WorldWideScience

Sample records for economic loss caused

  1. Economic Loss Caused by GMOs in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ulfbeck, Vibe Garf

    2008-01-01

    This book presents how European jurisdictions currently respond to economic losses caused by the admixture of gentically modified crops with conventional or organic crops and what alternatives there are from a comparative perspective. Country reports from most European countries are complemented ...

  2. ECONOMIC LOSSES CAUSED BY TRAUMATIC BRAIN INJURY IN CHILDREN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. A. Valiulina

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Currently, analyzing the economic losses caused by health problems in population is of particular importance since it stipulates calculations of the volumes invested in healthcare systems in order to improve population’s health. Objective: The aim of our study was to find out economic losses caused by traumatic brain injury (TBI in children. Methods: The given work has utilized governmental statistical reports for Russia, for federal regions as well as for individual subjects. Direct medical expenses (medical services and indirect expenses (losses due to a temporary disability of parents having a sick child were calculated both in general and per patient. Results: Among all the direct medical costs of treatment of children with TBI inpatient care costs account for 85%. In the Central and Volga Federal District accounted for half of nationwide spending in general, brain injury and to provide certain kinds of healthcare. The structure of Russian costs as a result of the incidence of TBI children Moscow accounts for 20%. In Moscow, the cost of treating cases of traumatic brain injury in children is 3.2 times higher than the average for Russia. The resulting calculations of the value of health care costs attributable to a case of child head injury, behind the cost of treatment of the case of a child with head trauma, calculated according to the standards of Russia and the territories. This difference in the whole RF is 23%. Conclusion: The obtained findings have shown that in 2010 in Russia the magnitude of losses caused by TBI incidence in children amounted to 3 billion roubles or 0.008% of the gross product 1.2 billion roubles of which were direct expenses. However, this figure is considerably lower of the real amount; it becomes evident after the analysis of direct medical expenses per one case of pediatric TBI. Our calculations have shown that in Russia and in its regions the amount of expenses per one TBI patient is a quarter less

  3. Methodology used in Cuba for estimating economic losses caused by forest fires

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marcos Pedro Ramos Rodríguez; Raúl González Rodríguez

    2013-01-01

    Assessment of economic losses caused by forest fires is a highly complex but important activity. It is complicated first by the large number of effects, in different periods, brought about in the social, economic and environmental fields. Secondly, the difficulty of assigning a market value to resources such as biodiversity or endangered species should be mentioned. It...

  4. Economic Estimation of the Losses Caused by Surface Water Pollution Accidents in China From the Perspective of Water Bodies' Functions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yao, Hong; You, Zhen; Liu, Bo

    2016-01-22

    The number of surface water pollution accidents (abbreviated as SWPAs) has increased substantially in China in recent years. Estimation of economic losses due to SWPAs has been one of the focuses in China and is mentioned many times in the Environmental Protection Law of China promulgated in 2014. From the perspective of water bodies' functions, pollution accident damages can be divided into eight types: damage to human health, water supply suspension, fishery, recreational functions, biological diversity, environmental property loss, the accident's origin and other indirect losses. In the valuation of damage to people's life, the procedure for compensation of traffic accidents in China was used. The functional replacement cost method was used in economic estimation of the losses due to water supply suspension and loss of water's recreational functions. Damage to biological diversity was estimated by recovery cost analysis and damage to environmental property losses were calculated using pollutant removal costs. As a case study, using the proposed calculation procedure the economic losses caused by the major Songhuajiang River pollution accident that happened in China in 2005 have been estimated at 2263 billion CNY. The estimated economic losses for real accidents can sometimes be influenced by social and political factors, such as data authenticity and accuracy. Besides, one or more aspects in the method might be overestimated, underrated or even ignored. The proposed procedure may be used by decision makers for the economic estimation of losses in SWPAs. Estimates of the economic losses of pollution accidents could help quantify potential costs associated with increased risk sources along lakes/rivers but more importantly, highlight the value of clean water to society as a whole.

  5. Economic Estimation of the Losses Caused by Surface Water Pollution Accidents in China From the Perspective of Water Bodies’ Functions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yao, Hong; You, Zhen; Liu, Bo

    2016-01-01

    The number of surface water pollution accidents (abbreviated as SWPAs) has increased substantially in China in recent years. Estimation of economic losses due to SWPAs has been one of the focuses in China and is mentioned many times in the Environmental Protection Law of China promulgated in 2014. From the perspective of water bodies’ functions, pollution accident damages can be divided into eight types: damage to human health, water supply suspension, fishery, recreational functions, biological diversity, environmental property loss, the accident’s origin and other indirect losses. In the valuation of damage to people’s life, the procedure for compensation of traffic accidents in China was used. The functional replacement cost method was used in economic estimation of the losses due to water supply suspension and loss of water’s recreational functions. Damage to biological diversity was estimated by recovery cost analysis and damage to environmental property losses were calculated using pollutant removal costs. As a case study, using the proposed calculation procedure the economic losses caused by the major Songhuajiang River pollution accident that happened in China in 2005 have been estimated at 2263 billion CNY. The estimated economic losses for real accidents can sometimes be influenced by social and political factors, such as data authenticity and accuracy. Besides, one or more aspects in the method might be overestimated, underrated or even ignored. The proposed procedure may be used by decision makers for the economic estimation of losses in SWPAs. Estimates of the economic losses of pollution accidents could help quantify potential costs associated with increased risk sources along lakes/rivers but more importantly, highlight the value of clean water to society as a whole. PMID:26805869

  6. Economic Estimation of the Losses Caused by Surface Water Pollution Accidents in China From the Perspective of Water Bodies’ Functions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hong Yao

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The number of surface water pollution accidents (abbreviated as SWPAs has increased substantially in China in recent years. Estimation of economic losses due to SWPAs has been one of the focuses in China and is mentioned many times in the Environmental Protection Law of China promulgated in 2014. From the perspective of water bodies’ functions, pollution accident damages can be divided into eight types: damage to human health, water supply suspension, fishery, recreational functions, biological diversity, environmental property loss, the accident’s origin and other indirect losses. In the valuation of damage to people’s life, the procedure for compensation of traffic accidents in China was used. The functional replacement cost method was used in economic estimation of the losses due to water supply suspension and loss of water’s recreational functions. Damage to biological diversity was estimated by recovery cost analysis and damage to environmental property losses were calculated using pollutant removal costs. As a case study, using the proposed calculation procedure the economic losses caused by the major Songhuajiang River pollution accident that happened in China in 2005 have been estimated at 2263 billion CNY. The estimated economic losses for real accidents can sometimes be influenced by social and political factors, such as data authenticity and accuracy. Besides, one or more aspects in the method might be overestimated, underrated or even ignored. The proposed procedure may be used by decision makers for the economic estimation of losses in SWPAs. Estimates of the economic losses of pollution accidents could help quantify potential costs associated with increased risk sources along lakes/rivers but more importantly, highlight the value of clean water to society as a whole.

  7. Prevalence of Various Reproductive Disorders and Economic Losses Caused by Genital Prolapse in Buffaloes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rasheed A. Rabbani, I. Ahmad*, L. A. Lodhi, N. Ahmad and G. Muhammad1

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The present study was conducted to investigate the prevalence of various reproductive disorders and to estimate the economic losses due to genital prolapse in buffaloes in Sir Shamir area of District Faisalabad, Pakistan. The survey was conducted in 8 villages during the 12 months period from June 2005 to May 2006 and the data from 400 farmers (50 farmers from each village were collected. The total buffalo population of this area was 7,785, out of which 2,135 (27.42% animals were included in the study. The overall prevalence of reproductive disorders in buffaloes was recorded as 46.18%. Among all the reproductive disorders, repeat breeding showed the highest prevalence (15.69%, followed by anestrous (9.74%, genital prolapse (7.73%, abortion (5.99%, retained placenta (2.58%, uterine torsion (2.39% and dystocia (2.06%. The total economic losses due to genital prolapse in buffaloes in eight villages during the period of study were estimated to be Rs. 4,59,500/- Among these, the highest losses were due to mortality of dam (39.17%, followed by milk losses (25.14%, service charges (21.33% and medicine cost (14.36%. Thus, repeat breeding, anoestrus and genital prolapse seem to be the major reproductive problems in buffaloes in the study area.

  8. Impacts and Losses Caused By the Fraudulent and Manipulated Financial Information on Economic Decisions

    OpenAIRE

    Tak ISA

    2011-01-01

    Nowadays the effects of the fraudulent and manipulated financial information have been more controversial. We should take into consideration that the financial losses caused by fraudulent or manipulated financial information are remarkable. Preventing the fraud in the financial information has been an important issue by auditors all over the world. As the American economy is the dominant economy may cause and affect the capital market mostly all over the world. In the last decade we can see t...

  9. An economic assessment of the health effects and crop yield losses caused by air pollution in mainland China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miao, Weijie; Huang, Xin; Song, Yu

    2017-06-01

    Air pollution is severe in China, and pollutants such as PM2.5 and surface O3 may cause major damage to human health and crops, respectively. Few studies have considered the health effects of PM2.5 or the loss of crop yields due to surface O3 using model-simulated air pollution data in China. We used gridded outputs from the WRF-Chem model, high resolution population data, and crop yield data to evaluate the effects on human health and crop yield in mainland China. Our results showed that outdoor PM2.5 pollution was responsible for 1.70-1.99 million cases of all-cause mortality in 2006. The economic costs of these health effects were estimated to be 151.1-176.9 billion USD, of which 90% were attributed to mortality. The estimated crop yield losses for wheat, rice, maize, and soybean were approximately 9, 4.6, 0.44, and 0.34 million tons, respectively, resulting in economic losses of 3.4 billion USD. The total economic losses due to ambient air pollution were estimated to be 154.5-180.3 billion USD, accounting for approximately 5.7%-6.6% of the total GDP of China in 2006. Our results show that both population health and staple crop yields in China have been significantly affected by exposure to air pollution. Measures should be taken to reduce emissions, improve air quality, and mitigate the economic loss. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  10. What causes bone loss?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... of bone loss. For men, a drop in testosterone as they age can cause bone loss. Your ... Wisse, MD, Associate Professor of Medicine, Division of Metabolism, Endocrinology & Nutrition, University of Washington School of Medicine, ...

  11. The occurrence of, and economic losses caused by Armillaria in the Western Carpathian Mts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adam Kaliszewski

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available An investigation carried out in the Western Carpathian Mountains (Ujsoły, Węgierska Górka, Ustroń and Wisła Forest Districts demonstrated a strong relationship between dieback in Norway spruce stands and the intensity of occurrence of Armillaria ostoyae. For the most endangered site types – mountain deciduous forest (LG and mountain mixed forest (LMG, analyses of losses of annual volume increment and of stand productivity were performed, and their financial dimensions determined. The greatest losses – of about 8 m3/ha/year for tree stands of the age of 100 years, and 400 m3/ha for the rotation period – were found for LG (Mountain broadleaved forest site type.

  12. International trade causes large net economic losses in tropical countries via the destruction of ecosystem services.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Junning; Symes, William S; Lim, Felix; Carrasco, L Roman

    2016-05-01

    Despite the large implications of the use of tropical land for exports ("land absorption") on ecosystem services (ES) and global biodiversity conservation, the magnitude of these externalities is not known. We quantify the net value of ES lost in tropical countries as a result of cropland, forestland and pastureland absorption for exports after deducting ES gains through imports ("land displacement"). We find that net ES gains occur only in 7 out of the 41 countries and regions considered. We estimate global annual net losses of over 1.7 x 10(12) international dollars (I$) (I$1.1 x 10(12) if carbon-related services are not considered). After deducting the benefits from agricultural, forest and livestock rents in land replacing tropical forests, the net annual losses are I$1.3 and I$0.7 x 10(12), respectively. The results highlight the large magnitude of tropical ES losses through international trade that are not compensated by the rents of land uses in absorbed land.

  13. Trauma, a new cause of death, disability and economic loss in Juba

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2011-05-02

    May 2, 2011 ... Introduction. Five years ago we were seeing an increasing number of trauma cases in Juba Teaching Hospital and the situation is even worse today in 2011. The objectives of this study were to: determine the magnitude and type of trauma. • injury as seen in Juba examine its causes. • explore possible ...

  14. Economic inequality predicts biodiversity loss.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gregory M Mikkelson

    Full Text Available Human activity is causing high rates of biodiversity loss. Yet, surprisingly little is known about the extent to which socioeconomic factors exacerbate or ameliorate our impacts on biological diversity. One such factor, economic inequality, has been shown to affect public health, and has been linked to environmental problems in general. We tested how strongly economic inequality is related to biodiversity loss in particular. We found that among countries, and among US states, the number of species that are threatened or declining increases substantially with the Gini ratio of income inequality. At both levels of analysis, the connection between income inequality and biodiversity loss persists after controlling for biophysical conditions, human population size, and per capita GDP or income. Future research should explore potential mechanisms behind this equality-biodiversity relationship. Our results suggest that economic reforms would go hand in hand with, if not serving as a prerequisite for, effective conservation.

  15. Economic Loan Loss Provision and Expected Loss

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stefan Hlawatsch

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available The intention of a loan loss provision is the anticipation of the loan's expected losses by adjusting the book value of the loan. Furthermore, this loan loss provision has to be compared to the expected loss according to Basel II and, in the case of a difference, liable equity has to be adjusted. This however assumes that the loan loss provision and the expected loss are based on a similar economic rationale, which is only valid conditionally in current loan loss provisioning methods according to IFRS. Therefore, differences between loan loss provisions and expected losses should only result from different approaches regarding the parameter estimation within each model and not due to different assumptions regarding the outcome of the model. The provisioning and accounting model developed in this paper overcomes the before-mentioned shortcomings and is consistent with an economic rationale of expected losses. Additionally, this model is based on a close-to-market valuation of the loan that is in favor of the basic idea of IFRS. Suggestions for changes in current accounting and capital requirement rules are provided.

  16. THE ASSESSMENT OF ECONOMICAL LOSS CAUSED BY FLOODS AND FLASH-FLOODS BY USING COMPUTER TECHNIQUES. CASE STUDY: LOPĂTARI VILLAGE, SLĂNIC RIVER

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    COSTACHE R.

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The present study aims to provide an example of the assessment of economical loss caused by floods and flash-floods, by integrating GIS techniques of hydraulic and hydrological modelling. The case study was performed in Lopătari village, which is located in the upper area of Slănic River, one of the most affected areas by floods and flash-floods. The flood event produced on 29.V.2012 was considered in order to perform this study. Thus, a flood hydrograph was simulated by using software HEC-HMS 3.5, based on hourly precipitation data from Bisoca meteorological station from 29.V.2012. The peak discharge resulting from the hydrological modelling software was used in HEC-RAS 4.1 hydraulic modelling software in order to determine the extent of flooding band, the number of the affected elements and the local economical loss. Finally, 21 flooded buildings were identified and 550 m of affected road, the estimated economical damage being about 800,000 RON.

  17. Reduction of economic losses caused by mycoplasmal pneumonia of pigs by vaccination with Respisure and by Tiamutin treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stipkovits, L; Laky, Zs; Abonyi, T; Siugzdaite, Jurate; Szabó, I

    2003-01-01

    The possibilities and economic benefits of controlling mycoplasmal pneumonia of pigs caused by Mycoplasma hyopneumoniae by immunisation with Respisure and by Tiamutin treatment were studied. The experiment was carried out in a herd comprising 1000 sows which was free of PRRS, Aujeszky's disease, swine dysentery and leptospirosis, and the prevalence of mycoplasmal pneumonia was low because the farm had recently been restocked. Groups C1 and C2 served as untreated controls, while Groups R1 and R2 received a prestarter diet containing 100 ppm Tiamutin from the time of weaning. Piglets of Group R1 were vaccinated with Respisure vaccine once on day 69, while those of Group R2 twice, on days 65 and 80. Piglets of Groups ST1 and ST2 were fed 100 ppm Tiamutin in the diet for 7 days at the time of weaning and then at 4 months of age, while pigs of Group ST2 received such treatment also in the 6th month of life. The efficacy of treatment was analysed on the basis of the number of animals that died, were emergency slaughtered or were retarded in growth in the different groups, the body weight of animals at weaning, at 94 and 148 days of age and at the time of slaughter, their daily body weight gain, the lung lesions found in animals slaughtered from the different groups, the costs of medication and vaccination, and the cost-benefit calculations of the results. The mortality and emergency slaughter rate was 2.88% and 4.62% in Groups ST2 and ST1, respectively, 4.23% and 4.62% in Groups R2 and R1, respectively, and 8.39% and 9.44% in the control groups (C2 and C1, respectively). The rate of growth retardation was 0.48% and 2.12% in Groups R1 and R2, respectively, 1.59% and 3.46% in Groups ST1 and ST2, respectively, as compared to 8.03% and 6.55% in the control groups (C1 and C2, respectively). The severity score of lung lesions was 1.82 and 1.46 in Groups R1 and R2, 2.18 and 2.93 in Groups ST1 and ST2, and 3.83 and 4.02 in the control groups C1 and C2, respectively. The mean

  18. Did Economic Inequality Cause the Economic Crisis

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Danilo Sukovic

    2014-01-01

    ... that occurred during the last three decades. The global economic crisis that emerged in 2008 gave a new impetus to this research because numerous scientific studies appeared in which inequalities were given as one of the key causes...

  19. Did economic inequality cause the economic crisis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Šuković Danilo

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The sudden and large increase of interest in questions of distribution of wealth and economic inequality, arising in recent years, resulted primarily from the enormous increase in inequality that occurred during the last three decades. The global economic crisis that emerged in 2008 gave a new impetus to this research because numerous scientific studies appeared in which inequalities were given as one of the key causes of the crisis from which the world is slowly recovering. This is especially true in Europe, whose recovery is barely discernible. This paper analyzes the trends of economic inequality and points to the impact of inequality on economic growth. The central question in this paper, however, is whether the economic inequalities caused the economic crisis. Although opinions differ as to inequality’s impact on the occurrence of the crisis, the fact is that enormous economic inequalities, and especially their permanent growth, could have many negative effects, such as increasing poverty, increasing social stratification and causing global economic crises. As many authors have pointed out, escalating inequality is not an inevitable price of progress. On the contrary, it is a political decision that often has expensive ramifications.

  20. Systemic causes of hair loss.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Richard L; Garibyan, Lilit; Kimball, Alexandra B; Drake, Lynn A

    2016-09-01

    Hair loss is both a common chief complaint by patients and a clinical challenge for physicians, especially general practitioners, yet few dermatological problems yield as much patient satisfaction when resolved as hair loss. The diagnosis is often attributed to androgen-related hair loss, while other causes, some of which are life-threatening but treatable, are overlooked. We searched for relevant literature on hair loss and supported these findings with our clinical experience to identify seven major systemic etiologies of hair loss, ranging from infectious agents to consumption of unsafe supplements. Many causes are only described in the literature through case studies, though some original articles and meta-analyses are available. Careful history taking, proper examination techniques, and judicious use of laboratory tests are essential to reach at the correct diagnosis in a cost-effective manner when performing patient work-up. Such methodical evaluation of hair loss can result in the appropriate treatment plan and provide significant patient satisfaction. Key messages Hair loss is a common chief complaint and a difficult challenge for both general practitioners and dermatology consultants. We identified seven major categories of systemic hair loss etiology and present a framework for their clinical evaluation. A methodical approach to hair loss can result in the appropriate treatment plan and provide significant patient satisfaction.

  1. Global Multihazard Proportional Economic Loss Risk Deciles

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Global Multihazard Proportional Economic Loss Risks is a 2.5 minute grid of a multihazard-based economic loss risk as a proportion of the economic productivity of...

  2. Global Volcano Proportional Economic Loss Risk Deciles

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Global Volcano Proportional Economic Loss Risk Deciles is a 2.5 minute grid of volcano hazard economic loss as proportions of Gross Domestic Product (GDP) per...

  3. Global Multihazard Total Economic Loss Risk Deciles

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Global Multihazard Total Economic Loss Risk Deciles is a 2.5 minute grid of global multihazard total economic loss risks. First, for each of the considered hazards...

  4. Global Drought Proportional Economic Loss Risk Deciles

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Global Drought Proportional Economic Loss Risk Deciles is a 2.5 minute grid of drought hazard economic loss as proportions of Gross Domestic Product (GDP) per...

  5. Global Drought Total Economic Loss Risk Deciles

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Global Drought Total Economic Loss Risk Deciles is a 2.5 minute grid of global drought total economic loss risks. A process of spatially allocating Gross Domestic...

  6. Global Volcano Total Economic Loss Risk Deciles

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Global Volcano Total Economic Loss Risk Deciles is a 2.5 minute grid of global volcano total economic loss risks. First, subnational distributions of Gross Domestic...

  7. Global Flood Total Economic Loss Risk Deciles

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Global Flood Total Economic Loss Risk Deciles is a 2.5 minute grid of global flood total economic loss risks. A process of spatially allocating Gross Domestic...

  8. Global Landslide Total Economic Loss Risk Deciles

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Global Landslide Total Economic Loss Risk Deciles is a 2.5 minute grid of global landslide total economic loss risks. A process of spatially allocating Gross...

  9. Global Earthquake Total Economic Loss Risk Deciles

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Global Earthquake Total Economic Loss Risk Deciles is a 2.5 minute grid of global earthquake total economic loss risks. A process of spatially allocating Gross...

  10. Global Landslide Proportional Economic Loss Risk Deciles

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Global Landslide Proportional Economic Loss Risk Deciles is a 2.5 minute grid of landslide hazard economic loss as proportions of Gross Domestic Product (GDP) per...

  11. Global Flood Proportional Economic Loss Risk Deciles

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Global Flood Proportional Economic Loss Risk Deciles is a 2.5 minute grid of flood hazard economic loss as proportions of Gross Domestic Product (GDP) per analytical...

  12. Global Drought Total Economic Loss Risk Deciles

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Global Drought Total Economic Loss Risk Deciles is a 2.5 by 2.5 minute grid of global drought total economic loss risks. A process of spatially allocating Gross...

  13. Global Cyclone Total Economic Loss Risk Deciles

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Global Cyclone Total Economic Loss Risk Deciles is a 2.5 minute grid of global cyclone total economic loss risks. A process of spatially allocating Gross Domestic...

  14. Global Earthquake Proportional Economic Loss Risk Deciles

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Global Earthquake Proportional Economic Loss Risk Deciles is a 2.5 minute grid of earthquake hazard economic loss as proportions of Gross Domestic Product (GDP) per...

  15. Global Cyclone Proportional Economic Loss Risk Deciles

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Global Cyclone Proportional Economic Loss Risk Deciles is a 2.5 minute grid of cyclone hazard economic loss as proportions of Gross Domestic Product (GDP) per...

  16. Global Cyclone Proportional Economic Loss Risk Deciles

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Global Cyclone Proportional Economic Loss Risk Deciles is a 2.5 by 2.5 minute grid of cyclone hazard economic loss as proportions of gross domestic product (GDP) per...

  17. The Economic Impact of Loss of Performance Due to Absenteeism and Presenteeism Caused by Depressive Symptoms and Comorbid Health Conditions among Japanese Workers

    Science.gov (United States)

    WADA, Koji; ARAKIDA, Mikako; WATANABE, Rika; NEGISHI, Motomi; SATO, Jun; TSUTSUMI, Akizumi

    2013-01-01

    We aimed to determine the economic impact of absenteeism and presenteeism from five conditions potentially comorbid with depressive symptoms—back or neck disorders, depression, anxiety, or emotional disorders, chronic headaches, stomach or bowel disorders, and insomnia—among Japanese workers aged 18–59 yr. Participants from 19 workplaces anonymously completed Stanford Presenteeism Scale questionnaires. Participants identified one primary health condition and determined the resultant performance loss (0–100%) over the previous 4-wk period. We estimated the wage loss by gender, using 10-yr age bands. A total of 6,777 participants undertook the study. Of these, we extracted the data for those in the 18–59 yr age band who chose targeted primary health conditions (males, 2,535; females 2,465). The primary health condition identified was back or neck disorders. We found that wage loss due to presenteeism and absenteeism per 100 workers across all 10-yr age bands was high for back or neck disorders. Wage loss per person was relatively high among those identifying depression, anxiety, or emotional disorders. These findings offer insight into developing strategies for workplace interventions on increasing work performance. PMID:23892900

  18. [Hearing loss caused by leisure noise].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zenner, H P; Struwe, V; Schuschke, G; Spreng, M; Stange, G; Plath, P; Babisch, W; Rebentisch, E; Plinkert, P; Bachmann, K D; Ising, H; Lehnert, G

    1999-04-01

    Although noise in general can induce hearing loss, environmental noise represents an important risk for children, teenagers and young adults. Epidemiological investigations now support the occurrence of an increasing number of irreversible hearing losses in these groups. Major causes of hearing loss are toys (guns), explosives and electroacoustically amplified music delivered by head sets or heard in discotheques and open air concerts. Clinical indications are discussed.

  19. Estimated annual economic loss from organ condemnation ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Estimated annual economic loss from organ condemnation, decreased carcass weight and milk yield due to bovine hydatidosis ( Echinococcus granulosus ... need to mount an integrated nation-wide hydatidosis control program involving public education, canine health care, proper handling and disposal of infected organs, ...

  20. Economic causes and consequences of international terrorism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. M. Bunchuk

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available At present, representatives of the scientific, political, military circles and the civil society of the most countries of the world are taking part in the antiterrorist activity. The formation and implementation of the state policy of terrorism prevention in Ukraine provide for realization of the measures package of the legislative and executive power, the society and individual citizens of Ukraine. The article: • identifies problems of terrorism combating policy in the context of research on the causes and economic impact of terrorist activities; • reveals that appearance of evaluation categories in the field of terrorism resulted in a formation of a specific world market - a terrorism market; • considers problems related to the effectiveness of budgetary and extra-budgetary expenditure linked to threats of international terrorism in the countries of the integrated world; • highlights the economic losses incurred by Ukraine because of the terrorist activity in the Donetsk and Lugansk regions in 2014; • defines theoretical aspects of anti-terrorist Ukrainian policy analysis in the context of international, especially European and Euro-Atlantic, anti-terrorism cooperation; The conducted analysis shows that one of the priority tasks of the state regarding to improving the efficiency of antiterrorist activity should be the construction of the system of prevention of terrorism as a complex, multidimensional phenomenon, including by means of creating a system of regulatory actions of authorized authorities and other institutions of civil society in this area.

  1. Economic losses occurring due to brucellosis in Indian livestock populations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, B B; Dhand, N K; Gill, J P S

    2015-05-01

    Brucellosis is a serious public health issue in India. Estimation of economic losses occurring due to brucellosis is required to help formulate prevention and control strategies, but has not been done in India. We estimated economic losses due to brucellosis by sourcing prevalence data from epidemiological surveys conducted in India. Data for livestock populations were obtained from official records. Probability distributions were used for many of the input parameters to account for uncertainty and variability. The analysis revealed that brucellosis in livestock is responsible for a median loss of US $ 3.4 billion (5th-95th percentile 2.8-4.2 billion). The disease in cattle and buffalo accounted for 95.6% of the total losses occurring due to brucellosis in livestock populations. The disease is responsible for a loss of US $ 6.8 per cattle, US$18.2 per buffalo, US $ 0.7 per sheep, US $ 0.5 per goat and US $ 0.6 per pig. These losses are additional to the economic and social consequences of the disease in humans. The results suggest that the disease causes significant economic losses in the country and should be controlled on a priority basis. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Hair Loss: Common Causes and Treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phillips, T Grant; Slomiany, W Paul; Allison, Robert

    2017-09-15

    Hair loss is often distressing and can have a significant effect on the patient's quality of life. Patients may present to their family physician first with diffuse or patchy hair loss. Scarring alopecia is best evaluated by a dermatologist. Nonscarring alopecias can be readily diagnosed and treated in the family physician's office. Androgenetic alopecia can be diagnosed clinically and treated with minoxidil. Alopecia areata is diagnosed by typical patches of hair loss and is self-limited. Tinea capitis causes patches of alopecia that may be erythematous and scaly and must be treated systemically. Telogen effluvium is a nonscarring, noninflammatory alopecia of relatively sudden onset caused by physiologic or emotional stress. Once the precipitating cause is removed, the hair typically will regrow. Trichotillomania is an impulse-control disorder; treatment is aimed at controlling the underlying psychiatric condition. Trichorrhexis nodosa occurs when hairs break secondary to trauma and is often a result of hair styling or overuse of hair products. Anagen effluvium is the abnormal diffuse loss of hair during the growth phase caused by an event that impairs the mitotic activity of the hair follicle, most commonly chemotherapy. Physician support is especially important for patients in this situation.

  3. Causes of visual loss in uveitis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stanković Zora

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Background/Aim. Epidemiological studies of blindness in a working age population require a precise definition of the true connection of uveitis and visual damage. Since most patients with more severe types of uveitis are hospitalized in tertiary referral uveitis service, our aim was to determine whether age, sex and age of onset of uveitis, as well as duration of visual loss and its causes influence the degree of visual damage in patients with different types of uveitis. Methods. The data were collected from medical records of 237 patients at the Department for Uveitis of the Institute for Eye Diseases in Belgrade over a three-year period (March 2005 to March 2008. Results. Visual acuity reduction (≤ 0.3 was found in 161/237 (67.9% patients, 85 of whom had visual acuity of ≤ 0.1 later. Working age patients (up to 60 years of age most often suffered from uveitis (173/237; 73%. The highest number of patients with visual loss was in the group suffering from panuveitis (77/94; 81.91%. The age of onset of uveitis and sex have no statistically significant influence on visual loss. The most common causes of visual loss (34/161; 21.1% were cystoid macular oedema (CMO (43/161; 26.7%, cataract (28/161; 17.39% and combination of CMO and cataract. Conclusion. The risk factors for severe visual loss (≤ 0.1 are panuveitis, bilateral inflammation, prolonged visual reduction and a significant number of relapses. The main causes of visual loss in 65.2% of our patients were CMO and cataract.

  4. Using Space Syntax For Estimation Of Potential Disaster Indirect Economic Losses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Penchev Georgi

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The paper is aimed at estimation of indirect economic losses resulting from natural disasters. Generally, these losses are defined as interruptions in economic activities and are not related to the damaged enterprises. Even limited physical damage to property and infrastructure caused by natural disaster can produce chain reaction of losses in supply chain within a certain region.

  5. 7 CFR 760.611 - Qualifying losses, eligible causes and types of loss.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... loss was due to poor management decisions or poor farming practices, as determined by the FSA county...) Losses caused by a failure of power supply or brownout as defined in § 760.602; (2) Losses caused by the...; (4) Losses caused by the application of chemicals; (5) Losses caused by theft or fire not caused by a...

  6. 7 CFR 1437.9 - Causes of loss.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Causes of loss. 1437.9 Section 1437.9 Agriculture... Provisions § 1437.9 Causes of loss. (a) To be eligible for benefits under this part, an eligible cause of loss must result in: (1) A loss of production greater than 50 percent of the approved yield in...

  7. Toward economic flood loss characterization via hazard simulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Czajkowski, Jeffrey; Cunha, Luciana K.; Michel-Kerjan, Erwann; Smith, James A.

    2016-08-01

    Among all natural disasters, floods have historically been the primary cause of human and economic losses around the world. Improving flood risk management requires a multi-scale characterization of the hazard and associated losses—the flood loss footprint. But this is typically not available in a precise and timely manner, yet. To overcome this challenge, we propose a novel and multidisciplinary approach which relies on a computationally efficient hydrological model that simulates streamflow for scales ranging from small creeks to large rivers. We adopt a normalized index, the flood peak ratio (FPR), to characterize flood magnitude across multiple spatial scales. The simulated FPR is then shown to be a key statistical driver for associated economic flood losses represented by the number of insurance claims. Importantly, because it is based on a simulation procedure that utilizes generally readily available physically-based data, our flood simulation approach has the potential to be broadly utilized, even for ungauged and poorly gauged basins, thus providing the necessary information for public and private sector actors to effectively reduce flood losses and save lives.

  8. Heat stress causes substantial labour productivity loss in Australia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zander, Kerstin K.; Botzen, Wouter J. W.; Oppermann, Elspeth; Kjellstrom, Tord; Garnett, Stephen T.

    2015-07-01

    Heat stress at the workplace is an occupational health hazard that reduces labour productivity. Assessment of productivity loss resulting from climate change has so far been based on physiological models of heat exposure. These models suggest productivity may decrease by 11-27% by 2080 in hot regions such as Asia and the Caribbean, and globally by up to 20% in hot months by 2050. Using an approach derived from health economics, we describe self-reported estimates of work absenteeism and reductions in work performance caused by heat in Australia during 2013/2014. We found that the annual costs were US$655 per person across a representative sample of 1,726 employed Australians. This represents an annual economic burden of around US$6.2 billion (95% CI: 5.2-7.3 billion) for the Australian workforce. This amounts to 0.33 to 0.47% of Australia’s GDP. Although this was a period when many Australians experienced what is at present considered exceptional heat, our results suggest that adaptation measures to reduce heat effects should be adopted widely if severe economic impacts from labour productivity loss are to be avoided if heat waves become as frequent as predicted.

  9. Evaluation of economic loss from energy-related environmental pollution: a case study of Beijing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Chen; Su, Meirong; Liu, Gengyuan; Yang, Zhifeng

    2013-09-01

    With the growth of energy consumption, energy-related environmental pollution has become increasingly serious, which in turn causes enormous economic loss because of public health damage, corrosion of materials, crop yield reduction, and other factors. Evaluating economic loss caused by energy-related environmental pollution can contribute to decision making in energy management. A framework for evaluating economic loss from environmental pollution produced during energy production, transportation, and consumption is proposed in this paper. Regarding SO2, PM10, and solid waste as the main pollutants, economic losses from health damage, materials corrosion, crop yield reduction, and solid waste pollution are estimated based on multiple concentration-response relationships and dose-response functions. The proposed framework and evaluation methods are applied to Beijing, China. It is evident that total economic loss attributable to energy-related environmental pollution fluctuated during 2000-2011 but had a general growth trend, with the highest value reaching 2.3 × 108 CNY (China Yuan) in 2006. Economic loss caused by health damage contributes most to the total loss among the four measured damage types. The total economic loss strongly correlates with the amount of energy consumption, especially for oil and electricity. Our evaluation framework and methods can be used widely to measure the potential impact of environmental pollution in the energy lifecycle.

  10. Computer failure caused loss of Mars spacecraft

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Zielinski, Sarah

    2007-01-01

    A computer error that occurred 5 months before NASA lost contact with the Mars Global Surveyor on 2 November 2006 led to the spacecraft's eventual battery failure and subsequent loss of orientation...

  11. Coping proactively with economic stress: career adaptability in the face of job insecurity, job loss, unemployment, and underemployment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Klehe, U.-C.; Zikic, J.; van Vianen, A.E.M.; Koen, J.; Buyken, M.; Perrewé, P.L; Halbesleben, J.R.B.; Rosen, C.C.

    2012-01-01

    Economic stressors such as job insecurity, job loss, unemployment, and underemployment cause severe difficulties for the workers affected, their families, organizations, and societies overall. Consequently, most past research has taken a thoroughly negative perspective on economic stress, addressing

  12. Estimated annual economic loss from organ condemnation ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Ahmed, A, 1988. Hydatidosis prevalence at Jimma abattoir. DVM Thesis. Addis Ababa. University, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, Debre Zeit, Ethiopia, Pp25. Alyie, M., 1988. Study on prevalence and economic significance of bovine hydatidosis in Gamogofa region. DVM thesis, Addis Ababa University, Faculty of Veterinary.

  13. Ethanol production: energy, economic, and environmental losses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pimentel, David; Patzek, Tad; Cecil, Gerald

    2007-01-01

    The prime focus of ethanol production from corn is to replace the imported oil used in American vehicles, without expending more fossil energy in ethanol production than is produced as ethanol energy. In a thorough and up-to-date evaluation of all the fossil energy costs of ethanol production from corn, every step in the production and conversion process must be included. In this study, 14 energy inputs in average U.S. corn production are included. Then, in the fermentation/distillation operation, 9 more identified fossil fuel inputs are included. Some energy and economic credits are given for the by-products, including dried distillers grains (DDG). Based on all the fossil energy inputs, a total of 1.43 kcal fossil energy is expended to produced 1 kcal ethanol. When the energy value of the DDG, based on the feed value of the DDG as compared to that of soybean meal, is considered, the energy cost of ethanol production is reduced slightly, to 1.28 kcal fossil energy input per 1 kcal ethanol produced. Several proethanol investigators have overlooked various energy inputs in U.S. corn production, including farm machinery, processing machinery, and the use of hybrid corn. In other studies, unrealistic, low energy costs were attributed to such inputs as nitrogen fertilizer, insecticides, and herbicides. Controversy continues concerning the energy and economic credits that should be assigned to the by-products. The U.S. Department of Energy reports that 17.0 billion L ethanol was produced in 2005. This represents only less than 1% of total oil use in the U.S. These yields are based on using about 18% of total U.S. corn production and 18% of cornland. Because the production of ethanol requires large inputs of both oil and natural gas in production, the U.S. is importing both oil and natural gas to produce ethanol. Furthermore, the U.S. Government is spending about dollar 3 billion annually to subsidize ethanol production, a subsidy of dollar 0.79/L ethanol produced. With

  14. Diagnosis of Hair Loss: Clinical features of common causes of hair loss

    OpenAIRE

    Coupe, Robert L.M.

    1992-01-01

    Common causes of hair loss include androgenic hair loss, alopecia areata, trichotillomania, tinea capitis, telogen effluvium, and traction alopecia. The author discusses their distinguishing clinical features and those of less common alopecias.

  15. Heat losses in power boilers caused by thermal bridges

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kocot Monika

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available In this article the analysis of heat losses caused by thermal bridges that occur in the steam boiler OP-140 is presented. Identification of these bridges were conducted with use of thermographic camera. Heat losses were evaluated based on methodology of VDI 4610 standard, but instead of its simplified equations, criterial equations based on Nusselt number were used. Obtained values of annual heat losses and heat flux density corresponding to the fully insulated boiler surfaces were compared to heat losses generated by thermal bridges located in the same areas. The emphasis is put on the role of industrial insulation in heat losses reduction.

  16. Allocation of Load-Loss Cost Caused by Voltage Sag

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, X.

    2017-10-01

    This paper focuses on the allocation of load-loss cost caused by voltage sag in the environment of electricity market. To compensate the loss of loads due to voltage sags, the load-loss cost is allocated to both sources and power consumers. On the basis of Load Drop Cost (LDC), a quantitative evaluation index of load-loss cost caused by voltage sag is identified. The load-loss cost to be allocated to power consumers themselves is calculated according to load classification. Based on the theory of power component the quantitative relation between sources and loads is established, thereby a quantitative calculation method for load-loss cost allocated to each source is deduced and the quantitative compensation from individual source to load is proposed. A simple five-bus system illustrates the main features of the proposed method.

  17. Prevalence and economic loss of bovine tuberculosis in a municipal ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A 12 month cross-sectional study was carried out at Lafenwa Abattoir Abeokuta, Southwestern Nigeria from July, 2011 to June, 2012. This was to determine the prevalence and economic loss of bovine tuberculosis in this abattoir. A total of 928 cases of bovine tuberculosis out of 52,273 cattle slaughtered during this period ...

  18. Economic loss from transportation stress in slaughter cattle: the case ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Avoiding transportation stress will help in reducing the associated economic loss and poor carcass quality. We therefore recommend that the current cattle transportation system be improved for optimal animal welfare and minimization of excessive stress, injuries, mortality, and (or) carcass quality defects. Key words: Stress ...

  19. Energy and Economic Losses Due to Constant Power Outages in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The results of the analysis also show that the economic losses associated with self-generation of electricity is high. Compared to an ... the use of generators. These will also assist energy policy makers and governments at all levels in developing highly applicable and productive planning for future energy policies in Nigeria.

  20. Economic analysis of soil and associated nutrient loss from gully ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Abstract. A study on the economic analysis of soil and associated nutrients conceded to gully erosion at six sublocations within Mubi area, Adamawa state during the 2007 and 2008 wet seasons. Soil and nutrient loss parameters that related to water erosion were studied in the field, alongside determination of some relevant ...

  1. Socioeconomic Root Causes of Biodiversity Loss in Madagascar

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anitry N. Ratsifandrihamanana; Dawn Montanye; Sarah Christiansen; Sheila O' Connor

    2006-01-01

    In 2000 and 2001 a root cause analysis was conducted for the Spiny Forest Ecoregion in Madagascar, identifying the local level root causes of biodiversity loss in the ecoregion as well as the policy and institutional issues at the national and international levels that contribute to them. Most of the research was conducted in and around Tulear and Fort Dauphin....

  2. An overall estimation of losses caused by diseases in the Brazilian fish farms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tavares-Dias, Marcos; Martins, Maurício Laterça

    2017-12-01

    Parasitic and infectious diseases are common in finfish, but are difficult to accurately estimate the economic impacts on the production in a country with large dimensions like Brazil. The aim of this study was to estimate the costs caused by economic losses of finfish due to mortality by diseases in Brazil. A model for estimating the costs related to parasitic and bacterial diseases in farmed fish and an estimative of these economic impacts are presented. We used official data of production and mortality of finfish for rough estimation of economic losses. The losses herein presented are related to direct and indirect economic costs for freshwater farmed fish, which were estimated in US$ 84 million per year. Finally, it was possible to establish by the first time an estimative of overall losses in finfish production in Brazil using data available from production. Therefore, this current estimative must help researchers and policy makers to approximate the economic costs of diseases for fish farming industry, as well as for developing of public policies on the control measures of diseases and priority research lines.

  3. Estimation of loss caused by earthquakes and secondary technological hazards

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. I. Frolova

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Assessment of expected loss and damage caused by earthquakes and secondary technological accidents are of primary importance for the development and implementation of preventive measure plans, as well as for emergency management just after the disaster. The paper addresses the procedures for estimations of loss caused by strong events and secondary hazards with information technology application. Examples of individual seismic risk zoning at Russian federal and regional levels are given, as well as that of scenario earthquakes consequences estimation, taking into account secondary technological hazards.

  4. Spatial modeling for estimation of earthquakes economic loss in West Java

    Science.gov (United States)

    Retnowati, Dyah Ayu; Meilano, Irwan; Riqqi, Akhmad; Hanifa, Nuraini Rahma

    2017-07-01

    Indonesia has a high vulnerability towards earthquakes. The low adaptive capacity could make the earthquake become disaster that should be concerned. That is why risk management should be applied to reduce the impacts, such as estimating the economic loss caused by hazard. The study area of this research is West Java. The main reason of West Java being vulnerable toward earthquake is the existence of active faults. These active faults are Lembang Fault, Cimandiri Fault, Baribis Fault, and also Megathrust subduction zone. This research tries to estimates the value of earthquakes economic loss from some sources in West Java. The economic loss is calculated by using HAZUS method. The components that should be known are hazard (earthquakes), exposure (building), and the vulnerability. Spatial modeling is aimed to build the exposure data and make user get the information easier by showing the distribution map, not only in tabular data. As the result, West Java could have economic loss up to 1,925,122,301,868,140 IDR ± 364,683,058,851,703.00 IDR, which is estimated from six earthquake sources with maximum possibly magnitude. However, the estimation of economic loss value in this research is the worst case earthquakes occurrence which is probably over-estimated.

  5. Economic losses due to bovine brucellosis in Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Renato L. Santos

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Brucellosis is an important zoonosis of worldwide distribution. Reliable epidemiologic brucellosis data covering approximately 90% of the cattle population in Brazil have been recently published. Therefore, considering the scarcity of information regarding the economic impact of bovine brucellosis in Brazil, the goal of this study was to estimate economic impact of brucellosis on the Brazilian cattle industry. Several parameters including abortion and perinatal mortality rates, temporary infertility, replacement costs, mortality, veterinary costs, milk and meat losses were considered in the model. Bovine brucellosis in Brazil results in an estimated loss of R$ 420,12 or R$ 226,47 for each individual dairy or beef infected female above 24 months of age, respectively. The total estimated losses in Brazil attributed to bovine brucellosis were estimated to be approximately R$ 892 million (equivalent to about 448 million American dollars. Every 1% increase or decrease in prevalence is expected to increase or decrease the economic burden of brucellosis in approximately 155 million Reais.

  6. Trust loss in Tanzanian Parastatal organisations: Causes and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Creating and maintaining a culture of trust between individuals and institutions is inevitable for the effectiveness of actors/people aiming toward achieving a common mission. The purpose of this paper is to provide insights on the causes and consequences of loss of trust among actors in the governance mechanisms of ...

  7. Principal causes and ways of prevention of early reproductive losses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tebelev В. G.

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available The literature on principal causes of early abortions and ways of treatment in the first trimester was studied. Reproductive losses in the first trimester were found out to be the most active because of 5 main groups of reasons. In each group the therapeutic way of abortion was considered

  8. Chromosome missegregation causes colon cancer by APC loss of heterozygosity.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Baker, D.J.; Deursen, J.M.A. van

    2010-01-01

    A longstanding hypothesis in the field of cancer biology is that aneuploidy causes cancer by promoting loss of chromosomes that contain tumor suppressor genes. By crossing aneuploidyprone Bub1 hypomorphic mice onto a heterozygous null background for p53, we provided conclusive evidence for this

  9. Transmission Loss Calculation using A and B Loss Coefficients in Dynamic Economic Dispatch Problem

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jethmalani, C. H. Ram; Dumpa, Poornima; Simon, Sishaj P.; Sundareswaran, K.

    2016-04-01

    This paper analyzes the performance of A-loss coefficients while evaluating transmission losses in a Dynamic Economic Dispatch (DED) Problem. The performance analysis is carried out by comparing the losses computed using nominal A loss coefficients and nominal B loss coefficients in reference with load flow solution obtained by standard Newton-Raphson (NR) method. Density based clustering method based on connected regions with sufficiently high density (DBSCAN) is employed in identifying the best regions of A and B loss coefficients. Based on the results obtained through cluster analysis, a novel approach in improving the accuracy of network loss calculation is proposed. Here, based on the change in per unit load values between the load intervals, loss coefficients are updated for calculating the transmission losses. The proposed algorithm is tested and validated on IEEE 6 bus system, IEEE 14 bus, system IEEE 30 bus system and IEEE 118 bus system. All simulations are carried out using SCILAB 5.4 (www.scilab.org) which is an open source software.

  10. An economy of scales: A selective review of obesity's economic causes, consequences, and solutions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cawley, John

    2015-09-01

    This paper reviews the economic research on obesity, covering topics such as the measurement of, and trends in, obesity, the economic causes of obesity (e.g. the monetary price and time cost of food, food assistance programs, income, education, macroeconomic conditions, and peer effects), and the economic consequences of obesity (e.g. lower wages, a lower probability of employment, and higher medical care costs). It also examines the extent to which obesity imposes negative externalities, and economic interventions that could potentially internalize such externalities, such as food taxes, subsidies for school-based physical activity programs, and financial rewards for weight loss. It discusses other economic rationales for government intervention with respect to obesity, such as imperfect information, time inconsistent preferences, and irrational behavior. It concludes by proposing a research agenda for the field. Overall, the evidence suggests that there is no single dominant economic cause of obesity; a wide variety of factors may contribute a modest amount to the risk. There is consistent evidence regarding the economic consequences of obesity, which are lower wages and higher medical care costs that impose negative externalities through health insurance. Studies of economic approaches to preventing obesity, such as menu labeling, taxes on energy-dense foods, and financial rewards for weight loss find only modest effects on weight and thus a range of policies may be necessary to have a substantial effect on the prevalence of obesity. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  11. Do Economic Reforms Alleviate Subjective Well-Being Losses of Economic Crises?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bjørnskov, Christian

    2014-01-01

    Major economic crises tend to be followed by crises in subjective well-being. Following the financial and debt crises, politicians and social scientists have engaged in heated discussions of ways to alleviate such losses. In particular, should governments intervene more or less? This paper explores...

  12. An SNP caused loss of seed shattering during rice domestication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Konishi, Saeko; Izawa, Takeshi; Lin, Shao Yang; Ebana, Kaworu; Fukuta, Yoshimichi; Sasaki, Takuji; Yano, Masahiro

    2006-06-02

    Loss of seed shattering was a key event in the domestication of major cereals. We revealed that the qSH1 gene, a major quantitative trait locus of seed shattering in rice, encodes a BEL1-type homeobox gene and demonstrated that a single-nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) in the 5' regulatory region of the qSH1 gene caused loss of seed shattering owing to the absence of abscission layer formation. Haplotype analysis and association analysis in various rice collections revealed that the SNP was highly associated with shattering among japonica subspecies of rice, implying that it was a target of artificial selection during rice domestication.

  13. Weight-loss dieting behavior: an economic analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosin, Odelia

    2012-07-01

    In light of the widespread phenomena of diet failure and excessive dieting, this paper presents a theoretical economic analysis of the decision-making process of weight-loss dieting. The paper incorporates behavioral elements involved in the process of dieting: effort exerted in dieting, influence of social norms concerning body weight, time-inconsistent present biased preferences, and a distinction between naiveté and sophistication. The model explains cyclic dieting and provides interesting insights on the extent of weight-loss dieting. The extent of dieting is an increasing function of initial body weight and a decreasing function of the effort exerted in dieting and the strength of social norms concerning ideal weight. Income and diet strictness have an ambiguous effect. In addition, greater dieting efforts are not necessarily balanced against a slowdown in body metabolism or a higher initial body weight. Copyright © 2011 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  14. Fumarate Hydratase Loss Causes Combined Respiratory Chain Defects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Petros A. Tyrakis

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Fumarate hydratase (FH is an enzyme of the tricarboxylic acid (TCA cycle mutated in hereditary and sporadic cancers. Despite recent advances in understanding its role in tumorigenesis, the effects of FH loss on mitochondrial metabolism are still unclear. Here, we used mouse and human cell lines to assess mitochondrial function of FH-deficient cells. We found that human and mouse FH-deficient cells exhibit decreased respiration, accompanied by a varying degree of dysfunction of respiratory chain (RC complex I and II. Moreover, we show that fumarate induces succination of key components of the iron-sulfur cluster biogenesis family of proteins, leading to defects in the biogenesis of iron-sulfur clusters that affect complex I function. We also demonstrate that suppression of complex II activity is caused by product inhibition due to fumarate accumulation. Overall, our work provides evidence that the loss of a single TCA cycle enzyme is sufficient to cause combined RC activity dysfunction.

  15. THE CAUSES OF ECONOMIC CRISIS. A BEHAVIORAL FOUNDATION.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Soim Horatiu Florin

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available The cyclical path of economy is a common place in the economic theory. The economic crisis that started in 2007 was not only one of the most severe since the WWII but it came unexpectedly. The cause of the crises and of the surprise consists in the economic models and theories that were founded on the rationality and maximization behavior of the economic actor. People lack the rationality the mainstream economics assume. This is why both economists and simple people do not act as theory predicts and finally economy does not tend toward equilibrium but suffers recurrent crises. This crisis started as a financial one, because of the subprime loans made in USA, but have spread in production sector because of credit frozen, is now in transforming into a social crisis because of austerity measures taken by governments. The paper analyzes the theoretical foundation of economic theory and how the facts that characterize the recent economic evolution fit with the non mainstream theories. It presents the figures of the economic evolution in the last 3 years and explains them based of the agent’s behavior described by Herbert Simon and Daniel Kahneman. Their challenge of mainstream economics is based on an analyze of human behavior. Herbert Simon introduced the concept of bounded rationality as opposed to perfect rationality postulated by neoclassic economics and Daniel Kahneman realized experiments that proved that people cannot stick with the performances assumed by mainstream economics. Their conclusion permit to understand the approach of George Soros who says that people actions are bounded by reflexivity and as a consequences sometimes economy move not toward but far from equilibrium, creating bubbles that end in financial and economic crises. As Akerlof mention the cause of the crisis is the reliance of a false theory which said that we are safe. The conclusion is that we need new theories more close to the real life and an agent description

  16. [Acute hearing loss and tinnitus caused by amplified recreational music].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Metternich, F U; Brusis, T

    1999-11-01

    Hearing loss resulting from exposure to permanent or repeated amplified music in professional musicians and music consumers is described in literature. The risk of hearing loss does not exist only after prolonged exposure to music. Short-term exposure to very high sound levels, for example in concerts, can also cause hearing loss and tinnitus. The retrospective study includes 24 patients who required rheologic therapy between 1994 and 1997 due to a music related acoustic trauma. The type, intensity, and length of music exposure as well as the distance and the position to the source of noise were examined. The type of hearing damage and its development during rheological treatment was studied by pure-tone audiometry. In the majority of examined patients (67%) the hearing loss developed on the basis of one-time exposure at a rock concert or pop concert, followed by hearing loss from attending discotheques (17%) or parties (12%), and music exposure from personal cassette players (4%). The majority of patients showed a maximum hearing loss of 40-60 dB (A) in a frequency between 3 kHz and 4 kHz. Pure-tone audiometry in 58% of the patients exhibited a unilateral threshold in a frequency between 3 kHz and 4 kHz combined with ipsilateral tinnitus of the same frequency. Twenty-one percent of the patients showed a symmetric bilateral threshold and tinnitus between 3 kHz and 4 kHz. In 8% there was a unilateral tinnitus, and in 13% a bilateral tinnitus without any hearing loss. All patients improved their hearing loss during rheologic treatment. Improvement in the tinnitus was only achieved in 33% of the examined cases. The risk of permanent hearing loss resulting from short-term exposure to amplified music is low compared to the risk of continuous tinnitus. Given the lack of acceptance of personal ear protectors, the risk of acute hearing damage due to amplified music could be reduced by avoiding the immediate proximity to the speakers.

  17. Perdas econômicas ocasionadas pelas enfermidades podais em vacas leiteiras confinadas em sistema free stall Economic losses caused by sequels of lameness in free-stall-housed dairy cows

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R.C. Souza

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available Avaliaram-se 55 casos clínicos de manqueira em um rebanho de 100 vacas em lactação confinadas em sistema de free stall, durante um ano. As afecções mais observadas foram abscessos de sola e talão, úlcera de sola e dermatite digital que representaram 87,3% (48/55 das ocorrências. O tratamento empregado mostrou-se satisfatório com recuperação de todos os animais tratados com 24,5 dias, em média, sem ocorrência de descarte. O custo com tratamento e redução na produção de leite foi de US$95.80/vaca, o que representou US$52.69 por vaca alojada/ano. Quando se computaram as perdas reprodutivas e com mastite, obtiveram-se US$227.94 adicionais em vaca com problema de manqueira. O custo adicional anual total no rebanho decorrente de seqüelas de manqueira foi de US$12,536.70, que representou US$125.36 por vaca alojada/ano. O período de serviço e o número de serviços por concepção em vacas com problemas de manqueira e normais foram 266 e 200,5 dias e 4,3 e 3,3 serviços, respectivamente. As incidências de mastite e metrite na mesma ordem de citação anterior foram 60% e 25% e 29% e 12,5%.Fifty-five clinical cases of lameness were evaluated in 100 lactating cows housed in a free-stall system during one year. The most observed affections were sole and heel abscesses, sole ulcers and digital dermatitis that accounted for 87.3% (48/55 of the occurrences. The treated cows showed satisfactory recovery (24.5 average days without culling. The total individual cost including treatment and reduction of milk production was US$95.80/cow or US$52.69 per housed cow/year. When reproductive losses and mastitis were considered an additional cost of US$227.94 per lameness cow was estimated. The total additional annual cost from sequels of lameness was US$12.536.70 or US$152.36 per housed cow/year. The number of days open and the number of services per conception in lameness and normal cows were, respectively, 266 and 200.5 days and 4.3 and 3

  18. The losses at power grid caused by small nonlinear loads

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stevanović Dejan

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The difference between registered active power and spent unregistered power represents the losses at power grid. This paper treats problems related to losses caused by nonlinear loads connected to the power grid. In recent years the load profile of power consumers turned from energy-waster linear to energysaver but non-linear loads. The main cause of the losses appears due to the lack of adequate measurement equipment. Namely, common household power meters register only active energy, while power meters for industrial application register reactive energy as well. This approach does not follow the change of the enduser profile. Tendency of improving energy efficiency brought wide use of switching mode regulators and replace old incandescent light bulb with new energy saving lamps (CFL - compact fluorescent lamp, LED bulb. Therefore, the number of non-linear load drastically increased. Registering only active component of power at consumer’s side does not depict the real profile of the consumption. Therefore, in this paper we analyse and quantify the effects of nonlinear loads at power losses. As a result we suggest an efficient method for measuring the distortion component of power. The method relays on low-cost upgrade of commercial electronic power meters. The presented results of measurements on small non-linear loads confirm the proposed technique. Besides, they prove the importance of measuring all components of apparent power and justified their use in billing policy. The implemented set-up is based on power meter manufactured by EWG of Niš. [Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije, br. TR32004

  19. Loss of CIB2 Causes Profound Hearing Loss and Abolishes Mechanoelectrical Transduction in Mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yanfei Wang

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Calcium and integrin-binding protein 2 (CIB2 belongs to a protein family with four known members, CIB1 through CIB4, which are characterized by multiple calcium-binding EF-hand domains. Among the family members, the Cib1 and Cib2 genes are expressed in mouse cochlear hair cells, and mutations in the human CIB2 gene have been associated with nonsyndromic deafness DFNB48 and syndromic deafness USH1J. To further explore the function of CIB1 and CIB2 in hearing, we established Cib1 and Cib2 knockout mice using the clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeat (CRISPR-associated Cas9 nuclease (CRISPR/Cas9 genome editing technique. We found that loss of CIB1 protein does not affect auditory function, whereas loss of CIB2 protein causes profound hearing loss in mice. Further investigation revealed that hair cell stereocilia development is affected in Cib2 knockout mice. Noticeably, loss of CIB2 abolishes mechanoelectrical transduction (MET currents in auditory hair cells. In conclusion, we show here that although both CIB1 and CIB2 are readily detected in the cochlea, only loss of CIB2 results in profound hearing loss, and that CIB2 is essential for auditory hair cell MET.

  20. Loss of CIB2 Causes Profound Hearing Loss and Abolishes Mechanoelectrical Transduction in Mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yanfei; Li, Jie; Yao, Xuerui; Li, Wei; Du, Haibo; Tang, Mingliang; Xiong, Wei; Chai, Renjie; Xu, Zhigang

    2017-01-01

    Calcium and integrin-binding protein 2 (CIB2) belongs to a protein family with four known members, CIB1 through CIB4, which are characterized by multiple calcium-binding EF-hand domains. Among the family members, the Cib1 and Cib2 genes are expressed in mouse cochlear hair cells, and mutations in the human CIB2 gene have been associated with nonsyndromic deafness DFNB48 and syndromic deafness USH1J. To further explore the function of CIB1 and CIB2 in hearing, we established Cib1 and Cib2 knockout mice using the clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeat (CRISPR)-associated Cas9 nuclease (CRISPR/Cas9) genome editing technique. We found that loss of CIB1 protein does not affect auditory function, whereas loss of CIB2 protein causes profound hearing loss in mice. Further investigation revealed that hair cell stereocilia development is affected in Cib2 knockout mice. Noticeably, loss of CIB2 abolishes mechanoelectrical transduction (MET) currents in auditory hair cells. In conclusion, we show here that although both CIB1 and CIB2 are readily detected in the cochlea, only loss of CIB2 results in profound hearing loss, and that CIB2 is essential for auditory hair cell MET.

  1. Spontaneous Pregnancy Loss in Denmark Following Economic Downturns.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bruckner, Tim A; Mortensen, Laust H; Catalano, Ralph A

    2016-04-15

    An estimated 11%-20% of clinically recognized pregnancies result in spontaneous abortion. The literature finds elevated risk of spontaneous abortion among women who report adverse financial life events. This work suggests that, at the population level, national economic decline-an ambient and plausibly unexpected stressor-will precede an increase in spontaneous abortion. We tested this hypothesis using high-quality information on pregnancy and spontaneous loss for all women in Denmark. We applied time-series methods to monthly counts of clinically detected spontaneous abortions (n = 157,449) and the unemployment rate in Denmark beginning in January 1995 and ending in December 2009. Our statistical methods controlled for temporal patterns in spontaneous abortion (e.g., seasonality, trend) and changes in the population of pregnancies at risk of loss. Unexpected increases in the unemployment rate preceded by 1 month a rise in the number of spontaneous abortions (β = 33.19 losses/month, 95% confidence interval: 8.71, 57.67). An attendant analysis that used consumption of durable household goods as an indicator of financial insecurity supported the inference from our main test. Changes over time in elective abortions and in the cohort composition of high-risk pregnancies did not account for results. It appears that in Denmark, ambient stressors as common as increasing unemployment may precede a population-level increase in spontaneous abortion. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Johns Hopkins Bloomberg School of Public Health. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  2. Potential economic losses to the USA corn industry from aflatoxin contamination

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitchell, N.J.; Bowers, E.; Hurburgh, C.; Wu, F.

    2016-01-01

    Mycotoxins, toxins produced by fungi that colonize food crops, can pose a heavy economic burden to the United States corn industry. In terms of economic burden, aflatoxins are the most problematic mycotoxins in US agriculture. Estimates of their market impacts are important in determining the benefits of implementing mitigation strategies within the US corn industry, and the value of strategies to mitigate mycotoxin problems. Additionally, climate change may cause increases in aflatoxin contamination in corn, greatly affecting the economy of the US Midwest and all sectors in the US and worldwide that rely upon its corn production. We propose two separate models for estimating the potential market loss to the corn industry from aflatoxin contamination, in the case of potential near-future climate scenarios (based on aflatoxin levels in Midwest corn in warm summers in the last decade). One model uses probability of acceptance based on operating characteristic (OC) curves for aflatoxin sampling and testing, while the other employs partial equilibrium economic analysis, assuming no Type 1 or Type 2 errors, to estimate losses due to proportions of lots above the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) aflatoxin action levels. We estimate that aflatoxin contamination could cause losses to the corn industry ranging from $52.1 million to $1.68 billion annually in the United States, if climate change causes more regular aflatoxin contamination in the Corn Belt as was experienced in years such as 2012. The wide range represents the natural variability in aflatoxin contamination from year to year in US corn, with higher losses representative of warmer years. PMID:26807606

  3. Severe visual loss caused by ocular perforation during chalazion removal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shiramizu, Kevin M; Kreiger, Allan E; McCannel, Colin A

    2004-01-01

    To report two cases of ocular perforation during chalazion removal procedures leading to severe vision loss. Observational case series. Two patients presented with unilateral decreased vision after chalazion removal procedures. Complete ophthalmologic examinations were performed. Examination revealed a cherry red spot and perforation site in the first patient. In the second patient, there was an intraocular gas bubble and ischemic retina. Local anesthetic injections for procedures such as chalazia removal can result in ocular perforation. We postulate that the intraocular injections led to extremely high pressures, compromising the blood supply to the retina and optic nerve. Anesthetic injections for all procedures, even chalazia removal, should be done with great caution. It is imperative to avoid injection if ocular perforation is suspected, as the high pressure may cause the majority of the visual morbidity.

  4. Hydro-Economic based Model of Damage and Loss Analysis of Winongo River Flood

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhammad Rifki Hardika

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Winongo River experienced considerably high flow that caused overflows along the downstream part of the river and some inundation at the surrounding area. The inundation has reached up to 1 m spread over the Tegalrejo Sub-district of Yogyakarta City and swept two houses. This paper analyses the damage and loss due to the flood by taking into account the hydraulics phenomena and the economic impact at the inundation area. A hydraulics model has been developed to study the flow characteristics during the flood of Winongo River, especially in the river reach in Tegalrejo Sub-district. The hazard-induced damages in the flooded area were identified and the economic impacts were studied. Several related software have been utilized to analyse the damage and loss of the disaster, including the HEC-RAS 5.0, ArcGIS, HEC-GeoRAS and InaSAFE. Through the integration of the characteristics of both flood phenomena and the economic factor, the damage and loss were then analysed and the Average Annual Damage (AAD of approximately IDR 88,750,000,000 was obtained.

  5. Evaluation of animal performance, feed intake, and economic losses in sheep experimentally infected with Trypanosoma vivax

    OpenAIRE

    Parmênedes Dias de Brito; Telma de Sousa Lima; Andréia Freitas de Oliveira; Débora Andrea Evangelista Façanha; Carlos Iberê Alves Freitas; Alexandre Paula Braga; Jael Soares Batista

    2017-01-01

    Trypanosoma vivax is a protozoan originating from the African continent, which, although it has not yet been able to complete its biological cycle in South America, due to the absence of the tsetse fly, can still cause death in ruminants. The objective of this study was to verify the effects of T. vivax on the measurements and indices in sheep that characterize animal performance, as well as on economic losses in meat animals. Twenty intact adult male sheep were used for this study, all of ap...

  6. Loss of the golgin GM130 causes Golgi disruption, Purkinje neuron loss, and ataxia in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Chunyi; Mei, Mei; Li, Qiuling; Roboti, Peristera; Pang, Qianqian; Ying, Zhengzhou; Gao, Fei; Lowe, Martin; Bao, Shilai

    2017-01-10

    The Golgi apparatus lies at the heart of the secretory pathway where it is required for secretory trafficking and cargo modification. Disruption of Golgi architecture and function has been widely observed in neurodegenerative disease, but whether Golgi dysfunction is causal with regard to the neurodegenerative process, or is simply a manifestation of neuronal death, remains unclear. Here we report that targeted loss of the golgin GM130 leads to a profound neurological phenotype in mice. Global KO of mouse GM130 results in developmental delay, severe ataxia, and postnatal death. We further show that selective deletion of GM130 in neurons causes fragmentation and defective positioning of the Golgi apparatus, impaired secretory trafficking, and dendritic atrophy in Purkinje cells. These cellular defects manifest as reduced cerebellar size and Purkinje cell number, leading to ataxia. Purkinje cell loss and ataxia first appear during postnatal development but progressively worsen with age. Our data therefore indicate that targeted disruption of the mammalian Golgi apparatus and secretory traffic results in neuronal degeneration in vivo, supporting the view that Golgi dysfunction can play a causative role in neurodegeneration.

  7. A review on epidemiology, global prevalence and economical losses of fasciolosis in ruminants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mehmood, Khalid; Zhang, Hui; Sabir, Ahmad Jawad; Abbas, Rao Zahid; Ijaz, Muhammad; Durrani, Aneela Zameer; Saleem, Muhammad Hassan; Ur Rehman, Mujeeb; Iqbal, Muhammad Kashif; Wang, Yajing; Ahmad, Hafiz Ishfaq; Abbas, Tariq; Hussain, Riaz; Ghori, Muhammad Taslim; Ali, Sadaqat; Khan, Aman Ullah; Li, Jiakui

    2017-08-01

    Fasciolosis is an important plant borne trematode zoonosis in ruminants caused by the Fasciola hepatica and Fasciola gigentica, It is classified as a neglected tropical disease and found in more than 50 countries especially where sheep and cattle are reared. Fasciolosis is a serious animal health problems in many rural and urban areas of world, causing significant financial losses due to decrease in production and viscera condemnation in animals. Accurate diagnosis of fasciolosis is always remained a challenging task for the field practitioners. There is no comprehensive summary on the occurrence and distribution of the infection at international level. Therefore, we intended to provide a complete overview on the prevalence and epidemiology of fasciolosis in farm animals from a global prospective. It includes to map the global distribution of fasciolosis in different areas of the world to identify the endemic regions which may be a source of potential disease outbreak. The financial liability related to fasciolosis on the livestock production has also been addressed. For this purpose, the published data during 2000-2015 (15 years) on fasciolosis was reviewed and collected by electronic literature search of four databases including Google, PubMed, Science Direct, and Web of Science. Data presented are contemplated to enhance our current understanding of the parasite's geographical distribution, host range, and economic losses. Information provided would be useful for the application of more effective control strategies against fasciolosis in different geo-economics regions of the world. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Evaluation of animal performance, feed intake, and economic losses in sheep experimentally infected with Trypanosoma vivax

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Parmênedes Dias de Brito

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Trypanosoma vivax is a protozoan originating from the African continent, which, although it has not yet been able to complete its biological cycle in South America, due to the absence of the tsetse fly, can still cause death in ruminants. The objective of this study was to verify the effects of T. vivax on the measurements and indices in sheep that characterize animal performance, as well as on economic losses in meat animals. Twenty intact adult male sheep were used for this study, all of approximately the same ages and weights, reared in confinement, and subjected to the same management and diet, which was balanced and supplemented with adequate minerals. The animals were divided into two groups: the control group (CG and the infected group (IG, which was inoculated intravenously with 1.3 x 105 trypomastigotes of T. vivax. Feed intake was verified daily, whereas the feed conversion (FC, feed efficiency index (FEI, and weight gain were obtained weekly. Total weight gain (TWG was determined after 70 days post-infection. The economic loss was calculated by subtracting the value obtained (IG from the expected value (CG, and the difference was expressed as a percentage. A randomized block design was used to isolate the effect of the initial weight. The means were compared by the Student “t” test at 5%. Of the 10 infected animals, one died from the parasitism, yielding a rate much lower than that observed in natural outbreaks. The groups presented similar feed intakes throughout the experimental period; however, the TWG of the infected group was significantly lower (50.7% than that of the CG. Similarly, the daily weight gain (DWG, feed conversion (FC, and feed efficiency index (FEI of the IG were significantly lower than those of the CG. In addition, the worst rates of FC and FEI coincided with parasitemia peaks and recurrences, probably due to immunological demand and tissue repair. The abdominal circumference of the infected animals was

  9. Ecological theories and indicators in economic models of biodiversity loss and conservation: a critical review.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Eppink, F.V.; van den Bergh, J.C.J.M.

    2007-01-01

    We evaluate how well environmental-economic models describe biodiversity loss and conservation issues. Four types of economic models turn out to dominate economic research into biodiversity conservation. For each of these, we assess the extent to which they integrate relevant ecological theories and

  10. Ecological Theories and Indicators in Economic Models of Biodiversity Loss and Conservation: A Critical Review

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Eppink, F.V.; van den Bergh, J.C.J.M.

    2007-01-01

    We evaluate how well environmental-economic models describe biodiversity loss and conservation issues. Four types of economic models turn out to dominate economic research into biodiversity conservation. For each of these, we assess the extent to which they integrate relevant ecological theories and

  11. Estimation of economic losses due to Peste de Petits Ruminants in small ruminants in India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. Singh

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Aim: To develop a simple mathematical model to assess the losses due to peste des petits ruminants (PPR in small ruminants in India. Materials and Methods: The study was based on cases and deaths in goats and sheep due to PPR from the average combined data on ovine/caprine as published by Government of India for the last 5 years (2008-2012. All possible direct and indirect losses due to the disease, viz. mortality losses, losses due to direct reduction in milk/wool yield, losses due to reproduction failure, body weight losses, treatment costs and opportunity costs, were considered to provide estimate of annual economic losses due to PPR in sheep and goats in India. Based on cases and deaths as reported in sample survey studies, the annual economic loss was also estimated. Results: On the basis of data reported by Government of India, the study has shown average annual economic loss of Rs. 167.83 lacs, of which Rs. 125.67 lacs and Rs. 42.16 lacs respectively are due to the incidence of the disease in goats and sheep. Morbidity losses constituted the greater share of the total loss in both goats and sheep (56.99% and 61.34%, respectively. Among different components of morbidity loss, direct body weight loss was the most significant in both goats and sheep. Based on cases and deaths as reported in sample survey studies, the estimated annual economic loss due to PPR in goats and sheep is Rs. 8895.12 crores, of which Rs. 5477.48 and Rs. 3417.64 crores respectively are due to the disease in goats and sheep. Conclusion: The low economic losses as reported based on Government of India data points towards underreporting of cases and deaths due to the disease. The study thus revealed a significant loss due to PPR in small ruminants on a large scale.

  12. Sleep Loss in Resident Physicians: The Cause of Medical Errors?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Milton eKramer

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available This review begins with the history of the events starting with the death of Libby Zion that lead to the Bell Commission, that the studied her death and made recommendations for improvement that were codified into law in New York state as the 405 law that the ACGME essentially adopted in putting a cap on work hours and establishing the level of staff supervision that must be available to residents in clinical situations particularly the emergency room and acute care units. A summary is then provided of the findings of the laboratory effects of total sleep deprivation including acute total sleep loss and the consequent widespread physiologic alterations, and of the effects of selective and chronic sleep loss. Generally the sequence of responses to increasing sleep loss goes from mood changes to cognitive effects to performance deficits. In the laboratory situation, deficits resulting from sleep deprivation are clearly and definitively demonstrable. Sleep loss in the clinical situation is usually sleep deprivation superimposed on chronic sleep loss. An examination of questionnaire studies, the literature on reports of sleep loss, studies of the reduction of work hours on performance as well as observational and a few interventional studies have yielded contradictory and often equivocal results. The residents generally find they feel better working fewer hours but improvements in patient care are often not reported or do not occur. A change in the attitude of the resident toward his role and his patient has not been salutary. Decreasing sleep loss should have had a positive effect on patient care in reducing medical error, but this remains to be unequivocally demonstrated.

  13. Assessment of causes of organ condemnations, financial losses and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The high condemnation rates led to financial losses and some of the conditions are of zoonotic importance. The indiscriminate slaughter of pregnant animals is against animal welfare. Therefore, diseases surveillance and control measures need to be strengthened, and enforcement of legislation governing animal welfare to ...

  14. Successful treatment of bilateral visual loss caused by HIV ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Optic neuritis is not an uncommon diagnosis in HIV-infected patients, but it is rarely idiopathic. We report a case of a young HIV-infected woman who developed optic neuritis as her presenting manifestation of HIV infection. She had initially experienced sudden-onset right-sided painful visual loss; the left eye had become ...

  15. Malaysian economic crisis: causes, effects, recovery actions, and lessons learned

    OpenAIRE

    Hashim, Amir

    2000-01-01

    Malaysia and several East Asian economies have been caught in the grip of the currency crisis that started in July 1997. At the start of the crisis, Malaysia adopted a tight fiscal and monetary policy in response of the economic environment prevailing at that time it was obvious that the initial policy package resulted in severe economic contraction and deterioration in the health of the financial system. In response, the Government unveiled the National Economic Recovery Plan (NERP) which re...

  16. Economic evaluation of water loss saving due to the biological ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The present benefit and cost values were determined using 10% and 5% discount rates. The benefit/cost ratio at the low evapotranspiration rate was less than one, implying that biological control was not economically viable but, at the higher evapotranspiration rates, the return justified the costs of biological control.

  17. Economic losses to Iberian swine production from forest fires

    Science.gov (United States)

    Juan Ramon Molina Martinez; Miguel Herrera Machuca; Ricardo Zamora Diaz; Fancisco Rodriguez y Silva; Armando Gonzalez-Caban

    2011-01-01

    Most forestry property in Andalusia is privately held. One of the most important possibilities for economic development of rural areas is the use of pasture lands (dehesa in Spanish). During the spring–summer season, swine grazing takes advantage of grasses between the trees, and during winter (harsher times), they use Quercus tree fruit. Swine production has a direct...

  18. Leaching of feed nutrients, economic losses to fish farming | FALAYI ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Total proteins and total lipids retention at 10, 20, 30 and 60 minutes were observed in the laboratory. There were decreasing trends ... The economic evaluation was highest (P < 0.05) in CMC in net production value, value of fish, cost of feed, gross profit, incidence of cost and the least in profit index. However, CS binder was ...

  19. Loss of sunflower seeds to columbids in South Africa: economic ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A survey across the sunflower production region of South Africa during November 2003 to July 2005 estimated the loss of sunflower seeds to columbids (doves and pigeons, Aves: Columbidae). Farmers estimated that 12.7% of the national yield was lost to columbids. In a follow-up survey, 37 sunflower fields were visited ...

  20. Bone loss after bariatric surgery: causes, consequences, and management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stein, Emily M; Silverberg, Shonni J

    2014-02-01

    Bariatric surgery is an effective and increasingly common treatment for severe obesity and its many comorbidities. The side-effects of bariatric surgery can include detrimental effects on bone and mineral metabolism. Bone disease in patients who have had bariatric surgery is affected by preoperative abnormalities in bone and mineral metabolism related to severe obesity. Changes that arise after bariatric surgery are specific to procedure type: the most pronounced abnormalities in calciotropic hormones and bone loss are noted after procedures that result in the most malabsorption. The most consistent site for bone loss after all bariatric procedures is at the hip. There are limitations of dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry technology in this population, including artefact introduced by adipose tissue itself. Bone loss after bariatric surgery is probably multifactorial. Proposed mechanisms include skeletal unloading, abnormalities in calciotropic hormones, and changes in gut hormones. Few data for fracture risk in the bariatric population are available, and this is a crucial area for additional research. Treatment should be geared toward correction of nutritional deficiencies and study of bone mineral density in high-risk patients. We explore the skeletal response to bariatric surgery, potential mechanisms for changes, and strategies for management. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Loss of desmoplakin tail causes lethal acantholytic epidermolysis bullosa

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jonkman, MF; Pasmooij, AMG; Pasmans, SGMA; van den Berg, MP; ter Horst, HJ; Timmer, A; Pas, HH

    2005-01-01

    The cytoplasmic plaque protein desmoplakin (DP), which is located in desmosomes, plays a major role in epithelial and muscle cell adhesion by linking the transmembrane cadherins to the cytoplasmic intermediate filament network. Mutations of DP may cause striate palmoplantar keratoderma,

  2. Economic Impact of Hearing Loss and Reduction of Noise-Induced Hearing Loss in the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neitzel, Richard L.; Swinburn, Tracy K.; Hammer, Monica S.; Eisenberg, Daniel

    2017-01-01

    Purpose: Hearing loss (HL) is pervasive and debilitating, and noise-induced HL is preventable by reducing environmental noise. Lack of economic analyses of HL impacts means that prevention and treatment remain a low priority for public health and environmental investment. Method: This article estimates the costs of HL on productivity by building…

  3. [Acute visual loss in pregnancy caused by craniopharyngioma].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grillo-Mallo, E; Jiménez-Benito, J; Diéz-Feijóo, E; Alonso Alonso, I; Ferrero Collado, A; Muñoz Quiñones, S

    2014-04-01

    A 38-year-old female, at 20-weeks gestation, experienced a sudden visual loss and visual-field abnormalities. The neuroimaging tests showed a craniopharyngioma. Surgical removal was performed with a successful outcome as regards the pregnancy and visual function. It is known that pituitary adenomas may grow during pregnancy; however this is unusual in craniopharyngiomas. They usually present with visual problems due to their suprasellar topography. Surgery is the treatment of choice, the outcome essentially depending on its complete resection. Copyright © 2010 Sociedad Española de Oftalmología. Published by Elsevier Espana. All rights reserved.

  4. Age-Related Loss of Cohesion: Causes and Effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Jin-Mei; Liu, Yi-Xun

    2017-07-22

    Aneuploidy is a leading genetic cause of birth defects and lower implantation rates in humans. Most errors in chromosome number originate from oocytes. Aneuploidy in oocytes increases with advanced maternal age. Recent studies support the hypothesis that cohesion deterioration with advanced maternal age represents a leading cause of age-related aneuploidy. Cohesin generates cohesion, and is established only during the premeiotic S phase of fetal development without any replenishment throughout a female's period of fertility. Cohesion holds sister chromatids together until meiosis resumes at puberty, and then chromosome segregation requires the release of sister chromatid cohesion from chromosome arms and centromeres at anaphase I and anaphase II, respectively. The time of cohesion cleavage plays an important role in correct chromosome segregation. This review focuses specifically on the causes and effects of age-related cohesion deterioration in female meiosis.

  5. Unusual cause of profound weight loss in a young woman.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rastogi, Ashu; Uppula, Pavan; Mukherjee, Kanchan Kumar; Bhansali, Anil

    2016-11-22

    A 27-year-old woman presented with anorexia, weight loss and psychiatric symptoms for the past 4 years. She did not have history of headache, visual disturbances or symptoms of raised intracranial pressure. She was sarcopenic with body mass index of 10.16 kg/m2Her systemic examination was normal except for temporal hemianopia suggesting a sellar/suprasellar lesion. Hormonal evaluation revealed pan-hypopituitarism with central diabetes insipidus. Subsequent neuroimaging revealed sellar-suprasellar mass lesion with intense contrast enhancement and leptomeningeal metastases. Cerebrospinal fluid analysis showed elevated β human chorionic gonadotropin and the presence of syncytiotrophoblast germ cells. Histopathology from the mass lesion confirmed the diagnosis of germinoma. Immunohistochemistry of the tumour tissue was positive for c-kit and placental alkaline phosphatise. She received a combination of chemotherapy with craniospinal irradiation. Significant weight loss in a young woman may not always be an eating disorder like anorexia nervosa albeit more common than germ cell tumour. 2016 BMJ Publishing Group Ltd.

  6. An Open source GIS-based tool for economic loss estimation due to flood events

    OpenAIRE

    Sterlacchini, Simone; Zazzeri, Marco; Cappellini, Giacomo; Pastormerlo, Michele; Bonazzi, Alessandro

    2017-01-01

    Two complementary GIS-based functions are designed and implemented to assess the expected degree of loss due to the occurrence of flood events. Each function processes institutional thematic layers and allows decision makers first to quantify the physical and the economic exposure of the elements at risk in a given study region and then to assess the expected degree of economic loss in relation to the flood water depth chosen for the analysis. The functions are implemented using QGIS with GRA...

  7. Mechanisms Causing Loss of Keratinocyte Cohesion in Pemphigus

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Spindler, Volker; Eming, Ruediger; Schmidt, Enno; Amagai, Masayuki; Grando, Sergei; Jonkman, Marcel F.; Kowalczyk, Andrew P.; Mueller, Eliane J.; Payne, Aimee S.; Pincelli, Carlo; Sinha, Animesh A.; Sprecher, Eli; Zillikens, Detlef; Hertl, Michael; Waschke, Jens

    The autoimmune blistering skin disease pemphigus is caused by IgG autoantibodies against desmosomal cadherins, but the precise mechanisms are in part a matter of controversial discussions. This review focuses on the currently existing models of the disease and highlights the relevance of

  8. The Economic Crisis Seen from Israel: Cause and Effect

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lily Polliack

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available The paper indicates a correlation between the economic crisis and America's Middle East policy. It contends that the protracted war effort in Iraq and Afghanistan have crippled the US national economy to a degree that only if the US changes its approach to Middle East conflict, will it be able to reduce the federal budget deficit, a necessary step towards economic recovery.

  9. Spontaneous Pregnancy Loss in Denmark Following Economic Downturns

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bruckner, Tim A.; Mortensen, Laust H.; Catalano, Ralph A.

    2016-01-01

    ,449) and the unemployment rate in Denmark beginning in January 1995 and ending in December 2009. Our statistical methods controlled for temporal patterns in spontaneous abortion (e.g., seasonality, trend) and changes in the population of pregnancies at risk of loss. Unexpected increases in the unemployment rate preceded...... in elective abortions and in the cohort composition of high-risk pregnancies did not account for results. It appears that in Denmark, ambient stressors as common as increasing unemployment may precede a population-level increase in spontaneous abortion....

  10. Differential loss of participants does not necessarily cause selection bias.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carter, Kristie N; Imlach-Gunasekara, Fiona; McKenzie, Sarah K; Blakely, Tony

    2012-06-01

    Most research is affected by differential participation, where individuals who do not participate have different characteristics to those who do. This is often assumed to induce selection bias. However, selection bias only occurs if the exposure-outcome association differs for participants compared to non-participants. We empirically demonstrate that selection bias does not necessarily occur when participation varies in a study. We used data from three waves of the longitudinal Survey of Family, Income and Employment (SoFIE). We examined baseline associations of labour market activity and education with self-rated health using logistic regression in five participation samples: A) the original sample at year one (n=22,260); B) those remaining in the sample (n=18,360); C) those (at year 3) consenting to data linkage (n=14,350); D) drop outs over three years (n=3,895); and E) those who dropped out or did not consent (n=7,905). Loss to follow-up was more likely among lower socioeconomic groups and those with poorer health. However, for labour market activity and education, the odds of reporting fair/poor health were similar across all samples. Comparisons of the mutually exclusive samples (C and E) showed no difference in the odds ratios after adjustment for sociodemographic (participation) variables. Thus, there was little evidence of selection bias. Differential loss to follow-up (drop out) need not lead to selection bias in the association between exposure (labour market activity and education) and outcome (self-rated health). © 2012 The Authors. ANZJPH © 2012 Public Health Association of Australia.

  11. The Economic Crisis – Meanings and Significations Causes and Solutions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Doinita CAZAN ZAFIU

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available The crisis can be defined as a period in the dynamics of a system, and it is described as a multitude of difficulties, as a conflict or tensions, fact that makes difficult its normal work or functioning and this can lead to powerful pressures towards changing, and „The crisis period represents the stage in which the changes within the system are determined by the actions of a system”. During the period of crisis, the threats changes into dangers which are at the basis of defining the insecure state of any system. The economic crisis represents a situation in which the economy of a country passes through a sudden decrease of its force, decrease usually brought about by a financial crisis. The economic crisis may have the shape of a stagflation, of a recession or of an economic depression.

  12. Multiple Losses: The Psychological and Economic Well-Being of Survivors of Intimate Partner Violence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sauber, Elizabeth W; O'Brien, Karen M

    2017-05-01

    This study advanced knowledge regarding the mechanisms through which intimate partner violence relates to psychological and financial distress with a sample of diverse low-income women. Data were collected from 147 female domestic violence survivors who were abused by a male partner within the past 6 months. Three hierarchical regression analyses revealed that psychological, physical, and economic abuse were predictive of posttraumatic stress, depression, and economic self-sufficiency among survivors. Guided by the Conservation of Resources Theory, the loss of financial, work, and interpersonal resources also predicted these three outcomes, above and beyond abuse experiences (i.e., economically controlling behaviors, economic sabotage, and interpersonal resource loss were unique predictors). In addition, bootstrap mediation analyses showed that interpersonal resource loss partially mediated the relationship between psychological abuse and mental health outcomes. Together, these findings can be used to inform future interventions to promote the financial and psychological well-being of survivors.

  13. Socio-Economic Analysis Of Land Use Factors Causing ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Despite the threatening effects of deforestation, the dimension of this phenomenon at the micro-agent level is not well known. This study was conducted in Kilosa District, Tanzania to assess the socio-economic impact of agriculture, charcoal making and pitsawing on degradation and deforestation of Miombo woodlands.

  14. Estimating the Economic Burden of Premature Mortality Caused by Cancer in Iran: 2006-2010.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karami-Matin, Behzad; Najafi, Farid; Rezaei, Satar; Khosravi, Ardashir; Soofi, Moslem

    2016-01-01

    Cancer is currently one of the main public health problems all over the world and its economic burden is substantial both for health systems and for society as a whole.To inform priorities for cancer control, we here estimated years of potential life lost (YPLL) and productivity losses due to cancer-related premature mortality in Iran from 2006 to 2010. The number of cancer deaths by sex and age groups for top ten leading cancers in Iran were obtained from the Ministry of Health and Medical Education. To estimate theYPLL and the cost of productivity loss due to cancer-related premature mortality, the life expectancy method and the human capital approach were used, respectively. There were 138,228 cancer-related deaths in Iran (without Tehran province) of which 76 % (106,954) were attributable to the top 10 ranked cancers. Some 63 % of total cancer-related deaths were of males. The top 10 ranked cancers resulted in 106,766,942 YPLL in total, 64,171,529 (60 %) in males and 42,595,412 (40%) in females. The estimated YPPLL due to top 10 ranked cancers was 58,581,737 during the period studied of which 32,214,524 (54%) was accounted for in males.The total cost of lost productivity caused by premature deaths because of top 10 cancers was 1.68 billion dollars (US$) from 2006 to 2010, ranging from 251 million dollars in 2006 to 283 million dollars in 2010. This study showed that the economic burden of premature mortality attributable to cancer is significant for Iranian society. The findings provide useful information about the economic impact of cancer for health system policy/ decision makers and should facilitate planning of preventive intervention and effective resource allocation.

  15. Socio-economic Causes and Panacea to Youth Restiveness in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Findings showed that 45.9% of the respondents were unemployed. The major cause of youth restiveness was environmental degradation with the highest mean of 2.00. This was followed by unemployment and corruption with the mean of 1.90 respectively. Major damage caused by restive activities was illegal oil bunkery ...

  16. Loss of the golgin GM130 causes Golgi disruption, Purkinje neuron loss, and ataxia in mice

    OpenAIRE

    Liu, Chunyi; Mei, Mei; Li, Qiuling; Roboti, Peristera; Pang, Qianqian; Ying, Zhengzhou; Gao, Fei; Lowe, Martin; Bao, Shilai

    2017-01-01

    The Golgi apparatus lies at the heart of the secretory pathway where it is required for secretory trafficking and cargo modification. Disruption of Golgi architecture and function has been widely observed in neurodegenerative disease, but whether Golgi dysfunction is causal with regard to the neurodegenerative process, or is simply a manifestation of neuronal death, remains unclear. Here we report that targeted loss of the golgin GM130 leads to a profound neurological phenotype in mice. Globa...

  17. The global historical and future economic loss and cost of earthquakes during the production of adaptive worldwide economic fragility functions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daniell, James; Wenzel, Friedemann

    2014-05-01

    Over the past decade, the production of economic indices behind the CATDAT Damaging Earthquakes Database has allowed for the conversion of historical earthquake economic loss and cost events into today's terms using long-term spatio-temporal series of consumer price index (CPI), construction costs, wage indices, and GDP from 1900-2013. As part of the doctoral thesis of Daniell (2014), databases and GIS layers for a country and sub-country level have been produced for population, GDP per capita, net and gross capital stock (depreciated and non-depreciated) using studies, census information and the perpetual inventory method. In addition, a detailed study has been undertaken to collect and reproduce as many historical isoseismal maps, macroseismic intensity results and reproductions of earthquakes as possible out of the 7208 damaging events in the CATDAT database from 1900 onwards. a) The isoseismal database and population bounds from 3000+ collected damaging events were compared with the output parameters of GDP and net and gross capital stock per intensity bound and administrative unit, creating a spatial join for analysis. b) The historical costs were divided into shaking/direct ground motion effects, and secondary effects costs. The shaking costs were further divided into gross capital stock related and GDP related costs for each administrative unit, intensity bound couplet. c) Costs were then estimated based on the optimisation of the function in terms of costs vs. gross capital stock and costs vs. GDP via the regression of the function. Losses were estimated based on net capital stock, looking at the infrastructure age and value at the time of the event. This dataset was then used to develop an economic exposure for each historical earthquake in comparison with the loss recorded in the CATDAT Damaging Earthquakes Database. The production of economic fragility functions for each country was possible using a temporal regression based on the parameters of

  18. Sharia Banking’s Profit Loss Finance in the Context of ASEAN Economic Community

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mardhiyatur Rosita Ningsih

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available The paper aims to analyze the problems of profit and loss sharing financing is conducted through literature and interviews with funding customers, islamic bankers and entrepreneurs. The result show that profit oriented, lack of trust in the abilities of partners, moral hazard, mismanagement and lack of syariah product information. So, give Incentive for funding customers, incentive compatible constraint, involved effort in spiritual and intellectual expected may help small and medium enterprises to face ASEAN Economic Community.   Keywords: ASEAN Economic Community, profit and loss sharing financing, small and medium enterprises

  19. Oriental theileriosis in dairy cows causes a significant milk production loss

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-01-01

    Background Oriental theileriosis is a tick-borne, protozoan disease of cattle caused by members of the Theileria orientalis-complex. Recent outbreaks of this disease in eastern Australia have caused major concerns to the dairy and beef farming communities, but there are no published studies of the economic impact of this disease. On a farm in Victoria, Australia, we assessed whether oriental theileriosis has an impact on milk production and reproductive performance in dairy cows. Methods Blood samples collected from all 662 cows on the farm were tested using an established molecular test. For individual cows, milk production and reproductive performance data were collected. A clinical assessment of individual cows was performed. Based on clinical findings and molecular test results, the following groups of cows were classified: group 1, with cardinal clinical signs of oriental theileriosis and molecular test-positive for T. orientalis; group 2, with mild or suspected signs of theileriosis and test-positive; group 3, with no clinical signs and test-positive; and group 4, with no clinical signs and test-negative. Milk production and reproductive performance data for groups 1, 2 and 3 were each compared with those for group 4 using linear and logistic regression analyses, respectively. Results At 100 days of lactation, group 1 cows produced significantly less milk (288 l; P = 0.001), milk fat (16.8 kg; P cows produced significantly less milk (624 l; P = 0.004), milk fat (42.9 kg; P cows. Group 2 cows also produced significantly less milk fat (21.2 kg; P = 0.033) at this lactation point. No statistically significant difference in reproductive performance was found upon pairwise comparisons of groups 1–3 with group 4 cows. Conclusions The present findings demonstrate that clinical oriental theileriosis can cause significant milk production losses in dairy cattle. PMID:24552213

  20. Economic evaluation of health losses from air pollution in Beijing, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Xiaoli; Yu, Xueying; Wang, Ying; Fan, Chunyang

    2016-06-01

    Aggravated air pollution in Beijing, China has caused serious health concern. This paper comprehensively evaluates the health losses from illness and premature death caused by air pollution in monetary terms. We use the concentration of PM10 as an indicator of the pollution since it constitutes the primary pollutant in Beijing. By our estimation, air pollution in Beijing caused a health loss equivalent to Ұ583.02 million or 0.03 % of its GDP. Most of the losses took the form of depreciation in human capital that resulted from premature death. The losses from premature deaths were most salient for people of either old or young ages, with the former group suffering from the highest mortality rates and the latter group the highest per capital losses of human capitals from premature death. Policies that target on PM10 emission reduction, urban vegetation expansion, and protection of vulnerable groups are all proposed as possible solutions to air pollution risks in Beijing.

  1. 28 CFR 104.43 - Determination of presumed economic loss for decedents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Determination of presumed economic loss for decedents. 104.43 Section 104.43 Judicial Administration DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE (CONTINUED... the United States for the year 2000. In cases where the victim was a minor child, the Special Master...

  2. A cross-national analysis of how economic inequality predicts biodiversity loss.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holland, Tim G; Peterson, Garry D; Gonzalez, Andrew

    2009-10-01

    We used socioeconomic models that included economic inequality to predict biodiversity loss, measured as the proportion of threatened plant and vertebrate species, across 50 countries. Our main goal was to evaluate whether economic inequality, measured as the Gini index of income distribution, improved the explanatory power of our statistical models. We compared four models that included the following: only population density, economic footprint (i.e., the size of the economy relative to the country area), economic footprint and income inequality (Gini index), and an index of environmental governance. We also tested the environmental Kuznets curve hypothesis, but it was not supported by the data. Statistical comparisons of the models revealed that the model including both economic footprint and inequality was the best predictor of threatened species. It significantly outperformed population density alone and the environmental governance model according to the Akaike information criterion. Inequality was a significant predictor of biodiversity loss and significantly improved the fit of our models. These results confirm that socioeconomic inequality is an important factor to consider when predicting rates of anthropogenic biodiversity loss.

  3. Cause of death and the quest for meaning after the loss of a child.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lichtenthal, Wendy G; Neimeyer, Robert A; Currier, Joseph M; Roberts, Kailey; Jordan, Nancy

    2013-04-01

    This study examined patterns of making meaning among 155 parents whose children died from a variety of violent and non-violent causes. Findings indicated 53% of violent loss survivors could not make sense of their loss, as compared to 32% of non-violent loss survivors. Overall, there was overlap in sense-making strategies across different causes of death, with many parents invoking spiritual and religious meanings and the cultivation of empathy for the suffering of others. Nonetheless, violent loss survivors described the imperfection of the world and brevity of life more frequently in their narrative responses than parents who lost a child to natural causes, who in turn were more likely to find benefit in the loss in terms of personal growth. Violent loss survivors--and especially those losing a child to homicide--also reported enhanced appreciation of life more frequently than survivors of non-violent losses, and surviving a child's suicide was specifically associated with a change in priorities in the sample. Findings are discussed in terms of common and distinctive themes in meaning making that clinicians may encounter when working with parental bereavement, and the implications these carry for finding spiritual and secular significance in a traumatic loss.

  4. Kerugian Ekonomi Akibat Penyakit Rabies di Provinsi Bali (ECONOMIC LOSSES OF RABIES IN BALI

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I Wayan Batan

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available The purposeof this studywas toanalyze theeconomic losses due torabies outbreak on human anddogin the province ofBali in2008-2011. The data usedin this research wereobtainedfrom the DepartmentofHealth, Department of Animal Husbandryand Animal Healthin district level, and theprovince ofBali,Disease of Investigation Centre of Denpasar, mass media(BaliPost, as well asinterviews withtheallegedvictims of dogbiterabies. The data wereanalyzed usingeconomic models.The results showedthatthetotaleconomic loss(TK due toan outbreakof rabiesinBali in2008-2011amounted toRp336,509,892,200.Economic lossesdue torabiesin Bali provincewere mainly frompublic health costs(KM and the costofvaccinationandelimination(BVE dogs. Public health costs(KM spent the greatest loss of moneyin 2010.However, costof dogvaccination andcullingwere spent at highestin 2011. Total of economic losses(the highestlosses(TK of the diseasein the province ofBalioccurredin 2011, whilethe lowestin 2008.Publicawarenessfortied and cage pet is urgently needed toreduce thenumber of rabiescases. Decreasenumber of dog bites may result in reducing the related economic losses.

  5. Technical and Economic Assessment of the Implementation of Measures for Reducing Energy Losses in Distribution Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aguila, Alexander; Wilson, Jorge

    2017-07-01

    This paper develops a methodology to assess a group of measures of electrical improvements in distribution systems, starting from the complementation of technical and economic criteria. In order to solve the problem of energy losses in distribution systems, technical and economic analysis was performed based on a mathematical model to establish a direct relationship between the energy saved by way of minimized losses and the costs of implementing the proposed measures. This paper aims at analysing the feasibility of reducing energy losses in distribution systems, by changing existing network conductors by larger crosssection conductors and distribution voltage change at higher levels. The impact of this methodology provides a highly efficient mathematical tool for analysing the feasibility of implementing improvement projects based on their costs which is a very useful tool for the distribution companies that will serve as a starting point to the analysis for this type of projects in distribution systems.

  6. Yield loss and economic thresholds of yellow nutsedge in irrigated rice as a function of the onset of flood irrigation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nixon da Rosa Westendorff

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Yellow nutsedge (Cyperus esculentus is adapted to flooding and reduces yield in irrigated rice. Information on the competitive ability of this weed with the crop and the size of the economic damage caused is lacking. Mathematical models quantify the damage to crops and support control decision-making. This study aimed to determine yield losses and economic thresholds (ET of this weed in the culture according to weed population and time of onset of irrigation of the crop. The field study was conducted in the agricultural year of 2010/2011 in Pelotas/RS to evaluate the competitive ability of BRS Querência in competition with different population levels of yellow nutsedge and two periods of onset of flood irrigation (14 and 21 days after emergence. The hyperbolic model satisfactorily estimated yield losses caused by yellow nutsedge. Population of yellow nutsedge was the variable most fitted to the model. The delay of seven days for the beginning of rice irrigation causes decrease in competitive ability of BRS Querência, and based on the ET calculated to the price paid for rice, it is necessary between two and thirteen plants m-2 weed to justify the control in the first and second period of irrigation, respectively. Increases in yield, price paid for rice and control efficiency of the herbicide, besides reduction of costs of controlling promote reduction of ET of yellow nutsedge in rice crops, justifying the adoption of control measures even at smaller weed population.

  7. Harmful drinking after job loss: a stronger association during the post-2008 economic crisis?

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Goeij, Moniek C M; Bruggink, Jan-Willem; Otten, Ferdy; Kunst, Anton E

    2017-06-01

    This study investigated, among the Dutch working population, whether job loss during the post-2008 economic crisis is associated with harmful drinking and whether this association is stronger than before the crisis. Repeated cross-sectional data from the Dutch Health Interview Survey 2004-2013 were used to define episodic drinking (≥6 glasses on 1 day ≥1/week) and chronic drinking (≥14 glasses/week for women and ≥21 for men). These data were linked to longitudinal data from tax registries, to measure the experience and duration of job loss during a 5-year working history. Before the crisis, job loss experience and duration were not associated with harmful drinking. During the crisis, job loss for more than 6 months was associated with episodic drinking [OR 1.40 (95% CI 1.01; 1.94)], while current job loss was associated with chronic drinking [OR 1.43 (95% CI 1.03; 1.98)]. These associations were most clear in men and different between the pre-crisis and crisis period (p interaction = 0.023 and 0.035, respectively). The results suggest that economic crises strengthen the potential impact of job loss on harmful drinking, predominately among men.

  8. Crop production and economic loss due to wind erosion in hot arid ecosystem of India

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santra, Priyabrata; Moharana, P. C.; Kumar, Mahesh; Soni, M. L.; Pandey, C. B.; Chaudhari, S. K.; Sikka, A. K.

    2017-10-01

    Wind erosion is a severe land degradation process in hot arid western India and affects the agricultural production system. It affects crop yield directly by damaging the crops through abrasion, burial, dust deposition etc. and indirectly by reducing soil fertility. In this study, an attempt was made to quantify the indirect impact of wind erosion process on crop production loss and associated economic loss in hot arid ecosystem of India. It has been observed that soil loss due to wind erosion varies from minimum 1.3 t ha-1 to maximum 83.3 t ha-1 as per the severity. Yield loss due to wind erosion was found maximum for groundnut (Arachis hypogea) (5-331 kg ha-1 yr-1), whereas minimum for moth bean (Vigna aconitifolia) (1-93 kg ha-1 yr-1). For pearl millet (Pennisetum glaucum), which covers a major portion of arable lands in western Rajasthan, the yield loss was found 3-195 kg ha-1 yr-1. Economic loss was found higher for groundnut and clusterbean (Cyamopsis tetragonoloba) than rest crops, which are about

  9. Primary and Secondary Yield Losses Caused by Pests and Diseases: Assessment and Modeling in Coffee

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gary, Christian; Tixier, Philippe; Lechevallier, Esther

    2017-01-01

    The assessment of crop yield losses is needed for the improvement of production systems that contribute to the incomes of rural families and food security worldwide. However, efforts to quantify yield losses and identify their causes are still limited, especially for perennial crops. Our objectives were to quantify primary yield losses (incurred in the current year of production) and secondary yield losses (resulting from negative impacts of the previous year) of coffee due to pests and diseases, and to identify the most important predictors of coffee yields and yield losses. We established an experimental coffee parcel with full-sun exposure that consisted of six treatments, which were defined as different sequences of pesticide applications. The trial lasted three years (2013–2015) and yield components, dead productive branches, and foliar pests and diseases were assessed as predictors of yield. First, we calculated yield losses by comparing actual yields of specific treatments with the estimated attainable yield obtained in plots which always had chemical protection. Second, we used structural equation modeling to identify the most important predictors. Results showed that pests and diseases led to high primary yield losses (26%) and even higher secondary yield losses (38%). We identified the fruiting nodes and the dead productive branches as the most important and useful predictors of yields and yield losses. These predictors could be added in existing mechanistic models of coffee, or can be used to develop new linear mixed models to estimate yield losses. Estimated yield losses can then be related to production factors to identify corrective actions that farmers can implement to reduce losses. The experimental and modeling approaches of this study could also be applied in other perennial crops to assess yield losses. PMID:28046054

  10. Primary and Secondary Yield Losses Caused by Pests and Diseases: Assessment and Modeling in Coffee.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cerda, Rolando; Avelino, Jacques; Gary, Christian; Tixier, Philippe; Lechevallier, Esther; Allinne, Clémentine

    2017-01-01

    The assessment of crop yield losses is needed for the improvement of production systems that contribute to the incomes of rural families and food security worldwide. However, efforts to quantify yield losses and identify their causes are still limited, especially for perennial crops. Our objectives were to quantify primary yield losses (incurred in the current year of production) and secondary yield losses (resulting from negative impacts of the previous year) of coffee due to pests and diseases, and to identify the most important predictors of coffee yields and yield losses. We established an experimental coffee parcel with full-sun exposure that consisted of six treatments, which were defined as different sequences of pesticide applications. The trial lasted three years (2013-2015) and yield components, dead productive branches, and foliar pests and diseases were assessed as predictors of yield. First, we calculated yield losses by comparing actual yields of specific treatments with the estimated attainable yield obtained in plots which always had chemical protection. Second, we used structural equation modeling to identify the most important predictors. Results showed that pests and diseases led to high primary yield losses (26%) and even higher secondary yield losses (38%). We identified the fruiting nodes and the dead productive branches as the most important and useful predictors of yields and yield losses. These predictors could be added in existing mechanistic models of coffee, or can be used to develop new linear mixed models to estimate yield losses. Estimated yield losses can then be related to production factors to identify corrective actions that farmers can implement to reduce losses. The experimental and modeling approaches of this study could also be applied in other perennial crops to assess yield losses.

  11. Labyrinthine window rupture as a cause of acute sensorineural hearing loss

    OpenAIRE

    Nagai, Tomoyuki; Nagai, Midori

    2011-01-01

    Labyrinthine window rupture (LWR) is one cause of acute sensorineural hearing loss and need for early exploration is clear for good improved hearing. Acute sensorineural hearing loss of 60?dB or more treated from May 2006 to May 2010 were retrospectively analyzed. There were 21 ears of severe deafness, 18 ears of profound deafness, and 10 ears of total deafness. All patients were examined with temporal bone CT. Space-occupying lesions around the labyrinthine windows were suggestive images of ...

  12. Oriental theileriosis in dairy cows causes a significant milk production loss.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perera, Piyumali K; Gasser, Robin B; Firestone, Simon M; Anderson, Garry A; Malmo, Jakob; Davis, Gerry; Beggs, David S; Jabbar, Abdul

    2014-02-19

    Oriental theileriosis is a tick-borne, protozoan disease of cattle caused by members of the Theileria orientalis-complex. Recent outbreaks of this disease in eastern Australia have caused major concerns to the dairy and beef farming communities, but there are no published studies of the economic impact of this disease. On a farm in Victoria, Australia, we assessed whether oriental theileriosis has an impact on milk production and reproductive performance in dairy cows. Blood samples collected from all 662 cows on the farm were tested using an established molecular test. For individual cows, milk production and reproductive performance data were collected. A clinical assessment of individual cows was performed. Based on clinical findings and molecular test results, the following groups of cows were classified: group 1, with cardinal clinical signs of oriental theileriosis and molecular test-positive for T. orientalis; group 2, with mild or suspected signs of theileriosis and test-positive; group 3, with no clinical signs and test-positive; and group 4, with no clinical signs and test-negative. Milk production and reproductive performance data for groups 1, 2 and 3 were each compared with those for group 4 using linear and logistic regression analyses, respectively. At 100 days of lactation, group 1 cows produced significantly less milk (288 l; P = 0.001), milk fat (16.8 kg; P milk protein (12.6 kg; P milk fat (13.6 kg; P = 0.002) and milk protein (8.6 kg; P = 0.005) than group 4. At 305 days of lactation, group 1 cows produced significantly less milk (624 l; P = 0.004), milk fat (42.9 kg; P milk protein (26.0 kg; P cows. Group 2 cows also produced significantly less milk fat (21.2 kg; P = 0.033) at this lactation point. No statistically significant difference in reproductive performance was found upon pairwise comparisons of groups 1-3 with group 4 cows. The present findings demonstrate that clinical oriental theileriosis can cause significant milk production losses

  13. Dependency of U.S. Hurricane Economic Loss on Maximum Wind Speed and Storm Size

    CERN Document Server

    Zhai, Alice R

    2014-01-01

    Many empirical hurricane economic loss models consider only wind speed and neglect storm size. These models may be inadequate in accurately predicting the losses of super-sized storms, such as Hurricane Sandy in 2012. In this study, we examined the dependencies of normalized U.S. hurricane loss on both wind speed and storm size for 73 tropical cyclones that made landfall in the U.S. from 1988 to 2012. A multi-variate least squares regression is used to construct a hurricane loss model using both wind speed and size as predictors. Using maximum wind speed and size together captures more variance of losses than using wind speed or size alone. It is found that normalized hurricane loss (L) approximately follows a power law relation with maximum wind speed (Vmax) and size (R). Assuming L=10^c Vmax^a R^b, c being a scaling factor, the coefficients, a and b, generally range between 4-12 and 2-4, respectively. Both a and b tend to increase with stronger wind speed. For large losses, a weighted regression model, with...

  14. A Hospital-based Study to Determine Causes of Diffuse Hair Loss in Women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malkud, Shashikant

    2015-08-01

    Diffuse hair loss is a common complaint encountered by dermatologists in their daily clinical practice. Hair loss in women is a distressing condition. Various underlying factors individually or in combination contribute to the pathogenesis. To determine causes of diffuse hair loss in women and to find the association between probable causes and relevant laboratory parameters, wherever applicable. One hundred and eighty women with diffuse hair loss were included in the study. Detailed history and clinical examination including hair pull test and hair microscopy were done in all study subjects. Specific laboratory investigations for determining iron deficiency anaemia, thyroid dysfunction and parasitic infestation were done. Among 180 patients, 116 (64.44%) had telogen effluvium, 28 (15.55%) had CTE, 21 (11.66%) had FPHL and 1 (0.55%) had AE. Fourteen patients (7.77%) had more than one aetiological diagnosis of diffuse hair loss. TE was the commonest type of diffuse hair loss. Incidence of TE and FPHL were highest in the age group of 21-30 years, whereas CTE in 30-40 years. Psychological stress and iron deficiency anaemia were the most common underlying aetiological factors for TE, which is statistically significant (phair loss is a multifactorial condition. A detailed history, thorough clinical examination and appropriate investigations help to identify the causative factors and treat them accordingly.

  15. Clinical presentations and outcomes of bile duct loss caused by drugs and herbal and dietary supplements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonkovsky, Herbert L; Kleiner, David E; Gu, Jiezhun; Odin, Joseph A; Russo, Mark W; Navarro, Victor M; Fontana, Robert J; Ghabril, Marwan S; Barnhart, Huiman; Hoofnagle, Jay H

    2017-04-01

    Bile duct loss during the course of drug-induced liver injury is uncommon, but can be an indication of vanishing bile duct syndrome (VBDS). In this work, we assess the frequency, causes, clinical features, and outcomes of cases of drug-induced liver injury with histologically proven bile duct loss. All cases of drug-induced liver injury enrolled into a prospective database over a 10-year period that had undergone liver biopsies (n = 363) were scored for the presence of bile duct loss and assessed for clinical and laboratory features, causes, and outcomes. Twenty-six of the 363 patients (7%) with drug-, herbal-, or dietary-supplement-associated liver injury had bile duct loss on liver biopsy, which was moderate to severe (bile duct loss were more likely to develop chronic liver injury (94% vs. 47%), which was usually cholestatic and sometimes severe. Five patients died and 2 others underwent liver transplantation for progressive cholestasis despite treatment with corticosteroids and ursodiol. The most predictive factor of poor outcome was the degree of bile duct loss on liver biopsy. Bile duct loss during acute cholestatic hepatitis is an ominous early indicator of possible VBDS, for which at present there are no known means of prevention or therapy. (Hepatology 2017;65:1267-1277). © 2016 by the American Association for the Study of Liver Diseases.

  16. Assessment of potential economic and environmental impacts caused by Phytophthora ramorum in Europe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hella Kehlenbeck

    2008-01-01

    Economic and environmental impacts of Phytophthora ramorum in Europe were evaluated within the European Union framework 6 project on ?Risk Analysis for P. ramorum a pathogen threat to Europe? (RAPRA). Impact assessment was conducted according to three different scenarios: 1. ?Nursery System? - describes losses occurring in...

  17. Determining the Real Causes of Financial Crisis in Islamic Economic Perspective: ANP Approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    . Ascarya

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Objective – The purpose of this study is to determine the real causes of financial crisis from Islamic economic perspective.Methods - This study applies Analytic Network Process (ANP to determine the real causes of financial crisis from Islamic economic perspective to be able to formulate the real solutions to end financial crisis.Results - The ANP results show that the real causes of financial crisis from Islamic economic perspective are Social Instability (EXTERNAL FACTOR, Speculation (MISBEHAVIOR, Ineffective Fiscal System (UNSUSTAINABLE FISCAL SYSTEM, Hedonism (MISBEHAVIOR, Fractional Reserve Banking System (UNSTABLE MONETARY SYSTEM, Political Instability (EXTERNAL FACTOR, Corruption (POOR GOVERNANCE, Interest Rate (UNSTABLE MONETARY SYSTEM, Fiat Money (UNSTABLE MONETARY SYSTEM, and the Wrong Man in the Wrong Place (POOR GOVERNANCE. These main real causes should be removed gradually in order to systematically and gradually improve the stability of financial system so that financial crisis will not reappear again and again in the future.Conclusions - Financial crisis would not happen under Islamic economic system if all Allah’s laws in financial dealings were followed. Financial crisis in conventional economic system could be prevented or lessened by gradually adopting Islamic economic and finance laws and regulations, partly or fully, especially the main pillars of Islamic financial system, namely the prohibition of ribā (usury or interest, prohibition of maysir (gambling and game of chance or speculation and prohibition of gharar (excessive uncertainty, in their many forms.

  18. Loss in species caused by tropical deforestation and their recovery through management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ariel E. Lugo; John A. Parrotta; Sandra Brown

    1993-01-01

    The loss of species as a result of deforestation and degradation of tropical forest lands is widely discussed. Models based on island biogeography theory are used to evaluate the relationship between extinctions of species and deforestation. The analysis shows that natural resiliency causes the models to overestimate the rates of species extinctions for given...

  19. Identification of the major characteristics of potato cultivars which affect yield loss caused by late blight

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Oijen, van M.

    1991-01-01

    Yield loss caused by late blight varies among potato cultivars. This thesis reports experiments and models aimed at identifying the plant characteristics that explain the variation. In the experiments, blight did not affect the efficiency with which twenty potato cultivars used intercepted

  20. Reducing power losses caused by ionic shortcut currents in reverse electrodialysis stacks by a validated model

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Veerman, J.; Post, J. W.; Saakes, M.; Metz, S. J.; Harmsen, G. J.

    2008-01-01

    Both in electrodialysis and in reverse electrodialysis ionic shortcut currents through feed and drain channels cause a considerable loss in efficiency. Model calculations based on an equivalent electric system of a reverse electrodialysis stack reveal that the effect of these salt bridges could be

  1. Prandial subcutaneous injections of glucagon-like peptide-1 cause weight loss in obese human subjects

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Näslund, Erik; King, N; Mansten, S

    2004-01-01

    Recombinant glucagon-like peptide-1 (7-36)amide (rGLP-1) was recently shown to cause significant weight loss in type 2 diabetics when administered for 6 weeks as a continuous subcutaneous infusion. The mechanisms responsible for the weight loss are not clarified. In the present study, rGLP-1......; BMI 39.0 (sem 1.2) kg/m(2)) in a prospective randomised, double-blind, placebo-controlled, cross-over study. Compared with the placebo, rGLP-1 administered as PSI and by CSI generated a 15 % reduction in mean food intake per meal (P=0.02) after 5 d treatment. A weight loss of 0.55 (sem 0.2) kg (P... as a probable mechanism of action of increased satiety, decreased hunger and, hence, reduced food intake with an ensuing weight loss....

  2. The prevalence and causes of vision loss in Indigenous Australians: the National Indigenous Eye Health Survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, Hugh R; Xie, Jing; Fox, Sarah; Dunn, Ross A; Arnold, Anna-Lena; Keeffe, Jill E

    2010-03-15

    To determine the prevalence and causes of vision loss in Indigenous Australians. A national, stratified, random cluster sample was drawn from 30 communities across Australia that each included about 300 Indigenous people of all ages. A sample of non-Indigenous adults aged > or = 40 years was also tested at several remote sites for comparison. Participants were examined using a standardised protocol that included a questionnaire (self-administered or completed with the help of field staff), visual acuity (VA) testing on presentation and after correction, visual field testing, trachoma grading, and fundus and lens photography. The data were collected in 2008. VA; prevalence of low vision and blindness; causes of vision loss; rates of vision loss in Indigenous compared with non-Indigenous adults. 1694 Indigenous children and 1189 Indigenous adults were examined, representing recruitment rates of 84% for children aged 5-15 years and 72% for adults aged > or = 40 years. Rates of low vision (VA or = 6/60) were 1.5% (95% CI, 0.9%-2.1%) in children and 9.4% (95% CI, 7.8%-11.1%) in adults. Rates of blindness (VA vision in both adults and children was refractive error. The principal causes of blindness in adults were cataract, refractive error and optic atrophy. Relative risks (RRs) of vision loss and blindness in Indigenous adults compared with adults in the mainstream Australian population were 2.8 and 6.2, respectively. By contrast, RRs of vision loss and blindness in Indigenous children compared with mainstream children were 0.2 and 0.6, respectively. Many causes of vision loss in our sample were readily avoidable. Better allocation of services and resources is required to give all Australians equal access to eye health services.

  3. Implementation and adaptation of a macro-scale methodology to calculate direct economic losses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Natho, Stephanie; Thieken, Annegret

    2017-04-01

    As one of the 195 member countries of the United Nations, Germany signed the Sendai Framework for Disaster Risk Reduction 2015-2030 (SFDRR). With this, though voluntary and non-binding, Germany agreed to report on achievements to reduce disaster impacts. Among other targets, the SFDRR aims at reducing direct economic losses in relation to the global gross domestic product by 2030 - but how to measure this without a standardized approach? The United Nations Office for Disaster Risk Reduction (UNISDR) has hence proposed a methodology to estimate direct economic losses per event and country on the basis of the number of damaged or destroyed items in different sectors. The method bases on experiences from developing countries. However, its applicability in industrial countries has not been investigated so far. Therefore, this study presents the first implementation of this approach in Germany to test its applicability for the costliest natural hazards and suggests adaptations. The approach proposed by UNISDR considers assets in the sectors agriculture, industry, commerce, housing, and infrastructure by considering roads, medical and educational facilities. The asset values are estimated on the basis of sector and event specific number of affected items, sector specific mean sizes per item, their standardized construction costs per square meter and a loss ratio of 25%. The methodology was tested for the three costliest natural hazard types in Germany, i.e. floods, storms and hail storms, considering 13 case studies on the federal or state scale between 1984 and 2016. Not any complete calculation of all sectors necessary to describe the total direct economic loss was possible due to incomplete documentation. Therefore, the method was tested sector-wise. Three new modules were developed to better adapt this methodology to German conditions covering private transport (cars), forestry and paved roads. Unpaved roads in contrast were integrated into the agricultural and

  4. Derivation and Application of a New Transmission Loss Formula for Power System Economic Dispatch

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wei-Tzer Huang

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available The expression and calculation of transmission loss (TL play key roles for solving the power system economic dispatch (ED problem. ED including TL must compute the total TL and incremental transmission loss (ITL by executing power flow equations. However, solving the power flow equations is time-consuming and may result in divergence by the iteration procedure. This approach is unsuitable for real-time ED in practical power systems. To avoid solving nonlinear power flow equations, most power companies continue to adopt the TL formula in ED. Traditional loss formulas are composed of network parameters and in terms of the generator’s real power outputs. These formulas are derived by several assumptions, but these basic assumptions sacrifice accuracy. In this study, a new expression for the loss formula is proposed to improve the shortcomings of traditional loss formulas. The coefficients in the new loss formula can be obtained by recording the power losses according to varying real and reactive power outputs without any assumptions. The simultaneous equations of the second-order expansion of the Taylor series are then established. Finally, the corresponding coefficients can be calculated by solving the simultaneous equations. These new coefficients can be used in optimal real and reactive power dispatch problems. The proposed approach is tested by IEEE 14-bus and 30-bus systems, and the results are compared with those obtained from the traditional B coefficient method and the load flow method. The numerical results show that the proposed new loss formula for ED can hold high accuracy for different loading conditions and is very suitable for real-time applications.

  5. Causes and Effects in Macroeconomics: 2011 Nobel Prize Lecture in Economic Sciences

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shlair Abdulkhaleq Al-Zanganee

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Noble Laureates Thomas Sargent and Christopher Sims have been granted the 2011 Noble Prize in economic sciences in appreciation of their empirical research on causes and effects in macroeconomics. The controversy on causality in macroeconomics was discussed in both of Sargent’s and Sims’s 2011 Prize lectures. While Sargent attempts to use the economic theory to interpret some historical events in order to gain insights on some contemporary issues, such as sovereign defaults, federal bailouts, and the coordination of monetary and fiscal policies, Sims is emphasizing the importance of large-scale economic models and calling for more research to be done in that area.

  6. Economic Analysis of Legal Regulations Regarding Liability for Loss Resulting from a Dangerous Product

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joanna Kuźmicka-Sulikowska

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available The article considers fundamental issues associated with economic analysis of legal regulations pertaining to liability for damage caused by a dangerous product. The discussion is conducted from the perspective of a lawyer analysing the conclusions stemming from economic analyses of the aforementioned liability by individual authors, which constitutes a base for subsequent observations. The relationships between the various potential configurations of manufacturer liability are discussed, in particular a situation where such liability is not stipulated, as well as where there is the introduction of liability based on the risk or fault principles and the ensuing motivation for maintaining an appropriate level of carefulness. Attention is focused on the search for an economically efficient solution. An analysis of current regulation is performed, as well as de lege ferenda conclusions grounded in economic analysis of law with reference to the shape of the regulatory liability regime for damage caused by a dangerous product. Many reservations are also listed, including ones concerning the fact that it does not seem that the legislative process should be guided only by conclusions stemming from economic analysis of law (especially considering the differences of opinion in that area, which does, however, unquestionably constitute a useful tool in such matters.

  7. Job loss and unmet health care needs in the economic recession: different associations by family income.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Jin; Birkenmaier, Julie; Kim, Youngmi

    2014-11-01

    We examined heterogeneous associations between job loss and unmet health care needs by family income level in the recent economic recession. We conducted logistic regression analyses with the sample from the 2008 Survey of Income and Program Participation (n = 12,658). Dependent variables were 2 dichotomous measures of unmet health care needs in medical and dental services. The primary independent variables were a dummy indicator of job loss during a 2-year period and the family income-to-needs ratio. We used an interaction term between job loss and the family income-to-needs ratio to test the proposed research question. Job loss was significantly associated with the increased risk of unmet health care needs. The proportion with unmet needs was highest for the lowest-income unemployed, but the association between job loss and health hardship was stronger for the middle- and higher-income unemployed. The unemployed experience health hardship differently by income level. A comprehensive coordination of applications for unemployment and health insurance should be considered to protect the unemployed from health hardship.

  8. Stochasticity in economic losses increases the value of reputation in indirect reciprocity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    dos Santos, Miguel; Placì, Sarah; Wedekind, Claus

    2015-12-14

    Recent theory predicts harsh and stochastic conditions to generally promote the evolution of cooperation. Here, we test experimentally whether stochasticity in economic losses also affects the value of reputation in indirect reciprocity, a type of cooperation that is very typical for humans. We used a repeated helping game with observers. One subject (the "Unlucky") lost some money, another one (the "Passer-by") could reduce this loss by accepting a cost to herself, thereby building up a reputation that could be used by others in later interactions. The losses were either stable or stochastic, but the average loss over time and the average efficiency gains of helping were kept constant in both treatments. We found that players with a reputation of being generous were generally more likely to receive help by others, such that investing into a good reputation generated long-term benefits that compensated for the immediate costs of helping. Helping frequencies were similar in both treatments, but players with a reputation to be selfish lost more resources under stochastic conditions. Hence, returns on investment were steeper when losses varied than when they did not. We conclude that this type of stochasticity increases the value of reputation in indirect reciprocity.

  9. Conditional deletion of pejvakin in adult outer hair cells causes progressive hearing loss in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harris, Suzan L; Kazmierczak, Marcin; Pangršič, Tina; Shah, Prahar; Chuchvara, Nadiya; Barrantes-Freer, Alonso; Moser, Tobias; Schwander, Martin

    2017-03-06

    Mutations in the Pejvakin (Pjvk) gene cause autosomal recessive hearing loss DFNB59 with audiological features of auditory neuropathy spectrum disorder (ANSD) or cochlear dysfunction. The precise mechanisms underlying the variable clinical phenotypes of DFNB59 remain unclear. Here, we demonstrate that mice with conditional ablation of the Pjvk gene in all sensory hair cells or only in outer hair cells (OHCs) show similar auditory phenotypes with early-onset profound hearing loss. By contrast, loss of Pjvk in adult OHCs causes a slowly progressive hearing loss associated with OHC degeneration and delayed loss of inner hair cells (IHCs), indicating a primary role for pejvakin in regulating OHC function and survival. Consistent with this model, synaptic transmission at the IHC ribbon synapse is largely unaffected in sirtaki mice that carry a C-terminal deletion mutation in Pjvk. Using the C-terminal domain of pejvakin as bait, we identified in a cochlear cDNA library ROCK2, an effector for the small GTPase Rho, and the scaffold protein IQGAP1, involved in modulating actin dynamics. Both ROCK2 and IQGAP1 associate via their coiled-coil domains with pejvakin. We conclude that pejvakin is required to sustain OHC activity and survival in a cell-autonomous manner likely involving regulation of Rho signaling. Copyright © 2017 IBRO. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Modelling the economic impact of three lameness causing diseases using herd and cow level evidence

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ettema, Jehan Frans; Østergaard, Søren; Kristensen, Anders Ringgaard

    2010-01-01

    Diseases to the cow's hoof, interdigital skin and legs are highly prevalent and of large economic impact in modern dairy farming. In order to support farmer's decisions on preventing and treating lameness and its underlying causes, decision support models can be used to predict the economic...... horn diseases. Secondly, the existing simulation model was set-up inwaythat it uses hyper-distributions describing diseases risk of the three lameness causing diseases. By combining information on herd level risk factors with prevalence of lameness or prevalence of underlying diseases among cows...

  11. [Acute low tone sensorineural hearing loss caused by inner ear barotrauma].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abe, T; Sasamori, S; Oikawa, T; Aigami, T; Endo, Y; Matsuki, C

    1989-09-01

    Three cases of inner ear barotrauma with subjective symptoms and hearing impairment which were similar to the low tone sudden deafness were reported. Case 1 was a 34-year-old man who developed a hearing loss in the next morning of taking an airplane and recovered four days after. Case 2 was a 42-year-old man who developed a hearing loss 2 days after flying in an airplane and hearing loss have recurred 4 times in his right ear for 3 months. Eight months after recovery of previous recurrent attack, a hearing loss occurred in his left ear without flying and recurred twice for 3 weeks. Case 3 was a 25-year-old woman who developed a hearing loss in the right ear after 24 meter depth scuba diving and recurred 4 times for 40 days. Those three patients complained of no vertigo at any attacks and were treated conservatively. From previous reports and the onset and the course of hearing disturbance, acute low tone sensorineural hearing loss in case 1 and case 2 was thought to be caused by circulatory disturbance of the inner ear and in case 3 thought to be caused by inner ear window rupture. But, endolymphatic hydrops was also needed to be take into account in those three cases as a common possible cause. Inner ear barotrauma and so called labyrinthine window rupture were considered to be one of the diseases needed to differentiate from low tone sudden deafness without reference to mono-attack type or recurrent type.

  12. Probabilistic Methodology for Estimation of Number and Economic Loss (Cost) of Future Landslides in the San Francisco Bay Region, California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crovelli, Robert A.; Coe, Jeffrey A.

    2008-01-01

    The Probabilistic Landslide Assessment Cost Estimation System (PLACES) presented in this report estimates the number and economic loss (cost) of landslides during a specified future time in individual areas, and then calculates the sum of those estimates. The analytic probabilistic methodology is based upon conditional probability theory and laws of expectation and variance. The probabilistic methodology is expressed in the form of a Microsoft Excel computer spreadsheet program. Using historical records, the PLACES spreadsheet is used to estimate the number of future damaging landslides and total damage, as economic loss, from future landslides caused by rainstorms in 10 counties of the San Francisco Bay region in California. Estimates are made for any future 5-year period of time. The estimated total number of future damaging landslides for the entire 10-county region during any future 5-year period of time is about 330. Santa Cruz County has the highest estimated number of damaging landslides (about 90), whereas Napa, San Francisco, and Solano Counties have the lowest estimated number of damaging landslides (5?6 each). Estimated direct costs from future damaging landslides for the entire 10-county region for any future 5-year period are about US $76 million (year 2000 dollars). San Mateo County has the highest estimated costs ($16.62 million), and Solano County has the lowest estimated costs (about $0.90 million). Estimated direct costs are also subdivided into public and private costs.

  13. Economic losses due to important diseases of bovines in central India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dhananjay Singh

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Aim: To analyze the factors associated with morbidity and mortality rates as well as to evaluate economic losses due to important diseases of bovines, viz. mastitis, HS and surra in Purvanchal Region of Uttar Pradesh. Materials and Methods: A sample of 300 livestock owners were selected from each of five divisions of Purvanchal region of the state of Uttar Pradesh using multistage stratified sampling with simple random sampling without replacement at village level. The morbidity, mortality and case fatality rates due to different diseases were determined using standard statistical indices. Association between cattle morbidity and mortality rates and different factors was calculated by χ2 Test. The total economic loss due to diseases in bovines was worked out as sum of mortality loss, loss in milk yield and cost of treatment of affected animals. Results: The overall morbidity rates of mastitis, HS and surra in cattle and buffaloes were 15.5%, 7.1% and 5.3%, respectively. The mortality and case fatality due to HS was found higher in the young calves as compared to the adults in case of both buffaloes and cattle. Mortality and case fatality due to surra was greater in the adult animals as compared to the younger ones in case of both buffaloes and cattle. Total losses due to mastitis per lactation in ND cow, CB cow and buffalo were INR 868.34, INR 1, 314.10 and INR 1, 272.36, respectively. Total losses due to HS per animal in ND cows, CB cows and buffaloes were INR 2, 355.78, INR 3, 228.52 and INR 4, 262.57, respectively. Total losses due to surra per animal in ND cow, CB cow and buffalo were INR 3, 328.18, INR 6, 193 and INR 9, 872.33, respectively. Conclusion: The study thus revealed significant losses due to diseases in large ruminants on. There is thus ample scope for preventive measures to control the disease bovines.

  14. Economic analysis of revenue losses and control costs associated with the spotted wing drosophila, Drosophila suzukii (Matsumura), in the California raspberry industry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farnsworth, Derek; Hamby, Kelly A; Bolda, Mark; Goodhue, Rachael E; Williams, Jeffrey C; Zalom, Frank G

    2017-06-01

    The spotted wing drosophila (SWD), Drosophila suzukii (Matsumura), is an invasive vinegar fly with a preference for infesting commercially viable berries and stone fruits. SWD infestations can reduce yields significantly, necessitating additional management activities. This analysis estimates economic losses in the California raspberry industry that have resulted from the SWD invasion. California raspberry producers experienced considerable revenue losses and management costs in the first years following SWD's invasion of North America. Conventional producers have since developed effective chemical management programs, virtually eliminating revenue losses due to SWD and reducing the cost of management to that of purchasing and applying insecticides more often. Organic raspberry producers, who do not have access to the same chemical controls, continue to confront substantial SWD-related revenue losses. These losses can be mitigated only by applying expensive insecticides registered for organic use and by performing labor-intensive field sanitation. SWD's invasion into North America has caused extensive crop losses to berry and cherry crops in California and elsewhere. Agricultural producers and researchers have responded quickly to this pest by developing management programs that significantly reduce revenue losses. Economic losses are expected to continue to fall as producers learn to manage SWD more efficiently and as new control tactics become available. © 2016 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2016 Society of Chemical Industry.

  15. The Cause of Poverty in the History of Economic Thought: Preliminary Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Felismino Julião Muhongo

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The goal of this paper is to expose, in a synthetic way, the cause of the poverty according to the opinion of greater economists that marked the history of the economic theory with theirs works. Thinkers like Marx or Keynes had convergences points in the interpretation of the causes of the poverty. However, each one, in their time, following their own interpretation of the reality and the ideological assumptions of their ideas, gave answers radically different.

  16. Functional photoreceptor loss revealed with adaptive optics: an alternate cause of color blindness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carroll, Joseph; Neitz, Maureen; Hofer, Heidi; Neitz, Jay; Williams, David R

    2004-06-01

    There is enormous variation in the X-linked L/M (long/middle wavelength sensitive) gene array underlying "normal" color vision in humans. This variability has been shown to underlie individual variation in color matching behavior. Recently, red-green color blindness has also been shown to be associated with distinctly different genotypes. This has opened the possibility that there may be important phenotypic differences within classically defined groups of color blind individuals. Here, adaptive optics retinal imaging has revealed a mechanism for producing dichromatic color vision in which the expression of a mutant cone photopigment gene leads to the loss of the entire corresponding class of cone photoreceptor cells. Previously, the theory that common forms of inherited color blindness could be caused by the loss of photoreceptor cells had been discounted. We confirm that remarkably, this loss of one-third of the cones does not impair any aspect of vision other than color.

  17. PSO for Multiobjective Economic Load Dispatch (MELD) for Minimizing Generation Cost and Transmission Losses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jain, Narender Kumar; Nangia, Uma; Jain, Aishwary

    2016-06-01

    In this paper, multiobjective economic load dispatch (MELD) problem considering generation cost and transmission losses has been formulated using priority goal programming (PGP) technique. In this formulation, equality constraint has been considered by inclusion of penalty parameter K. It has been observed that fixing its value to 1,000 keeps the equality constraint within limits. The non-inferior set for IEEE 5, 14 and 30-bus systems has been generated by Particle Swarm Optimization (PSO) technique. The best compromise solution has been chosen as the one which gives equal percentage saving for both the objectives.

  18. Glaciers. Attribution of global glacier mass loss to anthropogenic and natural causes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marzeion, Ben; Cogley, J Graham; Richter, Kristin; Parkes, David

    2014-08-22

    The ongoing global glacier retreat is affecting human societies by causing sea-level rise, changing seasonal water availability, and increasing geohazards. Melting glaciers are an icon of anthropogenic climate change. However, glacier response times are typically decades or longer, which implies that the present-day glacier retreat is a mixed response to past and current natural climate variability and current anthropogenic forcing. Here we show that only 25 ± 35% of the global glacier mass loss during the period from 1851 to 2010 is attributable to anthropogenic causes. Nevertheless, the anthropogenic signal is detectable with high confidence in glacier mass balance observations during 1991 to 2010, and the anthropogenic fraction of global glacier mass loss during that period has increased to 69 ± 24%. Copyright © 2014, American Association for the Advancement of Science.

  19. Causes and anatomical site of blindness and severe visual loss in Isfahan, Islamic Republic of Iran.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dehghan, A; Kianersi, F; Moazam, E; Ghanbari, H

    2010-02-01

    This study in 2005 evaluated the causes and major anatomical site of blindness and severe visual loss at a school for blind children in Isfahan province, Islamic Republic of Iran. All 211 students were examined according to the modified WHO/PBL eye examination record: 70.4% were blind, 24.3% had severe visual loss and 5.3% were visually impaired. The major causes of abnormality were hereditary factors (42.7%), prenatal/neonatal (18.5%) and unknown etiology (35.5%). The main sites of abnormality were the retina (62.6%), whole globe (17.5%), lens (7.1%) and optic nerve (7.1%). A high proportion of parents were in a consanguineous marriage (49.2%). The pattern of blindness in Isfahan encompasses characteristics of both developed and developing countries.

  20. Occupational fatalities, injuries, illnesses, and related economic loss in the wholesale and retail trade sector.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, Vern Putz; Schulte, Paul A; Sestito, John; Linn, Herb; Nguyen, Long S

    2010-07-01

    The wholesale and retail trade (WRT) sector employs over 21 million workers, or nearly 19% of the annual average employment in private industry. The perception is that workers in this sector are generally at low risk of occupational injury and death. These workers, however, are engaged in a wide range of demanding job activities and are exposed to a variety of hazards. Prior to this report, a comprehensive appraisal of the occupational fatal and nonfatal burdens affecting the retail and wholesale sectors was lacking. The focus of this review is to assess the overall occupational safety and health burden in WRT and to identify various subsectors that have high rates of burden from occupational causes. Ultimately, these findings should be useful for targeted intervention efforts. We reviewed Bureau of Labor Statistics (BLS), 2006 fatality, injury, and illness data for the WRT sector and provide comparisons between the WRT sector, its' subsectors, and private industry, which serves as a baseline. The BLS data provide both counts and standardized incidence rates for various exposures, events, and injury types for fatalities, injuries, and illnesses. In an effort to estimate the economic burden of these fatalities, injuries, and illnesses, a focused review of the literature was conducted. In 2006, WRT workers experienced 820,500 injuries/illnesses and 581 fatalities. The total case injury/illness rate for the retail sector was 4.9/100 FTE and for the wholesale sector 4.1/100 FTE. The WRT sector represents 15.5% of the private sector work population in 2006, yet accounts for 20.1% of nonfatal injuries and illnesses of the private sector. In 2003, the disparity was only 2% but increased to 3% in 2004 and 2005. Three WRT subsectors had injury/illness rates well above the national average: beer/wine/liquor (8.4/100); building materials/supplies (7.6/100); and grocery-related products (7.0/100). Occupational deaths with the highest rates were found in gasoline stations (9

  1. "Loss of breath" as a cause of postoperative hypoxia and bradycardia in children submitted to tonsillectomy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moro, Eduardo Toshiyuki; Goulart, Alexandre Palmeira

    2015-01-01

    the "shortness of breath" or "breathing interruption" crisis can be considered a cause of hypoxia in childhood. It is characterized by the presence of a triggering factor followed by weeping and apnea in expiration accompanied by cyanosis or pallor. The sequence of events may include bradycardia, loss of consciousness, abnormal postural tone and even asystole. A review of the literature revealed only two reports of postoperative apnea caused by "shortness of breath". this article describes the case of a child with a history of "shortness of breath" undiagnosed before the adenotonsillectomy, but that represented the cause of episodes of hypoxemia and bradycardia in the postoperative period. the "shortness of breath" crisis should be considered as a possible cause of perioperative hypoxia in children, especially when there is a history suggestive of this problem. As some events may be accompanied by bradycardia, loss of consciousness, abnormal postural tone and even asystole, observation in a hospital setting should be considered. Copyright © 2013 Sociedade Brasileira de Anestesiologia. Published by Elsevier Editora Ltda. All rights reserved.

  2. Economic burden from health losses due to foodborne illness in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scharff, Robert L

    2012-01-01

    The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) recently revised their estimates for the annual number of foodborne illnesses; 48 million Americans suffer from domestically acquired foodborne illness associated with 31 identified pathogens and a broad category of unspecified agents. Consequently, economic studies based on the previous estimates are now obsolete. This study was conducted to provide improved and updated estimates of the cost of foodborne illness by adding a replication of the 2011 CDC model to existing cost-of-illness models. The basic cost-of-illness model includes economic estimates for medical costs, productivity losses, and illness-related mortality (based on hedonic value-of-statistical-life studies). The enhanced cost-of-illness model replaces the productivity loss estimates with a more inclusive pain, suffering, and functional disability measure based on monetized quality-adjusted life year estimates. Costs are estimated for each pathogen and a broader class of unknown pathogens. The addition of updated cost data and improvements to methodology enhanced the performance of each existing economic model. Uncertainty in these models was characterized using Monte Carlo simulations in @Risk version 5.5. With this model, the average cost per case of foodborne illness was $1,626 (90% credible interval [CI], $607 to $3,073) for the enhanced cost-of-illness model and $1,068 (90% CI, $683 to $1,646) for the basic model. The resulting aggregated annual cost of illness was $77.7 billion (90% CI, $28.6 to $144.6 billion) and $51.0 billion (90% CI, $31.2 to $76.1 billion) for the enhanced and basic models, respectively.

  3. Losses in electric motors caused by harmonics; Harmoniske overtoners betydning for tabene i elmotorer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Johansson, M. [Dansk Energi Analyse A/S, Glostrup (Denmark); Kehr, J.M. [ABB A/S, Skovlunde (Denmark); Hoejte Hansen, H. [Balslev A/S, Glostrup (Denmark)

    2012-03-15

    the motor. The results of the lab measurements correspond very well to the losses calculated. On this basis it is concluded that harmonic currents and voltages cause energy losses in induction motors directly supplied, but that the energy losses are fairly low at the levels of distortion, a THDU of up to 6 to 8 %, which occur in Danish industry. Motors, which are supplied through a frequency converter, are not influenced by the harmonics in the supply mains. The analysis of the motor losses shows that the losses from the load torque, caused by the 5., 11., 17. etc harmonics, are considerably lower than the (very small) current heat losses in the motor, which have been caused by the same harmonics. The analysis also shows that the current displacement in the motors reduces the currents and the losses from the higher harmonics. Considering losses consequently the lower harmonics and especially 5. and 7. harmonics are most important. (LN)

  4. [Iatrogenic and non-iatrogenic factors as causes of progressive sensorineural hearing loss].

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Capua, B; Barbieri, M T; Tozzi, A; Passàli, D

    1998-08-01

    The aim of our study was to analyze factors such as noise, chemical drugs, industrial solvents and radiotherapy, which can cause cochlear lesions with progressive sensorineural hearing loss. Although an acute overstimulation by acoustic energy may induce an irreversible hearing loss, in most cases the noise-induced deafness is related to the duration of the exposure and to the level of the acoustic stimulation. A permanent hearing deficit occurs when the acoustic level exceeds 85 dBs. Also several classes of drugs are described as having ototoxic potential: aminoglycoside antibiotics, loop diuretics, antimalarial drugs such as quinine, salicylates, some chemotherapeutic antineoplastic agents. Their potential ototoxic effect seems to be related not only to the molecule, but also to individual predisposition, dose and route of administration. Regarding the benzene derivatives, there is a relationship between their ototoxicity and factors such as duration of exposure and concentration in the local environment. Finally, radiotherapy to areas near the temporal bone may produce a degenerative insult to the vascular stria and the hair cell causing a progressive sensorineural hearing loss.

  5. Loss of binocular vision as direct cause for misrouting of temporal retinal fibers in albinism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Banihani, Saleh M

    2015-10-01

    In humans, the nasal retina projects to the contralateral hemisphere, whereas the temporal retina projects ipsilaterally. The nasotemporal line that divides the retina into crossed and uncrossed parts coincides with the vertical meridian through the fovea. This normal projection of the retina is severely altered in albinism, in which the nasotemporal line shifted into the temporal retina with temporal retinal fibers cross the midline at the optic chiasm. This study proposes the loss of binocular vision as direct cause for misrouting of temporal retinal fibers and shifting of the nasotemporal line temporally in albinism. It is supported by many observations that clearly indicate that loss of binocular vision causes uncrossed retinal fibers to cross the midline. This hypothesis may alert scientists and clinicians to find ways to prevent or minimize the loss of binocular vision that may occur in some diseases such as albinism and early squint. Hopefully, this will minimize the misrouting of temporal fibers and improve vision in such diseases. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Terson syndrome: an underrecognized cause of reversible vision loss in patients with subarachnoid hemorrhage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Middleton, Kim; Esselman, Peter; Lim, P Chuwn

    2012-03-01

    Terson syndrome is a known complication of subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH) that causes potentially reversible vision loss. It develops after SAH because of vitreous hemorrhage caused by retinal capillary disruption. Case series report an incidence of Terson syndrome in approximately 8%-15% of patients with SAH. Nonetheless, the medical literature regarding this condition is primarily found within neurosurgical and ophthalmologic journals with little mention within the rehabilitation medicine literature. Physiatrists must be aware of this clinical presentation to coordinate the care of patients with SAH who develop vision loss and develop a rehabilitation plan that addresses the co-morbid motor, sensory, and cognitive impairments. Physiatrists may be the first to identify visual loss, are well equipped to emphasize compensatory strategies, and are well positioned to coordinate surgical treatment for visual recovery in appropriate cases. In this report, we describe the case of a young woman with SAH and Terson syndrome through her acute hospital admission, rehabilitation treatment, ophthalmologic management, and outcome, describing the salient epidemiology, pathophysiology, diagnostic workup, and treatment options.

  7. Slc26a4-insufficiency causes fluctuating hearing loss and stria vascularis dysfunction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ito, Taku; Li, Xiangming; Kurima, Kiyoto; Choi, Byung Yoon; Wangemann, Philine; Griffith, Andrew J

    2014-06-01

    SLC26A4 mutations can cause a distinctive hearing loss phenotype with sudden drops and fluctuation in patients. Existing Slc26a4 mutant mouse lines have a profound loss of hearing and vestibular function, with severe inner ear malformations that do not model this human phenotype. In this study, we generated Slc26a4-insufficient mice by manipulation of doxycycline administration to a transgenic mouse line in which all Slc26a4 expression was under the control of doxycycline. Doxycycline was administered from conception to embryonic day 17.5, and then it was discontinued. Auditory brainstem response thresholds showed significant fluctuation of hearing loss from 1 through 3months of age. The endocochlear potential, which is required for inner ear sensory cell function, correlated with auditory brainstem response thresholds. We observed degeneration of stria vascularis intermediate cells, the cells that generate the endocochlear potential, but no other abnormalities within the cochlea. We conclude that fluctuations of hearing result from fluctuations of the endocochlear potential and stria vascularis dysfunction in Slc26a4-insufficient mouse ears. This model can now be used to test potential interventions to reduce or prevent sudden hearing loss or fluctuation in human patients. Our strategy to generate a hypomorphic mouse model utilizing the tet-on system will be applicable to other diseases in which a hypomorphic allele is needed to model the human phenotype. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  8. Megadolicho basilar artery as a cause of asymmetrical sensorineural hearing loss - case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Melo, Antonio Antunes

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: At the differentiated diagnosis of asymmetrical sensorineural hearing losses, vascular disorders are present, one of which is megadolicho basilar artery. This disease is generally asymptomatic, and when symptoms are found, they can be caused by a compression or ischemia. Clinically, sensorineural hearing loss, tinnitus, headache, facial hypoesthesia, trigeminal neuralgia, vertigo, diplopia and facial palsy, among others, are likely to occur. The image examination of choice for its diagnosis is nuclear magnetic resonance. The megadolicho basilar artery therapy can be surgical or conservative, according to the associated findings. A multidisciplinary approach, including a neurologist, neurosurgeon and an otorhinolaryngologist is recommended for a proper administration of the case. Objective: Report the case of a patient with asymmetrical sensorineural hearing loss, diagnosed of megadolicho basilar artery. Case report: JBS, 57-year-old white male with a history of asymmetrical sensorineural hearing loss and bilateral whistle-like tinnitus for several years. The otorhinolaryngologic evaluation, including otoscopy, anterior rhinoscopy and oral pharynx, was normal. Final Comments: The treatment consisted in following up with the patient, controlling the tinnitus by drugs and using an individual sound amplification apparatus on the left ear.

  9. Mutations in OTOGL, encoding the inner ear protein otogelin-like, cause moderate sensorineural hearing loss.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yariz, Kemal O; Duman, Duygu; Zazo Seco, Celia; Dallman, Julia; Huang, Mingqian; Peters, Theo A; Sirmaci, Asli; Lu, Na; Schraders, Margit; Skromne, Isaac; Oostrik, Jaap; Diaz-Horta, Oscar; Young, Juan I; Tokgoz-Yilmaz, Suna; Konukseven, Ozlem; Shahin, Hashem; Hetterschijt, Lisette; Kanaan, Moien; Oonk, Anne M M; Edwards, Yvonne J K; Li, Huawei; Atalay, Semra; Blanton, Susan; Desmidt, Alexandra A; Liu, Xue-Zhong; Pennings, Ronald J E; Lu, Zhongmin; Chen, Zheng-Yi; Kremer, Hannie; Tekin, Mustafa

    2012-11-02

    Hereditary hearing loss is characterized by a high degree of genetic heterogeneity. Here we present OTOGL mutations, a homozygous one base pair deletion (c.1430 delT) causing a frameshift (p.Val477Glufs(∗)25) in a large consanguineous family and two compound heterozygous mutations, c.547C>T (p.Arg183(∗)) and c.5238+5G>A, in a nonconsanguineous family with moderate nonsyndromic sensorineural hearing loss. OTOGL maps to the DFNB84 locus at 12q21.31 and encodes otogelin-like, which has structural similarities to the epithelial-secreted mucin protein family. We demonstrate that Otogl is expressed in the inner ear of vertebrates with a transcription level that is high in embryonic, lower in neonatal, and much lower in adult stages. Otogelin-like is localized to the acellular membranes of the cochlea and the vestibular system and to a variety of inner ear cells located underneath these membranes. Knocking down of otogl with morpholinos in zebrafish leads to sensorineural hearing loss and anatomical changes in the inner ear, supporting that otogelin-like is essential for normal inner ear function. We propose that OTOGL mutations affect the production and/or function of acellular structures of the inner ear, which ultimately leads to sensorineural hearing loss. Copyright © 2012 The American Society of Human Genetics. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. The loss of efficiency caused by agents' uncoordinated routing in transport networks.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhongzhi Xu

    Full Text Available Large-scale daily commuting data were combined with detailed geographical information system (GIS data to analyze the loss of transport efficiency caused by drivers' uncoordinated routing in urban road networks. We used Price of Anarchy (POA to quantify the loss of transport efficiency and found that both volume and distribution of human mobility demand determine the POA. In order to reduce POA, a small number of highways require considerable decreases in traffic, and their neighboring arterial roads need to attract more traffic. The magnitude of the adjustment in traffic flow can be estimated using the fundamental measure traffic flow only, which is widely available and easy to collect. Surprisingly, the most congested roads or the roads with largest traffic flow were not those requiring the most reduction of traffic. This study can offer guidance for the optimal control of urban traffic and facilitate improvements in the efficiency of transport networks.

  11. ["Loss of breath" as a cause of postoperative hypoxia and bradycardia in children submitted to tonsillectomy].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moro, Eduardo Toshiyuki; Goulart, Alexandre Palmeira

    2015-01-01

    The "shortness of breath" or "breathing interruption" crisis can be considered a cause of hypoxia in childhood. It is characterized by the presence of a triggering factor followed by weeping and apnea in expiration accompanied by cyanosis or pallor. The sequence of events may include bradycardia, loss of consciousness, abnormal postural toneand even asystole. A review of the literature revealed only two reports of postoperative apneacaused by "shortness of breath". This article describes the case of a child with a history of "shortness of breath" undiagnosed before the adenotonsillectomy, but that represented the cause of episodes of hypoxemia and bradycardia in the postoperative period. the "shortness of breath" crisis should be considered as a possible cause of perioperative hypoxia in children, especially when there is a history suggestive of this problem. As some events may be accompanied by bradycardia, loss of consciousness, abnormal postural tone and even asystole, observation in a hospital setting should be considered. Copyright © 2013 Sociedade Brasileira de Anestesiologia. Publicado por Elsevier Editora Ltda. All rights reserved.

  12. Economic inequality, working-class power, social capital, and cause-specific mortality in wealthy countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muntaner, Carles; Lynch, John W; Hillemeier, Marianne; Lee, Ju Hee; David, Richard; Benach, Joan; Borrell, Carme

    2002-01-01

    This study tests two propositions from Navarro's critique of the social capital literature: that social capital's importance has been exaggerated and that class-related political factors, absent from social epidemiology and public health, might be key determinants of population health. The authors estimate cross-sectional associations between economic inequality, working-class power, and social capital and life expectancy, self-rated health, low birth weight, and age- and cause-specific mortality in 16 wealthy countries. Of all the health outcomes, the five variables related to birth and infant survival and nonintentional injuries had the most consistent association with economic inequality and working-class power (in particular with strength of the welfare state) and, less so, with social capital indicators. Rates of low birth weight and infant deaths from all causes were lower in countries with more "left" (e.g., socialist, social democratic, labor) votes, more left members of parliament, more years of social democratic government, more women in government, and various indicators of strength of the welfare state, as well as low economic inequality, as measured in a variety of ways. Similar associations were observed for injury mortality, underscoring the crucial role of unions and labor parties in promoting workplace safety. Overall, social capital shows weaker associations with population health indicators than do economic inequality and working-class power. The popularity of social capital and exclusion of class-related political and welfare state indicators does not seem to be justified on empirical grounds.

  13. Neurogenic vision loss: Causes and outcome. An experience from a tertiary center in Northern India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rajesh Verma

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Vision loss can be a consequence of numerous disorders of eye and neural pathway conveying visual input to brain. A variety of conditions can affect visual pathway producing neurogenic vision loss. The presentation and course of vision loss depends on the site of involvement and underlying etiology. We conducted this unprecedented study to evaluate the characteristics and outcome of various diseases of the visual pathway. Materials and Methods: In this prospective cohort study, we evaluated 64 patients with neurogenic visual impairment. Ophthalmological causes were excluded in all of them. Their presentation, ophthalmological characteristics and investigation findings were recorded. These patients were followed up till 6 months. Results: Out of 69 patients evaluated, 5 were excluded as they had ophthalmological abnormalities. The remaining 64 cases (113 eyes were enrolled. 54 cases were due to diseases of anterior visual pathway and rest 10 had cortical vision loss. The etiologic distribution is as follows: Isolated optic neuritis- 12 (19%, multiple sclerosis- 4 (6.3%, neuromyelitis optica- 5 (7.9%, tubercular meningitis- 15 (23.8%, non-arteritic ischemic optic neuropathy, ischemic optic neuropathy complicating cavernous sinus thrombosis, cryptococcal meningitis, malignant infiltration of optic nerve, Crouzon′s syndrome, calvarial thickening and traumatic occipital gliosis- 1 (1.6% case each, idiopathic intracranial hypertension, pituitary adenoma, acute disseminated encephalomyelitis, posterior reversible leukoencephalopathy- 3 (4.8% cases each, cortical venous thrombosis 5 (7.9%, subacute scleroing panencephalitis- 4 (6.3% cases. Conclusions: The diseases of anterior visual pathway were much more common than cortical vision loss. A majority of our patients had severe impairment of vision at presentation.

  14. Observations on cattle dairy breeds in Pakistan; need to curb unseen economic losses through control of mastitis and endemic diseases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matthew B. Kenyanjui

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available In October 2005 a devastating earthquake caused extensive damage among populations in Pakistan administered Kashmiri Region and parts of North Western Frontier. In addition to the loss of more than 87`000 human lives and 70`000 injured, many livestock namely buffaloes, cattle and goats were lost. This eroded the livelihoods of families that solely relied on livestock and agriculture for their economic survival. The International Committee of the Red Cross together with the German Red Cross (ICRC/ GRC and the Kashmiri authorities formulated a project that sought to restore the livelihoods of the most vulnerable households to a level comparable to before the earthquake. The project adapted an agro-vet and micro-economic approach, part of which included the provision of a milking cow and calf. This report indicates that antibiotics and homoeopathic medicines provide similar levels of protection against mastitis (Spranger, 2000. Preventive measures like vaccinations, disinfectant footbaths and reducing stress during the critical time of calving goes a long way towards improving the overall health of the dairy cows (Dettloff, 2005. Although milking is in many cases still done by hand, pre-milking and post-milking hygienic procedures, such as udder washing and drying greatly decrease prevalence of mastitis.

  15. Prevalence, clinical characteristics, and causes of vision loss in patients with ocular toxoplasmosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    London, Nikolas J S; Hovakimyan, Anna; Cubillan, Leo D P; Siverio, Carlos D; Cunningham, Emmett T

    2011-01-01

    To describe the prevalence, demographics, clinical features, and contributors to vision loss at presentation in a large cohort of patients with ocular toxoplasmosis seen at a tertiary referral center in northern California. A retrospective review of the charts of 233 patients with ocular toxoplasmosis examined over 24 years. Ocular toxoplasmosis was diagnosed in 233 (8.4%) of 2761 patients with uveitis. The mean age at presentation was 27.2 years. Patients with ocular toxoplasmosis were more likely to be young (pvision loss at presentation were intraocular inflammation (74.8%) and macular involvement (24.3%), whereas in eyes with inactive lesions the main contributors to vision loss were macular scar formation (67.9%) and amblyopia (11.3%). Younger age was the single significant predictor of macular involvement. Ocular toxoplasmosis is a common cause of uveitis. Our patients were more likely than general uveitis patients to be young, male, and Latino, often having emigrated from Mexico or Central or South America. The most common contributors to decreased vision in eyes with active lesions were inflammation and macular involvement, whereas in eyes with inactive lesions they were macular scar formation and amblyopia.

  16. Compound Heterozygosity for Y Box Proteins Causes Sterility Due to Loss of Translational Repression.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elizabeth Snyder

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The Y-box proteins YBX2 and YBX3 bind RNA and DNA and are required for metazoan development and fertility. However, possible functional redundancy between YBX2 and YBX3 has prevented elucidation of their molecular function as RNA masking proteins and identification of their target RNAs. To investigate possible functional redundancy between YBX2 and YBX3, we attempted to construct Ybx2-/-;Ybx3-/- double mutants using a previously reported Ybx2-/- model and a newly generated global Ybx3-/- model. Loss of YBX3 resulted in reduced male fertility and defects in spermatid differentiation. However, homozygous double mutants could not be generated as haploinsufficiency of both Ybx2 and Ybx3 caused sterility characterized by extensive defects in spermatid differentiation. RNA sequence analysis of mRNP and polysome occupancy in single and compound Ybx2/3 heterozygotes revealed loss of translational repression almost exclusively in the compound Ybx2/3 heterozygotes. RNAseq analysis also demonstrated that Y-box protein dose-dependent loss of translational regulation was inversely correlated with the presence of a Y box recognition target sequence, suggesting that Y box proteins bind RNA hierarchically to modulate translation in a range of targets.

  17. Compound Heterozygosity for Y Box Proteins Causes Sterility Due to Loss of Translational Repression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Snyder, Elizabeth; Soundararajan, Ramani; Sharma, Manju; Dearth, Andrea; Smith, Benjamin; Braun, Robert E

    2015-12-01

    The Y-box proteins YBX2 and YBX3 bind RNA and DNA and are required for metazoan development and fertility. However, possible functional redundancy between YBX2 and YBX3 has prevented elucidation of their molecular function as RNA masking proteins and identification of their target RNAs. To investigate possible functional redundancy between YBX2 and YBX3, we attempted to construct Ybx2-/-;Ybx3-/- double mutants using a previously reported Ybx2-/- model and a newly generated global Ybx3-/- model. Loss of YBX3 resulted in reduced male fertility and defects in spermatid differentiation. However, homozygous double mutants could not be generated as haploinsufficiency of both Ybx2 and Ybx3 caused sterility characterized by extensive defects in spermatid differentiation. RNA sequence analysis of mRNP and polysome occupancy in single and compound Ybx2/3 heterozygotes revealed loss of translational repression almost exclusively in the compound Ybx2/3 heterozygotes. RNAseq analysis also demonstrated that Y-box protein dose-dependent loss of translational regulation was inversely correlated with the presence of a Y box recognition target sequence, suggesting that Y box proteins bind RNA hierarchically to modulate translation in a range of targets.

  18. Desynchronizations in bee-plant interactions cause severe fitness losses in solitary bees.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schenk, Mariela; Krauss, Jochen; Holzschuh, Andrea

    2018-01-01

    Global warming can disrupt mutualistic interactions between solitary bees and plants when increasing temperature differentially changes the timing of interacting partners. One possible scenario is for insect phenology to advance more rapidly than plant phenology. However, empirical evidence for fitness consequences due to temporal mismatches is lacking for pollinators and it remains unknown if bees have developed strategies to mitigate fitness losses following temporal mismatches. We tested the effect of temporal mismatches on the fitness of three spring-emerging solitary bee species, including one pollen specialist. Using flight cages, we simulated (i) a perfect synchronization (from a bee perspective): bees and flowers occur simultaneously, (ii) a mismatch of 3 days and (iii) a mismatch of 6 days, with bees occurring earlier than flowers in the latter two cases. A mismatch of 6 days caused severe fitness losses in all three bee species, as few bees survived without flowers. Females showed strongly reduced activity and reproductive output compared to synchronized bees. Fitness consequences of a 3-day mismatch were species-specific. Both the early-spring species Osmia cornuta and the mid-spring species Osmia bicornis produced the same number of brood cells after a mismatch of 3 days as under perfect synchronization. However, O. cornuta decreased the number of female offspring, whereas O. bicornis spread the brood cells over fewer nests, which may increase offspring mortality, e.g. due to parasitoids. The late-spring specialist Osmia brevicornis produced fewer brood cells even after a mismatch of 3 days. Additionally, our results suggest that fitness losses after temporal mismatches are higher during warm than cold springs, as the naturally occurring temperature variability revealed that warm temperatures during starvation decreased the survival rate of O. bicornis. We conclude that short temporal mismatches can cause clear fitness losses in solitary bees

  19. A mutation causing Alport syndrome with tardive hearing loss is common in the western United States

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barker, D.F.; Denison, J.C.; Atkin, C.L. [Univ. of Utah Health Sciences Center, Salt Lake City, UT (United States)] [and others

    1996-06-01

    Mutations in the COL4A5 gene, located at Xq22, cause Alport syndrome (AS), a nephritis characterized by progressive deterioration of the glomerular basement membrane and usually associated with progressive hearing loss. We have identified a novel mutation, L1649R, present in 9 of 121 independently ascertained families. Affected males shared the same haplotype of eight polymorphic markers tightly linked to COL4A5, indicating common ancestry. Genealogical studies place the birth of this ancestor >200 years ago. The L1649R mutation is a relatively common cause of Alport syndrome in the western United States, in part because of the rapid growth and migratory expansion of mid-nineteenth-century pioneer populations carrying the gene. L1649R affects a highly conserved residue in the NC1 domain, which is involved in key inter- and intramolecular interactions, but results in a relatively mild disease phenotype. Renal failure in an L1649R male typically occurs in the 4th or 5th decade and precedes the onset of significant hearing loss by {approximately}10 years. 45 refs., 5 figs.

  20. ESRP1 Mutations Cause Hearing Loss due to Defects in Alternative Splicing that Disrupt Cochlear Development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rohacek, Alex M; Bebee, Thomas W; Tilton, Richard K; Radens, Caleb M; McDermott-Roe, Chris; Peart, Natoya; Kaur, Maninder; Zaykaner, Michael; Cieply, Benjamin; Musunuru, Kiran; Barash, Yoseph; Germiller, John A; Krantz, Ian D; Carstens, Russ P; Epstein, Douglas J

    2017-11-06

    Alternative splicing contributes to gene expression dynamics in many tissues, yet its role in auditory development remains unclear. We performed whole-exome sequencing in individuals with sensorineural hearing loss (SNHL) and identified pathogenic mutations in Epithelial Splicing-Regulatory Protein 1 (ESRP1). Patient-derived induced pluripotent stem cells showed alternative splicing defects that were restored upon repair of an ESRP1 mutant allele. To determine how ESRP1 mutations cause hearing loss, we evaluated Esrp1(-/-) mouse embryos and uncovered alterations in cochlear morphogenesis, auditory hair cell differentiation, and cell fate specification. Transcriptome analysis revealed impaired expression and splicing of genes with essential roles in cochlea development and auditory function. Aberrant splicing of Fgfr2 blocked stria vascularis formation due to erroneous ligand usage, which was corrected by reducing Fgf9 gene dosage. These findings implicate mutations in ESRP1 as a cause of SNHL and demonstrate the complex interplay between alternative splicing, inner ear development, and auditory function. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. The order of information processing alters economic gain-loss framing effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kwak, Youngbin; Huettel, Scott

    2017-11-11

    Adaptive decision making requires analysis of available information during the process of choice. In many decisions that information is presented visually - which means that variations in visual properties (e.g., salience, complexity) can potentially influence the process of choice. In the current study, we demonstrate that variation in the left-right positioning of risky and safe decision options can influence the canonical gain-loss framing effect. Two experiments were conducted using an economic framing task in which participants chose between gambles and certain outcomes. The first experiment demonstrated that the magnitude of the gain-loss framing effect was greater when the certain option signaling the current frame was presented on the left side of the visual display. Eye-tracking data during task performance showed a left-gaze bias for initial fixations, suggesting that the option presented on the left side was processed first. Combination of eye-tracking and choice data revealed that there was a significant effect of direction of first gaze (i.e. left vs. right) as well as an interaction between gaze direction and identity of the first fixated information (i.e. certain vs. gamble) regardless of frame. A second experiment presented the gamble and certain options in a random order, with a temporal delay between their presentations. We found that the magnitude of gain-loss framing was larger when the certain option was presented first, regardless of left and right positioning, only in individuals with lower risk-taking tendencies. The effect of presentation order on framing was not present in high risk-takers. These results suggest that the sequence of visual information processing as well as their left-right positioning can bias choices by changing the impact of the presented information during risky decision making. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  2. A model on CME/Flare initiation: Loss of Equilibrium caused by mass loss of quiescent prominences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miley, George; Chon Nam, Sok; Kim, Mun Song; Kim, Jik Su

    2015-08-01

    Coronal Mass Ejections (CMEs) model should give an answer to enough energy storage for giant bulk plasma into interplanetary space to escape against the sun’s gravitation and its explosive eruption. Advocates of ‘Mass Loading’ model (e.g. Low, B. 1996, SP, 167, 217) suggested a simple mechanism of CME initiation, the loss of mass from a prominence anchoring magnetic flux rope, but they did not associate the mass loss with the loss of equilibrium. The catastrophic loss of equilibrium model is considered as to be a prospective CME/Flare model to explain sudden eruption of magnetic flux systems. Isenberg, P. A., et al (1993, ApJ, 417, 368)developed ideal magnetohydrodynamic theory of the magnetic flux rope to show occurrence of catastrophic loss of equilibrium according to increasing magnetic flux transported into corona.We begin with extending their study including gravity on prominence’s material to obtain equilibrium curves in case of given mass parameters, which are the strengths of the gravitational force compared with the characteristic magnetic force. Furthermore, we study quasi-static evolution of the system including massive prominence flux rope and current sheet below it to obtain equilibrium curves of prominence’s height according to decreasing mass parameter in a properly fixed magnetic environment. The curves show equilibrium loss behaviors to imply that mass loss result in equilibrium loss. Released fractions of magnetic energy are greater than corresponding zero-mass case. This eruption mechanism is expected to be able to apply to the eruptions of quiescent prominences, which is located in relatively weak magnetic environment with 105 km of scale length and 10G of photospheric magnetic field.

  3. Food loss reduction from an environmental, socio-economic and consumer perspective - The case of the Swiss potato market.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Willersinn, Christian; Mouron, Patrik; Mack, Gabriele; Siegrist, Michael

    2017-01-01

    Potatoes are one of the commodities with the highest loss shares along the entire supply chain. In the present study, we analyzed six potential loss reduction scenarios concerning their environmental-socio-economic sustainability compared with the current situation by using the "SustainOS" methodology. For this purpose, life cycle assessments, full-cost calculations and an online consumer survey were conducted. Environmental improvements through loss reduction were rather small and did not cross limits of significance, but the socio-economic performance of the entire supply chain can be improved considerably. Pearson correlation coefficients and linear regression analyses were used to predict the influence of specific subjective items like the intention to avoid food loss, knowledge related to food loss and consumers' price sensitivity on the assigned preference. Results show that perceived risks, perceived inconvenience and the general acceptance of loss-reducing instruments influence consumers' preferences. Altogether, only three out of six tested scenarios seem realistic: selling unwashed potatoes in a lightproof box, selling unpacked potatoes, and improved quality sorting at farms. For two of the other scenarios, consumers significantly indicated their refusal even if losses decreased considerably, whereas the sixth scenario was unfavorable from a socio-economic perspective. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. The Role of Geoscience Information in Reducing Catastrophic Loss Using a Web-Based Economics Experiment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bernknopf, Richard L.; Brookshire, David S.; Ganderton, Philip T.

    2003-01-01

    What role can geoscience information play in the assessment of risk and the value of insurance, especially for natural hazard type risks? In an earlier, related paper Ganderton and others (2000) provided subjects with relatively simple geoscience information concerning natural hazard-type risks. Their research looked at how subjects purchase insurance when faced with relatively low probability but high loss risks of the kind that characterize natural hazards and now, increasingly, manmade disasters. They found evidence to support the expected utility theory (definitions of economics terms can be found in a glossary at the end of report), yet there remained the implication that subjects with excessive aversion to risk were willing to pay considerably more for insurance than the actuarially fair price plus any reasonable risk premium. Here, we report the results of additional experiments that provide further support for the basic postulates of expected utility theory. However, these new experiments add considerably to the decision environment facing subjects by offering an option to purchase geoscientific information that would assist them when calculating expected losses from hazards more accurately. Using an Internet-based mechanism to present information and gather data in an experimental setting, this research provided subjects with considerable textual and graphical information, and time to process it. Over a period of three months, almost 400 subjects participated in on-line experiments that generated approximately 22,000 usable data points for the empirical analysis discussed in this report. In the design of the experiment, we modeled the decisions to purchase (1) a detailed map giving subjects more information regarding the distribution of losses from a hazard and (2) insurance to indemnify them from any losses should they occur. On the basis of this design, we find strong evidence in support of the expected utility theory. Many of the findings reinforce

  5. Modelling the economic impact of three lameness causing diseases using herd and cow level evidence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ettema, Jehan; Østergaard, Søren; Kristensen, Anders Ringgaard

    2010-06-01

    Diseases to the cow's hoof, interdigital skin and legs are highly prevalent and of large economic impact in modern dairy farming. In order to support farmer's decisions on preventing and treating lameness and its underlying causes, decision support models can be used to predict the economic profitability of such actions. An existing approach of modelling lameness as one health disorder in a dynamic, stochastic and mechanistic simulation model has been improved in two ways. First of all, three underlying diseases causing lameness were modelled: digital dermatitis, interdigital hyperplasia and claw horn diseases. Secondly, the existing simulation model was set-up in way that it uses hyper-distributions describing diseases risk of the three lameness causing diseases. By combining information on herd level risk factors with prevalence of lameness or prevalence of underlying diseases among cows, marginal posterior probability distributions for disease prevalence in the specific herd are created in a Bayesian network. Random draws from these distributions are used by the simulation model to describe disease risk. Hereby field data on prevalence is used systematically and uncertainty around herd specific risk is represented. Besides the fact that estimated profitability of halving disease risk depended on the hyper-distributions used, the estimates differed for herds with different levels of diseases risk and reproductive efficiency. (c) 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Treatment of space loss caused by submerged maxillary second primary molar

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karacay S

    2007-03-01

    Full Text Available Submersion is a clinical term describing a tooth depressed below the occlusal plane. In this case report, we present the treatment of a patient who had totally submerged primary maxillary second molar, which caused impaction of the second premolar and space loss in the maxillary arch due to tipping of adjacent teeth. A 12-year-old girl was referred to the pediatric dentistry clinic. The intra-oral examination revealed that right maxillary second primary molar was localized buccal side of posterior maxillary alveolar process, being almost completely covered by gingiva and adjacent teeth inclined closing the space of the related teeth completely. Periapical radiograph demonstrated that maxillary second premolar was impacted. Based on clinical and radiographic findings, maxillary primary second molar was extracted. Headgear was used for the distalization of maxillary right first molar in order to create space for the impacted second premolar. Eruption begun spontaneously 6 months later.

  7. Choroid Detachment, a Rare Cause of Vision Loss Diagnosed by Point-of-Care Ultrasound.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jarrett, Brian; Secko, Michael

    2017-04-01

    Choroid detachment is a rare disease process that has a multitude of etiologies; usually related to recent ophthalmological surgery, eye trauma, corneal ulcers, or intraocular pressure-lowering agents. Point-of-care ocular ultrasound has high utility and accuracy in diagnosing pathology of the eye. We present a case of a patient who presented with vision loss caused by a choroid detachment diagnosed on point-of-care ultrasound because fundoscopic examination was limited due to cataracts. Ultrasound findings based on location and appearance during both static and dynamic evaluation that help differentiate a choroid vs. a retinal detachment are also described. WHY SHOULD AN EMERGENCY PHYSICIAN BE AWARE OF THIS?: Choroid detachments have a different sonographic appearance, as well as management, compared to a retinal detachment. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. A tradeoff between the losses caused by computer viruses and the risk of the manpower shortage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bi, Jichao; Yang, Lu-Xing; Yang, Xiaofan; Wu, Yingbo; Tang, Yuan Yan

    2018-01-01

    This article addresses the tradeoff between the losses caused by a new virus and the size of the team for developing an antivirus against the virus. First, an individual-level virus spreading model is proposed to capture the spreading process of the virus before the appearance of its natural enemy. On this basis, the tradeoff problem is modeled as a discrete optimization problem. Next, the influences of different factors, including the infection force, the infection function, the available manpower, the alarm threshold, the antivirus development effort and the network topology, on the optimal team size are examined through computer simulations. This work takes the first step toward the tradeoff problem, and the findings are instructive to the decision makers of network security companies.

  9. Oxidation of a potassium channel causes progressive sensory function loss during aging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cai, Shi-Qing; Sesti, Federico

    2009-05-01

    Potassium channels are key regulators of neuronal excitability. Here we show that oxidation of the K(+) channel KVS-1 during aging causes sensory function loss in Caenorhabditis elegans and that protection of this channel from oxidation preserves neuronal function. Chemotaxis, a function controlled by KVS-1, was significantly impaired in worms exposed to oxidizing agents, but only moderately affected in worms harboring an oxidation-resistant KVS-1 mutant (C113S). In aging C113S transgenic worms, the effects of free radical accumulation were significantly attenuated compared to those in wild type. Electrophysiological analyses showed that both reactive oxygen species (ROS) accumulation during aging and acute exposure to oxidizing agents acted primarily to alter the excitability of the neurons that mediate chemotaxis. Together, these findings establish a pivotal role for ROS-mediated oxidation of voltage-gated K(+) channels in sensorial decline during aging in invertebrates.

  10. ER Stress Causes Rapid Loss of Intestinal Epithelial Stemness through Activation of the Unfolded Protein Response

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jarom Heijmans

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Stem cells generate rapidly dividing transit-amplifying cells that have lost the capacity for self-renewal but cycle for a number of times until they exit the cell cycle and undergo terminal differentiation. We know very little of the type of signals that trigger the earliest steps of stem cell differentiation and mediate a stem cell to transit-amplifying cell transition. We show that in normal intestinal epithelium, endoplasmic reticulum (ER stress and activity of the unfolded protein response (UPR are induced at the transition from stem cell to transit-amplifying cell. Induction of ER stress causes loss of stemness in a Perk-eIF2α-dependent manner. Inhibition of Perk-eIF2α signaling results in stem cell accumulation in organoid culture of primary intestinal epithelium. Our findings show that the UPR plays an important role in the regulation of intestinal epithelial stem cell differentiation.

  11. Ice sheet mass loss caused by dust and black carbon accumulation

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    T. Goelles

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Albedo is the dominant factor governing surface melt variability in the ablation area of ice sheets and glaciers. Aerosols such as mineral dust and black carbon (soot accumulate on the ice surface and cause a darker surface and therefore a lower albedo. The darkening effect on the ice surface is currently not included in sea level projections, and the effect is unknown. We present a model framework which includes ice dynamics, aerosol transport, aerosol accumulation and the darkening effect on ice albedo and its consequences for surface melt. The model is applied to a simplified geometry resembling the conditions of the Greenland ice sheet, and it is forced by several temperature scenarios to quantify the darkening effect of aerosols on future mass loss. The effect of aerosols depends non-linearly on the temperature rise due to the feedback between aerosol accumulation and surface melt. According to our conceptual model, accounting for black carbon and dust in future projections of ice sheet changes until the year 3000 could induce an additional volume loss of 7 %. Since we have ignored some feedback processes, the impact might be even larger.

  12. mTOR Inhibition Subdues Milk Disorder Caused by Maternal VLDLR Loss

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    HoangDinh Huynh

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available It is unknown whether and how very-low density lipoprotein receptors (VLDLRs impact skeletal homeostasis. Here, we report that maternal and offspring VLDLRs play opposite roles in osteoclastogenesis and bone resorption. VLDLR deletion in the offspring augments osteoclast differentiation by enhancing RANKL signaling, leading to osteoporosis. In contrast, VLDLR deletion in the mother alters milk metabolism, which inhibits osteoclast differentiation and causes osteopetrosis in the offspring. The maternal effects are dominant. VLDLR-null lactating mammary gland exhibits higher mTORC1 signaling and cholesterol biosynthesis. Pharmacological probing reveals that rapamycin, but not statin, treatment of the VLDLR-null mother can prevent both the low bone resorption and our previously described inflammatory fur loss in their offspring. Genetic rescue reveals that maternal mTORC1 attenuation in adipocytes, but not in myeloid cells, prevents offspring osteopetrosis and fur loss. Our studies uncover functions of VLDLR and mTORC1 in lactation and osteoclastogenesis, illuminating key mechanisms and therapeutic insights for bone and metabolic diseases.

  13. Neospora caninum is the leading cause of bovine fetal loss in British Columbia, Canada

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, Devon J; Orsel, Karin; Waddington, Josh; Rajeev, Malavika; Sweeny, Amy R.; Joseph, Tomy; Grigg, Michael E; Raverty, Stephen A.

    2016-01-01

    The protozoan pathogen Neospora caninum is recognized as a leading cause of infectious abortions in cattle worldwide. To evaluate the impact of neosporosis on dairy and beef herd production, a retrospective, longitudinal study was performed to identify the impact of neosporosis alongside other causes of fetal abortion in British Columbia, Canada. Retrospective analysis of pathology records of bovine fetal submissions submitted to the Animal Health Centre, Abbotsford, British Columbia, a provincial veterinary diagnostic laboratory, from January 2007– July 2013 identified 182 abortion cases (passive surveillance). From July 2013–May 2014, an active surveillance program identified a further 54 abortion cases from dairy farmers in the Upper Fraser Valley, British Columbia. Of the total 236 fetal submissions analyzed, N. caninum was diagnosed in 18.2% of cases, making it the most commonly identified infectious agent associated with fetal loss. During active surveillance, N. caninum was associated with 41% of fetuses submitted compared to 13.3% during passive surveillance (P<0.001). Breed of dam was significantly associated with N. caninum diagnosis, with a higher prevalence in dairy versus beef breeds, and fetuses of 3–6 months gestational age had the highest prevalence of N. caninum. There was no significant association with dam parity. Neospora caninum was diagnosed in every year except 2009 and cases were geographically widespread throughout the province. Furthermore, the active surveillance program demonstrates that N. caninum is highly prevalent in the Upper Fraser Valley and is a major causal agent of production losses in this dairy intensive region. PMID:26872927

  14. Early microgliosis precedes neuronal loss and behavioural impairment in mice with a frontotemporal dementia-causing CHMP2B mutation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Clayton, Emma L.; Mancuso, Renzo; Nielsen, Troels Tolstrup

    2017-01-01

    Frontotemporal dementia (FTD)-causing mutations in the CHMP2B gene lead to the generation of mutant C-terminally truncated CHMP2B. We report that transgenic mice expressing endogenous levels of mutant CHMP2B developed late-onset brain volume loss associated with frank neuronal loss and FTD-like c...

  15. Yield loss in apple caused by Monilinia fructigena (Aderh. & Rhul.) Honey, and spatio-temporal dynamics of disease development

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Leeuwen, van G.C.M.; Stein, A.; Holb, I.; Jeger, M.J.

    2000-01-01

    Monilinia fructigena (Aderh. & Ruhl.) Honey causes considerable yield losses in pome fruit culture. During a field study in the Netherlands in 1997 and 1998, the increase in disease incidence in time was assessed and final pre- and post-harvest losses were recorded in the susceptible apple

  16. Annuity as a form of compensation for future loss caused by torts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Salma Jožef

    2013-01-01

    annuity is an adequate form of compensation for disability or decreased ability to work, since in such case the future loss accrues successively, in monthly differences of wages before and after the injury. Contrarily, by the overall decrease of viability, causing mental suffering due to impossibility of accomplishing former capabilities (such as the sense of sight, disability of movement, annuity is not a proper form of compensation, since immaterial damage does not emerge periodically, but in a single moment and lasts uninterruptedly.

  17. Economic losses to buildings due to tsunami impact: the case of Rhodes city, Greece

    Science.gov (United States)

    Triantafyllou, Ioanna; Novikova, Tatyana; Papadopoulos, Gerassimos

    2017-04-01

    The expected economic losses to buildings due to the tsunami impact is of particular importance for the tsunami risk management. However, only few efforts can be found in this direction. In this study we approached this issue selecting the city of Rhodes Isl., Greece, as a test-site. The methodological steps followed include (a) selection of worst case scenario in the study area based on the tsunami history of the area which includes several powerful events, e.g. 142 AD, 1303, 1481, 1609, 1741, (b) numerical simulation of the tsunami and determination of the inundation zone, (c) application of the DAMASCHE empirical tool, produced by the SCHEMA EU-FP6 project, for the calculation of the damage level expected at each one of the buildings as a function of the water depth in the inundation area, (d) calculation of the buildings that would need reparation after partial damage and of those that would need reconstruction after total destruction, (e) calculation of the cost implied for both reparation and reconstruction. The several data sets which are needed for the execution of these steps, are susceptible to uncertainties and, therefore, the final results are quite sensitive to changes of the data sets. Alternative costs were calculated by taking into account the several uncertainties involved. This research is a contribution to the EU-FP7 tsunami research project ASTARTE (Assessment, Strategy And Risk Reduction for Tsunamis in Europe), grant agreement no: 603839, 2013-10-30.

  18. Loss of function of NaPiIIa causes nephrocalcinosis and possibly kidney insufficiency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dinour, Dganit; Davidovits, Miriam; Ganon, Liat; Ruminska, Justyna; Forster, Ian C; Hernando, Nati; Eyal, Eran; Holtzman, Eli J; Wagner, Carsten A

    2016-12-01

    Inherited metabolic disorders associated with nephrocalcinosis are rare conditions. The aim of this study was to identify the genetic cause of an Israeli-Arab boy from a consanguineous family with severe nephrocalcinosis and kidney insufficiency. Clinical and biochemical data of the proband and family members were obtained from both previous and recent medical charts. Genomic DNA was isolated from peripheral blood cells. The coding sequence and splice sites of candidate genes (CYP24A1, CYP27B1, FGF23, KLOTHO, SLC34A3 and SLC34A1) were sequenced directly. Functional studies were performed in Xenopus laevis oocytes and in transfected opossum kidney (OK) cells. Our patient was identified as having nephrocalcinosis in utero, and at the age of 16.5 years, he had kidney insufficiency but no bone disease. Genetic analysis revealed a novel homozygous missense mutation, Arg215Gln, in SLC34A1, which encodes the renal sodium phosphate cotransporter NaPiIIa. Functional studies of the Arg215Gln mutant revealed reduced transport activity in Xenopus laevis oocytes and increased intracellular cytoplasmic accumulation in OK cells. Our findings show that dysfunction of the human NaPiIIa causes severe renal calcification that may eventually lead to reduced kidney function, rather than complications of phosphate loss.

  19. Mortality and economic burden of Krasnoyarsk region, Russia, caused by regular tobacco usage

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    Artyukhov IP

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Ivan P Artyukhov,1 Irina L Arshukova,2 Elena A Dobretsova,2 Andrey V Shulmin2 1Department of Health Care Management, 2Department of Public Health and Health Care, Krasnoyarsk State Medical University, Krasnoyarsk, Russia Background: This study assesses mortality and economic burden due to the regular tobacco usage among the population of the Krasnoyarsk region of the Russian Federation. This territory was chosen for the analysis because of two factors: high smoking prevalence in the Krasnoyarsk region (46% among the adult population and premature mortality of the working-age population, which leads to a significant burden to the federal budget of the Russian Federation. Data sources: In our work, three main causes of smoking-related deaths were considered: cardiovascular disease, lung cancer, and COPD. The working-age population was investigated (20–72 years old. The databases of mortality and population size of the territorial body of state statistics of the Krasnoyarsk region (data for 2013 were used as the information sources. Methods: Joint application of population-attributable risk and disability-adjusted life years method allowed us to estimate medico-demographic and economic burden due to the tobacco-attributable premature mortality in the investigated population. Results: We found that tobacco use-related economic burden is at least equal to 2% of the gross regional product of the Krasnoyarsk region in 2013. Conclusion: An assessment of economic tobacco use-related burden is important for determining the volume of necessary funding for development of smoking prevention programs, proper estimation of tobacco companies’ taxation, and other measures for controlling tobacco use. Smoking cessation is a priority for prevention of the tobacco-related diseases and reduction of their burden on local economy. Keywords: lung cancer, COPD, cardiovascular disease, disability-adjusted life years, population-attributable risk, smoking

  20. Climate change may cause severe loss in the economic value European forest land

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hanewinkel, M.; Cullman, D.A.; Schelhaas, M.J.; Nabuurs, G.J.; Zimmerman, N.

    2013-01-01

    European forests, covering more than 2¿million¿km2 or 32% of the land surface1, are to a large extent intensively managed and support an important timber industry. Climate change is expected to strongly affect tree species distribution within these forests2, 3. Climate and land use are undergoing

  1. Economic loss caused by GMOs in Estonia / Irene Kull, Villu Kõve

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Kull, Irene, 1961-

    2008-01-01

    Lepinguvälisest vastutusest, tootja vastutusest, vastutusest suurema ohu allikaga tekitatud kahju eest, geneetiliselt muundatud organismidega tekitatud kahjust, varaline kahjust, mittevaraline kahjust

  2. Exposure to low-dose barium by drinking water causes hearing loss in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ohgami, Nobutaka; Hori, Sohjiro; Ohgami, Kyoko; Tamura, Haruka; Tsuzuki, Toyonori; Ohnuma, Shoko; Kato, Masashi

    2012-10-01

    We continuously ingest barium as a general element by drinking water and foods in our daily life. Exposure to high-dose barium (>100mg/kg/day) has been shown to cause physiological impairments. Direct administration of barium to inner ears by vascular perfusion has been shown to cause physiological impairments in inner ears. However, the toxic influence of oral exposure to low-dose barium on hearing levels has not been clarified in vivo. We analyzed the toxic influence of oral exposure to low-dose barium on hearing levels and inner ears in mice. We orally administered barium at low doses of 0.14 and 1.4 mg/kg/day to wild-type ICR mice by drinking water. The doses are equivalent to and 10-fold higher than the limit level (0.7 mg/l) of WHO health-based guidelines for drinking water, respectively. After 2-week exposure, hearing levels were measured by auditory brain stem responses and inner ears were morphologically analyzed. After 2-month exposure, tissue distribution of barium was measured by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry. Low-dose barium in drinking water caused severe hearing loss in mice. Inner ears including inner and outer hair cells, stria vascularis and spiral ganglion neurons showed severe degeneration. The Barium-administered group showed significantly higher levels of barium in inner ears than those in the control group, while barium levels in bone did not show a significant difference between the two groups. Barium levels in other tissues including the cerebrum, cerebellum, heart, liver and kidney were undetectably low in both groups. Our results demonstrate for the first time that low-dose barium administered by drinking water specifically distributes to inner ears resulting in severe ototoxicity with degeneration of inner ears in mice. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. The perceptions of socially active elderly about disadvantages caused by hearing loss

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Larissa Lautenschlager

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To determine how socially active elderly who complain of auditory difficulty perceive the disadvantages associated with their auditory condition. Methods: A total of 59 socially active elderly were questioned about hearing difficulties. In 2005, they participated in  “Acampavida”, an event organized by Universidade Federal de Santa Maria, to provide senior citizens the opportunity to participate in workshops and lectures, and to socialize. We selected those, who answered that had had some hearing difficulty. They were invited to identify the disadvantages caused by hearing loss and answered the Portuguese version of “The hearing handicap inventory for the elderly – screening version”, comprising ten questions (possible answers: “yes”, “no” and “sometimes”. Rresults: From 59 elderly people interviewed, 32 reported hearing difficulty. Six were male and 26 were female. The age range was 60-88 years. The question that led to more (75% positive answers (“yes” was: “Does a hearing problem cause you difficulty when talking in noisy environments?”. The “no” answer, predominated in the questions “Do you feel that any difficulty with your hearing limits or hampers your personal or social life?” (84.4% and “Does a hearing problem cause you to attend religious services less often than you would like?” (90%. The option “sometimes” was answered in less than 26% of cases. Cconclusions: Although the elderly studied reported some hearing difficulty, they felt such problem did not prevent them from going to church and it did not restrict or interfere in their individual and social lives. Communication in noisy environments was the disadvantage more often reported.

  4. Loss of PTEN causes SHP2 activation, making lung cancer cells unresponsive to IFN-γ

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chen, Chia-Ling [Translational Research Center, Taipei Medical University, Taipei 110, Taiwan (China); Chiang, Tzu-Hui; Tseng, Po-Chun [Institute of Clinical Medicine, College of Medicine, National Cheng Kung University, Tainan 701, Taiwan (China); Wang, Yu-Chih [Department of Microbiology and Immunology, School of Medicine, College of Medicine, Taipei Medical University, Taipei 110, Taiwan (China); Lin, Chiou-Feng, E-mail: cflin2014@tmu.edu.tw [Department of Microbiology and Immunology, School of Medicine, College of Medicine, Taipei Medical University, Taipei 110, Taiwan (China); Graduate Institute of Medical Sciences, College of Medicine, Taipei Medical University, Taipei 110, Taiwan (China)

    2015-10-23

    Src homology-2 domain-containing phosphatase (SHP) 2, an oncogenic phosphatase, inhibits type II immune interferon (IFN)-γ signaling by subverting signal transducers and activators of transcription 1 tyrosine phosphorylation and activation. For cancer immunoediting, this study aimed to investigate the decrease of phosphatase and tensin homolog deleted on chromosome 10 (PTEN), a tumor suppressor protein, leading to cellular impairment of IFN-γ signaling. In comparison with human lung adenocarcinoma A549 cells, the natural PTEN loss in another human lung adenocarcinoma line, PC14PE6/AS2 cells, presents reduced responsiveness in IFN-γ-induced IFN regulatory factor 1 activation and CD54 expression. Artificially silencing PTEN expression in A549 cells also caused cells to be unresponsive to IFN-γ without affecting IFN-γ receptor expression. IFN-γ-induced inhibition of cell proliferation and cytotoxicity were demonstrated in A549 cells but were defective in PC14PE6/AS2 cells and in PTEN-deficient A549 cells. Aberrant activation of SHP2 by ROS was specifically shown in PC14PE6/AS2 cells and PTEN-deficient A549 cells. Inhibiting ROS and SHP2 rescued cellular responses to IFN-γ-induced cytotoxicity and inhibition of cell proliferation in PC14PE6/AS2 cells. These results demonstrate that a decrease in PTEN facilitates ROS/SHP2 signaling, causing lung cancer cells to become unresponsive to IFN-γ. - Highlights: • This study demonstrates that PTEN decrease causes cellular unresponsive to IFN-γ. • Lung cancer cells with PTEN deficiency show unresponsive to IFN-γ signaling. • PTEN decrease inhibits IFN-γ-induced CD54, cell proliferation inhibition, and cytotoxicity. • ROS-mediated SHP2 activation makes PTEN-deficient cells unresponsive to IFN-γ.

  5. Regional economic activity and absenteeism: a new approach to estimating the indirect costs of employee productivity loss.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bankert, Brian; Coberley, Carter; Pope, James E; Wells, Aaron

    2015-02-01

    This paper presents a new approach to estimating the indirect costs of health-related absenteeism. Productivity losses related to employee absenteeism have negative business implications for employers and these losses effectively deprive the business of an expected level of employee labor. The approach herein quantifies absenteeism cost using an output per labor hour-based method and extends employer-level results to the region. This new approach was applied to the employed population of 3 health insurance carriers. The economic cost of absenteeism was estimated to be $6.8 million, $0.8 million, and $0.7 million on average for the 3 employers; regional losses were roughly twice the magnitude of employer-specific losses. The new approach suggests that costs related to absenteeism for high output per labor hour industries exceed similar estimates derived from application of the human capital approach. The materially higher costs under the new approach emphasize the importance of accurately estimating productivity losses.

  6. Kerugian Ekonomi Akibat Penyakit Rabies di Provinsi Nusa Tenggara Timur (ECONOMICAL LOSSES OF RABIES DISEASE IN EAST NUSA TENGGARA PROVINCE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ewaldus Wera

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this paper was to analyze economic impact of rabies in East Nusa Tenggara Province.Data from Health Department of East Nusa Tenggara Province (Period 1998-2007 were applied to a setof link the economics model. Analysis presented in this paper only costs related with PET, Vaccination andelimination of dogs. The total societal cost (PET in human incurred by the disease was about Rp 19.9billion. The cost included transport cost to and from rabies-treatment centers, and loss of income whilereceiving treatment. The cost of vaccination was estimate about Rp 50.000 per dog and about 140.000dogs were vaccinated per year in the area. For this analysis, vaccination costs per dog included relatedcomponents on campaign organization, public awareness efforts, transport and biological and materialcosts. The economic losses due to the culling and vaccination program in dogs wes about Rp 5,3 and Rp 7billion per year, respectively. Total cost for vaccination and elimination of dog from 1998 through 2007 wasabout Rp 122,5 billion or Rp 12,3 billion per year. Total economic lost due to rabies in East Nusa TenggaraProvince during 1998-2007 was approximately 14,2 per year. The economic losses may be reduced byoptimalisation of rabies control in animal reservoir of rabies especially in dogs. The elimination of rabiesin dogs through mass vaccination with minimal coverage 70% of dog population is believed contribute tominimise rabies in human.

  7. Causes of visual acuity loss among patients with AIDS and cytomegalovirus retinitis in the era of highly active antiretroviral therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thorne, Jennifer E; Jabs, Douglas A; Kempen, John H; Holbrook, Janet T; Nichols, Charles; Meinert, Curtis L

    2006-08-01

    To quantitate the frequencies of the common causes of visual acuity loss for patients with AIDS and cytomegalovirus (CMV) retinitis in the era of highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART). Multicenter prospective observational study. Three hundred seventy-nine patients (494 eyes) with CMV retinitis. Follow-up every 3 months with medical history, ophthalmologic examination, and laboratory testing. Loss of visual acuity across the 20/50 or worse and 20/200 or worse thresholds and doubling of the visual angle; frequencies of causes of such vision loss. Overall, involvement of the posterior pole with CMV retinitis (zone 1 retinitis) accounted for approximately one half of incident visual acuity loss of 20/50 or worse, 20/200 or worse, and of doubling of the visual angle. Cataract and retinitis-related retinal detachment were the second and third most common causes of vision loss, accounting for 22% to 33% and 13% to 20% of vision loss for the 3 outcomes, respectively. In subset analysis, cataract and cystoid macular edema (CME) accounted for approximately 50% of incident vision loss in eyes of patients with longstanding CMV retinitis and immune recovery at baseline, but these complications accounted for visual impairment (20/50 or worse vision) and 42% of eyes developing legal blindness (20/200 or worse vision) at 12 months after diagnosis of the retinal detachment. In the HAART era, zone 1 involvement and retinal detachment remain the most common causes of visual acuity loss among patients with CMV retinitis. Cataract and CME also are common causes of loss of visual acuity, primarily in those patients with HAART-induced immune recovery.

  8. [Assessment on the yield loss risk of longan caused by cold damage in South China].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Jun-fang; Yu, Hui-kang

    2016-02-01

    Using daily climate variables gathered from 64 meteorological stations in South China from 1961 to 2012, recognized hazard indicators about disaster grades of cold damage for longan, and methods on agricultural meteorological disasters risk and simulation technology, the yield loss risks of longan caused by cold damage in South China during different developmental periods were assessed. The results showed that during the period of physiologic differentiation of flower bud, the disasters of longan affected by mild cold damage in South China were the most common, followed by severe cold damage and moderate cold damage. The hazards caused by cold damage under different grades varied. In particular, under mild cold damage, light disaster of longan was found in Fujian, followed by Guangdong and Hainan, and Guangxi was serious. Under moderate cold damage, light disaster of longan was found in Hainan, followed by Guangdong and Guangxi, and Fujian was serious. Under severe cold damage, light disaster of longan was found in Hainan, followed by Guangdong and Guangxi, Fujian was serious. During the period of morphologic differentiation of flower bud, the disasters of longan affected by mild cold damage in South China were the most common, followed by severe cold damage and moderate cold damage, while the disasters of longan under mild, moderate and severe cold damages within this period were similar. Specifically, light disasters of longan were all found in Hainan, followed by Guangdong, Guangxi and Fujian. During the period of dormancy, the disaster of longan affected by mild cold damage in South China was the most common, followed by severe cold damage and moderate cold damage. Under mild and severe cold damage, light disaster of longan was found in Fujian, followed by Guangdong and Hainan, and Guangxi was serious. However, under moderate cold damage, light disaster of longan was found in Hainan and Guangxi, followed by Guangdong, and Fujian was serious. At the same level

  9. A spatial-dynamic value transfer model of economic losses from a biological invasion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas P. Holmes; Andrew M. Liebhold; Kent F. Kovacs; Betsy. Von Holle

    2010-01-01

    Rigorous assessments of the economic impacts of introduced species at broad spatial scales are required to provide credible information to policy makers. We propose that economic models of aggregate damages induced by biological invasions need to link microeconomic analyses of site-specific economic damages with spatial-dynamic models of value change associated with...

  10. Neglecting rice milling yield and quality underestimates economic losses from high-temperature stress.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nathaniel B Lyman

    Full Text Available Future increases in global surface temperature threaten those worldwide who depend on rice production for their livelihoods and food security. Past analyses of high-temperature stress on rice production have focused on paddy yield and have failed to account for the detrimental impact of high temperatures on milling quality outcomes, which ultimately determine edible (marketable rice yield and market value. Using genotype specific rice yield and milling quality data on six common rice varieties from Arkansas, USA, combined with on-site, half-hourly and daily temperature observations, we show a nonlinear effect of high-temperature stress exposure on yield and milling quality. A 1 °C increase in average growing season temperature reduces paddy yield by 6.2%, total milled rice yield by 7.1% to 8.0%, head rice yield by 9.0% to 13.8%, and total milling revenue by 8.1% to 11.0%, across genotypes. Our results indicate that failure to account for changes in milling quality leads to understatement of the impacts of high temperatures on rice production outcomes. These dramatic losses result from reduced paddy yield and increased percentages of chalky and broken kernels, which together decrease the quantity and market value of milled rice. Recently published estimates show paddy yield reductions of up to 10% across the major rice-producing regions of South and Southeast Asia due to rising temperatures. The results of our study suggest that the often-cited 10% figure underestimates the economic implications of climate change for rice producers, thus potentially threatening future food security for global rice producers and consumers.

  11. Changes in Rational Economic Behavior Model, Caused By the Development of E-Commerce

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Menzeleev Ilya, A.

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available In the paper the author examines the origins of rationality concept and its transformation within the framework of economic science. According to the author, rationality is a fundamental concept both for philosophy and for economics. Changes in rational economic behavior model significantly effect on informal institutes (in short-term perspective and on formal institutes (in long-term period. In the paper it is said about significant changes taking place with humanity right now. Today it becomes more and more difficult to describe human behavior by uniform concept of rationality. Now people live in a world that is developing unprecedentedly fast, with the usage of incredible amount of information, countless tasks and social contacts. The development of the Internet and IT tools facilitate this process. Already since the midtwentieth century advertising and marketing has been influencing people’s lifestyle like politics or news. Media resources brands today are comparable to the resources of some political parties or even TV channels what means that advertising today is one of the main factors affecting consumers ' minds and their behavioral model, main feature of which is the premise of rationality or justification of actions. The author analyzes the changes of models of rationality over time and, above all, the changes caused by the development of Internet marketing and its tools for monitoring user activity and the impact on decision making in the Network. In conclusion a number of recommendations is given, which can help consumers to save an independence in making decisions in the Internet environment.

  12. SOCIO-ECONOMIC NATURE OF SHADOW ECONOMY AND CAUSES OF ITS DEVELOPMENT IN ENTREPRENEURSHIP

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. Mazur

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The socio-economic nature of the shadow economy is revealed. The shadow economy has both positive and negative signs for the society; the possibility for the population to survive in conditions of economic crisis, reducing transaction costs authors refer to positive signs, and the destructive economic development to negative. The common (prohibitions and restrictions and partial (high tax burden and inefficient system of its administration; numerous bureaucratic procedures; mistrust to the government institutions and the judiciary; corruption in all levels of the governance, etc. causes of the shadow economy in entrepreneurship are disclosed. It is argued that the shadow economy is neither a sector nor a certain part of the legal economy, it can be in any sector of the legal economy closely interlaced with it, and therefore its limits cannot be clearly identified (determine in the formal economy. The shadow economy is not possible to determine especially in the information society. The categories of the shadow economy and its structuring are suggested. It has been researched the historical roots of the shadow economy spread in entrepreneurship, and lie in the shadow of public-private partnership which carries interests of "civil servant-entrepreneurs" and allows to manage state resources and control market. Therefore, the shadow policy creates favorable conditions for the entrepreneurs to work in the shadow. At the same time, access to the shadow entails stricter regulation by the state. It is proved that corruption is a part of the shadow economy, not an independent phenomenon, so they should be research comprehensively and systematically. Instead of overcoming the shadow economy and its component - corruption has been suggested to establish favorable business environment for their unfavorable existence, that is to carry out deshadowing of the economy.

  13. Loss of Paneth Cell Autophagy Causes Acute Susceptibility to Toxoplasma gondii-Mediated Inflammation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burger, Elise; Araujo, Alessandra; López-Yglesias, Américo; Rajala, Michael W; Geng, Linda; Levine, Beth; Hooper, Lora V; Burstein, Ezra; Yarovinsky, Felix

    2018-02-14

    The protozoan parasite Toxoplasma gondii triggers severe small intestinal immunopathology characterized by IFN-γ- and intestinal microbiota-mediated inflammation, Paneth cell loss, and bacterial dysbiosis. Paneth cells are a prominent secretory epithelial cell type that resides at the base of intestinal crypts and releases antimicrobial peptides. We demonstrate that the microbiota triggers basal Paneth cell-specific autophagy via induction of IFN-γ, a known trigger of autophagy, to maintain intestinal homeostasis. Deletion of the autophagy protein Atg5 specifically in Paneth cells results in exaggerated intestinal inflammation characterized by complete destruction of the intestinal crypts resembling that seen in pan-epithelial Atg5-deficient mice. Additionally, lack of functional autophagy in Paneth cells within intestinal organoids and T. gondii-infected mice causes increased sensitivity to the proinflammatory cytokine TNF along with increased intestinal permeability, leading to exaggerated microbiota- and IFN-γ-dependent intestinal immunopathology. Thus, Atg5 expression in Paneth cells is essential for tissue protection against cytokine-mediated immunopathology during acute gastrointestinal infection. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Oxidation of a potassium channel causes progressive sensory function loss during ageing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cai, Shi-Qing; Sesti, Federico

    2009-01-01

    A central question is whether potassium (K+) channels, which are key regulators of neuronal excitability, are targets of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and whether these interactions have a role in the mechanisms underlying neurodegeneration. Here, we show that oxidation of K+ channel KVS-1 during ageing causes sensory function loss in Caenorhabditis elegans, and that protection of this channel from oxidation preserves neuronal function. Chemotaxis, a function controlled by KVS-1, was significantly impaired in worms exposed to oxidizing agents, but only moderately affected in worms harboring an oxidation-resistant KVS-1 mutant (C113S). In ageing C113S transgenic worms, the effects of free radical accumulation were significantly attenuated compared to wild type. Electrophysiological analyses showed that both ROS accumulation during ageing, or acute exposure to oxidizing agents, acted primarily to alter the excitability of the neurons that mediate chemotaxis. Together, these findings establish a pivotal role for ROS-mediated oxidation of voltage-gated K+ channels in sensorial decline during ageing in invertebrates. PMID:19330004

  15. Mutations in the Extracellular Domain Cause RET Loss of Function by a Dominant Negative Mechanism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cosma, Maria Pia; Cardone, Monica; Carlomagno, Francesca; Colantuoni, Vittorio

    1998-01-01

    The RET proto-oncogene encodes a tyrosine kinase receptor expressed in neuroectoderm-derived cells. Mutations in specific regions of the gene are responsible for the tumor syndromes multiple endocrine neoplasia types 2A and 2B (MEN 2A and 2B), while mutations along the entire gene are involved in a developmental disorder of the gastrointestinal tract, Hirschsprung’s disease (HSCR disease). Two mutants in the extracellular domain of RET, one associated with HSCR disease and one carrying a flag epitope, were analyzed to investigate the impact of the mutations on RET function. Both mutants were impeded in their maturation, resulting in the lack of the 170-kDa mature form and the accumulation of the 150-kDa immature form in the endoplasmic reticulum. Although not exposed on the cell surface, the 150-kDa species formed dimers and aggregates; this was more pronounced in a double mutant bearing a MEN 2A mutation. Tyrosine phosphorylation and the transactivation potential were drastically reduced in single and double mutants. Finally, in cotransfection experiments both mutants exerted a dominant negative effect over protoRET and RET2A through the formation of a heteromeric complex that prevents their maturation and function. These results suggest that HSCR mutations in the extracellular region cause RET loss of function through a dominant negative mechanism. PMID:9584172

  16. Loss of Cell Adhesion Causes Hydrocephalus in Nonmuscle Myosin II-B–ablated and Mutated Mice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bao, Jianjun; Adelstein, Robert S.

    2007-01-01

    Ablation of nonmuscle myosin (NM) II-B in mice during embryonic development leads to marked enlargement of the cerebral ventricles and destruction of brain tissue, due to hydrocephalus. We have identified a transient mesh-like structure present at the apical border of cells lining the spinal canal of mice during development. This structure, which only contains the II-B isoform of NM, also contains β-catenin and N-cadherin, consistent with a role in cell adhesion. Ablation of NM II-B or replacement of NM II-B with decreased amounts of a mutant (R709C), motor-impaired NM II-B in mice results in collapse of the mesh-like structure and loss of cell adhesion. This permits the underlying neuroepithelial cells to invade the spinal canal and obstruct cerebral spinal fluid flow. These defects in the CNS of NM II-B–ablated mice seem to be the cause of hydrocephalus. Interestingly, the mesh-like structure and patency of the spinal canal can be restored by increasing expression of the motor-impaired NM II-B, which also rescues hydrocephalus. However, the mutant isoform cannot completely rescue neuronal cell migration. These studies show that the scaffolding properties of NM II-B play an important role in cell adhesion, thereby preventing hydrocephalus during mouse brain development. PMID:17429076

  17. [Analysis of the changes in the causes of blindness and significant vision loss among children and young adults born between 1974 and 2004].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seroczyńska, Małgorzata; Grałek, Mirosława; Kanigowska, Krystyna

    2007-01-01

    Visual impairment develops serious medical, psychological, social and economical problems. Thus, of most importance is improvement in prophylaxis, early diagnosis and treatment. THE AIM of this paper is to define the reasons of blindness and significant loss of vision in children and youths in Poland, and changes in them among children and youths under the age of 24, born between 1974-2004, with classification by age. Included in the study were the records of 2,518 children and youths under the age of 24, associates of the Polski Zwiazek Niewidomych (PZN, Polish Association of the Blind); these were analyzed for the prevalence of each cause of vision loss. There were two groups. The first group were files of 1,504 students and pupils in the institutions for blind and visually impaired children, and the archives of PZN, describing the members who joined it between year 1974 and 1998. The second, comparative group, was based on files of 1,014 children and students, who joined PZN between year 1999 and 2004. Each group was also analysed within different age groups. The most important causes of visual impairment are: optic nerve atrophy, retinopathy of prematurity (ROP), high myopia, congenital cataract and retinal degradations. Changes in them between 1998-2004 introduce a percentage growth of optic nerve atrophy from 21.66% to 25.41% and decrement in vision degrading stages of ROP from 14.14% to 10.71%, in development disorders from 8.09% to 7.10%. There is an alarming growth in congenital toxoplasmosis percentage, from 1.06% to 2.39%, and of congenital cataract, from 3.02% to 4.47%. High myopia among the visually impaired remains at the same level. There is a big growth in the percentage of heavy (bilateral) injuries, which cause significant vision loss. Less often, the cause of serious vision damage are uveitis, secondary glaucoma and toxocariasis. The study conducted between 1998-2004 revealed changes in the causes of blindness and significantly vision loss in

  18. The Prevalence and Causes of Vision Loss in Indigenous and Non-Indigenous Australians: The National Eye Health Survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foreman, Joshua; Xie, Jing; Keel, Stuart; van Wijngaarden, Peter; Sandhu, Sukhpal Singh; Ang, Ghee Soon; Fan Gaskin, Jennifer; Crowston, Jonathan; Bourne, Rupert; Taylor, Hugh R; Dirani, Mohamed

    2017-12-01

    To conduct a nationwide survey on the prevalence and causes of vision loss in Indigenous and non-Indigenous Australians. Nationwide, cross-sectional, population-based survey. Indigenous Australians aged 40 years or older and non-Indigenous Australians aged 50 years and older. Multistage random-cluster sampling was used to select 3098 non-Indigenous Australians and 1738 Indigenous Australians from 30 sites across 5 remoteness strata (response rate of 71.5%). Sociodemographic and health data were collected using an interviewer-administered questionnaire. Trained examiners conducted standardized eye examinations, including visual acuity, perimetry, slit-lamp examination, intraocular pressure, and fundus photography. The prevalence and main causes of bilateral presenting vision loss (visual acuity causes of vision loss. The overall prevalence of vision loss in Australia was 6.6% (95% confidence interval [CI], 5.4-7.8). The prevalence of vision loss was 11.2% (95% CI, 9.5-13.1) in Indigenous Australians and 6.5% (95% CI, 5.3-7.9) in non-Indigenous Australians. Vision loss was 2.8 times more prevalent in Indigenous Australians than in non-Indigenous Australians after age and gender adjustment (17.7%, 95% CI, 14.5-21.0 vs. 6.4%, 95% CI, 5.2-7.6, P causes of vision loss were uncorrected refractive error (61.3%), cataract (13.2%), and age-related macular degeneration (10.3%). In Indigenous Australians, the leading causes of vision loss were uncorrected refractive error (60.8%), cataract (20.1%), and diabetic retinopathy (5.2%). In non-Indigenous Australians, increasing age (odds ratio [OR], 1.72 per decade) and having not had an eye examination within the past year (OR, 1.61) were risk factors for vision loss. Risk factors in Indigenous Australians included older age (OR, 1.61 per decade), remoteness (OR, 2.02), gender (OR, 0.60 for men), and diabetes in combination with never having had an eye examination (OR, 14.47). Vision loss is more prevalent in Indigenous Australians

  19. Productivity loss due to premature mortality caused by blood cancer: a study based on patients undergoing stem cell transplantation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ortega-Ortega, Marta; Oliva-Moreno, Juan; Jiménez-Aguilera, Juan de Dios; Romero-Aguilar, Antonio; Espigado-Tocino, Ildefonso

    2015-01-01

    Stem cell transplantation has been used for many years to treat haematological malignancies that could not be cured by other treatments. Despite this medical breakthrough, mortality rates remain high. Our purpose was to evaluate labour productivity losses associated with premature mortality due to blood cancer in recipients of stem cell transplantations. We collected primary data from the clinical histories of blood cancer patients who had undergone stem cell transplantation between 2006 and 2011 in two Spanish hospitals. We carried out a descriptive analysis and calculated the years of potential life lost and years of potential productive life lost. Labour productivity losses due to premature mortality were estimated using the Human Capital method. An alternative approach, the Friction Cost method, was used as part of the sensitivity analysis. Our findings suggest that, in a population of 179 transplanted and deceased patients, males and people who die between the ages of 30 and 49 years generate higher labour productivity losses. The estimated loss amounts to over €31.4 million using the Human Capital method (€480,152 using the Friction Cost method), which means an average of €185,855 per death. The highest labour productivity losses are produced by leukaemia. However, lymphoma generates the highest loss per death. Further efforts are needed to reduce premature mortality in blood cancer patients undergoing transplantations and reduce economic losses. Copyright © 2014 SESPAS. Published by Elsevier Espana. All rights reserved.

  20. Cold mortality is not caused by oxygen limitation or loss of ion homeostasis in the tropical freshwater shrimp Macrobrachium rosenbergii.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jørgensen, Lisa B; MacMillan, Heath A; Overgaard, Johannes

    2017-06-01

    Using the tropical crustacean Macrobrachium rosenbergii we investigate two popular hypotheses proposed to explain loss of function in ectotherms exposed to critically high and low temperatures. Specifically, we examine whether acute cold stress disrupts hemolymph and muscle ion balance or causes a loss of oxygen availability. We found that acute cold stress causes loss of righting response at 13 °C, but that a cold-induced loss of ion-balance only occurs after onset of mortality. In regards to oxygen availability, we found no decrease in hemolymph oxygen content during cold exposure, and no changes in the concentrations of the anaerobic end products l-lactate and succinate in the tail muscle of the shrimp. Therefore, our results support neither of these two popular hypotheses and it remains unknown what physiological perturbations determine the lower limits of thermal tolerance in Macrobrachium rosenbergii. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Predictive assessment on loss caused by dam break based on GIS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Shengmei; Ning, Jing; Cao, Bo; Li, Bo

    2013-10-01

    The floods due to dam failure usually do great harm to human beings and social economy. The aim of this paper is to apply geographical information system (GIS) technology, and the loss estimation model to estimate the loss of the hypothetical dam break in Lushui reservoir basin. The general predictive loss evaluation scheme of dam-break flood is illustrated. The empirical formula method is used to determine the flood submerged region. The final loss assessment result is mapped out on GIS software. The result shows that the combination of GIS and loss estimation model can make the overall procedure for loss assessment efficient and effective, which could do favor to long-term basin flood control planning and disaster preparedness.

  2. High dietary sodium chloride causes further protein loss during head-down tilt bed rest (HDBR)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buehlmeier, Judith; Frings-Meuthen, Petra; Baecker, Natalie; Stehle, Peter; Heer, Martina

    Human spaceflight is associated with a loss of body protein most likely caused by muscle degradation. Additionally astronauts tend towards a high dietary intake of sodium chloride (NaCl), which has recently been shown to induce low grade metabolic acidosis (Frings-Meuthen et al. JBMR, Epub 2007). In several patterns, e.g. chronical renal failure, metabolic acidosis is associated with protein catabolism. We therefore hypothesized that high dietary intake of NaCl enforces protein losses in HDBR, a model for physiological changes in microgravity (µG). Eight healthy male subjects (mean age 26.25 ± 3.5; mean body weight: 78.5 ± 4.1 kg) participated in a 14-day bed rest study in the metabolic ward of the DLR - Institute of Aerospace Medicine, Cologne, Germany. The study was carried out in a cross over design, consisting of two phases, each lasting 22 days (5 days adaptation, 14 days 6° HDBR and 3 days recovery). Both study phases were identical with respect to environmental conditions and study protocol. Subjects received an individually tailored, weight-maintaining diet containing 1.3 g protein/kg/day. The diet was identical in both study phases with the exception of NaClintake: Every subject received a low NaCl diet (0.7 mmol/kg/day) in one phase and a high NaCl diet (7.7 mmol/kg/day) in another one. Blood gas for analysis of acid-base balance was implemented at days 4 and 5 of adaptation, days 2, 5, 7, 10, 12, 14 of HDBR and days 2, 3 of recovery. Continuous urine collection started on the first day in the metabolic ward to analyze nitrogen excretion. Nitrogen balance was calculated from the difference between protein intake and urinary nitrogen excretion, determined by use of chemiluminescence (Grimble et al. JPEN, 1988). Plasma pH did not change significantly (p=0.285), but plasma bicarbonate and base excess decreased (p=0.0175; p=0.0093) with high NaCl intake in HDBR compared to the low NaCl diet. Nitrogen balance in HDBR was negative, as expected in

  3. A HAND2 Loss-of-Function Mutation Causes Familial Ventricular Septal Defect and Pulmonary Stenosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu-Min Sun

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Congenital heart disease (CHD is the most common developmental abnormality, and is the leading noninfectious cause of mortality in neonates. Increasing evidence demonstrates that genetic defects play an important role in the pathogenesis of CHD. However, CHD exhibits substantial heterogeneity, and the genetic determinants for CHD remain unknown in the overwhelming majority of cases. In the current study, the coding exons and flanking introns of the HAND2 gene, which encodes a basic helix-loop-helix transcription factor essential for normal cardiovascular development, were sequenced in 192 unrelated patients with CHD, and a novel heterozygous mutation, p.S65I, was identified in a patient with congenital ventricular septal defect (VSD. Genetic analysis of the index patient’s pedigree revealed that the mutation was present in all seven affected family members available, but absent in the 13 unaffected family members examined. Besides, in addition to VSD, five of the proband’s close relatives also had pulmonary stenosis (PS, and the proband’s son also had double outlet right ventricle (DORV. The missense mutation, which altered an evolutionarily conserved amino acid, was absent in 300 unrelated, ethnically matched healthy individuals. Biological analyses using a dual-luciferase reporter assay system showed that the mutant HAND2 was associated with significantly diminished transcriptional activity. Furthermore, the mutation abolished the synergistic activation between HAND2 and GATA4, as well as NKX2.5—two other cardiac core transcriptional factors that have been causally linked to CHD. These findings indicate that HAND2 loss-of-function mutation contributes to human CHD, perhaps via its interaction with GATA4 and NKX2.5.

  4. Histopathology of the Human Inner Ear in a Patient With Sensorineural Hearing Loss Caused by a Variant in DFNA5.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nadol, Joseph B; Handzel, Ophir; Amr, Sami

    2015-12-01

    Describe the histopathology of the inner ear in a patient with hearing loss caused by a pathogenic variant of the DFNA5 gene. Variants in DFNA5 have been described as causing an autosomal dominant nonsyndromic sensorineural hearing loss. To date, there has been no description of the histopathology of the inner ear in humans with hearing loss because of pathogenic variants in DFNA5. Temporal bone histopathology by light microscopy, next-generation sequencing (NGS) of DNA obtained from blood, and Sanger sequencing of DNA obtained from formalin fixed temporal bone sections. Both the temporal bone donor and her daughter were shown to have the same pathogenic variant in the DFNA5 gene. The principal histopathologic correlates of the hearing loss were loss of the inner and outer hair cells and severe degeneration of the stria vascularis and spiral ligament throughout the cochlea. In addition, there was severe degeneration of spiral ganglion cells, particularly in the basal turn, and degeneration of vestibular neuroepithelium and neurons. The donor had undergone unilateral cochlear implantation during life. Histopathology demonstrated that the cochlear implant was inserted into the scala vestibuli with considerable new bone formation around the track of the implanted electrode. This is the first report of the histopathology of the inner ear in a patient with hearing loss caused by a pathogenic variant in the DFNA5 gene.

  5. An uncommon cause of progressive visual loss in a heavy smoker ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Loss of vision due to eye metastasis is generally uncommon, representing an ophthalmological diagnostic and therapeutic challenge. We here report a case of a smoker patient finally diagnosed with lung cancer, whose initial symptom was visual loss due to choroidal metastasis. Given that the majority of subjects ...

  6. Causes and pattern of tooth loss in children and adolescents in a ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Tooth loss diminishes the quality of life and is also related to poorer general health. Premature tooth loss in children can have devastating effects such as compromised aesthetics and function, mesial and distal drifts of adjacent teeth leading to crowding and impaction of the permanent successors and other ...

  7. Simulated production losses in reindeer herds caused by accidental death of animals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. J. Petersson

    1992-10-01

    Full Text Available A dynamic age-structured model was used to simulate the consequences on herd production if an extra animal from a particular age class and season was lost. Herd size was adjusted to 1000 animals and a sex ratio of .75/.25 via slaughter in late autumn. Three harvest strategies were applied, ranging from extreme calf to adult harvest. Equilibrium herd structure was disturbed with the loss of an extra animal and the consequences in terms of the number of animals slaughtered and kilogram of carcasses produced were followed over a simulation period of 15 years. The loss of a male corresponded largely to 0.70 to 0.90 times its own carcass weight. Loss of a female decreased herd production by 1.2 to 1.7 times the carcass weight of the lost animal. The highest losses were observed for 4-6 year old females. Loss of a calf reduced herd production by 0.3 to 1.6 times the calf's carcass weight, depending on season of loss and harvest strategy. In general, a loss during winter decreased herd production 10 to 20 percent more than a loss during autumn.

  8. Fiscal loss and program fidelity: impact of the economic downturn on HIV/STI prevention program fidelity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Catania, Joseph A; Dolcini, M Margaret; Gandelman, Alice A; Narayanan, Vasudha; McKay, Virginia R

    2014-03-01

    The economic downturn of 2007 created significant fiscal losses for public and private agencies conducting behavioral prevention. Such macro-economic changes may influence program implementation and sustainability. We examined how public and private agencies conducting RESPECT, a brief HIV/STI (sexually transmitted infection) counseling and testing intervention, adapted to fiscal loss and how these adaptations impacted program fidelity. We collected qualitative and quantitative data in a national sample of 15 agencies experiencing fiscal loss. Using qualitative analyses, we examined how program fidelity varied with different types of adaptations. Agencies reported three levels of adaptation: agency-level, program-level, and direct fiscal remedies. Private agencies tended to use direct fiscal remedies, which were associated with higher fidelity. Some agency-level adaptations contributed to reductions in procedural fit, leading to negative staff morale and decreased confidence in program effectiveness, which in turn, contributed to poor fidelity. Findings describe a "work stress pathway" that links program fiscal losses to poor staff morale and low program fidelity.

  9. Economic impact of clinical mastitis in a dairy herd assessed by stochastic simulation using different methods to model yield losses

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hagnestam-Nielsen, Christel; Østergaard, Søren

    2009-01-01

    reflects the fact that in different stages of lactation, CM gives rise to different yield-loss patterns or postulates just one type of yield-loss pattern irrespective of when, during lactation, CM occurs. A dynamic and stochastic simulation model, SimHerd, was used to study the effects of CM in a herd...... with 150 cows (9000 kg of energy-corrected milk per cow-year). Four herd types, defined by production level and reproductive performance, were modelled to investigate possible interactions between herd type and response to a reduction in the risk of CM. Technical and economic results, given the initial...... incidence of CM (25.6 per 100 cow-years), were studied together with the consequences of reducing the initial risk of CM by 50% and 90% throughout lactation and the consequences of reducing the initial risk by 50% and 90% before peak yield. A conventional way of modelling yield losses - i.e. one employing...

  10. GABAergic neuron-specific loss of Ube3a causes Angelman syndrome-like EEG abnormalities and enhances seizure susceptibility

    Science.gov (United States)

    Judson, Matthew C.; Wallace, Michael L.; Sidorov, Michael S.; Burette, Alain C.; Gu, Bin; van Woerden, Geeske M.; King, Ian F.; Han, Ji Eun; Zylka, Mark J.; Elgersma, Ype; Weinberg, Richard J.; Philpot, Benjamin D.

    2016-01-01

    SUMMARY Loss of maternal UBE3A causes Angelman syndrome (AS), a neurodevelopmental disorder associated with severe epilepsy. We previously implicated GABAergic deficits onto layer (L) 2/3 pyramidal neurons in the pathogenesis of neocortical hyperexcitability, and perhaps epilepsy, in AS model mice. Here we investigate consequences of selective Ube3a loss from either GABAergic or glutamatergic neurons, focusing on the development of hyperexcitability within L2/3 neocortex and in broader circuit and behavioral contexts. We find that GABAergic Ube3a loss causes AS-like increases in neocortical EEG delta power, enhances seizure susceptibility, and leads to presynaptic accumulation of clathrin-coated vesicles (CCVs) – all without decreasing GABAergic inhibition onto L2/3 pyramidal neurons. Conversely, glutamatergic Ube3a loss fails to yield EEG abnormalities, seizures, or associated CCV phenotypes, despite impairing tonic inhibition onto L2/3 pyramidal neurons. These results substantiate GABAergic Ube3a loss as the principal cause of circuit hyperexcitability in AS mice, lending insight into ictogenic mechanisms in AS. PMID:27021170

  11. A mutation in synaptojanin 2 causes progressive hearing loss in the ENU-mutagenised mouse strain Mozart.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shehnaaz S M Manji

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Hearing impairment is the most common sensory impairment in humans, affecting 1:1,000 births. We have identified an ENU generated mouse mutant, Mozart, with recessively inherited, non-syndromic progressive hearing loss caused by a mutation in the synaptojanin 2 (Synj2, a central regulatory enzyme in the phosphoinositide-signaling cascade.The hearing loss in Mozart is caused by a p.Asn538Lys mutation in the catalytic domain of the inositol polyphosphate 5-phosphatase synaptojanin 2. Within the cochlea, Synj2 mRNA expression was detected in the inner and outer hair cells but not in the spiral ganglion. Synj2(N538K mutant protein showed loss of lipid phosphatase activity, and was unable to degrade phosphoinositide signaling molecules. Mutant Mozart mice (Synj2(N538K/N538K exhibited progressive hearing loss and showed signs of hair cell degeneration as early as two weeks of age, with fusion of stereocilia followed by complete loss of hair bundles and ultimately loss of hair cells. No changes in vestibular or neurological function, or other clinical or behavioral manifestations were apparent.Phosphoinositides are membrane associated signaling molecules that regulate many cellular processes including cell death, proliferation, actin polymerization and ion channel activity. These results reveal Synj2 as a critical regulator of hair cell survival that is essential for hair cell maintenance and hearing function.

  12. A mutation in synaptojanin 2 causes progressive hearing loss in the ENU-mutagenised mouse strain Mozart.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manji, Shehnaaz S M; Williams, Louise H; Miller, Kerry A; Ooms, Lisa M; Bahlo, Melanie; Mitchell, Christina A; Dahl, Hans-Henrik M

    2011-03-15

    Hearing impairment is the most common sensory impairment in humans, affecting 1:1,000 births. We have identified an ENU generated mouse mutant, Mozart, with recessively inherited, non-syndromic progressive hearing loss caused by a mutation in the synaptojanin 2 (Synj2), a central regulatory enzyme in the phosphoinositide-signaling cascade. The hearing loss in Mozart is caused by a p.Asn538Lys mutation in the catalytic domain of the inositol polyphosphate 5-phosphatase synaptojanin 2. Within the cochlea, Synj2 mRNA expression was detected in the inner and outer hair cells but not in the spiral ganglion. Synj2(N538K) mutant protein showed loss of lipid phosphatase activity, and was unable to degrade phosphoinositide signaling molecules. Mutant Mozart mice (Synj2(N538K/N538K)) exhibited progressive hearing loss and showed signs of hair cell degeneration as early as two weeks of age, with fusion of stereocilia followed by complete loss of hair bundles and ultimately loss of hair cells. No changes in vestibular or neurological function, or other clinical or behavioral manifestations were apparent. Phosphoinositides are membrane associated signaling molecules that regulate many cellular processes including cell death, proliferation, actin polymerization and ion channel activity. These results reveal Synj2 as a critical regulator of hair cell survival that is essential for hair cell maintenance and hearing function.

  13. NLRP3 mutation and cochlear autoinflammation cause syndromic and nonsyndromic hearing loss DFNA34 responsive to anakinra therapy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakanishi, Hiroshi; Kawashima, Yoshiyuki; Kurima, Kiyoto; Chae, Jae Jin; Ross, Astin M.; Pinto-Patarroyo, Gineth; Patel, Seema K.; Muskett, Julie A.; Ratay, Jessica S.; Chattaraj, Parna; Park, Yong Hwan; Grevich, Sriharsha; Brewer, Carmen C.; Hoa, Michael; Kim, H. Jeffrey; Broderick, Lori; Hoffman, Hal M.; Aksentijevich, Ivona; Kastner, Daniel L.; Goldbach-Mansky, Raphaela; Griffith, Andrew J.

    2017-01-01

    The NLRP3 inflammasome is an intracellular innate immune sensor that is expressed in immune cells, including monocytes and macrophages. Activation of the NLRP3 inflammasome leads to IL-1β secretion. Gain-of-function mutations of NLRP3 result in abnormal activation of the NLRP3 inflammasome, and cause the autosomal dominant systemic autoinflammatory disease spectrum, termed cryopyrin-associated periodic syndromes (CAPS). Here, we show that a missense mutation, p.Arg918Gln (c.2753G > A), of NLRP3 causes autosomal-dominant sensorineural hearing loss in two unrelated families. In family LMG446, hearing loss is accompanied by autoinflammatory signs and symptoms without serologic evidence of inflammation as part of an atypical CAPS phenotype and was reversed or improved by IL-1β blockade therapy. In family LMG113, hearing loss segregates without any other target-organ manifestations of CAPS. This observation led us to explore the possibility that resident macrophage/monocyte-like cells in the cochlea can mediate local autoinflammation via activation of the NLRP3 inflammasome. The NLRP3 inflammasome can indeed be activated in resident macrophage/monocyte-like cells in the mouse cochlea, resulting in secretion of IL-1β. This pathway could underlie treatable sensorineural hearing loss in DFNA34, CAPS, and possibly in a wide variety of hearing-loss disorders, such as sudden sensorineural hearing loss and Meniere’s disease that are elicited by pathogens and processes that stimulate innate immune responses within the cochlea. PMID:28847925

  14. The effect of stressed economic conditions on operational risk loss distributions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ja'nel Esterhuysen

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available The depth and duration of the credit crisis has highlighted a number of problems in modern finance. Banks have been accused of excessive risk taking, rating agencies of severe conflicts of interest, central banks of neglecting the inflation of asset price bubbles and national supervisors of lax regulatory controls. Credit and market losses have been considerable. Operational losses have also surged as surviving corporates merge or acquire less fortunate ones without the requisite controls. Furthermore, as more jobs get made redundant it is believed that people are getting forced to play their hand to get involved in internal fraud as their sources of income has dried up drastically and stealing from the institution seems to be their last resort.. The main objective of this paper is to establish if there has been a changed in the nature of operational risk with regards to the number of operational losses as well as their impact pre and during the crisis. The way in which operational losses have been affected will be presented and a comparison will be made between operational loss characteristics pre and during the crisis. Some of the main findings of this paper were that operational losses shown little change in frequency, but shown a significant increase in severity, meaning that their financial impact has been more severe during the crisis.  Therefore it is quite safe to say that the financial crisis most defiantly had an impact on operational risk as the impact of operational losses became much more severe

  15. GABAergic Neuron-Specific Loss of Ube3a Causes Angelman Syndrome-Like EEG Abnormalities and Enhances Seizure Susceptibility

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    M.C. Judson (Matthew C.); Wallace, M.L. (Michael L.); Sidorov, M.S. (Michael S.); Burette, A.C. (Alain C.); Gu, B. (Bin); G.M. van Woerden (Geeske); King, I.F. (Ian F.); Han, J.E. (Ji Eun); Zylka, M.J. (Mark J.); Y. Elgersma (Ype); Weinberg, R.J. (Richard J.); B.D. Philpot (Benjamin D.)

    2016-01-01

    textabstractLoss of maternal UBE3A causes Angelman syndrome (AS), a neurodevelopmental disorder associated with severe epilepsy. We previously implicated GABAergic deficits onto layer (L) 2/3 pyramidal neurons in the pathogenesis of neocortical hyperexcitability, and perhaps epilepsy, in AS model

  16. Acute Hearing Loss Caused by Decreasing Anterior Inferior Cerebellar Arterial Perfusion in a Patient with Vertebral Artery Stenosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fukuda, Rintaro; Miyamoto, Nobukazu; Hayashida, Arisa; Ueno, Yuji; Yamashiro, Kazuo; Tanaka, Ryota; Hattori, Nobutaka

    2017-06-01

    We report a case of bilateral hearing loss caused by decreased vascular flow in the anterior inferior cerebellar artery (AICA) territory. A 74-year-old man who experienced right hearing loss 5 months ago presented with bilateral deafness and right cerebellar ataxia; however, no ischemic lesion was detected in the bilateral AICA area. After stroke treatment, hearing loss was improved. One month later, we obtained blood flow improvement in the left AICA territory on single-photon-emission computed tomography and vertebral artery stenosis on magnetic resonance angiography. Therefore, clinicians should recognize that bilateral hearing loss may be related to stroke in the vertebrobasilar artery area. Copyright © 2017 National Stroke Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. The correlation between visual acuity and color vision as an indicator of the cause of visual loss.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Almog, Yehoshua; Nemet, Arie

    2010-06-01

    To explore the correlation between visual acuity (VA) and color vision and to establish a guide for the diagnosis of the cause of visual loss based on this correlation. Retrospective comparative evaluation of a diagnostic test. A total of 259 patients with visual impairment caused by 1 of 4 possible disease categories were included. Patients were divided into 4 groups according to the etiology of visual loss: 1) optic neuropathies, 2) macular diseases, 3) media opacities, and 4) amblyopia. The best-corrected VA was established and a standard Ishihara 15 color plates was tested and correlated to the VA in every group separately. Correlation between the VA and the color vision along the different etiologies was evaluated. Frequency of each combination of color vision and VA in every disease category was established. VA is correlated with color vision in all 4 disease categories. For the same degree of VA loss, patients with optic neuropathy are most likely and patients with amblyopia are the least expected to have a significant color vision loss. Patients with optic neuropathy had considerably worse average color vision (6.7/15) compared to patients in the other 3 disease categories: 11.1/15 (macular diseases), 13.2/15 (media opacities), and 13.4/15 (amblyopia). Diseases of the optic nerve affect color vision earlier and more profoundly than other diseases. When the cause of visual loss is uncertain, the correlation between the severity of color vision and VA loss can imply the possible etiology of the visual loss. Copyright 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Follicle activation is a significant and immediate cause of follicle loss after ovarian tissue transplantation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gavish, Zohar; Spector, Itay; Peer, Gil; Schlatt, Stefan; Wistuba, Joachim; Roness, Hadassa; Meirow, Dror

    2017-11-03

    Extensive follicle loss has been demonstrated in ovarian grafts post transplantation, reducing their productivity and lifespan. Several mechanisms for this loss have been proposed, and this study aims to clarify when and how the massive follicle loss associated with transplantation of ovarian tissue graft occurs. An understanding of the mechanisms of follicle loss will pinpoint potential new targets for optimization and improvement of this important fertility preservation technique. Frozen-thawed marmoset (n = 15), bovine (n = 37), and human (n = 46) ovarian cortical tissue strips were transplanted subcutaneously into immunodeficient castrated male mice for 3 or 7 days. Histological (H&E, Masson's trichrome) analysis and immunostaining (Ki-67, GDF9, cleaved caspase-3) were conducted to assess transplantation-associated follicle dynamics, with untransplanted frozen-thawed tissue serving as a negative control. Evidence of extensive primordial follicle (PMF) activation and loss was observed already 3 days post transplantation in marmoset, bovine, and human tissue grafts, compared to frozen-thawed untransplanted controls (p < 0.001). No significant additional PMF loss was observed 7 days post transplantation. Recovered grafts of all species showed markedly higher rates of proliferative activity and progression from dormant to growing follicles (Ki-67 and GDF9 staining) as well as higher growing/primordial (GF/PMF) ratio (p < 0.02) and higher collagen levels compared with untransplanted controls. This multi-species study demonstrates that follicle activation plays an important role in transplantation-induced follicle loss, and that it occurs within a very short time frame after grafting. These results underline the need to prevent this activation at the time of transplantation in order to retain the maximal possible follicle reserve and extend graft lifespan.

  19. Increasing losses caused by natural disasters: what are the drivers, how is the insurance industry affected, what has to be done?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoppe, P.

    2016-12-01

    Losses caused by natural disasters are a major factor influencing the balance sheet of insurers, especially reinsurers. Such events have a high potential of creating extreme accumulation losses by affecting different business lines at the same time. The basis for long term profitable business in the insurance industry is to be able to calculate and also get risk adequate premiums for the covers of natural perils. Risk adequate means that on average over several years the losses occurring can be paid by the premium income. Losses caused by natural disasters have increased tremendously worldwide in the last decades. The main drivers have been changes in the exposed values, i.e. growth of population and wealth in affected regions. For the insurance industry this loss increasing process in general is not a problem as the premiums normally are proportional to the sum insured, i.e. the exposed value. These factors can be quantified and the loss trends can be adjusted for these changes. Munich Re just recently has developed a very sophisticated method for such a normalisation of losses. After this normalization in respect to exposed values a still residual loss trend can be either driven by changes in the vulnerability of assets or on the hazard side. Trends in both factors are not automatically considered in the premiums, they have to be detected, quantified and then built into the risk models of the insurers. Many studies as well as data from the Munich Re NatCatSERVICE suggest that weather related hazards already have changed for some perils and in some regions. Climate research implies that due to global warming such trends will increase in the coming decades. Very little quantitative data, however, on such changes still is available to allow the adjustment of the risk models of insurers. In order to do this, data with high regional resolution and also probabilities of certain scenarios would be necessary. The other gap of information is quantitative data on changes

  20. Progressive loss of vision caused by asymptomatic pituitary macroadenoma: role of OCT.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asensio-Sánchez, Víctor Manuel; Foncubierta, Javier

    2016-01-01

    Most pituitary adenomas are clinically inactive. In patients with long-standing compression of the optic chiasm, ganglion cells may undergo axonal degeneration. Spectral domain optical coherence tomography (SD-OCT) is able to identify retinal nerve fiber layer (RNFL) and ganglion cell loss in the retina. We present a case in which SD-OCT was used to diagnose an asymptomatic pituitary macroadenoma. A 48-year-old female presented with progressive vision loss in both eyes. SD-OCT identified atrophy of the ganglion cell and nerve layers, with preservation of outer layers bilaterally. Magnetic resonance imaging of the brain showed a pituitary macroadenoma. The pathological diagnosis was nonfunctioning adenoma. As macroadenomas enlarge, they can induce uncrossed axon loss, resulting in nasal field defects and reduced visual acuity. In these cases, there is atrophy of the nasal and temporal portions of the optic disc, thus occupying a horizontal band across the disc. SD-OCT is able to identify RNFL loss in eyes with band atrophy of the optic nerve, which correlates with visual field defects found in perimetry. SD-OCT is a useful tool to assess the structural and functional damage of ganglion cells. In our case the SD-OCT demonstrated a symmetrical loss of the RNFL and the ganglion cell layer in both eyes, indicating important optic nerve damage.

  1. Macrophage Migration Inhibitory Factor Deficiency Causes Prolonged Hearing Loss After Acoustic Overstimulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kariya, Shin; Okano, Mitsuhiro; Maeda, Yukihide; Hirai, Haruka; Higaki, Takaya; Noyama, Yasuyuki; Haruna, Takenori; Nishihira, Jun; Nishizaki, Kazunori

    2015-07-01

    Macrophage migration inhibitory factor plays an important role in noise-induced hearing loss. Macrophage migration inhibitory factor is an essential factor in axis formation and neural development. Macrophage migration inhibitory factor is expressed in the inner ear, but its function remains to be elucidated. Macrophage migration inhibitory factor-deficient mice (MIF(-/-) mice) were used in this study. Wild-type and MIF(-/-) mice received noise exposure composed of octave band noise. Auditory brainstem response thresholds were examined before (control) and at 0, 12, and 24 hours and 2 weeks after the intense noise exposure. Morphological findings of cochlear hair cells were investigated using scanning electron microscopy. Histopathological examination with hematoxylin and eosin staining and TUNEL assay were also performed. In both the wild-type and MIF(-/-) mice, acoustic overstimulation induced significant hearing loss compared with the control level. Two weeks after the intense noise exposure, the MIF(-/-) mice had an increased hearing threshold compared with the wild-type mice. Scanning electron microscopy demonstrated that the outer hair cells in the MIF(-/-) mice were affected 2 weeks after noise exposure compared with the wild-type mice. TUNEL-positive cells were identified in the organ of Corti of the MIF(-/-) mice. The MIF(-/-) mice had prolonged hearing loss and significant loss of cochlear hair cells after intense noise exposure. Macrophage migration inhibitory factor may play an important role in recovery from acoustic trauma. Management of macrophage migration inhibitory factor may be a novel therapeutic option for noise-induced hearing loss.

  2. Trends and causes of historical wetland loss, Sabine National Wildlife Refuge, southwest Louisiana

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bernier, Julie C.; Morton, Robert A.; Kelso, Kyle W.

    2011-01-01

    Prior U.S. Geological Survey studies (Open-File Reports 2005-1216 and 2009-1158) examined historical land- and water-area changes and estimated magnitudes of land subsidence and erosion at 10 wetland sites in the Mississippi River delta plain. The present study extends that work by analyzing interior wetland loss and relative magnitudes of subsidence and erosion at five additional wetland sites in Sabine National Wildlife Refuge (SNWR) in the western chenier plain. The study sites were selected because their geologic setting differed from that of the delta plain; also, although the refuge marshes had been managed partly to minimize wetland loss, interior wetland losses there were extensive. Historical aerial photography, datum-corrected marsh elevations and water depths, and sediment cores were integrated to evaluate historical land- and water-area changes at SNWR.

  3. Estimating economic losses to tourism in Africa from the illegal killing of elephants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naidoo, Robin; Fisher, Brendan; Manica, Andrea; Balmford, Andrew

    2016-11-01

    Recent surveys suggest tens of thousands of elephants are being poached annually across Africa, putting the two species at risk across much of their range. Although the financial motivations for ivory poaching are clear, the economic benefits of elephant conservation are poorly understood. We use Bayesian statistical modelling of tourist visits to protected areas, to quantify the lost economic benefits that poached elephants would have delivered to African countries via tourism. Our results show these figures are substantial (~USD $25 million annually), and that the lost benefits exceed the anti-poaching costs necessary to stop elephant declines across the continent's savannah areas, although not currently in the forests of central Africa. Furthermore, elephant conservation in savannah protected areas has net positive economic returns comparable to investments in sectors such as education and infrastructure. Even from a tourism perspective alone, increased elephant conservation is therefore a wise investment by governments in these regions.

  4. Dengue hemorrhagic fever: A rare cause of pituitary tumor hemorrhage and reversible vision loss

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vimal Kumar

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Dengue hemorrhagic fever leading to hemorrhage in pituitary adenoma is not reported till date: We herein report the first case of bilateral visual loss secondary to pituitary adenoma hemorrhage associated with dengue hemorrhagic fever. Urgent transnasal trans sphenoidal decompression of the macroadenoma prevented permanent visual loss in this patient. Pituitary apoplexy should be considered as differential diagnosis of visual deterioration apart from retinal hemorrhage, maculopathy, and optic neuropathy in cases of dengue hemorrhagic fever. Early decompression of optic nerves helped in the restoration of vision.

  5. Sporadic Endolymphatic Sac Tumor-A Very Rare Cause of Hearing Loss, Tinnitus, and Dizziness

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schnack, Didde Trærup; Kiss, Katalin; Hansen, Søren

    2017-01-01

    Sporadic endolymphatic sac tumor is a very rare neoplasm. It is low malignant, locally destructive and expansive, but non-metastasizing. The tumor is very rare in the sporadic form, but more often associated with Von Hippel-Lindau disease. A 65-year old man with left sided tinnitus and hearing loss......-operative freeze-microscopy showed inflammation tissue, whereas subsequent microscopy showed papillary-cystic endolymphatic sac tumor. Endolymphatic sac tumor is a rare neoplasm. The tumor may present with asymmetrically sensory neural hearing loss with or without tinnitus, dizziness and facial nerve paresis...

  6. A Review of Socio-Economic Consequences, Losses and Human Casualties of the 1977 Vrancea, Romania Earthquake

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emil-Sever GEORGESCU

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Although its socio-economic disaster pattern was obvious, the March 4, 1977 Vrancea, Romania earthquake was studied mainly in seismological and earthquake engineering terms. In 1977, the loss data released in Romania, referred to 32,900 collapsed or heavily damaged dwellings, 35,000 homeless families, thousands of damaged buildings, many other damages and destructions in industry and economy, 1,578 people killed, 11,321 people injured (with 90% of the killed and 67% of the injured being in the city of Bucharest. The Romanian government reported the economic losses from this event in December 1977, as being US$ 2 billion. For a long time, the evaluation of human casualties vs. collapse pattern of buildings in 1977 was not addressed and we still miss integral data. The recovery and reevaluation of economic and social impacts of the 1977 disaster was a concern of the authors, with the intent to better understand its consequences and prepare a new strategy of seismic risk reduction in view of future earthquakes in Romania, and in order to fill that gap the authors recovered many unpublished and obscure data.

  7. Causes of Quality Loss of Cut Flowers - A Critical Analysis of Post-Harvest Treatments

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Meeteren, van U.

    2009-01-01

    Temperature is one of the most important factors in the postharvest phase to control quality losses, yet temperature is still poorly managed, partly because its effects are not always understood well. Temperature affects both physiological (development and senescence of flowers, wound responses at

  8. Java project on periodontal diseases: causes of tooth loss in a cohort of untreated individuals

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Velden, U.; Amaliya, A.; Loos, B.G.; Timmerman, M.F.; van der Weijden, F.A.; Winkel, E.G.; Abbas, F.

    2015-01-01

    Objective To assess the relative contribution of caries and periodontal disease to tooth loss over 24 years in a cohort deprived of regular dental care. Material & Methods The study population consisted of 98 subjects from a tea estate on West Java, Indonesia, that had been part of a prospective

  9. Java project on periodontal diseases : causes of tooth loss in a cohort of untreated individuals

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Velden, Ubele; Amaliya, Amaliya; Loos, Bruno G.; Timmerman, Mark F.; van der Weijden, Fridus A.; Winkel, Edwin G.; Abbas, Frank

    ObjectiveTo assess the relative contribution of caries and periodontal disease to tooth loss over 24years in a cohort deprived of regular dental care. Material & MethodsThe study population consisted of 98 subjects from a tea estate on West Java, Indonesia, that had been part of a prospective

  10. Weight Loss After Laparoscopic Adjustable Gastric Banding is not Caused by Altered Gastric Emptying

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Jong, J. R.; van Ramshorst, B.; Gooszen, H. G.; Smout, A. J. P. M.; Buul, M. M. C. Tiel-Van

    In order to know the role of gastric emptying in the mechanism of weight loss and early satiety after a restrictive surgical procedure for treatment of morbid obesity, a consecutive series of patients were scintigraphically investigated before and after laparoscopic adjustable gastric banding.

  11. Technical and Economical Evaluations of Canola Harvesting Losses in Different Maturity Stages Using Three Different Combine Harverster Heads

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J Taghinazhad

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Rapeseed cultivation in Iran is growing rapidly while this product has been facing specific problems. Every year a significant portion of edible oil is imported to the country from other countries. Despite this deficit, a great amount of canola is being lost every year. Therefore, in compliance with technical points, adding a suitable platform to the exisiting machineries may reduce the losses. A field study was conducted in Moghan Agricultural Research Centre to study the technical and economical characteristics of harvesting machineries and evaluate Canola harvesting losses in different maturity stages, using three different combine harvester heads. The experiments were conducted in a completely randomized\tsplit split plot design with four replications. The main plot included seed maturity stage at three levels: A 60%, B 70% and C 80%, and the subplot was the harvester’s ground speed at three levels: A 1.5, B 2.5 and C 3.5 km h-1. The sub-subplot was combine head type with three forms: A Mechanical, B Hydraulically Joybar and C Hydraulically Biso's Head. The results of ANOVA showed that maximum cutter bar losses occurred with Mechanical Head (5.36% while the loss of Hydraulically Joybar's and Biso's head were 4.28 and 4.13 %, respectively. The results also showed that the maximum cutter bar losses occurred when 80% of seeds were matured and adequate time for canola harvesting was 70% of seeds maturity. The results of analysing the effects of harvesting ground speeds showed that the maximum cutter bar losses occurred with the speed of 3.5 km h-1. Finally, the results showed that the minimum cutter bar loss was obtained with Hydraulically Joybar's head considering the benefit per cost ratio. The cost for Mechanical head and Hydraulically Biso's head were 13500 and 262500 Rial ha-1, respectively.

  12. Progressive loss of vision caused by asymptomatic pituitary macroadenoma: role of OCT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Asensio-Sánchez VM

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Víctor Manuel Asensio-Sánchez, Javier Foncubierta Ophthalmology Department, Clinical University Hospital of Valladolid, Valladolid, Spain Introduction: Most pituitary adenomas are clinically inactive. In patients with long-standing compression of the optic chiasm, ganglion cells may undergo axonal degeneration. Spectral domain optical coherence tomography (SD-OCT is able to identify retinal nerve fiber layer (RNFL and ganglion cell loss in the retina. We present a case in which SD-OCT was used to diagnose an asymptomatic pituitary macroadenoma.Clinical case: A 48-year-old female presented with progressive vision loss in both eyes. SD-OCT identified atrophy of the ganglion cell and nerve layers, with preservation of outer layers bilaterally. Magnetic resonance imaging of the brain showed a pituitary macroadenoma. The pathological diagnosis was nonfunctioning adenoma.Discussion: As macroadenomas enlarge, they can induce uncrossed axon loss, resulting in nasal field defects and reduced visual acuity. In these cases, there is atrophy of the nasal and temporal portions of the optic disc, thus occupying a horizontal band across the disc. SD-OCT is able to identify RNFL loss in eyes with band atrophy of the optic nerve, which correlates with visual field defects found in perimetry. SD-OCT is a useful tool to assess the structural and functional damage of ganglion cells. In our case the SD-OCT demonstrated a symmetrical loss of the RNFL and the ganglion cell layer in both eyes, indicating important optic nerve damage. Keywords: OCT, pituitary, adenoma, RNFL, ganglion cell layer

  13. The Causes of Poverty: Thinking Critically about a Key Economic Issue

    Science.gov (United States)

    Otlin, Josh

    2008-01-01

    Economics is a central part of civic education. Students need to know about the Constitution and the party system, but active citizenship in the twenty-first century requires much more than the standard civics courses offer. Economic issues dominate public policy debates ranging from Social Security to immigration to international security. If…

  14. No association between loss-of-function mutations in filaggrin and diabetes, cardiovascular disease, and all-cause mortality.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lise Lotte N Husemoen

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Common loss-of-function mutations in the filaggrin gene (FLG are a major predisposing risk factor for atopic disease due to reduced epidermal filaggrin protein levels. We previously observed an association between these mutations and type 2 diabetes and hypothesized that an inherited impairment of skin barrier functions could facilitate low-grade inflammation and hence increase the risk of diabetes and cardiovascular disease. We examined the association between loss-of-function mutations in FLG and diabetes, stroke, ischemic heart disease (IHD, and all-cause mortality in the general population. METHODS: The R501X and 2282del4 loss-of function mutations in FLG were genotyped in four Danish study populations including a total of 13373 adults aged 15-77 years. Two of the studies also genotyped the R2447X mutation. By linkage to Danish national central registers we obtained information for all participants on dates of diagnoses of diabetes, stroke, and IHD, as well as all-cause mortality. Data were analyzed by Cox proportional hazard models and combined by fixed effect meta-analyses. RESULTS: In meta-analyses combining the results from the four individual studies, carriage of loss-of-function mutations in FLG was not associated with incident diabetes (hazard ratio (HR (95% confidence intervals (CI = 0.95 (0.73, 1.23, stroke (HR (95% CI = 1.27 (0.97, 1.65, ischemic heart disease (HR (95%CI = 0.92 (0.71, 1.19, and all-cause mortality (HR (95%CI = 1.02 (0.83, 1.25. Similar results were obtained when including prevalent cases in logistic regression models. CONCLUSION: Our results suggest that loss-of-function mutations in FLG are not associated with type 2 diabetes, cardiovascular disease, and all-cause mortality. However, larger studies with longer follow-up are needed to exclude any associations.

  15. Welfare economic asessments of nitrogen losses from agriculture to river basins and other water bodies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hasler, Berit; Jacobsen, Brian H.; Jensen, Jørgen Dejgård

    2005-01-01

    The welfare economic consequences of reductions in nitrogen loading to the aquatic environment in Denmark are analysed with the purpose of assessing the cost-effectiveness of different abatement measures and instruments. The analyses cover a broad range of instruments and measures. These include:...

  16. Parasitic weed incidence and related economic losses in rice in Africa

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rodenburg, Jonne; Demont, Matty; Zwart, Sander J.; Bastiaans, Lammert

    2016-01-01

    Parasitic weeds pose increasing threats to rain-fed rice production in Africa. Most important species are Striga asiatica, S. aspera and S. hermonthica in rain-fed uplands, and Rhamphicarpa fistulosa in rain-fed lowlands. Information on the regional spread and economic importance of parasitic weeds

  17. Culture loss and sense of place in resource valuation: Economics, anthropology and indigenous cultures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robert Snyder; Daniel R. Williams; George Peterson

    2003-01-01

    The Exxon-Valdez oil tanker ran aground on Bligh Reef outside the Valdez Arm of Prince William Sound, Alaska on March 24th 1989. Aside from attracting enormous media attention, this disaster focused a great deal of research and analysis on the ecological (Brown et al. 1993), political (Piper 1997), economic (Cohen 1993), and social (Jorgensen 1995; Gill and Picou 1997...

  18. How Arizona's Dropout Crisis Affects Communities, Creates Economic Losses for the State of Arizona

    Science.gov (United States)

    WestEd, 2014

    2014-01-01

    One-in-five of Arizona's youth did not complete high school and a similarly large proportion of the state's youth is disconnected from either work or education. These youth face higher risks of unemployment and economic insecurity and are more reliant on government supports. This situation, which fails to ensure that the state's youth are…

  19. No Association between Loss-of-Function Mutations in filaggrin and Diabetes, Cardiovascular Disease, and All-Cause Mortality

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Husemoen, Lise Lotte N; Skaaby, Tea; Jørgensen, Torben

    2013-01-01

    of skin barrier functions could facilitate low-grade inflammation and hence increase the risk of diabetes and cardiovascular disease. We examined the association between loss-of-function mutations in FLG and diabetes, stroke, ischemic heart disease (IHD), and all-cause mortality in the general population.......Common loss-of-function mutations in the filaggrin gene (FLG) are a major predisposing risk factor for atopic disease due to reduced epidermal filaggrin protein levels. We previously observed an association between these mutations and type 2 diabetes and hypothesized that an inherited impairment...

  20. Economic losses from US hurricanes consistent with an influence from climate change

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Estrada Porrua, F.; Botzen, W.J.W.; Tol, R.S.J.

    2015-01-01

    Warming of the climate system and its impacts on biophysical and human systems have been widely documented. The frequency and intensity of extreme weather events have also changed, but the observed increases in natural disaster losses are often thought to result solely from societal change, such as

  1. Socio-economic inequalities in all-cause mortality in Europe: an exploration of the role of heightened social mobility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simons, Audrey M W; Groffen, Daniëlle A I; Bosma, Hans

    2013-12-01

    The larger than expected socio-economic inequalities in health in more egalitarian countries might be explained by a heightened social mobility in these countries. Therefore, the aim of this explorative study was to examine the associations between country-level social mobility, income inequality and socio-economic differences in all-cause mortality, using country-level secondary data from 12 European countries. Both income equality and social mobility were found to be associated with larger socio-economic differences in mortality, particularly in women. These findings suggest that social mobility and income equality, beside their shiny side of improving population health, might have a shady side of increasing socio-economic health inequalities.

  2. [Ocular myositis as a rare cause of vision loss].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rollnik, J D; Requadt, H

    2017-04-01

    Ocular myositis is a rare disease characterized by painful diplopia but loss of vision rarely occurs. The article reviews the literature focusing on the differential diagnostics. We report the case of an 80-year-old women suffering from slowly progressive loss of vision in the left eye. Diplopia was only present at the beginning and there was only moderate pain. Computed tomography and magnetic resonance imaging revealed a swelling of the left medial, lateral and inferior rectus muscles of the orbit leading to compression of the optic nerve in the orbital cone. An intravenous prednisolone stoss therapy (1000 mg per day for 3 consecutive days) was initiated, followed by oral medication of 100 mg per day then tapering over 10 weeks. Vision improved and no relapses were observed. Physicians should be aware of this rare disease to ensure quick diagnosis and treatment of ocular myositis.

  3. Peripapillary neovascular membrane: a rare cause of acute vision loss in pediatric idiopathic intracranial hypertension.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaeser, Pierre-François; Borruat, François-Xavier

    2011-02-01

    We report a 14-year-old boy who presented with vision loss secondary to peripapillary neovascular membrane (PPNVM) as the initial and only symptom of papilledema secondary to idiopathic intracranial hypertension. After one lumbar puncture, visual acuity progressively recovered during the course of 1 week and further improved with the administration of oral acetazolamide. One year after the onset of vision loss, the patient's visual acuity had recovered to baseline measurements. The previously active PPNVM had involuted into a residual peripapillary fibrotic scar. To our knowledge, this is the first report of PPNVM complicating idiopathic intracranial hypertension in a child. Copyright © 2011 American Association for Pediatric Ophthalmology and Strabismus. Published by Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Multiple mechanisms for the loss of coking properties caused by mild air oxidation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Larsen, J.W.; Lee, D.; Schmidt, T.; Grint, A.

    1986-04-01

    Evidence is presented for the existence of at least three different mechanisms by which low temperature oxidation (weathering) destroys coal's coking properties. Lithium aluminium hydride reduction of Bruceton coal oxidized for 28 days restores the FSI to its initial value of 8 from a value of 3. After 220 days oxidation, reduction raises the FSI from 0.5 to 2. Clearly, two different processes are responsible for the FSI decrease. The pyridine solvent swelling change during this time is quite small, much smaller than observed by Liotta. Thus the oxidative increase in cross-link density observed by Liotta is a third mechanism of thermoplasticity loss. The initial FSI decrease, that reversible by reduction, is tentatively ascribed to oxidative loss of readily donatable hydrogen from the coal. The second mechanism remains uncharacterized. 14 references.

  5. Economics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Online-Offline, 1998

    1998-01-01

    This issue focuses on the theme of economics, and presents educational resources for teaching basics to children. Web sites, CD-ROMs and software, videos, books, and additional resources, as well as activities which focus on economics are described. Includes short features on related topics, and the subtopics of trade, money and banking, and…

  6. JNK activity in somatic stem cells causes loss of tissue homeostasis in the aging Drosophila gut

    OpenAIRE

    Biteau, Benoît; Hochmuth, Christine E.; Jasper, Heinrich

    2008-01-01

    Metazoans employ cytoprotective and regenerative strategies to maintain tissue homeostasis. Understanding the coordination of these strategies is critical to develop accurate models for aging and associated diseases. Here we show that cytoprotective Jun-N-terminal Kinase (JNK) signaling influences regeneration in the Drosophila gut by directing proliferation of intestinal stem cells (ISCs). Interestingly, this function of JNK contributes to the loss of tissue homeostasis in old and stressed i...

  7. Species-area relationships and extinctions caused by habitat loss and fragmentation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rybicki, Joel; Hanski, Ilkka

    2013-05-01

    The species-area relationship (SAR) has been used to predict the numbers of species going extinct due to habitat loss, but other researchers have maintained that SARs overestimate extinctions and instead one should use the endemics-area relationship (EAR) to predict extinctions. Here, we employ spatially explicit simulations of large numbers of species in spatially heterogeneous landscapes to investigate SARs and extinctions in a dynamic context. The EAR gives the number of species going extinct immediately after habitat loss, but typically many other species have unviable populations in the remaining habitat and go extinct soon afterwards. We conclude that the EAR underestimates extinctions due to habitat loss, the continental SAR (with slope ~0.1 or somewhat less) gives a good approximation of short-term extinctions, while the island SAR calculated for discrete fragments of habitat (with slope ~0.25) predicts the long-term extinctions. However, when the remaining area of land-covering habitat such as forest is roughly less than 20% of the total landscape and the habitat is highly fragmented, all current SARs underestimate extinction rate. We show how the 'fragmentation effect' can be incorporated into a predictive SAR model. When the remaining habitat is highly fragmented, an effective way to combat the fragmentation effect is to aggregate habitat fragments into clusters rather than to place them randomly across the landscape. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons Ltd/CNRS.

  8. TDP-43 Loss-of-Function Causes Neuronal Loss Due to Defective Steroid Receptor-Mediated Gene Program Switching in Drosophila

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lies Vanden Broeck

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available TDP-43 proteinopathy is strongly implicated in the pathogenesis of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis and related neurodegenerative disorders. Whether TDP-43 neurotoxicity is caused by a novel toxic gain-of-function mechanism of the aggregates or by a loss of its normal function is unknown. We increased and decreased expression of TDP-43 (dTDP-43 in Drosophila. Although upregulation of dTDP-43 induced neuronal ubiquitin and dTDP-43-positive inclusions, both up- and downregulated dTDP-43 resulted in selective apoptosis of bursicon neurons and highly similar transcriptome alterations at the pupal-adult transition. Gene network analysis and genetic validation showed that both up- and downregulated dTDP-43 directly and dramatically increased the expression of the neuronal microtubule-associated protein Map205, resulting in cytoplasmic accumulations of the ecdysteroid receptor (EcR and a failure to switch EcR-dependent gene programs from a pupal to adult pattern. We propose that dTDP-43 neurotoxicity is caused by a loss of its normal function.

  9. Financing and budgetary impact of landslide losses for highways and urban infrastructures in NW Germany - an economic analysis using landslide database information and cost survey data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maurischat, Philipp; Klose, Martin

    2014-05-01

    Recent studies show that landslides cause even in low mountain areas of Central and Western Europe millions of dollars in annual losses (Klose et al., 2012; Vranken et al., 2013). The objective of this study has therefore been to model landslide disaster financing and to assess budgetary impacts of landslide losses for highways and urban infrastructures in the Lower Saxon Uplands, NW Germany. The present contribution includes two case studies on the financial burden of landslides for public budgets using the examples of the Lower Saxony Department of Transportation and the city of Hann. Münden. The basis of this research is a regional subset of a landslide database for the Federal Republic of Germany. Using a toolset for landslide cost modeling based on landslide databases (Klose et al., 2013), the direct costs of more than 30 landslide damage events to highways in a local case study area were determined. The annual average landslide maintenance, repair, and mitigation costs for highways in this case study area are estimated at 0.76 million between 1980 and 2010. Alternatively, a cost survey based on expert interviews has been conducted to collect landslide loss data for urban infrastructures. This cost survey for the city of Hann. Münden shows annual landslide losses of up to 3.4 million during the previous 10 years. Further expert interviews at city and highway agency level were focused on identifying procedure, resources, and limits of financing landslide damage costs. The information on landslide disaster financing and cost survey data on annual maintenance and construction budgets for highways, city sewer lines, and urban roads were used to evaluate the fiscal significance of estimated landslide losses. The results of this economic impact assessment prove variable financial burdens of analyzed public budgets. Thus, in costly years with landslide losses of more than 7 million, the Lower Saxony Department of Transportation is required to shift up to 19% of its

  10. Prevalence and causes of vision loss in Southeast Asia and Oceania: 1990-2010.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keeffe, J; Taylor, H R; Fotis, K; Pesudovs, K; Flaxman, S R; Jonas, J B; Leasher, J; Naidoo, K; Price, H; White, R A; Wong, T Y; Resnikoff, S; Bourne, R R A

    2014-05-01

    To assess prevalence and causes of vision impairment in Southeast Asia and Oceania in 1990 and 2010. Based on a systematic review of medical literature, prevalence of moderate and severe vision impairment (MSVI; presenting visual acuity Southeast Asia, blindness decreased significantly from 1.4% to 0.8%, a 43% decrease. There were significantly more women blind (2.18 million) compared with men (1.28 million) in the Southeast Asian population in 2010, but no significant gender differences in MSVI in either subregion. Cataract was the most frequent cause of blindness in Southeast Asia and Oceania in 1990 and 2010. Uncorrected refractive error, followed by cataract, macular degeneration, glaucoma and diabetic retinopathy were the most common causes for MSVI in 1990 and 2010. With the increasing size of the older population, there have been relatively small increases in the number of blind (2%), and with MSVI (14%) in Southeast Asia, whereas increases have been greater in Oceania of 14% for blindness and of 31% for MSVI. The prevalence of blindness has reduced significantly from 1990 to 2010, with moderate but non-significant lowering of MSVI. Cataract and uncorrected refractive error are the main causes of vision impairment and blindness; cataract continues as the main cause of blindness, but at lower proportions.

  11. Peripheral oxytocin suppresses food intake and causes weight loss in diet-induced obese rats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thatcher, Brendan S.; Reidelberger, Roger D.; Ogimoto, Kayoko; Wolden-Hanson, Tami; Baskin, Denis G.; Schwartz, Michael W.; Blevins, James E.

    2012-01-01

    Growing evidence suggests that oxytocin plays an important role in the regulation of energy balance and that central oxytocin administration induces weight loss in diet-induced obese (DIO) animals. To gain a better understanding of how oxytocin mediates these effects, we examined feeding and neuronal responses to oxytocin in animals rendered obese following exposure to either a high-fat (HFD) or low-fat diet (LFD). Our findings demonstrate that peripheral administration of oxytocin dose-dependently reduces food intake and body weight to a similar extent in rats maintained on either diet. Moreover, the effect of oxytocin to induce weight loss remained intact in leptin receptor-deficient Koletsky (fak/fak) rats relative to their lean littermates. To determine whether systemically administered oxytocin activates hindbrain areas that regulate meal size, we measured neuronal c-Fos induction in the nucleus of the solitary tract (NTS) and area postrema (AP). We observed a robust neuronal response to oxytocin in these hindbrain areas that was unexpectedly increased in rats rendered obese on a HFD relative to lean, LFD-fed controls. Finally, we report that repeated daily peripheral administration of oxytocin in DIO animals elicited a sustained reduction of food intake and body weight while preventing the reduction of energy expenditure characteristic of weight-reduced animals. These findings extend recent evidence suggesting that oxytocin circumvents leptin resistance and induces weight-loss in DIO animals through a mechanism involving activation of neurons in the NTS and AP, key hindbrain areas for processing satiety-related inputs. PMID:22008455

  12. Increased risk of all-cause mortality and renal graft loss in stable renal transplant recipients with hyperparathyroidism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pihlstrøm, Hege; Dahle, Dag Olav; Mjøen, Geir; Pilz, Stefan; März, Winfried; Abedini, Sadollah; Holme, Ingar; Fellström, Bengt; Jardine, Alan G; Holdaas, Hallvard

    2015-02-01

    Hyperparathyroidism is reported in 10% to 66% of renal transplant recipients (RTR). The influence of persisting hyperparathyroidism on long-term clinical outcomes in RTR has not been examined in a large prospective study. We investigated the association between baseline parathyroid hormone (PTH) levels and major cardiovascular events, renal graft loss, and all-cause mortality by Cox Proportional Hazard survival analyses in 1840 stable RTR derived from the Assessment of LEscol in Renal Transplantation trial. Patients were recruited in a mean of 5.1 years after transplantation, and follow-up time was 6 to 7 years. Significant associations between PTH and all 3 outcomes were found in univariate analyses. When adjusting for a range of plausible confounders, including measures of renal function and serum mineral levels, PTH remained significantly associated with all-cause mortality (4% increased risk per 10 units; P=0.004), and with graft loss (6% increased risk per 10 units; PHyperparathyroidism is an independent, potentially remediable, risk factor for renal graft loss and all-cause mortality in RTR.

  13. Preoperative visual loss is the main cause of irreversible poor vision in children with a brain tumor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nitza eGoldenberg-Cohen

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available To characterize the severe postoperative irreversible visual loss induced by optic neuropathy in some children with a brain tumor, the computerized database (2003-2008 of a neuro-ophthalmology service of a major pediatric tertiary center was reviewed for all children with severe irreversible visual loss (counting fingers or less due to brain-tumor-related optic neuropathy at their last follow-up examination. Data on age, gender, etiology, initial symptoms and signs, visual acuity before and after surgery and at last exam, neuroimaging findings, and treatment were collected. Of 240 children, 198 were operated. Of those, 10 (5%, 5 boys and 5 girls met the study criteria. Data for the initial visual examination were available for 8 children: one had binocular blindness (uncertain light perception, counting fingers; 3 had monocular blindness already at diagnosis (no light perception, counting fingers, no fixation; 3 had 6/60 vision in the worse eye; and one had good vision bilaterally (6/10. Four children had direct optic nerve compression, 4 papilledema and 3 gliomas. Four children (40%; with craniopharyngioma, pineal germinoma, or posterior fossa tumor exhibited a rapid deterioration in vision after tumor depression (1 direct compression and 3 increased intracranial pressure; two had monocular visual loss postoperatively; vision remained stable in 4 (after ≥5 follow-up visits, but did not improve. This study shows that tumor-related optic neuropathy may be associated with marked visual loss inspite of successful tumor resection; in 40% of children, the deterioration occurs perioeratively. Direct compression is the main cause of visual loss, while papilledema usually resolved without visual sequelae. However, autoregulatory changes may be responsible for rapid visual loss following decompression for chronic papilledema. Clinicians need reminding about the problem of post-operative visual loss and we speculate on how it can be avoided.

  14. Loss of stability and hydrophobicity of presenilin 1 mutations causing Alzheimer's Disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Somavarapu, Arun Kumar; Kepp, Kasper Planeta

    2016-01-01

    Nearly 200 mutations in the gene coding for presenilin 1 (PSEN1) cause early-onset Alzheimer's Disease, yet the molecular mechanism remains obscure. As a meta-analysis, we compiled available clinical and biochemical data for PSEN1 variants and correlated these to chemical properties of the mutants...... protein stability. This explains why the many mutations that spread out across the protein and far from the catalytic aspartates can cause disease. The identified molecular determinants of clinical age of symptom onset may be relevant to future presenilin-modulating therapies specifically directed towards...

  15. Economic Recession, Alcohol, and Suicide Rates: Comparative Effects of Poverty, Foreclosure, and Job Loss.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kerr, William C; Kaplan, Mark S; Huguet, Nathalie; Caetano, Raul; Giesbrecht, Norman; McFarland, Bentson H

    2017-04-01

    Suicide rates and the proportion of alcohol-involved suicides rose during the 2008-2009 recession. Associations between county-level poverty, foreclosures, and unemployment and suicide rates and proportion of alcohol-involved suicides were investigated. In 2015, National Violent Death Reporting System data from 16 states in 2005-2011 were utilized to calculate suicide rates and a measure of alcohol involvement in suicides at the county level. Panel models with year and state fixed effects included county-level measures of unemployment, foreclosure, and poverty rates. Poverty rates were strongly associated with suicide rates for both genders and all age groups, were positively associated with alcohol involvement in suicides for men aged 45-64 years, and negatively associated for men aged 20-44 years. Foreclosure rates were negatively associated with suicide rates for women and those aged ≥65 years but positively related for those aged 45-64 years. Unemployment rate effects on suicide rates were mediated by poverty rates in all groups. Population risk of suicide was most clearly associated with county-level poverty rates, indicating that programs addressing area poverty should be targeted for reducing suicide risk. Poverty rates were also associated with increased alcohol involvement for men aged 45-64 years, indicating a role for alcohol in suicide for this working-aged group. However, negative associations between economic indicators and alcohol involvement were found for four groups, suggesting that non-economic factors or more general economic effects not captured by these indicators may have played a larger role in alcohol-related suicide increases. Copyright © 2016 American Journal of Preventive Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Aquaporin-4 autoantibody: a neurogenic cause of anorexia and weight loss.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fung, Eva Lai-Wah; Tsung, Lilian Li-Yan; Dale, Russell C

    2012-01-01

    Neuromyelitis optica (NMO) is a severe inflammatory demyelinating disease often associated with a highly specific autoantibody, aquaporin-4 antibody. Although the classic syndrome involves the optic nerves and spinal cord, aquaporin-4 antibody has been important in defining the true spectrum of NMO, which now includes brain lesions in areas of high aquaporin-4 expression. Brainstem involvement, specifically area postrema involvement in the medulla, has been associated with intractable vomiting in some patients with NMO. We describe a 14-year-old female with positive aquaporin-4 antibody whose clinical course was dominated by severe anorexia with associated weight loss (from 68-41kg; body mass index 25.2-15.6). Magnetic resonance imaging showed lesions in the medulla, pons, and thalami. Although she had asymptomatic radiological longitudinally extensive transverse myelitis, she never had symptoms or signs referable to the spinal cord or the optic nerves. We propose that anorexia and weight loss should be considered part of the NMO spectrum, probably related to area postrema involvement. © The Authors. Developmental Medicine & Child Neurology © 2011 Mac Keith Press.

  17. [Risk of hearing loss caused by listening to music with head phones].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ising, H; Hanel, J; Pilgramm, M; Babisch, W; Lindthammer, A

    1994-12-01

    Sound levels of music played from mini-cassette players via headphones were measured in a nonrepresentative group of 681 pupils whose ages were between 10 to 19 years. Each pupil completed a questionnaire giving the total time spent listening to music each day. The pupils set the music levels (free field corrected short time Leq) between 60 dB(A) and 110 dB(A). In the age group from 12-16 years, 10% chose 110 dB(A). Nearly 50% of the total group usually listened to music less than one hour per day, and just less than 10% listened for four or more hours. The energy equivalent of continuous sound pressure level for an exposure time of 8 h per day was for 55% Leq 8 h 95 dB(A) while 4% had an Leq 8 h > 105 dB(A). Estimation of the expected hearing losses (HL) were based on ISO 1999: about 10% of the total group were predicted to have a HL > 10 dB at 4 kHz after 5 years. After listening to sound in this manner 0.3% were expected to develop hearing losses at age 25 years that would be severe enough to substantially impair speech intelligibility.

  18. BAP1 deficiency causes loss of melanocytic cell identity in uveal melanoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matatall, Katie A; Agapova, Olga A; Onken, Michael D; Worley, Lori A; Bowcock, Anne M; Harbour, J William

    2013-08-05

    Uveal melanoma is a highly aggressive cancer with a strong propensity for metastasis, yet little is known about the biological mechanisms underlying this metastatic potential. We recently showed that most metastasizing uveal melanomas, which exhibit a class 2 gene expression profile, contain inactivating mutations in the tumor suppressor BAP1. The aim of this study was to investigate the role of BAP1 in uveal melanoma progression. Uveal melanoma cells were studied following RNAi-mediated depletion of BAP1 using proliferation, BrdU incorporation, flow cytometry, migration, invasion, differentiation and clonogenic assays, as well as in vivo tumorigenicity experiments in NOD-SCID-Gamma mice. Depletion of BAP1 in uveal melanoma cells resulted in a loss of differentiation and gain of stem-like properties, including expression of stem cell markers, increased capacity for self-replication, and enhanced ability to grow in stem cell conditions. BAP1 depletion did not result in increased proliferation, migration, invasion or tumorigenicity. BAP1 appears to function in the uveal melanocyte lineage primarily as a regulator of differentiation, with cells deficient for BAP1 exhibiting stem-like qualities. It will be important to elucidate how this effect of BAP1 loss promotes metastasis and how to reverse this effect therapeutically.

  19. Anthropogenic causes of wetland loss and degradation in the lower Kłodnica valley (southern Poland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wójcicki Krzysztof J.

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Loss and degradation of wetlands is now one of the most important environmental issues on a global scale. Previous research based on analyses of cartographic materials allow for quantification of changes in wetland area in recent centuries. The results of lithological research of peat cores, reported in this publication, have established that the processes of anthropogenic loss of wetlands can be much older and in the Kłodnica valley were initiated in the first millennium BC. As a result of increased mineral sedimentation accompanying soil erosion some peatlands have been fossilized whilst the area of others has been reduced. In total, the surface area of peat-forming wetlands in the bottom of the Kłodnica valley decreased by over 60% between the time of the Lusatian Culture settlement and the Middle Ages. Post-peatland habitats are recently used for agricultural or colonized by non-peat forming vegetation. These processes have played a more important role in the degradation of peatland ecosystems than the direct human impact in historic times. Changes in hydrographic networks, land drainage and regulation of water levels in rivers and canals in the last century have contributed to further reducing the wetland areas by almost 50% compared to the 1880s. These processes, however, have mainly affected ephemeral non-peat forming wetlands.

  20. Examination of the CLIC drive beam pipe design for thermal distortion caused by distributed beam loss

    CERN Document Server

    Johnson, C D

    1997-01-01

    Beam transport programs are widely used to estimate the distribution of power deposited in accelerator structures by particle beams, either intentionally as for targets or beam dumps or accidentally owing to beam loss incidents. While this is usually adequate for considerations of radiation safety, it does not reveal the expected temperature rise and its effect on structural integrity. To find this, thermal diffusion must be taken into account, requiring another step in the analysis. The method that has been proposed is to use the output of a transport program, perhaps modified, as input for a finite element analysis program that can solve the thermal diffusion equation. At CERN, the design of the CLIC drive beam pipe has been treated in this fashion. The power distribution produced in the walls by a distributed beam loss was found using the electron gamma shower code EGS4. The distribution of power density was then used to form the input for the finite element analysis program ANSYS, which was able to find t...

  1. Inner ear anomalies causing congenital sensorineural hearing loss: CT and MR imaging findings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hong, Hyun Sook; Paik, Sang Hyun; Cha, Jang Gyu; Park, Seong Jin; Joh, Joon Hee; Park, Jai Soung; Kim, Dae Ho; Lee, Hae Kyung; Kim, Shi Chan [Soonchunhyang University Bucheon Hospital, Buchon(Korea, Republic of)

    2005-07-15

    Many congenital dysplasias of the osseous labyrinth have been identified, and the differential diagnosis of these dysplasias is essential for delivering proper patient management. We retrospectively reviewed the computed tomography (CT) and magnetic resonance (MR) imaging findings of 20 children who had congenital sensorineural hearing loss. The children included cases of enlarged vestibular aqueduct and endolymphatic sac (n=8), aplasia of the semicircular canal (n=4), lateral semicircular canal-vestibule dysplasia (n=3), common cavity malformations with a large vestibule (n=1), cochlear hypoplasia (n=1), Mondini's dysplasia with large vestibular aqueduct (n=1), Mondini's dysplasia with a large vestibule (n=1), and small internal auditory canal (n=1). Six cases were unilateral. Nine cases had combined deformities, and nine cased had cochlear implants. CT was performed with a 1.0-mm thickness in the direct coronal and axial sections with using bone algorithms. MR was performed with a temporal 3D T2 FSE 10-mm scan and with routine brain images. We describe here the imaging features for the anomalies of the inner ear in patients suffering from congenital sensorineural hearing loss.

  2. Economism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Simons

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Modern society is characterised not only by a fascination with scientific technology as a means of solving all problems, especially those that stand in the way of material progress (technicism, but also by an obsessive interest in everything that has to do with money (economism or mammonism. The article discusses the relationship between technicism and economism, on the basis of their relationship to utilitarian thinking: the quest for the greatest happiness for the greatest number of people. Recent major studies of neo-liberalism (seen as an intensification of utilitarianism by Laval and Dardot are used as reference to the development of utilitarianism. It is suggested that the western view of the world, as expressed in economism and technicism, with a utilitarian ethics, features three absolutisations: those of theoretical thinking, technology and economics. In a second part, the article draws on the framework of reformational philosophy to suggest an approach that, in principle, is not marred by such absolutisations.

  3. Model simulations of stratospheric ozone loss caused by enhanced mesospheric NOx during Arctic Winter 2003/2004

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. von Clarmann

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available Satellite observations show that the enormous solar proton events (SPEs in October–November 2003 had significant effects on the composition of the stratosphere and mesosphere in the polar regions. After the October–November 2003 SPEs and in early 2004, significant enhancements of NOx(=NO+NO2 in the upper stratosphere and lower mesosphere in the Northern Hemisphere were observed by several satellite instruments. Here we present global full chemistry calculations performed with the CLaMS model to study the impact of mesospheric NOx intrusions on Arctic polar ozone loss processes in the stratosphere. Several model simulations are preformed with different upper boundary conditions for NOx at 2000 K potential temperature (≈50 km altitude. In our study we focus on the impact of the non-local production of NOx, which means the downward transport of enhanced NOx from the mesosphere to the stratosphere. The local production of NOx in the stratosphere is neglected. Our findings show that intrusions of mesospheric air into the stratosphere, transporting high burdens of NOx, affect the composition of the Arctic polar region down to about 400 K (≈17–18 km. We compare our simulated NOx and O3 mixing ratios with satellite observations by ACE-FTS and MIPAS processed at IMK/IAA and derive an upper limit for the ozone loss caused by enhanced mesospheric NOx. Our findings show that in the Arctic polar vortex (equivalent lat.>70° N the accumulated column ozone loss between 350–2000 K potential temperature (≈14–50 km altitude caused by the SPEs in October–November 2003 in the stratosphere is up to 3.3 DU with an upper limit of 5.5 DU until end of November. Further, we found that about 10 DU, but in any case lower than 18 DU, accumulated ozone loss additionally occurred until end of March 2004 caused by the transport of mesospheric NOx-rich air in early 2004. The solar-proton-produced NOx above 55 km due to the SPEs of October–November 2003 had a

  4. Transient Oxygen/Glucose Deprivation Causes a Delayed Loss of Mitochondria and Increases Spontaneous Calcium Signaling in Astrocytic Processes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Donnell, John C; Jackson, Joshua G; Robinson, Michael B

    2016-07-06

    Recently, mitochondria have been localized to astrocytic processes where they shape Ca(2+) signaling; this relationship has not been examined in models of ischemia/reperfusion. We biolistically transfected astrocytes in rat hippocampal slice cultures to facilitate fluorescent confocal microscopy, and subjected these slices to transient oxygen/glucose deprivation (OGD) that causes delayed excitotoxic death of CA1 pyramidal neurons. This insult caused a delayed loss of mitochondria from astrocytic processes and increased colocalization of mitochondria with the autophagosome marker LC3B. The losses of neurons in area CA1 and mitochondria in astrocytic processes were blocked by ionotropic glutamate receptor (iGluR) antagonists, tetrodotoxin, ziconotide (Ca(2+) channel blocker), two inhibitors of reversed Na(+)/Ca(2+) exchange (KB-R7943, YM-244769), or two inhibitors of calcineurin (cyclosporin-A, FK506). The effects of OGD were mimicked by NMDA. The glutamate uptake inhibitor (3S)-3-[[3-[[4-(trifluoromethyl)benzoyl]amino]phenyl]methoxy]-l-aspartate increased neuronal loss after OGD or NMDA, and blocked the loss of astrocytic mitochondria. Exogenous glutamate in the presence of iGluR antagonists caused a loss of mitochondria without a decrease in neurons in area CA1. Using the genetic Ca(2+) indicator Lck-GCaMP-6S, we observed two types of Ca(2+) signals: (1) in the cytoplasm surrounding mitochondria (mitochondrially centered) and (2) traversing the space between mitochondria (extramitochondrial). The spatial spread, kinetics, and frequency of these events were different. The amplitude of both types was doubled and the spread of both types changed by ∼2-fold 24 h after OGD. Together, these data suggest that pathologic activation of glutamate transport and increased astrocytic Ca(2+) through reversed Na(+)/Ca(2+) exchange triggers mitochondrial loss and dramatic increases in Ca(2+) signaling in astrocytic processes. Astrocytes, the most abundant cell type in the brain

  5. Heterozygous Loss-of-Function Mutations in DLL4 Cause Adams-Oliver Syndrome

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Meester, Josephina A. N.; Southgate, Laura; Stittrich, Anna-Barbara; Venselaar, Hanka; Beekmans, Sander J. A.; den Hollander, Nicolette; Bijlsma, Emilia K.; den Enden, Appolonia Helderman-van; Verheij, Joke B. G. M.; Glusman, Gustavo; Roach, Jared C.; Lehman, Anna; Patel, Millan S.; de Vries, Bert B. A.; Ruivenkamp, Claudia; Itin, Peter; Prescott, Katrina; Clarke, Sheila; Trembath, Richard; Zenker, Martin; Sukalo, Maja; Van Laer, Lut; Loeys, Bart; Wuyts, Wim

    2015-01-01

    Adams-Oliver syndrome (AOS) is a rare developmental disorder characterized by the presence of aplasia cutis congenita (ACC) of the scalp vertex and terminal limb-reduction defects. Cardiovascular anomalies are also frequently observed. Mutations in five genes have been identified as a cause for AOS

  6. Loss of stability and hydrophobicity of presenilin 1 mutations causing Alzheimer's Disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Somavarapu, Arun Kumar; Kepp, Kasper Planeta

    2016-01-01

    Nearly 200 mutations in the gene coding for presenilin 1 (PSEN1) cause early-onset Alzheimer's Disease, yet the molecular mechanism remains obscure. As a meta-analysis, we compiled available clinical and biochemical data for PSEN1 variants and correlated these to chemical properties of the mutant...

  7. Renal allograft loss in the first post-operative month: causes and consequences.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Phelan, Paul J

    2013-01-15

    Early transplant failure is a devastating outcome after kidney transplantation. We report the causes and consequences of deceased donor renal transplant failure in the first 30 d at our center between January 1990 and December 2009. Controls were adult deceased donor transplant patients in the same period with an allograft that functioned >30 d. The incidence of early graft failure in our series of 2381 consecutive deceased donor transplants was 4.6% (n = 109). The causes of failure were allograft thrombosis (n = 48; 44%), acute rejection (n = 19; 17.4%), death with a functioning allograft (n = 17; 15.6%), primary non-function (n = 14;12.8%), and other causes (n = 11; 10.1%). Mean time to allograft failure was 7.3 d. There has been a decreased incidence of all-cause early failure from 7% in 1990 to <1% in 2009. Patients who developed early failure had longer cold ischemia times when compared with patients with allografts lasting >30 d (p < 0.001). Early allograft failure was strongly associated with reduced patient survival (p < 0.001). In conclusion, early renal allograft failure is associated with a survival disadvantage, but has thankfully become less common in recent years.

  8. Value loss from weevil-caused defects in eastern white pine lumber

    Science.gov (United States)

    Myron D. Ostrander; Carl H. Stoltenberg

    1957-01-01

    Owners of eastern white pine stands suffer financially in several ways from attacks by the white-pine weevil (Pissodes strobi). Crooks, forks, and other weevil-caused tree-bole deformities increase bucking, logging, and sawing costs, and they reduce recoverable volumes. The injuries also reduce the average value of the lumber recovered. It is only with this reduction...

  9. Aerosol Mycobacterium tuberculosis infection causes rapid loss of diversity in gut microbiota.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winglee, Kathryn; Eloe-Fadrosh, Emiley; Gupta, Shashank; Guo, Haidan; Fraser, Claire; Bishai, William

    2014-01-01

    Mycobacterium tuberculosis is an important human pathogen, and yet diagnosis remains challenging. Little research has focused on the impact of M. tuberculosis on the gut microbiota, despite the significant immunological and homeostatic functions of the gastrointestinal tract. To determine the effect of M. tuberculosis infection on the gut microbiota, we followed mice from M. tuberculosis aerosol infection until death, using 16S rRNA sequencing. We saw a rapid change in the gut microbiota in response to infection, with all mice showing a loss and then recovery of microbial community diversity, and found that pre-infection samples clustered separately from post-infection samples, using ecological beta-diversity measures. The effect on the fecal microbiota was observed as rapidly as six days following lung infection. Analysis of additional mice infected by a different M. tuberculosis strain corroborated these results, together demonstrating that the mouse gut microbiota significantly changes with M. tuberculosis infection.

  10. HYPERTENSIVE CHOROIDOPATHY AS AN UNCOMMON CAUSE S OF VISUAL LOSS IN PREGNANCY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bijnya Birajita

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: HISTORY: A 30 year old lady in her 32 weeks gestation period was referred to our ophthalmology clinic with chief complaints of diminution of vision in both eyes for 4 months duration. Her medical history was suggestive of uncontrolled hypertension. On Ophthalmic evaluation she had best corrected visual acuity of 20/200 in both eyes with normal color vision. Her pupils were bilaterally equal in size and normally reacting to light. The intraocular pressure was within normal range and anterior segment evaluation was within normal limits. Dilated fundus evaluation revealed only arterio - venous crossing changes, mottled retina and resolving hard exudates in both eyes [Fig 1a, & 1 b]. The fundus picture could not explain the severity of vision loss in the patient which prompted us for further workup.

  11. Loss of RMI2 Increases Genome Instability and Causes a Bloom-Like Syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hudson, Damien F; Amor, David J; Boys, Amber; Butler, Kathy; Williams, Lorna; Zhang, Tao; Kalitsis, Paul

    2016-12-01

    Bloom syndrome is a recessive human genetic disorder with features of genome instability, growth deficiency and predisposition to cancer. The only known causative gene is the BLM helicase that is a member of a protein complex along with topoisomerase III alpha, RMI1 and 2, which maintains replication fork stability and dissolves double Holliday junctions to prevent genome instability. Here we report the identification of a second gene, RMI2, that is deleted in affected siblings with Bloom-like features. Cells from homozygous individuals exhibit elevated rates of sister chromatid exchange, anaphase DNA bridges and micronuclei. Similar genome and chromosome instability phenotypes are observed in independently derived RMI2 knockout cells. In both patient and knockout cell lines reduced localisation of BLM to ultra fine DNA bridges and FANCD2 at foci linking bridges are observed. Overall, loss of RMI2 produces a partially active BLM complex with mild features of Bloom syndrome.

  12. De novo loss- or gain-of-function mutations in KCNA2 cause epileptic encephalopathy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Syrbe, Steffen; Hedrich, Ulrike B S; Riesch, Erik

    2015-01-01

    Epileptic encephalopathies are a phenotypically and genetically heterogeneous group of severe epilepsies accompanied by intellectual disability and other neurodevelopmental features. Using next-generation sequencing, we identified four different de novo mutations in KCNA2, encoding the potassium...... disability, delayed speech development and sometimes ataxia. Functional studies of the two mutations associated with this phenotype showed almost complete loss of function with a dominant-negative effect. Two further individuals presented with a different and more severe epileptic encephalopathy phenotype....... They carried mutations inducing a drastic gain-of-function effect leading to permanently open channels. These results establish KCNA2 as a new gene involved in human neurodevelopmental disorders through two different mechanisms, predicting either hyperexcitability or electrical silencing of KV1.2-expressing...

  13. Loss of RMI2 Increases Genome Instability and Causes a Bloom-Like Syndrome.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Damien F Hudson

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Bloom syndrome is a recessive human genetic disorder with features of genome instability, growth deficiency and predisposition to cancer. The only known causative gene is the BLM helicase that is a member of a protein complex along with topoisomerase III alpha, RMI1 and 2, which maintains replication fork stability and dissolves double Holliday junctions to prevent genome instability. Here we report the identification of a second gene, RMI2, that is deleted in affected siblings with Bloom-like features. Cells from homozygous individuals exhibit elevated rates of sister chromatid exchange, anaphase DNA bridges and micronuclei. Similar genome and chromosome instability phenotypes are observed in independently derived RMI2 knockout cells. In both patient and knockout cell lines reduced localisation of BLM to ultra fine DNA bridges and FANCD2 at foci linking bridges are observed. Overall, loss of RMI2 produces a partially active BLM complex with mild features of Bloom syndrome.

  14. Moving beyond the cost-loss ratio: economic assessment of streamflow forecasts for a risk-averse decision maker

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matte, Simon; Boucher, Marie-Amélie; Boucher, Vincent; Fortier Filion, Thomas-Charles

    2017-06-01

    A large effort has been made over the past 10 years to promote the operational use of probabilistic or ensemble streamflow forecasts. Numerous studies have shown that ensemble forecasts are of higher quality than deterministic ones. Many studies also conclude that decisions based on ensemble rather than deterministic forecasts lead to better decisions in the context of flood mitigation. Hence, it is believed that ensemble forecasts possess a greater economic and social value for both decision makers and the general population. However, the vast majority of, if not all, existing hydro-economic studies rely on a cost-loss ratio framework that assumes a risk-neutral decision maker. To overcome this important flaw, this study borrows from economics and evaluates the economic value of early warning flood systems using the well-known Constant Absolute Risk Aversion (CARA) utility function, which explicitly accounts for the level of risk aversion of the decision maker. This new framework allows for the full exploitation of the information related to a forecasts' uncertainty, making it especially suited for the economic assessment of ensemble or probabilistic forecasts. Rather than comparing deterministic and ensemble forecasts, this study focuses on comparing different types of ensemble forecasts. There are multiple ways of assessing and representing forecast uncertainty. Consequently, there exist many different means of building an ensemble forecasting system for future streamflow. One such possibility is to dress deterministic forecasts using the statistics of past error forecasts. Such dressing methods are popular among operational agencies because of their simplicity and intuitiveness. Another approach is the use of ensemble meteorological forecasts for precipitation and temperature, which are then provided as inputs to one or many hydrological model(s). In this study, three concurrent ensemble streamflow forecasting systems are compared: simple statistically dressed

  15. Causes and consequences of the Spanish economic crisis: Why the recovery is taken so long?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carballo-Cruz Francisco

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Spain is currently facing its worst crisis in the last fifty years. The crisis began as an extension of the international financial crisis, but the internal imbalances accumulated in the pre-crisis period aggravated the situation. At present their incomplete adjustment is making difficult the economic recovery. This paper describes the evolution of the economic crisis in Spain. The real estate sector and the banking sector are analyzed in detail, as they played a key role in the detonation and the deepening of the crisis. The results of the main reforms carried out so far are also carefully examined. It also discusses the main factors that have delayed the economic recovery up to now (unemployment and indebtedness, and present some alternatives to define an exit strategy.

  16. Connexin43 Mutation Causes Heterogeneous Gap Junction Loss and Sudden Infant Death

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Norstrand, David W.; Asimaki, Angeliki; Rubinos, Clio; Dolmatova, Elena; Srinivas, Miduturu; Tester, David J.; Saffitz, Jeffrey E.; Duffy, Heather S.; Ackerman, Michael J.

    2012-01-01

    Background An estimated 10-15% of sudden infant death syndrome (SIDS) may stem from channelopathy-mediated lethal arrhythmias. Loss of the GJA1-encoded gap junction channel protein connexin43 (Cx43) is known to underlie formation of lethal arrhythmias. GJA1 mutations have been associated with cardiac diseases including atrial fibrillation. Therefore, GJA1 is a plausible candidate gene for premature sudden death. Methods and Results GJA1 open reading frame mutational analysis was performed using PCR, DHPLC, and direct DNA sequencing on DNA from 292 SIDS cases. Immunofluorescence and dual whole cell patch-clamp studies were performed to determine functionality of mutant gap junctions. Immunostaining for gap junction proteins was performed on SIDS-associated paraffin-embedded cardiac tissue. Two rare, novel missense mutations, E42K and S272P, were detected in 2 of 292 SIDS cases, a 2-month-old white male and a 3-month-old white female, respectively. Analysis of the E42K victim’s parental DNA demonstrated a de novo mutation. Both mutations involved highly conserved residues and were absent in over 1000 ethnic-matched reference alleles. Immunofluorescence demonstrated no trafficking abnormalities for either mutation and S272P demonstrated wildtype junctional conductance. However, junctional conductance measurements for the E42K mutation demonstrated a loss-of-function not rescued by wildtype. Moreover, the E42K victim cardiac tissue demonstrated a mosaic immunostaining pattern for Cx43 protein. Conclusions This study provides the first molecular and functional evidence implicating a GJA1 mutation as a novel pathogenic substrate for SIDS. E42K-Cx43 demonstrated a trafficking-independent reduction in junctional coupling in vitro as well as demonstrating a mosaic pattern of mutational DNA distribution in deceased cardiac tissue, suggesting a novel mechanism of Cx43-associated sudden death. PMID:22179534

  17. Protective effect of doxycycline on germinal epithelial loss caused by a high-fat diet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delgado-Enciso, Ivan; García-Rivera, Alejandro; Madrigal-Pérez, M Violeta M; Rodriguez-Hernandez, Alejandrina; Lugo-Radillo, Agustin; Galvan-Salazar, Hector R; Soriano-Hernández, Alejandro D; Gómez-Tapia, Fernando; Martinez-Martinez, Rafael; Valdez-Velazquez, Laura L; Newton-Sanchez, Oscar A; Gonzalez-Alvarez, Rafael; Rodriguez-Sanchez, Iram P; Melnikov, Valery; Lara-Esqueda, Agustin; Guzman-Esquivel, Jose

    2014-05-01

    A high-fat diet and male obesity are aspects associated with germinal epithelial alterations and male infertility. Some reports have shown that certain tetracyclines can protect the germinal epithelium from toxic drugs. The aim of the present study design was to evaluate the possible effect of doxycycline on testicular germ cells in individuals fed a Western diet (atherogenic), using a murine model. Two groups of male mice (BALB/c) were fed a high-fat Western diet (HFD). One of these two groups was given doxycycline at a dose of 10 mg/kg/day (HFD+Dox). A third group was fed a standard rodent diet (SD group). After 6 months, the mice were euthanized and morphologic and histopathologic analyses were performed. Germinal epithelial height was similar between the SD group (54 μm) and the HFD+Dox group (53 μm) (p = 0.26), and it was significantly reduced in the HFD group (47 μm) (p = 0.0001). The degree of germinal epithelial loss (DGEL) was significantly lower in the SD (10) and HFD+Dox (12.5) groups than in the HFD group (30) (p = 0.0001 and =0.007, respectively). There were no differences in the DGEL between the SD and HFD+Dox groups (p = 0.42). Doxycycline administration was shown to prevent germinal epithelial loss in the testes of mice fed a high-fat diet. Future studies are necessary to evaluate the clinical usefulness of doxycycline or its analogs in persons with a habitual high-fat diet.

  18. Konjac Glucomannan Dietary Supplementation Causes Significant Fat Loss in Compliant Overweight Adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaats, Gilbert R; Bagchi, Debasis; Preuss, Harry G

    2015-10-22

    Changes in body composition and blood chemistries between overweight adult subjects receiving a supplement containing either 3 g of konjac glucomannan/300 mg calcium carbonate or a placebo containing only 300 mg of calcium carbonate were compared as the primary objective. A secondary objective was to compare outcome differences between compliant and partially compliant subjects. A total of 83 overweight adults (66 women and 17 men) completed a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled protocol in which they received either a glucomannan or placebo supplement for 60 days. Dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry (DEXA) total body scans and a 42-measurement blood test were completed at baseline and 60 days later. Compliance was assessed by rating self-reports of (1) how many tablets were taken, (2) adherence to taking the tablets 30 minutes before eating, and (3) a sum of the ratings for (1) and (2). An anonymous poststudy questionnaire and telephone calls were also completed by 80 (96%) of the participants who were used as the study cohort. No statistically significant differences were found between the groups on changes from baseline on the DEXA and blood tests. However, when subjects were classified as either compliant or partially compliant using the compliance measures, statistically significant reductions in scale weight, percentage body fat, fat mass, total cholesterol, and low-density lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol were found in the glucomannan group compared to the placebo group. This study supports the efficacy glucomannan supplementation to reduce body weight, body fat, and circulating cholesterol levels without the concomitant loss of lean mass and bone density often associated with weight loss. However, these positive outcomes were not observable until corrections for compliance were applied.

  19. Loss of Igfbp7 Causes Precocious Involution in Lactating Mouse Mammary Gland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chatterjee, Sumanta; Bacopulos, Stephanie; Yang, Wenyi; Amemiya, Yutaka; Spyropoulos, Demetri

    2014-01-01

    Background Insulin like growth factors (IGFs) and their binding proteins (IGFBPs) are secreted peptides that play major roles in regulating the normal development and maturation of mammary gland. While Igfbp7 has been shown to decrease breast tumor growth, its role in regulating the normal mammary gland development has not been studied. To this end, we generated Igfbp7-null mice and examined the development and maturation of mammary glands in the virgin, pregnant and lactating animals. Results We report here that loss of Igfbp7 significantly retards mammary gland development in the virgin animals. More significantly, the pregnant Igfpb7-null glands contained fewer alveolar structures and that during lactation these glands exhibit the morphological changes that are associated with involution. The transcriptome profile of the Igfbp7-null glands on the lactation day 3 revealed a distinct involution-related gene signature compared to the lactating WT glands. Interestingly, we found that the lactating Igfbp7-null glands exhibit increased expression of Stat3 and enhanced activation of (phosphorylated) Stat3, combined with decreased expression of Stat5 suggesting that the absence of Igfbp7 accelerates the onset of involution. We also found that in absence of Igfpb7, the lactating glands contain increased Igfbp5 protein along with decreased expression of IGF-1 Receptor and Akt activation. Finally, we show that during the normal course of involution, Igfbp7 expression is significantly decreased in the mammary gland. Conclusion Our data suggest that loss of Igfbp7 induces precocious involution possibly through diminished cell survival signals. Our findings identify Igfbp7 as major regulator of involution in the mammary gland. PMID:24505323

  20. Chlorhexidine Prevents Root Dentine Mineral Loss and Fracture Caused by Calcium Hydroxide over Time

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael Ranniery Garcia Ribeiro

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. To evaluate the mineral ion loss of root dentine after treatment with 2% chlorhexidine solution (CHX and to compare its yield and flexural strength (fs after exposure to calcium hydroxide [Ca(OH2]. Materials and Methods. Dentine bars (DB were made from 90 roots of bovine incisors and randomized into three groups: GControl: distilled/deionized water (DDW, GNaOCl: 2.5% sodium hypochlorite + 17% EDTA, and GCHX: CHX + DDW. The release of phosphate (PO4 and calcium (Ca ions was measured by spectrophotometry. The DB were exposed to Ca(OH2 paste for 0, 30, 90, and 180 days. DB were subjected to the three-point bending test to obtain yield and fs values. The fracture patterns were evaluated (20x. Data were analyzed using Kruskal-Wallis and Dunn’s post hoc tests or one- and two-way ANOVA followed by Tukey’s post hoc test (α=0.05. Results. GCHX showed lower PO43- and Ca2+ ionic release than GNaOCl (pGNaOCl in all periods (p<0.001, except for yield strength values on 90 days (p=0.791. A larger frequency of vertical fractures was observed in GNaOCl and that of oblique fractures in GCHX (p<0.05. Conclusions. CHX prevented PO43- and Ca2+ loss and showed a tendency to preserve the yield and fs of root dentine over time following exposure to Ca(OH2 paste.

  1. Causes and patterns of loss of permanent teeth among patients attending a dental teaching institution in south India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anand, Pradeep S; Kuriakose, Sobha

    2009-09-01

    The aims of the present study are to determine the causes and pattern of loss of permanent teeth among patients attending a dental teaching institution in southern India. Data collected from patients attending the outpatient wing of the Sri Sankara Dental College, Kerala, during a three month period was used for the study. The cause for extraction was classified as follows: (1) caries and its sequelae, (2) periodontal disease, (3) orthodontic purposes, (4) impactions, (5) prosthodontic purposes, and (6) other reasons. A total of 1791 permanent teeth were extracted of which 708 (39.5%) teeth were extracted due to caries and its sequelae, 508 (28.4%) due to periodontal disease, 347 (19.4%) for orthodontic purposes, 29 (1.6%) due to impactions, 155 (8.7%) for prosthodontic purposes, and 44 (2.5%) for other reasons. The results of the present study suggest caries and periodontal disease are the major causes of tooth mortality in the study population. Data regarding the causes of tooth loss indirectly provides invaluable information on the pattern of oral health in a population which can be utilized for planning public health policies designed to address the burden of oral diseases.

  2. Severe Cenani-Lenz syndrome caused by loss of LRP4 function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kariminejad, Ariana; Stollfuß, Barbara; Li, Yun; Bögershausen, Nina; Boss, Karin; Hennekam, Raoul C M; Wollnik, Bernd

    2013-06-01

    Limb patterning and growth are complex embryonic processes in which the elaborately orchestrated interplay of diverse endocrine and paracrine factors is crucial to limb integrity. LRP4 is a lipoprotein receptor known for its regulatory effects on LRP5- and LRP6-mediated Wnt signaling, a pathway that plays a pivotal role in limb development. Recessive mutations in LRP4 have been shown to cause Cenani-Lenz syndrome, which is characterized by severe limb malformations, an unusual face, and renal abnormalities. We report on a child with severe Cenani-Lenz syndrome caused by a novel homozygous nonsense mutation in LRP4. The severity of the phenotype in a patient with absent residual LRP4 function may point to a genotype-phenotype correlation. Copyright © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  3. Loss of function of NaPiIIa causes nephrocalcinosis and possibly kidney insufficiency

    OpenAIRE

    Dinour, Dganit; Davidovits, Miriam; Ganon, Liat; Ruminska, Justyna; Forster, Ian C.; Hernando, Nati; Eyal, Eran; Holtzman, Eli J; Wagner, Carsten A.

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND Inherited metabolic disorders associated with nephrocalcinosis are rare conditions. The aim of this study was to identify the genetic cause of an Israeli-Arab boy from a consanguineous family with severe nephrocalcinosis and kidney insufficiency. METHODS Clinical and biochemical data of the proband and family members were obtained from both previous and recent medical charts. Genomic DNA was isolated from peripheral blood cells. The coding sequence and splice sites of candidate gen...

  4. MSW oxy-enriched incineration technology applied in China: combustion temperature, flue gas loss and economic considerations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fu, Zhe; Zhang, Shihong; Li, Xiangpeng; Shao, Jingai; Wang, Ke; Chen, Hanping

    2015-04-01

    To investigate the application prospect of MSW oxy-enriched incineration technology in China, the technical and economical analyses of a municipal solid waste (MSW) grate furnace with oxy-fuel incineration technology in comparison to co-incineration with coal are performed. The rated capacity of the grate furnace is 350 tonnes MSW per day. When raw MSW is burned, the amount of pure oxygen injected should be about 14.5 wt.% under 25% O2 oxy-fuel combustion conditions with the mode of oxygen supply determined by the actual situation. According to the isothermal combustion temperature (Ta), the combustion effect of 25% O2 oxy-enriched incineration (α = 1.43) is identical with that of MSW co-incineration with 20% mass ratio of coal (α = 1.91). However, the former is better than the latter in terms of plant cost, flue gas loss, and environmental impact. Despite the lower costs of MSW co-incineration with mass ratio of 5% and 10% coal (α = 1.91), 25% O2 oxy-enriched incineration (α = 1.43) is far more advantageous in combustion and pollutant control. Conventional combustion flue gas loss (q2) for co-incineration with 0% coal, 20% coal, 10% coal, 5% coal are around 17%, 13%, 14% and 15%, respectively, while that under the condition of 25% O2 oxy-enriched combustion is approximately 12% (α = 1.43). Clearly, q2 of oxy-enriched incineration is less than other methods under the same combustion conditions. High moisture content presents challenges for MSW incineration, therefore it is necessary to dry MSW prior to incineration, and making oxy-enriched incineration technology achieves higher combustion temperature and lower flue gas loss. In conclusion, based on technical and economical analysis, MSW oxy-enriched incineration retains obvious advantages and demonstrates great future prospects for MSW incineration in China. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Chromosome loss caused by DNA fragmentation induced in main nuclei and micronuclei of human lymphoblastoid cells treated with colcemid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamamoto, Mika; Wakata, Akihiro; Aoki, Yoshinobu; Miyamae, Yoichi; Kodama, Seiji

    2014-04-01

    Aneuploidy, a change in the number of chromosomes, plays an essential role in tumorigenesis. Our previous study demonstrated that a loss of a whole chromosome is induced in human lymphocytes by colcemid, a well-known aneugen. Here, to clarify the mechanism for colcemid-induced chromosome loss, we investigated the relationship between chromosome loss and DNA fragmentation in human lymphoblastoid cells treated with colcemid (an aneugen) compared with methyl methanesulfonate (MMS; a clastogen). We analyzed the number of fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) signals targeted for a whole chromosome 2 in cytokinesis-blocked binucleated TK6 cells and WTK-1 cells treated with colcemid and MMS, and concurrently detected DNA fragmentation by terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase dUTP nick end labeling (TUNEL) assay. Results revealed that DNA fragmentation occurred in 60% of all binucleated TK6 cells harboring colcemid-induced chromosome loss (30% of micronuclei and 30% of main nuclei). DNA fragmentation was observed in colcemid-induced micronuclei containing a whole chromosome but not in MMS-induced micronuclei containing chromosome fragments. In contrast, colcemid-induced nondisjunction had no effect on induction of DNA fragmentation, suggesting that DNA fragmentation was triggered by micronuclei containing a whole chromosome but not by micronuclei containing chromosome fragments or nondisjunction. In addition, the frequency of binucleated cells harboring chromosome loss with DNA fragmentation in micronuclei or main nuclei was higher in wild-type p53 TK6 cells than in mutated-p53 WTK-1 cells treated with colcemid. Taken together, these present and previous results suggest that colcemid-induced chromosome loss is caused by DNA fragmentation, which is triggered by a micronucleus with a whole chromosome and controlled by the p53-dependent pathway. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. An attempt to estimate the economic value of the loss of human life due to landslide and flood events in Italy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salvati, Paola; Bianchi, Cinzia; Hussin, Haydar; Guzzetti, Fausto

    2013-04-01

    Landslide and flood events in Italy cause wide and severe damage to buildings and infrastructure, and are frequently involved in the loss of human life. The cost estimates of past natural disasters generally refer to the amount of public money used for the restoration of the direct damage, and most commonly do not account for all disaster impacts. Other cost components, including indirect losses, are difficult to quantify and, among these, the cost of human lives. The value of specific human life can be identified with the value of a statistical life (VLS), defined as the value that an individual places on a marginal change in their likelihood of death This is different from the value of an actual life. Based on information of fatal car accidents in Italy, we evaluate the cost that society suffers for the loss of life due to landslide and flood events. Using a catalogue of fatal landslide and flood events, for which information about gender and age of the fatalities is known, we determine the cost that society suffers for the loss of their life. For the purpose, we calculate the economic value in terms of the total income that the working-age population involved in the fatal events would have earned over the course of their life. For the computation, we use the pro-capita income calculated as the ratio between the GDP and the population value in Italy for each year, since 1980. Problems occur for children and retired people that we decided not to include in our estimates.

  7. A mutation in the centriole-associated protein centrin causes genomic instability via increased chromosome loss in Chlamydomonas reinhardtii

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marshall Wallace F

    2005-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The role of centrioles in mitotic spindle function remains unclear. One approach to investigate mitotic centriole function is to ask whether mutation of centriole-associated proteins can cause genomic instability. Results We addressed the role of the centriole-associated EF-hand protein centrin in genomic stability using a Chlamydomonas reinhardtii centrin mutant that forms acentriolar bipolar spindles and lacks the centrin-based rhizoplast structures that join centrioles to the nucleus. Using a genetic assay for loss of heterozygosity, we found that this centrin mutant showed increased genomic instability compared to wild-type cells, and we determined that the increase in genomic instability was due to a 100-fold increase in chromosome loss rates compared to wild type. Live cell imaging reveals an increased rate in cell death during G1 in haploid cells that is consistent with an elevated rate of chromosome loss, and analysis of cell death versus centriole copy number argues against a role for multipolar spindles in this process. Conclusion The increased chromosome loss rates observed in a centrin mutant that forms acentriolar spindles suggests a role for centrin protein, and possibly centrioles, in mitotic fidelity.

  8. Observations of global-scale coherence of radiation-belt electron loss caused by ULF wave modulation of the magnetosphere

    Science.gov (United States)

    Breneman, A. W.; Halford, A. J.; Millan, R. M.; McCarthy, M.; Sample, J. G.; Woodger, L. A.; Hospodarsky, G. B.; Wygant, J. R.; Cattell, C. A.; Goldstein, J.; Malaspina, D.; Kletzing, C.; Fennell, J. F.

    2015-12-01

    Recent results using combined Van Allen Probes and BARREL datasets [Breneman et al., Nature, 2015] indicate that changes of up to an order of magnitude in the dynamics of electron loss arising from hiss occur on timescales as short as 1-20 min, in association with ULF modulations in plasma density and magnetic field. A surprising result was that these loss dynamics were coherent with hiss dynamics on a global scale comparable to the size of the plasmasphere. We expand this analysis to the entire BARREL dataset, consisting of three campaigns and more than 40 balloons, by calculating the coherence of electron precipitation signatures (bremsstrahlung X-rays) on all balloon combinations as a function of MLT and L. Preliminary results indicate that large-scale coherence maximizes near noon MLT, suggesting that magnetosphere compressions of solar wind origin are the primary cause of global-scale coherence of electron loss. Coherence also extends out a few hours from noon to both flanks, suggesting that Kelvin-Helmholz waves may also contribute. We will sort these results by solar wind parameters such as IMF clock angle better understand when these ULF waves are able to create a global coherence scale of electron loss in the magnetosphere.

  9. Vestibular loss and balance training cause similar changes in human cerebral white matter fractional anisotropy.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nadine Hummel

    Full Text Available Patients with bilateral vestibular loss suffer from severe balance deficits during normal everyday movements. Ballet dancers, figure skaters, or slackliners, in contrast, are extraordinarily well trained in maintaining balance for the extreme balance situations that they are exposed to. Both training and disease can lead to changes in the diffusion properties of white matter that are related to skill level or disease progression respectively. In this study, we used diffusion tensor imaging (DTI to compare white matter diffusivity between these two study groups and their age- and sex-matched controls. We found that vestibular patients and balance-trained subjects show a reduction of fractional anisotropy in similar white matter tracts, due to a relative increase in radial diffusivity (perpendicular to the main diffusion direction. Reduced fractional anisotropy was not only found in sensory and motor areas, but in a widespread network including long-range connections, limbic and association pathways. The reduced fractional anisotropy did not correlate with any cognitive, disease-related or skill-related factors. The similarity in FA between the two study groups, together with the absence of a relationship between skill or disease factors and white matter changes, suggests a common mechanism for these white matter differences. We propose that both study groups must exert increased effort to meet their respective usual balance requirements. Since balance training has been shown to effectively reduce the symptoms of vestibular failure, the changes in white matter shown here may represent a neuronal mechanism for rehabilitation.

  10. Age-related formaldehyde interferes with DNA methyltransferase function, causing memory loss in Alzheimer's disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tong, Zhiqian; Han, Chanshuai; Qiang, Min; Wang, Weishan; Lv, Jihui; Zhang, Shouzi; Luo, Wenhong; Li, Hui; Luo, Hongjun; Zhou, Jiangning; Wu, Beibei; Su, Tao; Yang, Xu; Wang, Xiaomin; Liu, Ying; He, Rongqiao

    2015-01-01

    Hippocampus-related topographic amnesia is the most common symptom of memory disorders in Alzheimer's disease (AD) patients. Recent studies have revealed that experience-mediated DNA methylation, which is regulated by enzymes with DNA methyltransferase (DNMT) activity, is required for the formation of recent memory as well as the maintenance of remote memory. Notably, overexpression of DNMT3a in the hippocampus can reverse spatial memory deficits in aged mice. However, a decline in global DNA methylation was found in the autopsied hippocampi of patients with AD. Exactly, what endogenous factors that affect DNA methylation still remain to be elucidated. Here, we report a marked increase in endogenous formaldehyde levels is associated with a decline in global DNA methylation in the autopsied hippocampus from AD patients. In vitro and in vivo results show that formaldehyde in excess of normal physiological levels reduced global DNA methylation by interfering DNMTs. Interestingly, intrahippocampal injection of excess formaldehyde before spatial learning in healthy adult rats can mimic the learning difficulty of early stage of AD. Moreover, injection of excess formaldehyde after spatial learning can mimic the loss of remote spatial memory observed in late stage of AD. These findings suggest that aging-associated formaldehyde contributes to topographic amnesia in AD patients. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Hedgehog inhibition causes complete loss of limb outgrowth and transformation of digit identity in Xenopus tropicalis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stopper, Geffrey F; Richards-Hrdlicka, Kathryn L; Wagner, Günter P

    2016-03-01

    The study of the tetrapod limb has contributed greatly to our understanding of developmental pathways and how changes to these pathways affect the evolution of morphology. Most of our understanding of tetrapod limb development comes from research on amniotes, with far less known about mechanisms of limb development in amphibians. To better understand the mechanisms of limb development in anuran amphibians, we used cyclopamine to inhibit Hedgehog signaling at various stages of development in the western clawed frog, Xenopus tropicalis, and observed resulting morphologies. We also analyzed gene expression changes resulting from similar experiments in Xenopus laevis. Inhibition of Hedgehog signaling in X. tropicalis results in limb abnormalities including reduced digit number, missing skeletal elements, and complete absence of limbs. In addition, posterior digits assume an anterior identity by developing claws that are usually only found on anterior digits, confirming Sonic hedgehog's role in digit identity determination. Thus, Sonic hedgehog appears to play mechanistically separable roles in digit number specification and digit identity specification as in other studied tetrapods. The complete limb loss observed in response to reduced Hedgehog signaling in X. tropicalis, however, is striking, as this functional role for Hedgehog signaling has not been found in any other tetrapod. This changed mechanism may represent a substantial developmental constraint to digit number evolution in frogs. J. Exp. Zool. (Mol. Dev. Evol.) 9999B:XX-XX, 2016. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  12. Progressive glenoid bone loss caused by erosion in humeral head resurfacing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Werner, B S; Stehle, J; Abdelkawi, A; Plumhoff, P; Hudek, R; Gohlke, F

    2017-12-01

    Cementless surface replacement of the shoulder represents an alternative to conventional stemmed anatomic prostheses. Glenoid erosion is a well-known complication in hemiarthroplasty. However, there is limited data concerning radiographic evaluation and prognostic factors for this phenomenon. The aim of our study was to determine the development of glenoid erosion following shoulder resurfacing using a new measurement technique and detect potential prognostic factors. We performed a retrospective analysis on 38 shoulders undergoing humeral head resurfacing with a mean follow-up of 65.4 ± 43 months. Clinical and radiographic evaluation followed a standardized protocol including pre- and postoperative Constant score, active range of motion, and X‑rays in true anteroposterior view. Three independent observers performed measurements of glenoid erosion. We found good interobserver reliability for glenoid erosion measurements (intraclass correlation coefficient [ICC] 0.74-0.78). Progressive glenoid erosion was present in all cases, averaging 5.5 ± 3.9 mm at more than 5 years' follow-up. Male patients demonstrated increased glenoid bone loss within the first 5 years (p erosion was 37%. Glenoid erosion can be routinely expected in patients undergoing humeral head resurfacing. Painful glenoid erosion leads to deterioration in functional outcome and necessitates revision surgery in a high percentage of cases.

  13. Mutations in KARS cause early-onset hearing loss and leukoencephalopathy: Potential pathogenic mechanism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Xiao-Long; He, Long-Xia; Yu, Li-Jia; Wang, Yong; Wang, Xi-Jin; Wang, En-Duo; Yang, Tao

    2017-12-01

    Leukoencephalopathies are a broad class of common neurologic deterioration for which the etiology remains unsolved in many cases. In a Chinese Han family segregated with sensorineural hearing loss and leukoencephalopathy, candidate pathogenic variants were identified by targeted next-generation sequencing of 144 genes associated with deafness and 108 genes with leukoencephalopathy. Novel compound heterozygous mutations p.R477H and p.P505S were identified in KARS, which encodes lysyl-tRNA synthetase (LysRS), as the only candidate causative variants. These two mutations were functionally characterized by enzymatic assays, immunofluorescence, circular dichroism analysis, and gel filtration chromatography. Despite no alteration in the dimer-tetramer oligomerization and cellular distribution by either mutation, the protein structure was notably influenced by the R477H mutation, which subsequently released the protein from the multiple-synthetase complex (MSC). Mutant LysRSs with the R477H and P505S mutations had decreased tRNA(Lys) aminoacylation and displayed a cumulative effect when introduced simultaneously. Our studies showed that mutations in KARS lead to a newly defined subtype of leukoencephalopathy associated with sensorineural hearing impairment. The combined effect of reduced aminoacylation and release of LysRS from the MSC likely underlies the pathogenesis of the KARS mutations identified in this study. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  14. Successful treatment of bilateral visual loss caused by HIV-associated optic neuritis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claire Cullen

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Optic neuritis is not an uncommon diagnosis in HIV-infected patients, but it is rarely idiopathic. We report a case of a young HIV-infected woman who developed optic neuritis as her presenting manifestation of HIV infection. She had initially experienced sudden-onset right-sided painful visual loss; the left eye had become involved within days. Bilateral swollen discs were apparent on fundoscopy. Investigations were performed for meningitis (including bacterial, cryptococcal, tuberculous and syphilitic types, auto-immune diseases, toxoplasma, rubella, cytomegalovirus, viral hepatitis, HTLV-1/2, HIV-1/2 and syphilis. The only positive result was a reactive HIV enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. The CD4 count was 85 cells/µl. A post-contrast magnetic resonance imaging scan of the brain illustrated enhancement of the optic nerves. Treatment was 3 days of intravenous methylprednisolone 1 g daily, followed by 11 days of oral prednisone 60 mg daily. Highly active antiretroviral therapy was initiated after 2 weeks. Vision improved from day 6 after commencement of steroid therapy, with ongoing recovery at 5 months.

  15. Vestibular loss and balance training cause similar changes in human cerebral white matter fractional anisotropy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hummel, Nadine; Hüfner, Katharina; Stephan, Thomas; Linn, Jennifer; Kremmyda, Olympia; Brandt, Thomas; Flanagin, Virginia L

    2014-01-01

    Patients with bilateral vestibular loss suffer from severe balance deficits during normal everyday movements. Ballet dancers, figure skaters, or slackliners, in contrast, are extraordinarily well trained in maintaining balance for the extreme balance situations that they are exposed to. Both training and disease can lead to changes in the diffusion properties of white matter that are related to skill level or disease progression respectively. In this study, we used diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) to compare white matter diffusivity between these two study groups and their age- and sex-matched controls. We found that vestibular patients and balance-trained subjects show a reduction of fractional anisotropy in similar white matter tracts, due to a relative increase in radial diffusivity (perpendicular to the main diffusion direction). Reduced fractional anisotropy was not only found in sensory and motor areas, but in a widespread network including long-range connections, limbic and association pathways. The reduced fractional anisotropy did not correlate with any cognitive, disease-related or skill-related factors. The similarity in FA between the two study groups, together with the absence of a relationship between skill or disease factors and white matter changes, suggests a common mechanism for these white matter differences. We propose that both study groups must exert increased effort to meet their respective usual balance requirements. Since balance training has been shown to effectively reduce the symptoms of vestibular failure, the changes in white matter shown here may represent a neuronal mechanism for rehabilitation.

  16. Reduced cul-5 activity causes aberrant follicular morphogenesis and germ cell loss in Drosophila oogenesis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jan-Michael Kugler

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available Drosophila oogenesis is especially well suited for studying stem cell biology, cellular differentiation, and morphogenesis. The small modifier protein ubiquitin regulates many cellular pathways. Ubiquitin is conjugated to target proteins by a diverse class of enzymes called ubiquitin E3 ligases. Here we characterize the requirement of Cul-5, a key component of a subgroup of Cullin-RING-type ubiquitin E3 ligases, in Drosophila oogenesis. We find that reduced cul-5 activity causes the formation of aberrant follicles that are characterized by excess germ cells. We show that germ line cells overproliferate in cul-5 mutant females, causing the formation of abnormally large germ line cysts. Also, the follicular epithelium that normally encapsulates single germ line cysts develops aberrantly in cul-5 mutant, leading to defects in cyst formation. We additionally found that Cul-5 is required for germ cell maintenance, as germ cells are depleted in a substantial fraction of cul-5 mutant ovaries. All of these cul-5 phenotypes are strongly enhanced by reduced activity of gustavus (gus, which encodes a substrate receptor of Cul-5-based ubiquitin E3 ligases. Taken together, our results implicate Cul-5/Gus ubiquitin E3 ligases in ovarian tissue morphogenesis, germ cell proliferation and maintenance of the ovarian germ cell population.

  17. ECONOMIC AND SOCIAL CHALLENGES IN A GLOBAL ENVIRONMENT. LABOUR MARKET CHANGES IN ROMANIA. FACTORS, CAUSES, ADJUSTMENT MECHANISMS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valentina VASILE

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available The reform of labour market and the modification of the human capital management model evolved unsteadily, much behind the demand from the economic and social environment. Labour market was pushed to a secondary plane, considering that the adjustment of the other markets would cause necessary changes for ensuring the functioning of the labour market. Now, Romania is involved in consolidating the market economy, which requires integrated procedures of dealing with the policies able to respond efficiently to challenges. Similarly to the economic reform, the chances in the labour market were gradual but there were no coherence and no correlation of the measures taken, which caused non-typical behaviours, often contrary to reforms.

  18. Lungworm outbreaks in adult dairy cows: estimating economic losses and lessons to be learned.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holzhauer, M; van Schaik, G; Saatkamp, H W; Ploeger, H W

    2011-11-05

    Two lungworm outbreaks in dairy herds were investigated in order to estimate the resulting economic costs. On the two farms, with 110 and 95 cows, total costs were estimated at €159 and €167 per cow, respectively. Overall, milk production reduced by 15 to 20 per cent during the outbreaks. Five cows died on one farm, while on the other farm seven cows died as a result of the lungworm outbreak. On one farm, 51.7 per cent of the total costs was due to reduced milk production and 33.1 per cent was due to disposal of dead animals. On the other farm, it was 36.3 and 50.9 per cent, respectively. The remaining 13 to 15 per cent of the total costs were due to extra inseminations, laboratory diagnosis and treatments. The history and development of the outbreaks are described. One lesson from these outbreaks is that recognising that potentially lungworm-naïve animals are to be introduced into the adult herd allows for timely measures (for example, vaccination) to prevent a lungworm outbreak.

  19. Loss of Kindlin-1 causes skin atrophy and lethal neonatal intestinal epithelial dysfunction.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Siegfried Ussar

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Kindler Syndrome (KS, characterized by transient skin blistering followed by abnormal pigmentation, skin atrophy, and skin cancer, is caused by mutations in the FERMT1 gene. Although a few KS patients have been reported to also develop ulcerative colitis (UC, a causal link to the FERMT1 gene mutation is unknown. The FERMT1 gene product belongs to a family of focal adhesion proteins (Kindlin-1, -2, -3 that bind several beta integrin cytoplasmic domains. Here, we show that deleting Kindlin-1 in mice gives rise to skin atrophy and an intestinal epithelial dysfunction with similarities to human UC. This intestinal dysfunction results in perinatal lethality and is triggered by defective intestinal epithelial cell integrin activation, leading to detachment of this barrier followed by a destructive inflammatory response.

  20. Beliefs about the Causes of Poverty in Parents and Adolescents Experiencing Economic Disadvantage in Hong Kong

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shek, Daniel T. L.

    2004-01-01

    Over 2 consecutive years, parents and their adolescent children from 199 poor families in Hong Kong responded to the Chinese Perceived Causes of Poverty Scale, which assesses beliefs about the causes of poverty. The author abstracted 4 factors from the scale. Analyses showed that these factors (personal problems, exploitation, lack of opportunity,…

  1. Loss of polyadenylation protein τCstF-64 causes spermatogenic defects and male infertility

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dass, Brinda; Tardif, Steve; Park, Ji Yeon; Tian, Bin; Weitlauf, Harry M.; Hess, Rex A.; Carnes, Kay; Griswold, Michael D.; Small, Christopher L.; MacDonald, Clinton C.

    2007-01-01

    Polyadenylation, the process of eukaryotic mRNA 3′ end formation, is essential for gene expression and cell viability. Polyadenylation of male germ cell mRNAs is unusual, exhibiting increased alternative polyadenylation, decreased AAUAAA polyadenylation signal use, and reduced downstream sequence element dependence. CstF-64, the RNA-binding component of the cleavage stimulation factor (CstF), interacts with pre-mRNAs at sequences downstream of the cleavage site. In mammalian testes, meiotic XY-body formation causes suppression of X-linked CstF-64 expression during pachynema. Consequently, an autosomal paralog, τCstF-64 (gene name Cstf2t), is expressed during meiosis and subsequent haploid differentiation. Here we show that targeted disruption of Cstf2t in mice causes aberrant spermatogenesis, specifically disrupting meiotic and postmeiotic development, resulting in male infertility resembling oligoasthenoteratozoospermia. Furthermore, the Cstf2t mutant phenotype displays variable expressivity such that spermatozoa show a broad range of defects. The overall phenotype is consistent with a requirement for τCstF-64 in spermatogenesis as indicated by the significant changes in expression of thousands of genes in testes of Cstf2t−/− mice as measured by microarray. Our results indicate that, although the infertility in Cstf2t−/− males is due to low sperm count, multiple genes controlling many aspects of germ-cell development depend on τCstF-64 for their normal expression. Finally, these transgenic mice provide a model for the study of polyadenylation in an isolated in vivo system and highlight the role of a growing family of testis-expressed autosomal retroposed variants of X-linked genes. PMID:18077340

  2. Attribution of Causes of Weight Loss and Weight Gain to 3-Year Mortality in Older Adults : Results From the Longitudinal Aging Study Amsterdam

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wijnhoven, Hanneke A. H.; van Zon, Sander K. R.; Twisk, Jos; Visser, Marjolein

    2014-01-01

    Background. Weight loss is associated with a higher mortality risk in old age, but the underlying cause may impact this association. We examined associations between causes of intentional and unintentional weight loss and weight gain and mortality. Methods. We used data of five triannual examination

  3. Attribution of Causes of Weight Loss and Weight Gain to 3-Year Mortality in Older Adults: Results From the Longitudinal Aging Study Amsterdam

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wijnhoven, H.A.H.; van Zon, S.K.R.; Twisk, J.; Visser, M.

    2014-01-01

    Background: Weight loss is associated with a higher mortality risk in old age, but the underlying cause may impact this association. We examined associations between causes of intentional and unintentional weight loss and weight gain and mortality. Methods: We used data of five triannual examination

  4. FUNCTIONS THAT CAUSE AFFECTING THE IMPLEMENTATION OF REENGINEERING IN TERMS OF ECONOMIC IMPACT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Slobodan Stefanović

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available This paper work includes general financial parameters of small and medium enterprises which causal influence on the implementation of reengineering in transition economies through: management processes, Luirao marketing functions, functions of scientific research, the function of management approach in planning production, development and control aspects of business operations with the economic and financial effects. Based on these parameters the financial analysis of major economic indicators of application of reengineering in small and medium enterprises is shown. The design of small and medium enterprises through re-engineering must be comprehensive (systems approach and that there is an effective methodology which depends on the specific enterprises Aspect of the analysis should focus on the cost of the company.

  5. Optimizing the District Heating Primary Network from the Perspective of Economic-Specific Pressure Loss

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Haichao Wang

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available A district heating (DH system is one of the most important components of infrastructures in cold areas. Proper DH network design should balance the initial investment and the heat distribution cost of the DH network. Currently, this design is often based on a recommended value for specific pressure loss (R = ∆P/L in the main lines. This will result in a feasible network design, but probably not be optimal in most cases. The paper develops a novel optimization model to facilitate the design by considering the initial investment in the pipes and the heat distribution costs. The model will generate all possible network scenarios consisting of different series of diameters for each pipe in the flow direction of the network. Then, the annuity on the initial investment, the heat distribution cost, and the total annual cost will be calculated for each network scenario, taking into account the uncertainties of the material prices and the yearly operating time levels. The model is applied to a sample DH network and the results indicate that the model works quite well, clearly identifying the optimal network design and demonstrating that the heat distribution cost is more important than the initial investment in DH network design.

  6. Anthropogenic Disturbance of Montane Meadows May Cause Substantial Loss of Soil Carbon to the Atmosphere

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reed, C. C.; Sullivan, B. W.; Hart, S. C.; Drew, M.; Merrill, A.

    2016-12-01

    High-elevation meadows are biological hotspots that contain high densities of soil carbon (C). The capacity of these ecosystems to sequester C depends on a combination of high primary productivity, seasonally low temperatures, and anaerobic soil conditions associated with water tables at or near the soil surface. However, anthropogenic disturbances in many montane meadows in California's Sierra Nevada have lowered water tables, decreased primary productivity, and created aerobic soil conditions - changes that may alter the balance of greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions and reverse meadows from a net C sink to a net source. Recently, C policy in California has spurred interest in the potential of hydrologic restoration to increase C sequestration in meadows. However, soil C pools and fluxes in degraded meadows must be quantified before the impacts of restoration can accurately be assessed. In this study, we measured soil C stocks in surface soil (1 m) and annual soil GHG fluxes (carbon dioxide (CO2), methane (CH4), and nitrous oxide (N2O)) in three degraded, northern Sierra Nevada meadows. In a parallel laboratory incubation, we manipulated meadow soil water content to determine target goals for restoration of anaerobic conditions. Our results suggest that degraded meadows contain large reservoirs of existing C, but that this C may be vulnerable to decomposition under current conditions. Soil CO2 fluxes ranged from 26.7-33.1 Mg of CO2 ha-1 y-1, roughly equivalent to the amount of C sequestered annually by 70 acres of U.S. forests. These high rates of soil respiration, combined with low primary productivity, resulted in substantial losses of soil C with implications for climate change, ecosystem function, and restoration. Soils from these meadows were a net source of N2O and a net sink of CH4, but these fluxes were 4 orders of magnitude smaller than CO2. Also, we found substantial GHG emissions persist in these organic soils at peak soil moisture, suggesting that

  7. Higher phylogenetic diversity prevents loss of functional diversity caused by successive drying and rewetting cycles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bononi, Laura; Taketani, Rodrigo Gouvêa; Souza, Danilo Tosta; Moitinho, Marta Alves; Kavamura, Vanessa Nessner; Melo, Itamar Soares

    2017-12-29

    Microbial communities regulate nutrient cycling in soil, thus the impact of climate change on the structure and function of these communities can cause an imbalance of nutrients in the environment. Structural and functional changes of soil bacterial communities in two contrasting biomes in Brazil, the Atlantic Forest and the Tropical Dry Forest (Caatinga), were studied by simulating, in microcosms, rainfall and drought events. Soil samples were collected in three Brazilian states: Bahia, Pernambuco and São Paulo, in a total of four sampling sites. Analysis of 16S rRNA amplicon libraries revealed changes in microbial communities after three drying-rewetting cycles (60-30% water holding capacity). Alpha diversity indexes were obtained for bacterial communities, as well as the functional diversity index (Shannon) based on the activity of the following enzymes: acid and alkaline phosphatase, arylsulfatase, dehydrogenase, cellulase, amylase, urease and phytase. In general, the soils of Caatinga showed a decrease in the diversity indexes studied, conversely, however, the soils of Atlantic Forest were found to be more resistant during the drying-rewetting cycles. Functional diversity was significantly different for the two biomes, with a decrease in Caatinga soils, while Atlantic Forest samples demonstrated a greater stability of enzymatic activity. Further, the Atlantic Forest samples showed more resistance when compared to samples from Caatinga. The results found in this study have confirmed the hypothesis that biomes, independent of climate, when subjected to successive events of drought and rewetting exhibit structural and metabolic changes.

  8. Strong ELA increase causes fast mass loss of glaciers in central Spitsbergen

    Science.gov (United States)

    Małecki, J.

    2015-11-01

    Svalbard is a heavily glacier covered archipelago in the Arctic. Its central regions, including Dickson Land (DL), are occupied by small alpine glaciers, which post-Little Ice Age (LIA) changes remain only sporadically investigated. This study presents a comprehensive analysis of glacier changes in DL based on inventories compiled from topographic maps and digital elevation models (DEMs) for LIA, 1960's, 1990 and 2009/11. The 37.9 ± 12.1 % glacier area decrease in DL (i.e. from 334.1 ± 38.4 km2 during LIA to 207.4 ± 4.6 km2 in 2009/11) has been primarily caused by accelerating termini retreat. The mean 1990-2009/11 geodetic mass balance of glaciers was -0.70 ± 0.06 m a-1 (-0.63 ± 0.05 m w.e. a-1), being one of the most negative from Svalbard regional means known from the literature. If the same figure was to be applied for other similar regions of central Spitsbergen, that would result in a considerable contribution to total Svalbard mass balance despite negligible proportion to total glacier area. Glacier changes in Dickson Land were linked to dramatic equilibrium line altitude (ELA) shift, which in the period 1990-2009/11 has been located ca. 500 m higher than required for steady-state. The mass balance of central Spitsbergen glaciers seems to be therefore more sensitive to climate change than previously thought.

  9. Abrupt fire regime change may cause landscape-wide loss of mature obligate seeder forests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bowman, David M J S; Murphy, Brett P; Neyland, Dominic L J; Williamson, Grant J; Prior, Lynda D

    2014-03-01

    Obligate seeder trees requiring high-severity fires to regenerate may be vulnerable to population collapse if fire frequency increases abruptly. We tested this proposition using a long-lived obligate seeding forest tree, alpine ash (Eucalyptus delegatensis), in the Australian Alps. Since 2002, 85% of the Alps bioregion has been burnt by several very large fires, tracking the regional trend of more frequent extreme fire weather. High-severity fires removed 25% of aboveground tree biomass, and switched fuel arrays from low loads of herbaceous and litter fuels to high loads of flammable shrubs and juvenile trees, priming regenerating stands for subsequent fires. Single high-severity fires caused adult mortality and triggered mass regeneration, but a second fire in quick succession killed 97% of the regenerating alpine ash. Our results indicate that without interventions to reduce fire severity, interactions between flammability of regenerating stands and increased extreme fire weather will eliminate much of the remaining mature alpine ash forest. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  10. Loss of the actin remodeler Eps8 causes intestinal defects and improved metabolic status in mice.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arianna Tocchetti

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: In a variety of organisms, including mammals, caloric restriction improves metabolic status and lowers the incidence of chronic-degenerative diseases, ultimately leading to increased lifespan. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Here we show that knockout mice for Eps8, a regulator of actin dynamics, display reduced body weight, partial resistance to age- or diet-induced obesity, and overall improved metabolic status. Alteration in the liver gene expression profile, in behavior and metabolism point to a calorie restriction-like phenotype in Eps8 knockout mice. Additionally, and consistent with a calorie restricted metabolism, Eps8 knockout mice show increased lifespan. The metabolic alterations in Eps8 knockout mice correlated with a significant reduction in intestinal fat absorption presumably caused by a 25% reduction in intestinal microvilli length. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Our findings implicate actin dynamics as a novel variable in the determination of longevity. Additionally, our observations suggest that subtle differences in energy balance can, over time, significantly affect bodyweight and metabolic status in mice.

  11. Strikes in the public sector in Denmark – assessing the economic gains and losses of collective action

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Scheuer, Steen; Ibsen, Flemming; Høgedahl, Laust Kristian

    2016-01-01

    This article looks at strikes by employees in the public sector, discusses the theoretical background to these conflicts and shows – based on a case study of three strikes in the Danish public sector – how different union strategies lead to very different outcomes in terms of economic gains...... and losses, ranging from a slightly positive result to a negative result from which it will take eight to ten years to recover. This is of great importance because the challenge facing public sector unions is different from that of their counterparts: private sector unions struggle with the owners of capital......, while public sector unions trying to move up the wage hierarchy cannot expect much help from fellow public sector unions, often quite the reverse....

  12. Evaluation of economic, social and sector impacts of agricultural land loss

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iacopo Bernetti

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Throughout Italy, soil sealing has had a significant impact on the landscape and on agricultural land. This issue needs to be analyzed in order to provide the policy maker with strategic information for rational land planning and environmental management. In this context, the purpose of this study is to widen our knowledge about the consumption of agricultural land in Italy, analyzing its dynamics, causes and impact. The analysis considers three specific aspects: design of a territorial model to study the extent of land consumption, qualitativequantitative evaluation and classification of the ways in which sealing areas are extended, and analysis of impact and driving forces. The results have helped identify the extent of soil sealing on a geographical basis and, at the same time, to understand how artificialization morphotypologies are linked to the changes that take place and what impact these changes have in relation to territorial multifunctionality and hydrogeological risk.

  13. Economics, Politics and Young Males. Root Causes of Terrorism on the Aggregate Level in Europe

    OpenAIRE

    Roaldsnes, Andreas

    2015-01-01

    The research question posed in this thesis is: what are the root causes of terrorism on the aggregate level in Europe. There is little convergence on the root causes of terrorism in the field of terrorism research, and many findings are challenged on data and conceptual grounds. The analysis is done with two dependent variables each representing an operationalization of terrorism, a count of the number of killed in terrorism events for each country-year observation and a count of the numbe...

  14. Turbulence induces metabolically costly behaviors and inhibits food capture in oyster larvae, causing net energy loss.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fuchs, Heidi L; Specht, Jaclyn A; Adams, Diane K; Christman, Adam J

    2017-10-01

    Planktotrophic invertebrate larvae require energy to develop, disperse and settle successfully, and it is unknown how their energetics are impacted by turbulence. Ciliated larvae gain metabolic energy from their phytoplankton food to offset the energetic costs of growth, development and ciliary activity for swimming and feeding. Turbulence may affect the energetic balance by inducing behaviors that alter the metabolic costs and efficiency of swimming, by raising the encounter rate with food particles and by inhibiting food capture. We used experiments and an empirical model to quantify the net rate of energy gain, swimming efficiency and food capture efficiency for eyed oyster larvae (Crassostrea virginica) in turbulence. At dissipation rates representative of coastal waters, larvae lost energy even when food concentrations were very high. Both feeding activity and turbulence-induced behaviors incurred high metabolic costs. Swimming efficiency was concave up versus dissipation rate, suggesting that ciliary activity for food handling became more costly while swimming became more efficient with turbulence intensity. Though counter-intuitive, swimming may have become more efficient in turbulence because vorticity-induced rotation caused larvae to swim more horizontally, which requires less effort than swimming vertically against the pull of gravity. Overall, however, larvae failed to offset high activity costs with food energy gains because turbulence reduced food capture efficiency more than it enhanced food encounter rates. Younger, smaller larvae may have some energetic advantages, but competent larvae would lose energy at turbulence intensities they experience frequently, suggesting that turbulence-induced starvation may account for much of oysters' high larval mortality. © 2017. Published by The Company of Biologists Ltd.

  15. On the tragedy of the commons: When predation and livestock loss may improve the economic lot of herders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skonhoft, Anders; Johannesen, Anne Borge; Olaussen, Jon Olaf

    2017-03-30

    This paper studies the practice of semi-domestic reindeer (Rangifer t. tarandus) herding in Finnmark county in northern Norway. In this area, the Saami reindeer herders compete for space and grazing areas and keep large herds, while at the same time, the reindeer population is heavily exposed to carnivore predation by the lynx (Lynx lynx), the wolverine (Gulo gulo), and the golden eagle (Aquila chrysaetos). It is demonstrated that predation actually may improve the economic lot of livestock holders in this unmanaged local common setting. There are ecological as well as economic reasons as to why this happens. The ecological reason is that predation compensates for natural mortality; that is, increased predation reduces natural mortality, indicating that the net loss due to predation actually may be quite small. When predation reduces livestock density, the feeding conditions of the animals will improve, resulting in increased livestock weight and higher per animal slaughter value. At the same time, a smaller stock reduces the operating costs of the herders.

  16. Modeling the Unites States government's economic cost of noise-induced hearing loss for a military population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tufts, Jennifer B; Weathersby, Paul K; Rodriguez, Francisco A

    2010-05-01

    The purpose of this paper is to demonstrate the feasibility and utility of developing economic cost models for noise-induced hearing loss (NIHL). First, we outline an economic model of NIHL for a population of US Navy sailors with an "industrial"-type noise exposure. Next, we describe the effect on NIHL-related cost of varying the two central model inputs--the noise-exposure level and the duration of exposure. Such an analysis can help prioritize promising areas, to which limited resources to reduce NIHL-related costs should be devoted. NIHL-related costs borne by the US government were computed on a yearly basis using a finite element approach that took into account varying levels of susceptibility to NIHL. Predicted hearing thresholds for the population were computed with ANSI S3.44-1996 and then used as the basis for the calculation of NIHL-related costs. Annual and cumulative costs were tracked. Noise-exposure level and duration were systematically varied to determine their effects on the expected lifetime NIHL-related cost of a specific US Navy sailor population. Our nominal noise-exposure case [93 dB(A) for six years] yielded a total expected lifetime cost of US $13,472 per sailor, with plausible lower and upper bounds of US $2,500 and US $26,000. Starting with the nominal case, a decrease of 50% in exposure level or duration would yield cost savings of approximately 23% and 19%, respectively. We concluded that a reduction in noise level would be more somewhat more cost-effective than the same percentage reduction in years of exposure. Our economic cost model can be used to estimate the changes in NIHL-related costs that would result from changes in noise-exposure level and/or duration for a single military population. Although the model is limited at present, suggestions are provided for adapting it to civilian populations.

  17. Duplication and Loss of Function of Genes Encoding RNA Polymerase III Subunit C4 Causes Hybrid Incompatibility in Rice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giao Ngoc Nguyen

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Reproductive barriers are commonly observed in both animals and plants, in which they maintain species integrity and contribute to speciation. This report shows that a combination of loss-of-function alleles at two duplicated loci, DUPLICATED GAMETOPHYTIC STERILITY 1 (DGS1 on chromosome 4 and DGS2 on chromosome 7, causes pollen sterility in hybrid progeny derived from an interspecific cross between cultivated rice, Oryza sativa, and an Asian annual wild rice, O. nivara. Male gametes carrying the DGS1 allele from O. nivara (DGS1-nivaras and the DGS2 allele from O. sativa (DGS2-T65s were sterile, but female gametes carrying the same genotype were fertile. We isolated the causal gene, which encodes a protein homologous to DNA-dependent RNA polymerase (RNAP III subunit C4 (RPC4. RPC4 facilitates the transcription of 5S rRNAs and tRNAs. The loss-of-function alleles at DGS1-nivaras and DGS2-T65s were caused by weak or nonexpression of RPC4 and an absence of RPC4, respectively. Phylogenetic analysis demonstrated that gene duplication of RPC4 at DGS1 and DGS2 was a recent event that occurred after divergence of the ancestral population of Oryza from other Poaceae or during diversification of AA-genome species.

  18. A behavioral economic analysis of changes in food-related and food-free reinforcement during weight loss treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buscemi, Joanna; Murphy, James G; Berlin, Kristoffer S; Raynor, Hollie A

    2014-08-01

    Behavioral economic theory predicts that reductions in consumption of highly valued commodities, such as drugs or palatable food items, are facilitated by increasing engagement in reinforcing substitutes. The current study prospectively examines changes in engagement in and enjoyment of food versus food-free activities during an 18-month behavioral weight loss intervention. Participants were 202 overweight/obese individuals who took part in an 18-month behavioral weight loss treatment and were randomly assigned to a traditional hypocaloric, low-fat diet condition or a traditional hypocaloric, low-fat diet plus a goal to limit variety in snack food consumption condition. At baseline and 6, 12, and 18 months, participants were weighed and completed a measure that assessed recent frequency of engagement in and enjoyment of a variety of both food and food-free activities. Growth models revealed a statistically significant decrease in the relative percentage of food-related reinforcement (vs. food-free) over time (reinforcement ratio, or RR), with the greatest reduction during the first 6 months of treatment. Food-related reinforcement decreased over time, and food-free reinforcement increased. Additionally, the RR change predicted change in body mass index (BMI) from 0 to 6 months and 0 to 18 months, such that greater changes in RR were associated with greater changes in BMI. Findings suggest that behavioral weight loss treatment may promote a shift away from food-related reinforcement toward food-free reinforcement and that this change may predict BMI change. Future interventions may consider targeting increasing engagement in enjoyable food-free activities to help with long-term maintenance. PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2014 APA, all rights reserved.

  19. Ungulate browsing causes species loss in deciduous forests independent of community dynamics and silvicultural management in Central and Southeastern Europe

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E.D. Schulze

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Grid-based inventories of 1,924 deciduous forests plots in Germany and 4,775 in Romania were used to investigate tree species composition as affected by browsing and grazing under different forest management (rotation forestry, selectively cut forest, protected forest. At regional scale, the loss of tree species in the dominant layer was between 52 to 67% in Germany and of 10 to 30% in Romania, with largest effects in protected nature reserves in Germany. At plot level, only 50% (Germany to 54% (Romania of canopy species were found in the regeneration layer with a height of 1.5 m. Browsing was influenced by the proportion of Fagus in the regenerating trees in Germany, and by stand density, basal area, and management in both regions. Structural equation modeling explained 11 to 26% of the variance in species loss based on the fresh loss of the terminal bud in the winter prior to the inventory work (one season browsing. Browsing (and grazing in Romania is shown to be a significant cause of species loss across both countries and all management types. Potential cascading effects on other organisms of deciduous forest ecosystems are discussed. We conclude that the present hunting practices that support overabundant ungulate populations constitute a major threat to the biodiversity of deciduous forests in Germany and Romania and to other places with similar ungulate management, and that changes my only be possible by modernizing the legal framework of hunting.

  20. Does chronic illness cause adverse social and economic consequences among Swedes?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lindholm, C; Burström, B; Diderichsen, F

    2001-01-01

    BACKGROUND: In an international comparison, the Swedish welfare system has been known for universal coverage and high benefit levels. Perhaps this is the reason why very few studies recently have dealt with the social and economic consequences of long-term illness in Sweden. AIMS: The research...... question raised here is therefore to examine chronic illness (defined as limiting longstanding illness. LLSI) as a causal factor contributing adverse financial conditions, unemployment or labour market exclusion. METHODS: A longitudinal design was employed with data from a sample of 27,773 people...... interviewed twice (Swedish Surveys of Living Conditions performed by Statistics Sweden), including subjects (n = 12,556) at interview I, without chronic illness or adverse socioeconomic conditions. RESULTS: The odds ratios for labour market exclusion, unemployment, and financial difficulties among people who...

  1. Development economics. A multifaceted program causes lasting progress for the very poor: evidence from six countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Banerjee, Abhijit; Duflo, Esther; Goldberg, Nathanael; Karlan, Dean; Osei, Robert; Parienté, William; Shapiro, Jeremy; Thuysbaert, Bram; Udry, Christopher

    2015-05-15

    We present results from six randomized control trials of an integrated approach to improve livelihoods among the very poor. The approach combines the transfer of a productive asset with consumption support, training, and coaching plus savings encouragement and health education and/or services. Results from the implementation of the same basic program, adapted to a wide variety of geographic and institutional contexts and with multiple implementing partners, show statistically significant cost-effective impacts on consumption (fueled mostly by increases in self-employment income) and psychosocial status of the targeted households. The impact on the poor households lasted at least a year after all implementation ended. It is possible to make sustainable improvements in the economic status of the poor with a relatively short-term intervention. Copyright © 2015, American Association for the Advancement of Science.

  2. A pharmaco-economic analysis of patients with schizophrenia switching to generic risperidone involving a possible compliance loss

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Möller Hans-Jürgen

    2009-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background As schizophrenia patients are typically suspicious of, or are hostile to changes they may be reluctant to accept generic substitution, possibly affecting compliance. This may counteract drug costs savings due to less symptom control and increased hospitalization risk. Although compliance losses following generic substitution have not been quantified so far, one can estimate the possible health-economic consequences. The current study aims to do so by considering the case of risperidone in Germany. Methods An existing DES model was adapted to compare staying on branded risperidone with generic substitution. Differences include the probability of non-compliance and medication costs. Incremental probability of non-compliance after generic substitution was varied between 2.5% and 10%, while generic medication costs were assumed to be 40% lower. Effect of medication price was assessed as well as the effect of applying compliance losses to all treatment settings. The probability of staying on branded risperidone being cost-effective was calculated for various outcomes of a hypothetical study that would investigate non-compliance following generic substitution of risperidone. Results If the incremental probability of non-compliance after generic substitution is 2.5%, 5.0%, 7.5% and 10% respectively, incremental effects of staying on branded risperidone are 0.004, 0.007, 0.011 and 0.015 Quality Adjusted Life Years (QALYs. Incremental costs are €757, €343, -€123 and -€554 respectively. Benefits of staying on branded risperidone include improved symptom control and fewer hospitalizations. If generic substitution results in a 5.2% higher probability of non-compliance, the model predicts staying on branded risperidone to be cost-effective (NICE threshold of ₤30,000 per QALY gained. Compliance losses of more than 6.9% makes branded risperidone the dominant alternative. Results are sensitive to the locations at which compliance

  3. Preaxial polydactyly caused by Gli3 haploinsufficiency is rescued by Zic3 loss of function in mice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quinn, Malgorzata E.; Haaning, Allison; Ware, Stephanie M.

    2012-01-01

    Limb anomalies are important birth defects that are incompletely understood genetically and mechanistically. GLI3, a mediator of hedgehog signaling, is a genetic cause of limb malformations including pre- and postaxial polydactyly, Pallister–Hall syndrome and Greig cephalopolysyndactyly. A closely related Gli (glioma-associated oncogene homolog)-superfamily member, ZIC3, causes X-linked heterotaxy syndrome in humans but has not been investigated in limb development. During limb development, post-translational processing of Gli3 from activator to repressor antagonizes and posteriorly restricts Sonic hedgehog (Shh). We demonstrate that Zic3 and Gli3 expression overlap in developing limbs and that Zic3 converts Gli3 from repressor to activator in vitro. In Gli3 mutant mice, Zic3 loss of function abrogates ectopic Shh expression in anterior limb buds, limits overexpression in the zone of polarizing activity and normalizes aberrant Gli3 repressor/Gli3 activator ratios observed in Gli3+/− embryos. Zic3 null;Gli3+/− neonates show rescue of the polydactylous phenotype seen in Gli3+/− animals. These studies identify a previously unrecognized role for Zic3 in regulating limb digit number via its modifying effect on Gli3 and Shh expression levels. Together, these results indicate that two Gli superfamily members that cause disparate human congenital malformation syndromes interact genetically and demonstrate the importance of Zic3 in regulating Shh pathway in developing limbs. PMID:22234993

  4. Does Human Capital Cause Economic Growth? A Case Study of India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sushil Kumar Haldar

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available This study examines the time series behavior of investment in physical capital, human capital(comprising education and health and output in a co-integration framework, taking growthof primary gross enrolment rate and a dummy for structural adjustment programme (opennesswhich has been initiated in 1991 as exogenous variables in India from 1960 to 2006. Theresults suggest that physical capital investment has no long-run nor short-run effect butthe human capital investment has significant long-run effect on per capita GNP; the stockof human capital measured by primary gross enrolment rate (lagged by three years andopenness is found to have a significant effect on growth of per capita GNP. The GeneralizedImpulse Response Function confirms that the innovation in per capita GNP growth can onlyexplain the movements of the growth of per capita GNP (itself and investment in educationhuman capital positively and significantly only for a short period of time but does not explainthe movements of the investment in physical capital and health human capital. Moreover,the innovation in change in education human capital investment significantly and positivelyexplains the movement of the changes in education human capital investment (itself, healthhuman capital investment and growth of GNP per capita; the innovation in health humancapital investment significantly explains the changes of education and health human capitalinvestment only. This study may help towards policy modeling of economic growth in India,taking into account the relevance of endogenous growth.

  5. Economic design of Hotelling's T2 control chart on the presence of fixed sampling rate and exponentially assignable causes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bahiraee, Ehsan; Raissi, Sadigh

    2014-07-01

    Control charts are extensively used in manufacturing contexts to monitor production processes. This article illustrates economical design of a variable sample size and control limit Hotelling's T 2 control chart based on a novel cost model when occurrence times of the assignable causes are exponentially distributed. The proposed nonlinear cost model is an extension of Duncan's (J Am Stat Assoc 51: 228-242, 1956) model which was employed for univariate cases. Applying genetic algorithm to find optimum parameter values and using an L 33 orthogonal array in sensitivity analysis on the model parameters is investigated through a numerical example to illustrate the effectiveness of the proposed approach.

  6. Loss-of-function mutations in SCN4A cause severe foetal hypokinesia or ‘classical’ congenital myopathy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zaharieva, Irina T.; Thor, Michael G.; Oates, Emily C.; van Karnebeek, Clara; Hendson, Glenda; Blom, Eveline; Witting, Nanna; Rasmussen, Magnhild; Gabbett, Michael T.; Ravenscroft, Gianina; Sframeli, Maria; Suetterlin, Karen; Sarkozy, Anna; D’Argenzio, Luigi; Hartley, Louise; Matthews, Emma; Pitt, Matthew; Vissing, John; Ballegaard, Martin; Krarup, Christian; Slørdahl, Andreas; Halvorsen, Hanne; Ye, Xin Cynthia; Zhang, Lin-Hua; Løkken, Nicoline; Werlauff, Ulla; Abdelsayed, Mena; Davis, Mark R.; Feng, Lucy; Phadke, Rahul; Sewry, Caroline A.; Morgan, Jennifer E.; Laing, Nigel G.; Vallance, Hilary; Ruben, Peter; Hanna, Michael G.; Lewis, Suzanne; Kamsteeg, Erik-Jan; Männikkö, Roope

    2016-01-01

    functional assessment in HEK293 cells of the impact of the identified SCN4A mutations showed loss-of-function of the mutant Nav1.4 channels. All, apart from one, of the mutations either caused fully non-functional channels, or resulted in a reduced channel activity. Each of the affected cases carried at least one full loss-of-function mutation. In five out of six families, a second loss-of-function mutation was present on the trans allele. These functional results provide convincing evidence for the pathogenicity of the identified mutations and suggest that different degrees of loss-of-function in mutant Nav1.4 channels are associated with attenuation of the skeletal muscle action potential amplitude to a level insufficient to support normal muscle function. The results demonstrate that recessive loss-of-function SCN4A mutations should be considered in patients with a congenital myopathy. PMID:26700687

  7. Loss-of-function mutations in SCN4A cause severe foetal hypokinesia or 'classical' congenital myopathy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zaharieva, Irina T; Thor, Michael G; Oates, Emily C; van Karnebeek, Clara; Hendson, Glenda; Blom, Eveline; Witting, Nanna; Rasmussen, Magnhild; Gabbett, Michael T; Ravenscroft, Gianina; Sframeli, Maria; Suetterlin, Karen; Sarkozy, Anna; D'Argenzio, Luigi; Hartley, Louise; Matthews, Emma; Pitt, Matthew; Vissing, John; Ballegaard, Martin; Krarup, Christian; Slørdahl, Andreas; Halvorsen, Hanne; Ye, Xin Cynthia; Zhang, Lin-Hua; Løkken, Nicoline; Werlauff, Ulla; Abdelsayed, Mena; Davis, Mark R; Feng, Lucy; Phadke, Rahul; Sewry, Caroline A; Morgan, Jennifer E; Laing, Nigel G; Vallance, Hilary; Ruben, Peter; Hanna, Michael G; Lewis, Suzanne; Kamsteeg, Erik-Jan; Männikkö, Roope; Muntoni, Francesco

    2016-03-01

    mutations showed loss-of-function of the mutant Nav1.4 channels. All, apart from one, of the mutations either caused fully non-functional channels, or resulted in a reduced channel activity. Each of the affected cases carried at least one full loss-of-function mutation. In five out of six families, a second loss-of-function mutation was present on the trans allele. These functional results provide convincing evidence for the pathogenicity of the identified mutations and suggest that different degrees of loss-of-function in mutant Nav1.4 channels are associated with attenuation of the skeletal muscle action potential amplitude to a level insufficient to support normal muscle function. The results demonstrate that recessive loss-of-function SCN4A mutations should be considered in patients with a congenital myopathy. © The Author (2015). Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Guarantors of Brain.

  8. DNA damage and apoptosis of endometrial cells cause loss of the early embryo in mice exposed to carbon disulfide

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, Bingzhen [Department of Epidemiology and Health Statistics, School of Public Health, Shandong University, Jinan (China); Shen, Chunzi [Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Zibo (China); Yang, Liu; Li, Chunhui; Yi, Anji [Department of Epidemiology and Health Statistics, School of Public Health, Shandong University, Jinan (China); Wang, Zhiping, E-mail: zhipingw@sdu.edu.cn [Department of Epidemiology and Health Statistics, School of Public Health, Shandong University, Jinan (China)

    2013-12-01

    Carbon disulfide (CS{sub 2}) may lead to spontaneous abortion and very early pregnancy loss in women exposed in the workplace, but the mechanism remains unclear. We designed an animal model in which gestating Kunming strain mice were exposed to CS{sub 2} via i.p. on gestational day 4 (GD4). We found that the number of implanted blastocysts on GD8 was significantly reduced by each dose of 0.1 LD{sub 50} (157.85 mg/kg), 0.2 LD{sub 50} (315.7 mg/kg) and 0.4 LD{sub 50} (631.4 mg/kg). In addition, both the level of DNA damage and apoptosis rates of endometrial cells on GD4.5 were increased, showed definite dose–response relationships, and inversely related to the number of implanted blastocysts. The expressions of mRNA and protein for the Bax and caspase-3 genes in the uterine tissues on GD4.5 were up-regulated, while the expressions of mRNA and protein for the Bcl-2 gene were dose-dependently down-regulated. Our results indicated that DNA damage and apoptosis of endometrial cells were important reasons for the loss of implanted blastocysts induced by CS{sub 2}. - Highlights: • We built an animal model of CS2 exposure during blastocyst implantation. • Endometrial cells were used in the comet assay to detect DNA damage. • CS2 exposure caused DNA damage and endometrial cell apoptosis. • DNA damage and endometrial cell apoptosis were responsible for embryo loss.

  9. Ablation of whirlin long isoform disrupts the USH2 protein complex and causes vision and hearing loss.

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    Jun Yang

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Mutations in whirlin cause either Usher syndrome type II (USH2, a deafness-blindness disorder, or nonsyndromic deafness. The molecular basis for the variable disease expression is unknown. We show here that only the whirlin long isoform, distinct from a short isoform by virtue of having two N-terminal PDZ domains, is expressed in the retina. Both long and short isoforms are expressed in the inner ear. The N-terminal PDZ domains of the long whirlin isoform mediates the formation of a multi-protein complex that includes usherin and VLGR1, both of which are also implicated in USH2. We localized this USH2 protein complex to the periciliary membrane complex (PMC in mouse photoreceptors that appears analogous to the frog periciliary ridge complex. The latter is proposed to play a role in photoreceptor protein trafficking through the connecting cilium. Mice carrying a targeted disruption near the N-terminus of whirlin manifest retinal and inner ear defects, reproducing the clinical features of human USH2 disease. This is in contrast to mice with mutations affecting the C-terminal portion of whirlin in which the phenotype is restricted to the inner ear. In mice lacking any one of the USH2 proteins, the normal localization of all USH2 proteins is disrupted, and there is evidence of protein destabilization. Taken together, our findings provide new insights into the pathogenic mechanism of Usher syndrome. First, the three USH2 proteins exist as an obligatory functional complex in vivo, and loss of one USH2 protein is functionally close to loss of all three. Second, defects in the three USH2 proteins share a common pathogenic process, i.e., disruption of the PMC. Third, whirlin mutations that ablate the N-terminal PDZ domains lead to Usher syndrome, but non-syndromic hearing loss will result if they are spared.

  10. Loss of Binocular Vision in Monocularly Blind Patients Causes Selective Degeneration of the Superior Lateral Occipital Cortices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prins, Doety; Jansonius, Nomdo M; Cornelissen, Frans W

    2017-02-01

    Chronic ocular pathology, such as glaucoma and macular degeneration, is associated with neuroanatomic changes in the visual pathways. It is a challenge to determine the mechanism responsible for these changes. This could be functional deprivation or transsynaptic degeneration. Acquired monocular blindness provides a unique opportunity to establish which mechanism underlies neuroanatomic changes in ocular pathology in general, since the loss of input is well defined, and it causes selective functional deprivation due to the loss of stereopsis. Here, we assessed whether acquired monocular blindness is associated with neuroanatomic changes, and if so, where these changes are located. High-resolution T1-weighted magnetic resonance images were obtained in 15 monocularly blind patients and 18 healthy controls. We used voxel- and surface-based morphometry to compare gray and white matter volume, cortical thickness, mean curvature, and surface area between these groups. The gray matter volume in the bilateral superior lateral occipital cortices was decreased in the monocular blind patients, in the absence of volumetric differences in their early visual cortex. The volumetric decrease in the superior lateral occipital cortices is consistent with specific functional deprivation, as the superior lateral occipital cortices play an important role in depth perception. Moreover, in the absence of differences in the early visual cortex, the decrease is inconsistent with transsynaptic degeneration propagating from the degenerated retinal axons.

  11. Loss of KCNJ10 protein expression abolishes endocochlear potential and causes deafness in Pendred syndrome mouse model

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    Wall Susan M

    2004-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Pendred syndrome, a common autosomal-recessive disorder characterized by congenital deafness and goiter, is caused by mutations of SLC26A4, which codes for pendrin. We investigated the relationship between pendrin and deafness using mice that have (Slc26a4+/+ or lack a complete Slc26a4 gene (Slc26a4-/-. Methods Expression of pendrin and other proteins was determined by confocal immunocytochemistry. Expression of mRNA was determined by quantitative RT-PCR. The endocochlear potential and the endolymphatic K+ concentration were measured with double-barreled microelectrodes. Currents generated by the stria marginal cells were recorded with a vibrating probe. Tissue masses were evaluated by morphometric distance measurements and pigmentation was quantified by densitometry. Results Pendrin was found in the cochlea in apical membranes of spiral prominence cells and spindle-shaped cells of stria vascularis, in outer sulcus and root cells. Endolymph volume in Slc26a4-/- mice was increased and tissue masses in areas normally occupied by type I and II fibrocytes were reduced. Slc26a4-/- mice lacked the endocochlear potential, which is generated across the basal cell barrier by the K+ channel KCNJ10 localized in intermediate cells. Stria vascularis was hyperpigmented, suggesting unalleviated free radical damage. The basal cell barrier appeared intact; intermediate cells and KCNJ10 mRNA were present but KCNJ10 protein was absent. Endolymphatic K+ concentrations were normal and membrane proteins necessary for K+ secretion were present, including the K+ channel KCNQ1 and KCNE1, Na+/2Cl-/K+ cotransporter SLC12A2 and the gap junction GJB2. Conclusions These observations demonstrate that pendrin dysfunction leads to a loss of KCNJ10 protein expression and a loss of the endocochlear potential, which may be the direct cause of deafness in Pendred syndrome.

  12. A discussion of the socio-economic losses and shelter impacts from the Van, Turkey Earthquakes of October and November 2011

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daniell, J. E.; Khazai, B.; Wenzel, F.; Kunz-Plapp, T.; Vervaeck, A.; Muehr, B.; Markus, M.

    2012-04-01

    The Van earthquake in 2011 hit at 10:41 GMT (13:41 Local) on Sunday, October 23rd, 2011. It was a Mw7.1-7.3 event located at a depth of around 10 km with the epicentre located directly between Ercis (pop. 75,000) and Van (pop. 370,000). Since then, the CEDIM Forensic Analysis Group (using a team of seismologists, engineers, sociologists and meteorologists) and www.earthquake-report.com has reported and analysed on the Van event. In addition, many damaging aftershocks occurring after the main eventwere analysed including a major aftershock centered in Van-Edremit on November 9th, 2011, causing much additional losses. The province of Van has around 1.035 million people as of the last census. The Van province is one of the poorest in Turkey and has much inequality between the rural and urban centers with an average HDI (Human Development Index) around that of Bhutan or Congo. The earthquakes are estimated to have caused 604 deaths (23 October) and 40 deaths (9 November); mostly due to falling debris and house collapse). In addition, between 1 billion TRY to 4 billion TRY (approx. 555 million USD - 2.2 billion USD) is estimated as total economic losses. This represents around 17 to 66% of the provincial GDP of the Van Province (approx. 3.3 billion USD) as of 2011. From the CATDAT Damaging Earthquakes Database, major earthquakes such as this one have occurred in the year 1111 causing major damage and having a magnitude around 6.5-7. In the year 1646 or 1648, Van was again struck by a M6.7 quake killing around 2000 people. In 1881, a M6.3 earthquake near Van killed 95 people. Again, in 1941, a M5.9 earthquake affected Ercis and Van killing between 190 and 430 people. 1945-1946 as well as 1972 brought again damaging and casualty-bearing earthquakes to the Van province. In 1976, the Van-Muradiye earthquake struck the border region with a M7, killing around 3840 people and causing around 51,000 people to become homeless. Key immediate lessons from similar historic

  13. An economic evaluation of adaptive e-learning devices to promote weight loss via dietary change for people with obesity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miners Alec

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The prevalence of obesity is over 25 % in many developed countries. Obesity is strongly associated with an increased risk of fatal and chronic conditions such as cardiovascular disease and type 2 diabetes. Therefore it has become a major public health concern for many economies. E-learning devices are a relatively novel approach to promoting dietary change. The new generation of devices are ‘adaptive’ and use interactive electronic media to facilitate teaching and learning. E-Learning has grown out of recent developments in information and communication technology, such as the Internet, interactive computer programmes, interactive television and mobile phones. The aim of this study is to assess the cost-effectiveness of e-learning devices as a method of promoting weight loss via dietary change. Methods An economic evaluation was performed using decision modelling techniques. Outcomes were expressed in terms of Quality-Adjusted Life-Years (QALYs and costs were estimated from a health services perspective. All parameter estimates were derived from the literature. A systematic review was undertaken to derive the estimate of relative treatment effect. Results The base case results from the e-Learning Economic Evaluation Model (e-LEEM suggested that the incremental cost-effectiveness ratio was approximately £102,000 per Quality-Adjusted Life-Year (QALY compared to conventional care. This finding was robust to most alternative assumptions, except a much lower fixed cost of providing e-learning devices. Expected value of perfect information (EVPI analysis showed that while the individual level EVPI was arguably negligible, the population level value was between £37 M and £170 M at a willingness to pay between £20,000 to £30,000 per additional QALY. Conclusion The current economic evidence base suggests that e-learning devices for managing the weight of obese individuals are unlikely to be cost-effective unless their

  14. An economic evaluation of adaptive e-learning devices to promote weight loss via dietary change for people with obesity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miners, Alec; Harris, Jody; Felix, Lambert; Murray, Elizabeth; Michie, Susan; Edwards, Phil

    2012-07-07

    The prevalence of obesity is over 25 % in many developed countries. Obesity is strongly associated with an increased risk of fatal and chronic conditions such as cardiovascular disease and type 2 diabetes. Therefore it has become a major public health concern for many economies. E-learning devices are a relatively novel approach to promoting dietary change. The new generation of devices are 'adaptive' and use interactive electronic media to facilitate teaching and learning. E-Learning has grown out of recent developments in information and communication technology, such as the Internet, interactive computer programmes, interactive television and mobile phones. The aim of this study is to assess the cost-effectiveness of e-learning devices as a method of promoting weight loss via dietary change. An economic evaluation was performed using decision modelling techniques. Outcomes were expressed in terms of Quality-Adjusted Life-Years (QALYs) and costs were estimated from a health services perspective. All parameter estimates were derived from the literature. A systematic review was undertaken to derive the estimate of relative treatment effect. The base case results from the e-Learning Economic Evaluation Model (e-LEEM) suggested that the incremental cost-effectiveness ratio was approximately £102,000 per Quality-Adjusted Life-Year (QALY) compared to conventional care. This finding was robust to most alternative assumptions, except a much lower fixed cost of providing e-learning devices. Expected value of perfect information (EVPI) analysis showed that while the individual level EVPI was arguably negligible, the population level value was between £37 M and £170 M at a willingness to pay between £20,000 to £30,000 per additional QALY. The current economic evidence base suggests that e-learning devices for managing the weight of obese individuals are unlikely to be cost-effective unless their fixed costs are much lower than estimated or future devices prove to

  15. Economic stagnation in the United States: underlying causes and global consequences

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robert A. Blecker

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper analyzes the causes of the slow recovery of the US economy since the financial crisis and Great Recession of 2008-9. Fallen house values and excessive household debts continue to depress consumer spending, while corporations are failing to invest in spite of record profits. The increasingly unequal distribution of income limits demand, while long-term structural transformations continue to erode employment creation. An expansionary monetary policy has been incapable of sparking a more robust recovery and fiscal policy has been shifted to an austerity stance. In this context, Brazil and other emerging market nations cannot count on the United States to continue to be the leading source of global demand as it was in previous decades.

  16. Sarcocystis spp. in llamas (Lama glama) in Southern Bolivia: a cross sectional study of the prevalence, risk factors and loss in income caused by carcass downgrades.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rooney, A L; Limon, G; Vides, H; Cortez, A; Guitian, J

    2014-10-01

    Llamas (Lama glama) are intermediate hosts of the protozoan parasite Sarcocystis spp. This parasite is described as causing economic losses in the production of llama meat in South America. The aim of this study was to estimate prevalence, identify risk factors and explore spatial patterns of Sarcocystis in llamas in an area of the Bolivian High Plateau including estimating financial losses due to carcass downgrades as a result of the presence of Sarcocystis cysts. Information was collected from a local abattoir between 2006 and 2011 on 1196 llamas. Sarcocystis status was determined at meat inspection where any carcasses with one or more visible cysts were deemed Sarcocystis positive. A high prevalence was found, estimated to vary between 23.4% (95% CI 16.6-30.1) in 2007 and 50.3% (95% CI 44.4-56.3) in 2011. Period prevalence between 2006 and 2011 was estimated at 34.1% (95% CI 31.4-36.8). Age, sex and type (analogous to breed) were identified as risk factors for Sarcocystis using a mixed-effects logistic regression model adjusting for clustering by community and owner. Llamas over 4.5 years of age had an increased odds of being Sarcocystis positive (OR 19.31, 95% CI 9.10-40.98) as well as females (OR 1.75, 95% CI 1.13-2.68) and long haired type llamas (OR 1.90, 95% CI 1.26-2.87). An interaction between age and sex was detected indicating that the increased odds of disease from the youngest age group to the 2.5-4.5 years group was much more pronounced in females than in males. Spatial patterns of Sarcocystis were explored at district level by means of Standardised Morbidity Ratios and some spatial heterogeneity was revealed. Estimates of financial loss due to the disease were calculated using the difference in price paid for Sarcocystis positive and negative meat. Loss due to Sarcocystis varied per year but could be up to 20% of the annual income generated through the abattoir by sale of meat. Overall this study shows a high prevalence of Sarcocystis in the study

  17. Economic burden of nosocomial infections caused by vancomycin-resistant enterococci.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Puchter, Laura; Chaberny, Iris Freya; Schwab, Frank; Vonberg, Ralf-Peter; Bange, Franz-Christoph; Ebadi, Ella

    2018-01-01

    Nosocomial infections due to vancomycin-resistant enterococci (VRE) have become a major problem during the last years. The purpose of this study was to investigate the economic burden of nosocomial VRE infections in a European university hospital. A retrospective matched case-control study was performed including patients who acquired nosocomial infection with either VRE or vancomycin-susceptible enterococci (VSE) within a time period of 3 years. 42 cases with VRE infections and 42 controls with VSE infections were matched for age, gender, admission and discharge within the same year, time at risk for infection, Charlson comorbidity index (±1), stay on intensive care units and non-intensive care units as well as for the type of infection, using criteria of the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. The median overall costs per case were significantly higher than for controls (EUR 57,675 vs. EUR 38,344; p  = 0.030). Costs were similar between cases and controls before onset of infection (EUR 17,893 vs. EUR 16,600; p  = 0.386), but higher after onset of infection (EUR 37,971 vs. EUR 23,025; p  = 0.049). The median attributable costs per case for vancomycin-resistance were EUR 13,157 ( p  = 0.036). The most significant differences in costs between cases and controls turned out to be for pharmaceuticals (EUR 6030 vs. EUR 2801; p  = 0.008) followed by nursing staff (EUR 8956 vs. EUR 4621; p  = 0.032), medical products (EUR 3312 vs. EUR 1838; p  = 0.020), and for assistant medical technicians (EUR 3766 vs. EUR 2474; p  = 0.023). Furthermore, multivariate analysis revealed that costs were driven independently by vancomycin-resistance (1.4 fold; p  = 0.034). This analysis suggested that nosocomial VRE infections significantly increases hospital costs compared with VSE infections. Therefore, hospital personal should implement control measures to prevent VRE transmission.

  18. Socio-economic Dimensions, Causes and Curbing Measures of Corruption in Developing Economies with A Special Reference to Jordan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dr. Khalil Elian Abdelrahim

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available The research problem is that very little is known about the socio-economic dimensions, causes, and anti-curbing measures of corruption in developing economies particularly Jordan. The study aims at discussing the features of corruption in developing economies including Jordan. The study concludes that Jordan comes at a high level of corruption worldwide with a rank 59 among 180 countries at Corruption Perception Index (CPI which ranges between zero (most corrupted and  100  (least corrupted, but among Arab countries, Jordan comes at rank 4  preceded by Qatar, Arab Emirates and Bahrain . Lack of legal, public and economic reform besides political instability, lack of transparency, monopoly, high taxes, long procedures and barrier to trade often go hand in hand with corruption besides the  bribes provided by some companies in developed countries. Corruption is there in the private and public sectors. National anti-corruption agencies often fail to curb corruption due to lack of the power to persecute and lack of proper training of staff to be good investigators. Corruption breeds poverty, high prices and lack of foreign investment. Addressing corruption requires paying attention to its causes, role of incentives and institutional reform. Curbing corruption begins with designing better legal and administrative systems, reducing monopolies, inflicting severe penalties for both givers and takers of bribes, besides a free press and transparent privatization of public enterprise

  19. [Death from violent causes and economic cycles in Bogota, Colombia: a time-series study, 1997-2006].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moreno Montoya, José; Sánchez Pedraza, Ricardo

    2009-07-01

    To determine seasonal trends in the number of deaths from violence in Bogotá, Colombia from 1997-2006 and to analyze any possible associations with the city's economic cycles. An ecologic study based on the official death toll from violence registered between January 1997 and September 2006 in Santa Fe de Bogotá, Colombia. Auto Regressive Integrated Moving Average (ARIMA) time-series trimester models were used to describe the behavior of violent deaths. The explanatory variables for the city's economic cycles were the trimester series of the consumer price index, the unemployment rate, and the total number of people employed; these were related to the death series through transfer function models. Of the 36 575 total deaths from violence in Bogotá, 57.7% were homicides and 23.7% resulted from traffic accidents. The homicide, suicide, and traffic accident deaths showed downward trends, with a noteworthy seasonal pattern in the traffic accident and suicide deaths that peaked during the last two trimesters of each year. Significant associations were found between all the death series from all the different causes and at least one economic series, and in each case a respective transfer function model was identified. Homicides constituted the largest portion of the violent deaths, and exposed a seasonal pattern to this death type. Significant associations were found between deaths from violence and some economic variables, revealing a cycle tied to the life of the city. The socioeconomic circumstances affecting a society were confirmed to influence the level of violence.

  20. Patients' beliefs about the causes of heart disease: relationships with risk factors, sex and socio-economic status.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perkins-Porras, Linda; Whitehead, Daisy L; Steptoe, Andrew

    2006-10-01

    Patients' beliefs about the causes of their heart disease (causal attributions) are important to effective medical communication, psychological adaptation, and adherence to advice. We assessed the extent to which causal attributions relate to risk factors, sex and socio-economic status in men and women diagnosed with acute coronary syndrome. We conducted an interview and questionnaire study of 171 acute coronary syndrome patients assessed within 5 days of admission to three hospitals in the London area. Patients rated beliefs in the role of 16 factors in causing their heart disease. Associations between attributions and risk factors were assessed, and differences in beliefs by sex and socio-economic status (defined by educational attainment) analysed. The most common attributions were to stress, smoking, high blood pressure, chance or bad luck, and heredity. Attributions were strongly associated with risk factors: 90% of smokers attributed heart disease to smoking, compared with 0% never smokers; 90.4% of hypertensives attributed heart disease to high blood pressure, 72.2% of patients with a positive family history to heredity, 85% of obese patients to being overweight, and 49% of sedentary patients to lack of exercise. Attributions to stress were related both to current mood and reports of recent life stress. There were few sex differences, but higher socio-economic status patients were more likely to attribute heart disease to heredity and genetic factors. Causal beliefs about heart disease are strongly associated with risk factors. Effective communication about modifiable risk factors may influence causal beliefs and stimulate lifestyle change, thereby promoting secondary prevention.

  1. Refractive error, visual acuity and causes of vision loss in children in Shandong, China. The Shandong Children Eye Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Jian Feng; Bi, Hong Sheng; Wang, Shu Mei; Hu, Yuan Yuan; Wu, Hui; Sun, Wei; Lu, Tai Liang; Wang, Xing Rong; Jonas, Jost B

    2013-01-01

    To examine the prevalence of refractive errors and prevalence and causes of vision loss among preschool and school children in East China. Using a random cluster sampling in a cross-sectional school-based study design, children with an age of 4-18 years were selected from kindergartens, primary schools, and junior and senior high schools in the rural Guanxian County and the city of Weihai. All children underwent a complete ocular examination including measurement of uncorrected (UCVA) and best corrected visual acuity (BCVA) and auto-refractometry under cycloplegia. Myopia was defined as refractive error of ≤-0.5 diopters (D), high myopia as ≤ -6.0D, and amblyopia as BCVA ≤ 20/32 without any obvious reason for vision reduction and with strabismus or refractive errors as potential reasons. Out of 6364 eligible children, 6026 (94.7%) children participated. Prevalence of myopia (overall: 36.9 ± 0.6%;95% confidence interval (CI):36.0,38.0) increased (Perror (Perror as cause in 1975 (32.9%) children. Amblyopia (BCVA ≤ 20/32) was detected in 44 (0.7%) children (11 children with bilateral amblyopia). In coastal East China, about 14% of the 17-years olds were highly myopic, and 80% were myopic. Prevalence of myopia increased with older age, female gender and urban region. About 0.7% of pre-school children and school children were amblyopic.

  2. Trisomy 15 with loss of the paternal 15 as a cause of Prader-Willi syndrome due to maternal disomy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cassidy, S.B.; Lai, Li-Wen; Erickson, R.P. (Univ. of Arizona College of Medicine, Tucson, AZ (United States)); Magnuson, L.; Thomas, E.; Herrmann, J. (Great Lakes Genetics, Milwaukee, AZ (United States)); Gendron, R. (Great Lakes Genetics, Kingsport, TN (United States))

    1992-10-01

    Uniparental disomy has recently been recognized to cause human disorders, including Prader-Willi syndrome (PWS). The authors describe a particularly instructive case which raises important issues concerning the mechanisms producing uniparental disomy and whose evaluation provides evidence that trisomy may precede uniparental disomy in a fetus. Chorionic villus sampling performed for advanced maternal age revealed trisomy 15 in all direct and cultured cells, though the fetus appeared normal. Chromosome analysis of amniocytes obtained at 15 wk was normal in over 100 cells studied. The child was hypotonic at birth, and high-resolution banding failed to reveal the deletion of 15q11-13, a deletion which is found in 50%-70% of patients with PWS. Over time, typical features of PWS developed. Molecular genetic analysis using probes for chromosome 15 revealed maternal disomy. Maternal nondisjunction with fertilization of a disomic egg by a normal sperm, followed by loss of the paternal 15, is a likely cause of confined placental mosaicism and uniparental disomy in this case of PWS, and advanced maternal age may be a predisposing factor. 38 refs., 3 figs., 2 tabs.

  3. Causes of bird losses recorded in a captive-bred wild bird flock between 2011 and 2015

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luiz Gustavo Schneider de Oliveira

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT: This study discusses the causes of bird deaths recorded in a small aviary dedicated to the breeding of a few exotic, wild bird species. Findings from 28 birds were examined over a period of five years. About 40% of the deaths occurred in the first two weeks after hatching in the two most numerous species in the flock and such losses were mainly a result of starvation caused by inadequate nutritional management. Additionally, 28% of the cases affected recently introduced birds. Despite frequent treatment with anthelmintics; a total of 21% of the deaths in the flock could be attributed to parasitic diseases, most of them in recently acquired birds. Only three of the deaths could be associated with advanced age, all of the further cases were also attributable to management fails. Our results indicated that propagation of these and other species requires an improvement of the management of the newly hatched and newcomer birds to considerably enhance the flock’s performance. Such information may be useful in conservation initiatives and may justify, at least in part, captivity of these animals.

  4. The Ter Mutation In The Dead End Gene Causes Germ Cell Loss And Testicular Germ Cell Tumours

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Youngren, Kirsten K.; Coveney, Douglas; Peng, Xiaoning; Bhattacharya, Chitralekha; Schmidt, Laura S.; Nickerson, Michael L.; Lamb, Bruce T.; Deng Jian Min; Behringer, Richard R.; Capel, Blanche; Rubin, Edward M.; Nadeau, Joseph H.; Matin, Angabin

    2005-01-01

    In mice, the Ter mutation causes primordial germ cell (PGC) loss in all genetic backgrounds1. Ter is also a potent modifier of spontaneous testicular germ cell tumour (TGCT) susceptibility in the 129 family of inbred strains, and markedly increases TGCT incidence in 129-Ter/Ter males2 4. In 129-Ter/Ter mice, some of the remaining PGCs transform into undifferentiated pluripotent embryonal carcinoma cells2 6, and after birth differentiate into various cells and tissues that compose TGCTs. Here, we report the positional cloning of Ter, revealing a point mutation that introduces a termination codon in the mouse orthologue (Dnd1) of the zebrafish dead end (dnd) gene. PGC deficiency is corrected both with bacterial artificial chromosomes that contain Dnd1 and with a Dnd1-encoding transgene. Dnd1 is expressed in fetal gonads during the critical period when TGCTs originate. DND1 has an RNA recognition motif and is most similar to the apobec complementation factor, a component of the cytidine t o uridine RNA-editing complex. These results suggest that Ter may adversely affect essential aspects of RNA biology during PGC development. DND1 is the first protein known to have an RNA recognition motif directly implicated as a heritable cause of spontaneous tumorigenesis. TGCT development in the 129-Ter mouse strain models paediatric TGCT in humans. This work will have important implications for our understanding of the genetic control of TGCT pathogenesis and PGC biology.

  5. Loss of the Na(+)/H(+) exchanger NHE8 causes male infertility in mice by disrupting acrosome formation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oberheide, Karina; Puchkov, Dmytro; Jentsch, Thomas J

    2017-06-30

    Mammalian sperm feature a specialized secretory organelle on the anterior part of the sperm nucleus, the acrosome, which is essential for male fertility. It is formed by a fusion of Golgi-derived vesicles. We show here that the predominantly Golgi-resident Na(+)/H(+) exchanger NHE8 localizes to the developing acrosome of spermatids. Similar to wild-type mice, Nhe8(-/-) mice generated Golgi-derived vesicles positive for acrosomal markers and attached to nuclei, but these vesicles failed to form large acrosomal granules and the acrosomal cap. Spermatozoa from Nhe8(-/-) mice completely lacked acrosomes, were round-headed, exhibited abnormal mitochondrial distribution, and displayed decreased motility, resulting in selective male infertility. Of note, similar features are also found in globozoospermia, one of the causes of male infertility in humans. Germ cell-specific, but not Sertoli cell-specific Nhe8 disruption recapitulated the globozoospermia phenotype, demonstrating that NHE8's role in spermiogenesis is germ cell-intrinsic. Our work has uncovered a crucial role of NHE8 in acrosome biogenesis and suggests that some forms of human globozoospermia might be caused by a loss of function of this Na(+)/H(+) exchanger. It points to NHE8 as a candidate gene for human globozoospermia and a possible drug target for male contraception. © 2017 by The American Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Inc.

  6. Assessing the economic impacts of drought from the perspective of profit loss rate: a case study of the sugar industry in China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Y.; Lin, L.; Chen, H.

    2015-07-01

    Natural disasters have enormous impacts on human society, especially on the development of the economy. To support decision-making in mitigation and adaption to natural disasters, assessment of economic impacts is fundamental and of great significance. Based on a review of the literature on economic impact evaluation, this paper proposes a new assessment model of the economic impacts of droughts by using the sugar industry in China as a case study, which focuses on the generation and transfer of economic impacts along a simple value chain involving only sugarcane growers and a sugar-producing company. A perspective of profit loss rate is applied to scale economic impact. By using "with and without" analysis, profit loss is defined as the difference in profits between disaster-hit and disaster-free scenarios. To calculate profit, analysis of a time series of sugar price is applied. With the support of a linear regression model, an endogenous trend in sugar price is identified and the time series of sugar price "without" disaster is obtained, using an autoregressive error model to separate impact of disasters from the internal trend in sugar price. Unlike the settings in other assessment models, representative sugar prices, which represent value level in disaster-free conditions and disaster-hit conditions, are integrated from a long time series that covers the whole period of drought. As a result, it is found that in a rigid farming contract, sugarcane growers suffer far more than the sugar company when impacted by severe drought, which may promote reflections among various economic bodies on economic equality related to the occurrence of natural disasters. Further, sensitivity analysis of the model built reveals that sugarcane purchase price has a significant influence on profit loss rate, which implies that setting a proper sugarcane purchase price would be an effective way of realizing economic equality in future practice of contract farming.

  7. Cystic echinococcosis: prevalence and economic significance in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... study showed that cystic echinococcosis of small ruminants causes significant economic loss. Further study to determine prevalence of cystic echinococcosis in small ruminants in different agro ecology of the country is recommended. Keywords: Cystic echinococcosis; Cyst viability test; Economic loss; Goat; Origin; Sheep ...

  8. Biallelic Loss of Proprioception-Related PIEZO2 Causes Muscular Atrophy with Perinatal Respiratory Distress, Arthrogryposis, and Scoliosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delle Vedove, Andrea; Storbeck, Markus; Heller, Raoul; Hölker, Irmgard; Hebbar, Malavika; Shukla, Anju; Magnusson, Olafur; Cirak, Sebahattin; Girisha, Katta M; O'Driscoll, Mary; Loeys, Bart; Wirth, Brunhilde

    2016-11-03

    We report ten individuals of four independent consanguineous families from Turkey, India, Libya, and Pakistan with a variable clinical phenotype that comprises arthrogryposis, spontaneously resolving respiratory insufficiency at birth, muscular atrophy predominantly of the distal lower limbs, scoliosis, and mild distal sensory involvement. Using whole-exome sequencing, SNPchip-based linkage analysis, DNA microarray, and Sanger sequencing, we identified three independent homozygous frameshift mutations and a homozygous deletion of two exons in PIEZO2 that segregated in all affected individuals of the respective family. The mutations are localized in the N-terminal and central region of the gene, leading to nonsense-mediated transcript decay and consequently to lack of PIEZO2 protein. In contrast, heterozygous gain-of-function missense mutations, mainly localized at the C terminus, cause dominant distal arthrogryposis 3 (DA3), distal arthrogryposis 5 (DA5), or Marden-Walker syndrome (MWKS), which encompass contractures of hands and feet, scoliosis, ophthalmoplegia, and ptosis. PIEZO2 encodes a mechanosensitive ion channel that plays a major role in light-touch mechanosensation and has recently been identified as the principal mechanotransduction channel for proprioception. Mice ubiquitously depleted of PIEZO2 are postnatally lethal. However, individuals lacking PIEZO2 develop a not life-threatening, slowly progressive disorder, which is likely due to loss of PIEZO2 protein in afferent neurons leading to disturbed proprioception causing aberrant muscle development and function. Here we report a recessively inherited PIEZO2-related disease and demonstrate that depending on the type of mutation and the mode of inheritance, PIEZO2 causes clinically distinguishable phenotypes. Copyright © 2016 American Society of Human Genetics. All rights reserved.

  9. Functional characterization of novel loss-of-function mutations in the vasopressin type 2 receptor gene causing nephrogenic diabetes insipidus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Böselt, Iris; Tramma, Despoina; Kalamitsou, Serafia; Niemeyer, Thomas; Nykänen, Päivi; Gräf, Klaus-Jürgen; Krude, Heiko; Marenzi, Karen Sabrina; Di Candia, Stefania; Schöneberg, Torsten; Schulz, Angela

    2012-04-01

    X-linked nephrogenic diabetes insipidus (NDI) is a rare polyuric disorder caused by inactivating mutations in the arginine vasopressin receptor Type 2 (AVPR2) gene. NDI patients from six unrelated families were subjected to mutational analysis of the AVPR2 gene. In-depth in vitro characterization of novel AVPR2 mutants by a combination of functional and immunological techniques provided further insight into molecular mechanisms causing receptor dysfunction. Mutational analysis revealed four novel (A89P, G107R, Q174R, W208X) and three recurrent (V277A, R337X, ΔR247-G250) mutations within the AVPR2 gene. One family carried the missense mutation R337X and a 12-bp deletion (ΔR247-G250), corresponding to a fragment in the third intracellular loop (ICL3), which was not genetically linked to R337X. The functionally tested missense mutations A89P, G107R and Q174R led to reduced receptor cell surface expression in transfected COS-7 cells, most probably due to misfolding and intracellular retention, and consequently to reduction or loss of agonist-mediated cyclic adenosine monophosphate formation. Deletion of R247-G250 had no effect on receptor function in vitro. Comparison with other mammalian AVPR2 orthologs showed that this part of the ICL3 is structurally not conserved and, therefore, less relevant for receptor function. In contrast, all missense mutations (A89P, G107R, Q174R, V277A) affect receptor positions that were fully preserved during mammalian evolution. Our results provide valuable information about residues critical for AVPR2 folding, trafficking and function and proof that these mutations are responsible for causing NDI in the affected subjects.

  10. Global Crop Yield Reductions due to Surface Ozone Exposure: Crop Production Losses and Economic Damage in 2000 and 2030 under Two Future Scenarios of O3 Pollution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Avnery, S.; Mauzerall, D. L.; Liu, J.; Horowitz, L. W.

    2011-12-01

    Field studies demonstrate that exposure to elevated concentrations of surface ozone (O3) may cause substantial reductions in the agricultural yields of many crops. As emissions of O3 precursors rise in many parts of the world over the next few decades, yield reductions from O3 exposure may increase the challenges of feeding a global population projected to grow from approximately 6 to 8 billion people between 2000 and 2030. This study estimates global yield reductions of three key staple crops (soybean, maize, and wheat) due to surface ozone exposure in 2000 and 2030 according to two trajectories of O3 pollution: the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change Special Report on Emissions Scenarios (IPCC SRES) A2 and B1 storylines, which represent upper- and lower-boundary projections, respectively, of most O3 precursor emissions in 2030. Our results indicate that year 2000 O3-induced global yield reductions ranged, depending on the O3 exposure metric used, from 3.9-15% for wheat, 8.5-14% for soybean, and 2.2-5.5% for maize. Global crop production losses totaled 79-121 million metric tons, worth 11-18 billion annually (USD2000). In the 2030-A2 scenario we find global O3-induced yield loss of wheat to be 5.4-26% (a further reduction in yield of +1.5-10% from year 2000 values), 15-19% for soybean (reduction of +0.9-11%), and 4.4-8.7% for maize (reduction of +2.1-3.2%) depending on the metric used, with total global agricultural losses worth 17-35 billion USD2000 annually (an increase of +6-17 billion in losses from 2000). Under the 2030-B1 scenario, we project less severe but still substantial reductions in yields: 4.0-17% for wheat (a further decrease in yield of +0.1-1.8% from 2000), 9.5-15% for soybean (decrease of +0.7-1.0%), and 2.5-6.0% for maize (decrease of+ 0.3-0.5%), with total losses worth 12-21 billion annually (an increase of +$1-3 billion in losses from 2000). Because our analysis uses crop data from the year 2000, which likely underestimates agricultural

  11. A comparison of socio-economic loss analysis from the 2013 Haiyan Typhoon and Bohol Earthquake events in the Philippines in near real-time

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daniell, James; Mühr, Bernhard; Kunz-Plapp, Tina; Brink, Susan A.; Kunz, Michael; Khazai, Bijan; Wenzel, Friedemann

    2014-05-01

    In the aftermath of a disaster, the extent of the socioeconomic loss (fatalities, homelessness and economic losses) is often not known and it may take days before a reasonable estimate is known. Using the technique of socio-economic fragility functions developed (Daniell, 2014) using a regression of socio-economic indicators through time against historical empirical loss vs. intensity data, a first estimate can be established. With more information from the region as the disaster unfolds, a more detailed estimate can be provided via a calibration of the initial loss estimate parameters. In 2013, two main disasters hit the Philippines; the Bohol earthquake in October and the Haiyan typhoon in November. Although both disasters were contrasting and hit different regions, the same generalised methodology was used for initial rapid estimates and then the updating of the disaster loss estimate through time. The CEDIM Forensic Disaster Analysis Group of KIT and GFZ produced 6 reports for Bohol and 2 reports for Haiyan detailing various aspects of the disasters from the losses to building damage, the socioeconomic profile and also the social networking and disaster response. This study focusses on the loss analysis undertaken. The following technique was used:- 1. A regression of historical earthquake and typhoon losses for the Philippines was examined using the CATDAT Damaging Earthquakes Database, and various Philippines databases respectively. 2. The historical intensity impact of the examined events were placed in a GIS environment in order to allow correlation with the population and capital stock database from 1900-2013 to create a loss function. The modified human development index from 1900-2013 was also used to also calibrate events through time. 3. The earthquake intensity and the wind speed intensity was used from the 2013 events as well as the 2013 capital stock and population in order to calculate the number of fatalities (except in Haiyan), homeless and

  12. Global Earthquake and Volcanic Eruption Economic losses and costs from 1900-2014: 115 years of the CATDAT database - Trends, Normalisation and Visualisation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daniell, James; Skapski, Jens-Udo; Vervaeck, Armand; Wenzel, Friedemann; Schaefer, Andreas

    2015-04-01

    Over the past 12 years, an in-depth database has been constructed for socio-economic losses from earthquakes and volcanoes. The effects of earthquakes and volcanic eruptions have been documented in many databases, however, many errors and incorrect details are often encountered. To combat this, the database was formed with socioeconomic checks of GDP, capital stock, population and other elements, as well as providing upper and lower bounds to each available event loss. The definition of economic losses within the CATDAT Damaging Earthquakes Database (Daniell et al., 2011a) as of v6.1 has now been redefined to provide three options of natural disaster loss pricing, including reconstruction cost, replacement cost and actual loss, in order to better define the impact of historical disasters. Similarly for volcanoes as for earthquakes, a reassessment has been undertaken looking at the historical net and gross capital stock and GDP at the time of the event, including the depreciated stock, in order to calculate the actual loss. A normalisation has then been undertaken using updated population, GDP and capital stock. The difference between depreciated and gross capital can be removed from the historical loss estimates which have been all calculated without taking depreciation of the building stock into account. The culmination of time series from 1900-2014 of net and gross capital stock, GDP, direct economic loss data, use of detailed studies of infrastructure age, and existing damage surveys, has allowed the first estimate of this nature. The death tolls in earthquakes from 1900-2014 are presented in various forms, showing around 2.32 million deaths due to earthquakes (with a range of 2.18 to 2.63 million) and around 59% due to masonry buildings and 28% from secondary effects. For the death tolls from the volcanic eruption database, 98000 deaths with a range from around 83000 to 107000 is seen from 1900-2014. The application of VSL life costing from death and injury

  13. De novo loss-of-function mutations in WAC cause a recognizable intellectual disability syndrome and learning deficits in Drosophila.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lugtenberg, Dorien; Reijnders, Margot R F; Fenckova, Michaela; Bijlsma, Emilia K; Bernier, Raphael; van Bon, Bregje W M; Smeets, Eric; Vulto-van Silfhout, Anneke T; Bosch, Danielle; Eichler, Evan E; Mefford, Heather C; Carvill, Gemma L; Bongers, Ernie M H F; Schuurs-Hoeijmakers, Janneke Hm; Ruivenkamp, Claudia A; Santen, Gijs W E; van den Maagdenberg, Arn M J M; Peeters-Scholte, Cacha M P C D; Kuenen, Sabine; Verstreken, Patrik; Pfundt, Rolph; Yntema, Helger G; de Vries, Petra F; Veltman, Joris A; Hoischen, Alexander; Gilissen, Christian; de Vries, Bert B A; Schenck, Annette; Kleefstra, Tjitske; Vissers, Lisenka E L M

    2016-08-01

    Recently WAC was reported as a candidate gene for intellectual disability (ID) based on the identification of a de novo mutation in an individual with severe ID. WAC regulates transcription-coupled histone H2B ubiquitination and has previously been implicated in the 10p12p11 contiguous gene deletion syndrome. In this study, we report on 10 individuals with de novo WAC mutations which we identified through routine (diagnostic) exome sequencing and targeted resequencing of WAC in 2326 individuals with unexplained ID. All but one mutation was expected to lead to a loss-of-function of WAC. Clinical evaluation of all individuals revealed phenotypic overlap for mild ID, hypotonia, behavioral problems and distinctive facial dysmorphisms, including a square-shaped face, deep set eyes, long palpebral fissures, and a broad mouth and chin. These clinical features were also previously reported in individuals with 10p12p11 microdeletion syndrome. To investigate the role of WAC in ID, we studied the importance of the Drosophila WAC orthologue (CG8949) in habituation, a non-associative learning paradigm. Neuronal knockdown of Drosophila CG8949 resulted in impaired learning, suggesting that WAC is required in neurons for normal cognitive performance. In conclusion, we defined a clinically recognizable ID syndrome, caused by de novo loss-of-function mutations in WAC. Independent functional evidence in Drosophila further supported the role of WAC in ID. On the basis of our data WAC can be added to the list of ID genes with a role in transcription regulation through histone modification.

  14. Loss of receptor activity-modifying protein 2 in mice causes placental dysfunction and alters PTH1R regulation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mahita Kadmiel

    Full Text Available Receptor activity-modifying protein 2 (Ramp2 is a single-pass transmembrane protein that heterodimerizes with several family B G-protein coupled receptors to alter their function. Ramp2 has been primarily characterized in association with calcitonin receptor-like receptor (Calcrl, CLR, forming the canonical receptor complex for the endocrine peptide adrenomedullin (Adm, AM. However, we previously demonstrated that Ramp2+/- female mice display a constellation of endocrine-related phenotypes that are distinct from those of Adm+/- and Calcrl+/- mice, implying that RAMP2 has physiological functions beyond its canonical complex. Here, we localize Ramp2 expression in the mouse placenta, finding that Ramp2 is robustly expressed in the fetal labyrinth layer, and then characterize the effects of loss of Ramp2 on placental development. Consistent with the expression pattern of Ramp2 in the placenta, Ramp2-/- placentas have a thinner labyrinth layer with significantly fewer trophoblast cells secondary to a reduction in trophoblast proliferation. We also find that absence of Ramp2 leads to failed spiral artery remodeling unaccompanied by changes in the uterine natural killer cell population. Furthermore, we assess changes in gene expression of other RAMP2-associated G-protein coupled receptors (GPCRs, concluding that Ramp2 loss decreases parathyroid hormone 1 receptor (Pthr1 expression and causes a blunted response to systemic parathyroid hormone (PTH administration in mice. Ultimately, these studies provide in vivo evidence of a role for RAMP2 in placental development distinct from the RAMP2-CLR/AM signaling paradigm and identify additional pathways underlying the endocrine and fertility defects of the previously characterized Ramp2 heterozygous adult females.

  15. Health inequality between immigrants and natives in Spain: the loss of the healthy immigrant effect in times of economic crisis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gotsens, Mercè; Malmusi, Davide; Villarroel, Nazmy; Vives-Cases, Carmen; Garcia-Subirats, Irene; Hernando, Cristina; Borrell, Carme

    2015-12-01

    The immigrant population living in Spain grew exponentially in the early 2000s but has been particularly affected by the economic crisis. This study aims to analyse health inequalities between immigrants born in middle- or low-income countries and natives in Spain, in 2006 and 2012, taking into account gender, year of arrival and socioeconomic exposures. Study of trends using two cross-sections, the 2006 and 2012 editions of the Spanish National Health Survey, including residents in Spain aged 15-64 years (20 810 natives and 2950 immigrants in 2006, 14 291 natives and 2448 immigrants in 2012). Fair/poor self-rated health, poor mental health (GHQ-12 > 2), chronic activity limitation and use of psychotropic drugs were compared between natives and immigrants who arrived in Spain before 2006, adjusting robust Poisson regression models for age and socioeconomic variables to obtain prevalence ratios (PR) and 95% confidence interval (CI). Inequalities in poor self-rated health between immigrants and natives tend to increase among women (age-adjusted PR2006 = 1.39; 95% CI: 1.24-1.56, PR2012 = 1.56; 95% CI: 1.33-1.82). Among men, there is a new onset of inequalities in poor mental health (PR2006 = 1.10; 95% CI: 0.86-1.40, PR2012 = 1.34; 95% CI: 1.06-1.69) and an equalization of the previously lower use of psychotropic drugs (PR2006 = 0.22; 95% CI: 0.11-0.43, PR2012 = 1.20; 95% CI: 0.73-2.01). Between 2006 and 2012, immigrants who arrived in Spain before 2006 appeared to worsen their health status when compared with natives. The loss of the healthy immigrant effect in the context of a worse impact of the economic crisis on immigrants appears as potential explanation. Employment, social protection and re-universalization of healthcare would prevent further deterioration of immigrants' health status. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the European Public Health Association. All rights reserved.

  16. Causes analysis on the failure of government environmental responsibility—Based on the perspective of law and economics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fa, L. N.

    2017-11-01

    As the important Environmental Interests of Subjects, government behooves to undertake the corresponding responsibility of Pollution Control and Environmental Protection. The current situations in our country, however, appear as government environmental responsibility failure. Based on the analysis of law and economics, this article reaches the conclusion through game analysis, principle-agency relationship and utility theory that the prisoners dilemma of environmental interest game between government and enterprise, and the inherent defect of the principal-agency relationship between central government and local government are the inherent causes of government environmental responsibility failure. Many officials tends to graft and corrupt to maximum their own benefit, thus leading to the government failure among environmental pollution treatment and the environmental responsibility to undertake.

  17. Causes analysis on the serious defect of enterprise environmental responsibility—Based on the perspective of law and economics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fa, L. N.

    2017-11-01

    As the important Environmental Interests of Subjects, enterprises behoove to undertake the corresponding responsibility of Pollution Control and Environmental Protection. The current situations in our country, however, appear as the serious lack of enterprise environmental responsibility. Based on the analysis of law and economics, this article reaches the conclusion through game analysis and cost-benefit analysis that the prisoners dilemma of environmental interest game between enterprises is the inherent causes for the serious defect of enterprise environmental responsibility. Meanwhile, at the point of cost-benefit, the externality of environment illegal act results in the imbalanced cost-benefit, lacking of the motivation to control pollution and protect environment in an active way.

  18. Loss of function in Mlo orthologs reduces susceptibility of pepper and tomato to powdery mildew disease caused by Leveillula taurica.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zheng Zheng

    Full Text Available Powdery mildew disease caused by Leveillula taurica is a serious fungal threat to greenhouse tomato and pepper production. In contrast to most powdery mildew species which are epiphytic, L. taurica is an endophytic fungus colonizing the mesophyll tissues of the leaf. In barley, Arabidopsis, tomato and pea, the correct functioning of specific homologues of the plant Mlo gene family has been found to be required for pathogenesis of epiphytic powdery mildew fungi. The aim of this study was to investigate the involvement of the Mlo genes in susceptibility to the endophytic fungus L. taurica. In tomato (Solanum lycopersicum, a loss-of-function mutation in the SlMlo1 gene results in resistance to powdery mildew disease caused by Oidium neolycopersici. When the tomato Slmlo1 mutant was inoculated with L. taurica in this study, it proved to be less susceptible compared to the control, S. lycopersicum cv. Moneymaker. Further, overexpression of SlMlo1 in the tomato Slmlo1 mutant enhanced susceptibility to L. taurica. In pepper, the CaMlo2 gene was isolated by applying a homology-based cloning approach. Compared to the previously identified CaMlo1 gene, the CaMlo2 gene is more similar to SlMlo1 as shown by phylogenetic analysis, and the expression of CaMlo2 is up-regulated at an earlier time point upon L. taurica infection. However, results of virus-induced gene silencing suggest that both CaMlo1 and CaMlo2 may be involved in the susceptibility of pepper to L. taurica. The fact that overexpression of CaMlo2 restored the susceptibility of the tomato Slmlo1 mutant to O. neolycopersici and increased its susceptibility to L. taurica confirmed the role of CaMlo2 acting as a susceptibility factor to different powdery mildews, though the role of CaMlo1 as a co-factor for susceptibility cannot be excluded.

  19. Loss of function in Mlo orthologs reduces susceptibility of pepper and tomato to powdery mildew disease caused by Leveillula taurica.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Zheng; Nonomura, Teruo; Appiano, Michela; Pavan, Stefano; Matsuda, Yoshinori; Toyoda, Hideyoshi; Wolters, Anne-Marie A; Visser, Richard G F; Bai, Yuling

    2013-01-01

    Powdery mildew disease caused by Leveillula taurica is a serious fungal threat to greenhouse tomato and pepper production. In contrast to most powdery mildew species which are epiphytic, L. taurica is an endophytic fungus colonizing the mesophyll tissues of the leaf. In barley, Arabidopsis, tomato and pea, the correct functioning of specific homologues of the plant Mlo gene family has been found to be required for pathogenesis of epiphytic powdery mildew fungi. The aim of this study was to investigate the involvement of the Mlo genes in susceptibility to the endophytic fungus L. taurica. In tomato (Solanum lycopersicum), a loss-of-function mutation in the SlMlo1 gene results in resistance to powdery mildew disease caused by Oidium neolycopersici. When the tomato Slmlo1 mutant was inoculated with L. taurica in this study, it proved to be less susceptible compared to the control, S. lycopersicum cv. Moneymaker. Further, overexpression of SlMlo1 in the tomato Slmlo1 mutant enhanced susceptibility to L. taurica. In pepper, the CaMlo2 gene was isolated by applying a homology-based cloning approach. Compared to the previously identified CaMlo1 gene, the CaMlo2 gene is more similar to SlMlo1 as shown by phylogenetic analysis, and the expression of CaMlo2 is up-regulated at an earlier time point upon L. taurica infection. However, results of virus-induced gene silencing suggest that both CaMlo1 and CaMlo2 may be involved in the susceptibility of pepper to L. taurica. The fact that overexpression of CaMlo2 restored the susceptibility of the tomato Slmlo1 mutant to O. neolycopersici and increased its susceptibility to L. taurica confirmed the role of CaMlo2 acting as a susceptibility factor to different powdery mildews, though the role of CaMlo1 as a co-factor for susceptibility cannot be excluded.

  20. Economic Impacts of the Southern Pine Beetle

    Science.gov (United States)

    John M. Pye; Thomas P. Holmes; Jeffrey P. Prestemon; David N. Wear

    2011-01-01

    This paper provides an overview of the timber economic impacts of the southern pine beetle (SPB). Although we anticipate that SPB outbreaks cause substantial economic losses to households that consume the nonmarket economic services provided by healthy forests, we have narrowly focused our attention here on changes in values to timber growers and wood-products...

  1. Mitochondrial dysfunction due to Leber's hereditary optic neuropathy as a cause of visual loss during assessment for epilepsy surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niehusmann, Pitt; Surges, Rainer; von Wrede, Randi D; Elger, Christian E; Wellmer, Jörg; Reimann, Jens; Urbach, Horst; Vielhaber, Stefan; Bien, Christian G; Kunz, Wolfram S

    2011-01-01

    Assessment for epilepsy surgery may require invasive measures such as implantation of intracranial electrodes or the Wada test. These investigations are commonly well tolerated. However, complications, including visual disturbances of various etiologies, have been reported. Here we describe two patients with pharmacoresistant temporal lobe epilepsy (TLE) who displayed loss of vision in the context of presurgical assessment and in whom mutations associated with Leber's hereditary optic neuropathy (LHON) were detected. Genetic analysis revealed in one patient the frequent mitochondrial G11778A LHON mutation in ND4. In the second patient, the mitochondrial C4640A mutation in ND2 was detected. This rare LHON mutation enhanced the sensitivity of the patient's muscle and brain tissue to amobarbital, a known blocker of the mitochondrial respiratory chain. Mitochondrial dysfunction has been reported in epilepsy. Thus, the presence of LHON mutations can be a rare cause of visual disturbances in patients with epilepsy and may have predisposed to development of epilepsy. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Loss of cilia causes embryonic lung hypoplasia, liver fibrosis, and cholestasis in the talpid3 ciliopathy mutant

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davey, Megan G; McTeir, Lynn; Barrie, Andrew M; Freem, Lucy J; Stephen, Louise A

    2014-01-01

    Sonic hedgehog plays an essential role in maintaining hepatoblasts in a proliferative non-differentiating state during embryogenesis. Transduction of the Hedgehog signaling pathway is dependent on the presence of functional primary cilia and hepatoblasts, therefore, must require primary cilia for normal function. In congenital syndromes in which cilia are absent or non-functional (ciliopathies) hepatorenal fibrocystic disease is common and primarily characterized by ductal plate malformations which underlie the formation of liver cysts, as well as less commonly, by hepatic fibrosis, although a role for abnormal Hedgehog signal transduction has not been implicated in these phenotypes. We have examined liver, lung and rib development in the talpid3 chicken mutant, a ciliopathy model in which abnormal Hedgehog signaling is well characterized. We find that the talpid3 phenotype closely models that of human short-rib polydactyly syndromes which are caused by the loss of cilia, and exhibit hypoplastic lungs and liver failure. Through an analysis of liver and lung development in the talpid3 chicken, we propose that cilia in the liver are essential for the transduction of Hedgehog signaling during hepatic development. The talpid3 chicken represents a useful resource in furthering our understanding of the pathology of ciliopathies beyond the treatment of thoracic insufficiency as well as generating insights into the role Hedgehog signaling in hepatic development. PMID:24743779

  3. Targeted disruption of the PME-1 gene causes loss of demethylated PP2A and perinatal lethality in mice.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silvia Ortega-Gutiérrez

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available Phosphoprotein phosphatase 2A (PP2A, a major serine-threonine protein phosphatase in eukaryotes, is an oligomeric protein comprised of structural (A and catalytic (C subunits to which a variable regulatory subunit (B can associate. The C subunit contains a methyl ester post-translational modification on its C-terminal leucine residue, which is removed by a specific methylesterase (PME-1. Methylesterification is thought to control the binding of different B subunits to AC dimers, but little is known about its physiological significance in vivo.Here, we show that targeted disruption of the PME-1 gene causes perinatal lethality in mice, a phenotype that correlates with a virtually complete loss of the demethylated form of PP2A in the nervous system and peripheral tissues. Interestingly, PP2A catalytic activity over a peptide substrate was dramatically reduced in PME-1(-/- tissues, which also displayed alterations in phosphoproteome content.These findings suggest a role for the demethylated form of PP2A in maintenance of enzyme function and phosphorylation networks in vivo.

  4. Loss of the chromatin modifier Kdm2aa causes BrafV600E-independent spontaneous melanoma in zebrafish.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Catherine M Scahill

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available KDM2A is a histone demethylase associated with transcriptional silencing, however very little is known about its in vivo role in development and disease. Here we demonstrate that loss of the orthologue kdm2aa in zebrafish causes widespread transcriptional disruption and leads to spontaneous melanomas at a high frequency. Fish homozygous for two independent premature stop codon alleles show reduced growth and survival, a strong male sex bias, and homozygous females exhibit a progressive oogenesis defect. kdm2aa mutant fish also develop melanomas from early adulthood onwards which are independent from mutations in braf and other common oncogenes and tumour suppressors as revealed by deep whole exome sequencing. In addition to effects on translation and DNA replication gene expression, high-replicate RNA-seq in morphologically normal individuals demonstrates a stable regulatory response of epigenetic modifiers and the specific de-repression of a group of zinc finger genes residing in constitutive heterochromatin. Together our data reveal a complex role for Kdm2aa in regulating normal mRNA levels and carcinogenesis. These findings establish kdm2aa mutants as the first single gene knockout model of melanoma biology.

  5. Loss of epidermal growth factor receptor in vascular smooth muscle cells and cardiomyocytes causes arterial hypotension and cardiac hypertrophy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schreier, Barbara; Rabe, Sindy; Schneider, Bettina; Bretschneider, Maria; Rupp, Sebastian; Ruhs, Stefanie; Neumann, Joachim; Rueckschloss, Uwe; Sibilia, Maria; Gotthardt, Michael; Grossmann, Claudia; Gekle, Michael

    2013-02-01

    The epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR), a receptor tyrosine kinase, contributes to parainflammatory dysregulation, possibly causing cardiovascular dysfunction and remodeling. The physiological role of cardiovascular EGFR is not completely understood. To investigate the physiological importance of EGFR in vascular smooth muscle cells and cardiomyocytes, we generated a mouse model with targeted deletion of the EGFR using the SM22 (smooth muscle-specific protein 22) promoter. While the reproduction of knockout animals was not impaired, life span was significantly reduced. Systolic blood pressure was not different between the 2 genotypes-neither in tail cuff nor in intravascular measurements-whereas total peripheral vascular resistance, diastolic blood pressure, and mean blood pressure were reduced. Loss of vascular smooth muscle cell-EGFR results in a dilated vascular phenotype with minor signs of fibrosis and inflammation. Echocardiography, necropsy, and histology revealed a dramatic eccentric cardiac hypertrophy in knockout mice (2.5-fold increase in heart weight), with increased stroke volume and cardiac output as well as left ventricular wall thickness and lumen. Cardiac hypertrophy is accompanied by an increase in cardiomyocyte volume, a strong tendency to cardiac fibrosis and inflammation, as well as enhanced NADPH-oxidase 4 and hypertrophy marker expression. Thus, in cardiomyocytes, EGFR prevents excessive hypertrophic growth through its impact on reactive oxygen species balance, whereas in vascular smooth muscle cells EGFR contributes to the appropriate vascular wall architecture and vessel reactivity, thereby supporting a physiological vascular tone.

  6. A novel founder MYO15A frameshift duplication is the major cause of genetic hearing loss in Oman.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palombo, Flavia; Al-Wardy, Nadia; Ruscone, Guido Alberto Gnecchi; Oppo, Manuela; Kindi, Mohammed Nasser Al; Angius, Andrea; Al Lamki, Khalsa; Girotto, Giorgia; Giangregorio, Tania; Benelli, Matteo; Magi, Alberto; Seri, Marco; Gasparini, Paolo; Cucca, Francesco; Sazzini, Marco; Al Khabori, Mazin; Pippucci, Tommaso; Romeo, Giovanni

    2017-02-01

    The increased risk for autosomal recessive disorders is one of the most well-known medical implications of consanguinity. In the Sultanate of Oman, a country characterized by one of the highest rates of consanguineous marriages worldwide, prevalence of genetic hearing loss (GHL) is estimated to be 6/10 000. Families of GHL patients have higher consanguinity rates than the general Omani population, indicating a major role for recessive forms. Mutations in GJB2, the most commonly mutated GHL gene, have been sporadically described. We collected 97 DNA samples of GHL probands, affected/unaffected siblings and parents from 26 Omani consanguineous families. Analyzing a first family by whole-exome sequencing, we identified a novel homozygous frameshift duplication (c.1171_1177dupGCCATCT) in MYO15A, the gene linked to the deafness locus DFNB3. This duplication was then found in a total of 8/26 (28%) families, within a 849 kb founder haplotype. Reconstruction of haplotype structure at MYO15A surrounding genomic regions indicated that the founder haplotype branched out in the past two to three centuries from a haplotype present worldwide. The MYO15A duplication emerges as the major cause of GHL in Oman. These findings have major implications for the design of GHL diagnosis and prevention policies in Oman.

  7. Hearing impairment caused by mutations in two different genes responsible for nonsyndromic and syndromic hearing loss within a single family.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niepokój, Katarzyna; Rygiel, Agnieszka M; Jurczak, Piotr; Kujko, Aleksandra A; Śniegórska, Dominika; Sawicka, Justyna; Grabarczyk, Alicja; Bal, Jerzy; Wertheim-Tysarowska, Katarzyna

    2017-11-18

    Usher syndrome is rare genetic disorder impairing two human senses, hearing and vision, with the characteristic late onset of vision loss. This syndrome is divided into three types. In all cases, the vision loss is postlingual, while loss of hearing is usually prelingual. The vestibular functions may also be disturbed in Usher type 1 and sometimes in type 3. Vestibular areflexia is helpful in making a proper diagnosis of the syndrome, but, often, the syndrome is misdiagnosed as a nonsyndromic hearing loss. Here, we present a Polish family with hearing loss, which was clinically classified as nonsyndromic. After excluding mutations in the DFNB1 locus, we implemented the next-generation sequencing method and revealed that hearing loss was syndromic and mutations in the USH2A gene indicate Usher syndrome. This research highlights the importance of molecular analysis in establishing a clinical diagnosis of congenital hearing loss.

  8. Mammary tumorigenesis causes bone loss and dietary selenium supplementation does not affect such bone loss in male MMTV-PyMT mice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cancer progression is accompanied by wasting that eventually results in cachexia characterized by significant weight loss and multi-organ functional failures. Limited clinical trials indicate that bone is adversely affected by cancer-associated wasting. To determine the effects of breast cancer on...

  9. Power Scaling of the Size Distribution of Economic Loss and Fatalities due to Hurricanes, Earthquakes, Tornadoes, and Floods in the USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tebbens, S. F.; Barton, C. C.; Scott, B. E.

    2016-12-01

    Traditionally, the size of natural disaster events such as hurricanes, earthquakes, tornadoes, and floods is measured in terms of wind speed (m/sec), energy released (ergs), or discharge (m3/sec) rather than by economic loss or fatalities. Economic loss and fatalities from natural disasters result from the intersection of the human infrastructure and population with the size of the natural event. This study investigates the size versus cumulative number distribution of individual natural disaster events for several disaster types in the United States. Economic losses are adjusted for inflation to 2014 USD. The cumulative number divided by the time over which the data ranges for each disaster type is the basis for making probabilistic forecasts in terms of the number of events greater than a given size per year and, its inverse, return time. Such forecasts are of interest to insurers/re-insurers, meteorologists, seismologists, government planners, and response agencies. Plots of size versus cumulative number distributions per year for economic loss and fatalities are well fit by power scaling functions of the form p(x) = Cx-β; where, p(x) is the cumulative number of events with size equal to and greater than size x, C is a constant, the activity level, x is the event size, and β is the scaling exponent. Economic loss and fatalities due to hurricanes, earthquakes, tornadoes, and floods are well fit by power functions over one to five orders of magnitude in size. Economic losses for hurricanes and tornadoes have greater scaling exponents, β = 1.1 and 0.9 respectively, whereas earthquakes and floods have smaller scaling exponents, β = 0.4 and 0.6 respectively. Fatalities for tornadoes and floods have greater scaling exponents, β = 1.5 and 1.7 respectively, whereas hurricanes and earthquakes have smaller scaling exponents, β = 0.4 and 0.7 respectively. The scaling exponents can be used to make probabilistic forecasts for time windows ranging from 1 to 1000 years

  10. Considering transmission loss for an economic dispatch problem without valve-point loading using an EP-EPSO algorithm

    OpenAIRE

    PANDIAN, Sevugarathinam MUTHU VIJAYA; THANUSHKODI, Keppanagowder

    2014-01-01

    Economic dispatch (ED) is one of the most important optimization problems in a power system. The objective of ED is sharing the power demand among the online generators while keeping the minimum cost of generation as a constraint. The aim of this paper is to operate an electric power system as economically as possible within its security limits. This paper proposes the following 2 new particle swarm optimization (PSO) algorithms to solve a nonconvex economic dispatch problem: an efficien...

  11. More to the Picture than Meets the Eye: On the Ultimate Causes behind the Chilean Economic Transformation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martin Andersson

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available In the contemporary development discussion on the causes behind the sustained economic growth in Chile since 1985, the predominant canon seldom attach importance to evolving processes taken place prior to the dramatic market oriented shift after 1973. From a long-term development perspective, however, such a view is unsatisfactory and potentially misleading because it tends to disregard the significance of institutional change and the agricultural transformation. Within a framework of long-term institutional change, a reinterpretation of the Chilean economic progress centred on the transformation of the Chilean agriculture is put forward. It is argued that ever since the 1930s a process of social change evolved that helped break down the growth inhibiting traditional institutional order. Specifically, the pressure for modernization, reaching its zenith at the time of the reforms of the latter half of the 1960s, broke elitist economic and political relations and led to agricultural transformation that portended and conditioned the effect of the shift to the market oriented regime of the 1970s and 1980s. Resumen: Más allá de las apariencias: las causas últimas de la transformación económica de ChileEn la discusión actual sobre las causas del sostenido crecimiento económico de Chile desde 1985, el canon predominante rara vez le otorga impor tancia a los procesos anteriores al dramático cambio de orientación hacia la economía de mercado de 1973. Sin embargo, desde una perspectiva de desarrollo a largo plazo, esta mirada es insatisfactoria y potencialmente desorientadora, dada su tendencia a ignorar la importancia del cambio institucional y la transformación de la agricultura que impulsó. Aquí se propone una reinterpretación del progreso de la economía chilena desde la perspectiva del cambio institucional a largo plazo, centrada en la transformación de la agricultura chilena. Se argumenta que, desde la década de los 30, se desarroll

  12. A Novel Mutation in the Maternally Imprinted PEG3 Domain Results in a Loss of MIMT1 Expression and Causes Abortions and Stillbirths in Cattle (Bos taurus)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flisikowski, Krzysztof; Venhoranta, Heli; Nowacka-Woszuk, Joanna; McKay, Stephanie D.; Flyckt, Antti; Taponen, Juhani; Schnabel, Robert; Schwarzenbacher, Hermann; Szczerbal, Izabela; Lohi, Hannes; Fries, Ruedi; Taylor, Jeremy F.; Switonski, Marek; Andersson, Magnus

    2010-01-01

    Congenital malformations resulting in late abortions and stillbirths affect the economic wellbeing of producers and the welfare of cattle in breeding programs. An extremely high incidence of stillbirths of “half-sized” calves of normal karyotype and uninflated lungs was diagnosed in the progeny of the Finnish Ayrshire (Bos taurus) bull - YN51. No other visible anatomical abnormalities were apparent in the stillborn calves. We herein describe the positional identification of a 110 kb microdeletion in the maternally imprinted PEG3 domain that results in a loss of paternal MIMT1 expression and causes late term abortion and stillbirth in cattle. Using the BovineSNP50 BeadChip we performed a genome-wide half-sib linkage analysis that identified a 13.3 Mb associated region on BTA18 containing the maternally imprinted PEG3 domain. Within this cluster we found a 110 kb microdeletion that removes a part of the non-protein coding MER1 repeat containing imprinted transcript 1 gene (MIMT1). To confirm the elimination of gene expression in calves inheriting this deletion, we examined the mRNA levels of the three maternally imprinted genes within the PEG3 domain, in brain and cotyledon tissue collected from eight fetuses sired by the proband. None of the fetuses that inherited the microdeletion expressed MIMT1 in either tissue. The mutation, when inherited from the sire, is semi-lethal for his progeny with an observed mortality rate of 85%. The survival of 15% is presumably due to the incomplete silencing of maternally inherited MIMT1 alleles. We designed a PCR-based assay to confirm the existence of the microdeletion in the MIMT1 region that can be used to assist cattle breeders in preventing the stillbirths. PMID:21152099

  13. Progressive irreversible hearing loss is caused by stria vascularis degeneration in an Slc26a4-insufficient mouse model of large vestibular aqueduct syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ito, T; Nishio, A; Wangemann, P; Griffith, A J

    2015-12-03

    Hearing loss of patients with enlargement of the vestibular aqueduct (EVA) can fluctuate or progress, with overall downward progression. The most common detectable cause of EVA is mutations of SLC26A4. We previously described a transgenic Slc26a4-insufficient mouse model of EVA in which Slc26a4 expression is controlled by doxycycline administration. Mice that received doxycycline from conception until embryonic day 17.5 (DE17.5; doxycycline discontinued at embryonic day 17.5) had fluctuating hearing loss between 1 and 6 months of age with an overall downward progression after 6 months of age. In this study, we characterized the cochlear functional and structural changes underlying irreversible hearing loss in DE17.5 mice at 12 months of age. The endocochlear potential was decreased and inversely correlated with auditory brainstem response thresholds. The stria vascularis was thickened and edematous in ears with less severe hearing loss, and thinned and atrophic in ears with more severe hearing loss. There were pathologic changes in marginal cell morphology and gene expression that were not observed at 3 months. We conclude that strial dysfunction and degeneration are the primary causes of irreversible progressive hearing loss in our Slc26a4-insufficient mouse model of EVA. This model of primary strial atrophy may be used to explore the mechanisms of progressive hearing loss due to strial dysfunction. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  14. Combined effects of weight loss and physical activity on all-cause mortality of overweight men and women

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Østergaard, J N; Grønbaek, M; Schnohr, Peter

    2010-01-01

    To estimate the excess deaths associated with weight loss in combination with leisure time physical activity among overweight or obese people.......To estimate the excess deaths associated with weight loss in combination with leisure time physical activity among overweight or obese people....

  15. A new vision on competitiveness within the post-crisis economy. Causes, evolutions and possible innovative solutions to fight against the undesirable effects of the economic crisis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laura Mariana CISMAŞ

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available The main objective of this paper is to highlight the need for promoting a new vision regarding competitiveness mostly in the context of amplifying the effects and the complexity of the nature of crisis manifested now on the international level (economic, environment, demographic, value and moral etc..The economic thinking pays increased attention to the issues related to economic crisis, as well as the development of theories that give satisfactory answers about the causes and, especially, the solutions to the crisis.Using scientific observation and comparative case study as research methods, this paper aims to make a theoretical critical review of the theories regarding the causes of economic crisis over time and to identify and analyze some anti-crisis policies.

  16. Current Economic and Financial Crisis – New Issues or Returning to the Old Problems? Paradigms, Causes, Effects and Solutions Adopted

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Felix TOTIR

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available At the ideological level, the current crisis, as the others in history, has triggered an intellectual debate among several applicable ideas: ultra-liberal theory of the "invisible hand" of Adam Smith, Keynes's theory of state interventionism and even neo-Marxist theories. Globalization, with all its core components, generates a chain reaction when the phenomenon occurs, either positive or negative. The origin of the current financial crisis should be sought in the effects of massive cross-border capital flows and the use of more complex derivatives. Reaching the saturation of the three engines of economic growth worldwide in the period after the collapse of the socialist bloc is another important cause of all the failures that currently exist worldwide. Acquisition of toxic assets from bank balance sheets, their recapitalization and takeover by the state, but also the reinforcement of the prudential supervision of capitalization, liquidity and risk management system, improved transparency and speed the process of evaluating or reinforcing authorities' response to risk, can be considered short or long term anti-crisis measures, as appropriate.

  17. Exploring what lies behind public preferences for avoiding health losses caused by lapses in healthcare safety and patient lifestyle choices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Jeshika; Longworth, Louise; Baine, Amanda; Lord, Joanne; Orr, Shepley; Buxton, Martin

    2013-07-02

    Although many studies have identified public preferences for prioritising health care interventions based on characteristics of recipient or care, very few of them have examined the reasons for the stated preferences. We conducted an on-line person trade-off (PTO) study (N=1030) to investigate whether the public attach a premium to the avoidance of ill health associated with alternative types of responsibilities: lapses in healthcare safety, those caused by individual action or lifestyle choice; or genetic conditions. We found that the public gave higher priority to prevention of harm in a hospital setting such as preventing hospital associated infections than genetic disorder but drug administration errors were valued similar to genetic disorders. Prevention of staff injuries, lifestyle diseases and sports injuries, were given lower priority. In this paper we aim to understand the reasoning behind the responses by analysing comments provided by respondents to the PTO questions. A majority of the respondents who participated in the survey provided brief comments explaining preferences in free text responses following PTO questions. This qualitative data was transformed into explicit codes conveying similar meanings. An overall coding framework was developed and a reliability test was carried out. Recurrent patterns were identified in each preference group. Comments which challenged the assumptions of hypothetical scenarios were also investigated. NHS causation of illness and a duty of care were the most cited reasons to prioritise lapses in healthcare safety. Personal responsibility dominated responses for lifestyle related contexts, and many respondents mentioned that health loss was the result of the individual's choice to engage in risky behaviour. A small proportion of responses questioned the assumptions underlying the PTO questions. However excluding these from the main analysis did not affect the conclusions. Although some responses indicated

  18. Hearing loss caused by progressive degeneration of cochlear hair cells in mice deficient for the Barhl1 homeobox gene

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Shengguo Li; Sandy M. Price; Hugh Cahill; David K. Ryugo; Michael M. Shen; Mengqing Xiang

    2002-01-01

    .... We report that targeted disruption of Barhl1 , a mouse homolog of the Drosophila BarH homeobox genes, results in severe to profound hearing loss, providing a unique model for the study of age-related...

  19. Direct or indirect composite veneers in anterior teeth: which method causes higher tooth mass loss? An in vitro study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Machado, Alessandra Nunes; Coelho-de-Souza, Fabio Herrmann; Rolla, Juliana Nunes; Erhardt, Maria Carolina Guilherme; Demarco, Flavio Fernando

    2014-01-01

    There is little information in the literature regarding the relationship between preparations made for direct and indirect veneers and the loss of tooth structure required for each technique. This in vitro study sought to quantify the different mass losses from preparation techniques used for direct and indirect veneers. Thirty artificial teeth were weighted using a digital balance and placed in a dental manikin in the position corresponding to the right maxillary central incisor. Five clinicians-all experts in esthetic dentistry-were asked to perform conventional preparations for both a direct composite resin veneer and an indirect ceramic veneer. After preparations, specimens were weighted again in the same digital balance. Teeth undergoing veneer preparations demonstrated a statistically significant mass loss compared to unprepared teeth. Indirect ceramic veneer preparations produced more mass loss than direct composite veneer preparations (P < 0.01).

  20. Severity and pattern of bone mineral loss in endocrine causes of osteoporosis as compared to age-related bone mineral loss

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D Dutta

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Data are scant on bone health in endocrinopathies from India. This study evaluated bone mineral density (BMD loss in endocrinopathies [Graves′ disease (GD, type 1 diabetes mellitus (T1DM, hypogonadotrophic hypogonadism (HypoH, hypergonadotropic hypogonadism (HyperH, hypopituitarism, primary hyperparathyroidism (PHPT] as compared to age-related BMD loss [postmenopausal osteoporosis (PMO, andropause]. Materials and Methods: Retrospective audit of records of patients >30 years age attending a bone clinic from August 2014 to January 2016 was done. Results: Five-hundred and seven records were screened, out of which 420 (females:male = 294:126 were analyzed. A significantly higher occurrence of vitamin D deficiency and insufficiency was noted in T1DM (89.09%, HyperH (85%, and HypoH (79.59% compared to age-related BMD loss (60.02%; P < 0.001. The occurrence of osteoporosis among females and males was 55.41% and 53.97%, respectively, and of osteopenia among females and males was 28.91% and 32.54%, respectively. In females, osteoporosis was significantly higher in T1DM (92%, HyperH (85%, and HypoH (59.26% compared to PMO (49.34%; P < 0.001. Z score at LS, TF, NOF, and greater trochanter (GT was consistently lowest in T1DM women. Among men, osteoporosis was significantly higher in T1DM (76.67% and HypoH (54.55% compared to andropause (45.45%; P = 0.001. Z score at LS, TF, NOF, GT, and TR was consistently lowest in T1DM men. In GD, the burden of osteoporosis was similar to PMO and andropause. BMD difference among the study groups was not significantly different after adjusting for body mass index (BMI and vitamin D. Conclusion: Low bone mass is extremely common in endocrinopathies, warranting routine screening and intervention. Concomitant vitamin D deficiency compounds the problem. Calcium and vitamin D supplementations may improve bone health in this setting.

  1. Preoperative Visual Loss is the Main Cause of Irreversible Poor Vision in Children with a Brain Tumor

    OpenAIRE

    Goldenberg-Cohen, Nitza; Ehrenberg, Miriam; Toledano, Helen; Kornreich, Liora; Snir, Moshe; Yassur, Iftach; Cohen, Ian J.; Michowiz, Shalom

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to characterize the severe postoperative irreversible visual loss induced by optic neuropathy in some children with a brain tumor. The computerized database (2003–2008) of a neuro-ophthalmology service of a major pediatric tertiary center was reviewed for all children with severe irreversible visual loss (counting fingers or less) due to brain-tumor-related optic neuropathy at their last follow-up examination. Data on age, gender, etiology, initial symptoms, and ...

  2. Preoperative visual loss is the main cause of irreversible poor vision in children with a brain tumor

    OpenAIRE

    Nitza eGoldenberg-Cohen; Miriam eEhrenberg; Helen eToledano; Liora eKornreich; Moshe eSnir; iftach eYassur; Cohen, Ian J.; Shalom eMichowiz

    2011-01-01

    To characterize the severe postoperative irreversible visual loss induced by optic neuropathy in some children with a brain tumor, the computerized database (2003-2008) of a neuro-ophthalmology service of a major pediatric tertiary center was reviewed for all children with severe irreversible visual loss (counting fingers or less) due to brain-tumor-related optic neuropathy at their last follow-up examination. Data on age, gender, etiology, initial symptoms and signs, visual acuity before and...

  3. Causes and consequences of mid–21st-century rapid ice loss events simulated by the Rossby centre regional atmosphere-ocean model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jean-Philippe Paquin

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Recent observations and modelling studies suggest that the Arctic climate is undergoing important transition. One manifestation of this change is seen in the rapid sea-ice cover decrease as experienced in 2007 and 2012. Although most numerical climate models cannot adequately reproduce the recent changes, some models produce similar Rapid Ice Loss Events (RILEs during the mid–21st-century. This study presents an analysis of four specific RILEs clustered around 2040 in three transient climate projections performed with the coupled Rossby Centre regional Atmosphere-Ocean model (RCAO. The analysis shows that long-term thinning causes increased vulnerability of the Arctic Ocean sea-ice cover. In the Atlantic sector, pre-conditioning (thinning of sea ice combined with anomalous atmospheric and oceanic heat transport causes large ice loss, while in the Pacific sector of the Arctic Ocean sea-ice albedo feedback appears important, particularly along the retreating sea-ice margin. Although maximum sea-ice loss occurs in the autumn, response in surface air temperature occurs in early winter, caused by strong increase in ocean-atmosphere surface energy fluxes, mainly the turbulent fluxes. Synchronicity of the events around 2040 in the projections is caused by a strong large-scale atmospheric circulation anomaly at the Atlantic lateral boundary of the regional model. The limited impact on land is caused by vertical propagation of the surface heat anomaly rather than horizontal, caused by the absence of low-level temperature inversion over the ocean.

  4. Refractive error, visual acuity and causes of vision loss in children in Shandong, China. The Shandong Children Eye Study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jian Feng Wu

    Full Text Available PURPOSE: To examine the prevalence of refractive errors and prevalence and causes of vision loss among preschool and school children in East China. METHODS: Using a random cluster sampling in a cross-sectional school-based study design, children with an age of 4-18 years were selected from kindergartens, primary schools, and junior and senior high schools in the rural Guanxian County and the city of Weihai. All children underwent a complete ocular examination including measurement of uncorrected (UCVA and best corrected visual acuity (BCVA and auto-refractometry under cycloplegia. Myopia was defined as refractive error of ≤-0.5 diopters (D, high myopia as ≤ -6.0D, and amblyopia as BCVA ≤ 20/32 without any obvious reason for vision reduction and with strabismus or refractive errors as potential reasons. RESULTS: Out of 6364 eligible children, 6026 (94.7% children participated. Prevalence of myopia (overall: 36.9 ± 0.6%;95% confidence interval (CI:36.0,38.0 increased (P<0.001 from 1.7 ± 1.2% (95%CI:0.0,4.0 in the 4-years olds to 84.6 ± 3.2% (95%CI:78.0,91.0 in 17-years olds. Myopia was associated with older age (OR:1.56;95%CI:1.52,1.60;P<0.001, female gender (OR:1.22;95%CI:1.08,1.39;P = 0.002 and urban region (OR:2.88;95%CI:2.53,3.29;P<0.001. Prevalence of high myopia (2.0 ± 0.2% increased from 0.7 ± 0.3% (95%CI:0.1,1.3 in 10-years olds to 13.9 ± 3.0 (95%CI:7.8,19.9 in 17-years olds. It was associated with older age (OR:1.50;95%CI:1.41,1.60;P<0.001 and urban region (OR:3.11;95%CI:2.08,4.66;P<0.001. Astigmatism (≥ 0.75D (36.3 ± 0.6%;95%CI:35.0,38.0 was associated with older age (P<0.001;OR:1.06;95%CI:1.04,1.09, more myopic refractive error (P<0.001;OR:0.94;95%CI:0.91,0.97 and urban region (P<0.001;OR:1.47;95%CI:1.31,1.64. BCVA was ≤ 20/40 in the better eye in 19 (0.32% children. UCVA ≤ 20/40 in at least one eye was found in 2046 (34.05% children, with undercorrected refractive error as cause in 1975 (32.9% children. Amblyopia

  5. Transiently increasing cAMP levels selectively in hippocampal excitatory neurons during sleep deprivation prevents memory deficits caused by sleep loss

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Havekes, Robbert; Bruinenberg, Vibeke M.; Tudor, Jennifer C.; Ferri, Sarah L.; Baumann, Arnd; Meerlo, Peter; Abel, Ted

    2014-01-01

    The hippocampus is particularly sensitive to sleep loss. Although previous work has indicated that sleep deprivation impairs hippocampal cAMP signaling, it remains to be determined whether the cognitive deficits associated with sleep deprivation are caused by attenuated cAMP signaling in the

  6. Memory loss

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... amnesia (sudden, temporary loss of memory) of unclear cause Transient ischemic attack (TIA) or stroke Hydrocephalus (fluid collection in the brain) Sometimes, memory loss occurs with mental health problems, such as: After a major, traumatic or stressful ...

  7. Bone Loss in IBD

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Home > Resources > Bone Loss in IBD Go Back Bone Loss in IBD Email Print + Share As many as ... halt bone loss are so important. CAUSES OF BONE LOSS IN IBD Experts point to several suspected causes ...

  8. The contribution of psychological distress to socio-economic differences in cause-specific mortality: a population-based follow-up of 28 years

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ostamo Aini I

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Psychological factors associated with low social status have been proposed as one possible explanation for the socio-economic gradient in health. The aim of this study is to explore whether different indicators of psychological distress contribute to socio-economic differences in cause-specific mortality. Methods The data source is a nationally representative, repeated cross-sectional survey, "Health Behaviour and Health among the Finnish Adult Population" (AVTK. The survey results were linked with socio-economic register data from Statistics Finland (from the years 1979-2002 and mortality follow-up data up to 2006 from the Finnish National Cause of Death Register. The data included 32451 men and 35420 women (response rate 73.5%. Self-reported measures of depression, insomnia and stress were used as indicators of psychological distress. Socio-economic factors included education, employment status and household income. Mortality data consisted of unnatural causes of death (suicide, accidents and violence, and alcohol-related mortality and coronary heart disease (CHD mortality. Adjusted hazard ratios were calculated using the Cox regression model. Results In unnatural mortality, psychological distress accounted for some of the employment status (11-31% and income level (4-16% differences among both men and women, and for the differences related to the educational level (5-12% among men; the educational level was associated statistically significantly with unnatural mortality only among men. Psychological distress had minor or no contribution to socio-economic differences in CHD mortality. Conclusions Psychological distress partly accounted for socio-economic disparities in unnatural mortality. Further studies are needed to explore the role and mechanisms of psychological distress associated with socio-economic differences in cause-specific mortality.

  9. Tau causes synapse loss without disrupting calcium homeostasis in the rTg4510 model of tauopathy.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katherine J Kopeikina

    Full Text Available Neurofibrillary tangles (NFTs of tau are one of the defining hallmarks of Alzheimer's disease (AD, and are closely associated with neuronal degeneration. Although it has been suggested that calcium dysregulation is important to AD pathogenesis, few studies have probed the link between calcium homeostasis, synapse loss and pathological changes in tau. Here we test the hypothesis that pathological changes in tau are associated with changes in calcium by utilizing in vivo calcium imaging in adult rTg4510 mice that exhibit severe tau pathology due to over-expression of human mutant P301L tau. We observe prominent dendritic spine loss without disruptions in calcium homeostasis, indicating that tangles do not disrupt this fundamental feature of neuronal health, and that tau likely induces spine loss in a calcium-independent manner.

  10. Experiences of unemployment and well-being after job loss during economic recession: Results of a qualitative study in east central Sweden.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hiswåls, Anne-Sofie; Marttila, Anneli; Mälstam, Emelie; Macassa, Gloria

    2017-12-13

    Introduction: Several studies have revealed an association between unemployment and ill health, and shown that unemployment can affect people differently. This study aimed to provide an understanding of the experiences of unemployment and perceptions of wellbeing among persons who involuntary lost their work during the recent economic recession in Gävle Municipality. Methods: Sixteen unemployed men and women aged 28-62 were interviewed face-to-face. A purposeful sampling strategy was used in order to suit the research question and to increase the variation among informants. The interview texts were analysed using thematic analysis. Results: Six different themes emerged from the accounts: The respondents perceived work as the basis for belonging, and loss of work affected their social life and consumption patterns due to changes in their financial situation. They also expressed feelings of isolation, loss of self-esteem, and feelings of hopelessness, which affected their physical well-being. Longer duration of unemployment increased the respondents' negative emotions. The respondents reported activities, structure, and affiliation in other contexts as part of their coping strategy against poor mental health. Conclusions: After job loss, the respondents experienced feelings of loss of dignity and belonging as a human being. They also felt worry, insecurity, and stress due to their changed financial situation, which in turn led to isolation and loss of self-esteem. Social support and having other activities gave the respondents structure and meaning.

  11. Can rapid maxillary expansion cause auditory improvement in children and adolescents with hearing loss? A systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fagundes, Nathalia Carolina Fernandes; Rabello, Nicole Melres; Maia, Lucianne Cople; Normando, David; Mello, Karina Corrêa Flexa Ribeiro

    2017-11-01

    To evaluate whether the use of palatal expansion techniques can influence hearing loss in children and adolescents with previous hearing impairment. Electronic searches in PubMed, Scopus, Web of Science, The Cochrane Library, Lilacs, OpenGrey, and Google Scholar were performed with a controlled vocabulary and free-text terms relating to palatal expansion and hearing loss. No language or time restrictions were imposed. Clinical trials that focused on human patients treated with rapid or semirapid maxillary expansion in children and teenagers with hearing loss were included. Data extraction was undertaken by two authors, with conflict resolution by a third author. Risk of bias assessment and data extraction were performed on the selected studies. Seventy-four citations were retrieved by the search. Initially, 12 studies were selected according to the eligibility criteria, but three studies were excluded because of the presence of adults, absence of hearing level evaluation, and oversampling, resulting in nine studies. The mean improvement in hearing levels varied from 2 to 19 dB among the studies. The risk of bias varied from low to moderate risk. The evidence indicated that there was a hearing improvement after maxillary expansion in patients with hearing loss in the evaluated studies, although more controlled and randomized studies are necessary to investigate this issue further.

  12. [From gene to disease; genetic causes of hearing loss and visual impairment sometimes accompanied by vestibular problems (Usher syndrome)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pennings, R.J.E.; Kremer, J.M.J.; Deutman, A.F.; Kimberling, W.J.; Cremers, C.W.R.J.

    2002-01-01

    Usher syndrome is an autosomal recessively inherited disease, characterised by sensorineural hearing loss, tapetoretinal degeneration and in some cases vestibular problems. Based on the clinical heterogeneity, the disease can be classified into three clinical types (I, II and III), which have their

  13. Co-administration of Cisplatin and Furosemide Causes Rapid and Massive Loss of Cochlear Hair Cells in Mice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yongqi; Ding, Dalian; Jiang, Haiyan; Fu, Yong

    2011-01-01

    The expanding arsenal of transgenic mice has created a powerful tool for investigating the biological mechanisms involved in ototoxicity. However, cisplatin ototoxicity is difficult to investigate in mice because of their small size and vulnerability to death by nephrotoxicity. To overcome this problem, we developed a strategy for promoting cisplatin-induced ototoxicity by coadministration of furosemide a loop diuretic. A dose–response study identified 200 mg/kg of furosemide as the optimal dose for disrupting the stria vascularis and opening the blood–ear barrier. Our analysis of stria pathology indicated that the optimal period for administering cisplatin was 1 h after furosemide treatment. Combined treatment with 0.5 mg/kg of cisplatin and 200 mg/kg furosemide resulted in only moderate loss of outer hair cells in the basal 20% of the cochlea, only mild threshold shifts and minimal loss of distortion product otoacoustic emission (DPOAE). In contrast, 1 mg/kg of cisplatin plus 200 mg/kg of furosemide resulted in a permanent 40–50 dB elevation of auditory brainstem response thresholds, almost complete elimination of DPOAE, and nearly total loss of outer hair cells. The widespread outer hair cell lesions that develop in mice treated with cisplatin plus furosemide could serve as extremely useful murine model for investigating techniques for regenerating outer hair cells, studying the mechanisms of cisplatin and furosemide ototoxicity and assessing the perceptual and electrophysiological consequences of outer hair cell loss on central auditory plasticity. PMID:21455790

  14. Contact Loss beneath Track Slab Caused by Deteriorated Cement Emulsified Asphalt Mortar: Dynamic Characteristics of Vehicle-Slab Track System and Prototype Experiment

    OpenAIRE

    Liu, Dan; Liu, Yu-feng; Ren, Juan-juan; Yang, Rong-shan; Liu, Xue-yi

    2016-01-01

    The contact loss beneath track slab caused by deteriorated cement emulsified asphalt mortar (CA mortar) has been one of the main diseases occurring in the CRTS- (China Railway Track System-) I Slab Track of high-speed railway in China. Based on the slab track design theory and the vehicle-track coupling vibration theory, a vehicle-track vertical coupling dynamic FEM model was established to analyze the influence of the contact loss length on the dynamic characteristics of vehicle and track su...

  15. Loss-of-activity-mutation in the cardiac chloride-bicarbonate exchanger AE3 causes short QT syndrome

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thorsen, Kasper; Dam, Vibeke S.; Kjaer-Sorensen, Kasper

    2017-01-01

    unrelated families with SQTS. The mutation causes reduced surface expression of AE3 and reduced membrane bicarbonate transport. Slc4a3 knockdown in zebrafish causes increased cardiac pHi, short QTc, and reduced systolic duration, which is rescued by wildtype but not mutated SLC4A3. Mechanistic analyses...

  16. Dystrophin insufficiency causes selective muscle histopathology and loss of dystrophin-glycoprotein complex assembly in pig skeletal muscle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD) is caused by a dystrophin deficiency while Becker muscular dystrophy (BMD) is caused by a dystrophin insufficiency or expression of a partially functional protein product. Both of these dystrophinopathies are most commonly studied using the mdx mouse and a golden r...

  17. Contact Loss beneath Track Slab Caused by Deteriorated Cement Emulsified Asphalt Mortar: Dynamic Characteristics of Vehicle-Slab Track System and Prototype Experiment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dan Liu

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The contact loss beneath track slab caused by deteriorated cement emulsified asphalt mortar (CA mortar has been one of the main diseases occurring in the CRTS- (China Railway Track System- I Slab Track of high-speed railway in China. Based on the slab track design theory and the vehicle-track coupling vibration theory, a vehicle-track vertical coupling dynamic FEM model was established to analyze the influence of the contact loss length on the dynamic characteristics of vehicle and track subsystems at different train speeds. A prototype dynamic characteristic experimental test of CRTS-I Slab Track with CA mortar contact loss was conducted to verify the FEM model results. The train load was generated by the customized ZSS50 excitation car. The results showed that when the operation speed is less than 300 km/h, the contact loss with length smaller than 2.0 m barely affects the running smoothness ride safety of vehicle. The contact loss length effect on the dynamic characteristics of track subsystem is pronounced, especially on the track slab. Once the contact loss beneath the track slab occurs, the vibration displacement and the acceleration of the track slab increase rapidly, while it has little influence on the displacement and acceleration of the concrete roadbed.

  18. Mutation spectrum and genotype-phenotype correlation of hearing loss patients caused by SLC26A4 mutations in the Japanese: a large cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miyagawa, Maiko; Nishio, Shin-Ya; Usami, Shin-Ichi

    2014-05-01

    Mutations in SLC26A4 cause a broad phenotypic spectrum, from typical Pendred syndrome to nonsyndromic hearing loss associated with enlarged vestibular aqueduct. Identification of these mutations is important for accurate diagnosis, proper medical management and appropriate genetic counseling and requires updated information regarding spectrum, clinical characteristics and genotype-phenotype correlations, based on a large cohort. In 100 patients with bilateral enlarged vestibular aqueduct among 1511 Japanese hearing loss probands registered in our gene bank, goiter data were available for 79, of whom 15 had Pendred syndrome and 64 had nonsyndromic hearing loss. We clarified the mutation spectrum for the SLC26A4 mutations and also summarized hearing levels, progression, fluctuation and existence of genotype-phenotype correlation. SLC26A4 mutations were identified in 82 of the 100 patients (82.0%). Of the Pendred syndrome patients, 93% (14/15) were carriers, as were 77% (49/64) of the nonsyndromic hearing loss patients. Clinical characteristics of patients with SLC26A4 mutations were congenital, fluctuating and progressive hearing loss usually associated with vertigo and/or goiter. We found no genotype-phenotype correlations, indicating that, unlike in the case of GJB2 mutations, the phenotype cannot be predicted from the genotype. Our mutation analysis confirmed the importance of mutations in the SLC26A4 gene among hearing loss patients with enlarged vestibular aqueduct and revealed the mutation spectrum, essential information when performing genetic testing.

  19. Endothelial neuropilin disruption in mice causes DiGeorge syndrome-like malformations via mechanisms distinct to those caused by loss of Tbx1.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jingjing Zhou

    Full Text Available The spectrum of human congenital malformations known as DiGeorge syndrome (DGS is replicated in mice by mutation of Tbx1. Vegfa has been proposed as a modifier of DGS, based in part on the occurrence of comparable phenotypes in Tbx1 and Vegfa mutant mice. Many additional genes have been shown to cause DGS-like phenotypes in mice when mutated; these generally intersect in some manner with Tbx1, and therefore impact the same developmental processes in which Tbx1 itself is involved. In this study, using Tie2Cre, we show that endothelial-specific mutation of the gene encoding the VEGFA coreceptor neuropilin-1 (Nrp1 also replicates the most prominent terminal phenotypes that typify DGS. However, the developmental etiologies of these defects are fundamentally different from those caused by absence of TBX1. In Tie2Cre/Nrp1 mutants, initial pharyngeal organization is normal but subsequent pharyngeal organ growth is impaired, second heart field differentiation is normal but cardiac outflow tract cushion organization is distorted, neural crest cell migration is normal, and palatal mesenchyme proliferation is impaired with no change in apoptosis. Our results demonstrate that impairment of VEGF-dependent endothelial pathways leads to a spectrum of DiGeorge syndrome-type malformations, through processes that are distinguishable from those controlled by Tbx1.

  20. Economic models of compensation for damages caused by nuclear accidents: some lessons for the revision of the Paris and Vienna Conventions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Faure, Michael G. [Limburg Univ., Maastricht (Netherlands). Faculty of Law

    1995-12-31

    Alternative systems of compensation for damages caused by nuclear accidents have been proposed. In respect, the question merits attention to whether these alternative models of compensation discussed in the economic literature could be implemented when discussing the revision of the Paris and Vienna Conventions. 55 refs., 1 tab.

  1. Localized bleaching in Hawaii causes tissue loss and a reduction in the number of gametes in Porites compressa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sudek, M.; Aeby, G. S.; Davy, S. K.

    2012-06-01

    Localized bleaching (a discrete white area on the coral) was observed in one of the main framework-building corals in Hawaii, Porites compressa. This study aimed to determine the degree of virulence of the lesion. We investigated the whole-colony effects by following disease progression through time and examining the effect of localized bleaching on coral fecundity. After two months, 35 of 42 (83.3%) individually tagged colonies affected by localized bleaching showed tissue loss and partial colony mortality. Histological slides of healthy P. compressa and samples from colonies showing signs of localized bleaching were compared showing that affected colonies had a significant reduction (almost 50%) in gamete development, egg numbers, and egg size in the affected tissue. The observed localized bleaching results in both partial colony mortality and a reduced number of gametes and was termed Porites Bleaching with Tissue Loss (PBTL).

  2. Multifocal Gastric Ulcers Caused by Diffuse Large B Cell Lymphoma in a Patient With Significant Weight Loss

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mark A. Gromski MD

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Primary gastrointestinal (GI lymphoma is a heterogeneous disease with varied clinical presentations. The stomach is the most common GI site and accounts for 70% to 75% of GI lymphomas. We present a patient with gastric diffuse large B cell lymphoma (DLBCL who presented with significant weight loss, early satiety, and multifocal ulcerated gastric lesions. Esophagoduodenoscopy should be performed in patients presenting with warning symptoms as in our case. Diagnosis is usually made by endoscopic biopsies. Multiple treatment modalities including surgery, radiotherapy, and chemotherapy have been used. Advancements in endoscopic and pathologic technology decrease turnaround time for diagnosis and treatment initiation, thus reducing the need for surgery. Health care providers should maintain a high level of suspicion and consider gastric DLBCL as part of the differential diagnosis, especially in those with warning symptoms such as weight loss and early satiety with abnormal endoscopic findings.

  3. Optimisasi Economic Dispatch dengan Transmission Loss Menggunakan Metode Extended Lagrange Multiplier dan Gaussian Particle Swarm Optimization (Gpso

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Siti Komsiyah

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available In the operating process of electrical energy, economic planning is the main goal to be achieved. The goal of economic dispatch problem is determining the combination of optimal power distribution to a number of operating generator units so that the electricity demand in a certain area is fulfilled without ignoring the constraints that exist, so it is obtained a minimum total generation cost. Optimization method that is used is the Gaussian Particle Swarm Optimization (GPSO, while for the validation of the results, the obtained solution with the GPSO will be compared with the solution obtained by mathematical methods Extended Lagrange Multiplier (ELM or the Lagrange multiplier method which its functions are expanded. The solution that is calculated is generation output in Megawatt of 23 thermal generating units system in Mahakam, East Kalimantan, which had a total cost of optimal generating (minimum.

  4. Etiology of hypercoagulable state in women with recurrent fetal loss without other causes of miscarriage from Southern Italy: new clinical target for antithrombotic therapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maristella D’Uva

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available Maristella D’Uva1, Pierpaolo Di Micco2, Ida Strina1, Antonio Ranieri1, Carlo Alviggi1, Antonio Mollo1, Francesca Fabozzi1, Lucia Cacciapuoti1, Maria Teresa Scotto di Frega1, Mariateresa Iannuzzo2, Giuseppe De Placido11Dipartimento Universitario di Scienze Ostetriche Ginecologiche e Medicina della Riproduzione, Area Funzionale di Medicina della Riproduzione ed Endoscopia Ginecologica, Università degli Studi di Napoli Federico II, via Pansini 5 Building 9, 80131, Naples, Italy; 2Internal Medicine Division, Fatebenefratelli Hospital of Naples, Naples, ItalyBackground: Recurrent fetal loss (RPL is one of the most common cause of sterility. Several studies identified thrombophilia as the principal cause of recurrent pregnancy loss. However, reported studies often do not evaluate other causes of miscarriages in their inclusion and exclusion criteria. So the aim of our study was to investigate the role of inherited thrombophilia in patients with RPL and without other causes of RPL.Patients and methods: Patients with 2 or more first trimester abortion or with 1 or more late pregnancy loss were considered for this study. In order to evaluate the causes of RPL we looked for chromosomal, endocrine, chronic inflammatory, and infectious alterations. 90 patients affected by unexplained RPL were enrolled and tested for hemostatic alterations. These women were tested for inherited and/or acquired thrombophilia by MTHFR C677T gene polymorphism, factor V Leiden gene polymorphism, PTHRA20210G gene polymorphism, protein S deficiency, protein C deficiency, antithrombin III deficiency, lupus anticoagulant, and anticardiolipin antibodies Ig G and Ig M.Results: Acquired and/or inherited thrombophilia are strongly associated with RPL when other common causes of miscarriage were excluded. 78% of tested women showed hemostatic abnormalities. Several women with combined thrombophilic defects were also identified by our data.Conclusion: After a thorough evaluation of

  5. Hair Loss

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... to treat acne, bipolar disorder, and ADHD. Diet pills that contain amphetamines also can cause hair loss. Alopecia areata (pronounced: al-uh-PEE-shuh air-ee-AH-tuh) . This skin disease causes hair ...

  6. Causes and consequences of the sinkhole at El Trébol of Quito, Ecuador - implications for economic damage and risk assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toulkeridis, Theofilos; Rodríguez, Fabián; Arias Jiménez, Nelson; Simón Baile, Débora; Salazar Martínez, Rodolfo; Addison, Aaron; Carreón Freyre, Dora; Mato, Fernando; Díaz Perez, Carmen

    2016-09-01

    The so-called El Trébol is a critical road interchange in Quito connecting the north and south regions of the city. In addition, it connects Quito with the highly populated Los Chillos Valley, one of the most traveled zones in the Ecuadorian capital. El Trébol was constructed in the late 1960s in order to resolve the traffic jams of the capital city and for that purpose the Machángara River was rerouted through an underground concrete box tunnel. In March 2008, the tunnel contained a high amount of discarded furniture that had been impacting the top portion of the tunnel, compromising the structural integrity. On 31 March 2008 after a heavy rainfall a sinkhole of great proportions formed in the Trébol traffic hub. In the first few minutes, the sinkhole reached an initial diameter of 30 m. The collapse continued to grow in the following days until the final dimensions of 120 m in diameter and some 40 m of depth, revealing the Machángara River at the base of the sinkhole.A state of emergency was declared. The cause of the sinkhole was a result of the lack of monitoring of the older subterranean infrastructure where trash had accumulated and damaged the concrete tunnel that channelized the Machángara River until it was worn away for a length of some 20 m, leaving behind the sinkhole and the fear of recurrence in populated areas.With the intent to understand the causes and consequences of this sinkhole event, rainfall data are shown together with hydrogeological characteristics and a view back to the recent history of sinkhole lineation or arrangement of the city of Quito. The economic impact is also emphasized, where the direct costs of the damage and the reconstruction are presented and compared to indirect costs associated with this socio-natural disaster. These analyses suggest that the costs of indirect financial damage, like time loss or delay, and subsequent higher expenses for different types of vehicles, are equivalent to many times the costs of the

  7. The Reduction of Ventrolateral Prefrontal Cortex Gray Matter Volume Correlates with Loss of Economic Rationality in Aging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chung, Hui-Kuan; Tymula, Agnieszka; Glimcher, Paul

    2017-12-06

    The population of people above 65 years old continues to grow, and there is mounting evidence that as humans age they are more likely to make errors. However, the specific effect of neuroanatomical aging on the efficiency of economic decision-making is poorly understood. We used whole-brain voxel-based morphometry analysis to determine where reduction of gray matter volume in healthy female and male adults over the age of 65 years correlates with a classic measure of economic irrationality: violations of the Generalized Axiom of Revealed Preference. All participants were functionally normal with Mini-Mental State Examination scores ranging between 26 and 30. While our elders showed the previously reported decline in rationality compared with younger subjects, chronological age per se did not correlate with rationality measures within our population of elders. Instead, reduction of gray matter density in ventrolateral prefrontal cortex correlates tightly with irrational behavior. Interestingly, using a large fMRI sample and meta-analytic tool with Neurosynth, we found that this brain area shows strong coactivation patterns with nearly all of the value-associated regions identified in previous studies. These findings point toward a neuroanatomic locus for economic rationality in the aging brain and highlight the importance of understanding both anatomy and function in the study of aging, cognition, and decision-making. SIGNIFICANCE STATEMENT Age is a crucial factor in decision-making, with older individuals making more errors in choices. Using whole-brain voxel-based morphometry analysis, we found that reduction of gray matter density in ventrolateral prefrontal cortex correlates with economic irrationality: reduced gray matter volume in this area correlates with the frequency and severity of violations of the Generalized Axiom of Revealed Preference. Furthermore, this brain area strongly coactivates with other reward-associated regions identified with Neurosynth

  8. Mutation in second exon of MYO15A gene cause of nonsyndromic hearing loss and its association in the Arab population in Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Asgharzade Samira

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Hearing loss is a genetically and clinically heterogeneous defect and more than 140 loci and 65 genes have been identified to cause autosomal recessive non-syndromic hearing loss (ARNSHL. According to the previous studies, mutations in GJB2 are estimated to be involved in 18.17% of ARNSHL cases in the Iranian population; as a result, the remaining 81.83% of this disorder is yet ambiguous. This study aimed to determine the contribution of DFNB3 in hearing loss as well as the frequency of gene mutations in a population (Arab tribal origin in the Southwest of Iran. In this descriptive laboratory study, we included 25 families from the Southwest of Iran and negative GJB2 gene. Linkage analysis was performed by DFNB3 (MYO15A molecular markers (STR. The families with hearing loss linked to this locus were further analyzed for mutation detection. MYO15A gene exons were amplified and analyzed using direct DNA sequencing. In studied families, one family displayed linkage to DFNB3 locus. Identified mutations include substitution and substitute C for A in 1047 location of coding region of MYO15A gene (c.1047 C>A in exon 2 which cause to change Tyrosin to stop codons (P.Y349X, results in the premature truncation at amino acid position 349.

  9. Mutations of KCNJ10 Together with Mutations of SLC26A4 Cause Digenic Nonsyndromic Hearing Loss Associated with Enlarged Vestibular Aqueduct Syndrome

    OpenAIRE

    YANG, TAO; Gurrola II, Jose G.; Wu, Hao; Chiu, Sui M.; Wangemann, Philine; Snyder, Peter M.; Smith, Richard J. H.

    2009-01-01

    Mutations in SLC26A4 cause nonsyndromic hearing loss associated with an enlarged vestibular aqueduct (EVA, also known as DFNB4) and Pendred syndrome (PS), the most common type of autosomal-recessive syndromic deafness. In many patients with an EVA/PS phenotype, mutation screening of SLC26A4 fails to identify two disease-causing allele variants. That a sizable fraction of patients carry only one SLC26A4 mutation suggests that EVA/PS is a complex disease involving other genetic factors. Here, w...

  10. A treatable cause of myelopathy and vision loss mimicking neuromyelitis optica spectrum disorder: late-onset biotinidase deficiency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yilmaz, Sanem; Serin, Mine; Canda, Ebru; Eraslan, Cenk; Tekin, Hande; Ucar, Sema Kalkan; Gokben, Sarenur; Tekgul, Hasan; Serdaroglu, Gul

    2017-06-01

    Biotinidase deficiency is characterized by severe neurological manifestations as hypotonia, lethargy, ataxia, hearing loss, seizures and developmental retardation in its classical form. Late-onset biotinidase deficiency presents distinctly from the classical form such as limb weakness and vision problems. A 14-year-old boy presented with progressive vision loss and upper limb weakness. The patient was initiated steroid therapy with a preliminary diagnosis of neuromyelitis optica spectrum disorder due to the craniospinal imaging findings demonstrating optic nerve, brainstem and longitudinally extensive spinal cord involvement. Although the patient exhibited partial clinical improvement after pulse steroid therapy, craniocervical imaging performed one month after the initiation of steroid therapy did not show any regression. The CSF IgG index was <0.8 (normal: <0.8), oligoclonal band and aquaporin-4 antibodies were negative. Metabolic investigations revealed a low biotinidase enzyme activity 8% (0.58 nmoL/min/mL; normal range: 4.4 to 12). Genetic testing showed c.98-104delinsTCC and p.V457 M mutations in biotinidase (BTD) gene. At the third month of biotin replacement therapy, control craniospinal MRI demonstrated a complete regression of the lesions. The muscle strength of the case returned to normal. His visual acuity was 7/10 in the left eye and 9/10 in the right. The late-onset form of the biotinidase deficiency should be kept in mind in all patients with myelopathy with or without vision loss, particularly in those with inadequate response to steroid therapy. The family screening is important to identify asymptomatic individuals and timely treatment.

  11. Conditional Deletion of PDK1 in the Forebrain Causes Neuron Loss and Increased Apoptosis during Cortical Development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Congyu Xu

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Decreased expression but increased activity of PDK1 has been observed in neurodegenerative disease. To study in vivo function of PDK1 in neuron survival during cortical development, we generate forebrain-specific PDK1 conditional knockout (cKO mice. We demonstrate that PDK1 cKO mice display striking neuron loss and increased apoptosis. We report that PDK1 cKO mice exhibit deficits on several behavioral tasks. Moreover, PDK1 cKO mice show decreased activities for Akt and mTOR. These results highlight an essential role of endogenous PDK1 in the maintenance of neuronal survival during cortical development.

  12. Loss of Apela Peptide in Mice Causes Low Penetrance Embryonic Lethality and Defects in Early Mesodermal Derivatives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laina Freyer

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Apela (also known as Elabela, Ende, and Toddler is a small signaling peptide that activates the G-protein-coupled receptor Aplnr to stimulate cell migration during zebrafish gastrulation. Here, using CRISPR/Cas9 to generate a null, reporter-expressing allele, we study the role of Apela in the developing mouse embryo. We found that loss of Apela results in low-penetrance cardiovascular defects that manifest after the onset of circulation. Three-dimensional micro-computed tomography revealed a higher penetrance of vascular remodeling defects, from which some mutants recover, and identified extraembryonic anomalies as the earliest morphological distinction in Apela mutant embryos. Transcriptomics at late gastrulation identified aberrant upregulation of erythroid and myeloid markers in mutant embryos prior to the appearance of physical malformations. Double-mutant analyses showed that loss of Apela signaling impacts early Aplnr-expressing mesodermal populations independently of the alternative ligand Apelin, leading to lethal cardiac defects in some Apela null embryos.

  13. Ubiquitylation by Trim32 causes coupled loss of desmin, Z-bands, and thin filaments in muscle atrophy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cohen, Shenhav; Zhai, Bo; Gygi, Steven P.

    2012-01-01

    During muscle atrophy, myofibrillar proteins are degraded in an ordered process in which MuRF1 catalyzes ubiquitylation of thick filament components (Cohen et al. 2009. J. Cell Biol. http://dx.doi.org/10.1083/jcb.200901052). Here, we show that another ubiquitin ligase, Trim32, ubiquitylates thin filament (actin, tropomyosin, troponins) and Z-band (α-actinin) components and promotes their degradation. Down-regulation of Trim32 during fasting reduced fiber atrophy and the rapid loss of thin filaments. Desmin filaments were proposed to maintain the integrity of thin filaments. Accordingly, we find that the rapid destruction of thin filament proteins upon fasting was accompanied by increased phosphorylation of desmin filaments, which promoted desmin ubiquitylation by Trim32 and degradation. Reducing Trim32 levels prevented the loss of both desmin and thin filament proteins. Furthermore, overexpression of an inhibitor of desmin polymerization induced disassembly of desmin filaments and destruction of thin filament components. Thus, during fasting, desmin phosphorylation increases and enhances Trim32-mediated degradation of the desmin cytoskeleton, which appears to facilitate the breakdown of Z-bands and thin filaments. PMID:22908310

  14. Hearing loss caused by progressive degeneration of cochlear hair cells in mice deficient for the Barhl1 homeobox gene.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Shengguo; Price, Sandy M; Cahill, Hugh; Ryugo, David K; Shen, Michael M; Xiang, Mengqing

    2002-07-01

    The cochlea of the mammalian inner ear contains three rows of outer hair cells and a single row of inner hair cells. These hair cell receptors reside in the organ of Corti and function to transduce mechanical stimuli into electrical signals that mediate hearing. To date, the molecular mechanisms underlying the maintenance of these delicate sensory hair cells are unknown. We report that targeted disruption of Barhl1, a mouse homolog of the Drosophila BarH homeobox genes, results in severe to profound hearing loss, providing a unique model for the study of age-related human deafness disorders. Barhl1 is expressed in all sensory hair cells during inner ear development, 2 days after the onset of hair cell generation. Loss of Barhl1 function in mice results in age-related progressive degeneration of both outer and inner hair cells in the organ of Corti, following two reciprocal longitudinal gradients. Our data together indicate an essential role for Barhl1 in the long-term maintenance of cochlear hair cells, but not in the determination or differentiation of these cells.

  15. Frequent consumption of selenium-enriched chicken meat by adults causes weight loss and maintains their antioxidant status.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Navas-Carretero, Santiago; Cuervo, Marta; Abete, Itziar; Zulet, M Angeles; Martínez, J Alfredo

    2011-10-01

    To assess the effects of a moderately high-protein intake on the body composition, biochemical, and antioxidant status parameters in young adults depending on either selenium- (Se) or non-enriched chicken consumption. The volunteers (n = 24) that completed the 10-week nutritional intervention were distributed in two parallel groups and randomly assigned to follow an isocaloric diet with moderately high content in protein (30% energy), either with the consumption of four 200 g portions/week of Se- or non-enriched chicken breasts. Blood samples were taken at the beginning and at the end of the study and body composition was monitored during the trial. There was a significant reduction in weight, accompanying a decrease on fat mass in both groups, while fat-free mass remained unchanged during the 10 weeks of intervention, without differences between both dietary groups. Selenium blood levels and plasma glutathione peroxidase activity, as well as lipid, glucose, and selected inflammation biomarkers remained stable during the intervention period in both dietary groups. Frequent chicken consumption, within a controlled diet with a moderately high content in protein, produced a slight but statistically significant weight reduction mainly due to the loss of fat mass. An extra Se supplementation (22 μg/day) in the Se-enriched chicken breast did not affect tachyphylactic antioxidant status of the participants neither inflammatory-related markers after weight loss.

  16. A Two-level-games Analysis of AFTA Agreements: What Caused ASEAN States to Move towards Economic Integration?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yi-hung Chiou

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available The goal of this article is to investigate the conditions under which ASEAN states are more likely to pursue regional economic integration, namely, a series of ASEAN Free Trade Area (AFTA agreements/ protocols. Adopting Putnam’s two-level-games model, this article examines the influences of domestic politics, political elites’ preferences, economic performance, and external impacts. Through the construction of a set of hypotheses, this article investigates five AFTA agreements/ protocols and the conditions of ASEAN states during the 1992–2003 period. The findings indicate that political leaders’ preferences have played a pivotal role in the development of the AFTA. Economic performance and domestic support in individual states has also affected the AFTA. The close link between AFTA agreements and external impacts reveals that the AFTA’s inherent nature is defensive.

  17. Loss-of-function mutations in TNFAIP3 leading to A20 haploinsufficiency cause an early-onset autoinflammatory disease

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zhou, Qing; Wang, Hongying; Schwartz, Daniella M; Stoffels, Monique; Park, Yong Hwan; Zhang, Yuan; Yang, Dan; Demirkaya, Erkan; Takeuchi, Masaki; Tsai, Wanxia Li; Lyons, Jonathan J; Yu, Xiaomin; Ouyang, Claudia; Chen, Celeste; Chin, David T; Zaal, Kristien; Chandrasekharappa, Settara C; P Hanson, Eric; Yu, Zhen; Mullikin, James C; Hasni, Sarfaraz A; Wertz, Ingrid E; Ombrello, Amanda K; Stone, Deborah L; Hoffmann, Patrycja; Jones, Anne; Barham, Beverly K; Leavis, Helen L; van Royen, Annet; Sibley, Cailin; Batu, Ezgi D; Gül, Ahmet; Siegel, Richard M; Boehm, Manfred; Milner, Joshua D; Ozen, Seza; Gadina, Massimo; Chae, JaeJin; Laxer, Ronald M; Kastner, Daniel L; Aksentijevich, Ivona

    2015-01-01

    Systemic autoinflammatory diseases are driven by abnormal activation of innate immunity. Herein we describe a new disease caused by high-penetrance heterozygous germline mutations in TNFAIP3, which encodes the NF-κB regulatory protein A20, in six unrelated families with early-onset systemic

  18. Factors affecting the frequency of physical defects causing partial seizures in bovine carcasses from different origin and sex class and economic implications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pargas, Hector Luis

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available A total of 654 beef carcasses were randomly selected for inspection in a Venezuelan slaughterhouse for determining the influence of country of origin (COO and sex class on the frequency of physical defects in anatomical regions, its economic impact and correlation between variables of interest. Cow carcasses were the most frequently contaminated with Undesirable Matter (UM in the chuck, and as well as bulls, they were frequently affected by bruises in the rounds. Brazilian bulls resulted with higher occurrence of abscesses, mostly located in the neck. Venezuelan cattle despite having shorter transport times had a higher frequency of traumatisms and UM presence. COO and sex class were associated (p<0.05 with different defects according to the anatomical region. A total of 360.9 kg of seized meat represented a loss of US$ 2,627.91; the largest quantity (142.6 kg occurred in Brazilian carcasses, for a loss of US$ 1,038.35. Abscesses (136.6 kg were responsible for the greatest loss of meat and, in consequence, of money. It is concluded that cow carcasses are expected to be the most affected by defects while carcasses of Venezuelan origin, despite having a higher frequency of defects, its economic impact is relatively lower.

  19. REDUCTION OF FRICTION LOSSES DUE TO THE VORTEX FLOW OF THE MAGNETIC FLUID CAUSED BY THE ADDITIVES OF CARBON NANOTUBES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O. N. Labkovich

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Magnetic fluids are promising lubricating material, in particular, in sliding bearings. With the aid of the magnetic system the magnetic fluid is held in the gap of friction that simplifies the design of the lubrication system sufficiently. It is known that when conventional lubricants (mineral oil, water flow, with increasing of speed of rotation of the inner cylinder the transition of laminar flow in a vortex takes place. This dramatically increases the viscous friction losses. The friction losses in a wide range of speeds and possibilities of their decrease due to the vortex flow of the magnetic fluid in the gap between the cylinders are experimentally studied. It is revealed that when the dimensionless speed – number of Taylor equal to 41.2 – is reached, the slope of the curve of friction torque sharply increases, viscous losses also increase, i. e. there is a change laminar flow to a vortex one. The average temperature in the layer of the magnetic fluid reaches 60 оC. This factor leads to increased evaporation of the carrier liquid (water, mineral oil, which reduces the service life of the lubricant i.e. the magnetic fluid. In order to reduce viscous friction when a vortex flow of magnetic fluids takes place, carbon nanotubes, which are cylinders with a diameter of 5.0 nm and a length of about 0.1 mm, are brought into the magnetic fluid. Carbon nanotubes demonstrate elasticity under transverse bending: they curve under the impact of load, and after its removal they restore their original shape. They are also able to elongate along the axis by 16 % and to return to its original position after removal of the load. The effect of reducing friction (about 30 % with a vortex flow of magnetic fluid by the introduction of carbon nanotubes in a magnetic fluid is experimentally obtained. The likely mechanism of friction reduction is the ability of nanotubes to deform under the influence of pressure pulsations and the velocity of the swirling

  20. Altered Tau Isoform Ratio Caused by Loss of FUS and SFPQ Function Leads to FTLD-like Phenotypes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shinsuke Ishigaki

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Fused in sarcoma (FUS and splicing factor, proline- and glutamine-rich (SFPQ are RNA binding proteins that regulate RNA metabolism. We found that alternative splicing of the Mapt gene at exon 10, which generates 4-repeat tau (4R-T and 3-repeat tau (3R-T, is regulated by interactions between FUS and SFPQ in the nuclei of neurons. Hippocampus-specific FUS- or SFPQ-knockdown mice exhibit frontotemporal lobar degeneration (FTLD-like behaviors, reduced adult neurogenesis, accumulation of phosphorylated tau, and hippocampal atrophy with neuronal loss through an increased 4R-T/3R-T ratio. Normalization of this increased ratio by 4R-T-specific silencing results in recovery of the normal phenotype. These findings suggest a biological link among FUS/SFPQ, tau isoform alteration, and phenotypic expression, which may function in the early pathomechanism of FTLD.

  1. Loss of the BMP antagonist, SMOC-1, causes Ophthalmo-acromelic (Waardenburg Anophthalmia syndrome in humans and mice.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joe Rainger

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Ophthalmo-acromelic syndrome (OAS, also known as Waardenburg Anophthalmia syndrome, is defined by the combination of eye malformations, most commonly bilateral anophthalmia, with post-axial oligosyndactyly. Homozygosity mapping and subsequent targeted mutation analysis of a locus on 14q24.2 identified homozygous mutations in SMOC1 (SPARC-related modular calcium binding 1 in eight unrelated families. Four of these mutations are nonsense, two frame-shift, and two missense. The missense mutations are both in the second Thyroglobulin Type-1 (Tg1 domain of the protein. The orthologous gene in the mouse, Smoc1, shows site- and stage-specific expression during eye, limb, craniofacial, and somite development. We also report a targeted pre-conditional gene-trap mutation of Smoc1 (Smoc1(tm1a that reduces mRNA to ∼10% of wild-type levels. This gene-trap results in highly penetrant hindlimb post-axial oligosyndactyly in homozygous mutant animals (Smoc1(tm1a/tm1a. Eye malformations, most commonly coloboma, and cleft palate occur in a significant proportion of Smoc1(tm1a/tm1a embryos and pups. Thus partial loss of Smoc-1 results in a convincing phenocopy of the human disease. SMOC-1 is one of the two mammalian paralogs of Drosophila Pentagone, an inhibitor of decapentaplegic. The orthologous gene in Xenopus laevis, Smoc-1, also functions as a Bone Morphogenic Protein (BMP antagonist in early embryogenesis. Loss of BMP antagonism during mammalian development provides a plausible explanation for both the limb and eye phenotype in humans and mice.

  2. Heterozygous loss-of-function mutations in YAP1 cause both isolated and syndromic optic fissure closure defects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williamson, Kathleen A; Rainger, Joe; Floyd, James A B; Ansari, Morad; Meynert, Alison; Aldridge, Kishan V; Rainger, Jacqueline K; Anderson, Carl A; Moore, Anthony T; Hurles, Matthew E; Clarke, Angus; van Heyningen, Veronica; Verloes, Alain; Taylor, Martin S; Wilkie, Andrew O M; Fitzpatrick, David R

    2014-02-06

    Exome sequence analysis of affected individuals from two families with autosomal-dominant inheritance of coloboma identified two different cosegregating heterozygous nonsense mutations (c.370C>T [p.Arg124*] and c. 1066G>T [p.Glu356*]) in YAP1. The phenotypes of the affected families differed in that one included no extraocular features and the other manifested with highly variable multisystem involvement, including hearing loss, intellectual disability, hematuria, and orofacial clefting. A combined LOD score of 4.2 was obtained for the association between YAP1 loss-of-function mutations and the phenotype in these families. YAP1 encodes an effector of the HIPPO-pathway-induced growth response, and whole-mount in situ hybridization in mouse embryos has shown that Yap1 is strongly expressed in the eye, brain, and fusing facial processes. RT-PCR showed that an alternative transcription start site (TSS) in intron 1 of YAP1 and Yap1 is widely used in human and mouse development, respectively. Transcripts from the alternative TSS are predicted to initiate at codon Met179 relative to the canonical transcript (RefSeq NM_001130145). In these alternative transcripts, the c.370C>T mutation in family 1305 is within the 5' UTR and cannot result in nonsense-mediated decay (NMD). The c. 1066G>T mutation in family 132 should result in NMD in transcripts from either TSS. Amelioration of the phenotype by the alternative transcripts provides a plausible explanation for the phenotypic differences between the families. Copyright © 2014 The American Society of Human Genetics. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Loss of the BMP antagonist, SMOC-1, causes Ophthalmo-acromelic (Waardenburg Anophthalmia) syndrome in humans and mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rainger, Joe; van Beusekom, Ellen; Ramsay, Jacqueline K; McKie, Lisa; Al-Gazali, Lihadh; Pallotta, Rosanna; Saponari, Anita; Branney, Peter; Fisher, Malcolm; Morrison, Harris; Bicknell, Louise; Gautier, Philippe; Perry, Paul; Sokhi, Kishan; Sexton, David; Bardakjian, Tanya M; Schneider, Adele S; Elcioglu, Nursel; Ozkinay, Ferda; Koenig, Rainer; Mégarbané, Andre; Semerci, C Nur; Khan, Ayesha; Zafar, Saemah; Hennekam, Raoul; Sousa, Sérgio B; Ramos, Lina; Garavelli, Livia; Furga, Andrea Superti; Wischmeijer, Anita; Jackson, Ian J; Gillessen-Kaesbach, Gabriele; Brunner, Han G; Wieczorek, Dagmar; van Bokhoven, Hans; Fitzpatrick, David R

    2011-07-01

    Ophthalmo-acromelic syndrome (OAS), also known as Waardenburg Anophthalmia syndrome, is defined by the combination of eye malformations, most commonly bilateral anophthalmia, with post-axial oligosyndactyly. Homozygosity mapping and subsequent targeted mutation analysis of a locus on 14q24.2 identified homozygous mutations in SMOC1 (SPARC-related modular calcium binding 1) in eight unrelated families. Four of these mutations are nonsense, two frame-shift, and two missense. The missense mutations are both in the second Thyroglobulin Type-1 (Tg1) domain of the protein. The orthologous gene in the mouse, Smoc1, shows site- and stage-specific expression during eye, limb, craniofacial, and somite development. We also report a targeted pre-conditional gene-trap mutation of Smoc1 (Smoc1(tm1a)) that reduces mRNA to ∼10% of wild-type levels. This gene-trap results in highly penetrant hindlimb post-axial oligosyndactyly in homozygous mutant animals (Smoc1(tm1a/tm1a)). Eye malformations, most commonly coloboma, and cleft palate occur in a significant proportion of Smoc1(tm1a/tm1a) embryos and pups. Thus partial loss of Smoc-1 results in a convincing phenocopy of the human disease. SMOC-1 is one of the two mammalian paralogs of Drosophila Pentagone, an inhibitor of decapentaplegic. The orthologous gene in Xenopus laevis, Smoc-1, also functions as a Bone Morphogenic Protein (BMP) antagonist in early embryogenesis. Loss of BMP antagonism during mammalian development provides a plausible explanation for both the limb and eye phenotype in humans and mice.

  4. WAC loss-of-function mutations cause a recognisable syndrome characterised by dysmorphic features, developmental delay and hypotonia and recapitulate 10p11.23 microdeletion syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeSanto, Cori; D'Aco, Kristin; Araujo, Gabriel C; Shannon, Nora; Vernon, Hilary; Rahrig, April; Monaghan, Kristin G; Niu, Zhiyv; Vitazka, Patrik; Dodd, Jonathan; Tang, Sha; Manwaring, Linda; Martir-Negron, Arelis; Schnur, Rhonda E; Juusola, Jane; Schroeder, Audrey; Pan, Vivian; Helbig, Katherine L; Friedman, Bethany; Shinawi, Marwan

    2015-11-01

    Rare de novo mutations have been implicated as a significant cause of idiopathic intellectual disability. Large deletions encompassing 10p11.23 have been implicated in developmental delay, behavioural abnormalities and dysmorphic features, but the genotype-phenotype correlation was not delineated. Mutations in WAC have been recently reported in large screening cohorts of patients with intellectual disability or autism, but no full phenotypic characterisation was described. Clinical and molecular characterisation of six patients with loss-of-function WAC mutations identified by whole exome sequencing was performed. Clinical data were obtained by retrospective chart review, parental interviews, direct patient interaction and formal neuropsychological evaluation. Five heterozygous de novo WAC mutations were identified in six patients. Three of the mutations were nonsense, and two were frameshift; all are predicted to cause loss of function either through nonsense-mediated mRNA decay or protein truncation. Clinical findings included developmental delay (6/6), hypotonia (6/6), behavioural problems (5/6), eye abnormalities (5/6), constipation (5/6), feeding difficulties (4/6), seizures (2/6) and sleep problems (2/6). All patients exhibited common dysmorphic features, including broad/prominent forehead, synophrys and/or bushy eyebrows, depressed nasal bridge and bulbous nasal tip. Posteriorly rotated ears, hirsutism, deep-set eyes, thin upper lip, inverted nipples, hearing loss and branchial cleft anomalies were also noted. Our case series show that loss-of-function mutations in WAC cause a recognisable genetic syndrome characterised by a neurocognitive phenotype and facial dysmorphism. Our data highly suggest that WAC haploinsufficiency is responsible for most of the phenotypic features associated with deletions encompassing 10p11.23. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://group.bmj.com/group/rights-licensing/permissions.

  5. Causes and Consequences of Ownership Concentration among Europe´s Largest Companies: Economic and Systemic Explanations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Torben; Thomsen, Steen

    1999-01-01

    . The findings indicate that both general economic effects and system effects are significant. Ownership concentration is found to decrease with firm size and to increase with earnings volatility. But in support of the system theories advocated by Roe (1991), Laporta et al. (1996) and Shleifer and Vishny (1997...

  6. Systemic Polyarteritis Nodosa as the Cause of Sudden Onset Bilateral Sensorineural Hearing Loss Following Lassa Virus Infection

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-07-05

    following Lassa virus infection Authors: Kathleen A. Cashman1*, Eric R. Wilkinson1, Paul R. Facemire2†, Todd M. Bell2‡, Carl I. Shaia2ῗ, Connie S...Detachment, Ft. Hood, TX 75644 Abstract: Lassa virus (LASV) causes a severe, often fatal hemorrhagic disease in endemic regions of Africa and sudden-onset...patients has not been identified. Here, we show that a cynomolgus macaque experimentally infected with Lassa virus who survived the initial infection

  7. Predicting the economic costs and property value losses attributed to sudden oak death damage in California (2010-2020)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kent Kovacs; Tomas Václavík; Robert G. Haight; Arwin Pang; Nik J. Cunniffe; Christopher A. Gilligan; Ross K. Meentemeyer

    2011-01-01

    Phytophthora ramorum, cause of sudden oak death, is a quarantined, non-native, invasive forest pathogen resulting in substantial mortality in coastal live oak (Quercus agrifolia) and several other related tree species on the Pacific Coast of the United States. We estimate the discounted cost of oak treatment, removal, and...

  8. ECONOMY, ECONOMICS, ECONOMIC, ECONOMICAL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sim Monica Ariana

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available To speak and understand a language means - among many other things - knowing the words of that language. The average speaker knows, hears, understands and uses thousands of words daily. But does he use them appropriately? That is why this paper is about words and meanings. More specifically, it deals with the internal structure of complex words, i.e. derivatives. The purpose of the paper is to enable students and potentially other individuals dealing with English language on business basis to engage in their own analyses of some aspects of the language, namely the family tree of the word economy. After having read the paper, the reader should be familiar with the necessary knowledge regarding differences between meanings, misuse and actual sense of words deriving from economy, be able to systematically analyze data and relate his own findings on theoretical language problems. English is used by hundreds of millions speakers and still there is always need for improving our knowledge continuously. Knowing and speaking approximate English may not be enough at an advanced level as in the case of students who prepare themselves for careers that involve proficient communication in a foreign language on specific business issues. This is where the idea of such a paper appeared: students of the Faculty of Economic Sciences talk about economy and all the other terms deriving from it, with approximate knowledge of their meaning, without even being aware that some ‘minor' suffixes like –ic, -ical, -ics etc. really matter and do make a difference. Consequently, we started our teaching of Business English lecture in September 2012 with a working sheet based on the terms economic/ economical/ economics/ economy to assess students' awareness of these terms. The result was not a surprise as more than 90% misused economical instead of economic. That seemed a perfect introduction for students in economics. From that moment on, the building of their specific

  9. Loss of Glis2/NPHP7 causes kidney epithelial cell senescence and suppresses cyst growth in the Kif3a mouse model of cystic kidney disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Dongmei; Rauhauser, Alysha; Li, Binghua; Ren, Chongyu; McEnery, Kayla; Zhu, Jili; Chaki, Moumita; Vadnagara, Komal; Elhadi, Sarah; Jetten, Anton M; Igarashi, Peter; Attanasio, Massimo

    2016-06-01

    Enlargement of kidney tubules is a common feature of multiple cystic kidney diseases in humans and mice. However, while some of these pathologies are characterized by cyst expansion and organ enlargement, in others, progressive interstitial fibrosis and kidney atrophy prevail. The Kif3a knockout mouse is an established non-orthologous mouse model of cystic kidney disease. Conditional inactivation of Kif3a in kidney tubular cells results in loss of primary cilia and rapid cyst growth. Conversely, loss of function of the gene GLIS2/NPHP7 causes progressive kidney atrophy, interstitial inflammatory infiltration, and fibrosis. Kif3a null tubular cells have unrestrained proliferation and reduced stabilization of p53 resulting in a loss of cell cycle arrest in the presence of DNA damage. In contrast, loss of Glis2 is associated with activation of checkpoint kinase 1, stabilization of p53, and induction of cell senescence. Interestingly, the cystic phenotype of Kif3a knockout mice is partially rescued by genetic ablation of Glis2 and pharmacological stabilization of p53. Thus, Kif3a is required for cell cycle regulation and the DNA damage response, whereas cell senescence is significantly enhanced in Glis2 null cells. Hence, cell senescence is a central feature in nephronophthisis type 7 and Kif3a is unexpectedly required for efficient DNA damage response and cell cycle arrest. Copyright © 2016 International Society of Nephrology. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Mutation in Wilted Dwarf and Lethal 1 (WDL1) causes abnormal cuticle formation and rapid water loss in rice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Jong-Jin; Jin, Ping; Yoon, Jinmi; Yang, Jung-Il; Jeong, Hee Joong; Ranathunge, Kosala; Schreiber, Lukas; Franke, Rochus; Lee, In-Jung; An, Gynheung

    2010-09-01

    Epidermal cell layers play important roles in plant defenses against various environmental stresses. Here we report the identification of a cuticle membrane mutant, wilted dwarf and lethal 1 (wdl1), from a rice T-DNA insertional population. The mutant is dwarf and die at seedling stage due to increased rates of water loss. Stomatal cells and pavement cells are smaller in the mutant, suggesting that WDL1 affects epidermal cell differentiation. T-DNA was inserted into a gene that encodes a protein belonging to the SGNH subfamily, within the GDSL lipase superfamily. The WDL1-sGFP signal coincided with the RFP signal driven by AtBIP-mRFP, indicating that WDL1 is an ER protein. SEM analyses showed that their leaves have a disorganized crystal wax layer. Cross-sectioning reveals loose packing of the cuticle and irregular thickness of cell wall. Detailed analyses of the epicuticular wax showed no significant changes either in the total amount and amounts of each monomer or in the levels of lipid polymers, including cutin and other covalently bound lipids, attached to the cell wall. We propose that WDL1 is involved in cutin organization, affecting depolymerizable components.

  11. Advanced aging causes diaphragm functional abnormalities, global proteome remodeling, and loss of mitochondrial cysteine redox flexibility in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelley, Rachel C; McDonagh, Brian; Ferreira, Leonardo F

    2018-03-01

    Inspiratory muscle (diaphragm) function declines with age, contributing to exercise intolerance and impaired airway clearance. Studies of diaphragm dysfunction in rodents have focused on moderate aging (~24months); thus, the impact of advanced age on the diaphragm and potential mechanisms of dysfunction are less clear. Therefore, we aimed to define the effects of advanced age on the mechanics, morphology, and global and redox proteome of the diaphragm. We studied diaphragm from young (6months) and very old male mice (30months). Diaphragm function was evaluated using isolated muscle bundles. Proteome analyses followed LC-MS/MS processing of diaphragm muscle. Advanced aging decreased diaphragm peak power by ~35% and maximal isometric specific force by ~15%, and prolonged time to peak twitch tension by ~30% (Paging also increased passive stiffness (Paging are in metabolic enzymes and mitochondrial proteins. Our novel findings are that the most pronounced impact of advanced aging on the diaphragm is loss of peak power and disrupted cysteine redox homeostasis in metabolic enzymes and mitochondrial proteins. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  12. High-fat diet causes bone loss in young mice by promoting osteoclastogenesis through alteration of the bone marrow environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shu, Lei; Beier, Eric; Sheu, Tzong; Zhang, Hengwei; Zuscik, Michael J; Puzas, Edward J; Boyce, Brendan F; Mooney, Robert A; Xing, Lianping

    2015-04-01

    Obesity is a severe health problem in children, afflicting several organ systems including bone. However, the role of obesity on bone homeostasis and bone cell function in children has not been studied in detail. Here we used young mice fed a high-fat diet (HFD) to model childhood obesity and investigate the effect of HFD on the phenotype of cells within the bone marrow environment. Five-week-old male mice were fed a HFD for 3, 6, and 12 weeks. Decreased bone volume was detected after 3 weeks of HFD treatment. After 6 and 12 weeks, HFD-exposed mice had less bone mass and increased osteoclast numbers. Bone marrow cells, but not spleen cells, from HFD-fed mice had increased osteoclast precursor frequency, elevated osteoclast formation, and bone resorption activity, as well as increased expression of osteoclastogenic regulators including RANKL, TNF, and PPAR-gamma. Bone formation rate and osteoblast and adipocyte numbers were also increased in HFD-fed mice. Isolated bone marrow cells also had a corresponding elevation in the expression of positive regulators of osteoblast and adipocyte differentiation. Our findings indicate that in juvenile mice, HFD-induced bone loss is mainly due to increased osteoclast bone resorption by affecting the bone marrow microenvironment. Thus, targeting osteoclast formation may present a new therapeutic approach for bone complications in obese children.

  13. Integration losses and clutter-Doppler spread for a space based radar caused by ionospheric scintillation during a solar maximum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mokole, Eric L.

    1991-07-01

    Estimates are obtained of the effect of worst-case, ionospheric scintillation on the combined, coherent-noncoherent, integration process and on the clutter-Doppler spread for a specific waveform and a space based radar in a 1030-km orbit. The experiments are representative of worst-case scintillation conditions. The results of these data, which correspond to a period of solar maximum, are compared to earlier results for a period of severe scintillation but minimal solar activity. The frequency-diverse waveform consists of bursts (coherent pulse trains) of 0.256-s duration at four distinct frequencies per look and six looks per dwell. The space based radar will suffer a combined integration loss not exceeding 2.54 dB, 0.70 dB, and 0.06 dB at VHF, UHF, and L band, respectively, for 95 percent of the time in worst-case conditions. In addition, the clutter Doppler spread that is induced by ionospheric scintillation is less than 4.90 Hz, 1.58 Hz, and 0.26 Hz at the same frequencies and under the same conditions as for 95 percent of the time.

  14. A single-nucleotide polymorphism causes smaller grain size and loss of seed shattering during African rice domestication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Wenguang; Liu, Xiaoyun; Wang, Muhua; Meyer, Rachel S; Luo, Xiaojin; Ndjiondjop, Marie-Noelle; Tan, Lubin; Zhang, Jianwei; Wu, Jianzhong; Cai, Hongwei; Sun, Chuanqing; Wang, Xiangkun; Wing, Rod A; Zhu, Zuofeng

    2017-05-08

    Grain size is one of the most important components of grain yield and selecting large seeds has been a main target during plant domestication. Surprisingly, the grain of African cultivated rice (Oryza glaberrima Steud.) typically is smaller than that of its progenitor, Oryza barthii. Here we report the cloning and characterization of a quantitative trait locus, GL4, controlling the grain length on chromosome 4 in African rice, which regulates longitudinal cell elongation of the outer and inner glumes. Interestingly, GL4 also controls the seed shattering phenotype like its orthologue SH4 gene in Asian rice. Our data show that a single-nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) mutation in the GL4 gene resulted in a premature stop codon and led to small seeds and loss of seed shattering during African rice domestication. These results provide new insights into diverse domestication practices in African rice, and also pave the way for enhancing crop yield to meeting the challenge of cereal demand in West Africa.

  15. Transient Hearing Loss Within a Critical Period Causes Persistent Changes to Cellular Properties in Adult Auditory Cortex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mowery, Todd M; Kotak, Vibhakar C; Sanes, Dan H

    2015-08-01

    Sensory deprivation can induce profound changes to central processing during developmental critical periods (CPs), and the recovery of normal function is maximal if the sensory input is restored during these epochs. Therefore, we asked whether mild and transient hearing loss (HL) during discrete CPs could induce changes to cortical cellular physiology. Electrical and inhibitory synaptic properties were obtained from auditory cortex pyramidal neurons using whole-cell recordings after bilateral earplug insertion or following earplug removal. Varying the age of HL onset revealed brief CPs of vulnerability for membrane and firing properties, as well as, inhibitory synaptic currents. These CPs closed 1 week after ear canal opening on postnatal day (P) 18. To examine whether the cellular properties could recover from HL, earplugs were removed prior to (P17) or after (P23), the closure of these CPs. The earlier age of hearing restoration led to greater recovery of cellular function, but firing rate remained disrupted. When earplugs were removed after the closure of these CPs, several changes persisted into adulthood. Therefore, long-lasting cellular deficits that emerge from transient deprivation during a CP may contribute to delayed acquisition of auditory skills in children who experience temporary HL. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  16. The influence of economic parameters on the level of light pollution: Causes, consequences and solutions for the improvement of the environment

    OpenAIRE

    Majhenšek, Katarina; Josimović, Boško; Manić, Božidar

    2017-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to raise the awareness of the importance of light pollution as an essential, but neglected factor that impacts the living and the built environment. One of the main causes of light pollution is the continual economic growth of the cities. Two studies have been presented with an aim of clarifying the attempts made so far in establishing the way population growth and living standards affect light pollution. The unique contribution of this paper is that the correlati...

  17. Patterning and gastrulation defects caused by the tw18 lethal are due to loss of Ppp2r1a

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lisette Lange

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available The mouse t haplotype, a variant 20 cM genomic region on Chromosome 17, harbors 16 embryonic control genes identified by recessive lethal mutations isolated from wild mouse populations. Due to technical constraints so far only one of these, the tw5 lethal, has been cloned and molecularly characterized. Here we report the molecular isolation of the tw18 lethal. Embryos carrying the tw18 lethal die from major gastrulation defects commencing with primitive streak formation at E6.5. We have used transcriptome and marker gene analyses to describe the molecular etiology of the tw18 phenotype. We show that both WNT and Nodal signal transduction are impaired in the mutant epiblast, causing embryonic patterning defects and failure of primitive streak and mesoderm formation. By using a candidate gene approach, gene knockout by homologous recombination and genetic rescue, we have identified the gene causing the tw18 phenotype as Ppp2r1a, encoding the PP2A scaffolding subunit PR65alpha. Our work highlights the importance of phosphatase 2A in embryonic patterning, primitive streak formation, gastrulation, and mesoderm formation downstream of WNT and Nodal signaling.

  18. Ageing without hearing loss or cognitive impairment causes a decrease in speech intelligibility only in informational maskers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rajan, R; Cainer, K E

    2008-06-23

    In most everyday settings, speech is heard in the presence of competing sounds and understanding speech requires skills in auditory streaming and segregation, followed by identification and recognition, of the attended signals. Ageing leads to difficulties in understanding speech in noisy backgrounds. In addition to age-related changes in hearing-related factors, cognitive factors also play a role but it is unclear to what extent these are generalized or modality-specific cognitive factors. We examined how ageing in normal-hearing decade age cohorts from 20 to 69 years affected discrimination of open-set speech in background noise. We used two types of sentences of similar structural and linguistic characteristics but different masking levels (i.e. differences in signal-to-noise ratios required for detection of sentences in a standard masker) so as to vary sentence demand, and two background maskers (one causing purely energetic masking effects and the other causing energetic and informational masking) to vary load conditions. There was a decline in performance (measured as speech reception thresholds for perception of sentences in noise) in the oldest cohort for both types of sentences, but only in the presence of the more demanding informational masker. We interpret these results to indicate a modality-specific decline in cognitive processing, likely a decrease in the ability to use acoustic and phonetic cues efficiently to segregate speech from background noise, in subjects aged >60.

  19. "State of the Art" or Dismal Science? The Economic Debate in South Africa since 1994

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fryer, David

    2016-01-01

    Both the loss of prestige caused to mainstream economics by the global financial crisis and the resurgence of heterodox economics have proved to be superficial. "Where it counts" (in the teaching of economics, in the most important policy circles, and in the most prestigious journals) neoliberal economics has proven resilient to dissent.…

  20. Economic Mentalities – Cause Or Effect For Today’S Values In Romanian Business Higher Education? A Historical Perspective

    OpenAIRE

    Maria Muresan; Mariana Nicolae

    2010-01-01

    Mentalities and behaviours are the result of the interactions between persons/groups and the en-vironment. The present paper explores the way mentalities and behaviours have been created by and have themselves determined the economic, social and political processes on the present day Romanian territory at the end of the 19th and the beginning of the 20th centuries. A historical perspective to the study of mentalities shows that the adaptation of a certain mindset, of the mainstream values cha...

  1. Sheath Cell Invasion and Trans-differentiation Repair Mechanical Damage Caused by Loss of Caveolae in the Zebrafish Notochord.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garcia, Jamie; Bagwell, Jennifer; Njaine, Brian; Norman, James; Levic, Daniel S; Wopat, Susan; Miller, Sara E; Liu, Xiaojing; Locasale, Jason W; Stainier, Didier Y R; Bagnat, Michel

    2017-07-10

    The notochord, a conserved axial structure required for embryonic axis elongation and spine development, consists of giant vacuolated cells surrounded by an epithelial sheath [1-3]. During morphogenesis, vacuolated cells maintain their structural integrity despite being under constant mechanical stress [4]. We hypothesized that the high density of caveolae present in vacuolated cells [5, 6] could buffer mechanical tension. Caveolae are 50- to 80-nm membrane invaginations lined by cage-like polygonal structures [7, 8] formed by caveolin 1 (Cav1) or Cav3 and one of the cavin proteins [6, 9-11]. Recent in vitro work has shown that plasma membrane caveolae constitute a membrane reservoir that can buffer mechanical stresses such as stretching or osmotic swelling [12]. Moreover, mechanical integrity of vascular and muscle cells is partly dependent on caveolae [13-15]. However, the in vivo mechano-protective roles of caveolae have only begun to be explored. Using zebrafish mutants for cav1, cav3, and cavin1b, we show that caveolae are essential for notochord integrity. Upon loss of caveola function, vacuolated cells collapse at discrete positions under the mechanical strain of locomotion. Then, sheath cells invade the inner notochord and differentiate into vacuolated cells, thereby restoring notochord function and allowing normal spine development. Our data further indicate that nucleotides released by dying vacuolated cells promote sheath cell vacuolization and trans-differentiation. This work reveals a novel structural role for caveolae in vertebrates and provides unique insights into the mechanisms that safeguard notochord and spine development. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Human VRK1 is an early response gene and its loss causes a block in cell cycle progression.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alberto Valbuena

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: In mammalian cells regulatory proteins controlling the cell cycle are necessary due to the requirements of living in a heterogeneous environment of cell-interactions and growth factors. VRK1 is a novel serine-threonine kinase that phosphorylates several transcription factors and is associated with proliferation phenotypes. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: In this report VRK1 has been identified as regulated in the cell cycle. VRK1 gene expression is activated by the addition of serum to starved cells, indicating it is required for the exit of G0 phase and entry in G1; a response that parallels the re-expression of MYC, FOS and CCND1 (cyclin D1 genes, suggesting that VRK1 is an early-response gene. VRK1 gene expression is also shutdown by serum withdrawal. The human VRK1 gene promoter cloned in a luciferase reporter responds similarly to serum. In response to serum, the level of VRK1 protein expression has a positive correlation with cell proliferation markers such as phosphorylated-Rb or PCNA, and is inversely correlated with cell cycle inhibitors such as p27. The elimination of VRK1 by siRNA results in a G1 block in cell division, and in loss of phosphorylated-Rb, cyclin D1, and other proliferation markers. Elimination of VRK1 by siRNA induces a reduction of cell proliferation. VRK1 colocalizes with p63 in proliferating areas of squamous epithelium, and identifies a subpopulation in the basal layer. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: VRK1 is an immediate early response gene required for entry in G1, and due to its implication in normal cell proliferation and division, might be a new target for development of inhibitors of cellular proliferation.

  3. Economic impact of lumpy skin disease and cost effectiveness of vaccination for the control of outbreaks in Ethiopia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Abebe, Wassie Molla; Jong, de Mart C.M.; Gari, Getachew; Frankena, Klaas

    2017-01-01

    Lumpy skin disease (LSD), an infectious viral disease of cattle, causes considerable financial losses in livestock industry of affected countries. A questionnaire survey with the objectives of determining direct economic losses of LSD (mortality loss, milk loss, draft loss) and treatment costs

  4. A de novo gain-of-function mutation in SCN11A causes loss of pain perception.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leipold, Enrico; Liebmann, Lutz; Korenke, G Christoph; Heinrich, Theresa; Giesselmann, Sebastian; Baets, Jonathan; Ebbinghaus, Matthias; Goral, R Oliver; Stödberg, Tommy; Hennings, J Christopher; Bergmann, Markus; Altmüller, Janine; Thiele, Holger; Wetzel, Andrea; Nürnberg, Peter; Timmerman, Vincent; De Jonghe, Peter; Blum, Robert; Schaible, Hans-Georg; Weis, Joachim; Heinemann, Stefan H; Hübner, Christian A; Kurth, Ingo

    2013-11-01

    The sensation of pain protects the body from serious injury. Using exome sequencing, we identified a specific de novo missense mutation in SCN11A in individuals with the congenital inability to experience pain who suffer from recurrent tissue damage and severe mutilations. Heterozygous knock-in mice carrying the orthologous mutation showed reduced sensitivity to pain and self-inflicted tissue lesions, recapitulating aspects of the human phenotype. SCN11A encodes Nav1.9, a voltage-gated sodium ion channel that is primarily expressed in nociceptors, which function as key relay stations for the electrical transmission of pain signals from the periphery to the central nervous system. Mutant Nav1.9 channels displayed excessive activity at resting voltages, causing sustained depolarization of nociceptors, impaired generation of action potentials and aberrant synaptic transmission. The gain-of-function mechanism that underlies this channelopathy suggests an alternative way to modulate pain perception.

  5. Loss of life caused by the flooding of New Orleans after Hurricane Katrina: analysis of the relationship between flood characteristics and mortality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jonkman, Sebastiaan N; Maaskant, Bob; Boyd, Ezra; Levitan, Marc Lloyd

    2009-05-01

    In this article a preliminary analysis of the loss of life caused by Hurricane Katrina in the New Orleans metropolitan area is presented. The hurricane caused more than 1,100 fatalities in the state of Louisiana. A preliminary data set that gives information on the recovery locations and individual characteristics for 771 fatalities has been analyzed. One-third of the analyzed fatalities occurred outside the flooded areas or in hospitals and shelters in the flooded area. These fatalities were due to the adverse public health situation that developed after the floods. Two-thirds of the analyzed fatalities were most likely associated with the direct physical impacts of the flood and mostly caused by drowning. The majority of victims were elderly: nearly 60% of fatalities were over 65 years old. Similar to historical flood events, mortality rates were highest in areas near severe breaches and in areas with large water depths. An empirical relationship has been derived between the water depth and mortality and this has been compared with similar mortality functions proposed based on data for other flood events. The overall mortality among the exposed population for this event was approximately 1%, which is similar to findings for historical flood events. Despite the fact that the presented results are preliminary they give important insights into the determinants of loss of life and the relationship between mortality and flood characteristics.

  6. Drought, epidemic disease, and the fall of classic period cultures in Mesoamerica (AD 750-950). Hemorrhagic fevers as a cause of massive population loss.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Acuna-Soto, Rodolfo; Stahle, David W; Therrell, Matthew D; Gomez Chavez, Sergio; Cleaveland, Malcolm K

    2005-01-01

    The classical period in Mexico (AD 250-750) was an era of splendor. The city of Teotihuacan was one of the largest and most sophisticated human conglomerates of the pre-industrial world. The Mayan civilization in southeastern Mexico and the Yucatan peninsula reached an impressive degree of development at the same time. This time of prosperity came to an end during the Terminal Classic Period (AD 750-950) a time of massive population loss throughout Mesoamerica. A second episode of massive depopulation in the same area was experienced during the sixteenth century when, in less than one century, between 80% and 90% of the entire indigenous population was lost. The 16th century depopulation of Mexico constitutes one of the worst demographic catastrophes in human history. Although newly imported European and African diseases caused high mortality among the native population, the major 16th century population losses were caused by a series of epidemics of a hemorrhagic fever called Cocoliztli, a highly lethal disease unknown to both Aztec and European physicians during the colonial era. The cocoliztli epidemics occurred during the 16th century megadrought, when severe drought extended at times from central Mexico to the boreal forest of Canada, and from the Pacific to the Atlantic coast. The collapse of the cultures of the Classic Period seems also to have occurred during a time of severe drought. Tree ring and lake sediment records indicate that some of the most severe and prolonged droughts to impact North America-Mesoamerica in the past 1000-4000 years occurred between AD 650 and 1000, particularly during the 8th and 9th centuries, a period of time that coincides with the Terminal Classic Period. Based on the similarities of the climatic (severe drought) and demographic (massive population loss) events in Mesoamerica during the sixteenth century, we propose that drought-associated epidemics of hemorrhagic fever may have contributed to the massive population loss

  7. Recurrent De Novo Dominant Mutations in SLC25A4 Cause Severe Early-Onset Mitochondrial Disease and Loss of Mitochondrial DNA Copy Number.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thompson, Kyle; Majd, Homa; Dallabona, Cristina; Reinson, Karit; King, Martin S; Alston, Charlotte L; He, Langping; Lodi, Tiziana; Jones, Simon A; Fattal-Valevski, Aviva; Fraenkel, Nitay D; Saada, Ann; Haham, Alon; Isohanni, Pirjo; Vara, Roshni; Barbosa, Inês A; Simpson, Michael A; Deshpande, Charu; Puusepp, Sanna; Bonnen, Penelope E; Rodenburg, Richard J; Suomalainen, Anu; Õunap, Katrin; Elpeleg, Orly; Ferrero, Ileana; McFarland, Robert; Kunji, Edmund R S; Taylor, Robert W

    2016-10-06

    Mutations in SLC25A4 encoding the mitochondrial ADP/ATP carrier AAC1 are well-recognized causes of mitochondrial disease. Several heterozygous SLC25A4 mutations cause adult-onset autosomal-dominant progressive external ophthalmoplegia associated with multiple mitochondrial DNA deletions, whereas recessive SLC25A4 mutations cause childhood-onset mitochondrial myopathy and cardiomyopathy. Here, we describe the identification by whole-exome sequencing of seven probands harboring dominant, de novo SLC25A4 mutations. All affected individuals presented at birth, were ventilator dependent and, where tested, revealed severe combined mitochondrial respiratory chain deficiencies associated with a marked loss of mitochondrial DNA copy number in skeletal muscle. Strikingly, an identical c.239G>A (p.Arg80His) mutation was present in four of the seven subjects, and the other three case subjects harbored the same c.703C>G (p.Arg235Gly) mutation. Analysis of skeletal muscle revealed a marked decrease of AAC1 protein levels and loss of respiratory chain complexes containing mitochondrial DNA-encoded subunits. We show that both recombinant AAC1 mutant proteins are severely impaired in ADP/ATP transport, affecting most likely the substrate binding and mechanics of the carrier, respectively. This highly reduced capacity for transport probably affects mitochondrial DNA maintenance and in turn respiration, causing a severe energy crisis. The confirmation of the pathogenicity of these de novo SLC25A4 mutations highlights a third distinct clinical phenotype associated with mutation of this gene and demonstrates that early-onset mitochondrial disease can be caused by recurrent de novo mutations, which has significant implications for the application and analysis of whole-exome sequencing data in mitochondrial disease. Copyright © 2016 The Author(s). Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Loss-of-function HDAC8 mutations cause a phenotypic spectrum of Cornelia de Lange syndrome-like features, ocular hypertelorism, large fontanelle and X-linked inheritance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaiser, Frank J.; Ansari, Morad; Braunholz, Diana; Concepción Gil-Rodríguez, María; Decroos, Christophe; Wilde, Jonathan J.; Fincher, Christopher T.; Kaur, Maninder; Bando, Masashige; Amor, David J.; Atwal, Paldeep S.; Bahlo, Melanie; Bowman, Christine M.; Bradley, Jacquelyn J.; Brunner, Han G.; Clark, Dinah; Del Campo, Miguel; Di Donato, Nataliya; Diakumis, Peter; Dubbs, Holly; Dyment, David A.; Eckhold, Juliane; Ernst, Sarah; Ferreira, Jose C.; Francey, Lauren J.; Gehlken, Ulrike; Guillén-Navarro, Encarna; Gyftodimou, Yolanda; Hall, Bryan D.; Hennekam, Raoul; Hudgins, Louanne; Hullings, Melanie; Hunter, Jennifer M.; Yntema, Helger; Innes, A. Micheil; Kline, Antonie D.; Krumina, Zita; Lee, Hane; Leppig, Kathleen; Lynch, Sally Ann; Mallozzi, Mark B.; Mannini, Linda; Mckee, Shane; Mehta, Sarju G.; Micule, Ieva; Mohammed, Shehla; Moran, Ellen; Mortier, Geert R.; Moser, Joe-Ann S.; Noon, Sarah E.; Nozaki, Naohito; Nunes, Luis; Pappas, John G.; Penney, Lynette S.; Pérez-Aytés, Antonio; Petersen, Michael B.; Puisac, Beatriz; Revencu, Nicole; Roeder, Elizabeth; Saitta, Sulagna; Scheuerle, Angela E.; Schindeler, Karen L.; Siu, Victoria M.; Stark, Zornitza; Strom, Samuel P.; Thiese, Heidi; Vater, Inga; Willems, Patrick; Williamson, Kathleen; Wilson, Louise C.; Hakonarson, Hakon; Quintero-Rivera, Fabiola; Wierzba, Jolanta; Musio, Antonio; Gillessen-Kaesbach, Gabriele; Ramos, Feliciano J.; Jackson, Laird G.; Shirahige, Katsuhiko; Pié, Juan; Christianson, David W.; Krantz, Ian D.; Fitzpatrick, David R.; Deardorff, Matthew A.

    2014-01-01

    Cornelia de Lange syndrome (CdLS) is a multisystem genetic disorder with distinct facies, growth failure, intellectual disability, distal limb anomalies, gastrointestinal and neurological disease. Mutations in NIPBL, encoding a cohesin regulatory protein, account for >80% of cases with typical facies. Mutations in the core cohesin complex proteins, encoded by the SMC1A, SMC3 and RAD21 genes, together account for ∼5% of subjects, often with atypical CdLS features. Recently, we identified mutations in the X-linked gene HDAC8 as the cause of a small number of CdLS cases. Here, we report a cohort of 38 individuals with an emerging spectrum of features caused by HDAC8 mutations. For several individuals, the diagnosis of CdLS was not considered prior to genomic testing. Most mutations identified are missense and de novo. Many cases are heterozygous females, each with marked skewing of X-inactivation in peripheral blood DNA. We also identified eight hemizygous males who are more severely affected. The craniofacial appearance caused by HDAC8 mutations overlaps that of typical CdLS but often displays delayed anterior fontanelle closure, ocular hypertelorism, hooding of the eyelids, a broader nose and dental anomalies, which may be useful discriminating features. HDAC8 encodes the lysine deacetylase for the cohesin subunit SMC3 and analysis of the functional consequences of the missense mutations indicates that all cause a loss of enzymatic function. These data demonstrate that loss-of-function mutations in HDAC8 cause a range of overlapping human developmental phenotypes, including a phenotypically distinct subgroup of CdLS. PMID:24403048

  9. Autosomal recessive non-syndromic hearing loss is caused by novel compound heterozygous mutations in TMC1 from a Tibetan Chinese family.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Fangzhu; Li, Dejun; Wang, Ping; Fan, Dongyan; De, Ji; Zhu, Wei

    2014-12-01

    Hearing loss is the most common sensory disorder worldwide. Biallelic mutations in 42 different genes have been identified as associated with autosomal recessive non-syndromic hearing loss (ARNSHL). One of the common genes responsible for ARNSHL is TMC1. TMC1 mutations have been reported to cause non-syndromic hearing loss in a variety of populations. The current study is designed to investigate mutations prevalent among Chinese ethnic groups with ARNSHL. Targeted exome sequencing (TES) was employed to study the genetic causes of two siblings with ARNSHL in a Tibetan Chinese family. Variants identified by TES were further confirmed by Sanger sequencing. We identified two distinct variants in the TMC1 gene in two deaf siblings of one Tibetan Chinese family using TES. Both siblings inherited a paternal allele containing a deletion of c.1396_1398AAC (p.Asn466del) and a maternal allele containing an insertion of c.2210_2211insCT (p.Glu737HisfsX2). The former disrupts a highly conserved residue in the large intracellular loop domain adjacent to the fourth transmembrane domain, and the latter causes a truncation of a portion of the C-terminal domain. These variants were compound heterzygous and segregated with the hearing impairment in this family. The novel compound heterozygous mutant alleles of TMC1 identified in this study were responsible for the ARNSHL in this Tibetan Chinese family. Although compound heterozygous mutations in TMC1 occurring in different TMC1 domains have been previously described in Han Chinese; this result suggests that the TMC1 variants contributing to hereditary deafness in Chinese populations may be more complex than initially assumed and that sequence-based diagnostics will be required for a comprehensive evaluation of ARNSHL. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. A Proposed Treatment for Visual Field Loss caused by Traumatic Brain Injury using Interactive Visuotactile Virtual Environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farkas, Attila J.; Hajnal, Alen; Shiratuddin, Mohd F.; Szatmary, Gabriella

    In this paper, we propose a novel approach of using interactive virtual environment technology in Vision Restoration Therapy caused by Traumatic Brain Injury. We called the new system Interactive Visuotactile Virtual Environment and it holds a promise of expanding the scope of already existing rehabilitation techniques. Traditional vision rehabilitation methods are based on passive psychophysical training procedures, and can last up to six months before any modest improvements can be seen in patients. A highly immersive and interactive virtual environment will allow the patient to practice everyday activities such as object identification and object manipulation through the use 3D motion sensoring handheld devices such data glove or the Nintendo Wiimote. Employing both perceptual and action components in the training procedures holds the promise of more efficient sensorimotor rehabilitation. Increased stimulation of visual and sensorimotor areas of the brain should facilitate a comprehensive recovery of visuomotor function by exploiting the plasticity of the central nervous system. Integrated with a motion tracking system and an eye tracking device, the interactive virtual environment allows for the creation and manipulation of a wide variety of stimuli, as well as real-time recording of hand-, eye- and body movements and coordination. The goal of the project is to design a cost-effective and efficient vision restoration system.

  11. Loss of p300 and CBP disrupts histone acetylation at the mouse Sry promoter and causes XY gonadal sex reversal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carré, Gwenn-Aël; Siggers, Pam; Xipolita, Marilena; Brindle, Paul; Lutz, Beat; Wells, Sara; Greenfield, Andy

    2018-01-01

    CREB-binding protein (CBP, CREBBP, KAT3A) and its closely related paralogue p300 (EP300, KAT3B), together termed p300/CBP, are histone/lysine acetyl-transferases that control gene expression by modifying chromatin-associated proteins. Here, we report roles for both of these chromatin-modifying enzymes in mouse sex determination, the process by which the embryonic gonad develops into a testis or an ovary. By targeting gene ablation to embryonic gonadal somatic cells using an inducible Cre line, we show that gonads lacking either gene exhibit major abnormalities of XY gonad development at 14.5 dpc, including partial sex reversal. Embryos lacking three out of four functional copies of p300/Cbp exhibit complete XY gonadal sex reversal and have greatly reduced expression of the key testis-determining genes Sry and Sox9. An analysis of histone acetylation at the Sry promoter in mutant gonads at 11.5 dpc shows a reduction in levels of the positive histone mark H3K27Ac. Our data suggest a role for CBP/p300 in testis determination mediated by control of histone acetylation at the Sry locus and reveal a novel element in the epigenetic control of Sry and mammalian sex determination. They also suggest possible novel causes of human disorders of sex development (DSD). © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press.

  12. Estimation of human damage and economic loss of buildings for the worst-credible scenario of tsunami inundation in the city of Augusta, Italy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pagnoni, Gianluca; Tinti, Stefano

    2017-04-01

    The city of Augusta is located in the southern part of the eastern coast of Sicily. Italian tsunami catalogue and paleo-tsunami surveys indicate that at least 7 events of tsunami affected the bay of Augusta in the last 4,000 years, two of which are associated with earthquakes (1169 and 1693) that destroyed the city. For these reasons Augusta has been chosen in the project ASTARTE as a test site for the study of issues related to tsunami hazard and risk. In last two years we studied hazard through the approach of the worst-case credible scenario and carried out vulnerability and damage analysis for buildings. In this work, we integrate that research, and estimate the damage to people and the economic loss of buildings due to structural damage. As regards inundation, we assume both uniform inundation levels (bath-tub hypothesis) and inundation data resulting from the worst-case scenario elaborated for the area by Armigliato et al. (2015). Human damage is calculated in three steps using the method introduced by Pagnoni et al. (2016) following the work by Terrier et al. (2012) and by Koshimura et al. (2009). First, we use census data to estimate the number of people present in each residential building affected by inundation; second, based on water column depth and building type, we evaluate the level of damage to people; third, we provide an estimate of fatalities. The economic loss is computed for two types of buildings (residential and trade-industrial) by using data on inundation and data from the real estate market. This study was funded by the EU Project ASTARTE - "Assessment, STrategy And Risk Reduction for Tsunamis in Europe", Grant 603839, 7th FP (ENV.2013.6.4-3)

  13. Loss of poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase-1 causes increased tumour latency in p53-deficient mice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conde, Carmen; Mark, Manuel; Oliver, F.Javier; Huber, Aline; de Murcia, Gilbert; Ménissier-de Murcia, Josiane

    2001-01-01

    PARP-1-deficient mice display a severe defect in the base excision repair pathway leading to radiosensitivity and genomic instability. They are protected against necrosis induced by massive oxidative stress in various inflammatory processes. Mice lacking p53 are highly predisposed to malignancy resulting from defective cell cycle checkpoints, resistance to DNA damage-induced apoptosis as well as from upregulation of the iNOS gene resulting in chronic oxidative stress. Here, we report the generation of doubly null mutant mice. We found that tumour-free survival of parp-1–/–p53–/– mice increased by 50% compared with that of parp- 1+/+p53–/– mice. Tumour formation in nude mice injected with oncogenic parp-1–/–p53–/– fibroblasts was significantly delayed compared with parp-1+/+p53–/– cells. Upon γ-irradiation, a partial restoration of S-phase radiosensitivity was found in parp-1–/–p53–/– primary fibroblasts compared with parp-1+/+p53–/– cells. In addition, iNOS expression and nitrite release were dramatically reduced in the parp-1–/–p53–/– mice compared with parp-1+/+p53–/– mice. The abrogation of the oxydated status of p53–/– cells, due to the absence of parp-1, may be the cause of the delay in the onset of tumorigenesis in parp-1–/–p53–/– mice. PMID:11432840

  14. Ac45 silencing mediated by AAV-sh-Ac45-RNAi prevents both bone loss and inflammation caused by periodontitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Zheng; Chen, Wei; Hao, Liang; Zhu, Guochun; Lu, Yun; Li, Sheng; Wang, Lin; Li, Yi-Ping

    2015-07-01

    Periodontitis induced by oral pathogens leads to severe periodontal tissue damage and osteoclast-mediated bone resorption caused by inflammation. On the basis of the importance of Ac45 in osteoclast formation and function, we performed this study to evaluate the therapeutic potential of periodontitis by local adeno-associated virus (AAV)-mediated Ac45 gene knockdown. We used AAV-mediated short hairpin RNAi knockdown of Ac45 gene expression (AAV-sh-Ac45) to inhibit bone erosion and gingival inflammation simultaneously in a well-established periodontitis mouse model induced by Porphyromonas gingivalis W50. Histological studies were performed to evaluate the bone protection of AAV-sh-Ac45. Immunochemistry, ELISA and qRT-PCR were performed to reveal the role of Ac45 knockdown on inflammation, immune response and expression of cytokine. We found that Ac45 knockdown impaired osteoclast-mediated extracellular acidification and bone resorption in vitro and in vivo. Furthermore, local administration of AAV-sh-Ac45 protected mice from bone erosion by >85% and attenuated inflammation and decreased infiltration of T cells, dendritic cells and macrophages in the periodontal lesion. Notably, the expression of pro-inflammatory cytokines was also reduced. Local AAV-sh-Ac45 gene therapy efficiently protects against periodontal tissue damage and bone erosion through both inhibition of osteoclast function and attenuating inflammation, and may represent a powerful new treatment strategy for periodontitis. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  15. Loss of ZMPSTE24 (FACE-1) causes autosomal recessive restrictive dermopathy and accumulation of Lamin A precursors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Navarro, Claire L; Cadiñanos, Juan; De Sandre-Giovannoli, Annachiara; Bernard, Rafaëlle; Courrier, Sébastien; Boccaccio, Irène; Boyer, Amandine; Kleijer, Wim J; Wagner, Anja; Giuliano, Fabienne; Beemer, Frits A; Freije, Jose M; Cau, Pierre; Hennekam, Raoul C M; López-Otín, Carlos; Badens, Catherine; Lévy, Nicolas

    2005-06-01

    Restrictive dermopathy (RD) is characterized by intrauterine growth retardation, tight and rigid skin with prominent superficial vessels, bone mineralization defects, dysplastic clavicles, arthrogryposis and early neonatal death. In two patients affected with RD, we recently reported two different heterozygous splicing mutations in the LMNA gene, leading to the production and accumulation of truncated Prelamin A. In other patients, a single nucleotide insertion was identified in ZMPSTE24. This variation is located in a homopolymeric repeat of thymines and introduces a premature termination codon. ZMPSTE24 encodes an endoprotease essential for the post-translational cleavage of the Lamin A precursor and the production of mature Lamin A. However, the autosomal recessive inheritance of RD suggested that a further molecular defect was present either in the second ZMPSTE24 allele or in another gene involved in Lamin A processing. Here, we report new findings in RD linked to ZMPSTE24 mutations. Ten RD patients were analyzed including seven from a previous series and three novel patients. All were found to be either homozygous or compound heterozygous for ZMPSTE24 mutations. We report three novel 'null' mutations as well as the recurrent thymine insertion. In all cases, we find a complete absence of both ZMPSTE24 and mature Lamin A associated with Prelamin A accumulation. Thus, RD is either a primary or a secondary laminopathy, caused by dominant de novo LMNA mutations or, more frequently, recessive null ZMPSTE24 mutations, most of which lie in a mutation hotspot within exon 9. The accumulation of truncated or normal length Prelamin A is, therefore, a shared pathophysiological feature in recessive and dominant RD. These findings have an important impact on our knowledge of the pathophysiology in Progeria and related disorders and will help direct the development of therapeutic approaches.

  16. No-Reference Video Quality Assessment Model for Distortion Caused by Packet Loss in the Real-Time Mobile Video Services

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jiarun Song

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Packet loss will make severe errors due to the corruption of related video data. For most video streams, because the predictive coding structures are employed, the transmission errors in one frame will not only cause decoding failure of itself at the receiver side, but also propagate to its subsequent frames along the motion prediction path, which will bring a significant degradation of end-to-end video quality. To quantify the effects of packet loss on video quality, a no-reference objective quality assessment model is presented in this paper. Considering the fact that the degradation of video quality significantly relies on the video content, the temporal complexity is estimated to reflect the varying characteristic of video content, using the macroblocks with different motion activities in each frame. Then, the quality of the frame affected by the reference frame loss, by error propagation, or by both of them is evaluated, respectively. Utilizing a two-level temporal pooling scheme, the video quality is finally obtained. Extensive experimental results show that the video quality estimated by the proposed method matches well with the subjective quality.

  17. Genetic background alters the severity and onset of neuromuscular disease caused by the loss of ubiquitin-specific protease 14 (usp14.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrea G Marshall

    Full Text Available In this study, we identified and characterized an N-ethyl-N-nitrosourea (ENU induced mutation in Usp14 (nmf375 that leads to adult-onset neurological disease. The nmf375 mutation causes aberrant splicing of Usp14 mRNA, resulting in a 95% reduction in USP14. We previously showed that loss of USP14 in ataxia (ax (J mice results in reduced ubiquitin levels, motor endplate disease, Purkinje cell axonal dystrophy and decreased hippocampal paired pulse facilitation (PPF during the first 4-6 weeks of life, and early postnatal lethality by two months of age. Although the loss of USP14 is comparable between the nmf375 and ax (J mice, the nmf375 mice did not exhibit these ax (J developmental abnormalities. However, by 12 weeks of age the nmf375 mutants present with ubiquitin depletion and motor endplate disease, indicating a continual role for USP14-mediated regulation of ubiquitin pools and neuromuscular junction (NMJ structure in adult mice. The observation that motor endplate disease was only seen after ubiquitin depletion suggests that the preservation of NMJ structure requires the stable maintenance of synaptic ubiquitin pools. Differences in genetic background were shown to affect ubiquitin expression and dramatically alter the phenotypes caused by USP14 deficiency.

  18. Mutations in Cancer Cause Gain of Cysteine, Histidine, and Tryptophan at the Expense of a Net Loss of Arginine on the Proteome Level

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Viktoriia Tsuber

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Accumulation of somatic mutations is critical for the transition of a normal cell to become cancerous. Mutations cause amino acid substitutions that change properties of proteins. However, it has not been studied as to what extent the composition and accordingly chemical properties of the cell proteome is altered as a result of the increased mutation load in cancer. Here, we analyzed data on amino acid substitutions caused by mutations in about 2000 protein coding genes from the Cancer Cell Line Encyclopedia that contains information on nucleotide and amino acid alterations in 782 cancer cell lines, and validated the analysis with information on amino acid substitutions for the same set of proteins in the Catalogue of Somatic Mutations in Cancer (COSMIC; v78 in circa 18,000 tumor samples. We found that nonsynonymous single nucleotide substitutions in the analyzed proteome subset ultimately result in a net gain of cysteine, histidine, and tryptophan at the expense of a net loss of arginine. The extraordinary loss of arginine may be attributed to some extent to composition of its codons as well as to the importance of arginine in the functioning of prominent tumor suppressor proteins like p53.

  19. Mutations of KCNJ10 together with mutations of SLC26A4 cause digenic nonsyndromic hearing loss associated with enlarged vestibular aqueduct syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Tao; Gurrola, Jose G; Wu, Hao; Chiu, Sui M; Wangemann, Philine; Snyder, Peter M; Smith, Richard J H

    2009-05-01

    Mutations in SLC26A4 cause nonsyndromic hearing loss associated with an enlarged vestibular aqueduct (EVA, also known as DFNB4) and Pendred syndrome (PS), the most common type of autosomal-recessive syndromic deafness. In many patients with an EVA/PS phenotype, mutation screening of SLC26A4 fails to identify two disease-causing allele variants. That a sizable fraction of patients carry only one SLC26A4 mutation suggests that EVA/PS is a complex disease involving other genetic factors. Here, we show that mutations in the inwardly rectifying K(+) channel gene KCNJ10 are associated with nonsyndromic hearing loss in carriers of SLC26A4 mutations with an EVA/PS phenotype. In probands from two families, we identified double heterozygosity in affected individuals. These persons carried single mutations in both SLC26A4 and KCNJ10. The identified SLC26A4 mutations have been previously implicated in EVA/PS, and the KCNJ10 mutations reduce K(+) conductance activity, which is critical for generating and maintaining the endocochlear potential. In addition, we show that haploinsufficiency of Slc26a4 in the Slc26a4(+/-) mouse mutant results in reduced protein expression of Kcnj10 in the stria vascularis of the inner ear. Our results link KCNJ10 mutations with EVA/PS and provide further support for the model of EVA/PS as a multigenic complex disease.

  20. Investigation of thermal decomposition as the kinetic process that causes the loss of crystalline structure in sucrose using a chemical analysis approach (part II).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Joo Won; Thomas, Leonard C; Jerrell, John; Feng, Hao; Cadwallader, Keith R; Schmidt, Shelly J

    2011-01-26

    High performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) on a calcium form cation exchange column with refractive index and photodiode array detection was used to investigate thermal decomposition as the cause of the loss of crystalline structure in sucrose. Crystalline sucrose structure was removed using a standard differential scanning calorimetry (SDSC) method (fast heating method) and a quasi-isothermal modulated differential scanning calorimetry (MDSC) method (slow heating method). In the fast heating method, initial decomposition components, glucose (0.365%) and 5-HMF (0.003%), were found in the sucrose sample coincident with the onset temperature of the first endothermic peak. In the slow heating method, glucose (0.411%) and 5-HMF (0.003%) were found in the sucrose sample coincident with the holding time (50 min) at which the reversing heat capacity began to increase. In both methods, even before the crystalline structure in sucrose was completely removed, unidentified thermal decomposition components were formed. These results prove not only that the loss of crystalline structure in sucrose is caused by thermal decomposition, but also that it is achieved via a time-temperature combination process. This knowledge is important for quality assurance purposes and for developing new sugar based food and pharmaceutical products. In addition, this research provides new insights into the caramelization process, showing that caramelization can occur under low temperature (significantly below the literature reported melting temperature), albeit longer time, conditions.

  1. Loss of MeCP2 Causes Urological Dysfunction and Contributes to Death by Kidney Failure in Mouse Models of Rett Syndrome.

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    Christopher S Ward

    Full Text Available Rett Syndrome (RTT is a neurodevelopmental disorder characterized by loss of acquired skills during development, autonomic dysfunction, and an increased risk for premature lethality. Clinical experience identified a subset of individuals with RTT that present with urological dysfunction including individuals with frequent urinary tract infections, kidney stones, and urine retention requiring frequent catheterization for bladder voiding. To determine if urologic dysfunction is a feature of RTT, we queried the Rett Syndrome Natural History Study, a repository of clinical data from over 1000 individuals with RTT and found multiple instances of urological dysfunction. We then evaluated urological function in a mouse model of RTT and found an abnormal pattern of micturition. Both male and female mice possessing Mecp2 mutations show a decrease in urine output per micturition event. Furthermore, we identified signs of kidney failure secondary to urethral obstruction. Although genetic strain background significantly affects both survival and penetrance of the urethral obstruction phenotype, survival and penetrance of urethral obstruction do not directly correlate. We have identified an additional phenotype caused by loss of MeCP2, urological dysfunction. Furthermore, we urge caution in the interpretation of survival data as an endpoint in preclinical studies, especially where causes of mortality are poorly characterized.

  2. Loss of MeCP2 Causes Urological Dysfunction and Contributes to Death by Kidney Failure in Mouse Models of Rett Syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ward, Christopher S; Huang, Teng-Wei; Herrera, José A; Samaco, Rodney C; Pitcher, Meagan R; Herron, Alan; Skinner, Steven A; Kaufmann, Walter E; Glaze, Daniel G; Percy, Alan K; Neul, Jeffrey L

    2016-01-01

    Rett Syndrome (RTT) is a neurodevelopmental disorder characterized by loss of acquired skills during development, autonomic dysfunction, and an increased risk for premature lethality. Clinical experience identified a subset of individuals with RTT that present with urological dysfunction including individuals with frequent urinary tract infections, kidney stones, and urine retention requiring frequent catheterization for bladder voiding. To determine if urologic dysfunction is a feature of RTT, we queried the Rett Syndrome Natural History Study, a repository of clinical data from over 1000 individuals with RTT and found multiple instances of urological dysfunction. We then evaluated urological function in a mouse model of RTT and found an abnormal pattern of micturition. Both male and female mice possessing Mecp2 mutations show a decrease in urine output per micturition event. Furthermore, we identified signs of kidney failure secondary to urethral obstruction. Although genetic strain background significantly affects both survival and penetrance of the urethral obstruction phenotype, survival and penetrance of urethral obstruction do not directly correlate. We have identified an additional phenotype caused by loss of MeCP2, urological dysfunction. Furthermore, we urge caution in the interpretation of survival data as an endpoint in preclinical studies, especially where causes of mortality are poorly characterized.

  3. Fundamental Causes of Financial and Economic Crisis and Its Overcoming The Logical Core of Market Economy: How We Subvert It

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vladimír VRECION

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available The article deals with the fundamental methodological and theoretical ideas of market economy. The logical core of the market economy (ME and its functioning is briefly described. From these logical bases of ME basic principles of its right functioning are deduced and from there is deduced how the contemporary practice of ME and market society disturbs, subverts these principles. The consequence of such disturbing of the logical core of the ME could be its partial and even total collapse. The current financial and economical crisis is a warning example. It is necessary to implement and to restore in practice fundamental principles of market economy in order to resort present crisis and to avoid future great - even fatal risks. And this will be mainly the role of the states and international institutions.

  4. Long-term ketogenic diet causes glucose intolerance and reduced β- and α-cell mass but no weight loss in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ellenbroek, Johanne H; van Dijck, Laura; Töns, Hendrica A; Rabelink, Ton J; Carlotti, Françoise; Ballieux, Bart E P B; de Koning, Eelco J P

    2014-03-01

    High-fat, low-carbohydrate ketogenic diets (KD) are used for weight loss and for treatment of refractory epilepsy. Recently, short-time studies in rodents have shown that, besides their beneficial effect on body weight, KD lead to glucose intolerance and insulin resistance. However, the long-term effects on pancreatic endocrine cells are unknown. In this study we investigate the effects of long-term KD on glucose tolerance and β- and α-cell mass in mice. Despite an initial weight loss, KD did not result in weight loss after 22 wk. Plasma markers associated with dyslipidemia and inflammation (cholesterol, triglycerides, leptin, monocyte chemotactic protein-1, IL-1β, and IL-6) were increased, and KD-fed mice showed signs of hepatic steatosis after 22 wk of diet. Long-term KD resulted in glucose intolerance that was associated with insufficient insulin secretion from β-cells. After 22 wk, insulin-stimulated glucose uptake was reduced. A reduction in β-cell mass was observed in KD-fed mice together with an increased number of smaller islets. Also α-cell mass was markedly decreased, resulting in a lower α- to β-cell ratio. Our data show that long-term KD causes dyslipidemia, a proinflammatory state, signs of hepatic steatosis, glucose intolerance, and a reduction in β- and α-cell mass, but no weight loss. This indicates that long-term high-fat, low-carbohydrate KD lead to features that are also associated with the metabolic syndrome and an increased risk for type 2 diabetes in humans.

  5. The reversible P2Y12antagonist ACT-246475 causes significantly less blood loss than ticagrelor at equivalent antithrombotic efficacy in rat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rey, Markus; Kramberg, Markus; Hess, Patrick; Morrison, Keith; Ernst, Roland; Haag, Franck; Weber, Edgar; Clozel, Martine; Baumann, Martine; Caroff, Eva; Hubler, Francis; Riederer, Markus A; Steiner, Beat

    2017-10-01

    The P2Y 12 receptor is a validated target for prevention of major adverse cardiovascular events in patients with acute coronary syndrome. The aim of this study was to compare two direct-acting, reversible P2Y 12 antagonists, ACT-246475 and ticagrelor, in a rat thrombosis model by simultaneous quantification of their antithrombotic efficacy and surgery-induced blood loss. Blood flow velocity was assessed in the carotid artery after FeCl 3 -induced thrombus formation using a Doppler flow probe. At the same time, blood loss after surgical wounding of the spleen was quantified. Continuous infusions of ACT-246475 and ticagrelor prevented the injury-induced reduction of blood flow in a dose-dependent manner. High doses of both antagonists normalized blood flow and completely abolished thrombus formation as confirmed by histology. Intermediate doses restored baseline blood flow to ≥65%. However, ACT-246475 caused significantly less increase of blood loss than ticagrelor; the difference in blood loss was 2.6-fold (P ACT-246475 and ticagrelor on vascular tone. At concentrations needed to achieve maximal antithrombotic efficacy, ticagrelor compared with ACT-246475 significantly increased carotid blood flow velocity in vivo (P = 0.003), induced vasorelaxation of precontracted rat femoral arteries, and inhibited contraction of femoral artery induced by electrical field stimulation or by phenylephrine. Overall, ACT-246475 showed a significantly wider therapeutic window than ticagrelor. The absence of vasodilatory effects due to high selectivity of ACT-246475 for P2Y 12 provides potential arguments for the observed safety advantage of ACT-246475 over ticagrelor. © 2017 The Authors. Pharmacology Research & Perspectives published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd, British Pharmacological Society and American Society for Pharmacology and Experimental Therapeutics.

  6. An analysis of clinical activity, admission rates, length of hospital stay, and economic impact after a temporary loss of 50% of the non-operative podiatrists from a tertiary specialist foot clinic in the United Kingdom.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gooday, Catherine; Murchison, Rachel; Dhatariya, Ketan

    2013-01-01

    Podiatrists form an integral part of the multidisciplinary foot team in the treatment of diabetic foot-related complications. A set of unforeseen circumstances within our specialist diabetes foot service in the United Kingdom caused a loss of 50% of our non-operative podiatry team for almost 7 months during 2010. Some of this time was filled by non-specialist community non-operative podiatrists. We assessed the economic impact of this loss by examining data for the 5 years prior to this 7-month interruption, and for the 2 years after 'normal service' was resumed. Our data show that the loss of the non-operative podiatrists led to a significant rise in the numbers of admissions into hospital, and hospital length of stay also increased. At our institution a single bed day cost is £275. During the time that the numbers of specialist non-operative podiatry staff were depleted, and for up to 6 months after they returned to normal activities, the extra costs increased by just less than £90,000. The number of people admitted directly from specialist vascular and orthopaedic clinics is likely to have increased due to the lack of capacity to manage them in the diabetic foot clinic. Our data were unable to assess these individuals and did not look at the costs saved from avoiding surgery. Thus the actual costs incurred are likely to be higher. Our data suggest that specialist non-operative podiatrists involved in the treatment of the diabetic foot may prevent unwarranted hospital admission and increased hospitalisation rates by providing skilled assessment and care in the outpatient clinical settings.

  7. Avaliação econômica das perdas de banana no mercado varejista: um estudo de caso Economic avaliation of the banana's losses in retatil trade: a case study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cintia de Souza Silva

    2003-08-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo do presente estudo foi a determinação das perdas físicas e econômicas de banana em diferentes equipamentos varejistas na Cidade de Botucatu - SP e suas possíveis causas. Os equipamentos foram sorteados aleatoriamente. As informações foram coletadas através da aplicação de questionário para a determinação das perdas de três variedades de banana. O resultado mostrou perda global de 39 toneladas, correspondente a 11,1% da quantidade comercializada, sendo 10,5% em supermercados, 15,0% em quitandas/sacolões e 10,6% em feiras livres. O valor total das perdas anuais atingiu R$ 35.038,00, em valores de maio de 2002. A manipulação excessiva do cliente, excedente de oferta, uso de embalagem inadequada e baixa qualidade da fruta foram as principais causas de perdas. Conclui-se pela necessidade de conscientização do cliente, do uso de embalagens plásticas e de cuidados no manuseio da fruta durante toda pós-colheita.The objective of this research was to determinate the physics and economic banana's loss and its possible reason, in several retail trades in the city of Botucatu - SP. The equipments were drawn aleatory. The information were collected through questions applied to people to determine the annual loss of three different varieties of banana. The results showed that all loss was 39 ton., that represents 11,1% of all saled in retail trades, with 10,5% in supermarkets, 15% in grocery store/retail shops, and 10,6% in free markets. The retail trade showed an annual loss of R$ R$ 35.038,00, in values of may/2002. The excessive handling by the client, excess offering inadequate packing, and low quality of fruit were the most important cause of losses. It was possible to conclude that, the client's behavior should be better, the plastic packing utilization, and caution in the handling during all the post harvest process.

  8. Loss of the intestinal mucus layer in the normal rat causes gut injury but not toxic mesenteric lymph nor lung injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharpe, Susan M; Qin, Xiaofa; Lu, Qi; Feketeova, Eleonora; Palange, David C; Dong, Wei; Sheth, Sharvil U; Lee, Marlon A; Reino, Diego; Xu, Da-Zhong; Deitch, Edwin A

    2010-11-01

    There is substantial evidence that gut barrier failure is associated with distant organ injury and systemic inflammation. After major trauma or stress, the factors and mechanisms involved in gut injury are unknown. Our primary hypothesis is that loss of the intestinal mucus layer will result in injury of the normal gut that is exacerbated by the presence of luminal pancreatic proteases. Our secondary hypothesis is that the injury produced in the gut will result in the production of biologically active mesenteric lymph and consequently distant organ (i.e., lung) injury. To test this hypothesis, five groups of rats were studied: 1) uninstrumented naive rats; 2) control rats in which a ligated segment of distal ileum was filled with saline; 3) rats with pancreatic proteases placed in their distal ileal segments; 4) rats with the mucolytic N-acetylcysteine (NAC) placed in their distal ileal segments; and 5) rats exposed to NAC and pancreatic proteases in their ileal segments. The potential systemic consequences of gut injury induced by NAC and proteases were assessed by measuring the biological activity of mesenteric lymph as well as gut-induced lung injury. Exposure of the normal intestine to NAC, but not saline or proteases, led to increased gut permeability, loss of mucus hydrophobicity, a decrease in the mucus layer, as well as morphological evidence of villous injury. Although proteases themselves did not cause gut injury, the combination of pancreatic proteases with NAC caused more severe injury than NAC alone, suggesting that once the mucus barrier is impaired, luminal proteases can injure the now vulnerable gut. Because comparable levels of gut injury caused by systemic insults are associated with gut-induced lung injury, which is mediated by biologically active factors in mesenteric lymph, we next tested whether this local model of gut injury would produce active mesenteric lymph or lead to lung injury. It did not, suggesting that gut injury by itself may not

  9. GATAD2B loss-of-function mutations cause a recognisable syndrome with intellectual disability and are associated with learning deficits and synaptic undergrowth in Drosophila.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Willemsen, Marjolein H; Nijhof, Bonnie; Fenckova, Michaela; Nillesen, Willy M; Bongers, Ernie M H F; Castells-Nobau, Anna; Asztalos, Lenke; Viragh, Erika; van Bon, Bregje W M; Tezel, Emre; Veltman, Joris A; Brunner, Han G; de Vries, Bert B A; de Ligt, Joep; Yntema, Helger G; van Bokhoven, Hans; Isidor, Bertrand; Le Caignec, Cédric; Lorino, Elsa; Asztalos, Zoltan; Koolen, David A; Vissers, Lisenka E L M; Schenck, Annette; Kleefstra, Tjitske

    2013-08-01

    GATA zinc finger domain containing 2B (GATAD2B) encodes a subunit of the MeCP1-Mi-2/nucleosome remodelling and deacetylase complex involved in chromatin modification and regulation of transcription. We recently identified two de novo loss-of-function mutations in GATAD2B by whole exome sequencing in two unrelated individuals with severe intellectual disability. To identify additional individuals with GATAD2B aberrations, we searched for microdeletions overlapping with GATAD2B in inhouse and international databases, and performed targeted Sanger sequencing of the GATAD2B locus in a selected cohort of 80 individuals based on an overlap with the clinical features in the two index cases. To address whether GATAD2B is required directly in neurones for cognition and neuronal development, we investigated the role of Drosophila GATAD2B orthologue simjang (simj) in learning and synaptic connectivity. We identified a third individual with a 240 kb microdeletion encompassing GATAD2B and a fourth unrelated individual with GATAD2B loss-of-function mutation. Detailed clinical description showed that all four individuals with a GATAD2B aberration had a distinctive phenotype with childhood hypotonia, severe intellectual disability, limited speech, tubular shaped nose with broad nasal tip, short philtrum, sparse hair and strabismus. Neuronal knockdown of Drosophila GATAD2B orthologue, simj, resulted in impaired learning and altered synapse morphology. We hereby define a novel clinically recognisable intellectual disability syndrome caused by loss-of-function of GATAD2B. Our results in Drosophila suggest that GATAD2B is required directly in neurones for normal cognitive performance and synapse development.

  10. Can integrative catchment management mitigate future water quality issues caused by climate change and socio-economic development?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Honti, Mark; Schuwirth, Nele; Rieckermann, Jörg; Stamm, Christian

    2017-03-01

    The design and evaluation of solutions for integrated surface water quality management requires an integrated modelling approach. Integrated models have to be comprehensive enough to cover the aspects relevant for management decisions, allowing for mapping of larger-scale processes such as climate change to the regional and local contexts. Besides this, models have to be sufficiently simple and fast to apply proper methods of uncertainty analysis, covering model structure deficits and error propagation through the chain of sub-models. Here, we present a new integrated catchment model satisfying both conditions. The conceptual iWaQa model was developed to support the integrated management of small streams. It can be used to predict traditional water quality parameters, such as nutrients and a wide set of organic micropollutants (plant and material protection products), by considering all major pollutant pathways in urban and agricultural environments. Due to its simplicity, the model allows for a full, propagative analysis of predictive uncertainty, including certain structural and input errors. The usefulness of the model is demonstrated by predicting future surface water quality in a small catchment with mixed land use in the Swiss Plateau. We consider climate change, population growth or decline, socio-economic development, and the implementation of management strategies to tackle urban and agricultural point and non-point sources of pollution. Our results indicate that input and model structure uncertainties are the most influential factors for certain water quality parameters. In these cases model uncertainty is already high for present conditions. Nevertheless, accounting for today's uncertainty makes management fairly robust to the foreseen range of potential changes in the next decades. The assessment of total predictive uncertainty allows for selecting management strategies that show small sensitivity to poorly known boundary conditions. The identification

  11. Damage and loss assessment on rubber trees caused by typhoon based on high-precision remote sensing data and field investigation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Jian; Fang, Weihua; Tan, Chenyan

    2016-04-01

    Forest dynamics are highly relevant to land hydrology, climate, carbon budget and biodiversity. Damage and loss assessment of forest caused by typhoon is essential to the understanding of ecosystem variations. Combination of high-precision remote sensing data and field investigation is critical to the assessment of forest damage loss. In this study, high-precision remote sensing data prior to and after typhoon from IKONOS, QuickBird, unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV) are used for identifying rubber tree disturbance. The ground truth data of rubber tree damage collected through field investigation are used to verify and compare the results. Taken the forest damage induced by typhoon Rammasun (201409) in Hainan as an example, 5 damage types (overthrown, trunk snapped below 2m, trunk snapped above 2m, half-overthrown, and sheared) of rubber trees are clearly interpreted compared with field investigation results. High-precision remote sensing data is then applied to other areas to evaluate the forest damage severity. At last, rubber tree damage severity is investigated with other typhoon hazard factors such as wind, topography, soil and precipitation.

  12. Passive transfer of narcolepsy: anti-TRIB2 autoantibody positive patient IgG causes hypothalamic orexin neuron loss and sleep attacks in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katzav, Aviva; Arango, Maria T; Kivity, Shaye; Tanaka, Susumu; Givaty, Gili; Agmon-Levin, Nancy; Honda, Makoto; Anaya, Juan-Manuel; Chapman, Joab; Shoenfeld, Yehuda

    2013-09-01

    Narcolepsy is a sleep disorder characterized by excessive daytime sleepiness and cataplexy (a sudden weakening of posture muscle tone usually triggered by emotion) caused by the loss of orexin neurons in the hypothalamus. Autoimmune mechanisms are implicated in narcolepsy by increased frequency of specific HLA alleles and the presence of specific autoantibody (anti-Tribbles homolog 2 (TRIB2) antibodies) in the sera of patients with narcolepsy. Presently, we passively transferred narcolepsy to naïve mice by injecting intra-cerebra-ventricularly (ICV) pooled IgG positive for anti-TRIB2 antibodies. Narcolepsy-IgG-injected mice had a loss of the NeuN (neuronal marker), synaptophysin (synaptic marker) and orexin-positive neurons in the lateral hypothalamus area in narcolepsy compared to control-IgG-injected mice and these changes were associated with narcolepsy-like immobility attacks at four weeks post injection and with hyperactivity and long term memory deficits in the staircase and novel object recognition tests. Similar behavioral and cognitive deficits are observed in narcoleptic patients. This is the first report of passive transfer of experimental narcolepsy to naïve mice induced by autoantibodies and supports the autoimmune pathogenesis in narcolepsy. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Transiently increasing cAMP levels selectively in hippocampal excitatory neurons during sleep deprivation prevents memory deficits caused by sleep loss.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Havekes, Robbert; Bruinenberg, Vibeke M; Tudor, Jennifer C; Ferri, Sarah L; Baumann, Arnd; Meerlo, Peter; Abel, Ted

    2014-11-19

    The hippocampus is particularly sensitive to sleep loss. Although previous work has indicated that sleep deprivation impairs hippocampal cAMP signaling, it remains to be determined whether the cognitive deficits associated with sleep deprivation are caused by attenuated cAMP signaling in the hippocampus. Further, it is unclear which cell types are responsible for the memory impairments associated with sleep deprivation. Transgenic approaches lack the spatial resolution to manipulate specific signaling pathways selectively in the hippocampus, while pharmacological strategies are limited in terms of cell-type specificity. Therefore, we used a pharmacogenetic approach based on a virus-mediated expression of a Gαs-coupled Drosophila octopamine receptor selectively in mouse hippocampal excitatory neurons in vivo. With this approach, a systemic injection with the receptor ligand octopamine leads to increased cAMP levels in this specific set of hippocampal neurons. We assessed whether transiently increasing cAMP levels during sleep deprivation prevents memory consolidation deficits associated with sleep loss in an object-location task. Five hours of total sleep deprivation directly following training impaired the formation of object-location memories. Transiently increasing cAMP levels in hippocampal neurons during the course of sleep deprivation prevented these memory consolidation deficits. These findings demonstrate that attenuated cAMP signaling in hippocampal excitatory neurons is a critical component underlying the memory deficits in hippocampus-dependent learning tasks associated with sleep deprivation. Copyright © 2014 the authors 0270-6474/14/3415715-07$15.00/0.

  14. VALUASI EKONOMI KEHILANGAN MANFAAT BERSIH AKIBAT BIAYA KESEHATAN PENGGUNAAN PESTISIDA KIMIA (Economic Valuation of Net Benefit Loss Due to Health Cost of Chemical Pesticides Use

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joko Mariyono

    2002-03-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRAK Mengingat pestisida merupakan bahan beracun, maka penggunaannya juga menimbulkan  risiko kesehatan. Penelitian ini bertujuan untuk mengestimasi bsarnya kehilangan manfaat bersih akibat adanya eksternalitas yang diakibatkan oleh penggunaan pestisda kimia. Manfaat yang hilang ditentukan menghitung selisih antara manfaat bersihmaksimum dihitung dengan menggunakan konsep yang mendalilkan bahwa manfaat bersih marjinal sama dengan biaya eksternal marjinal. Manfaat bersih marjinal diturunkan dari fungsi produksi, sedangkan biaya eksternal marjinal diperoleh dari fungsi biaya kesehatan yang telah diestimasi oleh peneliti sebelumnya. Studi ini menggunakan data nasional produksi padi mulai tahun 1974 sampai dengan 2000. Hasil studi menunjukkan bahwa kehilangan manfaat bersih akibat biaya kesehatan karena penggunaan pestisida sangat tinggi. Kehilangan manfaat bersih yang sangat tinggi ini terjadi karena elastisitas produksi dari pestisida terhadap padi sangat kecil.   ABSTRACT Since pesticide is a poisonous agent, its use also causes health risk. The objective of this study is to estimate the value of net benefit loss associated with chemical pestiside uses. The net benefit loss is determined by finding the difference between actual value of net benefit and maximum value of net benefit of pesticides use. The maximum value of net benefit can be obtained by employing the concept postulating that the net benefit is occurred when the marginal net benefit is aqual to marginal external cost. The marginal net benefit is derived from estimated production function of rice, whereas the marginal external cost is obtained by adopting health cost function of pesticides use that has been estimated by previous researchers. The study utilized the national data of rice production and agro-chemical input use during from 1974 to 2000. The results of the study show that there are extremely high net benefit losses associated with health costs of pesticides use. It is

  15. Syncope in children and adolescents as asudden, transient, short-term and spontaneously reversible loss of consciousness caused by adecrease in cerebral perfusion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ewa Nowakowska

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Syncope is a common symptom in adolescents who come to the hospital emergency wards. The most common form of syncope is neurogenic type caused by impaired autoregulation of the circulatory system. This syncope is not generally life-threatening condition in a contrast to the less common but most dangerous cardiogenic type (e.g. cardiac arrhythmias due to Wolff–Parkinson–White syndrome, long QT time interval, atrioventricular blocks, haemodynamic obstructions in the outflow tract of the left or right ventricle, cardiomyopathy or coronary abnormalities. This paper refers to a new term, i.e. transient loss of consciousness. According to the new definition of syncope from 2009, temporary loss of consciousness has four components: a sudden occurrence, transient nature, short duration, and spontaneous regression. Currently, there are three main types of syncope associated with the cardiovascular system: neurogenic, orthostatic hypotension and a cardiac. The most common form in adolescents are neurogenic fainting which are often preceded by prodromal symptoms, i.e. decrease in blood pressure and heart rate. They can also occur in response to the stress or unusual situations. In the orthostatic syncope the loss of consciousness occurs in a very short time after the upright position and unlike neurogenic form, usually there are no prodromal symptoms, but tachycardia is present. The rarest, but also the most dangerous form of syncope is a cardiogenic type caused by arrhythmias or structural heart disease. This form may be the first sign of serious heart disease or even precede sudden cardiac death.

  16. Gewichtsverlies, serumnatriumconcentratie en restverschijnselen bij patiëntjes met hypertone dehydratie door onvoldoende borstvoeding [Weight loss, serum sodium concentration and residual symptoms in patients with hypernatremic dehydration caused by insufficient breastfeeding

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Breuning-Boers, J.M.; Dommelen, P. van; Wouwe, J.P. van; Verkerk, P.H.

    2006-01-01

    Objective. To determine the relationship between serum sodium concentration and weight loss as well as residual symptoms in newborns with hypernatremic dehydration caused by insufficient breastfeeding; and to determine the sensitivity of the following rule of thumb 'if weight loss is less than 10%,

  17. Beneficios económicos del implante coclear para la hipoacusia sensorineural profunda Economic benefits of the cochlear implant for treating profound sensorineural hearing loss

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Augusto Peñaranda

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Evaluar el costo-beneficio (CB, costo-utilidad (CU y costo-efectividad (CE de la implantación coclear, comparándola con el uso de audífonos en niños con hipoacusia sensorineural profunda bilateral. MÉTODOS: Se empleó la técnica no paramétrica Propensity Score Matching (PSM para realizar la evaluación de impacto económico del implante y así llevar a cabo los análisis CB, CU y CE. Se utilizó información primaria, tomada aleatoriamente a 100 pacientes: 62 intervenidos quirúrgicamente con el implante coclear (grupo de tratamiento y 38 pertenecientes al grupo de control o usuarios de audífono para tratar la hipoacusia sensorineural profunda. RESULTADOS: Se halló un diferencial de costos económicos -en beneficio del implante coclear- cercano a US$ 204 000 entre el implante y el uso de audífonos durante la esperanza de vida de los pacientes analizados. Dicha cifra indica los mayores gastos que deben cubrir los pacientes con audífono. Con este valor descontado, el indicador costo-beneficio señala que por cada dólar invertido en el implante coclear, para tratar al paciente, el retorno de la inversión es US$ 2,07. CONCLUSIONES: El implante coclear genera beneficios económicos para el paciente. También produce utilidades en salud dado que se encontró una relación positiva de CU (ganancia en decibeles y CE (ganancia en discriminación del lenguaje.OBJECTIVE: Evaluate the cost-benefit, cost-utility, and cost-effectiveness of cochlear implantation, comparing it to the use of hearing aids in children with profound bilateral sensorineural hearing loss. METHODS: The nonparametric propensity score matching method was used to carry out an economic and impact assessment of the cochlear implant and then perform cost-benefit, cost-utility, and cost-effectiveness analyses. Primary information was used, taken randomly from 100 patients: 62 who received cochlear implants (treatment group and 38 belonging to the control group who used

  18. A novel frameshift mutation of SMPX causes a rare form of X-linked nonsyndromic hearing loss in a Chinese family.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niu, Zhijie; Feng, Yong; Mei, Lingyun; Sun, Jie; Wang, Xueping; Wang, Juncheng; Hu, Zhengmao; Dong, Yunpeng; Chen, Hongsheng; He, Chufeng; Liu, Yalan; Cai, Xinzhang; Liu, Xuezhong; Jiang, Lu

    2017-01-01

    X-linked hearing impairment is the rarest form of genetic hearing loss (HL) and represents only a minor fraction of all cases. The aim of this study was to investigate the cause of X-linked inherited sensorineural HL in a four-generation Chinese family. A novel duplication variant (c.217dupA, p.Ile73Asnfs*5) in SMPX was identified by whole-exome sequencing. The frameshift mutation predicted to result in the premature truncation of the SMPX protein was co-segregated with the HL phenotype and was absent in 295 normal controls. Subpopulation screening of the coding exons and flanking introns of SMPX was further performed for 338 Chinese patients with nonsydromic HL by Sanger sequencing, and another two potential causative substitutions (c.238C>A and c.55A>G) in SMPX were identified in additional sporadic cases of congenital deafness. Collectively, this study is the first to report the role of SMPX in Chinese population and identify a novel frameshift mutation in SMPX that causes not only nonsyndromic late-onset progressive HL, but also congenital hearing impairment. Our findings extend the mutation and phenotypic spectrum of the SMPX gene.

  19. Assessment of social losses of pollution's health caused by man-made pollution of atmospheric air with emissions of particulate matters (PM10

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Turos Ye.I.

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available According to available estimates, about 3% of lethal outcomes from cardiac-pulmonary pathology and 5% from lung cancer are related to the impact of patriculate matters (PM. In the course of the study there were assessed social losses of population’s health (additional death cases caused by risk conditions of atmospheric air pollution with PM of various air-dynamic diameter (PM10, proper to emissions of various industrial enterprises. It was established that 90% of population of cities under study live under high exposures (≥50 µg/m3 health and risks for population (IRM=10-3÷10-4, caused by PM10 emissions. Results showed that metallurgical industry is responsible for 7,2 to 2193 additional mortality cases. The impact of machine building enterprises – from 0.06 to 21 cases; coke and chemical – from 1.5 to 36 cases; mining – from 1.1 to 14,6 cases. The findings revealed 0.6 % increase in lifetime mortality for each 10 µg/m3 in 24-hour average PM10 concentration. Based on research outcomes, a set of instruments was developed for implementation of air pollution risk management programs aimed at mitigation of health risks from (PM10 in highly exposed groups.

  20. A novel frameshift mutation of SMPX causes a rare form of X-linked nonsyndromic hearing loss in a Chinese family.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhijie Niu

    Full Text Available X-linked hearing impairment is the rarest form of genetic hearing loss (HL and represents only a minor fraction of all cases. The aim of this study was to investigate the cause of X-linked inherited sensorineural HL in a four-generation Chinese family. A novel duplication variant (c.217dupA, p.Ile73Asnfs*5 in SMPX was identified by whole-exome sequencing. The frameshift mutation predicted to result in the premature truncation of the SMPX protein was co-segregated with the HL phenotype and was absent in 295 normal controls. Subpopulation screening of the coding exons and flanking introns of SMPX was further performed for 338 Chinese patients with nonsydromic HL by Sanger sequencing, and another two potential causative substitutions (c.238C>A and c.55A>G in SMPX were identified in additional sporadic cases of congenital deafness. Collectively, this study is the first to report the role of SMPX in Chinese population and identify a novel frameshift mutation in SMPX that causes not only nonsyndromic late-onset progressive HL, but also congenital hearing impairment. Our findings extend the mutation and phenotypic spectrum of the SMPX gene.