WorldWideScience

Sample records for economic policy instruments

  1. Economic Policy Instruments

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Klemmensen, Børge

    2007-01-01

    Økonomiske instrumenter begrundes med behovet for politiske indgreb, der muliggør internaliseringen af omkostningerne ved de miljøpåvirkninger, produktion and levevis afstedkommer, således at hensyntagen til miljøet bliver en del af virksomheders og husholdningers omkostninger og dermed en tilsky...

  2. Design of economic incentive instruments in nutrition policy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Jørgen Dejgård

    2011-01-01

    Economic incentives are instruments to improve diets and reduce the fraction of people exposed to diet-related health risks • Proper targeting and design of economic incentive instruments is important, if such instruments should be efficient and feasible policy measures in the improvement...... of dietary behaviour in industrialised countries • From a cost-effectiveness perspective, there are considerable potential for optimizing the targeting and design of economic incentive instruments in nutritional policy...

  3. Economic instruments for environmental policy making in Ontario

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barg, S.; Duraiappah, A.; Van Exan, S.

    2000-01-01

    The conditions and approaches required for a successful implementation of economic instruments in Ontario are reviewed. The advantages and disadvantages of economic instruments are discussed, as are some design issues. Some best practices and practical experiences from Canada, the United States, and Europe are examined through the use of nine specific case studies. Each one highlights a different environmental challenge, such as energy efficiency, air pollution, water pollution, waste management along with the solutions that were implemented. The situations described were not all successful, but there is much to be learned from unsuccessful episodes. Lessons learned from the review of the case studies were presented. The points to ponder when using economic instruments in Ontario were highlighted. The command and control policy instrument must be kept in context when considering economic instruments. The reasons that underline the preference of the economic theory for economic instruments are discussed. The different types of economic instruments are described, and the considerations related to the design and comparison of economic instruments is briefly discussed. The authors concluded with several points to ponder: there are a number of options available, details must not be neglected, consultation with the interested parties is important, there is a need for frequent reassessment, and using a number of instruments is helpful. 55 refs., tabs., figs

  4. The State Financial Policy as Instrument of Economic Growth

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mostitskaya Natalya А.

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The article is aimed at disclosing the essence and defining the role of the State financial policy as instrument of economic growth in the conditions of economic transformation. The main functions of the country’s financial policy were analyzed. The necessity of formation of institutional and methodological bases of the State financial mechanism with the purpose of strengthening of efficiency of structural changes of economy and social sphere has been substantiated. Directions of formation and implementation of the State financial policy on maintenance of socio-economic development of the country have been proposed.

  5. Cost-effective design of economic instruments in nutrition policy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Smed Sinne

    2007-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract This paper addresses the potential for using economic regulation, e.g. taxes or subsidies, as instruments to combat the increasing problems of inappropriate diets, leading to health problems such as obesity, diabetes 2, cardiovascular diseases etc. in most countries. Such policy measures may be considered as alternatives or supplements to other regulation instruments, including information campaigns, bans or enhancement of technological solutions to the problems of obesity or related diseases. 7 different food tax and subsidy instruments or combinations of instruments are analysed quantitatively. The analyses demonstrate that the average cost-effectiveness with regard to changing the intake of selected nutritional variables can be improved by 10–30 per cent if taxes/subsidies are targeted against these nutrients, compared with targeting selected food categories. Finally, the paper raises a range of issues, which need to be investigated further, before firm conclusions about the suitability of economic instruments in nutrition policy can be drawn.

  6. Cost-effective design of economic instruments in nutrition policy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Jørgen Dejgård; Smed, Sinne

    2007-01-01

    This paper addresses the potential for using economic regulation, e.g. taxes or subsidies, as instruments to combat the increasing problems of inappropriate diets, leading to health problems such as obesity, diabetes 2, cardiovascular diseases etc. in most countries. Such policy measures may....... The analyses demonstrate that the average cost-effectiveness with regard to changing the intake of selected nutritional variables can be improved by 10–30 per cent if taxes/subsidies are targeted against these nutrients, compared with targeting selected food categories. Finally, the paper raises a range...... of issues, which need to be investigated further, before firm conclusions about the suitability of economic instruments in nutrition policy can be drawn....

  7. Wind power in Argentina: Policy instruments and economic feasibility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Recalde, M.

    2010-01-01

    Despite its great wind endowment, Argentina has not still succeeded in increasing wind power share in its wholesale market. However, the energy supply problem that this country is facing from 2004 on seems to open an opportunity for wind energy projects. A wide range of legislation has recently emerged. In this context, this paper discusses whether policy instruments in the Argentinean regulatory frame contribute to economic feasibility for wind power projects or not. To this purpose, we study wind installed capacity, Argentinean wind potential, the different promotion tools used worldwide and those employed in Argentina. Finally, we realize a feasibility study for a typical project. We found, that in spite of its high wind potential, economic feature, related to policy instruments, have been a boundary to the development of wind energy into the energy mix. (author)

  8. Nuclear energy as an instrument of economic policy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thiriet, L.

    1984-01-01

    This chapter is a review of how nuclear power can help achieve energy policy objectives, illustrated with examples based on experience in France. It is preceded by a preliminary consideration of the global economic background for the development of nuclear power today. Headings are: introduction; world-wide economic environment; nuclear energy and inflation; nuclear energy and external constraints; nuclear energy, foreign currency and employment in the French context. (U.K.)

  9. The use of economic instruments for environmental policy: a half-hearted affair

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Mikael Skou

    1995-01-01

    their use of economic instruments, but with a few exceptions it has been a somewhat half-hearted affair. Economic imstruments have often been applied on the basis of the principle of the least political resistance. Using Wilson's regulation theory (1980), this paper analyses how the costs and benefits......As a key to a more sustainable development the use of economic instruments for environmental policy has been on the agenda for about eight years. Despite of that, a recent OECD survey recorded only a modest increase in their use since the mid-1980s. In particular the Nordic counries have increased...... of regulations and particular policy-instruments affect the use and design of economic instruments. The outcome has been green taxes that are often fiscally biased , which are too low compared with the externalities they should price and which address the smaller rather than the larger polluters, granting...

  10. A comparative analysis of the effects of economic policy instruments in promoting environmentally sustainable transport

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Elvik, Rune; Ramjerdi, Farideh

    2014-01-01

    ; (3) Toll schemes; (4) Reward systems giving incentives to reduce driving or change driver behaviour. The effects of these policy instruments are stated in terms of elasticities. All four economic policy instruments have negative elasticities, which means that they do promote environmentally...... sustainable transport. Long-term elasticities tend to be larger than short term elasticities. The long-term elasticities of reward systems are unknown. (C) 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved....

  11. Financial Policy as an Instrument of Socio-economic Development of a Country

    OpenAIRE

    Adamenko Iryna P.

    2014-01-01

    The goal of the article lies in showing the economic essence and identification of directions of increase of efficiency of the financial policy as an instrument of socio-economic development of the country. The article describes theoretical aspects, methodological principles and forms of ordering and improving financial relations. It identifies specific features of formation and realisation of financial policy of foreign countries. It shows that development of the strategy of efficient financ...

  12. FISCAL POLICY - AN INSTRUMENT FOR ACHIEVING ECONOMIC AND SOCIAL BALANCE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alina Georgiana HOLT

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available The fiscal policy construction developped at national level is focused on the maintenance of the macroeconomic stability process in order to achieve the nominal and real convergence criteria concerning the membership of the Romanian economy to the European Union integrated monetary space. The orientation of the fiscal national policy is subdue to some major constraints regarding her capacity of ensuring the external sustenance, of developping the non-inflation process, of forming and consolidating the financing resources necessary to the accomplishment of the post-adhesion engagements assumed by Romania as a member state of the European Union.

  13. Consumer preferences for reduced packaging under economic instruments and recycling policy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamaguchi, Keiko; Takeuchi, Kenji

    2016-02-01

    This study was conducted using a web-based survey and bidding game in contingent valuation method to evaluate consumer preferences for packaging with less material. Results revealed that people who live in a municipality implementing unit-based pricing of waste have a higher willingness-to-pay (WTP) for a product. Economic instruments can affect the purchase of products with reduced packaging because a higher disposal cost increases the attractiveness of source reduction. However, unit-based pricing combined with plastic separation for recycling reduces WTP. This result suggests that recycling policy weakens the effect of economic instruments on source reduction of waste. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Economic policy instruments for the control of air pollution in Poland

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bates, R.W.

    1993-01-01

    The World Bank is analyzing the role of economic policy instruments for the control of air pollution in Poland, in cooperation with Polish and international experts. The first stage, covering Poland as a whole, was recently completed, jointly financed with the U.S. E.P.A. and the Government of the Netherlands. The second stage, now under way, will extend the analysis into a specific regional framework. Stage 2 is financed by the World Bank, the Polish Government, and the U.K. Environment Know-How Fund. Air Pollution in Poland is overwhelmingly caused by energy production and uses, due to the fact that the Polish economy depends heavily on coal and lignite. At present, vehicles contribute less to total emissions than do coal burning and industrial processes, although they account for 25-35% of nitrogen oxides, carbon monoxide, hydrocarbons and lead; and the concentrated in areas of high population density. The paper shows how economic, technical and meteorological modelling can be used, to reach conclusions about cost-effective strategies for the control of emissions and the improvement of ambient air quality. A simulation approach is presented, to compare alternative policy instruments, in terms of their impact on emissions and control costs for Poland as a whole. The main instruments considered are open-quotes command-and-controlclose quotes regimes (C ampersand C) and economic incentives, namely fuel taxes, emissions taxes and emissions trading. Next, the paper describes how the analysis is being extended, to link emissions with ambient air quality, using air dispersion modelling, based on a case study for Krakow. Finally, some conclusions are drawn on the importance of sound economic policies for air quality management, the costs of alternative standards, C ampersand C approaches versus economic incentives, a practical strategy to develop an effective role for emissions taxes and trading, and the regional differentiation of policy instruments

  15. Socio-economic characteristics and the effect of taxation as a health policy instrument

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Smed, Sinne; Jensen, Jørgen Dejgård; Denver, Sigrid

    2007-01-01

    This paper analyses the quantitative effects of using economic instruments in health policy on the basis of price elasticities calculated from estimated demand systems. The nutritional effects of various taxation schemes are compared for households in different age groups and social classes...... of the instruments and the targeting of vulnerable groups with special needs should be done with care. It should be noted that a tax on a single nutrient or food may have undesired effects on the demand for other food components, though this may be avoided by introducing taxes/subsidies on several food products...

  16. The Economic Sovereignty of the State as the Defining Instrument of Economic Policy in the Context of Globalization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mykytas Viktoriia V.

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available The modern world is characterized by rapid integration and globalization processes, which have both a positive and a negative impact on the development of each country. National economies operate in the midst of global uncertainty, which is becoming the platform for the formation and implementation of the State economic policy, which should not only describe the conditions for strategic development of country but also adequately respond to the risks emerging out of the complex integration processes. The failure of the State to respond in a timely and adequate manner to the risks will result in lesser benefits and positive effects of integration processes than the impact of destabilizing factors. In such circumstances, economic sovereignty becomes the most important instrument of the State through which it can defend its national economic interests and form an effective economic policy.

  17. Economic and policy instrument analyses in support of the scrap tire recycling program in Taiwan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Ni-Bin

    2008-02-01

    Understanding the cost-effectiveness and the role of economic and policy instruments, such as the combined product tax-recycling subsidy scheme or a tradable permit, for scrap tire recycling has been of crucial importance in a market-oriented environmental management system. Promoting product (tire) stewardship on one hand and improving incentive-based recycling policy on the other hand requires a comprehensive analysis of the interfaces and interactions in the nexus of economic impacts, environmental management, environmental valuation, and cost-benefit analysis. This paper presents an assessment of the interfaces and interactions between the implementation of policy instruments and its associated economic evaluation for sustaining a scrap tire recycling program in Taiwan during the era of the strong economic growth of the late 1990s. It begins with an introduction of the management of the co-evolution between technology metrics of scrap tire recycling and organizational changes for meeting the managerial goals island-wide during the 1990s. The database collected and used for such analysis covers 17 major tire recycling firms and 10 major tire manufacturers at that time. With estimates of scrap tire generation and possible scale of subsidy with respect to differing tire recycling technologies applied, economic analysis eventually leads to identify the associated levels of product tax with respect to various sizes of new tires. It particularly demonstrates a broad perspective of how an integrated econometric and engineering economic analysis can be conducted to assist in implementing policy instruments for scrap tire management. Research findings indicate that different subsidy settings for collection, processing, and end use of scrap tires should be configured to ameliorate the overall managerial effectiveness. Removing the existing boundaries between designated service districts could strengthen the competitiveness of scrap tires recycling industry, helping to

  18. Environmental policy and economic efficiency: tradable permits versus regulatory instrument to control air pollution: a comparative approach USA/France

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cros, Ch.

    1998-12-01

    The key issue of the thesis paradox of the weak implementation of economic instruments whereas 1) they are theoretically and also empirically considered as efficient; 2) the market imposes itself as the central reference to modem economies; and 3) economic efficiency is nowadays a legitimacy measure of public policies. Two different answers can be given: either theoretical analysis does not enable to explain the real economic efficiency of a political instrument, or environmental policies do not have economic efficiency as their main objective. The analysis take place in a context of a limited rationality and an inter-temporal consistency of public policies. The purpose is to understand the role of economic efficiency criteria during the adoption, building, and evolution of an environmental policy with an analytical point of view, and not a normative one. The institutional analysis of the American and the French pollution control policies, representative of the implementation of a trading permit system for the first, and of a regulatory instrument for the second, prove that the theoretical analysis of an instrument can not explain a real coordination, but only one organizational form among others. An institutional trajectory is the interpretation of policy instruments of policy instruments from 5 fundamental elements: the nature of the legitimacy of the policy; the nature of the regulator hypothesis on the information; the nature of the decision-making basis; the nature of the collective action. A coordination changes when the occurrence of an event moves one of the fundamental elements, and disorganizes the satisfying equilibrium of the agents. Then, the economic efficiency becomes a negotiation point. A political instrument is adopted for its own ability to solve a dysfunction without disrupting the coordination. (author)

  19. Economic instruments and clean water: Why institutions and policy design matter

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Mikael Skou

    1994-01-01

    Since market-like policy instruments are usually applied within existing rules, institutions, and policy processes, the policy and administrative contexts in which they operate become important. These contexts are quite different from country to country, often more so than policymakers are aware ....... The national style of policymaking depends on the constitutional framework, the infrastructure of public authorities as well as the historical and cultural heritage, which are basic institutional premises that vary tremendously even between neighbouring western european countries....

  20. Economic instruments and clean water: Why institutions and policy design matter

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Mikael Skou

    2001-01-01

    Since market-like policy instruments are usually applied within existing rules, institutions, and policy processes, the policy and administrative contexts in which they operate become important. These contexts are quite different from country to country, often more so than policymakers are aware ....... The national style of policymaking depends on the constitutional framework, the infrastructure of public authorities as well as the historical and cultural heritage, which are basic institutional premises that vary tremendously even between neighbouring western european countries....

  1. Water Economics and Policy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julio Berbel

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Economics plays a double role in the field of water management, firstly as a powerful analytical tool supporting water allocation and policy decisions, and secondly in the form of policy instruments (water pricing, markets, etc.. This Special Issue presents a platform for sharing results connecting excellent interdisciplinary research applied to different regional and sectoral problems around the world. The 22 peer-reviewed papers collected in this Special Issue have been grouped into five broad categories: Water valuation and accounting; Economic instruments; Cost effectiveness and cost-benefit analysis; and Water productivity and Governance. They are briefly presented.

  2. Economic instruments for environmental mitigation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wilkinson, A.

    1995-01-01

    A joint International Chamber of Commerce (ICC)/World Energy Council (WEC) Working Group has been studying a range of policy instruments which are being used or considered for use to address the question of ever increasing energy demand versus environmental protection, and pollution reduction. Economic instruments for such environmental protection include direct regulation, market-based instruments, and voluntary approaches. No single policy or device was likely to suffice in addressing the diversity of environmental problems currently faced. Altering energy prices must be seen in a social context, but some direct regulation may also be inevitable. Generally economic instruments of change were preferred as these were viewed as more flexible and cost-effective. (UK)

  3. Economic instruments of environmental policy - USA and Federal Republic of Germany

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Troge, A.

    1983-01-01

    The basic orientation of American practice should induce us to develop constructive ideas. The principle is simple: Companies profit directly by emission reductions, and thus air-pollution abatement is enhanced. Even after a short period, an emmission relief and cost reduction are perceptible which is encouraging. Further options under the current licensing procedures must be carefully examined, and even though they may not, at first glance, appear to be equally rational and systematic which fact fascinates many because the suggestions on an environmental levy are so obviously aiming at specific targets. We should, therefore, not turn a deaf ear to a step-by-step approach with instruments of environmental policy which gains by experiments and errors.

  4. Optimising the effect of policy instruments

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Anders Branth; Nielsen, Helle Ørsted; Christensen, Tove

    2012-01-01

    Economic modelling generally assumes that businesses are profit maximisers. However, behavioural economics holds that businesses pursue multiple objectives and may even sacrifice some profit. This has implications for the effectiveness of incentive-based environmental policies. Using Danish farme...... to policy instruments; farmers who focus on yield indicate less responsiveness to economic policy instruments. The results imply that it is important to implement a broad array of policy instruments to match different farmer rationales.......Economic modelling generally assumes that businesses are profit maximisers. However, behavioural economics holds that businesses pursue multiple objectives and may even sacrifice some profit. This has implications for the effectiveness of incentive-based environmental policies. Using Danish farmers...... as a case, this paper examines whether non-economic rationales may trump economic ones in farmer decisions, and, unlike previous research, we quantify how widespread non-economic values are compared to more economic values. Data derive from a survey (1164 responses) of Danish conventional farmers' decision...

  5. Economic instruments for waste management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Malaman, R.

    1991-01-01

    Economic instruments for the implementation of environmental policies distinguish themselves from traditional tools (the 'command and control' type) for the reason that: they influence the costs and the benefits of the economic agents in question; they change the behaviour of the subjects in question in a way that they guarantee behaviour trends less harmful to the environment; they guarantee the assignment of adequate prices to the natural resources that traditionally don't have a price and therefore are consumed excessively by the economic subjects; normally they impose the transfer of economic resources to the disadvantage of the subjects responsible for the phenomena of pollution; certain objective pollution reduction data guarantee the minimization of the social costs of pollution abatement, that is, of the total costs on the economic system in general (economists define this characteristic as the 'static efficiency'); they guarantee what is called in economical jargon, the dynamic efficiency, i.e., in practice, they determine a continuous incentive for the reduction of the emission of the various pollutants and for the realization of the technological innovations that are able to control the pollution; they are more flexible than the instruments of direct regulation, because they leave the subjects a freedom of choice under different price conditions than in the past; they are flexible as well for the reason that the public operator can intervene rapidly to change the way of application

  6. Analysis: climate policy in the United States: what economic instrument for a carbon price signal?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2009-03-01

    At the time of his election as President of the United States, Barack Obama declared that 'We will make it clear to the world that America is ready to lead to protect our environment'. The 2050 objective of cutting CO 2 emissions by 80% compared to the 1990 level, as affirmed in the election campaign, will involve directing the market in accordance with a carbon price signal that includes the true cost of greenhouse gas emissions so as to establish a policy that is both effective and credible, i.e. likely to lead developing countries into the global effort. An emission allowance market, rather than a carbon tax, should therefore come into being. However, those who advocate the tax - more numerous in academic circles than among political decision-makers - are sharpening up their arguments. In particular, they identify the measures to be taken if we wish to attain an environmental objective and curb social inequalities. Similar arguments could serve as the basis for an international agreement that would strongly incite emerging countries to reduce their emissions while remaining equitable towards them. (author)

  7. Economic and Policy Review

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The NESG Economic and Policy Review (EPR) is a quarterly publication of the Nigerian Economic Summit Group (NESG), established to serve as an avenue for constructive analysis of economic policies and their impacts on different aspects of the business and economic environment. The EPR aims to provide unbiased, ...

  8. RESPONSE OF NIGERIAN CASSAVA EXPANSION INITIATIVES TO CLIMATE CHANGES, ECONOMIC GROWTH AND SOME POLICY INSTRUMENT (1970-2012

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Onwumere Joseph

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available This study considered the limiting response of Nigeria cassava expansion initiative to climate changes, economic growth and some policy instruments. The presidential initiative to make cassava a foreign exchange earner as well as ensuring that national demand are satisfied has made cassava a significant economic crop and resource input of industrial and international status. Currently, its derivatives such as animal feed, starch, ethanol, cassava chip, cassava flour, cassava liquor etc are in high demand. Having gained international recognition some factors need be examined to ascertain the limiting response of this economic crop some exogenous factors. The specific objectives of interest were to ascertain the response of cassava output expansion to rainfall, temperature, imports, exports, credit allocation to agribusiness, exchange rate, nominal interest rate, inflation and GDP from 1970 – 2012. Also, it examined the short and long run effects of these variables to cassava output so as to know how much adjustment it makes to reach the equilibrium. Secondary data were used for this research work. The technique of data analysis was auto- regressive modeling regression. To capture the long run and short run dynamics of cassava output behavior, the error correction model (ECM using the Engle-Granger methodology was adopted. The result revealed a very high rate of adjustment to long run equilibrium and the variables are correlated which means that impact of each variable on cassava output behavior in the economy is inseparable. The Error correction coefficient of -0.975 measures the speed of adjustment towards long run equilibrium earned the expected negative sign and is statistically significant at 1% risk level. Thus, this study recommends that the emerging cassava economy of Nigeria would be adequately empowered for efficient productivity if the Government stipulate policies that will encourage domestic output expansion to meet the national and

  9. Economics and obesity policy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lusk, J L

    2017-06-01

    This paper elucidates the challenges surrounding the economics of some popular obesity-related policy proposals. Solid economic justifications for anti-obesity policies are often lacking, and evidence suggests policies like fat and soda taxes or restrictions on food stamp spending are unlikely to substantively affect obesity prevalence. In short, many of the same factors that make obesity such a complicated and multifaceted issue extend to the economic analysis of public health policies.

  10. Incentivizing wood-based Fischer-Tropsch diesel through financial policy instruments: An economic assessment for Norway

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bright, Ryan M.; Stromman, Anders H.

    2010-01-01

    The objective of this study is to evaluate a select set of financial incentive instruments that can be employed by the Norwegian government for encouraging early investment and production experience in wood-based Fischer-Tropsch diesel (FTD) technologies as a means to accelerate reductions in greenhouse gas emissions (GHG) stemming from road-based transport. We start by performing an economic analysis of FTD produced from Norwegian forest biomass at a pioneer commercial plant in Norway, followed with a cost growth analysis to estimate production costs after uncertainty in early plant performance and capital cost estimates are considered. Results after the cost growth analysis imply that the initial production cost estimates for a pioneer producer may be underestimated by up to 30%. Using the revised estimate we then assess, through scenarios, how various financial support mechanisms designed to encourage near-term investment would affect production costs over a range of uncertain future oil prices. For all policy scenarios considered, we evaluate trade-offs between the levels of public expenditure, or subsidy, and private investor profitability. When considering the net present value of the subsidy required to incentivize commercial investment during a future of low oil prices, we find that GHG mitigation via wood-FTD is likely to be considered cost-ineffective. However, should the government expect that mean oil prices in the coming two decades will hover between $97 and 127/bbl, all the incentive policies considered would likely spur investment at net present values ≤$-100/tonne-fossil-CO 2 -equivalent avoided.

  11. Management of science policy, sociology of science policy and economics of science policy

    CERN Document Server

    Ruivo, Beatriz

    2017-01-01

    'Management of science policy, sociology of science policy and economics of science policy' is a theoretical essay on the scientific foundation of science policy (formulation, implementation, instruments and procedures). It can be also used as a textbook.

  12. Economic Policy Instruments and Evaluation Methods in Dutch Water Management: An analysis of their contribution to an integrated approach

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    S.P. Boot (Sander Paul)

    2007-01-01

    textabstractIn international water policy, a trend can be observed towards more attention for economic approaches in water management. In 1992, at the International Conference on Water and the Environment (ICWE) in Dublin, the Convention on the Protection and Use of Transboundary Water Courses and

  13. Policies and instruments for the promotion of the export sector in Japan: Key elements for the economic growth

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alberto Francisco Torres García

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Ravaged by war and submitted during the first years by the Supreme Commander Allied Powers, led by General McArthur of the U.S., Japan in 1950 implemented a policy of economic recovery. Over the years, this economy has been considered a peculiar case of economic growth and development. The diversification of international relations under the pillar of economic restructuring has enabled a more favorable insertion in international markets to an economy that even in a deep recession, remains high competitiveness. Thus, the promotion of Japanese exports was made possible by the combination of state intervention and private sector efficiency, which showed a great ability to tune their industrial development.

  14. Risk Implications of Energy Policy Instruments

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kitzing, Lena

    papers and a working paper), based on a combination of micro-economic and policy analysis. Financial theory is used for the quantitative analysis of investment problems under uncertainty, including mean-variance portfolio theory, real option analysis, Monte Carlo simulations and time series analysis...... show, both qualitatively and quantitatively, that policy makers cannot neglect risk implications when designing RES support instruments without compromising either on effectiveness or cost-efficiency of energy policy. The central research questions are: how can risk implications of RES policy...... instruments be integrated into policy design, so that the policies provide adequate investment incentives? And can the consideration of such risk implications in policy design make overall energy policy more successful? These questions are answered in seven research papers (four journal papers, two conference...

  15. ECONOMIC EFFECTS OF ENERGY POLICIES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mihaela ȘTEȚ

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper highlights some of the issues raised by the implementation of energy policies and the fiscal measures in the energy sector and it aims to identify the impact of energy policies at regional level. It is emphasized, along with the environmental impact of the use of renewable resources and economic and social effects on sustainable regional development which can generate state intervention through direct and indirect, financial and non-financial instruments. Given the complex energy profile of Romania, the paper reveals also, the problems that have had to face in the last two decades and the impact of energy policies of Romanian governments. The research is based on an analysis of statistics, publications in energy sector, as well as primary and specific legislation.

  16. Rules of Origin as Commercial Policy Instruments.

    OpenAIRE

    Falvey, Rod; Reed, Geoff

    1997-01-01

    This article examines the role of rules of origin as a commercial policy instrument that targets the input composition of imports. Using a three-country, partial equilibrium structure, we demonstrate conditions under which the imposition of a binding rule will be welfare improving for an importer facing competitive export suppliers. We further show that employing rules of origin in this way would be complementary to, rather than a substitute for, conventional optimal tariffs. Copyright Econom...

  17. 'Green' preferences as regulatory policy instrument

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brennan, Timothy J.

    2006-01-01

    We examine here the suggestion that if consumers in sufficient numbers are willing to pay the premium to have power generated using low-emission technologies, tax or permit policies become less necessary or stringent. While there are implementation difficulties with this proposal, our purpose is more fundamental: Can economics make sense of using preferences as a regulatory instrument? If 'green' preferences are exogenously given, to what extent can or should they be regarded as a substitute for other policies? Even with 'green' preferences, production and consumption of polluting goods continue to impose social costs not borne in the market. Moreover, if green preferences are regarded as a policy instrument, the 'no policy' baseline would require a problematic specification of counterfactual 'non-green' preferences. Viewing green preferences as a regulatory policy instrument is conceptually sensible if the benchmark for optimal emissions is based on value judgments apart from the preferences consumers happen to have. If so, optimal environmental protection would be defined by reference to ethical theory, or, even less favorably, by prescriptions from policy advocates who give their own preferences great weight while giving those of the public at large (and the costs they bear) very little consideration. (author)

  18. Developments in the use of economic instruments in OECD countries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Opschoor, H.

    1994-01-01

    For the period 1987-1993, developments in the environmental policies of OECD countries with respect to the use of economic instruments are compared and the differences analyzed. The focus is on applications in the field of air pollution policies. The comparison is made on the basis of two surveys. To complete the descriptive part, a brief survey is also presented of currently discussed and recently introduced economic instruments. A description of economic instruments as such and a review of rationales for employing economic and financial incentives precede this analysis. The analysis shows that the use of economic instruments has indeed increased since 1987, but the development has not been spectacular. Possible explanations for this are presented. Also, some types of instrument have advanced more than others and the changes differ from one set of countries to another. Product charges (including air pollution-related ones) have become more widely used, especially in Scandinavian countries. Moreover, growing attention is being paid to the use of economic instruments at the international level. The incentive impacts of economic (and other) instruments appear to have received relatively little empirical attention, even though these are an important policy-relevant feature in instrument choice. 23 refs., 5 tabs

  19. Economic Theory, Economic Reality And Economic Policy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dmitry Evgenievich Sorokin

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available This paper analyzes the opposition between the «liberals» and «statists» in the Russian political and economic thought. It demonstrates that the economic liberalization is an absolute prerequisite for the transition to sustainable socio-economic development. Such development must rely on investment activities of the state, which in the current circumstances is a necessary but not sufficient measure for reversing the negative trends. The negative developments can be prevented only through implementation, along with the institutional changes in the economic area that form a strata of economically independent entrepreneurs-innovators, of no less profound transformation in political institutions aimed at democratization of public life

  20. Economic and Policy Review: Editorial Policies

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The NESG Economic and Policy Review (EPR) is a quarterly publication of the ... of government and the Nigerian economy in the short, medium and long terms. ... must be of impeccable quality and must conform to world class standard.

  1. Development of innovation complexes as a mechanism of technologies transfer and an instrument of social-economic policy in the region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. F. Sukhovey

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available In this article is developed a role of innovation complexes of a region at the base of analysis of foreign and domestic experience of organization science-technological complexes. Main reasons, braking innovation transformations in Russia are cleared. For example of Russia it is shown, that unsystematic forming objects of innovation infrastructure without interaction with needs of development region and state its science-technical and industrial potential do not taken to positive change at economy and do not help to activation of innovation processes. Peculiarity different innovation complexes as instrument of social-economic policy, its participation at decision, those actual problems as overcoming of decline traditional branches of industry, forming high-tech sector, rise of outlaying districts, rise of competitive ability of industry were cleared. It is given special attention to possibility of innovation complexes as effective mechanism passing of technologies, allowing to create favorable conditions to subjects of innovation activity and to speed up process “research — production”. Measures to foundation of effective innovation infrastructure as one conditions of acceleration innovation development in Russia are offered.

  2. Environmental policy based on economic efficiency - The case of policy instrument choice for air quality standards for nitro dioxide and particles; Miljoepolitik paa samhaellsekonomisk grund - En fallstudie om styrmedlet miljoekvalitetsnormer foer partiklar och kvaevedioxid

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pyddoke, Roger; Nerhagen, Lena

    2010-09-15

    The purpose of the present project is to examine whether or not economic analysis and quantified assessments have been part of the information used when designing and implementing these environmental quality standards. Such assessments are regularly used in the transport sector in Sweden but several studies in Sweden and abroad have found that this is not the case for environmental policies. Most of these studies argue that this type of information is important for an efficient design of policy instruments and abatement measures. Efficient policy design was also considered an important part in the new environmental policy and the Swedish EPA was commissioned to develop methods of integrating costs of environmental impacts into economic and social decision-making models but also to investigate the possibility to use economic policy instruments. In the beginning of the report we provide a theoretical discussion about the value of doing socioeconomic analysis. It is argued that structured and quantified assessments such as cost-benefit or cost-efficiency analysis can help to clarify the extent of the environmental problem and the efficiency of a policy instruments and their impact on the community. Economic reasoning also provides a basis for a discussion about possible reasons for why this type of information may not have been used on a regular basis. The main conclusion from this report is that neither the current design of these environmental quality standards nor the policy instruments chosen have been based on quantified economic assessments. This is so even though Sweden for the emissions considered in this report has adopted limit values that are more far reaching than those stated in EC directives. Moreover, although new evidence regarding the harmfulness of these pollutants has emerged, no adaptations to the original limit values have been undertaken. Nor are the action programmes, which have been implemented in cities where the environmental quality standard

  3. Instruments to increase climate policy ambition before 2020. Economic and political implications in selected industry and emerging countries. Pre2020 climate policy ambition. Draft version

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Braun, Nadine; Hoehne, Niklas; Hagemann, Markus; Day, Thomas [Ecofys Germany GmbH, Berlin (Germany); Healy, Sean; Schumacher, Katja [Oeko-Institut e.V. - Institut fuer Angewandte Oekologie, Berlin (Germany); Duscha, Vicki [Fraunhofer-Institut fuer System- und Innovationsforschung (ISI), Karlsruhe (Germany)

    2014-06-06

    The objective of this research paper is to analyse the current efforts of country activities towards the 2020 2 C target, in order to identify best practices and their possible impact on emission reduction in 2020. A first scan of policies in countries with high greenhouse gas emissions and countries with remarkably ambitious climate change mitigation strategies (see Table 1) revealed that thematic areas with notable coverage in domestic climate policy are: general strategies and targets, renewable energy support schemes for electricity, product standards and codes for energy efficiency in buildings, and direct subsidies and fuel quotas for renewables in Transport. From this, along with initial indications of mitigation potential, we identified four areas where ambition could be significantly enhanced by 2020.

  4. The Choice of Innovation Policy Instruments

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Borrás, Susana; Edquist, Charles

    The purpose of this article is to discuss the different types of instruments of innovation policy, to examine how governments and public agencies in different countries and different times have used these instruments differently, to explore the political nature of instrument choice and design (and...... associated issues), and to elaborate a set of criteria for the selection and design of the instruments in relation to the formulation of innovation policy. The article argues that innovation policy instruments must be designed and combined into mixes in ways that address the problems of the innovation system....... These mixes are often called “policy mix”. The problem-oriented nature of the design of instrument mixes is what makes innovation policy instruments ‘systemic’....

  5. The Choice of Innovation Policy Instruments

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Borrás, Susana; Edquist, Charles

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this article is to discuss the different types of instruments of innovation policy, to examine how governments and public agencies in different countries and different times have used these instruments differently, to explore the political nature of instrument choice and design (and...... associated issues), and to elaborate a set of criteria for the selection and design of the instruments in relation to the formulation of innovation policy. The article argues that innovation policy instruments must be designed and combined into mixes in ways that address the problems of the innovation system....... These mixes are often called “policy mix”. The problem-oriented nature of the design of instrument mixes is what makes innovation policy instruments ‘systemic’....

  6. Agroforestry Economics and Policy

    Science.gov (United States)

    L.D. Godsey; D. Evan Mercer; Robert K. Grala; Stephen C. Grado; Janaki R.R. Alavalapati

    2009-01-01

    Essentially every living thing on Earth has applied the basic concepts of economics. That is, every living thing has had to use a limited set of resources to meet a minimum set of needs or wants. Although the study of economics is often confused with the study of markets or finance, economics is simply a social science that studies the choices people make. As a social...

  7. Policy Instruments for Sustainable Food Consumption

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Reisch, Lucia; Lorek, Sylvia; Bietz, Sabine

    The food policy domain highlights the complexity of the sustainability of food consumption. In addition to the ecological, social and economic aspects of food consumption, public health concerns are an integral factor in efforts to ensure the sustainable development of the food sector (Reisch et ...... with recommendations on actions that consumers (in their role as market actors and consumer citizens), NGOs, the media, the food industry, retailers and governments can take in a shared pursuit of more sustainable food consumption and production.......The food policy domain highlights the complexity of the sustainability of food consumption. In addition to the ecological, social and economic aspects of food consumption, public health concerns are an integral factor in efforts to ensure the sustainable development of the food sector (Reisch et al...... of the CORPUS project on sustainable food consumption. In general, governments trying to influence the sustainability of food systems have informationbased, market-based and regulatory instruments in their toolbox (Lorek et al., 2008). Their goal is to build a policy framework for appropriate action...

  8. Economic instruments and the environmental accounts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Palm, Viveka; Larsson, Maja

    2007-01-01

    The Nordic countries have now had experience with environmental taxes and subsidies as a major component of their environmental policy over an extensive period of time. The Swedish System of Environmental and Economic Accounts (SEEA) include environmental taxes and subsidies as part of the official statistics. This article presents the accounts for taxes and subsidies, linked to the accounts for emissions data by industry. It demonstrates disparities between emissions and environmental taxes, as well as where industries or environmental problems are not regulated. The data show that in Sweden economic instruments are always aimed at particular actors or areas, and are never quite as comprehensive as recommended by economic theory. The environmental taxes are primarily aimed at fossil fuel use and related emissions, and have been mostly applied to the household sector and services sector, while industry often has been given exemptions due to concerns about international competition. The environmentally motivated subsidies are mainly directed to agriculture, fishing and research on renewable resources. A fully developed international data set on taxes and subsidies would provide a sound base for comparing the impact on international competitiveness. Eurostat is promoting the use of environmental accounts data for its member countries by harmonizing methods and engaging in publication of international comparisons. (author)

  9. African Journal of Economic Policy: Editorial Policies

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Focus and Scope. The primary aim of this journal, an offshoot of the Trade Policy Research and Training Programme in Economics Department, University of Ibadan, is to provide a forum for development and equity on the African continent. It, therefore, welcomes well researched papers on the implications of a specific ...

  10. Market-based Economic Instruments

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Klemmensen, Børge

    2007-01-01

    Grundkategorien her er markedet som den optimale allokeringsmekanisme for de belastninger, som de økonomiske instrumenter / miljøskatterne påfører. Det mest omfattende og spektakulære eksempel på markedet som allokatorer af skatter er EU's børs for forureningstilladelser, dvs reelt CO-2 beskatnin...

  11. Monetary policy and insolvency of economic sector

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tepavac Rajko

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available The main task of monetary policy of our central bank is to achieve and preserve stability of prices and currency. Targeted inflation rate has been chosen as operating instrument for gradual realization of low and stable inflation, along with elimination of inflation expectations. Also, a specific inflation corridor is chosen to ensure operations, transparency and ex ante effects of monetary policy. The paper presents analysis on whether there really is a restrictive monetary policy, deflections of real inflation from the programmed one, level of 'restrictiveness' of monetary policy and behavior of bank loans, money supply, nominal and real economic growth. Analysis is carried out and criticism of concepts of monetary regulation of mandatory bank reserves, blocking of financial bank potential through monetary regulation instruments, but also relations between central and business banks through open market policy. Criticism of repo operations and complete disappearance of selective credit policy is provided as well. The problem of almost embedded insolvency of economic sector is highlighted.

  12. Economic potential of energy-efficient retrofitting in the Swiss residential building sector: The effects of policy instruments and energy price expectations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Amstalden, Roger W.; Kost, Michael; Nathani, Carsten; Imboden, Dieter M.

    2007-01-01

    The aim of this paper is to analyse the profitability of energy-efficient retrofit investments in the Swiss residential building sector from the house owner's perspective. Different energy price expectations, policy instruments such as subsidies, income tax deduction and a carbon tax, as well as potential future cost degression of energy efficiency measures were taken into account. The discounted cash flow method was used for the investment analysis of different retrofit packages applied to a model building scheduled for renovation, i.e. a single-family house constructed between 1948 and 1975. The results show that present Swiss policy instruments push investments for energy-efficient retrofitting to profitability. Cost degression has a minor significance for investment profitability. However, the most relevant factor for the investment analysis is the expected energy price. Expecting a future fuel oil price at the level of 2005, efficiency investments are close to profitability even without policy support. If higher energy prices were expected, energy-efficient retrofitting would be an attractive investment opportunity

  13. Economic instruments and marine litter control

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Oosterhuis, F.H.; Papyrakis, E.; Boteler, B.

    2014-01-01

    This paper provides a comprehensive up-to-date review of the literature on the economic instruments that can reduce marine litter. We assess their cost of implementation, level of effectiveness as well as indirect environmental and socio-economic effects (externalities) that may arise as a result of

  14. African Journal of Economic Policy

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The primary aim of this journal, an offshoot of the Trade Policy Research and Training Programme in Economics Department, University of Ibadan, is to provide a forum for development and equity on the African continent. Vol 20, No 2 (2013). DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT Open Access DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT Subscription or ...

  15. Evaluation of energy efficiency policy instruments effectiveness : case study Croatia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bukarica, V.

    2007-01-01

    This paper proposed a theoretical basis for evaluating energy efficiency policy in the Republic of Croatia and corroborated it with the analysis of energy efficiency market development and transformation. The current status of the market was evaluated and policy instruments were adapted to achieve optimal results. In particular, the energy efficiency market in Croatia was discussed in terms of micro and macro environment factors that influence policy making processes and the choice of policy instruments. The macro environment for energy efficiency market in Croatia is the process of European Union pre-integration with all related national and international legislation, political and economical factors and potential to use financial funds. The micro environment consists of government institutions, local financing institutions and a range of market players on the supply and demand side. Energy efficiency is the most powerful and cost-effective way for achieving goals of sustainable development. Policy instruments developed to improve energy efficiency are oriented towards a cleaner environment, better standard of living, more competitive industry and improved security of energy supply. Energy efficiency is much harder to implement and requires policy interventions. In response to recent trends in the energy sector, such as deregulation and open competition, policy measures aimed at improving energy efficiency should shift from an end-users oriented approach towards a whole market approach. The optimal policy instruments mix should be designed to meet defined targets. However, market dynamics must be taken into consideration. 9 refs., 4 figs

  16. Economic instruments for environmental protection: Can we trust the 'magic carpet'?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bressers, Johannes T.A.; Huitema, D.

    1999-01-01

    Economic instruments appear at first to be a promising alternative to regulations as instruments of environmental policy. Because they put market forces to work for the goal of a sustainable society, they are often portrayed as achieving goals at much lower costs. In this sense, economic instruments

  17. Economic instruments for environmental protection : Can we trust the "magic carpet"?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bressers, Hans Th A.; Huitema, Dave

    Economic instruments appear at first to be a promising alternative to regulations as instruments of environmental policy. Because they put market forces to work for the goal of a sustainable society, they are often portrayed as achieving goals at much lower costs. In this sense, economic instruments

  18. Complexity hints for economic policy

    CERN Document Server

    Salzano, Massimo

    2007-01-01

    This volume extends the complexity approach to economics. This complexity approach is not a completely new way of doing economics, and that it is a replacement for existing economics, but rather the integration of some new analytic and computational techniques into economists’ bag of tools. It provides some alternative pattern generators, which can supplement existing approaches by providing an alternative way of finding patterns than be obtained by the traditional scientific approach. On this new kind of policy hints can be obtained. The reason why the complexity approach is taking hold now in economics is because the computing technology has advanced. This advance allows consideration of analytical systems that could not previously be considered by economists. Consideration of these systems suggested that the results of the "control-based" models might not extend easily to more complicated systems, and that we now have a method—piggybacking computer assisted analysis onto analytic methods—to start gen...

  19. Economic aspects of addiction policy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maynard, A

    1986-05-01

    One definition of policy or government action in the Oxford English Dictionary is "craftiness" i.e. cunning or deceit. Such qualities have to be employed by governments because of the potential vote-losing effects of radical addiction policies. Health promotion, in relation to addictive substances such as alcohol and tobacco in particular, involves a trade-off between the costs of such policies, especially to industry (which seeks regulation to protect itself from competitors), and the benefits--improvements in the quality and length of life. Measures of such benefits (quality-adjusted life-years or QALYs) are available now to use in the evaluation of competing health promotion policies to determine their efficiency at the margin. Analysis of the market for tobacco indicates that consumption has been falling generally in the UK except among teenagers who appear to be the target of the industry's advertising and sponsorship efforts. This fall in consumption appears to be explained by health promotion rather than the active use of fiscal instruments of control. The recognition of the health effects of passive smoking and the impact of advertising and sponsorship, especially on the young, are policy areas requiring careful review and the evaluation of the costs and benefits of competing policies.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  20. Instrumental Effects of Fiscal Policy for Pakistan Economy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ghulam Rasool Madni

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Fiscal policy has much controversial debate regarding its effectiveness on economic growth. Taxation and government expenditure are two main instruments of fiscal policy. This paper is aimed to analyze the effect of different categories of government expenditure on economic growth of Pakistan. Based on impact on economic growth, government expenditures are classified into productive (having positive or neutral effect on economic growth and unproductive expenditures (having negative or insignificant impact on economic growth. The data time span for this study is 1979-2012. After classification of expenditures, the impact of fiscal instruments is analyzed by utilizing the ARDL approach of Co integration which is a better estimation technique for small sample size. The results reveal that unproductive government expenditure have negative impact while productive government expenditure has insignificant impact on the economic growth. It is found that private investment positively and significantly affect the economic growth. On the other side, direct and indirect taxes have also insignificant impact on economic growth of Pakistan

  1. Economic instruments in environmental protection in Denmark

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1999-12-01

    This report provides a comprehensive and up-to-date status on the current use of economic instruments in Danish environmental protection. The report focuses on the implementation and enforcement aspects of the Danish experience. Thereby, the report is intended to provide a contribution to the international efforts to collate and disseminate such experience, and to provide a means of experience sharing and example sharing. It is envisaged that the report may be of use also to countries in Central and Eastern Europe and in the Newly Independent States where the emerging market economies offer an opportunity for an enhanced use of economic instruments. Lastly, the report's emphasis on actual implementation and enforcement aspects renders it highly applicable also to undergraduate and postgraduate students in environmental and/or economic disciplines. (au)

  2. Global warming: Economic policy responses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dornbusch, R.; Poterba, J.M.

    1991-01-01

    This volume contains the proceedings of a conference that brought together economic experts from Europe, the US, Latin America, and Japan to evaluate key issues in the policy debate in global warming. The following issues are at the center of debates on alternative policies to address global warming: scientific evidence on the magnitude of global warming and the extent to which it is due to human activities; availability of economic tools to control the anthropogenic emissions of greenhouse gases, and how vigorously should they be applied; and political economy considerations which influence the design of an international program for controlling greenhouse gases. Many perspectives are offered on the approaches to remedying environmental problems that are currently being pursued in Europe and the Pacific Rim. Deforestation in the Amazon is discussed, as well as ways to slow it. Public finance assessments are presented of both the domestic and international policy issues raised by plans to levy a tax on the carbon emissions from various fossil fuels. Nine chapters have been processed separately for inclusion in the appropriate data bases

  3. Economics and rational conservation policy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Metcalf, G.E.

    1994-01-01

    Energy analysts have been concerned with the apparently low level of energy-efficient investments and have suggested the presence of various market barriers and failures that hinder investment. The concept of a barrier as defined here is some force that is working against investment in energy-efficient technologies. Market failures, on the other hand, are failures of the competitive paradigm that lead to economically inefficient outcomes. Market barriers require no particular response on the part of government while market failures may call for some policy response. (author)

  4. PRIORITIZING ECONOMIC GROWTH: ENHANCING MACROECONOMIC POLICY CHOICE

    OpenAIRE

    Colin I. BRADFORD, Jr.

    2005-01-01

    This paper spells out a logic for increasing macroeconomic policy space in order to prioritize the goals of growth, employment creation and poverty reduction. First, there is the need to create additional policy instruments so that a greater number of policy goals can be addressed. Frequently, real economy goals get partly crowded out by financial objectives because there are too few instruments for too many goals. Second, the calibrated use of policy tools by degrees of commitment, deploymen...

  5. Energy-economic policy modeling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanstad, Alan H.

    2018-01-01

    Computational models based on economic principles and methods are powerful tools for understanding and analyzing problems in energy and the environment and for designing policies to address them. Among their other features, some current models of this type incorporate information on sustainable energy technologies and can be used to examine their potential role in addressing the problem of global climate change. The underlying principles and the characteristics of the models are summarized, and examples of this class of model and their applications are presented. Modeling epistemology and related issues are discussed, as well as critiques of the models. The paper concludes with remarks on the evolution of the models and possibilities for their continued development.

  6. Security Economics and European Policy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, Ross; Böhme, Rainer; Clayton, Richard; Moor, Tyler

    In September 2007, we were awarded a contract by the European Network and Information Security Agency (ENISA) to investigate failures in the market for secure electronic communications within the European Union, and come up with policy recommendations. In the process, we spoke to a large number of stakeholders, and held a consultative meeting in December 2007 in Brussels to present draft proposals, which established most had wide stakeholder support. The formal outcome of our work was a detailed report, “Security Economics and the Internal Market”, published by ENISA in March 2008. This paper presents a much abridged version: in it, we present the recommendations we made, along with a summary of our reasoning.

  7. "Economics Imperialism", Education Policy and Educational Theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allais, Stephanie

    2012-01-01

    This paper examines how economics imperialism (the increasing colonization of other disciplines by neoclassical economics) has affected contemporary education policies. I suggest that an increasing preoccupation with education meeting the needs of the economy, together with the prevalence of economic concepts outside of economics, have contributed…

  8. Agri-Environmental Policy Measures in Israel: The Potential of Using Market-Oriented Instruments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amdur, Liron; Bertke, Elke; Freese, Jan; Marggraf, Rainer

    2011-05-01

    This paper examines the possibilities of developing agri-environmental policy measures in Israel, focusing on market-oriented instruments. A conceptual framework for developing agri-environmental policy measures is presented, first in very broad lines (mandatory regulations, economic instruments and advisory measures) and subsequently focusing on economic instruments, and specifically, on market-oriented ones. Two criteria of choice between the measures are suggested: their contribution to improving the effectiveness of the policy; and the feasibility of their implementation. This is the framework used for analyzing agri-environmental measures in Israel. Israel currently implements a mix of mandatory regulations, economic instruments and advisory measures to promote the agri-environment. The use of additional economic instruments may improve the effectiveness of the policy. When comparing the effectiveness of various economic measures, we found that the feasibility of implementation of market-oriented instruments is greater, due to the Israeli public's preference for strengthening market orientation in the agricultural sector. Four market-oriented instruments were practiced in a pilot project conducted in an Israeli rural area. We found that in this case study, the institutional feasibility and acceptance by stakeholders were the major parameters influencing the implementation of the market-oriented instruments, whereas the instruments' contribution to enhancing the ecological or economic effectiveness were hardly considered by the stakeholders as arguments in favor of their use.

  9. Innovation Policy of the European Union: Concept Strategic Update and Instruments Improvement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Belal Hassouna

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The article characterizes formation of EU innovation policy and its conceptual update, which has strategic character and is concerned with the social and economic model change, determines differences between EU innovation policy and national politics and the forms of its implementation, detects major changes of EU innovation policy instruments, which were the result of support concept and innovation regulations change.

  10. The Budget Policy in the Context of Economic Transformations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pasichnik Vladimir A.

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The article is aimed at disclosing the essence and role of budget policy in the system of socio-economic development of country, defining the institutional approach in the process of its formation and implementation, based on changes in the public environment. The socio-economic development of society at this stage requires the use of budgetary policy as an effective instrument for the State regulation of economic and social relations. It is important to determine the priorities of the budget policy, including the medium-term perspective, based on the basic principles of the socio-economic development of country, improvement of the State regulation in the sphere of generation of budget income, the planning and usage of budget expenditures, the inter-budget relations, which will increase the efficiency of functioning of the economic and budget system as a whole.

  11. Economic Models as Devices of Policy Change

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Henriksen, Lasse Folke

    2013-01-01

    Can the emergence of a new policy model be a catalyst for a paradigm shift in the overall interpretative framework of how economic policy is conducted within a society? This paper claims that models are understudied as devices used by actors to induce policy change. This paper explores the role...... of models in Danish economic policy, where, from the 1970s onwards, executive public servants in this area have exclusively been specialists in model design. To understand changes in economic policy, this paper starts with a discussion of whether the notion of paradigm shift is adequate. It then examines...... the extent to which the performativity approach can help identify macroscopic changes in policy from seemingly microscopic changes in policy models. The concept of performativity is explored as a means of thinking about the constitution of agency directed at policy change. The paper brings this concept...

  12. Evaluating environmental policy instruments mixes; a methodology illustrated by noise policy in the Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Weber, Miriam; Driessen, Peter P J; Runhaar, Hens A C

    2014-01-01

    Environmental policy is characterised by complexity, in causes and effects, resulting in various combinations of policy instruments. However, evaluating these policy instrument mixes and assessing their effectiveness is difficult because of a lack of methodological approaches. This paper therefore

  13. Economic and policy analysis for solar PV systems in Indiana

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jung, Jinho; Tyner, Wallace E.

    2014-01-01

    In recent years, the energy market in the US and globally is expanding the production of renewable energy. Solar energy for electricity is also expanding in the US. Indiana is one of the states expanding solar energy with solar photovoltaic (PV) systems. Therefore, we conduct benefit cost analysis with several uncertain input variables to determine the economics of adopting solar PV systems in Indiana based on policy instruments that could increase adoption of solar PV systems. The specific objectives are analyses of the cost distribution of solar PV systems compared with grid electricity in homes and estimating the probability that solar can be cheaper than electricity from grids under different policy combinations. We first do the analysis under current policy and then the analysis under potential policy options for a variety of scenarios. Also, the results inform government policy makers on how effective the alternative policies for encouraging solar PV systems are. The results show that current policies are important in reducing the cost of solar PV systems. However, with current policies, there is only 50–50 chance of solar being cheaper than electricity from grids. If potential policies are implemented, solar PV systems can be more economical than grid electricity. - Highlights: • We investigate the economics of solar PV systems based on policy instruments. • We do scenario analyses under different combinations of policies. • We examine the probability of solar being cheaper than grid electricity for each scenario. • With current policies, there is 50–50 chance of solar being cheaper than the grid. • With depreciation and carbon tax, solar is much more economical than the grid

  14. Global wind power development: Economics and policies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Timilsina, Govinda R.; Cornelis van Kooten, G.; Narbel, Patrick A.

    2013-01-01

    Existing literature indicates that theoretically, the earth's wind energy supply potential significantly exceeds global energy demand. Yet, only 2–3% of global electricity demand is currently derived from wind power despite 27% annual growth in wind generating capacity over the last 17 years. More than 95% of total current wind power capacity is installed in the developed countries plus China and India. Our analysis shows that the economic competitiveness of wind power varies at wider range across countries or locations. A climate change damage cost of US$20/tCO 2 imposed to fossil fuels would make onshore wind competitive to all fossil fuels for power generation; however, the same would not happen to offshore wind, with few exceptions, even if the damage cost is increased to US$100/tCO 2 . To overcome a large number of technical, financial, institutional, market and other barriers to wind power, many countries have employed various policy instruments, including capital subsidies, tax incentives, tradable energy certificates, feed-in tariffs, grid access guarantees and mandatory standards. Besides, climate change mitigation policies, such as the Clean Development Mechanism, have played a pivotal role in promoting wind power. Despite these policies, intermittency, the main technical constraint, could remain as the major challenge to the future growth of wind power. - Highlights: • Global wind energy potential is enormous, yet the wind energy contribution is very small. • Existing policies are boosting development of wind power. • Costs of wind energy are higher than cost of fossil-based energies. • Reasonable premiums for climate change mitigation substantially promote wind power. • Intermittency is the key challenge to future development of wind power

  15. Policy instruments for energy conservation and environmental policy in the Netherlands

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bovenberg, A.L. [Tinbergen Inst., Rotterdam (Netherlands)

    1992-03-01

    In this paper it is assumed that the policy objective is not so much to economize on energy as to reduce pollution. In particular, to curb the emissions of carbon dioxide. A number of environmental policy instruments pertaining to fossil fuels are analyzed, mainly in the context of the Dutch economy: regulation, subsidies, voluntary agreements with industry, and taxation. At the moment, most industrial countries, including the Netherlands, rely almost entirely on the first three instruments. More recently, however, there has been a growing interest in environmental taxation. The theory that taxation is always and everywhere the best instrument assumes, however, perfect markets and a closed economy. Most economies, including the Dutch one, are riddled with market imperfections. Hence, policy makers confront a second best case. This implies that in selecting policy instruments, they have to resort to a more pragmatic `case-by-case` approach. A diversified diet is advocated. Taxation is part of that diet. Section 2 explores a number of important advantages of the tax instrument. Section 3 discusses a number of problems if a small open economy like the Netherlands would unilaterally adopt such a tax, especially if that tax would include energy-intensive firms that are subject to international competition. In this connection, some alternative policy instruments are analyzed in Section 4. Section 5 proceeds by investigating the case of international coordination and explores the conditions under which coordinated taxes could be successful. Section 6 analyzes policies targeted at households and at firms that are not subject to international competition. 13 refs.

  16. Economics of climate policy and collective decision making

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Buergenmeier, B.; Ferrier, C.; Ingold, K.; Perret, S.; Baranzini, A.; Germond-Duret, C.; Kypreos, S.; Wokaun, A.; Rafaj, P.

    2006-01-01

    This paper explores the reasons why economic instruments of climate change are reluctantly applied and stresses the need for interdisciplinary research linking economic theory and empirical testing to deliberative political procedures. It is divided in three parts. The first one recalls the main issues in implementing Cost-Benefit Analysis such as information problems, uncertainties, discounting the future and irreversibilities. The second part shows how these issues can be treated in integrated assessment and techno-economic models and presents a case study, which shows that (1) The chosen scenario tends to stabilize atmospheric CO2 concentration at around 550 ppm in the long run; (2) Exclusion of possibility to trade CO2 emission permits under a cap regime would increase the cost of emission abatement for OECD countries; and (3) Combining different flexibility instruments might lead to significant gains in the overall cost of climate policy. The third part presents results of a survey conducted among the main economic and environmental associations in Switzerland. The survey reveals conflicting views on economic instruments. It shows how the social acceptability of these instruments can be improved in taking explicitly into account these opposing views of special interest groups. Therefore, policy scenarios should be selected in combining techno-economic models with empirical studies about their political and normative context

  17. Psychology, behavioral economics, and public policy

    OpenAIRE

    Amir, O; Ariely, D; Cooke, A; Dunning, D; Epley, N; Gneezy, U; Koszegi, B; Lichtenstein, D; Mazar, N; Mullainathan, S; Prelec, D; Shafir, E; Silva, J

    2005-01-01

    Economics has typically been the social science of choice to inform public policy and policymakers. In the current paper we contemplate the role behavioral science can play in enlightening policymakers. In particular, we provide some examples of research that has and can be used to inform policy, reflect on the kind of behavioral science that is important for policy, and approaches for convincing policy-makers to listen to behavioral scientists. We suggest that policymakers are unlikely to in...

  18. Renewable heating: Perspectives and the impact of policy instruments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kranzl, Lukas; Hummel, Marcus; Müller, Andreas; Steinbach, Jan

    2013-01-01

    In the light of the EU directive for renewable energy (2009/28/EC) this paper deals with the question how various policy instruments could impact the development of renewable heating technologies. The paper applies the simulation model Invert/EE-Lab for the building related heat demand in selected European countries (Austria, Lithuania and United Kingdom). The resulting scenarios up to 2030 are compared to RES-Heat targets from literature, stakeholder consultation processes and the targets in the national renewable energy action plans submitted by EU Member States in 2010. The results demonstrate that use obligations for renewable heating can be effective in achieving RES-Heat market growth. However, in order to attain a balanced technology mix and more ambitious targets, policy packages are required combining use obligations with economic incentives and accompanying measures. Technology specific conclusions are derived. Moreover, conclusions indicate that the action plans are not always consistent with policy measures in place or under discussion. - Highlights: • Modeling of RES-Heat policies in the building sector. • Application of the model Invert/EE-Lab for the cases of AT, LT, UK. • RES-Heat use obligations are effective but should be integrated in policy packages. • The design of use obligations has substantial impact on the RES-H technology mix. • National renewable energy action plans are not always consistent with policies

  19. CO2 Tax or Fee as a Single Economic Instrument for Climate Protection Policy Promoting Renewable Energy Sources and Enhancing Energy Efficiency

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Granic, G.; Horvath, L.; Jelavic, B.; Juric, Z.; Kulisic, B.; Vuk, B.

    2013-01-01

    This paper presents the analysis of the current implementation of the policy to reduce CO 2 emissions through four practically independent processes: energy market, emission market, support for renewable energy sources through feed-in tariffs (FIT) and support scheme for enhancing energy efficiency. The conclusion is that in this system, some elements of which appear to be controversial, it is not possible to reach the goal - a radical reduction of CO 2 emissions by 80% in total and 95% in electricity production until 2050, which the EU has set as emission reduction targets for this period. Therefore, a new system is now proposed that is based on a single objective function, CO 2 emissions. The process would be managed through taxes or fees on CO 2 , while the raised revenues would be returned to projects aimed at reducing CO 2 emissions, projects for enhancing energy efficiency, renewable energy sources projects and projects reducing emissions from fossil fuels. The paper outlines the basis of the concept of CO 2 tax or fee as a key measure to stimulate the lowering of emissions and gives an analysis of the impact of different rates of tax or fee on CO 2 emissions on the energy price. A critical analysis of the new model's impact on development of renewable energy sources and on improving energy efficiency in buildings was carried out. Also, there is an analysis of the impact of the new model on transport development. The introduction of the new model should clear the energy market from administrative limitations and privileged positions of renewable sources and should bring all back in the frame of market economy, no matter what source of energy for production of electricity we are dealing with. One limitation to the new model is translation of the current situation in to the new system, especially in the field of renewable energy sources and their protected position under the already concluded long-term contracts. The paper also elaborates the basis for the

  20. Economic and policy implications of pandemic influenza.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Smith, Braeton J.; Starks, Shirley J.; Loose, Verne W.; Brown, Theresa Jean; Warren, Drake E.; Vargas, Vanessa N.

    2010-03-01

    Pandemic influenza has become a serious global health concern; in response, governments around the world have allocated increasing funds to containment of public health threats from this disease. Pandemic influenza is also recognized to have serious economic implications, causing illness and absence that reduces worker productivity and economic output and, through mortality, robs nations of their most valuable assets - human resources. This paper reports two studies that investigate both the short- and long-term economic implications of a pandemic flu outbreak. Policy makers can use the growing number of economic impact estimates to decide how much to spend to combat the pandemic influenza outbreaks. Experts recognize that pandemic influenza has serious global economic implications. The illness causes absenteeism, reduced worker productivity, and therefore reduced economic output. This, combined with the associated mortality rate, robs nations of valuable human resources. Policy makers can use economic impact estimates to decide how much to spend to combat the pandemic influenza outbreaks. In this paper economists examine two studies which investigate both the short- and long-term economic implications of a pandemic influenza outbreak. Resulting policy implications are also discussed. The research uses the Regional Economic Modeling, Inc. (REMI) Policy Insight + Model. This model provides a dynamic, regional, North America Industrial Classification System (NAICS) industry-structured framework for forecasting. It is supported by a population dynamics model that is well-adapted to investigating macro-economic implications of pandemic influenza, including possible demand side effects. The studies reported in this paper exercise all of these capabilities.

  1. Second generation biofuels: Economics and policies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carriquiry, Miguel A.; Du Xiaodong; Timilsina, Govinda R.

    2011-01-01

    This study reviews economics of production of second generation biofuels from various feedstocks, including crop and wood/forestry residues, lignocellulosic energy crops, jatropha, and algae. The study indicates that while second generation biofuels could significantly contribute to the future energy supply mix, cost is a major barrier to its commercial production in the near to medium term. Depending upon type of biofuels, feedstock prices and conversion costs, the cost of cellulosic ethanol is found to be two to three times higher than the current price of gasoline on an energy equivalent basis. The median cost (across the studies reviewed) of biodiesel produced from microalgae, a prospective feedstock, is seven times higher than the current price of diesel, although much higher cost estimates have been reported. As compared with the case of first generation biofuels, in which feedstock can account for over two-thirds of the total costs, the share of feedstock in the total costs is relatively lower (30-50%) in the case of second generation biofuels. While significant cost reductions are needed for both types of second generation biofuels, the critical barriers are at different steps of the production process. For cellulosic ethanol, the biomass conversion costs needs to be reduced. On the other hand, feedstock cost is the main issue for biodiesel. At present, policy instruments, such as fiscal incentives and consumption mandates have in general not differentiated between the first and second generation biofuels except in the cases of the US and EU. The policy regime should be revised to account for the relative merits of different types of biofuels. - Highlights: → Second generation biofuels could significantly contribute to the future energy supply mix. → Cost is a major barrier to its the commercial production in the near to medium term. → The policy regime should be revised to account for the relative merits of different biofuels.

  2. Second generation biofuels: Economics and policies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carriquiry, Miguel A., E-mail: miguelc@iastate.edu [Center for Agricultural and Rural Development, Iowa State University (United States); Du Xiaodong, E-mail: xdu23@wisc.edu [Department of Agricultural and Applied Economics, University of Wisconsin-Madison (United States); Timilsina, Govinda R., E-mail: gtimilsina@worldbank.org [Development Research Group, The World Bank (United States)

    2011-07-15

    This study reviews economics of production of second generation biofuels from various feedstocks, including crop and wood/forestry residues, lignocellulosic energy crops, jatropha, and algae. The study indicates that while second generation biofuels could significantly contribute to the future energy supply mix, cost is a major barrier to its commercial production in the near to medium term. Depending upon type of biofuels, feedstock prices and conversion costs, the cost of cellulosic ethanol is found to be two to three times higher than the current price of gasoline on an energy equivalent basis. The median cost (across the studies reviewed) of biodiesel produced from microalgae, a prospective feedstock, is seven times higher than the current price of diesel, although much higher cost estimates have been reported. As compared with the case of first generation biofuels, in which feedstock can account for over two-thirds of the total costs, the share of feedstock in the total costs is relatively lower (30-50%) in the case of second generation biofuels. While significant cost reductions are needed for both types of second generation biofuels, the critical barriers are at different steps of the production process. For cellulosic ethanol, the biomass conversion costs needs to be reduced. On the other hand, feedstock cost is the main issue for biodiesel. At present, policy instruments, such as fiscal incentives and consumption mandates have in general not differentiated between the first and second generation biofuels except in the cases of the US and EU. The policy regime should be revised to account for the relative merits of different types of biofuels. - Highlights: > Second generation biofuels could significantly contribute to the future energy supply mix. > Cost is a major barrier to its the commercial production in the near to medium term. > The policy regime should be revised to account for the relative merits of different biofuels.

  3. Do oil shocks predict economic policy uncertainty?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rehman, Mobeen Ur

    2018-05-01

    Oil price fluctuations have influential role in global economic policies for developed as well as emerging countries. I investigate the role of international oil prices disintegrated into structural (i) oil supply shock, (ii) aggregate demand shock and (iii) oil market specific demand shocks, based on the work of Kilian (2009) using structural VAR framework on economic policies uncertainty of sampled markets. Economic policy uncertainty, due to its non-linear behavior is modeled in a regime switching framework with disintegrated structural oil shocks. Our results highlight that Indian, Spain and Japanese economic policy uncertainty responds to the global oil price shocks, however aggregate demand shocks fail to induce any change. Oil specific demand shocks are significant only for China and India in high volatility state.

  4. Globalisation and Governance: Educational Policy Instruments and Regulatory Arrangements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mok, Ka-Ho

    2005-07-01

    For more than a decade, the economic, social, political and cultural effects of globalisation have been central topics of debate. Those who see globalisation as a combination of economic transactions and worldwide telecommunications tend to believe that its impact is profound, inasmuch as it is fundamentally altering the way in which we live and creating hybrid cultural styles. No country is immune from the effects of globalisation, and controversy continues to reign about its positive and negative consequences. The present study identifies and examines numerous challenges posed by globalisation and their implications for educational restructuring, with special attention being given to new forms of governance; the relation between the state, the market and civil society; and governmental policy instruments for education.

  5. Lifelong Learning: Concept, Policy, Instruments and Implementation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Metin TOPRAK

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available European Union has started an education & training initiative under the umbrella of lifelong learning to achieve the 2020 Agenda targets. Th is initiative has nearly half of a century time horizon, and all designed policies and measures have been consolidated under this initiative. Turkish Education authorities have been monitoring this European eff ort closely and made important legal and institutional regulations in recent couple of years. Th is study examines the primary aspects of lifelong learning in detail: conceptual and philosophical background; recognition strategies; the place of formal, non-formal and informal learning in the lifelong learning approach; financing and measurement ways of lifelong learning; and variety of perspectives of international institutions. In addition, education and training strategy of the Europe’s 2020 vision of lifelong learning is also evaluated in detail. Th e human resources vision of the Europe considers education, occupation and economic activities together to allow authorities to plan the future of the European societies. Th e updating mechanisms of this approach are designed both domestically at national and internationally at European levels. It is concluded, in this study, that the lifelong learning policy and implementation of the Europe should be taken as benchmark.

  6. Local economic development policy in Poland: Determinants and outcomes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mariusz Wiktor Sienkiewicz

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this article is to define nature, basis, and the effects of the economic development policy conducted by local governments in Poland. The analyses carried out are designed to define the role of local authorities in the management of economic development in the area. Furthermore, the purpose of this article is to analyse instruments for supporting economic development, which can be potentially used by local governments in Poland. The realization of this objective is possible by using descriptive methods based on a review of literature and the various types of documents and analysis on the policy of both the economic development and activities of local government, which implement this policy. The method of system analysis is also partially used in the article, and some results of surveys conducted among Polish and foreign investors and entrepreneurs in 2011 are presented. The article assumes that in spite of having a number of instruments, both formal and material, for encouraging economic development and business development, most local governments narrowly assess the current state of entrepreneurship and development trends, and perform an insufficient analysis of the potential of their area. Secondly, the formulated goals of economic development are not very innovative, ambitious or concrete. Furthermore, they do not arise directly from the analysis of the micro and macro-environment that affects the position and development of local government. Key words:

  7. Policy instruments for offshore wind power; Styrmedel foer havsbaserad vindkraft

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Soederholm, Patrik (Luleaa Technical Univ., Luleaa (Sweden))

    2009-10-15

    The future economic potential for offshore wind power is considered to be very good, and there is a strong interest in European wind power industry to improve the technology and generate additional experience. To enable such technology and a market introduction of offshore wind power it is believed that a supplementary or an alternative support for the offshore wind energy is required. This report aims to analyze conditions of different financial instruments to effectively support the rollout of offshore wind power in Sweden. Our mandate does not include an analysis whether any funding is economically justified or not, but a discussion about the objectives of such instruments is necessary for the second stage in order to discuss the instrument characteristics and design. The report takes up a number of different arguments in order to target a specific support for any single technology. An important message from this part of the analysis is that the strongest argument that can be used to extend a special generous support for offshore wind power is that its socio-economic costs may be lower, in the long run, than those which currently apply to established power production lines (e.g. on-shore wind). Any funding should be considered primarily as a means of political action, i.e. a measure not to meet today's short-term goals (eg quota requirement of certificate system) but to cut costs in order to reach the future (long term) goals. The offshore wind energy can be a very interesting candidate for such support, not least because of the favorable wind conditions that exist at sea. For these cost reductions to be realized, it is important to establish niche markets for the turbines and construction work that will be necessary. Such a technology policy presupposes a real development and not solely R and D and D projects. The report presents the results of previous research that supports this assumption, but it makes no attempt to assess whether the relevant effects

  8. Policy instruments for development of wind power in Sweden

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aastrand, Kerstin; Neij, Lena

    2003-01-01

    It is often believed that energy policy and policy instruments can play a significant role in the transition towards sustainable energy by stimulating and accelerating the development and deployment of new energy technologies. However, despite the known need for, and benefits of, new energy technologies their market introduction and expansion is often slow. Wind power has been on the political agenda since the 1970s in several European countries as well as in other countries throughout the world. However, the technology and market development of wind power has been very different in these countries. Despite three decades of policy intervention the installed capacity in Sweden was only 265 MW in 2000, compared with 6,107 MW in Germany, 2,836 MW in Spain and 2,341 MW in Denmark. This report analyses the effects of policy instruments on wind power development in Sweden and identifies possible reasons why wind power has not been installed to a greater extent. The analysis is based on an empirical example of a socio technological system-based approach to evaluation of technology and market development for new energy technologies; i.e. an approach focused on the technological system including the actors, institutions and organizations that build, drive and utilise it and the economic and legal framework that regulates it. The aim is to assess the impact on technology and market development and to discuss the relatively late and slow wind power development in Sweden. The report also examines the achievement of governmental energy policy goals. Using the socio-technological systems approach we analyse Swedish policy programmes and wind power development between 1975 and 2000. The political and economic framework is identified. The discussion of the political and economic frameworks is limited to public policy goals and policy instruments. The policy focus is set to policy instruments aimed for technology and market development of wind power, such as research and

  9. 77 FR 68776 - Economic Impact Policy

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-11-16

    ... EXPORT-IMPORT BANK OF THE UNITED STATES Economic Impact Policy This notice is to inform the public..., Malaysia, Philippines, Poland, Romania, Slovakia, South Africa, Spain, Sri Lanka, Taiwan, Turkey, and United Kingdom. Interested parties may submit comments on this transaction by email to economic.impact...

  10. 78 FR 6322 - Economic Impact Policy

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-30

    ... EXPORT-IMPORT BANK Economic Impact Policy This notice is to inform the public that the Export..., France, Germany, Greece, Hungary, Indonesia, Italy, Kenya, Malaysia, Philippines, Poland, Romania... comments on this transaction by email to economic[email protected] or by mail to 811 Vermont Avenue NW...

  11. Economic convergence and climate policy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ciscar, J.C.; Soria, A.

    2000-01-01

    This paper addresses the relevance of the economic convergence hypotheses between the developing and the developed world in international greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions negotiations. The results are based on a two-region (the OECD and the rest of the world, ROW) neo-classical growth model with exogenous technical progress, different technological diffusion patterns, and a set of geophysical relationships that consider an environmental externality linked to GHG emissions. A game framework is taken into account in the model to capture the strategic interactions between agents. The outcome of the negotiations seems indeed to depend on the economic convergence hypotheses. Faster economic growth of the ROW countries would encourage them to further mitigate carbon emissions. (Author)

  12. Network Policy and Economic Doctrines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atkinson, Robert D.

    2010-01-01

    For many years, debates over telecommunications network policy were marked by a relative lack of partisan and ideological conflict. In the last decade, this has changed markedly. Today, debates over a whole set of issues, including broadband competition, net neutrality, copyright, privacy, and others, have become more contentious. These…

  13. Transaction costs of energy efficiency policy instruments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mundaca, Luis [International Inst. for Industrial Environmental Economics, Lund Univ. (Sweden)

    2007-07-01

    This paper identifies the nature and scale of transaction costs (TCs) under different policy instruments aimed to increase energy efficiency. It analyses three cases: a) GHG-driven initiatives, b) tradable 'White Certificate' (TWC) schemes -taking the Energy Efficiency Commitment in Great Britain as a case study-, and c) energy efficiency audits given by grid companies in Denmark. The analysis focuses on TCs borne by project developers or obliged parties under these initiatives. Several sources of TCs are considered, such as search for information, persuasion of customers, negotiation with business partners, and measurement and verification (M and V) activities. Information has been obtained through a literature review, interviews with stakeholders and questionnaires. Some similarities were found as far as the nature of TCs is concerned. Relevant sources of TCs appear to be the search for information (for both potential measures and beneficiaries), negotiation and contract agreements with third parties, follow-up of measures, M and V activities and due accreditation of savings. The scale of TCs differs to a large extent, ranging from 5 % to 36 % of total audit/project costs. Figures must be taken with caution due to a number of specific factors driving their order of magnitude, including levels of uncertainty and the TCs accounting problem. Indications of economies of scale were only found for the case of GHG policy initiatives. In all, estimations are very case-specific and cannot be comparable. It is concluded that a number of endogenous and exogenous determinants affect the nature and scale of TCs for the analysed cases.

  14. Economics, Policy, and Organic Agriculture

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ingemann, Jan Holm

    2009-01-01

    Is organic agriculture so special that special social theories and methods are needed? The article investigates the question in two steps: First, the article address the question whether agriculture is special. Second, whether organic agriculture is special. It is concluded that from an economic...

  15. Economic Policy: Principles and Design

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    J. Tinbergen (Jan)

    1956-01-01

    textabstractContributions to Economic Analysis Vol. 10, edited by J. Tinbergen, P.J. Verdoorn and H.J. Witteveen. In Spanish: Politica Económica: Principios y Formulación, Fondo de Cultura Económico, Mexico, 1961, 343 p. In German: Wirtschaftspolitik, Series ‘Beiträge zur Wirtschaftspolitik’,

  16. Applying Behavioral Economics to Public Health Policy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matjasko, Jennifer L.; Cawley, John H.; Baker-Goering, Madeleine M.; Yokum, David V.

    2016-01-01

    Behavioral economics provides an empirically informed perspective on how individuals make decisions, including the important realization that even subtle features of the environment can have meaningful impacts on behavior. This commentary provides examples from the literature and recent government initiatives that incorporate concepts from behavioral economics in order to improve health, decision making, and government efficiency. The examples highlight the potential for behavioral economics to improve the effectiveness of public health policy at low cost. Although incorporating insights from behavioral economics into public health policy has the potential to improve population health, its integration into government public health programs and policies requires careful design and continual evaluation of such interventions. Limitations and drawbacks of the approach are discussed. PMID:27102853

  17. Income inequality: Implications and relevant economic policies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arestis Philip

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this contribution is to discuss closely the implications of income inequality and the economic policies to tackle it, especially so in view of inequality being one of the main causes of the 2007/2008 international financial crisis and the “great recession” that subsequently emerged. Wealth inequality is also important in this respect, but the focus is on income inequality. Ever since the financial crisis and the subsequent “great recession”, inequality of income, and wealth, has increased and the demand for economic policy initiatives to produce a more equal distribution of income and wealth has become more urgent. Such reduction would help to increase the level of economic activity as has been demonstrated again more recently. A number of economic policy initiatives for this purpose will be the focus of this contribution.

  18. Economics, ethics and climate policy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Howarth, R.B.; Monahan, P.A.

    1993-01-01

    Are the costs of greenhouse gas emissions abatement justified by the perceived benefits of sustained climate stability? Do people of the present generation have a moral right to impose climate risks on their descendants in generations to come? This report examines these questions in light of the emergent facts of climate science and their socioeconomic implications. We consider alternative normative criteria for social decision-making with particular emphasis on cost-benefit analysis and the principle of sustainable development. While each framework yields important insights, we argue that the gross uncertainties associated with climate change and the distribution of impacts between present and future generations constrain the usefulness of cost-benefit criteria in evaluating climate policy. If one accepts the ethical proposition that it is morally wrong to impose catastrophic risks on unborn generations when reducing those risks would not noticeably diminish the quality of life of existing persons, a case can be made for concerted policy action to reduce greenhouse gas emissions. (118 refs., 3 figs., 4 tabs.)

  19. Economics, ethics, and climate policy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Howarth, R.B.; Monahan, P.A.

    1992-11-01

    Are the costs of greenhouse gas emissions abatement justified by the perceived benefits of sustained climate stability Do people of the present generation have a moral right to impose climate risks on their descendants in generations to come This report examines these questions in light of the emergent facts of climate science and their socioeconomic implications. We consider alternative normative criteria for social decision-making with particular emphasis on cost-benefit analysis and the principle of sustainable development. While each framework yields important insights, we argue that the gross uncertainties associated with climate change and the distribution of impacts between present and future generations constrain the usefulness of cost-benefit criteria in evaluating climate policy. If one accepts the ethical proposition that it is morally wrong to impose catastrophic risks on unborn generations when reducing those risks would not noticeably diminish the quality of life of existing persons, a case can be made for concerted policy action to reduce greenhouse gas emissions.

  20. Economics, ethics, and climate policy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Howarth, R.B.; Monahan, P.A.

    1992-11-01

    Are the costs of greenhouse gas emissions abatement justified by the perceived benefits of sustained climate stability? Do people of the present generation have a moral right to impose climate risks on their descendants in generations to come? This report examines these questions in light of the emergent facts of climate science and their socioeconomic implications. We consider alternative normative criteria for social decision-making with particular emphasis on cost-benefit analysis and the principle of sustainable development. While each framework yields important insights, we argue that the gross uncertainties associated with climate change and the distribution of impacts between present and future generations constrain the usefulness of cost-benefit criteria in evaluating climate policy. If one accepts the ethical proposition that it is morally wrong to impose catastrophic risks on unborn generations when reducing those risks would not noticeably diminish the quality of life of existing persons, a case can be made for concerted policy action to reduce greenhouse gas emissions.

  1. Economic policy and renewable energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Klaiss, H.

    1993-01-01

    The paper summarizes the economical conclusions of the 6th Symposium on Solar Thermal Concentrating Technologies which take place at Mojacar (Almeria). Parabolic throughs, Central Receiver Systems, dish stirling and Solar chimneys will commercial utilization by the year 2000. Levalized Energy Cost (Solar) is still higher than conventional (coal). Only the utilization of environmental parameters like ''CO2 avoided'' may contribute to market penetration. Concerning siting, it becomes clear that only those countries below 40 degree latitude, (Madrid, Nepal, Ankara) are acceptable. A desregulation of the electrical market is necessary for solar penetration, mainly in developing countries

  2. The Adoption of Indirect Instruments of Monetary Policy

    OpenAIRE

    Tomás J. T. Baliño; Charles Enoch; William E. Alexander

    1995-01-01

    This paper examines the experience of implementing indirect instruments of monetary policy. The experiences of country studies illustrate the variety of circumstances under which indirect instruments of monetary policy have been introduced. Case Studies are presented for Chile, Egypt, Ghana, Indonesia, Mexico, New Zealand, and Poland.

  3. Analysis: climate policy in the United States: what economic instrument for a carbon price signal?; Politique climatique des Etats-Unis: quel instrument economique pour un signal-prix carbone?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2009-03-15

    At the time of his election as President of the United States, Barack Obama declared that 'We will make it clear to the world that America is ready to lead to protect our environment'. The 2050 objective of cutting CO{sub 2} emissions by 80% compared to the 1990 level, as affirmed in the election campaign, will involve directing the market in accordance with a carbon price signal that includes the true cost of greenhouse gas emissions so as to establish a policy that is both effective and credible, i.e. likely to lead developing countries into the global effort. An emission allowance market, rather than a carbon tax, should therefore come into being. However, those who advocate the tax - more numerous in academic circles than among political decision-makers - are sharpening up their arguments. In particular, they identify the measures to be taken if we wish to attain an environmental objective and curb social inequalities. Similar arguments could serve as the basis for an international agreement that would strongly incite emerging countries to reduce their emissions while remaining equitable towards them. (author)

  4. Do Economic Theories Inform Policy?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bartalevich, Dzmitry

    that address EU antitrust rules and EU merger control. The second article is exploratory; it narrows the focus on EU merger control and employs descriptive network analysis to investigate the overall composition of mergers cleared by the Commission during the period 2004– 2015 and attempts to reinforce...... the results of the analysis in the first article. The third article expands on the findings of the first and second articles and employs inferential network analysis with exponential random graph models to analyze, on the basis of Commission merger cases cleared during the period 2004–2015, whether...... the Harvard School, the Freiburg School, and considerations for Single Market integration underpin EU merger control, in addition to the influence of the Chicago School. The analysis presented in the articles suggests that the Chicago School has exerted considerable influence over EU competition policy...

  5. On the Fundamental Principles of Economic Policy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Witold Jakóbik

    2007-04-01

    Full Text Available The article contributes to the debate focused on the institutional principles of policies conducted by the fiscal as well as the monetary authorities. The author offers a brief review of the main relations between the aims of macroeconomic policy and the instruments that enable to fulfill the former. At the same time specific determinants of the aim-oriented decisions by the central bank or the government are reviewed. Last but not least in the analysis is the dilemma of policy mix coordination and the formal/informal status of the government as well as of the central bank is extensively discussed.

  6. Monetary Policy and Nigeria's Economic Development | Akujuobi ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study investigated the impact of monetary policy instruments on theeconomic development of Nigeria, using multiple regression technique. Itwas found that cash reserve ratio was significant in impacting on theeconomic development of Nigeria at both 1% and 5% levels of significance,treasury bill at 5.6%, minimum ...

  7. Economic development, climate and values: making policy

    OpenAIRE

    Stern, Nicholas

    2015-01-01

    The two defining challenges of this century are overcoming poverty and managing the risks of climate change. Over the past 10 years, we have learned much about how to tackle them together from ideas on economic development and public policy. My own work in these areas over four decades as an academic and as a policy adviser in universities and international financial institutions has focused on how the investment environment and the empowerment of people can change lives and livelihoods. The ...

  8. Fiscal Policy and Economic Growth in Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sylvia Uchenna Agu

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available This article aims at determining the impact of various components of fiscal policy on the Nigerian economy. We simply used descriptive statistics to show contribution of government fiscal policy to economic growth, and to ascertain and explain growth rates, and an ordinary least square (OLS in a multiple form to ascertain the relationship between economic growth and government expenditure components after ensuring data stationarity. Findings revealed that total government expenditures have tended to increase with government revenue, with expenditures peaking faster than revenue. Investment expenditures were much lower than recurrent expenditures evidencing the poor growth in the country’s economy. Hence, there is some evidence of positive correlation between government expenditure on economic services and economic growth. Therefore, in public spending, it is important to note that the effectiveness of the private sector depends on the stability and predictability of the public incentive framework, which promotes or crowds out private investment.

  9. Sustainable city policy. Economic, environmental, technological

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Camagni, R.; Capello, R.

    1995-01-01

    While the reasons for advocating intensified environmental concerns at the urban level are more and more accepted and clear, the question how to overcome such concerns is still fraught with many difficulties. The aim of the present paper is to formulate some policy guidelines, based on economic principles, for a 'sustainable city'; it is an ambitious aim, since a unique and operationally defined 'recipe' is difficult to envisage. An urban policy for a sustainable city needs to take different (and contrasting) aspects and many conflicting interests into consideration, while many political, social and economic frictions need to be overcome. A description of various aspects and concepts concerning sustainability issues at the urban level is given in Section 2. Section 3 then provides some considerations on possible technological, economic and environmental urban policies, by creating a typo logy of policy tools associated with different causes of urban decline. Section 4 provides some new, and partly provocative, suggestions for specific urban sustainability policies; in particular it deals with the problem of urban sustainability indicators, measures, and critical threshold levels at which urban sustainability policies should be implemented. Some reflective remarks will conclude the paper. 3 figs., 4 tabs., 25 refs

  10. Sustainable city policy. Economic, environmental, technological

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Camagni, R.; Capello, R. [Politecnico di Milano, Milan (Italy). Economics Dept.; Nijkamp, P. [Dept. of Spatial Economics. Fac. of Economics and Econometrics. Vrije Univ., Amsterdam (Netherlands)

    1995-12-31

    While the reasons for advocating intensified environmental concerns at the urban level are more and more accepted and clear, the question how to overcome such concerns is still fraught with many difficulties. The aim of the present paper is to formulate some policy guidelines, based on economic principles, for a `sustainable city`; it is an ambitious aim, since a unique and operationally defined `recipe` is difficult to envisage. An urban policy for a sustainable city needs to take different (and contrasting) aspects and many conflicting interests into consideration, while many political, social and economic frictions need to be overcome. A description of various aspects and concepts concerning sustainability issues at the urban level is given in Section 2. Section 3 then provides some considerations on possible technological, economic and environmental urban policies, by creating a typo logy of policy tools associated with different causes of urban decline. Section 4 provides some new, and partly provocative, suggestions for specific urban sustainability policies; in particular it deals with the problem of urban sustainability indicators, measures, and critical threshold levels at which urban sustainability policies should be implemented. Some reflective remarks will conclude the paper. 3 figs., 4 tabs., 25 refs.

  11. TTI Phase 2 Institutional Support: Economic Policy Research Centre ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    TTI Phase 2 Institutional Support: Economic Policy Research Centre ... the Economic Policy Research Centre's (EPRC) role as a credible public policy institution in ... IWRA/IDRC webinar on climate change and adaptive water management.

  12. Economical and organizational aspects of radiopulmonology instrumentation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chikirdin, Eh.G.; Astrakhantsev, F.A.

    1986-01-01

    It is shown that the introduction of X-ray endoscopic rooms (radiology treatment rooms) equipped with appropriate installations into pulmonologic departments provides more valid diagnosis of carcinoma of the lungs, the cost of examinations being increased only by 15.7%. The latter can be compensated for with improved instrumentation of both preventive and general X-ray rooms

  13. 75 FR 28021 - Economic Impact Policy

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-05-19

    ... EXPORT-IMPORT BANK OF THE UNITED STATES Economic Impact Policy This notice is to inform the public that the Export-Import Bank of the United States has received an application for a $400 million long.... New Mexican production of ZSM will be sold in the U.S., Canada, Mexico, and Brazil. Interested parties...

  14. 76 FR 79679 - Economic Impact Policy

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-12-22

    ... EXPORT-IMPORT BANK OF THE UNITED STATES Economic Impact Policy This notice is to inform the public that the Export-Import Bank of the United States has received an application for a $74 million long..., locomotives and railcars to Canada. The U.S. exports will enable the Canadian mining company to increase...

  15. Botswana Journal of Economics: Editorial Policies

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    It is open to all researchers in the field of economics. Non-members as well as members of the ... Open Access Policy. This journal provides immediate open access to its content on the principle that making research freely available to the public supports a greater global exchange of knowledge. ISSN: 1810-0163.

  16. 77 FR 6563 - Economic Impact Policy

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-02-08

    ... EXPORT-IMPORT BANK OF THE UNITED STATES Economic Impact Policy This notice is to inform the public that the Export-Import Bank of the United States has received an application for a $1.74 billion loan... Australia. The U.S. exports will enable the Australian mining company to increase production by about 100...

  17. 76 FR 28225 - Economic Impact Policy

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-05-16

    ... EXPORT-IMPORT BANK OF THE UNITED STATES Economic Impact Policy This notice is to inform the public that the Export-Import Bank of the United States has received an application for a $47 million long... services to Australia. The U.S. exports will enable the Australian mining company to produce, on average...

  18. 78 FR 37539 - Economic Impact Policy

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-06-21

    ... the export of approximately $74 million in U.S. semiconductor manufacturing equipment to a dedicated foundry in China. The U.S. exports will enable the dedicated foundry to increase existing 300mm (non-DRAM... EXPORT-IMPORT BANK Economic Impact Policy This notice is to inform the public that the Export...

  19. 78 FR 34660 - Economic Impact Policy

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-06-10

    ... guarantee to support the export of approximately $110.4 million worth of aluminum beverage cans and ends manufacturing equipment to China. The U.S. exports will enable the Chinese company to produce approximately 2.8... EXPORT-IMPORT BANK Economic Impact Policy This notice is to inform the public that the Export...

  20. 78 FR 30920 - Economic Impact Policy

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-05-23

    ... EXPORT-IMPORT BANK OF THE UNITED STATES Economic Impact Policy This notice is to inform the public that the Export-Import Bank of the United States has received an application for a $650 million long... Asian Markets including: China, Japan, Korea, and Taiwan. Interested parties may submit comments on this...

  1. RELEVANCE OF ECONOMIC INSTRUMENTS USED IN SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT PROCESS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    SORINA-GEANINA MĂRGĂRIT (STĂNESCU

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The interaction between environmental, economic and social factors influences the ecological balance and generates the change of living conditions and those of socio-economic development. One of the essential conditions for building a sustainable economic development is the identification and implementation of active or voluntary instruments to influence economic and social activity towards ensuring their sustainability. In this paper, we intend to introduce the tools used in the process of sustainable development, which have a key role in adopting an environmentally responsible behavior. The results of this study are represented by the drafting of the advantages and disadvantages of using these economic and financial instruments. The purpose of this paper is to present the evolution of costs for environmental protection and the relevance of instruments used at the national level in environmental protection.

  2. Handling uncertainty in bioenergy policy design – A case study analysis of UK and German bioelectricity policy instruments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Purkus, Alexandra; Röder, Mirjam; Gawel, Erik; Thrän, Daniela; Thornley, Patricia

    2015-01-01

    In designing policies to promote bioenergy, policy makers face challenges concerning uncertainties about the sustainability of bioenergy pathways (including greenhouse gas balances), technology and resource costs, or future energy market framework conditions. New information becomes available with time, but policy adjustments can involve high levels of adaptation costs. To enable an effective steering of technology choices and innovation, policies have to strike a balance between creating a consistent institutional framework, which establishes planning security for investors, and sufficient flexibility to adapt to new information. This paper examines implications of economic theory for handling cost and benefit uncertainty in bioelectricity policy design, focussing on choices between price and quantity instruments, technology differentiation, and policy adjustment. Findings are applied to two case studies, the UK's Renewables Obligation and the German feed-in tariff/feed-in premium scheme. Case study results show the trade-offs that are involved in instrument choice and design – depending on political priorities and a country's specific context, different options can prove more adequate. Combining market-based remuneration with sustainability criteria results in strong incentives for bioenergy producers to search for low-cost solutions; whereas cost-based price instruments with centrally steered technology and feedstock choices offer higher planning security for investors and more direct control for policy makers over what pathways are implemented. Independent of the choice of instrument type and technology differentiation mechanism, findings emphasise the importance of a careful policy design, which determines the exact balance between performance criteria such as cost control, incentive intensity, planning security and adaptive efficiency. - Highlights: • Bioelectricity policy design must deal with simultaneous cost and benefit uncertainty.

  3. Assessing groundwater policy with coupled economic-groundwater hydrologic modeling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mulligan, Kevin B.; Brown, Casey; Yang, Yi-Chen E.; Ahlfeld, David P.

    2014-03-01

    This study explores groundwater management policies and the effect of modeling assumptions on the projected performance of those policies. The study compares an optimal economic allocation for groundwater use subject to streamflow constraints, achieved by a central planner with perfect foresight, with a uniform tax on groundwater use and a uniform quota on groundwater use. The policies are compared with two modeling approaches, the Optimal Control Model (OCM) and the Multi-Agent System Simulation (MASS). The economic decision models are coupled with a physically based representation of the aquifer using a calibrated MODFLOW groundwater model. The results indicate that uniformly applied policies perform poorly when simulated with more realistic, heterogeneous, myopic, and self-interested agents. In particular, the effects of the physical heterogeneity of the basin and the agents undercut the perceived benefits of policy instruments assessed with simple, single-cell groundwater modeling. This study demonstrates the results of coupling realistic hydrogeology and human behavior models to assess groundwater management policies. The Republican River Basin, which overlies a portion of the Ogallala aquifer in the High Plains of the United States, is used as a case study for this analysis.

  4. Evaluating public policy instruments in the Greek building sector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Spyridaki, Niki-Artemis; Banaka, Stefania; Flamos, Alexandros

    2016-01-01

    This paper applies a multi-criteria analysis (MCA) to evaluate public policy mechanisms that foster energy efficiency and renewable energy sources in the Greek building sector, based on stakeholders’ understanding and perceptions of the functionality of policy instruments. The objective is to shed light on the implementation of currently employed policy mechanisms that aim to achieve the 2020 energy savings targets and beyond, providing useful information to policy makers for future policy (re-) formulations. In this framework, policy instruments were evaluated against process-related criteria, such as implementation costs, distributional effects, and coherence of policy processes, so as to highlight successful policy practices during their implementation phase as well as to unveil cases of policy underperformance or unintended policy outcomes. To hedge uncertainties related to policy instrument selection, the method employs probabilistic evaluations of every alternative against each criterion. The MCA results showed that the country is still missing significant energy saving opportunities that could be reached through more streamlined implementation practices and political support. In times of fiscal crisis, the Greek government should also revitalize the implementation of alternative funding mechanisms and support policy alternatives such as green public procurement, voluntary agreements, and energy performance contracting. - Highlights: • We apply an MCA analysis to evaluate EE and RES policies instruments. • We focus on the implementation stage through qualitative criteria and ordinal scales. • We use the probabilistic evaluations of each alternative against each criterion. • We provide rankings of instruments according to process related criteria. • Greece should revitalize the implementation of funding mechanisms, GPP and VAs.

  5. Interactions of White Certificates for energy efficiency and other energy and climate policy instruments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oikonomou, V.

    2010-01-01

    The EU and its member states are developing their own policies targeting at energy supply, energy demand and environmental goals that are indirectly linked to energy use. As these policies are implemented in an already policy crowded environment, interactions of these instruments take place, which can be complementary competitive or self exclusive. As a starting point, we test White Certificates for energy efficiency improvement in the end-use sectors. Our main research questions are: (1) to provide a general explanatory framework for analyzing energy and climate policy interactions by employing suitable methods, and (2) to evaluate these methods and draw conclusions for policy makers when introducing White Certificates with other policy instruments stressing the critical condition that affect their performance. A core lesson is that when evaluating ex-ante instruments, a variety of economic and technological methods must be applied. Based on these methods, several endogenous and exogenous conditions affect the performance of White Certificates schemes with other policy instruments. Due to the innovative character of White Certificates and the uncertainty of hidden costs embedded into it, ex-ante evaluations should focus not only on the effectiveness and efficiency of the scheme, but on several other criteria which express the political acceptability and socioeconomic effects. We argue finally that White Certificates can make effective use of market forces and can assist in overcoming market barriers towards energy efficiency, and we expect that under certain preconditions, it can be integrated with other policy instruments and allows to achieve cost effectively multiple environmental objectives.

  6. Economic development, climate and values: making policy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stern, Nicholas

    2015-08-07

    The two defining challenges of this century are overcoming poverty and managing the risks of climate change. Over the past 10 years, we have learned much about how to tackle them together from ideas on economic development and public policy. My own work in these areas over four decades as an academic and as a policy adviser in universities and international financial institutions has focused on how the investment environment and the empowerment of people can change lives and livelihoods. The application of insights from economic development and public policy to climate change requires rigorous analysis of issues such as discounting, modelling the risks of unmanaged climate change, climate policy targets and estimates of the costs of mitigation. The latest research and results show that the case for avoiding the risks of dangerous climate change through the transition to low-carbon economic development and growth is still stronger than when the Stern Review was published. This is partly because of evidence that some of the impacts of climate change are happening more quickly than originally expected, and because of remarkable advances in technologies, such as solar power. Nevertheless, significant hurdles remain in securing the international cooperation required to avoid dangerous climate change, not least because of disagreements and misunderstandings about key issues, such as ethics and equity. © 2015 The Author(s).

  7. EFFECTIVENESS AND LIMITATIONS OF MONETARY POLICY INSTRUMENTS IN ROMANIA AND THE EUROPEAN UNION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zina CIORAN

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The complexity of the monetary phenomenon as well as the effects that it induces in the social and economic life of the countries around the world have represented and still represent the subject of much controversy and dispute. The current forms of the monetary circulation organization in different countries, internationally as well, represent the result of a continuous process of changes and innovations in the monetary area. The purpose of this article is to present aspects of the monetary policy and its instruments which have evolved according to the historical conditions of each period. The paper is also a presentation of effectiveness and limits of the monetary policy instruments and their role in solving the current economic problems for which the governments seek solutions. As a consequence to the analysis, it can be seen that in most cases it uses a mixture of monetary policy instruments because, when acting in a complementary way, they have a higher efficiency.

  8. Inflation, economic policy, and the inner city

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Curtis, L.A.

    1981-07-01

    This article describes the greater impact of inflation among the poor and minorities in American inner cities than among other population groups. Surveys show, however, that minorities are even more concerned over unemployment and racial discrimination than over inflation. There are indications that, especially today, crime and potential group disorder are affected by or influence inflation, unemployment, and discrimination in the inner city. With these interrelated factors in mind, present federal economic policy is reviewed, critiqued, and interpreted as basically consistent with Keynesian economic theory. Modifications of and alternatives to present policy are offered that fit both inner-city needs and the concerns of the rest of American society. These policies include targeted private sector neighborhood development and self-help, private sector productivity increases through workplace democracy, private-public sector codetermination of investment, private-public sector job guarantees, and public anti-inflation policy carefully targeted at the basic necessities of energy, food, housing, and health care - which have a disproportionate effect on inflation in the inner city, as well as the overall economy. Coalitions are suggested that could politically implement such policies.

  9. Monetary Policy Instruments and Bank Risks in China

    OpenAIRE

    Zhongyuan Geng; Xue Zhai

    2013-01-01

    The authors use a panel data regression model to examine the effects of main monetary policy instruments on commercial bank risks in China from 1998 to 2011. The interest rate has a positive effect on bank risk while the interest rate margin, the reserve requirement ratio and open market operation have a negative effect. Among the three monetary policy instruments, the reserve requirement ratio has the greatest effect on bank risk, the interest rate (the interest rate margin) the second large...

  10. Keynes, family allowances and Keynesian economic policy

    OpenAIRE

    Pressman, Steven

    2014-01-01

    This paper provides a short history of family allowances and documents the fact that Keynes supported family allowances as early as the 1920s, continuing through the 1930s and early 1940s. Keynes saw this policy as a way to help households raise their children and also as a way to increase consumption without reducing business investment. The paper goes on to argue that a policy of family allowances is consistent with Keynesian economics. Finally, the paper uses the Luxembourg Income Study to...

  11. Economic instruments in the service of climate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Buba, Johanne; Ben-Jelloul, Mahdi; Schaff, Clement

    2011-11-01

    Within the perspective of new international agreements after those signed in Kyoto (1997), in Cancun (2010) and in Durban (2011), this document recalls the frameworks defined during these summits, outline the challenges regarding climate change and makes five propositions. The first one is to prepare the conditions for and experimentation of a CO 2 emission trading scheme between the European market and the one of other countries. The second one is to re-establish competitive neutrality in the most emitting industrial sectors which are the most exposed to international competition and more easily subjected to off-shoring practices. The third one is the possibility for a country to reduce its greenhouse gas emissions while financing reductions in other countries. The fourth one is to harmonise emission measurement and accounting standards. The last one is to create a European institute for research and education on economic mechanisms of struggle against global warming

  12. Internet policy and economics challenges and perspectives

    CERN Document Server

    Pupillo, Lorenzo

    2009-01-01

    Presents cutting-edge research, practice, and policy in electronic communications, commerce, and cultureIncludes contributions from leading researchers and industry expertsAddresses such hot-button issues as privacy issues, universal access, cybercrime, intellectual property rights, on-line content, and peer-to-peer networksApplies perspectives from economics, political science, law, business, and communicationsFully updated and revised paperback edition will appeal to practitioners, policymakers, and students

  13. North Korea: Economic Leverage and Policy Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-22

    although non- governmental groups do run operations in the DPRK in activities such as goat dairy farming and transportation. North -South Korean...Finance Minister Says “At Least” 34m US Dollars Sent to North Korea. Financial Times Information, Global News Wire—Asia Africa Intelligence Wire. June 6...CRS Report for Congress Prepared for Members and Committees of Congress North Korea: Economic Leverage and Policy Analysis Dick K

  14. AN ECONOMIC FORECAST AND POLICY PROSPECTS

    OpenAIRE

    Brinner, Roger E.

    1992-01-01

    The economy is stagnating today because everyone is waiting for someone else to restart the recovery. Consumers are deferring major purchases until job prospects are rosier. Businesses are pushing down their inventories and payrolls until their order books surge. In essence the economic fundamentals are sound, but at this point, we need a new catalyst for recovery. It is time to implement policies that directly stimulate investment including a self-financing equipment tax credit for productiv...

  15. Behavioral Economics and Climate Change Policy

    OpenAIRE

    John M. Gowdy

    2007-01-01

    The policy recommendations of most economists are based on the rational actor model of human behavior. Behavior is assumed to be self-regarding, preferences are assumed to be stable, and decisions are assumed to be unaffected by social context or frame of reference. The related fields of behavioral economics, game theory, and neuroscience have confirmed that human behavior is other regarding, and that people exhibit systematic patterns of decision-making that are "irrational" according to the...

  16. Are developing countries ready for first world waste policy instruments?

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Godfrey, Linda K

    2007-10-01

    Full Text Available behavior Sardinia 2007, Eleventh International Waste Management and Landfill Symposium 2.2 Economic instruments In contrast with command-and-control approaches, which mandate specific behaviours, economic instruments (EIs) (such as taxes, subsidies..., and marketable permits) aim to change behaviour indirectly by changing the prices (and hence incentives) that individuals and businesses face. For example, taxes per unit of waste collected or disposed of, create incentives to reduce waste generation...

  17. Economic policy uncertainty index and economic activity: what causes what?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivana Lolić

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper is a follow-up on the Economic Policy Uncertainty (EPU index, developed in 2011 by Baker, Bloom, and Davis. The principal idea of the EPU index is to quantify the level of uncertainty in an economic system, based on three separate pillars: news media, number of federal tax code provisions expiring in the following years, and disagreement amongst professional forecasters on future tendencies of relevant macroeconomic variables. Although the original EPU index was designed and published for the US economy, it had instantly caught the attention of numerous academics and was rapidly introduced in 15 countries worldwide. Extensive academic debate has been triggered on the importance of economic uncertainty relating to the intensity and persistence of the recent crisis. Despite the intensive (mostly politically-motivated debate, formal scientific confirmation of causality running from the EPU index to economic activity has not followed. Moreover, empirical literature has completely failed to conduct formal econometric testing of the Granger causality between the two mentioned phenomena. This paper provides an estimation of the Toda-Yamamoto causality test between the EPU index and economic activity in the USA and several European countries. The results do not provide a general conclusion: causality seems to run in both directions only for the USA, while only in one direction for France and Germany. Having taken into account the Great Recession of 2008, the main result does not change, therefore casting doubt on the index methodology and overall media bias.

  18. Economic instruments for population diet and physical activity behaviour change: a systematic scoping review.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ian Shemilt

    Full Text Available Unhealthy diet and low levels of physical activity are common behavioural factors in the aetiology of many non-communicable diseases. Recent years have witnessed an upsurge of policy and research interest in the use of taxes and other economic instruments to improve population health.To assemble, configure and analyse empirical research studies available to inform the public health case for using economic instruments to promote dietary and physical activity behaviour change.We conducted a systematic scoping review of evidence for the effects of specific interventions to change, or general exposure to variations in, prices or income on dietary and physical activity behaviours and corollary outcomes. Systematic electronic searches and parallel snowball searches retrieved >1 million study records. Text mining technologies were used to prioritise title-abstract records for screening. Eligible studies were selected, classified and analysed in terms of key characteristics and principal findings, using a narrative, configuring synthesis focused on implications for policy and further research.We identified 880 eligible studies, including 192 intervention studies and 768 studies that incorporated evidence for prices or income as correlates or determinants of target outcomes. Current evidence for the effects of economic instruments and exposures on diet and physical activity is limited in quality and equivocal in terms of its policy implications. Direct evidence for the effects of economic instruments is heavily skewed towards impacts on diet, with a relative lack of evidence for impacts on physical activity.The evidence-based case for using economic instruments to promote dietary and physical activity behaviour change may be less compelling than some proponents have claimed. Future research should include measurement of people's actual behavioural responses using study designs capable of generating reliable causal inferences regarding intervention

  19. A qualitative evaluation of policy instruments used to improve energy performance of existing private dwellings in the Netherlands

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Murphy, Lorraine; Meijer, Frits; Visscher, Henk

    2012-01-01

    Climate change policies in the Netherlands recognise the importance of existing dwellings. Efforts to gain these energy savings are led at national level by policy instruments such as the Energy Performance Certificate, covenants, economic and information tools. These instruments reflect a policy style described as consensus based and incentivising. However, this approach has been subject to criticism with suggestions that alternatives are required. As a first step towards conceptualising alternatives previous evaluations and stakeholder interviews are used to assess instruments. Elements from the theory based evaluation method combined with concepts from policy instrument and energy policy literature form an evaluation framework. Results demonstrate weak impact of some key instruments. Underlying theories associated with instruments are often lost during implementation or remain unsubstantiated. Policy instrument and energy policy concepts are evident but are far from pervasive. Results show that current instruments are poorly equipped to forge a long-term energy saving strategy for existing dwellings. It is further demonstrated that complexity with existing dwellings is not only limited to frequently cited barriers but to the intricacies of designing and operating a well-orchestrated instrument mix. - Highlights: ► Instruments are evaluated using the theory based method and normative concepts. ► Lack of monitoring and evaluation data affects impact assessment. ► Impact and normative concepts are reflected in part in individual instruments. ► A coherent strategy that demonstrates impact and reflects concepts is absent. ► Results form a first step from which to conceptualise alternatives.

  20. Environmental Economics And Policy: Course Evaluation Survey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Petr Šauer

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available The main objective of this paper is to outline the educational aspects of environmental economics referring to an example of a course taught at The University of Economics, Prague. A quantitative survey among students was conducted to describe their perceptions of the environmental topics and the diverse components of the course. This learners’ perspective is compared with students’ examination results and their level of activity in seminars. One of the main questions asked in this text is: do students interested in economic policy and regional economics consider the environmental orientation of the course important? And if yes what aspects of the course do they value, what benefits do they get from the course, what are their learning strategies and what role does this play with regards to students’ concern for environmental issues? Probably the most important finding of the research is the students’ advocacy of environmental economics as a beneficial part of curriculum both by those clustered as ‘environmentalists’ and ‘non-environmentalists’ (or even ‘anti-environmentalists’. Students appreciate having a chance to participate actively in the course. A well balanced proportion of lectures and seminars with enough space for deep discussion seem to be crucial for retaining students’ interest. The data doesn’t equip us with sufficient information to construct regression models with reasonable predictive power concerning exam results. A challenge for further research is to work with a better informed analysis of students’ learning strategies.

  1. One goal, several means? - Combinations of policy instruments in climate policy; Ett maal flera medel? - Styrmedelskombinationer i klimatpolitiken

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Soederholm, Patrik

    2012-04-15

    The purpose of this report is, based on previous theoretical and empirical research, to analyze the conditions under which a combination of policy instruments can improve the effectiveness of climate policy and which the most important general lessons are, for the design of various policy instruments and combinations thereof. The focus of the report is based primarily on the achievement of long-term climate goals, especially an adaptation to radically lower emissions levels by 2050. This entails that we pay special attention to how policies can be designed to promote technological development on climate change, and how the relationship between an effective, legitimate and politically viable climate policy can be designed (including the need for so-called second-best solutions). The analysis assumes that the instruments are introduced to promote economic efficiency. An economically efficient climate policy means: A policy that ensures that a given reduction in emissions of greenhouse gases can be done at the lowest possible economic cost (known as cost-effectiveness) and that the reduction is driven to the point where the cost of further reduction is as high as the value of the marginal damage. A central task of an effective policy is to identify situations which means that economically efficient measures will not be implemented spontaneously by the market players. In a market economy the outcomes is determined of the millions of decisions by individual actors (households and companies) do in everyday life, and the central question is therefore whether these actors face incentives to ensure efficient choices. If not, it may be the result of a so-called market failure and the role of politics will be to correct for this failure. The analysis is based on a number of important limitations. The report consists of a literature synthesis. We don't make any assessment of the empirical importance of different motifs that may be the basis for the introduction of

  2. Economics of international energy security policy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Paik, I.K.

    1992-01-01

    Because there is no inexpensive substitute for crude oil and petroleum products at the present time, an oil supply disruption inevitably leads to higher oil prices and economic losses. Wealth transfer to oil producing nations, reduced output increased unemployment and inflation. For these reasons, major oil-consuming countries currently have in place various oil emergency response measures to protect themselves from adverse economic consequences of oil supply disruptions: stockpiling emergency oil reserves to augment supplies, if necessary, in an emergency; and lowering oil demand through non-price mechanisms. The main purpose of this paper is to show that while, supply enhancement and demand reduction could have the same effect on oil prices in the event of an oil supply shortfall, they may have significantly different effects on the economies. Section I discusses the principal oil emergency response measures of the members of the International Energy Agency (IEA) -- emergency oil stockpiles and demand restraint -- and their policies for implementing the measures. Section II describes the analytical method used to perform comparative economic analysis of releasing emergency stocks and restraining demand in an oil emergency. Section III presents quantitative results of the analysis, and Section IV, conclusions of the analytical results and their energy security policy implications

  3. Economic theory and climate change policy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Peters, I.; Ackerman, F.

    1999-01-01

    Our willingness to embrace climate change policies depends on our perception of their benefits and costs. Evaluation of these costs and benefits requires careful economic analysis. Yet the standard tools for such assessment - computable general equilibrium (CGE) models - are inadequate on several grounds. Their underlying theory suffers from well-known logical difficulties; in general, their equilibria may be neither unique, stable, nor efficient. Moreover, real-world phenomena such as increasing returns to scale, learning, and technological innovation are neglected in CGE models. These phenomena make the resulting equilibria in the models inefficient; in the real world they can lock society into sub-optimal technology choices. They introduce uncertainty and path-dependence, annihilating the concept of a single efficient allocation produced by the unfettered market. Yet conventional economics assesses the cost of policies solely on the basis of their departure from a purportedly efficient equilibrium - ignoring deeper structural changes that are often decisive in practice. New socioeconomic theories and models are emerging that allow for bounded rationality, the limiting and enabling character of institutions, technological change, and the complexities and uncertainties in economic evolution. Meanwhile, existing models should be modified to better reflect real-world phenomena and to abandon unfounded assumptions about the inherent ''inefficiencies'' of government intervention in the market. (author)

  4. Advice letter on policy instruments renewable electricity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2011-01-01

    In a letter of July 2010 the Energy Council made recommendations for a policy framework with more obligations and fewer subsidies. This included the Energy Council's advice to investigate whether the introduction of a supplier obligation could play a major role in the realisation of the CO2 emission target of the Netherlands and increase the share of renewable energy in line with European agreements. This advice letter deals with one aspect of the broader considerations: the share of renewable electricity and the kind of incentive framework that is needed to achieve the target concerned. In this letter we will examine the possibilities of the SDE+ support (financial incentive for renewable energy) scheme and the supplier obligation, the effects on the market and the consequences for achieving the target. This letter closes with conclusions and recommendations. [nl

  5. CO2/energy taxes als an instrument in the Dutch environmental policy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rullens, W.M.

    1996-01-01

    The introduction of an eco-tax on energy consumption as a policy instrument for the reduction of energy consumption by The Netherlands is discussed. It is estimated that the introduction of this eco-tax will reduce energy consumption by 1 to 1.5 percent of the total national energy consumption. In addition, this tax will stimulate the development and the use of renewable energy sources. It is concluded that, although a European CO 2 -energy tax is preferred, national tax policies will allow to positive environmental effects without large economic risks. It remains however necessary to take into account potentially negative economic effects. (A.S.)

  6. Interaction of the EU emissions Trading Directive with climate policy instrument in the Netherlands. Policy Brief

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sijm, J.P.M.

    2003-11-01

    This policy brief presents an overview of the implications of the proposed EU Emissions Trading Scheme (EU ETS) for some selected energy and climate policy instruments in the Netherlands. It summarises the results of research that has been conducted by the Energy research Centre of the Netherlands (ECN) as part of the EU-funded project Interaction in EU Climate Policy

  7. Economic and policy issues in climate change

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nordhaus, W.D.

    1998-01-01

    Global climate change has emerged as one of today's most challenging and controversial policy issues. In this significant new contribution, a roster of premier scholars examines economic and social aspects of that far-reaching phenomenon. Although the 1997 summit in Kyoto focused world attention on climate, it was just one step in an ongoing process. Research by the U.N.'s Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) has been ongoing since 1988. An extensive IPCC Working Group report published in 1995 examined the economic and social aspects of climate change. In this new volume, eminent economists assess that IPCC report and address the questions that emerge. William Nordhaus's introduction establishes the context for this book. It provides basic scientific background, reviews the IPCC's activities, and explains the genesis of the project

  8. Guide on Economic Instruments & Non-market Valuation Methods

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zandersen, Marianne; Bartczak, Anna; Czajkowski, Mikołaj

    The aim of this guidance document is to provide forest practitioners, decision makers and forest owners insights into the various economic instruments available to enhance the non-market ecosystem provision of forests such as a high quality biodiversity; enhanced carbon sequestration; improved...... with ecosystem degradation and iii) by recognising the substantial economic and welfare benefits of better management of ecosystems in forests. Ecosystem services contribute to economic welfare in two ways: • by contributing to the generation of income and wellbeing; and • by preventing damages that inflict...... initiatives it is therefore essential to consider trade offs and synergies between the complex interplay between ecosystem goods and services within an ecosystem,...

  9. A method for the deliberate and deliberative selection of policy instrument mixes for climate change adaptation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Heleen L. P. Mees

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Policy instruments can help put climate adaptation plans into action. Here, we propose a method for the systematic assessment and selection of policy instruments for stimulating adaptation action. The multi-disciplinary set of six assessment criteria is derived from economics, policy, and legal studies. These criteria are specified for the purpose of climate adaptation by taking into account four challenges to the governance of climate adaptation: uncertainty, spatial diversity, controversy, and social complexity. The six criteria and four challenges are integrated into a step-wise method that enables the selection of instruments starting from a generic assessment and ending with a specific assessment of policy instrument mixes for the stimulation of a specific adaptation measure. We then apply the method to three examples of adaptation measures. The method's merits lie in enabling deliberate choices through a holistic and comprehensive set of adaptation specific criteria, as well as deliberative choices by offering a stepwise method that structures an informed dialog on instrument selection. Although the method was created and applied by scientific experts, policy-makers can also use the method.

  10. Climate policy instruments and industry-effects and potential responses in the Swedish context

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Johansson, Bengt

    2006-01-01

    Efficient policy instruments for reducing the emission of greenhouse gases are essential for the realisation of a successful climate policy. General economic policy instruments have the potential for providing efficient emission reduction as they equalise marginal costs for emission reduction between different actors. They also provide incentives for a great variety of responses such as energy efficiency improvements, fuel substitution and reduced consumption of carbon intensive products. However, as a result of the fact that it has so far been impossible to implement policy instruments on a global scale, these instruments are often adapted in such a way that some of their potential advantages are eliminated. In this paper the possibility of different policy instruments to contribute to reductions in industrial CO 2 emissions, while preserving the competitiveness of industry, is evaluated theoretically. The consequences of increasing the cost of CO 2 emission in various industrial sectors are also discussed. Attention is directed towards carbon taxes, emission trading (ET), and regulation. CO 2 taxes without tax reductions and ET with allocation through auctioning have theoretical advantages in a global climate regime but may lead to significant disadvantages if implemented in a single or a small groups of countries. ET with free intensity-based allocation would in this case have a major advantage in combining incentives for emission reductions through efficiency improvements and fuel substitution, with little impact on production levels

  11. Public policy and clean technology promotion. The synergy between environmental economics and evolutionary economics of technological change

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rio Gonzalez, Pablo del [Universidad de Castilla-La Mancha, Toledo (Spain). Facultad de Ciencias Juridicas y Sociales de Toledo

    2004-07-01

    Obstacles to clean technology development, innovation and diffusion are not only related to the lack of internalisation of environmental externalities in production costs, as defended by traditional environmental economics. Empirical studies show that many other obstacles prevent these technologies from penetrating the market. The relevance of these obstacles differs between sectors, firms and technologies. Consequently, a more focused approach is proposed. By taking a look at the specific, real-world barriers to clean technologies, a policy framework as well as some specific measures that target those barriers are suggested. These instruments are useful and complementary in a policy framework that, in addition to specific instruments, takes into account the influence of the style of regulation and the configuration of actors in the environmental technological change process. This paper proposes a coherent framework integrating environmental policy and technology policy instruments. This is deemed necessary in the technological transition to sustainable development. (author)

  12. Alternative approaches to pollution control and waste management: Regulatory and economic instruments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bernstein, J.D.

    1993-01-01

    The purpose of the paper is to present an overview of the most common strategies and policy instruments (that is, regulatory and economic) used in developed and developing countries to achieve pollution control and waste management objectives. Although this topic has been at the center of theoretical controversy both within and outside the World Bank, the paper is not intended to contribute to this debate. Rather, its purpose is to explore how regulatory and economic instruments are used to control air and water pollution, protect ground water, and manage solid and hazardous wastes. The paper is directed to policy makers at the national, state, and local levels of government, as well as to other parties responsible for pollution control and waste management programs

  13. Borrowing green. Economic and environmental effects of green fiscal policy in The Netherlands

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Scholtens, B.

    2001-01-01

    This paper analyzes the economic and environmental impact of a policy instrument that is related to the tax deductibility of interest returns and dividend yields from specified 'green' projects. We investigate this so-called 'Green Project Facility' (Regeling Groenprojecten) in the Netherlands during 1995-1999. We analyze the effect on tax income, economic growth, employment, as well as on the emission of a number of gases and on solid waste production. We find that the economic effects in general are positive. This policy instrument increases growth, employment, and net tax income. However, the environmental effects are quite mixed. This especially results from the fact that a lot of projects would have been undertaken anyhow. Furthermore, we find that this green fiscal policy instrument is skewed towards energy and building. It appears to neglect environmental problems with consumer households, industry, and transport. 8 refs

  14. Smarter by Degrees. Towards new instruments for energy conservation policy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2006-11-15

    Achieving the government's ambition of 1.5 to 2% energy savings annually will require every effort to be made. Households, small and medium-sized businesses, government and semi-governmental institutions (energy-extensive energy consumers) will also be able to make an important contribution. This group represents considerable savings potential of about 300 PJ. There are three types of instruments that may be used for this group to achieve the desired goal (1) obligation/prohibition, i.e., regulations and standards to demand energy efficient investments (construction, facilities, equipment, etc.); (2) price incentives (subsidies/taxes) to promote energy-efficient solutions; (3)enticement/influence, appealing to reason (information, arguments) or emotion to promote the right choice/behaviour. Analysis of past experiences presents the conclusion that so-called soft instruments are sometimes briefly effective but often have little or no effect. The Council believes, however, that such a conclusion is premature, as certain conditions were not met in the past that were very important to effectiveness. First, soft instruments must be implemented consistently and over the long term (about 4 years, at least). Appealing to the very diverse consumers also requires a custom approach. The tone of the conservation policy must also be more in tune with changing trends in society. Citizens must especially be appealed to in terms of cost advantages, responsible energy consumption (good housekeeping) and comfort, whereas the emphasis in the past lay on decency, solidarity and thrift. Specific action perspectives must also be offered. Partly on the basis of experience, such as in waste collection, the Council concludes that a well-assembled mix of soft and hard instruments will be necessary to encourage energy conservation. It is clear that soft instruments alone can be expected to produce unsatisfactory results. Therefore, a combination of soft and hard instruments is advocated

  15. Assessing the potential of economic instruments for managing drought risk at river basin scale

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pulido-Velazquez, M.; Lopez-Nicolas, A.; Macian-Sorribes, H.

    2015-12-01

    Economic instruments work as incentives to adapt individual decisions to collectively agreed goals. Different types of economic instruments have been applied to manage water resources, such as water-related taxes and charges (water pricing, environmental taxes, etc.), subsidies, markets or voluntary agreements. Hydroeconomic models (HEM) provide useful insight on optimal strategies for coping with droughts by simultaneously analysing engineering, hydrology and economics of water resources management. We use HEMs for evaluating the potential of economic instruments on managing drought risk at river basin scale, considering three criteria for assessing drought risk: reliability, resilience and vulnerability. HEMs allow to calculate water scarcity costs as the economic losses due to water deliveries below the target demands, which can be used as a vulnerability descriptor of drought risk. Two generic hydroeconomic DSS tools, SIMGAMS and OPTIGAMS ( both programmed in GAMS) have been developed to evaluate water scarcity cost at river basin scale based on simulation and optimization approaches. The simulation tool SIMGAMS allocates water according to the system priorities and operating rules, and evaluate the scarcity costs using economic demand functions. The optimization tool allocates water resources for maximizing net benefits (minimizing total water scarcity plus operating cost of water use). SIMGAS allows to simulate incentive water pricing policies based on water availability in the system (scarcity pricing), while OPTIGAMS is used to simulate the effect of ideal water markets by economic optimization. These tools have been applied to the Jucar river system (Spain), highly regulated and with high share of water use for crop irrigation (greater than 80%), where water scarcity, irregular hydrology and groundwater overdraft cause droughts to have significant economic, social and environmental consequences. An econometric model was first used to explain the variation

  16. A brief history of economic evaluation for human papillomavirus vaccination policy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beutels, Philippe; Jit, Mark

    2010-09-01

    This commentary discusses key issues for health economic evaluation and modelling, applied to human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccine programs. We outline some of the specific features of HPV disease and vaccination, and associated policy questions in light of a literature search for economic evaluations on HPV vaccination. We observe that some policy questions could not be reliably addressed by many of the 43 published economic evaluations we found. Despite this, policy making on universal HPV vaccination followed shortly after vaccine licensure in many developed countries, so the role economic evaluation played in informing these decisions (pre-dating 2008) seems to have been fairly limited. For more recent decisions, however, economic evaluation is likely to have been used more widely and more intensively. We expect future cost-effectiveness analyses to be more instrumental in policy making regarding vaccines covering more HPV types, therapeutic HPV vaccines, and novel diagnostic tests for biomarkers of HPV infection and disease integrated with cervical screening programs.

  17. International economic association on production of nuclear instrumentation - ''INTERINSTRUMENT''

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Twardon, Z.

    1979-01-01

    History of establishment and development of the International economic association ''Interinstrument'' is stated. Structure of the Association is given and directions of its activity, as well as structure of its budget. List is given of organizations, performing works according to the agreements with the Association. Main directions are stated of activity of the Association in the field of specialization of production of items of nuclear equipment; co-ordination of activity in the sphere of foreign trade; information about new instruments. Activity is stated of the branch offices of the Association, engaged in maintenance of instruments and nuclear equipment [ru

  18. Ecology, equity and economics: reframing dryland policy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hesse, Ced

    2011-11-15

    Drylands are among the world's most variable and unpredictable environments. But people here have long learnt how to live with and harness this variability to support sustainable and productive economies, societies and ecosystems. Policymakers have for too long ignored this wealth of experience and expertise with dire consequences. Attempts to replace traditional land use practices with modern techniques have simply exacerbated poverty, degradation and conflict. In the face of climate change and increasing uncertainty in the drylands, the need to reframe policy and practice has never been greater. The future must be built on sound scientific information, local knowledge, informed participation and the wisdom of customary institutions that emphasise social equity, ecological integrity and economic development.

  19. International Survey on agriculture-climate change policy instruments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fernagut, M.; Priem, M.; Sorgeloos, L.

    2011-09-15

    The title study provides an international overview of agriculture-climate change policy instruments for the reduction of methane and nitrous oxide emissions. The aim of this study is to clarify how national and/or international agriculture-climate-policies could or should be instrumented during the coming three to five years to achieve significant emission reductions of methane and nitrous oxide in the Dutch agricultural sector by 2020. The study includes an international survey, a quick-scan inventory of useful and inspiring examples of policy and reduction measures to reduce non CO2 greenhouse gases. ERM used an approach consisting out of three phases. In the first phase countries were selected on the basis of emissions and Kyoto protocol targets. In the second phase policy measures of these countries were listed, based on publicly available national and international sources. In a third phase a sub-set of this selection was analyzed in-depth through communications with local focal points and additional review of policy documents, to enhance the understanding of context, impact and results of each of these policies and measures.

  20. Pragmatics of policy: the compliance of dutch environmental policy instruments to European union standards.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kruitwagen, Sonja; Reudink, Melchert; Faber, Albert

    2009-04-01

    Despite a general decrease in Dutch environmental emission trends, it remains difficult to comply with European Union (EU) environmental policy targets. Furthermore, environmental issues have become increasingly complex and entangled with society. Therefore, Dutch environmental policy follows a pragmatic line by adopting a flexible approach for compliance, rather than aiming at further reduction at the source of emission. This may be politically useful in order to adequately reach EU targets, but restoration of environmental conditions may be delayed. However, due to the complexity of today's environmental issues, the restoration of environmental conditions might not be the only standard for a proper policy approach. Consequently this raises the question how the Dutch pragmatic approach to compliance qualifies in a broader policy assessment. In order to answer this question, we adapt a policy assessment framework, developed by Hemerijck and Hazeu (Bestuurskunde 13(2), 2004), based on the dimensions of legitimacy and policy logic. We apply this framework for three environmental policy assessments: flexible instruments in climate policy, fine-tuning of national and local measures to meet air quality standards, and derogation for the Nitrate Directive. We conclude with general assessment notes on the appliance of flexible instruments in environmental policy, showing that a broad and comprehensive perspective can help to understand the arguments to put such policy instruments into place and to identify trade-offs between assessment criteria.

  1. THE INFLUENCE OF COMMUNITY FINANCIAL INSTRUMENTS ON THE ECONOMIC GROWTH

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ANCA SIMINA POPESCU

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The absorption of structural and cohesion funds for the period 2007-2013 was relatively low, several reasons were identified by the European Union and the European Commission and had several gaps in legislative terms and in terms of management. Financial and economic crisis that started in 2008, dramatically altered the socio-economic context for cohesion policy programs. The economic downturn also triggered a sharp deterioration in the business climate and consumer confidence, investment (gross fixed capital formation decreased from 21% of GDP in 2008 to 18% in 2012, exports of goods and services and investment direct foreign having the same negative trend. Absorption capacity non-reimbursable financial resources is a variable with a direct and very strong link in ensuring economic and social cohesition with resources available from European funds.

  2. Political economy constraints on carbon pricing policies: What are the implications for economic efficiency, environmental efficacy, and climate policy design?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jenkins, Jesse D.

    2014-01-01

    Economists traditionally view a Pigouvian fee on carbon dioxide and other greenhouse gas emissions, either via carbon taxes or emissions caps and permit trading (“cap-and-trade”), as the economically optimal or “first-best” policy to address climate change-related externalities. Yet several political economy factors can severely constrain the implementation of these carbon pricing policies, including opposition of industrial sectors with a concentration of assets that would lose considerable value under such policies; the collective action nature of climate mitigation efforts; principal agent failures; and a low willingness-to-pay for climate mitigation by citizens. Real-world implementations of carbon pricing policies can thus fall short of the economically optimal outcomes envisioned in theory. Consistent with the general theory of the second-best, the presence of binding political economy constraints opens a significant “opportunity space” for the design of creative climate policy instruments with superior political feasibility, economic efficiency, and environmental efficacy relative to the constrained implementation of carbon pricing policies. This paper presents theoretical political economy frameworks relevant to climate policy design and provides corroborating evidence from the United States context. It concludes with a series of implications for climate policy making and argues for the creative pursuit of a mix of second-best policy instruments. - Highlights: • Political economy constraints can bind carbon pricing policies. • These constraints can prevent implementation of theoretically optimal carbon prices. • U.S. household willingness-to-pay for climate policy likely falls in the range of $80–$200 per year. • U.S. carbon prices may be politically constrained to as low as $2–$8 per ton of CO 2 . • An opportunity space exists for improvements in climate policy design and outcomes

  3. Climate change policy instruments in a least regrets context

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lenstra, W.J.; Bonney, M. [Ministry of Housing, The Hague (Netherlands). Spatial Planning and Environment

    1995-12-31

    The Dutch CO{sub 2} target - which was set down in the National Environmental Policy Plan Plus (NMP-plus) and sent to Parliament in 1990 - is to reduce emissions by 3 to 5 % in 2000 relative to 1989/1990. The second National Environmental Policy Plan (NMP-2), issued in December 1993, confirmed this target but also concluded that policies will have to be enhanced and additional measures taken in order to achieve it. The measures developed in NMP-plus assumed that real energy prices would rise substantially during the 1990`s. However, the prices are at their lowest level since the early 1970`s and official projections now assume that real energy prices will remain more or less constant between 1990 and 2000. Under these conditions, application of existing policy instruments will have to be intensified and additional policy instruments will have to be deployed in order to attain even the 3 % emission reduction target for CO{sub 2}. In December 1993 the Government`s second National Environmental Policy Plan and second Memorandum on Energy Conservation indicated how policy efforts in the area of climate change will be enhanced. Targets were set for improving energy efficiency in different sectors in the period 1989-2000: 23 % for households, 23 % for non-residential buildings, 19 % for industry, 26 % for agriculture, 10 % for transport and 26 % for power stations. The overall efficiency improvement (including renewables) will lead to energy consumption of 2865 PJ in 2000 (550 PJ less than what it would have been without the policy measures; slightly more than what it was in 1990). Energy efficiency (including renewables) will be responsible for roughly two thirds of the CO{sub 2} reduction needed, with the remainder coming from transport, recycling, reduced coal use, afforestation and structural changes

  4. Climate change policy instruments in a least regrets context

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lenstra, W J; Bonney, M [Ministry of Housing, The Hague (Netherlands). Spatial Planning and Environment

    1996-12-31

    The Dutch CO{sub 2} target - which was set down in the National Environmental Policy Plan Plus (NMP-plus) and sent to Parliament in 1990 - is to reduce emissions by 3 to 5 % in 2000 relative to 1989/1990. The second National Environmental Policy Plan (NMP-2), issued in December 1993, confirmed this target but also concluded that policies will have to be enhanced and additional measures taken in order to achieve it. The measures developed in NMP-plus assumed that real energy prices would rise substantially during the 1990`s. However, the prices are at their lowest level since the early 1970`s and official projections now assume that real energy prices will remain more or less constant between 1990 and 2000. Under these conditions, application of existing policy instruments will have to be intensified and additional policy instruments will have to be deployed in order to attain even the 3 % emission reduction target for CO{sub 2}. In December 1993 the Government`s second National Environmental Policy Plan and second Memorandum on Energy Conservation indicated how policy efforts in the area of climate change will be enhanced. Targets were set for improving energy efficiency in different sectors in the period 1989-2000: 23 % for households, 23 % for non-residential buildings, 19 % for industry, 26 % for agriculture, 10 % for transport and 26 % for power stations. The overall efficiency improvement (including renewables) will lead to energy consumption of 2865 PJ in 2000 (550 PJ less than what it would have been without the policy measures; slightly more than what it was in 1990). Energy efficiency (including renewables) will be responsible for roughly two thirds of the CO{sub 2} reduction needed, with the remainder coming from transport, recycling, reduced coal use, afforestation and structural changes

  5. Directed Technical Change and Economic Growth Effects of Environmental Policy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kruse-Andersen, Peter Kjær

    2016-01-01

    A Schumpeterian growth model is developed to investigate how environmental policy affects economic growth when environmental policy also affects the direction of technical change. In contrast to previous models, production and pollution abatement technologies are embodied in separate intermediate...... unambiguously directs research efforts toward pollution abatement technologies and away from production technologies. This directed technical change reduces economic growth and pollution emission growth. Simulation results indicate that even large environmental policy reforms have small economic growth effects....... However, these economic growth effects have relatively large welfare effects which suggest that static models and exogenous growth models leave out an important welfare effect of environmental policy....

  6. Direct payments as an instrument of the environmental policy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adrian Sadłowski

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Agriculture is the area of human activity that is accompanied by the formation of positive and negative external environmental effects. In order to motivate farmers to conduct production activities in a way that reduces the negative impact of these activities on the environment, the so-called principle of cross compliance has been incorporated into the direct support system. This study characterises the area payments as an instrument of the environmental policy and is a review of the European Commission’s different proposals for the reform of direct payments through the prism of environmental functions of this instrument.

  7. The institutional economics of market-based climate policy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Woerdman, E.

    2005-01-01

    The objective of this book is to analyze the institutional barriers to implementing market-based climate policy, as well as to provide some opportunities to overcome them. The approach is that of institutional economics, with special emphasis on political transaction costs and path dependence. Instead of rejecting the neoclassical approach, this book uses it where fruitful and shows when and why it is necessary to employ a new or neo-institutionalist approach. The result is that equity is considered next to efficiency, that the evolution and possible lock-in of both formal and informal climate institutions are studied, and that attention is paid to the politics and law of economic instruments for climate policy, including some new empirical analyses. The research topics of this book include the set-up costs of a permit trading system, the risk that credit trading becomes locked-in, the potential legal problem of grandfathering in terms of actional subsidies under WTO law or state aid under EC law, and the changing attitudes of various European officials towards restricting the use of the Kyoto Mechanisms

  8. Laboratory Experiments in Teaching Public Economics and Policy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Špačková Zuzana

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available This paper deals with classroom experiments in economics, which have been derived from laboratory experiments. These experiments cover a broad range of topics, from strictly economic ones (like market games or auctions to those with overlaps to other domains such as public policy. The paper discusses different methodologies of research and classroom experiments, introduces the benefits of the latter and presents a concrete teaching experiment used in public economics courses at the Faculty of Economics and Administration of Masaryk University. Another link between economic experiments and public policy is outlined here as well, namely the importance of experimental results for public policy makers.

  9. Economics and Health Reform: Academic Research and Public Policy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glied, Sherry A; Miller, Erin A

    2015-08-01

    Two prior studies, conducted in 1966 and in 1979, examined the role of economic research in health policy development. Both concluded that health economics had not been an important contributor to policy. Passage of the Affordable Care Act offers an opportunity to reassess this question. We find that the evolution of health economics research has given it an increasingly important role in policy. Research in the field has followed three related paths over the past century-institutionalist research that described problems; theoretical research, which proposed relationships that might extend beyond existing institutions; and empirical assessments of structural parameters identified in the theoretical research. These three strands operating in concert allowed economic research to be used to predict the fiscal and coverage consequences of alternative policy paths. This ability made economic research a powerful policy force. Key conclusions of health economics research are clearly evident in the Affordable Care Act. © The Author(s) 2015.

  10. Nudges, shoves and budges: Behavioural economic policy frameworks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oliver, Adam

    2018-01-01

    Behavioural economics-the study of human decision making and how it sometimes deviates systematically from the assumptions of standard economic theory-has attracted a lot of attention in the health policy discourse over recent years. Many appear to believe that behavioural economic findings can be used only to help inform policies that manipulate the choices made by citizens, ie, the so-called nudge policy. However, these findings can be used to inform several different policy frameworks, from seemingly innocuous liberty-preserving changes to the contexts people operate in, to the outlawing of certain corporate behaviours. This article depicts diagrammatically, with the aid of a "behavioural policy cube" and in relation to smoking cessation interventions, the conceptual parameters of several behavioural economic-informed policy frameworks, which could be easily extended to other areas of health, and indeed broader public, policy. Copyright © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  11. Efficient and inefficient aspects of residential energy behaviour: What are the policy instruments for change?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Linden, Anna-Lisa [Department of Sociology, Lund University, P.O. Box 114, SE-221 00 Lund (Sweden)]. E-mail: anna-lisa.linden@soc.lu.se; Carlsson-Kanyama, Annika [Department of Environmental Strategies Research, FOI, SE-172 90 Stockholm (Sweden); Eriksson, Bjoern [Department of Environmental Strategies Research, FOI, SE-172 90 Stockholm (Sweden)

    2006-09-15

    The empirical part of this study is based on a survey of 600 Swedish households and a number of interviews where questions about residential energy behaviour and possible policy instruments for change were raised. The study provides insight into current behavioural patterns and gives a bottom-up perspective on the realistic perspective potentials for change and ways to achieve them. Residential energy use accounts for a fifth of the total in Northern nations and patterns of behaviour may influence levels of energy use to the same extent as choice of appliances. The study revealed those behavioural patterns that are efficient and those that need to be improved for energy conservation. Several policy instruments for change were identified in the study and they include combinations of information, economic measures, administrative measures and more user friendly technology as well as equipment with sufficient esthetic quality. Policy instruments that have fostered energy efficient behaviour in Sweden include the massive information campaigns during the oil crises in the 1970s as well as energy labelling of appliances. Still, many households are 'energy-unaware' and several energy efficient behaviours are motivated not by energy conservation concern but of a perceived lack of time. This shows that it is important to have a broad perspective in energy conservation, to evaluate trends and to use policy instruments timely to support or discourage them.

  12. Efficient and inefficient aspects of residential energy behaviour: What are the policy instruments for change?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Linden, Anna-Lisa; Carlsson-Kanyama, Annika; Eriksson, Bjoern

    2006-01-01

    The empirical part of this study is based on a survey of 600 Swedish households and a number of interviews where questions about residential energy behaviour and possible policy instruments for change were raised. The study provides insight into current behavioural patterns and gives a bottom-up perspective on the realistic perspective potentials for change and ways to achieve them. Residential energy use accounts for a fifth of the total in Northern nations and patterns of behaviour may influence levels of energy use to the same extent as choice of appliances. The study revealed those behavioural patterns that are efficient and those that need to be improved for energy conservation. Several policy instruments for change were identified in the study and they include combinations of information, economic measures, administrative measures and more user friendly technology as well as equipment with sufficient esthetic quality. Policy instruments that have fostered energy efficient behaviour in Sweden include the massive information campaigns during the oil crises in the 1970s as well as energy labelling of appliances. Still, many households are 'energy-unaware' and several energy efficient behaviours are motivated not by energy conservation concern but of a perceived lack of time. This shows that it is important to have a broad perspective in energy conservation, to evaluate trends and to use policy instruments timely to support or discourage them

  13. European Funds – Instrument for Economic Stability/Growth

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anca Simina POPESCU

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available The enlargement of European Union has finally brought a growth of public resources designed for regional policy, but also visible disparities between the member states. The objective of a stronger social and economic cohesion, of reduction of differences of social and economic development between the member states and EU regions, as well as the promotion of sustainable development of EU are reached through structural funds, the European financing being designed to serve as lever regarding public investments in associated countries. This work analyses the elements which assure economic stability in Romania, in the last year of programming period 2007-2013, following the crisis which disturbed global economy. The emphasis is laid on non-refundable EU funds allotted for Romania, which were analyzed both from the point of view of approved projects (but whose implementation did not start yet and regarding the contracted projects under way.

  14. Combining policy instruments to curb greenhouse gas emissions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bahn, O.

    2001-01-01

    The Kyoto Protocol has set greenhouse gas emission reduction targets for selected countries. To comply with these reduction requirements, decision-makers may use market-based instruments on a national or international basis. This paper advocates the combining of national emission taxes with international trade of emission permits. As a numerical application, this paper analyses macro-economic impacts of such a strategy for Switzerland. (Author)

  15. Economic instruments for obesity prevention: results of a scoping review and modified delphi survey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    LaFrance Jeffrey

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Comprehensive, multi-level approaches are required to address obesity. One important target for intervention is the economic domain. The purpose of this study was to synthesize existing evidence regarding the impact of economic policies targeting obesity and its causal behaviours (diet, physical activity, and to make specific recommendations for the Canadian context. Methods Arksey and O'Malley's (2005 methodological framework for conducting scoping reviews was adopted for this study and this consisted of two phases: 1 a structured literature search and review, and 2 consultation with experts in the research field through a Delphi survey and an in-person expert panel meeting in April 2010. Results Two key findings from the scoping review included 1 consistent evidence that weight outcomes are responsive to food and beverage prices. The debate on the use of food taxes and subsidies to address obesity should now shift to how best to address practical issues in designing such policies; and 2 very few studies have examined the impact of economic instruments to promote physical activity and clear policy recommendations cannot be made at this time. Delphi survey findings emphasised the relatively modest impact any specific economic instrument would have on obesity independently. Based on empirical evidence and expert opinion, three recommendations were supported. First, to create and implement an effective health filter to review new and current agricultural polices to reduce the possibility that such policies have a deleterious impact on population rates of obesity. Second, to implement a caloric sweetened beverage tax. Third, to examine how to implement fruit and vegetable subsidies targeted at children and low income households. Conclusions In terms of economic interventions, shifting from empirical evidence to policy recommendation remains challenging. Overall, the evidence is not sufficiently strong to provide clear policy

  16. From demonstration to deployment: An economic analysis of support policies for carbon capture and storage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Krahé, Max; Heidug, Wolf; Ward, John; Smale, Robin

    2013-01-01

    This paper argues that an integrated policy architecture consisting of multiple policy phases and economic instruments is needed to support the development of carbon capture and storage (CCS) from its present demonstration phase to full-scale deployment. Building on an analysis of the different types of policy instruments to correct market failures specific to CCS in its various stages of development, we suggest a way to combine these into an integrated policy architecture. This policy architecture adapts to the need of a maturing technology, meets the requirement of policymakers to maintain flexibility to respond to changing circumstances while providing investors with the policy certainty that is needed to encourage private sector investment. This combination of flexibility and predictability is achieved through the use of ‘policy gateways’ which explicitly define rules and criteria for when and how policy settings will change. Our findings extend to bioenergy-based CCS applications (BECCS), which could potentially achieve negative emissions. We argue that within a framework of correcting the carbon externality, the added environmental benefits of BECCS should be reflected in an extra incentive. - Highlights: • Sensible aim of current climate policy: secure option of future CCS deployment. • But policy makers require flexibility while private investors require predictability. • Integrating CCS policy into an overall policy architecture can overcome this antinomy. • We describe the key features of a good policy architecture and give an example

  17. Mass media image of selected instruments of economic develepment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kruliš Ladislav

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available The goal of this paper is twofold. Firstly, two instruments of economic development – investment incentives and cluster initiatives – were compared according to the frequency of their occurrence in selected mass media sources in the Czech Republic in the periods 2004-2005 and 2011-2012. Secondly, the mass media image of these two instruments of economic development was evaluated with respect to the frames deductively constructed from literature review. The findings pointed out a higher occurrence of the mass media articles/news dealing with investment incentives. These articles/news were, additionally, more controversial and covered a wider spectrum of frames. Politicians were a relatively more frequent type of actors who created the media message from the articles/news. On the contrary, the mass media articles/news concerning cluster initiatives typically created the frame of positive effects of clusters. The messages were told either by economic experts or by public authority representatives who were closely connected with cluster initiatives. Spatial origin of these messages was rather limited. The definitional vagueness, intangible and uncontroversial nature of cluster initiatives restrained their media appeal.

  18. Green industrial policy. Perspectives of economic and political scienc; Oekologische Industriepolitik. Wirtschafts- und politikwissenschaftliche Perspektiven

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jacob, Klaus [Freie Univ. Berlin (Germany)

    2009-01-15

    The necessity and possibilities of, limits to and the specific instruments employed for green industrial policy are a topic of both scientific and political debate. Economists and politicians can draw on rich resources in dealing with these issues. The contributions contained in this volume are the outcome of a workshop held by the German Federal Environment Agency and the Federal Environment Ministry on the topic of ''Green industrial policy'' on 18 April 2008 in Berlin. Economists and politicians were invited to participate in an expert dialog to locate the topic of green industrial policy within the larger discourses of political economics, deliberate on theoretical motives and practical limits to the concept from an economic viewpoint and discuss possible instruments and fields of action. The workshop focussed on questions relating to the necessity of green industrial policy, the framing of political programmes and the implementation of adopted goals into specific measures.

  19. Ethiopian Journal of Economics: Editorial Policies

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Focus and Scope. The Ethiopian Journal of Economics is a publication of the Ethiopian Economic Association. It is a bi annual publication devoted to the advancement of economics as a scientific discipline in Ethiopia. However, contributions of articles by non-Ethiopian and on economic experience of other countries are ...

  20. African Journal of Economic Review: Editorial Policies

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Focus and Scope. The African Journal of Economic Review (AJER) is a refereed, biannual Journal that publishes high quality and scholarly articles on economic issues relevant to Africa. The AJER is an applied journal with keen interest in the following areas: Public sector economics, monetary economics, international ...

  1. Borrowing green : economic and environmental effects of green fiscal policy in the Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Scholtens, B.

    2001-01-01

    This paper analyzes the economic and environmental impact of a policy instrument that is related to the tax deductibility of interest returns and dividend yields from specified 'green' projects. We investigate this so-called 'Green Project Facility' (Regeling Groenprojecten) in the Netherlands

  2. Economic expenditures associated with instrumental caregiving roles of adult siblings of persons with severe mental illness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lohrer, Steven P; Lukens, Ellen P; Thorning, Helle

    2007-04-01

    Siblings of persons with mental illness who assume primary caregiving roles experience substantial and tangible economic impacts associated with this responsibility. This study investigated mailed survey responses collected from 156 adult siblings of persons with mental illness from New York State to examine instrumental costs associated with providing support to siblings with illness. Genders of both siblings, severity of the relatives' mental illness, and number of surviving parents in the family distinguished those occupying primary caregiving responsibility from those not in primary roles. Current caregivers incurred greater instrumental costs in the form of financial expenses, time spent in care activities, and crisis involvement than did those who were not primary care providers. Additional demographic and behavioral factors related to siblings with and without illness were associated with specific dimensions of instrumental expenditure. As siblings become increasingly engaged in caregiving, social service professionals must assume leadership in promoting programs and policies that meaningfully support family involvement for relatives with mental illness.

  3. FISCAL POLICY'S INFLUENCE ON ECONOMIC GROWTH IN THE EUROPEAN UNION

    OpenAIRE

    MIHAIU Diana Marieta; OPREANA Alin

    2012-01-01

    In this paper we study the impact of the fiscal policy on the economic growth for European Union, for the period 2000-2009. This subject represents a very debated problem in the economic literature. Our findings shows that, from the analysis of correlation between economic growth rate and total rate of taxation, there is generally an inverse relationship, meaning that an increase in the tax rate adversely affects economic growth. Continuing the analysis of the correlation between economic gro...

  4. Integrated environmental policy: A review of economic analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wiesmeth, Hans; Häckl, Dennis

    2017-04-01

    Holistic environmental policies, which emerged from a mere combination of technical activities in waste management some 40 years ago, constitute the most advanced level of environmental policies. These approaches to environmental policy, among them the policies in integrated waste management, attempt to guide economic agents to an environment-friendly behaviour. Nevertheless, current holistic policies in waste management, including policies on one-way drinks containers and waste electrical and electronic equipment, and implementations of extended producer responsibility with further applications to waste electrical and electronic equipment, reveal more or less severe deficiencies - despite some positive examples. This article relates these policy failures, which are not necessarily the result of an insufficient compliance with the regulations, to missing constitutive elements of what is going to be called an 'integrated environmental policy'. This article therefore investigates - mostly from a practical point of view - constitutive elements, which are necessary for a holistic policy to serve as a well-functioning allocation mechanism. As these constitutive elements result from a careful 'integration' of the environmental commodities into the economic allocation problems, we refer to these policies as 'integrated environmental policies'. The article also discusses and illustrates the main steps of designing such a policy - for waste electrical and electronic equipment and a (possible) ban of Glyphosat in agriculture. As these policies are dependent on economic and political stability with environmental awareness sufficiently developed, the article addresses mostly waste management policies in highly industrialised countries.

  5. Social Policy and Economic Development in the Nordic Countries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kangas, Olli; Palme, Joakim

    between democratization and social policy, drawing attention to the role of the state and non-governmental organizations. Social Policy and Economic Development in Nordic Countries examines Nordic social policies on unemployment, social care, family, education and health care policies, and reviews future......This volume examines the relationship between Nordic social policy and economic development from a comparative perspective. It identifies the driving forces behind the development of the Nordic welfare model and the problems and dilemmas the model is facing at present. The book also traces the link...

  6. Antipodean Social Policy Responses to Economic Crises

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Starke, Peter

    2013-01-01

    the government enacted fiscal stimulus measures, the social policy component was small and the government soon returned to welfare retrenchment and workfare policy. Based on a detailed account of recent crisis policies as well as a condensed overview of previous crisis responses (to the 1970s oil shocks......, interest group structures, political institutions and policy legacies. The analysis shows that the recent differences cannot fully be explained through idiosyncratic factors, as partisan ideology was already crucial in strategic policy decisions during the first months of the crisis. The historical pattern...

  7. Romanian Public Expenditures Policy during the Economic Crisis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anca-Ştefania SAVA

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this paper is to discuss the Romanian public expenditures policy promoted in the context of the economic and financial crisis. Firstly, we present a brief introduction on the effects of public expenditures policy to economic growth and the role of automatic stabilizers in times of economic recessions. Secondly, the paper analyzes the evolution of current and capital public expenditures before and during the economic and financial crisis, according to which unproductive spending prevailed, in detriment of productive investments which can stimulate the economic recovery.

  8. Nigerian Journal of Economic History: Editorial Policies

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Focus and Scope. The Nigerian Journal of Economic History (NJEH) seeks to promote the scholarly study of Africa's and the developing world's past economic issues and events from a diversity of perspectives notably those of History, Economics, and other relevant disciplines. The Journal, which encourages careful ...

  9. Equity effects of economic instruments for greenhouse gas abatement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Harrison, D. Jr.

    1994-01-01

    This paper discusses the equity effects of using economic instruments--such as a carbon tax or carbon emissions trading program--to regulate greenhouse gas emissions. Determining these equity effects is more complicated than assessing overall costs and benefits, although some of the same issues arise. Among the key issues are the following: (1) benchmark for evaluating impacts of economic instruments (status quo or regulatory program that achieves the same emission reductions); (2) use of any government revenues collected, which are transfers overall but affect gains and losses; (3) time period (long-term or transitional impacts); and (4) groupings (income groups, sectors or regions). Empirical studies suggest that a national tax is regressive in the US but may be less so in other countries. The equity impacts of an international carbon tax or emissions trading program differ greatly depending upon the specific elements. The paper considers options to compensate or mitigate adverse effects to income groups, sectors, or regions of the world. Although impossible to avoid all losses to every group, it would be possible to avoid major equity effects if carbon taxes or carbon trading programs were used to control global warming

  10. A SHARIA RETURN AS AN ALTERNATIVE INSTRUMENT FOR MONETARY POLICY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ashief Hamam

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Rapid development in Islamic financial industry has not been supported by sharia monetary policy instruments. This study looks at the possibility of sharia returns as the instrument. Using both error correction model and vector error correction model to estimate the data from 2002(1 to 2010(12, this paper finds that sharia return has the same effect as the interest rate in the demand for money. The shock effect of sharia return on broad money supply, Gross Domestic Product, and Consumer Price Index is greater than that of interest rate. In addition, these three variables are more quickly become stable following the shock of sharia return. Keywords: Sharia return, islamic financial system, vector error correction modelJEL classification numbers: E52, G15

  11. Can Fiscal Policy Stimulus Boost Economic Recovery?

    OpenAIRE

    Agnello, L.; Sousa, R.

    2011-01-01

    We assess the role played by fiscal policy in explaining the dynamics of asset markets. Using a panel of ten industrialized countries, we show that a positive fiscal shock has a negative impact in both stock and housing prices. However, while stock prices immediately adjust to the shock and the effect of fiscal policy is temporary, housing prices gradually and persistently fall. Consequently, the attempts of fiscal policy to mitigate stock price developments (e.g. via taxes on capital gains) ...

  12. The economic policy as factor of competitiveness in China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan González García

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The object of this article consists of establishing the relation between competitiveness and economic policy in the case of the People’s Republic of China in the period from 1948 to 2008. The hypothesis that is demonstrated throughout the presentation maintains that more than the macroeconomic stability, the economic growth is directly related to the type of economic policy that applies a nation, as it is the case of China. The historical antecedents (1948-1978, the economic policy in the days of the reform of the economy (1978-1998 and the present time in which the past and the present are crossed, constitute the huge landmarks of the work. The economic policy is analyzes in “sub political” such as the agriculturist, industrialist, prices, foreign trade, foreign affairs, fiscal, monetary, exchange and investment, competitiveness etc., taking the work to planes of better concretion.

  13. Policy instruments for energy conservation: A multidimensional assessment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Giraudet, Louis-Gaetan

    2011-01-01

    This thesis evaluates the effectiveness of various forms of taxes, subsidies and regulations implemented to correct for market failures that may prevent energy savings. It builds on various approaches, with gradual complexity. First, a standard micro-economic model is developed to compare the static performances of these instruments. Second, the representation of consumer behaviour is strengthened in a model of the residential energy demand for space heating in France, which allows to identify the dynamic mechanisms by which instruments can correct for the main market failures. Third, an empirical evaluation of 'white certificate' schemes - tradable energy saving obligations imposed on energy operators - is made from the comparison between the British, Italian and French experiences, taking into account national institutions. The following conclusions can be drawn from these various approaches: (i) energy taxes, by encouraging both energy efficiency investment and sufficiency behaviour, are particularly effective; (ii) energy efficiency regulations have a significant impact on the diffusion of efficient technologies; (iii) subsidies to energy efficiency induce a large rebound effect; (iv) depending on the institutional environment in which they operate, white certificate schemes combine different properties of these instruments. Applied to the French residential building sector, the most effective combination of these instruments does not allow to reach the energy saving target set by the Government. (author)

  14. Policy instruments for pollution control in developing countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eskeland, G S; Jimenez, E

    1992-07-01

    Economic development in developing countries must be accomplished in a manner that does not harm the environment with pollution. Pollution harms human health and productivity. Thus appropriate strategies must be developed that promote growth, reduce poverty, and protect the environment. A review of the current literature is performed with attention paid to cost-effective interventions i.e., comparisons of regulatory and fiscal instruments that can reduce pollution. Both direct instruments (like effluent charges, tradable permits, deposit refund systems, emission regulations and regulatory agency funding for purification, cleanup, waste disposal, and enforcement) and indirect instruments (like input/output taxes and subsidies, substitution subsidies, abatement inputs, regulation of equipment and processes, and development of clean technologies) are examined. Examples are used to show how indirect instruments can be successful when monitoring and enforcement is too costly. A careful examination of distributive concerns illustrate how the effect on the poor may need particular consideration and how groups with vested interests can help evaluate the probable success of such interventions.

  15. Family Economic Security Policies and Child and Family Health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spencer, Rachael A; Komro, Kelli A

    2017-03-01

    In this review, we examine the effects of family economic security policies (i.e., minimum wage, earned income tax credit, unemployment insurance, Temporary Assistance to Needy Families) on child and family health outcomes, summarize policy generosity across states in the USA, and discuss directions and possibilities for future research. This manuscript is an update to a review article that was published in 2014. Millions of Americans are affected by family economic security policies each year, many of whom are the most vulnerable in society. There is increasing evidence that these policies impact health outcomes and behaviors of adults and children. Further, research indicates that, overall, policies which are more restrictive are associated with poorer health behaviors and outcomes; however, the strength of the evidence differs across each of the four policies. There is significant diversity in state-level policies, and it is plausible that these policy variations are contributing to health disparities across and within states. Despite increasing evidence of the relationship between economic policies and health, there continues to be limited attention to this issue. State policy variations offer a valuable opportunity for scientists to conduct natural experiments and contribute to evidence linking social policy effects to family and child well-being. The mounting evidence will help to guide future research and policy making for evolving toward a more nurturing society for family and child health and well-being.

  16. Between marketing and financial support : Dutch municipal policy instruments to improve the quality of private housing stock

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tambach, M.; Meijer, F.; Visscher, H.

    2011-01-01

    Dutch municipalities are faced with an ageing private housing stock, of which parts show a diversity of quality backlogs, including their energy quality. Dutch municipalities are in the process of developing a combination of communicative and economic policy instruments to seduce private homeowners

  17. Empiric Study about the Mix Fiscal PolicyEconomic Development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexandru Sergiu Ocnean

    2006-11-01

    Full Text Available Economic development is one of the primary objectives of any government. Fiscal policy represents one of the most effective tools that government authorities could use in order to influence the economy. Having this in mind, this paper focuses on the connection between economic development and fiscal policy and proposes an empirical study based on a sample of 21 European countries. Using a simple pool data model, we tried to distinguish the relations between the evolution of GDP per capita, as a proxy for economic development, and the evolution of three fiscal policy variables, namely the tax burden, the public expenditure to GDP ratio and the budget deficit to GDP ratio.

  18. Empiric Study about the Mix Fiscal PolicyEconomic Development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexandru Sergiu Ocnean

    2006-09-01

    Full Text Available Economic development is one of the primary objectives of any government. Fiscal policy represents one of the most effective tools that government authorities could use in order to influence the economy. Having this in mind, this paper focuses on the connection between economic development and fiscal policy and proposes an empirical study based on a sample of 21 European countries. Using a simple pool data model, we tried to distinguish the relations between the evolution of GDP per capita, as a proxy for economic development, and the evolution of three fiscal policy variables, namely the tax burden, the public expenditure to GDP ratio and the budget deficit to GDP ratio.

  19. Economic Motives for Adopting LGBT-Related Workplace Policies

    OpenAIRE

    Sears, Brad; Mallory, Christy; Hunter, Nan

    2011-01-01

    The past decade has seen a large increase in the number of corporations adopting LGBT-related workplace policies.  This study evaluates the economic impact of non-discrimination and benefits policies by analyzing the extent to which economic reasons motivate corporations to adopt such policies.  This study reviews statements issued when adopting such policies by the top 50 Fortune 500 companies and the top 50 federal government contractors.  Overall, we find that almost all of top 50 Fortune ...

  20. Assessment report on NRP sub-theme 'National instruments for climate change policy'

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Verbruggen, H.; Nentjes, A.; Backhaus, J.G.; Jansen, H.M.A.

    1995-01-01

    Economic instruments for environmental protection feature in textbooks for their superior performance in terms of effectiveness and both static and dynamic efficiency, especially in cases characterized by a large number of polluters with large differences in abatement cost. These instruments are thus pre-eminently suited to be included in climate change policies. However, this proves to be very difficult as yet. The projects under this research sub-theme share a common interest in the complexities of implementing various types of economic instruments. The first project deals with the design of a European system of tradable emission rights. The second project is on the feasibility of ecological tax reform, with special reference to The Netherlands. The Climate Fund project, the third project, aims at investigating whether an international fund for side payments is an effective and efficient tool to reduce CO2 emissions. To that purpose, the world is divided into 9 regions. Finally, the fourth project uses an applied general equilibrium model to analyze the effectiveness and especially the income distributional effects of differently designed CO2 charges. The projects yield interesting results from which policy makers can benefit. There still are, however, blind spots. These and further research questions are identified. 4 refs

  1. Using economic instruments to develop effective management of invasive species: insights from a bioeconomic model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McDermott, Shana M; Irwin, Rebecca E; Taylor, Brad W

    2013-07-01

    critical. To accomplish the management and enforcement of these economic policies, we discuss modification of existing agencies and infrastructure. Finally, a sensitivity analysis revealed that lowering the economic cost of invader removal would strongly increase the probability of invader eradication. Taken together, our results provide quantitative insight into management decisions and economic policy instruments that can encourage invasive species removal across a social landscape.

  2. Choosing Environmental Policy Instruments in the Real World

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Greenspan Bell, R.

    2003-01-01

    In their enthusiasm for efficiency over other values, the advocates for market-based instruments for environmental control have reversed the order in which environmental solutions are found. They have written their prescriptions without first doing a physical examination of the patient; in other words, they have first recommended environmental instruments and secondarily tried to bend institutions to support the already identified cure. The engine for environmental regulation consists of the institutions available country by country to carry out environmental policy. Institutional inadequacies such as low functioning legal systems, historical experience (or inexperience) with markets, distorting and often institutionalised corruption, and public acceptance certainly can be fixed. But changing these fundamentals can be a long and arduous process. Those who advise governments to adopt reforms for which the institutional basis does not yet exist put the cart before the horse, a costly mistake that directs weak countries in the direction of solutions they have little hope of implementing. Instead, the donors and advisors should be seeking alternative approaches, for example to encourage incremental improvements and pragmatic goals, by considering a transitional or tiered approach that will take into account existing capabilities and institutions, at the same time acknowledging that a long learning curve lies ahead with inevitably uneven implementation and slippage from time to time. Another approach would be to find examples of small, albeit imperfect, efforts that seem to be working and building on them. The long-term goal should be efficient solutions, but only the most developed countries should be encouraged to attempt difficult environmental policy instruments like taxation and emissions trading schemes

  3. A review of EIAs on trade policy in China: Exploring the way for economic policy EIAs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mao, Xianqiang, E-mail: maoxq@bnu.edu.cn [Center for Global Environmental Policy, School of Environment, Beijing Normal University, Beijing 100875 (China); Song, Peng, E-mail: songpeng_ee@163.com [Center for Global Environmental Policy, School of Environment, Beijing Normal University, Beijing 100875 (China); Kørnøv, Lone, E-mail: lonek@plan.aau.dk [The Danish Centre for Environmental Assessment, Department of Planning, Aalborg University, Skibbrogade 5, B1-04, 9000 Aalborg (Denmark); Corsetti, Gabriel, E-mail: gabriel.corsetti@gmail.com [Center for Global Environmental Policy, School of Environment, Beijing Normal University, Beijing 100875 (China)

    2015-01-15

    During the discussion on the “Environmental Protection Law Amendment (draft)” in 2011, it was decided to drop the proposed clauses related to environmental impact assessments (EIAs) on policy, which means that there remained no provisions for policy EIAs, and China's strategic environmental assessment system stayed limited to the planning level. However, considering that economic policy making is causing significant direct and indirect environmental problems and that almost every aspect of governmental policy has an economic aspect, EIAs on economic policies are of the utmost urgency. The purpose of this study is to review the EIA work that has been carried out on trade policy in China through four case studies, and illustrate how trade policy EIAs can be helpful in achieving better environmental outcomes in the area of trade. Through the trade policy EIA case studies we try to argue for the feasibility of conducting EIAs on economic policies in China. We also discuss the implications of the case studies from the point of view of how to proceed with EIAs on economic policy and how to promote their practice. - Highlights: • SEA system is incomplete and stays limited to the plan EIA level in China. • EIA on economic policy is of utmost importance for all the developing countries. • Four case studies of trade policy EIA in China are reviewed for policy implications. • Departmental competition for political power impedes economic policy EIAs in China. • Legislative regulation on policy EIA is the first thing needed to overcome barrier.

  4. A review of EIAs on trade policy in China: Exploring the way for economic policy EIAs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mao, Xianqiang; Song, Peng; Kørnøv, Lone; Corsetti, Gabriel

    2015-01-01

    During the discussion on the “Environmental Protection Law Amendment (draft)” in 2011, it was decided to drop the proposed clauses related to environmental impact assessments (EIAs) on policy, which means that there remained no provisions for policy EIAs, and China's strategic environmental assessment system stayed limited to the planning level. However, considering that economic policy making is causing significant direct and indirect environmental problems and that almost every aspect of governmental policy has an economic aspect, EIAs on economic policies are of the utmost urgency. The purpose of this study is to review the EIA work that has been carried out on trade policy in China through four case studies, and illustrate how trade policy EIAs can be helpful in achieving better environmental outcomes in the area of trade. Through the trade policy EIA case studies we try to argue for the feasibility of conducting EIAs on economic policies in China. We also discuss the implications of the case studies from the point of view of how to proceed with EIAs on economic policy and how to promote their practice. - Highlights: • SEA system is incomplete and stays limited to the plan EIA level in China. • EIA on economic policy is of utmost importance for all the developing countries. • Four case studies of trade policy EIA in China are reviewed for policy implications. • Departmental competition for political power impedes economic policy EIAs in China. • Legislative regulation on policy EIA is the first thing needed to overcome barrier

  5. MONETARY POLICY AND ECONOMIC DEVELOPMENT: LESSONS ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    promote monetary stability and a sound financial system in Nigeria under the overall ... default in the money market and, (iv) Excessive borrowing for speculative ..... Crookett, A. (1979): Monetary Theory, Policy and Institutions, Thomas Nelson ...

  6. New policy challenges on a changing economic landscape | IDRC ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    2011-01-27

    Jan 27, 2011 ... New policy challenges on a changing economic landscape ... Consortium deals with a wide variety of issues, SEP works primarily through four ... strengthen and reform the institutions, rules and customs by which nations and ...

  7. Behavioural economics, travel behaviour and environmental-transport policy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Garcia-Sierra, M.; van den Bergh, J.C.J.M.; Miralles, C.

    2015-01-01

    The transport sector creates much environmental pressure. Many current policies aimed at reducing this pressure are not fully effective because the behavioural aspects of travellers are insufficiently recognised. Insights from behavioural economics can contribute to a better understanding of travel

  8. Iran's Economic Conditions: U.S. Policy Issues

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Ilias, Shayerah

    2009-01-01

    .... To the extent that U.S. sanctions and other efforts to change Iranian state policy target aspects of Iran's economy as a means of influence, it is important to evaluate Iran's economic structure, strengths, and vulnerabilities...

  9. Public procurement, governance and economic growth: some policy ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Public procurement, governance and economic growth: some policy ... Employing the Keynesian income-expenditure approach to measuring the Gross Domestic ... reduce wastage, enhance the effectiveness of government spending, ensure ...

  10. Goals and instruments of land policy and the growth and development of cities

    OpenAIRE

    Maruška Šubic Kovač

    2001-01-01

    Instruments of land policies are tied to its goals, as well as defined relations on property and law as set in the Constitution. Since these relations have changed in Slovenia, the instruments of land policy also have to change. When devising particular instruments, basic principles have to be respected, which are the starting point for particular procedures. Only adequate legally defined instruments of land policies can be implemented in practice and affect the growth and development of citi...

  11. Goals and instruments of land policy and the growth and development of cities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maruška Šubic Kovač

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available Instruments of land policies are tied to its goals, as well as defined relations on property and law as set in the Constitution. Since these relations have changed in Slovenia, the instruments of land policy also have to change. When devising particular instruments, basic principles have to be respected, which are the starting point for particular procedures. Only adequate legally defined instruments of land policies can be implemented in practice and affect the growth and development of cities in Slovenia.

  12. Fuel taxes: An important instrument for climate policy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sterner, Thomas

    2007-01-01

    This article shows that fuel taxes serve a very important role for the environment and that we risk a backlash of increased emissions if they are abolished. Fuel taxes have restrained growth in fuel demand and associated carbon emissions. Although fuel demand is large and growing, our analysis shows that it would have been much higher in the absence of domestic fuel taxes. People often assert that fuel demand is inelastic but there is strong research evidence showing the opposite. The price elasticity is in fact quite high but only in the long-run: in the short run it may be quite inelastic which has important implications for policy makers. Had Europe not followed a policy of high fuel taxation but had low US taxes, then fuel demand would have been twice as large. Hypothetical transport demand in the whole OECD area is calculated for various tax scenarios and the results show that fuel taxes are the single most powerful climate policy instrument implemented to date-yet this fact is not usually given due attention in the debate

  13. Forest resource economics and policy research

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ellefson, P.V.

    1989-01-01

    This book contains chapters relating to forest economics. Included are the following chapters: Forecasting demand and supply of forest resources, products, and services; Wood fiber production; Forestry sector environmental effects

  14. Strengthening mathematics, science and economic policy capacity ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Afghanistan and Central Asia face serious climate and economic challenges. ... focus on advancing women scientists; and build the capacity of officials and civil ... management through that university's Mountain Societies Research Institute.

  15. Energy, environment and economics: greenhouse policy in the balance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wilkenfeld, G.L.

    1990-01-01

    Taking New South Wales as a case study, this paper reviews the government's major economic and environmental concerns, and analyses how they bear on energy and greenhouse policy options. The government's economic strategy emphasises the continuing importance of primary resources, minerals processing and energy-intensive manufacturing, where the State is perceived to have a competitive advantage because of its extensive coal resources. The implications of these trends for the energy utilities and for greenhouse energy policy are analysed. 22 refs., 1 tab

  16. The economics of Language Policy: An Introduction to Evaluation Work

    OpenAIRE

    Grin, François; Vaillancourt, François

    2015-01-01

    This chapter presents some of the main empirical methods used by economists who since the 1970s have contributed to the elaboration of language policies. This specific focus is the result of the theme of this book; it is more restrictive than discussions on the economics of language of the economics of language policy evaluation. Furthermore, this leads us to emphasize practice-oriented research using quantitative data, in which economists have addressed questions such as: "How much does it c...

  17. Joint determinants of fiscal policy, income inequality and economic growth

    OpenAIRE

    Leonel Muinelo-Gallo; Oriol Roca-Sagalés

    2012-01-01

    This paper analyses the relationship between income inequality and economic growth through fiscal policy. To this end, we present and estimate two systems of structural equiation with error components through which gross income inequality determines different fiscal policy outcomes, which subsequently affects the evolution of economic growth and net income inequality. The empirical results, obtained using an unbalanced panel data of 21 high-income OCDE countries during the period 1972-2006, s...

  18. INVESTIGATION OF FISCAL AND BUDGETARY POLICIES BASED ON ECONOMIC THEORIES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    EMILIA CAMPEANU

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Empirical analysis of fiscal and budgetary policies cannot be achieved without first knowing how they are viewed in the economic theories. This approach is important to indicate the position and implications of fiscal and budgetary policy tools in the economic theory considering their major differences. Therefore, the paper aims is to investigate the fiscal and budgetary policies based on economic theories such as neoclassical, Keynesian and neo-Keynesian theory in order to indicate their divergent points. Once known these approaches at the economic theory level is easier to establish the appropriate measures taking into consideration the framing of a country economy in a certain pattern. This work was supported from the European Social Fund through Sectoral Operational Programme Human Resources Development 2007-2013, project number POSDRU/89/1.5/S/59184 „Performance and excellence in postdoctoral research in Romanian economics science domain” (contract no. 0501/01.11.2010.

  19. Economic Integration, Currency Areas, and Macroeconomic Policy

    OpenAIRE

    Douglas D. Purvis

    1992-01-01

    In this essay I explore the implications of regional economic integration for the currency arrangements appropriate within and between regions. This topic is motivated by the recent rekindling of interest in fixed exchange rates which, in turn, has been due in part to disappointment in the performance of the flexible exchange rate system that has evolved over the past two decades, and in part to the increased regional economic integration that the world economy has witnessed in the past decad...

  20. Carbon sequestration and climate policy: elements of economic analysis. CGDD-TSE partnership

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dubreu, Nathalie; Hardelin, Julien; Gilles Lafforgue

    2012-05-01

    In September 2011 the General Commission for Sustainable Development and Toulouse School of Economics jointly organized a conference on 'Carbon capture and storage (CCS) and climate policies: an economic analysis'. This paper presents an overview of the main results of the conference concerning the optimal energy mix and carbon emission path in the presence of CCS, the superiority of a policy mix combining an environmental tax with R and D subsidies, as well as the inter-generational equity-efficiency trade-off. It is based on presentations by Gilles Lafforgue, Andre Grimaud and Michel Moreaux, researchers from the Toulouse School of Economics. This overview confirms that a climate policy is more effective if it combines several instruments (tax and subsidies) and if it is quickly implemented. (authors)

  1. Foreign Policy and Public-Private Partnership for Economic ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This paper examines foreign policy and public-private partnership for economic development in Nigeria. It proceeds from the assumption that foreign policy goes beyond spontaneous reaction to international issues and events, but an extrapolative and empirical attempt at achieving a state's short and long term goals ...

  2. Assessing the Impact of Financial Policies on Nigeria's Economic ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Assessing the Impact of Financial Policies on Nigeria's Economic Growth. ... Furthermore, it calls for effective implementation and monitoring of financial policies as well as adequate supervision of the financial sector by the relevant authorities to avoid lopsided compliance with financial and monetary guidelines. Keywords: ...

  3. The carbon rent economics of climate policy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kalkuhl, Matthias; Brecha, Robert J.

    2013-01-01

    By reducing the demand for fossil fuels, climate policy can reduce scarcity rents for fossil resource owners. As mitigation policies ultimately aim to limit emissions, a new scarcity for “space” in the atmosphere to deposit emissions is created. The associated scarcity rent, or climate rent (that is, for example, directly visible in permit prices under an emission trading scheme) can be higher or lower than the original fossil resource rent. In this paper, we analyze analytically and numerically the impact of mitigation targets, resource availability, backstop costs, discount rates and demand parameters on fossil resource rents and the climate rent. We assess whether and how owners of oil, gas and coal can be compensated by a carbon permit grandfathering rule. One important finding is that reducing (cumulative) fossil resource use could actually increase scarcity rents and benefit fossil resource owners under a permit grandfathering rule. For our standard parameter setting overall scarcity rents under climate policy increase slightly. While low discount rates of resource owners imply higher rent losses due to climate policies, new developments of reserves or energy efficiency improvements could more than double scarcity rents under climate policy. Another important implication is that agents receiving the climate rent (regulating institutions or owners of grandfathered permits) could influence the climate target such that rents are maximized, rather than to limit global warming to a socially desirable level. For our basic parameter setting, rents would be maximized at approximately 650 GtC emissions (50% of business-as-usual emissions) implying a virtual certainty of exceeding a 2 °C target and a likelihood of 4 °C warming. - Highlights: • Fossil resource rents form a substantial share of the global GDP. • Fossil resource owners can benefit from climate policy. • Climate targets might be influenced by rent-maximizing aspects

  4. Establishing Green Roof Infrastructure Through Environmental Policy Instruments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carter, Timothy; Fowler, Laurie

    2008-07-01

    Traditional construction practices provide little opportunity for environmental remediation to occur in urban areas. As concerns for environmental improvement in urban areas become more prevalent, innovative practices which create ecosystem services and ecologically functional land cover in cities will be in higher demand. Green roofs are a prime example of one of these practices. The past decade has seen the North American green roof industry rapidly expand through international green roof conferences, demonstration sites, case studies, and scientific research. This study evaluates existing international and North American green roof policies at the federal, municipal, and community levels. Green roof policies fall into a number of general categories, including direct and indirect regulation, direct and indirect financial incentives, and funding of demonstration or research projects. Advantages and disadvantages of each category are discussed. Salient features and a list of prompting standards common to successfully implemented green roof strategies are then distilled from these existing policies. By combining these features with data collected from an experimental green roof site in Athens, Georgia, the planning and regulatory framework for widespread green roof infrastructure can be developed. The authors propose policy instruments be multi-faceted and spatially focused, and also propose the following recommendations: (1) Identification of green roof overlay zones with specifications for green roofs built in these zones. This spatial analysis is important for prioritizing areas of the jurisdiction where green roofs will most efficiently function; (2) Offer financial incentives in the form of density credits and stormwater utility fee credits to help overcome the barriers to entry of the new technology; (3) Construct demonstration projects and institutionalize a commitment greening roofs on publicly-owned buildings as an effective way of establishing an educated

  5. Establishing green roof infrastructure through environmental policy instruments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carter, Timothy; Fowler, Laurie

    2008-07-01

    Traditional construction practices provide little opportunity for environmental remediation to occur in urban areas. As concerns for environmental improvement in urban areas become more prevalent, innovative practices which create ecosystem services and ecologically functional land cover in cities will be in higher demand. Green roofs are a prime example of one of these practices. The past decade has seen the North American green roof industry rapidly expand through international green roof conferences, demonstration sites, case studies, and scientific research. This study evaluates existing international and North American green roof policies at the federal, municipal, and community levels. Green roof policies fall into a number of general categories, including direct and indirect regulation, direct and indirect financial incentives, and funding of demonstration or research projects. Advantages and disadvantages of each category are discussed. Salient features and a list of prompting standards common to successfully implemented green roof strategies are then distilled from these existing policies. By combining these features with data collected from an experimental green roof site in Athens, Georgia, the planning and regulatory framework for widespread green roof infrastructure can be developed. The authors propose policy instruments be multi-faceted and spatially focused, and also propose the following recommendations: (1) Identification of green roof overlay zones with specifications for green roofs built in these zones. This spatial analysis is important for prioritizing areas of the jurisdiction where green roofs will most efficiently function; (2) Offer financial incentives in the form of density credits and stormwater utility fee credits to help overcome the barriers to entry of the new technology; (3) Construct demonstration projects and institutionalize a commitment greening roofs on publicly-owned buildings as an effective way of establishing an educated

  6. FINANCIAL INSTRUMENTS OF THE STATE POLICY FOR THE PREVENTION OF TERRORIST ACTS IN UKRAINE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mykola Bunchuk

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available The article’s objective is to determine the mechanism for implementing the financial instruments of the state policy to counter terrorist acts in the territory not controlled by Ukrainian authorities in Donetsk and Luhansk regions. Methodology. Within the scientific research, for the most effective approaches at the national level to prevent the threat of international terrorism, under the conditions of the deep internal political crisis and extremely difficult economic situation, in order to improve the efficiency of public administration in developing and implementing the anti-terrorism state policies in Ukraine, the paper analyses international and domestic regulations on preventing the terrorist financing, considers factors that affect the deterioration of the social and economic situation of the temporarily occupied parts of Donbas. Results of the research allow formulating the definition of financial instruments of antiterrorist policies, the paper develops and proposes a series of organizational measures in order to prevent the terrorist financing in Ukraine. Practical implications. Based on the above, we propose an option of classification of main illegal mechanisms that may be used to finance terrorist activities in the territories of Donetsk and Luhansk regions uncontrolled by Ukrainian authorities, dividing them into internal and external. Given the above studied factors and classification of financing of terrorist acts in eastern Ukraine, we can assume that for the purpose of evading duty payable to relevant state bodies of Ukraine, external supplies of inventories in the uncontrolled areas of the Donetsk region, which are later obtained by illegal armed groups, are possibly carried out as follows: on behalf of a commercial entity registered in a foreign country for the Ukrainian commercial entity, registered in settlements located in the uncontrolled territory; crossing of international transit traffic that moves through the

  7. Policy Instruments to Improve Energy Performance of Existing Owner Occupied Dwellings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lorraine Colette Murphy

    2016-11-01

    questions divided into several categories; the adoption and planned adoption of energy saving measures, energy audits, the EPC, building regulations, the energy tax, financial incentives, information tools and socio-economic and dwelling characteristics. Data on motivations for energy use and perceived influences of instruments was also gathered. The questionnaire was used to meet several objectives. To survey the overall effectiveness of the national instruments available to owner occupiers at that time, to compare owner-occupiers who received an EPC to those who did not along several parameters and to compare owner-occupiers who received an energy audit to those who did not along several parameters. Required sample sizes were calculated on the basis of assumptions and several critical components of the questionnaire that required a set response rate to allow statistical comparison (See Appendix 2. Approximately, 30,000 households from the national EPC/energy audit database were sent a link to the questionnaire. The comparison group was created by sending approximately 16,000 members of the Home Owners Association a link to the questionnaire. Following a reminder, a response rate of 17% was received for the EPC/energy audit database and 10% for the Association of Home Owners database. Both descriptive and statistical analysis was conducted on response data. Descriptive analysis focused on whether householders reported an association between the adoption of energy saving measures and instrument use. Pearson’s chi square tests were used to identify whether an association between adopting measures and instruments could be statistically proven. The final research component consisted of a comparative study of several front-runner countries to gather knowledge and examine the instruments associated with success in meeting climate change targets for existing dwellings. Literature from comparative public policy was used to structure this research component. Denmark, Germany

  8. Strategic imperative formation of foreign economic policy of Ukraine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O. P. Borysenko

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Deep rethinking and thorough elaboration require a general plan for the development of the state management in the sphere of foreign economic processes - strategy formation and implementation of foreign economic policy of Ukraine. Formed in conditions of political and economic crisis, it is not aimed at providing qualitative change - innovation development, enhance national business investment, measuring asymmetry foreign trade balance, optimize the structure of imports, increasing competitiveness of Ukrainian goods and so on. Significant changes need in government regulation mechanisms of transformation processes, their system updates, meaningful transition to a model of a market transformations, which combined with effective self-governance. The purpose of the article is to explore the strategic principles of foreign economic policy formation, identifying directions Ukraine’s foreign economic strategy formation and ways to improve its effectiveness. Today in Ukraine needs logically consistent application of the basic model of strategy formation and implementation of foreign economic policy: strategy of protectionism, strategy of competitiveness and foreign economic trade integration strategy. The scale and fragmentation tasks are preventing their full implementation. For a targeted and effective state influence on the economy suggest to build a strategy of foreign economic policy on the principles of consistency, integrity, comprehensiveness, subordination, continuity, dynamism, system-creating relations.

  9. Child and Family Policies in a Time of Economic Crisis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richardson, Dominic

    2010-01-01

    At the beginning of 2008, a number of the world's major economies began to experience the effects of the biggest economic financial crisis in history. By the end of that year, the financial crisis was a global recession, and governments responded with changes to a suite of social and economic policies. Two broad stages of government response are…

  10. Georgia Economic Report, October 2013 : Seeking Effective Policies

    OpenAIRE

    World Bank

    2013-01-01

    This economic report records the economic activities of Georgia for the year 2013. The growth slow-down in 2013, largely viewed as temporary, reflected to a large extent policy uncertainty that began with the late-2012 parliamentary elections and is expected to last until the October 2013 Presidential elections, and attempts by the new government to trim public investment spending. In the ...

  11. Research Network on Regional Economic and Policy History

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Molema, A.M.; van der Zwet, Arno

    2017-01-01

    In the spring of 2017, the Research Network on Regional Economic and Policy History organised its inaugural workshop in London. The network aims to stimulate research in relation to regional economic development and planning challenges, by exploring the importance of historical approaches and

  12. Health economics and health policy: experiences from New Zealand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cumming, Jacqueline

    2015-06-01

    Health economics has had a significant impact on the New Zealand health system over the past 30 years. In this paper, I set out a framework for thinking about health economics, give some historical background to New Zealand and the New Zealand health system, and discuss examples of how health economics has influenced thinking about the organisation of the health sector and priority setting. I conclude the paper with overall observations about the role of health economics in health policy in New Zealand, also identifying where health economics has not made the contribution it could and where further influence might be beneficial.

  13. Cost-effective policy instruments for greenhouse gas emission reduction and fossil fuel substitution through bioenergy production in Austria

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schmidt, Johannes; Leduc, Sylvain; Dotzauer, Erik; Schmid, Erwin

    2011-01-01

    Climate change mitigation and security of energy supply are important targets of Austrian energy policy. Bioenergy production based on resources from agriculture and forestry is an important option for attaining these targets. To increase the share of bioenergy in the energy supply, supporting policy instruments are necessary. The cost-effectiveness of these instruments in attaining policy targets depends on the availability of bioenergy technologies. Advanced technologies such as second-generation biofuels, biomass gasification for power production, and bioenergy with carbon capture and storage (BECCS) will likely change the performance of policy instruments. This article assesses the cost-effectiveness of energy policy instruments, considering new bioenergy technologies for the year 2030, with respect to greenhouse gas emission (GHG) reduction and fossil fuel substitution. Instruments that directly subsidize bioenergy are compared with instruments that aim at reducing GHG emissions. A spatially explicit modeling approach is used to account for biomass supply and energy distribution costs in Austria. Results indicate that a carbon tax performs cost-effectively with respect to both policy targets if BECCS is not available. However, the availability of BECCS creates a trade-off between GHG emission reduction and fossil fuel substitution. Biofuel blending obligations are costly in terms of attaining the policy targets. - Highlights: → Costs of energy policies and effects on reduction of CO 2 emissions and fossil fuel consumption. → Particular focus on new bioenergy production technologies such as second generation biofuels. → Spatially explicit techno-economic optimization model. → CO 2 tax: high costs for reducing fossil fuel consumption if carbon capture and storage is available. → Biofuel policy: no significant reductions in CO 2 emissions or fossil fuel consumption.

  14. Essays in environmental policy and household economics

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Motavasseli, Ali

    2016-01-01

    This dissertation addresses several issues regarding the consequences of environmental policy and its optimal level, as well as household's decisions on energy consumption and labor supply. In chapter two, a theoretical analysis investigates whether fossil fuel taxation or a consumption cap is

  15. 'Great Power Style' in China's Economic Policy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jiang, Yang

    2011-01-01

    China’s ascendance attracts concern, even though Beijing claims to be a responsible great power and tries to demonstrate its ‘great power style’ in economic diplomacy. This article therefore discusses the following questions: to what extent does the current notion and practice of Chinese ‘great...... power style’ in economic diplomacy comply with, or differ from, the criteria of benign hegemony; and what are the major constraining factors? Conceptually, China’s ‘great power style’ is rooted in ancient Chinese political philosophy and institution, but it highly resembles the Western notion of benign...

  16. Developmental State Policy, Educational Development, and Economic Development: Policy Processes in South Korea (1961-1979)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Ki Su

    2012-01-01

    This paper explores two inter-connected issues--the state's role in educational development and educational contribution to economic development--in the policy processes entailed by the South Korean state's pursuit of economic development during the Park Chung Hi era, 1961-1979. It disputes the statist view that South Korea's economic development…

  17. The economic impacts of emission reduction policies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hanson, D.A.

    1992-07-01

    Environmental expenditures, or environmental tax revenues, e.g., carbon taxes are potentially significant components of the US macroeconomy. This paper presents a simple model of the role of environmental abatement expenditures and/or emission taxes from the viewpoint of economic efficiency, welfare and potential macroeconomic effects.

  18. The economic impacts of emission reduction policies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hanson, D.A.

    1992-01-01

    Environmental expenditures, or environmental tax revenues, e.g., carbon taxes are potentially significant components of the US macroeconomy. This paper presents a simple model of the role of environmental abatement expenditures and/or emission taxes from the viewpoint of economic efficiency, welfare and potential macroeconomic effects.

  19. Behavioral Economics and Empirical Public Policy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hursh, Steven R.; Roma, Peter G.

    2013-01-01

    The application of economics principles to the analysis of behavior has yielded novel insights on value and choice across contexts ranging from laboratory animal research to clinical populations to national trends of global impact. Recent innovations in demand curve methods provide a credible means of quantitatively comparing qualitatively…

  20. Emission inventory: An urban public policy instrument and benchmark

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    D'Avignon, Alexander; Azevedo Carloni, Flavia; Lebre La Rovere, Emilio; Burle Schmidt Dubeux, Carolina

    2010-01-01

    Global concern with climate change has led to the development of a variety of solutions to monitor and reduce emissions on both local and global scales. Under the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC), both developed and emerging countries have assumed responsibility for developing and updating national inventories of greenhouse gas emissions from anthropic sources. This creates opportunities and incentives for cities to carry out their own local inventories and, thereby, develop air quality management plans including both essential key players and stakeholders at the local level. The aim of this paper is to discuss the role of local inventories as an urban public policy instrument and how this type of local instrument may bring advantages countrywide in enhancing the global position of a country. Local inventories have been carried out in many cities of the world and the main advantage of this is that it allows an overview of emissions produced by different municipal activities, thereby, helps decision makers in the elaboration of efficient air quality management plans. In that way, measures aimed at the reduction of fossil fuel consumption to lower local atmospheric pollution levels can also, in some ways, reduce GHG emissions.

  1. Economic efficiency of solar hot water policy in New Zealand

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gillingham, Kenneth

    2009-01-01

    New Zealand has recently followed the path of several other countries in promoting solar hot water (SHW) systems in the effort to reduce greenhouse gas emissions, yet the economic efficiency of large-scale policies to encourage SHW remains a pressing question for policymakers. This paper develops an economic framework to examine policies to promote SHW in New Zealand, including the current information, training, and subsidy policy. The economic framework points to environmental, energy security, and average-cost electricity retail pricing market failures as motivation for SHW policy, with the global climate change externality the most important of these. The results indicate that domestic SHW systems are close to being financially attractive from a consumer perspective, but a more substantial subsidy policy would be necessary for SHW to appeal to a wider audience. Such a policy is far more likely to have positive net benefits than a policy of mandating SHW on all homes or all new homes in New Zealand, and could be justified on economic efficiency grounds under reasonable assumptions. However, this result reverses under an economy-wide carbon trading system that internalizes the environmental externality.

  2. Neoliberalism, trade imbalances, and economic policy in the Eurozone crisis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Engelbert Stockhammer

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper analyzes the causes of the Eurozone crisis. In doing so, it carefully surveys authors from different economic schools of thought. The paper discusses competing explanations for European current account imbalances. Remarkably, opposing views on the relative importance of cost developments and demand developments in explaining current account imbalances can be found in both heterodox and orthodox economics. Regarding the assessment of fiscal and monetary policy there is a clearer polarisation, with heterodox analysis regarding austerity as unhelpful and most of orthodox economics endorsing it. We advocate a post-Keynesian view, which holds that current account imbalances are not a fundamental cause of the sovereign debt crisis. Rather, the economic policy architecture of the Eurozone, which aims at restricting the role of fiscal and monetary policy, is the key to understanding the crisis in Europe.

  3. Essays on Transportation Safety, Economics, and Policy

    OpenAIRE

    Scholl, Patricia Lynn

    2011-01-01

    The rational allocation of transportation resources involves both the evaluation of the effectiveness of programs designed to improve transportation systems, as well as the formulation of policies representing a balance of competing public interests in those systems. Such interests often include: curbing automobile emissions, expanding highway infrastructure, providing affordable transit services for inner-city residents, and extending commuter rail services to sprawling suburban areas. Desig...

  4. The impact of environmental policy on economic indicators. Moving from global to sectoral and regional perspectives

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Voigt, Sebastian

    2013-07-01

    In recent times, environmental, energy and climate policies have gained tremendously in importance. Not least, this is due to the latest research findings related to climate change and the resulting growing environmental awareness among people. However, policy approaches to combat environmental pollution and climate change differ both in their intention and in their economic impacts. For instance, command-and-control instruments such as performance or technology standards have different implications than market-based mechanisms such as permit trading of greenhouse gas emissions. Furthermore, sectoral and regional characteristics play an important role when implementing and assessing policy measures. This applies both to the attainability of the targets and to the available instruments. The present doctoral thesis addresses this point and analyzes in several essays different policy instruments and their economic effects from global, regional and sectoral perspectives. In this respect, it deals with various, often very heterogeneous question: How are specific policy types implemented in different countries? What is the CO2 abatement potential in specific regions and sectors? What policy measures can be plausibly used to exploit this potential? How can technological developments and technology-directed policy interventions contribute to improve energy efficiency? Does the promotion of certain energy sources necessarily create positive production and employment effects? To answer these and further questions, different economic methods are applied that accommodate the particular problem, where special emphasis is put on computable general equilibrium modeling. The aim of this work is to contribute to the academic and political debate on measures to combat environmental and climate problems.

  5. The impact of environmental policy on economic indicators. Moving from global to sectoral and regional perspectives

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Voigt, Sebastian

    2013-01-01

    In recent times, environmental, energy and climate policies have gained tremendously in importance. Not least, this is due to the latest research findings related to climate change and the resulting growing environmental awareness among people. However, policy approaches to combat environmental pollution and climate change differ both in their intention and in their economic impacts. For instance, command-and-control instruments such as performance or technology standards have different implications than market-based mechanisms such as permit trading of greenhouse gas emissions. Furthermore, sectoral and regional characteristics play an important role when implementing and assessing policy measures. This applies both to the attainability of the targets and to the available instruments. The present doctoral thesis addresses this point and analyzes in several essays different policy instruments and their economic effects from global, regional and sectoral perspectives. In this respect, it deals with various, often very heterogeneous question: How are specific policy types implemented in different countries? What is the CO2 abatement potential in specific regions and sectors? What policy measures can be plausibly used to exploit this potential? How can technological developments and technology-directed policy interventions contribute to improve energy efficiency? Does the promotion of certain energy sources necessarily create positive production and employment effects? To answer these and further questions, different economic methods are applied that accommodate the particular problem, where special emphasis is put on computable general equilibrium modeling. The aim of this work is to contribute to the academic and political debate on measures to combat environmental and climate problems.

  6. Databases as policy instruments. About extending networks as evidence-based policy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stoevelaar Herman

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background This article seeks to identify the role of databases in health policy. Access to information and communication technologies has changed traditional relationships between the state and professionals, creating new systems of surveillance and control. As a result, databases may have a profound effect on controlling clinical practice. Methods We conducted three case studies to reconstruct the development and use of databases as policy instruments. Each database was intended to be employed to control the use of one particular pharmaceutical in the Netherlands (growth hormone, antiretroviral drugs for HIV and Taxol, respectively. We studied the archives of the Dutch Health Insurance Board, conducted in-depth interviews with key informants and organized two focus groups, all focused on the use of databases both in policy circles and in clinical practice. Results Our results demonstrate that policy makers hardly used the databases, neither for cost control nor for quality assurance. Further analysis revealed that these databases facilitated self-regulation and quality assurance by (national bodies of professionals, resulting in restrictive prescription behavior amongst physicians. Conclusion The databases fulfill control functions that were formerly located within the policy realm. The databases facilitate collaboration between policy makers and physicians, since they enable quality assurance by professionals. Delegating regulatory authority downwards into a network of physicians who control the use of pharmaceuticals seems to be a good alternative for centralized control on the basis of monitoring data.

  7. Healthy public policy in poor countries: tackling macro-economic policies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohindra, K S

    2007-06-01

    Large segments of the population in poor countries continue to suffer from a high level of unmet health needs, requiring macro-level, broad-based interventions. Healthy public policy, a key health promotion strategy, aims to put health on the agenda of policy makers across sectors and levels of government. Macro-economic policy in developing countries has thus far not adequately captured the attention of health promotion researchers. This paper argues that healthy public policy should not only be an objective in rich countries, but also in poor countries. This paper takes up this issue by reviewing the main macro-economic aid programs offered by international financial institutions as a response to economic crises and unmanageable debt burdens. Although health promotion researchers were largely absent during a key debate on structural adjustment programs and health during the 1980s and 1990s, the international macro-economic policy tool currently in play offers a new opportunity to participate in assessing these policies, ensuring new forms of macro-economic policy interventions do not simply reproduce patterns of (neoliberal) economics-dominated development policy.

  8. Behavioural Economics, Consumer Behaviour, and Consumer Policy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Reisch, Lucia A.; Zhao, Min

    2017-01-01

    . In particular, we discuss the impacts of key principles such as status quo bias, the endowment effect, mental accounting and the sunkcost effect, other heuristics and biases related to availability, salience, the anchoring effect and simplicity rules, as well as the effects of other supposedly irrelevant...... factors such as music, temperature and physical markers on consumers’ decisions. These principles not only add significantly to research on consumer behaviour – they also offer readily available practical implications for consumer policy to nudge behaviour in beneficial directions in consumption domains...... including financial decision making, product choice, healthy eating and sustainable consumption....

  9. Applying market-based instruments to environmental policies in China and OECD countries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1998-01-01

    China's rapid economic growth since the late 1970s has been a remarkable achievement, and is projected to continue. However, this prospect could be compromised by pollution of air, water, and land, the unsustainable exploitation of natural resources, and the environmental impacts on public health. Air pollution associated with the use of coal for energy and industrial purposes is a particularly serious challenge in China, with important domestic and transboundary implications. This book presents papers from an international workshop co-sponsored by the OECD and China's National Environmental Protection Agency on the application of economic instruments to control air pollution in China and OECD countries. It presents the state-of-the-air in this field, based upon contributions from Chinese and OECD country policy makers and experts

  10. The dynamics of technology diffusion and the impacts of climate policy instruments in the decarbonisation of the global electricity sector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mercure, J.-F.; Pollitt, H.; Chewpreecha, U.; Salas, P.; Foley, A.M.; Holden, P.B.; Edwards, N.R.

    2014-01-01

    This paper presents an analysis of climate policy instruments for the decarbonisation of the global electricity sector in a non-equilibrium economic and technology diffusion perspective. Energy markets are driven by innovation, path-dependent technology choices and diffusion. However, conventional optimisation models lack detail on these aspects and have limited ability to address the effectiveness of policy interventions because they do not represent decision-making. As a result, known effects of technology lock-ins are liable to be underestimated. In contrast, our approach places investor decision-making at the core of the analysis and investigates how it drives the diffusion of low-carbon technology in a highly disaggregated, hybrid, global macroeconometric model, FTT:Power-E3MG. Ten scenarios to 2050 of the electricity sector in 21 regions exploring combinations of electricity policy instruments are analysed, including their climate impacts. We show that in a diffusion and path-dependent perspective, the impact of combinations of policies does not correspond to the sum of impacts of individual instruments: synergies exist between policy tools. We argue that the carbon price required to break the current fossil technology lock-in can be much lower when combined with other policies, and that a 90% decarbonisation of the electricity sector by 2050 is affordable without early scrapping. - Highlights: • Policy scenarios for decarbonising of the global electricity sector by 90%. • Strong synergies exist between different energy policy instruments. • Carbon pricing not a sufficient policy instrument for large emissions reductions. • Improved agent behaviour assumptions for energy modelling beyond cost-optimisation

  11. Economic and ethical arguments inglobal climate policy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kaergaard, Niels

    1998-01-01

    The debate about the reduction of CO 2 -emissions, as seen for example at the UN climate conference in Kyoto, includes a mixture of economic and ethical arguments. Joint implementation using the market mechanisms is viewed as being unethical because the rich countries are able to pay others to carry out their redutions. This debate is seen as a continuation of a very old discussion about the ethics of the market. The Nordic electricity market is used as an example to demonstrate that the use of tradeable permissions has well defined positive consequences. (au) 26 refs

  12. CONSTITUTIONAL ECONOMICS, FISCAL POLICY RULES, ANDTHECASE OF TURKEY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Osman Nuri ARAS

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Discretionary fiscal policies have arisen because of dominant Keynesianeconomic policies from 1930’s to 1970’s. Public expenditures intensively andexcessively increased in order to ensure macroeconomic stability during thisperiod. Many countries faced the emergence of macroeconomic problems such asaffectively using public resources, budget deficitand inflation. As a result,Keynesian economic policies and the stagnation experienced in following highinflation years have faced economies with stagflation process in the 1970’s.However, Keynesian approach did not solve the problem. Therefore, neweconomic approaches developed for solving the problem. One of the neweconomic approaches was Constitutional Economic Theory. The theory includeseconomic policy rules including fiscal rules as well as monetary rules.Fiscal rules have been one of the main stabilization tools in obtaining budget andpublic finance balance. Many countries have implemented specific fiscal policyrules to struggle with economic instabilities, budget deficits and public financialimbalances.A specific form of fiscal policy rule has been started to implement in Turkey since1999. Several fiscal policy rules have been adoptedin Turkey’s public financialmanagement system as part of the economic program which was conducted withthe collaboration of IMF since 1999. These rules are called as implicit fiscalpolicy rules. These fiscal rules have become a draft legal text in 2010 as “FiscalRule Draft Law”. Although the fiscal rule was planned to start the application period as of 2011, it is delayed to fiscal year 2012 because of some economicreasons

  13. Policy instruments for development of wind power in Sweden; Styrmedel foer vindkraftens utveckling i Sverige

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aastrand, Kerstin; Neij, Lena

    2003-07-01

    It is often believed that energy policy and policy instruments can play a significant role in the transition towards sustainable energy by stimulating and accelerating the development and deployment of new energy technologies. However, despite the known need for, and benefits of, new energy technologies their market introduction and expansion is often slow. Wind power has been on the political agenda since the 1970s in several European countries as well as in other countries throughout the world. However, the technology and market development of wind power has been very different in these countries. Despite three decades of policy intervention the installed capacity in Sweden was only 265 MW in 2000, compared with 6,107 MW in Germany, 2,836 MW in Spain and 2,341 MW in Denmark. This report analyses the effects of policy instruments on wind power development in Sweden and identifies possible reasons why wind power has not been installed to a greater extent. The analysis is based on an empirical example of a socio technological system-based approach to evaluation of technology and market development for new energy technologies; i.e. an approach focused on the technological system including the actors, institutions and organizations that build, drive and utilise it and the economic and legal framework that regulates it. The aim is to assess the impact on technology and market development and to discuss the relatively late and slow wind power development in Sweden. The report also examines the achievement of governmental energy policy goals. Using the socio-technological systems approach we analyse Swedish policy programmes and wind power development between 1975 and 2000. The political and economic framework is identified. The discussion of the political and economic frameworks is limited to public policy goals and policy instruments. The policy focus is set to policy instruments aimed for technology and market development of wind power, such as research and

  14. Towards a more efficient environmental policy. A socio-economic analysis of four persistent environmental problems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2000-11-01

    For the benefit of the National Environmental Policy Plan that will be published in 2001, the Netherlands Bureau for Economic Policy Analysis analysed four persistent environmental problems. These problems are the environmental effects of the manure surplus in the agricultural sector; the climate problem; the acidification by traffic and the air traffic noise around the airport Schiphol. This study not only looks ahead, but also looks back on 30 years of environmental policy. From a welfare economic perspective an analysis is made of the efficiency and effectiveness of that policy. Several questions are answered,e.g.: how could the manure problem of such a small sector as the livestock breeding persist for so many years?; how effective were the agreements with the industry and other sectors on energy efficiency improvement?; what made the acidification policy directed on traffic so successful?; why is the noise production of air traffic still a problem whereas the number of seriously bothered houses is decreased? The answers on these questions provide information which can be useful for the formulation of the future environmental policy. This information refers to the conditions for formulating adequate policy goals, the relation between those goals and policy instruments and the differences between direct versus indirect steering. This report also gives some points of interest for tackling complex international environmental problems. refs

  15. Policy recommendations to promote shale gas development in China based on a technical and economic evaluation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yuan, Jiehui; Luo, Dongkun; Xia, Liangyu; Feng, Lianyong

    2015-01-01

    Because of its resource potential and clean burning advantages, the development of shale gas can significantly increase the supply of cleaner energy while offering the associated benefits. To foster shale gas development, many policy incentives have been introduced in China. However, the current incentives have not been sufficiently aggressive, and the shale gas industry has been slow to develop. Existing policies thus need to be further improved. To provide effective support for decision makers in China, a technical and economic evaluation is performed in this study to explore the profitability of shale gas production in pilot zones. The results show that shale gas production is subeconomic under the current technical and economic conditions. Based on this evaluation, a policy analysis is conducted to investigate the profitability improvement offered by the major policies available in China to elucidate a path toward improving incentive policies. The results indicate that policy instruments related to gas prices, financial subsidies, corporate income taxes or combinations thereof could be used as priority options to improve policy incentives. Based on these results, recommendations are presented to improve the current incentive polices aimed at accelerating shale gas development. -- Highlights: •We explore the economic feasibility of shale gas development in China. •Current incentive policies cannot render shale gas development economically viable. •These incentives must be improved to effectively promote shale gas development. •We investigate the effect of the major policies available in China to light a path. •Recommendations are proposed to continually improve the incentive polices in China

  16. Economic issues and public alcohol abuse prevention policies in France

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spach, Miléna

    2016-10-19

    Objective: To analyse the impact of the alcohol market on the implementation of strong-willed public alcohol abuse prevention policies based on a critical review of the literature. Method: Documentary research and analysis of the alcohol market economic data were performed. An overview of public alcohol abuse prevention policies was conducted from a historical perspective by distinguishing drunkenness control policies, protection of vulnerable populations, and the fight against drink driving and drinking in the workplace. Results: Public alcohol abuse prevention policies are primarily designed to reduce the harmful consequences of alcohol occurring as a result of a drinking episode (motor vehicle accident, highway accidents, etc.), while neglecting the long-term consequences (cancer, cirrhosis, etc.). Moreover, while taxation is one of the major public health tools used to reduce the costs of alcohol-related damage on society, the State exercises legislative and tax protection for alcoholic beverages produced in France. In particular, wine benefits from a lower tax rate than other stronger forms of alcohol (spirits, liquors, etc.). The economic weight of the alcohol market can provide an explanation for these public alcohol abuse prevention policies. Conclusion: In view of the mortality caused by alcohol abuse, France must implement a proactive public policy. An alcohol taxation policy based on the alcohol content, a minimum unit pricing for alcohol, or higher taxes on alcohol are public policies that could be considered in order to reduce alcohol-related mortality.

  17. Frame, methods and instruments for energy planning in the new economic order of electricity economics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stigler, H.

    1999-01-01

    The introduction of the new economic order of the electricity economy causes new focal tasks for the individual market participants and therefore new requirements for planning. As a precondition for energy planning, the Internal Market Electricity Directive and the ElWOG are examined and the tasks for the market participants are derived. Liberalization raises the risks for the enterprises. Increasing competition sets up higher requirements for planning. The planning instruments have no longer the destination of minimum costs but have to maximize the results of the enterprise. Price fixing requires a raised alignment to marginal costs considerations. Increasing electricity trade requires the introduction of new planning instruments. Further new tasks refer to electricity transfer via other networks and especially to congestion management. New chances but also new risks arise for the renewable energy sources. From the market result new requirements for the planning instruments. The basics in this respect are prepared and concrete examples from practice are submitted. Models of enterprises are developed, which consist of a technical and a business part. Central importance has the modeling of competition in the liberalized market. A model of competition between enterprises in the electricity market is developed. (author)

  18. Behavioral Economics and Public Policy 102: Beyond Nudging

    OpenAIRE

    Saurabh Bhargava; George Loewenstein

    2015-01-01

    Policymakers have recently embraced Behavioral Economics as an alternative approach which recognizes the limits and consequences of human decision-making. Early applications of BE ("nudges") produced notable successes and helped to set the stage for more aggressive applications aimed at the deeper causes of policy problems. We contend that policies that aspire to simplify products and incentives, rather than choice environments, aggressively protect consumers from behavioral exploitation, and...

  19. Technocracy in Economic Policy-Making in Malaysia

    OpenAIRE

    Khadijah Md Khalid; Mahani Zainal Abidin

    2014-01-01

    This article looks at the role of the technocracy in economic policy-making in Malaysia. The analysis was conducted across two phases, namely the period before and after the 1997-98 economic and financial crises, and during the premiership of four prime ministers namely Tun Razak, Dr Mahathir, Abdullah Ahmad Badawi, and Najib Razak. It is claimed that the technocrats played an important role in helping the political leadership achieve their objectives. The article traces the changing fortunes...

  20. "The Economics of Outsourcing: How Should Policy Respond?"

    OpenAIRE

    Thomas I. Palley

    2007-01-01

    According to Research Associate Thomas I. Palley, global outsourcing represents a new economic challenge that calls for a new set of institutions. In this brief, he expands upon the problems of offshore outsourcing as outlined in Public Policy Brief no. 86 and focuses on the microeconomic foundations. He argues that outsourcing is a central element of globalization that is best understood as a new form of competition. Palley urges policymakers to understand the economic basis of outsourcing i...

  1. Economic development and population policy in Bangladesh.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khan, M R

    1984-09-01

    This paper deals with Bangladesh's growth rate and the policy implications for its economy. Despite its obvious influence on the economy, population has never been integrated as an endogenous variable in any planning model. Development planning is mostly supported by donor agencies, involving little micro-level planning and practically no trickle-down effect. This paper examines the interaction of population and other development variables in the country's planning process. Much of the rural population consists of landless farmers share croppers, so that the land ownership pattern contributes to low productivity. Population increase is making the rural masses even poorer. This process is further compounded by increasing foreign aid dependence, adverse terms of trade in the international market, low savings and investments, and the rural sector's worsening terms of trade. During 1950-1970 real per capita gross domestic product (GDP) increased only at a rate of 1% per annum and during 1950-1970 real growth of GDP fell behind the population growth rate. A cost benefit analysis of fertility reduction is needed. The cost benefit ratio of most countries varies between 1:10 to 1:30; for Bangladesh it is 1:16. Macro-model studies indicate that the higher the fertility reduction and shorter the period of required decline, the higher will be the benefits in terms of gains in per capita income. There is, however, a contradiction between national and household interests. The latter's decision to have more children has a negative spillover effect, which nullifies the gains of the community. The national family planning program suffered a serious setback during and after the liberation of Bangladesh, mainly due to lack of administrative leadership and support. In order for the population growth rate to be checked and to increase the quality of life for the entire population, the family planning program must be revitalized by mobilizing the entire government machinery and

  2. Developing and testing a positive theory of instrument choice: Renewable energy policy in the fifty American states

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ciocirlan, Cristina E.

    The environmental economics literature consistently suggests that properly designed and implemented economic incentives are superior to command-and-control regulation in reducing pollution. Economic incentives, such as green taxes, cap-and-trade programs, tax incentives, are able to reduce pollution in a cost-effective manner, provide flexibility to industry and stimulate innovation in cleaner technologies. In the past few decades, both federal and state governments have shown increased use of economic incentives in environmental policy. Some states have embraced them in an active manner, while others have failed to do so. This research uses a three-step analysis. First, it asks why some states employ more economic incentives than others to stimulate consumption of renewable energy by the residential, commercial and industrial sectors. Second, it asks why some states employ stronger incentives than others. And third, it asks why certain states employ certain instruments, such as electricity surcharges, cap-and-trade programs, tax incentives or grants, while others do not. The first two analyses were conducted using factor analysis and multiple regression analysis, while the third analysis employed logistic regression models to analyze the data. Data for all three analyses were obtained from a combination of primary and secondary sources. To address these questions, a theory of instrument choice at the state level, which includes both internal and external determinants of policy-making, was developed and tested. The state level of analysis was chosen. States have proven to be pioneers in designing policies to address greenhouse gases (see, for instance, the recent cap-and-trade legislation passed in California). The theory was operationalized with the help of four models: needs/responsiveness, interest group influence, professionalism/capacity and innovation-and-diffusion. The needs/responsiveness model suggests that states tend to choose more and stronger economic

  3. Nuclear power phaseout policy and the economic implications for Germany

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pfaffenberger, W.

    1999-01-01

    Implementation of Germany's nuclear power phaseout policy and the expected consequences are discussed in this paper, referring to environmental aspects and Germany's international commitments under the UN Framework Convention on Climate Change, implications for the national economy, the required structural transformation of the energy industry, and changes in the general legal setting for the energy sector. Proposals are discussed for modifying the planned nuclear power phaseout policy so as to make the process of winding down nuclear generation more compatible with economic, social, and environmental policy conditions. (orig./CB) [de

  4. PSEUDO-SCIENTIFIC ECONOMIC POLICIES OF MOLDOVA ASSOCIATION TO THE EU: METHODOLOGY, PROBLEMS, SOLUTIONS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gheorghe RUSU

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Economic policies and decisions on EU association starting with the begginig of 90’s were pseudo-scientific, contradictory, incoherent because those policies have not based themselves on modern and current economic theories elaborated and promoted by the EU. Actuality. The topic is actual from the perspective of the factors’ analysis which were conducting to delay the association process of Moldova to the EU. At the same time, those were increasing instability, disequilibrium in the national economy and raise of social vulnerability and constraint levels which ultimately increased the gap between the national and EU economic development levels. During the period of 2000-2015, the socio-economic policy of the Republic of Moldova is described more as small and fragmented steps on conceiving economic and financial instruments for the integration into the EU which were reflected in the Neighbourhood Partnership and Association Agreement with the EU. These processes conducted for the state incapacity to define its own objectives and social-economic priorities for the association as well as legitimated a continuous stage of transition to the market economy. The scope of the present article is to propose a real change of the development and social-economic association policies for achieving final objective on integration to EU. The proposals would consist in emphasizing and implementation of the EU economic principles reflected in the neoclassic synthesis and neo-conservative theories; the elaboration and implementation of a new Strategy on economic supervision, coordination and anticipation of the economic disequilibrium; achieve economic stability for diminishing the negative effects of the global and regional crisis on national economy and adaptation of the development policies to the national socio-economic conditions. The methods used for the elaboration and achieving the expected results of the study were analysis and synthesis of the

  5. Economic and environmental performance of alternative policy measures to reduce nutrient surpluses in Finnish agriculture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. LEHTONEN

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper provides an economic sector level analysis of the effectiveness of different policy measures in decreasing nitrogen (N and phosphorus (P surpluses from agriculture in order to reduce nutrient runoff from agricultural fields to watercourses and to improve water quality of surface waters. Assuming no changes in the EU level policies after CAP reform 2003 we focus on national level policy measures such as full or partial de-coupling of national support from production, payments for reduced nutrient surpluses of N and P, and N fertiliser tax. None of the analysed policy measures is superior one with respect to environmental performance, since full decoupling of national support would be the most effective in reducing P surpluses while payment for reduced nutrient surplus performed best with respect to N surpluses. Economic performance (farmers’ compliance cost per %-reduction of N or P surplus of full and partial de-coupling of national support is clearly better than that of specialised agri-environmental policy instruments, because both decoupling scenarios result in the increase of farmers’ income in comparison to base scenario, and thus compliance costs are in fact negative in these two cases. Our analysis confirms the fact that the overall policy package matters a lot for the effectiveness of agrienvironmental policy measures. Environmental performance of agri-environmental policy measures may be significantly reduced, if they are implemented jointly with production coupled income support policies. Thus, in order to increase the effectiveness of agri-environmental policy measures agricultural income support policies should be decoupled from production and this alone would bring substantial reduction in nutrient surpluses.;

  6. Digital Education Governance: Data Visualization, Predictive Analytics, and "Real-Time" Policy Instruments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williamson, Ben

    2016-01-01

    Educational institutions and governing practices are increasingly augmented with digital database technologies that function as new kinds of policy instruments. This article surveys and maps the landscape of digital policy instrumentation in education and provides two detailed case studies of new digital data systems. The Learning Curve is a…

  7. THE REGULATION OF MONEY CIRCULATION ON THE BASIS OF USING METHODS AND INSTRUMENTS OF MONETARY POLICY

    OpenAIRE

    S. Mishchenko; S. Naumenkova

    2013-01-01

    In the article it was researched the instruments and mechanism of safeguarding stability of money market on the basis of implementing the optimal monetary policy regime. It was determined the main directions of appliance the monetary policy methods and instruments to guiding money market stability and it was also investigated the influence of transmission mechanism on providing the soundness of money circulations.

  8. New Agenda: South African Journal of Social and Economic Policy

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This is a policy journal analyzing social and economic issues in South Africa. We publish infomed articles by experts and decision makers. These articles are accessible to the ordinary reader. Other website associated with this journal: www.newagenda.org.za ...

  9. Building a New South Africa Volume 1 : Economic Policy | IDRC ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Couverture du livre Building a New South Africa Volume 1 : Economic Policy. Editor(s): ... Findings from an IDRC-supported program figure prominently at the annual conference of McGill's Institute for the Study of International Development. ... Special journal issue highlights IDRC-supported findings on women's paid work.

  10. Taking a Second Look at Economic Stabilization Policy: Appraisal ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Taking a Second Look at Economic Stabilization Policy: Appraisal and issues. ... International Journal of Development and Management Review ... It draws from a background of arguments of different schools of thought on which of the two approaches is better suited for controlling the economy of nations in order to achieve ...

  11. BUILDING A NEW SOUTH AFRICA: Economic Policy: Volume 1

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Priority areas for economic research, analysis, and policy formulation. 17 ..... to improve public confidence in the coherence and reliability of such pronouncements. ..... There is considerable risk that the current government, in response to ..... In addition, several foreign governments (including Australia and Germany) have ...

  12. Fiscal Policy and Economic Development in Nigeria (1960 - 2011 ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study investigated the impact of fiscal policy measures on economic development in Nigeria. The Augmented Dickey-Fuller and Phillips-perron unit root test were first conducted. The cointe gration test was then performedusing Johansen Maximum Likelihood procedure. The granger causality test, the impulse response ...

  13. African Health Economics and Policy Research Capacity Building ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    African Health Economics and Policy Research Capacity Building and Dissemination. As African countries move toward universal health coverage, it is clear there is a shortage of African experts with applied research skills in health financing such as fiscal space analysis, needs-based resource allocation methods, and ...

  14. New Agenda: South African Journal of Social and Economic Policy ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    NEW AGENDA is peer-reviewed and listed in the department of education's Index of Approved South African Journals. The journal's focus encompasses South African, African and international developments in social and economic research and policy. We aim to provide high-quality pertinent information and analysis for ...

  15. Computational intelligence in economic games and policy design

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dawid, H.; Poutré, La J.A.; Yao, X.

    2008-01-01

    Developing CI techniques for economic games and policies is a very promising and fast-growing field. Several interesting multi-disciplinary subfields exist, which require researchers of various disciplines to collaborate with each other and contribute to the advances of knowledge in this emerging

  16. Energy UK 1986. An economic, social and policy audit

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Harrison, A; Gretton, J [eds.

    1986-01-01

    In a yearbook on energy in the UK with emphasis on economic, social and policy issues, eleven articles are presented of which nine were selected and indexed separately. The topics covered include energy forecasting, energy conservation, its balance with respect to supply investment, government relationships with fuel industries, fuel poverty, acid rain and efficiency studies of the electricity supply industry.

  17. Centre for Environmental Economics and Policy in Africa (CEEPA ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    ... of Pretoria, endeavors to increase capacity for research and policy analysis in environmental and resource economics in Africa through a program of research grants and related support services, including short courses, workshops and supervision of research projects. The first phase was supported under project 104296.

  18. Economic and Policy Review - Vol 13, No 3 (2007)

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Economic and Policy Review - Vol 13, No 3 (2007). Journal Home > Archives > Vol 13, No 3 ... Snagging the wheel of progress: Corruption, New anti-corruption drive and Nigeria\\'s quest for development. S B Kura ... Book Review: challenges of African growth opportunities, constraints and strategic directions. S I Owualah ...

  19. Public Policy Responses to the Global Financial and Economic Crisis

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This article aims to assess the impact of the global fi nancial and economic crisis on two sectors in South Africa, namely, the automobile sector and the textile and clothing sector. It also examines the role of public policy in responding to that crisis. Its main objective is to determine whether or not those responses were ...

  20. The use of fiscal instruments in European environmental policy: review essay

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Deketelaere, K. [University of Leuven, Leuven (Belgium). Inst. for Environmental and Energy Law

    1999-08-01

    Once a government has defined its environmental goals, it can execute them by means of different policy instruments. The following environmental policy instruments can be distinguished: (1) instruments of social regulation, such as transfer of information (environmental education, environmental labels, environmental impact reports, etc.), self-regulation (environmental policy agreements, self-control), and environmental care systems; (2) instruments of financial aid, such as subsidies, soft loans, and fiscal incentives (investment deduction, tax reduction and tax exemption); (3) instruments of planning such as macro-planning and micro-planning, binding planning and non-binding planning, sectoral planning and non-sectoral planning; (4) instruments of direct regulation, such as permits, prohibitions and restrictions, and different sorts of requirements (quality-demands, product-demands, emission-demands, design demands, construction demands and production demands); (5) instruments of market regulation, such as liability rules, marketable emission rights, deposit and refund system, enforcement incentives and environmental levies. In this contribution, each of these environmental policy instruments is analyzed in general. After that, the instruments which have already been used in European environmental policy are examined. Finally, attention paid to the use of fiscal instruments in European environmental policy. 80 refs.

  1. Conflicts between energy policy as an aspect of overall economic policy and other relevant considerations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rowe, J. W.

    1977-10-15

    Some of the difficulties which confront New Zealand in devising an appropriate energy policy are evaluated. Certain measures, involving a variety of instruments, intended to further a general aim or aims, embodied in more or less precisely defined objectives, are discussed. Social, economic, political, and technical desiderata and constraints will all be involved in varying degree, and definitive conclusions are unlikely. A further problem is that ends and means may be interdependent. The only certain thing about the future is that it cannot be forecast with any accuracy. This is as true of energy matters as of other things, despite the confidence with which some energy forecasts are made. Confronted with such uncertainty, it is sensible to leave open as many options as possible for as long as possible. More arguably, the unavoidable uncertainty about the future weighs against currently avoidable sacrifices in the interests of generations to come. It is simply not known whether the twenty-first century will judge them to have been worthwhile or not.

  2. Woodfuel in Rwanda: Impact on Energy, Poverty, Environment and Policy Instruments analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ernest Mazimpaka

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Rwanda’s geographical and socio-economic situations have shaped the energy situation and limited access to modern fuels. Woodfuel is the main source of energy for households and its trade a source of income and jobs in rural areas. Currently 85.2% of households’ land holding is less than 1 ha, insufficient to grow food and fuelwood for a household of the average size of 5.5 persons. Without well documented reports of the individual impact of each deforestation factor, woodfuels have been most blamed. This paper investigates how the current woodfuel industry impacts on energy, poverty and forests and analyses the woodfuel policy instruments. Considering woodfuel consumption under an only environmental or energy perspective has resulted in a search for a narrowly environmental or energy solution. Both failed to solve the problem of forest depletion. Current regulations limit the benefits traditionally derived from woodfuel commoditisation leading to a negative attitude towards policy instruments. The processes involved in producing charcoal and using it as a cooking fuel is inefficient and resource intensive. The barriers to large dissemination of improved cooking stoves include availability, relatively low cost of woodfuels, lack of improved stove diversity on the local market and weak government policy in regard to the woodfuel industry. Policies aiming to substitute or reduce woodfuel consumption, have not achieved the desired results and their implementations have not unarguably reduced deforestation. The paper recommends the community-based woodfuel production as sustainable management approaches to mobilise community support for sustainable forestry management and woodfuel production.

  3. Environmental economics and policy making in developing countries. Current issues

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Motta, R.S. da

    2001-01-01

    In developing countries, where growth expectations are high, least-cost environmental policies are crucial since they can reduce the conflict between economic growth and the environment. In view of this, policymakers in these economies must be very aware of the relationship between economic and environmental issues to offer policy initiatives which can increase efficiency and improve equity. The authors provide a comprehensive analysis of topics varying from the general problems of growth and conservation to specific applications such as; pollution costs, environmental taxation, deforestation and climate change. This volume also offers policymakers a comprehensive view of the challenges they face, and the legacies they leave, in order to convert environmental policy making into an actual programme of welfare improvement. (author)

  4. Macroeconomic policies and economic democracy in neoliberal Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel Bin

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The objective of this paper is to investigate some of the forms of conduct of macroeconomic policies related to a substantive concept of democracy, characterized by popular participation - direct or through representatives - in decisions that unevenly affect the material well-being of the entire Brazilian population. Special attention is given to decisions about the country's public indebtedness in the years following the launching of the RealPlan. Empirical evidences show a limited democracy, revealed by the material inequality, which in turn reproduces political inequality and restricts real freedom. This is combined with the selective bureaucratic insulation of economic policy decisions, and the parliament's failure to deal with the macroeconomic agenda. The latter is thus left to the control of the executive branch's economic apparatus, which on one hand submits itself to substantial political influence from finance and, on the other hand, restricts popular participation in decisions on both fiscal and monetary policies.

  5. Income taxes, public fiscal policy and economic growth

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tomasz Wołowiec

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The main goal of this article is to find the relationship between public fiscal policy and economic growth. The article consist of a few parts. The first is an introduction, which creates the background for the analysis in the following sections. It shows the main point of view on public fiscal policy especially in the case of personal income tax and creates a framework for the analysis of the relationship between taxation and economic growth. The second part focuses on the relations between central government decisions on taxation and its influence on savings, investments and economic growth. In this part we will find selected analyses of the impact of taxes on economic growth based on the examples of OECD countries. Finally, the last part of the work is a study on fiscal level and tax system structures and economic growth. In this part the authors checks two points of view on taxation. The first is that a low level tax burden is conducive to economic growth, and the second emphasizes negative consequences of decreasing budget tax revenues. The article shows both theoretical and empirical points of view on taxation and influence of government taxation decisions on the economy.

  6. Integrating science, economics and law into policy: The case of carbon sequestration in climate change policy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richards, Kenneth

    in carbon sinks. Consequently, the private sector will increase the rate of return required for participation, increasing the cost of this option. Carbon sequestration can still be a major factor in a national carbon emission abatement program. However, because of the interplay of science, economics and law, the most commonly prescribed environmental policy instruments--marketable allowance and taxes--have little or no direct role to play in the implementation process.

  7. Government programs for supporting and protecting young consumers: Instruments of food policy in Romania

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ene Corina

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available In recent years, a number of preoccupations at the global, regional and national level have been aimed to find solutions to the current problems in the field of food consumption in children and young people, given the fact that both food insufficiency and food abuse generate negative effects on health. In Romania, the economic context consisting of the existence of a large number of children whose diet is insufficient made European programs for granting food in schools, during class hours, to be useful and to have social relevance. The article examines, starting from the Romanian legislative framework underpinning such programs, the coordinates of these efforts, concluding that they represent in the same time instruments of national food policy.

  8. Economic analysis requirements in support of orbital debris regulatory policy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greenberg, Joel S.

    1996-10-01

    As the number of Earth orbiting objects increases so does the potential for generating orbital debris with the consequent increase in the likelihood of impacting and damaging operating satellites. Various debris remediation approaches are being considered that encompass both in-orbit and return-to-Earth schema and have varying degrees of operations, cost, international competitiveness, and safety implications. Because of the diversity of issues, concerns and long-term impacts, there is a clear need for the setting of government policies that will lead to an orderly abatement of the potential orbital debris hazards. These policies may require the establishment of a supportive regulatory regime. The Department of Transportation is likely to have regulatory responsibilities relating to orbital debris stemming from its charge to protect the public health and safety, safety of property, and national security interests and foreign policy interests of the United States. This paper describes DOT's potential regulatory role relating to orbital debris remediation, the myriad of issues concerning the need for establishing government policies relating to orbital debris remediation and their regulatory implications, the proposed technological solutions and their economic and safety implications. Particular emphasis is placed upon addressing cost-effectiveness and economic analyses as they relate to economic impact analysis in support of regulatory impact analysis.

  9. Economic Impact Assessment of Alternative Climate Policy Strategies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kemfert, C.

    2001-10-01

    This paper investigates the world economic implications of climate change policy strategies, especially the evaluation of impacts by an implementation of Clean Development Mechanisms, Joint Implementation and Emissions trading with a world integrated assessment model. Of special interest in this context are the welfare spill over and competitiveness effects that result from diverse climate policy strategies. In particular, this study elaborates and compares multi gas policy strategies and explores the impacts of the inclusion of sinks. Because of the recent decision of an isolated climate policy strategy by the United States of America, we examine the economic impacts of all world regions by a non cooperative and free rider position of the USA. It turns out that Clean Development Mechanisms and Joint Implementation show evidence of improvement in the economic development in the host countries and increase the share of new applied technologies. The decomposition of welfare effects demonstrates that the competitiveness effect including the spill over effects from trade have the strongest importance because of the intense trade relations between countries. Climatic effects have a significant impact within the next 50 years, cause considerable welfare losses to world regions and will intensify if some highly responsible nations like the USA do not reduce their emissions

  10. School Board Policy as an Instrument of Empowering Leadership in America.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Alfen, Curtis

    The role of school board policy as an instrument for empowering leadership is explored in this paper. Currently, the majority of policy handbooks are not designed to provide motivation or vision and are not part of an ongoing effort to create a congruence of district expectations. When policy becomes a statement of a school board's expectations…

  11. Economics and policies of nuclear plant life management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yamagata, H.

    1998-01-01

    NEA provides an opportunity for international exchange of information on the economics and policies of nuclear plant life management for governments and plant owners. The NEA Secretariat is finalising the 'state-of-the-art report' on the economics and policies of nuclear plant life management, including the model approach and national summaries. In order to meet power supply obligations in the early 2000, taking into account energy security, environmental impact, and the economics of nuclear power plants whose lives have been extended, initiatives at national level must be taken to monitor, co-ordinate, and support the various industry programmes of nuclear plant life management by integrated and consistent policies, public acceptance, R and D, and international co-operation. Nuclear power owners should establish an organisation and objectives to carry nuclear plant life management in the most economic and smoothest way taking into consideration internal and external influences. The organisation must identify the critical item and the ageing processes, and optimise equipment reliability and maintenance workload. (author)

  12. RUSSIAN FOREIGN POLICY - INTERESTS VECTORS AND ECONOMIC IMPACT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ANDREEA – EMANUELA DRǍGOI

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available In recent decades, Russia's foreign policy was shaped by both a number of internal factors (government strategy, political elites, culture, economics and demography and external ones (international treaties, changes in the structure of the international power balance. In the post-soviet era Russian foreign policy was radically different from that of other major economic powers. One of the factors that influenced decisively Russia’s external strategies was the collapse of the USSR as a superpower (phenomenon described by the president Vladimir Putin as "the most powerful geo-political catastrophe of the XXst century". The shift from the former communist regime (a totalitarian one to an authoritarian oligarchy (the current regime was followed by the transition to a market economy, a phenomenon that coincided with Russia’s military and political diminished influence in the international arena. Our research aims to assess the main interest vectors that shaped Russian Foreign Policy considering the main events that constitute milestones: Russia’s emerging as a great energy power, the Crimean crisis and Western international economic sanctions that followed. Our paper will base the main assumption on a joint analysis both qualitative and quantitative, using main international economic indicators (GDP, FDI flows, trade flows, general government balance and general gross debt and the most relevant approaches in the literature in the field.

  13. The creation of economic policy after the entrance to EU

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vodzinská Vladimíra

    2004-06-01

    Full Text Available The Slovac republic, analogous to other countries which came in the Europe Union this year, is standing before solving the problem of real integration to the economic and monetary system.Submitted article shows, that preliminary transformation process of national economy, specially the privatization process of national property was remarked by influencies, which has led to the creation of social excessively high losts and very negative affected also for the creation and realization the economis policy of the state.In this signification remarked also bargaining position of Slovac republic in so called before entrance negotiations with the representants from Europe union as well the character of risks related to urgency subserve the main liability in conection with the entrance to the EU, i.e. the convergency criterias specified by maastrichts agreement.In this continuity becomes the cardinal problem of the economic policy of the state alternative modeling of exercitation its fiscal and monetary tools, which permits of such time and general harmonising of real and nominal processes convergency, which will have tenable social character.Videlicet, the entrance fixation of the Slovac republic to the ERM2 for the year 2006 and to the eurozone for the year 2008, or 2009 involves to assert the tools of economic policy as, that the economic increase couched in expected long tenable development of GDP, balance of payments, inflation and unemployment was social effective.In this signification are intraducing some risks and factors, which can work against these development.

  14. 76 FR 75599 - Advisory Committee on International Economic Policy; Notice of Meeting Cancellation

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-12-02

    ... DEPARTMENT OF STATE [Public Notice: 7659] Advisory Committee on International Economic Policy; Notice of Meeting Cancellation The meeting of the Advisory Committee on International Economic Policy... Tiffany Enoch, Office of Economic Policy Analysis and Public Diplomacy, Bureau of Economic, and Business...

  15. Economic growth and mortality: do social protection policies matter?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bilal, Usama; Cooper, Richard; Abreu, Francis; Nau, Claudia; Franco, Manuel; Glass, Thomas A

    2017-08-01

    In the 20th century, periods of macroeconomic growth have been associated with increases in population mortality. Factors that cause or mitigate this association are not well understood. Evidence suggests that social policy may buffer the deleterious impact of economic growth. We sought to explore associations between changing unemployment (as a proxy for economic change) and trends in mortality over 30 years in the context of varying social protection expenditures. We model change in all-cause mortality in 21 OECD (Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development) countries from 1980 to 2010. Data from the Comparative Welfare States Data Set and the WHO Mortality Database were used. A decrease in the unemployment rate was used as a proxy for economic growth and age-adjusted mortality rates as the outcome. Social protection expenditure was measured as percentage of gross domestic product expended. A 1% decrease in unemployment (i.e. the proxy for economic growth) was associated with a 0.24% increase in the overall mortality rate (95% confidence interval: 0.07;0.42) in countries with no changes in social protection. Reductions in social protection expenditure strengthened this association between unemployment and mortality. The magnitude of the association was diminished over time. Our results are consistent with the hypothesis that social protection policies that accompany economic growth can mitigate its potential deleterious effects on health. Further research should identify specific policies that are most effective. © The Author 2017; all rights reserved. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the International Epidemiological Association

  16. Social economic zones as an instrument of regional development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wiesława Lizińska

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available The goal of the paper was the analysis of the main aspects o f Special Economic Zones (SEZ activity. It refers especially to the goals for establishment, operational models of these zones, SEZ based on examples of selected countries and Poland in the context o f integration with the European Union. The Special Economic Zones to create more attractive conditions for business operations, to contribute mainly to the development of small and medium enterprises and variety of services, consequently to improve employment. However, the consequences of the zones existence can be negative for economy of the region. The Special Economic Zones that are functioning worldwide are different. In Poland, they were first designed by the Irish and based on the example of the zone in Shannon. The existence and principles of the Special Economic Zones operations in Poland are one of the contradiction points in the negotiations with the European Union.

  17. Theoretical Grounds of Formation of the Efficient State Economic Policy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Semyrak Oksana S.

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The article conducts historical and analytical analysis of views on the role of state administration in the sphere of economic relations by various economic directions in order to allocate traditional and newest essential reference points of the modern theory of state regulation of economy. It identifies specific features of modern models of economic policy that envisage setting goals by the state, selection of relevant efficient tools and mathematic function, which would describe dependencies between them. It considers the concept of the basic theory of economic policy of Jan Tinbergen, its advantages and shortcomings. It studies prerequisites and conducts analysis of the modern concept of the role of state in economy as a subject of the market. It considers the modern concept of economic socio-dynamics, pursuant to which the main task of the state is maximisation of social usefulness and permanent improvement of the Pareto-optimal. It considers the “socio-dynamic multiplicator” notion, which envisages availability of three main components: social effect from activity of the state, yearning of individuals for creation of something new and availability of formal and informal institutions that united first two elements.

  18. Large scale hydro-economic modelling for policy support

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Roo, Ad; Burek, Peter; Bouraoui, Faycal; Reynaud, Arnaud; Udias, Angel; Pistocchi, Alberto; Lanzanova, Denis; Trichakis, Ioannis; Beck, Hylke; Bernhard, Jeroen

    2014-05-01

    To support European Union water policy making and policy monitoring, a hydro-economic modelling environment has been developed to assess optimum combinations of water retention measures, water savings measures, and nutrient reduction measures for continental Europe. This modelling environment consists of linking the agricultural CAPRI model, the LUMP land use model, the LISFLOOD water quantity model, the EPIC water quality model, the LISQUAL combined water quantity, quality and hydro-economic model, and a multi-criteria optimisation routine. With this modelling environment, river basin scale simulations are carried out to assess the effects of water-retention measures, water-saving measures, and nutrient-reduction measures on several hydro-chemical indicators, such as the Water Exploitation Index (WEI), Nitrate and Phosphate concentrations in rivers, the 50-year return period river discharge as an indicator for flooding, and economic losses due to water scarcity for the agricultural sector, the manufacturing-industry sector, the energy-production sector and the domestic sector, as well as the economic loss due to flood damage. Recently, this model environment is being extended with a groundwater model to evaluate the effects of measures on the average groundwater table and available resources. Also, water allocation rules are addressed, while having environmental flow included as a minimum requirement for the environment. Economic functions are currently being updated as well. Recent development and examples will be shown and discussed, as well as open challenges.

  19. Policy Instruments for Eco-Innovation in Asian Countries

    OpenAIRE

    Jang, Eun; Park, Mi; Roh, Tae; Han, Ki

    2015-01-01

    Eco-innovation globally emerged as an effort to implement sustainable development. States and firms established and implemented policies and strategies for eco-innovation as one route to achieving sustainable development. Eco-innovation has been facilitated in developed countries, specifically OECD members and European countries, through action plans. Recently, eco-innovation policies have emerged in developing countries. Thus, this study analyzes eco-innovation policies in Asian countries. ...

  20. CONSIDERATIONS ON FISCAL POLICY AS A TOOL OF ECONOMIC RECOVERY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stoichin Elena Mădălina

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available One of the most important components of social and economic life is the public finances, with direct implications on the formation and distribution of gross domestic product. State, in order to establish their own funds to set up the concept according to which, any natural or legal person carrying out an income or owns a dime in the category of those taxable in the State due to tax or duty. Starting from these considerations, the paper analyses, on the one side, the influencing factors and effects of increasing fiscal pressure, and, on the other side, the role of fiscal policy in the economic relaunch.

  1. Political Parties and Social Policy Responses to Global Economic Crises

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Starke, Peter; Kaasch, Alexandra; van Hooren, Franca

    2014-01-01

    Based on empirical findings froma comparative study onwelfare state responses to the four major economic shocks (the 1970s oil shocks, the early 1990s recession, the 2008 financial crisis) in four OECD countries, this article demonstrates that, in contrast to conventional wisdom, policy responses...... to global economic crises vary significantly across countries. What explains the cross-national and within-case variation in responses to crises?We discuss several potential causes of this pattern and argue that political parties and the party composition of governments can play a key role in shaping crisis...

  2. A framework for assessing Health Economic Evaluation (HEE) quality appraisal instruments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Langer, Astrid

    2012-08-16

    Health economic evaluations support the health care decision-making process by providing information on costs and consequences of health interventions. The quality of such studies is assessed by health economic evaluation (HEE) quality appraisal instruments. At present, there is no instrument for measuring and improving the quality of such HEE quality appraisal instruments. Therefore, the objectives of this study are to establish a framework for assessing the quality of HEE quality appraisal instruments to support and improve their quality, and to apply this framework to those HEE quality appraisal instruments which have been subject to more scrutiny than others, in order to test the framework and to demonstrate the shortcomings of existing HEE quality appraisal instruments. To develop the quality assessment framework for HEE quality appraisal instruments, the experiences of using appraisal tools for clinical guidelines are used. Based on a deductive iterative process, clinical guideline appraisal instruments identified through literature search are reviewed, consolidated, and adapted to produce the final quality assessment framework for HEE quality appraisal instruments. The final quality assessment framework for HEE quality appraisal instruments consists of 36 items organized within 7 dimensions, each of which captures a specific domain of quality. Applying the quality assessment framework to four existing HEE quality appraisal instruments, it is found that these four quality appraisal instruments are of variable quality. The framework described in this study should be regarded as a starting point for appraising the quality of HEE quality appraisal instruments. This framework can be used by HEE quality appraisal instrument producers to support and improve the quality and acceptance of existing and future HEE quality appraisal instruments. By applying this framework, users of HEE quality appraisal instruments can become aware of methodological deficiencies

  3. THE ROLE OF INNOVATION POLICIES IN ECONOMIC SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT OF THE EU

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rodica CRUDU

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Innovation is one of the key-elements providing increased competitiveness to countries which is defining in building effective economies. In modern conditions, great attention is paid to economic sustainability which besides effectiveness takes into account the impact of human activities over the environment. Europe has always been one of leading forces of innovation in the world. However, its importance has constantly decreased due to rise of the US, Japan and newly of China. The European Union has oriented much effort towards fostering innovation through various policies and instruments in order to keep up with the growing pace of economic and technologic development in the modern world. By these policies, the EU aims at creating favourable conditions for countries to promote innovation taking into account the national peculiarities as to allow improved flexibility and adaptability. The main goal of the present paper is to assess the impact of the EU innovation policies upon sustainable development of the member countries. There are to be analysed the main paradigms,concepts, initiatives and strategies frame-working innovation in the EU and, consequently, their impact upon economic development and the consistence in facing new challenges. In the end,on the base on identified correlations, concrete actions and measures to foster performance of innovation policies in general are identified.

  4. Interaction of the EU ETS and national climate policy instruments – Impact on biomass use

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kautto, N.; Arasto, A.; Sijm, J.; Peck, P.

    2012-01-01

    Policy-makers apply multiple policy instruments simultaneously in the climate and energy policy field at both EU and Member State levels. This creates interactions between instruments that can be complementary and synergistic but also conflicting. This article focuses on the interactions of climate policy instruments and their impact on biomass use. The objectives are to examine interactions of the EU Emissions Trading System (EU ETS) with the main national climate policy instruments and to identify the influence of these on biomass use. The work draws experiences from seven EU countries (Austria, Finland, Germany, the Netherlands, Poland, Sweden and the United Kingdom), with a special focus on Finland and Sweden. The analysis explores the effects of policy interactions and is based on an examination of literature, and interviews with biomass experts in research, industry and policy spheres. Results indicate that the combined effects of climate policy instruments have a tangible impact on biomass use, whereas the causal links to the EU ETS are difficult to assess separately. Policy impacts found include increased competition for biomass resources, changes in fuel mixes and a contribution to upward pressure on wood prices. Differences in these effects are linked to differing national policy mixes and energy-carrier portfolios – an example being the relative differences in the importance of peat to the energy mix in Finland and Sweden. Analysis and comparison of the effects in the selected countries can yield insight on how to improve the design of policy interventions that impact biomass use. This study confirms the importance of identifying interactions between policy instruments so as to recognise – and manage – synergies and conflicts. The development of more synergistic and coordinated policy instrument mixes would also be beneficial for the bioenergy field. -- Highlights: ► Combined effects of climate policy instruments have a tangible impact on biomass

  5. Economics, ethics, and climate policy: framing the debate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Howarth, Richard B.; Monahan, Patricia A.

    1996-04-01

    This paper examines the economic and ethical dimensions of climate policy in light of existing knowledge of the impacts of global warming and the costs of greenhouse gas emissions abatement. We find that the criterion of economic efficiency, operationalized through cost-benefit analysis, is ill-equipped to cope with the pervasive uncertainties and issues of intergenerational fairness that characterize climate change. In contrast, the concept of sustainable development—that today's policies should ensure that future generations enjoy life opportunities undiminished relative to the present—is a normative criterion that explicitly addresses the uncertainties and distributional aspects of global environmental change. If one interprets the sustainability criterion to imply that it is morally wrong to impose catastrophic risks on unborn generations when reducing those risks would not noticeably diminish the quality of life of existing persons, a case can be made for significant steps to reduce greenhouse gas emissions.

  6. Technology-Critical Elements: Economic and Policy Perspectives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eggert, R. G.

    2017-12-01

    Critical elements are those that provide essential functionality to modern engineered materials, have few ready substitutes and are subject to supply-chain risks or concerns about long-run availability. This paper provides economic and public-policy perspectives on critical elements. It suggests: that which elements are critical is situational and changes over time; that we are not running out of mineral-derived raw materials in a geologic sense but rather, for some elements, face scarcities that are technological, environmental, political or economic in nature; and that public policy's most important role over the longer term is fostering scientific and technological innovation, especially early stage research, that has the potential to overcome these scarcities.

  7. Strategic environmental assessment for policies: an instrument for good governance

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    World Bank; Ahmed, Kulsum; Sánchez Triana, Ernesto

    2008-01-01

    ... , The Netherlands Commission for Environmental Assessment “This book suggests how an institutional lens can be applied systematically to improve public policy design and implementation and sectoral governance both from supply and demand perspectives. Environmental and natural resources policies are the focus of the book, but the lessons are much broader and shou...

  8. Soutien institutionnel à l'Economic Policy Research Centre (EPRC ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    L'Economic Policy Research Centre (EPRC) est un organisme autonome et à but non lucratif voué à la recherche dans le domaine des politiques qui a été établi en 1993 avec le soutien du gouvernement de l'Ouganda, de bailleurs de fonds et d'instituts de recherche étrangers. Il était prévu que l'EPRC fonctionne en ...

  9. The Economic Value of Personal Information and Policy Implication

    OpenAIRE

    Kim, Jiin; Nam, Changi; Kim, Seongcheol

    2015-01-01

    Personal information is essential in an information-oriented society for societal development and as a valuable business resource. However, because of poor management and a lack of proper protection, leakage of personal information can take place over time, and the standard for compensation is not well established. In order to establish appropriate policies for its protection, we need to know the economic value of personal information. Using conjoint analysis, we analyze the potential value o...

  10. Sustainable development and migration policies: their treatment within the Latin American economic integration blocks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marmora, L

    1994-01-01

    Without an equal sharing of costs and benefits of natural and human resources worldwide, imbalances and lack of human development lead to migration within and between countries. Economic integration blocks in Latin America provide a context for shared development: in Central America, in the Andean Region, and in the Southern Cone. Over the past 60 years migration policy was based on national protectionism, labor supply, and/or occupation of territory. When economic conditions changed to market economies and world markets, migration policy was redefined. Each of the economic integration blocks has developed its own strategies. The Andean Agreement on Labor Migrations was established to determine the rules for bilateral and multilateral treatment of problems. In the Southern Cone bilateral agreements have been longstanding. Multilateral efforts were recently underway within the Southern Common Market and throughout the region. The Central American Organization for Migrations has spearheaded the adoption of a multilateral strategy. All three regions have made considerable progress in the last three years in constructing multilateral policies for economic integration. Government awareness has been the primary force in these policy changes. Government has come to an understanding that clear domestic and regional migration policies were lacking and that obsolete migration practices of the 1930s did not meet the needs of the 1990s. Migration policy was considered an instrument of development. Movement of economic factors or goods was considered equally with movement of labor. Migration policies must integrate the human rights of migrants into their definitions. Methods of facilitating the movements of populations need to be constructed within the computerization and modernization of the migration administration. Legalization of illegal immigrants has occurred among a number of countries. PROCAM and PRIMCOS were action programs which aimed to integrate migration and

  11. Chapter 4. Economic Considerations: Cost-Effective and Efficient Climate Policies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maximilian Auffhammer

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available In this chapter we discuss the economics of climate change. We begin with a discussion of economic considerations that are important to take into account when designing and evaluating climate policy, including cost effectiveness and efficiency. We then discuss specific policies at the state, national, and international level in light of these economic considerations.  We have several recommendations for the path forward for climate policy. First, the goal of climate policy should be to reduce the damages caused by greenhouse gases. In addition to mitigation policy to reduce greenhouse gas concentrations in the atmosphere, one can also reduce the damages causes by greenhouse gases by adaptation measures that reduce our vulnerability to climate change impacts.  Second, policy-makers should use incentive- (or market- based instruments as opposed to command and control policies (including quantity-based mandates whenever possible. Whenever unpriced emissions are the sole market failure, incentive-based instruments such as a carbon tax or cap and trade program are more likely to achieve the social optimum and maximize social net benefits [1, 2]. Lin and Prince [3] calculate that the optimal gasoline tax for the state of California is $1.37 per gallon.  Our third recommendation is to address the risk of emissions leakage, which arises when only one jurisdiction (e.g., California imposes climate policy, but not the entire world. One way to reduce emissions leakage is to use the strategic distribution of emissions allowances to local producers. This method, known as “output-based allocation” or benchmarking, effectively subsidizes local producers and at least partially offsets the increase in their costs caused by an emissions cap [4]. Importantly, only local production is eligible for an allocation of valuable allowances, providing a counterweight to the incentive for emission leakage. Our fourth recommendation is that if they are used instead

  12. Evaluation of future policy instruments - Sub-Project 2; Utvaerdering av framtida styrmedel - Delprojekt 2 inom projektet Perspektiv paa framtida avfallsbehandling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bisaillon, Mattias; Dahlen, Lisa; Detterfelt, Lia; Edner, Stig; Toren, Johan

    2013-09-01

    There are several recently introduced and future possible policy instruments that are of great interest to study in order to understand the future for the Swedish waste treatment market. In the energy sector, the use of system analysis models has proven to be effective in order to understand the effects and consequences of policy instruments. In the waste sector, however, such analyses have only been conducted sporadically. This in spite of the introduction of highly influential policy instruments such as producer responsibility, landfill tax and landfill ban, which together have contributed to landfilling of Swedish household waste practically has ceased. The goal of this project was, by using system analysis models, to study and evaluate the newly introduced and future possible policy instruments which affect Swedish waste treatment. The assessment was made in terms of how policy instruments affect: - the distribution of treatment technologies, - waste amounts, - greenhouse gas emissions and - the economics of waste treatment. The project was performed during 2011 and 2012 as a part of the research project 'Perspectives on sustainable waste treatment (PFA)'. During the project, discussions have taken place within the working group and the reference group on which instruments are most interesting and relevant to study. Furthermore, opinions have been gathered from the association Swedish Waste Managements policy instrument group and from various players in the industry at conferences, presentations and workshops.

  13. Nursing workforce policy and the economic crisis: a global overview.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buchan, James; O'May, Fiona; Dussault, Gilles

    2013-09-01

    To assess the impact of the global financial crisis on the nursing workforce and identify appropriate policy responses. This article draws from international data sources (Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development [OECD] and World Health Organization), from national data sources (nursing regulatory authorities), and the literature to provide a context in which to examine trends in labor market and health spending indicators, nurse employment, and nurse migration patterns. A variable impact of the crisis at the country level was shown by different changes in unemployment rates and funding of the health sector. Some evidence was obtained of reductions in nurse staffing in a small number of countries. A significant and variable change in the patterns of nurse migration also was observed. The crisis has had a variable impact; nursing shortages are likely to reappear in some OECD countries. Policy responses will have to take account of the changed economic reality in many countries. This article highlights key trends and issues for the global nursing workforce; it then identifies policy interventions appropriate to the new economic realities in many OECD countries. © 2013 Sigma Theta Tau International.

  14. Grain and cellulosic ethanol: History, economics, and energy policy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Solomon, Barry D.; Barnes, Justin R.; Halvorsen, Kathleen E.

    2007-01-01

    The United States (US) and Brazil have been the two leading producers of fuel ethanol since the 1970s. National policies have supported the production and use of ethanol from corn and sugarcane. US support in particular has included exemption from federal gasoline excise taxes, whole or partial exemption from road use (sales) taxes in nine states, a federal production tax credit, and a federal blender's credit. In the last decade the subsidization of grain-based ethanol has been increasingly criticized as economically inefficient and of questionable social benefit. In addition, much greater production of ethanol from corn may conflict with food production needs. A promising development is the acceleration of the technical readiness of cellulosic alcohol fuels, which can be produced from the woody parts of trees and plants, perennial grasses, or residues. This technology is now being commercialized and has greater long-term potential than grain ethanol. Cellulosic ethanol is projected to be much more cost-effective, environmentally beneficial, and have a greater energy output to input ratio than grain ethanol. The technology is being developed in North America, Brazil, Japan and Europe. In this paper, we will review the historical evolution of US federal and state energy policy support for and the currently attractive economics of the production and use of ethanol from biomass. The various energy and economic policies will be reviewed and assessed for their potential effects on cellulosic ethanol development relative to gasoline in the US. (author)

  15. Higher Education as an Instrument of Economic Growth in Kenya

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nyangau, Josiah Z.

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of the present paper is to identify the main challenges facing Kenya's public higher education system and to propose plausible and, concrete steps policy makers and educational leaders can take to address those challenges to ensure the country's higher education system prepares the human capital, which is necessary for the construction…

  16. Energy policy under the aspect of international economic interdependencies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Michaelis, H.

    1978-01-01

    A few introductory remarks on the status of and on prospects fo the world energy economy as well as on reasons given for the necessity of a world-wide coordination of energy policy and economic policy are followed by an explanation of the policy led by oil extracting countries and of the endeavour of western industrialized countries to reduce oil imports. Even if the state of utilizing nuclear energy does not yet present a sufficient alternative, the international nuclear energy continues to be directed towards this goal. Seen from an international viewpoint, relieving contributions are to be expected from energy-conservation-actions and from the development of regenerative energy sources. (UA) [de

  17. EU climate policy up to 2020. An economic impact assessment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boehringer, Christoph [Department of Economics, University of Oldenburg (Germany); Centre for European Economic Research (ZEW) Mannheim (Germany); Loeschel, Andreas [Centre for European Economic Research (ZEW) Mannheim (Germany); Moslener, Ulf [KfW Development Bank, Frankfurt (Germany); Rutherford, Thomas F. [Center for Energy Policy and Economy (CEPE), ETH Zuerich (Switzerland)

    2009-07-01

    In its fight against climate change the EU is committed to reducing its overall greenhouse gas emissions to at least 20% below 1990 levels by 2020. To meet this commitment, the EU builds on segmented market regulation with an EU-wide cap-and-trade system for emissions from energy-intensive installations (ETS sectors) and additional measures by each EU Member State covering emission sources outside the cap-and-trade system (the non-ETS sector). Furthermore, the EU has launched additional policy measures such as renewable energy subsidies in order to promote compliance with the climate policy target. Basic economic reasoning suggests that emission market segmentation and overlapping regulation can create substantial excess costs if we focus only on the climate policy target. In this paper, we evaluate the economic impacts of EU climate policy based on numerical simulations with a computable general equilibrium model of international trade and energy use. Our results highlight the importance of initial market distortions and imperfections as well as alternative baseline projections for the appropriate assessment of EU compliance cost. (author)

  18. EU climate policy up to 2020: An economic impact assessment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boehringer, Christoph, E-mail: boehringer@uni-oldenburg.d [Department of Economics, University of Oldenburg (Germany); Centre for European Economic Research (ZEW) Mannheim (Germany); Loeschel, Andreas [Centre for European Economic Research (ZEW) Mannheim (Germany); Moslener, Ulf [KfW Development Bank, Frankfurt (Germany); Rutherford, Thomas F. [Center for Energy Policy and Economy (CEPE), ETH Zuerich (Switzerland)

    2009-07-01

    In its fight against climate change the EU is committed to reducing its overall greenhouse gas emissions to at least 20% below 1990 levels by 2020. To meet this commitment, the EU builds on segmented market regulation with an EU-wide cap-and-trade system for emissions from energy-intensive installations (ETS sectors) and additional measures by each EU Member State covering emission sources outside the cap-and-trade system (the non-ETS sector). Furthermore, the EU has launched additional policy measures such as renewable energy subsidies in order to promote compliance with the climate policy target. Basic economic reasoning suggests that emission market segmentation and overlapping regulation can create substantial excess costs if we focus only on the climate policy target. In this paper, we evaluate the economic impacts of EU climate policy based on numerical simulations with a computable general equilibrium model of international trade and energy use. Our results highlight the importance of initial market distortions and imperfections as well as alternative baseline projections for the appropriate assessment of EU compliance cost.

  19. EU climate policy up to 2020. An economic impact assessment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boehringer, Christoph; Loeschel, Andreas; Moslener, Ulf; Rutherford, Thomas F.

    2009-01-01

    In its fight against climate change the EU is committed to reducing its overall greenhouse gas emissions to at least 20% below 1990 levels by 2020. To meet this commitment, the EU builds on segmented market regulation with an EU-wide cap-and-trade system for emissions from energy-intensive installations (ETS sectors) and additional measures by each EU Member State covering emission sources outside the cap-and-trade system (the non-ETS sector). Furthermore, the EU has launched additional policy measures such as renewable energy subsidies in order to promote compliance with the climate policy target. Basic economic reasoning suggests that emission market segmentation and overlapping regulation can create substantial excess costs if we focus only on the climate policy target. In this paper, we evaluate the economic impacts of EU climate policy based on numerical simulations with a computable general equilibrium model of international trade and energy use. Our results highlight the importance of initial market distortions and imperfections as well as alternative baseline projections for the appropriate assessment of EU compliance cost. (author)

  20. Biodiversity conservation and climate mitigation: What role can economic instruments play?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ring, I.; Drechsler, M.; Teeffelen, van A.J.A.; Irawan, S.; Venter, O.

    2010-01-01

    Tradable permits and intergovernmental fiscal transfers play an increasing role in both biodiversity conservation and climate mitigation. In comparison to regulatory and planning approaches these economic instruments offer a more flexible and cost-effective approach to biodiversity conservation.

  1. The methodology of energy policy-making in economical models

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Poursina, B.

    1998-08-01

    Scrutiny and careful study in energy is a subject that in human science has been investigated from different point of view. The expansion of this research, because of its importance and effect in different dimensions of human life, has also arrived in the field of political and economic sciences. Economics evaluates the energy phenomenon at the side of elements such as labor, capital and technology in the production functions of firms. The nature of these discussions is mainly from the viewpoint of micro analyses. Nevertheless, the variation and challenges concerning energy and environment during the recent decades and the economists` detailed investigations in its analysis and evaluation have led to the arrival of energy discussions in a special shape in macro planning and large economic models. The paper compares various energy models - EFDM, MEDEE, MIDAS and HERMES. This extent of planning and consequently modelling which lacks a background in the processes of economic researches, deals with analysis of energy and economics reacting effects. Modelling of energy-economy interaction and energy policy in modeling macroeconomics large models are new ideas in energy studies and economics. 7 refs., 6 figs., 1 tab.

  2. A Model for Assessing the Gender Aspect in Economic Policy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ona Rakauskienė

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of research is to develop a conceptual model for assessing the impact of the gender aspect on economic policy at macro– and microeconomic levels. The research methodology is based on analysing scientific approaches to the gender aspect in economics and gender–responsive budgeting as well as determining the impact of the gender aspect on GDP, foreign trade, the state budget and the labour market. First, the major findings encompass the main idea of a conceptual model proposing that a socio–economic picture of society can be accepted as completed only when, alongside public and private sectors, includes the care/reproductive sector that is dominated by women and creating added value in the form of educated human resources; second, macroeconomics is not neutral in terms of gender equality. Gender asymmetry is manifested not only at the level of microeconomics (labour market and business but also at the level of macroeconomics (GDP, the state budget and foreign trade, which has a negative impact on economic growth and state budget revenues. In this regard, economic decisions, according to the principles of gender equality and in order to achieve gender equality in economics, must be made, as the gender aspect has to be also implemented at the macroeconomic level.

  3. Linking Physical Climate Research and Economic Assessments of Mitigation Policies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stainforth, David; Calel, Raphael

    2017-04-01

    Evaluating climate change policies requires economic assessments which balance the costs and benefits of climate action. A certain class of Integrated Assessment Models (IAMS) are widely used for this type of analysis; DICE, PAGE and FUND are three of the most influential. In the economics community there has been much discussion and debate about the economic assumptions implemented within these models. Two aspects in particular have gained much attention: i) the costs of damages resulting from climate change - the so-called damage function, and ii) the choice of discount rate applied to future costs and benefits. There has, however, been rather little attention given to the consequences of the choices made in the physical climate models within these IAMS. Here we discuss the practical aspects of the implementation of the physical models in these IAMS, as well as the implications of choices made in these physical science components for economic assessments[1]. We present a simple breakdown of how these IAMS differently represent the climate system as a consequence of differing underlying physical models, different parametric assumptions (for parameters representing, for instance, feedbacks and ocean heat uptake) and different numerical approaches to solving the models. We present the physical and economic consequences of these differences and reflect on how we might better incorporate the latest physical science understanding in economic models of this type. [1] Calel, R. and Stainforth D.A., "On the Physics of Three Integrated Assessment Models", Bulletin of the American Meteorological Society, in press.

  4. Development courses and the choice of energy-environment policy instruments for fast-developing Asian countries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nguyen, A.T.

    2000-01-01

    In the first part, a contextual grid is built which aims at presenting the main impacts of development in developing countries. Some development trends, like energy consumption growth, environmental courses, economic growth and demographic development are analyzed. Then, a global modeling analysis of Kuznets' environmental curves and of development prospect is presented. The second part presents different types of policy instruments for environment protection, and the theoretical challenges and experience feedback of their implementation in OECD countries, in particular in the energy sector. It treats also of the energy-environment policy practices and of their environmental impacts on the economy, of the role of institutional factors in the environmental management in the fast developing Asian countries. The environmental management priorities in an integrated approach in these countries are presented and compared with environmental management experiences in the OECD countries. In the third part, the case study of the power industry sector in Vietnam aims at making an inventory of the emissions in a rapidly developing sector with important atmospheric emissions and at making a critical status of the evaluation instruments of environmental policies by comparing approaches based on 'bottom-up' and 'top-down' models. Finally, a model and a set of scenarios allowing to evaluate the economical and environmental consequences of the setting up of a sectoral policy in a transition economy context are presented. (J.S.)

  5. Outcome indicators for the evaluation of energy policy instruments and technical change

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Neij, Lena; Astrand, Kerstin

    2006-01-01

    The aim of this paper is to propose a framework for the evaluation of policy instruments designed to affect development and dissemination of new energy technologies. The evaluation approach is based on the analysis of selected outcome indicators describing the process of technical change, i.e. the development and dissemination of new energy technologies, on the basis of a socio-technical systems approach. The outcome indicators are used to analyse the effect, in terms of outcome, and outcome scope of the policy instruments as well as the extent to which the policy instruments support diversity, learning and institutional change. The analysis of two cases of evaluations, of energy efficiency policy and wind energy policy in Sweden, shows that the approach has several advantages, allowing continuous evaluation and providing important information for the redesign of policy instruments. There are also disadvantages associated with the approach, such as complexity, possible high cost and the requirement of qualified evaluators. Nevertheless, it is concluded that the information on the continuous performance of different policy instruments and their effects on the introduction and dissemination of new energy technologies, provided by this evaluation approach, is essential for an improved adaptation and implementation of energy and climate policy

  6. Willingness-to-pay and policy-instrument choice for climate-change policy in the United States

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kotchen, Matthew J.; Boyle, Kevin J.; Leiserowitz, Anthony A.

    2013-01-01

    This paper provides the first willingness-to-pay (WTP) estimates in support of a national climate-change policy that are comparable with the costs of actual legislative efforts in the U.S. Congress. Based on a survey of 2034 American adults, we find that households are, on average, willing to pay between $79 and $89 per year in support of reducing domestic greenhouse-gas (GHG) emissions 17% by 2020. Even very conservative estimates yield an average WTP at or above $60 per year. Taking advantage of randomized treatments within the survey valuation question, we find that mean WTP does not vary substantially among the policy instruments of a cap-and-trade program, a carbon tax, or a GHG regulation. But there are differences in the sociodemographic characteristics of those willing to pay across policy instruments. Greater education always increases WTP. Older individuals have a lower WTP for a carbon tax and a GHG regulation, while greater household income increases WTP for these same two policy instruments. Republicans, along with those indicating no political party affiliation, have a significantly lower WTP regardless of the policy instrument. But many of these differences are no longer evident after controlling for respondent opinions about whether global warming is actually happening. - Highlights: ► First willingness-to-pay (WTP) estimates for actual national climate-change policy in the U.S. ► WTP does not vary among the instruments of a cap-and-trade program, a carbon tax, or a GHG regulation. ► There are differences in the characteristics of those willing to pay across policy instruments. ► No differences after controlling for opinions about whether global warming is actually happening

  7. Economic and health efficiency of education funding policy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Curtin, T R; Nelson, E A

    1999-06-01

    Public spending programmes to reduce poverty, expand primary education and improve the economic status of women are recommended priorities of aid agencies and are now gradually being reflected in third world governments' policies, in response to aid conditions imposed by the World Bank and OECD countries. However outcomes fall short of aspiration. This paper shows that donors' lending policies, especially those restricting public spending on education to the primary level, (1) perpetuate poverty, (2) minimise socio-economic impact of public health programmes and (3) prevent significant improvement in the economic status of women. These effects are the result of fundamental flaws in donors' education policy model. Evidence is presented to show that health status in developing countries will be significantly enhanced by increasing the proportion of the population which has at least post-primary education. Heads of households with just primary education have much the same probability of experiencing poverty and high mortality of their children as those with no education at all. Aid donors' policies, which require governments of developing countries to limit public funding of education to the primary level, have their roots in what is contended here to be an erroneous interpretation of human capital theory. This interpretation focuses only on the declining marginal internal rates of return on public investments in successive levels of schooling and ignores the opposite message of the increasing marginal net present values of those investments. Cars do not travel fastest in their lowest gear despite its fastest acceleration, life's long journey is not most comfortable for those with only primary schooling.

  8. Market and Money: Economic Instruments of Political Europe

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Florina Pînzaru

    2006-10-01

    Full Text Available By the creation of the unique currency, the European construction advanced, in the late twenty years, more in economic terms than in political ones. Still, at a closer look there can be found interesting arguments to sustain the idea of a political background for this surprising economic acceleration. Creating the common market and a new currency are things which have been possible only because of favourable factors in economy and of strong political will. This paper analyses the market as a frame of a political construction, and euro as a decisive tool for the purpose of the United Europe. For the first time in history, there is a space which approaches beliefs and values with the “help” of a currency, integrated in the political agenda.

  9. Assessment of economic instruments for countries with low municipal waste management performance: An approach based on the analytic hierarchy process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kling, Maximilian; Seyring, Nicole; Tzanova, Polia

    2016-09-01

    Economic instruments provide significant potential for countries with low municipal waste management performance in decreasing landfill rates and increasing recycling rates for municipal waste. In this research, strengths and weaknesses of landfill tax, pay-as-you-throw charging systems, deposit-refund systems and extended producer responsibility schemes are compared, focusing on conditions in countries with low waste management performance. In order to prioritise instruments for implementation in these countries, the analytic hierarchy process is applied using results of a literature review as input for the comparison. The assessment reveals that pay-as-you-throw is the most preferable instrument when utility-related criteria are regarded (wb = 0.35; analytic hierarchy process distributive mode; absolute comparison) mainly owing to its waste prevention effect, closely followed by landfill tax (wb = 0.32). Deposit-refund systems (wb = 0.17) and extended producer responsibility (wb = 0.16) rank third and fourth, with marginal differences owing to their similar nature. When cost-related criteria are additionally included in the comparison, landfill tax seems to provide the highest utility-cost ratio. Data from literature concerning cost (contrary to utility-related criteria) is currently not sufficiently available for a robust ranking according to the utility-cost ratio. In general, the analytic hierarchy process is seen as a suitable method for assessing economic instruments in waste management. Independent from the chosen analytic hierarchy process mode, results provide valuable indications for policy-makers on the application of economic instruments, as well as on their specific strengths and weaknesses. Nevertheless, the instruments need to be put in the country-specific context along with the results of this analytic hierarchy process application before practical decisions are made. © The Author(s) 2016.

  10. THE REGULATION OF MONEY CIRCULATION ON THE BASIS OF USING METHODS AND INSTRUMENTS OF MONETARY POLICY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Mishchenko

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available In the article it was researched the instruments and mechanism of safeguarding stability of money market on the basis of implementing the optimal monetary policy regime. It was determined the main directions of appliance the monetary policy methods and instruments to guiding money market stability and it was also investigated the influence of transmission mechanism on providing the soundness of money circulations.

  11. EXPERIENCES AND TENDENCIES TO DECENTRALIZE THE CAPABILITIES OF THE ECONOMIC POLICY AT THE EUROPEAN UNION LEVEL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dodescu Anca

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Romania's integration in the European Union implies, apart the complex process of policy transfer, the learning of new modes to make policies characteristic to a multi-level governance and partnership culture. Of the different levels of governance of the European model, the regional level ("regional governance" most faithfully reflects, in our opinion, the complexity of reconfiguring the role of state in economy, at the beginning of this new millennium, in the European Union space and presents the highest practical importance for Romania, as a new Member State of the European Union, for, at the regional level, the structures are more flexible and the good practices are more rapidly assimilable. The selection of the best regional growth and development economic policies, the choosing of the objectives out of a series of competing options, the calibration in time and space of powers, roles, capabilities, and responsibilities and the encouragement of the win-win solutions call upon the choice and combination of some appropriate and efficient instruments. Representative for the new context, the regional growth and development policy must integrate, in Romania too, more knowledge, more creativity, new combinations of capabilities and new fields of expertise. This paper presents preliminary research results afferent to the post-doctoral research project: "Growth and regional development economic policies. Challenges for Romania in the context of economic-financial crisis and European model integration", carried out in the project "Economic scientific research, reliance of human welfare and development in European context", the Romanian Academy, "Costin C. Kiriţescu" National Institute for Economic Research, project financed for the 2010-2013 period from the European Social Fund (EFS and implemented by the Romanian Academy, Costin C. Kiritescu National Institute for Economic Research, in the period of time 1 December 2010 - 30 November 2012

  12. Strengthening the Regional Integration in Central and Eastern Europe through Cohesion Policy Instruments and Cooperation among Stock Exchanges

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    JULIA STEFANOVA

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available The research paper is focused on the analysis of two ways of strengthening the regional integration in the Central and Eastern Europe – through the Cohesion policy instruments and cooperation among stock exchanges. Substantial benefits from the regional integration through cohesion policy include economic and social prosperity, political understanding. It should be further intensified, as it contributes to reduce regional disparities, exchange knowledge and best practices, ensure economic development. On the other hand, the deepening intra-regional cooperation among CEE stock exchanges leads to quantitative and qualitative changes in the course of their consolidation. Some assumptions are reached regarding expected changes on the Bulgarian capital market in the course of intensifying its intra-regional integrational links to CEE capital markets in conformity with set strategic priorities.

  13. Environmental policy instruments and technological change in the energy sector: findings from comparative empirical research

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Skjaerseth, J.B.; Christiansen, A.C.

    2006-01-01

    This article explores the extent to which and in what ways environmental policy instruments may affect patterns of environmental friendly technological change in the energy sector. Our argument is based on the assumption, however, that technological change is also affected by the political context in which the instruments are applied and by the nature of the problem itself. Comparative empirical research involving different European countries, sectors and policy fields were examined, including climate change, air pollution and wind power. The relationship between environmental policy instruments and technological change is extremely complex, not least due to the impact of other factors that may be more decisive than environmental ones. Against this backdrop, it was concluded that: 1) a portfolio of policy instruments works to the extent that different types of policy instruments affect the different drivers and stages behind technological change needed to solve specific problems. The need for a portfolio of policy instruments depends on the technological challenge being faced; 2) voluntary approaches facilitated constructive corporate strategies, but mandatory approaches tended to be more effective in stimulating short term major technological change; 3) voluntary approaches work well in the short term when the problem to be solved is characterized by lack of information and coordination. (author)

  14. Economic policy and the environment (Republic of Macedonia)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1997-01-01

    In general, the areas of significant environmental concerns in Macedonia are located near large urban areas, with industrial sources being the major polluters.Reduced industrial production in the last five years decreased the level of pollutants being discharged in air, water and soil compared in the 1980s. However, if industries resume previous levels of production, without proper environmental checks the pollution load to various media will increase. Today, in Macedonia there is willingness to treat environmental issues as an integral part of the overall strategy for economic and social development during the transition to a market economy. Further, Macedonia plans to harmonize its policies, including the ones on environment, with those of EU so as to promote closer integration with other European countries. The effects of economic restructuring may not be favorable for the environment if environmental policies are not developed soon. In the process of developing a policy to finance environmental protection, two principles need to be adopted and followed at all levels of government, namely 'polluter pays' and 'user pays' principles. This will strengthen the role of local communities in financing environmental protection. (author)

  15. An economic policy for the fifth long wave

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Angelo Reati

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available The paper starts by reviewing some recent contributions on long waves, arguing that the present technological revolution in ICT is part of the broad phenomenon of a newlong wave. It follows that the main focus of economic policy should be to support the diffusion of the new technology and to favour the institutional changes required by such an objective. Four broad guidelines are suggested: i a Keynesian policy for demand going beyond the straitjacket of the Maastricht criteria and improving the income distribution in favour of employees; i a policy to re-establish the primacy of productive capital through systematic concerted open market operations to regulate financial liquidity; iii a reconstruction of the employment relationship that preserves the essential features of the "European social model" and a targeted flexibility of labour, that contrasts with the neoclassical all-out market flexibility; and iv a regime for intellectual property rights that avoids the drawbacks--both ethical and economic--of current US practices.

  16. Developing Policy Instruments for Education in the EU: The European Qualifications Framework for Lifelong Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elken, Mari

    2015-01-01

    The European Qualifications Framework (EQF) for lifelong learning has been characterized as a policy instrument with a number of contested ideas, raising questions about the process through which such instruments are developed at European level. The introduction of the EQF is in this article examined through variations of neo-institutional theory:…

  17. Anticipating the uncertain: economic modeling and climate change policy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jensen, Svenn

    2012-11-01

    With this thesis I wish to contribute to the understanding of how uncertainty and the anticipation of future events by economic actors affect climate policies. The thesis consists of four papers. Two papers are analytical models which explicitly consider that emissions are caused by extracting scarce fossil fuels which in the future must be replaced by clean technologies. The other two are so called numerical integrated assessment models. Such models represent the world economy, the climate system and the interactions between those two quantitatively, complementing more abstract theoretical work. Should policy makers discriminate between subsidizing renewable energy sources such as wind or solar power, and technologies such as carbon capture and storage (CCS)? Focusing only on the dynamic supply of fossil fuels and hence Co{sub 2}, we find here that cheaper future renewables cause extraction to speed up, lower costs of CCS may delay it. CCS hence may dampen the dynamic inefficiency caused by the absence of comprehensive climate policies today. Does it matter whether uncertainty about future damage assessment is due to scientific complexities or stems from the political process? In paper two, I find that political and scientific uncertainties have opposing effects on the incentives to investment in renewables and the extraction of fossil fuels: The prospect of scientific learning about the climate system increases investment incentives and, ceteris paribus, slows extraction down; uncertainty about future political constellations does the opposite. The optimal carbon tax under scientific uncertainty equals expected marginal damages, whereas political uncertainty demands a tax below marginal damages that decreases over time. Does uncertainty about economic growth impact optimal climate policy today? Here we are the first to consistently analyze how uncertainty about future economic growth affects optimal emission reductions and the optimal social cost of carbon. We

  18. Policy and Economics of Managed Aquifer Recharge and Water Banking

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sharon B. Megdal

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Managed Aquifer Recharge (MAR and water banking are of increasing importance to water resources management. MAR can be used to buffer against drought and changing or variable climate, as well as provide water to meet demand growth, by making use of excess surface water supplies and recycled waters. Along with hydrologic and geologic considerations, economic and policy analyses are essential to a complete analysis of MAR and water banking opportunities. The papers included in this Special Issue fill a gap in the literature by revealing the range of economic and policy considerations relevant to the development and implementation of MAR programs. They illustrate novel techniques that can be used to select MAR locations and the importance and economic viability of MAR in semi-arid to arid environments. The studies explain how MAR can be utilized to meet municipal and agricultural water demands in water-scarce regions, as well as assist in the reuse of wastewater. Some papers demonstrate how stakeholder engagement, ranging from consideration of alternatives to monitoring, and multi-disciplinary analyses to support decision-making are of high value to development and implementation of MAR programs. The approaches discussed in this collection of papers, along with the complementary and necessary hydrologic and geologic analyses, provide important inputs to water resource managers.

  19. Central banks' use in East Asia of money market instruments in the conduct of monetary policy

    OpenAIRE

    Robert F. Emery

    1992-01-01

    The paper examines the greater use in the past decade of money market instruments in the conduct of monetary policy by the central banks, or their equivalent, in six of the main East Asian developing economies. Some of these economies have been successful in using various money market instruments to control liquidity, while others have been much less successful. A common theme in the case of the successful economies has been one of employing money market instruments that have yields based on ...

  20. An economic analysis of transportation fuel policies in Brazil: Fuel choice, land use, and environmental impacts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nuñez, Hector M.; Önal, Hayri

    2016-01-01

    Brazil uses taxes, subsidies, and blending mandates as policy instruments to manage and stabilize its transportation fuel markets. The fuel sector has been very dynamic in recent years due to frequent policy adjustments and variable market conditions. In this paper, we use a price endogenous economic simulation model to analyze the impacts of such policy adjustments under various challenging conditions in the global ethanol and sugar markets. Our analysis specifically focuses on Brazilian producers' supply responses, consumers' driving demand and fuel choice, ethanol trade, land use, greenhouse gas emissions, and social welfare. The model results show that (i) under a low ethanol blending rate, conventional vehicles would be driven significantly less while flex-fuel and ethanol-dedicated vehicles would not be affected significantly; (ii) lowering the fuel taxes adversely affects the competitiveness of sugarcane ethanol against gasoline blends, thus lowering producers' surplus; and (iii) while a reduction in fuel taxes is advantageous in terms of overall social welfare, it has serious environmental impacts by increasing the GHG emissions from transportation fuels consumed in Brazil. - Highlights: • We examine the economic and environmental impacts of Brazilian fuel policies. • We also analyze impacts under different sugar and ethanol markets conditions. • Lowering blending rate reduces distance driven by conventional cars. • Lowering fuel tax rates affects competitiveness of ethanol against gasoline blend. • Reducing fuel tax rates has dramatic environmental impacts by increasing emissions.

  1. Institution, Financial Sector, and Economic Growth: Use The Institutions As An Instrument Variable

    OpenAIRE

    Albertus Girik Allo

    2016-01-01

    Institution has been investigated having indirect role on economic growth. This paper aims to evaluate whether the quality of institution matters for economic growth. By applying institution as instrumental variable at Foreign Direct Investment (FDI), quality of institution significantly influence economic growth. This study applies two set of data period, namely 1985-2013 and 2000-2013, available online in the World Bank (WB). The first data set, 1985-2013 is used to estimate the role of fin...

  2. Central bank instruments, fiscal policy regimes, and the requirements for equilibrium determinacy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schabert, A.

    2006-01-01

    This paper examines the role of the monetary instrument choice for local equilibrium determinacy under sticky prices and different fiscal policy regimes. Corresponding to Benhabib et al.'s results for interest rate feedback rules [Benhabib, J., Schmitt-Grohé, S., Uribe, M., 2001. Monetary policy and

  3. Environmental potentials of policy instruments to mitigate nutrient emissions in Chinese livestock production

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zheng, C.; Liu, Y.; Bluemling, B.; Mol, A.P.J.; Chen, J.

    2015-01-01

    To minimize negative environmental impact of livestock production, policy-makers face a challenge to design and implement more effective policy instruments for livestock farmers at different scales. This research builds an assessment framework on the basis of an agent-based model, named ANEM, to

  4. Determining the optimal monetary policy instrument for Nigeria

    OpenAIRE

    Udom, Solomon I.; Yaaba, Baba N.

    2015-01-01

    It is considered inapt for central banks to adjust reserve money (quantity of money) and interest rate (price of money) at the same time. Thus, necessitates the need for a choice instrument. Enough evidence abounds in microeconomic theory on the undesirability of manipulating both price and quantity simultaneously in a free market structure. The market, in line with the consensus among economists, either controls the price and allows quantity to be determined by market forces, or influence qu...

  5. PUBLIC POLICY, QUALITY OF INTITUTION AND ECONOMIC GROWTH IN CENTRAL AND EASTERN EUROPEAN COUNTRIES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    DOGARU DORIN-MADALIN

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available This paper analyzes the relationship between economic performance and institutional development in several Central and Eastern European Countries. Our meta-argument is that the structural transformations at the levels of the quantitative variables and mechanisms are only a part of the transition processes. In order to view the big picture, the qualitative aspects related to public policies and institutions should also be considered. We test the linkages between the quality of public policies and institutions for seven Central and Eastern European countries (Bulgaria, Poland, Czech Republic, Hungary, Slovenia, Slovakia and Romania for a time span between 2001 and 2011. These countries are displaying a certain degree of heterogeneity in terms of economic performances and the design and implementation of public policies. We use for our analysis the World Bank indicators from World Wide Governance Indicators. In order to deal with the potential reverse causality issues, we employ Generalized Method of Moments Framework (GMM by using the lagged variables as instruments. The impact of governance indicators is statistically significant even if we use several control variables: exchange rate, unemployment, current account deficit, taxes burden and price stability. The corresponding Sargan and Arellano-Bond test for zero autocorrelation in first-differenced errors tests shows that the results display a corresponding robustness. The main policy implications for our findings may be synthesized by the thesis, according to which a proper design of public policies, a high degree of their effectiveness and accountability, a stable social and political environment together with the rule of law and efficient anticorruption mechanisms are critical determinants of economic growth even in emerging markets. The impact of the government “size , economic structure and markets” mechanisms , monetary policy and price stability , ownership structure and legal rights

  6. Snellius II as a policy instrument for marine capacity building

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stel, J.H.

    2001-01-01

    Indonesia is the largest archipelago in the world (1.8 million km2 of land, 3.1 million km2 of sea, plus a 200 miles Exclusive Economic Zone covering some 2.7 million km2). Its population, ranking number four on the world list, amounts to more than 216 million people. Marine related programmes are

  7. The German energy policy. Future prospects and new economic opportunities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Persem, Melanie

    2013-01-01

    This document presents some key information and figures about the German energy policy: share of renewable energy sources in the German energy mix by 2050, societal commitments of citizens, towns and regions as pillars of the energy transition, research and innovation: the keys of a successful energy transition in Germany, the coalition contract and the 2014-2017 government priorities, a safe, affordable and ecological energy transition, renewable energies guidance towards market economy, grids as central and vital elements of the energy transition, the electricity market and the new framework for renewable energies, new economic models to be exploited for smart grids, a change of paradigm with 'smart markets'

  8. Economic Policies in India For Stimulation or Austerity and Volatility?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sunanda Sen

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available A major reason for the recurrent episodes of financial instability is the predominance of interest-based debt and leveraging. Financial stability is achievable through risk sharing finance instead of risk shifting that characterizes contemporary finance. A risk sharing system serves the true function of finance as facilitator of real sector activities and avoids the emergence of a “paper economy” where there is gradual decoupling of finance from the real sector. Islamic finance was initially proposed as a profit-loss sharing system, but its core principle is risk sharing. In prohibiting interest-based debt instruments, Islam grounds finance on a strong risk sharing footing. Although still a young industry that has come a long way, it has not managed to develop truly risk-sharing instruments that would allow individuals, households, and firms as well as whole economies to mitigate systematic and un-systematic risks. It is suggested that governments should intervene and issue macro-market instruments to provide their treasuries with a significant source of non-interest rate based financing while promoting risk sharing. Moreover, given that evidence across the world suggests that monetary policy’s transmission mechanism may be impaired, it is suggested that these government issued securities could also impart added potency to monetary policy.

  9. Identifying Special Operations as a Distinct Foreign Policy Instrument

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Johnsen, Anton Asklund

    2017-01-01

    to clarify and explain what special operations strategic qualities exactly are. The author then elaborates on specific elements of special operations with a point of departure in the “cognitive maps of SOF” as formulated in the research question. The author recommends that in order to influence policy...... on special operations, it is essential to have insight into the instrument’s capabilities and limitations, as this provides the prerequisites for sound contextual strategic analysis....

  10. Environmental policy in (former) centrally planned economics. A Polish perspective

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zylicz, T.; Sleszynski, J.

    1994-01-01

    The aim of the paper is to identify the general causes of poor environmental performance of the European non-market economies and to discuss ways of its improvement. Poland's experiences are emphasized although most conclusions apply to any centrally planned economy. Former centrally planned economies constitute extremely non-homogeneous group and include Bulgaria, Czechoslovakia, Eastern part of Germany, Hungary, Poland, Romania and the Soviet Union. Moreover, the description 'former' in many cases appears still a wishful thinking only of the authors. The authors argue that the failure can not be explained in terms of system inefficiency exclusively. In addition to resource administrative allocation effect environmental abuse here has its policy roots as well. Despite their clear ineffectiveness the environmental policy favored emission charges rather than alternative non-financial instruments. There is an obvious tendency to adhere to this approach especially now and to wait until it allegedly produces right results in the new market context. The authors point out that administrative solutions in environmental policy are widely used by the OECD governments and that there is a every reason to use them in the reformed economies of Eastern Europe. This does not exclude an application of taxes or effluent charges. Moreover, this does not preclude developing transferable permits and permit markets wherever appropriate. (au) (14 refs.)

  11. [Physician payment mechanisms. An instrument of health policy].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nigenda, G

    1994-01-01

    Payment mechanisms for physicians have always been subject of debate. The profession tends to prefer fee-for-services, while health care institutions prefer to pay doctors by salary or capitation. The definition of the payment mechanism is not an administrative decision, it is frequently the output of an intense political negotiation. Recently an increase in salaried physicians has been observed, even in countries where the profession is powerful. In nations like Mexico, where the State is the dominant actor, salary or capitation can be used as an instrument to encourage quality of care and better geographic distribution. In this paper, several country cases are reviewed.

  12. Policy instruments to decrease the climate impact of housing, personal transport and food. Detailed instrument descriptions; Ohjauskeinoja asumisen, henkiloeliikenteen ja ruoan ilmastovaikutusten hillintaeaen. Yksityiskohtaiset ohjauskeinokuvaukset

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Heiskanen, E.; Perrels, A.; Nissinen, A.; Berghaell, E.; Liesimaa, V.; Mattinen, M. (eds.)

    2012-03-15

    Reducing consumption volumes or introducing climate conscious consumption patterns can be efficient ways to mitigate climate change. Twenty existing policy instruments affecting the greenhouse gas emissions of housing, passenger traffic and food are described in this report of the KUILU-project. The policy instruments and the possibilities to develop effective instrument packages were discussed in two expert workshops, the results of which are presented in annexes of this report. There are already several policy instruments that target on housing and passenger traffic. Their differences in estimated emission reductions are large, which can ease the prioritization and selection of the instruments for further development. So far, only one policy instrument exists that aims to reduce the climate impacts of food choices, namely a Council of State Decision of Principle on Promoting Sustainability in Public Purchasing. However, it includes several measures that can be used to influence private companies and citizens, and thus it opens the field of policy instrument for mitigation of climate impacts of food. According to the expert survey, the most effective policy instrument involved in the analysis was building regulations, and the four most effective instruments after this were the following: gradated procurement tax of cars based on emissions, gradation of car tax, taxation of transport fuels, energy taxes of housing, and the effect of ecodesign directive on appliances. The effectiveness of policy instruments related to food was assessed to be on average level. The five least effective instruments were: EU energy label, voluntary energy experts, the tax of beverage packing, energy certificates, and subsidies for energy efficiency reparation in buildings. However, the expert opinions on the effectiveness of the policy instruments varied significantly. After this report, the KUILU project continued with an analysis of the policy instrument packages and with suggestions

  13. Policy instruments to decrease the climate impact of housing, personal transport and food. Detailed instrument descriptions; Ohjauskeinoja asumisen, henkiloeliikenteen ja ruoan ilmastovaikutusten hillintaeaen. Yksityiskohtaiset ohjauskeinokuvaukset

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Heiskanen, E.; Perrels, A.; Nissinen, A.; Berghaell, E.; Liesmaa, V.; Mattinen, M. (eds.)

    2012-07-01

    Reducing consumption volumes or introducing climate conscious consumption patterns can be efficient ways to mitigate climate change. Twenty existing policy instruments affecting the greenhouse gas emissions of housing, passenger traffic and food are described in this report of the KUILU-project. The policy instruments and the possibilities to develop effective instrument packages were discussed in two expert workshops, the results of which are presented in annexes of this report. There are already several policy instruments that target on housing and passenger traffic. Their differences in estimated emission reductions are large, which can ease the prioritization and selection of the instruments for further development. So far, only one policy instrument exists that aims to reduce the climate impacts of food choices, namely a Council of State Decision of Principle on Promoting Sustainability in Public Purchasing. However, it includes several measures that can be used to influence private companies and citizens, and thus it opens the field of policy instrument for mitigation of climate impacts of food. According to the expert survey, the most effective policy instrument involved in the analysis was building regulations, and the four most effective instruments after this were the following: gradated procurement tax of cars based on emissions, gradation of car tax, taxation of transport fuels, energy taxes of housing, and the effect of ecodesign directive on appliances. The effectiveness of policy instruments related to food was assessed to be on average level. The five least effective instruments were: EU energy label, voluntary energy experts, the tax of beverage packing, energy certificates, and subsidies for energy efficiency reparation in buildings. However, the expert opinions on the effectiveness of the policy instruments varied significantly. After this report, the KUILU project continued with an analysis of the policy instrument packages and with suggestions

  14. The role and importance of ECB's monetary policy in the global economic crisis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stakić Nikola

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents the role and importance of the European Central Bank (ECB in the context of measures and effects that are being taken to repair the consequences of the current economic crisis. The ECB, together with the European single currency, the euro, symbolizes long-lasting monetary integration of the EU states. Such form of integration has created the possibility of a supranational action of ECB in the banking sector and financial markets in general. Along with the other most important central banks in the world, the ECB applies various unconventional instruments of monetary policy to stimulate economic growth and development. In this context, the paper explains the nature and mechanism of such measures in order to influence on the insufficient liquidity in the financial markets.

  15. Economic Valuation as an Instrument to Determine The Management Strategy of Baros Mangrove Forest, Bantul, Yogyakarta, Indonesia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waluyo Jati, Irawan; Pribadi, Rudhi

    2018-02-01

    The Baros mangrove forest in Bantul Regency is now beginning to develop. Many government and private sectors programs are rolled out to support its development. The development of the Baros mangrove forest must be in accordance with the rules of conservation so that it will not damage the mangrove ecosystem. Mangrove forest has high economical and ecological value but is very vulnerable if lack of wisdom in maintaining, preserving and managing them. The involvement of government and other stakeholders are essential in determining management policies. Unawareness of society and the government to the importance of mangrove ecosystem can cause development of it becomes uncontrolled, consequently can destroy it. Mangrove forests are an important natural resource in coastal environments, and have three main functions: physical, biological, and economic functions. To quantify the functions of mangrove forests as the basis to determine the policy is required a research instrument called economic valuation. The approach of this study is the literature review from various studies before to perceive the influence of economic valuation in determining the management strategy of Baros mangrove forest in Bantul Regency, Yogyakarta, Indonesia.

  16. Economics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palley, Paul D; Parcero, Miriam E

    2016-10-01

    A review of literature in the calendar year 2015 dedicated to environmental policies and sustainable development, and economic policies. This review is divided into these sections: sustainable development, irrigation, ecosystems and water management, climate change and disaster risk management, economic growth, water supply policies, water consumption, water price regulation, and water price valuation.

  17. Systematization of Instruments of Social and Economic Responsibility of Enterprises: Theoretical Aspect

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dielini Maryna M.

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the article is systematization of instruments for implementation of social and economic responsibility of enterprises in Ukraine and theoretical consideration of the presented instruments. The article studies basic views on instruments of social responsibility of business. It is determined which of them are more traditional, and which ones are the latest, that is up to date. Thus, the traditional ones include: philanthropy, charity, sponsorship, volunteering, patronship, monetary grants, equivalent financing. Based on the understanding of the nature of social and economic responsibility of business proposed by the author, to its instruments there can be attributed all traditional instruments, except for volunteering that does not imply obtaining funds for its activities and has only a social effect. There studied modern instruments of business social responsibility, such as social investments, socially responsible investments, social marketing, charity marketing, social programs, social entrepreneurship, social reporting and social expertise, fundraising, socially responsible approaches to doing business and supply chain management. All of them can be regarded as instruments of social and economic responsibility of business.

  18. Spatial overlap between environmental policy instruments and areas of high conservation value in forest.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sverdrup-Thygeson, Anne; Søgaard, Gunnhild; Rusch, Graciela M; Barton, David N

    2014-01-01

    In order to safeguard biodiversity in forest we need to know how forest policy instruments work. Here we use a nationwide network of 9400 plots in productive forest to analyze to what extent large-scale policy instruments, individually and together, target forest of high conservation value in Norway. We studied both instruments working through direct regulation; Strict Protection and Landscape Protection, and instruments working through management planning and voluntary schemes of forest certification; Wilderness Area and Mountain Forest. As forest of high conservation value (HCV-forest) we considered the extent of 12 Biodiversity Habitats and the extent of Old-Age Forest. We found that 22% of productive forest area contained Biodiversity Habitats. More than 70% of this area was not covered by any large-scale instruments. Mountain Forest covered 23%, while Strict Protection and Wilderness both covered 5% of the Biodiversity Habitat area. A total of 9% of productive forest area contained Old-Age Forest, and the relative coverage of the four instruments was similar as for Biodiversity Habitats. For all instruments, except Landscape Protection, the targeted areas contained significantly higher proportions of HCV-forest than areas not targeted by these instruments. Areas targeted by Strict Protection had higher proportions of HCV-forest than areas targeted by other instruments, except for areas targeted by Wilderness Area which showed similar proportions of Biodiversity Habitats. There was a substantial amount of spatial overlap between the policy tools, but no incremental conservation effect of overlapping instruments in terms of contributing to higher percentages of targeted HCV-forest. Our results reveal that although the current policy mix has an above average representation of forest of high conservation value, the targeting efficiency in terms of area overlap is limited. There is a need to improve forest conservation and a potential to cover this need by better

  19. Public policies for managing urban growth and protecting open space: policy instruments and lessons learned in the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    David N. Bengston; Jennifer O. Fletcher

    2003-01-01

    The public sector in the United States has responded to growing concern about the social and environmental costs of sprawling development patterns by creating a wide range of policy instruments designed to manage urban growth and protect open space. These techniques have been implemented at the local, regional, state and, to a limited extent, national levels. This...

  20. Correlation between Government and Economic Growth –Fiscal Policy during the Transition in Albania

    OpenAIRE

    MSc. Xhenet Syka; Dr.Sc. Ilir Kaduku

    2013-01-01

    In this paper we tried to analyze some aspects of fiscal policy in our country, without pretending to give our own sample. Fiscal policy is the use of government expenditures and taxes which affect economic activity. Determination of fiscal policy in a given year takes into account the time virtually the past (current socio-economic status) and the implications for the future (fiscal sustainability). In general the cases dealt the role fiscal policy plays toward economic growth. The analy...

  1. THE ROLE OF MONETARY POLICY IN STIMULATING ECONOMIC GROWTH

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Polyakov Egor Nikolaevich

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available The paper reviews the conduct of monetary policy in Russia throughout last 10 years. The core method of analysis is ADL modeling. The author explains money supply influence on key macroeconomic variables: investment, consumption, import, inflation, REER. Specifically our results show to what extent GDP growth is determined by money supply growth throughout last 10 years. The author explains efficiency fall of Central Bank expansionary actions throughout last 5 years. The author suggests the set of decisions geared towards increasing the monetary policy efficiency. Ruble devaluation is a key of them. In particular, now the Central Bank of Russia and the Government of the following may be recommended: - gradual devaluation of the ruble by operations in the currency market you with the sterilization of excess money supply; - reduction in the rate of growth of tariffs for electricity, gas, of rail transport to the level of inflation; - reduction in the rate of growth of budget expenditures to the level of inflation. According to the author, these measures will allow monetary policy to revive Russia as an effective tool to stimulate economic growth.

  2. THE ROLE OF MONETARY POLICY IN STIMULATING ECONOMIC GROWTH

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Егор Николаевич Поляков

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available The paper reviews the conduct of monetary policy in Russia throughout last 10 years. The core method of analysis is ADL modeling. The author explains money supply influence on key macroeconomic variables: investment, consumption, import, inflation, REER. Specifically our results show to what extent GDP growth is determined by money supply growth throughout last 10 years. The author explains efficiency fall of Central Bank expansionary actions throughout last 5 years. The author suggests the set of decisions geared towards increasing the monetary policy efficiency. Ruble devaluation is a key of them.In particular, now the Central Bank of Russia and the Government of the following may be recommended:- gradual devaluation of the ruble by operations in the currency market you with the sterilization of excess money supply;- reduction in the rate of growth of tariffs for electricity, gas, of rail transport to the level of inflation;- reduction in the rate of growth of budget expenditures to the level of inflation.According to the author, these measures will allow monetary policy to revive Russia as an effective tool to stimulate economic growth.DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.12731/2218-7405-2013-5-9

  3. Energy exporters and climate change. Potential economic impacts of climate policy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wit, R.C.N.

    1997-06-01

    This review paper has been written on a commission by the Royal Institute of International Affairs (RIIA) in London and is part of a project to investigate the possible impact of greenhouse gas mitigation policies on energy markets and therefore on countries exporting oil, gas and coal. The aim of the project conducted by RIIA is to achieve a better understanding of the role of energy exporters in international climate change negotiations on the road towards the second Conference of Parties in Kyoto at the end of 1997 and the underlying national strategies. All four 'economy'-oriented global model studies reviewed in this paper indicate that CO2-reduction policies would cause wide differences in welfare effects across regions. It appears that energy-exporting countries would suffer the greatest welfare losses. Although several policy instruments can be implemented to achieve CO2-emission reductions, only carbon taxes are considered in the models. The model results show that if world level CO2 emissions are approximately stabilized at their 1990 levels, the cumulative losses in GDP of energy exporters generally range between 3% and 12% by 2010. It should be strongly emphasized that the sign and magnitude of the economic impact of CO2 policy on energy exporters depend critically on how the policy instrument is designed. In the case of a carbon tax the following factors are crucial: (1) the choice between a consumption and a production tax, (2) whether it is based on a global or unilateral agreement, (3) the mode of revenue redistribution among countries and (4) whether emission trading is allowed. 27 refs

  4. Micro and Macro Economic Policies of Government of Kosovo toward SMEs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Merita Shabani

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available The emphasis of the discussion in this paper is centered on economic policies of Kosovo government towards SMEs. The paper will analyze trends of economic policies fostered by the Government of Kosovo in attempt to maximize the development of SME’s sector. Furthermore, the paper will carry out an in-depth analytical approach of SME policies taking into account their crucial role for economic growth. The critical mode of discussion will reveal advantages and disadvantages, and subsequently ultimate paybacks as a result of promoting favorable economic policies in favor of cultivating suitable business environment for SMEs. Similarly, in concluding remarks this paper appeals for more suitable and sustainable economic policies towards SMEs taking in consideration their high potential of employment generation. The paper also suggests concrete steps the Government of Kosovo needs to undertake in terms of promoting policy opportunities in order to speed up economic development of the country, growth as well as economic welfare.

  5. Social and Economic Analysis Branch: integrating policy, social, economic, and natural science

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schuster, Rudy; Walters, Katie D.

    2015-01-01

    The Fort Collins Science Center's Social and Economic Analysis Branch provides unique capabilities in the U.S. Geological Survey by leading projects that integrate social, behavioral, economic, and natural science in the context of human–natural resource interactions. Our research provides scientific understanding and support for the management and conservation of our natural resources in support of multiple agency missions. We focus on meeting the scientific needs of the Department of the Interior natural resource management bureaus in addition to fostering partnerships with other Federal and State managers to protect, restore, and enhance our environment. The Social and Economic Analysis Branch has an interdisciplinary group of scientists whose primary functions are to conduct both theoretical and applied social science research, provide technical assistance, and offer training to support the development of skills in natural resource management activities. Management and research issues associated with human-resource interactions typically occur in a unique context and require knowledge of both natural and social sciences, along with the skill to integrate multiple science disciplines. In response to these challenging contexts, Social and Economic Analysis Branch researchers apply a wide variety of social science concepts and methods which complement our rangeland/agricultural, wildlife, ecology, and biology capabilities. The goal of the Social and Economic Analysis Branch's research is to enhance natural-resource management, agency functions, policies, and decisionmaking.

  6. Ship Compliance in Emission Control Areas: Technology Costs and Policy Instruments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carr, Edward W; Corbett, James J

    2015-08-18

    This paper explores whether a Panama Canal Authority pollution tax could be an effective economic instrument to achieve Emission Control Area (ECA)-like reductions in emissions from ships transiting the Panama Canal. This tariff-based policy action, whereby vessels in compliance with International Maritime Organisation (IMO) ECA standards pay a lower transit tariff than noncompliant vessels, could be a feasible alternative to petitioning for a Panamanian ECA through the IMO. A $4.06/container fuel tax could incentivize ECA-compliant emissions reductions for nearly two-thirds of Panama Canal container vessels, mainly through fuel switching; if the vessel(s) also operate in IMO-defined ECAs, exhaust-gas treatment technologies may be cost-effective. The RATES model presented here compares current abatement technologies based on hours of operation within an ECA, computing costs for a container vessel to comply with ECA standards in addition to computing the Canal tax that would reduce emissions in Panama. Retrofitted open-loop scrubbers are cost-effective only for vessels operating within an ECA for more than 4500 h annually. Fuel switching is the least-cost option to industry for vessels that operate mostly outside of ECA regions, whereas vessels operating entirely within an ECA region could reduce compliance cost with exhaust-gas treatment technology (scrubbers).

  7. Capability and limits of EC policy and instruments for protection of the environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jarass, H.D.; Neumann, L.F.; Pastowski, A.; Ruhr, H.J. von der; Schreiber, F.

    1994-01-01

    The authors who contributed to this compilation of studies start from different points of view in their approaches towards describing the existing (or desirable) balance between centralised and decentralised frameworks and instruments of the EC policy for protection of the environment: A total harmonisation of environmental protection standards would be inconsistent with the principles of competition and, in terms of environmental protection, would rather foster a climate tending to be hostile to innovation. The impetus given by the EC in support of free mobility in the transport sector of the internal market on the other hand ought to be flanked by mandatory ecological standards. Adhering to the economic theory of federalism would mean to decide for a high degree of decentralisation, which in turn does not seem to be altogether appropriate in view of the large scope of impact of environmental damage and the mutual ecological dependence of EC member states. A more centralised regulatory competence has to be accompanied by correspondingly strong, democratic institutions in order to fulfill the principles of constitutional law. The priority given to the principle of subsidiarity in the compromise laid down in the Treaty of Maastricht needs to be given concrete shape [de

  8. A policy instruments working paper on reducing CO2 emissions from the transportation sector in Ontario

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1995-11-01

    The cost effectiveness of policy instruments for reducing CO 2 emissions from transportation was studied. Cost effectiveness analyzed the impact of the policy instruments in reducing CO 2 emissions against the costs that were incurred while obtaining CO 2 reductions. The approach to defining sustainable transportation was identified which integrates three different visions of the transportation challenge: (1) changing urban form to reduce the need for transportation, (2) advancing technology to reduce the ecological impact of transportation, and (3) changing prices of transportation so that users pay for the full social and environmental costs of their decisions. The general consensus was that while fuel tax on gasoline for automobiles appeared to be the most cost effective option available, all revenue generating options, (e.g.,parking pricing, reference energy factor-related rebates, full cost road pricing and taxation) rated higher on the cost effectiveness indexes than any of the other policy instruments considered. refs., tabs., figs

  9. Institution, Financial Sector, and Economic Growth: Use The Institutions As An Instrument Variable

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Albertus Girik Allo

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Institution has been investigated having indirect role on economic growth. This paper aims to evaluate whether the quality of institution matters for economic growth. By applying institution as instrumental variable at Foreign Direct Investment (FDI, quality of institution significantly influence economic growth. This study applies two set of data period, namely 1985-2013 and 2000-2013, available online in the World Bank (WB. The first data set, 1985-2013 is used to estimate the role of financial sector on economic growth, focuses on 67 countries. The second data set, 2000-2013 determine the role of institution on financial sector and economic growth by applying 2SLS estimation method. We define institutional variables as set of indicators: Control of Corruption, Political Stability and Absence of Violence, and Voice and Accountability provide declining impact of FDI to economic growth.

  10. 76 FR 17180 - Advisory Committee on International Economic Policy; Notice of Committee Renewal

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-03-28

    ... provides information and advice on the effective integration of economic interests into overall foreign... DEPARTMENT OF STATE [Public Notice 7327] Advisory Committee on International Economic Policy... Charter of the Advisory Committee on International Economic Policy. The Committee serves in a solely...

  11. Financial Literacy and Economic Outcomes: Evidence and Policy Implications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitchell, Olivia S; Lusardi, Annamaria

    2015-01-01

    This paper reviews what we have learned over the past decade about financial literacy and its relationship to financial decision-making around the world. Using three questions, we have surveyed people in several countries to determine whether they have the fundamental knowledge of economics and finance needed to function as effective decision-makers. We find that levels of financial literacy are low not only in the United States. but also in many other countries including those with well-developed financial markets. Moreover, financial illiteracy is particularly acute for some demographic groups, especially women and the less-educated. These findings are important since financial literacy is linked to borrowing, saving, and spending patterns. We also offer new evidence on financial literacy among high school students drawing on the 2012 Programme for International Student Assessment implemented in 18 countries. Last, we discuss the implications of this research for policy.

  12. FISCAL POLICY AND ECONOMIC DEVELOPMENT IN THE CURRENT FINANCIAL CRISIS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    VALENTIN SAVA

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Fiscal policies in the current era are the sovereign right of states to collect and administer taxes on national territory. In this respect, the European Union, which is an association of independent states, did not created an European tax - although many politicians proposing it - and within the Union is found important differences between the tax systems of member states. Due to historical and national different traditions, the EU member states have heterogeneous tax systems and revenue sharing systems because of different conceptions of public policies relative to the role of state in social and economic respective community’s life. The financing of public spending is usually considered the main function of taxation. In the original tradition following Locke1, property protection is the main functions of the state. As a result, the tax must correspond to the services rendered, that is to say, to pay the State for the protection of the rights it provides. Here we are at the origin of the doctrine of the benefit that there should be equivalence between the utility derived by the citizens of public services they consume and the "price" they pay tax.

  13. Ecosystem change and human health: implementation economics and policy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pattanayak, S K; Kramer, R A; Vincent, J R

    2017-06-05

    Several recent initiatives such as Planetary Health , EcoHealth and One Health claim that human health depends on flourishing natural ecosystems. However, little has been said about the operational and implementation challenges of health-oriented conservation actions on the ground. We contend that ecological-epidemiological research must be complemented by a form of implementation science that examines: (i) the links between specific conservation actions and the resulting ecological changes, and (ii) how this ecological change impacts human health and well-being, when human behaviours are considered. Drawing on the policy evaluation tradition in public economics, first, we present three examples of recent social science research on conservation interventions that affect human health. These examples are from low- and middle-income countries in the tropics and subtropics. Second, drawing on these examples, we present three propositions related to impact evaluation and non-market valuation that can help guide future multidisciplinary research on conservation and human health. Research guided by these propositions will allow stakeholders to determine how ecosystem-mediated strategies for health promotion compare with more conventional biomedical prevention and treatment strategies for safeguarding health.This article is part of the themed issue 'Conservation, biodiversity and infectious disease: scientific evidence and policy implications'. © 2017 The Authors.

  14. Temperature impacts on economic growth warrant stringent mitigation policy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, Frances C.; Diaz, Delavane B.

    2015-02-01

    Integrated assessment models compare the costs of greenhouse gas mitigation with damages from climate change to evaluate the social welfare implications of climate policy proposals and inform optimal emissions reduction trajectories. However, these models have been criticized for lacking a strong empirical basis for their damage functions, which do little to alter assumptions of sustained gross domestic product (GDP) growth, even under extreme temperature scenarios. We implement empirical estimates of temperature effects on GDP growth rates in the DICE model through two pathways, total factor productivity growth and capital depreciation. This damage specification, even under optimistic adaptation assumptions, substantially slows GDP growth in poor regions but has more modest effects in rich countries. Optimal climate policy in this model stabilizes global temperature change below 2 °C by eliminating emissions in the near future and implies a social cost of carbon several times larger than previous estimates. A sensitivity analysis shows that the magnitude of climate change impacts on economic growth, the rate of adaptation, and the dynamic interaction between damages and GDP are three critical uncertainties requiring further research. In particular, optimal mitigation rates are much lower if countries become less sensitive to climate change impacts as they develop, making this a major source of uncertainty and an important subject for future research.

  15. The economic policy options and their connection with inflation and unemployment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bogna Kopeć

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Economic system after 1990 had many fluctuations. This article applies to two essential phenomena in a free market economy: inflation and unemployment. This article applies to changes in the process of inflation and fluctuations in the unemployment rate under different economic policy options. Economic policies can affect the development of the inflation and unemployment. It includes interest rates and budget deficits. Methodology of model is based on a pendulum. Economic policy has been designated as a synthetic indicator of the resultant two policies - monetary and fiscal policies. With the help of the pendulum model has been established that the character had run monetary and fiscal policy, and how developed as economic policy. By the dominance of one of the policy options is understood that during cycles level inflation or the deficit fluctuated strongly to economic stabilization. One of the stages of the study was to analyze the monetary policy and assess whether there is a link between the evolution of interest rates and the evolution of the inflation rate. In a similar way, fiscal policy was analyzed. This article attempts to determine whether the conduct of economic policy was correct, and has had an impact on the economic situation.

  16. Economic analysis of Brazilian policies for energy efficient electric motors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Andrade, Cássio Tersandro de Castro; Pontes, Ricardo Silva Thé

    2017-01-01

    Brazil is leading several energy efficiency initiatives and has ambitious goals for 2030, according to the Brazilian National Energy Plan 2030. One of the main initiatives is the minimum efficiency performance standards (MEPS) program for energy-driven equipment and the electric motors appear as the most significant one (49% share of the total electricity consumption). The MEPS levels set new grades for efficiency, and then manufacturers and consumers have to conform to the new products and costs. Policy makers have to economically assess the effects of these MEPS in order to maintain the market stability. Since the benefits of this program come from future energy savings, this cost-effective analysis has to consider the parameters uncertainty and the results should reinforce the market players’ confidence. Thus, the goal of this work is, first, to analyze the economic viability of the MEPS transitions in Brazil considering the uncertainty of the parameters involved and then, to estimate the effects of this program on the energy savings goals for 2030. At the end, we also verify whether this investment in energy efficiency is competitive with other forms of investments in energy. - Highlights: • A cost-effectiveness method with uncertainty for efficiency program is presented. • Savings from electric motors MEPS program makes the 2030 Brazilian goals possible. • Electric motors MEPS program cost-effectiveness in Brazil is confirmed. • Saved energy cost from efficiency improvement is a competitive energy investment.

  17. BUSINESS INTELLIGENCE APPLICATIONS – POSSIBLE INSTRUMENTS FOR ECONOMIC INTEGRATION WITHIN THE EASTERN PARTNERSHIP

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dragos Ovidiu TOFAN

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Eastern Partnership includes, in addition to bilateral components (Association Agreements, Deep and Comprehensive Free Trade Areas/DCFTA, also a multilateral dimension as "economic integration and convergence with EU policies". This stated purpose of the partnership involves the need for adaptability to regional conditions and a differentiated approach to economies in the region in order to establish common objectives. Partner countries have aspirations that vary by geographic location, state of relations with the European Union and Russia, foreign policy objectives in medium and long term, real prospects of joining the European Union, or internal stability in economic and social aspects. Macroeconomic indicators specific to each country must undergo a dynamic analysis aimed on current situations and also on evolution of economic life. Thus, it requires processing a huge volume of historical data, creating possible scenarios based on policies implemented or being implemented to reach comprehensive information to provide a realistic picture of the economic growth at the macro level. Successfully implemented in enterprises, Business Intelligence (BI applications can be used to analyze large volume of data required to be processed to reach full and useful reports for the process of negotiation between the partners involved in the agreements referred and, very importantly, to establish a common language for all bodies and institutions co-opted into negotiations. Differences between the EU and other Eastern Partnership countries are obvious but economic common terms and methods or techniques of similar work can help plan positive developments in the negotiations and the desired convergence of economic policies. Business Intelligence tools simplify the presentation of needed information for discussions and provide a foundation in starting up joint analysis of economic dynamics in the area to reach complete and actual lines of future possible

  18. The Holding Company as an Instrument of Companies’ Tax-Financial Policy Formation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dominik Gajewski

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this article is to present the holding institution as an economic and taxation solution. This article describes the holding company, indicates its advantages and disadvantages, and compares it to similar solutions. The main goal of holding companies is to change tax policies. As a result of these institutions, companies can change their tax status and economic situation. The holding institution influences the economic development of its constituent companies. The functioning of a holding company also has great importance for economic development. Establishing holdings is a worldwide trend that may be realised through various models.

  19. FINANCIAL DEVELOPMENT, INSTITUTIONS AND ECONOMIC POLICY – PANEL DATA EVIDENCE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Filippidis Ioannis

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available In recent years significant researches have been done to identify what are the determinants of financial development. With regard to this outline, the main objective is to investigate the effect of economic, political and social dimension of institutional quality, as well as the effect of political and macroeconomic factors on financial development. More specifically, the present work aims to contribute to the relevant literature in the following ways: i in the econometric front, we employ dynamic panel techniques, that allow for heterogeneity among variables, avoiding the known problems of traditional techniques. More specifically, we employ the “system GMM” estimator developed by Arellano and Bover (1995, and Blundell and Bond (1998, controlling for endogeneity among variables; ii we disentangle into economic, political and social institutional quality in order to quantify the effect of institutions on financial development and check the robustness of our results; iii in the same logic, we decompose our measure of financial openness into equity- and loan-related foreign assets and liabilities in order to assess whether the hoarding of risky vs. riskless assets or the accumulation of equity vs. debt liabilities affect the development of domestic financial institutions; and iv to control for a potential bias among variables, we include a large set of information, which covers all the spectrum of possible effects on finance, giving emphasis on political factors and government policies. Our main finding from the regression analyses is a robust empirical relationship from institutions to financial development, a result consistent with most empirical studies. Also, we find a stronger effect from economic institutions to banking sector development and from political institutions to stock market development. Regarding the trade and finance link, we find that openness has a much stronger association with bank-based finance than with stock market

  20. The Economics of Biofuel Policies. Impacts on Price Volatility in Grain and Oilseed Markets

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gorter, de H.; Drabik, D.

    2015-01-01

    The global food crises of 2008 and 2010 and the increased price volatility revolve around biofuels policies and their interaction with each other, farm policies and between countries. The Economics of Biofuel Policies focuses on the role of biofuel policies in creating turmoil in the world grains

  1. From theory based policy evaluation to SMART Policy Design: Lessons learned from 20 ex-post evaluations of energy efficiency instruments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Harmelink, Mirjam; Harmsen, Robert; Nilsson, Lars

    2007-01-01

    This article presents the results of an in-depth ex-post analysis of 20 energy efficiency policy instruments applied across different sectors and countries. Within the AID-EE project, we reconstructed and analysed the implementation process of energy efficiency policy instruments with the aim to identify key factors behind successes and failures. The analysis was performed using a uniform methodology called 'theory based policy evaluation'. With this method the whole implementation process is assessed with the aim to identify: (i) the main hurdles in each step of the implementation process, (ii) key success factors for different types of instruments and (iii) the key indicators that need to be monitored to enable a sound evaluation of the energy efficiency instruments. Our analysis shows that: Energy efficiency policies often lack quantitative targets and clear timeframes; Often policy instruments have multiple and/or unclear objectives; The need for monitoring information does often not have priority in the design phase; For most instruments, monitoring information is collected on a regular basis. However, this information is often insufficient to determine the impact on energy saving, cost-effectiveness and target achievement of an instrument; Monitoring and verification of actual energy savings have a relatively low priority for most of the analyzed instruments. There is no such thing as the 'best' policy instrument. However, typical circumstances in which to apply different types of instruments and generic characteristics that determine success or failure can be identified. Based on the assessments and the experience from applying theory based policy evaluation ex-post, we suggest that this should already be used in the policy formulation and design phase of instruments. We conclude that making policy theory an integral and mandated part of the policy process would facilitate more efficient and effective energy efficiency instruments

  2. Who Is a Stream? Epistemic Communities, Instrument Constituencies and Advocacy Coalitions in Public Policy-Making

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ishani Mukherjee

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available John Kingdon’s Multiple Streams Framework (MSF was articulated in order to better understand how issues entered onto policy agendas, using the concept of policy actors interacting over the course of sequences of events in what he referred to as the “problem”, “policy” and “politics” “streams”. However, it is not a priori certain who the agents are in this process and how they interact with each other. As was common at the time, in his study Kingdon used an undifferentiated concept of a “policy subsystem” to group together and capture the activities of various policy actors involved in this process. However, this article argues that the policy world Kingdon envisioned can be better visualized as one composed of distinct subsets of actors who engage in one specific type of interaction involved in the definition of policy problems: either the articulation of problems, the development of solutions, or their enactment. Rather than involve all subsystem actors, this article argues that three separate sets of actors are involved in these tasks: epistemic communities are engaged in discourses about policy problems; instrument constituencies define policy alternatives and instruments; and advocacy coalitions compete to have their choice of policy alternatives adopted. Using this lens, the article focuses on actor interactions involved both in the agenda-setting activities Kingdon examined as well as in the policy formulation activities following the agenda setting stage upon which Kingdon originally worked. This activity involves the definition of policy goals (both broad and specific, the creation of the means and mechanisms to realize these goals, and the set of bureaucratic, partisan, electoral and other political struggles involved in their acceptance and transformation into action. Like agenda-setting, these activities can best be modeled using a differentiated subsystem approach.

  3. Clean Energy-Related Economic Development Policy across the States: Establishing a 2016 Baseline

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cook, Jeffrey J. [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)

    2017-01-01

    States implement clean energy-related economic development policy to spur innovation, manufacturing, and to address other priorities. This report focuses on those policies most directly related to expanding new and existing manufacturing. The extent to which states invest in this policymaking depends on political drivers and jurisdictional economic development priorities. To date, no one source has collected all of the clean energy-related economic development policies available across the 50 states. Thus, it is unclear how many policies exist within each state and how these policies, when implemented, can drive economic development. Establishing the baseline of existing policy is a critical first step in determining the potential holistic impact of these policies on driving economic growth in a state. The goal of this report is to document the clean energy-related economic development policy landscape across the 50 states with a focus on policy that seeks to expand new or existing manufacturing within a state. States interested in promoting clean energy manufacturing in their jurisdictions may be interested in reviewing this landscape to determine how they compare to peers and to adjust their policies as necessary. This report documents over 900 existing clean energy-related economic development laws, financial incentives (technology-agnostic and clean energy focused), and other policies such as agency-directed programs and initiatives across the states.

  4. THE IMPACT OF MONETARY POLICY ON BANK CREDIT DURING ECONOMIC CRISIS: INDONESIA’S EXPERIENCE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdul Mongid

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available The monetary policy mechanism by which monetary policy was transmitted to thereal economy had emerged as the pivotal discussion topic recently. This paper tried to discussthe impact of Bank Indonesia’s monetary policy on loan bank. By using simple loan bankframework we concluded that monetary policies were able to influence loan bank. Themonetary variables such as discount rate policy, base money and exchange rate policy werevery important in determining the banking credit. As the credit was very important to influencesthe economic activitiy, the result provided evidence that monetary policy was important as atool to control economic activity via credit channel. The validity of this study challenged thehypotheses that monetary policy was death. However, monetary policy maker should carefullyconsider the soundness of the banking industry because it was a strategic partner for monetaryauthority to control the economic activities.

  5. Voluntary agreements with white certificates for energy efficiency improvement as a hybrid policy instrument

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Oikonomou, V.; Patel, M.K.; van der Gaast, W.; Rietbergen, M.G.

    2009-01-01

    In this paper we examine the implementation of a combined policy scheme that consists of a traditional instrument, the voluntary agreements (VAs), and an innovative one, the white certificates (WhC). The basic structure of this scheme is that energy suppliers who undertake an energy efficiency

  6. Voluntary agreements with white certificates for energy efficiency improvement as a hybrid policy instrument

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Oikonomou, V.; Patel, M. K.; van der Gaast, W.; Rietbergen, M.

    In this paper we examine the implementation of a combined policy scheme that consists of a traditional instrument, the voluntary agreements (VAs), and an innovative one, the white certificates (WhC). The basic structure of this scheme is that energy suppliers who undertake an energy efficiency

  7. Utility of Military Strategy as an Instrument of Foreign Policy | Ebaye ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This research has taken a critical appraisal of state actors in the international system, and the utility of military power as an instrument of foreign policy. The paper asserts as Osgood did, that one of the main prerequisite of a credible state actor is to develop the military compatibilities and political will, to back its diplomacy by ...

  8. Assessment of current Dutch energy transition policy instruments for the existing housing stock

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tambach, Milly; Hasselaar, Evert; Itard, Laure

    2010-01-01

    This research assesses to what extent current Dutch energy transition policy instruments for the existing housing stock can fulfil local executive actors' needs and instigate adoption of energy efficiency measures by them. This is done by studying energy policy instruments for the existing housing stock in the Netherlands and in other European countries, and by an empirical research, which analyses barriers and needs of local executive actors. We found that, despite current Dutch energy transition policy instruments for the existing housing stock seem to fulfil local executive actors' needs to a large extent, complementary policy instruments are needed to stimulate and pressure the incumbent renovation regime. A long-term oriented financial rewarding system is needed to build up a structural market for the deployment of renewables, to increase the number of specialist jobs in the building sector, and to stimulate the development of integrated, standardized, building components. Furthermore, a long-term oriented financial rewarding system for energy efficiency investments in housing renovation projects, and a low VAT rate applied to energy efficient renovation measures, are needed. Finally, enforcement possibilities and sanctions (fines) should become an integrative part of Dutch energy certification regulation to make the certificate become part of a value chain.

  9. "Economic microscope": The agent-based model set as an instrument in an economic system research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berg, D. B.; Zvereva, O. M.; Akenov, Serik

    2017-07-01

    To create a valid model of a social or economic system one must consider a lot of parameters, conditions and restrictions. Systems and, consequently, the corresponding models are proved to be very complicated. The problem of such system model engineering can't be solved only with mathematical methods usage. The decision could be found in computer simulation. Simulation does not reject mathematical methods, mathematical expressions could become the foundation for a computer model. In these materials the set of agent-based computer models is under discussion. All the set models simulate productive agents communications, but every model is geared towards the specific goal, and, thus, has its own algorithm and its own peculiarities. It is shown that computer simulation can discover new features of the agents' behavior that can not be obtained by analytical solvation of mathematical equations and thus plays the role of some kind of economic microscope.

  10. Methods and tools to simulate the effect of economic instruments in complex water resources systems. Application to the Jucar river basin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lopez-Nicolas, Antonio; Pulido-Velazquez, Manuel

    2014-05-01

    The main challenge of the BLUEPRINT to safeguard Europe's water resources (EC, 2012) is to guarantee that enough good quality water is available for people's needs, the economy and the environment. In this sense, economic policy instruments such as water pricing policies and water markets can be applied to enhance efficient use of water. This paper presents a method based on hydro-economic tools to assess the effect of economic instruments on water resource systems. Hydro-economic models allow integrated analysis of water supply, demand and infrastructure operation at the river basin scale, by simultaneously combining engineering, hydrologic and economic aspects of water resources management. The method made use of the simulation and optimization hydroeconomic tools SIMGAMS and OPTIGAMS. The simulation tool SIMGAMS allocates water resources among the users according to priorities and operating rules, and evaluate economic scarcity costs of the system by using economic demand functions. The model's objective function is designed so that the system aims to meet the operational targets (ranked according to priorities) at each month while following the system operating rules. The optimization tool OPTIGAMS allocates water resources based on an economic efficiency criterion: maximize net benefits, or alternatively, minimizing the total water scarcity and operating cost of water use. SIMGAS allows to simulate incentive water pricing policies based on marginal resource opportunity costs (MROC; Pulido-Velazquez et al., 2013). Storage-dependent step pricing functions are derived from the time series of MROC values at a certain reservoir in the system. These water pricing policies are defined based on water availability in the system (scarcity pricing), so that when water storage is high, the MROC is low, while low storage (drought periods) will be associated to high MROC and therefore, high prices. We also illustrate the use of OPTIGAMS to simulate the effect of ideal water

  11. Challenges of the Energiewende from a policy analysis perspective. Understanding the goals and improving the policy instruments of Germany's energy transition

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Joas, Fabian

    2017-05-19

    Germany is currently restructuring its energy system, an endeavor its chancellor, Angela Merkel, called the project of the century. This Energiewende has moved into rough waters in recent years. The relatively high and rapidly growing shares of fluctuating renewable energy sources (mainly wind and photovoltaic) have led to numerous technical and socio-economic challenges. The unclear and sometimes contradictory policy goals of the Energiewende as well as suboptimally designed policy instruments in key areas of the Energiewende are the two major areas of concerns of this dissertation. The aim of this dissertation is to contribute to the solution of selected challenges of the Energiewende in the context of goals and policy instruments. In this regard, the following four research questions are addressed: 1. What are the goals of the Energiewende and how do they interact with the design of policy instruments? 2. What are the impacts of the German nuclear phase-out on the electricity market and the security of supply? 3. How do different designs of support mechanisms for renewable energy affect the riskdistribution between society, investors in renewable energy and investors in conventional power plants? 4. What is the impact of ex-post transaction costs on the cost-effectiveness of selected climate policy instruments? The main results and the subsequent policy conclusions of this thesis can be summarized as follows: The research on the goals of the Energiewende was based on a survey among elite policy actors, which showed that climate protection is the most important goal of the Energiewende. However, climate protection is neither the only goal, nor an indispensable one. Additional goals such as the nuclear phase-out, import independence from fossil fuels and job creation also play an important role. A large majority agrees that the Energiewende would make sense even if climate change did not exist. The following policy conclusions can be derived: first, there should

  12. Challenges of the Energiewende from a policy analysis perspective. Understanding the goals and improving the policy instruments of Germany's energy transition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Joas, Fabian

    2017-01-01

    Germany is currently restructuring its energy system, an endeavor its chancellor, Angela Merkel, called the project of the century. This Energiewende has moved into rough waters in recent years. The relatively high and rapidly growing shares of fluctuating renewable energy sources (mainly wind and photovoltaic) have led to numerous technical and socio-economic challenges. The unclear and sometimes contradictory policy goals of the Energiewende as well as suboptimally designed policy instruments in key areas of the Energiewende are the two major areas of concerns of this dissertation. The aim of this dissertation is to contribute to the solution of selected challenges of the Energiewende in the context of goals and policy instruments. In this regard, the following four research questions are addressed: 1. What are the goals of the Energiewende and how do they interact with the design of policy instruments? 2. What are the impacts of the German nuclear phase-out on the electricity market and the security of supply? 3. How do different designs of support mechanisms for renewable energy affect the riskdistribution between society, investors in renewable energy and investors in conventional power plants? 4. What is the impact of ex-post transaction costs on the cost-effectiveness of selected climate policy instruments? The main results and the subsequent policy conclusions of this thesis can be summarized as follows: The research on the goals of the Energiewende was based on a survey among elite policy actors, which showed that climate protection is the most important goal of the Energiewende. However, climate protection is neither the only goal, nor an indispensable one. Additional goals such as the nuclear phase-out, import independence from fossil fuels and job creation also play an important role. A large majority agrees that the Energiewende would make sense even if climate change did not exist. The following policy conclusions can be derived: first, there should

  13. Carbon mitigation with biomass: An engineering, economic and policy assessment of opportunities and implications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rhodes, James S., III

    2007-12-01

    Industrial bio-energy systems provide diverse opportunities for abating anthropogenic greenhouse gas ("GHG") emissions and for advancing other important policy objectives. The confluence of potential contributions to important social, economic, and environmental policy objectives with very real challenges to deployment creates rich opportunities for study. In particular, the analyses developed in this thesis aim to increase understanding of how industrial bio-energy may be applied to abate GHG emissions in prospective energy markets, the relative merits of alternate bio-energy systems, the extent to which public support for developing such systems is justified, and the public policy instruments that may be capable of providing such support. This objective is advanced through analysis of specific industrial bio-energy technologies, in the form of bottom-up engineering-economic analyses, to determine their economic performance relative to other mitigation options. These bottom-up analyses are used to inform parameter definitions in two higher-level stochastic models that explicitly account for uncertainty in key model parameters, including capital costs, operating and maintenance costs, and fuel costs. One of these models is used to develop supply curves for electricity generation and carbon mitigation from biomass-coal cofire in the U.S. The other is used to characterize the performance of multiple bio-energy systems in the context of a competitive market for low-carbon energy products. The results indicate that industrial bio-energy systems are capable of making a variety of potentially important contributions under scenarios that value anthropogenic GHG emissions. In the near term, cofire of available biomass in existing coal fired power plants has the potential to provide substantial emissions reductions at reasonable costs. Carbon prices between 30 and 70 per ton carbon could induce reductions in U.S. carbon emissions by 100 to 225 megatons carbon ("Mt

  14. Social murder: the long-term effects of conservative economic policy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chernomas, Robert; Hudson, Ian

    2009-01-01

    In this article, the authors take inspiration from Engels's 1845 account of the social murder committed by British capitalists to assess the contemporary impact of conservative economic policy, which they define as policies designed to maximize the accumulation of profit while socializing the associated risks and costs. Conservative economists argue that if their policy prescription is followed, it will produce broad-based economic benefits including more rapid growth, higher incomes, less illness, and, even, more democracy. The authors contrast the myth of conservative economic policy with the reality. What conservative economic policy has actually accomplished is a redistribution of wealth and power away from the vast majority of the population to firms and their owners. The effects of these policies on citizens and workers have been socially determined economic instability, unemployment, poverty, inequality, dangerous products, and infectious and chronic disease.

  15. Probabilistic economic analysis of green roof benefits for policy design

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Clark, C.; Adriaens, P.; Talbot, B.

    2006-01-01

    The installation costs of green roofs continue to deter widespread use of green roof technology. Analyses of the boundary conditions for the cost differential between a green roof and a conventional roof are usually compared to environmental benefits such as storm water reduction and building energy savings. However, evidence is emerging that green roofs may play a role in urban air quality improvement. This paper discussed a methodology for developing probabilistic ranges of benefits and cost analyses. A probabilistic analysis was conducted to prepare a generalized cost-benefit analysis for application to a range of green roof projects. Environmental benefits of roof greening were quantified on a per unit surface area to assess environmental impact at the building scale. Parameters included conventional and green roof installation costs; storm water fees and fee reductions for green roofs; energy costs due to heat flux and the resultant savings through the installation of a green roof and the additional economic valuation of the public health benefits due to air pollution mitigation. Results were then integrated into an economic model to determine the length of time required for a return on investment in a green roof, assuming that a traditional roof would require replacement after 20 years. A net present value analysis was performed for an average-sized university roof. Results of the study showed that a valuation of environmental benefits can reduce the time required for a return on investment in a moderately priced green roof. While reduced installation costs reduced the time required for a return on investment, optimizing the green roof system for maximum environmental benefit had a greater potential to provide a higher return. It was concluded that the benefit of improved air quality should not be ignored by green roof policy-makers as a valuation tool. 10 refs., 3 tabs., 1 fig

  16. Economic and policy implications of the cumulative carbon budget

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allen, M. R.; Otto, F. E. L.; Otto, A.; Hepburn, C.

    2014-12-01

    The importance of cumulative carbon emissions in determining long-term risks of climate change presents considerable challenges to policy makers. The traditional notion of "total CO2-equivalent emissions", which forms the backbone of agreements such as the Kyoto Protocol and the European Emissions Trading System, is fundamentally flawed. Measures to reduce short-lived climate pollutants benefit the current generation, while measures to reduce long-lived climate pollutants benefit future generations, so there is no sense in which they can ever be considered equivalent. Debates over the correct metric used to compute CO2-equivalence are thus entirely moot: both long-lived and short-lived emissions will need to be addressed if all generations are to be protected from dangerous climate change. As far as long-lived climate pollutants are concerned, the latest IPCC report highlights the overwhelming importance of carbon capture and storage in determining the cost of meeting the goal of limiting anthropogenic warming to two degrees. We will show that this importance arises directly from the cumulative carbon budget and the role of CCS as the technology of last resort before economic activity needs to be restricted to meet ambitious climate targets. It highlights the need to increase the rate of CCS deployment by orders of magnitude if the option of avoiding two degrees is to be retained. The difficulty of achieving this speed of deployment through conventional incentives and carbon-pricing mechanisms suggests a need for a much more direct mandatory approach. Despite their theoretical economic inefficiency, the success of recent regulatory measures in achieving greenhouse gas emissions reductions in jurisdictions such as the United States suggests an extension of the regulatory approach could be a more effective and politically acceptable means of achieving adequately rapid CCS deployment than conventional carbon taxes or cap-and-trade systems.

  17. IMPACT OF POLICIES AND PUBLIC FINANCING INSTRUMENTS ON R&D INVESTMENTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Steliana SANDU

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper is based on the Romania country review, produced as internal working papers for the research project “Monitoring and analysis of policies and public financing instruments conducive to higher levels of R&D investment”. The aim of the project is to serve as support for policy developments in Europe, notably in the framework of CREST activities. It is running by a consortium of 7 partners:· UNU-MERIT (The Netherlands, consortium leader·Technopolis (The Netherlands· PREST – University of Manchester (United Kingdom· ZEW (Germany· Joanneum Research (Austria· Wiseguys Ltd. (United Kingdom and INTRASOFT International (Luxembourg. Each country review provides expert’s view on the policy mix and its is to provide an exploratory analysis of the current policy mixes in place and detect the most important areas of interactions between instruments as well as new modes of policy governance that are particularly adapted (or detrimental for the building of policy mixes.

  18. Environmental potentials of policy instruments to mitigate nutrient emissions in Chinese livestock production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Chaohui; Liu, Yi; Bluemling, Bettina; Mol, Arthur P J; Chen, Jining

    2015-01-01

    To minimize negative environmental impact of livestock production, policy-makers face a challenge to design and implement more effective policy instruments for livestock farmers at different scales. This research builds an assessment framework on the basis of an agent-based model, named ANEM, to explore nutrient mitigation potentials of five policy instruments, using pig production in Zhongjiang county, southwest China, as the empirical filling. The effects of different policy scenarios are simulated and compared using four indicators and differentiating between small, medium and large scale pig farms. Technology standards, biogas subsidies and information provisioning prove to be the most effective policies, while pollution fees and manure markets fail to environmentally improve manure management in pig livestock farming. Medium-scale farms are the more relevant scale category for a more environmentally sound development of Chinese livestock production. A number of policy recommendations are formulated as conclusion, as well as some limitations and prospects of the simulations are discussed. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Influence of Government economic policies on mining legislation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jakob, K F

    1980-01-01

    As we know from experience, the relation between state and economy is characterized by more or less strong tensions. The following three groups have always claimed the right to dispose of mineral resources: the state - in former times the sovereign -, the landowners, and the mining industry. The first one has based his claim on his official power and has taken the view that he alone could protect the interests of the general public in winning mineral resources. The second ones have relied on their titles to real estates which basically cover unlimited depth. With the intent to work the mines, the mining industry refers to its know-how, performance and readiness, thus alleging that they would serve the national economy best. The historical development of mining laws has finally been characterized by a shift in priorities within these naturally strained relations which exist between state, landowners, and mining industry. It is examined how the emphasis has been shifted in this relationship in the course of time, with special consideration of the relationship between state and mining industry. Which rules of law the legislator intends to make with regard to mining laws will always depend on the question as to which economic policy the state intends to pursue.

  20. Kazakhstan's economic soft balancing policy vis-à-vis Russia: From the Eurasian Union to the economic cooperation with Turkey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lyailya Nurgaliyeva

    2016-01-01

    When Russia started asserting its economic and political power over the Central Asian and Caspian regions, Nazarbayev once again resorted to the economic soft balancing policy, but this time by relying on outside players. Part 2 of this article discusses two cases of such external economic soft balancing efforts: participation in the Baku–Tbilisi–Ceyhan (BTC pipeline project, and the economic cooperation with Turkey as part of a free trade zone. The BTC pipeline project and the close economic cooperation with Turkey ended up being a more productive soft balancing effort than the earlier Eurasian Union initiative.

  1. Climate change policies in Norway and the Netherlands: different instruments, similar outcome?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Christer, C.A.; Birger, S.J.

    2005-01-01

    This paper examines the extent to which climate change policies and instruments in Norway and the Netherlands have provided continuous incentives for the development, adoption and diffusion of new abatement technologies. More specifically, the paper examines whether differences between the types of instruments adopted (Dutch voluntary agreements and the Norwegian CO 2 tax), problem type and domestic political context have affected technological change in the two countries' petroleum sectors. In brief, empirical evidence suggests that the two cases display quite similar outcomes in terms of technological change. That said, there are also important differences, pertaining most notably to the development and adoption of radical innovations in the Norwegian petroleum sector. The differences are in turn attributed to the interplay between the respective policy instruments adopted and the political contexts in which they are applied. These findings are important not only for policymakers involved in the selection of effective instruments in climate change policy, but also for the development of theories and analytical frameworks to examine and assess dynamic efficiency. (author)

  2. Positive Impact of Art as a Communication Instrument on Economical Productivity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sedat Cereci

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available There are many factors that affect economical productivity like climate, or like raw materials or like international relationships or like physchology of employers. Professional organisations or companies use different instruments to increase producticity on economy. Spiritual conditions of employers and employees are especially regarded for economical productivity recently. Though economy is mostly a concrete area, main component of economy is human and human need spiritual support and impacts in his life. It is known that spiritual support always feed human and provide him much energy. Employers or companies who are interested in art and who participate in artistic activities become more productive than others and attract people to their productions.

  3. Economic downturn : A threat for creative city policy or blessing in disguise?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Romein, A.; Trip, J.J.

    2011-01-01

    Since at least a decade the creative city concept is very much en vogue. Culture and creativity are regarded drivers of urban economic development, and therefore as important elements of urban economic policy. In practice however, local policy in many cities is determined by a considerable degree of

  4. The need for economic policy coordination between Europe, Japan, and the United States: Policy recommendations for the 1990s

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    A. Knoester (Anthonie); A. Kolodziejak (André)

    1994-01-01

    textabstractBetter policy coordination between Europe, Japan, and the United States is urgently needed in order to restore economic growth and to diminish mutual trade imbalances. Using the EC Compact model it is shown how coordinated fiscal policies can contribute to reaching these goals in the

  5. Policy instruments for evolution of bounded rationality: Application to climate-energy problems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nannen, V.; van den Bergh, J.C.J.M.

    2010-01-01

    We demonstrate how an evolutionary agent-based model can be used to evaluate climate policies that take the heterogeneity of strategies of individual agents into account. An essential feature of the model is that the fitness of an economic strategy is determined by the relative welfare of the

  6. Implementing adaptation strategies by legal, economic and planning instruments on climate change

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Albrecht, Eike; Missler-Behr, Magdalena; Schmidt, Michael; Spyra, Simon P.N. (eds.) [Brandenburg Univ. of Technology Cottbus-Senftenberg (Germany)

    2014-07-01

    The causes and effects of climate change are just as varied as the proposed solutions and approaches for dealing with the problem. Given the global character of climate change, comprehensive global cooperation is called for that leads to effective and appropriate international action in accordance with the respective responsibilities. These will inevitably differ depending on the capabilities and the social and economic situations of the respective actors. The contributions in this book present a variety of ideas, approaches and tools regarding the adaptation to climate change in specific countries and regions. In addition to examining (existing) legal instruments, they also focus on the implementation of economic instruments and planning tools, as well as their (further) development. Rather than simply discussing strategies to counteract climate change by reducing emissions, the authors also search for ways of actively adapting to climate change.

  7. Implementing adaptation strategies by legal, economic and planning instruments on climate change

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Albrecht, Eike; Missler-Behr, Magdalena; Schmidt, Michael; Spyra, Simon P.N.

    2014-01-01

    The causes and effects of climate change are just as varied as the proposed solutions and approaches for dealing with the problem. Given the global character of climate change, comprehensive global cooperation is called for that leads to effective and appropriate international action in accordance with the respective responsibilities. These will inevitably differ depending on the capabilities and the social and economic situations of the respective actors. The contributions in this book present a variety of ideas, approaches and tools regarding the adaptation to climate change in specific countries and regions. In addition to examining (existing) legal instruments, they also focus on the implementation of economic instruments and planning tools, as well as their (further) development. Rather than simply discussing strategies to counteract climate change by reducing emissions, the authors also search for ways of actively adapting to climate change.

  8. GLOBALIZATION AND THE DECLINE OF THE UNITED STATES ECONOMIC INSTRUMENT OF POWER

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-06-01

    of global trade relations. Whereas forty years ago, 90 percent of international trade consisted of mercantilist goods; today , 90 percent of... GLOBALIZATION AND THE DECLINE OF THE UNITED STATES ECONOMIC INSTRUMENT OF POWER BY MAJOR JOSH WATKINS A THESIS PRESENTED TO THE...bachelor of business administration degree from Old Dominion University in 2001. He was commissioned through Officer Training School in 2002 and his

  9. Coupled energy economic model framework for analyzing Swiss electricity markets in changing policy environments

    OpenAIRE

    Maire, Sophie

    2016-01-01

    Energy policy needs to rely on the proper understanding of the interactions between policy instruments, consumer preferences, investment behavior, market structure, electricity supply, and the wider policy environment. This asks for appropriate modeling tools, able to represent precisely electricity supply options, model all types of energy and climate policies, as well as the reactions of the rest of the economy. Chapter 2 describes the ELECTRA-CH framework, developed to analyze electrici...

  10. A HUMANISING ECONOMIC APPROACH ON COMPETITION POLICY OR HOW THE BEHAVIORAL ECONOMICS BLENDS WITH “TRADITIONAL ECONOMICS”

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liviana Andreea Niminet

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Behavioral are crucial for understanding both the consumer’s attitude and firms’ attitude as well as for understanding the market outcomes. The past ten years brought a lot of attention from researchers and policy-makers on the behavioral economics issue. Classical, traditional economic models rely on the assumptions of rationality and ordered preferences. Behavioral economics explores interactions between demand and supply including information framing, the use of heuristics in decision-making and time-inconsistent preferences. The research on behavioral economics has led to an extensive debate about the relative merits of both traditional and behavioral economics. First of all we propose to highlight the advantages and disadvantages of behavioral economics versus traditional economics on a very sensitive issue: the competition policy. Then we address market issues that can be solved by means of behavioral economics afterwards turning out attention to the remedies of behavioral economics and ,last but not least, the United Kingdom successful model on the matter of competition policy.

  11. Energy policy after 2020 : Economic arguments to pursue energy policy for non-climate related reasons

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kocsis, V.; Koutstaal, P.; Tieben, B.; van Hout, M.; Hof, B.

    2012-01-01

    This research investigates the contribution of sustainable energy policy and energy saving policy to the public goals of energy policy in the Netherlands. Not surprisingly current discussion about sustainable energy policy focus on the contribution of energy policy to the goals of climate policy,

  12. Classification of economic and legal remedies for the realization of the state regional policy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Лілія Сергіївна Тертишна

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available The article is devoted to the study of the economic and legal mechanism for ensuring the functioning of the state regional policy in Ukraine. The existing legal and regulatory framework on the availability in it necessary and sufficient conceptual apparatus, a list of economic and legal items or the effective implementation of the state regional policy is analyzed. The main defects of the legislation regulating the state regional policy are defined. State regional policy is a fragment of social and economic policies in the scale of its specific administrative units – regions, and in content – by the means of a synthesis of economic and legal methods aimed at solving problems of state investment, innovation, foreign trade, sectoral policies, where the economic and legal means are regarding the economic part of this policy. It was substantiated that the efficiency of national regional policy depends on how successfully the state can combine and integrate all the directions and types of policies and especially their economic and legal means. It is established, that the general means of state regulation are defined in the Commercial Code of Ukraine as a key. However, there is a need to identify and consolidate the entire system of economic and legal means of state regulation that can be applied in the implementation of the state regional policy and to determine the specific implementation mechanisms. It was found that for all state regional policy objects the universal are such economic law enforcement actions as a public-private partnership and special modes of management.

  13. Towards a successful and sustainable energy policy. Advice for the Dutch Ministry of Economic Affairs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2006-12-01

    The recommendations in this report of the Social and Economic Council of the Netherlands (SER) is focused on the energy transition policy in the Netherlands, coordinated by the Dutch Ministry of Economic Affairs. The three main subjects in the sustainable energy policy in the Netherlands are climatic change, supply security and the accessibility and cost of energy. The SER is in favor of a strong energy policy, aiming at reliable, clean and affordable energy supply [nl

  14. Effect of the economic recession on pharmaceutical policy and medicine sales in eight European countries

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Leopold, Christine; Mantel-Teeuwisse, Aukje K; Vogler, Sabine; Valkova, Silvia; de Joncheere, Kees; Leufkens, Hubert G M; Wagner, Anita K; Ross-Degnan, Dennis; Laing, Richard

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To identify pharmaceutical policy changes during the economic recession in eight European countries and to determine whether policy measures resulted in lower sales of, and less expenditure on, pharmaceuticals. METHODS: Information on pharmaceutical policy changes between 2008 and 2011 in

  15. Ecological and economic impacts of forest policies: interactions across forestry and agriculture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    R.J. Alig; D.M. Adams; B.A. McCarl

    1998-01-01

    A linked model of the US forest and agriculture sectors was used to examine the economic and ecological impacts of two forest policies: a minimum harvest age limitation and a reduced public harvest policy. Simulated private responses to both policies indicate that landowners could undertake a range of adjustments to minimize their welfare impacts, but imposition of...

  16. Correlation between Government and Economic Growth –Fiscal Policy during the Transition in Albania

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MSc. Xhenet Syka

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available In this paper we tried to analyze some aspects of fiscal policy in our country, without pretending to give our own sample. Fiscal policy is the use of government expenditures and taxes which affect economic activity. Determination of fiscal policy in a given year takes into account the time virtually the past (current socio-economic status and the implications for the future (fiscal sustainability. In general the cases dealt the role fiscal policy plays toward economic growth. The analysis many focused both in the theoretical treatment as well as the role that fiscal policy has played in our country, going even further in some suggestions for the future. The most important issue was addressed in the long-term fiscal policy view, fiscal sustainability. In the final everything is addressed to the role of fiscal policy on social issues. The role that fiscal policy should play in economic and social development has long been a controversial issue and is still different among economists. While a restrictive fiscal policy means increasing taxes and cut government spending. Fiscal policy may be expansionary or restrictive. An expansionary fiscal policy means a reduction of direct and indirect taxes and increased government expenditures. Choose between two types of fiscal policy is not an easy decision, both in terms of the current state of the economy, as well as political decisions.

  17. Regional Investment Policy Under The Impact Of Budget Limitations And Economic Sanctions

    OpenAIRE

    Avramenko, Yelena S.; Vlasov, Semyon V.; Lukyanov, Sergey A.; Temkina, Irina M.

    2018-01-01

    This article presents the results of research on the impact which budget limitations and economic sanctions have had on regional investment policy External sanctions and sluggish economic growth have affected the social and economic development of the region. Relying on the results of comparative and statistical analysis, the article demonstrates the need for altering the focus of current investment policy from quantitative growth to qualitative enhancement. The article analyses a new trend i...

  18. Non-OPEC Oil Supply: Economics and Energy Policy Options

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mourik, Maarten van [Paris (France); Shepherd, Richard K. [Perpignan (France)

    2003-07-01

    Apart from the enigmatic FSU, there is little prospect of long term growth for non-OPEC oil supply and a strong likelihood that over the next few years the trend will flatten and then decline irrevocably. Decline will come faster if the spectacular discoveries in the deep water offshore plays of the southern Atlantic and the Gulf of Mexico attract sufficient investment to match the loss of production in the North Sea. Deep water oil supply might be expected to reach a peak of as much as 6-7 million barrels a day by the time the North Sea has lost more than half its current output in the period beyond 2010. But economics play as strong a role as geology in real world oil business. Current indicators suggest that the prolific deep water wells are delivering less oil than expected and for a shorter period. That means less revenue. This paper outlines the disappointing performance of recent offshore fields, in both deep water and conventional water depths, and suggests consequences for global supply in the next decade. The 30 year success story of non-OPEC oil supply stems directly from the oil price revolution of the 1970s, without which the North Sea and most other offshore oil plays would not have been economic. The non-OPEC oil boom was also necessary because access to the cheap oil of the Persian Gulf and a few other plays were simply not available to the international private sector oil industry, as they had been before. That era is now over. It is ending not because oil is too cheap, but because there are powerful reasons for change. Firstly there is not enough oil left to make a difference beyond the next few years. Secondly, the economics of deep water and other offshore oil may not be attractive enough. Thirdly the doors to the Middle East are now being opened again to companies that can write those assets on their balance sheets and generate profits, allowing better return on investment and their higher share prices. There is no more compelling reason for a

  19. Do economic instruments matter? Wind turbine investments in the EU(15)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mulder, Arjen

    2008-01-01

    This paper analyses how governments in the EU(15) countries have succeeded in stimulating investments in wind turbines between 1985 and 2005. I use four different evaluation criteria (Tobin's Q, Euler equation estimation, investment accelerator model, and the effective marginal tax rate) to describe the observed investment patterns. After a period of rapid growth in capital stock (1985-2000), a period of modest growth (2001-2005) can be observed even though the economic attractiveness of investing increases modestly. This pattern cannot be explained by the evaluation criteria unless we accept economic attractiveness is a necessary condition and not a necessary and sufficient condition. When analysing which policy has worked best, the policies of Germany, Denmark and Spain stand out. Their early and consistent support has been based on feed-in tariffs combined with subsidies

  20. Iran's Economic Conditions: U.S. Policy Issues

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Ilias, Shayerah

    2009-01-01

    .... Since 2000, Iran has enjoyed broad-based economic growth. However, strong economic performance has been hindered by high levels of inflation and unemployment and low levels of foreign investment...

  1. EU COHESION POLICY NEEDS DIFFERENTIATED POLICY MIX ADEQUATE TO SPECIFICS OF ECONOMIC REGIONS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gheorghe ZAMAN

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available The 2007-2013 programming period of the EU focuses on economic and social cohesion via three fundamental objectives: convergence – competitiveness and employment – European territorial co-operation. The horizontal dimension of cohesion policy refers to diminishing the regional disparities and solidarity with the lagging regions’ population. Considering the big regional disparities in the New Member States (NMS as well as the gap between their GDP per capita at national level and the EU average, these countries are the main beneficiary of the EU financial allocations, especially via convergence objective. However, two interrelated questions are entailed by this issue. One of them refers to the capacity of these countries to absorb effectively the EU funds. The other one concentrates on the impact of the absorbed EU funds, in other words to the qualitative aspects of the absorption capacity. Our paper discusses these aspects mainly from the viewpoint of regional disparities in the NMS, proposing a typology of their regions based on the main regional growth characteristics. The implications of the structural assistance on regional disparities are also addressed, taking into consideration economic and social criteria and requirements at EU, national, regional and local levels.

  2. Energy-environment policy goals and instruments and electricity demand response. A framework for the analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rio, Pablo del; Hernandez, F.

    2004-01-01

    The environment and energy realms have traditionally been two major focus of attention of EU and Member State (MS) policy. This attention has intensified in recent years as a response to, both, internal and external events and strategies (i.e., the Kyoto Protocol). In this context, the EU and its MS have set ambitious goals in the environmental and energy contexts and are already implementing packages of policies and measures. Both policies interact. Although there might be conflicts between both, there are also mutually reinforcing effects with significant policy implications. Actually, as stated in the Amsterdam Treaty, environmental protection is one of the major goals of energy policy (together with 'security of supply' and 'competitive energy systems'). On the other hand, the energy sector is instrumental in the success of environmental policy. In this context, a wide array of measures are currently being implemented in the EU and its MS which have a more or less direct impact on the electricity market. Particularly, Demand Side Management (DSM) activities, promotion of electricity from renewable energy sources (RES-E) and measures aimed at the mitigation of Greenhouse Gas (GHG) emissions are arguably three major instruments which have the potential to contribute to energy and environmental goals. The effectiveness and impact of there measures depends to a large extent on the demand response in the electricity market. Some of there measures affect the electricity demand curve, while others do not have a direct impact on the demand curve but affect the quantity of electricity demand by displacing the electricity supply curve. In turn, the effectiveness of energy and environmental policies may be different when electricity demand response varies (i.e., different elasticity demand). This paper entails an initial effort to provide a theoretical framework for the analysis of the interactions between electricity demand response and the above mentioned energy

  3. The relative efficiency of market-based environmental policy instruments with imperfect compliance

    OpenAIRE

    Rousseau, Sandra; Proost, Stef

    2004-01-01

    This paper examines to what extent incomplete compliance of environmental regulation mitigates the distortions caused by pre-existing labour taxes. We study the relative cost efficiency of three market-based instruments: emission taxes, tradable permits and output taxes. In a first-best setting and given that monitoring and enforcement is costless, we find that the same utility levels can be reached with and without incomplete compliance. However, allowing for violations makes the policy i...

  4. The use of economic forecasts in Danish economic policy, with special emphasis on energy and the environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nielsen, Lise

    1998-01-01

    This article discusses the use of economic forecasts in Danish economic policy, with special emphasis on energy and the environment. Two different approaches have been used to forecast energy consumption and its effects on environment in Denmark and other countries. These are the macro economic and the technical approaches. The technical approach is based on technical expertise related to energy production and energy consumption, and the article asks whether the forecasts produced by this approach are superior to macro economic forecasts of energy consumption. This question is interesting because the implications for policy resulting from the two approaches seem to be different. The analysis may have relevance to other areas outside the main economic field. (au) 22 refs

  5. African Review of Economics and Finance: Editorial Policies

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Focus and Scope. The African Review of Economics and Finance (AREF) is the official journal of the African Centre for Economics and Finance (AFRICEF). The Journal acknowledges that the word 'economic' is plural and all economies are positioned, situated, and embedded in particular societies. Therefore, how the ...

  6. 76 FR 4987 - Advisory Committee on International Economic Policy; Notice of Open Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-27

    ... Secretary of State for Economic, Energy, and Business Affairs Jose W. Fernandez and Committee Chair Ted... Subcommittee, the Economic Sanctions Subcommittee, and the Subcommittee on Women in International Economic Policy. This meeting is open to public participation, though seating is limited. Entry to the building is...

  7. Energy efficiency in existing detached housing. Danish experiences with different policy instruments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gram-Hanssen, K.; Haunstrup Christensen, T. (Aalborg Univ., Danish Building Research Institute, Hoersholm (Denmark))

    2011-07-01

    This report contains a memo written as an input to the German project Enef-haus on energy-efficient restoration of single-family houses in Germany. The memo contains a summary of the Danish experiences divided into three main sections: first is a short historic overview of the Danish energy policy indicating when different relevant instruments have been introduced to increase the energy efficiency of privately owned single-family houses. Second is a short introduction to the Danish housing sector and its energy supplies. The third and main part of the report is an examination of the most recent and relevant instruments concluding both on the results concerning the impact of the instruments especially on owners of single-family houses and on more general experiences with their implementation. Finally the memo concludes on the general lessons that can be learned from the Danish experiences. (Author)

  8. Combining climate and energy policies: synergies or antagonism? Modeling interactions with energy efficiency instruments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lecuyer, Oskar; Bibas, Ruben

    2012-01-01

    In addition to the already present Climate and Energy package, the European Union (EU) plans to include a binding target to reduce energy consumption. We analyze the rationales the EU invokes to justify such an overlapping and develop a minimal common framework to study interactions arising from the combination of instruments reducing emissions, promoting renewable energy (RE) production and reducing energy demand through energy efficiency (EE) investments. We find that although all instruments tend to reduce GHG emissions and although a price on carbon tends also to give the right incentives for RE and EE, the combination of more than one instrument leads to significant antagonisms regarding major objectives of the policy package. The model allows to show in a single framework and to quantify the antagonistic effects of the joint promotion of RE and EE. We also show and quantify the effects of this joint promotion on ETS permit price, on wholesale market price and on energy production levels. (authors)

  9. Cooperation in environmental protection. The economics of green trade, market-based instruments and community involvement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roettgers, Dirk

    2013-01-01

    The Millennium Development Goals (United Nations, 2000) and, by extension, such efforts as the Convention on Biological Diversity and the Kyoto Protocol (Kyoto Protocol, 1997), present mankind with a challenge that can only be overcome through cooperation. Cooperative policies are necessary from the highest level, i.e. international policies and treaties, to regional and national agreements, down to the local level, where policies are actually enacted. To close some gaps in the understanding of applicable policy instruments, this dissertation looks at a few key topics of environmental protection with implications for market-based instruments. The five different research areas are (1) EU bioenergy trade, (2) Clean Development Mechanism (CDM), (3) comparison of the effectiveness of product certification, ecosystem certification and offset mechanisms in wetland ecosystems, (4) international market-based instruments for African protected areas and (5) local stakeholder decision making in rural ecosystems of developing countries. Bioenergy consumption, production and trade have been increasing worldwide in the recent decade, mostly due to demand from EU countries and the USA. Taking the example of the EU, it is questionable if these trade flows are caused mainly by EU trade rules or targeted bioenergy policies. A sector-specific analysis taking industry patterns into consideration is necessary to evaluate the impact of these two policy areas on trade flows. A common way to analyze trade flows is the gravity model, which is employed here. This dissertation finds out why that is by using a gravity model to analyze flows of Certified Emission Reductions (CERs) between host and financier countries. The special roles of foreign direct investments (FDI), official development aid (ODA) and trade are scrutinized closely in this context. Findings show that FDI, ODA and trade have a positive influence on project attraction, even when holding determinants of these factors constant

  10. Cooperation in environmental protection. The economics of green trade, market-based instruments and community involvement

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Roettgers, Dirk

    2013-12-18

    The Millennium Development Goals (United Nations, 2000) and, by extension, such efforts as the Convention on Biological Diversity and the Kyoto Protocol (Kyoto Protocol, 1997), present mankind with a challenge that can only be overcome through cooperation. Cooperative policies are necessary from the highest level, i.e. international policies and treaties, to regional and national agreements, down to the local level, where policies are actually enacted. To close some gaps in the understanding of applicable policy instruments, this dissertation looks at a few key topics of environmental protection with implications for market-based instruments. The five different research areas are (1) EU bioenergy trade, (2) Clean Development Mechanism (CDM), (3) comparison of the effectiveness of product certification, ecosystem certification and offset mechanisms in wetland ecosystems, (4) international market-based instruments for African protected areas and (5) local stakeholder decision making in rural ecosystems of developing countries. Bioenergy consumption, production and trade have been increasing worldwide in the recent decade, mostly due to demand from EU countries and the USA. Taking the example of the EU, it is questionable if these trade flows are caused mainly by EU trade rules or targeted bioenergy policies. A sector-specific analysis taking industry patterns into consideration is necessary to evaluate the impact of these two policy areas on trade flows. A common way to analyze trade flows is the gravity model, which is employed here. This dissertation finds out why that is by using a gravity model to analyze flows of Certified Emission Reductions (CERs) between host and financier countries. The special roles of foreign direct investments (FDI), official development aid (ODA) and trade are scrutinized closely in this context. Findings show that FDI, ODA and trade have a positive influence on project attraction, even when holding determinants of these factors constant

  11. Environmental law, policy, and economics: reclaiming the environmental agenda

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Caldart, Charles C; Ashford, Nicholas Askounes

    2008-01-01

    ... of Information Regarding Chemical Risks 771 11 Enforcement: Encouraging Compliance with Environmental Statutes 807 12 Alternative Forms of Government Intervention to Promote Pollution Reduction 879 13 Polici...

  12. Instrumentation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Prieur, G.; Nadi, M.; Hedjiedj, A.; Weber, S.

    1995-01-01

    This second chapter on instrumentation gives little general consideration on history and classification of instrumentation, and two specific states of the art. The first one concerns NMR (block diagram of instrumentation chain with details on the magnets, gradients, probes, reception unit). The first one concerns precision instrumentation (optical fiber gyro-meter and scanning electron microscope), and its data processing tools (programmability, VXI standard and its history). The chapter ends with future trends on smart sensors and Field Emission Displays. (D.L.). Refs., figs

  13. Monetary-Fiscal-Trade Policy and Economic Growth in Pakistan: Time Series Empirical Investigation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Syed Tehseen Jawaid

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available This study empirically examines the effect of monetary, fiscal and trade policy on economic growth in Pakistan using annual time series data from 1981 to 2009. Money supply, government expenditure and trade openness are used as proxies of monetary, fiscal and trade policy respectively. Cointegration and error correction model indicate the existence of positive significant long run and short run relationship of monetary and fiscal policy with economic growth. Result also indicates that monetary policy is more effective than fiscal policy in Pakistan. In contrast, trade policy has insignificant effect on economic growth both in the short run and in the long run. In light of the findings, it is suggested that the policy makers should focus more on monetary policy in order to ensure economic growth in the country. It is also recommended that further research should be conducted to find out such components of exports and imports which lead to the ineffectiveness of trade policy to enhance economic growth in Pakistan.

  14. A Comparative Analysis of Policy Instruments Promoting Green Electricity under Uncertainty

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carlen, Bjoern

    2006-07-01

    The paper presented here studies, in a more systematic way than previous literature, the implications uncertainty regarding i.a. future production costs of green as well as conventional electricity has on the optimal choice of instrument to promote production of green electricity. The objective is to identify relevant effects the regulator need to assess before being able to make an informed choice. The instruments studied are (i) a feed-in tariff, i.e., an obligation for retailers of electricity to buy whatever quantity of green electricity that is supplied at a price determined by the regulator, (ii) a so-called environmebonus; , i.e., a fixed premium to producers of green electricity over and above the market price on electricity, (iii) an obligation for the retailers to procure a certain quantity of green electricity, and (iv) green electricity certificates, i.e., an obligation for retailers to purchase green electricity in an amount equal to a given share of their total electricity sale. It has been suggested, in the literature on instruments to promote production of green electricity, that price-based policies (e.g., fixed-in tariffs) would be superior to quantity-based policies (e.g., an obligation on retailers of electricity to procure a given amount of green electricity). The stated reason is that quantity-based policies tend to induce too much (little) green electricity whenever production costs turn out to be higher (lower) than expected. However, price-based policies, on the other hand, induces too little (much) green electricity, and, as shown here quantity-based policies can be designed in ways making them superior to a fixed feed-in tariff in the sense of yielding a smaller expected efficiency loss. It is also shown here that green electricity certificate system and systems with so-called environmental bonuses are more complicated policy instruments than so far has been recognized. If future electricity prices are highly uncertain, an environmental

  15. Morals or markets? Regulating assisted reproductive technologies as morality or economic policies in the states.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heidt-Forsythe, Erin

    2017-01-01

    The availability of assisted reproductive technologies (ARTs) in the medical marketplace complicates our understanding of reproductive public policy in the United States. Political debates over ARTs often are based on fundamental moral principles of life, reproduction, and kinship, similar to other reproductive policies in the United States. However, ARTs are an important moneymaking private enterprise for the U.S. biotechnology industry. This project investigates how the U.S. states regulate these unique and challenging technologies as either moral policies or economic policies. This study employs ordinary least squares (OLS) regression to estimate the significance of morality and economic policy variables on ART policies at the state level, noting associations between state-level political, economic, and gender variables on restrictive and permissive state-level ART policies. Economic variables (reflecting the biotechnology industry) and advocacy for access to ART on behalf of infertility patients increase the chances of states passing policies that enable consumer use of ARTs. Additionally, individual ART policies are distinct from one another in the ways that morality variables increase the chances of ART regulations. Surprisingly, the role of religious adherence among state residents varied in positive and negative relationships with individual policy passage. In general, these results support the hypothesis that ART laws are associated with economic as well as moral concerns of the states-ARTs lie at the intersection of issues of life and reproduction and of scientific innovation and health. What is most striking about these results is that they do not follow patterns seen in the legislation of abortion, contraception, and sexuality in general-those reproductive policies that are considered "morality policy." Similarly, economic variables are not consistently significant in the expected direction.

  16. Do economic policy decisions affect stock market development in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The Efficient Market Hypothesis proposes that macroeconomic policy actions do not influence stock market development but the Tobin's q theory argues otherwise. This paper uses the autoregressive distributed lag (ARDL) technique to investigate the impact of macroeconomic policy on the development of the Ghana Stock ...

  17. Understanding Canada's International Trade Policy. "Understanding Economics" Series No. 4.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cornell, Peter M.

    Written for secondary school Canadian students, the document examines Canada's international trade policy. It is arranged in three sections. Part I discusses the affect of Canada's trade policy on the individual citizen. Tariffs and non-tariff barriers to trade such as import licenses, preferential purchasing agreements, health and safety…

  18. Economics of nuclear power and climate change mitigation policies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bauer, Nico; Brecha, Robert J; Luderer, Gunnar

    2012-10-16

    The events of March 2011 at the nuclear power complex in Fukushima, Japan, raised questions about the safe operation of nuclear power plants, with early retirement of existing nuclear power plants being debated in the policy arena and considered by regulators. Also, the future of building new nuclear power plants is highly uncertain. Should nuclear power policies become more restrictive, one potential option for climate change mitigation will be less available. However, a systematic analysis of nuclear power policies, including early retirement, has been missing in the climate change mitigation literature. We apply an energy economy model framework to derive scenarios and analyze the interactions and tradeoffs between these two policy fields. Our results indicate that early retirement of nuclear power plants leads to discounted cumulative global GDP losses of 0.07% by 2020. If, in addition, new nuclear investments are excluded, total losses will double. The effect of climate policies imposed by an intertemporal carbon budget on incremental costs of policies restricting nuclear power use is small. However, climate policies have much larger impacts than policies restricting the use of nuclear power. The carbon budget leads to cumulative discounted near term reductions of global GDP of 0.64% until 2020. Intertemporal flexibility of the carbon budget approach enables higher near-term emissions as a result of increased power generation from natural gas to fill the emerging gap in electricity supply, while still remaining within the overall carbon budget. Demand reductions and efficiency improvements are the second major response strategy.

  19. Economics of nuclear power and climate change mitigation policies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bauer, Nico; Brecha, Robert J.; Luderer, Gunnar

    2012-01-01

    The events of March 2011 at the nuclear power complex in Fukushima, Japan, raised questions about the safe operation of nuclear power plants, with early retirement of existing nuclear power plants being debated in the policy arena and considered by regulators. Also, the future of building new nuclear power plants is highly uncertain. Should nuclear power policies become more restrictive, one potential option for climate change mitigation will be less available. However, a systematic analysis of nuclear power policies, including early retirement, has been missing in the climate change mitigation literature. We apply an energy economy model framework to derive scenarios and analyze the interactions and tradeoffs between these two policy fields. Our results indicate that early retirement of nuclear power plants leads to discounted cumulative global GDP losses of 0.07% by 2020. If, in addition, new nuclear investments are excluded, total losses will double. The effect of climate policies imposed by an intertemporal carbon budget on incremental costs of policies restricting nuclear power use is small. However, climate policies have much larger impacts than policies restricting the use of nuclear power. The carbon budget leads to cumulative discounted near term reductions of global GDP of 0.64% until 2020. Intertemporal flexibility of the carbon budget approach enables higher near-term emissions as a result of increased power generation from natural gas to fill the emerging gap in electricity supply, while still remaining within the overall carbon budget. Demand reductions and efficiency improvements are the second major response strategy. PMID:23027963

  20. Failures of the national policy for sustainable development of Bulgaria – economic dimensions

    OpenAIRE

    Nozharov, Shteryo; Koralova, Petya

    2017-01-01

    Bulgaria is a member of the EU since 2007. The country has issues with its economic policy, which issues could have negative impact over the EU’s policies as a whole. When the economic policy of a Member State is blemished by a systematic strategic misconceptions, it is necessary this to be analysed in depth. The debate, about the future of the EU after Brexit and the concept about multi-speed Europe is consequence of the efficiency of the economic and political systems in each individual Mem...

  1. Economic policy of the monetary authorities as factor of achievement of abstract financial stability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tashtamirov M.R.

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available this article is devoted to the questions of the crisis phenomena in Russian economy in sector of a monetary and credit system and a role of economic policy of the monetary authorities (Bank of Russia in ensuring financial stability. Short assessment of the main macroeconomic indicators of the country economy is given. The author is describing the actions of economic management regarding monetary control. It is inexpedient that the Central Bank for carrying out the tough restriction policy directed to oppression of economic development and further primitivizing of national economy. It is offered to transform monetary policy for ensuring anti-recessionary actions exiting the stagnating condition.

  2. 'Economic' and 'Political' cooperation in various climate policy scenarios

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hamaide, Bertrand

    2003-01-01

    Cooperation in the economic sense considers efficiency issues. Cooperation in the political sense, like the Kyoto Protocol, considers other issues like equity and historical responsibility. The environmental and economic impacts of the Kyoto Protocol and other scenarios are thus examined. The US pullout may then be viewed, among others, as the result of not untying 'economic' and 'political' cooperation; and since the Protocol will be much less effective without the US, it is shown that an external economic stimulus should and may theoretically be found for retaining their participation

  3. THE IMPACT OF FISCAL POLICY ON ECONOMIC GROWTH IN THE COUNTRIES OF EASTERN EUROPE

    OpenAIRE

    BOLDEANU Florin Teodor; TACHE Ileana; ION Mădălin-Sebastian

    2015-01-01

    This paper deals with the effects of fiscal policy on economic growth in 10 countries of Eastern Europe. For this analysis we to use two regression models. The results of the first model provide information on the factors that influence economic growth. Thus, direct taxes, indirect taxes, total income taxes, social contributions and the economic crisis had an effect on economic growth. Of these variables, total taxable income had a positive effect and indirect taxes and social contributions h...

  4. Paradigm change in automotive powertrain engineering. A techno-economic analysis taking into account environment-political instruments; Paradigmawandel automobiler Antriebstechnologien. Eine techno-oekonomische Analyse unter Beruecksichtigung umweltpolitischer Instrumente

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stangner, Peter

    2011-07-01

    The automobile industry is faced with the challenge to introduce concepts for sustainable mobility in terms of low pollutant and CO2 emissions. The author discusses the preconditions and procedures of technological change in the powertrain markets. The effects of techno-economic trends and environment-political instruments are discussed in an international context and illustrated by the example of the market success of diesel engines in Europe. Using innovation-economic theories, he draws conclusions as to the future electrification of powertrains resp. the introduction of electromobility. Not least because of its highly topical content with regard to economic and environmental policy, this publication has high relevance for decision makers in science, industry and politics. By outlining options and chances of future developments, it will help to reduce present concerns about the future. (orig.)

  5. One size fits all? Policy instruments should fit the segments of target groups

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Egmond, Cees; Lulofs, Kris

    2005-01-01

    In order to meet the Kyoto CO 2 reduction targets, technical innovations in the field of energy-efficiency must be diffused more rapidly and on a larger market scale. Markets develop gradually however, especially if innovations are involved. Diffusion starts with the innovators and early adopters (the early market), followed by the mainstream market (the early and late majority), and ends with the laggards. The actors in these markets differ in their willingness to adopt innovations: the early market actors have a visionary attitude, and the mainstream actors are more pragmatic. In order to choose policy instruments that will most effectively influence these two markets within the target group of housing association, we addressed the following two questions. (1) What are the differences between the early and mainstream markets actors from a behavioural change point of view, and (2) in what way do existing policy instruments differ in influencing the behaviour of these actors? We analysed early market and mainstream decision-making behaviour, and how the active ingredients in policy instruments specifically target the characteristics of the two markets. Mainstream instruments should intervene as early as possible in the decision-making process and emphasise communication about advantages such as comfort and quality in addition to money and energy savings, and present energy conservation as a solution to an actual problem. Instead of bureaucratic subsidy systems for the mainstream, the motto should be 'cash on the barrelhead'. Early market actors are highly internally motivated, implying that early market interventions have to be challenging and facilitating

  6. One size fits all? Policy instruments should fit the segments of target groups

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Egmond, C.; Jonkers, R.; Kok, G.

    2006-01-01

    In order to meet the Kyoto CO 2 reduction targets, technical innovations in the field of energy-efficiency must diffuse more rapidly into a larger market. However, markets develop gradually, especially if innovations are involved. Diffusion starts with the early market (innovators and early adopters), followed by the mainstream market (the early and late majority), and ends with the laggards. The actors in these markets differ in their willingness to adopt innovations; the early market actors have a visionary attitude, and the mainstream market actors are more pragmatic. In order to choose policy instruments that will most effectively influence these two markets within the target group of housing association, we addressed the following two questions. (1) What are the differences between the early and mainstream market actors from a behavioural-change point of view? (2) In what way do existing policy instruments differ in influencing the behaviour of these actors? We analyzed early market and mainstream decision-making behaviours, and how the active ingredients in policy instruments specifically target the characteristics of the two markets. Mainstream instruments should intervene as early as possible in the decision-making process and emphasize communication about advantages such as comfort and quality in addition to money and energy savings. Furthermore, they should present energy conservation as a solution to an actual problem. Instead of bureaucratic subsidy systems for the mainstream, the motto should be 'cash on the barrel-head'. Early market actors are highly internally motivated, implying that early market interventions have to be challenging and facilitating

  7. Urban Housing Policy Review of China : From Economic Growth to Social Inclusion

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Deng, W.; Hoekstra, J.S.C.M.; Elsinga, M.G.

    2015-01-01

    This paper reviews the housing policy of China from 1949-2013. It examines the housing tenure change, policy instruments, and impacts social structures in different time periods. After the welfare period of 1949-77, the dual provision period of 1978-1998, and the market dominant period of 1999-2011,

  8. Urban housing policy review of China : From economic growth to social inclusion

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Deng, W.; Hoekstra, J.S.C.M.; Elsinga, M.G.

    2014-01-01

    This paper reviews the housing policy of China from 1949-2013. It examines the housing tenure change, policy instruments, and impacts social structures in different time periods. After the welfare period of 1949-77, the dual provision period of 1978-1998, and the market dominant period of 1999-2011,

  9. Instrumentation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Decreton, M.

    2000-01-01

    SCK-CEN's research and development programme on instrumentation aims at evaluating the potentials of new instrumentation technologies under the severe constraints of a nuclear application. It focuses on the tolerance of sensors to high radiation doses, including optical fibre sensors, and on the related intelligent data processing needed to cope with the nuclear constraints. Main achievements in these domains in 1999 are summarised

  10. Instrumentation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Decreton, M

    2001-04-01

    SCK-CEN's research and development programme on instrumentation involves the assessment and the development of sensitive measurement systems used within a radiation environment. Particular emphasis is on the assessment of optical fibre components and their adaptability to radiation environments. The evaluation of ageing processes of instrumentation in fission plants, the development of specific data evaluation strategies to compensate for ageing induced degradation of sensors and cable performance form part of these activities. In 2000, particular emphasis was on in-core reactor instrumentation applied to fusion, accelerator driven and water-cooled fission reactors. This involved the development of high performance instrumentation for irradiation experiments in the BR2 reactor in support of new instrumentation needs for MYRRHA, and for diagnostic systems for the ITER reactor.

  11. Instrumentation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Decreton, M.

    2001-01-01

    SCK-CEN's research and development programme on instrumentation involves the assessment and the development of sensitive measurement systems used within a radiation environment. Particular emphasis is on the assessment of optical fibre components and their adaptability to radiation environments. The evaluation of ageing processes of instrumentation in fission plants, the development of specific data evaluation strategies to compensate for ageing induced degradation of sensors and cable performance form part of these activities. In 2000, particular emphasis was on in-core reactor instrumentation applied to fusion, accelerator driven and water-cooled fission reactors. This involved the development of high performance instrumentation for irradiation experiments in the BR2 reactor in support of new instrumentation needs for MYRRHA, and for diagnostic systems for the ITER reactor

  12. The Employment Impact of Poland’s Special Economic Zones Policy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Camilla

    2018-01-01

    >gminas (communes) more likely to be negatively affected by the economic transition. A significant and positive effect of the policy on employment is documented, but with some negative spillovers at the policy level as zones start to spread rapidly. Accounting for covariates, timing, policy spillovers and reducing......In 1994, Poland launched a special economic zones experiment to maintain employment structures outside the major cities. Using difference-in-difference estimations, this paper evaluates whether the policy has been successful in its primary objective, which is to sustain employment in

  13. Policy Instruments for Irigation Water Management: Flat Pricing, Volumetric Pricing and Quota Regulations

    OpenAIRE

    Pinheiro, António C.; Saraiva, João Paulo

    2009-01-01

    In the fifty years since the foundation of the European Community, Europe has evolved in many fields. From being exclusively concerned with economic integration – reflected by policies to increase agricultural productivity and improvement of intra-communitarian trade –, nowadays, the European Union is gradually advancing towards a political integration, in the direction of common environmental values and towards the sustainability of natural resources. While in the Treaties of the European Co...

  14. The retributive rates, economic instrument, effective for the water decontamination in the Oriente Antioqueno

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Castro Hernandez, Luis Fernando

    1999-01-01

    The article contains the antecedents of the collection of the recompensing rates in Colombia at the beginning of the decade of the eighty it not insinuates as a mechanism for the atmospheric contamination. Later on the law 99 of 1993 defines it as the most important mechanism to not achieve the contamination of sources of water in the country. It establishes this way it the ordinance 901 of April of 1997 by means of which the process of implementation of the recompensing rates begins in the Oriente Antioqueno where at the moment is carried out the collection in eight basins. The article also registers the results that leave the economic instrument in what refers at levels of non-contamination of basins and in money collected after having billed five semesters. Likewise it reports a series of benefits that leaves the instrument after two years of implementation in the Oriente Antioqueno

  15. Models of economic geography : dynamics, estimation and policy evaluation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Knaap, Thijs

    2004-01-01

    In this thesis we look at economic geography models from a number of angles. We started by placing the theory in a context of preceding theories, both earlier work on spatial economics and other children of the monopolistic competition ‘revolution.’ Next, we looked at the theoretical properties of

  16. Economic Motives for Adopting LGBT-Related Workplace Policies (Updated)

    OpenAIRE

    Mallory, Christy; Sears, Brad

    2011-01-01

    Over ninety percent of the 100 top companies in the U.S.—the top 50 federal contractors and the top 50 Fortune 500 companies—have policies prohibiting discrimination based on sexual orientation, and 78% of the companies have policies prohibiting discrimination based on gender identity. In comparison to a 2011 study, based on 2010 data, there has been a 50% increase in the number of top federal contractors with gender identity non-discrimination policies and a 26% increase in the number of top...

  17. Interference of regional support policies on the economic and environmental performance of a hybrid cogeneration-solar panel energy system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maes, Dries; Van Passel, Steven

    2012-01-01

    This paper assesses unintentional interference between different public policies promoting energy efficiency and renewable energy. The paper develops a methodology to study the interference by analysing the economic and technical behaviour of a hybrid energy system. The hybrid energy system in this case consists of an existing cogeneration unit extended with a new installation of thermal solar panels. This puts two complementary heating technologies in juxtaposition. The two technologies are supported with distinct regional support instruments in each region. The design and operation of the energy system is optimised from the point of view of the investor according to the different support instruments. The optimal configuration is analysed as well as its effect on reduced CO 2 -emissions during the lifetime of the project. The methodology is applied to a case-study for two neighbouring regions, the Netherlands and Flanders. The policies in the Netherlands show a beneficial synergy. In Flanders, the hybrid energy system is not interesting, indicating unbalanced high support for cogeneration in this case. From the point of view of the authorities, a more balanced regional policy as in the Netherlands provides a larger CO 2 -emission reduction for a smaller cost. - Highlights: ► Study of interference between various public policies by analysing a hybrid energy system. ► A methodology based on maximum value for the investor based on different public policies. ► Case study in the Netherlands show policies with a beneficial synergy. ► Situation in Flanders indicates unbalanced policies and larger cost for CO 2 -emission reduction.

  18. A multi-criteria evaluation method for climate change mitigation policy instruments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Konidari, Popi; Mavrakis, Dimitrios

    2007-01-01

    This paper presents an integrated multi-criteria analysis method for the quantitative evaluation of climate change mitigation policy instruments. The method consists of: (i) a set of criteria supported by sub-criteria, all of which describe the complex framework under which these instruments are selected by policy makers and implemented, (ii) an Analytical Hierarchy Process (AHP) process for defining weight coefficients for criteria and sub-criteria according to the preferences of three stakeholders groups and (iii) a Multi-Attribute Theory (MAUT)/Simple Multi-Attribute Ranking Technique (SMART) process for assigning grades to each instrument that is evaluated for its performance under a specific sub-criterion. Arguments for the selected combination of these standard methods and definitions for criteria/sub-criteria are quoted. Consistency and robustness tests are performed. The functionality of the proposed method is tested by assessing the aggregate performances of the EU emission trading scheme at Denmark, Germany, Greece, Italy, Netherlands, Portugal, Sweden and United Kingdom. Conclusions are discussed

  19. The rank of nuclear technology in terms of economic policy and energy policy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Engelmann, U.

    1984-01-01

    Once the nuclear power plants presently under construction are completed, the exisiting basic load deficit will be done with, except for regional peculiarities. The need for redeployment of the power plant pool caused by the 1973/74 energy crisis is then virtually exhausted in terms of basic load. Taking into consideration the special role of black coal in power production, further nuclear power plants will be necessary in the Federal Republic of Germany mainly if the power demand increases and/or to replace decommissioned plants. The role of nuclear technology is not restricted to the domestic demand; particularly in threshold countries the market can provide some compensation. Nuclear technology is a factor of economic policy; the Federal Government points this out in its negotiations with foreign countries. However, it is noteworthy that the third biggest political party in the Federal Republic of Germany want to stop all presently existing nuclear power plants. The best rebuttal of such political debate is properly operating nuclear plants and the steadily growing percentage of electricity they produce as well as lower electricity price in those Lander of the Federal Republic of Germany who did not put on ideological blinkers in face of nuclear technology. (orig./HSCH) [de

  20. Voluntary agreements with white certificates for energy efficiency improvement as a hybrid policy instrument

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oikonomou, V.; Patel, M.K.; Rietbergen, M.; Van der Gaast, W.

    2009-01-01

    In this paper we examine the implementation of a combined policy scheme that consists of a traditional instrument, the voluntary agreements (VAs), and an innovative one, the white certificates (WhC). The basic structure of this scheme is that energy suppliers who undertake an energy efficiency obligation under a white certificate scheme can make use of voluntary actions to enhance investments in innovative energy savings projects. Energy suppliers and other market parties can additionally or in parallel participate in voluntary agreements and set energy efficiency targets. For fulfilling their voluntary agreement target, these market parties can receive tax exemptions or receive white certificates that they can sell in the market. Transaction costs and baseline definition for demonstrating energy efficiency improvement deserve special attention. This policy can assist a country to enhance energy efficiency improvement while it stimulates innovation. Cost effectiveness can be higher than the case of stand-alone policy instruments, since more financing options are available for more expensive projects. Nevertheless, the added value of the scheme lies more in the implementation of innovative measures for enhanced energy efficiency. Furthermore, market parties can discover more business opportunities in energy efficiency and establish a green image; hence an integrated scheme should achieve higher political acceptability. (author)

  1. Carbon rentals and silvicultural subsidies for private forests as climate policy instruments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Uusivuori, J.; Laturi, J.

    2007-01-01

    The impacts of potential climate policy instruments on the carbon production of privately owned and operated forests were investigated. A forest model with an endogenous growth description and age-class structure was used to describe both the output supply and input demand decisions of a private non-industrial landowner with optimized consumption flow, harvest timing, and an intertemporal allocation of forest investments. Two scenarios were examined, notably (1) a scenario in which the landowner was granted periodic carbon rental payments; and (2) a scenario in which the government subsidized the costs of silvicultural investments. The intended and unintended effects of the policies were examined. Models were used to demonstrate that the effectiveness of the instruments was significantly influenced by the age-class structure of forests when future carbon benefits were discounted. It was concluded that carbon rental payments were a more effective policy for older age-class structured forests. Silvicultural subsidies were more beneficial for forests with younger age-class structures. 21 refs., 6 figs

  2. Energy policy instruments and technical change in the residential building sector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beerepoot, W.M.C.

    2007-01-01

    The passing by the European Parliament of the Energy Performance of Buildings Directive (EPBD) in 2003 obliges all European member states to implement energy regulations for buildings based on the concept of energy performance by the year 2009 ultimately. Given the importance of the development of innovations in energy technology, and a transition to a sustainable energy supply system, it is necessary that policy instruments for energy conservation in the building sector stimulate the development and diffusion of innovations. This thesis contributes to knowledge about the content of energy performance policy and concludes that the effect of Dutch energy performance policy in encouraging innovation is limited. Energy efficiency improvements, by energy performance policy, seem to have come from the overall optimisation of all the energy related features of residential buildings. Insulation levels improved, although not spectacular. Efficiencies of heating technology improved, although this seems partly to be a result of the ongoing development that started in the 1980s. The efficiency of fans used for ventilation improved, as did the efficiency of all sorts of auxiliary devices needed in heating technology, as well as the efficiency of heat recovery in balanced ventilation systems. Although energy performance policy seems to have contributed to the optimisation of all energy related features of residential buildings, it did not cause a breakthrough of innovative technology such as solar thermal systems or heat pumps. The study of the innovation system of the Dutch construction industry identifies how the project-based nature of the construction industry is an obstacle to 'learning-rich' collaboration between the various stakeholders. The study contributes to the discussion about the impact of government policy for energy conservation in the building sector, in the context of climate change policy.

  3. Economic Policy Uncertainty and Long-Run Stock Market Volatility and Correlation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Asgharian, Hossein; Christiansen, Charlotte; Hou, Ai Jun

    We use Baker, Bloom, and Davis’s (2016) economic policy uncertainty indices in combination with the mixed data sampling (MIDAS) approach to investigate long-run stock market volatility and correlation, primarily for the US and UK. Long-run US–UK stock market correlation depends positively on US...... economic policy uncertainty shocks. The dependence is asymmetric, with only positive shocks - increasing uncertainty - being of importance. The US long-run stock market volatility depends significantly on US economic policy uncertainty shocks but not on UK shocks, while the UK long-run stock market...... volatility depends significantly on both. Allowing for US economic policy uncertainty shocks improves the out-of-sample forecasting of US–UK stock market correlation and enhances portfolio performance. Similar results apply to the long-run correlation between the US and Canada, China, and Germany....

  4. Launching the Journal of International Economic Policy Studies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Soogil Young

    1997-12-01

    Full Text Available In the phase when the World Economy takes its agitation, that is, characterized as the new initiative in the International economic order and the infinite competition of the borderless world market, as well as economic integration of all regions, the economy of Korea is facing an unprecedented challenge. After 1990s, when the Cold War came to an end, globalization officially started with the support of information and communications technology revolution. On the other hand, the economic hegemonism and the ideology of "economy-first" intentions was being widely spread in the World. Governments all over the world one after another appealed for foreign investments.

  5. Instrumentation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Decreton, M.

    2002-01-01

    SCK-CEN's R and D programme on instrumentation involves the development of advanced instrumentation systems for nuclear applications as well as the assessment of the performance of these instruments in a radiation environment. Particular emphasis is on the use of optical fibres as umbilincal links of a remote handling unit for use during maintanance of a fusion reacor, studies on the radiation hardening of plasma diagnostic systems; investigations on new instrumentation for the future MYRRHA accelerator driven system; space applications related to radiation-hardened lenses; the development of new approaches for dose, temperature and strain measurements; the assessment of radiation-hardened sensors and motors for remote handling tasks and studies of dose measurement systems including the use of optical fibres. Progress and achievements in these areas for 2001 are described

  6. Instrumentation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Decreton, M

    2002-04-01

    SCK-CEN's R and D programme on instrumentation involves the development of advanced instrumentation systems for nuclear applications as well as the assessment of the performance of these instruments in a radiation environment. Particular emphasis is on the use of optical fibres as umbilincal links of a remote handling unit for use during maintanance of a fusion reacor, studies on the radiation hardening of plasma diagnostic systems; investigations on new instrumentation for the future MYRRHA accelerator driven system; space applications related to radiation-hardened lenses; the development of new approaches for dose, temperature and strain measurements; the assessment of radiation-hardened sensors and motors for remote handling tasks and studies of dose measurement systems including the use of optical fibres. Progress and achievements in these areas for 2001 are described.

  7. Quality of life instruments for economic evaluations in health and social care for older people: a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Makai, Peter; Brouwer, Werner B F; Koopmanschap, Marc A; Stolk, Elly A; Nieboer, Anna P

    2014-02-01

    Gaining health may not be the main goal of healthcare services aimed at older people, which may (also) seek to improve wellbeing. This emphasizes the need of finding appropriate outcome measures for economic evaluation of such services, particularly in long-term care, capturing more than only health-related quality of life (HrQol). This review assesses the usefulness of HrQol and wellbeing instruments for economic evaluations specifically aimed at older people, focusing on generic and preference-based questionnaires measuring wellbeing in particular. We systematically searched six databases and extracted instruments used to assess HrQol and wellbeing outcomes. Instruments were compared based on their usefulness for economic evaluation of services aimed at older people (dimensions measured, availability of utility scores, extent of validation). We identified 487 articles using 34 generic instruments: 22 wellbeing (two of which were preference-based) and 11 HrQol instruments. While standard HrQol instruments measure physical, social and psychological dimensions, wellbeing instruments contain additional dimensions such as purpose in life and achievement, security, and freedom. We found four promising wellbeing instruments for inclusion in economic evaluation: Ferrans and Powers QLI and the WHO-Qol OLD, ICECAP-O and the ASCOT. Ferrans and Powers QLI and the WHO-Qol OLD are widely validated but lack preference-weights while for ICECAP-O and the ASCOT preference-weights are available, but are less widely validated. Until preference-weights are available for the first two instruments, the ICECAP-O and the ASCOT currently appear to be the most useful instruments for economic evaluations in services aimed at older people. Their limitations are that (1) health dimensions may be captured only partially and (2) the instruments require further validation. Therefore, we currently recommend using the ICECAP-O or the ASCOT alongside the EQ-5D or SF-6D when evaluating interventions

  8. The Welfare State as Crisis Manager: Explaining the Diversity of Policy Responses to Economic Crisis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Starke, Peter; Kaasch, Alexandra; van Hooren, Franca

    Written during an ongoing period of global economic crisis, The Welfare State as a Crisis Manager examines the practice and potential of using social policy to cope with crises. Through an in-depth analysis of social policy reactions in the wake of international economic shocks in four different...... welfare states, over a 40-year period, the book reveals the ways in which expansion and retrenchment are shaped by domestic politics and existing welfare state institutions. Moreover, the study addresses the kind of policy change triggered by economic crisis. In contrast to conventional wisdom...... and previous scholarship, reactions tend to be characterised by incrementalism and 'crisis routines' rather than fundamental deviations from earlier policy patterns. For the first time, the study of domestic political dynamics following crisis is systematically embedded in the transnational policy debate...

  9. Instrumentation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Decreton, M

    2000-07-01

    SCK-CEN's research and development programme on instrumentation aims at evaluating the potentials of new instrumentation technologies under the severe constraints of a nuclear application. It focuses on the tolerance of sensors to high radiation doses, including optical fibre sensors, and on the related intelligent data processing needed to cope with the nuclear constraints. Main achievements in these domains in 1999 are summarised.

  10. Economic evaluation and Applications of the Policy Analysis Matrix ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    use

    2011-12-07

    Dec 7, 2011 ... By using benefit to costs index, internal rate of return, net ... city has no relative advantage, but intercropping system can increase the economic benefits and ... traditional farmers have reasons of technological, socio- logical ...

  11. Economic modeling and energy policy planning. [technology transfer, market research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thompson, R. G.; Schwartz, A., Jr.; Lievano, R. J.; Stone, J. C.

    1974-01-01

    A structural economic model is presented for estimating the demand functions for natural gas and crude oil in industry and in steam electric power generation. Extensions of the model to other commodities are indicated.

  12. THE SECULAR INFLUENCE OF THE RATE OF REFERENCE ON THE ECONOMIC POLICIES

    OpenAIRE

    Emilian M.DOBRESCU

    2005-01-01

    Having as starting point Radu Stoenescu’s book with respect to discount, and the difficulty in defining discount, we pursue to clarify this category and other associated ones, such as reference rate, discount rate, re-discount and its rate, in a historical and actual approach. The purpose is to demonstrate that the monetary policy about discount influences the economic policies and that is why it must be altered and guided in accordance with the changes of current economic-financial activity.

  13. Decline in alcohol consumption in Estonia: combined effects of strengthened alcohol policy and economic downturn.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lai, Taavi; Habicht, Jarno

    2011-01-01

    To describe alcohol policy changes in parallel to consumption changes in 2005-2010 in Estonia, where alcohol consumption is among the highest in Europe. Review of pertinent legislation and literature. Alcohol consumption decreased since 2008, while alcohol excise tax, sales time restrictions and ad bans have increased since 2005. An economic downturn started in 2008. The precise roles of policy changes and the economic downturn in the decline of alcohol consumption, and whether the decrease will be sustained, are still unclear.

  14. EVOLUTION OF INDUSTRIAL POLICY OF REPUBLIC ARGENTINA WITHIN THE LIMITS OF REGIONAL ECONOMIC INTEGRATION "MERCOSUR"

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V.Y. Solovarov

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available The present article analyses the possibilities and general directions of Argentinian industrial development policy, taking into account the country’s participation in MERCOSUR regional group. For this purpose a brief survey of economic policies, carried out in the years 90 by various national governments, is given. The analysis of Nestor Kirchner government new approaches to Argentina’s economic development strategy in the conditions of globalization and the national state participation in this process is made.

  15. Leverage effect, economic policy uncertainty and realized volatility with regime switching

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duan, Yinying; Chen, Wang; Zeng, Qing; Liu, Zhicao

    2018-03-01

    In this study, we first investigate the impacts of leverage effect and economic policy uncertainty (EPU) on future volatility in the framework of regime switching. Out-of-sample results show that the HAR-RV including the leverage effect and economic policy uncertainty with regimes can achieve higher forecast accuracy than RV-type and GARCH-class models. Our robustness results further imply that these factors in the framework of regime switching can substantially improve the HAR-RV's forecast performance.

  16. The Institutional Component of the Efficient Economic Policy of the State

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mykytas Viktoriia V

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The article substantiates the necessity of institutional accompanying the economic policy of the State, establishing an efficient system of institutions. Challenges of the contemporary globalization require changes in the State influence on economy, redefining quality parameters and principles of an efficient economic policy. Complexity of the State policy in a global environment is determined not only by importance of the tasks of establishing an efficient market against the background of increasing influences of exogenous uncertainty, but also by seeking ways of entering the global space, thus implementing the best interests of national economic development. The article deduces parameters of the concept of «efficient institution». The author believes that institutions precisely should act as the link through which social and economic development would become unseparated in order to form a stable efficient socio-economic development

  17. Models of economic geography: dynamics, estimation and policy evaluation

    OpenAIRE

    Knaap, Thijs

    2004-01-01

    In this thesis we look at economic geography models from a number of angles. We started by placing the theory in a context of preceding theories, both earlier work on spatial economics and other children of the monopolistic competition ‘revolution.’ Next, we looked at the theoretical properties of these models, especially when we allow firms to have different demand functions for intermediate goods. We estimated the model using a dataset on US states, and computed a number of counterfactuals....

  18. Environmental policy and environment-saving technologies. Economic aspects of policy making under uncertainty

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ossokina, I.

    2003-07-01

    It is generally known that natural environment is profoundly influenced by technological change. The direction and the size of this influence are, however, surrounded by uncertainties, which substantially complicate environmental policy making. This dissertation uses game-theoretical models to study policy making under uncertainty about (a) the costs of technological advances in pollution control, (b) the preferences of the policy maker and the voters, and (c) the consequences of policy measures. From a positive point of view the analysis provides explanations for environmental policies in modern democracies. From a normative point of view it gives a number of recommendations to improve environmental policies.

  19. Voluntary agreements as instruments for international environmental policy; Frivillege avtaler som internasjonalt miljoepolitisk verkemiddel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Torvanger, Asbjoern

    1997-12-31

    According to this report, voluntary agreements have a potential as instruments for environmental policy. Such agreements can be national or international. Through an international voluntary agreement the authorities in one country may make contracts with factories in another country about emission reductions against some kind of compensation. A supranational organisation of voluntary agreements may ensure equal environmental political conditions for factories in different countries and be a useful means for the regulation of environmental problems of regional or global extent. It is most realistic to establish a supranational system of voluntary agreements in a group of countries that have already institutionalized their relations, such as the European Union. 14 refs., 1 table

  20. Experience with agreements as an instrument in the climate policy; Erfaringer med avtaler som klimapolitisk virkemiddel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-03-26

    This report discusses the experience with the use of agreements between industry and authorities in the climate and energy conservation policies in selected countries. The main purpose is to survey agreements in selected OECD countries and to evaluate the experience gained with this political instrument. Special emphasis is placed on Denmark and the Netherlands. The agreements are mainly aiming at energy conservation. In Norway, the agreements are at present primarily of relevance for emissions from the processing industries. But the experience gained in other countries on the practical realization of the agreements are relevant to Norway. 5 refs.

  1. Working environment interventions – Bridging the gap between policy instruments and practice

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hasle, Peter; Limborg, Hans Jørgen; Nielsen, Klaus T.

    2014-01-01

    is paid to why and how public and private organisations subsequently are to improve their working environment. This paper suggests a model which can bridge this gap. It is based on a combination of theories about basic policy instruments (regulation, incentives and information) with realistic analysis...... focusing on mechanisms and context, and finally institutional theory proposing coercive, normative and mimetic mechanisms as explanations for organisational behaviour. The model is applied to an intervention aimed at reduction of the risk of musculoskeletal disorders among bricklayers in Denmark. Our...

  2. Instrumentation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Umminger, K.

    2008-01-01

    A proper measurement of the relevant single and two-phase flow parameters is the basis for the understanding of many complex thermal-hydraulic processes. Reliable instrumentation is therefore necessary for the interaction between analysis and experiment especially in the field of nuclear safety research where postulated accident scenarios have to be simulated in experimental facilities and predicted by complex computer code systems. The so-called conventional instrumentation for the measurement of e. g. pressures, temperatures, pressure differences and single phase flow velocities is still a solid basis for the investigation and interpretation of many phenomena and especially for the understanding of the overall system behavior. Measurement data from such instrumentation still serves in many cases as a database for thermal-hydraulic system codes. However some special instrumentation such as online concentration measurement for boric acid in the water phase or for non-condensibles in steam atmosphere as well as flow visualization techniques were further developed and successfully applied during the recent years. Concerning the modeling needs for advanced thermal-hydraulic codes, significant advances have been accomplished in the last few years in the local instrumentation technology for two-phase flow by the application of new sensor techniques, optical or beam methods and electronic technology. This paper will give insight into the current state of instrumentation technology for safety-related thermohydraulic experiments. Advantages and limitations of some measurement processes and systems will be indicated as well as trends and possibilities for further development. Aspects of instrumentation in operating reactors will also be mentioned.

  3. Assessment report on NRP sub-theme 'International instruments for climate change policy'

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bruggink, J.J.C.; Van Beek, P.; Folmer, H.; Zhang, Z.X.; Blok, K.; Phylipsen, D.; Worrell, E.; Gupta, J.; Junne, G.; Van der Wurff, R.

    1995-01-01

    The projects implemented in the Dutch National Research Programme on Global Air Pollution and Climate Change are organised in several themes and sub-themes. Within the theme on Sustainable Solutions five projects are grouped under the heading International Instruments for Climate Change Policy. These five projects deal primarily with issues concerning the position of developing countries in the debate on limiting global CO2-emissions. They cover a broad spectrum of topics: international negotiation strategies, tropical deforestation, industrial energy conservation, national energy scenarios, emission guidelines. This contribution presents an overview of the objectives, methodologies and results of the projects and includes a critical evaluation of the potential relevance of the work for policy makers. 1 tab., 36 refs

  4. Economic Objects: How Policy Discourse in the United Kingdom Represents International Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lomer, Sylvie

    2014-01-01

    Despite the significant and increasing presence of international students in the United Kingdom, on a national level there has been a lack of formal policy towards international students. Instead, in policy discourse, international students are represented in economic terms to the exclusion of other dimensions of experience and action. This…

  5. On Welfare and Terror: Social Welfare Policies and Political-Economic Roots of Terrorism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burgoon, Brian

    2006-01-01

    This article argues that social welfare policies may reduce international and domestic terrorism. Social policies likely affect terrorism in offsetting ways but, on balance, should diminish preferences for terrorism by reducing economic insecurity, inequality, poverty, and religious-political extremism. Thus, countries with more generous welfare…

  6. EU governance of economic and social policies : Chances and challenges for social Europe

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bekker, S.; Klosse, S.

    2013-01-01

    This article aims at establishing to what extent the renewed EU economic and social policy coordination cycles offer opportunities to uphold and further develop the Union’s social objectives. First, it seeks to examine to what extent the legal frameworks in which macroeconomic and social policies

  7. Recent Transformations in China's Economic, Social, and Education Policies for Promoting Innovation and Creativity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pang, Weiguo; Plucker, Jonathan A.

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to review major Chinese policies related to creativity education. We first identify and describe the role of innovation and creativity in economic and social development policies over the past 20 years, then analyze how the call for enhanced Chinese innovation and creativity was actualized in corresponding education…

  8. Economic Differentiation as a Determinant of Higher Education Pricing and Expenditure Policies and State-wide Public Policy: Implications for Governance. ASHE 1983 Annual Meeting Paper.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alfred, Richard L.

    A study of the impact of economic differentiation on institutional pricing and expenditure policies, higher education public policy, and governance in public colleges and universities is described. It is suggested that economic differentiation is a likely determinant of variation in institutional expenditure and pricing policies and higher…

  9. Consistency of policy instruments. How the EU could move to a -30% greenhouse gas reduction target

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hoehne, N.; Hagemann, M.; Moltmann, S.; Escalante, D. [Ecofys Germany, Berlin (Germany)

    2011-04-15

    The report provides options for how to achieve a 30% reduction in greenhouse gas emissions, in the EU, from 1990 to 2020. The EU has agreed a set of goals (objectives) and related instruments for 2020. The most significant objectives are the 20% or 30% reduction of greenhouse gases (all emissions, both within and outside the Emissions Trading System), the 20% improvement of energy efficiency and the 20% of renewable energy use by 2020. The stringency of the instruments used to reach these goals, must be set carefully to ensure overall consistency. Particularly after the economic crisis of 2008/2009, the Climate and Energy Package has to be 'tuned' again to be fully consistent, e.g. fast take up of renewable energy and fewer emissions due to the recession may cause an over-allocation in the EU-ETS.

  10. Danish and Norwegian wind industry: The relationship between policy instruments, innovation and diffusion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Buen, Jorund

    2006-01-01

    This article compares the role of policy instruments in stimulating long-term technological change in Danish and Norwegian wind industry. It concludes that although predictability has periodically been low, Denmark's broad portfolio of policies and measures has been well adapted to the different stages in the development of its wind industry. This has contributed to a high degree of innovation, successful establishment in niche markets, high degree of diffusion and establishment of domestic and international mass markets, and-in recent years-an increasingly successful replacement of senescent technology with new. The motivation of Norway's wind energy policies and measures-at least up until the late 1990s-has been to increase power supply rather than to stimulate industrial development and technological change. Policies and measures have been weaker than in Denmark; have been less stable over time; and stimulated the demand side much less. They have not sufficiently covered the wind industry's perceived needs on different stages in the development of new technology, and have not sufficiently stimulated continuous improvement, learning and new product development (dynamic efficiency) in industry. This has been part of the reason why there has been only a limited extent of innovation and diffusion of wind technology in Norway

  11. Incorporating understanding of informal economic activity in natural resource and economic development policy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rebecca J. McLain; Susan J. Alexander; Eric T. Jones

    2008-01-01

    This report synthesizes the literature on the role of informal economic activity in the United States postindustrial economy. Informal economic activity is expanding in the United States and is likely to continue in the foreseeable future. The formal and informal economic sectors are inextricably intertwined, with individuals and households combining elements of both...

  12. Labour Market Policies for Encouraging Economic Activity and Labour Productivity in Bulgaria

    OpenAIRE

    Beleva, Iskra

    2016-01-01

    This article aims to present the recent labour market policies for encouraging economic activity of working age population, labour market inclusion and increasing labour productivity. It points out that a number of different programs and labour market measures have been implemented in Bulgaria in the last twenty years. The results of the analysis show up both positive and negative features of the implemented policies. These policies contribute to increasing labour market inclusion in the shor...

  13. Fundamental economic irreversibilities influence policies for enhancing international forest phytosanitary security

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas P. Holmes; Will Allen; Robert G. Haight; E. Carina H. Keskitalo; Mariella Marzano; Maria Pettersson; Christopher P. Quine; E. R. Langer

    2017-01-01

    National and international efforts to manage forest biosecurity create tension between opposing sources of ecological and economic irreversibility. Phytosanitary policies designed to protect national borders from biological invasions incur sunk costs deriving from economic and political irreversibilities that incentivizes wait-and-see decision-making. However, the...

  14. What's in a Grade? Grading Policies and Practices in Principles of Economics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walstad, William B.; Miller, Laurie A.

    2016-01-01

    Survey results from a national sample of economics instructors describe the grading policies and practices in principles of economics courses. The survey results provide insights about absolute and relative grading systems used by instructors, the course components and their weights that determine grades, and the type of assessment items used for…

  15. Market-oriented institutions and policies and economic growth : A critical survey

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    De Haan, J; Lundstrom, S; Sturm, JE

    This paper surveys recent evidence suggesting that market-oriented institutions and policies are strongly related to economic growth, focusing on studies using the economic freedom (EF) indicator of the Fraser Institute. This index is critically discussed. Also various serious shortcomings of

  16. Socializing the European Semester? Economic governance and social policy coordination in Europe 2020

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zeitlin, J.; Vanhercke, B.

    2014-01-01

    The European Semester of policy coordination, which is the core of EU’s new institutional architecture for economic and social governance, introduced since the beginning of the Euro crisis, has prompted questions about the nature and dynamics of the EU’s emerging socio-economic governance

  17. Policies and measures for economic efficiency, energy security and environment protection in India

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Venkaiah, M.; Kaushik, S.C.; Dewangan, M.L.

    2007-01-01

    India needs to sustain 8-10% economic growth to meet energy needs of people below poverty line. India would, at least, need to grow its primary energy supply (3-4 times) of present consumption to deliver a sustained growth of 8% by 2031. This paper discusses India's policies and measures for economic efficiency, environment protection and energy security (3-E). (author)

  18. Advances in Financial Risk Management and Economic Policy Uncertainty: An Overview

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    S.M. Hammoudeh (Shawkat); M.J. McAleer (Michael)

    2014-01-01

    markdownabstract__Abstract__ Financial risk management is difficult at the best of times, but especially so in the presence of economic uncertainty and financial crises. The purpose of this special issue on “Advances in Financial Risk Management and Economic Policy Uncertainty” is to highlight

  19. 77 FR 1548 - Advisory Committee on International Economic Policy; Notice of Open Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-10

    ... and challenges in international economic policy. The meeting will examine a New Focus on Investment: Attracting Inbound Foreign Direct Investment to the United States, and will highlight the U.S.-Turkey Economic Partnership Commission. Subcommittee reports will be led by the Investment Subcommittee, the...

  20. 78 FR 2709 - Advisory Committee on International Economic Policy; Notice of Open Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-14

    ... hosted by the Assistant Secretary of State for Economic and Business Affairs Jose W. Fernandez and... Subcommittee, the Subcommittee on Women in International Economic Policy, and the Stakeholder Advisory Board on... Guidelines for Multinational Enterprises. This meeting is open to public participation, though seating is...