981-08-01

    An economic evaluation of solar industrial process heat systems, is developed to determine the annual required revenue and the internal rate of return. First, a format is provided to estimate the solar system's installed cost, annual operating and maintenance expenses, and net annual solar energy delivered to the industrial process. The annual required revenue and the price of solar is calculated. The economic attractiveness of the potential solar investment can be determined by comparing the price of solar energy with the price of fossilfuel, both expressed in levelized terms. This requires calcuation of the internal rate of return on the solar investment or, in certain cases, the growth rate of return.

  2. Core Requirements for the Economics Major

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petkus, Marie; Perry, John J.; Johnson, Bruce K.

    2014-01-01

    In this article, the authors are the first to describe the core economics curriculum requirements for economics majors at all American colleges and universities, as opposed to a sample of institutions. Not surprisingly, principles of economics is nearly universally required and implemented as a two-semester course in 85 percent of economics major…

  3. Global economic processes and Ukraine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Svitlana Radzievska

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents main trends in global economic development and impact thereof on Ukraine. A characteristic feature of the contemporary world is acceleration of globalization caused by achievements of the scientific and technological progress, which have provided technical means for successful overcoming the factors of time and space, whereby making the world more compact and ensuring the possibility of functioning as a single economic mechanism. Growing of opportunities for solving global problems is accompanied by aggravation of the latter such as: population growth, depletion of natural resources, deterioration of the environment, the mounting danger of climatic changes, potential failure to provide people with foods and potable water. Growth of social inequality in the world is also observed, as is increased differentiation of population by income level, which intensifies migration processes and thereby creates new problems related to coexistence of people belonging to different civilizations, cultures and value systems. An integral part of globalization is formation of regional associations which requires Ukraine to participate in this phase of globalization by means of becoming a member of a regional integration association with the purpose of improving its competitiveness and ensuring decent living for Ukrainian people under conditions of humanity functioning as a single planetary organism

  4. Economic assessment of sterifeed process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mat Rasol Awang; Hassan Hamdani Mutaat

    2004-01-01

    The economics of a processing technology depends on its cost. Two types of costs commonly used in the estimation are a fixed cost and the other is variable cost. The cost structure that included in the fixed cost, mainly, the cost of land, building and machineries, and the variable cost covers raw materials, salary / wages, utilities, irradiation charge, other miscellaneous expenses and contingencies. The assessment were made by treating the economic data using discounted cash flow projection method to deduce the economic indicators: Net Present Value (NPV), Internal Rate of Return (IRR), Benefit to Cost (B/C) ratio, that would suggest the project feasibility, either feasible or otherwise. The NPV, IRR, B/C deduced from Sterifeed Process showed the economic of this technology was infeasible due high cost incurred in transportation, labour as well as the cost of machinery. This is accomplished by sensitivity test performed on these cost components. However, cost structure derived from Sterifeed Plant serves as a model cost structure for economic assessment in production of Sterifeed, a fermented ruminant feed, and to work further on the economic of the project. This paper discuss economic evaluation of Sterifeed process in different scenarios that carried out in the Sterifeed process operations and deduction were made to derive a model production unit for commercialisation. (Author)

  5. Heavy oils processing materials requirements crude processing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sloley, Andrew W. [CH2M Hill, Englewood, CO (United States)

    2012-07-01

    Over time, recommended best practices for crude unit materials selection have evolved to accommodate new operating requirements, feed qualities, and product qualities. The shift to heavier oil processing is one of the major changes in crude feed quality occurring over the last 20 years. The three major types of crude unit corrosion include sulfidation attack, naphthenic acid attack, and corrosion resulting from hydrolyzable chlorides. Heavy oils processing makes all three areas worse. Heavy oils have higher sulfur content; higher naphthenic acid content; and are more difficult to desalt, leading to higher chloride corrosion rates. Materials selection involves two major criteria, meeting required safety standards, and optimizing economics of the overall plant. Proper materials selection is only one component of a plant integrity approach. Materials selection cannot eliminate all corrosion. Proper materials selection requires appropriate support from other elements of an integrity protection program. The elements of integrity preservation include: materials selection (type and corrosion allowance); management limits on operating conditions allowed; feed quality control; chemical additives for corrosion reduction; and preventive maintenance and inspection (PMI). The following discussion must be taken in the context of the application of required supporting work in all the other areas. Within that context, specific materials recommendations are made to minimize corrosion due to the most common causes in the crude unit. (author)

  6. ECONOMIC MODELING PROCESSES USING MATLAB

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anamaria G. MACOVEI

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available To study economic phenomena and processes using mathem atical modeling, and to determine the approximatesolution to a problem we need to choose a method of calculation and a numerical computer program, namely thepackage of programs MatLab. Any economic process or phenomenon is a mathematical description of h is behavior,and thus draw up an economic and mathematical model that has the following stages: formulation of the problem, theanalysis process modeling, the production model and design verification, validation and implementation of the model.This article is presented an economic model and its modeling is using mathematical equations and software packageMatLab, which helps us approximation effective solution. As data entry is considered the net cost, the cost of direct andtotal cost and the link between them. I presented the basic formula for determining the total cost. Economic modelcalculations were made in MatLab software package and with graphic representation of its interpretation of the resultsachieved in terms of our specific problem.

  7. Mathematical modelling in economic processes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L.V. Kravtsova

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available In article are considered a number of methods of mathematical modelling of economic processes and opportunities of use of spreadsheets Excel for reception of the optimum decision of tasks or calculation of financial operations with the help of the built-in functions.

  8. Techno-economic requirements for automotive composites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arnold, Scot

    1993-01-01

    New technology generally serves two main goals of the automotive industry: one is to enable vehicles to comply with various governmental regulations and the other is to provide a competitive edge in the market. The latter goal can either be served through improved manufacturing and design capabilities, such as computer aided design and computer aided manufacturing, or through improved product performance, such as anti-lock braking (ABS). Although safety features are sometimes customer driven, such as the increasing use of airbags and ABS, most are determined by regulations as outlined by the Federal Motor Vehicle Safety Standards (FMVSS). Other standards, set by the Environmental Protection Agency, determine acceptable levels of emissions and fuel consumption. State governments, such as in California, are also setting precedent standards, such as requiring manufacturers to offer zero-emission vehicles as a certain fraction of their sales in the state. The drive to apply new materials in the automobile stems from the need to reduce weight and improve fuel efficiency. Topics discussed include: new lightweight materials; types of automotive materials; automotive composite applications; the role for composite materials in automotive applications; advantages and disadvantages of composite materials; material substitution economics; economic perspective; production economics; and composite materials production economics.

  9. Modeling and simulation of economic processes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bogdan Brumar

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available In general, any activity requires a longer action often characterized by a degree of uncertainty, insecurity, in terms of size of the objective pursued. Because of the complexity of real economic systems, the stochastic dependencies between different variables and parameters considered, not all systems can be adequately represented by a model that can be solved by analytical methods and covering all issues for management decision analysis-economic horizon real. Often in such cases, it is considered that the simulation technique is the only alternative available. Using simulation techniques to study real-world systems often requires a laborious work. Making a simulation experiment is a process that takes place in several stages.

  10. Climate Change Accuracy: Requirements and Economic Value

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wielicki, B. A.; Cooke, R.; Mlynczak, M. G.; Lukashin, C.; Thome, K. J.; Baize, R. R.

    2014-12-01

    Higher than normal accuracy is required to rigorously observe decadal climate change. But what level is needed? How can this be quantified? This presentation will summarize a new more rigorous and quantitative approach to determining the required accuracy for climate change observations (Wielicki et al., 2013, BAMS). Most current global satellite observations cannot meet this accuracy level. A proposed new satellite mission to resolve this challenge is CLARREO (Climate Absolute Radiance and Refractivity Observatory). CLARREO is designed to achieve advances of a factor of 10 for reflected solar spectra and a factor of 3 to 5 for thermal infrared spectra (Wielicki et al., Oct. 2013 BAMS). The CLARREO spectrometers are designed to serve as SI traceable benchmarks for the Global Satellite Intercalibration System (GSICS) and to greatly improve the utility of a wide range of LEO and GEO infrared and reflected solar passive satellite sensors for climate change observations (e.g. CERES, MODIS, VIIIRS, CrIS, IASI, Landsat, SPOT, etc). Providing more accurate decadal change trends can in turn lead to more rapid narrowing of key climate science uncertainties such as cloud feedback and climate sensitivity. A study has been carried out to quantify the economic benefits of such an advance as part of a rigorous and complete climate observing system. The study concludes that the economic value is $12 Trillion U.S. dollars in Net Present Value for a nominal discount rate of 3% (Cooke et al. 2013, J. Env. Sys. Dec.). A brief summary of these two studies and their implications for the future of climate science will be presented.

  11. Fairness requires deliberation: The primacy of economic over social considerations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guy eHochman

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available While both economic and social considerations of fairness and equity play an important role in financial decision-making, it is not clear which of these two motives is more primal and immediate and which one is secondary and slow. Here we used variants of the ultimatum game to examine this question. Experiment 1 shows that acceptance rate of unfair offers increases when participants are asked to base their choice on their gut-feelings, as compared to when they thoroughly consider the available information. In line with these results, Experiments 2 and 3 provide process evidence that individuals prefer to first examine economic information about their own utility rather than social information about equity and fairness, even at the price of foregoing such social information. Our results suggest that people are more economically rational at the core, but social considerations (e.g., inequality aversion require deliberation, which under certain conditions override their self-interested impulses.

  12. Fairness requires deliberation: the primacy of economic over social considerations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hochman, Guy; Ayal, Shahar; Ariely, Dan

    2015-01-01

    While both economic and social considerations of fairness and equity play an important role in financial decision-making, it is not clear which of these two motives is more primal and immediate and which one is secondary and slow. Here we used variants of the ultimatum game to examine this question. Experiment 1 shows that acceptance rate of unfair offers increases when participants are asked to base their choice on their gut-feelings, as compared to when they thoroughly consider the available information. In line with these results, Experiments 2 and 3 provide process evidence that individuals prefer to first examine economic information about their own utility rather than social information about equity and fairness, even at the price of foregoing such social information. Our results suggest that people are more economically rational at the core, but social considerations (e.g., inequality aversion) require deliberation, which under certain conditions override their self-interested impulses. PMID:26106342

  13. Fairness requires deliberation: the primacy of economic over social considerations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hochman, Guy; Ayal, Shahar; Ariely, Dan

    2015-01-01

    While both economic and social considerations of fairness and equity play an important role in financial decision-making, it is not clear which of these two motives is more primal and immediate and which one is secondary and slow. Here we used variants of the ultimatum game to examine this question. Experiment 1 shows that acceptance rate of unfair offers increases when participants are asked to base their choice on their gut-feelings, as compared to when they thoroughly consider the available information. In line with these results, Experiments 2 and 3 provide process evidence that individuals prefer to first examine economic information about their own utility rather than social information about equity and fairness, even at the price of foregoing such social information. Our results suggest that people are more economically rational at the core, but social considerations (e.g., inequality aversion) require deliberation, which under certain conditions override their self-interested impulses.

  14. 50 CFR 253.14 - Economic and financial requirements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 7 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Economic and financial requirements. 253... Obligation Guarantee Program § 253.14 Economic and financial requirements. (a) Income and expense projections... protect the U.S. against the industry's cyclical economics and other risks of loss. (b) Working capital...

  15. Economics of gamma irradiation processing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tani, Toshio

    1980-01-01

    The gamma-ray irradiation business started at the Takasaki Laboratory of Japan Atomic Energy Research Institute. The irradiation facilities were constructed thereafter at various sites. The facilities must accept various types of irradiation, and must be constructed as multi-purpose facilities. The cost of irradiation consists of the cost of gamma sources, construction expense, personnel expense, management expense, and bank interest. Most of the expenses are considered to be fixed expense, and the amount of irradiation treatment decides the original costs of work. The relation between the irradiation dose and the construction expense shows the larger facility is more economical. The increase of amount of treatment reduces the original cost. The utilization efficiency becomes important when the amount of treatment and the source intensity exceed some values. The principal subjects of gamma-ray irradiation business are the sterilization of medical tools and foods for aseptic animals, the improvement of quality of plastic goods, and the irradiation of foods. Among them, the most important subject is the sterilization of medical tools. The cost of gamma irradiation per m 3 in still more expensive than that by ethylene oxide gas sterilization. However, the demand of gamma-ray irradiation is increasing. For the improvement of quality of plastic goods, electron irradiation is more favourable than the gamma irradiation. In near future, the economical balance of gamma irradiation can be achieved. (Kato, T.)

  16. Economics of natural gas conversion processes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gradassi, M.J.; Green, N.W.

    1995-01-01

    This paper examines the potential profitability of a selected group of possible natural gas conversion processes from the perspective of a manufacturing entity that has access to substantial low cost natural gas reserves, capital to invest, and no allegiance to any particular product. The analysis uses the revenues and costs of conventional methanol technology as a framework to evaluate the economics of the alternative technologies. Capital requirements and the potential to enhance cash margins are the primary focus of the analysis. The basis of the analysis is a world-scale conventional methanol plant that converts 3.2 Mm 3 per day (120 MMSCFD) of natural gas into 3510 metric tonnes (3869 shorts tons) per day of methanol. Capital and operating costs are for an arbitrary remote location where natural gas is available at 0.47 US dollars per GJ (0.50 US dollars per MMBtu). Other costs include ocean freight to deliver the product to market at a US Gulf Coast location. Payout time, which is the ratio of the total capital investment to cash margin (revenue less total operating expenses), is the economic indicator for the analysis. Under these conditions, the payout time for the methanol plant is seven years. The payout time for the alternative natural gas conversion technologies is generally much higher, which indicates that they currently are not candidates for commercialization without consideration of special incentives. The analysis also includes an evaluation of the effects of process yields on the economics of two potential technologies, oxidative coupling to ethylene and direct conversion to methanol. This analysis suggests areas for research focus that might improve the profitability of natural gas conversion. 29 refs., 14 figs., 5 tabs

  17. Preliminary economic evaluation of the Alkox process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Silva, L.J.; Lilga, M.A.; Camaioni, D.M.; Snowden, L.J.

    1991-09-01

    A new chemical process has been invented at Battelle Pacific Northwest Laboratories for converting alkanes to alcohols. This new chemistry has been named the ''Alkox Process.'' Pacific Northwest Laboratory prepared a preliminary economic analysis for converting cyclohexane to cyclohexanol, which may be one of the most attractive applications of the Alkox process. A process flow scheme and a material balance were prepared to support rough equipment sizing and costing. The results from the economic analysis are presented in the non-proprietary section of this report. The process details, including the flow diagram and material balance, are contained in separate section of this report that is proprietary to Battelle. 7 refs., 4 tabs

  18. Aerodynamic isotope separation processes for uranium enrichment: process requirements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Malling, G.F.; Von Halle, E.

    1976-01-01

    The pressing need for enriched uranium to fuel nuclear power reactors, requiring that as many as ten large uranium isotope separation plants be built during the next twenty years, has inspired an increase of interest in isotope separation processes for uranium enrichment. Aerodynamic isotope separation processes have been prominently mentioned along with the gas centrifuge process and the laser isotope separation methods as alternatives to the gaseous diffusion process, currently in use, for these future plants. Commonly included in the category of aerodynamic isotope separation processes are: (a) the separation nozzle process; (b) opposed gas jets; (c) the gas vortex; (d) the separation probes; (e) interacting molecular beams; (f) jet penetration processes; and (g) time of flight separation processes. A number of these aerodynamic isotope separation processes depend, as does the gas centrifuge process, on pressure diffusion associated with curved streamlines for the basic separation effect. Much can be deduced about the process characteristics and the economic potential of such processes from a simple and elementary process model. In particular, the benefit to be gained from a light carrier gas added to the uranium feed is clearly demonstrated. The model also illustrates the importance of transient effects in this class of processes

  19. Economic Requirements of Water Resources Management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nasser Khiabani

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Indicators of water resources status and water consumption in Iran reveal an imbalance between supply and demand. This is compounded by the current unrealistic water price that signals the inefficiency of the water market in Iran. In economics parlance, the most important factors responsible for the low efficiency of water market are inaccurate valuation and failure to define the ownership rights of water. Low prices, low sensitivity of water demand to prices, and the lack of proper inputs as substitutes for water resources have collectively contributed to excessive pressures on the available water resources for domestic, industrial, and agricultural uses. A brief glance reveals that water resources in Iran are merely priced based on cost accounting. This is while study has shown that developed countries adopt approaches to water pricing that not only consider the final cost of water but also take into account such other parameters that are affected by intrinsic value of water including its bequest and existence values. The present paper draws upon the concepts of value, expenses, and pricing of water in an attempt to explore the marketing and pricing of water resources as the two major tools economists employ in the management of these resources. It is the objective of the study to arrive at an accurate definition of ownership rights of water resources to improve upon the present water marketing. In doing so, the more important components of modern pricing strategies adopted by developed nations will also be investigated. Results indicate that the present cost accounting method used in pricing water in Iran will in the long-run lead to the wastage of water resources and that it should, therefore, be given up in favor modern and more realistic policies to avoid such waste of resources.

  20. Standardizing economic analysis in prevention will require substantial effort.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guyll, Max

    2014-12-01

    It is exceedingly difficult to compare results of economic analyses across studies due to variations in assumptions, methodology, and outcome measures, a fact which surely decreases the impact and usefulness of prevention-related economic research. Therefore, Crowley et al. (Prevention Science, 2013) are precisely correct in their call for increased standardization and have usefully highlighted the issues that must be addressed. However, having made the need clear, the questions become what form the solution should take, and how should it be implemented. The present discussion outlines the rudiments of a comprehensive framework for promoting standardized methodology in the estimation of economic outcomes, as encouraged by Crowley et al. In short, a single, standard, reference case approach should be clearly articulated, and all economic research should be encouraged to apply that standard approach, with results from compliant analyses being reported in a central archive. Properly done, the process would increase the ability of those without specialized training to contribute to the body of economic research pertaining to prevention, and the most difficult tasks of predicting and monetizing distal outcomes would be readily completed through predetermined models. These recommendations might be viewed as somewhat forcible, insomuch as they advocate for prescribing the details of a standard methodology and establishing a means of verifying compliance. However, it is unclear that the best practices proposed by Crowley et al. will be widely adopted in the absence of a strong and determined approach.

  1. Economic analysis of waste recycle process in perhydropolysiloxazane synthesis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yun, Huichan; Yeom, Seungjong; Yang, Dae Ryook

    2014-01-01

    The perhydropolysiloxazane (PHPS) solution has been widely used in the spin-on-dielectric (SOD) process to form silicon oxide layer on a wafer in semiconductor industries. To reduce the whole semiconductor manufacturing cost, the process of PHPS solution production requires high productivity as well as low production cost. A large portion of the PHPS solution production cost is attributed to the large usage of solvents (pyridine and xylene), because more than 20 times of solvents in mass are required to produce a unit mass of high purity PHPS solution. Therefore, we suggest several plausible solvent regeneration processes of organic solvent waste from the PHPS solution production, and their economics is evaluated for comparison

  2. A technical and economic evaluation of wood conversion processes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Douglas, L J

    1990-08-08

    A technical and economic evaluation of the Iogen wood-to-ethanol bioconversion process was carried out using a computer simulation model based on an engineering analysis of the process. The model was used to run sensitivity analyses for the process and to estimate the parameters with significant economic impact and promise for future improvement to process economics. The most important parameters were then used in Monte Carlo simulations to estimate the potential for future improvements and to assess the commercial potential of the process. Finally, the process was subjected to second-law analysis, in which its thermodynamic efficiency was assessed in terms of lost work potential. The Iogen process is a highly optimized process using state-of-the-art enzymatic hydrolysis with steam explosion pretreatment; lactose sugar from cheese whey is used as the carbon source for enzyme production. The base case design would use 1000 tonnes/d of aspen wood and would produce 91 Ml/y of ethanol. Assuming no value for byproducts, the break-even price for ethanol would be 45-70{cents}/l, depending on the financing method employed. If byproduct credit is added for lignin and molasses, the required ethanol selling price would drop to 30-50{cents}/l. Forecasts for future technology improvements show that it is possible to construct scenarios where the ethanol price could be as low as 10-20{cents}/l including byproduct credits. Potential improvements to the process include reduced enzyme production cost; xylose fermentation to ethanol; lower-cost feedstock; and substitution of wood sugars for lactose. 48 refs., 39 figs., 21 tabs.

  3. Critical Review of NOAA's Observation Requirements Process

    Science.gov (United States)

    LaJoie, M.; Yapur, M.; Vo, T.; Templeton, A.; Bludis, D.

    2017-12-01

    NOAA's Observing Systems Council (NOSC) maintains a comprehensive database of user observation requirements. The requirements collection process engages NOAA subject matter experts to document and effectively communicate the specific environmental observation measurements (parameters and attributes) needed to produce operational products and pursue research objectives. User observation requirements documented using a structured and standardized manner and framework enables NOAA to assess its needs across organizational lines in an impartial, objective, and transparent manner. This structure provides the foundation for: selecting, designing, developing, acquiring observing technologies, systems and architectures; budget and contract formulation and decision-making; and assessing in a repeatable fashion the productivity, efficiency and optimization of NOAA's observing system enterprise. User observation requirements are captured independently from observing technologies. Therefore, they can be addressed by a variety of current or expected observing capabilities and allow flexibility to be remapped to new and evolving technologies. NOAA's current inventory of user observation requirements were collected over a ten-year period, and there have been many changes in policies, mission priorities, and funding levels during this time. In light of these changes, the NOSC initiated a critical, in-depth review to examine all aspects of user observation requirements and associated processes during 2017. This presentation provides background on the NOAA requirements process, major milestones and outcomes of the critical review, and plans for evolving and connecting observing requirements processes in the next year.

  4. Economic analysis requirements in support of orbital debris regulatory policy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greenberg, Joel S.

    1996-10-01

    As the number of Earth orbiting objects increases so does the potential for generating orbital debris with the consequent increase in the likelihood of impacting and damaging operating satellites. Various debris remediation approaches are being considered that encompass both in-orbit and return-to-Earth schema and have varying degrees of operations, cost, international competitiveness, and safety implications. Because of the diversity of issues, concerns and long-term impacts, there is a clear need for the setting of government policies that will lead to an orderly abatement of the potential orbital debris hazards. These policies may require the establishment of a supportive regulatory regime. The Department of Transportation is likely to have regulatory responsibilities relating to orbital debris stemming from its charge to protect the public health and safety, safety of property, and national security interests and foreign policy interests of the United States. This paper describes DOT's potential regulatory role relating to orbital debris remediation, the myriad of issues concerning the need for establishing government policies relating to orbital debris remediation and their regulatory implications, the proposed technological solutions and their economic and safety implications. Particular emphasis is placed upon addressing cost-effectiveness and economic analyses as they relate to economic impact analysis in support of regulatory impact analysis.

  5. Industrialization drive of radiation processing for economic growth in China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lu Yanxiao

    1996-12-01

    The transfer of research and development achievements of radiation processing to routine industrial applications in China is reviewed. While making a brief survey of historical background, the paper indicates the different roles that various domestic organizations played in the industrialization drive of radiation processing. Among them the Government's role is the most important one. In accordance with recent growth of the number of industrial radiation facilities (e.g. cobalt-60 irradiators and electron beam accelerators) and current application of radiation processing in main fields in different parts of the country, it can be said that a new radiation processing industry is shaping up in its developing stage to satisfy the growing requirements for economic booming in China. (16 refs.)

  6. A methodology to describe process control requirements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carcagno, R.; Ganni, V.

    1994-01-01

    This paper presents a methodology to describe process control requirements for helium refrigeration plants. The SSC requires a greater level of automation for its refrigeration plants than is common in the cryogenics industry, and traditional methods (e.g., written descriptions) used to describe process control requirements are not sufficient. The methodology presented in this paper employs tabular and graphic representations in addition to written descriptions. The resulting document constitutes a tool for efficient communication among the different people involved in the design, development, operation, and maintenance of the control system. The methodology is not limited to helium refrigeration plants, and can be applied to any process with similar requirements. The paper includes examples

  7. Responsibilities in the Usability Requirements Elicitation Process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marianella Aveledo

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Like any other software system quality attribute, usability places requirements on software components. In particular, it has been demonstrated that certain usability features have a direct impact throughout the software process. This paper details an approach that looks at how to deal with certain usability features in the early software development stages. In particular, we consider usability features as functional usability requirements using patterns that have been termed usability patterns to elicit requirements. Additionally, we clearly establish the responsibilities of all the players at the usability requirements elicitation stage.

  8. Specifying process requirements for holistic care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poulymenopoulou, M; Malamateniou, F; Vassilacopoulos, G

    2013-09-01

    Holistic (health and social) care aims at providing comprehensive care to the community, especially to elderly people and people with multiple illnesses. In turn, this requires using health and social care resources more efficiently through enhanced collaboration and coordination among the corresponding organizations and delivering care closer to patient needs and preferences. This paper takes a patient-centered, process view of holistic care delivery and focuses on requirements elicitation for supporting holistic care processes and enabling authorized users to access integrated patient information at the point of care when needed. To this end, an approach to holistic care process-support requirements elicitation is presented which is based on business process modeling and places particular emphasis on empowering collaboration, coordination and information sharing among health and social care organizations by actively involving users and by providing insights for alternative process designs. The approach provides a means for integrating diverse legacy applications in a process-oriented environment using a service-oriented architecture as an appropriate solution for supporting and automating holistic care processes. The approach is applied in the context of emergency medical care aiming at streamlining and providing support technology to cross-organizational health and social care processes to address global patient needs.

  9. Deficiency tracking system, conceptual business process requirements

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hermanson, M.L.

    1997-04-18

    The purpose of this document is to describe the conceptual business process requirements of a single, site-wide, consolidated, automated, deficiency management tracking, trending, and reporting system. This description will be used as the basis for the determination of the automated system acquisition strategy including the further definition of specific requirements, a ''make or buy'' determination and the development of specific software design details.

  10. Deficiency tracking system, conceptual business process requirements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hermanson, M.L.

    1997-01-01

    The purpose of this document is to describe the conceptual business process requirements of a single, site-wide, consolidated, automated, deficiency management tracking, trending, and reporting system. This description will be used as the basis for the determination of the automated system acquisition strategy including the further definition of specific requirements, a ''make or buy'' determination and the development of specific software design details

  11. Change in requirements during the design process

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sudin, Mohd Nizam Bin; Ahmed-Kristensen, Saeema

    2011-01-01

    Specification is an integral part of the product development process. Frequently, more than a single version of a specification is produced due to changes in requirements. These changes are often necessary to ensure the scope of the design problem is as clear as possible. However, the negative...... on a pre-defined coding scheme. The results of the study shows that change in requirements were initiated by internal stakeholders through analysis and evaluation activities during the design process, meanwhile external stakeholders were requested changes during the meeting with consultant. All...

  12. Climate Change Observation Accuracy: Requirements and Economic Value

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wielicki, Bruce; Cooke, Roger; Golub, Alexander; Baize, Rosemary; Mlynczak, Martin; Lukashin, Constantin; Thome, Kurt; Shea, Yolanda; Kopp, Greg; Pilewskie, Peter; hide

    2016-01-01

    This presentation will summarize a new quantitative approach to determining the required accuracy for climate change observations. Using this metric, most current global satellite observations struggle to meet this accuracy level. CLARREO (Climate Absolute Radiance and Refractivity Observatory) is a new satellite mission designed to resolve this challenge is by achieving advances of a factor of 10 for reflected solar spectra and a factor of 3 to 5 for thermal infrared spectra. The CLARREO spectrometers can serve as SI traceable benchmarks for the Global Satellite Intercalibration System (GSICS) and greatly improve the utility of a wide range of LEO and GEO infrared and reflected solar satellite sensors for climate change observations (e.g. CERES, MODIS, VIIIRS, CrIS, IASI, Landsat, etc). A CLARREO Pathfinder mission for flight on the International Space Station is included in the U.S. Presidentâ€"TM"s fiscal year 2016 budget, with launch in 2019 or 2020. Providing more accurate decadal change trends can in turn lead to more rapid narrowing of key climate science uncertainties such as cloud feedback and climate sensitivity. A new study has been carried out to quantify the economic benefits of such an advance and concludes that the economic value is $9 Trillion U.S. dollars. The new value includes the cost of carbon emissions reductions.

  13. Process heat supply requirements on HTGRs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schad, M.K.

    1989-01-01

    Since it has been claimed that the MHTGR is competitive with coal in producing electricity, the MHTGR must be competitive in producing process heat. There is a huge process heat market and there are quite a number of processes where the industrial MHTGR = HTRI could supply the necessary process heat and energy. However, to enhance its introduction on the market and to conquer a reasonable share of the market, the HTRI should fulfill the following major requirements: Unlimited constant and flexible heat supply, no secondary heat transport system at higher temperatures and low radioactive contamination level of the primary helium. Unlimited constant and flexible heat supply could be achieved with smaller HTRIs having heat generation capacities below 100 MW-th. The process heat generated by smaller HTRIs need not be more expensive since the installed necessary heat supply redundancy is smaller and the excess power density lower. The process heat at elevated temperatures generated by a HTRI with a secondary heat transfer system is much more expensive due to the additional investment and operating cost as well as the reduced helium temperature span available. For some processes, the HTRI is not able to cover the total process heat requirement while other processes can consume only part of the heat offered. These limitations could be reduced by using higher core outlet and inlet temperatures or both. Due to the considerably lower heat transfer rates and the resulting larger heat transfer areas in process plants, the diffusion of nuclear activity at elevated temperatures may increase so that a more efficient helium cleaning system may be required. (author). 5 figs, 3 tabs

  14. THE WAY OF PROCESSING DATA IN APPROACHING ECONOMIC APPLICATIONS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ADRIAN GHENCEA

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Economic Informatics originates in the industry economy and the electronic processing of information. A clear distinction is made between IT and economic informatics, and further between general and particular economic informatics (the particular economic informatics meaning administration, industrial informatics etc. Economic informatics is deemed to be an applicative science relating to the conception, working modality and representation of IT and communication systems, oriented towards companies which are using electronic computers. This paper pursues to integrate applications allowing the information systems to interconnect at informational level, by information sharing, and at service level, considering the control of the related processes in real time.

  15. Essays on Imperfect Information Processing in Economics

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    S.S. Ficco (Stefano)

    2007-01-01

    textabstractEconomic agents generally operate in uncertain environments and, prior to making decisions, invest time and resources to collect useful information. Consumers compare the prices charged by di..erent firms before purchasing a product. Politicians gather information from di..erent

  16. Evaluation of economic efficiency of process improvement in food packaging

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jana Hron

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available In general, we make gains in process by the three fundamental ways. First, we define or redefine our process in a strategic sense. Second, once defined or redefined, we commence process operations and use process control methods to target and stabilize our process. Third, we use process improvement methods, as described in this paper, along with process control to fully exploit our process management and/or technology. Process improvement is focused primarily in our subprocesses and sub-subprocesses. Process leverage is the key to process improvement initiatives. This means that small improvements of the basic manufacturing operations can have (with the assumption of mass repetition of the operation a big impact on the functioning of the whole production unit. The complexity within even small organizations, in people, products, and processes, creates significant challenges in effectively and efficiently using these initiatives tools. In this paper we are going to place process purposes in the foreground and initiatives and tools in the background as facilitator to help accomplish process purpose. Initiatives and tools are not the ends we are seeking; result/outcomes in physical, economics, timeliness, and customer service performance matter. In the paper process boundaries (in a generic sense are set by our process purpose and our process definition. Process improvement is initiated within our existing process boundaries. For example, in a fast-food restaurant, if we define our cooking process around a frying technology, then we provide process improvements within our frying technology. On the other hand, if we are considering changing to a broiling technology, then we are likely faced with extensive change, impacting our external customers, and a process redefinition may be required. The result / aim of the paper are based on the example of the process improving of a food packaging quality. Specifically, the integration of two approaches

  17. THE MISSION STATEMENT OF THE BUSINESS ORGANISATION BY REFERENCE TO THE ECONOMIC MARKET REQUIREMENTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marius Costel EȘI

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Acting as a systemic entity, the business organization, viewed as an aggregate, involves at the functional level, the assumption of an approach that relates to the idea of legitimacy within the current economic pragmatism. At the same time, dynamics of the economic reality highlight methodological explanations regarding the role and the functions of a manager at organizational level. However, the managerial functions within the business organization`s frame of reference can be corroborated with the formulated contents of the company's stated mission and vision. In other words, the existence of an implementation of managerial strategies process does nothing but reveal the way in which a specific managerial philosophy (epistemology proves itself useful in the of economics operational field. We note that an analysis of the way in which the business organization`s mission is formulated can be materialized in the conditions in which it is reported to the actual requirements of economic markets. Consequently, our attention focuses on the conceptual - theoretical, but also on the practical valences of the two dimensions encountered in the enunciation and definition of the business organization`s mission: the strategies and the objectives set by (managerial decision makers. In addition, the substantiation of this scientific research aims, in this context, to an epistemological analysis of the understanding and explicitation process concerning the idea of mission within a business organization`s system. We consider that this methodological substantiation finds its full justification to the extent that this evaluation of a business mission idea implies a reference to the managerial authorities` skills, but also to the need of economic education, focused on economic aspects of financial nature. An important role in the ininitiated approach is held by the idea of economic reassessment of the "need", "requirement" and "demand" concepts. Therefore, the

  18. System of economics' security management in economic activity of meat processing enterprises formation

    OpenAIRE

    Iryna Sosnovska

    2015-01-01

    This article is devoted to creation of economics' security management system production and economic activity of meat current processing enterprises. The article reflects research results of various scientists scientific works regarding interpretation of economic security system and shows the lack of this concept single interpretation. There are summarized observation of current activities of meat processing plants specifics as a conclusion there are a large number of different programs and c...

  19. Economic evaluation of five curing processes for wood coatings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Martinez M, I.

    1996-01-01

    In this work we study the economic feasibility of five methods for curing coatings over sheet wood products. Each year, Mexico is producing more than 40 millions of square meters of wood panels, but the demand is of the range of 58 millions of square meters of this product. Two millions are expended after they are coated, and 38 millions without coating, they are coated artisanilly when they are used to make pieces of furniture. The technical characteristics and the costs involved in each one of five methods of curing, are described. Investments involved with each method are processed to establish: fixed costs, variable costs, equilibrium point, and others. Initial investment, coasts and revenues are processed to determine the income statement pro-form, the projected statement of change in financial position, the projected working capital, the projected balance sheet, the cash-flow, and some economical and financial indicators for each one of the five curing methods. With this information, the internal rate of return (IRR) is determined, and used to compare the economic worth of each of the five methods. The five methods are profitable, because all they have a IRR greater than the opportunity cost of capital (15%) of projects with similar characteristics. Despite, with each one of the five methods, the capital invested is recoverable, and profits can be obtained; curing by ultraviolet light or by electron beam, let recover the investment in less than two years, require fewer dollars for investment, and have a IRR of 135% and 111% respectively. Besides ultraviolet light or electron beam curing processes, pollute less with volatile solvents, use the energy efficiently, have greater production rate, and the coating obtained have better quality than with the other three methods. (Author)

  20. Modelling management process of key drivers for economic sustainability in the modern conditions of economic development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pishchulina E.S.

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The text is about issues concerning the management of driver for manufacturing enterprise economic sustainability and manufacturing enterprise sustainability assessment as the key aspect of the management of enterprise economic sustainability. The given issues become topical as new requirements for the methods of manufacturing enterprise management in the modern conditions of market economy occur. An economic sustainability model that is considered in the article is an integration of enterprise economic growth, economic balance of external and internal environment and economic sustainability. The method of assessment of economic sustainability of a manufacturing enterprise proposed in the study allows to reveal some weaknesses in the enterprise performance, and untapped reserves, which can be further used to improve the economic sustainability and efficiency of the enterprise. The management of manufacturing enterprise economic sustainability is one of the most important factors of business functioning and development in modern market economy. The relevance of this trend is increasing in accordance with the objective requirements of the growing volumes of production and sale, the increasing complexity of economic relations, changing external environment of an enterprise.

  1. Economically oriented process optimization in waste management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maroušek, Josef

    2014-06-01

    A brief report on the development of novel apparatus is presented. It was verified in a commercial scale that a new concept of anaerobic fermentation followed by continuous pyrolysis is technically and economically feasible to manage previously enzymatically hydrolyzed waste haylage in huge volumes. The design of the concept is thoroughly described, documented in figures, and biochemically analyzed in detail. Assessment of the concept shows that subsequent pyrolysis of the anaerobically fermented residue allows among biogas to produce also high-quality biochar. This significantly improves the overall economy. In addition, it may be assumed that this applied research is consistent with previous theoretical assumptions stating that any kind of aerobic or anaerobic fermentation increases the microporosity of the biochar obtained.

  2. Quality control of the documentation process in electronic economic activities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Krutova A.S.

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available It is proved that the main tool that will provide adequate information resources e economic activities of social and economic relations are documenting quality control processes as the basis of global information space. Directions problems as formation evaluation information resources in the process of documentation, namely development tools assess the efficiency of the system components – qualitative assessment; development of mathematical modeling tools – quantitative evaluation. A qualitative assessment of electronic documentation of economic activity through exercise performance, efficiency of communication; document management efficiency; effectiveness of flow control operations; relationship management effectiveness. The concept of quality control process documents electronically economic activity to components which include: the level of workflow; forms adequacy of information; consumer quality documents; quality attributes; type of income data; condition monitoring systems; organizational level process documentation; attributes of quality, performance quality consumer; type of management system; type of income data; condition monitoring systems. Grounded components of the control system electronic document subjects of economic activity. Detected components IT-audit management system economic activity: compliance audit; audit of internal control; detailed multilevel analysis; corporate risk assessment methodology. The stages and methods of processing electronic transactions economic activity during condition monitoring of electronic economic activity.

  3. Impact of tourism on roundabout of economic process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vujović Slavoljub

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The relation between of production and consumption units, market mechanisms, and the behaviour of economic subjects in the market are aspects that enable an understanding of tourism in the economic process. Two basic factors of tourism 'free time and free money' as the goal of creation of each individual, striving to meet the needs for luxury, rest, rehabilitation and recreation, are directly linked to the basic economic relationship, the relationship between limited resources and unlimited needs. Not respecting the principles and rules of the socio-economic sphere, by the dynamics of the development of techno-economic sphere, the increasing difference between the poor majority and rich minority in the world, causing many economic and social problems. Given the economic problems on a global level, further directions of development of tourism should be sought through the analysis of the relationship, or better to say, interdependence of development of techno-economic and socio-economic spheres. This paper seeks to determine and clarify the importance of tourism as a factor stimulating circular flow of economic processes.

  4. HTR process heat applications, status of technology and economical potential

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barnet, H.

    1997-01-01

    The technical and industrial feasibility of the production of high temperature heat from nuclear fuel is presented. The technical feasibility of high temperature heat consuming processes is reviewed and assessed. The conclusion is drawn that the next technological step for pilot plant scale demonstration is the nuclear heated steam reforming process. The economical potential of HTR process heat applications is reviewed: It is directly coupled to the economical competitiveness of HTR electricity production. Recently made statements and pre-conditions on the economic competitiveness in comparison to world market coal are reported. (author). 8 figs

  5. Economic Analysis of an Organosolv Process for Bioethanol Production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jesse Kautto

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available In a previous paper, conceptual process design, simulation, and mass and energy balances were presented for an organosolv process with a hardwood feed of 2350 metric tons (MT per day and ethanol, lignin, furfural, and acetic acid production rates of 459, 310, 6.6, and 30.3 MT/day, respectively. In this paper, the investment and operating costs of the process and the minimum ethanol selling price (MESP to make the process economically feasible were estimated. The total capital investment of the plant was approximately 720 million USD. Lignin price was found to affect the MESP considerably. With a base case lignin price of 450 USD/MT, the MESP was approximately 3.1 USD per gallon (gal. Higher lignin price of 1000 USD/MT was required to equal the MESP with the December 2013 ethanol market price (2.0 USD/gal. In addition to lignin price, the MESP was found to be strongly affected by feedstock, enzyme, and investment costs. Variations in feedstock and investment costs affected the MESP by approximately 0.2 and 0.5 USD/gal, respectively. Changing the enzyme dosage and price from base case estimate of 5270 USD/MT and 0.02 g/g cellulose to more conservative 3700 USD/MT and 0.06 g/g cellulose, respectively, increased the MESP by 0.59 USD/gal.

  6. Economic analysis of locust bean processing and marketing in Iwo ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Economic analysis of locust bean processing and marketing in Iwo local government, Osun state. ... Majority (78.3%) of the processors and marketers were making profit; 95.0% operate ... EMAIL FREE FULL TEXT EMAIL FREE FULL TEXT

  7. Regionalism and Economic Processes with Global Impact

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marina TABAC

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Regionalism has become one of the most discussed topics at the moment, in recent years and become one of the central challenges of the future in the modern system of international relations. Finally, in the XIX-XX centuries, scientists have expressed it a worldwide phenomenon through a process of radical change "external environment" and significant internal changes. It can be expressed in the world in one way or another, even if it has not been shown modest form until recently. Currently, regionalism and regional integration are considered as key indicators of international developments in the research of foreign policy and international relations. Theory followed the end of the era of "Cold War" and entered the post-bipolar world, multi-faceted development stage. The attention of researchers has grown to regionalization and regional integration by increasing the role and activities of regional organizations such as the EU, ASEAN, APEC and NAFTA, which coordinates the process of decision-making at supranational level, as well as issues of international regulation.

  8. RELEVANCE OF ECONOMIC INSTRUMENTS USED IN SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT PROCESS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    SORINA-GEANINA MĂRGĂRIT (STĂNESCU

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The interaction between environmental, economic and social factors influences the ecological balance and generates the change of living conditions and those of socio-economic development. One of the essential conditions for building a sustainable economic development is the identification and implementation of active or voluntary instruments to influence economic and social activity towards ensuring their sustainability. In this paper, we intend to introduce the tools used in the process of sustainable development, which have a key role in adopting an environmentally responsible behavior. The results of this study are represented by the drafting of the advantages and disadvantages of using these economic and financial instruments. The purpose of this paper is to present the evolution of costs for environmental protection and the relevance of instruments used at the national level in environmental protection.

  9. 7 CFR 1779.47 - Economic feasibility requirements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... complete the financial feasibility analysis for WW systems. If the facility is used by businesses and the success or failure of the facility is dependent on individual businesses, then the economic viability of..., security, history, and management capabilities. Financial feasibility reports must take into consideration...

  10. Another Curriculum Requirement? Quantitative Reasoning in Economics: Some First Steps

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Neill, Patrick B.; Flynn, David T.

    2013-01-01

    In this paper, we describe first steps toward focusing on quantitative reasoning in an intermediate microeconomic theory course. We find student attitudes toward quantitative aspects of economics improve over the duration of the course (as we would hope). Perhaps more importantly, student attitude toward quantitative reasoning improves, in…

  11. Economic requirements for competitive laser fusion power production

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hogan, W.J.; Meier, W.R.

    1986-01-01

    An economic model of a laser fusion commercial power plant is used to identify the design and operating regimes of the driver, target and reaction chamber that will result in economic competitiveness with future fission and coal plants. The authors find that, for a plant with a net power of 1 GW/sub e/, the cost of the driver must be less than $0.4 to 0.6 B, and the recirculating power fraction must be less than 25%. Target gain improvements at low driver energy are the most beneficial but also the most difficult to achieve. The optimal driver energy decreases with increasing target technology. The sensitivity of the cost of electricity to variations in cost and performance parameters decreases with increasing target technology. If chamber pulse rates of a few Hz can be achieved, then gains of 80-100 are sufficient, and higher pulse rates do not help much. Economic competitiveness becomes more difficult with decreasing plant size. Finally, decreasing the cost of the balance of plant has the greatest beneficial effect on economic competitiveness

  12. Economic Assessment of Palm Oil Processing in Owerri Agricultural ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The study was on economic analysis of palm oil processing in Owerri Agricultural zone of Imo State, it was designed to determine the costs and returns of palm oil processing in the area of study. Seventy five (75) palm oil processors were randomly sampled from the study location and a structured interview schedule was ...

  13. A novel process for recovery of fermentation-derived succinic acid: process design and economic analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orjuela, Alvaro; Orjuela, Andrea; Lira, Carl T; Miller, Dennis J

    2013-07-01

    Recovery and purification of organic acids produced in fermentation constitutes a significant fraction of total production cost. In this paper, the design and economic analysis of a process to recover succinic acid (SA) via dissolution and acidification of succinate salts in ethanol, followed by reactive distillation to form succinate esters, is presented. Process simulation was performed for a range of plant capacities (13-55 million kg/yr SA) and SA fermentation titers (50-100 kg/m(3)). Economics were evaluated for a recovery system installed within an existing fermentation facility producing succinate salts at a cost of $0.66/kg SA. For a SA processing capacity of 54.9 million kg/yr and a titer of 100 kg/m(3) SA, the model predicts a capital investment of $75 million and a net processing cost of $1.85 per kg SA. Required selling price of diethyl succinate for a 30% annual return on investment is $1.57 per kg. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. 78 FR 18562 - Economic and Environmental Principles and Requirements for Water and Related Land Resources...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-03-27

    ... COUNCIL ON ENVIRONMENTAL QUALITY Economic and Environmental Principles and Requirements for Water... ``Economic and Environmental Principles and Guidelines for Water and Related Land Resources Implementation... Secretary of the Army to revise the ``Economic and Environmental Principles and Guidelines for Water and...

  15. Economic goals and requirements for competitive fusion energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miller, R.L.

    1998-01-01

    Future economic competitiveness, coupled to and constrained by environmental and safety characteristics, continues to provide a central strategic motivation and concern for fusion research. Attention must also be paid to the evolving cost projections of future fusion competitors, with appropriate consideration of externalized impacts, insofar as they establish the eventual market-penetration context and also influence the near-term funding climate for fusion R and D. With concept optimization and selection in mind, tradeoffs among system power density, recirculating power, plant availability (reflecting both forced and planned outages), complexity, and structural materials and coolant choices are best monitored and resolved in the context of their impacts on capital and operating costs, which, together with low fuel costs and financial assumptions, determine the projected life-cycle product cost of fusion. Considerations deriving from deregulation and privatization are elucidated, as are possible implications of modern investment-analysis methods. (orig.)

  16. Economic competitiveness requirements for evolutionary water cooled reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hudson, C.R.; Bertel, E.; Paik, K.H.; Roh, J.H.; Tort, V.

    1999-01-01

    This paper analyses the necessary economic conditions for evolutionary water cooled reactors to be competitive. Utilising recent national cost data for fossil-fired base load plants expected to be commissioned by 2005 -2010, target costs for nuclear power plants are discussed. Factors that could contribute to the achievement of those targets by evolutionary water cooled reactors are addressed. The feed-back from experience acquired in implementing nuclear programmes is illustrated by some examples from France and the Republic of Korea. The paper discusses the impacts on nuclear power competitiveness of globalisation and deregulation of the electricity market and privatisation of the electricity sector. In addition, issues related to external cost internalisation are considered. (author)

  17. Genetic Algorithms vs. Artificial Neural Networks in Economic Forecasting Process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicolae Morariu

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper aims to describe the implementa-tion of a neural network and a genetic algorithm system in order to forecast certain economic indicators of a free market economy. In a free market economy forecasting process precedes the economic planning (a management function, providing important information for the result of the last process. Forecasting represents a starting point in setting of target for a firm, an organization or even a branch of the economy. Thus, the forecasting method used can influence in a significant mode the evolution of an entity. In the following we will describe the forecasting of an economic indicator using two intelligent systems. The difference between the results obtained by this two systems are described in chapter IV.

  18. Balancing environmental and economic performance in the food-processing industry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Akkerman, Renzo; van Donk, Dirk Pieter

    2010-01-01

    Changing customer requirements, unpredictable disturbances combined with expensive production facilities, are major problems for food processing companies to achieve synergy between the economic and environmental performance. There notably is a lack of tools to support decisions to explore effect...... in exploring the effect of uncertainty in demand and production. As a result, process design can be more robust: both economic and environmental. This position paper explores the problem and the main elements of the proposed scenario-based simulation approach.......Changing customer requirements, unpredictable disturbances combined with expensive production facilities, are major problems for food processing companies to achieve synergy between the economic and environmental performance. There notably is a lack of tools to support decisions to explore effects...

  19. the economic importance of microorganism in food processing

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    BSN

    This paper attempts to highlight the Economic Importance of microorganisms in food processing and manufacturing; it goes further to differentiate between the desirable ... Desirable importance are those cost saving and revenue generating activities ... Microorganism (yeast) play very useful role in the Bakery industries.

  20. Economic benefits analysis of listed companies in radiation processing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang Yingming; Xu Tao; Zhang Yue; Yang Bin; Zhao Wenying

    2012-01-01

    Radiation processing industry is an important part of civilian nuclear technology and develop rapidly during the past decade. Radiation modification of new materials industries use new technology to promote new product development and application and get good economic benefit. There are problems and bottlenecks during the development, such as how to implement the guideline of optimize the industrial structure and upgrade the product, and adapt the market develop law and need. By analysing the typical listed companies in this field together with the domestic economic development condition and future situation, we give the development strategy and method in the future. (authors)

  1. A non-linear model of economic production processes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ponzi, A.; Yasutomi, A.; Kaneko, K.

    2003-06-01

    We present a new two phase model of economic production processes which is a non-linear dynamical version of von Neumann's neoclassical model of production, including a market price-setting phase as well as a production phase. The rate of an economic production process is observed, for the first time, to depend on the minimum of its input supplies. This creates highly non-linear supply and demand dynamics. By numerical simulation, production networks are shown to become unstable when the ratio of different products to total processes increases. This provides some insight into observed stability of competitive capitalist economies in comparison to monopolistic economies. Capitalist economies are also shown to have low unemployment.

  2. Improving the requirements process in Axiomatic Design Theory

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thompson, Mary Kathryn

    2013-01-01

    This paper introduces a model to integrate the traditional requirements process into Axiomatic Design Theory and proposes a method to structure the requirements process. The method includes a requirements classification system to ensure that all requirements information can be included...... in the Axiomatic Design process, a stakeholder classification system to reduce the chances of excluding one or more key stakeholders, and a table to visualize the mapping between the stakeholders and their requirements....

  3. Understanding Modeling Requirements of Unstructured Business Processes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Allah Bukhsh, Zaharah; van Sinderen, Marten J.; Sikkel, Nicolaas; Quartel, Dick

    2017-01-01

    Management of structured business processes is of interest to both academia and industry, where academia focuses on the development of methods and techniques while industry focuses on the development of supporting tools. With the shift from routine to knowledge work, the relevance of management of

  4. Material flow-based economic assessment of landfill mining processes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kieckhäfer, Karsten; Breitenstein, Anna; Spengler, Thomas S

    2017-02-01

    This paper provides an economic assessment of alternative processes for landfill mining compared to landfill aftercare with the goal of assisting landfill operators with the decision to choose between the two alternatives. A material flow-based assessment approach is developed and applied to a landfill in Germany. In addition to landfill aftercare, six alternative landfill mining processes are considered. These range from simple approaches where most of the material is incinerated or landfilled again to sophisticated technology combinations that allow for recovering highly differentiated products such as metals, plastics, glass, recycling sand, and gravel. For the alternatives, the net present value of all relevant cash flows associated with plant installation and operation, supply, recycling, and disposal of material flows, recovery of land and landfill airspace, as well as landfill closure and aftercare is computed with an extensive sensitivity analyses. The economic performance of landfill mining processes is found to be significantly influenced by the prices of thermal treatment (waste incineration as well as refuse-derived fuels incineration plant) and recovered land or airspace. The results indicate that the simple process alternatives have the highest economic potential, which contradicts the aim of recovering most of the resources. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Influence of economical variables on a supercritical biodiesel production process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marchetti, J.M.

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: • Biodiesel production from supercritical process. • Economical analysis. • Influence of market variables. - Abstract: Biodiesel has becoming more and more relevant in today’s society and economy due to its environmental advantages such as biodegradability, lower CO and CO 2 emissions as well as less particulate pollutants. In this work the study of market and economic variables is presented and their effects compared when biodiesel is being produced using a supercritical technology. The production process is based on a supercritical technology with no catalyst and no co-solvent. Price for the raw materials, such as price for the alcohol as well as the oil has been studied. Also, selling price for biodiesel as well as glycerin has been analyzed and compared with prices from other biodiesel production technologies. Economic decisions such as percentage of failure in the production process, investment in research and development, and advertisement have been evaluated; also it has been considered the influence of the tax incentives on the global economy of the production process. Small variations on some of the major market variables would produce significant effects over the global economy of the plant, making it non profitable in some cases

  6. Energy requirement and economic analysis of citrus production in Turkey

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ozkan, Burhan E-mail: bozkan@akdeniz.edu.tr; Akcaoz, Handan; Karadeniz, Feyza

    2004-07-01

    The aim of this research was to examine the energy requirements of the inputs and output in citrus production in the Antalya province of Turkey. Data for the production of citrus fruits (orange, lemon and mandarin) were collected from 105 citrus farms by using a face to face questionnaire method. The research results revealed that lemon production was the most energy intensive among the three fruits investigated. The energy input of chemical fertilizer (49.68%), mainly nitrogen, has the biggest share in the total energy inputs followed by Diesel (30.79%). The lemon production consumed a total of 62 977.87 MJ/ha followed by orange and mandarin with 60 949.69 and 48 838.17 MJ/ha, respectively. The energy ratios for orange, mandarin and lemon were estimated to be 1.25, 1.17 and 1.06, respectively. On average, the non-renewable form of energy input was 95.90% of the total energy input used in citrus production compared to only 3.74% for the renewable form. The benefit-cost ratio was the highest in orange production (2.37) followed by lemon. The results indicate that orange production in the research area is most remunerative to growers compared to lemon and mandarin.

  7. Churn in the Aircraft Spares Requirements Process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1988-04-01

    compute the BY and EY (198.4 and 1935 ) requi rements. The EY requirement woDuld have been Used forY the-_ 1985 budget reque-st submit ted tc...ami ne thws _ hanges ~a~dby chu..rn, a sample was ad cc ,Led. Thixsrrpiewas no--t r andc:m and c an no.:t be assumed to- be r epr e- en t t iye of...in the FY86, Apprpriations Act, and the budglet r eqUest was reduc-ed 3(. - mill ion dcll1ar s based on a HO’’ E? Surveys aind Investigation : epr that

  8. Economic model predictive control theory, formulations and chemical process applications

    CERN Document Server

    Ellis, Matthew; Christofides, Panagiotis D

    2017-01-01

    This book presents general methods for the design of economic model predictive control (EMPC) systems for broad classes of nonlinear systems that address key theoretical and practical considerations including recursive feasibility, closed-loop stability, closed-loop performance, and computational efficiency. Specifically, the book proposes: Lyapunov-based EMPC methods for nonlinear systems; two-tier EMPC architectures that are highly computationally efficient; and EMPC schemes handling explicitly uncertainty, time-varying cost functions, time-delays and multiple-time-scale dynamics. The proposed methods employ a variety of tools ranging from nonlinear systems analysis, through Lyapunov-based control techniques to nonlinear dynamic optimization. The applicability and performance of the proposed methods are demonstrated through a number of chemical process examples. The book presents state-of-the-art methods for the design of economic model predictive control systems for chemical processes. In addition to being...

  9. 13 CFR 307.6 - Economic Adjustment Assistance post-approval requirements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 13 Business Credit and Assistance 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Economic Adjustment Assistance post-approval requirements. 307.6 Section 307.6 Business Credit and Assistance ECONOMIC DEVELOPMENT... § 302.18 of this chapter: (a) Strategy Grants shall comply with the applicable provisions of part 303 of...

  10. Economic assessment of single-walled carbon nanotube processes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Isaacs, J. A.; Tanwani, A.; Healy, M. L.; Dahlben, L. J.

    2010-02-01

    The carbon nanotube market is steadily growing and projected to reach 1.9 billion by 2010. This study examines the economics of manufacturing single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWNT) using process-based cost models developed for arc, CVD, and HiPco processes. Using assumed input parameters, manufacturing costs are calculated for 1 g SWNT for arc, CVD, and HiPco, totaling 1,906, 1,706, and 485, respectively. For each SWNT process, the synthesis and filtration steps showed the highest costs, with direct labor as a primary cost driver. Reductions in production costs are calculated for increased working hours per day and for increased synthesis reaction yield (SRY) in each process. The process-based cost models offer a means for exploring opportunities for cost reductions, and provide a structured system for comparisons among alternative SWNT manufacturing processes. Further, the models can be used to comprehensively evaluate additional scenarios on the economics of environmental, health, and safety best manufacturing practices.

  11. Economic assessment of single-walled carbon nanotube processes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Isaacs, J. A., E-mail: jaisaacs@coe.neu.ed [Northeastern University, NSF Center for High-rate Nanomanufacturing (United States); Tanwani, A. [Infojini Solutions Inc. (United States); Healy, M. L. [Babcock Power Inc. (United States); Dahlben, L. J. [Northeastern University, NSF Center for High-rate Nanomanufacturing (United States)

    2010-02-15

    The carbon nanotube market is steadily growing and projected to reach $1.9 billion by 2010. This study examines the economics of manufacturing single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWNT) using process-based cost models developed for arc, CVD, and HiPco processes. Using assumed input parameters, manufacturing costs are calculated for 1 g SWNT for arc, CVD, and HiPco, totaling $1,906, $1,706, and $485, respectively. For each SWNT process, the synthesis and filtration steps showed the highest costs, with direct labor as a primary cost driver. Reductions in production costs are calculated for increased working hours per day and for increased synthesis reaction yield (SRY) in each process. The process-based cost models offer a means for exploring opportunities for cost reductions, and provide a structured system for comparisons among alternative SWNT manufacturing processes. Further, the models can be used to comprehensively evaluate additional scenarios on the economics of environmental, health, and safety best manufacturing practices.

  12. City and Energy Infrastructures between Economic Processes and Urban Planning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giuseppe Mazzeo

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available The paper deals with the issues related to the relationship between city, energy, economic factors and city planning. These issues are analyzed from a theoretical point of view and are placed in a logical path based on three assumptions. The first considers the city as an intelligent system constantly evolving. The second considers the city as a system where economic processes come out at their highest level affecting other aspects of social and urban structure. The third considers the planning as the weak link in the process of urban development, one of the most exposed to economic and social pressures.Energy production has experienced a great progress since steam and electricity were discovered. Each stage of this evolution has affected city and territory introducing significant physical signs, changing the ways of carrying out functions and creating new needs and new activities. The energy revolution, based on sustainable sources and on skillful management of the networks, will strongly affect the city and the way of organizing the activities, their location, dimension, and the shape of the spaces.The paper explores some of the issues related to the relationship between urban system and energy.The first section analyzes the meaning of the intelligent city as an entity that is constantly changing and constantly adapting. The second section analyzes the role of the energy systems in the evolution of the activities and of the city’s image. The last section investigates the role of the economic factors in the evolution of the shape and meaning of city, pointing out that the way towards smart and green urban systems will largely depend on their economic advantage. 

  13. Energy requirements of consumption: Urban form, climatic and socio-economic factors, rebounds and their policy implications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wiedenhofer, Dominik; Lenzen, Manfred; Steinberger, Julia K.

    2013-01-01

    Household consumption requires energy to be used at all stages of the economic process, thereby directly and indirectly leading to environmental impacts across the entire production chain. The levels, structure and determinants of energy requirements of household consumption therefore constitute an important avenue of research. Incorporating the full upstream requirements into the analysis helps to avoid simplistic conclusions which would actually only imply shifts between consumption categories without taking the economy wide effects into account. This paper presents the investigation of the direct and indirect primary energy requirements of Australian households, contrasting urban, suburban and rural consumption patterns as well as inter- and intra-regional levels of inequality in energy requirements. Furthermore the spatial and socio-economic drivers of energy consumption for different categories of energy requirements are identified and quantified. Conclusions regarding the relationships between energy requirements, household characteristics, urban form and urbanization processes are drawn and the respective policy implications are explored. - Highlights: • We statistically analyze the energy requirements of consumption in Australia. • Contrasting urban/suburban/rural consumption patterns and spatial inequality. • Energy requirements are influenced by urban form, income and demographics. • Urban households require less direct energy, but their total consumption is higher. • Significant rebound effects can be expected when direct energy use is decreased

  14. Economic evaluation of radiation processing in urban solid wastes treatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carassiti, F.; Lacquaniti, L.; Liuzzo, G.

    During the last few years, quite a number of studies have been done, or are still in course, on disinfection of urban liquid wastes by means of ionizing radiations. The experience gained by SANDIA pilot plant of irradiation on dried sewage sludge, together with the recently presented conceptual design of another plant handling granular solids, characterized by high efficiency and simple running, have shown the possibility of extending this process to the treatment of urban solid wastes. As a matter of fact, the problems connected to the pathogenic aspects of sludge handling are often similar to those met during the disposal of urban solid wastes. This is even more so in the case of their reuse in agriculture and zootechny. The present paper introduces the results of an analysis carried out in order to evaluate the economical advantage of inserting irradiation treatment in some process scheme for management of urban solid wastes. Taking as an example a comprehensive pattern of urban solid wastes management which has been analysed and estimated economically in previous works, we first evaluated the extra capital and operational costs due to the irradiation and then analysed economical justification, taking into account the increasing commercial value of the by-products.

  15. Harmonization of accounting in the process of globalization of economic activities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Floarea Georgescu

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract. Once with the Romania adhering at the European Union the public accounting system was transformed and adapted according to the requirements imposed by the international public sector accounting standards (IPSAS.This fact had imposed the appearance of legislative norms and provisions adapted to the actual requirements, by taking into account the growing and complex level of economic activities where the irreversible process of globalization takes place. The changes due to the economic politics, especially the new configuration of the international economic relations, relations characterized by an intense and irreversible process of globalization, have conducted to the implementation of a unitary and uniform legislation, particularly for the member states of EU. The accounting reform has begun through the harmonization of legislation according to the requirements and provisions of International Accounting Standards and European Directives.  The ampleness and the rapid rhythm of informational society’s development have implicitly leaded to the development of accounting information’s importance and dimension. The decisive role of the accounting information had conducted to the accentuated growth of the interest, manifested at all informational society’s level, from the development of activities in financial and economical domain point of view. The accounting normalization process imposed the development of norms and provisions necessary to the drawing up of accounting documents, by defying methods and a specialized terminology, applied in the activity of entities and accounting specialists.

  16. Technical and economic benefits of nuclear techniques in ore processing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1989-08-01

    This report is the outcome of an Advisory Group Meeting organized by the Agency and hosted by the Institute of Physics and Nuclear Techniques, the Academy of Mining and Metallurgy in Krakow, Poland. The purpose of the meeting was to assess the technical and economic benefits of applying nuclear techniques in ore processing industry. Nucleonic control systems and nuclear on-line analytical techniques as well as radioisotope tracer tests and their applications in metallic ore-processing, coal production, and cement fabrication were discussed. This report contains a summary and the presentations dealing with nuclear techniques for process control made at this meeting. Using a number of case-histories as examples, it illustrates technical and economic benefits obtainable by the installation of nuclear process control instrumentation. It is expected to be useful for everybody dealing with ore and coal production, but especially for administrative personnel and engineers who plan and implement national development programmes related to mineral resources. Refs, figs and tabs

  17. Definitions of the categories that determine the role of human in social and economic processes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Smachylo Valentina

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The priorities of the national economy development indicate the growing role of a person in the economic process of creating added value and capitalization of enterprises that require new approaches to the management process in this area. This requires the definition of basic categories that define the role and place of man in the socio-economic processes and characterise a person in the process of work. The article defines the basic aspects that must be considered in the study of the categories «staff», «personnel», «human resources», «cadre», «human potential», «cadre potential», «economically active population», «employment potential», «human capital»: evolution of concepts, level of socio-economic development, the presence or potentiality of human resources, the level of research, management paradigm. The essence, differentiation and interrelation of the given categories in the specified areas are justified. The necessity of socially responsible approach to management is underlined.

  18. INTERNAL CONTROL AND AUDIT OF ENTERPRISES’ COMPLIANCE WITH CUSTOMS REQUIREMENTS WHILE CON-DUCTING FOREIGN ECONOMIC ACTIVITY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olena Vakulchyk

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Evaluation of the reliability of enterprises engaged in the foreign economic activity and simplifying of Customs procedures have become a relevant issue in the context of globalization. The capabilities and preferences of the “Authorized Economic Operator” status are the cause of a new challenge for managers of enterprises – creation of an internal control system to ensure a systematic monitoring of the conditions of Customs compliance standards of reliability and safety, which would allow identifying risks of loss of the “Authorized Economic Operator” status. The purpose of the scientific paper is to improve the internal control system of an enterprise engaged in foreign economic activity in the process of obtaining and saving the “Authorized Economic Operator” status in accordance with the international Custom requirements for safety and reliability. Methodology. The research is based on the methods of logical and analytical modelling of the impact assessment of individual factors on the value of the generalization indicator. The results are tested on the internal accounting data of the existing machine-building enterprises. Results. The paper shows the results of adapting the concept of COSO to the system of internal control of the foreign economic activity of the enterprise in the process of obtaining or retaining the “Authorized Economic Operator” status. The internal control system within the concept of COSO should ensure the achievement of the objectives – operations, reporting, and compliance. The criteria for estimating the objective “compliance” for an enterprise engaged in foreign economic activity can be an integral indicator of compliance. Value/originality. It is suggested to perform internal control of an enterprise’s compliance with Customs requirements based on the analysis of deviations of the compliance integral indicator. Practical implications. The result of control is to perform a steady in

  19. Aligning Requirements-Driven Software Processes with IT Governance

    OpenAIRE

    Nguyen Huynh Anh, Vu; Kolp, Manuel; Heng, Samedi; Wautelet, Yves

    2017-01-01

    Requirements Engineering is closely intertwined with Information Technology (IT) Governance. Aligning IT Governance principles with Requirements-Driven Software Processes allows them to propose governance and management rules for software development to cope with stakeholders’ requirements and expectations. Typically, the goal of IT Governance in software engineering is to ensure that the results of a software organization business processes meet the strategic requirements of the organization...

  20. Process model economics of xanthan production from confectionery industry wastewaters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bajić, Bojana Ž; Vučurović, Damjan G; Dodić, Siniša N; Grahovac, Jovana A; Dodić, Jelena M

    2017-12-01

    In this research a process and cost model for a xanthan production facility was developed using process simulation software (SuperPro Designer ® ). This work represents a novelty in the field for two reasons. One is that xanthan gum has been produced from several wastes but never from wastewaters from confectionery industries. The other more important is that the aforementioned software, which in intended exclusively for bioprocesses, is used for generating a base case, i.e. starting point for transferring the technology to industrial scales. Previously acquired experimental knowledge about using confectionery wastewaters from five different factories as substitutes for commercially used cultivation medium have been incorporated into the process model in order to obtain an economic viability of implementing such substrates. A lower initial sugar content in the medium based on wastewater (28.41 g/L) compared to the synthetic medium (30.00 g/L) gave a lower xanthan content at the end of cultivation (23.98 and 26.27 g/L, respectively). Although this resulted in somewhat poorer economic parameters, they were still in the range of being an investment of interest. Also the possibility of utilizing a cheap resource (waste) and reducing pollution that would result from its disposal has a positive effect on the environment. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. NHI economic analysis of candidate nuclear hydrogen processes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Allen, D.; Pickard, P.; Patterson, M.; Sink, C.

    2010-01-01

    The DOE Nuclear Hydrogen Initiative (NHI) is investigating candidate technologies for large scale hydrogen production using high temperature gas-cooled reactors (HTGR) in concert with the Next Generation Nuclear Plant (NGNP) programme. The candidate processes include high temperature thermochemical and high temperature electrolytic processes which are being investigated in a sequence of experimental and analytic studies to establish the most promising and cost effective means of hydrogen production with nuclear energy. Although these advanced processes are in an early development stage, it is important that the projected economic potential of these processes be evaluated to assist in the prioritisation of research activities, and ultimately in the selection of the most promising processes for demonstration and deployment. The projected cost of hydrogen produced is the most comprehensive metric in comparing candidate processes. Since these advanced processes are in the early stages of development and much of the technology is still unproven, the estimated production costs are also significantly uncertain. The programme approach has been to estimate the cost of hydrogen production from each process periodically, based on the best available data at that time, with the intent of increasing fidelity and reducing uncertainty as the research programme and system definition studies progress. These updated cost estimates establish comparative costs at that stage of development but are also used as inputs to the evaluation of research priorities, and identify the key cost and risk (uncertainty) drivers for each process. The economic methodology used to assess the candidate processes are based on the H2A ground rules and modelling tool (discounted cash flow) developed by the DOE Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE). The figure of merit output from the calculation is the necessary selling price for hydrogen in dollars per kilogram that satisfies the cost

  2. Economic and process optimization of ethanol production by extractive fermentation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1992-01-01

    This report demonstrates by computer simulation the economic advantages of extractive fermentation on an industrial scale compared to the best alternative technology currently available. The simulations were based on a plant capacity of 100 x 10 6 L/y of azeotropic ethanol. The simulation results were verified with a fully integrated, computer controlled extractive fermentation process demonstration unit based around a 7 L fermentor operated with a synthetic glucose medium and using Saccharomyces cerevisiae. The system was also operated with natural substrates (blackstrap molasses and grain hydrolyzate). Preliminary tests with the organism Zymomonas mobilis were also carried out under extractive fermentation conditions.

  3. An easy and low cost option for economic statistical process control ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    An easy and low cost option for economic statistical process control using Excel. ... in both economic and economic statistical designs of the X-control chart. ... in this paper and the numerical examples illustrated are executed on this program.

  4. Thermodynamic and economic optimization of LNG mixed refrigerant processes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, Mengyu; Khalilpour, Rajab; Abbas, Ali

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • We study performance and cost optimization of C3MR and DMR processes. • A new economic objective function is proposed to reduce both compression work and equipment size. • The comparison of C3MR and DMR processes is based on process configuration, performance, and cost. - Abstract: Natural gas liquefaction processes are energy and cost intensive. This paper performs thermodynamic and economic optimization of the mid-scale mixed refrigerant cycles including propane precooled mixed refrigerant (C3MR) and dual mixed refrigerant (DMR) processes. Four different objective functions in this study are selected: total shaft work consumption, total cost investment (TCI), total annualized cost (TAC), and total capital cost of compressors and main cryogenic exchangers (MCHEs). Total cost investment (TCI) is a function of two key variables: shaft work (W) and overall heat transfer coefficient and area (UA) of MCHEs. It is proposed for reducing energy consumption and simultaneously minimizing total capital expenditure (CAPEX) and operating expenditure (OPEX). Total shaft work objective function can result in a 44.5% reduction of shaft work for C3MR and a 48.6% reduction for DMR compared to their baseline values, but infinitely high UA of MCHEs. Optimal results show that total capital cost of compressors and MCHEs is more suitable than other objective functions for the objective of reducing both shaft work and UA. It reduces 14.5% of specific power for C3MR and 26.7% for DMR when achieving the relatively lower UA values than their baseline values. In addition, TCI and TAC can also reduce a certain amount of total shaft work at a finite increased UA

  5. Process and utility water requirements for cellulosic ethanol production processes via fermentation pathway

    Science.gov (United States)

    The increasing need of additional water resources for energy production is a growing concern for future economic development. In technology development for ethanol production from cellulosic feedstocks, a detailed assessment of the quantity and quality of water required, and the ...

  6. Processes of hydrogen production, coupled with nuclear reactors: Economic perspectives

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Werkoff, Francois; Avril, Sophie; Mansilla, Christine; Sigurvinsson, Jon

    2006-01-01

    Hydrogen production, using nuclear power is considered from a technic-economic (TE) point of view. Three different processes are examined: Alkaline electrolysis, High-temperature steam electrolysis (HTE) and the thermochemical Sulphur-Iodine (S/I) cycle. The three processes differ, in the sense that the first one is operational and both last ones are still at demonstration stages. For them, it is at present only possible to identify key points and limits of competitiveness. The cost of producing hydrogen by alkaline electrolysis is analysed. Three major contributions to the production costs are examined: the electricity consumption, the operation and maintenance expenditures and the depreciation capital expenditures. A technic-economic evaluation of hydrogen production by HTE coupled to a high-temperature reactor (HTR) is presented. Key points appear to be the electrolyser and the high temperature heat exchangers. The S/I thermochemical cycle is based on the decomposition and the re-composition of H 2 SO 4 and HI acids. The energy consumption and the recovery of iodine are key points of the S/I cycle. With the hypothesis that the hydrogen energy will progressively replace the fossil fuels, we give a first estimate of the numbers of nuclear reactors (EPR or HTR) that would be needed for a massive nuclear hydrogen production. (authors)

  7. Waste-to-methanol: Process and economics assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iaquaniello, Gaetano; Centi, Gabriele; Salladini, Annarita; Palo, Emma; Perathoner, Siglinda; Spadaccini, Luca

    2017-11-01

    The waste-to-methanol (WtM) process and related economics are assessed to evidence that WtM is a valuable solution both from economic, strategic and environmental perspectives. Bio-methanol from Refuse-derived-fuels (RdF) has an estimated cost of production of about 110€/t for a new WtM 300t/d plant. With respect to waste-to-energy (WtE) approach, this solution allows various advantages. In considering the average market cost of methanol and the premium as biofuel, the WtM approach results in a ROI (Return of Investment) of about 29%, e.g. a payback time of about 4years. In a hybrid scheme of integration with an existing methanol plant from natural gas, the cost of production becomes a profit even without considering the cap for bio-methanol production. The WtM process allows to produce methanol with about 40% and 30-35% reduction in greenhouse gas emissions with respect to methanol production from fossil fuels and bio-resources, respectively. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Business Process Simulation: Requirements for Business and Resource Models

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Audrius Rima

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of Business Process Model and Notation (BPMN is to provide easily understandable graphical representation of business process. Thus BPMN is widely used and applied in various areas one of them being a business process simulation. This paper addresses some BPMN model based business process simulation problems. The paper formulate requirements for business process and resource models in enabling their use for business process simulation.

  9. Retro-Techno-Economic Analysis: Using (Bio)Process Systems Engineering Tools to Attain Process Target Values

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Furlan, Felipe F.; Costa, Caliane B B; Secchi, Argimiro R.

    2016-01-01

    Economic analysis, allied to process systems engineering tools, can provide useful insights about process techno-economic feasibility. More interestingly, rather than being used to evaluate specific process conditions, this techno-economic analysis can be turned upside down to achieve target valu...

  10. Economic analysis of novel synergistic biofuel (H2Bioil) processes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Singh, Navneet R.; Mallapragada, Dharik S.; Agrawal, Rakesh; Tyner, Wallace E.

    2012-01-01

    Fast-pyrolysis based processes can be built on small-scale and have higher process carbon and energy efficiency as compared to other options. H 2 Bioil is a novel process based on biomass fast-hydropyrolysis and subsequent hydrodeoxygenation (HDO) and can potentially provide high yields of high energy density liquid fuel at relatively low hydrogen consumption. This paper contains a comprehensive financial analysis of the H 2 Bioil process with hydrogen derived from different sources. Three different carbon tax scenarios are analyzed: no carbon tax, $55/metric ton carbon tax and $110/metric ton carbon tax. The break-even crude oil price for a delivered biomass cost of $94/metric ton when hydrogen is derived from coal, natural gas or nuclear energy ranges from $103 to $116/bbl for no carbon tax and even lower ($99-$111/bbl) for the carbon tax scenarios. This break-even crude oil price compares favorably with the literature estimated prices of fuels from alternate biochemical and thermochemical routes. The impact of the chosen carbon tax is found to be limited relative to the impact of the H 2 source on the H 2 Bioil break-even price. The economic robustness of the processes for hydrogen derived from coal, natural gas, or nuclear energy is seen by an estimated break-even crude oil price of $114-$126/bbl when biomass cost is increased to $121/metric ton. (orig.)

  11. A Compositional Knowledge Level Process Model of Requirements Engineering

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Herlea, D.E.; Jonker, C.M.; Treur, J.; Wijngaards, W.C.A.

    2002-01-01

    In current literature few detailed process models for Requirements Engineering are presented: usually high-level activities are distinguished, without a more precise specification of each activity. In this paper the process of Requirements Engineering has been analyzed using knowledge-level

  12. Process and Economic Optimisation of a Milk Processing Plant with Solar Thermal Energy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bühler, Fabian; Nguyen, Tuong-Van; Elmegaard, Brian

    2016-01-01

    . Based on the case study of a dairy factory, where first a heat integration is performed to optimise the system, a model for solar thermal process integration is developed. The detailed model is based on annual hourly global direct and diffuse solar radiation, from which the radiation on a defined......This work investigates the integration of solar thermal systems for process energy use. A shift from fossil fuels to renewable energy could be beneficial both from environmental and economic perspectives, after the process itself has been optimised and efficiency measures have been implemented...... surface is calculated. Based on hourly process stream data from the dairy factory, the optimal streams for solar thermal process integration are found, with an optimal thermal storagetank volume. The last step consists of an economic optimisation of the problem to determine the optimal size...

  13. Economic valuation of environmental benefits from wastewater treatment processes: an empirical approach for Spain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hernández-Sancho, Francesc; Molinos-Senante, María; Sala-Garrido, Ramón

    2010-01-15

    Economic research into the design and implementation of policies for the efficient management of water resources has been emphasized by the European Water Framework Directive (Directive 2000/60/EC). The efficient implementation of policies to prevent the degradation and depletion of water resources requires determining their value in social and economic terms and incorporating this information into the decision-making process. A process of wastewater treatment has many associated environmental benefits. However, these benefits are often not calculated because they are not set by the market, due to inadequate property rights, the presence of externalities, and the lack of perfect information. Nevertheless, the valuation of these benefits is necessary to justify a suitable investment policy and a limited number of studies exist on the subject of the economic valuation of environmental benefits. In this paper, we propose a methodology based on the estimation of shadow prices for the pollutants removed in a treatment process. This value represents the environmental benefit (avoided cost) associated with undischarged pollution. This is a pioneering approach to the economic valuation of wastewater treatment. The comparison of these benefits with the internal costs of the treatment process will provide a useful indicator for the feasibility of wastewater treatment projects. Copyright 2009 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Economic compensation standard for irrigation processes to safeguard environmental flows in the Yellow River Estuary, China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pang, Aiping; Sun, Tao; Yang, Zhifeng

    2013-03-01

    SummaryAgriculture and ecosystems are increasingly competing for water. We propose an approach to assess the economic compensation standard required to release water from agricultural use to ecosystems while taking into account seasonal variability in river flow. First, we defined agricultural water shortage as the difference in water volume between agricultural demands and actual supply after maintaining environmental flows for ecosystems. Second, we developed a production loss model to establish the relationship between production losses and agricultural water shortages in view of seasonal variation in river discharge. Finally, we estimated the appropriate economic compensation for different irrigation stakeholders based on crop prices and production losses. A case study in the Yellow River Estuary, China, demonstrated that relatively stable economic compensation for irrigation processes can be defined based on the developed model, taking into account seasonal variations in river discharge and different levels of environmental flow. Annual economic compensation is not directly related to annual water shortage because of the temporal variability in river flow rate and environmental flow. Crops that have stable planting areas to guarantee food security should be selected as indicator crops in economic compensation assessments in the important grain production zone. Economic compensation may be implemented by creating funds to update water-saving measures in agricultural facilities.

  15. Economic assessment of advanced flue gas desulfurization processes. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bierman, G. R.; May, E. H.; Mirabelli, R. E.; Pow, C. N.; Scardino, C.; Wan, E. I.

    1981-09-01

    This report presents the results of a project sponsored by the Morgantown Energy Technology Center (METC). The purpose of the study was to perform an economic and market assessment of advanced flue gas desulfurization (FGD) processes for application to coal-fired electric utility plants. The time period considered in the study is 1981 through 1990, and costs are reported in 1980 dollars. The task was divided into the following four subtasks: (1) determine the factors affecting FGD cost evaluations; (2) select FGD processes to be cost-analyzed; (3) define the future electric utility FGD system market; and (4) perform cost analyses for the selected FGD processes. The study was initiated in September 1979, and separate reports were prepared for the first two subtasks. The results of the latter two subtasks appear only in this final reprot, since the end-date of those subtasks coincided with the end-date of the overall task. The Subtask 1 report, Criteria and Methods for Performing FGD Cost Evaluations, was completed in October 1980. A slightly modified and condensed version of that report appears as appendix B to this report. The Subtask 2 report, FGD Candidate Process Selection, was completed in January 1981, and the principal outputs of that subtask appear in Appendices C and D to this report.

  16. THE PROCESS OF OBTAINING THE DEGREE DOCTOR IN ECONOMICS IN CUBA, A DECISIVE CHALLENGE FOR DEVELOPMENT ECONOMIC SCIENCES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manuel Castro-Tato

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available In Cuba and other countries of Latin America are thousands of professionals graduated in the economic sciences that are working as specialists, officials and directive in companies, organisms and entities of the central administration of the state, as well as professors and investigators in universities and centers and institutes of scientific investigations. Many of them have developed diverse study, organized in masters courses, and want to continue their professional development in order to obtaining of doctor's scientific grade, but many of them ignore the form and the roads to be able to reach this purpose. Doctor`s degree in specialties of economics sciences is possible to obtain in Cuba. It is generally achieved in time shared with the applicant's habitual work, usually in one period between 3 and 5 years, by programs of study of curricular doctorate or through topics framed in investigation projects approved by the Ministry of Sciences, Technology and Environment, which is directed with academic rigor by the National Commission of Scientific Grades and by means of the guide of each applicant's individual program, by a professional of prestige that shows doctor's grade who acts as tutor. The  central objective of the present work is to explain the main characteristics of the process to carry out the doctorate studies in economic sciences in Cuba, the requirements and the main roads to carry out them with the elaboration of the grade thesis and its defense in the Permanent National Tribunal of Scientific Grades of each specialty of the economic sciences, as well as some considerations regarding the elements that cannot be outside in the design of the investigation. 

  17. Invisible hand in the process of making economics or on the method and scope of economics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yay Turan

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available As a social science, economics cannot be reduced to simply an a priori science or an ideology. In addition economics cannot be solely an empirical or a historical science. Economics is a research field which studies only one dimension of human behavior, with the four fields of mathematics, econometrics, ethics and history intersecting one another. The purpose of this paper is to discuss the two parts of the proposition above, in connection with the controversies surrounding the method and the scope of economics: economics as an applied mathematics and economics as a predictive/empirical science.

  18. Economic analysis vs. capital-recovery requirements of power reactor decommissioning

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ferguson, J.S.

    1980-01-01

    As a consultant to electric utilities the author often becomes involved in the development of policy for capital recovery and in the determination of depreciation rates that will implement the policy. Utility capital recovery is controlled by generally accepted depreciation accounting practices and by regulatory commission accounting rules and, as a result, can differ significantly from engineering economics. Those involved with decommissioning of power reactors should be aware of the depreciation accounting and regulatory framework that dictates capital recovery requirements, whether their involvement is related to engineering economics or capital recovery. This presentation defines that framework, points out several significant implications (particularly tax), describes several conforming capital-recovery methods, describes several techniques that have been used with the decommissioning component in economic analysis of alternative energy sources, and discusses why those involved in economic analysis should learn the accounting and regulatory framework for capital recovery

  19. Consequences for people from changed economic requirements and implementations of new technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Myhre, L.A.

    1994-01-01

    The offshore oil and gas business has reached mature levels where improvements and efficiency, optimisation and down-sizing are necessary to achieve required economic performance. The paper discusses the oil worker in future with the focus on manning and safety as a consequence of new technologies and cost reduction. 1 fig

  20. Techno-economic analysis of organosolv pretreatment process from lignocellulosic biomass

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rodrigues Gurgel da Silva, Andrè; Errico, Massimiliano; Rong, Ben-Guang

    2018-01-01

    data, we propose a feasible process flowsheet for organosolv pretreatment. Simulation of the pretreatment process provided mass and energy balances for a techno-economic analysis, and the values were compared with the most prevalent and mature pretreatment method: diluted acid. Organosolv pretreatment...... required more energy, 578.1 versus 213.8 MW for diluted acid pretreatment, but resulted in a higher ethanol concentration after the biomass fermentation, 11.1% compared to 5.4%. Total annual costs (TACs) calculations showed advantages for diluted acid pretreatment, but future improvements explored...

  1. Thermodynamics and process analysis for future economic scenarios

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ayres, R.U.

    1995-01-01

    Economists are increasingly interested in forecasting future costs and benefits of policies for dealing with materials/energy fluxes, polluting emissions and environmental impacts on various scales, from sectoral to global. Computable general equilibrium (CGE) models are currently popular because they project demand and industrial structure into the future, along an equilibrium path. But they are applicable only to the extent that structural changes occur in or near equilibrium, independent of radical technological (or social) change. The alternative tool for analyzing economic implications of scenario assumptions is to use Leontief-type Input-Output (I-O) models. I-O models are unable to endogenize structural shifts (changing I-O coefficients). However, this can be a virtue when considering radical rather than incremental shifts. Postulated I-O tables can be used independently to check the internal consistency of scenarios. Or I-O models can be used to generate scenarios by linking them to econometric 'macro-drivers' (which can, in principle, be CGE models). Explicit process analysis can be integrated, in principle, with I-O models. This hybrid scheme provides a natural means of satisfying physical constraints, especially the first and second laws of thermodynamics. This is important, to avoid constructing scenarios based on physically impossible processes. Process analysis is really the only available tool for constructing physically plausible alternative future I-O tables, and generating materials/energy and waste emissions coefficients. Explicit process analysis also helps avoid several problems characteristic of 'pure' CGE or I-O models, viz. (1) aggregation errors (2) inability to handle arbitrary combinations of co-product and co-input relationships and (3) inability to reflect certain non-linearities such as internal feedback loops. 4 figs., 2 tabs., 38 refs

  2. Techno-Economic Analysis of a Secondary Air Stripper Process

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Heberle, J.R. [Electric Power Research Inst. (EPRI), Palo Alto, CA (United States); Nikolic, Heather [Center for Applied Energy Research, University of Kentucky, Lexington, KY (United States); Thompson, Jesse [Center for Applied Energy Research, University of Kentucky, Lexington, KY (United States); Liu, Kunlei [Center for Applied Energy Research, University of Kentucky, Lexington, KY (United States); Pinkerton, Lora L. [WorleyParsons, Reading, PA (United States); Brubaker, David [WorleyParsons, Reading, PA (United States); Simpson, James C. [WorleyParsons, Reading, PA (United States); Wu, Song [Mitsubishi Hitachi Power Systems America, Inc, Basking Ridge, NJ (United States); Bhown, Abhoyjit S. [Electric Power Research Inst. (EPRI), Palo Alto, CA (United States)

    2017-08-22

    We present results of an initial techno-economic assessment on a post-combustion CO2 capture process developed by the Center for Applied Energy Research (CAER) at the University of Kentucky using Mitsubishi Hitachi Power Systems’ H3-1 aqueous amine solvent. The analysis is based on data collected at a 0.7 MWe pilot unit combined with laboratory data and process simulations. The process adds a secondary air stripper to a conventional solvent process, which increases the cyclic loading of the solvent in two ways. First, air strips additional CO2 from the solvent downstream of the conventional steam-heated thermal stripper. This extra stripping of CO2 reduces the lean loading entering the absorber. Second, the CO2-enriched air is then sent to the boiler for use as secondary air. This recycling of CO2 results in a higher concentration of CO2 in the flue gas sent to the absorber, and hence a higher rich loading of the solvent exiting the absorber. A process model was incorporated into a full-scale supercritical pulverized coal power plant model to determine the plant performance and heat and mass balances. The performance and heat and mass balance data were used to size equipment and develop cost estimates for capital and operating costs. Lifecycle costs were considered through a levelized cost of electricity (LCOE) assessment based on the capital cost estimate and modeled performance. The results of the simulations show that the CAER process yields a regeneration energy of 3.12 GJ/t CO2, a $53.05/t CO2 capture cost, and LCOE of $174.59/MWh. This compares to the U.S. Department of Energy’s projected costs (Case 10) of regeneration energy of 3.58 GJ/t CO2 , a $61.31/t CO2 capture cost, and LCOE of $189.59/MWh. For H3-1, the CAER process results in a regeneration energy of 2.62 GJ/tCO2 with a stripper pressure of 5.2 bar, a capture cost of $46.93/t CO2, and an LCOE of $164.33/MWh.

  3. Revitalising primary healthcare requires an equitable global economic system - now more than ever.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanders, David; Baum, Fran E; Benos, Alexis; Legge, David

    2011-08-01

    The promised revitalisation of primary healthcare (PHC) is happening at a time when the contradictions and unfairness of the global economic system have become clear, suggesting that the current system is unsustainable. In the past two decades, one of the most significant impediments to the implementation of comprehensive PHC has been neoliberal economic policies and their imposition globally. This article questions what will be required for PHC to flourish. PHC incorporates five key principles: equitable provision of services, comprehensive care, intersectoral action, community involvement and appropriate technology. This article considers intersectoral action and comprehensiveness and their potential to be implemented in the current global environment. It highlights the constraints to intersectoral action through a case study of nutrition in the context of globalisation of the food chain. It also explores the challenges to implementing a comprehensive approach to health that are posed by neoliberal health sector reforms and donor practices. The paper concludes that even well-designed health systems based on PHC have little influence over the broader economic forces that shape their operation and their ability to improve health. Reforming these economic forces will require greater regulation of the national and global economic environment to emphasise people's health rather than private profit, and action to address climate change. Revitalisation of PHC and progress towards health equity are unlikely without strong regulation of the market. The further development and strengthening of social movements for health will be key to successful advocacy action.

  4. The effects of innovative changes influence on social and economic processes of the region development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. O. Tolstykh

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Development of strategy of social and economic development of the Voronezh region till 2035 requires the careful analysis of a condition of all activities of the region, their interaction and interference. The special role in this process belongs to the higher school as the engine of knowledge, information and innovations. In case of all conservatism of an education system its task not only to give estimates and forecasts of the future, but also to serve as a leader of changes in all industries. The models realizing these tasks are a possibility of receipt of the effective instrument of increase in innovation of potential of economy of the region, forming of the environment which is adequately reflecting scientific and technical and economic challenges of modern realities and also developments of processes and technologies of transition of economy of the region to the principles of digital economy. Direct task of the higher school are increase in the amount of knowledge which is saved up by society, handling and transformation of information to knowledge, generation of new information and new knowledge, forming of the competitive specialist. In article approaches to an impact assessment of changes in the higher school on processes of social and economic development of the region, to classification of straight lines and side effects (spillover-effects in the conditions of development of programs of a strategic development of the region are considered, the model of development of the higher school taking into account spillover-effect based on the principles of digital economy is offered. For the purpose of an impact assessment of changes in the higher school on processes of social and economic development in the region the task is set to analyse influence of various factors at each other, and also on basic factors of economic growth of the region.

  5. Process Design and Techno-economic Analysis for Materials to Treat Produced Waters.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Heimer, Brandon Walter [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-CA), Livermore, CA (United States); Paap, Scott M [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-CA), Livermore, CA (United States); Sasan, Koroush [Sandia National Laboratories (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Brady, Patrick Vane. [Sandia National Laboratories (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Nenoff, Tina M. [Sandia National Laboratories (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    2017-09-01

    Significant quantities of water are produced during enhanced oil recovery making these “produced water” streams attractive candidates for treatment and reuse. However, high concentrations of dissolved silica raise the propensity for fouling. In this paper, we report the design and economic analysis for a new ion exchange process using calcined hydrotalcite (HTC) to remove silica from water. This process improves upon known technologies by minimizing sludge product, reducing process fouling, and lowering energy use. Process modeling outputs included raw material requirements, energy use, and the minimum water treatment price (MWTP). Monte Carlo simulations quantified the impact of uncertainty and variability in process inputs on MWTP. These analyses showed that cost can be significantly reduced if the HTC materials are optimized. Specifically, R&D improving HTC reusability, silica binding capacity, and raw material price can reduce MWTP by 40%, 13%, and 20%, respectively. Optimizing geographic deployment further improves cost competitiveness.

  6. 13 CFR 303.7 - Requirements for Comprehensive Economic Development Strategies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... and strengthen Regional economies. The CEDS should analyze the Regional economy and serve as a guide for establishing Regional goals and objectives, developing and implementing a Regional plan of action... economic development planning process, developed with broad-based and diverse public and private sector...

  7. Invisible hand in the process of making economics or on the method and scope of economics

    OpenAIRE

    Yay Turan; Tastan Huseyin

    2010-01-01

    As a social science, economics cannot be reduced to simply an a priori science or an ideology. In addition economics cannot be solely an empirical or a historical science. Economics is a research field which studies only one dimension of human behavior, with the four fields of mathematics, econometrics, ethics and history intersecting one another. The purpose of this paper is to discuss the two parts of the proposition above, in connection with the controversies surrounding the method and the...

  8. Usage of information safety requirements in improving tube bending process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Livshitz, I. I.; Kunakov, E.; Lontsikh, P. A.

    2018-05-01

    This article is devoted to an improvement of the technological process's analysis with the information security requirements implementation. The aim of this research is the competition increase analysis in aircraft industry enterprises due to the information technology implementation by the example of the tube bending technological process. The article analyzes tube bending kinds and current technique. In addition, a potential risks analysis in a tube bending technological process is carried out in terms of information security.

  9. 78 FR 38555 - Importer Permit Requirements for Tobacco Products and Processed Tobacco, and Other Requirements...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-06-27

    ..., and Other Requirements for Tobacco Products, Processed Tobacco, and Cigarette Papers and Tubes AGENCY... administration and enforcement of importer permits over the past decade, TTB believes that it can gain... minimum manufacturing and marking requirements for tobacco products and cigarette papers and tubes, and...

  10. Economic efficiency analysis of electron accelerator for irradiation processing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shi Huidong; Chen Ronghui

    2003-01-01

    The fixed assets, running cost and economic efficiency were discussed in this paper. For building electron accelerator of 10 MeV and 3 kW, the running cost is one time higher than building cobalt source at 2.22 x 10 15 Bq, but economic efficiency of building a electron accelerator is much higher than building a cobalt source

  11. Business Process Quality Computation : Computing Non-Functional Requirements to Improve Business Processes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Heidari, F.

    2015-01-01

    Business process modelling is an important part of system design. When designing or redesigning a business process, stakeholders specify, negotiate, and agree on business requirements to be satisfied, including non-functional requirements that concern the quality of the business process. This thesis

  12. Establishing a health outcomes and economics center in radiology: strategies and resources required

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Medina, Santiago L.; Altman, Nolan R.

    2002-01-01

    To describe the resources and strategies required to establish a health outcomes and economics center in radiology.Methods. Human and nonhuman resources required to perform sound outcomes and economics studies in radiology are reviewed.Results. Human resources needed include skilled medical and nonmedical staff. Nonhuman resources required are: (1) communication and information network; (2) education tools and training programs; (3) budgetary strategies; and (4) sources of income. Effective utilization of these resources allows the performance of robust operational and clinical research projects in decision analysis, cost-effectiveness, diagnostic performance (sensitivity, specificity, and ROC curves), and clinical analytical and experimental studies.Conclusion. As new radiologic technology and techniques are introduced in medicine, society is increasingly demanding sound clinical studies that will determine the impact of radiologic studies on patient outcome. Health-care funding is scarce, and therefore third-party payers and hospitals are demanding more efficiency and productivity from radiologic service providers. To meet these challenges, radiology departments could establish health outcomes and economics centers to study the clinical effectiveness of imaging and its impact on patient outcome. (orig.)

  13. The minimum work required for air conditioning process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alhazmy, Majed M.

    2006-01-01

    This paper presents a theoretical analysis based on the second law of thermodynamics to estimate the minimum work required for the air conditioning process. The air conditioning process for hot and humid climates involves reducing air temperature and humidity. In the present analysis the inlet state is the state of the environment which has also been chosen as the dead state. The final state is the human thermal comfort fixed at 20 o C dry bulb temperature and 60% relative humidity. The general air conditioning process is represented by an equivalent path consisting of an isothermal dehumidification followed by a sensible cooling. An exergy analysis is performed on each process separately. Dehumidification is analyzed as a separation process of an ideal mixture of air and water vapor. The variations of the minimum work required for the air conditioning process with the ambient conditions is estimated and the ratio of the work needed for dehumidification to the total work needed to perform the entire process is presented. The effect of small variations in the final conditions on the minimum required work is evaluated. Tolerating a warmer or more humid final condition can be an easy solution to reduce the energy consumptions during critical load periods

  14. Green Software Engineering Adaption In Requirement Elicitation Process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Umma Khatuna Jannat

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available A recent technology investigates the role of concern in the environment software that is green software system. Now it is widely accepted that the green software can fit all process of software development. It is also suitable for the requirement elicitation process. Now a days software companies have used requirements elicitation techniques in an enormous majority. Because this process plays more and more important roles in software development. At the present time most of the requirements elicitation process is improved by using some techniques and tools. So that the intention of this research suggests to adapt green software engineering for the intention of existing elicitation technique and recommend suitable actions for improvement. This research being involved qualitative data. I used few keywords in my searching procedure then searched IEEE ACM Springer Elsevier Google scholar Scopus and Wiley. Find out articles which published in 2010 until 2016. Finding from the literature review Identify 15 traditional requirement elicitations factors and 23 improvement techniques to convert green engineering. Lastly The paper includes a squat review of the literature a description of the grounded theory and some of the identity issues related finding of the necessity for requirements elicitation improvement techniques.

  15. Compliance with NRC subsystem requirements in the repository licensing process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Minwalla, H.

    1994-01-01

    Section 121 of the Nuclear Waste Policy Act of 1982 requires the Nuclear Regulatory Commission (Commission) to issue technical requirements and criteria, for the use of a system of multiple barriers in the design of the repository, that are not inconsistent with any comparable standard promulgated by the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). The Administrator of the EPA is required to promulgate generally applicable standards for protection of the general environment from offsite releases from radioactive material in repositories. The Commission's regulations pertaining to geologic repositories are provided in 10 CFR part 60. The Commission has provided in 10 CFR 60.112 the overall post-closure system performance objective which is used to demonstrate compliance with the EPA high-level waste (HLW) disposal standard. In addition, the Commission has provided, in 10 CFR 60.113, subsystem performance requirements for substantially complete containment, fractional release rate, and groundwater travel time; however, none of these subsystem performance requirements have a causal technical nexus with the EPA HLW disposal standard. This paper examines the issue of compliance with the conflicting dual regulatory role of subsystem performance requirements in the repository licensing process and recommends several approaches that would appropriately define the role of subsystem performance requirements in the repository licensing process

  16. An analytical approach to customer requirement information processing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Zude; Xiao, Zheng; Liu, Quan; Ai, Qingsong

    2013-11-01

    'Customer requirements' (CRs) management is a key component of customer relationship management (CRM). By processing customer-focused information, CRs management plays an important role in enterprise systems (ESs). Although two main CRs analysis methods, quality function deployment (QFD) and Kano model, have been applied to many fields by many enterprises in the past several decades, the limitations such as complex processes and operations make them unsuitable for online businesses among small- and medium-sized enterprises (SMEs). Currently, most SMEs do not have the resources to implement QFD or Kano model. In this article, we propose a method named customer requirement information (CRI), which provides a simpler and easier way for SMEs to run CRs analysis. The proposed method analyses CRs from the perspective of information and applies mathematical methods to the analysis process. A detailed description of CRI's acquisition, classification and processing is provided.

  17. Co-production of electricity and ethanol, process economics of value prior combustion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Treasure, T.; Gonzalez, R.; Venditti, R.; Pu, Y.; Jameel, H.; Kelley, S.; Prestemon, Jeffrey

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: ► Economics of producing cellulosic ethanol and bio-power in the same facility using an autohydrolysis process. ► Feedstock considerably affect the economics of the biorefinery facility. ► Lower moisture content improves financial performance of the bio-power business. - Abstract: A process economic analysis of co-producing bioethanol and electricity (value prior to combustion) from mixed southern hardwood and southern yellow pine is presented. Bioethanol is produced by extracting carbohydrates from wood via autohydrolysis, membrane separation of byproducts, enzymatic hydrolysis of extracted oligomers and fermentation to ethanol. The residual solids after autohydrolysis are pressed and burned in a power boiler to generate steam and electricity. A base case scenario of biomass combustion to produce electricity is presented as a reference to understand the basics of bio-power generation economics. For the base case, minimum electricity revenue of $70–$96/MWh must be realized to achieve a 6–12% internal rate of return. In the alternative co-production cases, the ethanol facility is treated as a separate business entity that purchases power and steam from the biomass power plant. Minimum ethanol revenue required to achieve a 12% internal rate of return was estimated to be $0.84–$1.05/l for hardwood and $0.74–$0.85/l for softwood. Based on current market conditions and an assumed future ethanol selling price of $0.65/l, the co-production of cellulosic bioethanol and power does not produce financeable returns. A risk analysis indicates that there is a probability of 26.6% to achieve an internal rate of return equal or higher than 12%. It is suggested that focus be placed on improving yield and reducing CAPEX before this technology can be applied commercially. This modeling approach is a robust method to evaluate economic feasibility of integrated production of bio-power and other products based on extracted hemicellulose.

  18. ENTREPRENEURSHIP AS STRATEGIC RESOURSE: ECONOMIC ESSENCE, MANAGEMENT PROCESSES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. D. Polovinkin

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available At current society development stage, efficient use of entrepreneurship provides for stable production and high living standards. Entrepreneurship is a specific type of economic activities, entrepreneur is a special subject of management. Entrepreneurship’s objective prerequisites and possibilities to get efficiently adapted to postindustrial economic conditions lay in its very essence. Personal and professional qualities of a successful entrepreneur make him effective both as capital owner and manager. The state must create favorable conditions for Russian entrepreneurship.

  19. Electron beam process design for the treatment of wastes and economic feasibility of the process

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cleland, M R; Fernald, R A; Malcof, S R [High Voltage Engineering Corp., Burlington, MA (USA)

    1984-01-01

    Electron beam irradiation is a practical and economical method to disinfect liquid municipal sludges at high throughput rates. Demonstration facilities have been built in Boston and Miami with treatment capacities of 170,000 gallons per day (650 cubic meters per day) for a minimum dose of 400 kilorads. The electron treatment process is described in some detail. Capital and operating cost estimates are given for continuous sludge disinfection. Total costs for liquid sludge are $7.50 per 1000 gallons. Equivalent costs for residual sewage solids are $50.00 per metric ton. Economic comparisons are made between electron accelerators and gamma-ray sources for liquid and dewatered sludge. The possibilities of treating wastewater and drinking water with high-energy electrons are also reviewed.

  20. Integrating reuse measurement practices into the ERP requirements engineering process

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Daneva, Maia; Münich, Jürgen; Vierimaa, Matias

    2006-01-01

    The management and deployment of reuse-driven and architecturecentric requirements engineering processes have become common in many organizations adopting Enterprise Resource Planning solutions. Yet, little is known about the variety of reusability aspects in ERP projects at the level of

  1. Developmental State Policy, Educational Development, and Economic Development: Policy Processes in South Korea (1961-1979)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Ki Su

    2012-01-01

    This paper explores two inter-connected issues--the state's role in educational development and educational contribution to economic development--in the policy processes entailed by the South Korean state's pursuit of economic development during the Park Chung Hi era, 1961-1979. It disputes the statist view that South Korea's economic development…

  2. How to Reason with Economic Concepts: Cognitive Process of Japanese Undergraduate Students Solving Test Items

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asano, Tadayoshi; Yamaoka, Michio

    2015-01-01

    The authors administered a Japanese version of the Test of Understanding in College Economics, the fourth edition (TUCE-4) to assess the economic literacy of Japanese undergraduate students in 2006 and 2009. These two test results were combined to investigate students' cognitive process or reasoning with specific economic concepts and principles…

  3. Assessment of mutual influence of economic and ecological processes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pavel Vasil’evich Druzhinin

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available The article considers two issues: the assessment of the influence of economic development on the environment and the assessment of the impact of climate change on the development of certain economic sectors. The authors used methods of statistical analysis and economic-mathematical modeling. The article reveals differences in the dynamics and defines the nature of the relationship between GRP per capita and emissions of harmful substances into the atmosphere (including greenhouse gases for Russia’s regions. It is shown that the dynamics in some regions in 2000–2011 corresponds to the environmental Kuznets curve. The factors that affect the reduction of anthropogenic impact were determined. Several models for estimating the impact of changes in climatic conditions on the productivity of various crops were designed and tested

  4. Marketing and economic analysis of mango irradiation processing in egypt

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Elkhateeb, M.A.

    2004-01-01

    The aim of this work is to examine the marketing and economic feasibility of a project for mango irradiation in Egypt. The Egyptian market was analyzed considering the production size and cultivated area distributed over several years,the percentage of the total loss of mango that can be avoided by irradiation, the market tests in Egypt and other countries was presented and the normal distribution channels of mango when using radiation technology. The financial and economic analysis of the establishment of pallet carrier unite for the irradiation of mango was also carried out. The following investment criteria were utilized for the commercial evaluation: benefit-cost ratio, pay back period, average rate of return and net present value. The results of this analysis showed that the installation of a unit for the irradiation of mango in Egypt would be economically viable. The unit cost of irradiation would decline if the irradiator is be used as a multipurpose facility

  5. From Physical Process to Economic Cost - Integrated Approaches of Landslide Risk Assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klose, M.; Damm, B.

    2014-12-01

    The nature of landslides is complex in many respects, with landslide hazard and impact being dependent on a variety of factors. This obviously requires an integrated assessment for fundamental understanding of landslide risk. Integrated risk assessment, according to the approach presented in this contribution, implies combining prediction of future landslide occurrence with analysis of landslide impact in the past. A critical step for assessing landslide risk in integrated perspective is to analyze what types of landslide damage affected people and property in which way and how people contributed and responded to these damage types. In integrated risk assessment, the focus is on systematic identification and monetization of landslide damage, and analytical tools that allow deriving economic costs from physical landslide processes are at the heart of this approach. The broad spectrum of landslide types and process mechanisms as well as nonlinearity between landslide magnitude, damage intensity, and direct costs are some main factors explaining recent challenges in risk assessment. The two prevailing approaches for assessing the impact of landslides in economic terms are cost survey (ex-post) and risk analysis (ex-ante). Both approaches are able to complement each other, but yet a combination of them has not been realized so far. It is common practice today to derive landslide risk without considering landslide process-based cause-effect relationships, since integrated concepts or new modeling tools expanding conventional methods are still widely missing. The approach introduced in this contribution is based on a systematic framework that combines cost survey and GIS-based tools for hazard or cost modeling with methods to assess interactions between land use practices and landslides in historical perspective. Fundamental understanding of landslide risk also requires knowledge about the economic and fiscal relevance of landslide losses, wherefore analysis of their

  6. Comparative economics for DUCRETE spent fuel storage cask handling, transportation, and capital requirements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Powell, F.P.

    1995-04-01

    This report summarizes economic differences between a DUCRETE spent nuclear fuel storage cask and a conventional concrete storage cask in the areas of handling, transportation, and capital requirements. The DUCRETE cask is under evaluation as a new technology that could substantially reduce the overall costs of spent fuel and depleted U disposal. DUCRETE incorporates depleted U in a Portland cement mixture and functions as the cask's primary radiation barrier. The cask system design includes insertion of the US DOE Multi-Purpose Canister inside the DUCRETE cask. The economic comparison is from the time a cask is loaded in a spent fuel pool until it is placed in the repository and includes the utility and overall US system perspectives

  7. THEORETICAL AND PRACTICAL ASPECTS OF MONITORING OF REGION’S SOCIO-ECONOMIC DEVELOPMENT PROCESSES:

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valentyna Yakubiv

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available The article defines the nature of socio-economic development processes monitoring in a region on the basis of systematization of scientific works on economics. The terms of monitoring introduction into the processes of socio-economic development of a region are defined. The difference between monitoring and standard statistic technology is explained. The fact that socio-economic processes monitoring is primarily directed at collection, examination and preparation of information for making and analyzing of economic decisions at different management levels is proved. The indicators by the direction “renewable energy and energy efficiency”, which are evaluated in the process of monitoring, are outlined. Major tasks of monitoring are defined and principles of its information basis forming are determined. Key words: decentralization, information basis, renewable energy, monitoring, region, development, socio-economic processes.

  8. ECONOMIC ESSENCE OF MODERN INVESTMENT PROCESSES IN THE GRAIN PROCESSING INDUSTRY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Inna Kanashkina

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available The subject of the research is theoretical and methodological bases of formation of effective investment in priorities feed processing industry in Ukraine. The object of research is the investment process in feed processing Ukrainian industry, the main direction and the way to increase the efficiency of the investment process in the industry. The aim is to develop an integrated approach to the study of the economic substance of investments to improve the methods to determine their effectiveness, the study of factors of investment environment, study methodology for determining business risk, development of proposals of the priority areas of investing in feed processing industry, the formation of effective investment strategies for its development in the conditions of market transformation. Methods. We used the following methods: dialectical, abstract logic, Economics and Statistics and the systemic-functional methods of knowledge of economic processes. The dialectical method has allowed the author to analyze the development of research in the last five years, identified reserves and propose ways for its further development. Abstract-logical method of waste classification of the factors influencing the efficiency of the investment process in the industry, the methodological approaches to the formation of the components of the conceptual apparatus studied category. Economic-statistical method used in the study and synthesis of trends and patterns of the dynamics of the industry at the present stage. Systemic-functional method allowed to generalize the theoretical and methodological foundations of development effectiveness feed processing industry. The study also used methods: a comparative analysis – for comparing actual data reporting and previous years; model approach – to determine the entrepreneurial risk in the enterprises of the industry; expert assessments and cost approaches to identify key trends and ways to improve the country

  9. The role of library in Nigeria's economic development process ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... in Nigeria can only be provided through the establishment and adequate funding of the library system. It delved into the importance of information in attaining a sustainable economic development capable of making life better for the Nigerian citizens. African Journal of Cross-Cultural Psychology and Sport Facilitation Vol.

  10. Process of technical performance: essential features and their economic view

    OpenAIRE

    Zhylinska, O.

    2010-01-01

    Essential features of technical performance have been defined in the context of similarity of its components such as research and development, training of technical/engineering personnel and providing technical services. Also peculiarities of economic view have been examined in terms of information model of managing.

  11. Economic evaluation method of new facilities for uranium ore processing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hebert, J.P.

    1986-01-01

    The importance of economic evaluation in feasibility studies is underlined. Notions of discounting are recalled. Profits of a project are analyzed. Studies can be relatively simple for a first estimation if investment cost and production cost are available because profits of a new production unit or savings obtained by a new investment are determined. But for integrated projects mine-plant the studies are complex especially for complete exploitation account [fr

  12. REQUIREMENTS PROCESSING TOOLS AND THE BUILDING DESIGNERS MOTIVATION ON USE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Camila Pegoraro

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available The successful development of projects requires, among other conditions, the ability to process requirements. In the construction literature, researchers have figured out that human difficulties was often at the root of Requirements Processing (RP problems throughout the design phases, and that the employment of tools could be a key factor for RP implementation. To check these outcomes and to look at how current practitioners behave in relation to the RP tools, an exploratory case study was conducted with a building design team from a public university. The aim of this paper was to investigate the perception of benefits and the motivation of designers regarding the RP tools. The results indicated that 42% of the participants are highly motivated to use new tools and that they have more interest in tools that deal directly with design activities than in those focused on data. Validation tools aroused interest as the most useful tools for designers. 66,7% of the participants mentioned that the tools can make the design process clearer, and that training and adaptation are crucial to promote acceptance and commitment to RP. The main contribution is the indication of gaps for further research and for tools improvement from the designers’ perspective.

  13. Economics of the specification 6M safety re-evaluation and regulatory requirements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hopper, C.M.

    1985-01-01

    The objective of this work was to examine the potential economic impact of the DOT Specification 6M criticality safety re-evaluation and regulatory requirements. The examination was based upon comparative analyses of current authorized fissile material load limits for the 6M, current Federal regulations (and interpretations) limiting the contents of Type B fissile material packages, limiting aggregates of fissile material packages, and recent proposed fissile material mass limits derived from specialized criticality safety analyses of the 6M package. The work examines influences on cost in transportation, handling, and storage of fissile materials. Depending upon facility throughput requirements (and assumed incremental costs of fissile material packaging, storage, and transport), operating, facility storage capacity, and transportation costs can be reduced significantly. As an example of the pricing algorithm application based upon reasonable cost influences, the magnitude of the first year cost reductions could extend beyond four times the cost of the packaging nuclear criticality safety re-evaluation. 1 tab

  14. Economics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palley, Paul D; Parcero, Miriam E

    2016-10-01

    A review of literature in the calendar year 2015 dedicated to environmental policies and sustainable development, and economic policies. This review is divided into these sections: sustainable development, irrigation, ecosystems and water management, climate change and disaster risk management, economic growth, water supply policies, water consumption, water price regulation, and water price valuation.

  15. Quality assurance requirements for dedication process in Angra 1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baliza, Ana Rosa, E-mail: baliza@eletronuclear.gov.br [Eletrobras Termonuclear S.A. (ELETRONUCLEAR), Angra dos Reis, RJ (Brazil). Departamento GQO.G; Morghi, Youssef, E-mail: ymo@cdtn.br [Centro de Desenvolvimento da Tecnologia Nuclear (CDTN/CNEN-MG), Belo Horizonte, MG (Brazil)

    2015-07-01

    In Brazil the regulatory body is CNEN (Comissao Nacional de Energia Nuclear), according to its requirements, when there is not a Brazilian standard, the utilities shall follow the requirements of the designer. For Angra 1, the designer is an American company - Westinghouse. So, the requirements for dedication of U.S. NRC (United States Nuclear Regulatory Commission) shall be applied, these requirements are in 10CFR21 - Reporting of Defects and Noncompliance. According to 10CFR21, when applied to nuclear power plants licensed dedication is an acceptance process undertaken to provide reasonable assurance that a commercial grade item to be used as a basic component will perform its intended safety function and, in this respect, is deemed equivalent to an item designed and manufactured under a quality assurance program standard for nuclear power plant. This assurance is achieved by identifying the critical characteristics of the item and verifying their acceptability by inspections, tests, or analyses by the purchaser or third-party dedicating entity. (author)

  16. Quality assurance requirements for dedication process in Angra 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baliza, Ana Rosa

    2015-01-01

    In Brazil the regulatory body is CNEN (Comissao Nacional de Energia Nuclear), according to its requirements, when there is not a Brazilian standard, the utilities shall follow the requirements of the designer. For Angra 1, the designer is an American company - Westinghouse. So, the requirements for dedication of U.S. NRC (United States Nuclear Regulatory Commission) shall be applied, these requirements are in 10CFR21 - Reporting of Defects and Noncompliance. According to 10CFR21, when applied to nuclear power plants licensed dedication is an acceptance process undertaken to provide reasonable assurance that a commercial grade item to be used as a basic component will perform its intended safety function and, in this respect, is deemed equivalent to an item designed and manufactured under a quality assurance program standard for nuclear power plant. This assurance is achieved by identifying the critical characteristics of the item and verifying their acceptability by inspections, tests, or analyses by the purchaser or third-party dedicating entity. (author)

  17. Project Interface Requirements Process Including Shuttle Lessons Learned

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bauch, Garland T.

    2010-01-01

    Most failures occur at interfaces between organizations and hardware. Processing interface requirements at the start of a project life cycle will reduce the likelihood of costly interface changes/failures later. This can be done by adding Interface Control Documents (ICDs) to the Project top level drawing tree, providing technical direction to the Projects for interface requirements, and by funding the interface requirements function directly from the Project Manager's office. The interface requirements function within the Project Systems Engineering and Integration (SE&I) Office would work in-line with the project element design engineers early in the life cycle to enhance communications and negotiate technical issues between the elements. This function would work as the technical arm of the Project Manager to help ensure that the Project cost, schedule, and risk objectives can be met during the Life Cycle. Some ICD Lessons Learned during the Space Shuttle Program (SSP) Life Cycle will include the use of hardware interface photos in the ICD, progressive life cycle design certification by analysis, test, & operations experience, assigning interface design engineers to Element Interface (EI) and Project technical panels, and linking interface design drawings with project build drawings

  18. Using machine-learning methods to analyze economic loss function of quality management processes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dzedik, V. A.; Lontsikh, P. A.

    2018-05-01

    During analysis of quality management systems, their economic component is often analyzed insufficiently. To overcome this issue, it is necessary to withdraw the concept of economic loss functions from tolerance thinking and address it. Input data about economic losses in processes have a complex form, thus, using standard tools to solve this problem is complicated. Use of machine learning techniques allows one to obtain precise models of the economic loss function based on even the most complex input data. Results of such analysis contain data about the true efficiency of a process and can be used to make investment decisions.

  19. Economic analysis of fish processing and marketing in Ogun ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Despite the high profitability of the business, fish processors identified lack of collateral security for bank loan (96.5%), erratic power supply (92.0%) and lack of modern fish processing facilities (43.4%) as their most prevailing problems. With this high level of profitability and viability in fish processing and marketing, it is ...

  20. Fuel processing requirements and techniques for fuel cell propulsion power

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, R.; Ahmed, S.; Yu, M.

    Fuels for fuel cells in transportation systems are likely to be methanol, natural gas, hydrogen, propane, or ethanol. Fuels other than hydrogen will need to be reformed to hydrogen on-board the vehicle. The fuel reformer must meet stringent requirements for weight and volume, product quality, and transient operation. It must be compact and lightweight, must produce low levels of CO and other byproducts, and must have rapid start-up and good dynamic response. Catalytic steam reforming, catalytic or noncatalytic partial oxidation reforming, or some combination of these processes may be used. This paper discusses salient features of the different kinds of reformers and describes the catalysts and processes being examined for the oxidation reforming of methanol and the steam reforming of ethanol. Effective catalysts and reaction conditions for the former have been identified; promising catalysts and reaction conditions for the latter are being investigated.

  1. A thermo-economic analysis of the separation process of an ethylene plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yi, T.; Jan-Min, S.

    1989-01-01

    This study has established a model of thermo-economic balance for chemical processes. The general rules to form the exergy-price constraint equation and the equations of some major types of the units have been proposed. With this model, a thermo-economic analysis for the separation process of an Ethylene Plant has been studied. The paper has made an analysis for the effects of different boundary exergy prices on the process evaluation. The result shows that the thermo-economic analysis for a process, using the method advanced in here, merely depends on the process construction and the ratio of supplying exergy-prices. As soon as the ratio is well-matched, a similar analogic analysis may be set up for the same type of processes in different economic environments

  2. Municipal solid waste processing methods: Technical-economic comparison

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bertanza, G.

    1993-01-01

    This paper points out the advantages and disadvantages of municipal solid waste processing methods incorporating different energy and/or materials recovery techniques, i.e., those involving composting or incineration and those with a mix of composting and incineration. The various technologies employed are compared especially with regard to process reliability, flexibility, modularity, pollution control efficiency and cost effectiveness. For that which regards composting, biodigestors are examined, while for incineration, the paper analyzes systems using combustion with complete recovery of vapour, combustion with total recovery of available electric energy, and combustion with cogeneration. Each of the processing methods examined includes an iron recovery cycle

  3. China's economic reform and industry sector energy requirement: A forecast to 2015

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gu, A.Y.

    1997-01-01

    With its GDP growing at an average rate of 9.8% for the last seventeen years, China has the world's fastest growing economy. This rapid pace of growth and industrialization has caused economic strain because fuel production cannot keep pace with demand, If China allows this situation to continue, significant oil imports will be necessary. In 1993, the industrial sector contributed 56% to China's GDP and consumed 61% of the total final energy. The industrial sector will remain the largest energy consumer in China well into the next century. According to China's Ninth Five-Year Plan (1996--2000), China will strengthen its ability to develop new products and will use technological advancement to promote industrial development. The Plan calls for special attention in four major areas: microelectronics technology, digital technology, software technology, and network technology. Given China's emphasis on developing light industries and on improving industrial sector energy efficiency, it is important to study the future energy demand of the industrial sector. Two scenarios for future energy requirements are studied through the year 2015: a Business As Usual (BASU) scenario and an Energy Efficient (EE) scenario. The study evaluates China's current economic reform policies and energy efficiency policies. The results of this evaluation are used to assign appropriate growth rates to industrial GDP and the industrial energy intensity for both scenarios. Results from the two scenarios are compared and analyzed

  4. Economism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Simons

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Modern society is characterised not only by a fascination with scientific technology as a means of solving all problems, especially those that stand in the way of material progress (technicism, but also by an obsessive interest in everything that has to do with money (economism or mammonism. The article discusses the relationship between technicism and economism, on the basis of their relationship to utilitarian thinking: the quest for the greatest happiness for the greatest number of people. Recent major studies of neo-liberalism (seen as an intensification of utilitarianism by Laval and Dardot are used as reference to the development of utilitarianism. It is suggested that the western view of the world, as expressed in economism and technicism, with a utilitarian ethics, features three absolutisations: those of theoretical thinking, technology and economics. In a second part, the article draws on the framework of reformational philosophy to suggest an approach that, in principle, is not marred by such absolutisations.

  5. Simultaneous environmental and economic process synthesis of Isobutane Alkylation

    OpenAIRE

    García, Norberto; Fernandez-Torres, Maria J.; Caballero, José A.

    2014-01-01

    This multidisciplinary study concerns the optimal design of processes with a view to both maximizing profit and minimizing environmental impacts. This can be achieved by a combination of traditional chemical process design methods, measurements of environmental impacts and advanced mathematical optimization techniques. More to the point, this paper presents a hybrid simulation-multiobjective optimization approach that at once optimizes the production cost and minimizes the associated environm...

  6. Cost account in agriculture with particular accordance to requirements of decision making process and controls

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tomasz Kondraszuk

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available The article presents cost account applicability in the agricultural companies regarding the general theory of economic and organisation of enterprises. The main focus was laid down to analyse the unit total cost account with variable costs and their applicability in three spheres: stock valuation and profit, requirements of planning and decision making processes and controlling. It was concluded that cost calculation at the level of agricultural enterprise should be an inherent element of integrated information system at the level of registry, planning, decision making and control.

  7. Integration of life cycle assessment software with tools for economic and sustainability analyses and process simulation for sustainable process design

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kalakul, Sawitree; Malakul, Pomthong; Siemanond, Kitipat

    2014-01-01

    The sustainable future of the world challenges engineers to develop chemical process designs that are not only technically and economically feasible but also environmental friendly. Life cycle assessment (LCA) is a tool for identifying and quantifying environmental impacts of the chemical product...... with other process design tools such as sustainable design (SustainPro), economic analysis (ECON) and process simulation. The software framework contains four main tools: Tool-I is for life cycle inventory (LCI) knowledge management that enables easy maintenance and future expansion of the LCI database; Tool...... and/or the process that makes it. It can be used in conjunction with process simulation and economic analysis tools to evaluate the design of any existing and/or new chemical-biochemical process and to propose improvement options in order to arrive at the best design among various alternatives...

  8. The Process to Estimate Economical Benefits of Six Sigma Projects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jan Kosina

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available This paper seeks to define the process for the continuous evaluation of the financial benefits during Six Sigma project life time. The financial criteria are critical success factors of a Six Sigma project. The process has been developed as part of the six sigma project monitoring in order to estimate proper allocation of the resources taking in account the expected project benefits as well as evaluationof real achievements. The evaluation of the finacial benefits based on the quality costs is not sufficient in the real life and has to be accomplished with key financial performance indicators of the business to visualize the results. The evaluation based on the savings seems to be too difficult especially for green belts. The early involvement of the finance department in the project definition as well as ongoing evaluation is key. The defined process has been applied to real business enviroment.

  9. Economics of gamma processing in cobalt-60 irradiation facilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gay, H. G.; Kotler, J. G.

    1985-01-01

    Gamma processing by cobalt-60 is well established. However, since irradiation of food is relatively new from the commercial point of view, it is important to assess costs of gamma irradiation in the context of food processing. Five different types of AECL-RCC irradiation equipment are examined in terms of their throughputs, and capital and operating costs. Using these figures, costs of irradiation of nine types of food products are presented. In general, these represent about 2-10% of the wholesale cost of these products

  10. Systematic framework and measures of economic policy in function of Serbian agriculture improvement requirements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Branko KATIC

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available One of the most significant economic activities in Serbia is agriculture, which also represents the base for food industry and some other branches of processing industry. In this field Serbia finds its developmental opportunity in future period. Inclusion of the country in EU, as well as in the World Tourist Organization, implies appropriate preparation and qualification in this field, so there could be more successful deal with rising competitiveness of foreign goods, in conditions of increasing liberalization level of foreign trade. Therefore, domestic regulatory rules must be adjusted to EU regulatory rules, like as concrete measures regarding agriculture and rural development improvement must be adjusted to the measures in the Joint EU Agrarian Policy. Serbian agriculture is in quite bad condition, and financial possibilities of the state, to expedite its development by abundant assets, are still insufficient. In terms of recession, caused by world economic crisis, too, incentive assets reduce, while making business in this field become more and more aggravated. This paper points out, in short, to significance and condition of agriculture in Serbia, on regulatory rules and future plan documents important for this field, as well as on concrete measures, which have to be undertaken in order to improve this activity.

  11. Technical and economic evaluation of processes being developed for solid waste processing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tittlova, E.; Hladky, E.

    1985-01-01

    An analysis was made of the economic benefits of two developed processes for reducing the volume of solid radioactive wastes prior to disposal, namely compacting and incineration. Input data were obtained from the actual production of solid radioactive wastes at the V-1 nuclear power plant, from compacting on site, and the operation of an experimental incineration plant. The two WWER-440 units of the V-1 nuclear power plant generate ca 200 m 3 of wastes per annum (not including air filters and wood) of which 69% is assumed to be incinerable and 27% compactable. The rest is disposed of without prior volume reduction. Disposal costs are assessed at 7,500 Czechoslovak crowns per 1 m 3 of wastes, representing a total of 1.5 million crowns per annum. As compared with the disposal of unprocessed wastes the compacting of 95% of wastes generated, reduces the costs of transport and disposal to 25%. With both compacting and incineration, the costs represent 16 to 25% of the initial sum, depending on the ratio of the two processes. The high capital costs of building the incineration plant will thus be offset by the reduction in costs of the radioactive waste disposal. From the technical point of view the analysis did not make a detailed comparison of the properties of the compacted incinerable wastes and ash with regard to stability and leachability of radionuclides. It did also not take into account operating costs and the technological challenge of the two waste volume redution processes. (Z.M.)

  12. Microfiltration of thin stillage: Process simulation and economic analyses

    Science.gov (United States)

    In plant scale operations, multistage membrane systems have been adopted for cost minimization. We considered design optimization and operation of a continuous microfiltration (MF) system for the corn dry grind process. The objectives were to develop a model to simulate a multistage MF system, optim...

  13. Thermochemical production of liquid fuels from biomass: Thermo-economic modeling, process design and process integration analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tock, Laurence; Gassner, Martin; Marechal, Francois

    2010-01-01

    A detailed thermo-economic model combining thermodynamics with economic analysis and considering different technological alternatives for the thermochemical production of liquid fuels from lignocellulosic biomass is presented. Energetic and economic models for the production of Fischer-Tropsch fuel (FT), methanol (MeOH) and dimethyl ether (DME) by means of biomass drying with steam or flue gas, directly or indirectly heated fluidized bed or entrained flow gasification, hot or cold gas cleaning, fuel synthesis and upgrading are reviewed and developed. The process is integrated and the optimal utility system is computed. The competitiveness of the different process options is compared systematically with regard to energetic, economic and environmental considerations. At several examples, it is highlighted that process integration is a key element that allows for considerably increasing the performance by optimal utility integration and energy conversion. The performance computations of some exemplary technology scenarios of integrated plants yield overall energy efficiencies of 59.8% (crude FT-fuel), 52.5% (MeOH) and 53.5% (DME), and production costs of 89, 128 and 113 Euro MWh -1 on fuel basis. The applied process design approach allows to evaluate the economic competitiveness compared to fossil fuels, to study the influence of the biomass and electricity price and to project for different plant capacities. Process integration reveals in particular potential energy savings and waste heat valorization. Based on this work, the most promising options for the polygeneration of fuel, power and heat will be determined in a future thermo-economic optimization.

  14. Final Technical Report on Development of an Economic and Efficient Biodiesel production Process (NC)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tirla, Cornelia [Univ. of North Carolina, Pembroke, NC (United States); Dooling, Thomas A. [Univ. of North Carolina, Pembroke, NC (United States); Smith, Rachel B. [Univ. of North Carolina, Pembroke, NC (United States); Shi, Xinyan [Univ. of North Carolina, Pembroke, NC (United States); Shahbazi, Abolghasem [North Carolina Agricultural and Technical State Univ., Greensboro, NC (United States)

    2014-03-19

    The Biofuels Team at The University of North Carolina at Pembroke and North Carolina A&T State University carried out a joint research project aimed at developing an efficient process to produce biodiesel. In this project, the team developed and tested various types of homogeneous and heterogeneous catalysts which could replace the conventionally used soluble potassium hydroxide catalyst which, traditionally, must be separated and disposed of at the end of the process. As a result of this screening, the homogeneous catalyst choline hydroxide was identified as a potential replacement for the traditional catalyst used in this process, potassium hydroxide, due to its decreased corrosiveness and toxicity. A large number of heterogeneous catalysts were produced and tested in order to determine the scaffold, ion type and ion concentration which would produce optimum yield of biodiesel. The catalyst with 12% calcium on Zeolite β was identified as being highly effective and optimal reaction conditions were identified. Furthermore, a packed bed reactor utilizing this type of catalyst was designed, constructed and tested in order to further optimize the process. An economic analysis of the viability of the project showed that the cost of an independent farmer to produce the fuelstock required to produce biodiesel exceeds the cost of petroleum diesel under current conditions and that therefore without incentives, farmers would not be able to benefit economically from producing their own fuel. An educational website on biodiesel production and analysis was produced and a laboratory experiment demonstrating the production of biodiesel was developed and implemented into the Organic Chemistry II laboratory curriculum at UNCP. Five workshops for local farmers and agricultural agents were held in order to inform the broader community about the various fuelstock available, their cultivation and the process and advantages of biodiesel use and production. This project fits both

  15. Economic considerations of battery recycling based on the Recytec process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ammann, Pierre

    The Recytec process is successfully operated on a continuous industrial base since autumn 1994. All the products are regularly re-used without any problems and environmental limits are fully respected. The European Community Battery Directive is valid since many years and only a few countries like Switzerland and The Netherlands have implemented it in national guidelines. In the meantime, battery producers have accepted the necessity of the recycling of mercury-free batteries in order to prevent the contamination of municipal waste streams by other heavy metals, such as zinc and cadmium. Recycling processes like the Recytec process are considered by the battery producers as highly expensive and they are looking for cheaper alternatives. Steel works are confronted with a market change and have to produce less quantities of better quality steels with more stringent environmental limits. The electric arc furnace (EAF), one of the chosen battery destruction techniques, is producing 20% of the European steel. Even if the battery mixes contain only mercury-free batteries, the residual mercury content and the zinc concentration will be too high to insure a good steel quality, if all collected batteries will be fed in EAF. In Waelz kilns (production of zinc oxide concentrates for zinc producers) the situation is the same with regard to the residual mercury concentration and environmental limits. Sorting technologies for the separation of battery mixes into the different battery chemistries will presently fail because the re-users of these sorted mercury-free batteries are not able to accept raw waste batteries but they are interested in some fractions of them. This means that in any case pretreatment is an unavoidable step before selective reclamation of waste batteries. The Recytec process is the low-cost partner in a global strategy for battery recycling. This process is very flexible and will be able to follow, with slight and inexpensive adaptations of the equipment

  16. Learning processes and economic returns in European Cohesion policy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrés Rodríguez-Pose

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Este artículo evalúa hasta qué punto los mecanismos de aprendizaje de la política de Cohesión europea han contribuido a mejorar el impacto económico de los Fondos Estructurales. El objetivo es ver si los cambios introducidos en la política en respuesta a la evaluación interna y a las críticas externas han dado lugar a una política mejor y más eficaz. Para ello se utiliza un método econométrico que evalúa el efecto de los Fondos Estructurales sobre el crecimiento regional del PIB per cápita -condicionado por la dotación de los factores, la calidad de las instituciones y las condiciones iniciales de cada región- durante los dos últimos periodos de programación para los que existen datos completos (1994-1999 y 2000-2006. Los resultados del análisis indican una mejora de la eficacia de la política en el segundo periodo de programación. Esta asociación positiva es robusta a la introducción de controles ligados al nivel de desarrollo del país y de la posición de cada una de las regiones en el interior del país. Los resultados muestran también que, cuando se tienen en cuenta factores estructurales, la inversión en Fondos Estructurales obtiene mejores rendimientos en países con niveles de riqueza más altos y en las regiones más ricas en el interior de cada país.

  17. 76 FR 36078 - Milk for Manufacturing Purposes and Its Production and Processing; Requirements Recommended for...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-06-21

    ...] Milk for Manufacturing Purposes and Its Production and Processing; Requirements Recommended for... to quality and sanitation requirements for the production and processing of manufacturing grade milk... Manufacturing Purposes and Its Production and Processing; Recommended Requirements for Adoption by State...

  18. ECOLOGICAL AND ECONOMIC ASPECTS OF REFINING PROCESSING OF SILUMINS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. A. Rumjantseva

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Application of the method of mathematical planning of experiments enabled to receive dependences of mechanical characteristics of alloy AK9 in cast state, grade of porosity by the scale VIAM and quantity of escaping dust at flux processing on composition of fining flux metal. The composition of fining flux metal, providing minimum dust discharge and way of assessment of degree of discharge harmfulness by the amount of ecological tax is offered.

  19. Economic Analysis for Nuclear Hydrogen Production System Based on HyS Process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yang, Kyeong Jin; Lee, Ki Young; Lee, Tae Hoon; Chang, Jong Hwa

    2009-01-01

    The current promising base for massive hydrogen production on high temperature environment derives primarily from three sources: the commercial production of chemicals for the sulfur-iodine (SI) process, the development of solid-oxide fuel cells (SOFC), and the hybrid method of chemicals and fuel cells. The three kinds of process requires high temperature heat energy over 850∼950 .deg. C for the efficient and economic hydrogen production. One of the clean, economic, and moreover promising heat sources supplied to the process is nuclear plants. The nuclear plants producing high temperature heat energy over 950 .deg. C are well known as Very High Temperature Reactors (VHTR) which could have two types of prismatic and pebble-bed cores along reactor core shape. In this paper, we report on the Hybrid Sulfur Process (HyS), and the estimated costs for the system which composes of VHTR of prismatic core type and HyS plant. Nuclear hydrogen production system based on HyS process has been configured to optimally use the thermal energy from VHTR and electric energy to produce hydrogen and oxygen from clean water. High temperature thermal energy is transferred to the HyS process by way of intermediate heat exchanger (IHX) with associated piping. In this paper, the hydrogen production costs for a system composed of a VHTR with six 600MWth module, a power conversion unit (PCU) and a HyS plant are presented, where the thermal energy produced in two module was converted to electric energy in PCU and then transferred to the electrolysis cells for hydrogen production and circulating units on HyS plant, and the remaining thermal energy was supplied to chemical process on HyS plants. As a preliminary study of cost estimates for nuclear hydrogen systems, the hydrogen production costs of the nuclear energy sources benchmarking GT-MHR are estimated in the necessary input data on a Korean specific basis. G4- ECONS was appropriately modified to calculate the cost for hydrogen production

  20. Plug and Process Loads Capacity and Power Requirements Analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sheppy, M.; Gentile-Polese, L.

    2014-09-01

    This report addresses gaps in actionable knowledge that would help reduce the plug load capacities designed into buildings. Prospective building occupants and real estate brokers lack accurate references for plug and process load (PPL) capacity requirements, so they often request 5-10 W/ft2 in their lease agreements. Limited initial data, however, suggest that actual PPL densities in leased buildings are substantially lower. Overestimating PPL capacity leads designers to oversize electrical infrastructure and cooling systems. Better guidance will enable improved sizing and design of these systems, decrease upfront capital costs, and allow systems to operate more energy efficiently. The main focus of this report is to provide industry with reliable, objective third-party guidance to address the information gap in typical PPL densities for commercial building tenants. This could drive changes in negotiations about PPL energy demands.

  1. Environmental and economic assessment of the chemical absorption process in Korea using the LEAP model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Song, Ho-Jun; Lee, Seungmoon; Maken, Sanjeev; Ahn, Se-Woong; Park, Jin-Won; Min, Byoungryul; Koh, Wongun

    2007-01-01

    CO 2 emission from fossil fuels is a major cause for the global warming effect, but it is hard to remove completely in actuality. Moreover, energy consumption is bound to increase for the continuous economic development of a country that has an industrial formation requiring high-energy demand. Therefore, we need to consider not only a device for CO 2 mitigation but also its impact when a CO 2 mitigation device is applied. The device for CO 2 emission mitigation can be classified into three fields: energy consumption reduction, development of CO 2 removal and recovery technology, and development of alternative energy technology. Among these options, CO 2 removal and recovery technology has a merit that can be applied to a process in the near future. Therefore, research for CO 2 removal and recovery is actively progressing in Korea. In this study, environmental and economic assessment according to the energy policy change for climate change agreement and increase of CO 2 mitigation technology is accomplished, on the bases of operating data for the CO 2 chemical absorption pilot plant that is installed in the Seoul coal steam power plant. The Long-range Energy Alternatives Planning system (LEAP) was used to analyze the alternative scenario, and results were shown quantitatively

  2. Research of Environmental and Economic Interactions of Coke And By-Product Process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mikhailov, Vladimir; Kiseleva, Tamara; Bugrova, Svetlana; Muromtseva, Alina; Mikhailova, Yana

    2017-11-01

    The issues of showing relations between environmental and economic indicators (further - environmental and economic interactions) of coke and by-product process are considered in the article. The purpose of the study is to reveal the regularities of the functioning of the local environmental and economic system on the basis of revealed spectrum of environmental and economic interactions. A simplified scheme of the environmental and economic system "coke and by-product process - the environment" was developed. The forms of the investigated environmental-economic interactions were visualized and the selective interpretation of the tightness of the established connection was made. The main result of the work is modeling system of environmental and economic interactions that allows increasing the efficiency of local ecological and economic system management and optimizing the "interests" of an industrial enterprise - the source of negative impact on the environment. The results of the survey can be recommended to government authorities and industrial enterprises with a wide range of negative impact forms to support the adoption of effective management decisions aimed at sustainable environmental and economic development of the region or individual municipalities.

  3. Evaluation of ERP products for the Management of Economic Processes on the Czech Market

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Petr Sodomka

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available This article is targeted on the problems and issues relating to the management of economic processes in an enterprise as one of the key ancillary processes in an ERP system. The article goes on to define and delimit the individual sub-processes as well as the relationships between them. The management of economic issues is then confronted with the opportunities and possibilities offered by the functionality of ERP systems – i.e. the software applications without which it would be difficult to imagine the integrated management of an enterprise as a whole, including its coverage of economic, production, logistics and Human Resources issues. The article further summarizes the observations and findings of the Center for inVestigations into Information Systems (CVIS and presents the main results and outcomes of their research into the Czech ERP market with an orientation on its coverage of economic process ERP systems.

  4. Process modelling and techno-economic analysis of natural gas combined cycle integrated with calcium looping

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erans María

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Calcium looping (CaL is promising for large-scale CO2 capture in the power generation and industrial sectors due to the cheap sorbent used and the relatively low energy penalties achieved with this process. Because of the high operating temperatures the heat utilisation is a major advantage of the process, since a significant amount of power can be generated from it. However, this increases its complexity and capital costs. Therefore, not only the energy efficiency performance is important for these cycles, but also the capital costs must be taken into account, i.e. techno-economic analyses are required in order to determine which parameters and configurations are optimal to enhance technology viability in different integration scenarios. In this study the integration scenarios of CaL cycles and natural gas combined cycles (NGCC are explored. The process models of the NGCC and CaL capture plant are developed to explore the most promising scenarios for NGCC-CaL integration with regards to efficiency penalties. Two scenarios are analysed in detail, and show that the system with heat recovery steam generator (HRSG before and after the capture plant exhibited better performance of 49.1% efficiency compared with that of 45.7% when only one HRSG is located after the capture plant. However, the techno-economic analyses showed that the more energy efficient case, with two HRSGs, implies relatively higher cost of electricity (COE, 44.1€/MWh, when compared to that of the reference plant system (33.1€/MWh. The predicted cost of CO2 avoided for the case with two HRSGS is 29.3 €/ton CO2.

  5. «Economic rights» as a result of the makrosystemth process in the law: formulation of the problem

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Юлія Ігорівна Остапенко

    2016-06-01

    «economic rights» as a separate legal phenomenon, that conceptual device was left outside the research, also identified and place of the term «economic law» in the legal space as required result Sociodynamics the mechanism legislation. However, usually focuses on individual fragments relationship functioning economic system creating categorical apparatus required for each. It should be added that often because of certain circumstances their views do not correspond to modern realities, because the dynamics of economic relations for ten years - big time. In view of the above it can be stated that the question of integrative processes of legislation on economic issues, the impact of international standards on the process of modernization of national economic legislation and determine their role in it as a whole are not defined. Consideration of this issue is caused by lack of conceptual apparatus legislation Ukraine of terms such as «economic system» and «economic law». In addition, the domestic legislation is not developed a mechanism to ensure the development of the latter, which operates successfully operates a modern legal systems of the world. Given this, we can state that the need to adapt Ukrainian legal doctrine to the European legal system is in the legal functioning of the economic system of our country, because the design of economic law as a science and discipline will solve the problem of mismatch economic and legal point of view, a holistic concept relations state of law and Economics. Emphasize that while this gap is not eliminated, that remain unsettled some legal aspects of the existing conceptual mechanism of legal support economic system is inadequate. In addition, should agree on the basic provisions of legislation on regulation of relevant relations with foreign countries, to achieve the level of economic indicators sought legal opinion and national general our country. The article is the rationale for the legislative and legal

  6. Engineering and construction projects for oil and gas processing facilities: Contracting, uncertainty and the economics of information

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Berends, Kees

    2007-01-01

    The amount of oil and gas processing capacity required to meet demand during the next 20 years is more than twice the amount realised during the last decades. Engineering and Construction contractors (ECs) play a key role in the development and implementation of Large Engineering and Construction Projects (LECPs) for these facilities. We examine the characteristics of LECPs, demand and supply of the contracting market and the strategies traditionally adopted by owners to contract out the development and implementation of these projects to ECs. We demonstrate that these traditional strategies are not longer effective, in the current 'sellers market', to mitigate the oligopolistic economic inefficiencies. As the 'overheating' of the contracting market is expected to continue for a considerable period of time, alternative contracting strategies are required. Contract theory, particularly the economics of information on LECPs, indicates how alternative contracting strategies can be used to overcome economic inefficiencies. The effective use of these alternative strategies requires increased owner involvement and their effectiveness is contingent upon owner competency and ECs acting as the owner's agent rather than its adversary. This will require an organisational and behavioural change process for both owners and ECs

  7. Improvement of Requirement Elicitation Process through Cognitive Psychology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sana Fatima

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Proper requirement elicitation is necessary for client satisfaction along with the overall project success, but requirement engineers face problems in understanding user requirements and the users of the required system fail to make requirement engineering team understand what they actually want. It is then responsibility of requirement engineers to extract proper requirements. This paper discusses how to use cognitive psychology and learning style models (LSM to understand the psychology of clients. Moreover, it also discusses usage of proper elicitation technique according to one’s learning style and gather the right requirements.

  8. Software Integration of Life Cycle Assessment and Economic Analysis for Process Evaluation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kalakula, Sawitree; Malakula, Pomthong; Siemanonda, Kitipat

    2013-01-01

    This study is focused on the sustainable process design of bioethanol production from cassava rhizome. The study includes: process simulation, sustainability analysis, economic evaluation and life cycle assessment (LCA). A steady state process simulation if performed to generate a base case design...... of the bioethanol conversion process using cassava rhizome as a feedstock. The sustainability analysis is performed to analyze the relevant indicators in sustainability metrics, to definedesign/retrofit targets for process improvements. Economic analysis is performed to evaluate the profitability of the process........ Also, simultaneously with sustainability analysis, the life cycle impact on environment associated with bioethanol production is performed. Finally, candidate alternative designs are generated and compared with the base case design in terms of LCA, economics, waste, energy usage and enviromental impact...

  9. Economics of coal conversion processing. Advances in coal gasification: support research. Advances in coal gasification: process development and analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1978-01-01

    The fall meeting of the American Chemical Society, Division of Fuel Chemistry, was held at Miami Beach, Florida, September 10-15, 1978. Papers involved the economics of coal conversion processing and advances in coal gasification, especially support research and process development and analysis. Fourteen papers have been entered individually into EDB and ERA; three papers had been entered previously from other sources. (LTN)

  10. Socio-economic consequences of technical change in palm fruit processing in Osun State, Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T Alimi

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available The traditional palm fruit processing method is basically manual, but is currently undergoing changes. This study identifies the stages that have been mechanised in traditional processing methods and the socio-economic implications of the technical change to assist decision-making on the superiority or otherwise of the mechanised (modern method over the traditional method used by processors in Osun State of Nigeria. Primary data were collected during the 2004 production season with the aid of a structured questionnaire on the production resources and outputs of the two methods. These were analysed using descriptive and inferential statistics, budgetary technique dominance and sensitivity analyses, and attitudinal measure. Results indicate that only two (pounding to form paste and cracking of the stages identified in the traditional method were mechanised in the modern method. This resulted in greater efficiency of palm oil extraction, higher labour productivity, more income to stakeholders, greater market orientation, increased volume of operation and unchanged product types and quality. Other consequences are the creation of one additional group of stakeholders (machine owners, dominance, resilience to adverse yield and machine charges by 27 per cent and 150 per cent, respectively; more favourable attitude, less drudgery and health hazards, less labour requirements (female and lower processing time in the modern method than the traditional method. This made the modern method a better choice, which could boost palm oil production at the aggregate level.

  11. DE based economic control chart design and application for a typical petrochemical process

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhi LI; Feng QIAN; Wenli DU; Weimin ZHONG

    2017-01-01

    Petrochemical industry plays an important role in the development of the national economy.Purified terephthalic acid (PTA) is one of the most important intermediate raw materials in the petrochemical and chemical fiber industries.PTA production has two parts:p-xylene (PX) oxidation process and crude terephthalic acid (CTA) hydropurification process.The CTA hydropurification process is used to reduce impurities,such as 4-carboxybenzaldehyde,which is produced by a side reaction in the PX oxidation process and is harmful to the polyester industry.From the safety and economic viewpoints,monitoring this process is necessary.Four main faults of this process are analyzed in this study.The common process monitoring methods always use T2 and SPE statistic as control limits.However,the traditional methods do not fully consider the economic viewpoint.In this study,a new economic control chart design method based on the differential evolution (DE) algorithm is developed.The DE algorithm transforms the economic control chart design problem to an optimization problem and is an excellent solution to such problem.Case studies of the main faults of the hydropurification process indicate that the proposed method can achieve minimum profit loss.This method is useful in economic control chart design and can provide guidance for the petrochemical industry.

  12. Quality assurance of the Teaching – Learning Process in the Financial Economic Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R.F. Creţu

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available In the current context of economic development, human resources capable of long-life training and adaptable to economic change are essential elements of a model of growth based on competitiveness, efficiency and quality. In this paper we propose to identify strategies to improve the quality of the teaching learning process of Financial Economic Analysis in the Bucharest Academy of Economic Studies to the students in the first cycle of education - graduates cycle, the final year of study. Classroom observation is the qualitative method used to monitor the quality of the teaching learning process. As a complex process of instruments, classroom observation may take different forms and can play several roles.

  13. The role of economic strain on adolescent delinquency: a microsocial process model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Low, Sabina; Sinclair, Ryan; Shortt, Joann Wu

    2012-08-01

    The current study examines the role of economic strain as a moderator of the microsocial processes influencing younger siblings' delinquency (externalizing behavior and substance use) in a longitudinal design. The younger siblings (122 younger brothers and 122 younger sisters) were from 244 families with same-sex biological siblings. Structural equation modeling was utilized to examine a process model whereby mothers' harsh/inconsistent parenting and older sibling delinquency influence younger siblings' delinquent behavior via sibling aggression and delinquent peer affiliation. Findings suggest that indirect mechanisms vary as a function of economic strain, with sibling aggression having a stronger, more detrimental effect on adolescent delinquency in economically strained families. Data suggest that familial economic conditions contextualize the relative roles of parenting, sibling, and peer processes in the transmission of risk to adolescent delinquency. PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved.

  14. Towards a New Approach of the Economic Intelligence Process: Basic Concepts, Analysis Methods and Informational Tools

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sorin Briciu

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available One of the obvious trends in current business environment is the increased competition. In this context, organizations are becoming more and more aware of the importance of knowledge as a key factor in obtaining competitive advantage. A possible solution in knowledge management is Economic Intelligence (EI that involves the collection, evaluation, processing, analysis, and dissemination of economic data (about products, clients, competitors, etc. inside organizations. The availability of massive quantities of data correlated with advances in information and communication technology allowing for the filtering and processing of these data provide new tools for the production of economic intelligence.The research is focused on innovative aspects of economic intelligence process (models of analysis, activities, methods and informational tools and is providing practical guidelines for initiating this process. In this paper, we try: (a to contribute to a coherent view on economic intelligence process (approaches, stages, fields of application; b to describe the most important models of analysis related to this process; c to analyze the activities, methods and tools associated with each stage of an EI process.

  15. Information Design for “Weak Signal” detection and processing in Economic Intelligence: A case study on Health resources

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sahbi Sidhom

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available The topics of this research cover all phases of “Information Design” applied to detect and profit from weak signals in economic intelligence (EI or business intelligence (BI. The field of the information design (ID applies to the process of translating complex, unorganized or unstructured data into valuable and meaningful information. ID practice requires an interdisciplinary approach, which combines skills in graphic design (writing, analysis processing and editing, human performances technology and human factors. Applied in the context of information system, it allows end-users to easily detect implicit topics known as “weak signals” (WS. In our approach to implement the ID, the processes cover the development of a knowledge management (KM process in the context of EI. A case study concerning information monitoring health resources is presented using ID processes to outline weak signals. Both French and American bibliographic databases were applied to make the connection to multilingual concepts in the health watch process.

  16. 75 FR 61418 - Milk for Manufacturing Purposes and Its Production and Processing; Requirements Recommended for...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-05

    ... for Manufacturing Purposes and Its Production and Processing; Requirements Recommended for Adoption by... sanitation requirements for the production and processing of manufacturing grade milk. These Recommended... comments. SUMMARY: This document proposes to amend the recommended manufacturing milk requirements...

  17. 75 FR 6683 - Notice of Proposed Information Collection: Comment Request; Technical Processing Requirements for...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-02-10

    ... Information Collection: Comment Request; Technical Processing Requirements for Multifamily Project Mortgage... information: Title of Proposal: Technical Processing Requirements for Multifamily Project Mortgage Insurance... information collection requirement described below will be submitted to the Office of Management and Budget...

  18. Revisiting the modernization of the educational process IT component in Russia on the basis of the model of "economic cross"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Putilov, A. V.; Bugaenko, M. V.; Timokhin, D. V.

    2017-01-01

    In the article approaches to the modernization of the national education system with the use of IT-technologies are offered, the review of the problems and obstacles of such modernization is held and concrete steps on the adaptation of the educational process to the labor market requirements are stated. On the basis of the previously proposed model of "economic cross" strategic directions of informatization of the educational process are defined, the analysis of conditions and intensity of the use of IT-technologies at the time of this writing is conducted, the recommendations on the improvement of known modernization tools and the development of new ones for Russian education are developed.

  19. Osmosis process for leachate treatment in industrial platform: Economic and performances evaluations to zero liquid discharge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cingolani, Diego; Eusebi, Anna Laura; Battistoni, Paolo

    2017-12-01

    The industrial processes require large quantities of water. The presence of discharges results not only in significant environmental impact but implies wastage of water resources. This problem could be solved treating and reusing the produced wastewaters and applying the new zero liquid discharge approach. This paper discusses the design and the performances of reverse osmosis membranes for the upgrading of full scale platform for industrial liquid wastes. The final effluent from the ultrafiltration unit of the full scale plant was monitored to design the reverse osmosis unit. Previous modelling phase was used to evaluate the specific ordinary and maintenance costs and the final effluent quality (2.7 €/m 3 ). The system was designed in triple stages at different operative pressures. The economic feasibility and the payback period of the technology at different percentages of produced permeate were determined. The recovery of 90% was identified as profitable for the reverse osmosis application. One experimental pilot plant applying the reverse osmosis was used to test the final effluent. Moreover, the same flow was treated with second pilot system based on the forward osmosis process. The final efficiencies were compared. Removals higher than 95% using the reverse system were obtained for the main macropollutants and ions. No sustainable applicability of the forward osmosis was determined. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Continuous esterification for biodiesel production from palm fatty acid distillate using economical process

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chongkhong, S.; Tongurai, C.; Chetpattananondh, P. [Department of Chemical Engineering, Faculty of Engineering, Prince of Songkla University, Hat-Yai, Songkhla 90112 (Thailand)

    2009-04-15

    An overflow system for continuous esterification of palm fatty acid distillate (PFAD) using an economical process was developed using a continuous stirred tank reactor (CSTR). Continuous production compared to batch production at the same condition had higher product purity. The optimum condition for the esterification process was a 8.8:1:0.05 molar ratio of methanol to PFAD to sulfuric acid catalyst, 60 min of residence time at 75 C under its own pressure. The free fatty acid (FFA) content in the PFAD was reduced from 93 to less than 1.5%wt by optimum esterification. The esterified product had to be neutralized with 10.24%wt of 3 M sodium hydroxide in water solution at a reaction temperature of 80 C for 20 min to reduce the residual FFA and glycerides. The components and properties of fatty acid methyl ester (FAME) could meet the standard requirements for biodiesel fuel. Eventually the production costs were calculated to disclose its commercialization. (author)

  1. Technical and economic feasibility of alternative fuel use in process heaters and small boilers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1980-02-01

    The technical and economic feasibility of using alternate fuels - fuels other than oil and natural gas - in combustors not regulated by the Powerplant and Industrial Fuel Use Act of 1978 (FUA) was evaluated. FUA requires coal or alternate fuel use in most large new boilers and in some existing boilers. Section 747 of FUA authorizes a study of the potential for reduced oil and gas use in combustors not subject to the act: small industrial boilers with capacities less than 100 MMBtu/hr, and process heat applications. Alternative fuel use in combustors not regulated by FUA was examined and the impact of several measures to encourage the substitution of alternative fuels in these combustors was analyzed. The primary processes in which significant fuel savings can be achieved are identified. Since feedstock uses of oil and natural gas are considered raw materials, not fuels, feedstock applications are not examined in this analysis. The combustors evaluated in this study comprise approximately 45% of the fuel demand projected in 1990. These uses would account for more than 3.5 million barrels per day equivalent fuel demand in 1990.

  2. Real-time economic optimization for a fermentation process using Model Predictive Control

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, Lars Norbert; Jørgensen, John Bagterp

    2014-01-01

    Fermentation is a widely used process in production of many foods, beverages, and pharmaceuticals. The main goal of the control system is to maximize profit of the fermentation process, and thus this is also the main goal of this paper. We present a simple dynamic model for a fermentation process...... and demonstrate its usefulness in economic optimization. The model is formulated as an index-1 differential algebraic equation (DAE), which guarantees conservation of mass and energy in discrete form. The optimization is based on recent advances within Economic Nonlinear Model Predictive Control (E......-NMPC), and also utilizes the index-1 DAE model. The E-NMPC uses the single-shooting method and the adjoint method for computation of the optimization gradients. The process constraints are relaxed to soft-constraints on the outputs. Finally we derive the analytical solution to the economic optimization problem...

  3. Municipal waste processing: Technical/economic comparison of composting and incineration options

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bertanza, G.

    1993-01-01

    The first part of this paper which assessed the state-of-the-art of municipal waste composting and incineration technologies indicated that the advanced level of available technologies in this field now allows the realization of reliable and safe plants. This second part of the paper deals with the economics of the composting and incineration options. Cost benefit analyses using the discounted cash flow method are made for waste processing plants featuring composting alone, incineration only and mixed composting and incineration. The economic analyses show that plants employing conventional composting techniques work well for the case of exclusively organic waste materials. Incineration schemes are shown to be economically effective when they incorporate suitable energy recovery systems. The integrated composting-incineration waste processing plant appears to be the least attractive option in terms of economics. Current R ampersand D activities in this field are being directed towards the development of systems with lower environmental impacts and capital and operating costs

  4. Economic analysis of process steam and electricity generation by a 200 MW NHR

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tian Li; Wang Yongqing

    2000-01-01

    New applications for low temperature nuclear heating reactors should be developed using economic analysis. This paper compares and analyzes the economics of the generation 1.5 MPa process steam and electricity by a 200 MW nuclear heating reactor (NHR-200) for industrial development. The project is very attractive economically with an internal rate of return of 19.61%, a net present worth (discount rate 10%) of 765 million yuan RMB and a capital recovery or payback period of about 5 years after construction is completed. Compared with only using the NHR-200 for in winter heating, the economic of process steam and electricity generation by NHR-200 are much better. In addition, the NHR-200 will significantly improve environmental pollution in cities and reduce the transport of coal from north to south in China

  5. AN IMPACT OF SOCIO-ECONOMIC PROCESSES OF THE REGION ON THE ENVIRONMENT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Larisa B. Kalmykova

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available An approach to assessment of a stability of socio-economic development of the region with use of elasticity coefficients is given in the article. On the basis of correlation and regression analysis the author constructs the dependence equations between the indicators of the region’s development and environment’s conditions. That makes it possible to evaluate the influence of social and economic processes on the ecosystem of the region.

  6. MANAGEMENT OF A COMPANY’S ECONOMIC SUSTAINABILITY IN THE PROCESS OF INNOVATIVE PROJECTS IMPLEMENTATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juliana M. Sulejmanova

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The article is devoted to management of a company’s sustainability in the process of innovative projects implementation. The author suggests using dynamic index named aggregated index of a company’s economic stability. Criteria of choosing innovative projects to be implemented are worked out. These criteria add traditional estimation and take into account changing company’s economic stability at every stage of project lifecycle.

  7. The order of information processing alters economic gain-loss framing effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kwak, Youngbin; Huettel, Scott

    2018-01-01

    Adaptive decision making requires analysis of available information during the process of choice. In many decisions that information is presented visually - which means that variations in visual properties (e.g., salience, complexity) can potentially influence the process of choice. In the current study, we demonstrate that variation in the left-right positioning of risky and safe decision options can influence the canonical gain-loss framing effect. Two experiments were conducted using an economic framing task in which participants chose between gambles and certain outcomes. The first experiment demonstrated that the magnitude of the gain-loss framing effect was greater when the certain option signaling the current frame was presented on the left side of the visual display. Eye-tracking data during task performance showed a left-gaze bias for initial fixations, suggesting that the option presented on the left side was processed first. Combination of eye-tracking and choice data revealed that there was a significant effect of direction of first gaze (i.e. left vs. right) as well as an interaction between gaze direction and identity of the first fixated information (i.e. certain vs. gamble) regardless of frame. A second experiment presented the gamble and certain options in a random order, with a temporal delay between their presentations. We found that the magnitude of gain-loss framing was larger when the certain option was presented first, regardless of left and right positioning, only in individuals with lower risk-taking tendencies. The effect of presentation order on framing was not present in high risk-takers. These results suggest that the sequence of visual information processing as well as their left-right positioning can bias choices by changing the impact of the presented information during risky decision making. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. 40 CFR 63.2252 - What are the requirements for process units that have no control or work practice requirements?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 12 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true What are the requirements for process units that have no control or work practice requirements? 63.2252 Section 63.2252 Protection of... Pollutants: Plywood and Composite Wood Products General Compliance Requirements § 63.2252 What are the...

  9. Process engineering and economic evaluations of diaphragm and membrane chlorine cell technologies. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1980-12-01

    The chlor-alkali manufacturing technologies of (1), diaphragm cells (2), current technology membrane cells (3), catalytic cathode membrane cells (4), oxygen-cathode membrane cells and to a lesser extent several other related emerging processes are studied. Comparisons have been made on the two bases of (1) conventional industrial economics, and (2) energy consumption. The current diaphragm cell may have a small economic advantage over the other technologies at the plant size of 544 metric T/D (600 T/D). The three membrane cells all consume less energy, with the oxygen-cathode cell being the lowest. The oxygen-cathode cell appears promising as a low energy chlor-alkali cell where there is no chemical market for hydrogen. Federal funding of the oxygen-cathode cell has been beneficial to the development of the technology, to electrochemical cell research, and may help maintain the US's position in the international chlor-alkali technology marketplace. Tax law changes inducing the installation of additional cells in existing plants would produce the quickest reduction in power consumption by the chlor-alkali industry. Alternative technologies such as the solid polymer electrolyte cell, the coupling of diaphragm cells with fuel cells and the dynamic gel diaphragm have a strong potential for reducing chloralkali industry power consumption. Adding up all the recent and expected improvements that have become cost-effective, the electrical energy required to produce a unit of chlorine by 1990 should be only 50% to 60% of that used in 1970. In the United States the majority of the market does not demand salt-free caustic. About 75% of the electrolytic caustic is produced in diaphragm cells and only a small part of that is purified. This study indicates that unless membrane cell costs are greatly reduced or a stronger demand develops for salt-free caustic, the diaphragm cells will remain competitive. (WHK)

  10. What do information reuse and automated processing require in engineering design? Semantic process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ossi Nykänen

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: The purpose of this study is to characterize, analyze, and demonstrate machine-understandable semantic process for validating, integrating, and processing technical design information. This establishes both a vision and tools for information reuse and semi-automatic processing in engineering design projects, including virtual machine laboratory applications with generated components.Design/methodology/approach: The process model has been developed iteratively in terms of action research, constrained by the existing technical design practices and assumptions (design documents, expert feedback, available technologies (pre-studies and experiments with scripting and pipeline tools, benchmarking with other process models and methods (notably the RUP and DITA, and formal requirements (computability and the critical information paths for the generated applications. In practice, the work includes both quantitative and qualitative components.Findings: Technical design processes may be greatly enhanced in terms of semantic process thinking, by enriching design information, and automating information validation and transformation tasks. Contemporary design information, however, is mainly intended for human consumption, and needs to be explicitly enriched with the currently missing data and interfaces. In practice, this may require acknowledging the role of technical information or knowledge engineer, to lead the development of the semantic design information process in a design organization. There is also a trade-off between machine-readability and system complexity that needs to be studied further, both empirically and in theory.Research limitations/implications: The conceptualization of the semantic process is essentially an abstraction based on the idea of progressive design. While this effectively allows implementing semantic processes with, e.g., pipeline technologies, the abstraction is valid only when technical design is organized into

  11. 13 CFR 127.203 - What are the rules governing the requirement that economically disadvantaged women must own EDWOSBs?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... requirement that economically disadvantaged women must own EDWOSBs? 127.203 Section 127.203 Business Credit and Assistance SMALL BUSINESS ADMINISTRATION WOMEN-OWNED SMALL BUSINESS FEDERAL CONTRACT ASSISTANCE... woman if the transfer was: (1) To or on behalf of an immediate family member for that individual's...

  12. IMPACT OF THE REFORM PROCESS OF THE PUBLIC ADMINISTRATION ECONOMIC AND SOCIAL DEVELOPMENT OF ROMANIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    GEORGETA MODIGA

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Romanian society is in a continuous process of change in which all the economic, social, political, civic saw a new dynamic in trying to adapt to specific conditions of the phenomenon of Europeanization (full member of the European Union. The changing of Romanian society requires the public administration reform to be analyzed and disseminated on the following levels: strategic - by which to redefine the role of the state clearly, legally - using larger framework laws, organizational - administrative and fiscal decentralization, cultural - following a change of values and modes of action of public officials, non governmental organizations, the citizen / customer of public service. The term administrative reform is trivial, repetitive and recurrent nets into change, public administration reform is invited to constantly readjust the organization and the action and to clearly state objectives, called sometimes the brakes released, blockages to overcome obstacles of the past which is manifested by the upward trend of the society. Public administration is criticized especially by the public and less by governments in office. Almost general belief is that the administration functions poorly, fulfil its mission in an unsatisfactory manner, but nevertheless has an impact too on community life, economy and society. This paper aims to identify the type of problems that other countries have had to solve and the need hierarchy and management combined in a single system. Understanding the types of problems encountered and they do other countries in this process will shorten the learning cycle for Romania. The objectives of this approach is that the critical analysis of the relationship between public administration reform and administrative capacity based on the literature, outlining the operational model to assess the reform process in our country, the study of democratization (the stage of democratization of public administration modernization strategy

  13. Transformation of Money Circulation and Change of the Paradigm of Stimulation of Economic Growth: Historical Aspect and Modern Requirements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vozhzhov Anatoliy P.

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The article conducts an objective scientific analysis and system comprehension of the law of circulation of money – the basis of the quantitative expression of the processes that are connected with functioning of money, which allows revelation of the established regularities in circulation of money, development of relevant solutions and influencing economic development. It considers changing of the regularities of money circulation and the transmission mechanism in modern economy, its influence upon balancing of the economic system. It reveals the essential aspects, contradictions and consequences of the evolution of methods of stimulation of economic development. It studies influence of the policy of quantitative easing (QE as a new method of regulating the economic growth and its impact on transformation of money circulation under modern conditions. It presents mathematic dependencies that describe main evolution stages of changing the laws of circulation of money.

  14. Dosimetry control for radiation processing - basic requirements and standards

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ivanova, M.; Tsrunchev, Ts.

    2004-01-01

    A brief review of the basic international codes and standards for dosimetry control for radiation processing (high doses dosimetry), setting up a dosimetry control for radiation processing and metrology control of the dosimetry system is made. The present state of dosimetry control for food processing and the Bulgarian long experience in food irradiation (three irradiation facilities are operational at these moment) are presented. The absence of neither national standard for high doses nor accredited laboratory for calibration and audit of radiation processing dosimetry systems is also discussed

  15. Economics

    Science.gov (United States)

    1975-01-01

    Tables covering the selling price of hydrogen as a function of each process temperature studied are presented. Estimated selling price, based on capital costs and operating and maintenance costs, is included. In all cases, no credit was given for the methane component of hydrogen.

  16. Technical and economic assessment of processes for the production of butanol and acetone

    Science.gov (United States)

    1982-01-01

    This report represents a preliminary technical and economic evaluation of a process which produces mixed solvents (butaol/acetone/ethanol) via fermentation of sugars derived from renewable biomass resources. The objective is to assess the technology of producing butanol/acetone from biomass, and select a viable process capable of serving as a base case model for technical and economic analysis. It is anticipated that the base case process developed herein can then be used as the basis for subsequent studies concerning biomass conversion processes capable of producing a wide range of chemicals. The general criteria utilized in determining the design basis for the process are profit potential and non-renewable energy displacement potential. The feedstock chosen, aspen wood, was selected from a number of potential renewable biomass resources as the most readily available in the United States and for its relatively large potential for producing reducing sugars.

  17. A process of demographic and economic polarization in the Republic of Macedonia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Madzevic Mirjanka

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Demographic and economic development in the Republic of Macedonia is characterized by high dynamics, and imbalance in development. The unequal social and economic development is one of the main negative features of development, especially during the transition period in which the regional development has been marginalized on the expense of market development and stabilization and restructuring of the economy. Equally important component of the development is the problem of concentration and dispersion of population and economic activities in the area causing the appearance of demographic and economic polarization in the country. Today, the degree of the population and economic development in the Republic of Macedonia shows certain differences on a regional level, according to distribution of the population, investments, GDP and etc. From the available social and economic indicators can be concluded that the Republic of Macedonia has the characteristics of a country with a monocentric model of development where the Skopje region stands out as the core of development, while other regions stagnate or grow with less intensity compared to the previous one. Therefore, this current problem requires finding solutions for reducing the disparities in the regional development and harmonization of the same.

  18. Development of plasma cutting process at observation of environmental requirements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Czech, J.; Matusiak, J.; Pasek-Siurek, H.

    1997-01-01

    Plasma cutting is one of the basic methods for thermal cutting of metals. It is characterized by high productivity and quality of the cut surface. However, the plasma cutting process is one of the most harmful processes for environment and human health. It results from many agents being a potential environmental risk The large amount of dust and gases emitted during the process as well as an intensive radiation of electric arc and excessive noise are considered as the most harmful hazards. The existing ventilation and filtration systems are not able to solve all problems resulting from the process. Plasma cutting under water is worthy of notice, especially during an advancement of plasma cutting process, because of human safety and environment protection. Such a solution allows to reduce considerably the emission of dust and gases, as well as to decrease the noise level and ultraviolet radiation. An additional advantage of underwater plasma cutting is a reduction in the width of material heating zone and a decrease in strains of elements being cut. However, the productivity of this process is a little lower what results in an increase in cutting cost. In the paper, it has been presented the results of the investigations made at the Institute of Welding in Gliwice on the area of plasma cutting equipment with energy-saving inverter power supplies used in automated processes of underwater plasma cutting as well as the results of testing of welding environment contamination and safety hazards. (author)

  19. Hanford Tanks Initiative requirements and document management process guide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schaus, P.S.

    1998-01-01

    This revision of the guide provides updated references to project management level Program Management and Assessment Configuration Management activities, and provides working level directions for submitting requirements and project documentation related to the Hanford Tanks Initiative (HTI) project. This includes documents and information created by HTI, as well as non-HTI generated materials submitted to the project

  20. Embedding stakeholder values in the requirements engineering process

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Harbers, M.; Detweiler, C.; Neerincx, M.A.

    2015-01-01

    Software has become an integral part of our daily lives and should therefore account for human values such as trust, autonomy and privacy. Human values have received increased attention in the field of Requirements Engineering over the last few years, but existing work offers no systematic way to

  1. 48 CFR 1337.110-70 - Personnel security processing requirements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... information technology (IT) system, as required by the Department of Commerce Security Manual and Department of Commerce Security Program Policy and Minimum Implementation Standards. (b) Insert clause 1352.237... as National Security Contracts that will be performed on or within a Department of Commerce facility...

  2. THE ECONOMIC ESSENCE OF THE PROCESS OF MONETIZATION AND ITS ROLE IN ENSURING ECONOMIC DEVELOPMENT AND STABILITY OF THE FINANCIAL SYSTEM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Mishchenko

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available In the article it is researched the economic essence of the process of monetization of the economy, defined key indicators, principles of management, methods and tools of the impact of monetization on stimulation the economic growth, outlined the main tasks of the process of monetization, its object and subject, aspects and the basic preconditions of effective management of the process of monetization of the domestic economy. It is proved that the relationship between the level of monetization and inflation depends on the stage of monetary and economic cycles, the mechanisms of the increase in the level of monetization of the national economy were suggested.

  3. Chronic Family Economic Hardship, Family Processes and Progression of Mental and Physical Health Symptoms in Adolescence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Tae Kyoung; Wickrama, K. A. S.; Simons, Leslie Gordon

    2013-01-01

    Research has documented the relationship between family stressors such as family economic hardship and marital conflict and adolescents' mental health symptoms, especially depressive symptoms. Few studies, however, have examined the processes whereby supportive parenting lessens this effect and the progression of mental health and physical health…

  4. The Process of Constitution-Making : a Law and Economics Analysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    S. Michel (Stephan)

    2017-01-01

    markdownabstractThis dissertation analyzes the overarching question of how the process of constitution-making affects the written constitution from a law & economics perspective. To shed more light on this issue from a broad perspective, positive and normative research questions are dealt with.

  5. Techno-economic analysis and comparison of coal based olefins processes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xiang, Dong; Yang, Siyu; Qian, Yu

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • The coal based Fischer–Tropsch-to-olefins (CFTO) process is proposed and analyzed. • The CFTO suffers from lower energy efficiency and serious CO 2 emissions. • Approaches for improving techno-economic performance of the CFTO are obtained. - Abstract: Traditional olefins production is heavily dependent on oil. In the background of the scarcity of oil and richness of coal in China, olefins production from coal has been attracting more attention of the chemical process industry. The first coal based methanol-to-olefins (CMTO) plant has been commercialized in China. For shorter process route and lower capital cost, Fischer–Fropsch has been put forward in the last few years. The coal based Fischer–Tropsch-to-olefins (CFTO) process is designed in this paper and then its techno-economic and environmental performance was detailed studied in this paper, in comparison with the CMTO. Results show that at the present olefins selectivity, the CFTO suffers from relative lower energy efficiency and higher CO 2 emissions. In economic aspect, the capital investment and product cost of the CFTO are roughly equivalent to that of the CMTO. Although the conversion route of the CFTO is shorter, its techno-economic performance is still inferior to that of the CMTO. It is also found that increase of olefins selectivity by cracking oil or decrease of CO 2 selectivity by improving catalyst could significantly improve the performance of the CFTO.

  6. Women Education and Economic Development in Kenya: Implications for Curriculum Development and Implementation Processes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Syomwene, Anne; Kindiki, Jonah Nyaga

    2015-01-01

    This paper is a discussion of the relationship between women education and sustainable economic development in Kenya and its implications for curriculum development and implementation processes. The argument advanced in this paper is that the solution to the development problems in Kenya and other developing nations lies on women education.…

  7. Cascade air stripping: Techno-economic evaluation of a new ground water treatment process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nirmalakhandan, N.; Peace, G.L.; Shanbhag, A.R.; Speece, R.E.

    1992-01-01

    A simple modification of the conventional air-stripping process introduced as cascade air stripping is proposed for efficient and economical removal of semivolatile and low volatility contaminants from ground water. The technical feasibility and economic viability of this process are evaluated using field test results and cost model simulations. The field tests enabled the process model to be verified at various water flow rates ranging from 150 gpm to 400 gpm. The field study also demonstrated the feasibility of the proposed system at a near full-scale level. Cost models were used to compare the proposed process to conventional air stripping and granular-activated carbon adsorption in removing a range of contaminants. This analysis showed that the treatment cost (cents/1,000 gal) of cascade air stripping is about 15% lower than conventional air stripping and about 40% lower than granular-activated carbon adsorption

  8. Defining DSL design principles for enhancing the requirements elicitation process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gustavo Arroyo

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available La Elicitación de Requisitos propicia el entendimiento de las necesidades de los usuarios con respecto a un desarrollo de software. Los métodos que se emplean provienen de las ciencias sociales por lo que se carece de una retroalimentación ejecutable. Consecuentemente, la primera versión del software podría no cumplir con las expectativas. El uso de DSLs como herramientas para el descubrimiento de requisitos es una idea aceptada, desafortunadamente, muy pocos trabajos en la literatura se enfocan en la definición de principios de diseño de DSLs. En este trabajo planteamos principios de diseño de DSLs orientados a la elicitación de requisitos, enseguida, generamos casos de prueba en ANTLR, Ruby y Curry. También, enunciamos el perfil que debe tener el nuevo analista de software. Con ello, se incrementa la retroalimentación entre los involucrados en el desarrollo de software y se mejora el producto.Requirements elicitation is concerned with learning and understanding the needs of users w.r.t. a new software development. Frequently the methods employed for requirements elicitation are adapted from areas like social sciences that do not include executable (prototype based on feedback. As a consequence, it is relatively common to discover that the first release does not fit the requirements defined at the beginning of the project. Using domain-specific languages (DSLs as an auxiliary tool for requirements elicitation is a commonly well accepted idea. Unfortunately, there are few works in the literature devoted to the definition of design principles for DSLs to be experienced in the frameworks for DSL developing such as ANTLR, Ruby, and Curry. We propose design principles for the DSL development (regardless of paradigm which are sufficient to model the domain in a requirements phase. Further more we enunciate a new profile for the requirements analyst and a set of elicitation steps. The use of DSLs not only giveus an immediate feedback with

  9. Radiation processing of fruits and vegetables-a technically and economically feasible technology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moy, J H

    1986-12-31

    Exporting fresh tropical fruits and vegetables to non-infested areas often requires an approved and efficacious quarantine treatment. The feasibility and efficacy of the gamma-radiation process has been demonstrated through quality retention of fresh commodities irradiated at 0.26-0.30 kGy for fruit fly control. Experimental results have shown that papayas and mangoes can be irradiated at up to 1.0 kGy without any adverse effects on their organoleptic and nutrient qualities. Thus it is possible to combine irradiation within this dose level with other techniques to extend the shelf-life of fruits. For example, the shelf-life of papayas can be extended 3-4 days longer after hot water treatment (49 degrees C for 20 minutes for decay control followed by gamma-radiation at 0.75 kGy.) Slowing of the fruit`s respiration results in a delay in its ripening. Irradiation at 0.30 to 0.50 kGy preserves the organoleptic qualities of California citrus and stone fruits. Citrus can tolerate higher doses than stone fruits especially if refrigeration follows irradiation. The extension of shelf-life of irradiated onions and potatoes at low dose (0.02 - 0.15 kGy) through sprout inhibition has been established by a number of studies. The prospect of low dose irradiation of fruits and vegetables is good because problems previously existing as barriers to early commercialization of the radiation process are being resolved. These include: government regulations; economic feasibility; and industry interest. Further efforts are needed, however, to develop international trade agreements on irradiated foods and to launch a consumer education program so as to instil confidence and increase consumer acceptance of the safety and benefits of irradiated foods

  10. Radiation processing of fruits and vegetables-a technically and economically feasible technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moy, J. H.

    1985-01-01

    Exporting fresh tropical fruits and vegetables to non-infested areas often requires an approved and efficacious quarantine treatment. The feasibility and efficacy of the gamma-radiation process has been demonstrated through quality retention of fresh commodities irradiated at 0.26-0.30 kGy for fruit fly control. Experimental results have shown that papayas and mangoes can be irradiated at up to 1.0 kGy without any adverse effects on their organoleptic and nutrient qualities. Thus it is possible to combine irradiation within this dose level with other techniques to extend the shelf-life of fruits. For example, the shelf-life of papayas can be extended 3-4 days longer after hot water treatment (49 degrees C for 20 minutes for decay control followed by gamma-radiation at 0.75 kGy.) Slowing of the fruit's respiration results in a delay in its ripening. Irradiation at 0.30 to 0.50 kGy preserves the organoleptic qualities of California citrus and stone fruits. Citrus can tolerate higher doses than stone fruits especially if refrigeration follows irradiation. The extension of shelf-life of irradiated onions and potatoes at low dose (0.02 - 0.15 kGy) through sprout inhibition has been established by a number of studies. The prospect of low dose irradiation of fruits and vegetables is good because problems previously existing as barriers to early commercialization of the radiation process are being resolved. These include: government regulations; economic feasibility; and industry interest. Further efforts are needed, however, to develop international trade agreements on irradiated foods and to launch a consumer education program so as to instil confidence and increase consumer acceptance of the safety and benefits of irradiated foods

  11. 78 FR 64146 - 30-Day Notice of Proposed Information Collection: Technical Processing Requirements for...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-10-25

    ... Information Collection: Technical Processing Requirements for Multifamily Project Mortgage Insurance AGENCY: Office of the Chief Information Officer, HUD. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: HUD has submitted the proposed... Information Collection Title of Information Collection: Technical Processing Requirements for Multifamily...

  12. 78 FR 65695 - 30-Day Notice of Proposed Information Collection: Technical Processing Requirements for...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-11-01

    ... Information Collection: Technical Processing Requirements for Multifamily Project Mortgage Insurance AGENCY: Office of the Chief Information Officer, HUD. ACTION: Correction, notice. SUMMARY: On October 25, 2013 at... Collection Title of Information Collection: Technical Processing Requirements for Multifamily Project...

  13. 40 CFR 74.17 - Application requirements for process sources. [Reserved

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... requirements for process sources. [Reserved] ... 40 Protection of Environment 16 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Application requirements for process sources. [Reserved] 74.17 Section 74.17 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY...

  14. Organizing the Financial and Economic Security of Business Processes of Innovation Development of Enterprise

    OpenAIRE

    Otenko Iryna P.; Komarkov Dmytriy V.; Shkreben Roman P.

    2017-01-01

    The article is aimed at analyzing ways and means of organizing the financial and economic security of business processes of innovation development of enterprise. The business processes of enterprise, which act as objects of managerial decision-making, are considered. It has been determined that the time for decision-making by directors is ensured as result not only of reactive but also proactive management, that is, one that involves modeling the problematic situations, related to business pr...

  15. The Role of Economic Strain on Adolescent Delinquency: A Microsocial Process Model

    OpenAIRE

    Low, Sabina; Sinclair, Ryan; Shortt, Joann Wu

    2012-01-01

    The current study examines the role of economic strain as a moderator of the microsocial processes influencing younger siblings’ delinquency (externalizing behavior and substance use) in a longitudinal design. The younger siblings (122 younger brothers and 122 younger sisters) were from 244 families with same-sex biological siblings. Structural equation modeling was utilized to examine a process model whereby mothers’ harsh/inconsistent parenting and older sibling delinquency influence younge...

  16. Process development of coke oven gas to methanol integrated with CO2 recycle for satisfactory techno-economic performance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yi, Qun; Gong, Min-Hui; Huang, Yi; Feng, Jie; Hao, Yan-Hong; Zhang, Ji-Long; Li, Wen-Ying

    2016-01-01

    A novel process designed for producing methanol from coke oven gas (COG) integrated with CO 2 recycle is proposed. In the new system, oxygen replacing air is blown to combustor for assisting combustion of COG and unreacted syngas from methanol synthesis process. The combustion process provides to the heat required in the coking process. The rest COG reacts with the recycled CO 2 separated from the exhaust gas to produce syngas for methanol synthesis. The unreacted syngas from methanol synthesis process with low grade energy level is recycled to the combustor. In the whole methanol production process, there is no additional process with respect to supplementary carbon, and the carbon resource only comes from the internal CO 2 recycle in the plant. With the aid of techno-economic analysis, the new system presents the energy or exergy saving by 5–10%, the CO 2 emission reduction by about 70% and the internal rate of return increase by 5–8%, respectively, in comparison with the traditional COG to methanol process. - Highlights: • A process for producing methanol from COG integrated with CO 2 recycle is first proposed. • CO 2 from the exhaust gas is recycled to supply carbon for producing syngas. • New integrated plant simplifies the production process with 5–8% IRR increase. • New system presents about 5–10% energy saving, about 70% CO 2 emission reduction.

  17. Mathematical Formulation Requirements and Specifications for the Process Models

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Steefel, C.; Moulton, D.; Pau, G.; Lipnikov, K.; Meza, J.; Lichtner, P.; Wolery, T.; Bacon, D.; Spycher, N.; Bell, J.; Moridis, G.; Yabusaki, S.; Sonnenthal, E.; Zyvoloski, G.; Andre, B.; Zheng, L.; Davis, J.

    2010-01-01

    The Advanced Simulation Capability for Environmental Management (ASCEM) is intended to be a state-of-the-art scientific tool and approach for understanding and predicting contaminant fate and transport in natural and engineered systems. The ASCEM program is aimed at addressing critical EM program needs to better understand and quantify flow and contaminant transport behavior in complex geological systems. It will also address the long-term performance of engineered components including cementitious materials in nuclear waste disposal facilities, in order to reduce uncertainties and risks associated with DOE EM's environmental cleanup and closure activities. Building upon national capabilities developed from decades of Research and Development in subsurface geosciences, computational and computer science, modeling and applied mathematics, and environmental remediation, the ASCEM initiative will develop an integrated, open-source, high-performance computer modeling system for multiphase, multicomponent, multiscale subsurface flow and contaminant transport. This integrated modeling system will incorporate capabilities for predicting releases from various waste forms, identifying exposure pathways and performing dose calculations, and conducting systematic uncertainty quantification. The ASCEM approach will be demonstrated on selected sites, and then applied to support the next generation of performance assessments of nuclear waste disposal and facility decommissioning across the EM complex. The Multi-Process High Performance Computing (HPC) Simulator is one of three thrust areas in ASCEM. The other two are the Platform and Integrated Toolsets (dubbed the Platform) and Site Applications. The primary objective of the HPC Simulator is to provide a flexible and extensible computational engine to simulate the coupled processes and flow scenarios described by the conceptual models developed using the ASCEM Platform. The graded and iterative approach to assessments naturally

  18. MODELING OF PROCESSES OF OVERCOMING CONTRADICTIONS OF THE STATE AND ECONOMIC OPERATORS FOR THE SECURITY AND FACILITATION OF CUSTOMS PROCEDURES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Berezhnyuk Ivan

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. The issue of simultaneous provision of economic security of the state and simplification of customs procedures is actualized nowadays. The author of the study stressed the importance to create a «safe» business environment from the point of view of the customs sphere, which is based on «security», «justice» and «stability». Purpose. Development of methodical recommendations for modeling the processes of overcoming contradictions of the state and subjects of foreign economic activity in the field of security and simplification of customs procedures. Results. The research indicates that the appointment of revenue and fee bodies is the creation of favorable conditions for the development of foreign economic activity, ensuring the safety of society, protecting the customs interests of Ukraine. When performing customs duties by the SFS, the tasks assigned to them, aimed at ensuring the correct application, strict observance and prevention of non-compliance with the requirements of the Ukrainian legislation on state customs issues, may present risks that are inherently contradictory, conflicting in terms of the vector of action with respect to each other, namely: the probability of non-compliance by the subjects of foreign trade with the norms of customs legislation, or the creation of significant bureaucratic barriers in the process of economic operators. There is a peculiar conflict of interests between the state and the subjects of foreign economic activity. The main direction of creating a favorable business environment in accordance with the recommendations of WCO is the process of further simplification of customs procedures for subjects with a high degree of trust, fighting corruption and facilitating the movement of goods, vehicles and people in general. Conclusions. Thus, the scheme of «relations» between the state and the subjects of foreign economic activity can be modeled by the means of game theory, which is

  19. Deriving business processes with service level agreements from early requirements

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Frankova, Ganna; Seguran, Magali; Gilcher, Florian; Trabelsi, Slim; Doerflinger, Joerg; Aiello, Marco

    When designing a service-based business process employing loosely coupled services, one is not only interested in guaranteeing a certain flow of work, but also in how the work will be performed. This involves the consideration of non-functional properties which go from execution time and costs, to

  20. Systemic determinants of modern gravitational processes in the geo-economic space

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zoryana Lutsyshyn

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available From the compositional point of view, research on this topic has revealed two main directions: (1 an analysis of global development asymmetry that has activated gravitational processes in geo-economic space; and (2 a direction that focuses on the profound study of the causes for heterogeneity in geo-economic space and divergence in global development under the influence of gravitational factors of nature on the endogenousexogenous axis. Systemic determinants of gravitational processes are revealed in geo- economic space and the asymmetry of global activate ravitional processes in geo-economic space are observed, and methodological interconnectedness coinfluence of two complementary determinants of global development – convergence and divergence and the contradiction between them are examined, which at the same time underlie the inevitable internal contradictions of the process, creating conditions for further configuration of the «new globalization community», which is built on the principles of nonlinear dynamics and logic gravitational processes in geo-economic space.Taking into account the relevant uncertainties, the attention is focused on the isolation of several myths around which the debate that has important methodological significance in the context of the current global inter-system transformations is held. Geostrategic matrix divergence of global development is produced,which is based on techniques which incorporated cluster analysisthat are built on linguistic variables and integrated analysis of the key trends of country and global development geostrategic position of Ukraine in geo-economic space in the projection on the issues of global inter-system transformations isoutlined .It is proved that the level of gravity load increases in the deepening of the global asymmetries , and that the current global transformation is not yet complete, and polycentric new architecture geospace is not formed. In the near future we should

  1. Sensitivity analysis of technological, economic and sustainability evaluation of power plants using the analytic hierarchy process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chatzimouratidis, Athanasios I.; Pilavachi, Petros A.

    2009-01-01

    Technological, economic and sustainability evaluation of power plants by use of the analytic hierarchy process and nine end node criteria for a reference scenario based on subjective criteria weighting has been presented in a previous paper by authors. However, criteria weight variations may substantially modify overall evaluations and rankings of power plants. The current paper presents a sensitivity analysis with four alternative scenarios (sets of criteria weights) compared with the reference scenario. The results show that priority to 'technology and sustainability' favors renewable energy power plants, while priority to 'economic' criteria favors mainly nuclear power plants and less the four types of fossil fuel power plant

  2. Mathematical Formulation Requirements and Specifications for the Process Models

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Steefel, C.; Moulton, D.; Pau, G.; Lipnikov, K.; Meza, J.; Lichtner, P.; Wolery, T.; Bacon, D.; Spycher, N.; Bell, J.; Moridis, G.; Yabusaki, S.; Sonnenthal, E.; Zyvoloski, G.; Andre, B.; Zheng, L.; Davis, J.

    2010-11-01

    The Advanced Simulation Capability for Environmental Management (ASCEM) is intended to be a state-of-the-art scientific tool and approach for understanding and predicting contaminant fate and transport in natural and engineered systems. The ASCEM program is aimed at addressing critical EM program needs to better understand and quantify flow and contaminant transport behavior in complex geological systems. It will also address the long-term performance of engineered components including cementitious materials in nuclear waste disposal facilities, in order to reduce uncertainties and risks associated with DOE EM's environmental cleanup and closure activities. Building upon national capabilities developed from decades of Research and Development in subsurface geosciences, computational and computer science, modeling and applied mathematics, and environmental remediation, the ASCEM initiative will develop an integrated, open-source, high-performance computer modeling system for multiphase, multicomponent, multiscale subsurface flow and contaminant transport. This integrated modeling system will incorporate capabilities for predicting releases from various waste forms, identifying exposure pathways and performing dose calculations, and conducting systematic uncertainty quantification. The ASCEM approach will be demonstrated on selected sites, and then applied to support the next generation of performance assessments of nuclear waste disposal and facility decommissioning across the EM complex. The Multi-Process High Performance Computing (HPC) Simulator is one of three thrust areas in ASCEM. The other two are the Platform and Integrated Toolsets (dubbed the Platform) and Site Applications. The primary objective of the HPC Simulator is to provide a flexible and extensible computational engine to simulate the coupled processes and flow scenarios described by the conceptual models developed using the ASCEM Platform. The graded and iterative approach to assessments

  3. Procedures for Efficient and Economic Recovery of Heat for Reuse in Batch Processes for Cleaning

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Qvale, Einar Bjørn

    2005-01-01

    The expenditure of primary energy can be reduced and the economics of process plants in the food industry can be improved by intelligent application of Process Integration (PI). Since a greater part of the products in the food industry is processed in batches, the use of Thermal- Energy Storage...... are often encountered in the food industry. However, the extent to which PI is utilized is much smaller than the number of potential applications. The present paper will address this topic, give some reasons for the underuse of PI, and indicate some principles, methods, and directions that, when applied......, could increase the use and usefulness of PI by incorporating TES, thus fulfilling PI’s promises of improved operation, reduced energy consumption, reduced environmental impact, and improved economics. The application of these procedures is illustrated through the description of two cases. Keywords: Heat...

  4. Computer simulation of energy use, greenhouse gas emissions, and process economics of the fluid milk process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tomasula, P M; Yee, W C F; McAloon, A J; Nutter, D W; Bonnaillie, L M

    2013-05-01

    Energy-savings measures have been implemented in fluid milk plants to lower energy costs and the energy-related carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions. Although these measures have resulted in reductions in steam, electricity, compressed air, and refrigeration use of up to 30%, a benchmarking framework is necessary to examine the implementation of process-specific measures that would lower energy use, costs, and CO2 emissions even further. In this study, using information provided by the dairy industry and equipment vendors, a customizable model of the fluid milk process was developed for use in process design software to benchmark the electrical and fuel energy consumption and CO2 emissions of current processes. It may also be used to test the feasibility of new processing concepts to lower energy and CO2 emissions with calculation of new capital and operating costs. The accuracy of the model in predicting total energy usage of the entire fluid milk process and the pasteurization step was validated using available literature and industry energy data. Computer simulation of small (40.0 million L/yr), medium (113.6 million L/yr), and large (227.1 million L/yr) processing plants predicted the carbon footprint of milk, defined as grams of CO2 equivalents (CO2e) per kilogram of packaged milk, to within 5% of the value of 96 g of CO 2e/kg of packaged milk obtained in an industry-conducted life cycle assessment and also showed, in agreement with the same study, that plant size had no effect on the carbon footprint of milk but that larger plants were more cost effective in producing milk. Analysis of the pasteurization step showed that increasing the percentage regeneration of the pasteurizer from 90 to 96% would lower its thermal energy use by almost 60% and that implementation of partial homogenization would lower electrical energy use and CO2e emissions of homogenization by 82 and 5.4%, respectively. It was also demonstrated that implementation of steps to lower non-process

  5. Process requirements of galactose oxidase catalyzed oxidation of alcohols

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Asbjørn Toftgaard; R. Birmingham, William; Rehn, Gustav

    2015-01-01

    -electron oxidants to reactivate the enzyme upon loss of the amino acid radical in its active site. In this work, the addition of catalase, single-electron oxidants, and copper ions was investigated systematically in order to find the minimum concentrations required to obtain a fully active GOase. Furthermore....... GOase was shown to be completely stable for 120 h in buffer with stirring at 25 °C, and the activity even increased 30% if the enzyme solution was also aerated in a similar experiment. The high Km for oxygen of GOase (>5 mM) relative to the solubility of oxygen in water reveals a trade-off between...... supplying oxygen at a sufficiently high rate and ensuring a high degree of enzyme utilization (i.e., ensuring the highest possible specific rate of reaction). Nevertheless, the good stability and high activity of GOase bode well for its future application as an industrial biocatalyst....

  6. Technical and Economic Problems Associated with the Development of Methods of Processing and Using Radioactive Waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thiriet, L.; Sauteron, J.; Oger, C.

    1968-01-01

    The paper briefly reviews the various techniques used in processing the radioactive wastes which unavoidably result from the generation of electric power from nuclear sources. The paper goes on to define the relative importance, in nuclear fuel cycles, of the problem raised by these wastes. Emphasis is placed on the economic influence of management policies on the cost of power generation, and hence on the relative position of nuclear energy. A substantial percentage of these wastes can be economically utilized. Attention is drawn to the major technical and economic features of the industry which will come into being as a result of this utilization. The major uses anticipated are discussed: radiation sources, heat sources, auxiliary power generation. The paper concludes that satisfactory solutions have already been found to these problems, and describes possible improvements. (author) [fr

  7. 40 CFR 63.7506 - Do any boilers or process heaters have limited requirements?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 13 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Do any boilers or process heaters have..., and Institutional Boilers and Process Heaters General Compliance Requirements § 63.7506 Do any boilers or process heaters have limited requirements? (a) New or reconstructed boilers and process heaters in...

  8. Specific requirements of GS-R3 related to process implementation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Florescu, N.

    2009-01-01

    The PowerPoint presentation gives: an overview of IAEA management system requirements or topics; - the requirements specific to processes and process implementation; - the key practical challenge of using the process approach specified in IAEA SG GS-G3.1 and GS-G3.5. The following items are thoroughly discussed: - Requirements related to specific process implementation and developing processes; - Process management; Generic management; - System processes: - Control of documents; Control of products; Control of records; - Purchasing; - Communication; - Managing organizational change; - Other requirements concerning the process management system; - General management system; - Grading; - Documentation; - Fulfilling the requirements of interested parties; - Management responsibility; - Planning responsibility and authority for the management system monitoring and measurement; - Independent assessment; - Management system review; - Non-conformances, corrective and preventive actions; - Improvement key practical challenge of using the process approach specified in IAEA SG GS-G3.1 and GS-G3.5; - Key challenge: - Process common to all stages; - Phases of process development proposed by IAEA. The following conclusions complete the presentation: GS-R-3 sets basic requirements for process-based integrated management system; - Some key generic processes required, no specific process model favoured namely, no reference to management, core and support processes; - Up to organization to determine appropriate process model; - Easily applicable to a wide range of facilities and activities, including those of a regulatory body; - Specific requirements are found in specific Safety Guide. (author)

  9. MIGRATION PROCESSES "EAST-WEST" IN THE CONTEXT OF THE EUROPEAN SYSTEM OF ECONOMIC SECURITY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. V. Ryazantsev

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The article refl ects the infl uence of the migration processes to the economic security of European Union. The article underlines most common economical risks in case if there is an increase of the volume of migration and describes the ways how to reduce those risks.The main conclusions obtained from the results of the study, can be structured as follows: trends and consequences of the migration crisis in the European Union are defi ned by the set of reasons that are due on the one hand the policy of transparency being implemented by individual countries, making the whole European Union is the center of attraction of immigrants (primarily from the MENA countries and other hand, the intense and growing fl ow of migrants creates regional threats, including the European Union's economic security; the problem of ensuring the economic security of the European Union in the context of the impact of the migration crisis is most actual issue at the moment and the main reason is that the accumulation of the fl ow of migrants to the strongest European economy – Germany. In this case, not only Germany, but also France (and until recently UK had to improve the economic and social consequences of migration and also to implement measures aimed to recover from fi nancial crisis of the last few years, the consequences of which to date are shown in the many social and economic areas of the European Union; addressing the problem with migration crisis in the European Union seems to use a special system of measures, in which on the one hand realized containment of migration fl ows and on the other hand held solutions aimed at the assimilation of migrants in multicultural environment with full adoption of the latest socio-economic, democratic and moral values specifi c to European societies.

  10. An Observation-based Assessment of Instrument Requirements for a Future Precipitation Process Observing System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nelson, E.; L'Ecuyer, T. S.; Wood, N.; Smalley, M.; Kulie, M.; Hahn, W.

    2017-12-01

    Global models exhibit substantial biases in the frequency, intensity, duration, and spatial scales of precipitation systems. Much of this uncertainty stems from an inadequate representation of the processes by which water is cycled between the surface and atmosphere and, in particular, those that govern the formation and maintenance of cloud systems and their propensity to form the precipitation. Progress toward improving precipitation process models requires observing systems capable of quantifying the coupling between the ice content, vertical mass fluxes, and precipitation yield of precipitating cloud systems. Spaceborne multi-frequency, Doppler radar offers a unique opportunity to address this need but the effectiveness of such a mission is heavily dependent on its ability to actually observe the processes of interest in the widest possible range of systems. Planning for a next generation precipitation process observing system should, therefore, start with a fundamental evaluation of the trade-offs between sensitivity, resolution, sampling, cost, and the overall potential scientific yield of the mission. Here we provide an initial assessment of the scientific and economic trade-space by evaluating hypothetical spaceborne multi-frequency radars using a combination of current real-world and model-derived synthetic observations. Specifically, we alter the field of view, vertical resolution, and sensitivity of a hypothetical Ka- and W-band radar system and propagate those changes through precipitation detection and intensity retrievals. The results suggest that sampling biases introduced by reducing sensitivity disproportionately affect the light rainfall and frozen precipitation regimes that are critical for warm cloud feedbacks and ice sheet mass balance, respectively. Coarser spatial resolution observations introduce regime-dependent biases in both precipitation occurrence and intensity that depend on cloud regime, with even the sign of the bias varying within a

  11. Proposal for elicitation and analysis of environmental requirements into the construction design process: a case study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Camila Pegoraro

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Proposal: As new demands from sustainable development, environmental requirements arise as another challenge to design process management. It is already known that companies which design buildings are usually exposed to many managerial difficulties. Faced to the environmental demands, these companies require new facilities to align environmental requirements to the business goals and to include them properly in design process. This paper is based on a case study in a construction company, which was developed through interviews and document analysis. It is intended to present a procedure for the project environmental requirements elicitation, organization and analysis, which is based on the requirements engineering (ER concepts. As results it was concluded that the ER concepts are useful for the environmental requirements integration into the design process and that strategic planning should give directions for the effective environmental requirements adherence. Moreover, a procedure for environmental requirements modeling is proposed. Key-words: Design process, Requirements management, Environmental requirements, Construction

  12. An integrated model for the technical and economic evaluation of an enzymatic biomass conversion process

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nguyen, Q A; Saddler, J N [Forintek Canada Corp., Ottawa, Ontario (CA). Dept. of Biotechnology and Chemistry

    1991-01-01

    A process simulation model was constructed, using the Lotus 123 spreadsheet, to evaluate the technical and economic feasibility of a lignocellulosic-to-ethanol bioconversion process. The major components of the process were: steam pretreatment, fractionation, enzyme production, enzymatic hydrolysis, ethanol fermentation of glucose and xylose, product recovery, and waste treatment. The model provided an estimation of the price of ethanol and evaluated the interdependence of process parameters and their effect on the production cost of ethanol. A case study of a plant processing 500 tonnes of aspenwood per day showed that the parameters which had the most significant impact on the price of ethanol were: the cost of wood, cost of enzymes, efficiency of cellulose hydrolysis, ethanol yield from xylose, efficiency of the fractionation process, and the selling price of the lignin by-product. (author).

  13. Trends And Economic Assessment Of Integration Processes At The Metal Market

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olga Aleksandrovna Romanova

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The article discussed the integration process from the perspective of three dimensions that characterize the corresponding increase in the number and appearance of new relationships; strength, character, and stability of emerging communications; dynamics and the appropriate form of the process. In the article, trends of development of integration processes in metallurgy are identified, identification of five stages of development in Russian metal trading are justified. We propose a step by step way to implement the integration process, developed a methodical approach to assessing the feasibility of economic integration processes steel producers and steel traders, including three consecutive stages of its implementing respectively, the principles of reflexive control, entropy approach, the traditional assessment of mergers and acquisitions. The algorithm for the practical realization of the author’s approach, which allows to identify the optimal trajectory of the integration process as a series of horizontal and vertical integration steps is developed.

  14. The Conceptual Framework for Ensuring Economic Safety of Corporate Integration Processes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gutsaliuk Oleksii M.

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available The objective growth of the number of displays and influence of negative factors of threats from the environment actualizes the issue of ensuring economic safety of national economic entities. The article notes that simultaneously with counteracting threats enterprises are working for development, one form of which is the establishment of corporate structures and implementation of integration processes. It is proposed to ensure achieving the desired level of the corporate structure economic safety through optimizing the correlation of resources and competencies, skills and technologies for their use within the integrated logistics value chain. In this case it is the implementation of the integration process that serves as an instrument for achieving this optimal correlation, and the level of economic safety is considered as one of the optimization criteria. The system of authors’ hypotheses is taken as the basis for ensuring economic safety of the corporate integration process. Each of the hypotheses corresponds to a set of conceptual principles aimed at practical implementation of the proposed approaches. Within these conceptual principles the relationship between incentives and benefits of integration and the basis for ensuring their safety is presented, the differences between safety of functioning and safety of development are studied, the use of the methodology of logistics to harmonize the interests of participants of the corporate structure is justified, the relevance of applying the resource approach to manage the integration and development safety is proved. The graphical representation of causal relationships between the proposed conceptual principles allowed formalizing the subject area of studying corporate integration safety

  15. Techno-economic analysis of the coal-to-olefins process in comparison with the oil-to-olefins process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xiang, Dong; Qian, Yu; Man, Yi; Yang, Siyu

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • Present the opportunities and challenges of coal-to-olefins (CTO) development. • Conduct a techno-economic analysis on CTO compared with oil-to-olefins (OTO). • Suggest approaches for improving energy efficiency and economic performance of CTO. • Analyze effects of plant scale, feedstock price, CO 2 tax on CTO and OTO. - Abstract: Olefins are one of the most important oil derivatives widely used in industry. To reduce the dependence of olefins industry on oil, China is increasing the production of olefins from alternative energy resources, especially from coal. This study is concerned with the opportunities and obstacles of coal-to-olefins development, and focuses on making an overall techno-economic analysis of a coal-to-olefins plant with the capacity of 0.7 Mt/a olefins. Comparison is made with a 1.5 Mt/a oil-to-olefins plant based on three criteria including energy efficiency, capital investment, and product cost. It was found that the coal-based olefins process show prominent advantage in product cost because of the low price of its feedstock. However, it suffers from the limitations of higher capital investment, lower energy efficiency, and higher emissions. The effects of production scale, raw material price, and carbon tax were varied for the two production routes, and thus the operational regions were found for the coal-to-olefins process to be competitive

  16. Is a pre-analytical process for urinalysis required?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petit, Morgane; Beaudeux, Jean-Louis; Majoux, Sandrine; Hennequin, Carole

    2017-10-01

    For the reliable urinary measurement of calcium, phosphate and uric acid, a pre-analytical process by adding acid or base to urine samples at laboratory is recommended in order to dissolve precipitated solutes. Several studies on different kind of samples and analysers have previously shown that a such pre-analytical treatment is useless. The objective was to study the necessity of pre-analytical treatment of urine on samples collected using the V-Monovette ® (Sarstedt) system and measured on the analyser Architect C16000 (Abbott Diagnostics). Sixty urinary samples of hospitalized patients were selected (n=30 for calcium and phosphate, and n=30 for uric acid). After acidification of urine samples for measurement of calcium and phosphate, and alkalinisation for measurement of uric acid respectively, differences between results before and after the pre-analytical treatment were compared to acceptable limits recommended by the French society of clinical biology (SFBC). No difference in concentration between before and after pre-analytical treatment of urine samples exceeded acceptable limits from SFBC for measurement of calcium and uric acid. For phosphate, only one sample exceeded these acceptable limits, showing a result paradoxically lower after acidification. In conclusion, in agreement with previous study, our results show that acidification or alkalinisation of urine samples from 24 h urines or from urination is not a pre-analytical necessity for measurement of calcium, phosphate and uric acid.

  17. A framework for techno-economic & environmental sustainability analysis by risk assessment for conceptual process evaluation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Loureiro da Costa Lira Gargalo, Carina; Sin, Gürkan; Carvalho, Ana

    2016-01-01

    for techno-economic and environmental sustainability analysis through risk assessment is proposed for the early-stage design and screening of conceptual process alternatives. The alternatives within the design space are analyzed following the framework’s work-flow, which targets the following: (i) quantify...... the economic risk; (ii) perform the monetary valuation of environmental impact categories under uncertainty; (iii) quantify the potential environmental risk; (iv) measure the alternatives’ eco-efficiency identifying possible trade-offs; and, lastly (v) propose a joint risk assessment matrix......The need to achieve a sustainable process performance has become increasingly important in order to keep a competitive advantage in the global markets. Development of comprehensive and systematic methods to accomplish this goal is the subject of this work. To this end, a multi-level framework...

  18. A framework for techno-economic & environmental sustainability analysis by risk assessment for conceptual process evaluation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Loureiro da Costa Lira Gargalo, Carina; Sin, Gürkan; Carvalho, Ana

    2016-01-01

    the economic risk; (ii) perform the monetary valuation of environmental impact categories under uncertainty; (iii) quantify the potential environmental risk; (iv) measure the alternatives’ eco-efficiency identifying possible trade-offs; and, lastly (v) propose a joint risk assessment matrix......The need to achieve a sustainable process performance has become increasingly important in order to keep a competitive advantage in the global markets. Development of comprehensive and systematic methods to accomplish this goal is the subject of this work. To this end, a multi-level framework...... for techno-economic and environmental sustainability analysis through risk assessment is proposed for the early-stage design and screening of conceptual process alternatives. The alternatives within the design space are analyzed following the framework’s work-flow, which targets the following: (i) quantify...

  19. Ethanol production in an integrated fermentation/membrane system. Process simulations and economics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Groot, W J; Kraayenbrink, M R; Lans, R.G.J.M. van der; Luyben, K C.A.M. [Delft Univ. of Technology (Netherlands). Dept. of Biochemical Engineering

    1993-01-01

    Four systems comprising of an ethanol fermentation integrated with microfiltration and/or pervaporation, and a conventional continuous culture, were compared with respect to the performance of the fermentation and economics. The processes are compared on the basis of the same kinetic model. It is found that cell retention by microfiltration leads to lower production costs, compared to a conventional continuous culture. Pervaporation becomes profitable at a high selectivity of ethanol/water separation and low membrane prices. (orig.).

  20. Application of data-processing to the technical and economical management of the plants of Simo

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chastagner, F.

    1988-01-01

    The firm Simo is entrusted with the processing of the uranium ores extracted from the mines of Cogema in France, in its three plants. The paper describes the conception and the functioning of the information system. Among the advantages contributed by the system, the coherence between the technical follow-up and the economical follow-up constitutes one of the principal progressive features [fr

  1. Technical characterization and economic evaluation of recovery of flare gas in various gas-processing plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zolfaghari, Mohabbat; Pirouzfar, Vahid; Sakhaeinia, Hossein

    2017-01-01

    Today in the worldwide quest for production and economic preference, only industries will survive that have proper solutions for waste disposal and environmental pollution. In industrial applications, a blow down network of gases is used in order to control system pressure and safety instruments. At the end of this network, the excess gases are burnt in the flare tower, which have severe consequences on the environment. Different methods have been proposed and several alternatives have been introduced for reduction and recovery of flaring gases. In this paper, three methods including gas to liquid (GTL), gas turbines generation (GTG) and gas to ethylene (GTE) are introduced and compared with the best method from economic point of view being identified. For this purpose, a natural gas sample is taken from Asalloyeh Refinery Plant and the process has been simulated using Aspen HYSYS. Meanwhile, estimation of the capital and operating costs and evaluation of the processes involved were made using Aspen Capital Cost Estimator. According to the results obtained, production of the electric power from flaring gases is one of the most economical methods. GTG method, with an annual profit of about 480e+006 $, has a greater ROR percent. - Highlights: • Three methods including GTL, GTG and GTE are developed for flare gas recovery. • The processes has been simulated using Aspen HYSYS. • Estimation of the capital and operating costs of the processes were made. • According to the results obtained, GTG is one of the most economical methods. • GTE method has the highest annual benefit, it has the lowest ROR percent.

  2. SUPERCOMPUTERS FOR AIDING ECONOMIC PROCESSES WITH REFERENCE TO THE FINANCIAL SECTOR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jerzy Balicki

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The article discusses the use of supercomputers to support business processes with particular emphasis on the financial sector. A reference was made to the selected projects that support economic development. In particular, we propose the use of supercomputers to perform artificial intel-ligence methods in banking. The proposed methods combined with modern technology enables a significant increase in the competitiveness of enterprises and banks by adding new functionality.

  3. Culture, agency and power: Theoretical reflections on informal economic networks and political process

    OpenAIRE

    Meagher, Kate

    2009-01-01

    Do network theory really offer a suitable concept for the theorization of informal processes of economic regulation and institutional change? This working paper challenges both essentialist and skeptical attitudes to networks through an examination of the positive and negative effects of network governance in contemporary societies in a range of regional contexts. The analysis focuses on three broad principles of non-state organization - culture, agency and power - and their role in shaping p...

  4. Hynol: An economic process for methanol production from biomass and natural gas with reduced CO2 emission

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steinberg, M.; Dong, Yuanji

    1993-10-01

    The Hynol process is proposed to meet the demand for an economical process for methanol production with reduced CO2 emission. This new process consists of three reaction steps: (1) hydrogasification of biomass, (2) steam reforming of the produced gas with additional natural gas feedstock, and (3) methanol synthesis of the hydrogen and carbon monoxide produced during the previous two steps. The H2-rich gas remaining after methanol synthesis is recycled to gasify the biomass in an energy neutral reactor so that there is no need for an expensive oxygen plant as required by commercial steam gasifiers. Recycling gas allows the methanol synthesis reactor to perform at a relatively lower pressure than conventional while the plant still maintains high methanol yield. Energy recovery designed into the process minimizes heat loss and increases the process thermal efficiency. If the Hynol methanol is used as an alternative and more efficient automotive fuel, an overall 41% reduction in CO2 emission can be achieved compared to the use of conventional gasoline fuel. A preliminary economic estimate shows that the total capital investment for a Hynol plant is 40% lower than that for a conventional biomass gasification plant. The methanol production cost is $0.43/gal for a 1085 million gal/yr Hynol plant which is competitive with current U.S. methanol and equivalent gasoline prices. Process flowsheet and simulation data using biomass and natural gas as cofeedstocks are presented. The Hynol process can convert any condensed carbonaceous material, especially municipal solid waste (MSW), to produce methanol.

  5. 25 CFR 42.6 - When does due process require a formal disciplinary hearing?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false When does due process require a formal disciplinary... RIGHTS § 42.6 When does due process require a formal disciplinary hearing? Unless local school policies and procedures provide for less, a formal disciplinary hearing is required before a suspension in...

  6. Extraction of astaxanthin from microalgae: process design and economic feasibility study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zgheib, Nancy; Saade, Roxana; Khallouf, Rindala; Takache, Hosni

    2018-03-01

    In this work, the process design and the economic feasibility of natural astaxanthin extraction fromHaematococcus pluvialisspecies have been reported. Complete process drawing of the process was first performed, and then the process was designed including five main steps being the harvesting process, the cell disruption, the spray drying, the supercritical CO2extraction and the anaerobic digestion. The major components of the facility would include sedimentation tanks, a disk stack centrifuge, a bed miller, a spray dryer, a multistage compressor, an extractor, a pasteurizer and a digester. All units have been sized assuming a 10 kg/h of dried biomass as a feedstock to produce nearly 2592 kg of astaxanthin per year. The investment payback time and the return on investment were all estimated for different market prices of astaxanthin. Based on the results the production process was found to become economically feasible for a market price higher than 1500/Kg. Also, a payback period of 1 year and an ROI equal to 113% was estimated for an astaxanthin market price equal to 6000/Kg.

  7. ARCHER HTR Technology in support of a Coal to Liquid Process – An Economic Feasibility View

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stoker, P.W.; Fick, J.I.J.; Conradie, F.H.

    2014-01-01

    The paper considers the economics of coupling a European developed HTR (as conceptualized by project ARCHER) to a Coal-to-Liquid (CTL) process as typically used by Sasol, the biggest Coal-to-Liquid (CTL) producer in the world. The approach followed was to create a techno-economic baseline for an existing CTL process using mass and energy balances determined with Aspen Plus chemical modelling software. The economic performance of a typical 80,000 barrels per day synthetic crude oil plant was determined from first principles. The techno-economic baseline model was validated with reference to published product output data and audited financial results of a Sasol CTL plant located at Secunda, South Africa, as reported for the 2011 financial year. A number of schemes were identified to couple the European HTR plant to the CTL case study. Two schemes were studied in detail, while the remaining coupling schemes will be studied as part of the follow-on project NC2I-R (Nuclear Cogeneration Industrial Initiative – Research). Two Key Performance Indices were of interest, namely the Internal Rate of Return of a Nuclear supported CTL plant and the reduction of CO_2 emissions. The case where nuclear co-generation replaced electrical power bought from the grid, and also replaced all the steam currently produced by the burning coal with nuclear steam, yielded interesting conclusions: • The case study plant would need a total of 16 HTRs, each with a capacity of 265 MWth. • The coupling scheme would reduce CO_2 emissions by approximately 14.5 million ton/annum or 51 % of the current emissions of a 80,000 bbl/d plant. • The economic feasibility challenge for large scale deployment of nuclear energy in a Coal-to-Liquid application - where steam and electricity are to be generated from Nuclear energy, is to construct such a facility at an all -inclusive overnight cost not exceeding $3400/kWe. (author)

  8. Cost estimation and economical evaluation of three configurations of activated sludge process for a wastewater treatment plant (WWTP) using simulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jafarinejad, Shahryar

    2017-09-01

    The activated sludge (AS) process is a type of suspended growth biological wastewater treatment that is used for treating both municipal sewage and a variety of industrial wastewaters. Economical modeling and cost estimation of activated sludge processes are crucial for designing, construction, and forecasting future economical requirements of wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs). In this study, three configurations containing conventional activated sludge (CAS), extended aeration activated sludge (EAAS), and sequencing batch reactor (SBR) processes for a wastewater treatment plant in Tehran city were proposed and the total project construction, operation labor, maintenance, material, chemical, energy and amortization costs of these WWTPs were calculated and compared. Besides, effect of mixed liquor suspended solid (MLSS) amounts on costs of WWTPs was investigated. Results demonstrated that increase of MLSS decreases the total project construction, material and amortization costs of WWTPs containing EAAS and CAS. In addition, increase of this value increases the total operation, maintenance and energy costs, but does not affect chemical cost of WWTPs containing EAAS and CAS.

  9. Economic and environmental impacts of proposed changes to Clean Water Act thermal discharge requirements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Veil, J.A.

    1994-01-01

    This paper examines the economic and environmental impact to the power industry of limiting thermal mixing zones to 1000 feet and eliminating the Clean Water Act section 316(a) variance. Power companies were asked what they would do if these two conditions were imposed. Most affected plants would retrofit cooling towers and some would retrofit diffusers. Assuming that all affected plants would proportionally follow the same options as the surveyed plants, the estimated capital cost of retrofitting cooling towers or diffusers at all affected plants exceeds $20 billion. Since both cooling towers and diffusers exert an energy penalty on a plant's output, the power companies must generate additional power. The estimated cost of the additional power exceeds $10 billion over 20 years. Generation of the extra power would emit over 8 million tons per year of additional carbon dioxide. Operation of the new cooling towers would cause more than 1.5 million gallons per minute of additional evaporation

  10. Simulation, integration, and economic analysis of gas-to-liquid processes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bao, Buping; El-Halwagi, Mahmoud M.; Elbashir, Nimir O.

    2010-01-01

    Gas-to-liquid (GTL) involves the chemical conversion of natural gas into synthetic crude that can be upgraded and separated into different useful hydrocarbon fractions including liquid transportation fuels. Such technology can also be used to convert other abundant natural resources such as coal and biomass to fuels and value added chemicals (referred to as coal-to-liquid (CTL) and biomass-to-liquid (BTL)). A leading GTL technology is the Fischer-Tropsch (FT) process. The objective of this work is to provide a techno-economic analysis of the GTL process and to identify optimization and integration opportunities for cost saving and reduction of energy usage while accounting for the environmental impact. First, a base-case flowsheet is synthesized to include the key processing steps of the plant. Then, a computer-aided process simulation is carried out to determine the key mass and energy flows, performance criteria, and equipment specifications. Next, energy and mass integration studies are performed to address the following items: (a) heating and cooling utilities, (b) combined heat and power (process cogeneration), (c) management of process water, (c) optimization of tail gas allocation, and (d) recovery of catalyst-supporting hydrocarbon solvents. Finally, these integration studies are conducted and the results are documented in terms of conserving energy and mass resources as well as providing economic impact. Finally, an economic analysis is undertaken to determine the plant capacity needed to achieve the break-even point and to estimate the return on investment for the base-case study. (author)

  11. Aquacultural and socio-economic aspects of processing carps into some value-added products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sehgal, H S; Sehgal, G K

    2002-05-01

    Carps are the mainstay of Indian aquaculture, contributing over 90% to the total fish production, which was estimated to be 1.77 million metric tonnes in 1996. Carp culture has a great potential for waste utilization and thus for pollution abatement. Many wastes such as cow, poultry, pig, duck, goat, and sheep excreta, biogas slurry, effluents from different kinds of factories/industries have been efficiently used for enhancing the productivity of natural food of carps and related species. Besides, several organic wastes/byproducts such as plant products, wastes from animal husbandry, and industrial by-products have been used as carp feed ingredients to lower the cost of supplementary feeding. However, to ensure the continued expansion of fish ponds and the pollution control, there must be a market for the fish (carps) produced in these ponds. The carps have, however, a low market value due to the presence of intra-muscular bones, which reduces their consumer acceptability. Thus, a need was felt to develop some boneless convenience products for enhancing the consumer acceptability of the carps. Efforts were made to prepare three value-added fish products, namely fish patty, fish finger and fish salad from carp flesh and were compared with a reference product ('fish pakoura'). Sensory evaluation of these products gave highly encouraging results. The methods of preparation of these products were transferred to some progressive farmers of the region who prepared and sold these products at very attractive prices. Carp processing has a great potential for the establishment of a fish ancillary industry and thus for boosting the production of these species. In Punjab alone, there is a potential of consuming 32,448 metric tonnes per annum of such value-added products (which would require 54,080 metric tonnes of raw fish). The development of value-added products has a significant role in raising the socio-economic status of the people associated with carp culture. The

  12. Process economics of renewable biorefineries: butanol and ethanol production in integrated bioprocesses from lignocellulosics and other industrial by-products

    Science.gov (United States)

    This chapter provides process economic details on production of butanol from lignocellulosic biomass and glycerol in integrated bioreactors where numerous unit operations are combined. In order to compare various processes, economic evaluations were performed using SuperPro Designer Software (versio...

  13. Economical analysis of the spray drying process by pre-dehumidification of the inlet air

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Madeira, A.N.; Camargo, J.R. [University of Taubate (UNITAU), SP (Brazil). Mechanical Engineering Dept.

    2009-07-01

    Spray drying is a dehumidification process by atomization in a closed chamber that aims to remove moisture of a product by heat and mass transfer from the product's contained water to the air that, in this process is previously heated. This paper presents a case study for an industry that produces food ingredients. The current process applied in the product to heat the air can uses one of these two systems: a direct heating process that burns liquid petroleum gas in contact with the inlet air or indirect heating that uses a heat exchanger which heat the air. This heating system consumes 90% of the total process energy. However, this inlet air can reach the dehumidifier with high moisture from the atmosphere condition requesting, in this case, more energy consumption according to the year's seasons. This paper promotes a utilization study of the current process through the installation of a pre-dehumidification device of the inlet air and shows a study to three different dehumidification systems that means by refrigeration, adsorption and actual comparing their performance in an energetic and economical point of view. The goals of this study are to analyze the capacity of moisture removing of each removing device, the influence of moisture variation of the inlet air in the process as well as the economic impact of each device in the global system. It concludes that the utilization of dehumidification devices can eliminate the heating system reducing this way the energy consumption. Moreover it promotes the increasing of moisture gradient between the inlet air and the product optimizing the drying process and increasing the global energy efficiency in the global system. Choosing the most appropriate system for the pre-dehumidification device depends on the desired initial and final moisture content of the product, but applying pre-dehumidifiers at the inlet air promotes an energetic optimization in the spray drying process. (author)

  14. Economic evaluation of five curing processes for wood coatings; Evaluacion economica de cinco procesos de curado de recubrimiento para madera

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Martinez M, I [Universidad La Salle, Mexico City (Mexico)

    1996-09-01

    In this work we study the economic feasibility of five methods for curing coatings over sheet wood products. Each year, Mexico is producing more than 40 millions of square meters of wood panels, but the demand is of the range of 58 millions of square meters of this product. Two millions are expended after they are coated, and 38 millions without coating, they are coated artisanilly when they are used to make pieces of furniture. The technical characteristics and the costs involved in each one of five methods of curing, are described. Investments involved with each method are processed to establish: fixed costs, variable costs, equilibrium point, and others. Initial investment, coasts and revenues are processed to determine the income statement pro-form, the projected statement of change in financial position, the projected working capital, the projected balance sheet, the cash-flow, and some economical and financial indicators for each one of the five curing methods. With this information, the internal rate of return (IRR) is determined, and used to compare the economic worth of each of the five methods. The five methods are profitable, because all they have a IRR greater than the opportunity cost of capital (15%) of projects with similar characteristics. Despite, with each one of the five methods, the capital invested is recoverable, and profits can be obtained; curing by ultraviolet light or by electron beam, let recover the investment in less than two years, require fewer dollars for investment, and have a IRR of 135% and 111% respectively. Besides ultraviolet light or electron beam curing processes, pollute less with volatile solvents, use the energy efficiently, have greater production rate, and the coating obtained have better quality than with the other three methods. (Author).

  15. Economic Benefit from Progressive Integration of Scheduling and Control for Continuous Chemical Processes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Logan D. R. Beal

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Performance of integrated production scheduling and advanced process control with disturbances is summarized and reviewed with four progressive stages of scheduling and control integration and responsiveness to disturbances: open-loop segregated scheduling and control, closed-loop segregated scheduling and control, open-loop scheduling with consideration of process dynamics, and closed-loop integrated scheduling and control responsive to process disturbances and market fluctuations. Progressive economic benefit from dynamic rescheduling and integrating scheduling and control is shown on a continuously stirred tank reactor (CSTR benchmark application in closed-loop simulations over 24 h. A fixed horizon integrated scheduling and control formulation for multi-product, continuous chemical processes is utilized, in which nonlinear model predictive control (NMPC and continuous-time scheduling are combined.

  16. Economic comparison of centralizing or decentralizing processing facilities for defense transuranic waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brown, C.M.

    1980-07-01

    This study is part of a set of analyses under direction of the Transuranic Waste Management Program designed to provide comprehensive, systematic methodology and support necessary to better understand options for national long-term management of transuranic (TRU) waste. The report summarizes activities to evaluate the economics of possible alternatives in locating facilities to process DOE-managed transuranic waste. The options considered are: (1) Facilities located at all major DOE TRU waste generating sites. (2) Two or three regional facilities. (3) Central processing facility at only one DOE site. The study concludes that processing at only one facility is the lowest cost option, followed, in order of cost, by regional then individual site processing

  17. Mine planning and scheduling at Ranger Uranium Mine - environmental requirements and economics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bath, L.J.

    1984-01-01

    Ranger Uranium Mines operates an open cut located in the Northern Territory. Strict environmental controls govern all operations and the water management requirements have the greatest impact on mine planning. The two main goals of planning are to provide mill feed and to mine sufficient suitable quality waste rock for ongoing construction of the tailings dam. Early planning concentrated on staged development of the pit to provide access to as much ore as possible for a given amount of development. All waste was considered to be suitable construction material. Grade control of crusher feed was the main problem in planning, as wide variations occur in ore grade over relatively short distances. Water management for the site operates a 'no release' system for contaminated waters. Design storage has proven inadequate, and the open cut has been used as the extra storage. As construction of future stages of the tailings dam requires non-mineralised rock materials which meet specific quality criteria, the mine has had to re-examine long term planning and pit development strategies. This has entailed the collection of much data not required under normal mining conditions, such as the assaying of waste drill core. The overall impact on mine planning of the environmental regulations has been to alter the philosophy of earlier planning, making it necessary to create a new strategy for pit development with the accent on exposing waste

  18. Techno-economic comparison of centralized versus decentralized biorefineries for two alkaline pretreatment processes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stoklosa, Ryan J; Del Pilar Orjuela, Andrea; da Costa Sousa, Leonardo; Uppugundla, Nirmal; Williams, Daniel L; Dale, Bruce E; Hodge, David B; Balan, Venkatesh

    2017-02-01

    In this work, corn stover subjected to ammonia fiber expansion (AFEX™) 1 pretreatment or alkaline pre-extraction followed by hydrogen peroxide post-treatment (AHP pretreatment) were compared for their enzymatic hydrolysis yields over a range of solids loadings, enzymes loadings, and enzyme combinations. Process techno-economic models were compared for cellulosic ethanol production for a biorefinery that handles 2000tons per day of corn stover employing a centralized biorefinery approach with AHP or a de-centralized AFEX pretreatment followed by biomass densification feeding a centralized biorefinery. A techno-economic analysis (TEA) of these scenarios shows that the AFEX process resulted in the highest capital investment but also has the lowest minimum ethanol selling price (MESP) at $2.09/gal, primarily due to good energy integration and an efficient ammonia recovery system. The economics of AHP could be made more competitive if oxidant loadings were reduced and the alkali and sugar losses were also decreased. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. ECONOMIC AND SOCIAL ASPECTS OF THE DEMOGRAPHIC AGEING PROCESS IN THE REPUBLIC OF MOLDOVA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olga SÂRBU

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose of this paper consists in analyzing economic and social aspects of demographic aging process in Moldova. To interpret the accumulated data and calculations performed analytical method of calculation tabular method and graphical method was applied. Intense process of aging is associated with changes in all spheres of social and economic life and affects equally the interests of older people and society as a whole. In Republic of Moldova aging population has grown in the last two decades, being conditioned both declining birth rate, which is very low and does not provide simple reproduction of the population and the mass migration of population that leads to the depopulation of the country. Maintaining the natural and migration increase with negative values amplifies the negative demographic deterioration of the country, which influences economic development, competitiveness and stability of the country and welfare of its citizens. In this situation it is necessary to respond positively to the challenges of demographic change through the complex and multisectoral approaches designed to correct current unfavorable demographic evolutions.

  20. 77 FR 35925 - Fisheries of the Exclusive Economic Zone Off Alaska; Monitoring and Enforcement Requirements in...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-06-15

    ... these processing vessels could be made to pass through a single point on a conveyor belt in the factory... share programs, NMFS developed a suite of monitoring and enforcement measures designed to ensure... they are not designed to give a precise estimate of the catch for each set of hook-and-line gear. In...

  1. Integrating black liquor gasification with pulping - Process simulation, economics and potential benefits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lindstrom, Erik Vilhelm Mathias

    Gasification of black liquor could drastically increase the flexibility and improve the profit potential of a mature industry. The completed work was focused on research around the economics and benefits of its implementation, utilizing laboratory pulping experiments and process simulation. The separation of sodium and sulfur achieved through gasification of recovered black liquor, can be utilized in processes like modified continuous cooking, split sulfidity and green liquor pretreatment pulping, and polysulfide-anthraquinone pulping, to improve pulp yield and properties. Laboratory pulping protocols have been developed for these modified pulping technologies and different process options evaluated. The process simulation work around BLG has led to the development of a WinGEMS module for the low temperature MTCI steam reforming process, and case studies comparing a simulated conventional kraft process to different process options built around the implementation of a BLG unit operation into the kraft recovery cycle. Pulp yield increases of 1-3% points with improved product quality, and the potential for capital and operating cost savings relative to the conventional kraft process have been demonstrated. Process simulation work has shown that the net variable operating cost for a pulping process using BLGCC is highly dependent on the cost of lime kiln fuel and the selling price of green power to the grid. Under the assumptions taken in the performed case study, the BLGCC process combined with split sulfidity or PSAQ pulping operations had net variable operating cost 2-4% greater than the kraft reference. The influence of the sales price of power to the grid is the most significant cost factor. If a sales price increase to 6 ¢/KWh for green power could be achieved, cost savings of about $40/ODtP could be realized in all investigated BLG processes. Other alternatives to improve the process economics around BLG would be to modify or eliminate the lime kiln unit

  2. Separating macroecological pattern and process: comparing ecological, economic, and geological systems.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Benjamin Blonder

    Full Text Available Theories of biodiversity rest on several macroecological patterns describing the relationship between species abundance and diversity. A central problem is that all theories make similar predictions for these patterns despite disparate assumptions. A troubling implication is that these patterns may not reflect anything unique about organizational principles of biology or the functioning of ecological systems. To test this, we analyze five datasets from ecological, economic, and geological systems that describe the distribution of objects across categories in the United States. At the level of functional form ('first-order effects', these patterns are not unique to ecological systems, indicating they may reveal little about biological process. However, we show that mechanism can be better revealed in the scale-dependency of first-order patterns ('second-order effects'. These results provide a roadmap for biodiversity theory to move beyond traditional patterns, and also suggest ways in which macroecological theory can constrain the dynamics of economic systems.

  3. Separating macroecological pattern and process: comparing ecological, economic, and geological systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blonder, Benjamin; Sloat, Lindsey; Enquist, Brian J; McGill, Brian

    2014-01-01

    Theories of biodiversity rest on several macroecological patterns describing the relationship between species abundance and diversity. A central problem is that all theories make similar predictions for these patterns despite disparate assumptions. A troubling implication is that these patterns may not reflect anything unique about organizational principles of biology or the functioning of ecological systems. To test this, we analyze five datasets from ecological, economic, and geological systems that describe the distribution of objects across categories in the United States. At the level of functional form ('first-order effects'), these patterns are not unique to ecological systems, indicating they may reveal little about biological process. However, we show that mechanism can be better revealed in the scale-dependency of first-order patterns ('second-order effects'). These results provide a roadmap for biodiversity theory to move beyond traditional patterns, and also suggest ways in which macroecological theory can constrain the dynamics of economic systems.

  4. Methods of assessing functioning of organizational and economic mechanism during innovation process implementation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Blinkov Maksim

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper proposes methods of assessing the efficiency of organizational and economic mechanism of an industrial enterprise when implementing innovation processes. These methods allow continuous monitoring at all stages of innovation process implementation, lead to reduction in costs of innovation activity and enable maximum use of the creative potential of enterprise personnel. The significance and attractiveness of this method is ensured by the fact that it can be applied by industrial companies in any market fields regardless of the lifecycle stage applicable to the studied goods, company and/or innovative process because the composition and the number of specific indicators can be adjusted by the work group both before the study and in the course of the company’s innovative activities (at any stage of their implementation. The multi-sided approach proposed for assessing the efficiency of organizational and economic mechanism of the industrial enterprise when implementing innovation processes ensures full and accurate assessment of the impact of certain factors on the final result.

  5. Fed-batch and perfusion culture processes: economic, environmental, and operational feasibility under uncertainty.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pollock, James; Ho, Sa V; Farid, Suzanne S

    2013-01-01

    This article evaluates the current and future potential of batch and continuous cell culture technologies via a case study based on the commercial manufacture of monoclonal antibodies. The case study compares fed-batch culture to two perfusion technologies: spin-filter perfusion and an emerging perfusion technology utilizing alternating tangential flow (ATF) perfusion. The operational, economic, and environmental feasibility of whole bioprocesses based on these systems was evaluated using a prototype dynamic decision-support tool built at UCL encompassing process economics, discrete-event simulation and uncertainty analysis, and combined with a multi-attribute decision-making technique so as to enable a holistic assessment. The strategies were compared across a range of scales and titres so as to visualize how their ranking changes in different industry scenarios. The deterministic analysis indicated that the ATF perfusion strategy has the potential to offer cost of goods savings of 20% when compared to conventional fed-batch manufacturing processes when a fivefold increase in maximum viable cell densities was assumed. Savings were also seen when the ATF cell density dropped to a threefold increase over the fed-batch strategy for most combinations of titres and production scales. In contrast, the fed-batch strategy performed better in terms of environmental sustainability with a lower water and consumable usage profile. The impact of uncertainty and failure rates on the feasibility of the strategies was explored using Monte Carlo simulation. The risk analysis results demonstrated the enhanced robustness of the fed-batch process but also highlighted that the ATF process was still the most cost-effective option even under uncertainty. The multi-attribute decision-making analysis provided insight into the limited use of spin-filter perfusion strategies in industry. The resulting sensitivity spider plots enabled identification of the critical ratio of weightings of

  6. Process simulation and economic analysis of biodiesel production from waste cooking oil with membrane bioreactor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdurakhman, Yuanita Budiman; Putra, Zulfan Adi; Bilad, Muhammad Roil

    2017-10-01

    Pollution and shortage of clean energy supply are among major problems that are caused by rapid population growth. Due to this growth, waste cooking oil is one of the pollution sources. On the other hand, biodiesel appears to be one of the most promising and feasible energy sources as it emits less toxic pollutants and greenhouse gases than petroleum diesel. Thus, biodiesel production using waste cooking oil offers a two-in-one solution to cater pollution and energy issues. However, the conventional biodiesel production process using homogeneous base catalyst and stirred tank reactor is unable to produce high purity of biodiesel from waste cooking oil. It is due its sensitivity to free fatty acid (FFA) content in waste cooking oil and purification difficulties. Therefore, biodiesel production using heterogeneous acid catalyst in membrane reactor is suggested. The product of this process is fatty acid methyl esters (FAME) or biodiesel with glycerol as by-product. This project is aimed to study techno-economic feasibility of biodiesel production from waste cooking oil via heterogeneous acid catalyst in membrane reactor. Aspen HYSYS is used to accomplish this aim. Several cases, such as considering different residence times and the production of pharmaceutical (USP) grade glycerol, are evaluated and compared. Economic potential of these cases is calculated by considering capital expenditure, utilities cost, product and by-product sales, as well as raw material costs. Waste cooking oil, inorganic pressure-driven membrane and WAl is used as raw material, type of membrane and heterogeneous acid catalyst respectively. Based on literature data, FAME yield formulation is developed and used in the reactor simulation. Simulation results shows that economic potential increases by 30% if pharmaceutical (USP) grade glycerol is produced regardless the residence time of the reactor. In addition, there is no significant effect of residence time on the economic potential.

  7. Deep carbon reductions in California require electrification and integration across economic sectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wei, Max; Greenblatt, Jeffery B; McMahon, James E; Nelson, James H; Mileva, Ana; Johnston, Josiah; Jones, Chris; Kammen, Daniel M; Ting, Michael; Yang, Christopher

    2013-01-01

    Meeting a greenhouse gas (GHG) reduction target of 80% below 1990 levels in the year 2050 requires detailed long-term planning due to complexity, inertia, and path dependency in the energy system. A detailed investigation of supply and demand alternatives is conducted to assess requirements for future California energy systems that can meet the 2050 GHG target. Two components are developed here that build novel analytic capacity and extend previous studies: (1) detailed bottom-up projections of energy demand across the building, industry and transportation sectors; and (2) a high-resolution variable renewable resource capacity planning model (SWITCH) that minimizes the cost of electricity while meeting GHG policy goals in the 2050 timeframe. Multiple pathways exist to a low-GHG future, all involving increased efficiency, electrification, and a dramatic shift from fossil fuels to low-GHG energy. The electricity system is found to have a diverse, cost-effective set of options that meet aggressive GHG reduction targets. This conclusion holds even with increased demand from transportation and heating, but the optimal levels of wind and solar deployment depend on the temporal characteristics of the resulting load profile. Long-term policy support is found to be a key missing element for the successful attainment of the 2050 GHG target in California. (letter)

  8. SINTERING, A PROCESS OF METAL FORMING AS AN ECONOMIC ALTERNATIVE WITH A LOW ENVIRONMENTAL IMPACT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ángel Silvio Machado Rodríguez

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Sintering is a process of metal forming using metal powders, and it has a wide range of applications including for example, the manufacturing of parts for automotive components, home appliances, cutting tools, power tools, for the manufacturing of dental devices, among others. The process is characterized by the production of large-scale low cost parts and has a low environmental impact compared to other existing technologies, it requires less energy for processing and enables high utilization of raw materials. Also, it has the characteristic of obtaining, in most cases, the parts with final tolerances necessary for direct use by the customer, which ultimately reduces considerably the cost of production. The process is characterized by minimizing the loss of raw materials; facilitating precise control of the desired chemical composition; eliminating or reducing machining operations; providing a good surface finish; being an easy production process of automation; obtaining high purity; and ensuring exactly resistance characteristics required for each project.

  9. Impact of pretreatment and downstream processing technologies on economics and energy in cellulosic ethanol production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Murthy Ganti S

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background While advantages of biofuel have been widely reported, studies also highlight the challenges in large scale production of biofuel. Cost of ethanol and process energy use in cellulosic ethanol plants are dependent on technologies used for conversion of feedstock. Process modeling can aid in identifying techno-economic bottlenecks in a production process. A comprehensive techno-economic analysis was performed for conversion of cellulosic feedstock to ethanol using some of the common pretreatment technologies: dilute acid, dilute alkali, hot water and steam explosion. Detailed process models incorporating feedstock handling, pretreatment, simultaneous saccharification and co-fermentation, ethanol recovery and downstream processing were developed using SuperPro Designer. Tall Fescue (Festuca arundinacea Schreb was used as a model feedstock. Results Projected ethanol yields were 252.62, 255.80, 255.27 and 230.23 L/dry metric ton biomass for conversion process using dilute acid, dilute alkali, hot water and steam explosion pretreatment technologies respectively. Price of feedstock and cellulose enzymes were assumed as $50/metric ton and 0.517/kg broth (10% protein in broth, 600 FPU/g protein respectively. Capital cost of ethanol plants processing 250,000 metric tons of feedstock/year was $1.92, $1.73, $1.72 and $1.70/L ethanol for process using dilute acid, dilute alkali, hot water and steam explosion pretreatment respectively. Ethanol production cost of $0.83, $0.88, $0.81 and $0.85/L ethanol was estimated for production process using dilute acid, dilute alkali, hot water and steam explosion pretreatment respectively. Water use in the production process using dilute acid, dilute alkali, hot water and steam explosion pretreatment was estimated 5.96, 6.07, 5.84 and 4.36 kg/L ethanol respectively. Conclusions Ethanol price and energy use were highly dependent on process conditions used in the ethanol production plant. Potential for

  10. Assessment of energy requirements in proven and new copper processes. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pitt, C.H.; Wadsworth, M.E.

    1980-12-31

    Energy requirements are presented for thirteen pyrometallurgical and eight hydrometallurgical processes for the production of copper. Front end processing, mining, mineral processing, gas cleaning, and acid plant as well as mass balances are included. Conventional reverberatory smelting is used as a basis for comparison. Recommendations for needed process research in copper production are presented.

  11. Economic feasibility of promoting species of lower water requirements to improve water condition of lake Urmia using of PES schemes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Daneshi, A.; Panahi, M.; Vafakhah, M.

    2016-01-01

    Since agricultural sector is considered as the biggest user of freshwater resources in Iran, one of the major factors of Urmia lake drying might be attributed to unsustainable development of agricultural activities. Therefore, it would be of interest to focus the lake restoration measures on water usage management in agricultural sector. It seems that a program to change cropping pattern based on the use of species with lower water requirements instead of higher water need ones is an effective policy. In this study, we attempted firstly, to propose to farmers change in cropping pattern by replacing the sugar beet, alfalfa, corn and tomato with wheat and barley as a solution. Then, results of the survey have been assessed in economic terms. Area in which the survey has been undertaken is Simineh Rud basin. To collect data, a combined techniques of interview and questionnaires have been used. The results of this study showed that this program has sufficient acceptability to the farmers (in 2014) and in case of having financial support by government, it will have successful implementation. Meanwhile, from technical and economic point of view, implementation of such a program has benefit-cost ratio of 2.12 for wheat and 2.06 for barley. Therefore, based on feasibility of such proposal, allocating required budgets, implementing the proposed plan in all other sub-basins of Urmia lake and paying income deficit caused by change in cropping pattern to farmers may suggested.

  12. Economic analysis of locust beans processing and marketing in ilorin, kwara state, Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C.O. Farayola

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available This study was designed to estimate the economic analysis of locust bean processing and marketing in Ilorin, Kwara State, Nigeria. Primary data was used and purposive sampling technique was adopted to select the respondents used for the study. A total number of 60 respondents were interviewed. The data collected were analyzed using inferential statistical tool such as regression analysis. Budgetary analysis technique was also used to analyze the profitability of locust bean processing and marketing in the study area. Majority of the processors and marketers are making profits; 68.3% operate above breakeven point while 26.7% operate at breakeven point and the rest 5% was below the breakeven point, this indicates that they neither profit nor lost. The regression analysis result shows that quantity processed, family size and years of experience in processing are significant at 1%, 5% and 10% respectively while education level and stall rent is negative and significant at 1% and 5% respectively. F- Test also explained that independent variables are jointly significant at 1% probability level with an adjusted R2 of 78.9%. The overall rate of return on investment indicates that average rate of return is 0.5 (50%, which is positive. It is therefore concluded that profit made by the processors and marketers can be improved on by increasing the quantity of locust bean being processed through adoption of newly discovered method of processing and improved method of preservation, packaging and marketing of the product to international standard by reducing the odour of the product without the loss of essential nutrients and palability in order to generate foreign exchange. Also, rules and regulations against cutting of economic trees for alternative uses should be enforced to maximize their values.

  13. ECONOMIC MEASURES DESIGNED BY INTERNATIONAL FINANCIAL INSTITUTION IN ORDER TO MACROSTABILIZE AND TO AUGUMENT ECONOMIC RECOVERY PROCESS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anca\tMaria\tPARASCHIV

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The recent economic crisis has affected the world economy in general, but the contagion degree for each member economy was different, depending on the specific economic situation existing at the crisis debut. Some European economies were very seriously affected, especially those who have expressed a number of internal and external imbalances in the pre-crisis period, and who did not take countermeasures. The economic crisis and the recession that followed were felt strong also in the USA, but the flexibility of the US economy and the measures taken since the onset of the crisis allowed a faster recovery than in European vulnerable economies. The accommodative US monetary policy permitted to avert liquidity crises and to clean the bank balance sheets, which was also a premise of resuming lending in order to get out of the recession. In this article we conducted an extensive analysis of management measures adopted in different states which are carrying out programs with IFIs, taking into account both short-term effects and implications of these economic policy measures in the medium and long term horizon.

  14. Conversion of paper sludge to ethanol, II: process design and economic analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fan, Zhiliang; Lynd, Lee R

    2007-01-01

    Process design and economics are considered for conversion of paper sludge to ethanol. A particular site, a bleached kraft mill operated in Gorham, NH by Fraser Papers (15 tons dry sludge processed per day), is considered. In addition, profitability is examined for a larger plant (50 dry tons per day) and sensitivity analysis is carried out with respect to capacity, tipping fee, and ethanol price. Conversion based on simultaneous saccharification and fermentation with intermittent feeding is examined, with ethanol recovery provided by distillation and molecular sieve adsorption. It was found that the Fraser plant achieves positive cash flow with or without xylose conversion and mineral recovery. Sensitivity analysis indicates economics are very sensitive to ethanol selling price and scale; significant but less sensitive to the tipping fee, and rather insensitive to the prices of cellulase and power. Internal rates of return exceeding 15% are projected for larger plants at most combinations of scale, tipping fee, and ethanol price. Our analysis lends support to the proposition that paper sludge is a leading point-of-entry and proving ground for emergent industrial processes featuring enzymatic hydrolysis of cellulosic biomass.

  15. Complex processing and utilization of waste as the basis for sustainable economic development district

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V.М. Ilchenko

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The article describes the main environmental problems of Ukraine. The problems that are connected with complex processing and recycling, the example Dnieper economic paradise-one, which allows more detailed present environmental situation of the country at this stage. The article is used and analyzed recent environmental performance and the basic problems of on-disposal and recycling. Basic research methods: observation, analysis and comparison. The aim was to find ways to overcome the ecological crisis in Ukraine. As a result of the research, it was determined that most types of waste-tion prevail in Ukraine and found the best solutions to problems related to waste and their processing. It was possible to find the main problem that has caused serious environmental situation, and the main task for the country at this stage. The main problems and tasks Dnieper economic region. Also indicate how to save, due to complex processing waste. The article is very relevant and important because it is here that the basic problems and tasks of Ukraine concerning the ecological situation. It also focuses on eco-logical problems, which the government does not pay enough attention.

  16. Economic Assessment for Recycling Critical Metals From Hard Disk Drives Using a Comprehensive Recovery Process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguyen, Ruby Thuy; Diaz, Luis A.; Imholte, D. Devin; Lister, Tedd E.

    2017-09-01

    Since the 2011 price spike of rare earth elements (REEs), research on permanent magnet recycling has blossomed globally in an attempt to reduce future REE criticality. Hard disk drives (HDDs) have emerged as one feasible feedstock for recovering valuable REEs such as praseodymium, neodymium, and dysprosium. Nevertheless, current processes for recycling electronic waste only focus on certain metals as a result of feedstock and metal price uncertainties. In addition, there is a perception that recycling REEs is unprofitable. To shed some light on the economic viability of REE recycling from U.S. HDDs, this article combines techno-economic information of an electro-hydrometallurgical process with end-of-life HDD availability in a simulation model. The results showed that adding REE recovery to an HDD base and precious metal recovery process was profitable given current prices. Recovered REEs from U.S. HDDs could meet up to 5.2% rest-of-world (excluding China) neodymium magnet demand. Feedstock, aluminum, and gold prices are key factors to recycling profitability. REEs contributed 13% to the co-recycling profit.

  17. Environmental and Economic Performance: Ecoinnovation Practices in Biodigesters of Cassava Processing Companies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexandre Rodrigues da Silva

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Biomass, considered one of the main sources of alternative energy, originates from residual organic material such as the cassava crop. Biodigesters are capable of transforming these residuals into biogas and biofertilizers. This allows a reduction of almost 80% in the residual organic material being deposited in the earth or rivers, avoiding deposits accumulating on riverbeds and negative environmental impacts. It also allows substantial savings in terms of energy. The general aim of this study is to investigate, with the implementation of biodigesters, how eco-innovation practices contribute to the economic and environmental performance of cassava processing companies in Paraná State. Through qualitative research, the method employed an exploratory approach and intensive multiple-case analyses, with data collected through semi-structured interviews. The study showed that the eco-innovation practices that were adopted aided the economic and environmental performance of the companies in question. The study contributes to academia with scientific research on biodigester technology using the residual organic material of cassava for sustainable development. It also contributes to the corporate universe by demonstrating an opportunity for sustainable innovation with improved economic and environmental performance, which can be extrapolated to other industrial segments.

  18. Processes of Integration and Fragmentation of Economic Space: The Structure of Settlement Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexander Pavlovich Goryunov

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available This work presents a study of processes of integration and fragmentation caused by the polarization of economic space. Under integration in economic space the authors understand the formation of new and transformation of existing settlement systems, while fragmentation is the dissolution of settlement systems and their transformation into loosely connected settlement networks. The study focuses on the structure of settlement systems. Authors propose a new method for studying the structure of settlement systems, which combines the use of factor analysis, multidimensional scaling, and cluster analysis. The proposed method utilizes the maximum of available information about the social-economic status of settlements to reveal regularities in their spatial organization. The authors test the proposed method on 35 large cities of the Central and Volga federal districts of Russia, which comprise the spatial surroundings of Moscow. The authors find four groups of cities forming the core of the settlement system centered around Moscow, a group of four cities forming a buffer zone around that system, as well as four cities in the studied sample which do not participate in the settlement system

  19. Restructuring of privatisation? - state petroleum enterprises and the global economic adjustment process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ndi, G.K.; Moller, L.E.

    1994-01-01

    The restructuring, and to a lesser extent the privatisation, of state petroleum enterprises in many oil-producing countries has been seen as a means of addressing the shortcomings of previous state regulation. Recent developments in the petroleum industry within the general context of the current privatisation process are examined in this chapter. Political, economic and social reasons are sought for restructuring being the preferred alternative to the privatisation of state petroleum enterprises in developing countries. The benefits, problems and obstacles to privatisation are analysed. (UK)

  20. Ecological and economic interests in design process of thermal power plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sander, M.

    1996-01-01

    In design process of thermal power plant various ecological and economic contradictory interests are brought in focus. Requests on environmental protection written in laws, standards and international treaties are increasing investment costs and energy production costs. In a design phase there is a task to reconcile these contradictory requests. The paper presents relationship between technology and environmental protection with a focus on air pollution. Air pollution and human health is considered taking in account the role of design phase in thermal power plants project and human health problems. International laws and standards are presented with moral dilemmas concerning low investment costs and high environmental standards. (author)

  1. Theory and methodology of social, political and economic processes risks determining in different countries of the world

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yashina Nadezhda, I.

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The study deals with the problems of the theory and methodology of social, political and economic processes risks in different countries with relative indicators of the socio-economic development level, as well as the size and condition of the public debt. Developed by the authors the methodology of determining the risks of social, political and economic processes of public policy around the world revealed close relationship between socio-economic situation of the countries and their public debt. Within the framework of this methodology two groups of factors characterizing the socio-political and economic processes in the country are being developed. After that each exponent and indicator are being processed, using expert procedures. Maximum statutory values for tentatively referenced countries with effective and ineffective government policies are identified. Then standardization (specification and definition of integral (generalized indexes of socio-political and economic processes in the country are taking place. After that the ranking of countries by aggregated standardized ratio is arranged, taking into account the significance of the developed indicators. The final phase of implementation methodology is identifying risks of social, political and economic processes of public policy around the world. This is the ranking of countries by ratio of stability in public policy (stability of economic and socio-political processes in the country. As the result of implementation methodology the following output was received: what really makes a difference is not the amount of the country's debt, but how effectively it manages this debt, whether it has a goal to improve social and economic indicators. Practical testing methodology has proven that studied indicators fully characterize the development of the countries, their political, social and economic situation on the world stage.

  2. Spacelab Level 4 Programmatic Implementation Assessment Study. Volume 2: Ground Processing requirements

    Science.gov (United States)

    1978-01-01

    Alternate ground processing options are summarized, including installation and test requirements for payloads, space processing, combined astronomy, and life sciences. The level 4 integration resource requirements are also reviewed for: personnel, temporary relocation, transportation, ground support equipment, and Spacelab flight hardware.

  3. Data acquisition and online processing requirements for experimentation at the superconducting super collider

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lankford, A.J.; Barsotti, E.; Gaines, I.

    1990-01-01

    Differences in scale between data acquisition and online processing requirements for detectors at the Superconducting Super Collider and systems for existing large detectors will require new architectures and technological advances in these systems. Emerging technologies will be employed for data transfer, processing, and recording. (orig.)

  4. 10 CFR 70.64 - Requirements for new facilities or new processes at existing facilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... postulated accidents that could lead to loss of safety functions. (5) Chemical protection. The design must... 10 Energy 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Requirements for new facilities or new processes at... Critical Mass of Special Nuclear Material § 70.64 Requirements for new facilities or new processes at...

  5. Data acquisition and online processing requirements for experimentation at the Superconducting Super Collider

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lankford, A.J.; Barsotti, E.; Gaines, I.

    1989-07-01

    Differences in scale between data acquisition and online processing requirements for detectors at the Superconducting Super Collider and systems for existing large detectors will require new architectures and technological advances in these systems. Emerging technologies will be employed for data transfer, processing, and recording. 9 refs., 3 figs

  6. 21 CFR 111.315 - What are the requirements for laboratory control processes?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false What are the requirements for laboratory control... MANUFACTURING, PACKAGING, LABELING, OR HOLDING OPERATIONS FOR DIETARY SUPPLEMENTS Production and Process Control System: Requirements for Laboratory Operations § 111.315 What are the requirements for laboratory control...

  7. RESEARCH METHODOLOGY FUNDAMENTALS OF THE UKRAINIAN PROCESSING AND MANUFACTURING ENTERPRISES ECONOMIC POTENTIAL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yurii Gudz

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of the paper is to find the most appropriate application ways for simulating of the business activities of the manufacturing and processing agriculture enterprises dealing in the corruptive Ukrainian environment and to overcome the fundamental methodology contradictions to be able to perform more accurate results of the economic potential assessment despite the sophisticated defects inherent in current industry sector. Methodology includes publication research, interviews and practical comparison of the published statistic data and real production volume, returns and other indicators to be able to estimate actual potential of the target enterprises. The paper comes through the classical analytical methods showing their application pros and contras in highly corruptive environment with the strong trend of data falsification. Results of the survey show the basic economic methods applicable for the research activity of processing and manufacturing enterprises operating in the field of agriculture. The authors’ experience picks up the problem of the urgent need of new methodology among vast abstractive researching executed by the majority of the scientists as they have some contradictions when we apply them for the real industry segment or even an enterprise. Corruption affecting the general statistic data misrepresents the facts therefore current (classic methods are not able to show real economic trends in the industrial segment. So the authors persist on the significance of the corruption distortion considering e.g. to identify the actual macro- and microeconomic indicators, indexes and ratios we involve the stage researching system of multidimensional comparative analysis to rank received rating and find appropriate position for enterprise and as we cannot ignore a constantly growing shadow sector of Ukrainian economy we perform economic potential assessment of the target enterprise with the identification of the shadow sector with

  8. Three Tier Unified Process Model for Requirement Negotiations and Stakeholder Collaborations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niazi, Muhammad Ashraf Khan; Abbas, Muhammad; Shahzad, Muhammad

    2012-11-01

    This research paper is focused towards carrying out a pragmatic qualitative analysis of various models and approaches of requirements negotiations (a sub process of requirements management plan which is an output of scope managementís collect requirements process) and studies stakeholder collaborations methodologies (i.e. from within communication management knowledge area). Experiential analysis encompass two tiers; first tier refers to the weighted scoring model while second tier focuses on development of SWOT matrices on the basis of findings of weighted scoring model for selecting an appropriate requirements negotiation model. Finally the results are simulated with the help of statistical pie charts. On the basis of simulated results of prevalent models and approaches of negotiations, a unified approach for requirements negotiations and stakeholder collaborations is proposed where the collaboration methodologies are embeded into selected requirements negotiation model as internal parameters of the proposed process alongside some external required parameters like MBTI, opportunity analysis etc.

  9. Technical and economic modelling of processes for liquid fuel production in Europe

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bridgwater, A V; Double, J M [Aston Univ. Birmingham (GB). Dept of Chemical Engineering

    1992-12-31

    The project which is described had the objective of examining the full range of technologies for liquid fuel production from renewable feedstocks in a technical and economic evaluation in order to identify the most promising technologies. The technologies considered are indirect thermochemical liquefaction (i.e. via gasification) to produce methanol, fuel alcohol or hydrocarbon fuels, direct thermochemical liquefaction or pyrolysis to produce hydrocarbon fuels and fermentation to produce ethanol. Feedstocks considered were wood, refuse derived fuel, straw, wheat and sugar beet. In order to carry out the evaluation, a computer model was developed, based on a unit process approach. Each unit operation is modelled as a process step, the model calculating the mass balance, energy balance and operating cost of the unit process. The results from the process step models are then combined to generate the mass balance, energy balance, capital cost and operating cost for the total process. The results show that the lowest production cost (L7/GJ) is obtained for methanol generated from a straw feedstock, but there is a moderate level of technical uncertainty associated with this result. The lowest production cost for hydrocarbon fuel (L8.6/GJ) is given by the pyrolysis process using a wood feedstock. This process has a high level of uncertainty. Fermentation processes showed the highest production costs, ranging from L14.4/GJ for a simple wood feedstock process to L25.2/GJ for a process based on sugar beet. The important conclusions are as follows: - In every case, the product cost is above current liquid fuel prices; - In most cases the feedstock cost dominates the production cost; -The most attractive products are thermochemically produced alcohol fuels.

  10. Technical and economic modelling of processes for liquid fuel production in Europe

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bridgwater, A.V.; Double, J.M.

    1991-01-01

    The project which is described had the objective of examining the full range of technologies for liquid fuel production from renewable feedstocks in a technical and economic evaluation in order to identify the most promising technologies. The technologies considered are indirect thermochemical liquefaction (i.e. via gasification) to produce methanol, fuel alcohol or hydrocarbon fuels, direct thermochemical liquefaction or pyrolysis to produce hydrocarbon fuels and fermentation to produce ethanol. Feedstocks considered were wood, refuse derived fuel, straw, wheat and sugar beet. In order to carry out the evaluation, a computer model was developed, based on a unit process approach. Each unit operation is modelled as a process step, the model calculating the mass balance, energy balance and operating cost of the unit process. The results from the process step models are then combined to generate the mass balance, energy balance, capital cost and operating cost for the total process. The results show that the lowest production cost (L7/GJ) is obtained for methanol generated from a straw feedstock, but there is a moderate level of technical uncertainty associated with this result. The lowest production cost for hydrocarbon fuel (L8.6/GJ) is given by the pyrolysis process using a wood feedstock. This process has a high level of uncertainty. Fermentation processes showed the highest production costs, ranging from L14.4/GJ for a simple wood feedstock process to L25.2/GJ for a process based on sugar beet. The important conclusions are as follows: - In every case, the product cost is above current liquid fuel prices; - In most cases the feedstock cost dominates the production cost; -The most attractive products are thermochemically produced alcohol fuels

  11. Techno-Economic Analysis of Magnesium Extraction from Seawater via a Catalyzed Organo-Metathetical Process

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu, Jian; Bearden, Mark D.; Fernandez, Carlos A.; Fifield, Leonard S.; Nune, Satish K.; Motkuri, Radha K.; Koech, Philip K.; McGrail, B. Pete

    2018-01-16

    Magnesium (Mg) has many useful applications especially in various Mg alloys which can decrease weight while increasing strength. To increase the affordability and minimize environment consequence, a novel catalyzed organo-metathetical (COMET) process was proposed to extract Mg from seawater aiming to achieve significant reduction in total energy and production cost comparing with the melting salt electrolysis method currently adopted by US Mg LLC. A process flowsheet for a reference COMET process was set-up using Aspen Plus which included five key steps, anhydrous MgCl2 production, transmetallation, dibutyl Mg decomposition, n-BuLi regeneration, and LiCL electrolysis. The energy and production cost and CO2 emission were estimated based on the Aspen modeling using Aspen economic analyzer. Our results showed that it is possible to produce Mg from seawater with a production cost of $2.0/kg-Mg while consuming about 35.3 kWh/kg-Mg and releasing 7.0 kg CO2/kg-Mg. A simplified US Mg manufacturing process was also generated using Aspen and the cost and emission results were estimated for comparison purpose. Under our simulation conditions, the reference COMET process maintain a comparable CO2 emission rate and can save about 40% in production cost and save about 15% energy compared to the simplified US Mg process.

  12. Process Simulation and Techno-Economic Evaluation of Alternative Biorefinery Scenarios

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aizpurua Gonzalez, Carlos Ernesto

    A biorefinery is a complex processing facility that uses sustainably produced biomass as feedstock to generate biofuels and chemical products using a wide variety of alternative conversion pathways. The alternative conversion pathways can be generally classified as either biochemical or thermochemical conversion. A biorefinery is commonly based on a core biomass conversion technology (pretreatment, hydrolysis, pyrolysis, etc.) followed by secondary processing stages that determine the specific product, and its recovery. In this study, techno-economic analysis of several different lignocellulosic biomass conversion pathways have been performed. First, a novel biochemical conversion, which used electron beam and steam explosion pretreatments for ethanol production was evaluated. This evaluation include both laboratory work and process modeling. Encouraging experimental results are obtained that showed the biomass had enhanced reactivity to the enzyme hydrolysis. The total sugar recovery for the hardwood species was 72% using 5 FPU/g enzyme dosage. The combination of electron beam and steam explosion provides an improvement in sugar conversion of more than 20% compared to steam explosion alone. This combination of pretreatments was modeled along with a novel ethanol dehydration process that is based on vapor permeation membranes. The economic feasibility of this novel pretreatment-dehydration technology was evaluated and compared with the dilute acid process proposed by NREL in 2011. Overall, the pretreatment-dehydration technology process produces the same ethanol yields (81 gal/bdton). However, the economics of this novel process does not look promising since the minimum ethanol selling price (MESP) to generate an internal rate of return of 10% is of 3.09 /gal, compared to 2.28 /gal for the base case. To enhance the economic potential of a biorefinery, the isolation of value-added co-products was incorporated into the base dilute acid biorefinery process. In this

  13. Process of establishing design requirements and selecting alternative configurations for conceptual design of a VLA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bo-Young Bae

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available In this study, a process for establishing design requirements and selecting alternative configurations for the conceptual phase of aircraft design has been proposed. The proposed process uses system-engineering-based requirement-analysis techniques such as objective tree, analytic hierarchy process, and quality function deployment to establish logical and quantitative standards. Moreover, in order to perform a logical selection of alternative aircraft configurations, it uses advanced decision-making methods such as morphological matrix and technique for order preference by similarity to the ideal solution. In addition, a preliminary sizing tool has been developed to check the feasibility of the established performance requirements and to evaluate the flight performance of the selected configurations. The present process has been applied for a two-seater very light aircraft (VLA, resulting in a set of tentative design requirements and two families of VLA configurations: a high-wing configuration and a low-wing configuration. The resulting set of design requirements consists of three categories: customer requirements, certification requirements, and performance requirements. The performance requirements include two mission requirements for the flight range and the endurance by reflecting the customer requirements. The flight performances of the two configuration families were evaluated using the sizing tool developed and the low-wing configuration with conventional tails was selected as the best baseline configuration for the VLA.

  14. Process qualification and control in electron beams--requirements, methods, new concepts and challenges

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mittendorfer, J.; Gratzl, F.; Hanis, D.

    2004-01-01

    In this paper the status of process qualification and control in electron beam irradiation is analyzed in terms of requirements, concepts, methods and challenges for a state-of-the-art process control concept for medical device sterilization. Aspects from process qualification to routine process control are described together with the associated process variables. As a case study the 10 MeV beams at Mediscan GmbH are considered. Process control concepts like statistical process control (SPC) and a new concept to determine process capability is briefly discussed

  15. Techno-economic analysis of biodiesel production from Jatropha curcas via a supercritical methanol process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yusuf, N.N.A.N.; Kamarudin, S.K.

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: • This paper presents the techno-economic of a production of biodiesel from JCO. • The results obtained 99.96% of biodiesel with 96.49% of pure glycerol. • This proved that biodiesel from JCO is the least expensive compare to other resources. - Abstract: This paper presents the conceptual design and economic evaluation of a production of methyl esters (biodiesel) from Jatropha curcas oil (JCO) via a supercritical methanol process with glycerol as a by-product. The process consists of four major units: transesterification (PFR), methanol recovery (FT) and (DC1), recovery of glycerol (DEC), and biodiesel purification (DC2). The material and heat balance are also presented here. A biodiesel production of 40,000 tonnes-yr −1 is taken as case study. Biodiesel obtained from supercritical transesterification with Jatropha curcas oil as feedstock resulting in high purity methyl esters (99.96%) with almost pure glycerol (96.49%) obtained as by-product. The biodiesel can be sold at USD 0.78 kg −1 , while the manufacturing and capital investment costs are in the range of USD 25.39 million-year −1 and USD 9.41 million year −1 , respectively. This study proved that biodiesel from JCO is the least expensive with purities comparable to those found in other studies

  16. The new process of economic integration of America: ALCA. Some implications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carvajal Sanchez, Nohora Ines

    2002-01-01

    The following article presents some aspects of the research; area of free trade of the America. Foundations, evolution and perspectives, advanced by group of work of the ability of economy of the university of la Salle, in which the author of this article takes part as co-investigator. The outlined objective was the one from an approach to the knowledge of the FTAA through the answer to queries about the theoretical sustenance of the project, the asymmetries of the regional economies in this process, the interrelation among the current economic blocks and the negotiation systems, the calendar and the organic structure of the process. Some answers have to do with the suppositions of the theory of the economic integration, especially those of the schools of North American thought: The neorrealism and the neoidealism, to be this the most interested country in the regional integration. The most out standing exponents in these theories are Alexander Wendt and Ruggie (who has worked the theory of the multilateralidad). The answer to the other queries is presented along the article. The used methodology consisted on the development of the following phases. Diagnosis, analysis, evaluation, conclusions and socialization

  17. Environmental and economic life cycle assessment for sewage sludge treatment processes in Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hong, Jinglan; Hong, Jingmin; Otaki, Masahiro; Jolliet, Olivier

    2009-02-01

    Life cycle assessment for sewage sludge treatment was carried out by estimating the environmental and economic impacts of the six alternative scenarios most often used in Japan: dewatering, composting, drying, incineration, incinerated ash melting and dewatered sludge melting, each with or without digestion. Three end-of-life treatments were also studied: landfilling, agricultural application and building material application. The results demonstrate that sewage sludge digestion can reduce the environmental load and cost through reduced dry matter volume. The global warming potential (GWP) generated from incineration and melting processes can be significantly reduced through the reuse of waste heat for electricity and/or heat generation. Equipment production in scenarios except dewatering has an important effect on GWP, whereas the contribution of construction is negligible. In addition, the results show that the dewatering scenario has the highest impact on land use and cost, the drying scenario has the highest impact on GWP and acidification, and the incinerated ash melting scenario has the highest impact on human toxicity due to re-emissions of heavy metals from incinerated ash in the melting unit process. On the contrary, the dewatering, composting and incineration scenarios generate the lowest impact on human toxicity, land use and acidification, respectively, and the incinerated ash melting scenario has the lowest impact on GWP and cost. Heavy metals released from atmospheric effluents generated the highest human toxicity impact, with the effect of dioxin emissions being significantly lower. This study proved that the dewatered sludge melting scenario is an environmentally optimal and economically affordable method.

  18. Economic and technical advantages of high temperature processes in high level radioactive waste management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jouan, A.; Jacquet-Francillon, N.; Cler, M.

    1991-01-01

    The estimated waste management costs incurred for the three principal waste forms produced by reprocessing spent fuel are compared from a theoretical economic standpoint. The cost of vitrifying concentrated fission product solutions is considered first, together with the estimated additional costs of transportation and final storage in a geological repository. Fuel cladding waste treatments are then examined by comparing the relative costs of cementation, compaction and melting; processes for disposal of incinerable alpha-bearing wastes are also considered. In each case, the processes ensuring the greatest waste volume reduction not only result in the lowest management cost, but are also most effective in ensuring the highest possible containment quality for the final waste package

  19. Economic trade-offs of additive manufacturing integration in injection moulding process chain

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Charalambis, Alessandro; Kerbache, Laoucine; Tosello, Guido

    2017-01-01

    Additive Manufacturing has emerged as an innovative set of novel technologies capable of replacing established manufacturing processes due to fabrication of highly complex parts and its continuous improvements of efficiency and cost effectiveness. This study is based on the idea that through...... the creation of synergies between additive and conventional manufacturing technologies it is possible to achieve greater cost advantages and operational benefits than by substituting injection moulding with additive manufacturing. The analysis presented explores the cost advantages that can be secured when...... additive manufacturing is used to support the fabrication of mould inserts for the product development phase of the injection moulding process chain. This study shows that fabrication of soft tooling by mean of AM is economically convenient with a cost reduction between 80% and 90%. Break-even points...

  20. Economic and technical advantages of high-temperature processes in high-level radioactive waste management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jouan, A.; Jacquet-Francillon, N.; Cler, M.; Chaudon, L.

    1991-01-01

    The estimated waste management costs incurred for the three principal waste forms produced by reprocessing spent fuel are compared from a theoretical economic standpoint. The cost of vitrifying concentrated fission product solutions is considered first, together with the estimated additional costs of transportation and final storage in a geological repository. Fuel cladding waste treatments are then examined by comparing the relative costs of cementation, compaction and melting; processes for disposal of incinerable alpha-bearing wastes are also considered. In each case, the processes ensuring the greatest waste volume reduction not only result in the lowest management cost, but are also most effective in ensuring the highest possible containment quality for the final waste package

  1. An integrated assessment of energy conversion processes by means of thermodynamic, economic and environmental parameters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tonon, S.; Brown, M.T.; Luchi, F.; Mirandola, A.; Stoppato, A.; Ulgiati, S.

    2006-01-01

    A comprehensive method of analysis based on energetic, exergetic, emergetic and economic evaluations is proposed in the paper and the application presented. The method is applied to selected energy conversion processes (hydroelectric and thermoelectric ones and bioethanol production). Results are presented and compared while general considerations about the effectiveness of the different approaches are suggested. Emissions to the environment are also evaluated. Suitable performance indicators developed within the proposed methodological framework are defined and discussed accordingly. The method proposed here is addressed to policy makers, operators and designers working in the field of energy supply and conversion. In the authors' opinion, by jointly applying and comparing all of the methods suggested in the paper, valuable information about plant performance and possible areas of improvement are obtained. This can be helpful in the decision-making process

  2. Processing Maple Syrup with a Vapor Compression Distiller: An Economic Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lawrence D. Garrett

    1977-01-01

    A test of vapor compression distillers for processing maple syrup revealed that: (1) vapor compression equipment tested evaporated 1 pound of water with .047 pounds of steam equivalent (electrical energy); open-pan evaporators of similar capacity required 1.5 pounds of steam equivalent (oil energy) to produce 1 pound of water; (2) vapor compression evaporation produced...

  3. Environmental-economic evaluation of the filling and reclamation process in the bay of Santander, Spain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cendrero, A.; Díaz de Terán, J. R.; Salinas, J. M.

    1981-11-01

    The historical development of a process of reclamation of intertidal areas in an estuary has been quantitatively studied by means of old engravings, maps, navagation charts, and aerial photographs. These show that about 83 percent of the natural coastline of the estuary has disappeared, nearly two-thirds of its intertidal area has been covered, and over 40 percent of its volume has been lost. The rate of this artificial process is several tens of times faster than that of the natural sedimentation. Extrapolation of the observed trends shows that, if these continue, the intertidal areas would disappear completely in 31 to 105 years. Theoretical calculations based on comparisons with other estuaries show that the accumulated loss in the productivity of living matter (in the form of primary producers), since the process started about 140 years ago, could reach 1.5·1010 kg. This could represent, considering several possible food chains, the equivalent of the food necessary to sustain several thousand people for life. An economic analysis of the impact of the process has been made by considering, first, the decrease in fish and shellfish catches in the bay (using historical data and data about present clam productivity) and the decrease in its aesthetic quality and recreational potential. These were determined by means of interviews with the population to obtain a “demand curve” for the willingness to pay for the preservation and use of the bay. Second, the price of the man-made land obtained was considered. The data obtained show that the economic losses would offset the benefits within 10 to 30 years.

  4. Survey of the Economic Efficiency of Agricultural Cooperatives in the Buinzahra City and Prioritization of Their Problems Faced in the Management Process and the Marketing System

    OpenAIRE

    Mohammad Mahdi Mozaffari

    2016-01-01

    In this study Stochastic Data Envelopment Analysis method was used in order to estimate the economic efficiency of agricultural cooperatives in the Buinzahra city. Moreover, the Analytical Hierarchy Process method and Entropy criteria were used in order to prioritizate the agricultural cooperatives problems of this city in management and marketing system. The required dates were related to the years 2012-2013 during which data were collected by interviewing and completing questionnaires for 4...

  5. Economic analysis of novel synergistic biofuel (H{sub 2}Bioil) processes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Singh, Navneet R.; Mallapragada, Dharik S.; Agrawal, Rakesh [Purdue University, School of Chemical Engineering, West Lafayette, IN (United States); Tyner, Wallace E. [Purdue University, Department of Agricultural Economics, West Lafayette, IN (United States)

    2012-06-15

    Fast-pyrolysis based processes can be built on small-scale and have higher process carbon and energy efficiency as compared to other options. H{sub 2}Bioil is a novel process based on biomass fast-hydropyrolysis and subsequent hydrodeoxygenation (HDO) and can potentially provide high yields of high energy density liquid fuel at relatively low hydrogen consumption. This paper contains a comprehensive financial analysis of the H{sub 2}Bioil process with hydrogen derived from different sources. Three different carbon tax scenarios are analyzed: no carbon tax, $55/metric ton carbon tax and $110/metric ton carbon tax. The break-even crude oil price for a delivered biomass cost of $94/metric ton when hydrogen is derived from coal, natural gas or nuclear energy ranges from $103 to $116/bbl for no carbon tax and even lower ($99-$111/bbl) for the carbon tax scenarios. This break-even crude oil price compares favorably with the literature estimated prices of fuels from alternate biochemical and thermochemical routes. The impact of the chosen carbon tax is found to be limited relative to the impact of the H{sub 2} source on the H{sub 2}Bioil break-even price. The economic robustness of the processes for hydrogen derived from coal, natural gas, or nuclear energy is seen by an estimated break-even crude oil price of $114-$126/bbl when biomass cost is increased to $121/metric ton. (orig.)

  6. Combined Economic and Hydrologic Modeling to Support Collaborative Decision Making Processes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sheer, D. P.

    2008-12-01

    For more than a decade, the core concept of the author's efforts in support of collaborative decision making has been a combination of hydrologic simulation and multi-objective optimization. The modeling has generally been used to support collaborative decision making processes. The OASIS model developed by HydroLogics Inc. solves a multi-objective optimization at each time step using a mixed integer linear program (MILP). The MILP can be configured to include any user defined objective, including but not limited too economic objectives. For example, an estimated marginal value for water for crops and M&I use were included in the objective function to drive trades in a model of the lower Rio Grande. The formulation of the MILP, constraints and objectives, in any time step is conditional: it changes based on the value of state variables and dynamic external forcing functions, such as rainfall, hydrology, market prices, arrival of migratory fish, water temperature, etc. It therefore acts as a dynamic short term multi-objective economic optimization for each time step. MILP is capable of solving a general problem that includes a very realistic representation of the physical system characteristics in addition to the normal multi-objective optimization objectives and constraints included in economic models. In all of these models, the short term objective function is a surrogate for achieving long term multi-objective results. The long term performance for any alternative (especially including operating strategies) is evaluated by simulation. An operating rule is the combination of conditions, parameters, constraints and objectives used to determine the formulation of the short term optimization in each time step. Heuristic wrappers for the simulation program have been developed improve the parameters of an operating rule, and are initiating research on a wrapper that will allow us to employ a genetic algorithm to improve the form of the rule (conditions, constraints

  7. Pilot test of Pickliq{reg_sign} process to determine energy and environmental benefits & economic feasibility

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Olsen, D.R.

    1997-07-13

    Green Technology Group (GTG) was awarded Grant No. DE-FG01-96EE 15657 in the amount of $99,904 for a project to advance GTG`s Pickliq{reg_sign} Process in the Copper and Steel Industries. The use of the Pickliq{reg_sign} Process can significantly reduce the production of waste acids containing metal salts. The Pickliq{reg_sign} Process can save energy and eliminate hazardous waste in a typical copper rod or wire mill or a typical steel wire mill. The objective of this pilot project was to determine the magnitude of the economic, energy and environmental benefits of the Pickliq{reg_sign} Process in two applications within the metal processing industry. The effectiveness of the process has already been demonstrated at facilities cleaning iron and steel with sulfuric acid. 9207 companies are reported to use sulfuric and hydrochloric acid in the USA. The USEPA TRI statistics of acid not recycled in the US is 2.4 x 10{sup 9} lbs (net) for Hydrochloric Acid and 2.0 x 10{sup 9} lbs (net) for Sulfuric Acid. The energy cost of not reclaiming acid is 10.7 x 10{sup 6} BTU/ton for Hydrochloric Acid and 21.6 x 10{sup 6} BTU/Ton for Sulfuric Acid. This means that there is a very large market for the application of the Pickliq{reg_sign} Process and the widespread use of the process will bring significant world wide savings of energy to the environment.

  8. Hot ethanol extraction: economic feasibility of a new and green process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carré Patrick

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available A new extraction process using ethanol at a temperature above boiling point is assessed from an economic point of view. The study was based on an assessment of the main operating costs adjusted by Lang’s factor. Operating costs were assessed based on energy consumption calculated using a model of the process developed from experimental results, and for a hypothetical unit with a 160 000 t/year rapeseed crushing capacity. The processing cost was estimated at 47.4 € per ton of processed seed. Amortization represented 35% of this cost, energy 32% and manpower 10%. Uncertainty about investment is the main factor that could lead to significant error in this cost, but this uncertainty could be offset by an adjustment of the amortization duration, most of the equipment being durable. Profit generated by the process relies principally on a better valuation of the meal: higher value comes from higher protein content and quality on the market for GM-free high protein feedstuffs. Oil quality is also improved by a lower oleic acidity, low phospholipid content and pigment concentration. This gain was estimated at 2.5% of the crude oil value. Unlike the conventional hexane process, hot ethanol extraction produces molasses in small proportions. Molasses value was set at 70% of corn price. The process profitability appears sufficiently positive to justify further research to test the hypothesis underlying our model. The main uncertainty lies in the performance of the process in real conditions of counter-flow extraction and solvent regeneration.

  9. 15 CFR 713.4 - Advance declaration requirements for additionally planned production, processing, or consumption...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... additionally planned production, processing, or consumption of Schedule 2 chemicals. 713.4 Section 713.4..., processing, or consumption of Schedule 2 chemicals. (a) Declaration requirements for additionally planned activities. (1) You must declare additionally planned production, processing, or consumption of Schedule 2...

  10. “Failures of the State”: Factors of Formation and Mechanisms of Influence on Economic Processes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gontar Nikolay Vladimirovich

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available The article is devoted to the problem of genesis and influence on real economic processes of “failures of the state”. The article designates the objective functions inherent in the state the realization of which can increase the efficiency of economic interactions reducing transaction expenses. Besides, the key factors of non-optimal activity of the state as well as actual “failures of the state” are considered. The approaches to the definition of “failures of the state” are analyzed. Taking into account functional approach the author proposes the model definition allowing to separate “failures of the state” from factors and conditions of their emergence. Among the emergence factors of “failures of the state” the author analyzes in detail the key division of economy subjects to net-payers and net-recipients of the income, the fact of distribution of consequences of state regulation to the sectors which are not direct objects of regulation as well as the influence of short-term decisions for long-term prospects are designated. The author also analyzes the range of “failures of the state”, including such as formation of monopolies, tax discouraging, failures of social security, nature of “state business”, derivation of resources and workers from economy, formation of an inequality and calculational (price chaos in economy. The key consequences and volume of the economic damage formed by “failures of the state” are considered, the corresponding quantitative estimates are given. The most important vectors of optimization of activity of the state which provide minimization of “failures of the state” and the related economic damage are designated. According to the author, such vectors include the priority of market self-regulation under the condition of refusal from substitutes in the form of “approach” of public sector to market standards. The minimization of public sector activity aimed at the exclusion of

  11. Dry-grind processing using amylase corn and superior yeast to reduce the exogenous enzyme requirements in bioethanol production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Deepak; Singh, Vijay

    2016-01-01

    Conventional corn dry-grind ethanol production process requires exogenous alpha and glucoamylases enzymes to breakdown starch into glucose, which is fermented to ethanol by yeast. This study evaluates the potential use of new genetically engineered corn and yeast, which can eliminate or minimize the use of these external enzymes, improve the economics and process efficiencies, and simplify the process. An approach of in situ ethanol removal during fermentation was also investigated for its potential to improve the efficiency of high-solid fermentation, which can significantly reduce the downstream ethanol and co-product recovery cost. The fermentation of amylase corn (producing endogenous α-amylase) using conventional yeast and no addition of exogenous α-amylase resulted in ethanol concentration of 4.1 % higher compared to control treatment (conventional corn using exogenous α-amylase). Conventional corn processed with exogenous α-amylase and superior yeast (producing glucoamylase or GA) with no exogenous glucoamylase addition resulted in ethanol concentration similar to control treatment (conventional yeast with exogenous glucoamylase addition). Combination of amylase corn and superior yeast required only 25 % of recommended glucoamylase dose to complete fermentation and achieve ethanol concentration and yield similar to control treatment (conventional corn with exogenous α-amylase, conventional yeast with exogenous glucoamylase). Use of superior yeast with 50 % GA addition resulted in similar increases in yield for conventional or amylase corn of approximately 7 % compared to that of control treatment. Combination of amylase corn, superior yeast, and in situ ethanol removal resulted in a process that allowed complete fermentation of 40 % slurry solids with only 50 % of exogenous GA enzyme requirements and 64.6 % higher ethanol yield compared to that of conventional process. Use of amylase corn and superior yeast in the dry-grind processing industry

  12. Research and economic evaluation on uranium enrichment by gaseous diffusion process in Japan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aochi, T.; Takahashi, S.

    1977-01-01

    Research and development works on uranium enrichment by gaseous diffusion process were carried out by JAERI, IPCR and industries since 1965. There are two important keys to reduce the uranium separation cost. One is the characteristics of the barrier and the other is financing and/or political planning. The technics to prepare the barrier with pore diameter of 40A have been developed with polytetrafluoroethylene, alumina and nickel. The experiment on corrosion behavior of PTFE barriers has shown better characteristics than the others. In the field of engineering research, the adiabatic efficiency of axial compressor for UF 6 was resulted to as high as 90% by long term operation tests. Based on these experimental data, techno-economic evaluation on a uranium enrichment plant was carried out with regard to the optimization of separation efficiency, numbers of step and operating conditions of the plant. Sensitivity in the separation cost were calculated as a function of pore diameter, uranium hexafluoride cost, plant capacity, electric power cost, and the plant annual expenditure. A financing plan must be such as to achieve 1. maximization of debt in a percentage of total capitalization 2. off-take contracts to utilities as security for financing 3. minimization of risks to equity and achievable cost of capital. Therefore the cash flow analysis and the schedule for construction and operation are very important for a economical feasibility of a uranium enrichment plant. To minimize the risk, not only economical but also political environment are important. The governmental supports and international agreements will be necessary

  13. Modeling and techno-economic analysis of shale-to-liquid and coal-to-liquid fuels processes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhou, Huairong; Yang, Siyu; Xiao, Honghua; Yang, Qingchun; Qian, Yu; Gao, Li

    2016-01-01

    To alleviate the conflict between oil supply and demand, Chinese government has accelerated exploration and exploitation of alternative oil productions. STL (Shale-to-liquid) processes and CTL (coal-to-liquid) processes are promising choices to supply oil. However, few analyses have been made on their energy efficiency and economic performance. This paper conducts a detailed analysis of a STL process and a CTL process based on mathematical modeling and simulation. Analysis shows that low efficiency of the STL process is due to low oil yield of the Fushun-type retorting technology. For the CTL process, the utility system provides near to 34% energy consumption of the total. This is because that CTL technologies are in early development and no heat integration between units is implemented. Economic analysis reveals that the total capital investment of the CTL process is higher than that of the STL process. The production cost of the CTL process is right on the same level as that of the STL process. For better techno-economic performance, it is suggested to develop a new retorting technology of high oil yield for the STL process. The remaining retorting gas should be converted to hydrogen and then used for shale oil hydrogenation. For the CTL process, developing an appropriate heat network is an efficient way to apply heat integration. In addition, the CTL process is intended to be integrated with hydrogen rich gas to adjust H_2/CO for better resource utilization. - Highlights: • Aspen Plus software is used for modeling and simulation of a shale-to-liquid (STL) and a coal-to-liquid (CTL) processes. • Techno-economic analysis of STL and CTL processes is conducted. • Suggestions are given for improving energy efficiency and economic performance of STL and CTL processes.

  14. UNDERSTANDING THAI CULTURE AND ITS IMPACT ON REQUIREMENTS ENGINEERING PROCESS MANAGEMENT DURING INFORMATION SYSTEMS DEVELOPMENT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Theerasak Thanasankit

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper explores the impact of Thai culture on managing the decision making process in requirements engineering and contribution a better understand of its influence on the management of requirements engineering process. The paper illustrates the interaction of technology and culture and shows that rather than technology changing culture, culture can change the way technology is used. Thai culture is naturally inherent in Thai daily life and Thais bring that into their work practices. The concepts of power and uncertainty in Thai culture contribute toward hierarchical forms of communication and decision making process in Thailand, especially during requirements engineering, where information systems requirements need to be established for further development. The research shows that the decision making process in Thailand tends to take a much longer time, as every stage during requirements engineering needs to be reported to management for final decisions. The tall structure of Thai organisations also contributes to a bureaucratic, elongated decision-making process during information systems development. Understanding the influence of Thai culture on requirements engineering and information systems development will assist multinational information systems consulting organisations to select, adapt, better manage, or change requirements engineering process and information systems developments methodologies to work best with Thai organisations.

  15. Techno-economic assessment of hybrid extraction and distillation processes for furfural production from lignocellulosic biomass.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nhien, Le Cao; Long, Nguyen Van Duc; Kim, Sangyong; Lee, Moonyong

    2017-01-01

    Lignocellulosic biomass is one of the most promising alternatives for replacing mineral resources to overcome global warming, which has become the most important environmental issue in recent years. Furfural was listed by the National Renewable Energy Laboratory as one of the top 30 potential chemicals arising from biomass. However, the current production of furfural is energy intensive and uses inefficient technology. Thus, a hybrid purification process that combines extraction and distillation to produce furfural from lignocellulosic biomass was considered and investigated in detail to improve the process efficiency. This effective hybrid process depends on the extracting solvent, which was selected based on a comprehensive procedure that ranged from solvent screening to complete process design. Various solvents were first evaluated in terms of their extraction ability. Then, the most promising solvents were selected to study the separation feasibility. Eventually, processes that used the three best solvents (toluene, benzene, and butyl chloride) were designed and optimized in detail using Aspen Plus. Sustainability analysis was performed to evaluate these processes in terms of their energy requirements, total annual costs (TAC), and carbon dioxide (CO 2 ) emissions. The results showed that butyl chloride was the most suitable solvent for the hybrid furfural process because it could save 44.7% of the TAC while reducing the CO 2 emissions by 45.5% compared to the toluene process. In comparison with the traditional purification process using distillation, this suggested hybrid extraction/distillation process can save up to 19.2% of the TAC and reduce 58.3% total annual CO 2 emissions. Furthermore, a sensitivity analysis of the feed composition and its effect on the performance of the proposed hybrid system was conducted. Butyl chloride was found to be the most suitable solvent for the hybrid extraction/distillation process of furfural production. The proposed

  16. Aspects of Spatial Economic Processes of Disadvantaged Areas in Hungarian and International Perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    KITTI NÉMEDI-KOLLÁR

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The examination of disadvantaged regions goes back to a long history, greatly influenced by the ever-changing natural, economic and human resources. Consequently, while examining the disadvantaged areas, we face new systems of coherences. Today’s regional policy also needs to answer the question whether the spatial development funds of the past have been efficient or not and whether the land use distribution influences the spatial competitiveness or not. As we move towards 2015, we must consider the actual state of delivery of the Millennium Development Goals (MDGs in the Least Developed Countries (LDCs and address the above-mentioned issues in order to realise the international political commitment to leave no one behind. In this paper, we have shown some aspects of spatial economic processes through the example of the Hungarian disadvantaged areas. These issues are timely because the usefulness of the research is important, ranging from rural development to spatial planning and the elaboration of local and regional development strategies. Spatial discrepancies in Hungary cause the disadvantage of rural areas, contributing to their lagging behind compared to the urban areas (Kollár, 2012.

  17. Techno-economic evaluation for the heat integration of vaporisation cold energy in natural gas processing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koku, Oludolapo; Perry, Simon; Kim, Jin-Kuk

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • Development of thermal integration modelling framework for the utilisation of LNG cold energy. • Feasibility study for various design options for the integration of low-temperature cold energy. • Provision of a design approach for achieving efficient use of cold energy in LNG terminals. • Understanding of techno-economic impacts associated with the thermal integration of LNG cold energy. - Abstract: This paper addresses a conceptual study investigating the techno-economic feasibility for the thermal Integration of LNG cold vaporisation energy in power generation applications. In conventional regasification systems, this valuable LNG cold energy is often being wasted to ambient heat sources, representing a thermodynamic inefficient process with a significant thermal impact on the local environment. A combined facility consisting of a non-integrated Combined Cycle Power Plant (CCPP) and an LNG receiving terminal employing traditional Open Rack Vaporisers (ORV) technology, has been modelled, as a base case. Retrofit strategies for the integration of LNG cold energy have been investigated, and their impacts on power production and system efficiency are systematically compared. Retrofit design options considered in this work include the use of a propane Rankine cycle coupled with the direct expansion of natural gas, the integration of a closed-loop water cycle or open-loop water circuit with a steam Rankine cycle, and the facilitation of integrated air cooling for a gas turbine

  18. ECONOMIC EVALUATION OF CO2 SEQUESTRATION TECHNOLOGIES TASK 4, BIOMASS GASIFICATION-BASED PROCESSING

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Martha L. Rollins; Les Reardon; David Nichols; Patrick Lee; Millicent Moore; Mike Crim; Robert Luttrell; Evan Hughes

    2002-04-01

    Biomass derived energy currently accounts for about 3 quads of total primary energy use in the United States. Of this amount, about 0.8 quads are used for power generation. Several biomass energy production technologies exist today which contribute to this energy mix. Biomass combustion technologies have been the dominant source of biomass energy production, both historically and during the past two decades of expansion of modern biomass energy in the U. S. and Europe. As a research and development activity, biomass gasification has usually been the major emphasis as a method of more efficiently utilizing the energy potential of biomass, particularly wood. Numerous biomass gasification technologies exist today in various stages of development. Some are simple systems, while others employ a high degree of integration for maximum energy utilization. The purpose of this study is to conduct a technical and economic comparison of up to three biomass gasification technologies, including the carbon dioxide emissions reduction potential of each. To accomplish this, a literature search was first conducted to determine which technologies were most promising based on a specific set of criteria. During this reporting period, the technical and economic performances of the selected processes were evaluated using computer models and available literature. The results of these evaluations are summarized in this report.

  19. ECONOMIC EVALUATION OF CO2 SEQUESTRATION TECHNOLOGIES TASK 4, BIOMASS GASIFICATION-BASED PROCESSING

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Martha L. Rollins; Les Reardon; David Nichols; Patrick Lee; Millicent Moore; Mike Crim; Robert Luttrell; Evan Hughes

    2002-06-01

    Biomass derived energy currently accounts for about 3 quads of total primary energy use in the United States. Of this amount, about 0.8 quads are used for power generation. Several biomass energy production technologies exist today which contribute to this energy mix. Biomass combustion technologies have been the dominant source of biomass energy production, both historically and during the past two decades of expansion of modern biomass energy in the U. S. and Europe. As a research and development activity, biomass gasification has usually been the major emphasis as a method of more efficiently utilizing the energy potential of biomass, particularly wood. Numerous biomass gasification technologies exist today in various stages of development. Some are simple systems, while others employ a high degree of integration for maximum energy utilization. The purpose of this study is to conduct a technical and economic comparison of up to three biomass gasification technologies, including the carbon dioxide emissions reduction potential of each. To accomplish this, a literature search was first conducted to determine which technologies were most promising based on a specific set of criteria. The technical and economic performances of the selected processes were evaluated using computer models and available literature. Using these results, the carbon sequestration potential of the three technologies was then evaluated. The results of these evaluations are given in this final report.

  20. Sustainability of processed foods supply chain: Social, economic and territorial performance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Beber Caetano

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available In a global market, food companies engaged in sustainable development must now integrate the economic and social component. However the tools to assess it are lacking. Several theoretical frameworks have been developed to define social sustainability and its implementation. The attributional approaches, pathways or capabilities methods have emerged, based on a functional unit of a good or service along the supply chain. This paper proposes a new method to assess social economic and territorial performances of a food chain as a whole on a Territory. It is divided into four components: (i dignity and well-being of workers, (ii contribution to local life, (iii fairness and integrity of business practices, and (iv creation of material and intangible wealth. 50 criteria are used according to international, national or sectoral references. This generic method applicable to any sector of processed food products aims to identify where are the areas of improvement to qualify the sector as socially sustainable. An application to the wine Beaujolais and Burgundy wine was performed from surveys of 35 production and trade operators in 2014. The results show that the sector is particularly effective for the promotion of the territory, local life participation, loyalty and integrity of business practices; some improvement is still possible for the welfare of workers and the creation of material wealth. This method can be coupled with the environmental performance determined by the life cycle analysis in order to assess the sustainability in its entirety.

  1. Final report on R+D activities for improving and verifying the safety-engineered design and the economics of the process of coal utilization using nuclear process heat in order to achieve commercial application. Phase 1. Concept development and validation 1989-1992

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1992-06-01

    The work performed in this phase of the project covered the following: -hydrating gasification of brown coal, - steam-based gasification of hard coal, - the steam reformers required for the two processes, - the high-temperature process heat reactors required, - the relevant economic feasibility studies and market analyses. The results established are shown in a clear arrangement. (orig./DG) [de

  2. 41 CFR 102-38.225 - What are the additional requirements in the bid process?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... OF PERSONAL PROPERTY Bids Acceptance of Bids § 102-38.225 What are the additional requirements in the bid process? All sales except fixed price sales must contain a certification of independent price...

  3. [Precautions of physical performance requirements and test methods during product standard drafting process of medical devices].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Jin-Zi; Wan, Min; Xu, Hui; Yao, Xiu-Jun; Zhang, Bo; Wang, Jin-Hong

    2009-09-01

    The major idea of this article is to discuss standardization and normalization for the product standard of medical devices. Analyze the problem related to the physical performance requirements and test methods during product standard drafting process and make corresponding suggestions.

  4. An Assessment of the International Space Station's Trace Contaminant Control Subassembly Process Economics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perry J. L.; Cole, H. E.; El-Lessy, H. N.

    2005-01-01

    The International Space Station (ISS) Environmental Control and Life Support System includes equipment speci.cally designed to actively remove trace chemical contamination from the cabin atmosphere. In the U.S. on-orbit segment, this function is provided by the trace contaminant control subassembly (TCCS) located in the atmosphere revitalization subsystem rack housed in the laboratory module, Destiny. The TCCS employs expendable adsorbent beds to accomplish its function leading to a potentially signi.cant life cycle cost over the life of the ISS. Because maintaining the TCCSs proper can be logistically intensive, its performance in .ight has been studied in detail to determine where savings may be achieved. Details of these studies and recommendations for improving the TCCS s process economics without compromising its performance or crew health and safety are presented and discussed.

  5. An economic model for energisation and its integration into the urban energy planning process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nissing, Christian; Blottnitz, Harro von

    2010-01-01

    It is widely recognised that access to and supply of modern energy play a key role in poverty alleviation and sustainable development. The emerging concept of energisation seems to capture this idea, and if implemented in its full complexity it should have multiple beneficial effects. To demonstrate this, an economic model is developed for an urban developmental context, drawing on the theory of urban ecosystems and illustrating energy and waste production and consumption issues with current South African data sets. This new understanding of the concept of energisation is then integrated into a local government energy planning process, by means of a checklist for energy planners, covering 18 aspects that between them affect all 7 identifiable tiers of the energy service supply network. A 6-step structured approach is proposed for integrating sustainable energisation into the first four phases of the advanced local energy planning (ALEP) tool.

  6. Technological, economic and sustainability evaluation of power plants using the analytic hierarchy process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chatzimouratidis, Athanasios I.; Pilavachi, Petros A.

    2009-01-01

    Complexity of power plant evaluation is steadily rising, as more criteria are involved in the overall assessment while evaluation data change rapidly. Apart from evaluating several aspects of power plants separately, a multicriteria analysis based on hierarchically structured criteria is necessary, so as to address the overall assessment of power plants according to the technological, economic and sustainability aspects. For this reason, in this paper, ten types of power plant are evaluated using nine end node criteria properly structured under the Analytical Hierarchy Process. Moreover, pairwise comparisons allow for accurate subjective criteria weighting. According to the scenario based on the subjective criteria weighting, emphasis is laid on sustainability driving renewable energy power plants at the top of the overall ranking, while nuclear and fossil fuel power plants rank in the last five positions. End node criteria contribution to each power plant and power plant performance per end node criterion is presented for all types of power plant and end node criteria. (author)

  7. The Michelin uranium project, Labrador, Canada metallurgical testwork, economic studies and process design

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Goode, J.R., E-mail: jrgoode@sympatico.ca [Aurora Energy Resources Inc., Toronto, ON (Canada); Brown, J.A. [SGS Mineral Services, Lakefield, ON (Canada)

    2010-07-01

    Aurora Energy Resources Inc. is proposing to build and operate a 10,000 t/d process plant to produce 97 million pounds of U{sub 3}O{sub 8} over a seventeen-year project life from deposits in coastal Labrador. This paper summarizes the testwork, generally done by SGS Mineral Services in Lakefield, Ontario, and the economic studies that support flowsheet selection. The selected flowsheet includes SAG and ball milling, acid leaching using air/SO{sub 2} as an oxidant, and resin-in-pulp (RIP) extraction of uranium from the leached slurry. Other unit operations examined include ore sorting, heap leaching, liquid-solid separation, solvent extraction, and nanofiltration for eluate upgrading. We also review the extensive programs of environmental testwork and studies that were completed. (author)

  8. Waste Receiving and Processing Facility Module 1 Data Management System software requirements specification

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rosnick, C.K.

    1996-01-01

    This document provides the software requirements for Waste Receiving and Processing (WRAP) Module 1 Data Management System (DMS). The DMS is one of the plant computer systems for the new WRAP 1 facility (Project W-0126). The DMS will collect, store and report data required to certify the low level waste (LLW) and transuranic (TRU) waste items processed at WRAP 1 as acceptable for shipment, storage, or disposal

  9. Waste Receiving and Processing Facility Module 1 Data Management System Software Requirements Specification

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brann, E.C. II.

    1994-01-01

    This document provides the software requirements for Waste Receiving and Processing (WRAP) Module 1 Data Management System (DMS). The DMS is one of the plant computer systems for the new WRAP 1 facility (Project W-026). The DMS will collect, store and report data required to certify the low level waste (LLW) and transuranic (TRU) waste items processed at WRAP 1 as acceptable for shipment, storage, or disposal

  10. Waste Receiving and Processing Facility Module 1 Data Management System Software Requirements Specification

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brann, E.C. II

    1994-09-09

    This document provides the software requirements for Waste Receiving and Processing (WRAP) Module 1 Data Management System (DMS). The DMS is one of the plant computer systems for the new WRAP 1 facility (Project W-026). The DMS will collect, store and report data required to certify the low level waste (LLW) and transuranic (TRU) waste items processed at WRAP 1 as acceptable for shipment, storage, or disposal.

  11. Techno-economic analysis of biooil production process from palm empty fruit bunches

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Do, Truong Xuan; Lim, Young-il; Yeo, Heejung

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • A comprehensive model of biooil production from empty fruit bunches was developed. • A minimum plant size having an economic benefit was 20 kton/yr of dry EFB. • Plant size and biooil yield had a major influence on reducing the product value. • Biooil from EFB can be produced at 0.27 $/kg in the most optimistic scenario examined. - Abstract: Empty fruit bunches (EFB), a main residue of the palm oil industry, are one of the most recent renewable energy resources and they promise a high yield of liquid with low gas and char. The objective of this study is to evaluate the economic feasibility of the biooil production process from EFB via fast pyrolysis using the fluidized-bed. A comprehensive model of a biooil production plant was developed utilizing a commercial process simulator. The total capital investment (TCI) was estimated for five different plant sizes. The EFB biooil plant was analyzed in terms of the specific capital cost (SCC), payback period (PBP), return on investment (ROI), and the product value (PV). The minimum profitable plant size was found to be 20 kton-dry EFB/yr at a PV of 0.47 $/kg of biooil including 39% of water. Sensitivity analysis was performed on the basis of the minimum plant size to identify key variables that have a strong impact on the PV. The plant size and the biooil yield showed a major influence on the PV. In the most optimistic scenario investigated in this study, biooil can be produced at a PV of 0.27 $/kg

  12. Analysis of International Monetary Fund under conditions of globalization of economic processes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V.V. Ksendzuk

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Globalization in the economy requires proper management of countries' financial resources as the regulation of international financial market is one of the most important tasks of the successful development of the world economy and individual national economies. The International Monetary Fund since the beginning of its creation was intended to regulate the financial situation in the post-war period in world space. In present conditions of information development of the world economic system the role and importance of international financial institutions are changing. Thus, the policies and activities of the IMF are increasingly criticized, that is substantiated and requires some restructuring and reforming areas of the Fund activity. During the research the basic aspects of IMF activities in 2015 have been analyzed and the suggestions for its further effective development have been presented. In particular, it is advisable to use the specific individual approach to the problems of particular economies and to view the sizes of quotas and their functional purposes that will allow to develop new funding mechanisms that are based on social and ecological needs of society. This, in turn, will reduce the impact of developed countries on the activities of the financial institution

  13. Biohythane system using two steps of POME fermentation process for supplying electrical energi : economic evaluation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zuldian, P.; Hastuti, Z. D.; Murti, S. D. S.; Adiarso

    2018-03-01

    Indonesia as the largest producer of palm oil in the world has the prospective to generate additional benefits such as electricity by utilizing Palm Oil Mill Effluent (POME). The high Chemical Oxygen Demand (COD) content of 35,000 ppm POME is a great potential for conversion to hydrogen and methane through a fermentation process. In this study, two stages of fermentation using a microbial consortium have been performed in the 1 m3 BioHythane reactor system to produce biohydrogen and biomethane. After two-stage fermentation process for 24 hours in this system, the microbial consortium succeeds in producing biohydrogen and biomethane of 32 and 60 vol. %, respectively. This gas product after the purification process could be converted to electricity to be 0.02 and 0.75 kWe, respectively. Furthermore, as result of economic calculation analysis, this biohythane system showed up the value of Capital Expenditures (CAPEX) of US 26,39540 and Operating Expenses (OPEX) of US 14,712 per year, and resulted total generated electricity cost of US 2.478 / kWh.

  14. Progress towards Sustainable Production: Environmental, Economic, and Social Assessments of the Cellulose Nanofiber Production Process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dami Moon

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available We assessed the environmental, economic, and social impacts of the process for producing cellulose nanofibers (CNFs, which are considered to be a valuable sustainable woody biomass feedstock. The greenhouse gas (GHG emissions associated with CNF production are greater than the emissions associated with producing most plastic materials used in vehicle components because the grinding process during CNF production generates significant GHG emissions. The cost of CNF production is also higher than the cost of producing comparable plastics for automotive use because of the high cost of the pulverization process. The sensitivity analysis in this study suggested that GHG emissions and manufacturing costs could be reduced by 19.1–76.4% and 3.6–12.2%, respectively, by improving the energy efficiency of CNF production by two to five times. We compared the potential social risks associated with CNF production between Japan and Vietnam using a product social impact life cycle assessment database. It is desirable to reduce the social risk on the fair salary and child labor, and to improve the safe and healthy living conditions in the local communities that import wood chips harvested in Vietnam.

  15. Technical and economical feasibility study of a sewage sludge disinfection plants by irradiation process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rojas Bustos, Gustavo

    1999-01-01

    This report presents a technical and economical evaluation for a disinfection plant of sewage sludge based on irradiation. The process starts after sludge stabilization which is achieved by anaerobic digestion. It includes two stages, plus an optional: the first corresponds to dewatering of sewage sludge up to a solids content between 20 and 25 %, the second stage corresponds to disinfection by gamma or electron beam irradiation, and the third, which is optional, corresponds to the drying of sewage sludge up to a water content of 50%, which allows to diminish significantly the volumes of solids to be transported. If this stage is not accomplished the final product corresponds to a sewage sludge with 25 % of dry solids, which can also be disposed in agricultural land. Process was designed to treat 60 tons per day of sewage sludge (dry matter basis). The report presents the design of process equipment, principal and auxiliary, the investment and operational cost estimations as well as the total cost of treatment per ton of sewage sludge. A sensitivity analysis is also included to determine the influence of operational process parameters in operational and investment costs. The results showed that a sewage sludge plant including dewatering and disinfection process through gamma irradiation, achieves a capital investment of about US$ 12.000.000 with a treatment cost per ton of dry sludge of US$140. Including the optional air-drying stage, the total cost of treatment is about US$148 per ton of dry matter. In the case of electron beam irradiation the capital investment achieves a value of US$ 11 millions with a total treatment cost of US$ 136 per ton of dry matter. These values resulted quite similar to the cost of alternative treatment, i.e., disposal in a dedicated landfill. (L.V.)

  16. Mild Biomass Liquefaction Process for Economic Production of Stabilized Refinery-Ready Bio-oil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gangwal, Santosh [Southern Research, Durham, NC (United States); Meng, Jiajia [Southern Research, Durham, NC (United States); McCabe, Kevin [Southern Research, Durham, NC (United States); Larson, Eric [Princeton Univ., NJ (United States). Princeton Environmental Inst.; Mastro, Kelly [Southern Research, Durham, NC (United States)

    2016-04-25

    Southern Research (SR) in cooperation with U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), Bioenergy Technology Office (BETO), investigated a biomass liquefaction process for economic production of stabilized refinery-ready bio-oil. The project was awarded by DOE under a Funding Opportunity Announcement (DE-FOA-0000686) for Bio-oil Stabilization and Commoditization that intended to evaluate the feasibility of using bio-oil as a potential feedstock in an existing petroleum refinery. SR investigated Topic Area 1 of the FOA at Technology Readiness Level 2-3 to develop thermochemical liquefaction technologies for producing a bio-oil feedstock from high-impact biomass that can be utilized within a petroleum refinery. Bio-oil obtained from fast pyrolysis of biomass is a green intermediate that can be further upgraded into a biofuel for blending in a petroleum refinery using a hydro-deoxygenation (HDO) route. Co-processing pyrolysis bio-oil in a petroleum refinery is an attractive approach to leverage the refinery’s existing capital. However, the petroleum industry is reluctant to accept pyrolysis bio-oil because of a lack of a standard definition for an acceptable bio-oil feedstock in existing refinery processes. Also per BETO’s multiyear program plan, fast pyrolysis-based bio-fuel is presently not cost competitive with petroleum-based transportation fuels. SR aims to develop and demonstrate a cost-effective low-severity thermal liquefaction and hydrodeoxygenation (HDO) process to convert woody biomass to stabilized bio-oils that can be directly blended with hydrotreater input streams in a petroleum refinery for production of gasoline and/or diesel range hydrocarbons. The specific project objectives are to demonstrate the processes at laboratory scale, characterize the bio-oil product and develop a plan in partnership with a refinery company to move the technology towards commercialization.

  17. Techno-economic study of CO2 capture process for cement plants. Paper no. IGEC-1-107

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nazmul Hassan, S.M.; Douglas, P.L.; Croiset, E.

    2005-01-01

    Carbon dioxide is considered to be the major source of GHG responsible for global warming; man-made CO 2 contributes approximately 63.5% to all greenhouse gases. The cement industry is responsible for approximately 5% of global anthropogenic carbon dioxide emissions emitting nearly 900 kg of CO 2 for every 1000 kg of cement produced. Amine absorption processes, in particular the monoethanolamine (MEA) based process, is considered to be a viable technology for capturing CO 2 from low-pressure flue gas streams because of its fast reaction rate with CO 2 and low cost of raw materials compared to other amines. However, the MEA absorption process is associated with high capital and operating costs because a significant amount of energy is required for solvent regeneration and because of severe operating problems such as corrosion, solvent loss and solvent degradation. This research was motivated by the need to design, size and cost a CO 2 capture process from the cement industry. The MEA based absorption process was used as a potential technique to model CO 2 capture from cement plants. In this research four cases were considered all to reach a CO 2 purity of 98%: i) the plant operates at the highest capacity; ii) the plant operates at average load; iii) the plant operates at minimum operating capacity; and iv) switching to a lower carbon content fuel at average plant load. A comparison among the four cases were performed to determine the best operating conditions for capturing CO 2 from cement plants. A sensitivity analysis of the economics to the lean loading and percent recovery were carried out as well as the different absorber and striper tray combinations. (author)

  18. Emergy evaluation of water utilization benefits in water-ecological-economic system based on water cycle process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, X.; Wu, Z.; Lv, C.

    2017-12-01

    The water utilization benefits are formed by the material flow, energy flow, information flow and value stream in the whole water cycle process, and reflected along with the material circulation of inner system. But most of traditional water utilization benefits evaluation are based on the macro level, only consider the whole material input and output and energy conversion relation, and lack the characterization of water utilization benefits accompanying with water cycle process from the formation mechanism. In addition, most studies are from the perspective of economics, only pay attention to the whole economic output and sewage treatment economic investment, but neglect the ecological function benefits of water cycle, Therefore, from the perspective of internal material circulation in the whole system, taking water cycle process as the process of material circulation and energy flow, the circulation and flow process of water and other ecological environment, social economic elements were described, and the composition of water utilization positive and negative benefits in water-ecological-economic system was explored, and the performance of each benefit was analyzed. On this basis, the emergy calculation method of each benefit was proposed by emergy quantitative analysis technique, which can realize the unified measurement and evaluation of water utilization benefits in water-ecological-economic system. Then, taking Zhengzhou city as an example, the corresponding benefits of different water cycle links were calculated quantitatively by emergy method, and the results showed that the emergy evaluation method of water utilization benefits can unify the ecosystem and the economic system, achieve uniform quantitative analysis, and measure the true value of natural resources and human economic activities comprehensively.

  19. Orbiter data reduction complex data processing requirements for the OFT mission evaluation team (level C)

    Science.gov (United States)

    1979-01-01

    This document addresses requirements for post-test data reduction in support of the Orbital Flight Tests (OFT) mission evaluation team, specifically those which are planned to be implemented in the ODRC (Orbiter Data Reduction Complex). Only those requirements which have been previously baselined by the Data Systems and Analysis Directorate configuration control board are included. This document serves as the control document between Institutional Data Systems Division and the Integration Division for OFT mission evaluation data processing requirements, and shall be the basis for detailed design of ODRC data processing systems.

  20. Impact of Requirements Elicitation Processes on Success of Information System Development Projects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bormane Līga

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Requirements articulating user needs and corresponding to enterprise business processes are a key to successful implementation of information system development projects. However, the parties involved in projects frequently are not able to agree on a common development vision and have difficulties expressing their needs. Several industry experts have acknowledged that requirements elicitation is one of the most difficult tasks in development projects. This study investigates the impact of requirements elicitation processes on project outcomes depending on the applied project development methodology.

  1. 77 FR 52692 - NIST Federal Information Processing Standard (FIPS) 140-3 (Second Draft), Security Requirements...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-08-30

    ...-03] NIST Federal Information Processing Standard (FIPS) 140-3 (Second Draft), Security Requirements....'' Authority: Federal Information Processing Standards (FIPS) are issued by the National Institute of Standards... Standards and Technology (NIST) seeks additional comments on specific sections of Federal Information...

  2. Order acceptance in food processing systems with random raw material requirements

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kilic, Onur A.; van Donk, Dirk Pieter; Wijngaard, Jacob; Tarim, S. Armagan

    This study considers a food production system that processes a single perishable raw material into several products having stochastic demands. In order to process an order, the amount of raw material delivery from storage needs to meet the raw material requirement of the order. However, the amount

  3. The construction of emotional experience requires the integration of implicit and explicit emotional processes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quirin, Markus; Lane, Richard D

    2012-06-01

    Although we agree that a constructivist approach to emotional experience makes sense, we propose that implicit (visceromotor and somatomotor) emotional processes are dissociable from explicit (attention and reflection) emotional processes, and that the conscious experience of emotion requires an integration of the two. Assessments of implicit emotion and emotional awareness can be helpful in the neuroscientific investigation of emotion.

  4. 48 CFR 1352.237-72 - Security processing requirements-national security contracts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... requirements-national security contracts. 1352.237-72 Section 1352.237-72 Federal Acquisition Regulations... Provisions and Clauses 1352.237-72 Security processing requirements—national security contracts. As prescribed in 48 CFR 1337.110-70(d), use the following clause: Security Processing Requirements—National...

  5. Requirements for the design and implementation of checklists for surgical processes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verdaasdonk, E.G.G.; Stassen, L.P.S.; Widhiasmara, P.P.; Dankelman, J.

    2008-01-01

    Background- The use of checklists is a promising strategy for improving patient safety in all types of surgical processes inside and outside the operating room. This article aims to provide requirements and implementation of checklists for surgical processes. Methods- The literature on checklist use

  6. Process Design Report for Stover Feedstock: Lignocellulosic Biomass to Ethanol Process Design and Economics Utilizing Co-Current Dilute Acid Prehydrolysis and Enzymatic Hydrolysis for Corn Stover

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aden, A. [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Ruth, M. [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Ibsen, K. [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Jechura, J. [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Neeves, K. [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Sheehan, J. [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Wallace, B. [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Montague, L. [Harris Group, Seattle, WA (United States); Slayton, A. [Harris Group, Seattle, WA (United States); Lukas, J. [Harris Group, Seattle, WA (United States)

    2002-06-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) is promoting the development of ethanol from lignocellulosic feedstocks as an alternative to conventional petroleum-based transportation fuels. DOE funds both fundamental and applied research in this area and needs a method for predicting cost benefits of many research proposals. To that end, the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) has modeled many potential process designs and estimated the economics of each process during the last 20 years. This report is an update of the ongoing process design and economic analyses at NREL.

  7. Process design and economic analysis of a hypothetical bioethanol production plant using carob pod as feedstock.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sánchez-Segado, S; Lozano, L J; de Los Ríos, A P; Hernández-Fernández, F J; Godínez, C; Juan, D

    2012-01-01

    A process for the production of ethanol from carob (Ceratonia siliqua) pods was designed and an economic analysis was carried out for a hypothetical plant. The plant was assumed to perform an aqueous extraction of sugars from the pods followed by fermentation and distillation to produce ethanol. The total fixed capital investment for a base case process with a capacity to transform 68,000 t/year carob pod was calculated as 39.61 millon euros (€) with a minimum bioethanol production cost of 0.51 €/L and an internal rate of return of 7%. The plant was found to be profitable at carob pod prices lower than 0.188 €/kg. An increase in the transformation capacity of the plant from 33,880 to 135,450 t/year was calculated to result in an increase in the internal rate of return from 5.50% to 13.61%. The obtained results show that carob pod is a promising alternative source for bioethanol production. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Uncovering a New Moral Dilemma of Economic Optimization in Biotechnological Processing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vochozka, Marek; Stehel, Vojtěch; Maroušková, Anna

    2017-06-08

    The trend of emerging biorefineries is to process the harvest as efficiently as possible and without any waste. From the most valuable phytomass, refined medicines, enzymes, dyes and other special reactants are created. Functional foods, food ingredients, oils, alcohol, solvents, plastics, fillers and a wide variety of other chemical products follow. After being treated with nutrient recovery techniques (for fertilizer production), biofuels or soil improvers are produced from the leftovers. Economic optimization algorithms have confirmed that such complex biorefineries can be financially viable only when a high degree of feedstock concentration is included. Because the plant material is extremely voluminous before processing, the farming intensity of special plants increases in the nearest vicinity of agglomerations where the biorefineries are built for logistical reasons. Interdisciplinary analyses revealed that these optimization measures lead to significantly increased pollen levels in neighbouring urban areas and subsequently an increased risk of allergies, respectively costs to the national health system. A new moral dilemma between the shareholder's profit and public interest was uncovered and subjected to disputation.

  9. Technical and economic analysis of natural ga decompression: recovery of both electricity and process frigories

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fracastoro, G.V.; Perino, M.

    1996-01-01

    The most significant results of the economic analysis on natural gas decompression, specifically referring to EniChem's newly built plant in Porto Marghera, are shown in this article. The analysis was carried out in the framework of rational utilization of energy in compliance with Law No.9 of January 9, 1991. In order to optimize the final use of energy, the service rendered being equal (natural gas was decompressed owing to safety and technical reasons), a possible solution was found, i.e. to replace thermodynamic lamination by an expansion process in a two-stage turbine expansor (recovery of physical energy in pressure). Thanks to this new solution, the above mentioned recovery operation can be integrated by recovering the frigories associated with the availability of the fluid stream (physical energy in temperature) at the outlet of the generator, in order to supply the refrigerating quantity needed to carry out some phases of the steam-cracking process, which takes place in an area lying close to the new decompression plant

  10. Solid waste from aluminum recycling process: characterization and reuse of its economically valuable constituents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shinzato, M C; Hypolito, R

    2005-01-01

    Due to economic advantages, many companies in Brazil recover Al from the process of crushing and water-leaching of secondary aluminum dross. Wastes from this process (non-metallic products and salts) are usually landfilled or disposed without treatment, causing many environmental damages. The purpose of this work is to investigate, in a recycling company sited in Sao Paulo metropolitan area (Brazil), the potential use of the non-metallic product (NMP) in the production of concrete blocks and to evaluate the presence of important chemical compounds that may be useful for other applications. Chemical and mineralogical analyses revealed that NMP is composed of refractory and abrasive oxides (alpha-Al2O3, MgAl2O4, SiO2) and an important source of transition alumina: alpha-Al(OH)3. Concrete blocks were made by adding two parts of NMP to one part of cement and four parts of sand. The blocks were tested according to the Brazilian standard (NBR7173/1982) and they passed dimension, humidity and absorption tests but not compressive strength tests. However, particular NMP constituents have accelerated the strength rate development of the blocks, thus decreasing working time. The commercial use of NMP can reduce the amount of discarded wastes contributing to environmental preservation.

  11. Lignocellulosic Biomass to Ethanol Process Design and Economics Utilizing Co-Current Dilute Acid Prehydrolysis and Enzymatic Hydrolysis for Corn Stover

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aden, A.; Ruth, M.; Ibsen, K.; Jechura, J.; Neeves, K.; Sheehan, J.; Wallace, B.; Montague, L.; Slayton, A.; Lukas, J.

    2002-06-01

    and costing for the lignin combustor and boiler turbogenerator was reviewed by Reaction Engineering Inc. (REI) and Merrick & Company reviewed the wastewater treatment. Since then, NREL has engaged Harris Group (Harris) to perform vendor testing, process design, and costing of critical equipment identified during earlier work. This included solid/liquid separation and pretreatment reactor design and costing. Corn stover handling was also investigated to support DOE's decision to focus on corn stover as a feedstock for lignocellulosic ethanol. Working with Harris, process design and costing for these areas were improved through vendor designs, costing, and vendor testing in some cases. In addition to this work, enzyme costs were adjusted to reflect collaborative work between NREL and enzyme manufacturers (Genencor International and Novozymes Biotech) to provide a delivered enzyme for lignocellulosic feedstocks. This report is the culmination of our work and represents an updated process design and cost basis for the process using a corn stover feedstock. The process design and economic model are useful for predicting the cost benefits of proposed research. Proposed research results can be translated into modifications of the process design, and the economic impact can be assessed. This allows DOE, NREL, and other researchers to set priorities on future research with an understanding of potential reductions to the ethanol production cost. To be economically viable, ethanol production costs must be below market values for ethanol. DOE has chosen a target ethanol selling price of $1.07 per gallon as a goal for 2010. The conceptual design and costs presented here are based on a 2010 plant start-up date. The key research targets required to achieve this design and the $1.07 value are discussed in the report.

  12. A Theory of Information Quality and a Framework for its Implementation in the Requirements Engineering Process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grenn, Michael W.

    This dissertation introduces a theory of information quality to explain macroscopic behavior observed in the systems engineering process. The theory extends principles of Shannon's mathematical theory of communication [1948] and statistical mechanics to information development processes concerned with the flow, transformation, and meaning of information. The meaning of requirements information in the systems engineering context is estimated or measured in terms of the cumulative requirements quality Q which corresponds to the distribution of the requirements among the available quality levels. The requirements entropy framework (REF) implements the theory to address the requirements engineering problem. The REF defines the relationship between requirements changes, requirements volatility, requirements quality, requirements entropy and uncertainty, and engineering effort. The REF is evaluated via simulation experiments to assess its practical utility as a new method for measuring, monitoring and predicting requirements trends and engineering effort at any given time in the process. The REF treats the requirements engineering process as an open system in which the requirements are discrete information entities that transition from initial states of high entropy, disorder and uncertainty toward the desired state of minimum entropy as engineering effort is input and requirements increase in quality. The distribution of the total number of requirements R among the N discrete quality levels is determined by the number of defined quality attributes accumulated by R at any given time. Quantum statistics are used to estimate the number of possibilities P for arranging R among the available quality levels. The requirements entropy H R is estimated using R, N and P by extending principles of information theory and statistical mechanics to the requirements engineering process. The information I increases as HR and uncertainty decrease, and the change in information AI needed

  13. TruMicro Series 2000 sub-400 fs class industrial fiber lasers: adjustment of laser parameters to process requirements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kanal, Florian; Kahmann, Max; Tan, Chuong; Diekamp, Holger; Jansen, Florian; Scelle, Raphael; Budnicki, Aleksander; Sutter, Dirk

    2017-02-01

    The matchless properties of ultrashort laser pulses, such as the enabling of cold processing and non-linear absorption, pave the way to numerous novel applications. Ultrafast lasers arrived in the last decade at a level of reliability suitable for the industrial environment.1 Within the next years many industrial manufacturing processes in several markets will be replaced by laser-based processes due to their well-known benefits: These are non-contact wear-free processing, higher process accuracy or an increase of processing speed and often improved economic efficiency compared to conventional processes. Furthermore, new processes will arise with novel sources, addressing previously unsolved challenges. One technical requirement for these exciting new applications will be to optimize the large number of available parameters to the requirements of the application. In this work we present an ultrafast laser system distinguished by its capability to combine high flexibility and real time process-inherent adjustments of the parameters with industry-ready reliability. This industry-ready reliability is ensured by a long experience in designing and building ultrashort-pulse lasers in combination with rigorous optimization of the mechanical construction, optical components and the entire laser head for continuous performance. By introducing a new generation of mechanical design in the last few years, TRUMPF enabled its ultrashort-laser platforms to fulfill the very demanding requirements for passively coupling high-energy single-mode radiation into a hollow-core transport fiber. The laser architecture presented here is based on the all fiber MOPA (master oscillator power amplifier) CPA (chirped pulse amplification) technology. The pulses are generated in a high repetition rate mode-locked fiber oscillator also enabling flexible pulse bursts (groups of multiple pulses) with 20 ns intra-burst pulse separation. An external acousto-optic modulator (XAOM) enables linearization

  14. 40 CFR Table 4 to Subpart Vvvvvv... - Emission Limits and Compliance Requirements for Metal HAP Process Vents

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... Requirements for Metal HAP Process Vents 4 Table 4 to Subpart VVVVVV of Part 63 Protection of Environment... of Part 63—Emission Limits and Compliance Requirements for Metal HAP Process Vents As required in § 63.11496(f), you must comply with the requirements for metal HAP process vents as shown in the...

  15. The harmoniation of cultural heritage and architectural conseration needs with socio-economic requirements of rural habitat in Danube Delta

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    SELA Florentina

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The paper present a study of cultural heritage of rural landscape in Danube Delta Biosphere Reserve focuses on cultural landscapes that reflect traditional lifestyle of the locals, activities of deltas’ resource sustainable exploitation, creating visual elements in the rural landscape, especially on traditional buildings, fishermens’ temporary shelters from fishing areas and other traditional activities. In order to highlight the necessity of cultural heritage harmonization and architectural conservation with the socio-economic requirements of rural habitat in Danube Delta were made some field activities through different methods of field investigation, like structured and semistructured interviews, questionnaires, focus groups. In Danube Delta villages, the changes imposed by the touristic function of most of existing or new construction have produced important changes in the architectural landscape of existing settlements impending danger of destroying traditional architectural values which demonstrates on the one hand the personality and inovation spirit of local people in their constructions, particularly in the use of local materials, and on the other hand gives a specific area feature that blends perfectly with the natural landscape. Danube Delta, the space of complex features in terms of cultural values, characterized as open gate of cultural interference, is the area that can provide options to balance cohabitation and cultural heritage.

  16. Determining the Efficiency of Adaptation of Foreign Economic Activity of Machine-Building Enterprises in Conditions of Deepening the European Integration Process of Ukraine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Semeniuk Iryna Yu.

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available The article determines that introduction and implementation of the mechanism for foreign economic adaptation of machine-building enterprises to the conditions of the European integration processes requires constant monitoring of the processes of export-import operations and the adaptation activities to identify current problems and avoid risks. It has been found that one of the monitoring instruments is the system of indicators, which provides to evaluate the efficiency of use of the mechanism for foreign economic adaptation of a machine-building enterprise by comparing the values of the obtained indicators after accomplishing adaptation changes with the values of the indicators of previous periods. It is suggested to determine efficiency of adaptation of foreign economic activity of machine-building enterprises to conditions of deepening of the European integration process of Ukraine by means of: index of change of volume of exported production of a machine-building enterprise to the EU countries; weighted average of the change in the share of the European market, which is covered by the enterprise’s products; indicator of efficiency of exports of production of a machine-building enterprise to the European Union countries; indicator of the index of changes in the volume of permanent orders from European partners; integral indicator of efficiency of use of adaptive potential of a machine-building enterprise in conditions of integration processes.

  17. Thermo-economic design optimization of parabolic trough solar plants for industrial process heat applications with memetic algorithms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Silva, R.; Berenguel, M.; Pérez, M.; Fernández-Garcia, A.

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • A thermo-economic optimization of a parabolic-trough solar plant for industrial process heat applications is developed. • An analysis of the influence of economic cost functions on optimal design point location is presented. • A multi-objective optimization approach to the design routine is proposed. • A sensitivity analysis of the optimal point location to economic, operational, and ambient conditions is developed. • Design optimization of a parabolic trough plant for a reference industrial application is developed. - Abstract: A thermo-economic design optimization of a parabolic trough solar plant for industrial processes with memetic algorithms is developed. The design domain variables considered in the optimization routine are the number of collectors in series, number of collector rows, row spacing, and storage volume. Life cycle savings, levelized cost of energy, and payback time objective functions are compared to study the influence on optimal design point location. Furthermore a multi-objective optimization approach is proposed to analyze the design problem from a multi-economic criteria point of view. An extensive set of optimization cases are performed to estimate the influence of fuel price trend, plant location, demand profile, operation conditions, solar field orientation, and radiation uncertainty on optimal design. The results allow quantifying as thermo-economic design optimization based on short term criteria as the payback time leads to smaller plants with higher solar field efficiencies and smaller solar fractions, while the consideration of optimization criteria based on long term performance of the plants, as life cycle savings based optimization, leads to the reverse conclusion. The role of plant location and future evolution of gas prices in the thermo-economic performance of the solar plant has been also analyzed. Thermo-economic optimization of a parabolic trough solar plant design for the reference industrial

  18. On the “cost-optimal levels” of energy performance requirements and its economic evaluation in Italy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lamberto Tronchin

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available The European energy policies about climate and energy package, known as the “20-20-20” targets define ambitious, but achievable, national energy objectives. As regards the Directives closely related to the 2020 targets, the EU Energy Performance of Buildings Directive (EPBD Recast- DIR 2010/31/EU is the main European legislative instrument for improving the energy performance of buildings, taking into account outdoor climatic and local conditions, as well as indoor climate requirements and cost-effectiveness. The EPBD recast now requests that Member States shall ensure that minimum energy performance requirements for buildings are set “with a view to achieving cost-optimal levels”. The cost optimum level shall be calculated in accordance with a comparative methodology framework, leaving the Member States to determine which of these calculations is to become the national benchmark against which national minimum energy performance requirements will be assessed. The European standards (ENs- Umbrella Document V7 (prCEN/TR 15615 are intended to support the EPBD by providing the calculation methods and associated material to obtain the overall energy performance of a building. For Italy the Energy Performance of Building Simulations EPBS must be calculated with standard UNITS 11300. The energy building behaviour is referred to standard and not to real use, nor climate or dynamic energy evaluation. Since retrofitting of existing buildings offers significant opportunities for reducing energy consumption and greenhouse gas emissions, a case study of retrofitting is described and the CostOptimal Level EU procedure in an Italian context is analysed. Following this procedure, it is shown not only that the energy cost depends on several conditions and most of them are not indexed at national level but also that the cost of improvement depends on local variables and contract tender. The case study highlights the difficulties to apply EU rules, and

  19. Health Economic Data Requirements and Availability in the European Union: Results of a Survey Among 10 European Countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skoupá, Jana; Annemans, Lieven; Hájek, Petr

    2014-09-01

    To compare data requirements and their availability for health economic (HE) evaluations in five countries in Central/Eastern Europe (CEE) (Poland, the Czech Republic, Slovakia, Hungary, and Romania) and five countries in Western Europe (WE) (the United Kingdom, France, Germany, The Netherlands, and Sweden). A questionnaire was developed and distributed to market access personnel from Pfizer who were asked to complete the questionnaire either from their own knowledge or with support of external experts. The questionnaire focused on the obligation to conduct HE assessment for reimbursement submissions, local HE guidelines, applied discount rates for future costs and effects, willingness-to-pay thresholds, and available data sources. HE is mandatory in all CEE and three WE participating countries for reimbursement applications of innovative drugs. Usually, cost-effectiveness analysis and budget-impact analyses are required. The preferred outcome of cost-effectiveness analysis is quality-adjusted-life years. In Romania, France, and the Czech Republic, guidelines could not be identified at the time of the survey. The applicant usually prepares HE evaluations; in Sweden, the United Kingdom, The Netherlands, and Poland, unlocked models have to be presented for scrutiny. Discount rates vary from 1.5% to 5%, and, usually, is the same for costs and outcomes (except in The Netherlands and Poland). Only the United Kingdom, Poland, and Slovakia have an explicit willingness-to-pay threshold. In Poland, it is based on the gross domestic product per capita, and in Slovakia, it is based on multiples of average monthly salary. Differences were found on data availability. In WE, data can be acquired easier than in CEE. Health insurance funds do not provide their data unless they were published. Patient registries are either not available in CEE or difficult to access, so applicants mostly rely on retrospective medical chart data, hospital information systems, or expert panels. We

  20. Conceptual design and techno-economic evaluation of efficient oil shale refinery processes ingratiated with oil and gas products upgradation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yang, Qingchun; Qian, Yu; Zhou, Huairong; Yang, Siyu

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • Three integrated oil shale refinery processes are proposed. • Techno-economic performance of three proposed processes is conducted and compared. • Competitiveness of the three proposed processes is investigated at different scenarios. • A development direction for oil shale refinery industry is suggested. - Abstract: Compared with the petrochemical industry, oil shale refinery industry is still relatively backward and has many shortcomings, such as poor quality of shale oil, inefficient utilization of retorting gas, and the unsatisfactory economic performance. In the situation of the low oil price, many oil shale refinery plants are forced to stop or cut production. Thus, oil shale industry is facing a severe problem. How to relieve monetary loss or turn it into profits? This paper proposes three integrated oil shale refinery processes: an integrated with hydrogen production from retorting gas, an integrated with hydrogenation of shale oil, and an integrated with hydrogen production and oil hydrogenation. The techno-economic performance of the three different processes is conducted and compared with that of a conventional oil shale process. Results show the exergy destruction ratio of the oil shale process integrated with hydrogen production from retorting gas is the least, 41.6%, followed by the oil shale process integrated with hydrogen production and oil hydrogenation, 45.9%. Furthermore, these two proposed processes have the best economic performance. Especially they can turn losses of the conventional oil shale process into profits at the situation of low oil price. The oil shale process integrated with hydrogen production from retorting gas is recommended to the oil shale plants which use the oil shale with oil content lower than 12.9%, while the plants using oil shale with oil content higher than 12.9% are better to select the oil shale process integrated with hydrogen production and oil hydrogenation.

  1. Process Design Report for Wood Feedstock: Lignocellulosic Biomass to Ethanol Process Desing and Economics Utilizing Co-Current Dilute Acid Prehydrolysis and Enzymatic Hydrolysis Current and Futuristic Scenarios

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wooley, Robert [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Ruth, Mark [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Sheehan, John [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Ibsen, Kelly [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Majdeski, Henry [Delta-T Corporation, Lexington, KY (United States); Galves, Adrian [Delta-T Corporation, Lexington, KY (United States)

    1999-07-01

    The National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) has undertaken a complete review and update of the process design and economic model for the biomass-to-ethanol process based on co-current dilute acid prehydrolysis, along with simultaneous saccharification (enzymatic) and co-fermentation. The process design includes the core technologies being researched by the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE): prehydrolysis, simultaneous saccharification and co-fermentation, and cellulase enzyme production.

  2. Analysis of the Requirements Generation Process for the Logistics Analysis and Wargame Support Tool

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-06-01

    impact everything from strategic logistic operations down to the energy demands at the company level. It also looks at the force structure of the...this requirement. 34. The system shall determine the efficiency of the logistics network with respect to an estimated cost of fuel used to deliver...REQUIREMENTS GENERATION PROCESS FOR THE LOGISTICS ANALYSIS AND WARGAME SUPPORT TOOL by Jonathan M. Swan June 2017 Thesis Advisor

  3. Developing a survey to collect expertise in agile product line requirements engineering processes

    OpenAIRE

    Feng, Kunwu; Lempert, Meli; Tang, Yan; Tian, Kun; Cooper, Kendra M.L.; Franch Gutiérrez, Javier

    2007-01-01

    Current agile methods are focused on practices of small, rapid developing and iteration, more people oriented, less documentation projects, and the use of the methods in large, product line projects are somehow difficult. UTD and GESSI have started a project to develop an expert system that can assist a requirements enginer in selecting a requirements engineering process that is well suited for their project, in particular with respect to the use of agile and product line engineering methods....

  4. Data requirements for valuing externalities: The role of existing permitting processes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, A.D.; Baechler, M.C.; Callaway, J.M.

    1990-08-01

    While the assessment of externalities, or residual impacts, will place new demands on regulators, utilities, and developers, existing processes already require certain data and information that may fulfill some of the data needs for externality valuation. This paper examines existing siting, permitting, and other processes and highlights similarities and differences between their data requirements and the data required to value environmental externalities. It specifically considers existing requirements for siting new electricity resources in Oregon and compares them with the information and data needed to value externalities for such resources. This paper also presents several observations about how states can take advantage of data acquired through processes already in place as they move into an era when externalities are considered in utility decision-making. It presents other observations on the similarities and differences between the data requirements under existing processes and those for valuing externalities. This paper also briefly discusses the special case of cumulative impacts. And it presents recommendations on what steps to take in future efforts to value externalities. 35 refs., 2 tabs.

  5. A Scenario-Based Process for Requirements Development: Application to Mission Operations Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bindschadler, Duane L.; Boyles, Carole A.

    2008-01-01

    The notion of using operational scenarios as part of requirements development during mission formulation (Phases A & B) is widely accepted as good system engineering practice. In the context of developing a Mission Operations System (MOS), there are numerous practical challenges to translating that notion into the cost-effective development of a useful set of requirements. These challenges can include such issues as a lack of Project-level focus on operations issues, insufficient or improper flowdown of requirements, flowdown of immature or poor-quality requirements from Project level, and MOS resource constraints (personnel expertise and/or dollars). System engineering theory must be translated into a practice that provides enough structure and standards to serve as guidance, but that retains sufficient flexibility to be tailored to the needs and constraints of a particular MOS or Project. We describe a detailed, scenario-based process for requirements development. Identifying a set of attributes for high quality requirements, we show how the portions of the process address many of those attributes. We also find that the basic process steps are robust, and can be effective even in challenging Project environments.

  6. How to Generate Economic and Sustainability Reports from Big Data? Qualifications of Process Industry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Esa Hämäläinen

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Big Data may introduce new opportunities, and for this reason it has become a mantra among most industries. This paper focuses on examining how to develop cost and sustainable reporting by utilizing Big Data that covers economic values, production volumes, and emission information. We assume strongly that this use supports cleaner production, while at the same time offers more information for revenue and profitability development. We argue that Big Data brings company-wide business benefits if data queries and interfaces are built to be interactive, intuitive, and user-friendly. The amount of information related to operations, costs, emissions, and the supply chain would increase enormously if Big Data was used in various manufacturing industries. It is essential to expose the relevant correlations between different attributes and data fields. Proper algorithm design and programming are key to making the most of Big Data. This paper introduces ideas on how to refine raw data into valuable information, which can serve many types of end users, decision makers, and even external auditors. Concrete examples are given through an industrial paper mill case, which covers environmental aspects, cost-efficiency management, and process design.

  7. A behavioral economic analysis of texting while driving: Delay discounting processes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hayashi, Yusuke; Miller, Kimberly; Foreman, Anne M; Wirth, Oliver

    2016-12-01

    The purpose of the present study was to examine an impulsive decision-making process underlying texting while driving from a behavioral economic perspective. A sample of 108 college students completed a novel discounting task that presented participants with a hypothetical scenario in which, after receiving a text message while driving, they rated the likelihood of replying to a text message immediately versus waiting to reply for a specific period of time. Participants also completed a delay discounting task in which they made repeated hypothetical choices between obtaining a larger amount of money available after a delay and an equal or lesser amount of money available immediately. The results show that the duration of the delay is a critical variable that strongly determines whether participants choose to wait to reply to a text message, and that the decrease in the likelihood of waiting as a function of delay is best described by a hyperbolic delay discounting function. The results also show that participants who self-reported higher frequency of texting while driving discounted the opportunity to reply to a text message at greater rates, whereas there was no relation between the rates of discounting of hypothetical monetary rewards and the frequency of texting while driving. The results support the conclusion that texting while driving is fundamentally an impulsive choice. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Process development and economic evaluation of recombinant human lactoferrin expressed in rice grain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nandi, Somen; Yalda, Dorice; Lu, Stephen; Nikolov, Zivko; Misaki, Ryo; Fujiyama, Kazuhito; Huang, Ning

    2005-06-01

    In this paper, we show that recombinant human lactoferrin (rhLF) has been stably expressed at 0.5% brown rice flour weight for nine generations. Process development indicates that rhLF can be efficiently extracted from rice flour in 20 mM phosphate buffer (pH 7.0) containing up to 0.5 M NaCl and at a ratio of 1 kg flour to 10 L buffer. After solid/liquid separation, the extract can then be loaded directly onto an ion-exchange column and rhLF can be eluted using 0.8 M NaCl. The resulting rhLF is about 95% pure. A range of biochemical and biophysical analyses were carried out and results indicated that the purified rhLF was identical to its native human counterpart other than its glycosylation. Economic analysis shows that at 600 kg/year scale, the cash cost to produce 1 g of rhLF of pharmaceutical grade is US$ 5.90. Analysis also indicates that the expression level has profound impact on costs related to planting, milling, extraction and purification, thus high level expression of recombinant protein in plants is one of the key parameters for the success of plant made pharmaceuticals.

  9. Particularities of Participation of Foreign Lecturers in the Educational Process: Foreign Economic Aspects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna V. Gubareva

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available The development of world integration processes, related to the movement of labor, determines objectively the need for reforming the Russian system of education. In this connection, ensuring the quality of education, that meets the needs of the modernity, is a major strategic challenge of state education policy. That is why universities pay special attention to the formation of faculty members, development of international cooperation of universities and joint participation in the implementation of innovative educational programs, including by involvement foreign lecturers to work in Russian universities and also foreign students. Implementation of innovative education programs in the Russian Federation has contributed significantly to the development of international cooperation of universities and laid the foundation for long-term collaboration with foreign counterparts in educational and research areas. Internationalization of educational systems in developed countries has become an objective need. As a result, cultural contacts have significantly increased between countries. The information exchange started regarding accomplishments in the field of education. To determine the readiness of a scholar for development of an international research project and for the activity in the international scientific consortium is an extremely important issue about the economic feasibility of participation of each candidate. This paper argues government regulations regarding labor of foreign lecturers and payment of their services by a university.

  10. Designing Economic Socialization System in the Educational Process of Technological University

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shaidullina, Rimma M.; Amirov, Artur F.; Muhametshin, Vyacheslav S.; Tyncherov, Kamil T.

    2017-01-01

    The relevance of this study is related to the fact that the necessity of compliance between the professional education system and progressive tendencies of world economy development demanded the formation of a new generation of economically socialized engineering and technical specialists, who own a sufficient level of economic competences, that…

  11. Regulation amending the mandatory reporting requirements for emissions of certain contaminants into the atmosphere : economic impact study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Menard, R.; Turgeon, M.L.; Dumais, M.; Bernier, A.G.; Leblond, V.; Benoit, J.Y.

    2010-01-01

    Quebec's proposal to amend regulations regarding pollutants responsible for the increase in greenhouse gases, acid rain, smog and toxic pollution will ensure improved monitoring of the state of the environment. The proposed amendments are designed to harmonize with the Western Climate Initiative (WCI) to lower greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions and determine certain methods of calculation. The WCI includes seven U.S. states, including California, and 4 Canadian provinces including Quebec, Ontario, British Columbia and Manitoba. By joining WCI in 2008, Quebec agreed to a cap and trade of GHG emissions. One of the first steps of the process leading to the creation of a common carbon market is to ensure the thoroughness of the information collected on these emissions. Once established, the system of cap and trade will become an important instrument of the provincial strategy to address climate change. The current regulations require Quebec businesses to report GHG emissions that equal or exceed 50,000 tonnes of carbon dioxide (CO 2 ) equivalent. According to the rules of the WCI, the new threshold for reporting will be 10,000 tonnes of CO 2 equivalent. To date, companies did not have any requirements as to how to quantify their emissions. With the amended regulation, calculation methods for GHG emissions will be required for most emission sources. These methods have been adapted for Quebec businesses and were first developed by WCI partners from existing techniques used by international organizations such as the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) and the United States Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). They will standardize how issuers calculate their GHG emissions. In addition, the reporting of 25,000 tonnes of CO 2 equivalent or more, will have to be verified by an accredited organization to ensure that the prescribed methods of calculation have been followed and that the statements contain all required data. 1 tab.

  12. Requirements on software lifecycle process (RSLP) for KALIMER digital computer-based MMIS design

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Jang Soo; Kwon, Kee Choon; Kim, Jang Yeol [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Taejon (Korea)

    1998-04-01

    Digital Man Machine Interface System (MMIS) systems of Korea Advanced Liquid MEtal Reactor (KALIMER) may share code, data transmission, data, and process equipment to a greater degree than analog systems. Although this sharing is the basis for many of the advantages of digital systems, it also raises a key concern: a design using shared data or code has the potential to propagate a common-cause or common-mode failure via software errors, thus defeating the redundancy achieved by the hardware architectural structure. Greater sharing of process equipment among functions within a channel increases the consequences of the failure of a single hardware module and reduces the amount of diversity available within a single safety channel. The software safety plan describes the safety analysis implementation tasks that are to be carried out during the software life cycle. Documentation should exist that shows that the safety analysis activities have been successfully accomplished for each life cycle activity group. In particular, the documentation should show that the system safety requirement have been adequately addressed for each life cycle activity group, that no new hazards have been introduced, and that the software requirements, design elements, and code elements that can affect safety have been identified. Because the safety of software can be assured through both the process Verification and Validation (V and V) itself and the V and V of all the intermediate and final products during the software development lifecycle, the development of KALIMER Software Safety Framework (KSSF) must be established. As the first activity for establishing KSSF, we have developed this report, Requirement on Software Life-cycle Process (RSLP) for designing KALIMER digital MMIS. This report is organized as follows. Section I describes the background, definitions, and references of RSLP. Section II describes KALIMER safety software categorization. In Section III, we define the

  13. The ADESORB Process for Economical Production of Sorbents for Mercury Removal from Coal Fired Power Plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Robin Stewart

    2008-03-12

    The DOE's National Energy Technology Laboratory (NETL) currently manages the largest research program in the country for controlling coal-based mercury emissions. NETL has shown through various field test programs that the determination of cost-effective mercury control strategies is complex and highly coal- and plant-specific. However, one particular technology has the potential for widespread application: the injection of activated carbon upstream of either an electrostatic precipitator (ESP) or a fabric filter baghouse. This technology has potential application to the control of mercury emissions on all coal-fired power plants, even those with wet and dry scrubbers. This is a low capital cost technology in which the largest cost element is the cost of sorbents. Therefore, the obvious solutions for reducing the costs of mercury control must focus on either reducing the amount of sorbent needed or decreasing the cost of sorbent production. NETL has researched the economics and performance of novel sorbents and determined that there are alternatives to the commercial standard (NORIT DARCO{reg_sign} Hg) and that this is an area where significant technical improvements can still be made. In addition, a key barrier to the application of sorbent injection technology to the power industry is the availability of activated carbon production. Currently, about 450 million pounds ($250 million per year) of activated carbon is produced and used in the U.S. each year - primarily for purification of drinking water, food, and beverages. If activated carbon technology were to be applied to all 1,100 power plants, EPA and DOE estimate that it would require an additional $1-$2 billion per year, which would require increasing current capacity by a factor of two to eight. A new facility to produce activated carbon would cost approximately $250 million, would increase current U.S. production by nearly 25%, and could take four to five years to build. This means that there could be

  14. The Tungsten Inert GAS (TIG) Process of Welding Aluminium in Microgravity: Technical and Economic Considerations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferretti, S.; Amadori, K.; Boccalatte, A.; Alessandrini, M.; Freddi, A.; Persiani, F.; Poli, G.

    2002-01-01

    The UNIBO team composed of students and professors of the University of Bologna along with technicians and engineers from Alenia Space Division and Siad Italargon Division, took part in the 3rd Student Parabolic Flight Campaign of the European Space Agency in 2000. It won the student competition and went on to take part in the Professional Parabolic Flight Campaign of May 2001. The experiment focused on "dendritic growth in aluminium alloy weldings", and investigated topics related to the welding process of aluminium in microgravity. The purpose of the research is to optimise the process and to define the areas of interest that could be improved by new conceptual designs. The team performed accurate tests in microgravity to determine which phenomena have the greatest impact on the quality of the weldings with respect to penetration, surface roughness and the microstructures that are formed during the solidification. Various parameters were considered in the economic-technical optimisation, such as the type of electrode and its tip angle. Ground and space tests have determined the optimum chemical composition of the electrodes to offer longest life while maintaining the shape of the point. Additionally, the power consumption has been optimised; this offers opportunities for promoting the product to the customer as well as being environmentally friendly. Tests performed on the Al-Li alloys showed a significant influence of some physical phenomena such as the Marangoni effect and thermal diffusion; predictions have been made on the basis of observations of the thermal flux seen in the stereophotos. Space transportation today is a key element in the construction of space stations and future planetary bases, because the volumes available for launch to space are directly related to the payload capacity of rockets or the Space Shuttle. The research performed gives engineers the opportunity to consider completely new concepts for designing structures for space applications

  15. 76 FR 13101 - Requirements for Processing, Clearing, and Transfer of Customer Positions

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-03-10

    ... for Processing, Clearing, and Transfer of Customer Positions AGENCY: Commodity Futures Trading... (Commission) is proposing regulations to implement Title VII of the Dodd-Frank Wall Street Reform and Consumer...), requiring a DCO, upon customer request, to promptly transfer customer positions and related funds from one...

  16. HIGH RESOLUTION RESISTIVITY LEAK DETECTION DATA PROCESSING and EVALUATION MEHTODS and REQUIREMENTS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    SCHOFIELD JS

    2007-01-01

    This document has two purposes: (sm b ullet) Describe how data generated by High Resolution REsistivity (HRR) leak detection (LD) systems deployed during single-shell tank (SST) waste retrieval operations are processed and evaluated. (sm b ullet) Provide the basic review requirements for HRR data when Hrr is deployed as a leak detection method during SST waste retrievals

  17. Isotopic dilution requirements for 233U criticality safety in processing and disposal facilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Elam, K.R.; Forsberg, C.W.; Hopper, C.M.; Wright, R.Q.

    1997-11-01

    The disposal of excess 233 U as waste is being considered. Because 233 U is a fissile material, one of the key requirements for processing 233 U to a final waste form and disposing of it is to avoid nuclear criticality. For many processing and disposal options, isotopic dilution is the most feasible and preferred option to avoid nuclear criticality. Isotopic dilution is dilution of fissile 233 U with nonfissile 238 U. The use of isotopic dilution removes any need to control nuclear criticality in process or disposal facilities through geometry or chemical composition. Isotopic dilution allows the use of existing waste management facilities, that are not designed for significant quantities of fissile materials, to be used for processing and disposing of 233 U. The amount of isotopic dilution required to reduce criticality concerns to reasonable levels was determined in this study to be ∼ 0.66 wt% 233 U. The numerical calculations used to define this limit consisted of a homogeneous system of silicon dioxide (SiO 2 ), water (H 2 O), 233 U, and depleted uranium (DU) in which the ratio of each component was varied to determine the conditions of maximum nuclear reactivity. About 188 parts of DU (0.2 wt% 235 U) are required to dilute 1 part of 233 U to this limit in a water-moderated system with no SiO 2 present. Thus, for the US inventory of 233 U, several hundred metric tons of DU would be required for isotopic dilution

  18. Utilization of respiratory energy in higher plants : requirements for 'maintenance' and transport processes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bouma, T.J.

    1995-01-01

    Quantitative knowledge of both photosynthesis and respiration is required to understand plant growth and resulting crop yield. However, especially the nature of the energy demanding processes that are dependent on dark respiration in full-grown tissues is largely unknown. The main objective

  19. 78 FR 52963 - 60-Day Notice of Proposed Information Collection: Technical Processing Requirements for...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-08-27

    ... Information Collection: Technical Processing Requirements for Multifamily Project Mortgage Insurance AGENCY...: HUD is seeking approval from the Office of Management and Budget (OMB) for the information collection... interested parties on the proposed collection of information. The purpose of this notice is to allow for 60...

  20. 21 CFR 111.460 - What requirements apply to holding in-process material?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false What requirements apply to holding in-process material? 111.460 Section 111.460 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION CURRENT GOOD MANUFACTURING PRACTICE IN...

  1. 10 CFR 51.26 - Requirement to publish notice of intent and conduct scoping process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... publish notice of intent and conduct scoping process. (a) Whenever the appropriate NRC staff director... 10 Energy 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Requirement to publish notice of intent and conduct... action, a notice of intent will be prepared as provided in § 51.27, and will be published in the Federal...

  2. 40 CFR 270.24 - Specific part B information requirements for process vents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... incinerator, flare, boiler, process heater, condenser, or carbon adsorption system to comply with the... each compliance test required by § 264.1033(k). (3) A design analysis, specifications, drawings... texts acceptable to the Regional Administrator that present basic control device information. The design...

  3. The NERV Methodology: Non-Functional Requirements Elicitation, Reasoning and Validation in Agile Processes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Domah, Darshan

    2013-01-01

    Agile software development has become very popular around the world in recent years, with methods such as Scrum and Extreme Programming (XP). Literature suggests that functionality is the primary focus in Agile processes while non-functional requirements (NFR) are either ignored or ill-defined. However, for software to be of good quality both…

  4. On the potential and economic feasibility of solar industrial process-heat applications in selected Turkish industries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ozdogan, S.; Arikol, M.

    1992-01-01

    We discuss the potential and economic feasibility of solar, industrial process-heat applications in the Turkish food, textile and chemical industries. The study covers 18 sites and end-use temperatures up to 120 and 150 o C. A solar system composed of parabolic troughs without thermal storage is chosen. The system size investigated is 500 to 20,000m 2 . (author)

  5. Alignment of process compliance and monitoring requirements in dynamic business collaborations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Comuzzi, Marco

    2017-07-01

    Dynamic business collaborations are intrinsically characterised by change because processes can be distributed or outsourced and partners may be substituted by new ones with enhanced or different capabilities. In this context, compliance requirements management becomes particularly challenging. Partners in a collaboration may join and leave dynamically and tasks over which compliance requirements are specified may be consequently distributed or delegated to new partners. This article considers the issue of aligning compliance requirements in a dynamic business collaboration with the monitoring requirements induced on the collaborating partners when change occurs. We first provide a conceptual model of business collaborations and their compliance requirements, introducing the concept of monitoring capabilities induced by compliance requirements. Then, we present a set of mechanisms to ensure consistency between monitoring and compliance requirements in the presence of change, e.g. when tasks are delegated or backsourced in-house. We also discuss a set of metrics to evaluate the status of a collaboration in respect of compliance monitorability. Finally, we discuss a prototype implementation of our framework.

  6. Design and economic analysis of a macroalgae-to-butanol process via a thermochemical route

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Okoli, Chinedu O.; Adams, Thomas A.; Brigljević, Boris; Liu, Jay J.

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • Novel macroalgae-to-butanol plants are designed and assessed for U.S. and S. Korea. • The lowest MBSP of 1.97 $/L was obtained for the S. Korean natural gas import plant. • S. Korean plant with no fossil utilities had lowest CO_2 avoided cost of 620 $/tCO_2e. • Macroalgae-to-butanol plants CO_2 avoided costs are competitive with other biofuels. • CO_2 avoided costs of assessed plants are most sensitive to changes in gasoline price. - Abstract: In this work, a first of its kind assessment of butanol production from macroalgae through a thermochemical route is carried out. Different process configurations were designed and simulated in Aspen Plus to quantify their mass and energy balances. Furthermore, economic and environmental metrics such as the minimum butanol selling price (MBSP), and cost of CO_2 equivalent emissions (CO_2e) avoided were used to assess the potential of the different configurations under different market scenarios, with comparisons carried out amongst the configurations as well as against standard literature references of similar processes. Finally, a sensitivity analysis was used to assess the impact that changes in key parameters have on the considered metrics. The results show that configurations which import natural gas and electricity as utility sources alongside the macroalgae feedstock offer the lowest MBSP, however they do poorly when cost of CO_2e avoided is considered. On the other hand, the configurations which utilize only macroalgae offer the best potential for cost of CO_2e avoided but have the poorest values for MBSP. In addition, the cost of CO_2e avoided obtained for the best configurations are in line with literature references. However, the MBSP values are higher than literature references for butanol derived from cellulosic feedstock primarily due to the high ash content in seaweed. The sensitivity analyses results show that changes in gasoline prices have a very significant effect on the plant

  7. Gender aspects of the access to economic resources within teritorialization processes: Research in the region of Zlatibor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Babović Marija

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Gender aspects of the access to economic resources within the processes of terrritorialization are important at macro-level for the designing processes of sustainable rural development, as well as at the micro-level, for shaping livelihoods of men and women in rural areas. The research is based on the assumption that access to economic resources is gendered. Starting from the findings of previous researches (Blagojević, 2010, Babović and Vuković, 2008, Trajković, 2002, Korać, 1991 on gender relations in rural areas, the research presented in this paper is motivated by intention to get deeper knowledge about gender aspects of access to economic resources throughout the processes of territorialization (Battaglini, 2014. The process of territorialization is the process of 'embedding' actors in the place of living, which unfolds through their interactions with nature and other resources available for production and securing livelihoods. Territorialization patterns, the access to endogenous and egzogenous resources available in the given territory (Stimson, Stough and Njikamp, 2011 are important elements of positioning of men and women in the processes of rural development. Qualitative research findings indicate that gender and generation differences in the territorialization patterns are present in the key phases of symbolization, reification and organization, and they are influenced by specific norms and values as well as power relations.

  8. Economic and environmental benefits of converting industrial processes to district heating

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Djuric Ilic, Danica; Trygg, Louise

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • The potential for converting industrial processes to district heating is analyzed. • The study includes 83 manufacturing companies in three Swedish counties. • The energy costs for the companies decrease after the conversions. • The conversion opens up for a reduction of global greenhouse gas emissions. • CHP plants in the local district heating system are better utilized. - Abstract: The aim of this study was to analyse the possibilities of converting industrial processes from electricity and fossil fuels to district heating in 83 companies in three Swedish counties. Effects on the local district heating systems were explored, as well as economic effects and impacts on global emissions of greenhouse gases. The study was conducted considering two different energy market conditions for the year 2030. The results show that there is a potential for increasing industrial district heating use in all analysed counties. The greatest potential regarding percentage is found in Jönköping, where the annual district heating use in the manufacturing companies could increase from 5 GW h to 45 GW h. The annual industrial district heating use could increase from 84 GW h to 168 GW h in Östergötland and from 14 GW h to 58 GW h in Västra Götaland. The conversion of the industrial production processes to district heating would lead to district heating demand curves which are less dependent on outdoor temperature. As a result, the utilization period of the base load plants (above all of the combined heat and power plants) would be prolonged; this would decrease district heating production costs due to the increased income from the electricity production. The energy costs for the industrial companies decrease after the conversions as well. Furthermore, the increased electricity production in the combined heat and power plants, and the decreased electricity and fossil fuel use in the industrial sector opens up a possibility for a reduction of global

  9. Information processing requirements for on-board monitoring of automatic landing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sorensen, J. A.; Karmarkar, J. S.

    1977-01-01

    A systematic procedure is presented for determining the information processing requirements for on-board monitoring of automatic landing systems. The monitoring system detects landing anomalies through use of appropriate statistical tests. The time-to-correct aircraft perturbations is determined from covariance analyses using a sequence of suitable aircraft/autoland/pilot models. The covariance results are used to establish landing safety and a fault recovery operating envelope via an event outcome tree. This procedure is demonstrated with examples using the NASA Terminal Configured Vehicle (B-737 aircraft). The procedure can also be used to define decision height, assess monitoring implementation requirements, and evaluate alternate autoland configurations.

  10. 34 CFR 4.1 - Service of process required to be served on or delivered to Secretary.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 34 Education 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Service of process required to be served on or... OF PROCESS § 4.1 Service of process required to be served on or delivered to Secretary. Summons... authorized to accept service of such process. (Authority: 5 U.S.C. 301) [47 FR 16780, Apr. 20, 1982] ...

  11. Comparative economic factors on the use of radionuclide or electrical sources for food processing with ionizing radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lagunas-Solar, M.C.

    1985-01-01

    Food irradiation is a promising addition to conventional food processing techniques. However, as is the case with most new technologies, its economic suitability will be determined by comparison to current methods. Assuming that current food processing facilities are adaptable to the incorporation of a food irradiation capability, an analysis of cost for several different optional systems able to process up to 100 Mrad ton/day (1 MGy ton/day; or 1,000 ton/day at 100 krad) will be made. Both radionuclide and electrical accelerators will be compared as sources of ionizing radiation. The cost of irradiation will be shown to be competitive with most other treatments including fumigation, low-temperature storage, and controlled atmosphere. A proper figure-of-merit for comparing the different sources will be defined and used as a basis for an economic evaluation of food irradiation. (author)

  12. Glovebox design requirements for molten salt oxidation processing of transuranic waste

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ramsey, K.B.; Acosta, S.V. [Los Alamos National Lab., NM (United States); Wernly, K.D. [Molten Salt Oxidation Corp., Bensalem, PA (United States)

    1998-12-31

    This paper presents an overview of potential technologies for stabilization of {sup 238}Pu-contaminated combustible waste. Molten salt oxidation (MSO) provides a method for removing greater than 99.999% of the organic matrix from combustible waste. Implementation of MSO processing at the Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) Plutonium Facility will eliminate the combustible matrix from {sup 238}Pu-contaminated waste and consequently reduce the cost of TRU waste disposal operations at LANL. The glovebox design requirements for unit operations including size reduction and MSO processing will be presented.

  13. Glovebox design requirements for molten salt oxidation processing of transuranic waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ramsey, K.B.; Acosta, S.V.; Wernly, K.D.

    1998-01-01

    This paper presents an overview of potential technologies for stabilization of 238 Pu-contaminated combustible waste. Molten salt oxidation (MSO) provides a method for removing greater than 99.999% of the organic matrix from combustible waste. Implementation of MSO processing at the Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) Plutonium Facility will eliminate the combustible matrix from 238 Pu-contaminated waste and consequently reduce the cost of TRU waste disposal operations at LANL. The glovebox design requirements for unit operations including size reduction and MSO processing will be presented

  14. Data requirements for the Ferrocyanide Safety Issue developed through the data quality objectives process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Meacham, J.E.; Cash, R.J.; Dukelow, G.T.; Babad, H.; Buck, J.W.; Anderson, C.M.; Pulsipher, B.A.; Toth, J.J.; Turner, P.J.

    1994-08-01

    This document records the data quality objectives (DQO) process applied to the Ferrocyanide Safety Issue at the Hanford Site. Specifically, the major recommendations and findings from this Ferrocyanide DQO process are presented. The decision logic diagrams and decision error tolerances also are provided. The document includes the DQO sample-size formulas for determining specific tank sampling requirements, and many of the justifications for decision thresholds and decision error tolerances are briefly described. More detailed descriptions are presented in other Ferrocyanide Safety Program companion documents referenced in this report. This is a living document, and the assumptions contained within will be refined as more data from sampling and characterization become available

  15. Analysis of technical-economic requirements for the construction of a solar power plant on the roof of the business building of the Electrical Engineering Institute 'Nikola Tesla'

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Grbić Maja

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents an analysis of the technical-economic requirements for the construction of a solar power plant on the roof of the business building of the Electrical Engineering Institute 'Nikola Tesla' in Belgrade. Calculation of solar irradiation is performed and the conceptual design of the disposition of solar panels on the roof of the building is shown as well as their connections to the inverters. Conditions for connecting the plant to the distribution network are checked and an economic analysis of the project is performed.

  16. Economic benefit evaluation for renewable energy transmitted by HVDC based on production simulation (PS) and analytic hierarchy process(AHP)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Jinfang; Zheng, Kuan; Liu, Jun; Huang, Xinting

    2018-02-01

    In order to support North and West China’s RE (RE) development and enhance accommodation in reasonable high level, HVDC’s traditional operation curves need some change to follow the output characteristic of RE, which helps to shrink curtailment electricity and curtailment ratio of RE. In this paper, an economic benefit analysis method based on production simulation (PS) and Analytic hierarchy process (AHP) has been proposed. PS is the basic tool to analyze chosen power system operation situation, and AHP method could give a suitable comparison result among many candidate schemes. Based on four different transmission curve combinations, related economic benefit has been evaluated by PS and AHP. The results and related index have shown the efficiency of suggested method, and finally it has been validated that HVDC operation curve in following RE output mode could have benefit in decreasing RE curtailment level and improving economic operation.

  17. THE ENTREPRENEURIAL START-UP PROCESS: THE ROLE OF SOCIAL CAPITAL AND THE SOCIAL ECONOMIC CONDITION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Enkhbold Chuluunbaatar

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Entrepreneurship is a complex phenomenon that involves not only economic activity but also social mechanisms. The intention to become an entrepreneur is a matter not only of one’s individual personality but also of one's interaction with the social environment. This study has three main objectives: predicting the existence of entrepreneurial behavioural intentions in different socio-economic conditions; examining how entrepreneurial behavioural intentions formulate entrepreneurial behaviour; and identifying how social capital influences this relationship. It also aims to reveal the differences between entrepreneurs in a relatively mature free market economy (Taiwan and a newly emerging free market economy (Mongolia. The analysis shows that socio-economic conditions affect the formation of entrepreneurial intentions. There are different approaches to building social capital in a relatively mature market and its newly emerging counterpart. The tendency of having high trust and social ties was found in Taiwanese entrepreneurs, while monitoring is commonly found among Mongolian entrepreneurs.

  18. Defining Constellation Suit Helmet Field of View Requirements Employing a Mission Segment Based Reduction Process

    Science.gov (United States)

    McFarland, Shane

    2009-01-01

    Field of view has always been a design feature paramount to helmets, and in particular space suits, where the helmet must provide an adequate field of view for a large range of activities, environments, and body positions. For Project Constellation, a different approach to helmet requirement maturation was utilized; one that was less a direct function of body position and suit pressure and more a function of the mission segment in which the field of view will be required. Through taxonimization of various parameters that affect suited field of view, as well as consideration for possible nominal and contingency operations during that mission segment, a reduction process was employed to condense the large number of possible outcomes to only six unique field of view angle requirements that still captured all necessary variables while sacrificing minimal fidelity.

  19. The conventional ammunition requirements determination process of the U.S. Navy.

    OpenAIRE

    Mawson, John III

    1985-01-01

    Approved for public release; distribution is unlimited The objective of this thesis is to analyze the Requirements Determination procedures in the Navy's Conventional Gun Ammunition System in an attempt to identify areas for potential improvement. The Conventional Gun Ammunition System involves a logical progression of steps initiated on an annual basis. The Secretary of Defense begins the process by issuing broad guidance for the development of documentation to support b...

  20. Tank waste remediation system privatization infrastructure program requirements and document management process guide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    ROOT, R.W.

    1999-01-01

    This guide provides the Tank Waste Remediation System Privatization Infrastructure Program management with processes and requirements to appropriately control information and documents in accordance with the Tank Waste Remediation System Configuration Management Plan (Vann 1998b). This includes documents and information created by the program, as well as non-program generated materials submitted to the project. It provides appropriate approval/control, distribution and filing systems

  1. Processes of globalization, economic policy and the role of state in raw materials and energy complex

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vladimír Vodzinský

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Authors dedicate this article to impacts of constrains in paradigm of potentials forming our society.As entire societies are assembled in certain pattern, this article is dedicated to reasoning why economical growth builton influence and a use of knowledge of the reasons would accelerate consumer orientation of reproduction cycle on the levelof ownership.Both of these, causes and reasons, result in aggravation of social order and ecological crises.End products of globalization and concomitant state economic policies do not lead to crisis solution nor do they lead to effectivedisappearance of their consequences.

  2. A mechanism for revising accreditation standards: a study of the process, resources required and evaluation outcomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greenfield, David; Civil, Mike; Donnison, Andrew; Hogden, Anne; Hinchcliff, Reece; Westbrook, Johanna; Braithwaite, Jeffrey

    2014-11-21

    The study objective was to identify and describe the process, resources and expertise required for the revision of accreditation standards, and report outcomes arising from such activities. Secondary document analysis of materials from an accreditation standards development agency. The Royal Australian College of General Practitioners' (RACGP) documents, minutes and reports related to the revision of the accreditation standards were examined. The RACGP revision of the accreditation standards was conducted over a 12 month period and comprised six phases with multiple tasks, including: review methodology planning; review of the evidence base and each standard; new material development; constructing field trial methodology; drafting, trialling and refining new standards; and production of new standards. Over 100 individuals participated, with an additional 30 providing periodic input and feedback. Participants were drawn from healthcare professional associations, primary healthcare services, accreditation agencies, government agencies and public health organisations. Their expertise spanned: project management; standards development and writing; primary healthcare practice; quality and safety improvement methodologies; accreditation implementation and surveying; and research. The review and development process was shaped by five issues: project expectations; resource and time requirements; a collaborative approach; stakeholder engagement; and the product produced. The RACGP evaluation was that participants were positive about their experience, the standards produced and considered them relevant for the sector. The revision of accreditation standards requires considerable resources and expertise, drawn from a broad range of stakeholders. Collaborative, inclusive processes that engage key stakeholders helps promote greater industry acceptance of the standards.

  3. Scalable, Economical Fabrication Processes for Ultra-Compact Warm-White LEDs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lowes, Ted [Cree, Inc., Durham, NC (United States)

    2016-01-31

    Conventional warm-white LED component fabrication consists of a large number of sequential steps which are required to incorporate electrical, mechanical, and optical functionality into the component. Each of these steps presents cost and yield challenges which multiply throughout the entire process. Although there has been significant progress in LED fabrication over the last decade, significant advances are needed to enable further reductions in cost per lumen while not sacrificing efficacy or color quality. Cree conducted a focused 18-month program to develop a new low-cost, high-efficiency light emitting diode (LED) architecture enabled by novel large-area parallel processing technologies, reduced number of fabrication steps, and minimized raw materials use. This new scheme is expected to enable ultra-compact LED components exhibiting simultaneously high efficacy and high color quality. By the end of the program, Cree fabricated warm-white LEDs with a room-temperature “instant on” efficacy of >135 lm/W at ~3500K and 90 CRI (when driven at the DOE baseline current density of 35 A/cm2). Cree modified the conventional LED fabrication process flow in a manner that is expected to translate into simultaneously high throughput and yield for ultra-compact packages. Building on its deep expertise in LED wafer fabrication, Cree developed these ultra-compact LEDs to have no compromises in color quality or efficacy compared to their conventional counterparts. Despite their very small size, the LEDs will also be robustly electrically integrated into luminaire systems with the same attach yield as conventional packages. The versatility of the prototype high-efficacy LED architecture will likely benefit solid-state lighting (SSL) luminaire platforms ranging from bulbs to troffers. We anticipate that the prototype LEDs will particularly benefit luminaires with large numbers of distributed compact packages, such as linear and area luminaires (e.g. troffers). The fraction of

  4. Economically viable biochemical processes for the advanced rural biorefinery and downstream recovery operations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rural biorefineries offer an alternative to traditional ethanol production by providing the opportunity to produce fuel on site to reduce costs associated with biomass transportation thus making the fuel economically viable. Widespread installation of rural biorefineries could lead to increased upt...

  5. Economics Of Small-Scale Palm Oil Processing In Ikwerre And ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Palm oil is one of the most common products used by almost everybody in Nigeria. Small holders constitute the major producers of palm oil in Ikwerre and Etche Local Government Areas. This study was conducted in Ikwerre and Etche Local Government Areas of Rivers State to determine the economic analysis of ...

  6. Process Design and Economics for Biochemical Conversion of Lignocellulosic Biomass to Ethanol

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    2011-05-02

    The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) promotes the production of ethanol and other liquid fuels from lignocellulosic biomass feedstocks by funding fundamental and applied research that advances the state of technology in biomass collection, conversion, and sustainability. As part of its involvement in the program, the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) investigates the production economics of these fuels.

  7. The Role of Educational Quality and Quantity in the Process of Economic Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castello-Climent, Amparo; Hidalgo-Cabrillana, Ana

    2012-01-01

    We develop a theory of human capital investment to study the effects of school quality on student choices of education, and to understand its effect on economic growth. In a dynamic general equilibrium closed economy, primary education is mandatory but there is an opportunity to continue to secondary education and beyond. High-quality education…

  8. The new economics of labour migration and the role of remittances in the migration process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, J E

    1999-01-01

    This analysis considers international migration remittances and their impact on development in migrant-sending areas. The new economics of labor migration (NELM) posit that remittances lessen production and market constraints faced by households in poor developing countries. The article states that remittances may be a positive factor in economic development, which should be nurtured by economic policies. The impact of remittances and migration on development varies across locales and is influenced by migrants' remittance behavior and by economic contexts. Criteria for measuring development gains may include assessments of income growth, inequity, and poverty alleviation. It is hard to gauge the level of remittances, especially when remittances may not flow through formal banking systems. The International Monetary Fund distinguishes between worker remittances sent home for over 1 year; employee compensation including the value of in-kind benefits for under 1 year; and the net worth of migrants who move between countries. This sum amounted to under $2 billion in 1970 and $70 billion in 1995. The cumulative sum of remittances, employee compensation, and transfers was almost $1 trillion, of which almost 66% was worker remittances, 25% was employee compensation, and almost 10% was transfers during 1980-95. Total world remittances surpass overseas development assistance. Remittances are unequally distributed across and between countries. Migration research does not adequately reveal the range and complexity of impacts. Push factors can limit options for use of remittances to stimulate development.

  9. Crisis of the urban development process and the ecological, economic and social sustainability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lopez Estrada, Raul Eduardo

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Diverse theoretical efforts have been made in order to understand the urban problematic related to sustainability. Among them is an analysis that highlight an inadequacy about the sustainability concept which is only limited to an ecological matter and it not considers that the most important issue is political and social. This has explained the failure of several international meetings about the matter, when the contradiction has not been considered in the capitalist system where the economic interest and interest in sustainability contrasts. Then, in the political and social field is where many efforts should be channeled as urban regional research priorities for the next decade. In this regard, most of the academic analysis have been focused on two main aspects: on the one hand, those who consider that the solution to the sustainability problem lies in the change of the relations of production, without clearly specifying what this means; and on the other hand, the analyses that estimate the relevance of making changes inside of the capitalist system where the State would play an important role. In both cases a mental change is required to dealing with the problem of sustainability and new forms of population participation to perform it. Muchos esfuerzos teóricos se han realizado para comprender la problemática urbana vinculada con la sustentabilidad. Entre ellos hay análisis que destacan la insuficiencia de la definición del concepto sustentabilidad cuando éste es reducido únicamente al aspecto de la ecología sin considerar que el problema más importante es político y social. Esto ha explicado el fracaso de muchas reuniones internacionales sobre el tema, cuando no se ha considerado la contradicción en el sistema capitalista donde se contrapone el interés económico y el interés por la sustentabilidad. Es entonces en el terreno político y social donde muchos esfuerzos deben canalizarse como prioridades de investigación urbano

  10. Rolling Stock Planning at DSB S-tog - Processes, Cost Structures and Requirements

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thorlacius, Per

    A central issue for operators of suburban passenger train transport systems is providing sufficient number of seats for the passengers while at the same time minimising operating costs. The process of providing this is called rolling stock planning. This technical report documents the terminology......, the processes, the cost structures and the requirements for rolling stock planning at DSB S-tog, the suburban passenger train operator of the City of Copenhagen. The focus of the technical report is directed at practical train operator oriented issues. The technical report is thought to serve as a basis...... for investigating better methods to perform the rolling stock planning (to be the topic of later papers). This technical report is produced as a part of the current industrial Ph. D. project to improve the rolling stock planning process of DSB S-tog....

  11. New manufacturing routes for micro polymer manufacturing for the next decades – Process chains to strengthen EC economic power

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bolt, Pieter; Azcarate, Sabino; Khan Malek, Chantal

    Miniaturised products have numerous applications in different areas, such as in the automotive industry, telecommunications and medical engineering. In biotechnological applications, for example, miniaturised systems have gained considerable acceptance for analytical and measurement applications......, as they improve conventional systems in terms of sample size, response times, analytical performance, process control and throughput. MEMS and MOEMS are other examples of technologies that relies heavily on miniaturised integrated mechanical, optical and electrical components. These products often include either...... both functional and economical demands. In high-volume production, mould (pattern) based replication is often most suited, while in small-volume production environment, processes that don’t need product specific tooling are often more economical. A trend is to integrate functionalities...

  12. Evaluating the impact of the carbon dioxide capturing process on the indices of economic efficiency in thermal power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marukhyan, V.Z.; Elbakyan, S.H.

    2017-01-01

    Taking into account the input of carbon dioxide as a greenhouse gas in the global warming process, the technological solutions of its capturing, and the implementation possibilities in environmentally safe thermal power plants are considered. In power plants equipped with effective systems for cleaning the fuel gas and the coal gasification, the influence of the CO 2 reduction and realization of quotes on the indices of economic efficiency is estimated

  13. Management of Ecological-Economic Processes of Pollution Accumulation and Assimilation in the Coastal Zone Marine Environment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I.E. Timchenko

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available A model for managing the balance of pollution (getting into the sea with the coastal runoff assimilation and accumulation, based on the negative feedback between the coastal economic system efficiency and penalties for the sea coastal zone pollution is proposed. The model is constructed by the Adaptive Balance of Causes method and is intended for finding a rational balance of profit from the use of assimilative resources of the marine environment and the costs of maintaining its quality. The increase of pollutions in the coastal zone is taken as proportional to the volume of product realization. The decrease of pollution concentration is related to the environment protection activities paid for by the production. The model contains the agents for managing the volume of the economic system generalized production release. The agents control pollution accumulation rate at different ones of the bio-chemical processes resulting in the marine environment natural purification. Scenario analysis of ecological-economic processes in the “Land–Sea” system is carried out, and the dependencies of economic subsystem production profitability on penalty sanctions limiting the pollutant flux getting into the sea are constructed. Sea temperature and water mass dynamics effect on these processes is considered. The scenarios of their intra-annual variability are constructed. It is shown that the sea temperature and near-water wind consideration in the model have a significant effect on marine environment pollution level and production profitability. The conclusion is that the proposed adaptive simulation model “Sea–Land” can be used for forecasting the scenarios of coastal subsystem production processes (the volume of generalized product manufacturing, production cost, profitability in parallel with the forecast of pollution concentration in the sea scenarios.

  14. Process Design and Economics for the Production of Algal Biomass: Algal Biomass Production in Open Pond Systems and Processing Through Dewatering for Downstream Conversion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Davis, Ryan [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Markham, Jennifer [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Kinchin, Christopher [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Grundl, Nicholas [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Tan, Eric C.D. [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Humbird, David [DWH Process Consulting, Denver, CO (United States)

    2016-02-17

    This report describes in detail a set of aspirational design and process targets to better understand the realistic economic potential for the production of algal biomass for subsequent conversion to biofuels and/or coproducts, based on the use of open pond cultivation systems and a series of dewatering operations to concentrate the biomass up to 20 wt% solids (ash-free dry weight basis).

  15. Integrated furfural and first generation bioethanol production: process simulation and techno-economic analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. F. L. Silva

    Full Text Available Abstract Furfural is a base chemical with a wide range of applications and with a great opportunity for market growth in the near term. Derived from biomass, its production may be incorporated to the Brazilian chemical industry using sugarcane bagasse as feedstock. In this context, the integration of a furfural plant to a first generation bioethanol facility, within the biorefinery concept, was simulated considering different scenarios compared to an autonomous bioethanol distillery. The economic analysis of the different scenarios showed that the revenues from furfural commercialization increase the internal rate of return of the project for maximum furfural production (22.0% in comparison to a conventional ethanol distillery (13.5%, despite the decrease in electricity output. Moreover, the economic analysis of the results pointed out the possibility of lowering furfural prices to levels that could lead to its use as a precursor for biofuels.

  16. An Analysis of Conditional Dependencies of Covariance Matrices for Economic Processes in Selected EU Countries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Janiga-Ćmiel Anna

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The paper looks at the issues related to the research on and assessment of the contagion effect. Based on several examinations of two selected EU countries, Poland paired with one of the EU member states; it presents the interaction between their economic development. A DCC-GARCH model constructed for the purpose of the study was used to generate a covariance matrix Ht, which enabled the calculation of correlation matrices Rt. The resulting variance vectors were used to present a linear correlation model on which a further analysis of the contagion effect was based. The aim of the study was to test a contagion effect among selected EU countries in the years 2000–2014. The transmission channel under study was the GDP of a selected country. The empirical studies confirmed the existence of the contagion effect between the economic development of the Polish and selected EU economies.

  17. GENDER MAINSTREAMING IN LOCAL ECONOMIC DEVELOPMENT PROCESSES: A SOUTH AFRICAN PERSPECTIVE

    OpenAIRE

    Vyas-Doorgapersad, Shikha

    2017-01-01

    The United Nations Millennium Development Goal [MDG] (Goal 1; Poverty reduction) in South Africa had not achieved all of its set targets. There are still economic disparities complemented by a wide ranging pollution-to-unemployment ratio creating gender-differentiation in poverty outcomes. MDG Goal 3 (Gender equality and women empowerment) also existed in isolation and was not explicitly aligned with other goals. The post-MDG review led to the establishment of Sustainable Development Goals (S...

  18. Integration Processes within the Common Economic Space: Hazards for Russian Milk Producers

    OpenAIRE

    Natalia Shagayda

    2013-01-01

    The principal differences between economic systems in Russia and Belarus condition price advantages of Belarusian products over those produced in Russia. Belarusian producers operate under government restrictions on prices paid by them for agricultural inputs and received by them from marketing of their produce on the domestic market. In this situation penetration into the Russian market enables them to get larger profits owing to higher market prices for food in Russia. As a result Russian b...

  19. Radiation-resistant requirements analysis of device and control component for advanced spent fuel management process

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Song, Tai Gil; Park, G. Y.; Kim, S. Y.; Lee, J. Y.; Kim, S. H.; Yoon, J. S. [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Taejeon (Korea)

    2002-02-01

    It is known that high levels of radiation can cause significant damage by altering the properties of materials. A practical understanding of the effects of radiation - how radiation affects various types of materials and components - is required to design equipment to operate reliably in a gamma radiation environment. When designing equipment to operate in a high gamma radiation environment, such as will be present in a nuclear spent fuel handling facility, several important steps should be followed. In order to active test of the advanced spent fuel management process, the radiation-resistant analysis of the device and control component for active test which is concerned about the radiation environment is conducted. Also the system design process is analysis and reviewed. In the foreign literature, 'threshold' values are generally reported. the threshold values are normally the dose required to begin degradation in a particular material property. The radiation effect analysis for the device of vol-oxidation and metalization, which are main device for the advanced spent fuel management process, is performed by the SCALE 4.4 code. 5 refs., 4 figs., 13 tabs. (Author)

  20. Estimating energy requirement in cashew (Anacardium occidentale L.) nut processing operations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jekayinfa, S.O. [Department of Agricultural Engineering, Ladoke Akintola University of Technology, P.M.B. 4000, Ogbomoso, Oyo State (Nigeria); Bamgboye, A.I. [Department of Agricultural Engineering, University of Ibadan, Ibadan (Nigeria)

    2006-07-15

    This work deals with a study on estimation of energy consumption in eight readily defined unit operations of cashew nut processing. Data for analysis were collected from nine cashew nut mills stratified into small, medium and large categories to represent different mechanization levels. Series of equations were developed to easily compute requirements of electricity, fuel and labour for each of the unit operations. The computation of energy use was done using spreadsheet program on Microsoft Excel. The results of application test of the equations show that the total energy intensity in the cashew nut mills varied between 0.21 and 1.161MJ/kg. Electrical energy intensity varied between 0.0052 and 0.029MJ/kg, while thermal energy intensity varied from 0.085 to 1.064MJ/kg. The two identified energy intensive operations in cashew nut processing are cashew nut drying and cashew nut roasting, altogether accounting for over 85% of the total energy consumption in all the three mill categories. Thermal energy, obtained from diesel fuel, represented about 90% of the unit energy cost for cashew nut processing. The developed equations have therefore proven to be a useful tool for carrying out budgeting, forecasting energy requirements and planning plant expansion. (author)

  1. The Identification and Comparison of the Requirements Placed on Product Managers during the Recruitment Process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wroblowská Zuzana

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The submitted paper focuses on personality traits and behavioural competencies of a key role bearer in product oriented marketing management, generally referred to as product management. An interdisciplinary approach was applied while looking into this subject, since both research into theoretical bases and analysis of the current state of the topic and the tendencies of its development required work in several fields of study. Based on research in the field of secondary data, the assumption was set that a product manager is an example of a knowledge worker of the 21st century and that the business practice sees him/her as such, which has an effect on the requirements a candidate for this position is confronted with in the recruitment process. An independent research project was carried out and it confirmed that product managers are considered to be knowledge workers and that independence and analytical thinking skills were among the most common requirements for product managers both in 2007 and 2014. A comparison of results from 2007 and 2014 also showed some differences. The statistical verification confirmed a shift in requirements within the interpersonal competency group. The findings were used to formulate recommendations for the recruitment strategy and realization of selection for positions in product management.

  2. Analysis of technical-economic requirements for the construction of a solar power plant on the roof of the business building of the Electrical Engineering Institute 'Nikola Tesla'

    OpenAIRE

    Grbić, Maja; Antić, Radoslav; Ponoćko, Jelena; Mikulović, Jovan; Đurišić, Željko

    2014-01-01

    This paper presents an analysis of the technical-economic requirements for the construction of a solar power plant on the roof of the business building of the Electrical Engineering Institute 'Nikola Tesla' in Belgrade. Calculation of solar irradiation is performed and the conceptual design of the disposition of solar panels on the roof of the building is shown as well as their connections to the inverters. Conditions for connecting the plant to the distribution network are checked and an eco...

  3. Economic Darwinism

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sloth, Birgitte; Whitta-Jacobsen, Hans Jørgen

    2011-01-01

    We define an evolutionary process of "economic Darwinism" for playing the field, symmetric games. The process captures two forces. One is "economic selection": if current behavior leads to payoff differences, behavior yielding lowest payoff has strictly positive probability of being replaced...... in the literature. Using this result, we demonstrate that generally under positive (negative) externalities, economic Darwinism implies even more under- (over-)activity than does Nash equilibrium....

  4. Economic Darwinism

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sloth, Birgitte; Whitta-Jacobsen, Hans Jørgen

    We define an evolutionary process of “economic Darwinism” for playing-the-field, symmetric games. The process captures two forces. One is “economic selection”: if current behavior leads to payoff differences, behavior yielding lowest payoff has strictly positive probability of being replaced...... in the literature. Using this result, we demonstrate that generally under positive (negative) externalities, economic Darwinism implies even more under- (over-) activity than does Nash equilibrium...

  5. Qualitative Economics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fast, Michael; Clark, Woodrow

    2012-01-01

    the everyday economic life is the central issue and is discussed from the perspective of interactionism. It is a perspective developed from the Lifeworld philosophical traditions, such as symbolic interactionism and phenomenology, seeking to develop the thinking of economics. The argument is that economics...... and the process of thinking, e.g. the ontology and the epistemology. Keywords: qualitative, interaction, process, organizing, thinking, perspective, epistemology....

  6. Purposeful engineering economics

    CERN Document Server

    Chadderton, Ronald A

    2015-01-01

    This textbook/course supplement stands as a unique and highly original complement to the traditional engineering economics curriculum. Its primarily narrative approach conveys the essence of an “Austrian" economic perspective on cash flow analysis and decision making in engineering, without extensive tables and graphs, and requires very little mathematics. The book’s objective is to add a new perspective to the usual study of cash flow analysis and solely econometric engineering decision making. The author draws on the methodology of the Austrian Economists—a school of economic thought that bases its study of economic phenomena on the interpretation and analysis of the purposeful actions of individuals. The book includes an array of illustrative case studies examined in detail by the author and emphasizes the importance of market processes and price signals to coordinate engineering plans. Purposeful Engineering Economics is an ideal resource for students, teaching faculty, and practicing professional ...

  7. Hydro-Economic Modeling with Minimum Data Requirements: An Application to the São Francisco River Basin, Brazil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torres, M.; Maneta, M.; Vosti, S.; Wallender, W.; Howitt, R.

    2008-12-01

    Policymakers have been charged with the efficient, equitable, and sustainable use of water resources of the São Francisco River Basin (SFRB), Brazil, and also with the promotion of economic growth and the reduction of poverty within the basin. To date, policymakers lack scientific evidence on the potential consequences for growth, poverty alleviation or environmental sustainability of alternative uses of water resources. To address these key knowledge gaps, we have linked a hydrologic and an economic model of agriculture to investigate how economic decisions affect available water, and vice versa. More specifically, the models are used to predict the effects of the application of Brazilian federal surface water use policies on farmer's net revenues and on the hydrologic system. The Economic Model of Agriculture. A spatially explicit, farm-level model capable of accommodating a broad array of farm sizes and farm/farmer characteristics is developed and used to predict the effects of alternative water policies and neighbors' water use patterns on crop mix choice. A production function comprised of seven categories of non-water-related inputs used in agriculture (land, fertilizers, pesticides, seeds, hired labor, family labor and machinery) and four water-related inputs used in agriculture (applied water, irrigation labor, irrigation capital and energy) is estimated. The parameters emerging from this estimated production function are then introduced into a non-linear, net revenue maximization positive mathematical programming algorithm that is used for simulations. The Hydrological Model. MIKE Basin, a semi-distributed hydrology model, is used to calculate water budgets for the SFRB. MIKE Basin calculates discharge at selected nodes by accumulating runoff down the river network; it simulates reservoirs using stage-area-storage and downstream release rule curves. The data used to run the model are discharge to calculate local runoff, precipitation, reference ET, crop

  8. Analysing impacts of the economic crisis on the pre–start ups process of business students in Germany.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Walter Ruda

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available The article is part of the empirical research project “Starting up Businesses and Entrepreneurship by Students” (GESt–study and analyzes potential impacts of the economic crisis on the pre–start–up process of business students surveyed before and during the downturn at four German universities (of applied sciences, what supports the advancement of entrepreneurship education and support within two different macroeconomic contexts. Though in Germany recessions typically animate more persons to self–employment, these business start–ups are mostly based on necessity–driven entrepreneurship. But particularly opportunity entrepreneurship has positive effects on economic growth and employment. Whereas no significant differences can be detected regarding their start–up propensities, the economic crisis indeed has heightened the intended start–up time as well as the necessity–driven start–up motivation of the surveyed business students, but not their start–up motivation from economic self–realization. Therefore, self–employment as vocational alternative has to be highlighted stronger and entrepreneurial basic knowledge has to be taught adequately to the students so that they are able to mature as potential entrepreneurs at their universities – the location where specialized knowledge about their subsequent professionalism is imparted – what facilitates them to generate future innovations accompanied by enduring and high–skilled employment.

  9. INCORPORATING ENVIRONMENTAL AND ECONOMIC CONSIDERATIONS INTO PROCESS DESIGN: THE WASTE REDUCTION (WAR) ALGORITHM

    Science.gov (United States)

    A general theory known as the WAste Reduction (WASR) algorithm has been developed to describe the flow and the generation of potential environmental impact through a chemical process. This theory integrates environmental impact assessment into chemical process design Potential en...

  10. Process and economic evaluation of the extraction and purification of recombinant beta-glucuronidase from transgenic corn

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evangelista; Kusnadi; Howard; Nikolov

    1998-07-01

    A process model for the recovery and purification of recombinant beta-glucuronidase (rGUS) from transgenic corn was developed, and the process economics were estimated. The base-case bioprocessing plant operates 7500 h/year processing 1.74 million (MM) kg of transgenic corn containing 0.015% (db) rGUS. The process consists of milling the corn into flour, extraction of protein by using 50 mM sodium phosphate buffer, and rGUS purification by ion exchange and hydrophobic interaction chromatography. About 137 kg of rGUS of 83% (db) purity can be produced annually. The production cost amounted to $43 000/kg of rGUS. The cost of milling, protein extraction, and rGUS purification accounted for 6, 40, and 48% of annual operating cost, respectively. The cost of transgenic corn was 31% of the raw material costs or 6% of the annual operating cost. About 78% of the cost of buffer and water were incurred in the protein extraction section, while 88% of other consumables were from the purification section. The sensitivity analysis indicated that rGUS can be produced profitably from corn even at the 0.015% (db) expression level, assuming a selling price of $100 000/kg GUS. An increase in rGUS expression levels up to 0.08% significantly improves the process economics.

  11. Eco-Efficient Process Improvement at the Early Development Stage: Identifying Environmental and Economic Process Hotspots for Synergetic Improvement Potential.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piccinno, Fabiano; Hischier, Roland; Seeger, Stefan; Som, Claudia

    2018-05-15

    We present here a new eco-efficiency process-improvement method to highlight combined environmental and costs hotspots of the production process of new material at a very early development stage. Production-specific and scaled-up results for life cycle assessment (LCA) and production costs are combined in a new analysis to identify synergetic improvement potentials and trade-offs, setting goals for the eco-design of new processes. The identified hotspots and bottlenecks will help users to focus on the relevant steps for improvements from an eco-efficiency perspective and potentially reduce their associated environmental impacts and production costs. Our method is illustrated with a case study of nanocellulose. The results indicate that the production route should start with carrot pomace, use heat and solvent recovery, and deactivate the enzymes with bleach instead of heat. To further improve the process, the results show that focus should be laid on the carrier polymer, sodium alginate, and the production of the GripX coating. Overall, the method shows that the underlying LCA scale-up framework is valuable for purposes beyond conventional LCA studies and is applicable at a very early stage to provide researchers with a better understanding of their production process.

  12. Assessment of economic instruments for countries with low municipal waste management performance: An approach based on the analytic hierarchy process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kling, Maximilian; Seyring, Nicole; Tzanova, Polia

    2016-09-01

    Economic instruments provide significant potential for countries with low municipal waste management performance in decreasing landfill rates and increasing recycling rates for municipal waste. In this research, strengths and weaknesses of landfill tax, pay-as-you-throw charging systems, deposit-refund systems and extended producer responsibility schemes are compared, focusing on conditions in countries with low waste management performance. In order to prioritise instruments for implementation in these countries, the analytic hierarchy process is applied using results of a literature review as input for the comparison. The assessment reveals that pay-as-you-throw is the most preferable instrument when utility-related criteria are regarded (wb = 0.35; analytic hierarchy process distributive mode; absolute comparison) mainly owing to its waste prevention effect, closely followed by landfill tax (wb = 0.32). Deposit-refund systems (wb = 0.17) and extended producer responsibility (wb = 0.16) rank third and fourth, with marginal differences owing to their similar nature. When cost-related criteria are additionally included in the comparison, landfill tax seems to provide the highest utility-cost ratio. Data from literature concerning cost (contrary to utility-related criteria) is currently not sufficiently available for a robust ranking according to the utility-cost ratio. In general, the analytic hierarchy process is seen as a suitable method for assessing economic instruments in waste management. Independent from the chosen analytic hierarchy process mode, results provide valuable indications for policy-makers on the application of economic instruments, as well as on their specific strengths and weaknesses. Nevertheless, the instruments need to be put in the country-specific context along with the results of this analytic hierarchy process application before practical decisions are made. © The Author(s) 2016.

  13. METHOD FOR SECURITY SPECIFICATION SOFTWARE REQUIREMENTS AS A MEANS FOR IMPLEMENTING A SOFTWARE DEVELOPMENT PROCESS SECURE - MERSEC

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Castro Mecías, L.T.

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Often security incidents that have the object or use the software as a means of causing serious damage and legal, economic consequences, etc. Results of a survey by Kaspersky Lab reflectvulnerabilities in software are the main cause of security incidents in enterprises, the report shows that 85% of them have reported security incidents and vulnerabilities in software are the main reason is further estimated that incidents can cause significant losses estimated from 50,000 to $ 649.000. (1 In this regard academic and industry research focuses on proposals based on reducing vulnerabilities and failures of technology, with a positive influence on how the software is developed. A development process for improved safety practices and should include activities from the initial phases of the software; so that security needs are identified, manage risk and appropriate measures are implemented. This article discusses a method of analysis, acquisition and requirements specification of the software safety analysis on the basis of various proposals and deficiencies identified from participant observation in software development teams. Experiments performed using the proposed yields positive results regarding the reduction of security vulnerabilities and compliance with the safety objectives of the software.

  14. The changing economic role of women in the urbanization process: a preliminary report from Zimbabwe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drakakis-smith, D W

    1984-01-01

    This article reports the findings of a survey, conducted to collect information on the present economic situation of women and the constraints they face in the choice of work in Zimbabwe, which has recently witnessed a steady growth in its urbanization. Questionnaires were administered to women in 3 district areas of the city of Harare--a middle class suburb within easy commuting distance to the main white collar employment in the city, a low income area of site-and-service housing in the semiperiphery of the city, and a densely populated, lower income, inner city district. There are clear contrasts among the economic activities of women in the 3 areas studied, but the factors which influence the activities seem to vary between and within the social groups, relating somewhat uneasily to the generalized concepts on the female labor market. The occupational analysis of Harare reveals not only the inadequacy of conventional dualistic theories on the labor market, but the somewhat limited utility of westernized concepts on the domestic role of women. The survey also showed strong spatial and geographic influence on women's work and the different opportunities that arise from particular residential locations in Harare. However, this was clearly tempered by social contacts and migrational histories, especially in the inner city areas, where proximity to potential employment was not exploited by many recent migrants. Political factors too were found to play an important role, in the particular circumstance of Zimbabwe, in affecting the residential and economic opportunities for households. In the middle class suburb and low income area studied, the allocation of site and service plots or mortgages was strongly influenced by one's previous combatant status during the struggle for independence. For instance, families with such a status which could be earned by men as well as women), and who are also members of the ruling ZANU-PF party have been favored since 1980.

  15. Process model and economic analysis of ethanol production from sugar beet raw juice as part of the cleaner production concept.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vučurović, Damjan G; Dodić, Siniša N; Popov, Stevan D; Dodić, Jelena M; Grahovac, Jovana A

    2012-01-01

    The batch fermentation process of sugar beet processing intermediates by free yeast cells is the most widely used method in the Autonomous Province of Vojvodina for producing ethanol as fuel. In this study a process and cost model was developed for producing ethanol from raw juice. The model can be used to calculate capital investment costs, unit production costs and operating costs for a plant producing 44 million l of 99.6% pure ethanol annually. In the sensitivity analysis the influence of sugar beet and yeast price, as well as the influence of recycled biomass on process economics, ethanol production costs and project feasibility was examined. The results of this study clearly demonstrate that the raw material costs have a significant influence on the expenses for producing ethanol. Also, the optimal percentage of recycled biomass turned out to be in the range from 50% to 70%. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Economic analysis of the hydrogen production by means of the thermo-chemistry process iodine-sulfur with nuclear energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Solorzano S, C.; Francois L, J. L.

    2011-11-01

    In this work an economic study was realized about a centralized plant of hydrogen production that works by means of a thermo-chemistry cycle of sulfur-iodine and uses heat coming from a nuclear power plant of IV generation, with base in the software -Hydrogen Economic Evaluation Programme- obtained through the IAEA. The sustainable technology that is glimpsed next for the generation of hydrogen is to great scale and based on processes of high temperature coupled to nuclear power plants, being the most important the cycle S-I and the electrolysis to high temperature, for what objective references are presented that can serve as base for the taking of decisions for its introduction in Mexico. After detailing the economic models that uses the software for the calculation of the even cost of hydrogen production and the characteristics, so much of the nuclear plant constituted by fourth generation reactors, as of the plant of hydrogen production, is proposed a -base- case, obtaining a preliminary even cost of hydrogen production with this process; subsequently different cases are studied starting from which are carried out sensibility analysis in several parameters that could rebound in this cost, taking into account that these reactors are still in design and planning stages. (Author)

  17. THE COMMUNICATION PROCESS IN THE BUSINESS ENVIRONMENT. ECONOMIC AND MORAL PRINCIPLES FROM THE PERSPECTIVE OF SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    CLAUDIA ELENA PAICU

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available The economic communication is more than a decade a point of interest due to the communication supports development and the diversity of information, on one hand, and due to the need for documentation and knowledge, both at the individual level and at the level of society, on the other hand. Thus the freedom into thinking and expression led to the development of communication activities and collecting them in a new vision. The process of communication has become, in a relatively short time, one of the engines of the economy, but also an integral part of what is meant to be today, the psycho-sociology of modern human societies. In this context, we propose an analysis of the communicative process that takes place in the economic environment, since the information and communication technology is, at present, a real factor in sustainable development. We start the analysis from the tight interdependence between the economic communication and the development of human culture as a basic factor for efficient management and for sustainable development overall.

  18. Coke oven gas to methanol process integrated with CO_2 recycle for high energy efficiency, economic benefits and low emissions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gong, Min-hui; Yi, Qun; Huang, Yi; Wu, Guo-sheng; Hao, Yan-hong; Feng, Jie; Li, Wen-ying

    2017-01-01

    Highlights: • CO_2 recycle assistance with COG to CH_3OH with dry reforming is proposed. • New process with dry reforming improves H_2 utilization and energy saving. • Process with H_2 separation (CWHS) is more preferable to CH_3OH output. • CWHS shows an excellent performance in energy, economy and CO_2 emission reduction. - Abstract: A process of CO_2 recycle to supply carbon for assisting with coke oven gas to methanol process is proposed to realize clean and efficient coke oven gas utilization. Two CO_2 recycle schemes with respect to coke oven gas, namely with and without H_2 separation before reforming, are developed. It is revealed that the process with H_2 separation is more beneficial to element and energy efficiency improvement, and it also presents a better techno-economic performance in comparison with the conventional coke oven gas to methanol process. The exergy efficiency, direct CO_2 emission, and internal rate of return of the process with H_2 separation are 73.9%, 0.69 t/t-methanol, and 35.1%, respectively. This excellent performance implies that reforming technology selection, H_2 utilization efficiency, and CO_2 recycle ways have important influences on the performance of the coke oven gas to methanol process. The findings of this study represent significant progress for future improvements of the coke oven gas to methanol process, especially CO_2 conversion integrated with coke oven gas utilization in the coking industry.

  19. Hazard Analysis of Software Requirements Specification for Process Module of FPGA-based Controllers in NPP

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jung; Sejin; Kim, Eui-Sub; Yoo, Junbeom [Konkuk University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Keum, Jong Yong; Lee, Jang-Soo [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-10-15

    Software in PLC, FPGA which are used to develop I and C system also should be analyzed to hazards and risks before used. NUREG/CR-6430 proposes the method for performing software hazard analysis. It suggests analysis technique for software affected hazards and it reveals that software hazard analysis should be performed with the aspects of software life cycle such as requirements analysis, design, detailed design, implements. It also provides the guide phrases for applying software hazard analysis. HAZOP (Hazard and operability analysis) is one of the analysis technique which is introduced in NUREG/CR-6430 and it is useful technique to use guide phrases. HAZOP is sometimes used to analyze the safety of software. Analysis method of NUREG/CR-6430 had been used in Korea nuclear power plant software for PLC development. Appropriate guide phrases and analysis process are selected to apply efficiently and NUREG/CR-6430 provides applicable methods for software hazard analysis is identified in these researches. We perform software hazard analysis of FPGA software requirements specification with two approaches which are NUREG/CR-6430 and HAZOP with using general GW. We also perform the comparative analysis with them. NUREG/CR-6430 approach has several pros and cons comparing with the HAZOP with general guide words and approach. It is enough applicable to analyze the software requirements specification of FPGA.

  20. The impact of economic uncertainty on the energy decision making process: Nuclear energy in Israel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bargur, J.

    1984-01-01

    The study presented here is based on an analysis undertaken to evaluate the feasibility of establishing nuclear power plants in Israel. While the actual figures for the various sensitivity tests are somewhat disguised because of the sensitivity of the topic, the relative impact of moving from one assumption to another is presented and analysed. A matrix of qualitative results has been formulated for this analysis and, once these relationships have been established qualitatively, subjective weights have been applied to the various assumptions of the three most relevant parameters, the deviations from the most probable coal price, discount rate and level of investment. The analysis evaluates the impact of these weights on the decision as to whether the project prospects are most favourable, are of marginal value, or should be rejected. The significance of this analysis is its demonstration of the major role to be played by the economic planner within each country, and his responsibility to provide macro-economic guidelines for evaluating major infrastructural undertakings such as energy projects

  1. National cultural values: reflections on the formation process of future leaders in international economic cooperation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MARIJA NIKOLIC

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The trend towards foreign investments in Serbia has been in rapid progress in recent years. The biggest and most valuable numbers of investments are coming from Italy. The authors’ expectation is that the trend of Italian investments in future will continue; therefore it is of high importance for the representatives of both countries’ business sectors to understand and accept differences and similarities to the other country’s business culture. Research of cultural differences between two nations , which are considered like a frame of business culture, helps avoiding possible misunderstandings and improving business cooperation between two countries. Having in mind students of economics and management, on one hand like future leaders of Italian and Serbian business and on other like representatives of the current education value system in the field of economics and management, this study consists of an application of the 7-D Hofstede Model. The application of the model takes place through the administration of two surveys done by students of Serbian Megatrend University, in Belgrade, and Italian Università degli Studi Gabriele d’Annunzio, in Pescara.

  2. Unrealistic Assumptions in Economics: an Analysis under the Logic of Socioeconomic Processes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leonardo Ivarola

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available The realism of assumptions is an ongoing debate within the philosophy of economics. One of the most referenced papers in this matter belongs to Milton Friedman. He defends the use of unrealistic assumptions, not only because of a pragmatic issue, but also the intrinsic difficulties of determining the extent of realism. On the other hand, realists have criticized (and still do today the use of unrealistic assumptions - such as the assumption of rational choice, perfect information, homogeneous goods, etc. However, they did not accompany their statements with a proper epistemological argument that supports their positions. In this work it is expected to show that the realism of (a particular sort of assumptions is clearly relevant when examining economic models, since the system under study (the real economies is not compatible with logic of invariance and of mechanisms, but with the logic of possibility trees. Because of this, models will not function as tools for predicting outcomes, but as representations of alternative scenarios, whose similarity to the real world will be examined in terms of the verisimilitude of a class of model assumptions

  3. Process design and economic evaluation of green extraction methods for recovery of astaxanthin from shrimp waste

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Razi Parjikolaei, Behnaz; Errico, Massimiliano; El-Houri, Rime Bahij

    2017-01-01

    (ASX) from shrimp processing waste. The feasibility of commercial use of the green solvents under plausible process conditions is compared to extraction with a mixture of hexane: isopropanol (Hex:IPA). The process flowsheets describing these processes were modelled by means of SuperPro Designer...... processes with SF or the methyl ester of SF (ME-SF) was 2.5 and 153 ppm with a production cost of 0.06 and 0.16 $/mg of ASX, respectively. In addition, shrimp feed production was considered as a feasible application of the low concentration ASX obtained by SF extraction. A combination of ASX extracted...... with SF and synthetic ASX yielded a shrimp feed production cost comparable to the current market price. The calculated feed price based on the ASX production cost of the other green processes, ME-SF and SCFE, resulted in a significantly higher production cost....

  4. Trends And Economic Assessment Of Integration Processes At The Metal Market

    OpenAIRE

    Olga Aleksandrovna Romanova; Eduard Vyacheslavovich Makarov

    2015-01-01

    The article discussed the integration process from the perspective of three dimensions that characterize the corresponding increase in the number and appearance of new relationships; strength, character, and stability of emerging communications; dynamics and the appropriate form of the process. In the article, trends of development of integration processes in metallurgy are identified, identification of five stages of development in Russian metal trading are justified. We propose a s...

  5. Development Trends And Economic Assessment Of The Integration Processes On The Metals Market

    OpenAIRE

    Romanova, Olga A.; Makarov, Eduard V.

    2018-01-01

    The article examines the integration process from the perspective of three dimensions, which characterize the increase in quantity and appearance of new relationships; strength, character and stability of emerging communications; dynamics and the proper form of the process. The authors identify the development trends of the integration processes in the metals market and provide justification for the breaking of the period of Russian metal trading for 1991–2016 into five stages of development....

  6. 21 CFR 111.55 - What are the requirements to implement a production and process control system?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... production and process control system? 111.55 Section 111.55 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION... to Establish a Production and Process Control System § 111.55 What are the requirements to implement a production and process control system? You must implement a system of production and process...

  7. Application of environmental and economic metrics to guide the development of biocatalytic processes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lima Ramos, Joana; Tufvesson, Pär; Woodley, John

    2014-01-01

    the use of adequate tools to evaluate the performance of a process, in particular during process development. Nevertheless, at the early development stage, evaluation of biocatalytic processes is not a trivial task, not only due to the lack of data, but also because at this stage many of the biocatalytic......). Interestingly, it is often argued that the mild conditions frequently used in biocatalytic reactions (ambient temperature and pressure, neutral pH and aqueous-based media) automatically lead to environmentally-friendly and cost-effective production processes. However, such a conclusion is not justified without...

  8. Process Design and Economics for Conversion of Lignocellulosic Biomass to Ethanol: Thermochemical Pathway by Indirect Gasification and Mixed Alcohol Synthesis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dutta, A.; Talmadge, M.; Hensley, J.; Worley, M.; Dudgeon, D.; Barton, D.; Groendijk, P.; Ferrari, D.; Stears, B.; Searcy, E. M.; Wright, C. T.; Hess, J. R.

    2011-05-01

    This design report describes an up-to-date benchmark thermochemical conversion process that incorporates the latest research from NREL and other sources. Building on a design report published in 2007, NREL and its subcontractor Harris Group Inc. performed a complete review of the process design and economic model for a biomass-to-ethanol process via indirect gasification. The conceptual design presented herein considers the economics of ethanol production, assuming the achievement of internal research targets for 2012 and nth-plant costs and financing. The design features a processing capacity of 2,205 U.S. tons (2,000 metric tonnes) of dry biomass per day and an ethanol yield of 83.8 gallons per dry U.S. ton of feedstock. The ethanol selling price corresponding to this design is $2.05 per gallon in 2007 dollars, assuming a 30-year plant life and 40% equity financing with a 10% internal rate of return and the remaining 60% debt financed at 8% interest. This ethanol selling price corresponds to a gasoline equivalent price of $3.11 per gallon based on the relative volumetric energy contents of ethanol and gasoline.

  9. Techno-economic Analysis for the Conversion of Lignocellulosic Biomass to Gasoline via the Methanol-to-Gasoline (MTG) Process

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jones, Susanne B.; Zhu, Yunhua

    2009-05-01

    Biomass is a renewable energy resource that can be converted into liquid fuel suitable for transportation applications. As a widely available biomass form, lignocellulosic biomass can have a major impact on domestic transportation fuel supplies and thus help meet the Energy Independence and Security Act renewable energy goals (U.S. Congress 2007). With gasification technology, biomass can be converted to gasoline via methanol synthesis and methanol-to-gasoline (MTG) technologies. Producing a gasoline product that is infrastructure ready has much potential. Although the MTG technology has been commercially demonstrated with natural gas conversion, combining MTG with biomass gasification has not been shown. Therefore, a techno-economic evaluation for a biomass MTG process based on currently available technology was developed to provide information about benefits and risks of this technology. The economic assumptions used in this report are consistent with previous U.S. Department of Energy Office of Biomass Programs techno-economic assessments. The feedstock is assumed to be wood chips at 2000 metric ton/day (dry basis). Two kinds of gasification technologies were evaluated: an indirectly-heated gasifier and a directly-heated oxygen-blown gasifier. The gasoline selling prices (2008 USD) excluding taxes were estimated to be $3.20/gallon and $3.68/gallon for indirectly-heated gasified and directly-heated. This suggests that a process based on existing technology is economic only when crude prices are above $100/bbl. However, improvements in syngas cleanup combined with consolidated gasoline synthesis can potentially reduce the capital cost. In addition, improved synthesis catalysts and reactor design may allow increased yield.

  10. The Processes of Location Study for Developing Economic Zones under Public Private Partnership Model: Country Study on Bangladesh

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mahmudul Alam

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available In spite of the complexity in defining the boundary, the concept of Economic Zones (EZ has been evolved as a way forward for the government of the developing countries for enhancing the national trade. Similarly the recent phenomenon of widespread Public Private Partnership (PPP practices especially in infrastructure sector is also providing a window to develop many of such economic zones through PPP model as EZ typically is capital intensive. Bangladesh has discrete success both under PPP and EZ regime. However, developing EZ under PPP model has few commercial complexities as both the public and private sector need to bear some roles and obligations one of which is selection of appropriate location for EZ development. The location study for PPP EZ development therefore receives paramount attention both from developer and lenders perspective. Such location study generally is not typical project site study by nature; rather it is more economic concentrated. This paper will try to identify the factors that are essential to consider for conducting these location studies based on the examples of Bangladesh. The paper will also identify the appropriate methods and approaches required for successful EZ development through PPP.

  11. Economic Analysis of Additive Manufacturing Integration in Injection Molding Process Chain

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Charalambis, Alessandro; Kerbache, Laoucine; Tosello, Guido

    The purpose of this research is to analyze how additive manufacturing can create value when it is utilized as a supportive technology to injection molding by quantifying the cost advantages that can be obtained. Tooling for the product development phase is investigated as pilot integration area...... of additive manufacturing with injection molding. Cost considerations are discussed through the development of a cost estimation model. The study shows that integration of additive manufacturing in the product development phase for fabrication of soft tooling is economically convenient with a cost reduction...... of 79,8% and 89,9%. The cost models on additive manufacturing have been built so far on the idea of substituting injection molding with additive manufacturing. In response to this literature gap, this research addresses the advantages of additive manufacturing utilized in a synergistic rather than...

  12. Energy, economic, and environmental impacts of advanced technology in the process industries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pellegrino, J.L.; Reed, J.E.

    1997-01-01

    The spreadsheet-based economic model shown here has been successfully used to analyze the impacts of technology used in a variety of industrial areas. It generates projections on energy, waste, and production cost savings that can be used to gauge the potential benefits that may result from technology adoption. The model is highly flexible, and can be used to incorporate unique benefits that fall outside the realm of energy savings. Although only aggregated results are shown here to protect developer confidentially, it is obvious that when the same information is viewed on the project level it can be invaluable to the research program manager. With the data provided by the model the value of a project can be assessed in terms of the federal investment as well as national impacts. This is a distinct advantage for government research managers who much allocate very scarce federal research funds among a multitude of potentially important research projects

  13. 21 CFR 111.60 - What are the design requirements for the production and process control system?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... to Establish a Production and Process Control System § 111.60 What are the design requirements for... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false What are the design requirements for the production and process control system? 111.60 Section 111.60 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION...

  14. Quality Control and Peer Review of Data Sets: Mapping Data Archiving Processes to Data Publication Requirements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mayernik, M. S.; Daniels, M.; Eaker, C.; Strand, G.; Williams, S. F.; Worley, S. J.

    2012-12-01

    ? What data set review can be done pre-publication, and what must be done post-publication? What components of the data sets review processes can be automated, and what components will always require human expertise and evaluation?

  15. Closure requirements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hutchinson, I.P.G.; Ellison, R.D.

    1992-01-01

    Closure of a waste management unit can be either permanent or temporary. Permanent closure may be due to: economic factors which make it uneconomical to mine the remaining minerals; depletion of mineral resources; physical site constraints that preclude further mining and beneficiation; environmental, regulatory or other requirements that make it uneconomical to continue to develop the resources. Temporary closure can occur for a period of several months to several years, and may be caused by factors such as: periods of high rainfall or snowfall which prevent mining and waste disposal; economic circumstances which temporarily make it uneconomical to mine the target mineral; labor problems requiring a cessation of operations for a period of time; construction activities that are required to upgrade project components such as the process facilities and waste management units; and mine or process plant failures that require extensive repairs. Permanent closure of a mine waste management unit involves the provision of durable surface containment features to protect the waters of the State in the long-term. Temporary closure may involve activities that range from ongoing maintenance of the existing facilities to the installation of several permanent closure features in order to reduce ongoing maintenance. This paper deals with the permanent closure features

  16. The effect of information processing technology on its economic indicators in the oil industry. O vliyanii tekhnologii obrabotki informatsii na yeye ekonomicheskiye pokazateli v usloviyakh neftyanoy promyshlennosti

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Obidnov, B I; Maksimova, T N

    1984-01-01

    The issues of the dependence of the economic indicators of information acquisition in the oil industry on its processing technology are examined. Different variants in a technology for processing information are examined and the characteristics for increasing the cost of information within an oil extracting enterprise are analyzed in detail. The economic indicators of information providing it is processed in a computer center are also disclosed.

  17. An economic evaluation of a participatory ergonomics process in an auto parts manufacturer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tompa, Emile; Dolinschi, Roman; Laing, Andrew

    2009-01-01

    We assess the costs and consequences of a participatory ergonomics process at a Canadian car parts manufacturer from the perspective of the firm. Regression modeling was used with interrupted time series data to assess the impact of the process on several health measures. Consequences were kept in natural units for cost-effectiveness analysis, and translated into monetary units for cost-benefit analysis. The duration of disability insurance claims and the number of denied workers' compensation claims was significantly reduced. The cost-effectiveness ratio is $12.06 per disability day averted. The net present value is $244,416 for a 23-month period with a benefit-to-cost ratio of 10.6, suggesting that the process was worth undertaking (monetary units in 2001 Canadian dollars). Our findings emphasize the importance of considering a range of outcomes when evaluating an occupational health and safety intervention. Participatory ergonomics process can be cost-effective for a firm.

  18. A Process for the Implementation of New Renewable Energy Systems in a Building by Considering Environmental and Economic Effect

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chan-Joong Kim

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The excessive use of fossil fuels has led to global warming and air pollution. To solve these problems, interest in new renewable energy system (NRE system has increased in recent years. In particular, photovoltaic, solar thermal heating, fuel cell and ground source heating system are actively implemented for achieving the zero energy building. Since the initial investment cost of the NRE system is quite expensive, it is necessary to conduct a feasibility study from the life cycle perspective. Therefore, this study aimed to develop the process for the implementation of NRE system in a building for the optimal design. This study was conducted with four steps: (i establishing the basic information for the system installation; (ii selecting key factors affecting system performances; (iii making possible alternatives of the system installation; and (iv selecting optimal system by considering environmental and economic effect. The proposed process could enable the final decision-maker to easily and accurately determine the optimal design of the NRE systems from the economic and environmental efficiency in the early design phase. The process could also be applied to any other NRE system and could be extended to any other country in the global environment.

  19. Some consistency requirements on thermophysicsal properties used in metal processing simulations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bertran, L.A.

    1992-01-01

    Stresses and deformations during metal processing are being simulated from room temperature to melting. This requires that thermophysical data be obtained at high temperature, an expensive task even when the sampling of elevated temperatures is quite sparse. Use of constitutive models with complex inelastic responses along with sparsely sampled data increases uncertainties as to physical meaning of simulation results. Identification of dependences among the physical parameters as a function of temperature offer increased confidence and lower experimental costs. In this paper examples for bilinear stress-strain materials are given (e.g., yield strain, the ratio of yield stress to Young's modulus, should be continuous where the coefficient of thermal expansion is continuous in T) and similar constraints are discussed for more complex constitutive responses

  20. MINIMIZE ENERGY AND COSTS REQUIREMENT OF WEEDING AND FERTILIZING PROCESS FOR FIBER CROPS IN SMALL FARMS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tarek FOUDA

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The experimental work was carried out through agricultural summer season of 2014 at the experimental farm of Gemmiza Research Station, Gharbiya governorate to minimize energy and costs in weeding and fertilizing processes for fiber crops (Kenaf and Roselle in small farms. The manufactured multipurpose unit performance was studied as a function of change in machine forward speed (2.2, 2.8, 3.4 and 4 Km/h fertilizing rates (30,45 and 60 Kg.N.fed-1,and constant soil moisture content was 20%(d.b in average. Performance of the manufactured machine was evaluated in terms of fuel consumption, power and energy requirements, effective field capacity, theoretical field capacity, field efficiency, and operational costs as a machine measurements .The experiment results reveled that the manufactured machine decreased energy and increased effective field capacity and efficiency under the following conditions: -machine forward speed 2.2Kmlh. -moisture content average 20%.

  1. Better Building Alliance, Plug and Process Loads in Commercial Buildings: Capacity and Power Requirement Analysis (Brochure)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2014-09-01

    This brochure addresses gaps in actionable knowledge that can help reduce the plug load capacities designed into buildings. Prospective building occupants and real estate brokers lack accurate references for plug and process load (PPL) capacity requirements, so they often request 5-10 W/ft2 in their lease agreements. This brochure should be used to make these decisions so systems can operate more energy efficiently; upfront capital costs will also decrease. This information can also be used to drive changes in negotiations about PPL energy demands. It should enable brokers and tenants to agree about lower PPL capacities. Owner-occupied buildings will also benefit. Overestimating PPL capacity leads designers to oversize electrical infrastructure and cooling systems.

  2. Economics of food irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kunstadt, P.; Steeves, C.; Beaulieu, D.

    1993-01-01

    The number of products being radiation processed worldwide is constantly increasing and today includes such diverse items as medical disposables, fruits and vegetables, spices, meats, seafoods and waste products. This range of products to be processed has resulted in a wide range of irradiator designs and capital and operating cost requirements. This paper discusses the economics of low dose food irradiation applications and the effects of various parameters on unit processing costs. It provides a model for calculating specific unit processing costs by correlating known capital costs with annual operating costs and annual throughputs. It is intended to provide the reader with a general knowledge of how unit processing costs are derived. (author)

  3. Dynamics of the Economic Effect in the Process of Managing the Life Cycle of Innovations in Terms of Their Commercialization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tymofeyev Dmytro V.

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The article is aimed at studying the theoretical aspects of changes in the dynamics of economic effect in the processes of management of life cycle of the industrial innovations at the stage of their commercialization. On the basis of an analysis of the scientific papers by the domestic and the foreign authors on methods of commercialization of the innovative products, the current status and essence of the definitions of «innovation», «commercialization», and «economic effect» was researched. Possibilities of managing the duration of the stage of commercialization of innovations were researched. It has been proposed to implement extension of the maturity stage of the life cycle of innovation by reducing the phase of designing and creating the innovative product and, as a consequence, change of value of the cumulative economic effect. Further researches should focus on the interdependence of development costs, creating an innovation and time period for the implementing, as well as determine the mechanism for calculating the quantitative indicators of commercialization of innovations.

  4. Ecological and economic interests in design process of thermal power plant; Ekoloski i gospodarstveni izazovi pri projektiranju energetskih postrojenja

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sander, M [Elektroprojekt, Zagreb (Croatia)

    1997-12-31

    In design process of thermal power plant various ecological and economic contradictory interests are brought in focus. Requests on environmental protection written in laws, standards and international treaties are increasing investment costs and energy production costs. In a design phase there is a task to reconcile these contradictory requests. The paper presents relationship between technology and environmental protection with a focus on air pollution. Air pollution and human health is considered taking in account the role of design phase in thermal power plants project and human health problems. International laws and standards are presented with moral dilemmas concerning low investment costs and high environmental standards. (author). 6 tabs., 2 figs., 13 refs.

  5. Social, economic, and political processes that create built environment inequities: perspectives from urban African Americans in Atlanta.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Redwood, Yanique; Schulz, Amy J; Israel, Barbara A; Yoshihama, Mieko; Wang, Caroline C; Kreuter, Marshall

    2010-01-01

    Growing evidence suggests that the built environment features found in many high-poverty urban areas contribute to negative health outcomes. Both built environment hazards and negative health outcomes disproportionately affect poor people of color. We used community-based participatory research and Photovoice in inner-city Atlanta to elicit African Americans' perspectives on their health priorities. The built environment emerged as a critical factor, impacting physical and mental health outcomes. We offer a conceptual model, informed by residents' perspectives, linking social, economic, and political processes to built environment and health inequities. Research, practice, and policy implications are discussed within an environmental justice framework.

  6. Thermo-Economic Modelling and Process Integration of CO2-Mitigation Options on Oil and Gas Platforms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nguyen, Tuong-Van; Tock, Laurence; Breuhaus, Peter

    2014-01-01

    recovering CO2 that can be used for enhanced oil recovery. In this paper, a North Sea platform is considered as case study, and the site-scale retrofit integration of these three options is analysed, considering thermodynamic, economic and environmental performance indicators. The results illustrate......The offshore extraction of oil and gas is an energy-intensive process associated with large CO2 and CH4 emissions to the atmosphere and chemicals to the sea. The taxation of these emissions has encouraged the development of more energy-efficient and environmental-friendly solutions, of which three...

  7. An Integrated Decision Support System with Hydrological Processes and Socio-economic Assessments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Yang; Disse, Markus; Yu, Ruide

    2017-04-01

    The debate over the effectiveness of Integrated Water Resources Management (IWRM) in practice has lasted for years. As the complexity and scope of IWRM increases, the difficulties of hydrological modeling is shifting from the model itself into the links with other cognate sciences, to understand the interactions among water, earth, ecosystem and humans. This work presents the design and development of a decision support system (DSS) that links the outputs of hydrological models with real-time decision making on social-economic assessments and land use changes. Discharge and glacier geometry changes were simulated with hydrological model WASA. Irrigation and ecological water were simulated by a new commercial software MIKE HYDRO. Groundwater was simulated by MODFLOW. All the outputs of theses hydrological models were integrated as inputs into the DSS in three types of links: regression equations, stationary data inputs, or dynamic data inputs into DSS as the models running parallel in the simulation periods. Within DSS, three types of logics were established: equations, conditional statements and fuzzy logics. The programming was realized in C++. The implementation of DSS takes place in the Tarim River Basin. With the mainstream of 1,321km and located in an arid area in northwest China, the Tarim River is China's longest inland river. The Tarim basin on the northern edge of the Taklamakan desert is an extremely arid region. In this region, agricultural water consumption and allocation management are crucial to address the conflicts among irrigation water users from upstream to downstream. Since 2011, the German Ministry of Science and Education BMBF established the Sino-German SuMaRiO project, for the sustainable management of river oases along the Tarim River. Project SuMaRiO focus on realizable management strategies, considering social, economic and ecological criteria. This will have positive effects for nearly 10 million inhabitants of different ethnic groups

  8. Methods for calculating energy and current requirements for industrial electron beam processing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cleland, M.R.; Farrell, J.P.

    1976-01-01

    The practical problems of determining electron beam parameters for industrial irradiation processes are discussed. To assist the radiation engineer in this task, the physical aspects of electron beam absorption are briefly described. Formulas are derived for calculating the surface dose in the treated material using the electron energy, beam current and the area thruput rate of the conveyor. For thick absorbers electron transport results are used to obtain the depth-dose distributions. From these the average dose in the material, anti D, and the beam power utilization efficiency, F/sub p/, can be found by integration over the distributions. These concepts can be used to relate the electron beam power to the mass thruput rate. Qualitatively, the thickness of the material determines the beam energy, the area thruput rate and surface dose determine the beam current while the mass thruput rate and average depth-dose determine the beam power requirements. Graphs are presented showing these relationships as a function of electron energy from 0.2 to 4.0 MeV for polystyrene. With this information, the determination of electron energy and current requirements is a relatively simple procedure

  9. A novel explosive process is required for the gamma-ray burst GRB 060614.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gal-Yam, A; Fox, D B; Price, P A; Ofek, E O; Davis, M R; Leonard, D C; Soderberg, A M; Schmidt, B P; Lewis, K M; Peterson, B A; Kulkarni, S R; Berger, E; Cenko, S B; Sari, R; Sharon, K; Frail, D; Moon, D-S; Brown, P J; Cucchiara, A; Harrison, F; Piran, T; Persson, S E; McCarthy, P J; Penprase, B E; Chevalier, R A; MacFadyen, A I

    2006-12-21

    Over the past decade, our physical understanding of gamma-ray bursts (GRBs) has progressed rapidly, thanks to the discovery and observation of their long-lived afterglow emission. Long-duration (> 2 s) GRBs are associated with the explosive deaths of massive stars ('collapsars', ref. 1), which produce accompanying supernovae; the short-duration (< or = 2 s) GRBs have a different origin, which has been argued to be the merger of two compact objects. Here we report optical observations of GRB 060614 (duration approximately 100 s, ref. 10) that rule out the presence of an associated supernova. This would seem to require a new explosive process: either a massive collapsar that powers a GRB without any associated supernova, or a new type of 'engine', as long-lived as the collapsar but without a massive star. We also show that the properties of the host galaxy (redshift z = 0.125) distinguish it from other long-duration GRB hosts and suggest that an entirely new type of GRB progenitor may be required.

  10. Assessment of economic impact of offshore and coastal discharge requirements on present and future operations in the Gulf of Mexico. Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lindsey, R.

    1996-06-01

    The high potential costs of compliance associated with new effluent guidelines for offshore and coastal oil and gas operations could significantly affect the economics of finding, developing, and producing oil and gas in the Gulf of Mexico. This report characterizes the potential economic impacts of alternative treatment and discharge regulations for produced water on reserves and production in Gulf of Mexico coastal, territorial and outer continental shelf (OCS) waters, quantifying the impacts of both recent regulatory changes and possible more stringent requirements. The treatment technologies capable of meeting these requirements are characterized in terms of cost, performance, and applicability to coastal and offshore situations. As part of this analysis, an extensive database was constructed that includes oil and gas production forecasts by field, data on existing platforms, and the current treatment methods in place for produced water treatment and disposal on offshore facilities. This work provides the first comprehensive evaluation of the impacts of alternative regulatory requirements for produced water management and disposal in coastal and offshore areas of the Gulf of Mexico

  11. Socio-economic impact in a region in the southern part of Jutland by the establishment of a plant for processing of bio ethanol

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Joergensen, Henning; Hjort-Gregersen, K.

    2005-09-15

    The Farmers Association of Southern Jutland took an interest in the establishment of a plant for processing of Ethanol primarily due to the wish to contribute to the business development in the western part of Southern Jutland. A large plant for production of bio ethanol will bring along a significant number of local jobs with positive derived economic effects in the local community. Further the plant will also form the basis for a new possibility of marketing of cereal crops. From asocial point of view the request to produce ethanol and other biomass based propellants are motivated by the international obligation to reduce emission of greenhouse gasses, which primarily originate from energy production from conventional fossil fuels. A certain amount of fossil fuels is required in the production of crops, but it has been estimated that the net emission of CO{sub 2} by production of ethanol only constitutes 10% of the emission by fossil energy. (au)

  12. Economic injury levels for Asian citrus psyllid control in process oranges from mature trees with high incidence of huanglongbing.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cesar Monzo

    Full Text Available The Asian citrus psyllid (ACP, Diaphorina citri Kuwayama, is the key pest of citrus wherever it occurs due to its role as vector of huanglongbing (HLB also known as citrus greening disease. Insecticidal vector control is considered to be the primary strategy for HLB management and is typically intense owing to the severity of this disease. While this approach slows spread and also decreases severity of HLB once the disease is established, economic viability of increasingly frequent sprays is uncertain. Lacking until now were studies evaluating the optimum frequency of insecticide applications to mature trees during the growing season under conditions of high HLB incidence. We related different degrees of insecticide control with ACP abundance and ultimately, with HLB-associated yield losses in two four-year replicated experiments conducted in commercial groves of mature orange trees under high HLB incidence. Decisions on insecticide applications directed at ACP were made by project managers and confined to designated plots according to experimental design. All operational costs as well as production benefits were taken into account for economic analysis. The relationship between management costs, ACP abundance and HLB-associated economic losses based on current prices for process oranges was used to determine the optimum frequency and timing for insecticide applications during the growing season. Trees under the most intensive insecticidal control harbored fewest ACP resulting in greatest yields. The relationship between vector densities and yield loss was significant but differed between the two test orchards, possibly due to varying initial HLB infection levels, ACP populations or cultivar response. Based on these relationships, treatment thresholds during the growing season were obtained as a function of application costs, juice market prices and ACP densities. A conservative threshold for mature trees with high incidence of HLB would help

  13. The importance and role of theoretical economics in contemporary higher educational process with a review of the situation in Bosnia and Herzegovina

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Slijepčević Đoko

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available After pointing out the importance and role of theoretical economics in contemporary higher education and in creation of a long-term stable and successful economic and general social development, the authors analyze in this paper the status of theoretical economics and representation of theoretical economics courses (Political economy, Economic Doctrines, Macroeconomics, Microeconomics... in the Curricula of the Faculties of Economics and other Faculties in Bosnia and Herzegovina (BiH (Law, Political Science. Thereby it is ascertained that Neo-Liberal School and its concepts still dominate in both, economic politics of transition, and in creation of Curricula within the Bologna System of Higher Education in BiH and its entities. However, the Neo-Liberal School has been undergoing a crisis for a long time, as it is not able to explain properly neither the global financial crisis, nor the transitional processes and crisis in BiH. Therefore, the knowledge of Keynesian, Marxist, and other schools of economic thought and learning, should be used more in creating the Curricula of general education courses. In analyzing the representation and role of courses of theoretical character in current high education of economists, lawyers and political scientists in BiH, the authors highlight the thesis that 'Political Economics' and other disciplines of theoretical economics have been repressed, while business and specialist disciplines, which study the skills and techniques of business management, are more and more present. The authors consider that this state of affairs is unacceptable and that it should be changed in direction of reaffirmation of 'Political Economics' and other general education disciplines from theoretical economics domain, since only these disciplines provide fundamental knowledge for creation of economic system, economic policy and achievement of a successful economic and general development of every socio-political community.

  14. Techno-economic optimisation of three gas liquefaction processes for small-scale applications

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nguyen, Tuong-Van; Rothuizen, Erasmus Damgaard; Elmegaard, Brian

    2016-01-01

    inventory. The present work investigates three configurations (single-mixed refrigerant, single and dual reverse Brayton cycles) for small-scale applications, which are optimised and evaluated individually. The influences of the refrigerant properties and process technologies are analysed, and the most...... promising cycle setups are identified. The findings illustrate the resulting trade-offs between the system performance and investment costs, which differ significantly with the type of refrigeration cycle. Although these configurations are suitable for small-scale applications, mixed-refrigerant processes...... thermodynamic models leads to relative deviations of up to 1% for the power consumption and 20% for the network conductance. Particular caution should thus be exercised when extrapolating the results of process models to the design of actual gas liquefaction systems....

  15. The requirements for processing tritium recovered from liquid lithium blankets: The blanket interface

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Clemmer, R.G.; Finn, P.A.; Greenwood, L.R.; Grimm, T.L.; Sze, D.K.; Bartlit, J.R.; Anderson, J.L.; Yoshida, H.; Naruse.

    1988-03-01

    We have initiated a study to define a blanket processing mockup for Tritium Systems Test Assembly. Initial evaluation of the requirements of the blanket processing system have been started. The first step of the work is to define the condition of the gaseous tritium stream from the blanket tritium recovery system. This report summarizes this part of the work for one particular blanket concept, i.e., a self-cooled lithium blanket. The total gas throughput, the hydrogen to tritium ratio, the corrosive chemicals, and the radionuclides are defined. The key discoveries are: the throughput of the blanket gas stream (including the helium carrier gas) is about two orders of magnitude higher than the plasma exhaust stream;the protium to tritium ratio is about 1, the deuterium to tritium ratio is about 0.003;the corrosion chemicals are dominated by halides;the radionuclides are dominated by C-14, P-32, and S-35;their is high level of nitrogen contamination in the blanket stream. 77 refs., 6 figs., 13 tabs

  16. Analysis of the economic potential of solar thermal energy to provide industrial process heat. Final report, Volume I. [In-depth analysis of 78 industries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1977-02-07

    The process heat data base assembled as the result of this survey includes specific process applications from 78 four-digit Standard Industrial Classification (SIC) groups. These applications account for the consumption of 9.81 quadrillion Btu in 1974, about 59 percent of the 16.6 quadrillion Btu estimated to have been used for all process heat in 1974. About 7/sup 1///sub 2/ percent of industrial process heat is used below 212/sup 0/F (100/sup 0/C), and 28 percent below 550/sup 0/F (288/sup 0/C). In this study, the quantitative assessment of the potential of solar thermal energy systems to provide industrial process heat indicates that solar energy has a maximum potential to provide 0.6 quadrillion Btu per year in 1985, and 7.3 quadrillion Btu per year in 2000, in economic competition with the projected costs of conventional fossil fuels for applications having a maximum required temperature of 550/sup 0/ (288/sup 0/C). A wide variety of collector types were compared for performance and cost characteristics. Performance calculations were carried out for a baseline solar system providing hot water in representative cities in six geographical regions within the U.S. Specific industries that should have significant potential for solar process heat for a variety of reasons include food, textiles, chemicals, and primary metals. Lumber and wood products, and paper and allied products also appear to have significant potential. However, good potential applications for solar process heat can be found across the board throughout industry. Finally, an assessment of nontechnical issues that may influence the use of solar process heat in industry showed that the most important issues are the establishment of solar rights, standardization and certification for solar components and systems, and resolution of certain labor-related issues. (Volume 1 of 3 volumes.)

  17. Process economics and safety considerations for the oxidative dehydrogenation of ethane using the M1 catalyst

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baroi, Chinmoy; Gaffney, Anne M.; Fushimi, Rebecca

    2017-12-01

    Olefins or unsaturated hydrocarbons play a vital role as feedstock for many industrially significant processes. Ethylene is the simplest olefin and a key raw material for consumer products. Oxidative Dehydrogenation (ODH) is one of the most promising new routes for ethylene production that can offer a significant advantage in energy efficiency over the conventional steam pyrolysis process. This study is focused on the ODH chemistry using the mixed metal oxide MoVTeNbOx catalysts, generally referred to as M1 for the key phase known to be active for dehydrogenation. Using performance results from the patent literature a series of process simulations were conducted to evaluate the effect of feed composition on operating costs, profitability and process safety. The key results of this study indicate that the ODH reaction can be made safer and more profitable without use of an inert diluent and furthermore by replacing O2 with CO2 as an oxidant. Modifications of the M1 catalyst composition in order to adopt these changes are discussed.

  18. In-situ product removal from fermentations by membrane extraction: conceptual process design and economics

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Heerema, L.; Roelands, C.P.M.; Goetheer, E.L.V.; Verdoes, D.; Keurentjes, J.

    2011-01-01

    This paper describes a conceptual process design for the production of the model component phenol by a recombinant strain of the micro-organism Pseudomonas putida S12. The (bio)production of the inhibiting component phenol in a bioreactor is combined with direct product removal by membrane

  19. Techno-economic evaluation of different CO2-based processes for dimethyl carbonate production

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kongpanna, Pichayapan; Pavarajarn, Varong; Gani, Rafiqul

    2015-01-01

    carbonate route is found to give the best performance in terms of energy consumption (11.4% improvement), net CO2 emission (13.4% improvement), in global warming potential (58.6% improvement) and in human toxicity-carcinogenic (99.9% improvement) compared to the BAYER process. Also, the ethylene carbonate...

  20. Techno-economic evaluation of high temperature pyrolysis processes for mixed plastic waste.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Westerhout, R.W.J.; Westerhout, R.W.J.; van Koningsbruggen, M.P.; van der Ham, Aloysius G.J.; Kuipers, J.A.M.; van Swaaij, Willibrordus Petrus Maria

    1998-01-01

    Three pyrolysis processes for Mixed Plastic Waste (MPW) with different reactors (Bubbling Fluidized Bed, Circulating Fluidized Bed and Rotating Cone Reactor, respectively BFB, CFB and RCR) were designed and evaluated. The estimated fixed capital investment for a 50 kton/year MPW pyrolysis plant

  1. Designing an economic-driven evaluation framework for process-oriented software technologies.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mutschler, B.B.; Bumiller, J.; Reichert, M.U.

    2006-01-01

    During the last decade there has been a dramatic increase in the number of paradigms, standards and tools that can be used to realize process-oriented information systems. A major problem neglected in software engineering research so far has been the systematic determination of costs, benefits, and

  2. Ozone/electron beam process for water treatment: design, limitations and economic considerations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gehringer, P.; Eschweiler, H.

    1996-01-01

    Electron beam irradiation of water is the easiest way to generate OH free radicals but the efficiency of the irradiation process as advanced oxidation process (AOP) is deteriorated by reducing species formed simultaneously with the OH free radicals. Addition of ozone to the water before or during irradiation improves the efficiency essentially by converting the reducing species into OH free radicals and turning by that the irradiation process into a full AOP. The main reaction pathways of the primary species formed by the action of ionizing radiation on water in a natural groundwater with and without the presence of ozone are reviewed. Based on these data an explanation of both the dose rate effect and the ozone effect is attempted. New data is presented which illustrates the effect of alkalinity on the way in which ozone is introduced into the water, and the impact of both water matrix and chemical structure of the pollutants to the efficacy of the ozone/electron beam process. (author)

  3. An environmental friendly animal waste disposal process with ammonia recovery and energy production: Experimental study and economic analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, Ye; Tan, Michelle Ting Ting; Chong, Clive; Xiao, Wende; Wang, Chi-Hwa

    2017-10-01

    Animal manure waste is considered as an environmental challenge especially in farming areas mainly because of gaseous emission and water pollution. Among all the pollutants emitted from manure waste, ammonia is of greatest concern as it could contribute to formation of aerosols in the air and could hardly be controlled by traditional disposal methods like landfill or composting. On the other hand, manure waste is also a renewable source for energy production. In this work, an environmental friendly animal waste disposal process with combined ammonia recovery and energy production was proposed and investigated both experimentally and economically. Lab-scale feasibility study results showed that 70% of ammonia in the manure waste could be converted to struvite as fertilizer, while solid manure waste was successfully gasified in a 10kW downdraft fixed-bed gasifier producing syngas with the higher heating value of 4.9MJ/(Nm 3 ). Based on experimental results, economic study for the system was carried out using a cost-benefit analysis to investigate the financial feasibility based on a Singapore case study. In addition, for comparison, schemes of gasification without ammonia removal and incineration were also studied for manure waste disposal. The results showed that the proposed gasification-based manure waste treatment process integrated with ammonia recovery was most financially viable. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Cell therapy-processing economics: small-scale microfactories as a stepping stone toward large-scale macrofactories.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harrison, Richard P; Medcalf, Nicholas; Rafiq, Qasim A

    2018-03-01

    Manufacturing methods for cell-based therapies differ markedly from those established for noncellular pharmaceuticals and biologics. Attempts to 'shoehorn' these into existing frameworks have yielded poor outcomes. Some excellent clinical results have been realized, yet emergence of a 'blockbuster' cell-based therapy has so far proved elusive.  The pressure to provide these innovative therapies, even at a smaller scale, remains. In this process, economics research paper, we utilize cell expansion research data combined with operational cost modeling in a case study to demonstrate the alternative ways in which a novel mesenchymal stem cell-based therapy could be provided at small scale. This research outlines the feasibility of cell microfactories but highlighted that there is a strong pressure to automate processes and split the quality control cost-burden over larger production batches. The study explores one potential paradigm of cell-based therapy provisioning as a potential exemplar on which to base manufacturing strategy.

  5. Technological and economical assessment of alternative process chains for blisk manufacture

    OpenAIRE

    Klocke, Fritz; Schmitt, Robert; Zeis, Markus; Heidemanns, Lukas; Kerkhoff, Johannes; Heinen, Daniel; Klink, Andreas

    2015-01-01

    Due to the increase of blisk (blade integrated disk) demands instead of the conventional fir-tree design in current aero-engine concepts there is a high resource-driven need for a comprehensive evaluation of different process chain alternatives for blisk manufacture. Therefore, in this paper different manufacturing chains consisting of roughing, pre-finishing and finishing/polishing are compared to each other by the example of a HPC-blisk out of Inconel 718. Beside conventional milling and el...

  6. Impacts of retrofitting analysis on first generation ethanol production: process design and techno-economics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rajendran, Karthik; Rajoli, Sreevathsava; Teichert, Oliver; Taherzadeh, Mohammad J

    2015-02-01

    More than half of the bioethanol plants in operation today use corn or grains as raw materials. The downstream processing of mash after fermentation to produce ethanol and distiller grains is an energy-demanding process, which needs retrofitting for optimization. In addition, the fluctuation in the ethanol and grain prices affects the overall profitability of the plant. For this purpose, a process simulation was performed in Aspen Plus(®) based on an existing industrial plant located in Sweden. The simulations were compared using different scenarios including different concentrations of ethanol, using the stillage for biogas production to produce steam instead of distiller grains as a by-product, and altering the purity of the ethanol produced. Using stillage for biogas production, as well as utilizing the steam, reduced the overall energy consumption by 40% compared to the plant in operation. The fluctuations in grain prices had a high impact on the net present value (NPV), where grain prices greater than 349 USD/ton reached a zero NPV. After 20 years, the plant in operation producing 41,600 tons ethanol/year can generate a profit of 78 million USD. Compared to the base case, the less purified ethanol resulted in a lower NPV of 30 million USD.

  7. Health-care decision-making processes in Latin America: problems and prospects for the use of economic evaluation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iglesias, Cynthia P; Drummond, Michael F; Rovira, Joan

    2005-01-01

    The use of economic evaluation studies (EE) in the decision-making process within the health-care system of nine Latin American (LA) and three European countries was investigated. The aim was to identify the opportunities, obstacles, and changes needed to facilitate the introduction of EE as a formal tool in health-care decision-making processes in LA. A comparative study was conducted based on existing literature and information provided through a questionnaire applied to decision makers in Argentina, Brazil, Colombia, Cuba, Mexico, Nicaragua, Peru, Portugal Spain, United Kingdom, Uruguay, and Venezuela. Systematic electronic searches of HEED, NHS EED, and LILACS were conducted to identify published economic evaluation studies in LA from 1982 onward. There is relatively little evidence of the conduct and use of EE within the health care systems in LA. Electronic searches retrieved 554 records; however, only 93 were EE. In the nine LA participating countries, broad allocation of health-care resources is primarily based on political criteria, historical records, geographical areas, and specific groups of patients and diseases. Public-health provision and inclusion of services in health-insurance package are responsibilities of the Ministry of Health. Decisions regarding the purchase of medicines are primarily made through public tenders, and mainly based on differences in clinical efficacy and the price of health technologies of interest. To expedite the process of incorporating EE as a formal tool to inform decision-making processes within the health-care systems in LA countries, two main conditions need to be fulfilled. First, adequate resources and skills need to be available to conduct EE of good quality. Second, decision-making procedures need to be modified to accommodate "evidence-based" approaches such as EE.

  8. Fluoxetine requires the endfeet protein aquaporin-4 to enhance plasticity of astrocyte processes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Barbara eDi Benedetto

    2016-02-01

    in HAB brains. Thus, we suggest that longer treatment regimes may be needed to properly restore the coverage of BVs or to relocate AQP-4 to astrocyte endfeet. In conclusion, FLX requires AQP-4 to modulate the plasticity of astrocyte processes and this effect might be essential to re-establish a functional glia-vasculature interface necessary for a physiological communication between bloodstream and brain parenchyma.

  9. Performance and techno-economic assessment of several solid-liquid separation technologies for processing dilute-acid pretreated corn stover.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sievers, David A; Tao, Ling; Schell, Daniel J

    2014-09-01

    Solid-liquid separation of pretreated lignocellulosic biomass slurries is a critical unit operation employed in several different processes for production of fuels and chemicals. An effective separation process achieves good recovery of solute (sugars) and efficient dewatering of the biomass slurry. Dilute acid pretreated corn stover slurries were subjected to pressure and vacuum filtration and basket centrifugation to evaluate the technical and economic merits of these technologies. Experimental performance results were used to perform detailed process simulations and economic analysis using a 2000 tonne/day biorefinery model to determine differences between the various filtration methods and their process settings. The filtration processes were able to successfully separate pretreated slurries into liquor and solid fractions with estimated sugar recoveries of at least 95% using a cake washing process. A continuous vacuum belt filter produced the most favorable process economics. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Process analysis and economics of biophotolysis of water. IEA technical report from the IEA Agreement on the Production and Utilization of Hydrogen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Benemann, J.R.

    1998-03-31

    these are highly preliminary, incomplete, and optimistic estimates. Biophotolysis processes, indirect or direct, clearly require considerable basic and applied R and D before a more detailed evaluation of their potential and plausible economics can be carried out. For example, it is not yet clear which type of algae, green algae, or cyanobacteria, would be preferred in biophotolysis. If lower-cost photobioreactors can be developed, then small-scale (<1 ha) single-stage biophotolysis processes may become economically feasible. A major basic and applied R and D effort will be required to develop such biophotolysis processes.

  11. Improving the Simplified Acquisition of Base Engineering Requirements (SABER) Delivery Order Award Process: Results of a Process Improvement Plan

    Science.gov (United States)

    1991-09-01

    putting all tasks directed towsrds achieving an outcome in aequence. The tasks can be viewed as steps in the process (39:2.3). Using this...improvement opportunity is investigated. A plan is developed, root causes are identified, and solutions are tested and implemented. The process is... solutions , check for actual improvement, and integrate the successful improvements into the process. ?UP 7. Check Improvement Performance. Finally, the

  12. MULTI-MARKET INDUSTRIAL ORGANIZATIONAL ECONOMIC MODELS FOR THE INTERNATIONALIZATION PROCESS BY SMALL AND MEDIUM ENTERPRISE CONSTRUCTION DESIGN SERVICE FIRMS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kerry London

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Small and medium enterprises (SMEs are critical to strategic initiatives in an economy; however, their contribution to foreign trade is not as significant. SMEs are one of the principal driving forces in economic development. One of the greatest challenges is the internationalization process for longevity rather than seeing the process as initial market entry. The internationalization process research has typically involved four key constructs: market selection, decision to enter, entry modes and factors affecting entry modes. Past research has focused on large manufacturing firms. The export of architectural, engineering and construction (AEC firms has undergone growth, yet there is still significant opportunity for further growth. The majority of AEC firms are SMEs. Notwithstanding assistance provided through international trade missions, organized export firm support networks and information packages by a burgeoning number of government agencies, there are still perceived barriers to market entry and long-term economic sustainability for SMEs. There are a number of problems faced by SMEs acting in foreign trade. This investigation explores the successful initial internationalization process constructs and identifies unique project-oriented sector characteristics. The study identified similarities and differences between two firms that have been exporting to various localities, including Eastern Europe, Africa, Middle East, UK, Asia and South America, for more than two decades. The similarities and differences were identified within eight major constructs: purpose, firm type, market image and design philosophy, entry mode strategy, institutional arrangement, factors affecting mode of entry, market selection and firm strategy in relation to project selection. The primary reasons for internationalization were associated with the firms' motivations related to growth and financial viability. This article discusses the various internationalization

  13. Exploring China's materialization process with economic transition: analysis of raw material consumption and its socioeconomic drivers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Heming; Tian, Xin; Tanikawa, Hiroki; Chang, Miao; Hashimoto, Seiji; Moriguchi, Yuichi; Lu, Zhongwu

    2014-05-06

    China's rapidly growing economy is accelerating its materialization process and thereby creating serious environmental problems at both local and global levels. Understanding the key drivers behind China's mass consumption of raw materials is thus crucial for developing sustainable resource management and providing valuable insights into how other emerging economies may be aiming to accomplish a low resource-dependent future. Our results show that China's raw material consumption (RMC) rose dramatically from 11.9 billion tons in 1997 to 20.4 billion tons in 2007, at an average annual growth rate at 5.5%. In particular, nonferrous metal minerals and iron ores increased at the highest rate, while nonmetallic minerals showed the greatest proportion (over 60%). We find that China's accelerating materialization process is closely related to its levels of urbanization and industrialization, notably demand for raw materials in the construction, services, and heavy manufacturing sectors. The growing domestic final demand level is the strongest contributor of China's growth in RMC, whereas changes in final demand composition are the largest contributors to reducing it. However, the expected offsetting effect from changes in production pattern and production-related technology level, which should be the focus of future dematerialization in China, could not be found.

  14. Age differences in neural correlates of feedback processing after economic decisions under risk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernandes, Carina; Pasion, Rita; Gonçalves, Ana R; Ferreira-Santos, Fernando; Barbosa, Fernando; Martins, Isabel P; Marques-Teixeira, João

    2018-05-01

    This study examines age-related differences in behavioral responses to risk and in the neurophysiological correlates of feedback processing. Our sample was composed of younger, middle-aged, and older adults, who were asked to decide between 2 risky options, in the gain and loss domains, during an EEG recording. Results evidenced group-related differences in early and later stages of feedback processing, indexed by differences in the feedback-related negativity (FRN) and P3 amplitudes. Specifically, in the loss domain, younger adults showed higher FRN amplitudes after non-losses than after losses, whereas middle-aged and older adults had similar FRN amplitudes after both. In the gain domain, younger and middle-aged adults had higher P3 amplitudes after gains than after non-gains, whereas older adults had similar P3 amplitudes after both. Behaviorally, older adults had higher rates of risky decisions than younger adults in the loss domain, a result that was correlated with poorer performance in memory and executive functions. Our results suggest age-related differences in the outcome-related expectations, as well as in the affective relevance attributed to the outcomes, which may underlie the group differences found in risk-aversion. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Polyethylene encapsulatin of nitrate salt wastes: Waste form stability, process scale-up, and economics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kalb, P.D.; Heiser, J.H. III; Colombo, P.

    1991-07-01

    A polyethylene encapsulation system for treatment of low-level radioactive, hazardous, and mixed wastes has been developed at Brookhaven National Laboratory. Polyethylene has several advantages compared with conventional solidification/stabilization materials such as hydraulic cements. Waste can be encapsulated with greater efficiency and with better waste form performance than is possible with hydraulic cement. The properties of polyethylene relevant to its long-term durability in storage and disposal environments are reviewed. Response to specific potential failure mechanisms including biodegradation, radiation, chemical attack, flammability, environmental stress cracking, and photodegradation are examined. These data are supported by results from extensive waste form performance testing including compressive yield strength, water immersion, thermal cycling, leachability of radioactive and hazardous species, irradiation, biodegradation, and flammability. The bench-scale process has been successfully tested for application with a number of specific ''problem'' waste streams. Quality assurance and performance testing of the resulting waste form confirmed scale-up feasibility. Use of this system at Rocky Flats Plant can result in over 70% fewer drums processed and shipped for disposal, compared with optimal cement formulations. Based on the current Rocky Flats production of nitrate salt per year, polyethylene encapsulation can yield an estimated annual savings between $1.5 million and $2.7 million, compared with conventional hydraulic cement systems. 72 refs., 23 figs., 16 tabs

  16. Economic implications of reducing carbon emissions from energy use and industrial processes in Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Y-H Henry; Timilsina, Govinda R; Landis, Florian

    2013-11-30

    This study assesses the economy-wide impacts of cutting CO2 emissions on the Brazilian economy. It finds that in 2040, the business-as-usual CO2 emissions from energy use and industrial processes would be almost three times as high as those in 2010 and would account for more than half of total national CO2 emissions. The current policy aims to reduce deforestation by 70 percent by 2017 and lower emissions intensity of the overall economy by 36-39 percent by 2020. If the policy were implemented as planned and continued to 2040, there would be no need to cut CO2 emissions from energy use and industrial processes until 2035, as emissions reduction through controlling deforestation would be enough to meet the voluntary carbon mitigation target of Brazil. The study also finds that using the carbon tax revenue to subsidize wind power can effectively increase the country's wind power output if that is the policy priority. Further, it finds evidence supporting the double dividend hypothesis, i.e., using revenue from a hypothetical carbon tax to finance a cut in labor income tax can significantly lower the GDP impacts of the carbon tax. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Export Control Requirements for Tritium Processing Design and R&D

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hollis, William Kirk [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Maynard, Sarah-Jane Wadsworth [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2017-04-05

    This document will address requirements of export control associated with tritium plant design and processes. Los Alamos National Laboratory has been working in the area of tritium plant system design and research and development (R&D) since the early 1970’s at the Tritium Systems Test Assembly (TSTA). This work has continued to the current date with projects associated with the ITER project and other Office of Science Fusion Energy Science (OS-FES) funded programs. ITER is currently the highest funding area for the DOE OS-FES. Although export control issues have been integrated into these projects in the past a general guidance document has not been available for reference in this area. To address concerns with currently funded tritium plant programs and assist future projects for FES, this document will identify the key reference documents and specific sections within related to tritium research. Guidance as to the application of these sections will be discussed with specific detail to publications and work with foreign nationals.

  18. Export Control Requirements for Tritium Processing Design and R&D

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hollis, William Kirk [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Maynard, Sarah-Jane Wadsworth [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2015-10-30

    This document will address requirements of export control associated with tritium plant design and processes. Los Alamos National Laboratory has been working in the area of tritium plant system design and research and development (R&D) since the early 1970’s at the Tritium Systems Test Assembly (TSTA). This work has continued to the current date with projects associated with the ITER project and other Office of Science Fusion Energy Science (OS-FES) funded programs. ITER is currently the highest funding area for the DOE OS-FES. Although export control issues have been integrated into these projects in the past a general guidance document has not been available for reference in this area. To address concerns with currently funded tritium plant programs and assist future projects for FES, this document will identify the key reference documents and specific sections within related to tritium research. Guidance as to the application of these sections will be discussed with specific detail to publications and work with foreign nationals.

  19. Relative Economic Merits of Storage and Combustion Turbines for Meeting Peak Capacity Requirements under Increased Penetration of Solar Photovoltaics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Denholm, Paul [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Diakov, Victor [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Margolis, Robert [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)

    2015-09-01

    Batteries with several hours of capacity provide an alternative to combustion turbines for meeting peak capacity requirements. Even when compared to state-of-the-art highly flexible combustion turbines, batteries can provide a greater operational value, which is reflected in a lower system-wide production cost. By shifting load and providing operating reserves, batteries can reduce the cost of operating the power system to a traditional electric utility. This added value means that, depending on battery life, batteries can have a higher cost than a combustion turbine of equal capacity and still produce a system with equal or lower overall life-cycle cost. For a utility considering investing in new capacity, the cost premium for batteries is highly sensitive to a variety of factors, including lifetime, natural gas costs, PV penetration, and grid generation mix. In addition, as PV penetration increases, the net electricity demand profile changes, which may reduce the amount of battery energy capacity needed to reliably meet peak demand.

  20. Engineering and economic analysis for the utilization of geothermal fluids in a cane sugar processing plant. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Humme, J.T.; Tanaka, M.T.; Yokota, M.H.; Furumoto, A.S.

    1979-07-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the feasibility of geothermal resource utilization at the Puna Sugar Company cane sugar processing plant, located in Keaau, Hawaii. A proposed well site area was selected based on data from surface exploratory surveys. The liquid dominated well flow enters a binary thermal arrangement, which results in an acceptable quality steam for process use. Hydrogen sulfide in the well gases is incinerated, leaving sulfur dioxide in the waste gases. The sulfur dioxide in turn is recovered and used in the cane juice processing at the sugar factory. The clean geothermal steam from the binary system can be used directly for process requirements. It replaces steam generated by the firing of the waste fibrous product from cane sugar processing. The waste product, called bagasse, has a number of alternative uses, but an evaluation clearly indicated it should continue to be employed for steam generation. This steam, no longer required for process demands, can be directed to increased electric power generation. Revenues gained by the sale of this power to the utility, in addition to other savings developed through the utilization of geothermal energy, can offset the costs associated with hydrothermal utilization.