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Sample records for economic injury level

  1. Stochastic modeling of economic injury levels with respect to yearly trends in price commodity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Damos, Petros

    2014-05-01

    The economic injury level (EIL) concept integrates economics and biology and uses chemical applications in crop protection only when economic loss by pests is anticipated. The EIL is defined by five primary variables: the cost of management tactic per production unit, the price of commodity, the injury units per pest, the damage per unit injury, and the proportionate reduction of injury averted by the application of a tactic. The above variables are related according to the formula EIL = C/VIDK. The observable dynamic alteration of the EIL due to its different parameters is a major characteristic of its concept. In this study, the yearly effect of the economic variables is assessed, and in particular the influence of the parameter commodity value on the shape of the EIL function. In addition, to predict the effects of the economic variables on the EIL level, yearly commodity values were incorporated in the EIL formula and the generated outcomes were further modelled with stochastic linear autoregressive models having different orders. According to the AR(1) model, forecasts for the five-year period of 2010-2015 ranged from 2.33 to 2.41 specimens per sampling unit. These values represent a threshold that is in reasonable limits to justify future control actions. Management actions as related to productivity and price commodity significantly affect costs of crop production and thus define the adoption of IPM and sustainable crop production systems at local and international levels. This is an open access paper. We use the Creative Commons Attribution 3.0 license that permits unrestricted use, provided that the paper is properly attributed.

  2. Western bean cutworm survival and the development of economic injury levels and economic thresholds in field corn.

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    Paula-Moraes, S; Hunt, T E; Wright, R J; Hein, G L; Blankenship, E E

    2013-06-01

    Western bean cutworm, Striacosta albicosta (Smith) (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae), is a native pest of dry beans (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) and corn (Zea mays L.). Historically, the western bean cutworm was distributed in the western United States, but since 1999 eastward expansion has been observed. In corn, economic impact is caused by larval ear feeding. Information on western bean cutworm biology, ecology, and economic impact is relatively limited, and the development of economic injury levels (EILs) and economic thresholds (ETs) is required for more effective management. Studies during 2008-2011, across three ecoregions of Nebraska, sought to characterize western bean cutworm survival and development of EILs and ETs. Calculations of EILs and ETs incorporated the dynamics of corn price, management cost, and pest survival. The results from the current study demonstrated low larval survival of this species (1.51-12.82%). The mean yield loss from one western bean cutworm larva per plant was 945.52 kg/ha (15.08 bu/acre), based on 74,100 plants per ha. Economic thresholds are expressed as a percentage of plants with at least one egg mass. This study is the first study that explicitly incorporates variable management costs and crop values into western bean cutworm EIL calculations, and larval survival into ET calculations.

  3. Economic Injury Level of the Neotropical Brown Stink Bug Euschistus heros (F.) on Cotton Plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soria, M F; Degrande, P E; Panizzi, A R; Toews, M D

    2017-06-01

    In Brazil, the Neotropical brown stink bug, Euschistus heros (F.) (Hemiptera: Pentatomidae), commonly disperses from soybeans to cotton fields. The establishment of an economic treatment threshold for this pest on cotton crops is required. Infestation levels of adults of E. heros were evaluated on cotton plants at preflowering, early flowering, boll filling, and full maturity by assessing external and internal symptoms of injury on bolls, seed cotton/lint production, and fiber quality parameters. A completely randomized experiment was designed to infest cotton plants in a greenhouse with 0, 2, 4, 6, and 8 bugs/plant, except at the full-maturity stage in which only infestation with 8 bugs/plant and uninfested plants were evaluated. Results indicated that the preflowering, early-flowering, and full-maturity stages were not affected by E. heros. A linear regression model showed a significant increase in the number of internal punctures and warts in the boll-filling stage as the population of bugs increased. The average number of loci with mottled immature fibers was significantly higher at 4, 6, and 8 bugs compared with uninfested plants with data following a quadratic regression model. The seed and lint cotton was reduced by 18 and 25% at the maximum level of infestation (ca. 8 bugs/plant) in the boll-filling stage. The micronaire and yellowing indexes were, respectively, reduced and increased with the increase of the infestation levels. The economic injury level of E. heros on cotton plants at the boll-filling stage was determined as 0.5 adult/plant. Based on that, a treatment threshold of 0.1 adult/plant can be recommended to avoid economic losses.

  4. Economic injury level of the psyllid, Agonoscena pistaciae, on Pistachio, Pistacia vera cv. Ohadi.

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    Reza Hassani, Mohammad; Nouri-Ganbalani, Gadir; Izadi, Hamzeh; Shojai, Mahmoud; Basirat, Mehdi

    2009-01-01

    The pistachio psylla, Agonoscena pistaciae Burckhardt and Lauterer (Hemiptera: Psyllidae) is a major pest of pistachio trees, Pistacia vera L. (Sapindalis: Anacardiaceae) throughout pistachio-producing regions in Iran. Different density levels of A. pistaciae nymphs were maintained on pistachio trees by different insecticide dosages to evaluate the relationship between nymph density and yield loss (weight of 1000 nuts). Psylla nymph densities were monitored weekly by counting nymphs on pistachio terminal leaflets. There was a significant reduction in weight of 1000 nuts as seasonal averages of nymphs increased. Regression analysis was used to determine the relationship between nymph density and weight of 1000 nuts. The economic injury levels varied as a function of market values, management costs, insecticide efficiency and yield loss rate and ranged from 7.7 to 30.7 nymphal days per terminal leaflet, based on weight of 1000 nuts.

  5. Crop Loss Relationships and Economic Injury Levels for Ferrisia gilli (Hemiptera: Pseudococcidae) Infesting Pistachio in California.

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    Haviland, David R; Beede, Robert H; Daane, Kent M

    2015-12-01

    Ferrisia gilli Gullan (Hemiptera: Pseudococcidae) is a new pest in California pistachios, Pistacea vera L. We conducted a 3-yr field study to determine the type and amount of damage caused by F. gilli. Using pesticides, we established gradients of F. gilli densities in a commercial pistachio orchard near Tipton, CA, from 2005 to 2007. Each year, mealybug densities on pistachio clusters were recorded from May through September and cumulative mealybug-days were determined. At harvest time, nut yield per tree (5% dried weight) was determined, and subsamples of nuts were evaluated for market quality. Linear regression analysis of cumulative mealybug-days against fruit yield and nut quality measurements showed no relationships in 2005 and 2006, when mealybug densities were moderate. However, in 2007, when mealybug densities were very high, there was a negative correlation with yield (for every 1,000 mealybug-days, there was a decrease in total dry weight per tree of 0.105 kg) and percentage of split unstained nuts (for every 1,000 mealybug-days, there was a decrease in the percentage of split unstained of 0.560%), and a positive correlation between the percentage of closed kernel and closed blank nuts (for every 1,000 mealybug-days, there is an increase in the percentage of closed kernel and closed blank of 0.176 and 0.283%, respectively). The data were used to determine economic injury levels, showing that for each mealybug per cluster in May there was a 4.73% reduction in crop value associated with quality and a 0.866 kg reduction in yield per tree (4.75%). © The Authors 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Entomological Society of America. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  6. Ecological study of road traffic injuries in the eastern Mediterranean region: country economic level, road user category and gender perspectives.

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    Sengoelge, Mathilde; Laflamme, Lucie; El-Khatib, Ziad

    2018-02-13

    The Eastern Mediterranean region has the second highest number of road traffic injury mortality rates after the African region based on 2013 data, with road traffic injuries accounting for 27% of the total injury mortality in the region. Globally the number of road traffic deaths has plateaued despite an increase in motorization, but it is uncertain whether this applies to the Region. This study investigated the regional trends in both road traffic injury mortality and morbidity and examined country-based differences considering on income level, categories of road users, and gender distribution. Register-based ecological study linking data from Global Burden of Disease Study with the United Nations Statistics Division for population and World Bank definition for country income level. Road traffic injury mortality rates and disability-adjusted life years were compiled for all ages at country level in 1995, 2005, 2015 and combined for a regional average (n = 22) and a global average (n = 122). The data were stratified by country economic level, road user category and gender. Road traffic injury mortality rates in the Region were higher than the global average for all three reference years but suggest a downward trend. In 2015 mortality rates were more than twice as high in low and high income countries compared to global income averages and motor vehicle occupants had a 3-fold greater mortality than the global average. Severe injuries decreased by more than half for high/middle income countries but remained high for low income countries; three times higher for males than females. Despite a potential downward trend, inequalities in road traffic injury mortality and morbidity burden remain high in the Eastern Mediterranean region. Action needs to be intensified and targeted to implement and enforce safety measures that prevent and mitigate severe motor vehicle crashes in high income countries especially and invest in efforts to promote public, active transport

  7. Plant growth stage-specific injury and economic injury level for verde plant bug, Creontiades signatus (Hemiptera: Miridae), on cotton: effect of bloom period of infestation.

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    Brewer, Michael J; Anderson, Darwin J; Armstrong, J Scott

    2013-10-01

    Verde plant bugs, Creontiades signatus Distant (Hemiptera: Miridae), were released onto caged cotton, Cossypium hirsutum L., for a 1-wk period to characterize the effects of insect density and bloom period of infestation on cotton injury and yield in 2011 and 2012, Corpus Christi, TX. When plants were infested during early bloom (10-11 nodes above first white flower), a linear decline in fruit retention and boll load and a linear increase in boll injury were detected as verde plant bug infestation levels increased from an average of 0.5 to 4 bugs per plant. Lint and seed yield per plant showed a corresponding decline. Fruit retention, boll load, and yield were not affected on plants infested 1 wk later at peak bloom (8-9 nodes above first white flower), even though boll injury increased as infestation levels increased. Second-year testing verified boll injury but not yield loss, when infestations occurred at peak bloom. Incidence of cotton boll rot, known to be associated with verde plant bug feeding, was low to modest (verde plant bug were important contributors to yield decline, damage potential was greatest during the early bloom period of infestation, and a simple linear response best described the yield response-insect density relationship at early bloom. Confirmation that cotton after peak bloom was less prone to verde plant bug injury and an early bloom-specific economic injury level were key findings that can improve integrated pest management decision-making for dryland cotton, at least under low-rainfall growing conditions.

  8. Economic injury level for the coffee berry borer (Coleoptera: Curculionidae: Scolytinae) using attractive traps in Brazilian coffee fields.

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    Fernandes, F L; Picanço, M C; Campos, S O; Bastos, C S; Chediak, M; Guedes, R N C; Silva, R S

    2011-12-01

    The currently existing sample procedures available for decision-making regarding the control of the coffee berry borer Hypothenemus hampei (Ferrari) (Coleoptera: Curculionidae: Scolytinae) are time-consuming, expensive, and difficult to perform, compromising their adoption. In addition, the damage functions incorporated in such decision levels only consider the quantitative losses, while dismissing the qualitative losses. Traps containing ethanol, methanol, and benzaldehyde may allow cheap and easy decision-making. Our objective was to determine the economic injury level (EIL) for the adults of the coffee berry borer by using attractant-baited traps. We considered both qualitative and quantitative losses caused by the coffee borer in estimating the EILs. These EILs were determined for conventional and organic coffee under high and average plant yield. When the quantitative losses caused by H. hampei were considered alone, the EILs ranged from 7.9 to 23.7% of bored berries for high and average-yield conventional crops, respectively. For high and average-yield organic coffee the ELs varied from 24.4 to 47.6% of bored berries, respectively. When qualitative and quantitative losses caused by the pest were considered together, the EIL was 4.3% of bored berries for both conventional and organic coffee. The EILs for H. hampei associated to the coffee plants in the flowering, pinhead fruit, and ripening fruit stages were 426, 85, and 28 adults per attractive trap, respectively.

  9. The global burden of child burn injuries in light of country level economic development and income inequality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sengoelge, Mathilde; El-Khatib, Ziad; Laflamme, Lucie

    2017-06-01

    Child burn mortality differs widely between regions and is closely related to material deprivation, but reports on their global distribution are few. Investigating their country level distribution in light of economic level and income inequality will help assess the potential for macro-level improvements. We extracted data for child burn mortality from the Global Burden of Disease study 2013 and combined data into 1-14 years to calculate rates at country, region and income levels. We also compiled potential lives saved. Then we examined the relationship between country level gross domestic product per capita from the World Bank and income inequality (Gini Index) from the Standardized World Income Inequality Database and child burn mortality using Spearman coefficient correlations. Worldwide, the burden of child burn deaths is 2.5 per 100,000 across 103 countries with the largest burden in Sub-Saharan Africa (4.5 per 100,000). Thirty-four thousand lives could be saved yearly if all countries in the world had the same rates as the best performing group of high-income countries; the majority in low-income countries. There was a negative graded association between economic level and child burns for all countries aggregated and at regional level, but no consistent pattern existed for income inequality at regional level. The burden of child burn mortality varies by region and income level with prevention efforts needed most urgently in middle-income countries and Sub-Saharan Africa. Investment in safe living conditions and access to medical care are paramount to achieving further reductions in the global burden of preventable child burn deaths.

  10. The global burden of child burn injuries in light of country level economic development and income inequality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mathilde Sengoelge

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Child burn mortality differs widely between regions and is closely related to material deprivation, but reports on their global distribution are few. Investigating their country level distribution in light of economic level and income inequality will help assess the potential for macro-level improvements. We extracted data for child burn mortality from the Global Burden of Disease study 2013 and combined data into 1–14 years to calculate rates at country, region and income levels. We also compiled potential lives saved. Then we examined the relationship between country level gross domestic product per capita from the World Bank and income inequality (Gini Index from the Standardized World Income Inequality Database and child burn mortality using Spearman coefficient correlations. Worldwide, the burden of child burn deaths is 2.5 per 100,000 across 103 countries with the largest burden in Sub-Saharan Africa (4.5 per 100,000. Thirty-four thousand lives could be saved yearly if all countries in the world had the same rates as the best performing group of high-income countries; the majority in low-income countries. There was a negative graded association between economic level and child burns for all countries aggregated and at regional level, but no consistent pattern existed for income inequality at regional level. The burden of child burn mortality varies by region and income level with prevention efforts needed most urgently in middle-income countries and Sub-Saharan Africa. Investment in safe living conditions and access to medical care are paramount to achieving further reductions in the global burden of preventable child burn deaths.

  11. Economic injury levels for Asian citrus psyllid control in process oranges from mature trees with high incidence of huanglongbing.

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    Cesar Monzo

    Full Text Available The Asian citrus psyllid (ACP, Diaphorina citri Kuwayama, is the key pest of citrus wherever it occurs due to its role as vector of huanglongbing (HLB also known as citrus greening disease. Insecticidal vector control is considered to be the primary strategy for HLB management and is typically intense owing to the severity of this disease. While this approach slows spread and also decreases severity of HLB once the disease is established, economic viability of increasingly frequent sprays is uncertain. Lacking until now were studies evaluating the optimum frequency of insecticide applications to mature trees during the growing season under conditions of high HLB incidence. We related different degrees of insecticide control with ACP abundance and ultimately, with HLB-associated yield losses in two four-year replicated experiments conducted in commercial groves of mature orange trees under high HLB incidence. Decisions on insecticide applications directed at ACP were made by project managers and confined to designated plots according to experimental design. All operational costs as well as production benefits were taken into account for economic analysis. The relationship between management costs, ACP abundance and HLB-associated economic losses based on current prices for process oranges was used to determine the optimum frequency and timing for insecticide applications during the growing season. Trees under the most intensive insecticidal control harbored fewest ACP resulting in greatest yields. The relationship between vector densities and yield loss was significant but differed between the two test orchards, possibly due to varying initial HLB infection levels, ACP populations or cultivar response. Based on these relationships, treatment thresholds during the growing season were obtained as a function of application costs, juice market prices and ACP densities. A conservative threshold for mature trees with high incidence of HLB would help

  12. ECONOMIC ASPECTS OF "WHIPLASH" INJURY.

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    SNOW, G H

    1964-10-01

    The term "whiplash," used to describe a neck injury received in an automobile accident, has no foundation in medical science to support the complaints of persons suing for damages. The term is gaining unwarranted popularity as a term describing an injury, even though there are no clinical or pathological findings to support it."Whiplash" cases today account for an estimated 30 per cent of all injuries in automobile accidents. Direct compensation for damages paid to persons injured in automobile accidents in the United States in 1961 amounted to approximately one billion, seven hundred million dollars. It has been estimated that five hundred and eighty million dollars of that amount was paid in compensation on allegation of neck injuries.

  13. Some economic aspects of recreational injuries.

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    Arundel, J T

    1974-06-01

    This paper deals with some basic features of accidents in recreation and will attempt to throw some light on their economic consequences. Let us examine sport as one aspect of recreation. As Williams (1973) put it, "Sport is a phenomenon of simple definition, but with well recognised features. It is essentially recreational, essentially physical, frequently competitive and always contrived." The number and type of participants has increased, along with the range of activities available. Classifications of sport, at best, are arbitrary but nevertheless are useful for analysis. These divisions may be land/air/water types; indoor/outdoor; team/individual; body contact/non-contact/vehicular; amateur/professional. Sports injuries are of two types, intrinsic or self-inflicted (Williams, 1973) and extrinsic. Intrinsic injuries refer to those as a result of over-use (leading, for example, to stress fractures) and to specific incidents not involving outside agents. Extrinsic injuries are caused by contact with external objects and form the bulk of injuries sustained in body-contact, vehicular (horses, cars, skis) and environmental-type sports. Extrinsic injuries are generally more severe because greater forces and velocities are involved. Appendix 1 lists the main sporting activities according to location of sport; individual or team participation; likelihood of extensive body contact; and professional status. Professional players not only suffer loss of earning capacity but may reflect a bad investment for an entrepreneur or reduce spectator attendance and gate taking. It is apparent that team sports, having substantial body contact, face a higher risk of moderate to serious injury than do individual, non-contact sports, although major injuries can be sustained in the latter, for example, sprains and dislocations in athletics, golf, tennis, etc. Other sports must be classed as dangerous because of the nature of competition, for example, motor racing and flying. These

  14. Ideology and 'A' Level Economics Textbooks.

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    Webster, Angela

    1978-01-01

    Reviews economics textbooks frequently used in college level economics courses in England to determine the extent of bias. Topics analyzed include economics as science and ethics, profits, advertising, economic objectives, perfect competition, and nationalized industries. (Author/DB)

  15. What is the economic burden of sports injuries?

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    Öztürk, Selcen; Kılıç, Dilek

    2013-01-01

    Despite the health benefits of sports activities, sports injury and fear of injury are important barriers to participation in sport. The incidence, prevalence and type of sports injuries vary among men and women as well as age groups. It is usually difficult to examine these different aspects of sports injuries due to insufficient data. This study argues that sport injuries can be considered as an important economic burden in terms of the direct and indirect costs it bears. As a result, strong and effective strategies are needed to prevent sports injuries. Sports medicine has also been attracted increasing attention in recent years, particularly. In this article, the importance of sports injuries and their economic costs as well as the role of sport medicine as a prevention method for sports injuries were discussed.

  16. The economic burden of unintentional injuries: a community-based cost analysis in Bavi, Vietnam.

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    Thanh, Nguyen Xuan; Hang, Hoang Mihn; Chuc, Nguyen Thi Kim; Lindholm, Lars

    2003-01-01

    Relatively little is known about patterns of injury at the community level in Vietnam and their economic consequences. This study sought to estimate the costs of various unintentional injuries in Bavi District during one year; to describe how costs depended on gender, age, circumstances, and severity of injury; and to describe how the economic burden of unintentional injuries was distributed between households, government, and health insurance agency. A cohort study was undertaken, which involved four cross-sectional household surveys among sampled communities in the Bavi District during the year 2000, each asking about injuries in the preceding three months. The costing system in public healthcare in Vietnam was applied as well as information from the victims. The total cost of injuries over one year in Bavi District was estimated to be D3,412,539,000 (Vietnamese dong) (US$235,347), equivalent to the annual income of 1,800 people. In total, 90% of this economic burden fell on households, only 8% on government, and 2% on the health insurance agency. The cost of a severe injury to the corresponded to approximately seven months of earned income. Home and traffic injuries together accounted for more than 80% of the total cost, 45% and 38% respectively. The highest unit cost was related to traffic injuries, followed by home, "other", work-related, and school injuries in descending order. The results can be considered as an economic baseline that can be used in evaluations of future interventions aimed at preventing injuries.

  17. Economic growth and the incidence of occupational injuries in Austria.

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    Barth, Alfred; Winker, Robert; Ponocny-Seliger, Elisabeth; Sögner, Leopold

    2007-01-01

    The aim of this paper was to analyze the impact of economic growth measured by real gross domestic product (GDP) on the incidence of occupational injuries in Austria. The relationship between GDP and the occupational injury rate of the wage-earning population between 1955 and 2004 was analyzed using an error correction model. The sample size increased from 1.568,371 persons in 1955 to 2.656,952 in 2004. Occupational injuries were divided into fatal and non-fatal injuries. Occupational injuries (fatal and non-fatal) decreased from 8.59% to 4.08%: non-fatal injuries decreased from 8.56% to 4.07%; fatal injuries decreased from 0.03% to 0.01%. Austrian GDP increased from EUR 37.7 billion to EUR 202.8 billion (base year 1995). Statistical analysis clearly shows that a growing economy is associated with declining injury rates (fatal and non-fatal). Two mechanisms are discussed. Firstly, rising GDP is accompanied by greater investment in safer technologies and occupational safety measures. Secondly, booming economies are associated with a reduced risk of unemployment, which is already known to be a risk factor for occupational injuries. Economic development appears to have an impact on the incidence of occupational injuries in Austria. Health policy should emphasize the necessity for safety at work particularly in phases of economic slowdown.

  18. ECONOMIC LOSSES CAUSED BY TRAUMATIC BRAIN INJURY IN CHILDREN

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    S. A. Valiulina

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Currently, analyzing the economic losses caused by health problems in population is of particular importance since it stipulates calculations of the volumes invested in healthcare systems in order to improve population’s health. Objective: The aim of our study was to find out economic losses caused by traumatic brain injury (TBI in children. Methods: The given work has utilized governmental statistical reports for Russia, for federal regions as well as for individual subjects. Direct medical expenses (medical services and indirect expenses (losses due to a temporary disability of parents having a sick child were calculated both in general and per patient. Results: Among all the direct medical costs of treatment of children with TBI inpatient care costs account for 85%. In the Central and Volga Federal District accounted for half of nationwide spending in general, brain injury and to provide certain kinds of healthcare. The structure of Russian costs as a result of the incidence of TBI children Moscow accounts for 20%. In Moscow, the cost of treating cases of traumatic brain injury in children is 3.2 times higher than the average for Russia. The resulting calculations of the value of health care costs attributable to a case of child head injury, behind the cost of treatment of the case of a child with head trauma, calculated according to the standards of Russia and the territories. This difference in the whole RF is 23%. Conclusion: The obtained findings have shown that in 2010 in Russia the magnitude of losses caused by TBI incidence in children amounted to 3 billion roubles or 0.008% of the gross product 1.2 billion roubles of which were direct expenses. However, this figure is considerably lower of the real amount; it becomes evident after the analysis of direct medical expenses per one case of pediatric TBI. Our calculations have shown that in Russia and in its regions the amount of expenses per one TBI patient is a quarter less

  19. Some epidemiological aspects and economic costs of injuries in Malaysia.

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    Arokiasamy, J T; Krishnan, R

    1994-01-01

    Injuries are one of the leading causes of death in the world. In Malaysia, injuries form one of the three main causes of mortality. They are also an important cause of permanent and temporary disability and work absenteeism in the productive age group. Increasing affluence and industrialization coupled with growing population and transportation needs in rapidly developing countries like Malaysia have resulted in a surge of road and occupational injuries. Three quarters of fatalities due to road, occupational, drowning and home injuries occur in those below 45 years of age. A majority of injuries in these categories are attributed to "human" factors and therefore can be prevented by public education and enforced training of workers. The total annual economic loss due to all types of injuries is estimated to be 2 billion Malaysian Ringgit (US$1 = MR2.76 approximately). The government is currently in the process of setting up full-time departments for road safety and occupational health and safety.

  20. The incidence and economic burden of injuries in Jiangxi, China.

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    Fang, X; Zeng, G; Linnan, H W; Jing, R; Zhu, X; Corso, P; Liu, P; Linnan, M

    2016-09-01

    This study estimated the incidence, direct medical and non-medical costs, and productivity losses due to morbidity and mortality across multiple strata for injuries that occurred in Jiangxi, China. Cross-sectional study. Data came from the Jiangxi injury survey, a provincially-representative, population-based sample of 100,010 households. The major economic costs of injuries were divided into direct costs and indirect costs. Direct costs encompass medical costs and direct non-medical costs. Indirect costs refer to the productivity losses due to injury-related morbidity and mortality. In 2005, about one of 18 residents in Jiangxi, China, experienced an injury. Overall, fall, animal bite, and road traffic crash (RTC) injuries accounted for more than 66% of all injuries, while fall, RTC, drowning, and self-harm injuries accounted for 80% of fatal injuries. Average cost per case for a fatal injury was 163,389 RMB ($20,171) for lost productivity and 2800 RMB ($346) in direct medical & non-medical costs. A non-fatal injury resulting in hospitalisation or permanent disability on average caused 5221 RMB ($643) in direct costs and 18,437 RMB ($2276) in lost productivity and, an additional loss of three school days. A non-hospitalised non-fatal injury on average caused 303 ($37) RMB in direct costs and 491 RMB ($61) in lost productivity and, an additional loss of 0.5 school days. The unequivocal evidence of the substantial health and financial burden of injuries indicates to Chinese policy makers that more research and efforts are needed to find efficacious and cost-effective interventions targeting injury. Copyright © 2016 The Royal Society for Public Health. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Kidney injury molecule-1 and microalbuminuria levels in Zambian ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Kidney injury molecule-1 and microalbuminuria levels in Zambian population: biomarkers of kidney injury. Mildred Zulu, Trevor Kaile, Timothy Kantenga, Chisanga Chileshe, Panji Nkhoma, Musalula Sinkala ...

  2. Noncontiguous double-level unstable spinal injuries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takami, Masanari; Okada, Motohiro; Enyo, Yoshio; Iwasaki, Hiroshi; Yamada, Hiroshi; Yoshida, Munehito

    2017-01-01

    Noncontiguous double-level unstable spinal injuries (NDUSI) are uncommon and have not been well described. In this study, we aimed to better understand the patterns of NDUSI, in order to recommend proper diagnostic and treatment methods, as well as to raise awareness among traumatologists about the possibility of these uncommon injuries. A total of 710 consecutive patients with spine fractures were treated for >9 years since 2007 at a single regional trauma center. Of them, 18 patients with NDUSI were reviewed retrospectively. The incidence of NDUSI was 2.5 % of all spine fractures. In 17 of 18 patients (94.7 %), NDUSI was caused by a high-energy trauma. Nine patients (50.0 %) exhibited complete neurological deficit. Spinal cord injury occurred in the cranial injured region in all American Spinal Injury Association grade A cases. In one case, a second fracture was overlooked at the initial examination. NDUSI are common in cases of high-energy trauma and should be taken into consideration at the initial examination. A second fracture may be easily overlooked because of the high frequency of concomitant severe spinal cord injury in the cranial injured region and/or loss of consciousness due to associated injuries. To avoid overlooking injuries, full spine computed tomography is useful at the initial examination. Operative reduction and internal fixation with instrumentation through a posterior approach is recommendable for cases of NDUSI. In elderly patients, a very rapid stabilizing surgery should be planned before aspiration pneumonia occurs or the pulmonary condition worsens.

  3. Socio-Economic And Psychological Implications Of Burn Injury In ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Burn is a global problem with a magnitude of chains of psychological effects on surviving victims and socio economic implications for the individual, the immediate family and the society at large. This paper seeks to highlight the major consequences of burn injuries in the Nigerian society. There is a growing evidence of ...

  4. Concept of economic readiness levels assessment

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    Yuniaristanto, Sutopo, W.; Widiyanto, A.; Putri, A. S.

    2017-11-01

    This research aims to build a concept of Economic Readiness Level (ERL) assessment for incubation center. ERL concept is arranged by considering both market and business aspects. Every aspect is divided into four phases and each of them consists of some indicators. Analytic Hierarchy Process (AHP) is used to develop the ERL in calculating the weight of every single aspect and indicator. Interval scale between 0 and 4 is also applied in indicator assessment. In order to calculate ERL, score in every indicator and the weight of both the aspect and indicator are considered. ERL value is able to show in detail the innovative product readiness level from economic sight, market and business aspect. There are four levels in Economic Readiness Level scheme which are investigation, feasibility, planning and introduction.

  5. Low-level radwaste engineering economics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jacobs, M.H.; Miller, C.C.; Young, L.G.

    1984-07-01

    This topical report on engineering economics for low-level radwaste systems details the methodologies used for economic analyses of radwaste treatment systems and provides examples of radwaste economic evaluations. All of the parameters and cost items used in an evaluation are defined. Examples of the present-value-of-revenue-requirements method, levelized-revenue-requirements method, and the equivalent-capital-investment method are provided. Also, the calculation to determine the maximum justifiable capital expenditure for a radwaste system is illustrated. The report also provides examples of economic evaluations for many current radwaste treatment options. These options include evaporation versus demineralization, dewatering resins versus solidification of resins, and several volume reduction systems. 15 figures, 6 tables

  6. 13 CFR 123.302 - What is the interest rate on an economic injury disaster loan?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 13 Business Credit and Assistance 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false What is the interest rate on an... ADMINISTRATION DISASTER LOAN PROGRAM Economic Injury Disaster Loans § 123.302 What is the interest rate on an economic injury disaster loan? Your economic injury loan will have an interest rate of 4 percent per annum...

  7. Injuries in Australian school-level rugby union.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leung, Felix T; Franettovich Smith, Melinda M; Hides, Julie A

    2017-11-01

    There is a high incidence of injuries in rugby union due to the physical nature of the game. In youth rugby union, there are large variations in injury rates reported. Our study investigated the rates of injuries in school-level rugby union players in Australia using the consensus statement for rugby union injuries. Injury surveillance was conducted on 480 rugby players from 1 school in Queensland, Australia. Injury data were collected using paper-based injury recording forms during the 8-week rugby season using a "medical-attention" injury definition. In total, 76 players sustained one or more injuries, with a total of 80 injuries recorded. The overall injury rate was 31.8 injuries/1000 match player hours (95% CI, 25.4-39.4). Concussion had an incidence rate of 6.0/1000 match player hours (95% CI, 3.5-9.6). The incidence of upper limb and lower limb injuries were 9.1 and 9.9/1000 match player hours, respectively (95% CI, 5.9-13.5 and 6.6-14.5). The older age divisions had higher injury rates and most injuries occurred while tackling or being tackled. The injury rates observed in this sample of Australian school rugby union players provides direction for future studies to enable informed decisions relating to development of injury prevention programmes at this level of rugby.

  8. Socio Economic Status and Traumatic Brain Injury amongst Pediatric Populations: A Spatial Analysis in Greater Vancouver

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ofer Amram

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Within Canada, injuries are the leading cause of death amongst children fourteen years of age and younger, and also one of the leading causes of morbidity. Low Socio Economic Status (SES seems to be a strong indicator of a higher prevalence of injuries. This study aims to identify hotspots for pediatric Traumatic Brain Injury (TBI and examines the relationship between SES and pediatric TBI rates in greater Vancouver, British Columbia (BC, Canada. Methods: Pediatric TBI data from the BC Trauma Registry (BCTR was used to identify all pediatric TBI patients admitted to BC hospitals between the years 2000 and 2013. Spatial analysis was used to identify hotspots for pediatric TBI. Multivariate analysis was used to distinguish census variables that were correlated with rates of injury. Results: Six hundred and fifty three severe pediatric TBI injuries occurred within the BC Lower Mainland between 2000 and 2013. High rates of injury were concentrated in the East, while low rate clusters were most common in the West of the region (more affluent neighborhoods. A low level of education was the main predictor of a high rate of injury (OR = 1.13, 95% CI = 1.03–1.23, p-Value 0.009. Conclusion: While there was a clear relationship between different SES indicators and pediatric TBI rates in greater Vancouver, income-based SES indicators did not serve as good predictors within this region.

  9. Epidemiology of injuries in Australian school level rugby union.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leung, Felix T; Franettovich Smith, Melinda M; Brown, Mark; Rahmann, Ann; Mendis, M Dilani; Hides, Julie A

    2017-08-01

    There is a high incidence of injuries in rugby union due to the physical nature of the game. There is a lack of large-scale injury surveillance data reported for school level rugby players of different ages. Our study aimed to investigate the frequency and nature of injuries being sustained during an Australian school level rugby union season. Prospective observational study. Injury surveillance was conducted on 3585 rugby players from all 8 schools participating in an interschool rugby competition in Queensland, Australia. Match injury data were collected using paper-based injury recording forms during the season using a 'medical-attention' injury definition for each age group from opens (17 and 18year olds) through to year 5 teams (9-10year olds). There were 332 injuries recorded over 14,029 player hours during the season. The overall rate of injury was 23.7/1000 player hours (95% CI, 21.2-26.3). The incidence of upper and lower limb injuries were 6.3 and 5.6 injuries/1000 player hours respectively (95% CI, 5.1-7.8 and 4.5-7.0). The incidence of suspected concussion injuries was 4.3/1000 player hours (95% CI, 3.6-5.5). Injuries differed across age groups and tackling was the most common mechanism of injury. The injury patterns observed in this large sample of players could be used to guide injury prevention programs in school level rugby union. Injury prevention programs should include age appropriate interventions and focus on improving the techniques used during the contact phase of rugby. Copyright © 2017 Sports Medicine Australia. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Association between economic growth and injury mortality among seniors in Colombia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trujillo, Antonio J; Hyder, Adnan A; Ruiz, Fernando

    2010-12-01

    Injuries among seniors are recognised as an important public health problem not only in developed countries but also in middle-income countries. There is ample epidemiological literature that relates economic growth to the reduction of infectious and childhood diseases. Less evidence exists to document if economic growth alone is enough to reverse the increasing trends of injury mortality and morbidity among seniors in a middle-income country. To investigate the association between economic growth and injury deaths among older people in Colombia. Using data from Colombia, 1979-2006 (n=28), time-series models were used to ascertain if the variation over time in injury mortality among seniors is related to short-term oscillations in economic performance. Four empirical specifications usually used in the analysis of such data were implemented. Models were run by type of injury and gender. A negative but moderate effect of economic growth was found on injury deaths among older people. The reported elasticity was between -0.98 and -1.26. Men benefit from economic growth more than women. Economic growth seems to reduce traffic injuries, suicides and homicides. A positive association was also found between falls and growth in gross domestic product. The results indicate a non-homogeneous association between economic growth and injury deaths among seniors in Colombia. This association is usually stronger in a negative direction among children and younger adults. Although more research is needed to understand the causal relationship between economic growth and injury, the association found may suggest that economic growth may not be sufficient to reverse injury deaths among older people; therefore, additional health policies need to be in place to reduce mortality due to preventable injuries in seniors.

  11. 78 FR 26680 - Military Reservist Economic Injury Disaster Loans; Interest Rate for Third Quarter FY 2013

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-05-07

    ... SMALL BUSINESS ADMINISTRATION Military Reservist Economic Injury Disaster Loans; Interest Rate for Third Quarter FY 2013 In accordance with the Code of Federal Regulations 13--Business Credit and Assistance Sec. 123.512, the following interest rate is effective for Military Reservist Economic Injury...

  12. 78 FR 5555 - Military Reservist Economic Injury Disaster Loans; Interest Rate for Second Quarter FY 2013

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-25

    ... SMALL BUSINESS ADMINISTRATION Military Reservist Economic Injury Disaster Loans; Interest Rate for Second Quarter FY 2013 In accordance with the Code of Federal Regulations 13--Business Credit and Assistance Sec. 123.512, the following interest rate is effective for Military Reservist Economic Injury...

  13. 78 FR 65416 - Military Reservist Economic Injury Disaster Loans Interest Rate for First Quarter FY 2014

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-10-31

    ... SMALL BUSINESS ADMINISTRATION Military Reservist Economic Injury Disaster Loans Interest Rate for First Quarter FY 2014 In accordance with the Code of Federal Regulations 13--Business Credit and Assistance Sec. 123.512, the following interest rate is effective for Military Reservist Economic Injury...

  14. 77 FR 71668 - Military Reservist Economic Injury Disaster Loans; Interest Rate for First Quarter FY 2013

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-12-03

    ... SMALL BUSINESS ADMINISTRATION Military Reservist Economic Injury Disaster Loans; Interest Rate for First Quarter FY 2013 In accordance with the Code of Federal Regulations 13--Business Credit and Assistance Sec. 123.512, the following interest rate is effective for Military Reservist Economic Injury...

  15. 77 FR 4854 - Military Reservist Economic Injury Disaster Loans; Interest Rate for Second Quarter FY 2012

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-31

    ... SMALL BUSINESS ADMINISTRATION Military Reservist Economic Injury Disaster Loans; Interest Rate for Second Quarter FY 2012 In accordance with the Code of Federal Regulations 13--Business Credit and Assistance Sec. 123.512, the following interest rate is effective for Military Reservist Economic Injury...

  16. 77 FR 25010 - Military Reservist Economic Injury Disaster Loans Interest Rate for Third Quarter FY 2012

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-04-26

    ... SMALL BUSINESS ADMINISTRATION Military Reservist Economic Injury Disaster Loans Interest Rate for Third Quarter FY 2012 In accordance with the Code of Federal Regulations 13--Business Credit and Assistance Sec. 123.512, the following interest rate is effective for Military Reservist Economic Injury...

  17. 77 FR 46550 - Military Reservist Economic Injury Disaster Loans; Interest Rate for Fourth Quarter FY 2012

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-08-03

    ... SMALL BUSINESS ADMINISTRATION Military Reservist Economic Injury Disaster Loans; Interest Rate for Fourth Quarter FY 2012 In accordance with the Code of Federal Regulations 13--Business Credit and Assistance Sec. 123.512, the following interest rate is effective for Military Reservist Economic Injury...

  18. 76 FR 66769 - Military Reservist Economic Injury Disaster Loans; Interest Rate for First Quarter FY 2012

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-10-27

    ... SMALL BUSINESS ADMINISTRATION Military Reservist Economic Injury Disaster Loans; Interest Rate for First Quarter FY 2012 In accordance with the Code of Federal Regulations 13--Business Credit and Assistance Sec. 123.512, the following interest rate is effective for Military Reservist Economic Injury...

  19. 78 FR 45283 - Military Reservist Economic Injury Disaster Loans Interest Rate for Fourth Quarter FY 2013

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-07-26

    ... SMALL BUSINESS ADMINISTRATION Military Reservist Economic Injury Disaster Loans Interest Rate for Fourth Quarter FY 2013 In accordance with the Code of Federal Regulations 13--Business Credit and Assistance Sec. 123.512, the following interest rate is effective for Military Reservist Economic Injury...

  20. 76 FR 44976 - Military Reservist Economic Injury Disaster Loans; Interest Rate for Fourth Quarter FY 2011

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-07-27

    ... SMALL BUSINESS ADMINISTRATION Military Reservist Economic Injury Disaster Loans; Interest Rate for Fourth Quarter FY 2011 In accordance with the Code of Federal Regulations 13--Business Credit and Assistance Sec. 123.512, the following interest rate is effective for Military Reservist Economic Injury...

  1. APPROACHING THE ECONOMIC COSTS ASSESSMENT OF OCCUPATIONAL INJURIES AND DISEASES: PRINCIPLES, CONCEPTS AND STRUCTURE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ROLAND IOSIF MORARU

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Occupational Health and Safety management is more and more strongly related to the costs of occupational injuries and illnesses, as a top priority in most companies. The present article presents a synthesis of authors’ attempts to identify the elements which should be taken into account in determining the cost of occupational injuries and diseases at the national level, with a focus on basic influence factors. Our aim is to help companies managers to emphasize the economic costs of not improving workplace safety and health – to employers, to workers and to society as a whole – and to inform decision-makers on further developments to be considered in the occupational risk management processes.

  2. Community-level football injury epidemiology: traumatic injuries treated at Swedish emergency medical facilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Timpka, Toomas; Schyllander, Jan; Stark Ekman, Diana; Ekman, Robert; Dahlström, Örjan; Hägglund, Martin; Kristenson, Karolina; Jacobsson, Jenny

    2018-02-01

    Despite the popularity of the sport, few studies have investigated community-level football injury patterns. This study examines football injuries treated at emergency medical facilities using data from three Swedish counties. An open-cohort design was used based on residents aged 0-59 years in three Swedish counties (pop. 645 520). Data were collected from emergency medical facilities in the study counties between 1 January 2007 and 31 December 2010. Injury frequencies and proportions for age groups stratified by sex were calculated with 95% confidence intervals (95% CIs) and displayed per diagnostic group and body location. Each year, more than 1/200 person aged 0-59 years sustained at least one injury during football play that required emergency medical care. The highest injury incidence was observed among adolescent boys [2009 injuries per 100 000 population years (95% CI 1914-2108)] and adolescent girls [1413 injuries per 100 000 population years (95% CI 1333-1498)]. For female adolescents and adults, knee joint/ligament injury was the outstanding injury type (20% in ages 13-17 years and 34% in ages 18-29 years). For children aged 7-12 years, more than half of the treated injuries involved the upper extremity; fractures constituted about one-third of these injuries. One of every 200 residents aged 0-59 years in typical Swedish counties each year sustained a traumatic football injury that required treatment in emergency healthcare. Further research on community-level patterns of overuse syndromes sustained by participation in football play is warranted. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the European Public Health Association. All rights reserved.

  3. Muscle injury is the principal injury type and hamstring muscle injury is the first injury diagnosis during top-level international athletics championships between 2007 and 2015.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edouard, Pascal; Branco, Pedro; Alonso, Juan-Manuel

    2016-05-01

    During top-level international athletics championships, muscle injuries are frequent. To analyse the incidence and characteristics of muscle injuries and hamstring muscle injuries (hamstring injuries) occurring during top-level international athletics championships. During 16 international championships held between 2007 and 2015, national medical team and local organising committee physicians reported daily all injuries on a standardised injury report form. Only muscle injuries (muscle tears and muscle cramps) and hamstring injuries have been analysed. 40.9% of all recorded injuries (n=720) were muscle injuries, with 57.5% of them resulting in time loss. The overall incidence of muscle injuries was higher in male athletes than female athletes (51.9±6.0 vs 30.3±5.0 injuries per 1000 registered athletes, respectively; RR=1.71; 95% CI 1.45 to 2.01). Muscle injuries mainly affected the thigh (52.9%) and lower leg (20.1%), and were mostly caused by overuse with sudden onset (38.2%) and non-contact trauma (24.6%). Muscle injury risk varied according to the event groups. Hamstring injuries represented 17.1% of all injuries, with a higher risk in male compared to female athletes (22.4±3.4 vs 11.5±2.6 injuries per 1000 registered athletes, respectively; RR=1.94; 95% CI 1.42 to 2.66). During international athletics championships, muscle injury is the principal type of injury, and among those, the hamstring is the most commonly affected, with a two times higher risk in male than female athletes. Athletes in explosive power events, male athletes and older male athletes, in specific were more at risk of muscle injuries and hamstring injuries. Injury prevention strategies should be sex-specific. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/

  4. Influence Factors of the Economic Development Level Across European Countries

    OpenAIRE

    Diana Ioana POPA

    2016-01-01

    The economic development level of a country refers to the measure of the progress in an economy that could be measured, especially through GDP or GDP per capita. The level of these indicators can be influenced by many factors as a large scale, from social and economical to environmental and government policies factors. The paper aims to investigate some of these influence factors of the economic development level, represented in this case by GDP per capita, across European countries in the...

  5. Care-Seeking Patterns and Direct Economic Burden of Injuries in Bangladesh.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alfonso, Natalia Y; Alonge, Olakunle; Hoque, Dewan Md Emdadul; Baset, Kamran Ul; Hyder, Adnan A; Bishai, David

    2017-04-29

    This study provides a comprehensive review of the care-seeking patterns and direct economic burden of injuries from the victims' perspective in rural Bangladesh using a 2013 household survey covering 1.17 million people. Descriptive statistics and bivariate analyses were used to derive rates and test the association between variables. An analytic model was used to estimate total injury out-of-pocket (OOP) payments and a multivariate probit regression model assessed the relationship between financial distress and injury type. Results show non-fatal injuries occur to 1 in 5 people in our sample per year. With average household size of 4.5 in Bangladesh--every household has an injury every year. Most non-fatally injured patients sought healthcare from drug sellers. Less than half of fatal injuries sought healthcare and half of those with care were hospitalized. Average OOP payments varied significantly (range: $8-$830) by injury type and outcome (fatal vs. non-fatal). Total injury OOP expenditure was $$355,795 and $5000 for non-fatal and fatal injuries, respectively, per 100,000 people. The majority of household heads with injuries reported financial distress. This study can inform injury prevention advocates on disparities in healthcare usage, OOP costs and financial distress. Reallocation of resources to the most at risk populations can accelerate reduction of preventable injuries and prevent injury related catastrophic payments and impoverishment.

  6. Alcohol-related hand injuries: an unnecessary social and economic cost.

    OpenAIRE

    Marston, R. A.

    1992-01-01

    Severe hand injuries constitute the largest number of acute referrals to this plastic surgery unit, the admission of these patients often displacing routine admissions due to bed shortages, thus increasing waiting list time. This study showed that a high percentage of these injuries were alcohol-related and were therefore preventable. The economic cost to the unit is discussed.

  7. Association of Socio-economic Status with Injuries in Children Andadolescents:the CASPIAN-IV Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roya Kelishadi

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Background:Childhood and adolescence injuries are still frequently occuring in developing countries. This study aims to assess the association  of socio-economic status (SES with injuriesin Iranian children and adolescents. Materials and Methods: This multicentricsurvey was part of a national surveillance program, which was conducted in 2011-2012 amongst 14,880 students aged6-18 years. Participants were randomly selected from urban and rural areas of 30 provinces in Iran. Socio- economic status (SES of participants was categorized to “low”, “middle” ,and “high” by using principle component analysis method by considering parental job and education as well as family assets. Prevalence, types and places of injuries were based on the questionnaire of the World Health Organization- Global School-based student Health Survey (WHO-GSHS.Multivariate modelwas used for comparison of variables between SES groups. Results: Overall, 13486 out of 14880 invited students (response rate: 90.6% participated in this study.Their mean (SD age was12.47 (3.36 years.Boys and urban residents constituted the majority of participants (50.8% and 75.6%, respectively. Compared with low SES group, oddsof sport injury was higher in students with middle (OR=1.44; 95%CI: 0.92-2.26 and highSES (OR=1.96; 95%CI: 1.27-3.01. Compared to participants withlow SES,odds of home injuries was significantly lower in high SES group (OR=0.78; 95%CI: 0.64-0.95. Conclusion: This study revealedconsiderable differences in injuries of children and adolescents according to their SES, with higher prevalence of home injuries in low SES families and higher prevalence of sport injuries in middle and high SES levels. When implementing injury prevention programs, such differences should be taken into account.

  8. Níveis econômicos de prejuízos de plantas infestantes nas culturas agrícolas: conceitos, definições e formas de cálculo Economic levels of weed injury on crops: concepts, definitions and calculation models

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J.M. Portugal

    2009-01-01

    weed injury used in weed science; to consolidate the acronyms used for these terms in the Portuguese language, to provide the names that have correspondence in French and English, to indicate the scientific questions that the terms imply, and to present the forms of calculation that can be used for each level defined. The terms studied in this review were: critical density, economic injury level, economic threshold, level of tolerance, and level of security attack. The forms of calculation of economic threshold in the case of infestation with a single plant species are derived from linear, hyperbolic, multiple linear and multiple non-linear models; for cases of infestation involving more than one plant species, these forms are derived from multiple linear equation between weed density and crop yield.

  9. [A study on incidence of injury and its socio-economic loss in children and young adults].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, S; Guo, C; Zhang, G; Lu, G; Li, L; Lin, H; Fan, C; Huang, G; Zhou, C; Lu, Y

    2000-07-01

    To study the current status of incidence of injury among children and young adults and the causes of common injuries, and to estimate its socio-economic loss and extent of harmfulness. Pupils in 19 primary and middle schools aged 7 to 18 years, totaling 14,533, were recruited with stratified cluster sampling during 1998 to 1999 in Guangzhou, Maoming, Jiangmen and Shantou. Judgement for injury was based on the following criteria: (1) diagnosed and treated in hospitals or school clinics, (2) a half-day off or more due to injury, and (3) emergency management by pupils' parents or teachers. There were 6 941 pupils suffered from varied injures during the year, with an incidence rate of 47.76% (50.08% for boys and 45.02% for girls). Incidence rate of injury was higher in the middle school pupils (13 - 18 years old, 58.49%) than that in the primary school pupils (7 - 12 years old, 40.08%). The incidence increased significantly with age, with a peak at ages of 13 - 15. Major causes of injuries resulted from falls, injury by sharp articles, collision, traffic injuries and burn/scalds, etc, which usually occurred due to carelessness in sports, playing, walking, bike-riding and working. Frequency of multiple injuries related to the educational level of parents and depended on whether or not an only-child in family. There were 2,173 injured pupils (accounting for 31.3% of the total) visited clinics or emergency department in hospitals and 627 (9.0%) hospitalized for treatment. Twenty-eight percent of the injured pupils were absent from school, with an average absenteeism of 5.6 days. There were 154 injured pupils with transient disability and 53 with permanent disability, with a disability rate of 410.47 per 100,000. Cost for their medical care averaged 81.5 yuan RMB per injured pupil. Injury was a common and frequently-happened incident among children and young adults and could seriously affect their health, development and growth, studying and their future of children and

  10. Reassessing the Economic Value of Advanced Level Mathematics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adkins, Michael; Noyes, Andrew

    2016-01-01

    In the late 1990s, the economic return to Advanced level (A-level) mathematics was examined. The analysis was based upon a series of log-linear models of earnings in the 1958 National Child Development Survey (NCDS) and the National Survey of 1980 Graduates and Diplomates. The core finding was that A-level mathematics had a unique earnings premium…

  11. Mathematical model comparing of the multi-level economics systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brykalov, S. M.; Kryanev, A. V.

    2017-12-01

    The mathematical model (scheme) of a multi-level comparison of the economic system, characterized by the system of indices, is worked out. In the mathematical model of the multi-level comparison of the economic systems, the indicators of peer review and forecasting of the economic system under consideration can be used. The model can take into account the uncertainty in the estimated values of the parameters or expert estimations. The model uses the multi-criteria approach based on the Pareto solutions.

  12. Economic Impact of Combat Related Injuries from the Wars in Iraq and Afghanistan

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-04-01

    study the effects of alterative field and transport treatment protocols on the course and outcomes of moderate to severe traumatic brain injury. Study...Security Administration earnings databases, plus diagnosis-specific civilian data on missing cost factors. We will use case-control studies to better...protocols on the course and outcomes of moderate to severe traumatic brain injury This project’s purpose is to (1) estimate the economic impact of

  13. Economic Impact of Combat-Related Injuries from the Wars in Iraq and Afghanistan

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-04-01

    study the effects of alterative field and transport treatment protocols on the course and outcomes of moderate to severe traumatic brain injury. Study...Security Administration earnings databases, plus diagnosis-specific civilian data on missing cost factors. We will use case-control studies to better...protocols on the course and outcomes of moderate to severe traumatic brain injury This project’s purpose is to (1) estimate the economic impact of

  14. Safe communities in China as a strategy for injury prevention and safety promotion programmes in the era of rapid economic growth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Shu-Mei; Dalal, Koustuv

    2013-02-01

    Due to its rapid economic development, China is facing a huge health, social, and economic burden resulting from injuries. The study's objective was to examine Safe Communities in China as a strategy for injury prevention and safety promotion programmes in the era of rapid economic growth. Literature searches in English and Chinese, which included grey literature, were performed on the Chinese Journal Full-text Search System and Medline, using the words "Safe Community", "injury", "economics", and "prevention". The results showed that the existing 35 recognized members of the International Safe Community Network have not placed due emphasis on suicide prevention, which is one of the leading problems in both rural and urban China. A few groups, such as children, the elderly, cyclists, and pedestrians, have received due emphasis, while other vulnerable groups, such as migrant workers, motorcyclists, students, players, and farmers have not received the necessary attention from the Safe Community perspective. As the evidence describes, Safe Communities in China can be a very effective strategy for injury prevention, but four aspects need to be strengthened in the future: (1) establish and strengthen the policy and regulations in terms of injury prevention at the national level; (2) create a system to involve professional organizations and personnel in projects; (3) consider the economic development status of different parts of China; and (4) intentional injury prevention should receive greater attention.

  15. CAUSES OF INJURIES AT THREE LEVELS IN COMPETITIVE FOOTBALL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sinku Kumar Singh

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available The present study deals with comparison of causes of injuries among three groups of competitive footballers. Accordingly three groups of footballers were targeted. International, National and State groups footballers aged between 14 to 30 years. The data was collected with the help of questionnaires prepared by Cromwell, F.J. Walsh Gromley for Elite Gaelic footballers (2000 and it was modified by the investigator and utilized. In this study total 300 hundred players were targeted ; of which 100 footballers of each group. Total 318 injuries out of 300 hundred footballers were found out over the one year period; 125 injuries out of 84 footballers were found in international group footballers. 108 injuries out of 82 footballers were found in national group and 85 injuries out of 78 footballers were found in State group. The mean (SDs age of International group to State group footballers were 21.25 (7.08, 23.33 (7.78 and 19.91 (6.29 in years respectively. Their weight were 58.35 (18.45, 58.23 (19.01, and 53.99 (17.33 kg. respectively, their height were 167.33 (55.33, 166.09 (55.10 and 164.87 (54.66 cm. respectively, their training were 4.61 (1.47, 4.31 (1.43, and 4.10 (1.33 days in a week respectively, their training durations were 2.74 (.58, 2.34 (.78, and 1.99 (.66 hours respectively, their warm-up were 28.53 (9.33, 36.05 (11.05 and 22.8 (7.8 minutes respectively, and competition was 8.67 (2.81, 8.68 (2.78, and 6.58 (2.11 in one year respectively. The results revealed that only significant difference of occurrence of injuries was found (F=3.65, P <.05 in foul play. International group footballers were found to have got more occurrences of injuries as compared to the state group footballers. The study suggest that their was no fair play at high level competition. However, no significant difference of occurrence of injuries were observed among three groups of competitive footballers with respect to causes like collision, running, contact with ball

  16. Hospital burden of road traffic injury: major concern in primary and secondary level hospitals in Bangladesh.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mashreky, S R; Rahman, A; Khan, T F; Faruque, M; Svanström, L; Rahman, F

    2010-04-01

    To assess the burden of road traffic injury (RTI) in primary and secondary level hospitals in Bangladesh, and its economic impact on affected families. Cross-sectional study. The study was carried out in February and March 2001. To estimate the burden of RTI patients and the length of stay in hospital, the discharge records of primary and secondary level hospitals were used as data sources. Records from 16 district hospitals and 45 Upazila health complexes (subdistrict level hospitals), selected at random, were included in this study. A direct interview method was adopted to estimate the patient costs of RTI; this involved interviewing patients or their attendants. In this study, patient costs included money spent by the patient for medicine, transport, food and lodging (including attendants). Approximately 33% of the beds in primary and secondary level hospitals in Bangladesh were occupied by injury-related patients, and more than 19% of the injury patients had been injured in a road traffic accident. People aged 18-45 years were the major victims of RTI, and constituted 70% of the total RTI-related admissions in primary and secondary level hospitals. More than two-thirds of RTI patients were male. The average duration of hospital stay was 5.7 days, and the average patient cost for each RTI patient was US$86 (5834 BDT). RTI is a major cause of hospital admission in Bangladesh, and represents an economic and social burden for the family and the nation. A national strategy and road safety programme need to be developed to reduce the hospital burden and minimize the economic and social impact. 2010 The Royal Society for Public Health. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. The Health Economics of the spinal cord injury or disease among veterans of war: A systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Furlan, Julio C; Gulasingam, Sivakumar; Craven, B Catharine

    2017-11-01

    Information on health-care utilization and the economic burden of disease are essential to understanding service demands, service accessibility, and practice patterns. This information may also be used to enhance the quality of care through altered resource allocation. Thus, a systematic review of literature on the economic impact of caring for SCI/D veterans would be of great value. To systematically review and critically appraise the literature on the economics of the management of veterans with SCI/D. Medline, EMBASE and PsycINFO databases were searched for articles on economic impact of management of SCI/D veterans, published from 1946 to September/2016. The STROBE statement was used to determine publication quality. The search identified 1,573 publications of which 13 articles fulfilled the inclusion/exclusion criteria with 12 articles focused on costs of management of SCI/D veterans; and, one cost-effectiveness analysis. Overall, the health care costs for the management of SCI/D veterans are substantial ($30,770 to $62,563 in 2016 USD per year) and, generally, greater than the costs of caring for patients with other chronic diseases. The most significant determinants of the higher total health-care costs are cervical level injury, complete injury, time period (i.e. first year post-injury and end-of-life year), and presence of pressure ulcers. There is growing evidence for the economic burden of SCI/D and its determinants among veterans, whereas there is a paucity of comparative studies on interventions including cost-effectiveness analyses. Further investigations are needed to fulfill significant knowledge gaps on the economics of caring for veterans with SCI/D.

  18. [Occupational injury in foreign workers by economic activity and autonomous community (Spain 2005)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    López-Jacob, Ma José; Ahonen, Emily; García, Ana M; Gil, Angel; Benavides, Fernando G

    2008-01-01

    While the immigrant collective in Spain has grown considerably in recent years, little is known about working conditions and their corresponding effects on occupational injury in this group. The objective of this study was to compare the incidences for both fatal and non-fatal injuries in foreign workers to that of Spanish workers in 2005, by autonomous community and economic activity. injury data came from the accident registry of the ministry of labor and social issues, and denominators were taken from available social security affiliation statistics from general and coal mining social security system. Incidence indices for fatal and non-fatal occupational injuries for foreign and spanish workers were calculated. In addition, relative risks and their 95% confidence intervals (95% CI) were calculated by autonomous community and economic activity, using spanish workers as the reference group. Overall, relative risk for occupational injury in foreign workers in 2005 was superior to base risk for both fatal (1.34; 95% CI: 1.11-1.62) and non-fatal injury (1.13; 95% CI: 1.13-1.14), though there were important differences by autonomous community and activity sectors. Compared with Spanish workers, risk for occupational injury was higher for foreign workers in industrial activities, while it was lower in construction, commerce and restaurants and hotels. By autonomous community, Aragón and Catalonia showed the highest risks for foreign workers. A higher risk for occupational injury among foreign workers is confirmed, and may be higher than that observed. The differences in risk among economic activities and autonomous communities require more detailed analysis.

  19. Individual-level predictors of inpatient childhood burn injuries: a case–control study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Homayoun Sadeghi-Bazargani

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Burn injuries are considered one of the most preventable public health issue among children; however, are a cause of significant morbidity and mortality in Iran. The aim of this study was to assess individual-level predictors of severe burn injuries among children leading to hospitalization, in East Azerbaijan Province, in North-West of Iran. Methods The study was conducted through a hospital based case–control design involving 281 burn victims and 273 hospital-based controls who were frequency matched on age, gender and urbanity. Both bivariate and multivariate methods were used to analyze the data. Results Mean age of the participants was 40.5 months (95 % CI: 37–44 with the majority of burns occurring at ages between 2 months-13.9 years. It was demonstrated that with increase in the caregiver’s age there was a decrease in the odds of burn injuries (OR = 0.94, 95 % CI: 0.92-0.97. According to the multivariate logistic regression there were independent factors associated with burn injuries including childhood ADHD (OR = 2.82, 95 % CI: 1.68 - 4.76, child’s age (OR = 0.73, 95%CI: 0.67 - 0.80, flammability of clothing (OR = 1.60, 95 % CI: 1.12 - 2.28, daily length of watching television (OR = 1.31, 95 % CI: 1.06 - 1.61, playing outdoors (OR = 1.32, 95 % CI: 1.16 - 1.50 and increment in the economic status (OR = 1.37, 95 % CI: 1.18 - 1.60. Conclusion Major risk predictors of burn injuries among the Iranian population included childhood ADHD, child’s age, watching television, playing outdoors, high economic status and flammable clothing.

  20. 75 FR 65696 - Ohio Disaster #OH-00025 Declaration of Economic Injury

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-26

    ... Counties: Auglaize, Mercer. Contiguous Counties: Ohio: Allen, Darke, Hardin, Logan, Shelby, Van Wert... SMALL BUSINESS ADMINISTRATION [Disaster Declaration 12359] Ohio Disaster OH-00025 Declaration of... Economic Injury Disaster Loan (EIDL) declaration for the State of Ohio, dated 10/19/2010. Incident: Toxic...

  1. 78 FR 44186 - Colorado Disaster # CO-00058 Declaration of Economic Injury

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-07-23

    ... SMALL BUSINESS ADMINISTRATION [Disaster Declaration 13662] Colorado Disaster CO-00058 Declaration... notice of an Economic Injury Disaster Loan (EIDL) declaration for the State of Colorado, dated 07/15/2013... areas have been determined to be adversely affected by the disaster: Primary Counties: Hinsdale, Mineral...

  2. 13 CFR 123.603 - What is the interest rate on an economic injury disaster loan under this subpart?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 13 Business Credit and Assistance 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false What is the interest rate on an... September 11, 2001 Terrorist Attacks § 123.603 What is the interest rate on an economic injury disaster loan under this subpart? Your economic injury disaster loan under this subpart will have an interest rate of...

  3. 75 FR 62439 - The Entire United States and U.S. Territories; Military Reservist Economic Injury Disaster Loan

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-08

    ... States and U.S. Territories; Military Reservist Economic Injury Disaster Loan AGENCY: U.S. Small Business Administration. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: This is a notice of the Military Reservist Economic Injury Disaster Loan... Date: 1 year after the essential employees is discharged or released from active duty. ADDRESSES...

  4. Socio–economic benefits and pollution levels of water resources ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Communities are dependent on wetlands resources for income generation. However, anthropogenic activities that result into pollution of water are one of the major public health problems. Assessment of socio–economic activities and pollution levels of domestic water sources in Gulu Municipality, Pece wetland was done.

  5. Economic Literacy Levels of Social Studies Teacher Candidates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akhan, Nadire Emel

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to determine the levels of economic literacy--an important component of being a good citizen--among seniors studying at social studies teacher program which aims at cultivating good citizens and to find out its relationships in terms of various variables. The quantitative sample of the study was comprised of 726 senior…

  6. Nascent Entrepreneurship and the Level of Economic Development

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    A.R.M. Wennekers (Sander); A.J. van Stel (André); A.R. Thurik (Roy); P. Reynolds (Paul)

    2005-01-01

    textabstractBased upon two strands of literature, this paper hypothesizes a U-shaped relationship between a country’s rate of entrepreneurial dynamics and its level of economic development. This would imply a different scope for entrepreneurship policy across subsequent stages of development.

  7. A booming economy means a bursting trauma system: association between hospital admission for major injury and indicators of economic activity in a large Canadian health region.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roberts, Derek J; Das, Debanjana; Mercado, Michelle; Vis, Christine; Kortbeek, John B; Kirkpatrick, Andrew W; Ball, Chad G

    2014-05-01

    Injury epidemiology fluctuates with economic activity in many countries. These relationships remain unclear in Canada. The annual risk of admission for major injury (Injury Severity Score ≥12) to a high-volume, level-1 Canadian trauma center was compared with indicators of economic activity over a 16-year period using linear regression. An increased risk of injured patient admissions was associated with rising mean gross domestic product (GDP [millions of chained 2002 dollars]) (.36 person increase per 100,000 population/$1,000 increase in GDP; P = .001) and annual gasoline prices (.47 person increase per 100,000 population/cent increase in gasoline price; P = .001). Recreation-related vehicle injuries were also associated with economic affluence. The risk of trauma patient mortality with increasing mean annual GDP (P = .72) and gasoline prices (P = .32) remained unchanged. Hospital admissions for major injury, but not trauma patient mortality, were associated with economic activity in a large Canadian health care region. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Low-level waste injury: liability, insurance, and indemnification

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Merz, J.F.

    1986-01-01

    It would be worth developing compatible policies to address the issues involving third-party liabilities which remain unanswered before the different states and interstate compact agreements implementing the Low Level Radioactive Waste Policy Act develop a range of approaches. A plan that draws resources from a number of states would have economic and technological benefits, and could help ensure public confidence in the management of low level radioactive wastes. Interstate cooperation and coordination to produce such a plan would benefit from a Congressional mandate. An appendix arranged alphabetically by state illustrates the range of immunity/waiver, insurance, and limits that already exist

  9. ENTREPRENEURSHIP IN TERMS OF THE LEVEL OF ECONOMIC COMPETITIVENESS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elena Mihaela ILIESCU

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Considering that from a qualitative point of view, human activity in general, has recorded a significant leap along with the debut of entrepreneurial activities, from the “creative destruction” perspective through competition of Joseph Scumpeter until present, entrepreneurial theory and practice reveals a generally accepted point of view: entrepreneurship, regardless of the form under which it is carried out, represents the engine for the market economy system, the determining factor of competitiveness growth and sustainable economic growth. Once aware of the positive impact it has on the economy and society, entrepreneurship has and is being promoted at a national level, European and global by creating, coordinating and implementing a strategic framework, legislative and financially favorable. However, the socio-economic data analysis shows that, economies having an analog development level, record different entrepreneurial rates, that similar entrepreneurial activities have a different impact on economic development or that, as the economies record a higher development level, the interest for initiating new businesses declines. From this perspective, the purpose of this paper is to underline and promote the entrepreneurship’s role as a fundamental source for increasing growth potential and national and regional development in the long term, and to highlight, based on empirical data, the interdependency, the qualitative and quantitative correlation between the entrepreneurial rate and the competitiveness level of a country.

  10. Influence Factors of the Economic Development Level Across European Countries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diana Ioana POPA

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The economic development level of a country refers to the measure of the progress in an economy that could be measured, especially through GDP or GDP per capita. The level of these indicators can be influenced by many factors as a large scale, from social and economical to environmental and government policies factors. The paper aims to investigate some of these influence factors of the economic development level, represented in this case by GDP per capita, across European countries in the context of the most recently crisis, named the Great Recession (2008 and after, when the economies are starting to recover (2013. Using linear regression in R (lm function, the goal is to explain the relationship between the interest variable (GDP per capita and certain independent variables. It is expected that even tough the estimators are to be different – as level – in both cases studied, the relationship type between them to be the same. The goodness of fit for the models used will be made based on ANOVA.

  11. Injuries of the Medial Clavicle: A Cohort Analysis in a Level-I-Trauma-Center. Concomitant Injuries. Management. Classification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bakir, Mustafa Sinan; Merschin, David; Unterkofler, Jan; Guembel, Denis; Langenbach, Andreas; Ekkernkamp, Axel; Schulz-Drost, Stefan

    2017-01-01

    Introduction: Although shoulder girdle injuries are frequent, those of the medial clavicle are widely unexplored. An applied classification is less used just as a standard management. Methods: A retrospective analysis of medial clavicle injuries (MCI) during a 5-year-term in a Level-1-Trauma-Center. We analyzed amongst others concomitant injuries, therapy strategies and the classification following the AO standards. Results: 19 (2.5%) out of 759 clavicula injuries were medial ones (11 A, 6 B and 2 C-Type fractures) thereunder 27,8% were displaced and thus operatively treated Locked plate osteosynthesis was employed in unstable fractures and a reconstruction of the ligaments at the sternoclavicular joint (SCJ) in case of their disruption. 84,2% of the patients sustained relevant concomitant injuries. Numerous midshaft fractures were miscoded as medial fracture, which limited the study population. Conclusions: MCI resulted from high impact mechanisms of injury, often with relevant dislocation and concomitant injuries. Concerning medial injury's complexity, treatment should occur in specialized hospitals. Unstable fractures and injuries of the SCJ ligaments should be considered for operative treatment. Midshaft fractures should be clearly distinguished from the medial ones in ICD-10-coding. Further studies are required also regarding a subtyping of the AO classification for medial clavicle fractures including ligamental injuries. Celsius.

  12. Dental injuries in inline skating - level of information and prevention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fasciglione, Daniele; Persic, Robert; Pohl, Yango; Filippi, Andreas

    2007-06-01

    Inline skating belongs like ice hockey, rugby, and boxing to sporting activities with high-risk of suffering tooth accidents. Because of high velocity and loss of balance, especially on uneven ground, the injury potential in inline skating is higher. The objective of this work was to conduct a comparative study between Switzerland and Germany. The questions focussed on the frequency of tooth accidents, their prevention by mouthguard and the level of information about emergency measures after dental trauma and the resulting consequences for athletes. Using a standardized questionnaire totally 612 individuals, 324 men and 288 women, in two countries belonging to three different divisions (fun, fitness and speed) were surveyed. Fifty-six (9.2%) of these 612 interviewees have already experienced a tooth injury while inline skating. More than half of all interviewed players (68.3%) were aware of the possibility of replanting avulsed teeth. Only 32.4% were familiar with the tooth rescue kit. Just 65.4% knew mouthguard and only 1.9% of those athletes (n = 12) wore a mouthguard while inline skating. The results show that the area of inline skating requires more information about preventing dental trauma through sports associations and dentists.

  13. Estimates of the Economic Effects of Sea Level Rise

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Darwin, R.F.; Tol, R.S.J.

    2001-01-01

    Regional estimates of direct cost (DC) are commonly used to measure the economic damages of sea level rise. Such estimates suffer from three limitations: (1) values of threatened endowments are not well known, (2) loss of endowments does not affect consumer prices, and (3) international trade is disregarded. Results in this paper indicate that these limitations can significantly affect economic assessments of sea level rise. Current uncertainty regarding endowment values (as reflected in two alternative data sets), for example, leads to a 17 percent difference in coastal protection, a 36 percent difference in the amount of land protected, and a 36 percent difference in DC globally. Also, global losses in equivalent variation (EV), a welfare measure that accounts for price changes, are 13 percent higher than DC estimates. Regional EV losses may be up to 10 percent lower than regional DC, however, because international trade tends to redistribute losses from regions with relatively high damages to regions with relatively low damages. 43 refs

  14. Serum Albumin Levels and Economic Status in Japanese Older Adults.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Asami Ota

    Full Text Available Low serum albumin levels are associated with aging and medical conditions such as cancer, liver dysfunction, inflammation, and malnutrition and might be an independent predictor of long-term mortality in healthy older populations. We tested the hypothesis that economic status is associated with serum albumin levels and explained by nutritional and health status in Japanese older adults.We performed a cross-sectional analysis using data from the Japan Gerontological Evaluation study (JAGES. The study participants were 6528 functionally independent residents (3189 men and 3339 women aged ≥65 years living in four municipalities in Aichi prefecture. We used household income as an indicator of economic status. Multiple linear regression was used to compare serum albumin levels in relation to household income, which was classified as low, middle, and high. Additionally, mediation by nutritional and health-related factors was analyzed in multivariable models.With the middle-income group as reference, participants with low incomes had a significantly lower serum albumin level, even after adjustment for sex, age, residential area, education, marital status, and household structure. The estimated mean difference was -0.17 g/L (95% confidence interval, -0.33 to -0.01 g/L. The relation between serum albumin level and low income became statistically insignificant when "body mass index", "consumption of meat or fish", "self-rated health", "presence of medical conditions", "hyperlipidemia", or "respiratory disease "was included in the model.Serum albumin levels were lower in Japanese older adults with low economic status. The decrease in albumin levels appears to be mediated by nutrition and health-related factors with low household incomes. Future studies are needed to reveal the existence of other pathways.

  15. Expanding pedestrian injury risk to the body region level: how to model passive safety systems in pedestrian injury risk functions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niebuhr, Tobias; Junge, Mirko; Achmus, Stefanie

    2015-01-01

    decomposable into the 3 body regions and so are the risk functions as body region-specific risk functions. The risk functions for each body region are stated explicitly for different injury severity levels and compared to the real-world accident data. The body region-specific risk functions can then be used to model the effect of improved passive safety systems. These modified body region-specific injury risk functions are aggregated to a new pedestrian injury risk function. Passive safety systems can therefore be modeled in injury risk functions for the first time. A short example on how the results can be used for assessing the effectiveness of new driver assistance systems concludes the article.

  16. Occupational injury and illness meet the labor market: lessons from labor economics about lost earnings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boden, Leslie I

    2006-09-01

    Recent labor economics studies in the United States and Canada have demonstrated that occupational injuries and illnesses often lead to substantial lost earnings for workers and their families. Other studies have shown substantial long-term lost earnings attributable to large-scale layoffs, where no health impairment has taken place. This article uses evidence from these and other studies of apparently different situations to draw inferences about how managers' actions and public policy choices can affect the costs of occupational injuries and illnesses. Although primary prevention remains the policy of choice, reduction in the impact of workplace injuries and illnesses can decrease the costs of these events and can provide substantial benefits. This article proposes two hypotheses and discusses the evidence for each: (a) Loss of the job held at the onset of illness or injury increases time off work and exacerbates workers' lost earnings. (b) Workers' losses may be substantially reduced by policies that encourage employers to rehire people recovering from or disabled by workplace injuries and illnesses.

  17. Double Level Extension-Distraction Thoracic Spine Injuries with Concomitant Double Level Sternal Fractures: A Case Report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    CK Lee

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Extension-distraction injury of the spine is rare. A majority of these cases occur in the cervical region and at an isolated level. Rare instances of this injury have been described in an ankylosed or fused spine. This case report describes a rare two level extension-distraction thoracic spine injury in an otherwise healthy adult resulting from a motor vehicle accident.

  18. Economic Evaluations of Strategies to Prevent Hospital-Acquired Pressure Injuries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ocampo, Wrechelle; Cheung, Amanda; Baylis, Barry; Clayden, Nancy; Conly, John M; Ghali, William A; Ho, Chester H; Kaufman, Jaime; Stelfox, Henry T; Hogan, David B

    2017-07-01

    To provide information from a review of literature about economic evaluations of preventive strategies for pressure injuries (PIs). This continuing education activity is intended for physicians, physician assistants, nurse practitioners, and nurses with an interest in skin and wound care. After participating in this educational activity, the participant should be better able to:1. Identify the purpose and methods used for this study.2. Compare costs and effectiveness related to preventative strategies for PIs. BACKGROUND: Pressure injuries (PIs) are a common and resource-intensive challenge for acute care hospitals worldwide. While a number of preventive strategies have the potential to reduce the cost of hospital-acquired PIs, it is unclear what approach is the most effective. The authors performed a narrative review of the literature on economic evaluations of preventive strategies to survey current findings and identify important factors in economic assessments. Ovid, MEDLINE, NHS Economic Evaluation Databases, and the Cochrane Database of Systematic ReviewsSELECTION CRITERIA: Potentially relevant original research articles and systematic reviews were considered. Selection criteria included articles that were written in English, provided data on cost or economic evaluations of preventive strategies of PIs in acute care, and published between January 2004 and September 2015. Data were abstracted from the articles using a standardized approach to evaluate how the items on the Consolidated Health Economic Evaluation Reporting Standards checklist were addressed. The searches identified 192 references. Thirty-three original articles were chosen for full-text reviews. Nineteen of these articles provided clear descriptions of interventions, study methods, and outcomes considered. Limitations in the available literature prevent firm conclusions from being reached about the relative economic merits of the various approaches to the prevention of PIs. The authors' review

  19. Economic burden of burn injuries in the Netherlands: A 3 months follow-up study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hop, M Jenda; Wijnen, Ben F M; Nieuwenhuis, Marianne K; Dokter, Jan; Middelkoop, Esther; Polinder, Suzanne; van Baar, Margriet E

    2016-01-01

    Burn care has rapidly improved in the past decades. However, healthcare innovations can be expensive, demanding careful choices on their implementation. Obtaining knowledge on the extent of the costs of burn injuries is an essential first step for economic evaluations within burn care. The objective of this study was to determine the economic burden of patients with burns admitted to a burn centre and to identify important cost categories until 3 months post-burn. A prospective cohort study was conducted in the burn centre of Maasstad Hospital Rotterdam, the Netherlands, including all patients with acute burn related injuries from August 2011 until July 2012. Total costs were calculated from a societal perspective, until 3 months post injury. Subgroup analyses were performed to examine whether the mean total costs per patient differed by age, aetiology or percentage total body surface area (TBSA) burned. In our population, with a mean burn size of 8%, mean total costs were €26,540 per patient varying from €742 to €235,557. Most important cost categories were burn centre days (62%), surgical interventions (5%) and work absence (20%). Flame burns were significantly more costly than other types of burns, adult patients were significantly more costly than children and adolescents and a higher percentage TBSA burned also corresponded to significantly higher costs. Mean total costs of burn care in the first 3 months post injury were estimated at €26,540 and depended on age, aetiology and TBSA. Mean total costs in our population probably apply to other high-income countries as well, although we should realise that patients with burn injuries are diverse and represent a broad range of total costs. To reduce costs of burn care, future intervention studies should focus on a timely wound healing, reducing length of stay and enabling an early return to work. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Psychological consequences of athletic injury among high-level competitors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leddy, M H; Lambert, M J; Ogles, B M

    1994-12-01

    Injury prohibiting continued athletic participation has been hypothesized to have a predictable emotional impact on athletes (Rotella & Heyman, 1986). However, the psychological impact of injury has not been well documented. This study examined the psychological reactions to injury among 343 male collegiate athletes participating in 10 sports. All athletes were assessed using measures of depression, anxiety, and self-esteem during preseason physical examinations. Injured athletes along with matched controls were later assessed within one week of experiencing an athletic injury and 2 months later. A 4 x 3 (Injury Status x Time of Testing) repeated measures multivariate analysis of variance (DM MANOVA) revealed that injured athletes exhibited greater depression and anxiety and lower self-esteem than controls immediately following physical injury and at follow-up 2 months later. These findings supported the general observation that physically injured athletes experience a period of emotional distress that in some cases may be severe enough to warrant clinical intervention.

  1. Economic impact of hand and wrist injuries: Health-care costs and productivity costs in a population-based study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    C.E. de Putter (Dennis); R.W. Selles (Ruud); S. Polinder (Suzanne); M.J.M. Panneman (Martien); S.E.R. Hovius (Steven); E.F. van Beeck (Ed)

    2012-01-01

    textabstractBackground: Injuries to the hand and wrist account for approximately 20% of patient visits to emergency departments and may impose a large economic burden. The purpose of this study was to estimate the total health-care costs and productivity costs of injuries to the hand and wrist and

  2. Theoretical and methodological basis for the formation and evaluation of the level of the economic system's strategic economic potential

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kljushin Vladislav Vladimirovich

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The current level of business activity of socio-economic systems of different scale and insufficient to increase their overall potential. To solve this problem, the first priority is the effective management of their strategic and economic potential. Managerial decision-making about the use of economic resources strategic socio-economic systems requires the development of a methodology to identify and evaluate strategic and economic potential.

  3. Low-level radioactive waste management: an economic assessment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Peery, R.J.

    1981-07-01

    This paper has presented an overview of the economics of low-level radioactive waste disposal. It is hoped that this paper will assist the states in their efforts to determine their approach to the management of low-level wastes. Although the economies of scale realized by a larger facility are emphasized, the conclusion is that every state and region must examine its need for low-level waste disposal services and consider the interrelated factors that affect the volume of waste to be disposed, including waste reduction techniques, interim storage for not a single recommended capacity for a facility, but an acknowledgement of contingencies. In theory, per cubic foot disposal costs decrease as facility size increases. But theory does not preclude a state from constructing its own site, or a region generating small volumes of waste from building a shared facility. All factors should be weighed before a site is chosen and its size is determined

  4. Economics of low-level radioactive waste disposal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schafer, J.; Jennrich, E.

    1983-01-01

    Regardless of who develops new low-level radioactive waste disposal sites or when, economics will play a role. To assist in this area the Department of Energy's Low-Level Radioactive Waste Management Program has developed a computer program, LLWECON, and data base for projecting disposal site costs. This program and its non-site specific data base can currently be used to compare the costs associated with various disposal site development, financing, and operating scenarios. As site specific costs and requirements are refined LLWECON will be able to calculate exact life cycle costs for each facility. While designed around shallow land burial, as practiced today, LLWECON is flexible and the input parameters discrete enough to be applicable to other disposal options. What the program can do is illustrated

  5. Kidney Injury Molecule Levels in Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aslan, Ozgur; Demir, Metin; Koseoglu, Mehmet

    2016-11-01

    This study was designed to determine the diagnostic role of urinary kidney injury molecule (KIM)-1 levels in renal damage in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus according to the urinary albumin/creatinine ratio. Patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus admitted to different polyclinics in our hospital enrolled in the study and were subdivided into three groups according to albumin/creatinine ratio - normalbuminuric (n: 20); microalbuminuric (n: 20); albuminuric (n: 18) - and compared with the control group. Urine albumin was analyzed using the immunoturbidimetric method (Architect C16000, Abbott Diagnostics). uKIM-1 was determined using a commercially available enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay test kit (USCN Life Science, Hankou, Wuhan, China). One-sample Kolmogorov-Smirnov test, Spearman correlation and Kruskal-Wallis non-parametric tests were performed. Post hoc comparisons were made using Bonferroni-corrected Mann-Whitney U tests. The differences between the controls and normalbuminuric, microalbuminuric and albuminuric groups were highly significant for KIM-1. Positive correlation was found between KIM-1 and urine microalbumin-urine microalbumin/creatinine (r = 0.479 P diabetic nephropathy. J. Clin. Lab. Anal. 00:1-6, 2016. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  6. 13 CFR 123.19 - May I request an increase in the amount of an economic injury loan?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... amount of an economic injury loan? 123.19 Section 123.19 Business Credit and Assistance SMALL BUSINESS ADMINISTRATION DISASTER LOAN PROGRAM Overview § 123.19 May I request an increase in the amount of an economic... increase is essential for your business to continue and is based on events occurring after SBA approved...

  7. Economic growth, motorization, and road traffic injuries in the Sultanate of Oman, 1985-2009.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Reesi, Hamed; Ganguly, Shyam Sunder; Al-Adawi, Samir; Laflamme, Lucie; Hasselberg, Marie; Al-Maniri, Abdullah

    2013-01-01

    Recent affluence, assisted by exploitation of hydrocarbon, has sparked unprecedented economic growth and influx of all façades of modernity in Oman. Different statistical models have examined the relationship between economic growth, motorization rates, and road traffic fatalities. However, such a relationship in Oman has never been described. To describe and analyze the trend of road traffic injuries (RTIs) in relation to motorization rates and economic growth during the period from 1985 to 2009 using Smeed's (1949) model and Koren and Borsos's (2010) model. The study is based on national data reported between 1985 and 2009. Data on the population and gross domestic product (GDP) per capita in U.S. dollars were gathered from the Ministry of National Economy reports. Data on the number of vehicles and road traffic crashes, fatalities, and injuries were gathered from the Royal Oman Police (ROP) reports. Crash, fatality, and injury rates per 1000 vehicles and per 100,000 population were computed. Linear regression analysis was carried out to estimate the average annual changes in the rates. Smeed's (1949) and Koren and Borsos's (2010) models were used to predict the relations between motorization and road traffic fatalities in Oman. In addition, a cross-sectional analysis of year 2007 data for a number of Arab countries was carried out. The GDP per capita increased from US$6551 in 1985 to US$25,110 in 2009 with an annual increase of UR$547 per capita. The motorization rates increased by 36 percent from 1745 per 10,000 population in 1985 to 2382 per 10,000 population in 2009. Both Smeed's (1949) and Koren and Borsos's (2010) models had a high goodness of fit, with R(2) greater than 0.70. This indicated that road traffic fatalities in Oman may have a direct relationship with increased motorization. The cross-sectional analysis showed that the relation between crash fatalities and motorization rates in Oman and the United Arab Emirates can be better explained by Koren

  8. Students' Views of A-Level Mathematics as Preparation for Degree-Level Economics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Darlington, Ellie; Bowyer, Jessica

    2017-01-01

    As part of a large-scale survey of over 4000 undergraduates at British universities, 238 economics students reported on their experiences of studying post-compulsory secondary mathematics qualifications (A-levels) and the preparation they provided for their degrees. Participants were positive about their experience of post-compulsory mathematics…

  9. Injury patterns of child abuse: Experience of two Level 1 pediatric trauma centers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Yangyang R; DeMello, Annalyn S; Greeley, Christopher S; Cox, Charles S; Naik-Mathuria, Bindi J; Wesson, David E

    2018-05-01

    This study examines non-accidental trauma (NAT) fatalities as a percentage of all injury fatalities and identifies injury patterns in NAT admissions to two level 1 pediatric trauma centers. We reviewed all children (<5years old) treated for NAT from 2011 to 2015. Patient demographics, injury sites, and survival were obtained from both institutional trauma registries. Of 4623 trauma admissions, 557 (12%) were due to NAT. However, 43 (46%) of 93 overall trauma fatalities were due to NAT. Head injuries were the most common injuries sustained (60%) and led to the greatest increased risk of death (RR 5.1, 95% CI 2.0-12.7). Less common injuries that increased the risk of death were facial injuries (14%, RR 2.9, 95% CI 1.6-5.3), abdominal injuries (8%, RR 2.8, 95% CI 1.4-5.6), and spinal injuries (3%, RR 3.9, 95% CI 1.8-8.8). Although 76% of head injuries occurred in infants <1year, children ages 1-4years old with head injuries had a significantly higher case fatality rate (27% vs. 6%, p<0.001). Child abuse accounts for a large proportion of trauma fatalities in children under 5years of age. Intracranial injuries are common in child abuse and increase the risk of death substantially. Preventing NAT in infants and young children should be a public health priority. Retrospective Review. II. Copyright © 2018. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  10. Synergistic impact of acute kidney injury and high level of cervical spinal cord injury on the weaning outcome of patients with acute traumatic cervical spinal cord injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Wen-Kuang; Ko, Hsin-Kuo; Ho, Li-Ing; Wang, Jia-Horng; Kou, Yu Ru

    2015-07-01

    Respiratory neuromuscular impairment severity is known to predict weaning outcome among patients with cervical spinal cord injury; however, the impact of non-neuromuscular complications remains unexplored. This study was to evaluate possible neuromuscular and non-neuromuscular factors that may negatively impact weaning outcome. From September 2002 to October 2012, acute traumatic cervical spinal cord injury patients who had received mechanical ventilation for >48h were enrolled and divided into successful (n=54) and unsuccessful weaning groups (n=19). Various neuromuscular, non-neuromuscular factors and events during the intensive care unit stay were extracted from medical charts and electronic medical records. Variables presenting with a significant difference (pspinal cord injury (C1-3), lower pulse rates, and lower Glasgow Coma Scale score on admission, higher peak blood urea nitrogen, lower trough albumin, and lower trough blood leukocyte counts. Furthermore, unsuccessful weaning patients had a higher incidence of pneumonia, acute respiratory distress syndrome, shock and acute kidney injury during the intensive care unit stay. Multivariate logistic regression analysis revealed acute kidney injury and high level of cervical spinal cord injury were independent risk factors for failure of weaning. Importantly, patients with both risk factors showed a large increase in odds ratio for unsuccessful weaning from mechanical ventilation (pinjury during the intensive care unit stay and high level of cervical spinal injury are two independent risk factors that synergistically work together producing a negative impact on weaning outcome. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Higher education does not protect against firework-related injuries: a review of the economic burden and the risk factors of firework-related injuries in the capital of Iran.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saadat, S; Mafi, M; Smith, G A

    2012-01-01

    To examine the incidence and risk factors of firework-related injuries during the Last Wednesday Eve Festival in Tehran, Iran, with a focus on the association of socio-economic status and educational level with the use of fireworks and the incidence of firework-related injury. Cross-sectional household survey. Using a random cluster sampling approach, a household survey was conducted in Greater Tehran in April 2008. During a structured interview with an adult member of the household, questions were asked about the use of fireworks and any firework-related injuries sustained by household members during the preceding festival. Data were gathered on expenditure on fireworks, medical treatment of firework-related injuries, length of hospital stay for the treatment of these injuries, and damage to personal property by fireworks. The survey included 2456 households in Greater Tehran. At least one member of 18% of these households had used fireworks during the Last Wednesday Eve Festival in 2008. The overall incidence of firework-related injuries was 100 per 100,000 population (95% confidence interval 37-163). The use of fireworks was less common among parents and more common among male children. Individuals who used fireworks were younger than non-users. Younger age and use of fireworks were associated with firework-related injuries (P fireworks was US$1.62. Among the households that had bought fireworks, the mean expenditure was US$9.40 (standard deviation US$16.34). Thirty-two households (1.3%) reported damage to personal property due to fireworks during the festival costing US$3.30-167.20. The regional price of housing in the study area was correlated with the educational level of the head of the household. Higher educational level of the head of the household was associated with participation in firework activities by household members, expenditure on fireworks, and the amount of financial loss due to fireworks (all P Fireworks are associated with serious injuries

  12. Cross-national injury mortality differentials by income level: the possible role of age and ageing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moniruzzaman, S; Andersson, R

    2008-11-01

    To examine age- and cause-specific injury mortality differentials between low-income (LICs), middle-income (MICs) and high-income countries (HICs), and to discuss their implications in explaining changing injury mortality patterns with economic development against the background of general health transition theory. Cross-sectional study. The World Health Organization's mortality database was used as the source of injury mortality data. The grouping into LICs, MICs and HICs was based on data from World Development Indicator. Unintentional injury mortality (UIM) rates in children and adults are highest in LICs and MICs, respectively. UIM rates in the elderly population, however, increase with higher economic conditions and are highest in HICs. Based on these findings, it is hypothesized that ageing and injury interplay mutually with regard to health transition; declining rates in child UIM with economic development contributes to the ageing process, while increasing UIM among the elderly, in combination with ageing populations, boosts the absolute number of injury deaths in this segment.

  13. Health and Economic Burden of Running-Related Injuries in Dutch Trailrunners: A Prospective Cohort Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hespanhol Junior, Luiz Carlos; van Mechelen, Willem; Verhagen, Evert

    2017-02-01

    Trailrunning is becoming very popular. However, the risk and burden of running-related injuries (RRI) in trailrunning is not well established. To investigate the prevalence, injury rate, severity, nature, and economic burden of RRIs in Dutch trailrunners. This prospective cohort study included 228 trailrunners aged 18 years or over (range 23-67), and was conducted between October 2013 and December 2014. After completing the baseline questionnaire, the Oslo Sports Trauma Research Center Questionnaire on Health Problems was administered every 2 weeks to collect data on RRIs. Participants who reported RRIs were asked about healthcare utilization (direct costs) and absenteeism from paid work (indirect costs). RRI was defined as disorders of the musculoskeletal system or concussions experienced or sustained during participation in running. The mean prevalence of RRIs measured over time was 22.4 % [95 % confidence interval (CI) 20.9-24.0], and the injury rate was 10.7 RRIs per 1000 h of running (95 % CI 9.4-12.1). The prevalence was higher for overuse (17.7 %; 95 % CI 15.9-19.5) than for acute (4.1 %; 95 % CI 3.3-5.0) RRIs. Also, the injury rate was higher for overuse (8.1; 95 % CI 6.9-9.3) than for acute (2.7; 95 % CI 2.0-3.4) RRIs. The median of the severity score was 35.0 [25-75 %, interquartile range (IQR) 22.0-55.7], and the median of the duration of RRIs was 2.0 weeks (IQR 2.0-6.0) during the study. The total economic burden of RRIs was estimated at €172.22 (95 % CI 117.10-271.74) per RRI, and €1849.49 (95 % CI 1180.62-3058.91) per 1000 h of running. An RRI was estimated to have a direct cost of €60.92 (95 % CI 45.11-94.90) and an indirect cost of €111.30 (95 % CI 61.02-192.75). The health and economic burden of RRIs presented in this study are significant for trailrunners and for society. Therefore, efforts should be made in order to prevent RRIs in trailrunners.

  14. Same-level fall injuries in US workplaces by age group, gender, and industry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scott, Kenneth A; Fisher, Gwenith G; Barón, Anna E; Tompa, Emile; Stallones, Lorann; DiGuiseppi, Carolyn

    2018-02-01

    As the workforce ages, occupational injuries from falls on the same level will increase. Some industries may be more affected than others. We conducted a cross-sectional study using data from the Bureau of Labor Statistics to estimate same-level fall injury incidence rates by age group, gender, and industry for four sectors: 1) healthcare and social assistance; 2) manufacturing; 3) retail; and 4) transportation and warehousing. We calculated rate ratios and rate differences by age group and gender. Same-level fall injury incidence rates increase with age in all four sectors. However, patterns of rate ratios and rate differences vary by age group, gender, and industry. Younger workers, men, and manufacturing workers generally have lower rates. Variation in incidence rates suggests there are unrealized opportunities to prevent same-level fall injuries. Interventions should be evaluated for their effectiveness at reducing injuries, avoiding gender- or age-discrimination and improving work ability. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  15. The Economic and Social Burden of Traumatic Injuries: Evidence from a Trauma Hospital in Port-au-Prince, Haiti.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zuraik, Christopher; Sampalis, John; Brierre, Alexa

    2018-06-01

    The cost of traumatic injury is unknown in Haiti. This study aims to examine the burden of traumatic injury of patients treated and evaluated at a trauma hospital in the capital city of Port-au-Prince. A retrospective cross-sectional chart review study was conducted at the Hospital Bernard Mevs Project Medishare for all patients evaluated for traumatic injury from December 2015 to January 2016, as described elsewhere (Zuraik and Sampalis in World J Surg, https://doi.org/10.1007/s00268-017-4088-2 , 2017). Direct medical costs were obtained from patient hospital bills. Indirect and intangible costs were calculated using the human capital approach. A total of 410 patients were evaluated for traumatic injury during the study period. Total costs for all patients were $501,706 with a mean cost of $1224. Indirect costs represented 63% of all costs, direct medical costs 19%, and intangible costs 18%. Surgical costs accounted for the majority of direct medical costs (29%). Patients involved in road traffic accidents accounted for the largest number of injuries (41%) and the largest percentage of total costs (51%). Patients with gunshot wounds had the highest total mean costs ($1566). Mean costs by injury severity ranged from $62 for minor injuries, $1269 for serious injuries, to $13,675 for critical injuries. Injuries lead to a significant economic burden for individuals treated at a semi-private trauma hospital in the capital city of Port-au-Prince, Haiti. Programs aimed at reducing injuries, particularly road traffic accidents, would likely reduce the economic burden to the nation.

  16. Societal and Economic Effect of Meniscus Scaffold Procedures for Irreparable Meniscus Injuries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rongen, Jan J; Govers, Tim M; Buma, Pieter; Grutters, Janneke P C; Hannink, Gerjon

    2016-07-01

    Meniscus scaffolds are currently evaluated clinically for their efficacy in preventing the development of osteoarthritis as well as for their efficacy in treating patients with chronic symptoms. Procedural costs, therapeutic consequences, clinical efficacy, and future events should all be considered to maximize the monetary value of this intervention. To examine the socioeconomic effect of treating patients with irreparable medial meniscus injuries with a meniscus scaffold. Economic and decision analysis; Level of evidence, 2. Two Markov simulation models for patients with an irreparable medial meniscus injury were developed. Model 1 was used to investigate the lifetime cost-effectiveness of a meniscus scaffold compared with standard partial meniscectomy by the possibility of preventing the development of osteoarthritis. Model 2 was used to investigate the short-term (5-year) cost-effectiveness of a meniscus scaffold compared with standard partial meniscectomy by alleviating clinical symptoms, specifically in chronic patients with previous meniscus surgery. For both models, probabilistic Monte Carlo simulations were applied. Treatment effectiveness was expressed as quality-adjusted life-years (QALYs), while costs (estimated in euros) were assessed from a societal perspective. We assumed €20,000 as a reference value for the willingness to pay per QALY. Next, comprehensive sensitivity analyses were performed to identify the most influential variables on the cost-effectiveness of meniscus scaffolds. Model 1 demonstrated an incremental cost-effectiveness ratio of a meniscus scaffold treatment of €54,463 per QALY (€5991/0.112). A threshold analysis demonstrated that a meniscus scaffold should offer a relative risk reduction of at least 0.34 to become cost-effective, assuming a willingness to pay of €20,000. Decreasing the costs of the meniscus scaffold procedure by 33% (€10,160 instead of €15,233; an absolute change of €5073) resulted in an incremental

  17. Physical Activity–Related Injury Profile in Children and Adolescents According to Their Age, Maturation, and Level of Sports Participation

    OpenAIRE

    Costa e Silva, Lara; Fragoso, Maria Isabel; Teles, Júlia

    2017-01-01

    Background: Physical activity (PA) is beneficial, enhancing healthy development. However, one-third of school-age children practicing sports regularly suffer from an injury. These injuries are associated with sex, chronological age, and PA level. Purpose: To identify the importance of age, PA level, and maturity as predictors of injury in Portuguese youth. Study Design: Descriptive epidemiological study. Level of Evidence: Level 3. Methods: Information about injury and PA level was assessed v...

  18. Economic evaluation of decompressive craniectomy versus barbiturate coma for refractory intracranial hypertension following traumatic brain injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alali, Aziz S; Naimark, David M J; Wilson, Jefferson R; Fowler, Robert A; Scales, Damon C; Golan, Eyal; Mainprize, Todd G; Ray, Joel G; Nathens, Avery B

    2014-10-01

    Decompressive craniectomy and barbiturate coma are often used as second-tier strategies when intracranial hypertension following severe traumatic brain injury is refractory to first-line treatments. Uncertainty surrounds the decision to choose either treatment option. We investigated which strategy is more economically attractive in this context. We performed a cost-utility analysis. A Markov Monte Carlo microsimulation model with a life-long time horizon was created to compare quality-adjusted survival and cost of the two treatment strategies, from the perspective of healthcare payer. Model parameters were estimated from the literature. Two-dimensional simulation was used to incorporate parameter uncertainty into the model. Value of information analysis was conducted to identify major drivers of decision uncertainty and focus future research. Trauma centers in the United States. Base case was a population of patients (mean age = 25 yr) who developed refractory intracranial hypertension following traumatic brain injury. We compared two treatment strategies: decompressive craniectomy and barbiturate coma. Decompressive craniectomy was associated with an average gain of 1.5 quality-adjusted life years relative to barbiturate coma, with an incremental cost-effectiveness ratio of $9,565/quality-adjusted life year gained. Decompressive craniectomy resulted in a greater quality-adjusted life expectancy 86% of the time and was more cost-effective than barbiturate coma in 78% of cases if our willingness-to-pay threshold is $50,000/quality-adjusted life year and 82% of cases at a threshold of $100,000/quality-adjusted life year. At older age, decompressive craniectomy continued to increase survival but at higher cost (incremental cost-effectiveness ratio = $197,906/quality-adjusted life year at mean age = 85 yr). Based on available evidence, decompressive craniectomy for the treatment of refractory intracranial hypertension following traumatic brain injury provides better

  19. A practical and applied approach to assessing the cross cutting nature of child injury prevention as a basis for policy making at the local level

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Beatrice Scholtes

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Aim: Risk factors for child injury are multi-faceted. Social, environmental and economic factors place responsibility for prevention upon many stakeholders across traditional sectors such as health, justice, environment and education. Multi-sectoral collaboration for injury prevention is thus essential. In addition, co-benefits due to injury prevention initiatives exist. However, multi-sectoral collaboration is often difficult to establish and maintain. We present an applied approach for practitioners and policy makers at the local level to use to explore and address the multi-sectoral nature of child injury. Methods: We combined elements of the Haddon Matrix and the Lens and Telescope model, to develop a new approach for practitioners and policy makers at the local level. Results: The approach offers the opportunity for diverse sectors at the local level to work together to identify their role in child injury prevention. Based on ecological injury prevention and life-course epidemiology it encourages multi-disciplinary team building from the outset. The process has three phases: first, visualising the multi-sectoral responsibilities for child injury prevention in the local area; second,  demonstrating the need for multi-sectoral collaboration and helping plan prevention activities together; and third, visualising potential co-benefits to other sectors and age groups that may arise from child injury prevention initiatives. Conclusion: The approach and process encourages inter-sectoral collaboration for child injury prevention at the local level. It is a useful addition for child injury  prevention at the local level, however testing the practicality of the approach in a real-world setting, and refinement of the process would improve it further.

  20. Analysis of sex-specific injury patterns and risk factors in young high-level athletes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frisch, A; Seil, R; Urhausen, A; Croisier, J L; Lair, M L; Theisen, D

    2009-12-01

    This study analyzed sex-specific injury patterns and risk factors in young athletes (n=256) from 12 sport disciplines practicing at the national or the international level in the Grand-Duchy of Luxembourg. Injury occurrence as a result of sport practice was analyzed retrospectively over the year 2006 using a standardized self-administered questionnaire. Overall incidence was not different between girls and boys (1.20 and 1.21 injuries/1000 athlete-hours, respectively), but in the context of team sport competition girls tended to be at a greater risk (rate ratio 2.05, P=0.053). Girls had a higher proportion of injuries in the ankle/foot region compared with boys (34.8% vs 16.8%). No sex-related differences were found regarding injury severity. Multivariate logistic regression (controlling for age and practice volume) revealed that girls' team sports were associated with a greater injury risk compared with individual sports [odds ratio (OR) of 4.76], while in boys this was observed for racket sports (OR=3.31). Furthermore, physical or emotional stress tended to be a specific risk factor in girls. There was a tendency for injury outside sports to be coupled to a higher injury risk in girls and boys. Consideration of sex-specific injury patterns and risk factors could be of importance for effective injury prevention.

  1. Education level inequalities and transportation injury mortality in the middle aged and elderly in European settings

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Borrell, C.; Plasència, A.; Huisman, M.; Costa, G.; Kunst, A.; Andersen, O.; Bopp, M.; Borgan, J.-K.; Deboosere, P.; Glickman, M.; Gadeyne, S.; Minder, C.; Regidor, E.; Spadea, T.; Valkonen, T.; Mackenbach, J. P.

    2005-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To study the differential distribution of transportation injury mortality by educational level in nine European settings, among people older than 30 years, during the 1990s. METHODS: Deaths of men and women older than 30 years from transportation injuries were studied. Rate differences

  2. Legislation and litigation related to low-level radiation injury claims

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McCraw, T.

    1985-01-01

    Current legislation and litigation related to radiation exposure will have an enormous impact on the radiation protection and monitoring requirements of the future. A brief review of some proposed injury compensation bills for veterans and a recent court decision for low-level radiation injury claims are reviewed

  3. Municipal Level of Strategic Planning: Economic and Legal Problems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Evgeniy Moiseevich Bukhvald

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The article focuses on the need of integration of municipal government into a unified hierarchy of strategic planning in the country. The basic positions of the acting version of the Federal law no.131 “On general principles of organization of local self-government” and the Federal law no. 172 “On strategic planning” don’t provide clear legal framework for the solution of this problem. Besides, the practical integration of municipal management into a unified hierarchy of strategic planning meets serious economic obstacles, the main of which consist in the negative situation within the system of local finance, characterized by trends of deficiency, high dependence on subsidies and, as a consequence, volatility and lack of predictability in relation to any plans and programs of long-term nature. The main idea of the article is to prove the need for a systemic approach to solving tasks, related to the integration of municipal management in a unified vertical of strategic planning in the country. The essence of this approach is the combination of a number of legal innovations in the legislation on strategic planning and local government with a set of measures, aimed to strengthen the fiscal basis of Russian local self-government together with institutional ensuring of municipal planning and its interaction with the practice of strategic planning at the level of subjects of the Russian Federation.

  4. Low Risk of Injuries in Young Adolescents Participating in Top-Level Karate Competition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arriaza, Rafael; Inman, David; Arriaza, Alvaro; Saavedra, Miguel A

    2016-02-01

    Prospective studies on injuries in martial arts competition are scarce, especially those involving young practitioners, but the upsurge of children and adolescents taking part in organized training and competition in these sports requires clarification of the injury risk that they represent for youths. Top-level karate competition for young adolescents (cadets, or 14- to 15-year-olds) has a low injury rate and can be safely promoted. Descriptive epidemiological study. Prospective recording of the injuries resulting from all bouts in 3 consecutive World Karate Championships (2009, 2011, and 2013) for cadets was performed. Data were collected prospectively in situ with checklists that described competitor sex, bout category, and weight as well as injured area, diagnosis, mechanism of injury, severity, and treatment. A total of 1020 bouts were reviewed, 671 in the male category and 349 in the female category. A total of 61 injuries were recorded. Of those, only 3 were time-loss injuries. During the 2009 and 2011 championships, there was 1 injury per 25.6 fights, while during the 2013 championship the number of injuries increased, with 1 injury per 10 fights (P = .003). There was no statistical difference in the total injury rate between the male and female categories (P = .71), with an odds ratio of 1.16 (95% CI, 0.52-2.55). The injury rate for cadet top-level karate competition found in this prospective study is much lower than the rates previously published for karate or other martial arts competitions, but there seems to be a marked increase as more championships are held, which is a matter of concern. © 2015 The Author(s).

  5. The Economics of Developing Countries Component of GCE "A" Level Economics--A Review of Examination Questions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wood, Keith

    1984-01-01

    A review of the summer examination papers in 'A' level economics set by the eight boards of England and Wales during the period 1979-1983 show that, with two notable exceptions, the boards have not devoted much space to questions relating to the economics of developing countries. (Author/RM)

  6. Spinal cord injury-induced immune deficiency syndrome enhances infection susceptibility dependent on lesion level.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brommer, Benedikt; Engel, Odilo; Kopp, Marcel A; Watzlawick, Ralf; Müller, Susanne; Prüss, Harald; Chen, Yuying; DeVivo, Michael J; Finkenstaedt, Felix W; Dirnagl, Ulrich; Liebscher, Thomas; Meisel, Andreas; Schwab, Jan M

    2016-03-01

    Pneumonia is the leading cause of death after acute spinal cord injury and is associated with poor neurological outcome. In contrast to the current understanding, attributing enhanced infection susceptibility solely to the patient's environment and motor dysfunction, we investigate whether a secondary functional neurogenic immune deficiency (spinal cord injury-induced immune deficiency syndrome, SCI-IDS) may account for the enhanced infection susceptibility. We applied a clinically relevant model of experimental induced pneumonia to investigate whether the systemic SCI-IDS is functional sufficient to cause pneumonia dependent on spinal cord injury lesion level and investigated whether findings are mirrored in a large prospective cohort study after human spinal cord injury. In a mouse model of inducible pneumonia, high thoracic lesions that interrupt sympathetic innervation to major immune organs, but not low thoracic lesions, significantly increased bacterial load in lungs. The ability to clear the bacterial load from the lung remained preserved in sham animals. Propagated immune susceptibility depended on injury of central pre-ganglionic but not peripheral postganglionic sympathetic innervation to the spleen. Thoracic spinal cord injury level was confirmed as an independent increased risk factor of pneumonia in patients after motor complete spinal cord injury (odds ratio = 1.35, P spinal cord injury directly causes increased risk for bacterial infection in mice as well as in patients. Besides obvious motor and sensory paralysis, spinal cord injury also induces a functional SCI-IDS ('immune paralysis'), sufficient to propagate clinically relevant infection in an injury level dependent manner. © The Author (2016). Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Guarantors of Brain. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  7. 13 CFR 123.300 - Is my business eligible to apply for an economic injury disaster loan?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... BUSINESS ADMINISTRATION DISASTER LOAN PROGRAM Economic Injury Disaster Loans § 123.300 Is my business... businesses do not include agricultural enterprises, but do include— (1) Small nurseries affected by a drought... percent or more of their annual receipts from the production and sale of ornamental plants and other...

  8. Epidemiology of injuries in juniors participating in top-level karate competition: a prospective cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Čierna, Dušana; Barrientos, Merce; Agrasar, Carlos; Arriaza, Rafael

    2018-06-01

    Karate is a popular combat semi-contact sport among juniors, but there are only few studies available on the epidemiology of injuries in karate junior athletes. The aims of this study were to determine the incidence and pattern of injuries in top-level karate competition for athletes aged 16 to 20 years, and to compare injury rates between age groups (ie, under 18-year-old [U18] and under 21-year-old [U21]) and genders, following the introduction of new weight categories. A prospective injury surveillance was undertaken at four consecutive World Karate Championships (2009 to 2015), following the same protocols used in previous investigations. During the four championships, a total of 257 injuries were recorded, with an incidence of 41.4/1,000 athlete exposures (AEs, 95% CI 36.4 to 46.3). The injury rate was significantly lower for females with a rate ratio 0.63 (95% CI 0.48 to 0.82). Most of the injuries were minor ones: contusions (n=100), followed by abrasions (n=63) and epistaxis (n=62). Only 10% of the injuries were time-loss injuries (injury incidence rates 4.2/1,000 AEs; 95% CI 2.7 to 6.1). Face injuries represented 69.6% of the injuries, most of them were minor ones (light abrasions 24.5%, epistaxis 24.1%, contusion 16.7%). Change of rules (raising the number of weight categories from three to five) reduced injury incidence in the U21 category. The total injury rate in junior competitions is lower compared with elite adult athletes and higher compared with younger elite athletes. Time-loss injuries are rare. The implementation of the new competition categories in U21 karate has been associated with a significant reduction in injury rate. © Article author(s) (or their employer(s) unless otherwise stated in the text of the article) 2018. All rights reserved. No commercial use is permitted unless otherwise expressly granted.

  9. Relationship between median nerve somatosensory evoked potentials and spinal cord injury levels in patients with quadriplegia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Arruda Serra Gaspar, M I F; Cliquet, A; Fernandes Lima, V M; de Abreu, D C C

    2009-05-01

    Cross-sectional study. To observe if there is a relationship between the level of injury by the American Spinal Cord Injury Association (ASIA) and cortical somatosensory evoked potential (SSEP) recordings of the median nerve in patients with quadriplegia. Rehabilitation Outpatient Clinic at the university hospital in Brazil. Fourteen individuals with quadriplegia and 8 healthy individuals were evaluated. Electrophysiological assessment of the median nerve was performed by evoked potential equipment. The injury level was obtained by ASIA. N(9), N(13) and N(20) were analyzed based on the presence or absence of responses. The parameters used for analyzing these responses were the latency and the amplitude. Data were analyzed using mixed-effect models. N(9) responses were found in all patients with quadriplegia with a similar latency and amplitude observed in healthy individuals; N(13) responses were not found in any patients with quadriplegia. N(20) responses were not found in C5 patients with quadriplegia but it was present in C6 and C7 patients. Their latencies were similar to healthy individuals (P>0.05) but the amplitudes were decreased (P<0.05). This study suggests that the SSEP responses depend on the injury level, considering that the individuals with C6 and C7 injury levels, both complete and incomplete, presented SSEP recordings in the cortical area. It also showed a relationship between the level of spinal cord injury assessed by ASIA and the median nerve SSEP responses, through the latency and amplitude recordings.

  10. Promising neuroprotective strategies for traumatic spinal cord injury with a focus on the differential effects among anatomical levels of injury [version 1; referees: 2 approved

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antigona Ulndreaj

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Traumatic spinal cord injury (SCI is a devastating condition of motor, sensory, and autonomic dysfunction. The significant cost associated with the management and lifetime care of patients with SCI also presents a major economic burden. For these reasons, there is a need to develop and translate strategies that can improve outcomes following SCI. Given the challenges in achieving regeneration of the injured spinal cord, neuroprotection has been at the forefront of clinical translation. Yet, despite many preclinical advances, there has been limited translation into the clinic apart from methylprednisolone (which remains controversial, hypertensive therapy to maintain spinal cord perfusion, and early decompressive surgery. While there are several factors related to the limited translational success, including the clinical and mechanistic heterogeneity of human SCI, the misalignment between animal models of SCI and clinical reality continues to be an important factor. Whereas most clinical cases are at the cervical level, only a small fraction of preclinical research is conducted in cervical models of SCI. Therefore, this review highlights the most promising neuroprotective and neural reparative therapeutic strategies undergoing clinical assessment, including riluzole, hypothermia, granulocyte colony-stimulating factor, glibenclamide, minocycline, Cethrin (VX-210, and anti-Nogo-A antibody, and emphasizes their efficacy in relation to the anatomical level of injury. Our hope is that more basic research will be conducted in clinically relevant cervical SCI models in order to expedite the transition of important laboratory discoveries into meaningful treatment options for patients with SCI.

  11. Gender, socio-economic status and educational level as ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Multiple regression procedure and t-test statistics were utilized to analyse data. Results indicated that the regression equation of career maturity using the three predictor variables was significant; the scores on socio-economic status were the best predictor of career maturity. On the basis of this finding, suggestions were ...

  12. The Adversary System in Low-Level Soviet Economic Decisionmaking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1984-08-01

    34- ° .. 78 - capital or a few countertrade agreements, will solve their problems for them. This is markedly different from the overall Soviet pattern...currency countertrade practice, the considerations of this Note would permit further refinement of predictions of Soviet economic decisionmaking that

  13. 13 CFR 301.3 - Economic distress levels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    .... (3) A Project located in a geographic area of poverty or high unemployment that meets the... Project benefits will occur (paragraph (a)(2) of this section), or the geographic area of poverty or high... the Census Bureau and the Bureaus of Economic Analysis, Labor Statistics, Indian Affairs or any other...

  14. One Hen: Teaching Elementary-Level Economics for Civic Engagement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whitlock, Annie McMahon

    2013-01-01

    This dissertation is a qualitative case study focused on describing and analyzing the student and teacher experience with One Hen, a project-based learning unit specifically designed to teach civic engagement. In this study I address three questions: 1) Do fifth-grade students' knowledge and skills in economics change after participating in a…

  15. Corruption and Economic Activity: Micro Level Evidence from Rural Liberia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Beekman, G.; Bulte, E.H.; Nillesen, E.E.M.

    2013-01-01

    We study how corruption affects economic activities of households in rural Liberia. A proxy of corruption of community leaders is obtained by directly monitoring the diversion of inputs associated with a development project. We measure quantities of these inputs twice; before and after the chief

  16. Acute cervical spine injuries: prospective MR imaging assessment at a level 1 trauma center.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katzberg, R W; Benedetti, P F; Drake, C M; Ivanovic, M; Levine, R A; Beatty, C S; Nemzek, W R; McFall, R A; Ontell, F K; Bishop, D M; Poirier, V C; Chong, B W

    1999-10-01

    To determine the weighted average sensitivity of magnetic resonance (MR) imaging in the prospective detection of acute neck injury and to compare these findings with those of a comprehensive conventional radiographic assessment. Conventional radiography and MR imaging were performed in 199 patients presenting to a level 1 trauma center with suspected cervical spine injury. Weighted sensitivities and specificities were calculated, and a weighted average across eight vertebral levels from C1 to T1 was formed. Fourteen parameters indicative of acute injury were tabulated. Fifty-eight patients had 172 acute cervical injuries. MR imaging depicted 136 (79%) acute abnormalities and conventional radiography depicted 39 (23%). For assessment of acute fractures, MR images (weighted average sensitivity, 43%; CI: 21%, 66%) were comparable to conventional radiographs (weighted average sensitivity, 48%; CI: 30%, 65%). MR imaging was superior to conventional radiography in the evaluation of pre- or paravertebral hemorrhage or edema, anterior or posterior longitudinal ligament injury, traumatic disk herniation, cord edema, and cord compression. Cord injuries were associated with cervical spine spondylosis (P < .05), acute fracture (P < .001), and canal stenosis (P < .001). MR imaging is more accurate than radiography in the detection of a wide spectrum of neck injuries, and further study is warranted of its potential effect on medical decision making, clinical outcome, and cost-effectiveness.

  17. 50 years follow-up on plasma creatinine levels after spinal cord injury

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Elmelund, Marlene; Oturai, P S; Biering-Sørensen, F

    2014-01-01

    STUDY DESIGN: Retrospective chart review. OBJECTIVES: To investigate the role of plasma creatinine (p-creatinine) in monitoring renal deterioration in patients up to 50 years after spinal cord injury (SCI). SETTING: The Clinic for Spinal Cord Injuries, Rigshospitalet, Denmark. METHODS: A total...... of 119 patients with a traumatic SCI during the years 1944-1975 were included in the study. P-creatinine measurements, results from renography and glomerular filtration rate (GFR) measured with 51Cr-EDTA clearance were obtained from medical records and analyzed using a linear mixed model and linear...... regression analyses. RESULTS: When compared with median p-creatinine level in the first 5-year period after injury, the level of p-creatinine was stable throughout the first 30 years and decreased significantly after the 30th until 45th year post injury. Only patients with a functional distribution outside...

  18. A Hydro-Economic Model for Water Level Fluctuations: Combining Limnology with Economics for Sustainable Development of Hydropower

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hirsch, Philipp Emanuel; Schillinger, Sebastian; Weigt, Hannes; Burkhardt-Holm, Patricia

    2014-01-01

    Water level fluctuations in lakes lead to shoreline displacement. The seasonality of flooding or beaching of the littoral area affects nutrient cycling, redox gradients in sediments, and life cycles of aquatic organisms. Despite the ecological importance of water level fluctuations, we still lack a method that assesses water levels in the context of hydropower operations. Water levels in reservoirs are influenced by the operator of a hydropower plant, who discharges water through the turbines or stores water in the reservoir, in a fashion that maximizes profit. This rationale governs the seasonal operation scheme and hence determines the water levels within the boundaries of the reservoir's water balance. For progress towards a sustainable development of hydropower, the benefits of this form of electricity generation have to be weighed against the possible detrimental effects of the anthropogenic water level fluctuations. We developed a hydro-economic model that combines an economic optimization function with hydrological estimators of the water balance of a reservoir. Applying this model allowed us to accurately predict water level fluctuations in a reservoir. The hydro-economic model also allowed for scenario calculation of how water levels change with climate change scenarios and with a change in operating scheme of the reservoir (increase in turbine capacity). Further model development will enable the consideration of a variety of additional parameters, such as water withdrawal for irrigation, drinking water supply, or altered energy policies. This advances our ability to sustainably manage water resources that must meet both economic and environmental demands. PMID:25526619

  19. A hydro-economic model for water level fluctuations: combining limnology with economics for sustainable development of hydropower.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Philipp Emanuel Hirsch

    Full Text Available Water level fluctuations in lakes lead to shoreline displacement. The seasonality of flooding or beaching of the littoral area affects nutrient cycling, redox gradients in sediments, and life cycles of aquatic organisms. Despite the ecological importance of water level fluctuations, we still lack a method that assesses water levels in the context of hydropower operations. Water levels in reservoirs are influenced by the operator of a hydropower plant, who discharges water through the turbines or stores water in the reservoir, in a fashion that maximizes profit. This rationale governs the seasonal operation scheme and hence determines the water levels within the boundaries of the reservoir's water balance. For progress towards a sustainable development of hydropower, the benefits of this form of electricity generation have to be weighed against the possible detrimental effects of the anthropogenic water level fluctuations. We developed a hydro-economic model that combines an economic optimization function with hydrological estimators of the water balance of a reservoir. Applying this model allowed us to accurately predict water level fluctuations in a reservoir. The hydro-economic model also allowed for scenario calculation of how water levels change with climate change scenarios and with a change in operating scheme of the reservoir (increase in turbine capacity. Further model development will enable the consideration of a variety of additional parameters, such as water withdrawal for irrigation, drinking water supply, or altered energy policies. This advances our ability to sustainably manage water resources that must meet both economic and environmental demands.

  20. A hydro-economic model for water level fluctuations: combining limnology with economics for sustainable development of hydropower.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hirsch, Philipp Emanuel; Schillinger, Sebastian; Weigt, Hannes; Burkhardt-Holm, Patricia

    2014-01-01

    Water level fluctuations in lakes lead to shoreline displacement. The seasonality of flooding or beaching of the littoral area affects nutrient cycling, redox gradients in sediments, and life cycles of aquatic organisms. Despite the ecological importance of water level fluctuations, we still lack a method that assesses water levels in the context of hydropower operations. Water levels in reservoirs are influenced by the operator of a hydropower plant, who discharges water through the turbines or stores water in the reservoir, in a fashion that maximizes profit. This rationale governs the seasonal operation scheme and hence determines the water levels within the boundaries of the reservoir's water balance. For progress towards a sustainable development of hydropower, the benefits of this form of electricity generation have to be weighed against the possible detrimental effects of the anthropogenic water level fluctuations. We developed a hydro-economic model that combines an economic optimization function with hydrological estimators of the water balance of a reservoir. Applying this model allowed us to accurately predict water level fluctuations in a reservoir. The hydro-economic model also allowed for scenario calculation of how water levels change with climate change scenarios and with a change in operating scheme of the reservoir (increase in turbine capacity). Further model development will enable the consideration of a variety of additional parameters, such as water withdrawal for irrigation, drinking water supply, or altered energy policies. This advances our ability to sustainably manage water resources that must meet both economic and environmental demands.

  1. Electric heating provides a high level of home comfort - economically

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Haapakoski, M.

    1997-11-01

    Research and development at IVO in the area of electric heating boasts a tradition going back almost thirty years. Research aimed at further progress is continuing. IVO and power companies launched the `Electrically heated houses of the century` project four years ago. The first results show that electric heating continues to be very competitive with other heating systems. It is an economical way of heating the home and it also increases the comfort of those living there

  2. The Application of VARK Learning Styles in Introductory Level Economics Units

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wright, Sarah; Stokes, Anthony

    2015-01-01

    The issues of developing strategies and approaches to teaching introductory level economics courses at university have been long standing. With the development of economics learning standards in Australia, this is a time to consider teaching and learning approaches to engage students and develop skills in economics. This paper considers that to…

  3. Prevalence and injury profile in Portuguese children and adolescents according to their level of sports participation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Costa E Silva, Lara; Fragoso, Isabel; Teles, Júlia

    2018-03-01

    It is becoming increasingly apparent that sports can present danger in the form of injuries. The extent of this problem calls for preventive actions based on epidemiological research. Two questionnaires (LESADO and RAPIL II) were distributed in four schools to 651 subjects aged between 10 and 18 years, involved in different levels of physical activity (PA) - recreative sports, school sports, federated sports and no sports participation (except physical education classes). Bone age was evaluated through Tanner-Whitehouse III method and anthropometric measures according to ISAK. From 247 subjects (37.9%) it was reported a sports injury during the previous six months. The most injured body areas were lower limbs (53.8%), followed by upper limbs (29.0%) and the type of injuries found was strains (33.7%), sprains (27.1%) and fractures (23.1%). The most frequent causes were direct trauma (51.9%), indirect trauma (29.5%) and overuse (12.7%). A high percentage was relapses and chronic injuries (40.9%). The OR for age group ≥16 years was 2.26 suggesting that those ≥16 years were 2.26 times more likely to have an injury than the younger subjects and concerning the PA level, school and federated sports subjects were 4.21 and 4.44 times more likely to have an injury than no sports participation subjects. Sports injuries in school age subjects were predominantly minor conditions where sprains and strains were the major injuries. They resulted mostly of trauma situations and lower and upper limbs were the most affected areas. Injury occurrence increased with age and was higher in school and federated athletes.

  4. Emergency department blood alcohol level associates with injury factors and six-month outcome after uncomplicated mild traumatic brain injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yue, John K; Ngwenya, Laura B; Upadhyayula, Pavan S; Deng, Hansen; Winkler, Ethan A; Burke, John F; Lee, Young M; Robinson, Caitlin K; Ferguson, Adam R; Lingsma, Hester F; Cnossen, Maryse C; Pirracchio, Romain; Korley, Frederick K; Vassar, Mary J; Yuh, Esther L; Mukherjee, Pratik; Gordon, Wayne A; Valadka, Alex B; Okonkwo, David O; Manley, Geoffrey T

    2017-11-01

    The relationship between blood alcohol level (BAL) and mild traumatic brain injury (mTBI) remains in need of improved characterization. Adult patients suffering mTBI without intracranial pathology on computed tomography (CT) from the prospective Transforming Research and Clinical Knowledge in Traumatic Brain Injury Pilot study with emergency department (ED) Glasgow Coma Scale (GCS) 13-15 and recorded blood alcohol level (BAL) were extracted. BAL≥80-mg/dl was set as proxy for excessive use. Multivariable regression was performed for patients with six-month Glasgow Outcome Scale-Extended (GOSE; functional recovery) and Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale Processing Speed Index Composite Score (WAIS-PSI; nonverbal processing speed), using BAL≥80-mg/dl and GOSE≤7; 38.1% vs. 11.5%; p=0.025) and lower WAIS-PSI (92.4±12.7, 30th-percentile vs. 105.1±11.7, 63rd-percentile; pGOSE≤7 and an adjusted mean decrease of 8.88-points (95% CI [0.67-17.09]; p=0.035) on WAIS-PSI. Day-of-injury BAL>80-mg/dl after uncomplicated mTBI was associated with decreased GCS score and prolongation of reported LOC. BAL may be a biomarker for impaired return to baseline function and decreased nonverbal processing speed at six-months postinjury. Future confirmatory studies are needed. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  5. Levels of Management and Economic Performance of Companies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tokarski Stefan

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available In order to achieve competitive results, the manager must master the skills necessary for subsequent levels of management. In the present study we have verified three hypotheses regarding the correlation between the level of control and efficiency, a form of ownership and influence on the managing level to direct and indirect subordinates. Two of the hypotheses gained the expected level of significance and the third was statistically insignificant.

  6. Functional level during the first 2 years after moderate and severe traumatic brain injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sandhaug, Maria; Andelic, Nada; Langhammer, Birgitta; Mygland, Aase

    2015-01-01

    Long-term outcomes after TBI are examined to a large extent, but longitudinal studies with more than 1-year follow-up time after injury have been fewer in number. The course of recovery may vary due to a number of factors and it is still somewhat unclear which factors are contributing. The aim of this study was to describe the functional level at four time points up to 24 months after traumatic brain injury (TBI) and to evaluate the predictive impact of pre-injury and injury-related factors. A cohort study. Outpatient. Sixty-five patients with moderate (n = 21) or severe (n = 44) TBI. The patients with TBI were examined with Functional Independence Measure (FIM) and Glasgow Outcome Scale Extended (GOSE) at 3 months, 12 months and 24 months after injury. Possible predictors were analysed in a regression model using FIM total score at 24 months as the outcome measure. FIM scores improved significantly from rehabilitation unit discharge to 24 months after injury, with peak levels at 3 and 24 months after injury (p GOSE scores for the whole group and the moderate group improved significantly over time, but the severe group did not. FIM at admission to the rehabilitation unit and GCS score at admission to the rehabilitation unit were closest to being significant predictors of FIM total scores 24 months after injury (B = 0.265 and 2.883, R(2 )= 0.39, p = 0.073, p = 0.081). FIM levels improved during the period from rehabilitation unit discharge to 3 months follow-up; thereafter, there was a 'plateauing' of recovery. In contrast, GOSE 'plateauing' of recovery was at 12 months. The study results may indicate that two of the most used outcome measures in TBI research are more relevant for assessment of the functional recovery in a sub-acute phase than in later stages of TBI recovery.

  7. Gender, age and ethnicity influence on pain levels and analgesic use in the acute whiplash injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koren, L; Peled, E; Trogan, R; Norman, D; Berkovich, Y; Israelit, S

    2015-06-01

    Initial pain level in the acute whiplash injury is the most consistent predictor of transformation to a chronic pain syndrome. The risk factors for those early pain levels were, to our knowledge, scarcely evaluate to this date. We set to evaluate whether gender, age or ethnicity comprise a risk factor for those initial pain levels. Further, gender, age and ethnicity have been shown to be bias factors in pain management. We investigated if gender, age or ethnicity are bias factor in pain management in the face of a standardized pain treatment protocol in the acute whiplash injury. We reviewed 2,538 patients with acute whiplash injury that were treated at our emergency department (ED). Gender, age and ethnicity were investigated as risk factors for elevated visual analog scale (VAS) scores. Those factors were also investigated as bias in pain medication administration in the face of a standardized analgesic protocol. Women had significantly higher VAS scores (p = 0.009). Age and ethnicity did not influence pain levels. There was no influence of gender or age on pain medication administration. The Jewish patients (the majority in Israel) were administered fewer pain medication (p whiplash injury. Age and ethnicity have less impact on those pain levels. A pain management protocol might reduce bias in pain management in the acute whiplash injury in the ED. The Jewish population tends to be less receptive to pain medication administration.

  8. Physical Activity-Related Injury Profile in Children and Adolescents According to Their Age, Maturation, and Level of Sports Participation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Costa E Silva, Lara; Fragoso, Maria Isabel; Teles, Júlia

    Physical activity (PA) is beneficial, enhancing healthy development. However, one-third of school-age children practicing sports regularly suffer from an injury. These injuries are associated with sex, chronological age, and PA level. To identify the importance of age, PA level, and maturity as predictors of injury in Portuguese youth. Descriptive epidemiological study. Level 3. Information about injury and PA level was assessed via 2 questionnaires (LESADO RAPIL II) from 647 subjects aged 10 to 17 years. Maturity offset according to Mirwald (time before or after peak height velocity) and Tanner-Whitehouse III bone age estimates were used to evaluate maturation. Binary logistic regression and gamma regression were used to determine significant predictors of injury and injury rate. Injury occurrence was higher for both sexes in recreational, school, and federated athletes (athletes engaged in sports that are regulated by their respective federations, with formal competition). These injuries also increased with age in boys and in the higher maturity offset group in girls. Injury rate was higher for both sexes in the no sports participation group. Early-maturing girls, with higher bone age and lower maturity offset, showed higher injury rate. Injuries in Portuguese youth were related to PA level, age, and biological maturation. Recreational, school, and federated athletes had more injury ocurrences while subjects with no sports participation had higher injury risk. Older subjects had more injuries. Early-maturing girls that had just passed peak height velocity may be particularly vulnerable to risk of sports injury because of the growing process. Increased knowledge about injury with specific PA exposure data is important to an overall risk management strategy. This study has deepened the association between injury and biological maturation variables.

  9. The Economic Burden of Autonomic Dysreflexia during Hospitalization for Individuals with Spinal Cord Injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Squair, Jordan W; White, Barry A B; Bravo, Grace I; Martin Ginis, Kathleen A; Krassioukov, Andrei V

    2016-08-01

    We sought to determine the economic burden of autonomic dysreflexia (AD) from the perspective of the Canadian healthcare system in a case series of individuals with spinal cord injury (SCI) presenting to emergency care. In doing so, we sought to illustrate the potential return on investments in the translation of evidence-informed practices and developments in the prevention, diagnosis, and management of AD. Activity-based costing methodology was employed to estimate the direct healthcare or hospitalization costs of AD following presentation to the emergency department. Differences in trends were noted between patients who were promptly diagnosed, managed, and discharged, and patients whose experience followed a less direct or ideal path to discharge. We recorded 29 emergency room visits for conditions ultimately diagnosed as AD. Overall, median length of stay was 3 days (interquartile range [IQR] = 1.25-5.75), but extended up to 103 consecutive days. Cost analysis revealed median healthcare costs of $5029 (IQR = $2397-9522) for hospital admissions for AD, with the highest estimated hospital cost for a single admission > $190,000. Emergency room admissions resulting from AD can result in dramatic healthcare costs. Delayed diagnosis and inefficient management of AD may lead to further complications, adding to the strain on already limited healthcare resources. Prompt recognition of AD; broader translation of evidence-informed practices; and novel diagnosis, self-management, and/or therapeutic/pharmaceutical applications may prove to mitigate the burden of AD and improve patient well-being.

  10. An injury equivalency system for establishing a common economic threshold for three species of rice planthoppers (Hemiptera: Delphacidae) in Taiwan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Shou-Horng; Chen, Ching-Huan; Chen, Chiou-Nan; Wu, Wen-Jer

    2013-04-01

    The economic threshold (ET) for multiple pest species that share the same injury type on host plants (feeding guild) has been proposed for decision-making in integrated management framework of many defoliating insect pests. However, only a few consider agricultural pests with sucking mouthparts. This study presents the first injury equivalency system for the feeding guild made up of three rice (Oryza sativa L.) planthopper (Hemiptera: Delphacidae) species--Nilaparvata lugens (Stål), Sogatella furcifera (Harváth), and Laodelphax striatellus (Fallén)--by using relative amount of honeydew excretion of each species. The intraspecific injury equivalent coefficient was determined; this coefficient provides an exchange rate for different developmental stages in a species. N. lugens was chosen as the standard species to obtain interspecific injury equivalents for other individuals in the guild, allowing estimates of total guild injury feasible. For extension purposes, the injury equivalency was simplified by pooling all nymphs and adults in the guild to mitigate the potential confusion resulting from uncertainty of instars or wing form. A matrix of ETs established on previous studies and incorporating changes of management cost and rice price was used and served as a control decision guide for the guild samples. The validity of the proposed injury equivalency system was tested using several field data sets, and the results are generally promising and meaningfully elevate the accuracy of estimating combined injury and damage to rice, suggesting that the proposed system is a better integrated pest management decision-making system compared with conventional practices.

  11. Method of levelized discounted costs applied in economic evaluation of nuclear power plant project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tian Li; Wang Yongqing; Liu Jingquan; Guo Jilin; Liu Wei

    2000-01-01

    The main methods of economic evaluation of bid which are in common use are introduced. The characteristics of levelized discounted cost method and its application are presented. The method of levelized discounted cost is applied to the cost calculation of a 200 MW nuclear heating reactor economic evaluation. The results indicate that the method of levelized discounted costs is simple, feasible and which is considered most suitable for the economic evaluation of various case. The method is suggested which is used in the national economic evaluation

  12. Improving climato-economic theorizing at the individual level.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fischer, Ronald

    2013-10-01

    Using representative data from 55 nations, I show that individual level wealth interacts with climate in predicting individual happiness but not postmaterialism values. I propose that more research is needed to identify (a) the specific mechanisms of how wealth buffers climatic demands at the individual level and (b) the neurocognitive and physiological reactions of individuals situated in different ecological niches.

  13. Spinal Cord Injury 101

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Cord Injury What is a Spinal Cord Injury Levels of Injury and What They Mean Animated Spinal ... Cord Injury What is a Spinal Cord Injury Levels of Injury and What They Mean Animated Spinal ...

  14. Immune cell distribution and immunoglobulin levels change following sciatic nerve injury in a rat model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wei Yuan

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Objective(s: To investigate the systemic and local immune status of two surgical rat models of sciatic nerve injury, a crushed sciatic nerve, and a sciatic nerve transection Materials and Methods:Twenty-four adult male Sprague-Dawley rats were randomly divided into three groups: sham-operation (control group, sciatic nerve crush, and sciatic nerve transaction. Sciatic nerve surgery was performed. The percentage of CD4+ cells and the CD4+/CD8+ratio were determined by flow cytometry. Serum IgM and IgG levels were analyzed by ELISA. T-cells (CD3 and macrophages (CD68 in sciatic nerve tissue sections were identified through immunohistochemistry. Results: Compared to sham-operated controls, in rats that underwent nerve injury, the percentage of CD4+ cells and the CD4+/CD8+ ratio in the peripheral blood were significantly  decreased 7 days after surgery, serum IgM levels were increased 14 days after surgery, and serum IgG levels were increased 21 days after surgery. There were a large number of CD3+ cells and a small number of CD68+ cells in sciatic nerve tissue sections 21 days after surgery, indicating T-cell and macrophage activation and infiltration. Local IgG deposition was also detected at the nerve injury site 21 days after surgery. Conclusion: Rat humoral and cellular immune status changed following sciatic nerve injury, particularly with regard to the cellular immune response at the nerve injury site.

  15. Social and Economic Determinants of the Level of Support for Environmental Protection and Economic Growth in a Rural Population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murdock, Steve H.; Schriner, Eldon C.

    Based on a secondary analysis of data from a statewide survey of North Dakota residents conducted during the spring of 1976, this study examined the differences in levels of support for environmental protection and economic growth via respondent characteristics, respondent characteristics within residence types, and occupational and social class…

  16. Study of the levels of serum cortisol and gastrin in dogs with vibration-induced injury

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wei Zikun

    2005-01-01

    Objective: To study the changes of levels of serum cortisol and gastrin in dogs with vibration-induced injury for providing better treatment regimen. Methods: In this experiment, 8 or 10 domestic dogs were placed on each of four sites away from explosion center about 0, 100, 200, 300 meters respectively. The dogs were standing uncontrolled or lying right side down under anesthesia. Serum cortisol and gastrin levels were detected with RIA both before and after explosion. Results: The levels of serum cortisol and gastrin began to fall about 24 hours after explosion. The serum levels of cortisol were still decreased significantly after 9 days and 17 days. Conclusion: The levels of the serum cortisol declined when the animals were injured by vibration. Detection of serum cortisol levels might lead to definitive diagnosis and supplemental treatment with cortical hormones for vibration-induced injury. (authors)

  17. Outcome of penetrating chest injuries in an urban level I trauma center in the Netherlands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heus, C; Mellema, J J; Giannakopoulos, G F; Zuidema, W P

    2015-04-25

    Most patients with penetrating chest injuries benefit from early treatment with chest tube drainage or surgery. Although penetrating chest injury is not uncommon, few descriptive studies are published, especially in Europe. The aim of this study was to review our experience and further improve our management of penetrating chest injuries in a level I trauma center in the Netherlands. All patients with penetrating chest injury between August 2004 and December 2012 were included. Demographics, mechanism of injury, physiological parameters, Injury Severity Scores (ISS), surgical and non-surgical treatment, length of intensive care unit (ICU) stay, length of hospital stay (LOS), complications and rate of mortality were collected. A total of 159 patients were analyzed. Patients included 116 (73 %) stab wounds and 34 (21 %) gunshot wounds. In 27 patients (17 %), cardiac injury was seen. The mean ISS was 12. Almost half of all patients (49 %) were treated with only chest tube drainage. Alternatively, surgical treatment was performed in 24 % of all cases. Anterolateral incision was most frequently used to gain access to the thoracic cavity. The mean LOS was 9 days. Among all patients, 17 % were admitted to the ICU with a mean stay of 3 days. In 18 (11 %) patients, one or more complications occurred. The 30-day mortality was 7.5 %. Patients presenting with penetrating chest injury are not uncommon in the Netherlands and can mostly be treated conservatively. In one-fourth of the patients, surgical treatment is performed. A structural and vigorous approach is needed for good clinical outcome.

  18. Increased plasma levels of microparticles expressing CD39 and CD133 in acute liver injury

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schmelzle, Moritz; Splith, Katrin; Wiuff Andersen, Lars

    2013-01-01

    BACKGROUND: We have previously demonstrated that CD133 and CD39 are expressed by hematopoietic stem cells (HSC), which are mobilized after liver injury and target sites of injury, limit vascular inflammation, and boost hepatic regeneration. Plasma microparticles (MP) expressing CD39 can block...... sacrificed and plasma MP were isolated by ultracentrifugation. HSC and CD133 MP levels were analyzed by fluorescence-activated cell sorting. Patients were enrolled with acute (n=5) and acute on chronic (n=5) liver injury with matched controls (n=7). Blood was collected at admission and plasma CD133 and CD39...... MP subsets were analyzed by fluorescence-activated cell sorting. RESULTS: HSC and CD133 MP levels were significantly increased only in the plasma of wild-type mice with acetaminophen hepatotoxicity (P

  19. Privacy Management Contracts And Economics, Using Service Level Agreements (Sla)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    L-F. Pau (Louis-François)

    2005-01-01

    textabstractRecognizing the importance of privacy management as a business process and a business support process, this paper proposes the use of service level agreements around privacy features, including qualitative and quantitative ones. It also casts privacy management into a business

  20. Tackling causes and costs of ED presentation for American football injuries: a population-level study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smart, Blair J; Haring, R Sterling; Asemota, Anthony O; Scott, John W; Canner, Joseph K; Nejim, Besma J; George, Benjamin P; Alsulaim, Hatim; Kirsch, Thomas D; Schneider, Eric B

    2016-07-01

    injury type-specific variability. Overall, at the US population, estimated total charges of $771299862 were incurred over the 2-year period. In this nationally representative sample, most ED-treated injuries associated with football were not acutely life threatening and very few required major therapeutic intervention. This study provides a cross-sectional overview of ED presentation for acute football-related injury across age groups at the population level in recent years. Longitudinal studies may be warranted to examine associations between the patterns of injury observed in this study and long-term outcomes among American tackle football players. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Mutual Payments in Increase of the Level of Economic Security of Energy Generating Enterprises

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ruzhytskyi Andrіy V

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The article presents main approaches to the essence of the economic security of an enterprise notion, namely, approach of counter-action to threats, approach of successful market activity and approach of achievement of certain development goals; it identifies the role of economic security of energy generating enterprises in economic security of other subjects and the country in general; it offers definition of the economic security of an enterprise notion as a complex characteristic of the state of the enterprise that reflects the level of the enterprise possibility to ensure functioning and development; it marks out functional components of economic security, which are connected with mutual payments, namely, financial, personnel, technical and technological, political and legal, informational and interface ones; it presents connection of mutual payments with the level of financial component of economic security of enterprises, which envisages financial flow from or to the enterprise for changing the obligation status or its quantitative characteristics.

  2. 29 CFR 801.12 - Exemption for employers conducting investigations of economic loss or injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... injury to an employer unless that employer has custody of, or management, or security responsibility for... business operations (and not simply the use of the premises) for such activity. For example, the use of an... substances constitutes an indirect loss or injury to the employer's business operations. Conversely, the mere...

  3. [PROGNOSTIC SIGNIFICANCE OF CHANGES OF BLOOD GLUCOSE LEVEL IN PATIENTS WITH THORACOABDOMINAL INJURIES.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sorokin, E P; Ponomarev, S V; Shilyaeva, Ye V; Bel'skih, Ye A; Gritsan, A I

    2016-07-01

    Background Currently, one of the causes of high morbidity and mortality is injuries. Predict the outcome of injuries - it is an important task of the treating physician. Trauma is a stress factor so to predict the outcome, you can use markers of stress, the most accessible ofwhich is blood glucose. to reveal the dynamics of the relationship between blood glucose levels and the outlook for the life ofpatients with thoracoabdominal injuries. A retrospective analysis of medical records of hospitalized patients were divided into two groups, depending on the outlook for the life of (favorable or unfavorable), and each of the groups - into two subgroups according to the presence or absence of signs of intoxication at admission. The subgroups were calculated and compared the mean blood glucose levels at different hours of hospital treatment. It was found that the average blood glucose levels at various hours of hospital stay were significantly higher in patients with poor outcome. The most noticeable was the difference in the first days of hospital treatment. Signs of intoxication was associated with lower values of glucose and a tendency to hypoglycaemia. In addition, among patients with high blood glucose ( 8 mg / dL) was observed over deaths in the first day of hospital stay. High blood glucose levels ( 8,0 mmol / L) in the first day of hospital treatment is a predictor ofpoor outcome in patients with thoracoabdominal injuries.

  4. Is Level of Injury a Determinant of Quality of Life Among Individuals with Spinal Cord Injury? A Tertiary Rehabilitation Center Report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seyed Amir Hossein Tavakoli

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: The role of injury-related variables in determining health-related quality of life (HRQOL among Iranian persons with spinal cord injury (SCI has not yet been fully described. In this study, we compared HRQOL between individuals with injury at cervical level and those with injury at thoracolumbar sections and evaluated the discriminating value of injury level as a determinant of HRQOL among Iranian people with SCI. Methods: Individuals with SCI, who were referred to Brain and Spinal Cord Injury Research Center, were invited to participate in this investigation. HRQOL was assessed using the Short Form (SF-36 questionnaire to determine the quality of life (QOL in eight domains: physical functioning (PF, role limitation due to physical problems (RP, bodily pain (BP, general health (GH, vitality (VT, social functioning (SF, role limitation due to emotional problems (RE, and mental health (MH. Results: Ninety patients with paraplegia and 94 quadriplegic patients participated in this investigation. The mean score of PF domain was significantly lower in patients with injury at cervical level (p < 0.0001. There was no significant difference in other domains of SF-36 between subjects with paraplegia and quadriplegia (p = 0.670, 0.700, 0.910, 0.710, 0.730, 0.290 and 0.850 for RP, RE, VT, MH, SF, BP and GH, respectively. Similarly, the mean physical component summary (PCS score was significantly higher among individuals with injury at thoracolumbar sections (p < 0.0001. The mean mental component summary (MCS score did not differ between the two groups (p = 0.720. Conclusions: Patients with SCI at the cervical level have similar mental health compared to those with injury at thoracolumbar sections, which shows proper mental adaptability in quadriplegic individuals. Injury level can be used as a major determinant of the physical component of QOL among people with SCI.

  5. A state-level analysis of the economic impacts of medical tourism in Malaysia

    OpenAIRE

    Klijs, J.; Ormond, M.E.; Mainil, T.; Peerlings, J.H.M.; Heijman, W.J.M.

    2016-01-01

    In Malaysia, a country that ranks among the world's most recognised medical tourism destinations, medical tourism is identified as a potential economic growth engine for both medical and non-medical sectors. A state-level analysis of economic impacts is important, given differences between states in economic profiles and numbers, origins, and expenditure of medical tourists. We applied input–output (I–O) analysis, based on state-specific I–O data and disaggregated foreign patient data. The an...

  6. The Level of Shyness among Talented Students in Light of Socio-Economic Level of the Family in Riyadh

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asi, Khaled Yousef

    2016-01-01

    The present study aimed to identify the level of shyness among talented students in the city of Riyadh, Saudi Arabia, and detect differences according to the variable of socio-economic level of the family. The sample consisted of (101) students, who randomly chosen from centers of talented students in Riyadh, Saudi Arabia. Shyness scale utilized…

  7. Serum beta-2 microglobulin levels for predicting acute kidney injury complicating aortic valve replacement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zaleska-Kociecka, Marta; Skrobisz, Anna; Wojtkowska, Izabela; Grabowski, Maciej; Dabrowski, Maciej; Kusmierski, Krzysztof; Piotrowska, Katarzyna; Imiela, Jacek; Stepinska, Janina

    2017-10-01

    Acute kidney injury complicating both transcatheter and surgical aortic valve replacement is associated with high rates of morbidity and mortality. The aim of this study was to investigate the role of serum beta 2 (β2) microglobulin, cystatin C and neutrophil gelatinase-associated lipocalin levels in detecting periprocedural acute kidney injury. Eighty consecutive patients who were 70 years of age or older and who were having surgical (n = 40) or transcatheter (n = 40) aortic valve replacement were recruited in a prospective study. The biomarkers were tested before the procedure, 6 times afterwards, at discharge and at a 6-month follow-up visit. The baseline β2-microglobulin level was the strongest predictor of acute kidney injury as a complication of transcatheter aortic valve replacement [odds ratio (OR) 5.277, P = 0.009]. Its level 24 h after the procedure reached the largest area under the curve (AUC) of 0.880 (P regression analysis, the levels of β2-microglobulin and cystatin C 24 h after the procedure were significantly associated with acute kidney injury after transcatheter valve replacement (OR 38.15, P = 0.044; OR 1782, P = 0.019, respectively). In the surgical aortic valve replacement group, the highest AUCs belonged to β2-microglobulin and cystatin C at 24 h (AUC = 0.808, P = 0.003 and AUC = 0.854, P = 0.001, respectively). Their higher values were also associated with acute kidney injury (OR 17.2, P = 0.018; OR 965.6, P = 0.02, respectively). A persistent increase in the postoperative levels of β2-microglobulin following acute kidney injury was associated with the progression of chronic kidney disease for 6 months after both transcatheter (OR 6.56, P = 0.030) and surgical (OR 7.67, P = 0.03) aortic valve replacements. Serum β2-microglobulin had the potential to predict acute kidney injury complicating transcatheter valve replacement and to diagnose it as early as 24 h after both the

  8. Temporal trends in BMI in Argentina by socio-economic position and province-level economic development, 2005-2009.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christine, Paul J; Diez Roux, Ana V; Wing, Jeffrey J; Alazraqui, Marcio; Spinelli, Hugo

    2015-04-01

    We investigated temporal trends in BMI, and assessed hypothesized predictors of trends including socio-economic position (SEP) and province-level economic development, in Argentina. Using multivariable linear regression, we evaluated cross-sectional patterning and temporal trends in BMI and examined heterogeneity in these associations by SEP and province-level economic development with nationally representative samples from Argentina in 2005 and 2009. We calculated mean annual changes in BMI for men and women to assess secular trends. Women, but not men, exhibited a strong cross-sectional inverse association between SEP and BMI, with the lowest-SEP women having an average BMI 2.55 kg/m(2) greater than the highest-SEP women. Analysis of trends revealed a mean annual increase in BMI of 0.19 kg/m(2) and 0.15 kg/m(2) for women and men, respectively, with slightly greater increases occurring in provinces with greater economic growth. No significant heterogeneity in trends existed by individual SEP. BMI is increasing rapidly over time in Argentina irrespective of various sociodemographic characteristics. Higher BMI remains more common in women of lower SEP compared with those of higher SEP.

  9. Economic considerations/comparisons for the disposal of defense high-level waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Leclaire, D.B.; Lazur, E.G.

    1985-01-01

    This paper provides a summary, in a generic sense, of the economic considerations and comparisons of permanent isolation of defense high-level waste (DHLW) in a licensed geologic repository. Topics considered include underground disposal, economic analysis, comparative evaluations, national defense, radioactive waste facilities, and licensing

  10. Relevance of Education and Intelligence at the National Level for the Economic Welfare of People

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rindermann, Heiner

    2008-01-01

    Cognitive abilities are important for the economic and non-economic success of individuals and societies. For international analyses, the collection of IQ-measures from Lynn and Vanhanen was supplemented and meliorated by data from international student assessment studies (IEA-Reading, TIMSS, PISA, PIRLS). The cognitive level of a nation is highly…

  11. A state-level analysis of the economic impacts of medical tourism in Malaysia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Klijs, J.; Ormond, M.E.; Mainil, T.; Peerlings, J.H.M.; Heijman, W.J.M.

    2016-01-01

    In Malaysia, a country that ranks among the world's most recognised medical tourism destinations, medical tourism is identified as a potential economic growth engine for both medical and non-medical sectors. A state-level analysis of economic impacts is important, given differences between states in

  12. Factors affecting mortality after penetrating cardiac injuries: 10-year experience at urban level I trauma center.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mina, Michael J; Jhunjhunwala, Rashi; Gelbard, Rondi B; Dougherty, Stacy D; Carr, Jacquelyn S; Dente, Christopher J; Nicholas, Jeffrey M; Wyrzykowski, Amy D; Salomone, Jeffrey P; Vercruysse, Gary A; Feliciano, David V; Morse, Bryan C

    2017-06-01

    Despite the lethality of injuries to the heart, optimizing factors that impact mortality for victims that do survive to reach the hospital is critical. From 2003 to 2012, prehospital data, injury characteristics, and clinical patient factors were analyzed for victims with penetrating cardiac injuries (PCIs) at an urban, level I trauma center. Over the 10-year study, 80 PCI patients survived to reach the hospital. Of the 21 factors analyzed, prehospital cardiopulmonary resuscitation (odds ratio [OR] = 30), scene time greater than 10 minutes (OR = 58), resuscitative thoracotomy (OR = 19), and massive left hemothorax (OR = 15) had the greatest impact on mortality. Cardiac tamponade physiology demonstrated a "protective" effect for survivors to the hospital (OR = .08). Trauma surgeons can improve mortality after PCI by minimizing time to the operating room for early control of hemorrhage. In PCI patients, tamponade may provide a physiologic advantage (lower mortality) compared to exsanguination. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Effects of the performance level and the FIFA "11" injury prevention program on the injury rate in Italian male amateur soccer players.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gatterer, H; Ruedl, G; Faulhaber, M; Regele, M; Burtscher, M

    2012-02-01

    Soccer is characterized by high injury rates that necessitate interventions for its reduction. The "11" is a multi-modal preventive program that was developed to reduce injury rate. However, outcomes on the effectiveness of the program are not unambiguous and data for the largest group at risk (i.e., male adult amateur players) are missing. The study aims to assess the injury rate in male adult amateur soccer players of different levels and to evaluate the effectiveness of the prevention program the "11". Three amateur soccer teams participated in the study during the first round of a competition season. Two teams played at a regional level (6th Italian league) and one team at a provincial level (7th Italian league). The regional league is of a higher skill level compared to the provincial league. Duration and frequency of training and match sessions and the occurrence of time-loss injuries were recorded. One team of the 6th league performed an injury prevention program. The total injury rate for the intervention and the control team in the 6th league was 3.3 (CI 0.7-5.9) and 4.3 (CI 1.3-7.3) injuries/1000 h, respectively (P=0.841). The 6th league control team tended to have a lesser injury rate compared to the 7th league team (P=0.081). The relative risk was 2 fold higher in the 7th compared to the 6th league team (P=0.0285 one tailed). Present results show that injury rate in amateur soccer depended rather on the skill level than the prevention program. In this study the prevention program the "11" was not shown to be highly effective in soccer player of intermediate level (i.e., 6th Italian league).

  14. Correlation of serum homocysteine levels with nerve injury and atherosclerosis in patients with stroke

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gai-Zhuang Liu

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To study the correlation of serum homocysteine levels with nerve injury and atherosclerosis in patients with stroke. Methods: Patients who were diagnosed with ischemic stroke in our hospital between January 2014 and December 2016 were selected and then divided into moderate-severe stenosis group (C group, mild stenosis group (B group and no stenosis group (A group according to carotid artery ultrasonography; healthy volunteers who received physical examination during the same period were chosen as control group. The serum levels of homocysteine, nerve injury indexes and atherosclerosis indexes were detected. Results: Serum Hcy, S100B, NSE, UCH-L1, GFAP, FGF23, CD36, ox-LDL, MMP8 and MMP9 levels of C group, B group and A group were significantly higher than those of control group, and the severer the carotid stenosis, the higher the serum S100B, NSE, UCHL1, GFAP, FGF23, CD36, ox-LDL, MMP8 and MMP9 levels; serum S100B, NSE, UCHL1, GFAP, FGF23, CD36, ox-LDL, MMP8 and MMP9 levels in stoke patients with high Hcy were significantly higher than those of patients with normal Hcy. Conclusions: Serum homocysteine levels increase in patients with stroke and are closely related to the nerve injury and atherosclerosis.

  15. A framework to investigate the economic growth impact of sea level rise

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hallegatte, Stéphane

    2012-01-01

    This article reviews the channels through which sea level rise can affect economic growth, namely the loss of land, the loss of infrastructure and physical capital, the loss of social capital, the additional cost from extreme events and coastal floods, and the increased expenditure for coastal protection. It discusses how existing studies on the direct impact of sea level rise could be used to investigate the resulting consequences on economic growth, emphasizes research needs on this question, and discusses consequences on migration. (letter)

  16. "Economic Development, Income Inequality and Social Stability in Prewar Japan: A Prefecture-level Analysis"

    OpenAIRE

    Tetsuji Okazaki

    2007-01-01

    This paper addresses the relationship between economic development, income inequality and social stability, using the data of prewar Japan. We have made prefecture-level income inequality index, based on tax and wage statistics with respect to four data points, 1888, 1896, 1921 and 1935. Regression analyses of the prefecture-level panel data confirmed that there was an inverse-U shaped relationship between economic development and income inequality. At the same time thorough analyses of the d...

  17. Economic burden of occupational injury and illness in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leigh, J Paul

    2011-12-01

    The allocation of scarce health care resources requires a knowledge of disease costs. Whereas many studies of a variety of diseases are available, few focus on job-related injuries and illnesses. This article provides estimates of the national costs of occupational injury and illness among civilians in the United States for 2007. This study provides estimates of both the incidence of fatal and nonfatal injuries and nonfatal illnesses and the prevalence of fatal diseases as well as both medical and indirect (productivity) costs. To generate the estimates, I combined primary and secondary data sources with parameters from the literature and model assumptions. My primary sources were injury, disease, employment, and inflation data from the U.S. Bureau of Labor Statistics (BLS) and the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) as well as costs data from the National Council on Compensation Insurance and the Healthcare Cost and Utilization Project. My secondary sources were the National Academy of Social Insurance, literature estimates of Attributable Fractions (AF) of diseases with occupational components, and national estimates for all health care costs. Critical model assumptions were applied to the underreporting of injuries, wage-replacement rates, and AFs. Total costs were calculated by multiplying the number of cases by the average cost per case. A sensitivity analysis tested for the effects of the most consequential assumptions. Numerous improvements over earlier studies included reliance on BLS data for government workers and ten specific cancer sites rather than only one broad cancer category. The number of fatal and nonfatal injuries in 2007 was estimated to be more than 5,600 and almost 8,559,000, respectively, at a cost of $6 billion and $186 billion. The number of fatal and nonfatal illnesses was estimated at more than 53,000 and nearly 427,000, respectively, with cost estimates of $46 billion and $12 billion. For injuries and diseases combined

  18. FAMILY’S ECONOMIC LEVEL AND CULTURE CORRELATE WITH NUTRITIONAL STATUS OF CHILDREN UNDER FIVE YEARS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdul Muhith

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Nutrition is an important thing for human life. Variety in family’s economic level and culture have effect on family’s eating habit. Family with higher economic status have big opportunity to met under fi ve year’s nutrition. Cultural diversity on each family has an impact on the difference of raw food selection, processing methods, and presentation of food. The purpose of this study was to determine the correlation between family’s economic level and culture with nutritional status of children under fi ve year. Method: Research design was observational analytic with cross sectional approach. The population were mother and their children under fi ve years at Desa Jatigono Kunir, Kabupaten Lumajang. Sampel were 184 respondents, taken by using cluster sampling. Independent variables were family’s economic level and culture. Dependent variable was nutritional status of children under fi ve years. Data were collected by using questionnaire and observational sheet. Then, data were analyzed by using Spearman Rho Test with α<0.05. Result: The results showed that 140 (76.1% respondents have low economic level, 105 (57.1% respondents have negative culture in children’s nutrition, and 89 (48% respondents have good nutritional status. The result of Spearman-rho test showed that family’s economic level (p=0.000 and culture (0.019 have correlated with nutritional status of children under five years. Discussion: It can be concluded that family’s economic level and culture have correlated with nutritional status of children under fi ve years. Nurses should develop health education and counseling to improve family’s knowledge about nutrition, so children will have good nutritional status. Keywords: economic level, family’s culture, nutritional status, children under five years

  19. Economic security of the Russian Federation: current status, level and threats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. V. Grigoryeva

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The problems of national and economic security maintenanceis aggravating in modern conditions of globalization and international competition related to controlof market channels, technological, information and natural resources.Today Russia is making all efforts to protect its position on the world stage and improve the lives of its citizens.Despite the worsening of the present economic, political and social differences in the world, the Russian Federation has its own national interests, which can be possible to fulfill only on the basis of sustainable development of the national economic security system.The latter traditionally determines the ability of the state economic system to maintain normal conditions for the national economy functioning and the population activity. The national economic securitystabilitycan be estimated only by the application of elaborate tools of the economic development indicators analysis and the threshold values examinationaimed at the determination of the quality characteristic of actual and the most successful model of the economic activity.The analysis of the current Russian economic situation showed the presence of some serious problems existing in the national economy. The economic security level of Russia, having a tendency to increase in the period of 1998-2013, has been sharply reduced to critical points since 2014. So, it is necessary to take some measures to restructure the system of economic security of the state. Based on the research it was identified the list of the most dangerous threats to the modern Russian economy, which includes: low level of the country industrial production; the economy dependence on goods import and raw materials export; low living standards of the population; the rapid growth of the shadow economy and corruption; the lack of civil science and innovationdevelopment. The main strategic directions for economic security levelincrease in Russia today and in the future are aimed at

  20. No correlation between initial arterial carboxyhemoglobin level and degree of lung injury following ovine burn and smoke inhalation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lange, Matthias; Cox, Robert A; Traber, Daniel L; Hamahata, Atsumori; Nakano, Yoshimitsu; Traber, Lillian D; Enkhbaatar, Perenlei

    2014-04-01

    Fire victims often suffer from burn injury and concomitant inhalation trauma, the latter significantly contributing to the morbidity and mortality in these patients. Measurement of blood carboxyhemoglobin levels has been proposed as a diagnostic marker to verify and, perhaps, quantify the degree of lung injury following inhalation trauma. However, this correlation has not yet been sufficiently validated. A total of 77 chronically instrumented sheep received sham injury, smoke inhalation injury, or combined burn and inhalation trauma following an established protocol. Arterial carboxyhemoglobin concentrations were determined directly after injury and correlated to several clinical and histopathological determinants of lung injury that were detected 48 hours post-injury. The injury induced severe impairment of pulmonary gas exchange and increases in transvascular fluid flux, lung water content, and airway obstruction scores. No significant correlations were detected between initial carboxyhemoglobin levels and all measured clinical and histopathological determinants of lung injury. In conclusion, the amount of arterial carboxyhemoglobin concentration cannot predict the degree of lung injury at 48 hours after ovine burn and smoke inhalation trauma.

  1. Association between individual-level and community-level socio-economic status and blood pressure among Inuit in Greenland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mylène Riva

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: Despite abundant evidence that socio-economic status (SES is a fundamental determinant of health, there is a dearth of research examining association between SES, measured at the individual and community levels, and cardiovascular risk factors and morbidity among indigenous populations. Objectives: To examine the influence of individual-level and community-level SES on systolic and diastolic blood pressure among Greenlandic Inuit. Methods: Multilevel analysis of cross-sectional data from the Inuit Health in Transition – Greenland Survey, to which 3,108 Greenlandic Inuit aged 18 years and older participated. Blood pressure is measured using an automatic device, according to standardized protocol. Individual SES is measured by education. Community socio-economic conditions are measured using combined information on average disposable household income and settlement type. Results: Education was not significantly associated with blood pressure. There was an inverse U-shape association between community socio-economic conditions and blood pressure with significantly lower SBP and DBP among participants living in remote traditional villages characterized by lower average disposable household income and in affluent more urbanized towns. Sex-stratified analyses demonstrate the salience of community conditions for men. Conclusions: The association observed between blood pressure and community-level socio-economic conditions suggests that public health and social policies, programmes and interventions aiming to improve living conditions might improve cardiovascular health in Greenland. Studies are required to further examine social gradients in cardiovascular risk factors and morbidity among indigenous populations using different measures of SES.

  2. Association between individual-level and community-level socio-economic status and blood pressure among Inuit in Greenland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riva, Mylène; Larsen, Christina Viskum Lytken; Bjerregaard, Peter

    2016-01-01

    Despite abundant evidence that socio-economic status (SES) is a fundamental determinant of health, there is a dearth of research examining association between SES, measured at the individual and community levels, and cardiovascular risk factors and morbidity among indigenous populations. To examine the influence of individual-level and community-level SES on systolic and diastolic blood pressure among Greenlandic Inuit. Multilevel analysis of cross-sectional data from the Inuit Health in Transition - Greenland Survey, to which 3,108 Greenlandic Inuit aged 18 years and older participated. Blood pressure is measured using an automatic device, according to standardized protocol. Individual SES is measured by education. Community socio-economic conditions are measured using combined information on average disposable household income and settlement type. Education was not significantly associated with blood pressure. There was an inverse U-shape association between community socio-economic conditions and blood pressure with significantly lower SBP and DBP among participants living in remote traditional villages characterized by lower average disposable household income and in affluent more urbanized towns. Sex-stratified analyses demonstrate the salience of community conditions for men. The association observed between blood pressure and community-level socio-economic conditions suggests that public health and social policies, programmes and interventions aiming to improve living conditions might improve cardiovascular health in Greenland. Studies are required to further examine social gradients in cardiovascular risk factors and morbidity among indigenous populations using different measures of SES.

  3. Nutritional profile of schoolchildren from different socio-economic levels in Santiago, Chile.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liberona, Yessica; Castillo, Oscar; Engler, Valerie; Villarroel, Luis; Rozowski, Jaime

    2011-01-01

    To assess the nutritional status, food intake and physical activity patterns in schoolchildren attending 5th and 6th grade in basic schools from different socio-economic levels in the metropolitan region of Santiago. Cross-sectional study in children 5th and 6th grade of eighteen basic schools in the metropolitan region of Santiago. Boys and girls aged 9-12 years from basic schools were evaluated in terms of physical capacity. An anthropometric evaluation was also performed which included weight, height and triceps and subscapular skinfold thicknesses. Food intake was evaluated by a 24 h recall, socio-economic level by the ESOMAR method and physical activity by a questionnaire. Boys and girls aged 9-12 years (n 1732). The average prevalence of overweight and obesity was 40 %, with the highest prevalence in males and those from lower socio-economic level. A majority (64 %) of the children had a low level of physical activity. A higher intake of fat and protein and a higher intake of carbohydrate were found in the higher and lower socio-economic levels, respectively. Both males and females showed adequacy greater than 75 % in macronutrient intake except for fibre, with both groups showing a deficit in the consumption of fruits, vegetables, legumes, fish and milk products according to Chilean recommendations. A high prevalence of malnutrition by excess was observed in both sexes and a better eating and physical activity pattern was seen in children from higher socio-economic level.

  4. Substantiating the Target Level of Economic Security of Transport Enterprises and the Instrumentarium for Its Provision

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lebedko Sergiy A.

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available The article is aimed at substantiating the methodology for assessing the economic security of transport enterprises, determining the target level and the instrumentarium for its provision. The proposed methodical approach to the assessment of the level of economic security of transport enterprises includes the determination of the level of counteracting threats and is based on the principles of integral estimation. The formed integrated indicator includes both indicators of counteracting the internal (human, managerial and technological, force majeure, financial and external threats (market, stakeholder, power-based, natural, infrastructural. Each measure of counteracting threats is determined by results of assessment of dynamics of the three indicators. A practical testing of the proposed approach is carried out in the case of transport enterprises. Based on the established equation of the regression relationship between the level of economic security and the financial strength, a target level of economic security of transport enterprises has been substantiated. The instrumentarium to provide a targeted level of economic security according to the threat types, including preventive and reactive measures, has been developed.

  5. Use of a dynamic gait trainer for a child with thoracic level spinal cord injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Altizer, Wendy; Noritz, Garey; Paleg, Ginny

    2017-10-10

    Paediatric spinal cord injury (SCI) can result in permanent mobility impairment with consequences for activity, participation and quality of life. This case documents the effect of an overground supported stepping intervention using a dynamic gait trainer. To our knowledge, there are no published studies on this intervention for children with SCI and similar interventions have only been reported in children at American Spinal Injury Association Impairment Scale (AIS) levels B and C.A child with a T10 (thoracic level, vertebra 10), AIS level A injury, sustained at 2 years of age, continued to make gains in all areas including participation, activity, body structure and function over the following 4 years. Use of a dynamic gait trainer improved the participant's ability to be active and participate despite lack of further neuromuscular recovery. This novel approach with a commonly available device allowed the child to be active and participate in the absence of neural recovery. © BMJ Publishing Group Ltd (unless otherwise stated in the text of the article) 2017. All rights reserved. No commercial use is permitted unless otherwise expressly granted.

  6. Inflammatory C-reactive protein and cytokine levels in asymptomatic people with chronic spinal cord injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frost, Frederick; Roach, Mary Jo; Kushner, Irving; Schreiber, Peter

    2005-02-01

    To determine the relation between serologic markers of information and clinical characteristics of people with chronic spinal cord injury (SCI). Cross-sectional study. Academic medical center SCI outpatient clinic. Convenience sample of 37 men with chronic SCI and 10 healthy control subjects. Not applicable. Serum levels of interleukin-6 (IL-6), tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-alpha), and C-reactive protein (CRP). The following results achieved statistical significance at P less than .05. Asymptomatic chronic SCI patients differed from referent controls with respect to serum CRP levels but not IL-6 or TNF-alpha. In SCI patients, higher levels of CRP correlated negatively with hemoglobin and albumin levels. A longer time since injury correlated with lower TNF-alpha values, whereas higher TNF-alpha levels correlated with higher serum albumin. Pressure ulcers and indwelling urinary catheters were associated with higher mean levels of CRP but not of the cytokines TNF-alpha and IL-6. Intermittent urinary catheterization was associated with lower levels of CRP when compared with other methods of bladder management. Asymptomatic people with long-term SCI, especially those with indwelling urinary catheters, showed serologic evidence of a systemic inflammatory state. There was no evidence of an elevation in proinflammatory cytokines. Detection of an ongoing systemic inflammatory response in apparently healthy people with indwelling urinary catheters and small skin ulcers further supports the aggressive pursuit of catheter-free voiding options and pressure ulcer healing.

  7. An economic evaluation of setting up physical barriers in railway stations for preventing railway injury: evidence from Hong Kong.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Law, C K; Yip, P S F

    2011-10-01

    Setting physical barriers, for example platform screen doors (PSDs), has been proven to be effective in preventing falls onto railway tracks, but its cost-effectiveness is not known. For economic evaluation of public health interventions, the importance of including non-health factors has been noted despite a lack of empirical studies. This study aimed to investigate the effectiveness and cost-effectiveness of PSDs, which are installed in part of the Hong Kong railway system, for preventing railway injuries. Data on railway injuries from 1997 to 2007 were obtained from the railway operators. Poisson regression was used to examine the risk reduction. Two incremental cost-effectiveness ratios (ICER) were calculated to assess the cost-effectiveness based on (1) disability-adjusted life years (DALYs) only and (2) DALYs with potential fare revenue and passengers' waiting time lost due to railway circulation collapse. The PSD installation has effectively reduced railway injuries (adjusted 5-year average percentage change: -68.8%, pfair and appropriate value of the intervention's cost-effectiveness is needed.

  8. Human Capital and Economic Growth: The Quest for the Most Relevant Level of Education in Pakistan

    OpenAIRE

    Sultan, Faisal; Tehseen, Syed; Arif, Imtiaz

    2009-01-01

    The study examines the role of human capital in the economic growth of Pakistan by using primary, secondary and higher education enrolments as proxies for human capital in three different specifications. The idea behind these models is to find out the most relevant level of education in terms of its contribution in economic growth. The order of integration of the variables is checked through Augmented Dickey Fuller and Phillips Perron test. In order to find out the evidences of the long run r...

  9. Vitamin E levels in preeclampsia placenta tissue and its correlation with oxidative stress injury and apoptosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jun Li

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To study the vitamin E levels in preeclampsia placenta tissue and its correlation with oxidative stress injury and apoptosis. Methods: A total of 60 pregnant women with preeclampsia who received treatment and gave birth in our hospital between July 2012 and January 2016 were collected and divided into mild preeclampsia group (n=41 and severe preeclampsia group (n=19 according to the disease severity; 38 normal pregnant women who received pregnancy test and gave birth in our hospital during the same period were selected as healthy control group. The placental tissue samples of three groups of research subjects were retained, high performance liquid chromatograph-mass spectrometry was used to detect VitE levels in tissue grinding fluid, automatic biochemical analyzer was used to detect the levels of oxidative stress injury indexes, and fluorescence quantitative PCR method was used to detect the mRNA expression of apoptosis molecules. Results: VitE, SOD and CAT levels in grinding fluid of severe preeclampsia group were lower than those of mild preeclampsia group and healthy control group while ROS and AOPP levels were higher than those of mild preeclampsia group and healthy control group; Fas, caspase and Apaf-1 mRNA expression were higher than those of mild preeclampsia group and healthy control group while anti-apoptotic molecules Bcl-2, Bcl-xl, Mcl-2 and p57kip2 mRNA expression were lower than those of mild preeclampsia group and healthy control group. Spearman correlation analysis showed that VitE level in the preeclampsia placenta tissue was directly correlated with oxidative stress injury and cell apoptosis. Conclusion: VitE deficiency is the direct factor that results in oxidative stress and cell apoptosis in patients with preeclampsia, and the VitE supplementation in time is expected to become the auxiliary treatment means for patients with preeclampsia.

  10. Hemoglobin A1c Levels Predicts Acute Kidney Injury after Coronary Artery Bypass Surgery in Non-Diabetic Patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cevdet Ugur Kocogulları

    Full Text Available Abstract INTRODUCTION: Elevated hemoglobin A1c levels in patients with diabetes mellitus have been known as a risk factor for acute kidney injury after coronary artery bypass grafting. However, the relationship between hemoglobin A1c levels in non-diabetics and acute kidney injury is under debate. We aimed to investigate the association of preoperative hemoglobin A1c levels with acute kidney injury in non-diabetic patients undergoing isolated coronary artery bypass grafting. METHODS: 202 non-diabetic patients with normal renal function (serum creatinine <1.4 mg/dl who underwent isolated coronary bypass were analyzed. Hemoglobin A1c level was measured at the baseline examination. Patients were separated into two groups according to preoperative Hemoglobin A1c level. Group 1 consisted of patients with preoperative HbA1c levels of < 5.6% and Group 2 consisted of patients with preoperative HbA1c levels of ≥ 5.6%. Acute kidney injury diagnosis was made by comparing baseline and postoperative serum creatinine to determine the presence of predefined significant change based on the Kidney Disease Improving Global Outcomes (KDIGO definition. RESULTS: Acute kidney injury occurred in 19 (10.5% patients after surgery. The incidence of acute kidney injury was 3.6% in Group 1 and 16.7% in Group 2. Elevated baseline hemoglobin A1c level was found to be associated with acute kidney injury (P=0.0001. None of the patients became hemodialysis dependent. The cut off value for acute kidney injury in our group of patients was 5.75%. CONCLUSION: Our findings suggest that, in non-diabetics, elevated preoperative hemoglobin A1c level may be associated with acute kidney injury in patients undergoing coronary artery bypass grafting. Prospective randomized studies in larger groups are needed to confirm these results.

  11. MW151 Inhibited IL-1β Levels after Traumatic Brain Injury with No Effect on Microglia Physiological Responses.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adam D Bachstetter

    Full Text Available A prevailing neuroinflammation hypothesis is that increased production of proinflammatory cytokines contributes to progressive neuropathology, secondary to the primary damage caused by a traumatic brain injury (TBI. In support of the hypothesis, post-injury interventions that inhibit the proinflammatory cytokine surge can attenuate the progressive pathology. However, other post-injury neuroinflammatory responses are key to endogenous recovery responses. Therefore, it is critical that pharmacological attenuation of detrimental or dysregulated neuroinflammatory processes avoid pan-suppression of inflammation. MW151 is a CNS-penetrant, small molecule experimental therapeutic that restores injury- or disease-induced overproduction of proinflammatory cytokines towards homeostasis without immunosuppression. Post-injury administration of MW151 in a closed head injury model of mild TBI suppressed acute cytokine up-regulation and downstream cognitive impairment. Here, we report results from a diffuse brain injury model in mice using midline fluid percussion. Low dose (0.5-5.0 mg/kg administration of MW151 suppresses interleukin-1 beta (IL-1β levels in the cortex while sparing reactive microglia and astrocyte responses. To probe molecular mechanisms, we used live cell imaging of the BV-2 microglia cell line to demonstrate that MW151 does not affect proliferation, migration, or phagocytosis of the cells. Our results provide insight into the roles of glial responses to brain injury and indicate the feasibility of using appropriate dosing for selective therapeutic modulation of injurious IL-1β increases while sparing other glial responses to injury.

  12. Association between individual-level and community-level socio-economic status and blood pressure among Inuit in Greenland

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Riva, Mylène; Larsen, C. V. L.; Bjerregaard, Peter

    2016-01-01

    and older participated. Blood pressure is measured using an automatic device, according to standardized protocol. Individual SES is measured by education. Community socio-economic conditions are measured using combined information on average disposable household income and settlement type. Results....... Education was not significantly associated with blood pressure. There was an inverse U-shape association between community socio-economic conditions and blood pressure with significantly lower SBP and DBP among participants living in remote traditional villages characterized by lower average disposable...... household income and in affluent more urbanized towns. Sex-stratified analyses demonstrate the salience of community conditions for men. Conclusions. The association observed between blood pressure and community-level socio-economic conditions suggests that public health and social policies, programmes...

  13. 11.361 sports injuries in a 15-year survey of a Level I emergency trauma department reveal different severe injury types in the 6 most common team sports.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krutsch, Werner; Krutsch, Volker; Hilber, Franz; Pfeifer, Christian; Baumann, Florian; Weber, Johannes; Schmitz, Paul; Kerschbaum, Maximilian; Nerlich, Michael; Angele, Peter

    2018-06-01

     Severe sports-related injuries are a common affliction treated in Level I trauma departments. Detailed knowledge on injury characteristics from different medical settings is essential to improve the development of injury prevention strategies in different team sports.  Team sport injuries were retrospectively analysed in a Level I trauma department registry over 15 years. Injury and treatment data were compared with regard to competition and training exposure. Injury data such as "time of visitation", "type of injury", "multiple injured body regions" and "immediate hospitalisation" helped to define the severity level of each team sports injury.  At the Level I trauma department, 11.361 sports-related injuries were seen over 15 years, of which 34.0 % were sustained during team sports. Soccer injuries were the most common injuries of all team sports (71.4 %). The lower extremity was the most affected body region overall, followed by the upper extremity. Head injuries were mainly seen in Ice hockey and American football and concussion additionally frequently in team handball. Slight injuries like sprains or contusions occurred most frequently in all team sports. In soccer and team handball, injuries sustained in competition were significantly more severe (p team sports, injury prevention strategies should address competitive as well as training situations, whichmay need different strategies. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  14. Serum melatonin levels in survivor and non-survivor patients with traumatic brain injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lorente, Leonardo; Martín, María M; Abreu-González, Pedro; Pérez-Cejas, Antonia; Ramos, Luis; Argueso, Mónica; Solé-Violán, Jordi; Cáceres, Juan J; Jiménez, Alejandro; García-Marín, Victor

    2017-07-19

    Circulating levels of melatonin in patients with traumatic brain injury (TBI) have been determined in a little number of studies with small sample size (highest sample size of 37 patients) and only were reported the comparison of serum melatonin levels between TBI patients and healthy controls. As to we know, the possible association between circulating levels of melatonin levels and mortality of patients with TBI have not been explored; thus, the objective of our current study was to determine whether this association actually exists. This multicenter study included 118 severe TBI (Glasgow Coma Scale melatonin, malondialdehyde (to assess lipid peroxidation) and total antioxidant capacity (TAC) at day 1 of severe TBI. We used mortality at 30 days as endpoint. We found that non-survivor (n = 33) compared to survivor (n = 85) TBI patients showed higher circulating levels of melatonin (p melatonin levels predicted 30-day mortality (Odds ratio = 1.334; 95% confidence interval = 1.094-1.627; p = 0.004), after to control for GCS, CT findings and age. We found a correlation between serum levels of melatonin levels and serum levels of TAC (rho = 0.37; p melatonin levels in patients with severe TBI. The main findings were that non-survivors had higher serum melatonin levels than survivors, and the association between serum levels of melatonin levels and mortality, peroxidation state and antioxidant state.

  15. A comparison of two assessments of high level cognitive communication disorders in mild traumatic brain injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blyth, Tanya; Scott, Amanda; Bond, Annabelle; Paul, Eldho

    2012-01-01

    Individuals with traumatic brain injury (TBI) frequently encounter cognitive communication disorders. Deficits can be subtle but can seriously influence an individual's ability to achieve life goals. Feedback from rehabilitation facilities indicated that high level cognitive communication disorders are not consistently identified in the acute setting. This study aimed to compare the cognitive communication results from two screening assessments, the Cognistat and the Cognitive Linguistic Quick Test (CLQT), in participants with a mild traumatic brain injury and to relate these findings to a range of prognostic indicators. Eighty-three adults post-TBI (16-81 years; 79.5% males) were recruited at an acute trauma centre. The language components of the two tests were analysed. The CLQT identified more participants with an impairment in language than the Cognistat, 19.3% compared to 1.2% (p communication deficits than the Cognistat in the acute setting.

  16. Noiseonomics: the relationship between ambient noise levels in the sea and global economic trends.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frisk, George V

    2012-01-01

    In recent years, the topic of noise in the sea and its effects on marine mammals has attracted considerable attention from both the scientific community and the general public. Since marine mammals rely heavily on acoustics as a primary means of communicating, navigating, and foraging in the ocean, any change in their acoustic environment may have an impact on their behavior. Specifically, a growing body of literature suggests that low-frequency, ambient noise levels in the open ocean increased approximately 3.3 dB per decade during the period 1950-2007. Here we show that this increase can be attributed primarily to commercial shipping activity, which in turn, can be linked to global economic growth. As a corollary, we conclude that ambient noise levels can be directly related to global economic conditions. We provide experimental evidence supporting this theory and discuss its implications for predicting future noise levels based on global economic trends.

  17. A Prospective Epidemiological Study of Injuries in Japanese National Tournament-Level Badminton Players From Junior High School to University.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miyake, Eiji; Yatsunami, Mitsunobu; Kurabayashi, Jun; Teruya, Koji; Sekine, Yasuhiro; Endo, Tatsuaki; Nishida, Ryuichiro; Takano, Nao; Sato, Seiko; Jae Kyung, Han

    2016-03-01

    Injury prevention programs have recently been created for various sports. However, a longitudinal study on badminton injuries, as assessed by a team's dedicated medical staff, at the gymnasium has not been performed. We aimed to perform the first such study to measure the injury incidence, severity and type as the first step in creating a badminton injury prevention program. A prospective, longitudinal survey was conducted between April 2012 and March 2013 with 133 national tournament-level badminton players from junior high school to university in Japan with the teams' physical therapists at the gymnasium. Injury incidence was measured as the injury rate (IR) for every 1,000 hour (1000 hour) and IR for every 1,000 athlete exposures (1000 AE). Severity was classified in 5 levels by the number of days the athlete was absent from practice or matches. Injury types were categorized as trauma or overuse. Practice (IR) (1,000 hour) was significantly higher in female players than in male players; the rates increased with increasing age. IR (1,000 AE) was significantly higher in matches than in practice in both sexes of all ages, except for female junior high school students and injuries were most frequent for high school students in matches. The majority of the injuries were slight (83.8%); overuse injuries occurred approximately 3 times more than trauma. This is the first study in which medical staff assessed injuries in badminton, providing value through benchmark data. Injury prevention programs are particularly necessary for female university students in practice and high school students in matches.

  18. Injury severity and disability in the selection of next level of care following acute medical treatment for traumatic brain injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malec, James F; Mandrekar, Jayawant N; Brown, Allen W; Moessner, Anne M

    2009-01-01

    To evaluate the association of demographic factors, post-traumatic amnesia (PTA) and a standardized measure of ability limitations with clinical decisions for Next Level of Care following acute hospital treatment for moderate-severe traumatic brain injury (TBI). A TBI Clinical Nurse specialist recorded PTA for 212 individuals and rated 159 on the Ability and Adjustment Indices of the Mayo-Portland Adaptability Inventory (MPAI-4) for comparison with clinical decisions. Multivariate logistic regression analyses revealed that independent ratings on the MPAI-4 Ability Index and PTA were associated with the clinical decision to admit to Inpatient Rehabilitation vs discharge to Home in 92.7% of the sample; ratings on the Ability Index alone were associated with this decision in 92.2% of cases. Age over 65 was the only variable associated with discharge to a Skilled Nursing Facility, correctly predicting this decision in 64% of cases. Use of a standardized measure of ability limitations appears feasible to provide supportive documentation and potentially improve the consistency of decision-making in recommending Inpatient Rehabilitation vs discharge to Home. Although age is a significant factor in the decision to discharge to a Skilled Nursing Facility, this decision appears complex and merits further study.

  19. Economics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palley, Paul D; Parcero, Miriam E

    2016-10-01

    A review of literature in the calendar year 2015 dedicated to environmental policies and sustainable development, and economic policies. This review is divided into these sections: sustainable development, irrigation, ecosystems and water management, climate change and disaster risk management, economic growth, water supply policies, water consumption, water price regulation, and water price valuation.

  20. Economic Polarization Across European Union Regions in the years 2007–2012 at NUTS 2 Level

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Piętak Łukasz

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this paper is to study the economic polarization in countries of the EU at NUTS 2 level in the years 2007–2012. The studies have to decide on positive or negative verification of the hypothesis, which states that the economic crisis of 2008–2013 had an influence on rising economic polarization in EU countries. The method used in this article is an application of some measures of economic polarization and inequality of income distribution. The carried out research did not allow for the positive verification of the hypothesis. Only in a few countries did the economic crisis have an influence on a reduction of the middle class. In most cases the economic collapse did not play any role in the raising of the economic polarization index. The statistical data used in this paper was taken from the following databases: Statistical Yearbook of the Regions – Poland from 2009 to 2013 and Eurostat – Regional statistics by NUTS classification*.

  1. Energy efficiency, human behavior, and economic growth: Challenges to cutting energy demand to sustainable levels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santarius, Tilman

    2015-03-01

    Increasing energy efficiency in households, transportation, industries, and services is an important strategy to reduce energy service demand to levels that allow the steep reduction of greenhouse gases, and a full fledged switch of energy systems to a renewable basis. Yet, technological efficiency improvements may generate so-called rebound effects, which may `eat up' parts of the technical savings potential. This article provides a comprehensive review of existing research on these effects, raises critiques, and points out open questions. It introduces micro-economic rebound effect and suggests extending consumer-side analysis to incorporate potential `psychological rebound effects.' It then discusses meso-economic rebound effects, i.e. producer-side and market-level rebounds, which so far have achieved little attention in the literature. Finally, the article critically reviews evidence for macro-economic rebound effects as energy efficiency-induced economic growth impacts. For all three categories, the article summarizes assessments of their potential quantitative scope, while pointing out remaining methodological weaknesses and open questions. As a rough "rule of thumb", in the long term and on gross average, only half the technical savings potential of across-the-board efficiency improvements may actually be achieved in the real world. Policies that aim at cutting energy service demand to sustainable levels are well advised to take due note of detrimental behavioral and economic growth impacts, and should foster policies and measures that can contain them.

  2. Energy efficiency, human behavior, and economic growth: Challenges to cutting energy demand to sustainable levels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Santarius, Tilman, E-mail: tilman@santarius.de [Visiting Scholar, Institute of European Studies and Energy and Resources Group, University of California, Berkeley, 310 Barrows Hall, Berkeley, CA 94720-3050 (United States)

    2015-03-30

    Increasing energy efficiency in households, transportation, industries, and services is an important strategy to reduce energy service demand to levels that allow the steep reduction of greenhouse gases, and a full fledged switch of energy systems to a renewable basis. Yet, technological efficiency improvements may generate so-called rebound effects, which may ‘eat up’ parts of the technical savings potential. This article provides a comprehensive review of existing research on these effects, raises critiques, and points out open questions. It introduces micro-economic rebound effect and suggests extending consumer-side analysis to incorporate potential ‘psychological rebound effects.’ It then discusses meso-economic rebound effects, i.e. producer-side and market-level rebounds, which so far have achieved little attention in the literature. Finally, the article critically reviews evidence for macro-economic rebound effects as energy efficiency-induced economic growth impacts. For all three categories, the article summarizes assessments of their potential quantitative scope, while pointing out remaining methodological weaknesses and open questions. As a rough “rule of thumb”, in the long term and on gross average, only half the technical savings potential of across-the-board efficiency improvements may actually be achieved in the real world. Policies that aim at cutting energy service demand to sustainable levels are well advised to take due note of detrimental behavioral and economic growth impacts, and should foster policies and measures that can contain them.

  3. Blunt traumatic injury during pregnancy: a descriptive analysis from a level 1 trauma center.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Thani, Hassan; El-Menyar, Ayman; Sathian, Brijesh; Mekkodathil, Ahammed; Thomas, Sam; Mollazehi, Monira; Al-Sulaiti, Maryam; Abdelrahman, Husham

    2018-03-27

    The precise incidence of trauma in pregnancy is not well-known, but trauma is estimated to complicate nearly 1 in 12 pregnancies and it is the leading non-obstetrical cause of maternal death. A retrospective study of all pregnant women presented to national level 1 trauma center from July 2013 to June 2015 was conducted. Descriptive and inferential statistics applied for data analysis. Across the study period, a total of 95 pregnant women were presented to the trauma center. The average incidence rate of traumatic injuries was 250 per 1000 women of childbearing age presented to the Hamad Trauma Center. The mean age of patients was 30.4 ± SD 5.6 years, with age ranging from 20 to 42 years. The mean gestational age at the time of injury was 24.7 ± 8.7 weeks which ranged from 5 to 37 weeks. The majority (47.7%) was in the third trimester of the pregnancy. In addition, the large majority of injuries was due to MVCs (74.7%) followed by falls (15.8%). Trauma during pregnancy is not an uncommon event particularly in the traffic-related crashes. As it is a complex condition for trauma surgeons and obstetrician, an appropriate management protocol and multidisciplinary team are needed to improve the outcome and save lives of both the mother and fetus.

  4. Cytoprotective effect of cytoflavinum in the treatment of thermal injuries of various severity levels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexey J. Bozhedomov

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The research aimed to conduct studying of cytoprotective effect of cytoflavinum in thermal traumas of various severity levels. Material and methods – 169 patients were included into the research with thermal burns and with a favorable outcome and the severity of a thermal injury from 30 to 170 points according Frank index. 28 patients received cytoflavinum in a complex therapy in a standard dosage. Results – During the cytoflavinum usage in patients with the severity of a thermal injury more than 60 points by Frank there had been fixed: the decrease of a systemic inflammatory response syndrome (SIRS, reduction of stab neutrophils content, slower decrease of erythrocytes, smaller activation of thrombopoiesis, decrease of concentration of the vascular endothelial growth factor. In the group of patients with thermal injuries less than 60 points who had been receiving cytoflavinum there had not positive effects been fixed. Conclusion – Cytoflavinum is the most effective when the severity of a thermal trauma is more than 60 points by Frank.

  5. Health and economic burden of running-related injuries in runners training for an event: A prospective cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hespanhol Junior, L C; van Mechelen, W; Postuma, E; Verhagen, E

    2016-09-01

    Prospective running-related injury (RRI) data from runners training for an event are scarce, especially with regard to RRI-associated costs. Therefore, the aim of this study was to investigate the prevalence and economic burden of RRIs in runners participating in an organized training program preparing them for an event. This was a prospective cohort study with 18 weeks of follow-up. Individuals aged 18 or older and registered to participate in an organized running program were eligible. Follow-up surveys were sent every 2 weeks to collect data about running exposure, RRIs, and costs. Of the 161 potential participants, 53 (32.9%) were included in this study. A total of 32 participants reported 41 RRIs. The mean prevalence during follow-up was 30.8% [95% confidence interval (CI) 25.6-36.0%]. Overuse was the main mechanism of RRI (85.4%, n = 35). An RRI was estimated to have an economic burden of €57.97 (95% CI €26.17-94.00) due to healthcare utilization (direct costs) and €115.75 (95% CI €10.37-253.73) due to absenteeism from paid work (indirect costs). These results indicate that the health and economic burden of RRIs may be considered significant for public health. Therefore, prevention programs are needed for runners participating in organized training programs. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  6. Effects of polarization in low-level laser therapy of spinal cord injury in rats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ando, Takahiro; Sato, Shunichi; Kobayashi, Hiroaki; Nawashiro, Hiroshi; Ashida, Hiroshi; Hamblin, Michael R.; Obara, Minoru

    2012-03-01

    Low-level laser therapy (LLLT) is a promising approach to treat the spinal cord injury (SCI). Since nerve fibers have optical anisotropy, propagation of light in the spinal tissue might be affected by its polarization direction. However, the effect of polarization on the efficacy of LLLT has not been elucidated. In the present study, we investigated the effect of polarization on the efficacy of near-infrared LLLT for SCI. Rat spinal cord was injured with a weight-drop device. The lesion site was irradiated with an 808-nm diode laser beam that was transmitted through a polarizing filter immediately after injury and daily for five consecutive days. The laser power at the injured spinal cord surface was 25 mW, and the dosage per day was 9.6 J/cm2 (spot diameter, 2 cm; irradiation duration, 1200 s). Functional recovery was assessed daily by an open-field test. The results showed that the functional scores of the SCI rats that were treated with 808-nm laser irradiation were significantly higher than those of the SCI alone group (Group 1) from day 5 after injury, regardless of the polarization direction. Importantly, as compared to the locomotive function of the SCI rats that were treated with the perpendicularly-polarized laser parallel to the spinal column (Group 2), that of the SCI rats that were irradiated with the linearly aligned polarization (Group 3) was significantly improved from day 10 after injury. In addition, the ATP contents in the injured spinal tissue of Group 3, which were measured immediately after laser irradiation, were moderately higher than those of Group 2. These observations are attributable to the deeper penetration of the parallelpolarized light in the anisotropic spinal tissue, suggesting that polarization direction significantly affects the efficacy of LLLT for SCI.

  7. Economism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Simons

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Modern society is characterised not only by a fascination with scientific technology as a means of solving all problems, especially those that stand in the way of material progress (technicism, but also by an obsessive interest in everything that has to do with money (economism or mammonism. The article discusses the relationship between technicism and economism, on the basis of their relationship to utilitarian thinking: the quest for the greatest happiness for the greatest number of people. Recent major studies of neo-liberalism (seen as an intensification of utilitarianism by Laval and Dardot are used as reference to the development of utilitarianism. It is suggested that the western view of the world, as expressed in economism and technicism, with a utilitarian ethics, features three absolutisations: those of theoretical thinking, technology and economics. In a second part, the article draws on the framework of reformational philosophy to suggest an approach that, in principle, is not marred by such absolutisations.

  8. The association between soluble intercellular adhesion molecule-1 levels in drained dialysate and peritoneal injury in peritoneal dialysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Igarashi, Yusuke; Morishita, Yoshiyuki; Yoshizawa, Hiromichi; Imai, Reika; Imai, Toshimi; Hirahara, Ichiro; Akimoto, Tetsu; Ookawara, Susumu; Ishibashi, Kenichi; Muto, Shigeaki; Nagata, Daisuke

    2017-11-01

    Chronic inflammation of the peritoneum causes peritoneal injury in patients on peritoneal dialysis. Intercellular adhesion molecule-1 and its circulating form, soluble intercellular adhesion molecule-1, play pivotal roles in inflammation. However, their role in peritoneal injury is unclear. We measured changes in intercellular adhesion molecule-1 expression in the peritoneum of a peritoneal injury model in rats. The associations between soluble intercellular adhesion molecule-1 levels in drained dialysate and the solute transport rate (D/P-Cr and D/D0-glucose) determined by the peritoneal equilibration test, and matrix metalloproteinase-2 levels in drained dialysate were investigated in 94 peritoneal drained dialysate samples. Intercellular adhesion molecule-1 expression was increased in the peritoneum of rats with peritoneal injury. Soluble intercellular adhesion molecule-1 levels in drained dialysate were significantly positively correlated with D/P-Cr (r = .51, p molecule-1expression is increased in the peritoneum of a peritoneal injury model in the rat, and soluble intercellular adhesion molecule-1 levels in drained dialysate are associated with peritoneal injury in patients on peritoneal dialysis. These results suggest that soluble intercellular adhesion molecule-1 could be a novel biomarker of peritoneal injury in patients on peritoneal dialysis.

  9. Changes in Plasma Sex Hormone Levels in Women with Severe Concomitant Injury

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. N Yezhova

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: to perform a complex study of the plasma levels of 11 sex hormones and their functional values in women with severe concomitant injury (SCI. Subjects and methods. The study enrolled 16 women aged 18—45 years who had SCI. Admission APACHE II scores were 18.9±1.3. According to the outcome of a posttraumatic period, all the patients were divided into 2 groups: A survivors; B deceased subjects. The normal values were used to comparatively analyze the concentrations of reproductive hormones. The time course of changes in hormone concentration was studied on postoperative days 1, 3, and 7. The hormone profile was examined by BSL test kits (USA on a STAT Fax 2100 enzyme immunoanalyzer (Awareness Technology Inc., USA. The content of prolactin, luteinizing hormone, follicle-stimulating hormone, progesterone, 17-hydroxyprogesterone, dehydroepiandrosterone sulfate (DHEA-S, androstendione (A, testosterone (T, dihydrotestosterone, estrone, and estradiol (E were measured. Results. The complex study of changes in the profile of 11 plasma sex hormones was first conducted in women in the posttraumat-ic period. Moreover, the typical plasma hormonal changes were elevated prolactin levels, a decrease in the concentrations of gonadotropins, and increases in some androgens, A, T, and E. The deceased women showed lower concentrations of DHEA-S and T. Analysis revealed an inverse correlation between the plasma concentration of DHEA-S and the injury severity. This change seems to suggest that an adrenal adaptation reaction is exhausted. The changes revealed in hormonal levels are of significance in understanding the pathogenesis of SCT. This may serve as a basis for the development of new therapy modalities using reproductive hormones in the postresuscitative period. Key words: severe concomitant injury, sex hormones, prolactin, luteinizing hormone, follicle-stimulating hormone, progesterone, 17-hydroxyprogesterone, androgens, estrogens.

  10. Urine Levels of Defensin α1 Reflect Kidney Injury in Leptospirosis Patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Haorile Chagan-Yasutan

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Leptospirosis is a zoonotic disease whose severe forms are often accompanied by kidney dysfunction. In the present study, urinary markers were studied for potential prediction of disease severity. Urine samples from 135 patients with or without leptospirosis at San Lazaro Hospital, the Philippines, were analyzed. Urine levels of defensin α1 (uDA1 were compared with those of neutrophil gelatinase-associated lipocalin (uNGAL and N-acetyl-β-d-glucosidase (uNAG. Serum creatinine (Cr was used as a marker of kidney injury. The levels of uDA1/Cr, uNGAL/Cr, and uNAG/Cr were positive in 46%, 90%, and 80% of leptospirosis patients, and 69%, 70%, and 70% of non-leptospirosis patients, respectively. In leptospirosis patients, the correlation of uDA1/Cr, uNGAL/Cr and uNAG/Cr levels with serum Cr were r = 0.3 (p < 0.01, r = 0.29 (p < 0.01, and r = 0.02 (p = 0.81, respectively. uDA1/Cr levels were correlated with uNGAL/Cr levels (r = 0.49, p < 0.01 and uNAG/Cr levels (r = 0.47, p < 0.0001 in leptospirosis patients. These findings suggest that uDA1, uNGAL, and uNAG were elevated in leptospirosis patients and reflected various types of kidney damage. uDA1 and uNGAL can be used to track kidney injury in leptospirosis patients because of their correlation with the serum Cr level.

  11. Economic vulnerability to sea-level rise along the northern U.S. Gulf Coast

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thatcher, Cindy A.; Brock, John C.; Pendleton, Elizabeth A.

    2013-01-01

    The northern Gulf of Mexico coast of the United States has been identified as highly vulnerable to sea-level rise, based on a combination of physical and societal factors. Vulnerability of human populations and infrastructure to projected increases in sea level is a critical area of uncertainty for communities in the extremely low-lying and flat northern gulf coastal zone. A rapidly growing population along some parts of the northern Gulf of Mexico coastline is further increasing the potential societal and economic impacts of projected sea-level rise in the region, where observed relative rise rates range from 0.75 to 9.95 mm per year on the Gulf coasts of Texas, Louisiana, Mississippi, Alabama, and Florida. A 1-m elevation threshold was chosen as an inclusive designation of the coastal zone vulnerable to relative sea-level rise, because of uncertainty associated with sea-level rise projections. This study applies a Coastal Economic Vulnerability Index (CEVI) to the northern Gulf of Mexico region, which includes both physical and economic factors that contribute to societal risk of impacts from rising sea level. The economic variables incorporated in the CEVI include human population, urban land cover, economic value of key types of infrastructure, and residential and commercial building values. The variables are standardized and combined to produce a quantitative index value for each 1-km coastal segment, highlighting areas where human populations and the built environment are most at risk. This information can be used by coastal managers as they allocate limited resources for ecosystem restoration, beach nourishment, and coastal-protection infrastructure. The study indicates a large amount of variability in index values along the northern Gulf of Mexico coastline, and highlights areas where long-term planning to enhance resiliency is particularly needed.

  12. Comment on 'The Global Impacts of Extreme Sea-Level Rise: A Comprehensive Economic Assessment'

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tol, R.S.J.; Nicholls, R.J.; Brown, S.; Hinkel, J.; Vafeidis, A.T.; Spencer, T.

    2016-01-01

    Pycroft et al. (Environ Resour Econ 1–29, 2015) used incorrect and outdated data to study the economic impact of sea level rise. They misinterpret some of their input data, and fail to exploit the strengths of their computable general equilibrium model and previously developed methods to study

  13. Low-level radioactive waste in the Midwest: an economic analysis of selected management options

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1983-06-01

    Possible economic scenarios for disposal of low-level radioactive waste generated in the Midwest are presented. Relative waste disposal site costs are estimated for each state separately, and for 5-state, 13-state, and 16-state regions. Costs for publicly and privately owned and operated sites are estimated as are incineration and transportation costs

  14. Food safety and ecologization: practical solutions to problems at the regional level in current economic conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lysochenko Alla, A.

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Ensuring food security and greening both at the level of the country, and at the level of regions are main objectives of modern agroeconomic policy. The state support creates favorable conditions for dynamic development of agrarian and industrial complex, raises investment opportunities and competitiveness of agricultural producers. A realization of the actions directed on assistance to the enterprises making import-substituting production of the regional agro-industrial complex is actual in modern economic conditions. The solution of this problem consists of investment projects implementation and production expansion of the operating enterprises. Considering new economic conditions, the ensuring financial stability of agricultural producers, availability of the food to needy segments of the population, production of valeologically safe food, and also increase efficiency of use of natural resources and conditions along with preservation of quality of environment at the local, regional and global levels are particularly acute challenges. State regulation of development of an agrofood complex of Russia remains a necessary condition for its reproduction functioning, and the social and economic policy has to provide economic availability of the food to all groups of the population that causes need of standard and legal fixing of mechanisms offood security achievement at the regional level.

  15. EXPERIENCES AND TENDENCIES TO DECENTRALIZE THE CAPABILITIES OF THE ECONOMIC POLICY AT THE EUROPEAN UNION LEVEL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dodescu Anca

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Romania's integration in the European Union implies, apart the complex process of policy transfer, the learning of new modes to make policies characteristic to a multi-level governance and partnership culture. Of the different levels of governance of the European model, the regional level ("regional governance" most faithfully reflects, in our opinion, the complexity of reconfiguring the role of state in economy, at the beginning of this new millennium, in the European Union space and presents the highest practical importance for Romania, as a new Member State of the European Union, for, at the regional level, the structures are more flexible and the good practices are more rapidly assimilable. The selection of the best regional growth and development economic policies, the choosing of the objectives out of a series of competing options, the calibration in time and space of powers, roles, capabilities, and responsibilities and the encouragement of the win-win solutions call upon the choice and combination of some appropriate and efficient instruments. Representative for the new context, the regional growth and development policy must integrate, in Romania too, more knowledge, more creativity, new combinations of capabilities and new fields of expertise. This paper presents preliminary research results afferent to the post-doctoral research project: "Growth and regional development economic policies. Challenges for Romania in the context of economic-financial crisis and European model integration", carried out in the project "Economic scientific research, reliance of human welfare and development in European context", the Romanian Academy, "Costin C. Kiriţescu" National Institute for Economic Research, project financed for the 2010-2013 period from the European Social Fund (EFS and implemented by the Romanian Academy, Costin C. Kiritescu National Institute for Economic Research, in the period of time 1 December 2010 - 30 November 2012

  16. Spinal Cord Injury 101

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available menu Understanding Spinal Cord Injury What is a Spinal Cord Injury Levels of Injury and What They Mean Animated Spinal Cord Injury Chart Spinal Cord Injury Facts and Figures Care and Treatment After SCI Spinal ...

  17. A farm-level analysis of economic and agronomic impacts of gradual climate warming

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kaiser, H.M.; Sampath, R.; Riha, S.J.; Wilks, D.S.; Rossiter, D.G.

    1993-01-01

    The potential economic and agronomic impacts of gradual climate warming are examined at the farm level. Three models of the relevant climatic, agronomic, and economic processes are developed and linked to address climate change impacts and agricultural adaptability. Several climate warming severity. The results indicate that grain farmers in southern Minnesota can effectively adapt to a gradually changing climate (warmer and either wetter or drier) by adopting later maturing cultivars, changing crop mix, and altering the timing of field operations to take advantage of a longer growing season resulting from climate warming

  18. Modelling the economic impact of three lameness causing diseases using herd and cow level evidence

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ettema, Jehan Frans; Østergaard, Søren; Kristensen, Anders Ringgaard

    2010-01-01

    Diseases to the cow's hoof, interdigital skin and legs are highly prevalent and of large economic impact in modern dairy farming. In order to support farmer's decisions on preventing and treating lameness and its underlying causes, decision support models can be used to predict the economic...... horn diseases. Secondly, the existing simulation model was set-up inwaythat it uses hyper-distributions describing diseases risk of the three lameness causing diseases. By combining information on herd level risk factors with prevalence of lameness or prevalence of underlying diseases among cows...

  19. Low serum hdl-c levels: a hidden threat to patients with spinal cord injury

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ali, S.; Ayyub, A.

    2014-01-01

    To determine the serum lipid profile in patients with traumatic spinal cord injury (SCI) of duration >1 year and to compare the serum HDL-c levels of SCI patients undergoing regular physiotherapy for >60 minutes daily with those who did not Undergo physiotherapy. Study Design: Cross-sectional, comparative study. Place and Duration of Study: Spinal Cord Injury Department, AFIRM Rawalpindi and Department of Chemical Pathology, Army Medical College, Rawalpindi, from January 2013 to June 2013. Patients and Methods: Forty six patients suffering from traumatic spinal cord injury (SCI) were included. After recording the detailed medical history, fasting blood samples were obtained and analyzed for serum lipid profile. Dyslipidemias were assessed using guidelines from the National Cholesterol Education Project Adult Treatment Panel III (ATP III). Serum high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-c)< 0.9 mmol/l (40mg/dl) was considered as low HDL-c level. Results: Out of total 46 patients, 33 (71.7%) were male and 13 (28.3%) were females with mean age of 34.9+- 9.55 years. Low levels of serum HDL-c were found in 21 (45.7%) SCI patients (mean serum HDL-clevels: 0.97+-0.23). SCI patients were further categorized in two groups depending upon the status of regular physiotherapy. Statistically significant difference was found in mean serum HDL-c levels of 22 (47.82%) SCI patients undergoing regular physiotherapy as compared to 24 (52.18%) SCI patients who did not underwent physiotherapy (p<0.05). Conclusion: Patients with SCI have decreased levels of serum HDL-c, imparting an increased risk of cardiovascular disease (CVD) in these disabled persons. SCI individuals following regular physiotherapy, have better serum HDL-c levels as compared to bed-ridden SCI patients, suggesting the physical activity as an important factor to elevate the serum HDL-c in such patients. Knowledge of relative risk of CVD in persons with SCI is important for appropriate intervention alstrategies

  20. The Effect of Naloxone on Plasma ET-1 and CGRP Levels in Patients with Traumatic Brain Injury

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang Chunyin; Guang Ming; Cai Liang; Chen Boxun; Gan Xilun

    2009-01-01

    To investigate the effect of naloxone on the changes of plasma ET-1 and CGRP levels in patients with traumatic brain injury, ninety patients with traumatic brain injury were randomly divided into naloxone treated group and conventionally treated group (both n=45). The plasma levels of ET-1 and CGRP in both groups before and after treatment and in 30 healthy controls were measured by RIA. The results showed that the plasma levels of ET-1 were significantly increased in the patient before treatment and decreased markedly after treatment in both groups. The magnitude of decrease of the plasma ET-1 levels in the naloxone treated group was significantly higher than that in the conventionally treated group (P<0.01). The plasma levels of CGRP were significantly decreased in the patients before treatment and increased markedly after treatment in both groups. The magnitude of increase of the plasma CGRP levels in the naloxone treated group was significantly higher than that in the conventionally treated group (P<0.01). The plasma ET-1 levels in patients with traumatic brain injury was remarkably increased and markedly decreased after treatment with naloxone. The plasma CGRP levels in patients with traumatic brain injury was remarkably decreased and markedly increased after treatment with naloxone. Naloxone has a favorable effect on patient with traumatic brain injury, it may protect the neural cells and improve their living quality. (authors)

  1. Intercellular Adhesion Molecule-1 Levels in Experimental Brain Injury and the Effects of Alpha-tocopherol

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nilgun Senol

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Aim: The mechanisms, responsible for the secondary injuries occuring after acute injury of the brain are; release of nitrous oxide which is an inflammatory mediator, abnormal formation of free oxygen radicals and excessive stimulation of excitatory aminoacids. In this study, it is aimed to investigate changes in intercellular adhesion molecule levels in the brain, that occur subsequent to blunt head trauma, and after administration of an antioxidant agent, vitamin E. Material and Method: In this study, rats were divided into 4 groups. In group A; rats had only skin incision, group B; rats were traumatized after the skin incision, group C; isotonic (30mg/kg was given intraperitoneally after 30 minutes of the trauma, group D; alpha-tocopherol (30mg/kg was given intraperitoneally, after 30 minutes of the trauma. All the rats in these groups were sacrified after 24 hours. Biparietal and bifrontal lobs were taken about 3x5x1mm tickness and intercellular adhesion molecule-1 levels were studied by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay kit. Results: As the result of the statistical analysis, it is detected that although there is an increase in intercellular adhesion molecule levels in brain parenchyma after trauma, it is statistically unsignificant. However, as the traumatized group and the group given alpha-tocopherol after trauma was compared, a statistically significant decrease in intercellular adhesion molecule-1 levels in the alpha-tocopherol given group was seen. Discussion: Alpha-tocopherol, an antioxidant agent, causes decrease in intercellular adhesion molecule levels, by decreasing inflammation.

  2. Level of damages and economical threshold, decisive aspects in the integrated management of plagues.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rafael Meneses

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available The establishment and application of economical levels demand a procedure to find with precision the insects population in a given moment. In the integrated management of plagues is not allowed the idea that any insect which is feeding from a part of plants requires a control action, that is why it is very important to determine the real effect that this insect population causes to the cultivation. Any decrease in the crop, constitutes a real waste of time; but when the economical level is defined, it is included an additional factor which is the measure cost of the plagues control. The determination of damages of levels is very important for economists, farming experts and specialists; while for producers is very significant its implementation with the objective to count with a sustainable and beneficial agriculture.

  3. [Traffic deaths and traffic injuries: also an economic problem for society].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martinoli, S

    1993-02-09

    Based on an epidemiological observation on traffic accidents in the Swiss canton of Ticino, 1985, the following statement is possible: In Switzerland, 900 people die every year as a result of traffic casualties. Many victims of these accidents will be disabled for life. Direct and indirect costs of traffic injuries reach 3 billion Swiss francs a year. Only a small amount (6%) is devoted to medical treatment. The biggest part is due as compensation for lost income, disability allocations and loss of productivity. Among the avoidable fatalities those caused by traffic accidents have a very undesirable effect, because they involve mainly the young. More efforts should be undertaken to lower the mortality on the road, because it changes the Swiss population pyramid in a significant manner.

  4. The Contribution of the Neo-Schumpeterian Approach to the Development of the Economic Theory: Emphasis on the Meso-Economic Level

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Radu HERMAN

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available This article tries to show that there are alternative approaches to the economic theory, besides the well-known economic schools, Classicism, Neoclassicism and Keynesianism. The neoclassical principles allow a formalization – widely accepted by experts – that provide effective tools for measuring the effects of the economic activity. The economic science pays a special attention to the study of the economic agents’ behaviors, and to the economic results obtained by them through economic activity. Any human science uses principles and works with assumptions, and the neoclassical assumptions have generated efficient tools for quantifying the economic outcomes, and for accounting the economic growth. But these hypothesis, such as the assumption of economic agents’ rationality, allow a very limited understanding of the behaviors of economic agents within the markets. The recent invention of the Nuclear Magnetic Resonance device, allowed the emrgence of a new scientific paradigm, the development of neurosciences. Researchers can observe at a high level of graphic detail various types of activities that occur in the human brain, and some economists have introduced in the study of the economic theory, for example, the assumption that the consumer is driven by emotions when purchasing quantities of goods and services. So, economists may look for additional theories to explain the behavior of the economic agents. An increasingly importance is given to the theoretical contributions built on the work of the economist Joseph Alois Schumpeter, who has an original economic approach based on his own principles. It is proposed to focus the attention on a mesoeconomic vision about the industry, to understand how resources are being allocated and reallocated between companies, and to study the economic processes of evolution, which are influenced by the emergence and dissemination of the innovations. It is supposed that the price is allocating the

  5. The health and economic impact of fireworks-related injuries in Iran: a household survey following the New Year's Festival in Tehran.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saadat, Soheil; Naseripour, Masood; Smith, Gary A

    2010-07-01

    is associated with serious injuries and non-trivial economic costs. This study is the first to describe the incidence and economic costs of fireworks-related injuries in a major city in Iran using a population-based survey. To prevent these injuries, individuals should attend public fireworks displays conducted by professionals rather than engage in personal use of fireworks. 2009 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Effect of Posttraumatic Serum Thyroid Hormone Levels on Severity and Mortality of Patients with Severe Traumatic Brain Injury

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Forough Saki

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Traumatic brain injury (TBI is an important cause of death and disability in young adults ,and may lead to physical disabilities and long-term cognitive, behavioral psychological and social defects. There is a lack of definite result about the effect of thyroid hormones after traumatic brain injury in the severity and no data about their effect on mortality of the injury. The aim of this study is to evaluate the effect of thyroid hormones after traumatic brain injury in the severity and mortality and gain a clue in brain injury prognosis. In a longitudinal prospective study from February 2010 until February 2011, we checked serum levels of T3, T4, TSH and TBG of severely brain injured patients and compared the relationship of them with primary Glasgow Coma Scale (GCS score and mortality of patients. Statistical analysis used SPSS 11.5 software with using chi-square and Fisher exact test. Serum levels of T3 and T4 were decreased after brain trauma but not TSH and TBG. Mortality rates were higher in patients with lower T4 serum levels. The head injury was more severe in whom with low T3 and T4. Follow a severe brain injury a secondary hypothyroidism is happened due to pituitary dysfunction. Also, serum level of T3 and T4 on the first day admission affect on primary GCS score of patients which is an indicator of severity of brain injury. In addition, mortality rates of severely brain injured patients have a high correlation with the serum level of T4 in the first day admission.

  7. Effect of denervation and ischemia reperfusion injury on serum nitricoxide levels in rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ozsoy, U.; Sindel, S.; Oygur, N.; Akbas, H.; Mutluay, R.

    2008-01-01

    Objective was to evaluate the effect of renal denervation and serumnitric oxide level with a different time course of renal ischemia-reperfusioninjury. Thirty-six male Wistar rats were randomized into 6 groups. All ratsunderwent right nephrectomy to create a single kidney model. Renal denervatedand innerved rats were subjected to renal clamping for 30-60 minutes. Thestudy was performed in the Department of Anatomy, Akdeniz University,Antalya, Turkey, between June and November 2005. Combined effects ofdenervation and ischemia may cause significant increase in serum nitric oxidelevels and decrease in glomerular filtration rates. Our results indicate thatkidney denervation did not cause any changes in renal functions, but withischemia it worsens the deleterious effect of ischemia-reperfusion injury andcauses a significant increase in serum nitric oxide levels. (author)

  8. Erythroneura lawsoni abundance and feeding injury levels are influenced by foliar nutrient status in intensively managed American sycamore.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Coyle, David, Robert: Aubrey, Doug, Patric; Bentz, Jo-Ann

    2010-01-01

    Abstract 1 Abundance and feeding injury of the leafhopper Erythroneura lawsoni Robinson was measured in an intensively-managed American sycamore Platanus occidentalis L. plantation. Trees were planted in spring 2000 in a randomized complete block design, and received one of three annual treatments: (i) fertilization (120 kg N/ha/year); (ii) irrigation (3.0 cm/week); (iii) fertilization + irrigation; or (iv) control (no treatment). 2 Foliar nutrient concentrations were significantly influenced by the treatments because only sulphur and manganese levels were not statistically greater in trees receiving fertilization. 3 Over 116 000 E. lawsoni were captured on sticky traps during the study. Leafhopper abundance was highest on nonfertilized trees for the majority of the season, and was positively correlated with foliar nutrient concentrations. Significant temporal variation in E. lawsoni abundance occurred, suggesting five discrete generations in South Carolina. 4 Significant temporal variation occurred in E. lawsoni foliar injury levels, with the highest injury ratings occurring in late June and August. Foliar injury was negatively correlated with foliar nutrient content, and higher levels of injury occurred more frequently on nonfertilized trees. 5 The results obtained in the present study indicated that increased E. lawsoni abundance occurred on trees that did not receive fertilization. Nonfertilized trees experienced greater foliar injury, suggesting that lower foliar nutrient status may have led to increased levels of compensatory feeding.

  9. The NLstart2run study : Economic burden of running-related injuries in novice runners participating in a novice running program

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hespanhol Junior, Luiz C.; Huisstede, Bionka M A; Smits, Dirk Wouter; Kluitenberg, Bas; van der Worp, Henk; van Middelkoop, Marienke; Hartgens, Fred; Verhagen, Evert

    2016-01-01

    Objectives To investigate the economic burden of running-related injuries (RRI) occurred during the 6-week ‘Start-to-Run’ program of the Dutch Athletics Federation in 2013. Design Prospective cohort study. Methods This was a monetary cost analysis using the data prospectively gathered alongside the

  10. The NLstart2run study : Economic burden of running-related injuries in novice runners participating in a novice running program

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hespanhol, Luiz C.; Huisstede, Bionka M. A.; Smits, Dirk-Wouter; Kluitenberg, Bas; van der Worp, Henk; van Middelkoop, Marienke; Hartgens, Fred; Verhagen, Evert

    2016-01-01

    Objectives: To investigate the economic burden of running-related injuries (RRI) occurred during the 6-week 'Start-to-Run' program of the Dutch Athletics Federation in 2013. Design: Prospective cohort study. Methods: This was a monetary cost analysis using the data prospectively gathered alongside

  11. Socio-Economic Factors, Food Habits and Phosphorus Levels in Patients on Hemodialysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santoro, Domenico; Ingegnieri, Maria Teresa; Vita, Giuseppe; Lucisano, Silvia; Zuppardo, Carmelo; Canale, Valeria; Savica, Vincenzo; Buemi, Michele

    2015-07-01

    Hyperphosphoremia is one of the most important risk factors for morbidity and mortality for chronic kidney disease (CKD) patients, and also, for the general population. Excessive dietary intake of phosphate (P) is one of the key factors. In particular, P in its inorganic form, which is contained in food additives, is more readily absorbed. Unfortunately, these food additives are mostly present in convenience so called "fast foods" (pre-cooked), soft drinks, which represent the typical food consumed by our hemodialysis (HD) population, composed by elderly people, mostly low-socio economic class, who often live alone. We performed an observational retrospective multicenter study to find any association between social, cultural and economic situation, as well as food habits, and P levels in a cohort of patients on HD. Secondarily; we also examined the association between the fast food consumption and increased P levels, as well as patient compliance for P binding products. To explore the association between socio-economic factors and serum P levels, we enrolled 100 patients on periodic HD treatment from three different units. Information on social, cultural, economic, diet habits, therapy for hyperphosphoremia and hematological and clinical parameters had been collected through specific questionnaires, administered by a physician. Results showed serum P level was reduced in patients who live alone compared to patients in family (P = 0.04), in self-sufficient (P = 0.05) and in patients belonging to middle-upper class, versus low-class (P = 0.003). Fast foods intake correlates with increase in P serum levels (P = 0.002), whilst the same correlation was not found for cheese intake. Our data show that socio-economic status and food habits are useful predictors of P serum levels. In conclusion, dietary counseling of patients on HD is mandatory. Interventions that consider the socio-economic situation allow delivering important messages on foods with the least amount of P

  12. The economic burden of time-loss injuries to youth players participating in week-long rugby union tournaments

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brown, J.C.; Viljoen, W.; Lambert, M.I.; Readhead, C.; Fuller, C.; van Mechelen, W.; Verhagen, E.A.L.M.

    2015-01-01

    Objectives: Rugby Union ("rugby") is a popular sport with high injury risk. Burden of injury is described by the incidence and severity of injury. However reports have ignored the monetary cost of injuries. Therefore the aim of this study was to describe the monetary cost associated with youth rugby

  13. Self-reported activity level and knee function in amateur football players: the influence of age, gender, history of knee injury and level of competition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frobell, R B; Svensson, E; Göthrick, M; Roos, E M

    2008-07-01

    The aim of this study is to investigate if self-reported activity level or knee functions are influenced by subject characteristics, level of competition and history of knee injury. Cross-Sectional study using questionnaires distributed at a personal visit. One hundred and eighty-eight (65 women) amateur football players in 10 football clubs from each division below national level participated in the study. Self-reported Tegner Activity Scale, and the Knee injury and Osteoarthritis Outcome Score (KOOS) are the main outcome measures. Older age, female gender and lower level of competition (football division) were independently associated with lower self-reported Tegner Activity Scale (P history of knee injury had significantly worse KOOS scores (P football players, KOOS scores do not need adjustment for age and gender.

  14. The Economic Burden of Urinary Tract Infection and Pressure Ulceration in Acute Traumatic Spinal Cord Injury Admissions: Evidence for Comparative Economics and Decision Analytics from a Matched Case-Control Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    White, Barry A B; Dea, Nicolas; Street, John T; Cheng, Christiana L; Rivers, Carly S; Attabib, Najmedden; Kwon, Brian K; Fisher, Charles G; Dvorak, Marcel F

    2017-10-15

    Secondary complications of spinal cord injury (SCI) are a burden to affected individuals and the rest of society. There is limited evidence of the economic burden or cost of complications in SCI populations in Canada, however, which is necessary for comparative economic analyses and decision analytic modeling of possible solutions to these common health problems. Comparative economic analyses can inform resource allocation decisions, but the outputs are only as good as the inputs. In this article, new evidence of the excess or incremental costs of urinary tract infection (UTI) and pressure ulceration (PU) in acute traumatic SCI from an exploratory case series analysis of admissions to a Level I specialized Canadian spine facility (2008-2013) is presented. Participants in a national SCI registry were case-control matched (1:1) on the predicted probability of experiencing UTI or PU during initial acute SCI admission. The excess costs of UTI and PU are estimated as the mean of the differences in total direct acute SCI admission costs (length of stay, accommodation, nursing, pharmacy) from the perspective of the admitting facility between participants matched or paired on demographic and SCI characteristics. Even relatively minor UTI and PU, respectively, added an average of $7,790 (standard deviation [SD] $6,267) and $18,758 (SD $27,574) to the direct cost of acute SCI admission in 2013 Canadian dollars (CAD). This case series analysis established evidence of the excess costs of UTI and PU in acute SCI admissions, which will support decision-informing analyses in SCI.

  15. System of Indicators of the Level of Costs of Financing an Economic Subject

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laktionova Aleksandra A.

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available The article offers a system of indicators of the level of costs of financing economic subjects, in the basis of which there is a function of formation of recommendations or identification of directions and priorities in the part of selection of one or another source of financing, its urgency and specific features of attraction of resources, on the basis of information on the level of agent’s costs, information asymmetry costs, financial instability, transaction and market indicators of cost of financial resources. The article pays a special attention to a significant structure forming factor of the ownership structure, which identifies the volume and logic of interconnection of all costs of financing and determining incentives and risks in the system of management of financial activity of an economic subject from the point of view of all participants. It exerts especially big influence upon formation of such implicit costs of financing as agent’s costs and information asymmetry costs. The system of factors of stimulants and de-stimulants of costs of financing includes factors of external environment (macro-economic and market indicators of cost and institutional provision and internal environment (ownership structure, characteristic of investment activity and financing an economic subject, organisation of business and corporate management.

  16. The health economics of ankle and foot sprains and fractures: A systematic review of English-language published papers. Part 2: The direct and indirect costs of injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bielska, Iwona A; Wang, Xiang; Lee, Raymond; Johnson, Ana P

    2017-07-20

    Ankle and foot sprains and fractures are prevalent injuries, which may result in substantial physical and economic consequences for the patient and place a financial burden on the health care system. Therefore, the objectives of this paper are to examine the direct and indirect costs of treating ankle and foot injuries (sprains, dislocations, fractures), as well as to provide an overview of the outcomes of full economic analyses of different treatment strategies. A systematic review was carried out among seven databases to identify English language publications on the health economics of ankle and foot injury treatment published between 1980 and 2014. The direct and indirect costs were abstracted by two independent reviewers. All costs were adjusted for inflation and reported in 2016 US dollars (USD). Among 2047 identified studies, 32 were selected for analysis. The direct costs of ankle sprain management ranged from $292 to $2268 per patient (2016 USD), depending on the injury severity and treatment strategy. The direct costs of managing ankle fractures were higher ($1908-$19,555). Foot fracture treatment had similar direct costs ranging from $998 to $21,801. The economic evaluations were conducted from the societal or payer's perspectives. The costs of treating ankle and foot sprains and fractures varied among the studies, mostly due to differences in injury type and study characteristics, which impacted the ability of directly comparing the financial burden of treatment. Nonetheless, the review showed that the costs experienced by the patient and the health care system increased with injury complexity. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Association of Lectin Pathway Protein Levels and Genetic Variants Early after Injury with Outcomes after Severe Traumatic Brain Injury: A Prospective Cohort Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Osthoff, Michael; Walder, Bernhard; Delhumeau, Cécile; Trendelenburg, Marten; Turck, Natacha

    2017-09-01

    The lectin pathway of the complement system has been implicated in secondary ischemic/inflammatory injury after traumatic brain injury (TBI). However, previous experimental studies have yielded conflicting results, and human studies are scarce. In this exploratory study, we investigated associations of several lectin pathway proteins early after injury and single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNP) with outcomes after severe TBI (mortality at 14 days [primary outcome] and consciousness assessed with the Glasgow Coma Scale [GCS] at 14 days, disability assessed with the Glasgow Outcome Scale Extended [GOSE] at 90 days). Forty-four patients with severe TBI were included. Plasma levels of lectin pathway proteins were sampled at 6, 12, 24, and 48 h after injury and eight mannose-binding lectin (MBL) and ficolin (FCN)2 SNPs were analyzed by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) and genotyping, respectively. Plasma protein levels were stable with only a slight increase in mannose-binding protein-associated serine protease (MASP)-2 and FCN2 levels after 48 h (p GOSE 1-4) at 90 days (p GOSE score < 4 at 90 days after adjustment (odds ratio 3.46 [95% confidence interval 1.12-10.68] per 100 ng/mL increase, p = 0.03). No association was observed between the lectin pathway of the complement system and 14 day mortality or 14 day consciousness. However, higher plasma FCN2, FCN3, and, in particular, MASP-2 levels early after injury were associated with an unfavorable outcome at 90 days (death, vegetative state, and severe disability) which may be related to an increased activation of the lectin pathway.

  18. Pediatric Lower Extremity Lawn Mower Injuries and Reconstruction: Retrospective 10-Year Review at a Level 1 Trauma Center.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Branch, Leslie G; Crantford, John C; Thompson, James T; Tannan, Shruti C

    2017-11-01

    From 2004 to 2013, there were 9341 lawn mower injuries in children under 20 years old. The incidence of lawn mower injuries in children has not decreased since 1990 despite implementation of various different prevention strategies. In this report, the authors review the results of pediatric lawn mower-related lower-extremity injuries treated at a tertiary care referral center as well as review the overall literature. A retrospective review was performed at a level 1 trauma center over a 10-year period (2005-2015). Patients younger than 18 years who presented to the emergency room with lower extremity lawn mower injuries were included. Of the 27 patients with lower-extremity lawn mower injuries during this period, the mean age at injury was 5.5 years and Injury Severity Score was 7.2. Most (85%) patients were boys and the predominant type of mower causing injury was a riding lawn mower (96%). Injury occurred in patients who were bystanders in 78%, passengers in 11%, and operators in 11%. Mean length of stay was 12.2 days, and mean time to reconstruction was 7.9 days. Mean number of surgical procedures per patient was 4.1. Amputations occurred in 15 (56%) cases with the most common level of amputation being distal to the metatarsophalangeal joint (67%). Reconstructive procedures ranged from direct closure (41%) to free tissue transfer (7%). Major complications included infection (7%), wound dehiscence (11%), and delayed wound healing (15%). Mean follow up was 23.6 months and 100% of the patients were ambulatory after injury. The subgroup of patients with the most severe injuries, highest number of amputations, and need for overall surgical procedures were patients aged 2 to 5 years. A review of the literature also showed consistent findings. This study demonstrates the danger and morbidity that lawn mowers present to the pediatric population, particularly children aged 2 to 5 years. Every rung of the so-called reconstructive ladder is used in caring for these

  19. Clinical significance of measurement of plasma ET-1 and CGRP levels in patients with traumatic brain injury

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jing Daping; Cheng Guanghua

    2007-01-01

    Objective: To study the changes of plasma ET-1 and CGRP levels in patients with traumatic brain injury of different severity. Methods: 107 patients with traumatic brain injury were divided into three group on the basis of GCS: mild group (n=25, GCS>12), moderate group (n=33, GCS9-12) and severe group (n=49, GCS3-8). The plasma ET-1 and CGRP levels in these patients and 30 controls were determined with RIA. Results: 1) The plasma ET-1 levels in patients with traumatic brain injury were signilieantly higher than those in controls, the more severe the illness, the higher the ET-1 levels. 2)The plasma CGRP levels in patients of mild and moderate brain injury were found significantly higher than those in controls, while no significant differences were found between those in severe and control group. 3)The more severe the illness was, the lower CGRP/ET-1 ratio were found. Conclusion: The changes of plasma levels of ET-1 and CGRP and the CGRP/ET-1 ratio in the patients with traumatic brain injury were correlated with the severity of the illness, and might be of prognostic value. (authors)

  20. Elevated urinary levels of kidney injury molecule-1 among Chinese factory workers exposed to trichloroethylene

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vermeulen, Roel; Huang, Hanlin; Rothman, Nathaniel; Lan, Qing

    2012-01-01

    Epidemiological studies suggest that trichloroethylene (TCE) exposure may be associated with renal cancer. The biological mechanisms involved are not exactly known although nephrotoxicity is believed to play a role. Studies on TCE nephrotoxicity among humans, however, have been largely inconsistent. We studied kidney toxicity in Chinese factory workers exposed to TCE using novel sensitive nephrotoxicity markers. Eighty healthy workers exposed to TCE and 45 comparable unexposed controls were included in the present analyses. Personal TCE exposure measurements were taken over a 2-week period before urine collection. Ninety-six percent of workers were exposed to TCE below the current US Occupational Safety and Health Administration permissible exposure limit (100 ppm 8h TWA), with a mean (SD) of 22.2 (35.9) ppm. Kidney injury molecule-1 (KIM-1) and Pi-glutathione S transferase (GST) alpha were elevated among the exposed subjects as compared with the unexposed controls with a strong exposure-response association between individual estimates of TCE exposure and KIM-1 (P < 0.0001). This is the first report to use a set of sensitive nephrotoxicity markers to study the possible effects of TCE on the kidneys. The findings suggest that at relatively low occupational exposure levels a toxic effect on the kidneys can be observed. This finding supports the biological plausibility of linking TCE exposure and renal cancer. Abbreviations:GSTglutathione-S-transferaseKIM-1kidney injury molecule-1NAGN-acetyl-beta-(d)-glucosaminidaseOVMorganic vapour monitoringTCEtrichloroethyleneVEGFvascular endothelial growth factor. PMID:22665366

  1. The economic impact of sea-level rise on nonmarket lands in Singapore.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ng, Wei-Shiuen; Mendelsohn, Robert

    2006-09-01

    Sea-level rise, as a result of climate change, will likely inflict considerable economic consequences on coastal regions, particularly low-lying island states like Singapore. Although the literature has addressed the vulnerability of developed coastal lands, this is the first economic study to address nonmarket lands, such as beaches, marshes and mangrove estuaries. This travel cost and contingent valuation study reveals that consumers in Singapore attach considerable value to beaches. The contingent valuation study also attached high values to marshes and mangroves but this result was not supported by the travel cost study. Although protecting nonmarket land uses from sea-level rise is expensive, the study shows that at least highly valued resources, such as Singapore's popular beaches, should be protected.

  2. Developing integrated performance assessment and forecasting the level of financial and economic enterprise stability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Khudyakova T.A.

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The article deals with the problem of assessing and forecasting the level of financial and economic enterprise stability through the integrated indicators development. Currently, many enterprises operate under variable external environment, which imposes a strict requirement to consider this uncertainty. For the evaluation, analysis and prediction of the sustainability of the enterprise in the conditions of crisis we believe it possible and necessary to use the apparatus of probability theory and mathematical statistics. This problem solution will improve quantitative assessing the financial and economic stability level, forecasting possible scenarios of the enterprise development and, therefore, based on the proactive management principles and adaptation processes will greatly increase their effective functioning, as well as reduce bankruptcy probability.

  3. Corporate tax avoidance:does the level of tax aggressiveness depend on economic factors?

    OpenAIRE

    Beyer, B. (Bianca)

    2014-01-01

    Abstract The purpose of this thesis is to find evidence about national-scale economic instability (especially reflected in the impacts of the financial crisis) being present also on a business level, namely in the form of corporate tax avoidance. A broad strand of literature copes with the topic of corporate tax avoidance. The research stems mostly from companies located in the United States. This thesis combines the approa...

  4. Impacts of Bone Marrow Stem Cells on Caspase-3 Levels after Spinal Cord Injury in Mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Noushin Gashmardi

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Spinal cord injury (SCI is a drastic disability that leads to spinal cord impairment. This study sought to determine the effects of bone marrow stem cells (BMSCs on caspase-3 levels after acute SCI in mice. Forty-two mice were randomly divided into 3 groups: control (2 subcategories, subjected to no intervention; sham (3 subcategories, subjected to acute SCI; and experimental (2 subcategories, subjected to SCI and cell transplantation. In the experimental group, 2×105 BMSCs were injected intravenously 1 day after SCI. The mesenchymal property of the cells was assessed. The animals in the 3 groups were sacrificed 1, 21, and 35 days after the induction of injury and caspase-3 levels were evaluated using a caspase-3 assay kit. The obtained values were analyzed with ANOVA and Tukey tests using GraphPad and SPSS. Based on the assessments, the transplanted cells were spindle-shaped and were negative for the hematopoietic markers of CD34 and CD45 and positive for the expression of the mesenchymal marker of CD90 and osteogenic induction. The caspase-3 levels showed a significant increase in the sham and experimental groups in comparison to the control group. One day after SCI, the caspase-3 level was significantly higher in the sham group (1.157±0.117 than in the other groups (P<0.000. Twenty-one days after SCI, the caspase-3 level was significantly lower in the experimental group than in the sham group (0.4±0.095 vs. 0.793±0.076; P˂0.000. Thirty-five days following SCI, the caspase-3 level was lower in the experimental group than in the sham group (0.223±0.027 vs. 0.643±0.058; P˂0.000. We conclude that BMSC transplantation was able to downregulate the caspase-3 level after acute SCI, underscoring the role of caspase-3 as a marker for the assessment of treatment efficacy in acute SCI.

  5. Economic performance of dairy cows fed diets with different levels of oregano

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julinessa Silva Oliveira de Oliveira

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to evaluate the economic viability of using different levels of oregano in diets for lactating cows fed sugar cane. We used 12 crossbred Holstein x Zebu cows assigned to three 4 x 4 Latin squares. The four treatments consisted of different levels of oregano: oregano free-control diet (0% and diets added with 0.8, 1.6, and 2.4% oregano. Diets were formulated to meet the requirements for maintenance and milk production of 15 kg day-1. For economic analysis, we employed two economic indicators, net present value and internal rate of return. The total cost per animal and per liter of milk produced has increased with the inclusion of oregano. The inclusion of oregano was not effective for both productivity and profitability, with prices equal to R$ 0.87, 0.97, 1.09, 1.22, and R$ 0.78, 1.03, 1.28, and 1.52 of milk and concentrate, respectively for each level of inclusion. The internal rate of return was more advantageous when not adding oregano in the diet, indicating the viability of using oregano up to 0.8% inclusion to the diet of dairy cows under the conditions of this experiment. The net present value demonstrated that this investment is interesting for all discount rates used in the diet without the addition of oregano, pointing out that, in this treatment, the activity was feasible for any opportunity cost.

  6. Techno-economical Analysis of High Level Waste Storage and Disposal Options

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bace, M.; Trontl, K.; Vrankic, K.

    2002-01-01

    Global warming and instability of gas and oil prices are redefining the role of nuclear energy in electrical energy production. A production of high-level radioactive waste (HLW), during the nuclear power plant operation and a danger of high level waste mitigation to the environment are considered by the public as a main obstacle of accepting the nuclear option. As economical and technical aspects of the back end of fuel cycle will affect the nuclear energy acceptance the techno-economical analysis of different methods for high level waste storage and disposal has to be performed. The aim of this paper is to present technical and economical characteristics of different HLW storage and disposal technologies. The final choice of a particular HLW management method is closely connected to the selection of a fuel cycle type: open or closed. Wet and dry temporary storage has been analyzed including different types of spent fuel pool capacity increase methods, different pool location (at reactor site and away from reactor site) as well as casks and vault system of dry storage. Since deep geological deposition is the only disposal method with a realistic potential, we focused our attention on that disposal technology. Special attention has been given to the new idea of international and regional disposal location. The analysis showed that a coexistence of different storage methods and deep geological deposition is expected in the future, regardless of the fuel cycle type. (author)

  7. Assessing the state-level consequences of global warming: Socio-economic and energy demand impacts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rubin, B.M. Gailmard, S.; Marsh, D.; Septoff, A.

    1996-01-01

    The large body of research on climate change has begun to recognize a significant deficiency: the lack of analysis of the impact of climate change at a spatial level consistent with the anticipated occurrence of climate change. Climate change is likely to vary by region, while impact analysis has focused on much larger political units. Clearly, adaptation/mitigation strategies must be developed at a level consistent with political and policy-making processes. This paper specifically addresses this deficiency by identifying the potential socio-economic and energy demand consequences of climate change for subnational regions. This is accomplished via the development and application of a regional simultaneous equation, econometric simulation model that focuses on five states (Illinois, Indiana, Michigan, Ohio, and Wisconsin) in the Great Lakes region of the US. This paper presents a process for obtaining state-specific assessments of the consequences of climate change for the socio-economic system. As such, it provides an indication of which economic sectors are most sensitive to climate change for a specific state (Indiana), a set of initial mitigation/adaptation strategies for this state, and the results of testing these strategies in the policy analysis framework enabled by the model. In addition, the research demonstrates an effective methodology for assessing impacts and policy implications of climate change at a level consistent with policy making authority

  8. County-Level Population Economic Status and Medicare Imaging Resource Consumption.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosenkrantz, Andrew B; Hughes, Danny R; Prabhakar, Anand M; Duszak, Richard

    2017-06-01

    The aim of this study was to assess relationships between county-level variation in Medicare beneficiary imaging resource consumption and measures of population economic status. The 2013 CMS Geographic Variation Public Use File was used to identify county-level per capita Medicare fee-for-service imaging utilization and nationally standardized costs to the Medicare program. The County Health Rankings public data set was used to identify county-level measures of population economic status. Regional variation was assessed, and multivariate regressions were performed. Imaging events per 1,000 Medicare beneficiaries varied 1.8-fold (range, 2,723-4,843) at the state level and 5.3-fold (range, 1,228-6,455) at the county level. Per capita nationally standardized imaging costs to Medicare varied 4.2-fold (range, $84-$353) at the state level and 14.1-fold (range, $33-$471) at the county level. Within individual states, county-level utilization varied on average 2.0-fold (range, 1.1- to 3.1-fold), and costs varied 2.8-fold (range, 1.1- to 6.4-fold). For both large urban populations and small rural states, Medicare imaging resource consumption was heterogeneously variable at the county level. Adjusting for county-level gender, ethnicity, rural status, and population density, countywide unemployment rates showed strong independent positive associations with Medicare imaging events (β = 26.96) and costs (β = 4.37), whereas uninsured rates showed strong independent positive associations with Medicare imaging costs (β = 2.68). Medicare imaging utilization and costs both vary far more at the county than at the state level. Unfavorable measures of county-level population economic status in the non-Medicare population are independently associated with greater Medicare imaging resource consumption. Future efforts to optimize Medicare imaging use should consider the influence of local indigenous socioeconomic factors outside the scope of traditional beneficiary-focused policy

  9. Economic and social analyses at a regional level in the light of competitiveness

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicoleta Maria Gogâltan

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available In most economic studies, competitiveness is considered a key issue of the political success failure. A major element which contributes to regional inequalities is the level of competitiveness. This element has been the subject of numerous studies over the past years, even though more attention was given to the national level and less to the regional one. Moreover, the purpose of these regional analyses is the correlation of territorial objectives and problems with possible sources of financing, seeing to ensure optimal combinations between regional demand and supply, the optimal distribution of the income and of the results obtained, regional competitiveness, the location of clusters, etc.

  10. Study on engineering economics of China high-level radioactive waste geological disposal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Qu Jun; Guo Zongzhi; Yang Lirong; Hu Jiang

    2012-01-01

    In this paper, based on the research and analysis about the repository construction cost of the European, US and Japan, together with the concept design pattern of China's high level radioactive waste repository, the preliminary economic analysis of China is presented. Meanwhile, combining with China's nuclear power development layout and picking-up policy of spent fuel fund, the preliminary measurement concerning the capital resource of high level radioactive waste disposal is implemented, which contribute to the conclusion initiatively that the spent fuel fund could meet the need of the financial demand of disposal cost. (authors)

  11. Economic impact of the energy transition at the local level. Methodologies and case studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maurer, Christiane; Ustinskaya, Elina

    2014-12-01

    An understanding of the mechanisms that link the energy transition to the stimulation of the economy on the ground is indispensable in terms of more efficient targeting of local energy transition policies. Objective evidence of economic results is required, as is a better understanding of economic analysis methods, in order to equip local and regional authorities with the tools required to demonstrate the economic benefits for all the key players. With the 'Economic impact of the energy transition at a local level - Methodologies and case studies' study, Energy Cities illustrates numerous socio-economic aspects of the energy transition and confirms the local economic benefits, through the use of data. As with any complex, new and diffuse process, this field of research is still not fully understood. Appropriate, high-quality analysis at the local level has rarely been carried out to date and a critical assessment of the methods used is necessary. This study will fill a gap and provide suggestions on potential areas for further research in a range of fields which should be further explored and examined in collaboration with local authorities and voluntary partners. Methodology and results The first part of the study sets out the scope of the study and contains a general description of the impact observed and the potential outcome of transition policies in the main green growth sectors: eco-innovation, the energy performance of buildings, renewable energy, sustainable mobility, recycling and industrial ecology. The analysis then focuses on the feedback of six towns and regions with a policy of active sustainable development (building renovation, support for eco-industries, promotion of soft mobility etc.), presented from the point of view of the economic results observed and the evaluation methods used. The study comprises five European authorities - Brussels, Copenhagen, Hannover, Kirklees and the Greater Paris Region, and one North American authority - Nolan County

  12. Economic appraisal of deployment schedules for high-level radioactive waste repositories

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Doan Phuong Hoai Linh

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The deep geological repository (DGR is considered as the definitive management solution for high-level waste (HLW. Countries defined different DGR implementation schedules, depending on their national context and political choices. We raise the question of the economic grounds of such political decisions by providing an economic analysis of different DGR schedules. We investigate the optimal timing for DGR commissioning based on available Nuclear Energy Agency (NEA data (2013. Two scenarios are considered: (1 rescheduling the deployment of a DGR with the same initial operational period, and (2 rescheduling the deployment of a DGR with a shorter operational period, i.e. initial closure date. Given the long timescales of such projects, we also take into account the discounting effect. The first finding is that it appears more economically favorable to extend the interim storage than to dispose of the HLW immediately. Countries which chose “immediate” disposal are willing to accept higher costs to quickly solve the problem. Another interesting result is that there is an optimal solution with respect to the length of DGR operational period and the waste flow for disposal. Based on data provided by the Organisation for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD/Nuclear Energy Agency (NEA, we find an optimal operating period of about 15 years with a flow of 2000 tHM/year.

  13. Economic appraisal of deployment schedules for high-level radioactive waste repositories

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hoai Linh Doan, Phuong; Duquesnoy, T.; Devezeaux de Lavergne, J.G.

    2017-01-01

    The deep geological repository (DGR) is considered as the definitive management solution for high-level radioactive waste (HLW). Countries defined different DGR implementation schedules, depending on their national context and political choices. We raise the question of the economic grounds of such political decisions by providing an economic analysis of different DGR schedules. We investigate the optimal timing for DGR commissioning based on available Nuclear Energy Agency (NEA) data (2013). Two scenarios are considered: -1) rescheduling the deployment of a DGR with the same initial operational period, and -2) rescheduling the deployment of a DGR with a shorter operational period, i.e. initial closure date. Given the long timescales of such projects, we also take into account the discounting effect. The first finding is that it appears more economically favorable to extend the interim storage than to dispose of the HLW immediately. Countries which chose 'immediate' disposal are willing to accept higher costs to quickly solve the problem. Another interesting result is that there is an optimal solution with respect to the length of DGR operational period and the waste flow for disposal. Based on data provided by the Organisation for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD)/Nuclear Energy Agency (NEA), we find an optimal operating period of about 15 years with a flow of 2000 tHM/year. (authors)

  14. Dominant Indicators of Bank Crises: Comparative Analysis for States with Different Levels of Economic Development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kozlov Vladislav I.

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available The article is devoted to identification of common and distinctive regularities of development of banking systems with different levels of development of economy through study of the most important macro-economic and financial indicators. The article uses instruments of the applied statistics. The study is based on comparison of mean values of indicators in two groups of countries (countries with a high level of income and countries with a medium level of income, each of which is divided into two sub-groups based on whether there was banking crisis in 2008 or not. In the result of the study the article shows that there are both common and distinctive features of development of banking systems of countries with different levels of economic development. Thus, a typical scenario, characteristic for countries with developed economy that had banking crisis in 2008, includes availability of a relatively large-scale crediting of the economy under conditions of relatively low rates of economic growth and close connections of the national banking systems with banking systems of other countries. Development of banking systems of developing countries during the pre-crisis period is characterised with the following specific features: relatively high rates of growth of scales of crediting of the economy and high rates of economic growth under conditions of use of significant volumes of resources, borrowed in financial markets, and close connection of the national banking systems with banking systems of other countries. The study allows a more efficient use of experience of states with developed economy, since the described results give a possibility to adjust experience of other states, taking into account characteristic features of banking systems of developing countries. Also the study identified states, experience of which should be studied. The conducted analysis of interrelations of indicators could be used for building models of assessment of

  15. Work injury trends during the last three decades in the construction industry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lander, Flemming; Nielsen, Kent Jacob; Lauritsen, Jens M

    2016-01-01

    were calculated. Employment levels in the construction sector were used as an indicator of fluctuations in the business cycle since 1980. Results: Through the last three decades the overall trend of work-related injuries was unchanged. For some subgroups of injuries, such as major injuries and injuries...... were significantly related to the business cycle, where the risk of injuries was higher during economic booms than during recessions. Further, periods with economic booms are positively related to the rate of minor injuries and injuries due to all other work activities than the use of power tools...

  16. Assessing economic impact of storm surge under projected sea level rise scenarios

    Science.gov (United States)

    Del Angel, D. C.; Yoskowitz, D.

    2017-12-01

    Global sea level is expected to rise 0.2-2m by the year 2100. Rising sea level is expected to have a number of impacts such as erosion, saltwater intrusion, and decline in coastal wetlands; all which have direct and indirect socio-economic impact to coastal communities. By 2050, 25% of the world's population will reside within flood-prone areas. These statistics raise a concern for the economic cost that sea level and flooding has on the growing coastal communities. Economic cost of storm surge inundation and rising seas may include loss or damage to public facilities and infrastructure that may become temporarily inaccessible, as well as disruptions to business and services. This goal of this project is to assess economic impacts of storms under four SLR scenarios including low, intermediate-low, intermediate-high, and high (0.2m, 0.5m, 1.2m and 2m, respectively) in the Northern Gulf of Mexico region. To assess flooding impact on communities from storm surge, this project utilizes HAZUS-MH software - a Geographic Information System (GIS)-based modeling tool developed by the Federal Emergency Management Agency - to estimate physical, economic, and social impacts of natural disasters such as floods, earthquakes and hurricanes. The HAZUS database comes integrated with aggregate and site specific inventory which includes: demographic data, general building stock, agricultural statistics, vehicle inventory, essential facilities, transportation systems, utility systems (among other sensitive facilities). User-defined inundation scenarios will serve to identify assets at risk and damage estimates will be generated using the Depth Damage Function included in the HAZUS software. Results will focus on 3 communities in the Gulf and highlight changes in storm flood impact. This approach not only provides a method for economic impact assessment but also begins to create a link between ecosystem services and natural and nature-based features such as wetlands, beaches and dunes

  17. STRUCTURAL EFFECTS AND MUTATIONS CAUSED BY THE ECONOMIC CRISIS ON FURNITURE TRADE AT THE EUROPEAN UNION LEVEL

    OpenAIRE

    Radu Marginean

    2013-01-01

    The global economic crisis had most negative effects on the entire economic sphere and especially in what the consuming industry is concerned, which may be considered “luxurious”, the way in which we may talk about the furniture industry. Along times of economic crisis at social level, a decrease in financial power at microeconomic, individual level is felt. Under conditions of social decrease in buying capacity, the request for commercial furniture is in rapid fall and thus the industry as s...

  18. An economic prediction of the finer resolution level wavelet coefficients in electronic structure calculations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagy, Szilvia; Pipek, János

    2015-12-21

    In wavelet based electronic structure calculations, introducing a new, finer resolution level is usually an expensive task, this is why often a two-level approximation is used with very fine starting resolution level. This process results in large matrices to calculate with and a large number of coefficients to be stored. In our previous work we have developed an adaptively refined solution scheme that determines the indices, where the refined basis functions are to be included, and later a method for predicting the next, finer resolution coefficients in a very economic way. In the present contribution, we would like to determine whether the method can be applied for predicting not only the first, but also the other, higher resolution level coefficients. Also the energy expectation values of the predicted wave functions are studied, as well as the scaling behaviour of the coefficients in the fine resolution limit.

  19. Economic inequality and undernutrition in women: multilevel analysis of individual, household, and community levels in Cambodia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hong, Rathavuth; Hong, Rathmony

    2007-03-01

    Many people in developing countries are still struggling to emerge from the realm of extreme poverty, where economic improvements tend to benefit a small, affluent group of the population and cause growing inequality in health and nutrition that affects the most vulnerable groups of the population, including women and children. To examine how household and community economic inequality affects nutritional status in women using information on 6,922 nonpregnant women aged 15 to 49 years included in the 2000 Cambodia Demographic and Health Survey. Nutritional status is defined with the use of the body-mass index (BMI). BMI less than 18.5 kg/m2 is defined as undernourishment. The household wealth index was calculated from household ownership of durable assets and household characteristics. Community wealth is an average household wealth index at the community level. Household and community economic inequalities were measured by dividing the wealth index into quintiles. The effects of household and community economic inequality were estimated by multilevel analysis. Independently of community economic status and other risk factors, women in the poorest 20% of households are more likely to be undernourished than women in the richest 20% of households (RR = 1.63; p = .008). The results also show variation among communities in the nutritional status of women. Age, occupation, and access to safe sources of drinking water are significantly associated with women's nutritional status. Improving household income and creating employment opportunities for women, in particular poor women, may be a key to improving the nutritional status of women in Cambodia.

  20. The Bidirectional Causality between Country-Level Governance, Economic Growth and Sustainable Development: A Cross-Country Data Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristina Boţa-Avram

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available In the context of contemporary society, characterized by the information users’ growing and differentiated needs, the way country-level governance and social responsibility contribute to the ensuring of sustainable economic development is a concern for all the actors of the economic sphere. The aim of this paper is to test the causal linkages between the quality of country-level governance, economic growth and a well-known indicator of economic sustainable development, for a large panel of world-wide countries for a period of 10 years (2006–2015. While there are some prior studies that have argued the bidirectional causality between good public governance and economic development, this study intends to provide a new focus on the relationship between country-level governance and economic growth, on one hand, and between country-level governance and adjusted net savings, as a selected indicator of economic sustainable development, on the other hand. Four hypotheses on the causal relationship between good governance, economic growth and sustainable development were tested by using Granger non-causality tests. Our findings resulting from Granger non-causality tests provide reasonable evidence of Granger causality from country-level governance to economic growth, but from economic growth to country-level governance, the causality is not confirmed. In what regards the relationship between country-level governance and adjusted net savings, the bidirectional Granger causality is not confirmed. The main implication of our study is that improving economic growth and sustainable development is a very challenging issue, and the impact of macro-level factors such as country-level governance should not be neglected.

  1. System-level modeling for economic evaluation of geological CO2 storage in gas reservoirs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang, Yingqi; Oldenburg, Curtis M.; Finsterle, Stefan; Bodvarsson, Gudmundur S.

    2007-01-01

    One way to reduce the effects of anthropogenic greenhouse gases on climate is to inject carbon dioxide (CO 2 ) from industrial sources into deep geological formations such as brine aquifers or depleted oil or gas reservoirs. Research is being conducted to improve understanding of factors affecting particular aspects of geological CO 2 storage (such as storage performance, storage capacity, and health, safety and environmental (HSE) issues) as well as to lower the cost of CO 2 capture and related processes. However, there has been less emphasis to date on system-level analyses of geological CO 2 storage that consider geological, economic, and environmental issues by linking detailed process models to representations of engineering components and associated economic models. The objective of this study is to develop a system-level model for geological CO 2 storage, including CO 2 capture and separation, compression, pipeline transportation to the storage site, and CO 2 injection. Within our system model we are incorporating detailed reservoir simulations of CO 2 injection into a gas reservoir and related enhanced production of methane. Potential leakage and associated environmental impacts are also considered. The platform for the system-level model is GoldSim [GoldSim User's Guide. GoldSim Technology Group; 2006, http://www.goldsim.com]. The application of the system model focuses on evaluating the feasibility of carbon sequestration with enhanced gas recovery (CSEGR) in the Rio Vista region of California. The reservoir simulations are performed using a special module of the TOUGH2 simulator, EOS7C, for multicomponent gas mixtures of methane and CO 2 . Using a system-level modeling approach, the economic benefits of enhanced gas recovery can be directly weighed against the costs and benefits of CO 2 injection

  2. Detection of the Interdependence of Economic Development and Environmental Performance at the Industry Level

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nina Ilysheva

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the research is to identify the connection between economic development and environmental performance at the industrial level. The subject of the research is a set of processes of correlation analysis of economic and environmental indicators of the oil and gas producing industry. The urgency of the task of mitigating anthropogenic climate change caused by rising concentrations of greenhouse gases in the atmosphere is proven. Statistical data on emissions for the past 15 years are analyzed, change trends are identified. The authors establish the cause of the growth in greenhouse gas emissions, the energy sector being the main contributor. A description of the mechanism of the effect of greenhouse gases on the climate system is provided. The requirements set by international agreements and Russian documents aimed at reducing greenhouse gas emissions are unified. The main gases that cause the greenhouse effect are identified, their classification and brief characteristics are provided in the article. The necessity to promote the monitoring of greenhouse gas emissions and reporting system at the global level is substantiated. The purpose of the advanced metering system is to obtain relevant and reliable data for timely response to and planned reduction of greenhouse gas emissions. In accordance with the recommendations of the international standard for non-financial reporting, GRI, the effectiveness of reducing greenhouse gas emissions should be disclosed in the aspect of “Emissions”. The progress of economic science has made it important to take into account the natural component, and the value of bioresources will increase over time, therefore, the company's economic development can not be isolated. In accordance with the hypothesis, it is assumed that the economy and ecology are interrelated and affect each other.

  3. Chronic restraint stress after injury and shock is associated with persistent anemia despite prolonged elevation in erythropoietin levels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bible, Letitia E; Pasupuleti, Latha V; Gore, Amy V; Sifri, Ziad C; Kannan, Kolenkode B; Mohr, Alicia M

    2015-07-01

    Following severe traumatic injury, critically ill patients have a prolonged hypercatacholamine state that is associated with bone marrow (BM) dysfunction and persistent anemia. However, current animal models of injury and shock result in a transient anemia. Daily restraint stress (chronic stress [CS]) has been shown to increase catecholamines. We hypothesize that adding CS following injury or injury and shock in rats will prolong the hypercatecholaminemia and prolong the initial anemia, despite elevated erythropoietin (EPO) levels. Male Sprague-Dawley rats (n = 6-8 per group) underwent lung contusion (LC) or combined LC/hemorrhagic shock (LCHS) followed by 6 days of CS. CS consisted of a 2-hour restraint period interrupted with repositioning and alarms every 30 minutes. At 7 days, urine was assessed for norepinephrine (NE) levels, blood for EPO and hemoglobin (Hgb), and BM for erythroid progenitor growth. Animals undergoing LC or combined LCHS predictably recovered by Day 7; urine NE, EPO, and Hgb levels were normal. The addition of CS to LC and LCHS models was associated with a significant elevation in NE on Day 6. The addition of CS to LC led to a persistent 20% to 25% decrease in the growth of BM hematopoietic progenitor cells. These findings were further exaggerated when CS was added following LCHS, resulting in a 20%q to 40% reduction in BM erythroid progenitor colony growth and a 20% decrease in Hgb when compared with LCHS alone. Exposing injured animals to CS results in prolonged elevation of NE and EPO, which is associated with worsening BM erythroid function and persistent anemia. Chronic restraint stress following injury and shock provides a clinically relevant model to further evaluate persistent injury-associated anemia seen in critically ill trauma patients. Furthermore, alleviating CS after severe injury is a potential therapeutic target to improve BM dysfunction and anemia.

  4. Emergency CT for assessment and management of blunt traumatic splenic injuries at a Level 1 Trauma Center: 13-year study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Margari, Sergio; Garozzo Velloni, Fernanda; Tonolini, Massimo; Colombo, Ettore; Artioli, Diana; Allievi, Niccolò Ettore; Sammartano, Fabrizio; Chiara, Osvaldo; Vanzulli, Angelo

    2018-05-12

    To determine the relationship between multidetector computed tomography (MDCT) findings, management strategies, and ultimate clinical outcomes in patients with splenic injuries secondary to blunt trauma. This Institutional Review Board-approved study collected 351 consecutive patients admitted at the Emergency Department (ED) of a Level I Trauma Center with blunt splenic trauma between October 2002 and November 2015. Their MDCT studies were retrospectively and independently reviewed by two radiologists to grade splenic injuries according to the American Association for the Surgery of Trauma (AAST) organ injury scale (OIS) and to detect intraparenchymal (type A) or extraparenchymal (type B) active bleeding and/or contained vascular injuries (CVI). Clinical data, information on management, and outcome were retrieved from the hospital database. Statistical analysis relied on Student's t, chi-squared, and Cohen's kappa tests. Emergency multiphase MDCT was obtained in 263 hemodynamically stable patients. Interobserver agreement for both AAST grading of injuries and vascular lesions was excellent (k = 0.77). Operative management (OM) was performed in 160 patients (45.58% of the whole cohort), and high-grade (IV and V) OIS injuries and type B bleeding were statistically significant (p trauma event, without significant increase of mortality. Both intraparenchymal and extraparenchymal active bleeding were predictive of NOM failure (p splenic traumas and contributes to the shift toward NOM in hemodynamically stable patients.

  5. Higher levels of spontaneous breathing reduce lung injury in experimental moderate acute respiratory distress syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carvalho, Nadja C; Güldner, Andreas; Beda, Alessandro; Rentzsch, Ines; Uhlig, Christopher; Dittrich, Susanne; Spieth, Peter M; Wiedemann, Bärbel; Kasper, Michael; Koch, Thea; Richter, Torsten; Rocco, Patricia R; Pelosi, Paolo; de Abreu, Marcelo Gama

    2014-11-01

    To assess the effects of different levels of spontaneous breathing during biphasic positive airway pressure/airway pressure release ventilation on lung function and injury in an experimental model of moderate acute respiratory distress syndrome. Multiple-arm randomized experimental study. University hospital research facility. Thirty-six juvenile pigs. Pigs were anesthetized, intubated, and mechanically ventilated. Moderate acute respiratory distress syndrome was induced by repetitive saline lung lavage. Biphasic positive airway pressure/airway pressure release ventilation was conducted using the airway pressure release ventilation mode with an inspiratory/expiratory ratio of 1:1. Animals were randomly assigned to one of four levels of spontaneous breath in total minute ventilation (n = 9 per group, 6 hr each): 1) biphasic positive airway pressure/airway pressure release ventilation, 0%; 2) biphasic positive airway pressure/airway pressure release ventilation, > 0-30%; 3) biphasic positive airway pressure/airway pressure release ventilation, > 30-60%, and 4) biphasic positive airway pressure/airway pressure release ventilation, > 60%. The inspiratory effort measured by the esophageal pressure time product increased proportionally to the amount of spontaneous breath and was accompanied by improvements in oxygenation and respiratory system elastance. Compared with biphasic positive airway pressure/airway pressure release ventilation of 0%, biphasic positive airway pressure/airway pressure release ventilation more than 60% resulted in lowest venous admixture, as well as peak and mean airway and transpulmonary pressures, redistributed ventilation to dependent lung regions, reduced the cumulative diffuse alveolar damage score across lungs (median [interquartile range], 11 [3-40] vs 18 [2-69]; p ventilation more than 0-30% and more than 30-60% showed a less consistent pattern of improvement in lung function, inflammation, and damage compared with biphasic positive airway

  6. Intraspecific trait variation and the leaf economics spectrum across resource gradients and levels of organization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fajardo, Alex; Siefert, Andrew

    2018-05-01

    Understanding patterns of functional trait variation across environmental gradients offers an opportunity to increase inference in the mechanistic causes of plant community assembly. The leaf economics spectrum (LES) predicts global tradeoffs in leaf traits and trait-environment relationships, but few studies have examined whether these predictions hold across different levels of organization, particularly within species. Here, we asked (1) whether the main assumptions of the LES (expected trait relationships and shifts in trait values across resource gradients) hold at the intraspecific level, and (2) how within-species trait correlations scale up to interspecific or among-community levels. We worked with leaf traits of saplings of woody species growing across light and soil N and P availability gradients in temperate rainforests of southern Chile. We found that ITV accounted for a large proportion of community-level variation in leaf traits (e.g., LMA and leaf P) and played an important role in driving community-level shifts in leaf traits across environmental gradients. Additionally, intraspecific leaf trait relationships were generally consistent with interspecific and community-level trait relationships and with LES predictions-e.g., a strong negative intraspecific LMA-leaf N correlation-although, most trait relationships varied significantly among species, suggesting idiosyncrasies in the LES at the intraspecific level. © 2018 by the Ecological Society of America.

  7. Levels of high energy cottonseed meal in multiple supplements for grazing cattle: performance and economic evaluation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joanis Tilemahos Zervoudakis

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available The objective was to evaluate the substitution levels of protein from soybean meal by high energy cottonseed (CS meal in multiple supplements for beef cattle grazing in the dry season on the average daily gain (ADG and economic viability. Twenty Nellore steers with initial body weight of 351.25±35.38 kg and average initial age of 24±0.8 months were used, divided into four paddocks of Brachiaria brizantha cv. Marandu with 1.6 ha each incompletely randomized design with four animals and five supplements to assess the following supplements: 0CS, 25CS and 50CS corresponding to the level of 0,25 and 50% high energy cottonseed meal to replace the meal soybean, provided the amount of 2 kg/animal/day, which were compared to mineral mixture (MM. The supplement 25CS provided higher (P<0.0001 ADG (0.75kg/animal/day-1 compared to supplement 50CS (0.60kg/animal/day-1. The ADG of animals supplemented with 0CS (0.53kg/animal/day-1 did not differ (P<0.0001 of the ADG of the bulls receiving supplementation with 25CS (0.75k /animal/day-1 and 50CS (0,60kg / animal / day-1. The 25CS supplement showed a higher economic return on invested capital in the period. The use of cottonseed meal high energy level of 25% replacement of soybean meal in multiple supplements provided greater weight gain of cattle and improved economic viability. 

  8. Economic analysis of a volume reduction/polyethylene solidification system for low-level radioactive wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kalb, P.D.; Colombo, P.

    1985-01-01

    A study was conducted at Brookhaven National Laboratory to determine the economic feasibility of a fluidized bed volume reduction/polyethylene solidification system for low-level radioactive wastes. These results are compared with the ''null'' alternative of no volume reduction and solidification of aqueous waste streams in hydraulic cement. The economic analysis employed a levelized revenue requirement (LRR) technique conducted over a ten year period. An interactive computer program was written to conduct the LRR calculations. Both of the treatment/solidification options were considered for a number of scenarios including type of plant (BWR or PWR) and transportation distance to the disposal site. If current trends in the escalation rates of cost components continue, the volume reduction/polyethylene solidification option will be cost effective for both BWRs and PWRs. Data indicate that a minimum net annual savings of $0.8 million per year (for a PWR shipping its waste 750 miles) and a maximum net annual savings of $9 million per year (for a BWR shipping its waste 2500 miles) can be achieved. A sensitivity analysis was performed for the burial cost escalation rate, which indicated that variation of this factor will impact the total levelized revenue requirement. The burial cost escalation rate which yields a break-even condition was determined for each scenario considered. 11 refs., 8 figs., 39 tabs

  9. Measuring the global information society - explaining digital inequality by economic level and education standard

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ünver, H.

    2017-02-01

    A main focus of this research paper is to investigate on the explanation of the ‘digital inequality’ or ‘digital divide’ by economic level and education standard of about 150 countries worldwide. Inequality regarding GDP per capita, literacy and the so-called UN Education Index seem to be important factors affecting ICT usage, in particular Internet penetration, mobile phone usage and also mobile Internet services. Empirical methods and (multivariate) regression analysis with linear and non-linear functions are useful methods to measure some crucial factors of a country or culture towards becoming information and knowledge based society. Overall, the study concludes that the convergence regarding ICT usage proceeds worldwide faster than the convergence in terms of economic wealth and education in general. The results based on a large data analysis show that the digital divide is declining over more than a decade between 2000 and 2013, since more people worldwide use mobile phones and the Internet. But a high digital inequality explained to a significant extent by the functional relation between technology penetration rates, education level and average income still exists. Furthermore it supports the actions of countries at UN/G20/OECD level for providing ICT access to all people for a more balanced world in context of sustainable development by postulating that policymakers need to promote comprehensive education worldwide by means of using ICT.

  10. Taurine decreased uric acid levels in hyperuricemic rats and alleviated kidney injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feng, Ying; Sun, Fang; Gao, Yongchao; Yang, Jiancheng; Wu, Gaofeng; Lin, Shumei; Hu, Jianmin

    2017-07-29

    Hyperuricemia can lead to direct kidney damage. Taurine participates in several renal physiological processes and has been shown as a renoprotective agent. It has been reported that taurine could reduce uric acid levels in diabetic rats, but to date there was no research on the effects of taurine on hyperuricemic rats with kidney injury. In present study, hyperuricemic rat models were induced by intragastric administration of adenine and ethambutol hydrochloride for 10 days, and taurine (1% or 2%) were added in the drinking water 7 days in advance for consecutively 17 days. The results showed that taurine alleviated renal morphological and pathological changes as well as kidney dysfunction in hyperuricemic rats. Taurine could efficiently decrease the elevated xanthine oxidase activities in hyperuricemic rats, indicating its effect on the regulation of uric acid formation. The reabsorption and secretion of uric acid are dependent on a number of urate transporters. Expressions of three urate transporters were significantly down-regulated in hyperuricemic rats, while taurine prevented the decrease of mRNA and protein expression levels of these urate transporters. The results indicate that taurine might play a role in the regulation of renal uric acid excretion. Therefore, taurine could be a promising agent for the treatment of hyperuricemia. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Economic growth and marine biodiversity: influence of human social structure on decline of marine trophic levels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clausen, Rebecca; York, Richard

    2008-04-01

    We assessed the effects of economic growth, urbanization, and human population size on marine biodiversity. We used the mean trophic level (MTL) of marine catch as an indicator of marine biodiversity and conducted cross-national time-series analyses (1960-2003) of 102 nations to investigate human social influences on fish catch and trends in MTL. We constructed path models to examine direct and indirect effects relating to marine catch and MTL. Nations' MTLs declined with increased economic growth, increased urbanization, and increased population size, in part because of associated increased catch. These findings contradict the environmental Kuznets curve hypothesis, which claims that economic modernization will reduce human impact on the environment. To make informed decisions on issues of marine resource management, policy makers, nonprofit entities, and professional societies must recognize the need to include social analyses in overall conservation-research strategies. The challenge is to utilize the socioeconomic and ecological research in the service of a comprehensive marine-conservation movement.

  12. Economics of defense high-level waste management in the United States

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Slate, S.C.; McDonell, W.R.

    1987-01-01

    The Department of Energy (DOE) is responsible for managing defense high-level wastes (DHLW) from U.S. defense activities using environmentally safe and cost-effective methods. In parallel with its technical programs, the DOE is performing economic studies to ensure that costs are minimized. To illustrate the cost estimating techniques and to provide a sense of cost magnitude, the DHLW costs for the Savannah River Plant (SRP) are calculated. Since operations at SRP must be optimized within relatively fixed management practices, the estimation of incremental costs is emphasized. Treatment and disposal costs are shown to equally contribute to the incremental cost of almost $400,000/canister

  13. Family medicine residents’ perceived level of comfort in treating common sports injuries across residency programs in the United States

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amoako AO

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Adae O Amoako,1 Agyenim B Amoako,2 George GA Pujalte3 1Department of Family and Community Medicine, Penn State Hershey Medical Center, Hershey, PA, USA; 2Department of Family Medicine, University of Arkansas for Medical Sciences Northwest, Fayetteville, AR, USA; 3Sports Medicine, Divisions of Primary Care, and Orthopedics, Mayo Clinic Health System, Waycross, GA, USA Background and objective: Family physicians are expected to be comfortable in treating common sports injuries. Evidence shows a limited level of comfort in treating these injuries in pediatric and internal medicine residents. Studies are lacking, however, in family medicine residents. The purpose of this study is to assess the comfort level of family medicine residents in treating common sports injuries in adults and children based on their perceived level of knowledge and attitudes. Methods: This is a cross-sectional study of family medicine residents in the United Sates. A written survey of 25 questions related to sports injury knowledge and factors affecting comfort level were collected. A chi-square test was implemented in calculating P-values. Results: Five hundred and fifty-seven residents responded to the survey. A higher percentage of doctors of osteopathy (86.6%, 82.5%, 69.6%, and 68.7% compared to doctors of medicine (78.5%, 71.6%, 53.4%, and 52.8% respectively identified ankle sprain, concussion, plantar fasciitis, and lateral epicondylitis as common injuries, and felt comfortable in treating them (P-values =0.015, 0.004, 0.0001, and 0.0002, respectively. Residents with high interest in sports medicine correctly identified the injuries as common and felt comfortable treating them as well (knowledge, P=0.027, 0.0029, <0.0001, and 0.0001, respectively; comfort level, P=0.0016, <0.0001, 0.0897, and 0.0010, respectively. Conclusion: Medical education background, factors that affect training, and an interest in sports medicine contribute to residents' knowledge and comfort

  14. Prevalence of chest trauma, associated injuries and mortality: a level I trauma centre experience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Veysi, Veysi T; Nikolaou, Vassilios S; Paliobeis, Christos; Efstathopoulos, Nicolas; Giannoudis, Peter V

    2009-10-01

    A review of prospectively collected data in our trauma unit for the years 1998-2003 was undertaken. Adult patients who suffered multiple trauma with an Injury Severity Score (ISS) of >/=16, admitted to hospital for more than 72 hours and with sustained blunt chest injuries were included in the study. Demographic details including pre-hospital care, trauma history, admission vital signs, blood transfusions, details of injuries and their abbreviated injury scores (AIS), operations, length of intensive care unit and hospital stays, Injury Severity Score (ISS) and mortality were analysed. Fulfilling the inclusion criteria with at least one chest injury were 1,164 patients. The overall mortality reached 18.7%. As expected, patients in the higher AIS groups had both a higher overall ISS and mortality rate with one significant exception; patients with minor chest injuries (AIS(chest) = 1) were associated with mortality comparable to injuries involving an AIS(chest) = 3. Additionally, the vast majority of polytraumatised patients with an AIS(chest) = 1 died in ICU sooner than patients of groups 2-5.

  15. Training habits and injuries of masters' level football players: a preliminary report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Newsham-West, R; Button, C; Milburn, P D; Mündermann, A; Sole, G; Schneiders, A G; Sullivan, S J

    2009-05-01

    To profile training habits and injuries in football players participating in a national Masters tournament. A cross-sectional retrospective study design was used to survey male football players attending the 2008 New Zealand Masters Games. Information regarding player demographics, football injuries, football related training, and risk factors for injury were collected. 199 Players were recruited, with a median age of 44 yrs (range 35-73) and a median football playing history of 15 yrs (range 0-66). Irrespective of age, 112 (84%) players included a warm-up and 104 (78%) included a stretching regime in their regular training programme. In the 12 months prior to the tournament, 128 football related injuries were reported by 93 players (64 injuries/100 players or 46 injured players/100 players). The most frequently injured region was the lower limb; specifically the lower leg (n=23), ankle (n=18), hamstring (n=17), knee (n=15), and Achilles tendon (n=15). This study provides a preliminary insight into the training habits and injury profiles of Masters football players. Despite all players including some form of injury prevention strategy in their training, a significant number of players experienced an injury in the 12 months prior to the tournament.

  16. Successful spinal cord stimulation for neuropathic below-level spinal cord injury pain following complete paraplegia: a case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reck, Tim A; Landmann, Gunther

    2017-01-01

    Neuropathic pain is common in patients with spinal cord injury (SCI) and often difficult to treat. We report a case where epidural spinal cord stimulation (SCS) below the level of injury has been successfully applied in a patient with a complete spinal cord lesion. A 53-year-old female presented with neuropathic below-level SCI pain of both lower legs and feet due to complete SCI below T5. Time and pain duration since injury was 2 years. Pain intensity was reported on numeric rating scale with an average of 7/10 (0 meaning no pain, 10 meaning the worst imaginable pain), but also with about 8-10 pain attacks during the day with an intensity of 9/10, which lasted between some minutes and half an hour. SCS was applied below the level of injury at-level T11-L1. After a successful 2 weeks testing period the pulse generator has been implanted permanently with a burst-stimulation pattern. The average pain was reduced to a bearable intensity of 4/10, in addition attacks could be reduced both in frequency and in intensity. This effects lasted for at least three months of follow-up. Even in case of complete SCI, SCS might be effective. Mechanisms of pain relief remain unclear. A modulation of suggested residual spinothalamic tract function may play a role. Further investigation has to be carried out to support this theory.

  17. [Correlation between serum uric acid level and acute renal injury after coronary artery bypass grafting].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, D Q; Du, J; Zheng, Z; Tang, Y; Zou, L; Zhang, Y H; Zhang, H T

    2017-07-11

    Objective: To evaluate whether early postoperative serum uric acid level can predict postoperative acute renal injury (AKI) among patients undergoing coronary artery bypass grafting (CABG). Methods: The study retrospectively enrolled 1 306 patients undergoing CABG in Fuwai Hospital between September 2012 and December 2013. The patients were divided into 5 groups by the concentrations of serum uric acid measured on the morning of the first postoperative day, and uric acid categories were as follow: less than 195 μmol/L (Q1 group, 262 cases), 195-236 μmol/L (Q2 group, 263 cases), 237-280 μmol/L (Q3 group, 260 cases), 281-336 μmol/L (Q4 group, 261 cases), more than 336 μmol/L (Q5 group, 260 cases). The primary end points were AKI (RIFLE criteria), severe AKI (AKI≥stage Ⅰ), postoperative continuous renal replacement therapy (CRRT) requirement, in-hospital death, length of stay in hospital and intensive care unit(ICU). The area under the receiver-operating characteristic (ROC) curve (AUC) was used to determine the ability of the early postoperative serum uric acid level as a risk factor for postoperative AKI prediction. Results: Among the 1 306 patients enrolled in the study, AKI was found in 335 patients (25.65%). After adjusting for variables that were different between the 5 groups, the Q5 group had significantly higher risk of AKI, AKI≥ stage Ⅰ and the requirement of CRRT ( P uric acid levels alone were used (both P uric acid was a better predictor than serum creatinine( P uric acid concentration within 12 hours after operation is an independent predictor of postoperative AKI in patients undergoing CABG, which could be used to identify patients at high risk for AKI.

  18. Plasma iron levels appraised 15 days after spinal cord injury in a limb movement animal model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reis, F M; Esteves, A M; Tufik, S; de Mello, M T

    2011-03-01

    Experimental, controlled trial. The purpose of this study was to evaluate plasma iron and transferrin levels in a limb movement animal model with spinal cord injury (SCI). Universidade Federal de São Paulo, Departamento de Psicobiologia. In all, 72 male Wistar rats aged 90 days were divided into four groups: (1) acute SCI (1 day, SCI1), (2) 3 days post-SCI (SCI3), (3) 7 days post-SCI (SCI7) and (4) 15 days post-SCI (SCI15). Each of these groups had corresponding control (CTRL) and SHAM groups. Plasma iron and transferrin levels of the different groups were analyzed using a one-way analysis of variance (ANOVA) followed by Tukey's test. We found a significant reduction in iron plasma levels after SCI compared with the CTRL group: SCI1 (CTRL: 175±10.58 μg dl(-1); SCI: 108.28±11.7 μg dl(-1)), SCI3 (CTRL: 195.5±11.00 μg dl(-1); SCI: 127.88±12.63 μg dl(-1)), SCI7 (CTRL: 186±2.97 μg dl(-1); SCI: 89.2±15.39 μg dl(-1)) and SCI15 (CTRL: 163±5.48 μg dl(-1); SCI: 124.44±10.30 μg dl(-1)) (P<0.05; ANOVA). The SHAM1 group demonstrated a reduction in iron plasma after acute SCI (CTRL: 175±10.58 μg dl(-1); SHAM: 114.60±7.81 μg dl(-1)) (P<0.05; ANOVA). Reduced iron metabolism after SCI may be one of the mechanisms involved in the pathogenesis of sleep-related movement disorders.

  19. Prediction of community mental health service utilization by individual and ecological level socio-economic factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donisi, Valeria; Tedeschi, Federico; Percudani, Mauro; Fiorillo, Andrea; Confalonieri, Linda; De Rosa, Corrado; Salazzari, Damiano; Tansella, Michele; Thornicroft, Graham; Amaddeo, Francesco

    2013-10-30

    Individuals with a more deprived socioeconomic status (SES) are more likely to have higher rates of psychiatric morbidity and use of psychiatric services. Such service use is also influenced by socioeconomic factors at the ecological level. The aim of this article is to investigate the influence of these variables on service utilization. All patients in contact with three Italian community psychiatric services (CPS) were included. Community and hospital contacts over 6 months were investigated. Socio-economic characteristics were described using a SES Index and two new Resources Accessibility Indexes. Low SES was found to be associated with more community service contacts. When other individual and ecological variables were controlled for, SES was negatively associated only with the number of home visits, which was about half the rate in deprived areas. An association between service utilization and the resources of the catchment area was also detected. The economic crisis in Europe is increasing inequality of access, so paying attention to SES characteristics at both the individual and the ecological levels is likely to become increasingly important in understanding patterns of psychiatric service utilization and planning care accordingly. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Economic sustainability, water security and multi-level governance of local water schemes in Nepal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emma Hakala

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available This article explores the role of multi-level governance and power structures in local water security through a case study of the Nawalparasi district in Nepal. It focuses on economic sustainability as a measure to address water security, placing this thematic in the context of a complicated power structure consisting of local, district and national administration as well as external development cooperation actors. The study aims to find out whether efforts to improve the economic sustainability of water schemes have contributed to water security at the local level. In addition, it will consider the interactions between water security, power structures and local equality and justice. The research builds upon survey data from the Nepalese districts of Nawalparasi and Palpa, and a case study based on interviews and observation in Nawalparasi. The survey was performed in water schemes built within a Finnish development cooperation programme spanning from 1990 to 2004, allowing a consideration of the long-term sustainability of water management projects. This adds a crucial external influence into the intra-state power structures shaping water management in Nepal. The article thus provides an alternative perspective to cross-regional water security through a discussion combining transnational involvement with national and local points of view.

  1. Modelling the economic impact of three lameness causing diseases using herd and cow level evidence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ettema, Jehan; Østergaard, Søren; Kristensen, Anders Ringgaard

    2010-06-01

    Diseases to the cow's hoof, interdigital skin and legs are highly prevalent and of large economic impact in modern dairy farming. In order to support farmer's decisions on preventing and treating lameness and its underlying causes, decision support models can be used to predict the economic profitability of such actions. An existing approach of modelling lameness as one health disorder in a dynamic, stochastic and mechanistic simulation model has been improved in two ways. First of all, three underlying diseases causing lameness were modelled: digital dermatitis, interdigital hyperplasia and claw horn diseases. Secondly, the existing simulation model was set-up in way that it uses hyper-distributions describing diseases risk of the three lameness causing diseases. By combining information on herd level risk factors with prevalence of lameness or prevalence of underlying diseases among cows, marginal posterior probability distributions for disease prevalence in the specific herd are created in a Bayesian network. Random draws from these distributions are used by the simulation model to describe disease risk. Hereby field data on prevalence is used systematically and uncertainty around herd specific risk is represented. Besides the fact that estimated profitability of halving disease risk depended on the hyper-distributions used, the estimates differed for herds with different levels of diseases risk and reproductive efficiency. (c) 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Conversion of transuranic waste to low level waste by decontamination: a technical and economic evaluation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Allen, R.P.; Hazelton, R.F.

    1984-12-01

    A study was conducted to evaluate the technical and economic feasibility of using in-situ decontamination techniques to convert glove boxes and other large TRU-contaminated components directly into LLW. The results of the technical evaluation indicate that in-situ decontamination of these types of components to non-TRU levels is technically feasible. Applicable decontamination techniques include electropolishing, hand scrubbing, chemical washes/sprays, strippable coatings and Freon spray-cleaning. The removal of contamination from crevices and other holdup areas remains a problem, but may be solved through further advances in decontamination technology. Also, the increase in the allowable maximum TRU level from 10 nCi/g to 100 nCi/g as defined in DOE Order 5820.2 reduces the removal requirement and facilitates measurement of the remaining quantities. The major emphasis of the study was on a cost/benefit evaluation that included a review and update of previous analyses and evaluations of TRU-waste volume reduction and conversion options. The results of the economic evaluation show, for the assumptions used, that there is a definite cost incentive to size reduce large components, and that decontamination of sectioned material has become cost competitive with the size reduction options. In-situ decontamination appears to be the lowest cost option when based on routine-type operations conducted by well-trained and properly equipped personnel. 16 references, 1 figure, 7 tables

  3. Measuring macro-level effects of the global economic recession on university-industry research cooperation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Azagra-Caro, J.M.; Tijssen, R.J.W.; Yegros-Yegros, A.

    2016-07-01

    The 2007/2008 financial crisis, and ensuing economic recession, had a direct negative effect on university-industry research cooperation in the OECD countries and other economies – it diminished the number of university-industry co-authored research publications (UICs) during the period 2008-13 by 7%. It also changed the relationship between national business expenditure on R&D and UIC output levels. Before the recession the relationship was negative, but became positive during the years 2008-2013. The few countries where business expenditure on R&D increased during recession saw UIC numbers rise. This moderating effect of the recession applies only to ‘domestic UICs’, where universities cooperated with business companies located in the same country. Micro-level research is needed to assess the contributing effects on large university-industry R&D consortia on both domestic and international collaboration patterns. (Author)

  4. Comparison of economic evaluation methodology between levelized method and the evaluation system in China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang Shengli

    2005-01-01

    Different methodology would bring different results. This paper includes an introduction of levelized discounted generation cost methodology as well as that of Chinese system, respectively. In general, there have two key indices in Chinese evaluation system, they are generation cost and electricity sales price to the grid. This paper contains a description of cost breakdown and calculation procedure for each index. Comparison between these two methods and the primary differences are also included. For the first time, equations for calculating generation cost and selling price to the grid based on Chinese system have been derived, and its accuracy has been shown through running the special computer program. The two systems are quite different in many aspects. Firstly, levelized generation cost is always calculated with discounted method that excluded in Chinese system. Secondly, levelized generation cost is a single and constant value that would not change over the economic life while generation cost in Chinese system is estimated on a year by year base. Thirdly, the makeup of generation cost in Chinese system is different from that of levelized system since taxes and dividend share removed. Finally, the electricity sales price in Chinese system is more similar to levelized generation cost. (authors)

  5. Bigger is better: Improved nature conservation and economic returns from landscape-level mitigation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kennedy, Christina M; Miteva, Daniela A; Baumgarten, Leandro; Hawthorne, Peter L; Sochi, Kei; Polasky, Stephen; Oakleaf, James R; Uhlhorn, Elizabeth M; Kiesecker, Joseph

    2016-07-01

    Impact mitigation is a primary mechanism on which countries rely to reduce environmental externalities and balance development with conservation. Mitigation policies are transitioning from traditional project-by-project planning to landscape-level planning. Although this larger-scale approach is expected to provide greater conservation benefits at the lowest cost, empirical justification is still scarce. Using commercial sugarcane expansion in the Brazilian Cerrado as a case study, we apply economic and biophysical steady-state models to quantify the benefits of the Brazilian Forest Code (FC) under landscape- and property-level planning. We find that FC compliance imposes small costs to business but can generate significant long-term benefits to nature: supporting 32 (±37) additional species (largely habitat specialists), storing 593,000 to 2,280,000 additional tons of carbon worth $69 million to $265 million ($ pertains to U.S. dollars), and marginally improving surface water quality. Relative to property-level compliance, we find that landscape-level compliance reduces total business costs by $19 million to $35 million per 6-year sugarcane growing cycle while often supporting more species and storing more carbon. Our results demonstrate that landscape-level mitigation provides cost-effective conservation and can be used to promote sustainable development.

  6. Spinopelvic dissociation: multidetector computed tomographic evaluation of fracture patterns and associated injuries at a single level 1 trauma center.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gupta, Pushpender; Barnwell, Jonathan C; Lenchik, Leon; Wuertzer, Scott D; Miller, Anna N

    2016-06-01

    The objective of the present study is to evaluate multidetector computed tomographic (MDCT) fracture patterns and associated injuries in patients with spinopelvic dissociation (SPD). Our institutional trauma registry database was reviewed from Jan. 1, 2006, to Sept. 30, 2012, specifically evaluating patients with sacral fractures. MDCT scans of patients with sacral fractures were reviewed to determine the presence of SPD. SPD cases were characterized into the following fracture patterns: U-shaped, Y-shaped, T-shaped, H-shaped, and burst. The following MDCT features were recorded: level of the horizontal fracture, location of vertical fracture, kyphosis between major fracture fragments, displacement of fracture fragment, narrowing of central spinal canal, narrowing of neural foramina, and extension into sacroiliac joints. Quantitative evaluation of the sacral fractures was performed in accordance with the consensus statement by the Spine Trauma Study Group. Medical records were reviewed to determine associated pelvic and non-pelvic fractures, bladder and bowel injuries, nerve injuries, and type of surgical intervention. Twenty-one patients had SPD, of whom 13 were men and eight were women. Mean age was 41.8 years (range 18.8 to 87.7). Five fractures (24 %) were U-shaped, six (29 %) H-shaped, four (19 %) Y-shaped, and six (29 %) burst. Nine patients (43 %) had central canal narrowing, and 19 (90 %) had neural foramina narrowing. Eleven patients (52 %) had kyphotic angulation between major fracture fragments, and seven patients (33 %) had either anterior (24 %) or posterior (10 %) displacement of the proximal fracture fragment. Fourteen patients (67 %) had associated pelvic fractures, and 20 (95 %) had associated non-pelvic fractures. Two patients (10 %) had associated urethral injuries, and one (5 %) had an associated colon injury. Seven patients (33 %) had associated nerve injuries. Six patients (29 %) had surgical fixation while 15 (71 %) were

  7. Profile of injury cases admitted to a tertiary level hospital in south India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uthkarsh, Pallavi Sarji; Suryanarayana, S P; Gautham, M S; Shivraj, N S; Murthy, N S; Pruthvish, S

    2012-01-01

    Injuries now rank among the leading causes of morbidity and mortality the world over. Injuries are steadily increasing in developing countries like India. Systematic and scientific efforts in injury prevention and control are yet to begin in India. Data on injuries are very essential to plan preventive and control measures. The objective of this study is to know the profile of the injury cases admitted to M S Ramaiah hospital, Bangalore, India, using a cross-sectional study design for six months, i.e. from Oct 2008 to April 2009. The mean age of the study population was 35.3 years (SD = 15.38), 69.1% were injured in road traffic accidents (RTA), 28.7% due to falls and 2.2% due to burns. Nearly 14.4% were under the influence of alcohol. Nearly 73.6% of RTA cases were two-wheeler users, 48.5% had not followed sign boards and 56.5% had not obeyed the one-way rules, 63.5% of the two-wheeler users did not use helmets. Also, 38% of two wheelers had two pillion riders, whereas 57% of four-wheeler users had not used a seat belt. Among falls, 58% occurred at home, 49% occurred due to slippery surface. Road traffic accidents were the most common cause for injuries, in which two wheelers were most commonly involved. Strict enforcement of traffic rules and education on road safety are very essential to prevent injuries.

  8. Inequality and rising levels of socio-economic segregation: lessons from a pan-European comparative study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Marcińczak, S.; Musterd, S.; van Ham, M.; Tammaru, T.; Tammaru, T.; Marcińczak, S.; van Ham, M.; Musterd, S.

    2016-01-01

    The Socio-Economic Segregation in European Capital Cities: East Meets West project investigates changing levels of socio-economic segregation in 13 major European cities: Amsterdam, Budapest, Vienna, Stockholm, Oslo, London, Vilnius, Tallinn, Prague, Madrid, Milan, Athens and Riga. The two main

  9. Economic crisis and levels of political participation in Europe (2002-2010): the role of resources and grievances

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kern, A.; Marien, S.; Hooghe, M.

    2015-01-01

    This article examines the effect of the recent economic crisis on political participation levels in Europe. As the civic voluntarism model and grievances theory predict different effects of economic downturn on political participation, the crisis provides a unique context to evaluate the explanatory

  10. Global-, Regional-, and Country-Level Economic Impacts of Dental Diseases in 2015.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Righolt, A J; Jevdjevic, M; Marcenes, W; Listl, S

    2018-05-01

    Up-to-date information about the economic impact of dental diseases is essential for health care decision makers when seeking to make rational use of available resources. The purpose of this study was to provide up-to-date estimates for dental expenditures (direct costs) and productivity losses (indirect costs) due to dental diseases on the global, regional, and country level. Direct costs of dental diseases were estimated using a previously established systematic approach; indirect costs were estimated using an approach developed by the World Health Organization Commission on Macroeconomics and Health and factoring in 2015 values for gross domestic product and disability-adjusted life years from the Global Burden of Disease Study. The estimated direct costs of dental diseases amounted to $356.80 billion and indirect costs were estimated at $187.61 billion, totaling worldwide costs due to dental diseases of $544.41 billion in 2015. After adjustment for purchasing power parity, the highest levels of per capita dental expenditures were found for High-Income North America, Australasia, Western Europe, High-Income Asia Pacific, and East Asia; the highest levels of per capita productivity losses were found for Western Europe, Australasia, High-Income North America, High-Income Asia Pacific, and Central Europe. Severe tooth loss was found to imply 67% of global productivity losses due to dental diseases, followed by severe periodontitis (21%) and untreated caries (12%). From an economic perspective, improvements in population oral health may be highly beneficial and could contribute to further increases in people's well-being given available resources.

  11. National-Level Wetland Policy Specificity and Goals Vary According to Political and Economic Indicators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peimer, Alex W.; Krzywicka, Adrianna E.; Cohen, Dora B.; Van den Bosch, Kyle; Buxton, Valerie L.; Stevenson, Natalie A.; Matthews, Jeffrey W.

    2017-01-01

    Growing recognition of the importance of wetlands to human and ecosystem well-being has led countries worldwide to implement wetland protection policies. Different countries have taken different approaches to wetland protection by implementing various policies, including territorial exclusion, market-based offsetting, and incentive programs for land users. Our objective was to describe the relationship between components of national-level wetland protection policies and national characteristics, including natural resource, economic, social, and political factors. We compiled data on the wetland policies of all 193 countries recognized by the U.N. and described the relationships among wetland policy goals and wetland protection mechanisms using non-metric multidimensional scaling. The first non-metric multidimensional scaling axis strongly correlated with whether a country had a wetland-specific environmental policy in place. Adoption of a comprehensive, wetland-specific policy was positively associated with degree of democracy and a commitment to establishing protected areas. The second non-metric multidimensional scaling axis defined a continuum of policy goals and mechanisms by which wetlands are protected, with goals to protect wetland ecosystem services on one end of the spectrum and goals to protect biodiversity on the other. Goals for protecting ecosystem services were frequently cited in policy documents of countries with agriculture-based economies, whereas goals associated with wetland biodiversity tended to be associated with tourism-based economies. We argue that the components of a country's wetland policies reflect national-level resource and economic characteristics. Understanding the relationship between the type of wetland policy countries adopt and national-level characteristics is critical for international efforts to protect wetlands.

  12. Economic levels of thermal resistance for house envelopes: Considerations for a national energy code

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Swinton, M.C.; Sander, D.M.

    1992-01-01

    A code for energy efficiency in new buildings is being developed by the Standing Committee on Energy Conservation in Buildings. The precursor to the new code used national average energy rates and construction costs to determine economic optimum levels of insulation, and it is believed that this resulted in prescription of sub-optimum insulation levels in any region of Canada where energy or construction costs differ significantly from the average. A new approach for determining optimum levels of thermal insulation is proposed. The analytic techniques use month-by-month energy balances of heat loss and gain; use gain load ratio correlation (GLR) for predicting the fraction of useable free heat; increase confidence in the savings predictions for above grade envelopes; can take into account solar effects on windows; and are compatible with below-grade heat loss analysis techniques in use. A sensitivity analysis was performed to determine whether reasonable variations in house characteristics would cause significant differences in savings predicted. The life cycle costing technique developed will allow the selection of thermal resistances that are commonly met by industry. Environmental energy cost multipliers can be used with the proposed methodology, which could have a minor role in encouraging the next higher level of energy efficiency. 11 refs., 6 figs., 2 tabs

  13. Technical and economic evaluation of controlled disposal options for very low level radioactive wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Robinson, P.J.; Vance, J.N.

    1990-08-01

    Over the past several years, there has been considerable interest by the nuclear industry in the Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) explicitly defined an activity level in plant waste materials at which the radiological impacts would be so low as to be considered Below Regulatory Concern (BRC). In January 1989, Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI) completed an extensive industry research effort to develop the technical bases for establishing criteria for the disposal of very low activity wastes in ordinary disposal facilities. The Nuclear Management and Resources Council (NUMARC), with assistance from the Edison Electric Institute (EEI) and the Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI), drafted a petition titled: ''Petition for Rulemaking Regarding Disposal of Below Regulatory Concern Radioactive Wastes from Commercial Nuclear Power Plants.'' Subsequent to the industry making a final decision for submittal of the drafted BRC petition, EPRI was requested to evaluate the technical and economic impact of six BRC options. These options are: take no action in pursuing a BRC waste exemption, petition the NRC for authorization to disposal of any BRC waste in any ordinary disposal facility, limit disposal of BRC waste to the nuclear power plant site, limit disposal of BRC waste to the nuclear power plant site and other utility owned property, petition for a mixed waste exemption, and petition for single waste stream exemptions in sequence (i.e. soil, followed by sewage sludge, etc.). The petition and technical bases were written to support the disposal of any BRC waste type in any ordinary disposal facility. These documents do not provide all of the technical and economic information needed to completely assessment the BRC options. This report provides the technical and economic basis for a range of options concerning disposal of very low activity wastes. 3 figs., 20 tabs

  14. [Effectiveness, population-level effects, and heath economics of measles and rubella vaccination].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wichmann, O; Ultsch, B

    2013-09-01

    Vaccination against measles and rubella has been included in national immunization programs worldwide for several decades. In this article, we present the evidence related to the effectiveness of measles and rubella vaccination based on published systematic reviews, and we describe the epidemiological and health economic effects of vaccination at a population level. Several observational studies demonstrate the high effectiveness (> 90 %) of both measles and rubella vaccination. The global measles mortality reduction and the dramatic decrease in rubella and measles incidences after introduction of routine immunization contribute to the very high quality of evidence. The countries of the Americas have proved that it is feasible to eliminate measles and rubella by strengthening infant immunization through routine vaccination services and by conducting supplemental immunization activities in other childhood age groups so as to close immunity gaps. An economic evaluation of measles and rubella vaccination specifically for the healthcare system in Germany does not exist. However, we conducted a systematic review and identified 11 health-economic studies from other industrialized countries and one for a hypothetical industrialized country. Results indicate that vaccination against measles and rubella had either a cost-effective or even a cost-saving potential, which could be assumed with some limitations also for the German setting. In conclusion, there is compelling evidence that the available vaccines are very effective and that measles and rubella elimination is feasible if adequate vaccination strategies are implemented. In Germany, catch-up vaccination programs are urgently needed for children, adolescents, and young adults specifically in the western federal states.

  15. Incidence and severity of head and neck injuries in victims of road traffic crashes: In an economically developed country.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bener, Abdulbari; Rahman, Yassir S Abdul; Mitra, Biswadev

    2009-01-01

    Head and neck injuries following the road traffic crashes (RTCs) are the most common cause of morbidity and mortality in most developed and developing countries and may also result in temporary or permanent disability. The aim of this study was to determine the incidence pattern of head and neck injuries, investigate its trend and identify the severity of injuries involved with road traffic crashes (RTCs) during the period 2001-2006. This is a retrospective descriptive hospital based study. The patients with head and neck injuries were seen and treated in the Accident and Emergency Department of the Hamad General Hospital and other Trauma Centers of the Hamad Medical Corporation following the road traffic crashes during the period 2001-2006. This study is a retrospective analysis of 6709 patients attended and treated at the Accident and Emergency and Trauma centers for head and neck injuries over a 6 year period. Head and neck injuries were determined according to the ICD 10 criteria. Of these, 3013 drivers, 2502 passengers, 704 pedestrians and 490 two wheel riders (motor bike and cyclists). Details of all the road traffic crash patients were compiled in the database of the Emergency Medical Services (EMS), and the data of patients with head and neck injuries were extracted from this database. A total of 6709 patients with head and neck injuries was reported during the study period. Majority of the victims were non-Qataris (68.7%), men (85.9%) and in the age group 20-44 years (68.5%). There were statistical significant differences in relation to age, nationality, gender, and accident during week ends for head and neck injuries (pQatar from road traffic crashes. The incidence of head and neck injuries is still very high in Qatar, but the severity of injury was mild in most of the victims. The findings of the study highlighted the need for taking urgent steps for safety of people especially drivers and passengers.

  16. The economic burden of time-loss injuries to youth players participating in week-long rugby union tournaments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, James C; Viljoen, Wayne; Lambert, Mike I; Readhead, Clint; Fuller, Chelsea; Van Mechelen, Willem; Verhagen, Evert

    2015-07-01

    Rugby Union ("rugby") is a popular sport with high injury risk. Burden of injury is described by the incidence and severity of injury. However reports have ignored the monetary cost of injuries. Therefore the aim of this study was to describe the monetary cost associated with youth rugby injuries. This descriptive study quantified medical treatments of injured players at the South African Rugby Union Youth tournaments in 2011/2012 and the days of work parents missed as a result of the injuries. A health insurer used these data to calculate associated costs. Legal guardians of the 421 injured players were contacted telephonically on a weekly basis until they returned to play. Treatments costs were estimated in South African Rands based on 2013 insurance rates and converted to US$ using purchasing power parities. Of the 3652 players, 2% (n=71) sought medical care after the tournament. For these players, average treatment costs were high (US$731 per player, 95% CI: US$425-US$1096), with fractures being the most expensive type of injury. Players with medical insurance had higher costs (US$937, 95% CI: US$486-US$1500) than those without (US$220, 95% CI: US$145-US$302). Although a minority of players sought follow-up treatment after the tournaments, the cost of these injuries was high. Players without medical insurance having lower costs may indicate that these players did not receive adequate treatment for their injuries. Injury prevention efforts should consider injuries with high costs and the treatment of players without medical insurance. Copyright © 2014 Sports Medicine Australia. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Economic principles for resource allocation decisions at national level to mitigate the effects of disease in farm animal populations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Howe, K S; Häsler, B; Stärk, K D C

    2013-01-01

    This paper originated in a project to develop a practical, generic tool for the economic evaluation of surveillance for farm animal diseases at national level by a state veterinary service. Fundamental to that process is integration of epidemiological and economic perspectives. Using a generalized example of epidemic disease, we show that an epidemic curve maps into its economic equivalent, a disease mitigation function, that traces the relationship between value losses avoided and mitigation resources expended. Crucially, elementary economic principles show that mitigation, defined as loss reduction achieved by surveillance and intervention, must be explicitly conceptualized as a three-variable process, and the relative contributions of surveillance and intervention resources investigated with regard to the substitution possibilities between them. Modelling the resultant mitigation surfaces for different diseases should become a standard approach to animal health policy analysis for economic efficiency, a contribution to the evolving agenda for animal health economics research.

  18. Association of high-level humidifier disinfectant exposure with lung injury in preschool children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Dong-Uk; Ryu, Seung-Hun; Roh, Hyun-Suk; Lee, Eun; Cho, Hyun-Ju; Yoon, Jisun; Lee, So-Yeon; Cho, Young Ah; Do, Kyung-Hyun; Hong, Soo-Jong

    2018-03-01

    Children aged ≤6years reportedly account for 52% of victims of humidifier disinfectant-associated lung injuries. To evaluate the association of humidifier disinfectants with lung injury risk among children aged ≤6years. Patients with humidifier disinfectant-associated lung injuries (n=214) who were clinically evaluated to have a definite (n=108), probable (n=49), or possible (n=57) association with humidifier disinfectants as well as control patients (n=123) with lung injury deemed unlikely to be associated with humidifier disinfectant use were evaluated to determine factors associated with increased risk of humidifier disinfectant-associated lung injury using unconditional multiple logistic regression analysis. For estimated airborne humidifier disinfectant concentrations, risk of humidifier disinfectant-associated lung injury increased ≥two-fold in a dose-dependent manner in the highest quartile (Q4, 135-1443μg/m 3 ) compared with that in the lowest quartile (Q1, ≤33μg/m 3 ). Registered patients using more than two humidifier disinfectant brands were at an increased risk of humidifier disinfectant-associated lung injury (adjusted OR, 2.2; 95% confidence interval, 1.3-3.8) compared with those using only one brand. With respect to the duration of humidifier disinfectant use, risk of humidifier disinfectant-associated lung injury increased ≥two-fold in the lowest quartile (≤5months) compared with that in the highest quartile (≥14months; adjusted OR 0.3; 95% confidence interval, 0.2-0.6). Younger children are more vulnerable to HDLI when exposed to HD chemicals within short period in early life. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Techno-economic and profitability analysis of food waste biorefineries at European level.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cristóbal, Jorge; Caldeira, Carla; Corrado, Sara; Sala, Serenella

    2018-07-01

    Food waste represents a potential source to produce value-added materials replacing the use of virgin ones. However, the use of food waste as feedstock in biorefineries is still at an early stage of development and studies assessing its economic viability at large scale are lacking in the literature. This paper presents a techno-economic and profitability analysis of four food waste biorefineries that use wastes from tomato, potato, orange, and olive processing as feedstock. The study includes the assessment of potentially available quantities of those waste flows in Europe. Due to the low technology readiness level of this kind of biorefineries, a screening methodology to estimate the investment and manufacturing costs as well as two profitability ratios (the return on investment and the payback time) was adopted. Results show that not all the waste feedstocks have the same potential. The most profitable options are those related to implementing fewer plants, namely concentrating the production and capitalising on economies of scale while being at risk of increasing externalities, e.g. due to logistics of the feedstocks. Copyright © 2018 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  20. Tackle technique and tackle-related injuries in high-level South African Rugby Union under-18 players: real-match video analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burger, Nicholas; Lambert, Michael I; Viljoen, Wayne; Brown, James C; Readhead, Clint; Hendricks, Sharief

    2016-08-01

    The high injury rate associated with rugby union is primarily due to the tackle, and poor contact technique has been identified as a risk factor for injury. We aimed to determine whether the tackle technique proficiency scores were different in injurious tackles versus tackles that did not result in injury using real-match scenarios in high-level youth rugby union. Injury surveillance was conducted at the under-18 Craven Week tournaments (2011-2013). Tackle-related injury information was used to identify injury events in the match video footage and non-injury events were identified for the injured player cohort. Injury and non-injury events were scored for technique proficiency and Cohen's effect sizes were calculated and the Student t test (p<0.05) was performed to compare injury versus non-injury scores. The overall mean score for front-on ball-carrier proficiency was 7.17±1.90 and 9.02±2.15 for injury and non-injury tackle events, respectively (effect size=moderate; p<0.05). The overall mean score for side/behind ball-carrier proficiency was 4.09±2.12 and 7.68±1.72 for injury and non-injury tackle events, respectively (effect size=large; p<0.01). The overall mean score for front-on tackler proficiency was 7.00±1.95 and 9.35±2.56 for injury and non-injury tackle events, respectively (effect size=moderate; p<0.05). The overall mean score for side/behind tackler proficiency was 5.47±1.60 and 8.14±1.75 for injury and non-injury tackle events, respectively (effect size=large; p<0.01). Higher overall mean and criterion-specific tackle-related technique scores were associated with a non-injury outcome. The ability to perform well during tackle events may decrease the risk of injury and may manifest in superior performance. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/

  1. Retrospective analysis of facial dog bite injuries at a Level I trauma center in the Denver metro area.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gurunluoglu, Raffi; Glasgow, Mark; Arton, Jamie; Bronsert, Michael

    2014-05-01

    Facial dog bite injuries pose a significant public health problem. Seventy-five consecutive patients (45 males, 30 females) treated solely by plastic surgery service for facial dog bite injuries at a Level I trauma center in the Denver Metro area between 2006 and 2012 were retrospectively reviewed. The following information were recorded: breed, relationship of patient to dog, location and number of wounds, the duration between injury and surgical repair and dog bite incident, type of repair, and antibiotic prophylaxis. Primary end points measured were wound infection, the need for revision surgery, and patient satisfaction. Ninety-eight wounds in the head and neck region were repaired (46 children; mean age, 6.8 years) and (29 adults; mean age, 47.3 years). Twelve different breeds were identified. There was no significant association between the type of dog breed and the number of bite injuries. The duration between injury and repair ranged from 4 hours to 72 hours (mean [SD], 13.7 [10.9] hours). The majority of bite wounds (76 of 98) involved the cheek, lip, nose, and chin region. Direct repair was the most common surgical approach (60 of 98 wounds) (p reconstruction versus direct repair according to dog breed (p = 0.25). Ten wounds required grafting. Twenty-five wounds were managed by one-stage or two-stage flaps. Only three patients (3.06 %) underwent replantation/revascularization of amputated partial lip (n = 2) and of cheek (n = 1). There was one postoperative infection. Data from five-point Likert scale were available for fifty-two patients. Forty patients were satisfied (5) with the outcome, while five patients were somewhat satisfied (4), and seven were neutral. Availability of the plastic surgery service at a Level I trauma center is vital for the optimal treatment of facial dog bite injuries. Direct repair and reconstruction of facial dog bite injuries at the earliest opportunity resulted in good outcomes as evidenced by the satisfaction survey data and

  2. Economic and Social Importance of Modern SMART Technologies of Budgeting at the Local Level

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kotina Hanna M.

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the article is to study the main SMART technologies of budgeting in terms of their economic and social aspects, consider the risks and prospects of their implementation at the local level in Ukraine. The article is dedicated to description of modern SMART technologies of budgeting. The essence of the concept of infrastructure gap is defined, the necessity of its overcoming through increasing capital expenditures is substantiated. The main methods of financing capital investments are disclosed, the advantages and disadvantages of public-private partnership are determined. The technology of participative budget, its history, features of its introduction and functioning in Poland, Germany and Ukraine are described. The necessity of implementing the Public Finance Management Strategy for 2017-2021 in Ukraine is justified, and risks related to it are investigated.

  3. Changes in Classes of Injury-Related Risks and Consequences of Risk-Level Drinking: a Latent Transition Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cochran, Gerald; Field, Craig; Caetano, Raul

    2015-07-01

    Risk-level drinking, drinking and driving, and alcohol-related violence are risk factors that result in injuries. The current study sought to identify which subgroups of patients experience the most behavioral change following a brief intervention. A secondary analysis of data from a brief alcohol intervention study was conducted. The sample (N = 664) includes at-risk drinkers who experienced an injury and were admitted for care to a Level 1 trauma center. Injury-related items from the Short Inventory of Problems+6 were used to perform a latent transition analysis to describe class transitions participants experienced following discharge. Four classes emerged for the year before and after the current injury. Most individuals transitioned from higher-risk classes into those with lower risk. Some participants maintained risky profiles, and others increased risks and consequences. Drinking and driving remained a persistent problem among the study participants. Although a large portion of intervention recipients improved risks and consequences of alcohol use following discharge, more intensive intervention services may be needed for a subset of patients who showed little or no improvement.

  4. Frequent mild head injury promotes trigeminal sensitivity concomitant with microglial proliferation, astrocytosis, and increased neuropeptide levels in the trigeminal pain system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tyburski, Ashley L; Cheng, Lan; Assari, Soroush; Darvish, Kurosh; Elliott, Melanie B

    2017-12-01

    Frequent mild head injuries or concussion along with the presence of headache may contribute to the persistence of concussion symptoms. In this study, the acute effects of recovery between mild head injuries and the frequency of injuries on a headache behavior, trigeminal allodynia, was assessed using von Frey testing up to one week after injury, while histopathological changes in the trigeminal pain pathway were evaluated using western blot, ELISA and immunohistochemistry.  RESULTS: A decreased recovery time combined with an increased mild closed head injury (CHI) frequency results in reduced trigeminal allodynia thresholds compared to controls. The repetitive CHI group with the highest injury frequency showed the greatest reduction in trigeminal thresholds along with greatest increased levels of calcitonin gene-related peptide (CGRP) in the trigeminal nucleus caudalis. Repetitive CHI resulted in astrogliosis in the central trigeminal system, increased GFAP protein levels in the sensory barrel cortex, and an increased number of microglia cells in the trigeminal nucleus caudalis. Headache behavior in rats is dependent on the injury frequency and recovery interval between mild head injuries. A worsening of headache behavior after repetitive mild head injuries was concomitant with increases in CGRP levels, the presence of astrocytosis, and microglia proliferation in the central trigeminal pathway. Signaling between neurons and proliferating microglia in the trigeminal pain system may contribute to the initiation of acute headache after concussion or other traumatic brain injuries.

  5. Test-retest reliability at the item level and total score level of the Norwegian version of the Spinal Cord Injury Falls Concern Scale (SCI-FCS).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roaldsen, Kirsti Skavberg; Måøy, Åsa Blad; Jørgensen, Vivien; Stanghelle, Johan Kvalvik

    2016-05-01

    Translation of the Spinal Cord Injury Falls Concern Scale (SCI-FCS), and investigation of test-retest reliability on item-level and total-score-level. Translation, adaptation and test-retest study. A specialized rehabilitation setting in Norway. Fifty-four wheelchair users with a spinal cord injury. The median age of the cohort was 49 years, and the median number of years after injury was 13. Interventions/measurements: The SCI-FCS was translated and back-translated according to guidelines. Individuals answered the SCI-FCS twice over the course of one week. We investigated item-level test-retest reliability using Svensson's rank-based statistical method for disagreement analysis of paired ordinal data. For relative reliability, we analyzed the total-score-level test-retest reliability with intraclass correlation coefficients (ICC2.1), the standard error of measurement (SEM), and the smallest detectable change (SDC) for absolute reliability/measurement-error assessment and Cronbach's alpha for internal consistency. All items showed satisfactory percentage agreement (≥69%) between test and retest. There were small but non-negligible systematic disagreements among three items; we recovered an 11-13% higher chance for a lower second score. There was no disagreement due to random variance. The test-retest agreement (ICC2.1) was excellent (0.83). The SEM was 2.6 (12%), and the SDC was 7.1 (32%). The Cronbach's alpha was high (0.88). The Norwegian SCI-FCS is highly reliable for wheelchair users with chronic spinal cord injuries.

  6. Blood rheology of angina pectoris patients with myocardial injury after ischemia reperfusion and its effect on thromboxane B2 levels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Wenlong; Huang, Xiaohui; Sun, Yiyong; Zhang, Jinying

    2018-01-01

    This study investigated the changes in the blood rheology of patients with angina pectoris and ischemia reperfusion injury and their effect on thromboxane B 2 (TXB 2 ) levels to examine their relationship. Forty patients with unstable angina pectoris who underwent elective percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) were selected for the unstable angina group (UA group) and forty patients deemed free of coronary heart disease by coronary angiography were selected for the control group. Venous blood samples were drawn from all participants; patients in the UA group had blood drawn 1 day before and 1 day after the PCI procedure. Blood samples were used to analyze blood rheology and examine hemodynamic parameters, at the same time radioimmunoassay was applied to measure the concentrations of serum endothelin-1 (ET-1) and TXB 2 , and an automatic biochemical analyzer was used to detect the content of superoxide dismutase (SOD) and malondialdehyde (MDA). Our results showed the patients in the UA group all presented hyperviscosity; however the levels were higher for the patients in the UA group (after surgery) than for those in the UA group (before surgery). Patients in the control group exhibited normal levels, and the differences among groups were significant in pairwise comparisons (Pangina pectoris and ischemia reperfusion injury. The higher than normal TXB 2 levels can be used as a marker of platelet activation and a reference for clinical risk stratification, thus having great significance for the prevention and treatment of ischemia reperfusion injury and assessment of disease progression.

  7. EFFECT OF TEACHERS’ ABILITIES ON STUDENTS’ MOTIVATION WITH VARYING LEVELS OF INTELLECTUAL ABILITIES IN THE ECONOMICS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    BERKOVÁ, Kateřina

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Intelligence and motivation are two crucial components of the education process that can significantly influence its efficiency. The level of intelligence determines our ability to learn from experience and to solve a problem successfully, whereas motivational processes energize and organize our behavior to reach our goals. This paper is connected to our previous article focused on the influence of teachers’ abilities on secondary business schools’ students’ motivation in the Economics. In our current study, we monitored the motivational potential of teachers’ abilities in a connection with students’ level of intelligence, measured by Vienna Matrices Test. As we would expect according to the results of our previous study, the expertise of teachers has the most important influence in the groups of both the above-average intelligent and the average intelligent students. Nevertheless, we found some differences in other preferences of both groups: except the teachers’ expertise, the average intelligent students refer to be motivated mostly by exposition of curriculum and ability to develop thinking, whereas above-average students refer only about the exposition of curriculum (except the teachers’ expertise. The next factor that we observed in our study is an amount of time that students spend on preparation to school.

  8. Economic Evaluation of the Information Security Levels Achieved by Electric Energy Providers in North Arctic Region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sushko, O. P.; Kaznin, A. A.; Babkin, A. V.; Bogdanov, D. A.

    2017-10-01

    The study we are conducting involves the analysis of information security levels achieved by energy providers operating in the North Arctic Region. We look into whether the energy providers’ current information security levels meet reliability standards and determine what further actions may be needed for upgrading information security in the context of the digital transformation that the world community is undergoing. When developing the information security systems for electric energy providers or selecting the protection means for them, we are governed by the fact that the assets to be protected are process technologies. While information security risk can be assessed using different methods, the evaluation of the economic damage from these risks appears to be a difficult task. The most probable and harmful risks we have identified when evaluating the electric energy providers’ information security will be used by us as variables. To provide the evaluation, it is necessary to calculate the costs relating to elimination of the risks identified. The final stage of the study will involve the development of an operation algorithm for the North Arctic Region’s energy provider’s business information protection security system - a set of information security services, and security software and hardware.

  9. Use of county level data in health, energy, demographic, environmental, and economic analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Morris, S.C.; Novak, K.M.; Calef, C.E. (eds.)

    1979-04-01

    This document is an edited record of the conversation, dialogues, and topical discussions of the participants of a computer conference sponsored by the Biomedical and Environmental Assessment Division of Brookhaven National Laboratory during the period March 4-28, 1977. The main objective of the conference was to bring together a number of individual specialists from a wide and diverse range of both academic and professional disciplines to address the usage of county level data in health, energy, demographic, environmental, and economic analysis. A secondary aim of the conference was to test the feasibility and viability of using a computer conference as a means of accomplishing our primary objective. A preface, a list of participants, and the transcript of the main conference and subsession proceedings are included. Also included are information provided by participants on the identification of intercensal county equivalent areas and additional reports and documents relevant to the conference topic. The overall aims and objectives of the conference were successfully accomplished; some of the problems encountered using the computer as a conference vehicle were noted; recommendations were made to continue both formal and informal lines of communication on the subject of county level data.

  10. Techno-economic analysis of concentrated solar power plants in terms of levelized cost of electricity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Musi, Richard; Grange, Benjamin; Sgouridis, Sgouris; Guedez, Rafael; Armstrong, Peter; Slocum, Alexander; Calvet, Nicolas

    2017-06-01

    Levelized Cost of Electricity (LCOE) is an important metric which provides one way to compare the economic competitiveness of different electricity generation systems, calculated simply by dividing lifetime costs by lifetime production. Hidden behind the simplicity of this formula are various assumptions which may significantly alter results. Different LCOE studies exist in the literature, although their assumptions are rarely explicitly stated. This analysis gives all formulas and assumptions which allow for inter-study comparisons. The results of this analysis indicate that CSP LCOE is reducing markedly over time and that given the right location and market conditions, the SunShot 6¢/kWh 2020 target can be reached. Increased industrial cooperation is needed to advance the CSP market and continue to drive down LCOE. The results also indicate that there exist a country and technology level learning effect, either when installing an existing CSP technology in a new country or when using a new technology in an existing CSP country, which seems to impact market progress.

  11. Boosting in athletes with high-level spinal cord injury: knowledge, incidence and attitudes of athletes in paralympic sport.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhambhani, Yagesh; Mactavish, Jennifer; Warren, Sharon; Thompson, Walter R; Webborn, Anthony; Bressan, Elizabeth; De Mello, Marco Tuilo; Tweedy, Sean; Malone, Laurie; Frojd, Kennet; Van De Vliet, Peter; Vanlandewijck, Yves

    2010-01-01

    Autonomic dysreflexia (AD) is unique to individuals with spinal injuries (SCI) at T6 or above and can be voluntarily induced. Although AD improves wheelchair racing performance in some athletes, it also elicits exaggerated blood pressure, which could be dangerous. The International Paralympic Committee considers AD doping and banned its use. The purpose of this study is to evaluate AD knowledge, incidence and attitudes (KIA) of Paralympians with SCI. An existing questionnaire was modified to include questions of AD KIA, validated by three experts and piloted with a small sample. It was administered on-line, mailed to members of a scientific network and distributed during the Beijing Paralympic Games. Fisher Exact test was used to evaluate differences across gender, injury and education. Of 99 participants, 54.5% had previously heard of AD while 39.4% were unaware; 16.7%, all males, had used AD to enhance performance. Participants reported that AD was (1) useful for middle (78.6%) and long distance (71.4%), marathon (64.3%) and wheelchair rugby (64.3%); (2) somewhat dangerous (48.9%), dangerous (21.3%) or very dangerous (25.5%) to health. Results were not influenced by age, injury level or injury duration. Findings indicate the need for educational programmes directed towards enhancing the AD knowledge of rehabilitation professionals, coaches and trainers working with SCI individuals.

  12. An injury awareness education program on outcomes of juvenile justice offenders in Western Australia: an economic analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ho Kwok M

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Injury is a major cause of mortality and morbidity of young people and the cost-effectiveness of many injury prevention programs remains uncertain. This study aimed to analyze the costs and benefits of an injury awareness education program, the P.A.R.T.Y. (Prevent Alcohol and Risk-related Trauma in Youth program, for juvenile justice offenders in Western Australia. Methods Costs and benefits analysis based on effectiveness data from a linked-data cohort study on 225 juvenile justice offenders who were referred to the education program and 3434 who were not referred to the program between 2006 and 2011. Results During the study period, there were 8869 hospitalizations and 113 deaths due to violence or traffic-related injuries among those aged between 14 and 21 in Western Australia. The mean length of hospital stay was 4.6 days, a total of 320 patients (3.6% needed an intensive care admission with an average length of stay of 6 days. The annual cost saved due to serious injury was $3,765 and the annual net cost of running this program was $33,735. The estimated cost per offence prevented, cost per serious injury avoided, and cost per undiscounted and discounted life year gained were $3,124, $42,169, $8,268 and $17,910, respectively. Increasing the frequency of the program from once per month to once per week would increase its cost-effectiveness substantially. Conclusions The P.A.R.T.Y. injury education program involving real-life trauma scenarios was cost-effective in reducing subsequent risk of committing violence or traffic-related offences, injuries, and death for juvenile justice offenders in Western Australia.

  13. Clinical significance of determination of serum NSE and plasma ET, IGF-II, CNP levels in patients with acute brain injury

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen Bo

    2010-01-01

    Objective: To investigate the clinical significance of changes of plasma ET, IGF-II, CNP and serum NSE contents in patients with acute brain injury. Methods: Serum contents of neuron specific enolase (NSE) were measured with chemiluminescence immunoassay and plasma endothelin (ET), insulin-like growth factor-II (IGF-II) and C-type natriuretic peptide (CNP) were measured with radioimmunoassay in 30 patients with acute brain injury and 35 controls. Results: Serum contents of NSE and plasma IGF-II, CNP were not much different in patients with mild brain injury from those in controls (P >0.05), but plasma contents of ET were already significantly higher in patients with mild brain injury than those in controls(P < 0.01). The serum NSE and plasma ET levels in patients with moderate and severe brain injury were significantly higher than those in patients with mild brain injury and controls (P < 0.01). Decrease of plasma levels of IGF-II and CNP was not significant in patients with mild brain injury (vs controls). However, the plasma levels of IGF-II and CNP were significantly lower in patients with moderate and severe brain injury than those in patients with mild brain injury and controls (P <0.01). As a whole, the magnitude of changes of these parameters was proportional to the severity of the injury. Conclusion: Changes of serum NSE and plasma IGF-II, ET and CNP levels were closely related to the pathological process of brain injury. Determination of these parameters was of clinical importance for evaluation of the severity of injury and outcome prediction. (authors)

  14. Effects of plasma CGRP and NPY level changes on intestinal mucosal barrier injury after scald in rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shao Lijian; Zhu Qingxian; He Ming; Zhang Hongyan

    2004-01-01

    Objective: To investigate the significance of plasma CGRP and NPY levels changes immediately after scald in rats. Methods: Thirty-two rat models of 30% TBSA III degree scald were prepared. Eight animals each were sacrificed at 3, 6,12 and 24 hrs; taking blood samples for determination of plasma CGRP, NPY levels and 5 cm of ileum for pathologic study. As controls, eight animals without scald were treated in the same way. Results: Plasma CGRP levels were decreased significantly after scald, reaching bottom value at 12 hr and remained lower than those in controls at 24 hr (p 0.05). Plasma levels of CGRP were negatively correlated to plasma NPY levels (p<0.01). Ileum mucosal injuries presented as edema, congestion with necrosis and slough of epithelium were most marked at 12 hr. Conclusion: Plasma CGRP and NPY levels changed significantly after scald and were mutually negatively correlated. Post-scald intestinal mucosa barrier injuries were possibly related to the changes of levels of those vasoactive peptides

  15. Time to intervention in patients with splenic injury in a Dutch level 1 trauma centre

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Olthof, D. C.; Sierink, J. C.; van Delden, O. M.; Luitse, J. S. K.; Goslings, J. C.

    2014-01-01

    Timely intervention in patients with splenic injury is essential, since delay to treatment is associated with an increased risk of mortality. Transcatheter Arterial Embolisation (TAE) is increasingly used as an adjunct to non-operative management. The aim of this study was to report time intervals

  16. Understanding the Effects of Homeownership and Regional Unemployment Levels on Migration during the Economic Crisis in Spain

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Palomares Linares, M.I.; van Ham, M.

    The Spanish labour market is characterised by high levels of unemployment, which have increased during the global economic crisis. Spain is also a country which is characterised by a very high percentage of homeownership, with more than 83% of households being owner-occupiers. Both regional levels

  17. How Does the Choice of A-level Subjects Vary with Students' Socio-Economic Status in English State Schools?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dilnot, Catherine

    2016-01-01

    The reasons why students from lower socio-economic groups are under-represented at high status universities are not yet entirely understood, but evidence suggests that part of the gap may be a consequence of differential choice of A-levels by social background. The Russell Group of universities has since 2011 published guidance on A-level subject…

  18. ECOLOGICAL AND ECONOMIC IMPROVING OF AGRICULTURAL LAND USE ON REGIONAL LEVEL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Butenko E.

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Land Reform in Ukraine is already a considerable period of time. Priority land reform was to be the formation of land market relations that would ensure continued efficient reallocation of land resources based on market self-regulation. Implementation of large-scale land reforms in these areas has caused huge problems of acute social, economic and environmental. Properly not the rational use and protection of land resources, reproduction of the productive potential of agricultural lands. Particularly acute problem of management and expanded reproduction of land resources as a basis for sustainable development of Ukraine. Pressing problem today is to resolve these matters in accordance with the principles of sustainable development. Particulary attention should be focused on the implementation of integrated land use by solving problems of the rational use of land, an important aspect of which is to optimize land use. Irrational land use system has led to serious environmental consequences, namely the presence of such manifestations of land degradation as erosion, technogenic pollution, secondary alkalinity, flooding and landslides. The high level of tilled land, including hills, a significant expansion of crops cultivated crops and almost complete cessation of work package for soil protection, violation of the cultivation leads to land degradation. The current state of land use Cherkasy region does not meet the requirements of environmental management. Violated environmentally acceptable ratio of arable land, natural grasslands, which adversely affects the stability of agricultural landscapes. Optimizing the efficiency of land use requires evidence-based approach to land. So based on upgraded inventory system and effective land management by taking into account environmental and economic component of their assessment, you can achieve a significant positive impact on the economy of the region and the state as a whole. The current system of land

  19. How bicycle level of traffic stress correlate with reported cyclist accidents injury severities: A geospatial and mixed logit analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Chen; Anderson, Jason C; Wang, Haizhong; Wang, Yinhai; Vogt, Rachel; Hernandez, Salvador

    2017-11-01

    Transportation agencies need efficient methods to determine how to reduce bicycle accidents while promoting cycling activities and prioritizing safety improvement investments. Many studies have used standalone methods, such as level of traffic stress (LTS) and bicycle level of service (BLOS), to better understand bicycle mode share and network connectivity for a region. However, in most cases, other studies rely on crash severity models to explain what variables contribute to the severity of bicycle related crashes. This research uniquely correlates bicycle LTS with reported bicycle crash locations for four cities in New Hampshire through geospatial mapping. LTS measurements and crash locations are compared visually using a GIS framework. Next, a bicycle injury severity model, that incorporates LTS measurements, is created through a mixed logit modeling framework. Results of the visual analysis show some geospatial correlation between higher LTS roads and "Injury" type bicycle crashes. It was determined, statistically, that LTS has an effect on the severity level of bicycle crashes and high LTS can have varying effects on severity outcome. However, it is recommended that further analyses be conducted to better understand the statistical significance and effect of LTS on injury severity. As such, this research will validate the use of LTS as a proxy for safety risk regardless of the recorded bicycle crash history. This research will help identify the clustering patterns of bicycle crashes on high-risk corridors and, therefore, assist with bicycle route planning and policy making. This paper also suggests low-cost countermeasures or treatments that can be implemented to address high-risk areas. Specifically, with the goal of providing safer routes for cyclists, such countermeasures or treatments have the potential to substantially reduce the number of fatalities and severe injuries. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  20. The effect of low level laser therapy on ventilator-induced lung injury in mice (Conference Presentation)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szabari, Margit V.; Miller, Alyssa J.; Hariri, Lida P.; Hamblin, Michael R.; Musch, Guido; Stroh, Helene; Suter, Melissa J.

    2016-03-01

    Although mechanical ventilation (MV) is necessary to support gas exchange in critically ill patients, it can contribute to the development of lung injury and multiple organ dysfunction. It is known that high tidal volume (Vt) MV can cause ventilator-induced lung injury (VILI) in healthy lungs and increase the mortality of patients with Acute Respiratory Distress Syndrome. Low level laser therapy (LLLT) has demonstrated to have anti-inflammatory effects. We investigated whether LLLT could alleviate inflammation from injurious MV in mice. Adult mice were assigned to 2 groups: VILI+LLLT group (3 h of injurious MV: Vt=25-30 ml/kg, respiratory rate (RR)=50/min, positive end-expiratory pressure (PEEP)=0 cmH20, followed by 3 h of protective MV: Vt=9 ml/kg, RR=140/min, PEEP=2 cmH20) and VILI+no LLLT group. LLLT was applied during the first 30 min of the MV (810 nm LED system, 5 J/cm2, 1 cm above the chest). Respiratory impedance was measured in vivo with forced oscillation technique and lung mechanics were calculated by fitting the constant phase model. At the end of the MV, bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) was performed and inflammatory cells counted. Lungs were removed en-bloc and fixed for histological evaluation. We hypothesize that LLLT can reduce lung injury and inflammation from VILI. This therapy could be translated into clinical practice, where it can potentially improve outcomes in patients requiring mechanical ventilation in the operating room or in the intensive care units.

  1. 78 FR 70281 - United States-Mexico High Level Economic Dialogue

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-11-25

    ... Growth, Productivity, Entrepreneurship, and Innovation (1) Workforce Development; (2) Joint Investment Promotion; (3) Travel and Tourism; (4) Economic Development along the Border as well as a Comprehensive...

  2. State-Level Implementation of Health and Safety Policies to Prevent Sudden Death and Catastrophic Injuries Within Secondary School Athletics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adams, William M; Scarneo, Samantha E; Casa, Douglas J

    2017-09-01

    , Louisiana, Maryland, Oklahoma, Connecticut, Idaho, and South Carolina, respectively. States ranked 41 through 51 (from 38.73% to 23.00%) were Michigan, North Dakota, Nebraska, New Hampshire, Kansas, Wyoming, Minnesota, Montana, Iowa, California, and Colorado, respectively. State scores ranged from 23.00% to 78.75% for the implementation of evidence-based best practices for preventing the leading causes of sudden death and catastrophic injuries (sudden cardiac arrest, traumatic head injuries, exertional heat stroke, and exertional sickling) in sport. Continued advocacy for the development and implementation of policies at the secondary school level surrounding sudden death and catastrophic injuries is warranted to optimize the health and safety of these student athletes.

  3. Neutrophil gelatinase-associated lipocalin levels during the first 48 hours of intensive care may indicate upcoming acute kidney injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamis, Fatih; Yegenaga, Itir; Musul, Mert; Baydemir, Canan; Bek, Sibel; Kalender, Betül; Baykara, Nur

    2016-08-01

    The recognition of acute kidney injury (AKI) as early as possible is important in the intensive care unit. This study proposes that serum and urine levels of neutrophil gelatinase-associated lipocalin (NGAL) may be used for this purpose. One hundred and seven critically ill adult patients with no previous renal failure were included. NGAL levels were measured during the first 48 hours after admission; NGAL levels were followed for 7 days and classified based on Risk, Injury, Failure, Loss, and End-Stage Renal Failure criteria. The AKI incidence was 35.5%, and serum NGAL (sNGAL) and urinary NGAL (uNGAL) levels were higher in the AKI group. The area under the receiver operating characteristic curve was 0.76 (P<.001) for sNGAL and 0.75 (P<.001) for uNGAL. Seventy-one percent of AKI cases were observed within 48 hours, with 11 additional cases in the ensuing 7 days. The mean serum creatinine levels in the 11 patients were not different from non-AKI levels (P=.197), but the NGAL values were different, and the area under the receiver operating characteristic curve for sNGAL uNGAL was 1.00 (P=.014) and 0.93 (P=.02), respectively. Most AKI cases were diagnosed within the first 48 hours after admission, and NGAL was useful for predicting upcoming AKI. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Generalized economic model for evaluating disposal costs at a low-level waste disposal facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baird, R.D.; Rogers, V.C.

    1985-01-01

    An economic model is developed which can be used to evaluate cash flows associated with the development, operations, closure, and long-term maintenance of a proposed Low-Level Radioactive Waste disposal facility and to determine the unit disposal charges and unit surcharges which might result. The model includes the effects of nominal interest rate (rate of return on investment, or cost of capital), inflation rate, waste volume growth rate, site capacity, duration of various phases of the facility history, and the cash flows associated with each phase. The model uses standard discounted cash flow techniques on an after-tax basis to determine that unit disposal charge which is necessary to cover all costs and expenses and to generate an adequate rate of return on investment. It separately considers cash flows associated with post-operational activities to determine the required unit surcharge. The model is applied to three reference facilities to determine the respective unit disposal charges and unit surcharges, with various values of parameters. The sensitivity of the model results are evaluated for the unit disposal charge

  5. The use of laparoscopy in the diagnosis and treatment of blunt and penetrating abdominal injuries: 10-year experience at a level 1 trauma center.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Jeremy J; Garwe, Tabitha; Raines, Alexander R; Thurman, Joseph B; Carter, Sandra; Bender, Jeffrey S; Albrecht, Roxie M

    2013-03-01

    Diagnostic laparoscopy (DL) has decreased the rate of nontherapeutic laparotomy for patients suffering from penetrating injuries. We evaluated whether DL similarly lowers the rate of nontherapeutic laparotomy for patients with blunt injuries. All patients undergoing DL over a 10-year period (ie, 2001-2010) in a single level 1 trauma center were classified by the mechanism of injury. Demographic and perioperative data were compared using the Student t and Fisher exact tests. There were 131 patients included, 22 of whom sustained blunt injuries. Patients suffering from blunt injuries were more severely injured (Injury Severity Score 18.0 vs 7.3, P = .0001). The most common indication for DL after blunt injury was a computed tomographic scan concerning for bowel injury (59.1%). The rate of nontherapeutic laparotomy for patients sustaining penetrating vs blunt injury was 1.8% and nil, respectively. DL, when coupled with computed tomographic findings, is an effective tool for the initial management of patients with blunt injuries. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Effect of rocuronium on the level and mode of pre-synaptic acetylcholine release by facial and somatic nerves, and changes following facial nerve injury in rabbits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, Jinghua; Xu, Jing; Xing, Yian; Chen, Lianhua; Li, Shitong

    2015-01-01

    Muscles innervated by the facial nerve show differential sensitivities to muscle relaxants than muscles innervated by somatic nerves. The evoked electromyography (EEMG) response is also proportionally reduced after facial nerve injury. This forms the theoretical basis for proper utilization of muscle relaxants to balance EEMG monitoring and immobility under general anesthesia. (1) To observe the relationships between the level and mode of acetylcholine (ACh) release and the duration of facial nerve injury, and the influence of rocuronium in an in vitro rabbit model. (2) To explore the pre-synaptic mechanisms of discrepant responses to a muscle relaxant. Quantal and non-quantal ACh release were measured by using intracellular microelectrode recording in the orbicularis oris 1 to 42 days after graded facial nerve injury and in the gastrocnemius with/without rocuronium. Quantal ACh release was significantly decreased by rocuronium in the orbicularis oris and gastrocnemius, but significantly more so in gastrocnemius. Quantal release was reduced after facial nerve injury, which was significantly correlated with the severity of nerve injury in the absence but not in the presence of rocuronium. Non-quantal ACh release was reduced after facial nerve injury, with many relationships observed depending on the extent of the injury. The extent of inhibition of non-quantal release by rocuronium correlated with the grade of facial nerve injury. These findings may explain why EEMG amplitude might be diminished after acute facial nerve injury but relatively preserved after chronic injury and differential responses in sensitivity to rocuronium.

  7. The Clinical and Economic Impact of Generic Locking Plate Utilization at a Level II Trauma Center.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mcphillamy, Austin; Gurnea, Taylor P; Moody, Alastair E; Kurnik, Christopher G; Lu, Minggen

    2016-12-01

    In today's climate of cost containment and fiscal responsibility, generic implant alternatives represent an interesting area of untapped resources. As patents have expired on many commonly used trauma implants, generic alternatives have recently become available from a variety of sources. The purpose of this study was to examine the clinical and economic impact of a cost containment program using high quality, generic orthopaedic locking plates. The implants available for study were anatomically precontoured plates for the clavicle, proximal humerus, distal radius, proximal tibia, distal tibia, and distal fibula. Retrospective review. Level II Trauma center. 828 adult patients with operatively managed clavicle, proximal humerus, distal radius, proximal tibia, tibial pilon, and ankle fractures. Operative treatment with conventional or generic implants. The 414 patients treated with generic implants were compared with 414 patients treated with conventional implants. There were no significant differences in age, sex, presence of diabetes, smoking history or fracture type between the generic and conventional groups. No difference in operative time, estimated blood loss or intraoperative complication rate was observed. No increase in postoperative infection rate, hardware failure, hardware loosening, malunion, nonunion or need for hardware removal was noted. Overall, our hospital realized a 56% reduction in implant costs, an average savings of $1197 per case, and a total savings of $458,080 for the study period. Use of generic orthopaedic implants has been successful at our institution, providing equivalent clinical outcomes while significantly reducing implant expenditures. Based on our data, the use of generic implants has the potential to markedly reduce operative costs as long as quality products are used. Therapeutic Level III.

  8. The peculiarities of food allergies in accordance with the level of injury of respiratory tract in children of Eastern Siberia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Irina V. Borisova

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Aim. To determine the course of food allergy in accordance with the level of respiratory tract injury in children of Eastern Siberia. Design of the research. We have examined 70 children aged 2–16, who have food sensibilization. We divided them into 2 groups: group I (n=32 with diseases of the upper and middle respiratory tract; and group II (n=38 with diseases of the lower respiratory tract. Methods. Allergological medical history, clinical laboratory examination and immunological examination, including the determination of IgA, IgM, IgG and IgE in blood serum. In cases where causal allergens were found, elimination diets were recommended. Results. Onset of upper respiratory tract injury in group I was more often registered in children aged 0–1; in group II, it was in the 3–7 age group. Isolated food sensibilization was more often marked in group I as compared to group II. Atopic mechanisms of respiratory tract injuries were more often registered in group II children. In the course of the elimination diet, we marked positive dynamics in 100% of group I and in 75% of group II. Conclusion. The most frequent allergens that cause respiratory forms of food allergy are hen eggs, cow milk, nutritive cereals, vegetables and fruit. Indices of a humoral link of immunity in the examined patients were more often registered as normal or their level is increased. Timely etiotropic therapy in the majority of cases allows for a stabilization of allergic inflammation.

  9. The peculiarities of food allergies in accordance with the level of injury of respiratory tract in children of Eastern Siberia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borisova, Irina V; Smirnova, Svetlana V

    2013-01-01

    To determine the course of food allergy in accordance with the level of respiratory tract injury in children of Eastern Siberia. We have examined 70 children aged 2-16 , who have food sensibilization. We divided them into 2 groups: group I (n = 32) with diseases of the upper and middle respiratory tract; and group II (n = 38) with diseases of the lower respiratory tract. Allergological medical history, clinical laboratory examination and immunological examination, including the determination of IgA, IgM, IgG and IgE in blood serum. In cases where causal allergens were found, elimination diets were recommended. Onset of upper respiratory tract injury in group I was more often registered in children aged 0-1; in group II, it was in the 3-7 age group. Isolated food sensibilization was more often marked in group I as compared to group II. Atopic mechanisms of respiratory tract injuries were more often registered in group II children. In the course of the elimination diet, we marked positive dynamics in 100% of group I and in 75% of group II. The most frequent allergens that cause respiratory forms of food allergy are hen eggs, cow milk, nutritive cereals, vegetables and fruit. Indices of a humoral link of immunity in the examined patients were more often registered as normal or their level is increased. Timely etiotropic therapy in the majority of cases allows for a stabilization of allergic inflammation.

  10. Economic Evaluation of Dual-Level-Residence Solar-Energy System

    Science.gov (United States)

    1982-01-01

    105-page report is one in a series of economic evaluations of different solar-energy installations. Using study results, an optimal collector area is chosen that minimizes life-cycle costs. From this optimal size thermal and economic performance is evaluated.

  11. The relationship between animal welfare and economic performance at farm level

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Henningsen, Arne; Czekaj, Tomasz Gerard; Forkman, Björn

    We propose a theoretical framework for the relationship between animal welfare and the economic performance of livestock farms. We empirically analyse this relationship based on a unique data set of randomly sampled Danish pig herds that includes information from unannounced inspections of the co......We propose a theoretical framework for the relationship between animal welfare and the economic performance of livestock farms. We empirically analyse this relationship based on a unique data set of randomly sampled Danish pig herds that includes information from unannounced inspections...... of the compliance with the animal welfare legislation. We find large variations in economic performance indicators and animal welfare indicators. The relationship between these two indicators is rather weak, but tends to be slightly positive. We conclude that management has a major influence on both economic...... performance and animal welfare so that good farm managers are able to obey all animal welfare regulations and, at the same time, achieve a high economic performance....

  12. Contemporary management of rectal injuries at Level I trauma centers: The results of an American Association for the Surgery of Trauma multi-institutional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Carlos V R; Teixeira, Pedro G; Furay, Elisa; Sharpe, John P; Musonza, Tashinga; Holcomb, John; Bui, Eric; Bruns, Brandon; Hopper, H Andrew; Truitt, Michael S; Burlew, Clay C; Schellenberg, Morgan; Sava, Jack; VanHorn, John; Eastridge, Pa-C Brian; Cross, Alicia M; Vasak, Richard; Vercruysse, Gary; Curtis, Eleanor E; Haan, James; Coimbra, Raul; Bohan, Phillip; Gale, Stephen; Bendix, Peter G

    2018-02-01

    -fold increase in abdominal complications and should not be included in the treatment of extraperitoneal rectal injuries. Therapeutic study, level III.

  13. Levels of procoagulant microvesicles are elevated after traumatic injury and platelet microvesicles are negatively correlated with mortality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicola Curry

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Background: Microvesicles (MV have been implicated in the development of thrombotic disease, such as acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS and multiple organ failure (MOF. Trauma patients are at increased risk of late thrombotic events, particularly those who receive a major transfusion. The aims of this study were: (a to determine whether there were increased numbers of pro-coagulant MV following injury; (b to determine their cellular origin; and (c to explore the effects of MV with clinical outcomes; in particular red cell transfusion requirements and death. Methods: Trauma patients were recruited at a Level 1 trauma centre. The presence of MV procoagulant phospholipid (PPL was assessed using 2 activity assays (PPL and thrombin generation. Enumeration and MV cellular origin was assessed using 2 colour flow cytometry. Results: Fifty consecutive patients were recruited; median age 38 (IQR: 24–55, median ISS 18 (IQR: 9–27. Circulating procoagulant MV, rich in phospholipid, were significantly elevated following traumatic injury relative to controls and remained elevated at 72 h post-injury. Red cell/AnnV+ and platelet/AnnV+ MV numbers were 6-fold and 2-fold higher than controls, respectively. Patients who died (n=9, 18% had significantly fewer CD41/AnnV+ MV and lower endogenous thrombin potential relative to patients who survived. Conclusions: MV are elevated following traumatic injury and may be implicated in the increased risk of trauma patients to pro-thrombotic states such as MOF and ARDS. Lower levels of procoagulant MV are associated with mortality and further investigation of this association is warranted.

  14. Outcome in Women with Traumatic Brain Injury Admitted to a Level 1 Trauma Center

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Guise, Elaine; Tinawi, Simon; Marcoux, Judith; Maleki, Mohammed

    2014-01-01

    Background. The aim of this study was to compare acute outcome between men and women after sustaining a traumatic brain injury (TBI). Methods. A total of 5,642 patients admitted to the Traumatic Brain Injury Program of the McGill University Health Centre-Montreal General Hospital between 2000 and 2011 and diagnosed with a TBI were included in the study. The overall percentage of women with TBI was 30.6% (n = 1728). Outcome measures included the length of stay (LOS), the Extended Glasgow Outcome Scale (GOSE), the functional independence measure instrument (FIM), discharge destination, and mortality rate. Results. LOS, GOSE, the FIM ratings, and discharge destination did not show significant differences between genders once controlling for several confounding variables and running the appropriate diagnostic tests (P < 0.05). However, women had less chance of dying during their acute care hospitalization than men of the same age, with the same TBI severity and following the same mechanism of injury. Although gender was a statistically significant predictor, its contribution in explaining variation in mortality was small. Conclusion. More research is needed to better understand gender differences in mortality; as to date, the research findings remain inconclusive. PMID:27355011

  15. Prevention of reperfusion lung injury by lidocaine in isolated rat lung ventilated with higher oxygen levels.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Das K

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Lidocaine, an antiarrhythmic drug has been shown to be effective against post-ischaemic reperfusion injury in heart. However, its effect on pulmonary reperfusion injury has not been investigated. AIMS: We investigated the effects of lidocaine on a postischaemic reperfused rat lung model. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Lungs were isolated and perfused at constant flow with Krebs-Henseilet buffer containing 4% bovine serum albumin, and ventilated with 95% oxygen mixed with 5% CO2. Lungs were subjected to ischaemia by stopping perfusion for 60 minutes followed by reperfusion for 10 minutes. Ischaemia was induced in normothermic conditions. RESULTS: Postischaemic reperfusion caused significant (p < 0.0001 higher wet-to-dry lung weight ratio, pulmonary arterial pressure and peak airway pressure compared to control lungs. Lidocaine, at a dose of 5mg/Kg b.w. was found to significantly (p < 0.0001 attenuate the increase in the wet-to-dry lung weight ratio, pulmonary arterial pressure and peak airway pressure observed in post-ischaemic lungs. CONCLUSION: Lidocaine is effective in preventing post-ischaemic reperfusion injury in isolated, perfused rat lung.

  16. Possibilities for prognostication of radiation injury in rats by leucocyte nucleic acid levels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Minkova, M.; Pantev, T.

    1988-01-01

    The possibilities to prognosticate acute radiation injury by the changes in the amount of nucleic acids in the leucocytes was studied. Experiments were carried out on male Wistar albino rats, gamma-irradiated with nonlethal and sublethal doses of 0.5, 2 and 4 Gy and lethal dose of 8 Gy (LD 90/30 ). The nucleic acid content and the total leucocyte count were determined at definite intervals on days 1-30. The changes in the nucleic acids in nonlethally and sublethally irradiated animals had phase nature, with a clear-cut abortive increase in their amount on days 7-10. In lethally irradiated animals the phase character of the changes was lost and the abortive peak disappeared. By reducing the effectiveness of the lethal radiation dose survival of the population increased from 10-75% through physical and from 10-70% - through chemical protection. The nucleic acid dynamics showed features typical for an injury with possible survival - appearance of abortive peak and resumption of their normal values. It is assumed that determination of leucocyte nucleic acid content may be used for early prognostication of radiation injury, as it allows keen differentiation of the lethal from nonlethal outcome of radiation sickness. The absence of abortive peak (over 50%) by day 14 post-irradiation is a poor prognostic sign

  17. Racial and ethnic disparities in work-related injuries and socio-economic resources among nursing assistants employed in US nursing homes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tak, SangWoo; Alterman, Toni; Baron, Sherry; Calvert, Geoffrey M

    2010-10-01

    We aimed to estimate the proportion of nursing assistants (NAs) in the US with work-related injuries and insufficient socio-economic resources by race/ethnicity. Data from the 2004 National Nursing Assistant Survey (NNAS), a nationally representative sample survey of NAs employed in United States nursing homes, were analyzed accounting for the complex survey design. Among 2,880 participants, 44% reported "scratch, open wounds, or cuts" followed by "back injuries" (17%), "black eyes or other types of bruising" (16%), and "human bites" (12%). When compared to non-Hispanic white NAs, the adjusted rate ratio (RR) for wound/cut was 0.74 for non-Hispanic black NAs (95% confidence interval [CI]: 0.65-0.85). RRs for black eyes/bruises were 0.18 for non-Hispanic black NAs (95% CI: 0.12-0.26), and 0.55 for Hispanic NAs (95% CI: 0.37-0.82). Minority racial and ethnic groups were less likely to report having experienced injuries compared with non-Hispanic white NAs. Future research should focus on identifying preventable risk factors, such as differences by race and ethnicity in the nature of NA jobs and the extent of their engagement in assisting patients with activities of daily living. © 2010 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  18. Relevance of health economics in breast cancer treatment: integration of economics in the management of breast cancer at the clinic level.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacobs, Volker R; Bogner, Gerhard; Schausberger, Christiane E; Reitsamer, Roland; Fischer, Thorsten

    2013-03-01

    Since the introduction of the diagnosis-related groups (DRG) system with cost-related and entity-specific flat-rate reimbursements for all in-patients in 2004 in Germany, economics have become an important focus in medical care, including breast centers. Since then, physicians and hospitals have had to gradually take on more and more financial responsibilities for their medical care to avoid losses for their institutions. Due to financial limitations of resources, most medical services have to be adjusted to correlating revenues, which results in the development of a variety of active measures to understand, steer, and optimize costs, resources and related processes for breast cancer treatment. In this review, the challenging task to implement microeconomic management at the clinic level for breast cancer treatment is analyzed from breast cancer-specific publications. The newly developed economic management perspective is identified for different stakeholders in the healthcare system, and successful microeconomic projects and future aspects are described.

  19. A method for economic evaluation of redundancy levels for aerospace systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hodge, P. W.; Frumkin, B.

    1973-01-01

    Principle comprises primary cost impacts, such as operational delays, reflown missions due to aborts, procurement of equipment, and vehicle expansion to accommodate additional equipment. Economics are estimated by criterion which is relatively insensitive to impertinent cost factors.

  20. Transcranial low-level laser therapy increases memory, learning, neuroprogenitor cells, BDNF and synaptogenesis in mice with traumatic brain injury

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xuan, Weijun; Huang, Liyi; Vatansever, Fatma; Agrawal, Tanupriya; Hamblin, Michael R.

    2015-03-01

    Increasing concern is evident over the epidemic of traumatic brain injury in both civilian and military medicine, and the lack of approved treatments. Transcranial low level laser therapy tLLLT) is a new approach in which near infrared laser is delivered to the head, penetrates the scalp and skull to reach the brain. We asked whether tLLLT at 810-nm could improve memory and learning in mice with controlled cortical impact traumatic brain injury. We investigated the mechanism of action by immunofluorescence studies in sections from brains of mice sacrificed at different times. Mice with TBI treated with 1 or 3 daily laser applications performed better on Morris Water Maze test at 28 days. Laser treated mice had increased BrdU incorporation into NeuN positive cells in the dentate gyrus and subventricular zone indicating formation of neuroprogenitor cells at 7 days and less at 28 days. Markers of neuron migration (DCX and Tuj1) were also increased, as was the neurotrophin, brain derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) at 7 days. Markers of synaptogenesis (formation of new connections between existing neurons) were increased in the perilesional cortex at 28 days. tLLLT is proposed to be able to induce the brain to repair itself after injury. However its ability to induce neurogenesis and synaptogenesis suggests that tLLLT may have much wider applications to neurodegenerative and psychiatric disorders.

  1. Effect of a Multi-Level Education Intervention Model on Knowledge and Attitudes of Accidental Injuries in Rural Children in Zunyi, Southwest China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bo-Ling Cao

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To explore the effect of a school-family-individual (SFI multi-level education intervention model on knowledge and attitudes about accidental injuries among school-aged children to improve injury prevention strategies and reduce the incidence of pediatric injuries. Methods: The random sample of rural school-aged children were recruited by using a multistage, stratified, cluster sampling method in Zunyi, Southwest China from 2012 to 2014, and 2342 children were randomly divided into intervention and control groups. Then children answered a baseline survey to collect knowledge and attitude scores (KAS of accidental injuries. In the intervention group, children, their parents/guardians and the school received a SFI multi-level education intervention, which included a children’s injury-prevention poster at schools, an open letter about security instruction for parents/guardians and multiple-media health education (Microsoft PowerPoint lectures, videos, handbooks, etc. to children. Children in the control group were given only handbook education. After 16 months, children answered a follow-up survey to collect data on accidental injury types and accidental injury-related KAS for comparing the intervention and control groups and baseline and follow-up data. Results: The distribution of gender was not significantly different while age was different between the baseline and follow-up survey. At baseline, the mean KAS was lower for the intervention than control group (15.37 ± 3.40 and 18.35 ± 5.01; p < 0.001. At follow-up, the mean KAS was higher for the intervention than control group (21.16 ± 3.05 and 20.02 ± 3.40; p < 0.001. The increase in KAS in the intervention and control groups was significant (p < 0.001; KAS: 5.79 vs. 1.67 and suggested that children’s injury-related KAS improved in the intervention group. Moreover, the KAS between the groups differed for most subtypes of incidental injuries (based on International

  2. Economic Inequalities and the Level of Decentralization in European Countries: Cluster Analysis

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    Laboutková Šárka

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available This submitted article identifies relations between the degree of decentralization and economic imbalances on the basis of a cluster (exploratory analysis. Two indicators have been chosen for measuring economic inequalities: an indicator of dispersion of regional GDP per capita as representative of the performance imbalances within countries (it measures the economic development gap among regions in European countries; and a multidimensional inequality-adjusted human development index as representative of inequalities in the distribution of wealth in the countries. Decentralization is measured by means of a decentralization index, which contains both quantitative and qualitative components. Although groups of countries characterised by a high degree of decentralization do not necessarily show the lowest degrees of economic imbalances, it is however possible to conclude that the countries in groups with a higher degree of decentralization are among those countries with more favourable values of the economic imbalances indicators monitored. As a part of the research, two clusters of countries were identified which are identical in their degree of decentralization, but differ in the results connected with economic imbalances. The differences are caused by different institutional qualities in the two groups.

  3. Analyzing Content about the Federal Budget, National Debt, and Budget Deficit in High School and College-Level Economics Textbooks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marri, Anand R.; Gaudelli, William; Cohen, Aviv; Siegel, Brad; Wylie, Scott; Crocco, Margaret S.; Grolnick, Maureen

    2012-01-01

    This study sought to identify content on the federal budget, national debt, and budget deficit in the 12 most commonly used high school and college-level economics textbooks. Our systematic review of these sources leads to two key findings: (1) Textbooks are similar in how they represent fiscal policy yet treat the federal budget, deficit, and…

  4. Personality Type and Student Performance in Upper-Level Economics Courses: The Importance of Race and Gender.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borg, Mary O.; Stranahan, Harriet A.

    2002-01-01

    Demonstrates that personality type is an important explanatory variable in student performance in upper level economics courses. Finds that certain personality types, combined with race and gender effects, produce students who outperform other students. Introverts and those with the Keirsey-Bates temperament combination of sensing/judging…

  5. How community-level social and economic developments have changed the patterns of substance use in a transition economy?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Xiaozhao Y

    2017-07-01

    Most social changes take place at the community level before indirectly affecting individuals. Although the contextual effect is far-reaching, few studies have investigated the important questions of: how do community-level developments affect drinking and smoking, and how do they change the existing gender and income patterns of drinking and smoking, particularly in transition economies? In this study, I used a Chinese panel dataset between 1991 and 2011 to reveal the moderating effects of community developments. Through multilevel growth curve modeling that controls for age, period, and cohort effects, as well as individual- and community-level covariates, I found that community-level economic development and social development are negatively associated with drinking and smoking. Moreover, economic and social developments also moderate the important influences of income and gender: women start to drink more in communities with higher economic development; the traditionally positive association between income and smoking/drinking is also reversed, i.e. the rich start to smoke and drink less in communities with higher social development. This study concludes that the rapid changes in communal social and economic structures have created new health disparities based on the gender and socioeconomic hierarchy. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Admission biomarkers of trauma-induced secondary cardiac injury predict adverse cardiac events and are associated with plasma catecholamine levels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naganathar, Sriveena; De'Ath, Henry D; Wall, Johanna; Brohi, Karim

    2015-07-01

    Secondary cardiac injury and dysfunction may be important contributors to poor outcomes in trauma patients, but the pathophysiology and clinical impact remain unclear. Early elevations in cardiac injury markers have been associated with the development of adverse cardiac events (ACEs), prolonged intensive care unit stays, and increased mortality. Studies of preinjury β-blocker use suggest a potential protective effect in critically ill trauma patients. This study aimed to prospectively examine the association of early biomarker evidence of trauma-induced secondary cardiac injury (TISCI) and ACEs and to examine the potential contribution of circulating catecholamines to its pathophysiology. Injured patients who met the study criteria were recruited at a single major trauma center. A blood sample was collected immediately on arrival. Serum epinephrine (E), norepinephrine (NE), and cardiac biomarkers including heart-related fatty acid binding protein (H-FABP) were assayed. Data were prospectively collected on ACEs. Of 300 patients recruited, 38 (13%) developed an ACE and had increased mortality (19% vs. 9%, p = 0.01) and longer intensive care unit stays (13 days, p < 0.001). H-FABP was elevated on admission in 56% of the patients, predicted the development of ACE, and was associated with higher mortality (14% vs. 5%, p = 0.01). Admission E and NE levels were strongly associated with elevations in H-FABP and ACEs (E, 274.0 pg/mL vs. 622.5 pg/mL, p < 0.001; NE, 1,063.2 pg/mL vs. 2,032.6 pg/mL, p < 0.001). Catecholamine effect on the development of TISCI or ACEs was not statistically independent of injury severity or depth of shock. Admission levels of H-FABP predict the development of ACEs and may be useful for prognosis and stratification of trauma patients. The development of TISCI and ACEs was associated with high admission levels of catecholamines, but their role in pathogenesis remains unclear. Clinical trials of adrenergic blockade may have the potential to

  7. Economic assessment at farm level of the implementation of deficit irrigation for quinoa production in the Southern Bolivian Altiplano

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    J. Cusicanqui

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available In the Southern Bolivian Altiplano recent research has suggested to introduce deficit irrigation as a strategy to boost quinoa yields and to stabilize it at 2.0 ton ha-1. In this study we carried out an economic assessment of the implementation of deficit irrigation at farm level using a hydro-economic model for simulating profit for quinoa production. As input of the model we worked with previously developed farms typology (livestock, quinoa and subsistence farms, simulated quinoa production with and without irrigation using AquaCrop model, and calculated yield response functions for four different climate scenarios (wet, normal, dry and very dry years. Results from the hydro-economic model demonstrate that maximum profit is achieved with less applied irrigated water than for maximum yield, and irrigated quinoa earned more profit than rainfed production for all farms types and climate scenarios. As expected, the benefits of irrigation under dry and very dry climate conditions were higher than those under normal and wet years, and benefits among farms types were higher for quinoa farms. In fact, profit of irrigated quinoa might be stabilized at around BOB 6500 ha-1 (about USD 920 compared with the huge differences found for rainfed conditions for all climate scenarios. Interestingly, the economic water productivity, expressed in terms of economic return for amount of applied irrigated water (BOB mm-1, reached the highest values with intermediate and low level of water availability schemes of deficit irrigation for all climate scenarios.

  8. The effect of sports on level of community integration as reported by persons with spinal cord injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanson, C S; Nabavi, D; Yuen, H K

    2001-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine whether participation in sports by persons with spinal cord injuries (SCIs) affected level of community integration as defined by the World Health Organization and as measured by the Craig Handicap Assessment and Reporting Technique (CHART). Forty-eight participants were recruited from a camp for persons with physical disabilities as well as from SCI support groups. Participants were divided into groups of athletes (n = 30) and nonathletes (n = 18) on the basis of their self-reported level of sports participation. Athletes scored significantly higher on four of five subsections of the CHART (physical independence, mobility, occupation, social integration), indicating greater levels of community integration than nonathletes. These findings extend the literature outlining the physical and psychological benefits of sports. Occupational therapists have a unique opportunity to use the occupation of sports to integrate the roots of the profession with the cultural demands of society.

  9. Change and significance of serum inflammatory factors, NSE, S100 protein and stress hormone levels in patients with craniocerebral injury

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    Rui-Feng Liu

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To investigate the change and significance of serum inflammatory factors, neuron specific enolase (NSE, S100 protein and stress hormone levels in patients with brain diseases. Methods: A total of 115 patients with craniocerebral injury were selected as the observation group, according to the Glasgow Coma Scale (GCS, they were divided into light-sized group (n=38, middle-sized group (n=40 and severe-sized group (n=37, at the same time the other 120 healthy subjects were selected as the control group. The levels of serum inflammatory cytokines [tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α and procalcitonin (PCT], neuron specific enolase (NSE, S100 protein and the stress hormone cortisol [(COR, adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH, β-endorphin (β-EP] of both groups were compared. Results: The levels of TNF-α, PCT, NSE, S100, COR, ACTH and β-EP in the observation group were (145.73±19.24 ng/L, (2.41±0.64 ng/mL, (38.11±12.28 ng/mL, (0.87±0.32 μg/L, (818.87±121.14 nmol/L, (107.38±13.94 ng/L, (126.74±39.04 ng/mL, which were significantly higher than control group, the difference was statistically significant; Comparison of indexes among the observation group, NF-α, PCT, NSE, S100, COR, ACTH and β-EP levels in the middle-sized group and severe-sized group were significantly higher than those in the light-sized group, and the levels in the severe-sized group were significantly higher than those of the middle-sized group, the difference was statistically significant. Conclusion: The levels of Serum inflammatory factors, NSE, S100 protein and stress hormone were significantly increased in patients with craniocerebral injury, the level was related to the degree of traumatic brain injury, which could be used as an important indicator to assess the severity of the disease.

  10. A comparative analysis of multi-level computer-assisted decision making systems for traumatic injuries

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    Huynh Toan

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background This paper focuses on the creation of a predictive computer-assisted decision making system for traumatic injury using machine learning algorithms. Trauma experts must make several difficult decisions based on a large number of patient attributes, usually in a short period of time. The aim is to compare the existing machine learning methods available for medical informatics, and develop reliable, rule-based computer-assisted decision-making systems that provide recommendations for the course of treatment for new patients, based on previously seen cases in trauma databases. Datasets of traumatic brain injury (TBI patients are used to train and test the decision making algorithm. The work is also applicable to patients with traumatic pelvic injuries. Methods Decision-making rules are created by processing patterns discovered in the datasets, using machine learning techniques. More specifically, CART and C4.5 are used, as they provide grammatical expressions of knowledge extracted by applying logical operations to the available features. The resulting rule sets are tested against other machine learning methods, including AdaBoost and SVM. The rule creation algorithm is applied to multiple datasets, both with and without prior filtering to discover significant variables. This filtering is performed via logistic regression prior to the rule discovery process. Results For survival prediction using all variables, CART outperformed the other machine learning methods. When using only significant variables, neural networks performed best. A reliable rule-base was generated using combined C4.5/CART. The average predictive rule performance was 82% when using all variables, and approximately 84% when using significant variables only. The average performance of the combined C4.5 and CART system using significant variables was 89.7% in predicting the exact outcome (home or rehabilitation, and 93.1% in predicting the ICU length of stay for

  11. ACCOUNTING INFORMATION BETWEEN ECONOMIC DECISION AND FISCAL MANAGEMENT IN THE ENTERPRISE LEVEL

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    HOLT GHEORGHE

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Anchored in reflecting reality, as secular science and practice, accounting has demonstrated continuously opening towards progress and social involvement. The information provided by operators underlie the economic and political decision of a wide range of users. The variety of funding determines the specific behavior of the company. In an economic environment with largely financing through bank loans, companies and their creditors directs its decision in particular on collateral, receivables and payables at a time. In an environment with its own financing, the interests of users of accounting information is moving mainly on growth equity, results and cash holdings.

  12. Pulmonary hypertension in patient with elevated homocystein level and blast injuries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zuljević, Ervin; Redzepi, Gzim; Plestina, Sanja; Vidjak, Vinko; Loncarić, Vlasta; Jakopović, Marko; Samarzija, Miroslav

    2009-03-01

    38-year-old man had chronic deep venous thrombosis (DVT) as a result of multiple injuries caused by an explosion of grenade 12 years ago, with recurrent pulmonary thromboembolisms and pulmonary hypertension which was unrecognized for a decade. Patient was admitted with a progressive dyspnea and exercise intolerance (NYHA II). The diagnosis was established according to clinical symptoms, transthoracic echocardiography, phlebography, lung scintigraphy and pulmonary angiography. Oral anticoagulant therapy was introduced and cava filter indicated to implant. During phlebography a floating thrombus was found in the inferior cava vein underneath renal vein. Implantation was delayed and patient received systemic fibrinolytic therapy with streptokinase (7500 000 UI within 4 days), followed by heparin infusion and warfarin. Post-fibrinolytic phlebography showed clear lumen of inferior vena cava. Fibrinolysis had also affected pulmonary hypertension-systolic pressure in the right ventricle measured by Doppler echocardiography decreased from 90 to 65 mmHg. Permanent intravenous cava filter was implanted.

  13. Locus of control among spinal cord injury patients with different levels of posttraumatic stress disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chung, Man Cheung; Preveza, Eleni; Papandreou, Konstantinos; Prevezas, Nikolaos

    2007-08-30

    Two hypotheses were investigated in the present study: 1) Patients with full posttraumatic stress symptoms following spinal cord injury (SCI) would experience more general health problems than those with partial posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD), with no-PTSD and the control group; 2) Patients with full PTSD would endorse the external locus of control more than those with partial PTSD, no-PTSD and the control group. Sixty-two patients were recruited from a specialized rehabilitation clinic for spinal cord injury. The control group comprised 60 participants without SCI. Patients with SCI were assessed using the Posttraumatic Stress Disorder Checklist, the General Health Questionnaire-28 (GHQ-28) and the Multidimensional Health Locus of Control (MHLC). The control group was assessed using the GHQ-28 and the MHLC. The full PTSD group experienced more somatic problems, anxiety, social dysfunction and depression than the partial PTSD, the no-PTSD and the control groups. The results also showed that the full PTSD group endorsed significantly more external health locus of control than the control group. However, no significant differences were found between the three patient groups in health locus of control. The three PTSD sub-scales were positively correlated with general health problems. Further analyses showed that partial PTSD patients with paraplegia and partial PTSD patients whose SCI had a medically related cause were more likely to report less internal locus of control than other patients. Patients who suffered from full PTSD experienced more general health problems than those with fewer PTSD symptoms and those without SCI. External locus of control was a distinctive strategy that SCI-PTSD patients used in coping with the effects of SCI-PTSD.

  14. Risk levels for suffering a traffic injury in primary health care. The LESIONAT* project

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    Bel Jordi

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Literature shows that not only are traffic injuries due to accidents, but that there is also a correlation between different chronic conditions, the consumption of certain types of drugs, the intake of psychoactive substances and the self perception of risk (Health Belief Model and the impact/incidence of traffic accidents. There are few studies on these aspects in primary health care. The objectives of our study are: Main aim: To outline the distribution of risk factors associated with Road Traffic Injuries (RTI in a driving population assigned to a group of primary health care centres in Barcelona province. Secondly, we aim to study the distribution of diverse risk factors related to the possibility of suffering an RTI according to age, sex and population groups, to assess the relationship between these same risk factors and self risk perception for suffering an RTI, and to outline the association between the number of risk factors and the history of reported collisions. Methods/Design Design: Cross-sectional, multicentre study. Setting: 25 urban health care centres. Study population: Randomly selected sample of Spanish/Catalan speakers age 16 or above with a medical register in any of the 25 participating primary health care centres. N = 1540. Unit of study: Basic unit of care, consisting of a general practitioner and a nurse, both of whom caring for the same population (1,500 to 2,000 people per unit. Instruments of measurement: Data collection will be performed using a survey carried out by health professionals, who will use the clinical registers and the information reported by the patient during the visit to collect the baseline data: illnesses, medication intake, alcohol and psychoactive consumption, and self perception of risk. Discussion We expect to obtain a risk profile of the subjects in relation to RTI in the primary health care field, and to create a group for a prospective follow-up. Trial Registration

  15. The economic burden of elevated blood glucose levels in 2012: diagnosed and undiagnosed diabetes, gestational diabetes mellitus, and prediabetes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dall, Timothy M; Yang, Wenya; Halder, Pragna; Pang, Bo; Massoudi, Marjan; Wintfeld, Neil; Semilla, April P; Franz, Jerry; Hogan, Paul F

    2014-12-01

    To update estimates of the economic burden of undiagnosed diabetes, prediabetes, and gestational diabetes mellitus in 2012 in the U.S. and to present state-level estimates. Combined with published estimates for diagnosed diabetes, these statistics provide a detailed picture of the economic costs associated with elevated glucose levels. This study estimated health care use and medical expenditures in excess of expected levels occurring in the absence of diabetes or prediabetes. Data sources that were analyzed include Optum medical claims for ∼4.9 million commercially insured patients who were continuously enrolled from 2010 to 2012, Medicare Standard Analytical Files containing medical claims for ∼2.6 million Medicare patients in 2011, and the 2010 Nationwide Inpatient Sample containing ∼7.8 million hospital discharge records. The indirect economic burden includes reduced labor force participation, missed workdays, and reduced productivity. State-level estimates reflect geographic variation in prevalence, risk factors, and prices. The economic burden associated with diagnosed diabetes (all ages) and undiagnosed diabetes, gestational diabetes, and prediabetes (adults) exceeded $322 billion in 2012, consisting of $244 billion in excess medical costs and $78 billion in reduced productivity. Combined, this amounts to an economic burden exceeding $1,000 for each American in 2012. This national estimate is 48% higher than the $218 billion estimate for 2007. The burden per case averaged $10,970 for diagnosed diabetes, $5,800 for gestational diabetes, $4,030 for undiagnosed diabetes, and $510 for prediabetes. These statistics underscore the importance of finding ways to reduce the burden of prediabetes and diabetes through prevention and treatment. © 2014 by the American Diabetes Association. Readers may use this article as long as the work is properly cited, the use is educational and not for profit, and the work is not altered.

  16. The relationship between animal welfare and economic performance at farm level

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Henningsen, Arne; Czekaj, Tomasz Gerard; Forkman, Björn

    2018-01-01

    We propose a theoretical framework for the relationship between animal welfare and the economic performance of livestock farms. We empirically analyse this relationship based on a unique dataset of randomly sampled Danish pig herds that includes information from unannounced inspections of the com...

  17. Effect of corporate economic performance on firm-level environmental performance in a transition economy

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Earnhart, D.; Lízal, Lubomír

    2010-01-01

    Roč. 46, č. 3 (2010), s. 303-329 ISSN 0924-6460 R&D Projects: GA MŠk LC542 Institutional research plan: CEZ:MSM0021620846 Keywords : Czech Republic * environmental protection * financial performance * pollution Subject RIV: AH - Economics Impact factor: 1.297, year: 2010

  18. Evaluating Effective Teaching in College Level Economics Using Student Ratings of Instruction: A Factor Analytic Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agbetsiafa, Douglas

    2010-01-01

    This paper explores the factors that affect students' evaluation of economic instruction using a sample of 1300 completed rating instruments at a comprehensive four-year mid-western public university. The study uses factor analysis to determine the validity and reliability of the evaluation instrument in assessing instructor or course…

  19. Using Level 1 E-Learning to Support Socio-Economic Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edmundson, Andrea

    2007-01-01

    The most developed, progressive, and economically stable countries in the world are those that are technologically advanced. Technological change and the building of human capabilities are interrelated: each requires the development of the other for success and the "rethinking [of] educational systems to meet the new challenges of…

  20. "PRICE LEVELS AND ECONOMIC GROWTH : MAKING SENSE OF REVISIONS TO DATA ON REAL INCOMES": A COMMENT

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Inklaar, Robert

    2013-01-01

    In his recent paper, Ravallion (2013) proposes a new method to predict changes in purchasing power parities (PPPs), arguing that a model that includes economic growth and exchange rate movements is superior to the standard approach of using inflation differences. In this comment, I argue that his

  1. The impact of morbid obesity on solid organ injury in children using the ATOMAC protocol at a pediatric level I trauma center.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vaughan, Nathan; Tweed, Jeff; Greenwell, Cynthia; Notrica, David M; Langlais, Crystal S; Peter, Shawn D St; Leys, Charles M; Ostlie, Daniel J; Maxson, R Todd; Ponsky, Todd; Tuggle, David W; Eubanks, James W; Bhatia, Amina; Greenwell, Cynthia; Garcia, Nilda M; Lawson, Karla A; Motghare, Prasenjeet; Letton, Robert W; Alder, Adam C

    2017-02-01

    Obesity is an epidemic in the pediatric population. Childhood obesity in trauma has been associated with increased incidence of long-bone fractures, longer ICU stays, and decreased closed head injuries. We investigated for differences in the likelihood of failure of non-operative management (NOM), and injury grade using a subset of a multi-institutional, prospective database of pediatric patients with solid organ injury (SOI). We prospectively collected data on all pediatric patients (hepatic injury (36.8% versus 15.3%, P=0.048) but not a significant difference in likelihood of severe (grade 4 or 5) splenic injury (15.3% versus 10.5%, P=0.736). Obese patients had a higher mean ISS (22.5 versus 16.1, P=0.021) and mean abdominal AIS (3.5 versus 2.9, P=0.024). Obesity is a risk factor for more severe abdominal injury, specifically liver injury, but without an associated increase in failure of NOM. This may be explained by the presence of hepatic steatosis making the liver more vulnerable to injury. A protocol based upon physiologic parameters was associated with a low rate of failure regardless of the pediatric obesity status. Level II prognosis. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. A Two-level-games Analysis of AFTA Agreements: What Caused ASEAN States to Move towards Economic Integration?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yi-hung Chiou

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available The goal of this article is to investigate the conditions under which ASEAN states are more likely to pursue regional economic integration, namely, a series of ASEAN Free Trade Area (AFTA agreements/ protocols. Adopting Putnam’s two-level-games model, this article examines the influences of domestic politics, political elites’ preferences, economic performance, and external impacts. Through the construction of a set of hypotheses, this article investigates five AFTA agreements/ protocols and the conditions of ASEAN states during the 1992–2003 period. The findings indicate that political leaders’ preferences have played a pivotal role in the development of the AFTA. Economic performance and domestic support in individual states has also affected the AFTA. The close link between AFTA agreements and external impacts reveals that the AFTA’s inherent nature is defensive.

  3. Spinal cord injury below-level neuropathic pain relief with dorsal root entry zone microcoagulation performed caudal to level of complete spinal cord transection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Falci, Scott; Indeck, Charlotte; Barnkow, Dave

    2018-06-01

    OBJECTIVE Surgically created lesions of the spinal cord dorsal root entry zone (DREZ) to relieve central pain after spinal cord injury (SCI) have historically been performed at and cephalad to, but not below, the level of SCI. This study was initiated to investigate the validity of 3 proposed concepts regarding the DREZ in SCI central pain: 1) The spinal cord DREZ caudal to the level of SCI can be a primary generator of SCI below-level central pain. 2) Neuronal transmission from a DREZ that generates SCI below-level central pain to brain pain centers can be primarily through sympathetic nervous system (SNS) pathways. 3) Perceived SCI below-level central pain follows a unique somatotopic map of DREZ pain-generators. METHODS Three unique patients with both intractable SCI below-level central pain and complete spinal cord transection at the level of SCI were identified. All 3 patients had previously undergone surgical intervention to their spinal cords-only cephalad to the level of spinal cord transection-with either DREZ microcoagulation or cyst shunting, in failed attempts to relieve their SCI below-level central pain. Subsequent to these surgeries, DREZ lesioning of the spinal cord solely caudal to the level of complete spinal cord transection was performed using electrical intramedullary guidance. The follow-up period ranged from 1 1/2 to 11 years. RESULTS All 3 patients in this study had complete or near-complete relief of all below-level neuropathic pain. The analyzed electrical data confirmed and enhanced a previously proposed somatotopic map of SCI below-level DREZ pain generators. CONCLUSIONS The results of this study support the following hypotheses. 1) The spinal cord DREZ caudal to the level of SCI can be a primary generator of SCI below-level central pain. 2) Neuronal transmission from a DREZ that generates SCI below-level central pain to brain pain centers can be primarily through SNS pathways. 3) Perceived SCI below-level central pain follows a unique

  4. An epidemiological assessment of stomatal ozone flux-based critical levels for visible ozone injury in Southern European forests

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sicard, Pierre, E-mail: pierre.sicard@acri-he.fr [ACRI-HE, 260 route du Pin Montard, BP 234, 06904 Sophia Antipolis cedex (France); De Marco, Alessandra [ENEA (Italian National Agency for New Technologies, Energy and Sustainable Economic Development), 76, Lungotevere Thaon de Revel, Rome (Italy); Dalstein-Richier, Laurence [GIEFS (Groupe International d' Etudes des Forêts Sud-européennes), 60, Avenue des Hespérides, 06300 Nice (France); Tagliaferro, Francesco [IPLA (Istituto per le Piante da Legno e l‘Ambiente), Corso Casale 476, 10132 Turin (Italy); Renou, Camille [ACRI-HE, 260 route du Pin Montard, BP 234, 06904 Sophia Antipolis cedex (France); Paoletti, Elena [IPSP-CNR (Consiglio Nazionale delle Ricerche — Istituto per la Protezione Sostenibile delle Piante), Via Madonna del Piano 10, 50019 Sesto Fiorentino (Florence) (Italy)

    2016-01-15

    Southern forests are at the highest ozone (O{sub 3}) risk in Europe where ground-level O{sub 3} is a pressing sanitary problem for ecosystem health. Exposure-based standards for protecting vegetation are not representative of actual field conditions. A biologically-sound stomatal flux-based standard has been proposed, although critical levels for protection still need to be validated. This innovative epidemiological assessment of forest responses to O{sub 3} was carried out in 54 plots in Southeastern France and Northwestern Italy in 2012 and 2013. Three O{sub 3} indices, namely the accumulated exposure AOT40, and the accumulated stomatal flux with and without an hourly threshold of uptake (POD1 and POD0) were compared. Stomatal O{sub 3} fluxes were modeled (DO3SE) and correlated to measured forest-response indicators, i.e. crown defoliation, crown discoloration and visible foliar O{sub 3} injury. Soil water content, a key variable affecting the severity of visible foliar O{sub 3} injury, was included in DO3SE. Based on flux–effect relationships, we developed species-specific flux-based critical levels (CLef) for forest protection against visible O{sub 3} injury. For O{sub 3} sensitive conifers, CLef of 19 mmol m{sup −2} for Pinus cembra (high O{sub 3} sensitivity) and 32 mmol m{sup −2} for Pinus halepensis (moderate O{sub 3} sensitivity) were calculated. For broadleaved species, we obtained a CLef of 25 mmol m{sup −2} for Fagus sylvatica (moderate O{sub 3} sensitivity) and of 19 mmol m{sup −2} for Fraxinus excelsior (high O{sub 3} sensitivity). We showed that an assessment based on PODY and on real plant symptoms is more appropriated than the concentration-based method. Indeed, POD0 was better correlated with visible foliar O{sub 3} injury than AOT40, whereas AOT40 was better correlated with crown discoloration and defoliation (aspecific indicators). To avoid an underestimation of the real O{sub 3} uptake, we recommend the use of POD0 calculated for

  5. District-level variations in childhood immunizations in India: The role of socio-economic factors and health infrastructure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rammohan, Anu; Awofeso, Niyi

    2015-11-01

    Routine childhood immunizations against measles and DPT are part of the World Health Organization's (WHO) Expanded Program on Immunization (EPI) set up in 1974, with the aim of reducing childhood morbidity and mortality. Despite this, immunization rates are sub-optimal in developing countries such as India, with wide heterogeneity observed across districts and socio-economic characteristics. The aim of this paper is to examine district-level variations in the propensity to vaccinate a child in India for measles and DPT3, and analyse the extent to which these immunizations are given age-inappropriately, either prematurely or delayed. The present study uses data from the Indian District Level Household Survey (DLHS-3) collected in 2008, and the final sample contains detailed information on 42157 children aged between 12 and 60 months, across 549 Indian districts for whom we have complete information on immunization history. Our empirical study analyses: (i) the district-level average immunization rates for measles and DPT3, and (ii) the extent to which these immunizations have been given age-appropriately. A key contribution of this paper is that we link the household-level data at the district level to data on availability and proximity to health infrastructure and district-level socio-economic factors. Our results show that after controlling for an array of socio-economic characteristics, across all our models, the district's income per capita is a strong predictor of better immunization outcomes for children. Mother's education level at the district-level has a statistically significant and positive influence on immunization outcomes across all our models. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. A program-level management system for the life cycle environmental and economic assessment of complex building projects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Chan-Joong; Kim, Jimin; Hong, Taehoon; Koo, Choongwan; Jeong, Kwangbok; Park, Hyo Seon

    2015-01-01

    Climate change has become one of the most significant environmental issues, of which about 40% come from the building sector. In particular, complex building projects with various functions have increased, which should be managed from a program-level perspective. Therefore, this study aimed to develop a program-level management system for the life-cycle environmental and economic assessment of complex building projects. The developed system consists of three parts: (i) input part: database server and input data; (ii) analysis part: life cycle assessment and life cycle cost; and (iii) result part: microscopic analysis and macroscopic analysis. To analyze the applicability of the developed system, this study selected ‘U’ University, a complex building project consisting of research facility and residential facility. Through value engineering with experts, a total of 137 design alternatives were established. Based on these alternatives, the macroscopic analysis results were as follows: (i) at the program-level, the life-cycle environmental and economic cost in ‘U’ University were reduced by 6.22% and 2.11%, respectively; (ii) at the project-level, the life-cycle environmental and economic cost in research facility were reduced 6.01% and 1.87%, respectively; and those in residential facility, 12.01% and 3.83%, respective; and (iii) for the mechanical work at the work-type-level, the initial cost was increased 2.9%; but the operation and maintenance phase was reduced by 20.0%. As a result, the developed system can allow the facility managers to establish the operation and maintenance strategies for the environmental and economic aspects from a program-level perspective. - Highlights: • A program-level management system for complex building projects was developed. • Life-cycle environmental and economic assessment can be conducted using the system. • The design alternatives can be analyzed from the microscopic perspective. • The system can be used to

  7. A program-level management system for the life cycle environmental and economic assessment of complex building projects

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Chan-Joong [Parsons Brinckerhoff, Seoul 135-763 (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Jimin; Hong, Taehoon; Koo, Choongwan; Jeong, Kwangbok; Park, Hyo Seon [Department of Architectural Engineering, Yonsei University, Seoul 120-749 (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-09-15

    Climate change has become one of the most significant environmental issues, of which about 40% come from the building sector. In particular, complex building projects with various functions have increased, which should be managed from a program-level perspective. Therefore, this study aimed to develop a program-level management system for the life-cycle environmental and economic assessment of complex building projects. The developed system consists of three parts: (i) input part: database server and input data; (ii) analysis part: life cycle assessment and life cycle cost; and (iii) result part: microscopic analysis and macroscopic analysis. To analyze the applicability of the developed system, this study selected ‘U’ University, a complex building project consisting of research facility and residential facility. Through value engineering with experts, a total of 137 design alternatives were established. Based on these alternatives, the macroscopic analysis results were as follows: (i) at the program-level, the life-cycle environmental and economic cost in ‘U’ University were reduced by 6.22% and 2.11%, respectively; (ii) at the project-level, the life-cycle environmental and economic cost in research facility were reduced 6.01% and 1.87%, respectively; and those in residential facility, 12.01% and 3.83%, respective; and (iii) for the mechanical work at the work-type-level, the initial cost was increased 2.9%; but the operation and maintenance phase was reduced by 20.0%. As a result, the developed system can allow the facility managers to establish the operation and maintenance strategies for the environmental and economic aspects from a program-level perspective. - Highlights: • A program-level management system for complex building projects was developed. • Life-cycle environmental and economic assessment can be conducted using the system. • The design alternatives can be analyzed from the microscopic perspective. • The system can be used to

  8. Intravenous immunoglobulin prevents murine antibody-mediated acute lung injury at the level of neutrophil reactive oxygen species (ROS production.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John W Semple

    Full Text Available Transfusion-related acute lung injury (TRALI is a leading cause of transfusion-associated mortality that can occur with any type of transfusion and is thought to be primarily due to donor antibodies activating pulmonary neutrophils in recipients. Recently, a large prospective case controlled clinical study of cardiac surgery patients demonstrated that despite implementation of male donors, a high incidence of TRALI still occurred and suggested a need for additional interventions in susceptible patient populations. To examine if intravenous immunoglobulin (IVIg may be effective, a murine model of antibody-mediated acute lung injury that approximates human TRALI was examined. When BALB/c mice were injected with the anti-major histocompatibility complex class I antibody 34-1-2s, mild shock (reduced rectal temperature and respiratory distress (dyspnea were observed and pre-treatment of the mice with 2 g/kg IVIg completely prevented these symptoms. To determine IVIg's usefulness to affect severe lung damage, SCID mice, previously shown to be hypersensitive to 34-1-2s were used. SCID mice treated with 34-1-2s underwent severe shock, lung damage (increased wet/dry ratios and 40% mortality within 2 hours. Treatment with 2 g/kg IVIg 18 hours before 34-1-2s administration completely protected the mice from all adverse events. Treatment with IVIg after symptoms began also reduced lung damage and mortality. While the prophylactic IVIg administration did not affect 34-1-2s-induced pulmonary neutrophil accumulation, bone marrow-derived neutrophils from the IVIg-treated mice displayed no spontaneous ROS production nor could they be stimulated in vitro with fMLP or 34-1-2s. These results suggest that IVIg prevents murine antibody-mediated acute lung injury at the level of neutrophil ROS production and thus, alleviating tissue damage.

  9. THE FUNCTIONING OF THE BOARDS OF NORMATIVISM: ECONOMIC AND LEGAL AT LOCAL AUTHORITY LEVEL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ADELIN UNGUREANU

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Public administration is an area with particularly social impact over all members of society. In the autonomous administrative authorities, local councils have important responsibilities in the organization of local community life. Within these councils several specialized committees operate and those that have the highest volume of activity are usually economic and legal committee. Their role is to filter out under a particular form, the specific procedure being the approval of local initiatives in the field of specific activity, namely economic and financial and legal. The effects of this operation need to be reflected in the adoption of decisions that meet not only the initiator's intentions, but also the point of view of local elected officials who are specialized in a particular area and reunited within the previous committees.

  10. The Effect of Community-Level Socio-Economic Conditions on Threatening Racial Encounters

    OpenAIRE

    Heather Antecol; Deborah A. Cobb-Clark

    2008-01-01

    This paper contributes to the emerging literature on racial and ethnic tension by analyzing the relationship between local socio-economic conditions and the propensity for outsiders to have threatening racial encounters with insiders. We use unique data for a sample of active-duty Army personnel that allow us to first, link personnel to the local communities in which they are located and second, to avoid any selectivity bias associated with endogenous community selection. We find at best mixe...

  11. Biological costs of economic transition: Stress levels during the transition from communism to capitalism in Poland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lipowicz, Anna; Szklarska, Alicja; Mitas, Andrzej W

    2016-05-01

    At the end of the 1980s, Poland began the transformation from an essentially one-party communist system to a politically pluralistic democratic system. These political and economic changes had major social consequences, among others unemployment and a sharp decrease in real personal income. The aim of the study was to investigate the possible relationship between stress in adult men, measured by the Allostatic Load, and the socio-economic deterioration during the first part of the economic transition. The Allostatic Load included eleven markers assessing adverse nutritional intake, cardiovascular activity, inflammatory processes, and lung, hepatic and renal functions. The results indicate a significantly higher risk of metabolic dysregulation in men examined after 1990, compared to men from previous years. After adjustment for socioeconomic variables and lifestyle variables, men examined in 1991 had a 31% greater risk of higher Allostatic Load compared with men examined in 1985 (OR=1.31; p=0.0541), in 1992, this risk was 50% greater (OR=1.50; p<0.01), and in 1993, the risk was 66% greater (OR=1.66; p<0.05). The conclusion is drawn that significantly more stressogenic factors for men were those directly connected with the financial situation of their families, than a sudden but short increase of prices for goods and services. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. The household-level economic burden of heart disease in India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karan, Anup; Engelgau, Michael; Mahal, Ajay

    2014-05-01

    To estimate healthcare use and financial burden associated with heart disease among Indian households. Data from the 2004 round household survey of the National Sample Survey in India were used to assess the implications of heart disease for out-of-pocket health spending, spending on items other than health care, employment and healthcare financing patterns, by matching households with a member self-reporting heart disease (cardiovascular disease (CVD)-affected households) to (control) households with similar socio-economic and demographic characteristics. Propensity score matching methods were used. Compared with control households, CVD-affected households had more outpatient visits and inpatient stays, spent an extra INT$ (International Dollars) 232 (P expenditure that was 16.5% higher (P < 0.01) and relied more on borrowing and asset sales to finance inpatient care (32.7% vs. 12.8%, P < 0.01). Members of CVD-affected households had lower employment rates than members of control households (43.6% vs. 46.4%, P < 0.01), and elderly members experienced larger declines in employment than younger adults. CVD-affected households with lower socio-economic status were at heightened financial risk. Non-communicable conditions such as CVD can impose a serious economic burden on Indian households. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  13. Effects of level and degree of spinal cord injury on male orgasm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sipski, M; Alexander, C J; Gómez-Marín, O

    2006-12-01

    Controlled, laboratory-based analysis. To determine the impact of spinal cord injuries (SCIs) on the ability to achieve male orgasm. US academic medical center. A laboratory-based analysis of the ability of 45 men with SCIs and 16 able-bodied control subjects to achieve orgasm coupled with a detailed neurologic examination, history and physical examination, and administration of the International Index of Erectile Function. Men with SCIs were less likely than controls to achieve orgasm. Mean latency to orgasm, blood pressure and heart rates at orgasm were not significantly different between controls and SCI subjects. Men with incomplete SCIs were more likely to achieve orgasm than those with complete SCIs. A disconnect was noted between the presence of orgasm and the presence of ejaculation. Men with complete lower motor neuron dysfunction affecting their sacral segments were less likely to achieve orgasm than men with any other patterns of SCI. These results document the ability of men with complete SCIs to achieve orgasm. Characteristics of orgasm in men with SCIs as compared to able-bodied subjects are similar. Although orgasm and ejaculation are more likely to occur together, a number of men with SCIs achieve orgasm without ejaculation. Further research should explore the possibility of retraining ejaculatory and orgasmic responses in men with SCIs.

  14. Economic evaluations of ergonomic interventions preventing work-related musculoskeletal disorders: a systematic review of organizational-level interventions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sultan-Taïeb, Hélène; Parent-Lamarche, Annick; Gaillard, Aurélie; Stock, Susan; Nicolakakis, Nektaria; Hong, Quan Nha; Vezina, Michel; Coulibaly, Youssouph; Vézina, Nicole; Berthelette, Diane

    2017-12-08

    Work-related musculoskeletal disorders (WMSD) represent a major public health problem and economic burden to employers, workers and health insurance systems. This systematic review had two objectives: (1) to analyze the cost-benefit results of organizational-level ergonomic workplace-based interventions aimed at preventing WMSD, (2) to explore factors related to the implementation process of these interventions (obstacles and facilitating factors) in order to identify whether economic results may be due to a successful or unsuccessful implementation. Systematic review. Studies were searched in eight electronic databases and in reference lists of included studies. Companion papers were identified through backward and forward citation tracking. A quality assessment tool was developed following guidelines available in the literature. An integration of quantitative economic results and qualitative implementation data was conducted following an explanatory sequential design. Out of 189 records, nine studies met selection criteria and were included in our review. Out of nine included studies, grouped into four types of interventions, seven yielded positive economic results, one produced a negative result and one mixed results (negative cost-effectiveness and positive net benefit). However, the level of evidence was limited for the four types of interventions given the quality and the limited number of studies identified. Our review shows that among the nine included studies, negative and mixed economic results were observed when the dose delivered and received by participants was low, when the support from top and/or middle management was limited either due to limited participation of supervisors in training sessions or a lack of financial resources and when adequacy of intervention to workers' needs was low. In studies where economic results were positive, implementation data showed strong support from supervisors and a high rate of employee participation. Studies

  15. Readmission after treatment of Grade 3 and 4 renal injuries at a Level I trauma center: Statewide assessment using the Comprehensive Hospital Abstract Reporting System.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winters, Brian; Wessells, Hunter; Voelzke, Bryan B

    2016-03-01

    One criticism of the existing renal trauma research is the limited outpatient follow-up after index hospitalization. We assessed readmission rates following treatment for American Association for the Surgery of Trauma (AAST) Grade 3 and 4 renal injury using the Comprehensive Hospital Abstract Reporting System (CHARS). We evaluated all patients with AAST Grade 3 and 4 renal injuries admitted to Harborview Medical Center (HMC) between 1998 and 2010, the only Level 1 trauma center in Washington state. Grade 4 renal injuries were stratified by collecting system laceration (CSL) or segmental vascular injury. Data were abstracted from the CHARS database for readmissions to any Washington state hospital within 6 months of renal injury. Clinical variables, diagnoses, and procedures were queried based on DRG International Classification of Diseases-9th Rev. codes. A total of 477 Grade 3 and 159 Grade 4 renal injuries were initially treated at HMC. On admission, 111 patients required intervention: 75 (16%) of 477 Grade 3 and 36 (23%) of 159 Grade 4 injuries. Within 6 months of index hospitalization, 86 (18%) of 477 Grade 3 and 38 (24%) of 159 Grade 4 patients were readmitted to any Washington state hospital. Eighty percent of Grade 3 injuries and 66% of Grade 4 injuries returned to HMC compared with secondary hospitals (p = 0.08). At readmission, 19 (22%) of 86 Grade 3 and 16 (42%) of 38 Grade 4 injuries had a urologic diagnosis. Subsequent procedural intervention was required on readmission in 6 (7%) of 86 Grade 3 and 5 (13%) of 38 Grade 4 renal injuries (all CSL injuries). A subset of patients treated for Grade 3 and 4 renal trauma will be readmitted for further management. While urologic diagnoses and additional procedures may be low overall, readmission to outside hospitals may preclude accurate determination of renal trauma outcomes. Based on these data, patients with Grade 4 CSL injuries seem to be at the highest risk for readmission and to require a subsequent

  16. Bed wise cost analysis of in-patient treatment of brachial plexus injury at a Level I trauma Center in India

    OpenAIRE

    Pandey, Nityanand; Gupta, Deepak; Mahapatra, Ashok; Harshvardhan, Rajesh

    2014-01-01

    Aim: The aim was to calculate, in monetary terms, total cost incurred by a Level I trauma center in providing in-patient care to brachial plexus injury patients during their preoperative and the postoperative stay. Subjects and Methods: All patients of brachial plexus injury admitted and discharged between January and December 2010 were included in the study. Total cost per bed was calculated under several cost heads in pre- and post-operative ward care. Intra-operative costs were excluded. R...

  17. The Prognostic Value of Soluble Intercellular Adhesion Molecule 1 Plasma Level in Children With Acute Lung Injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Biltagi, Mohammed A; Abo-Elezz, Ahmed Ahmed Abd ElBasset; Abu-Ela, Khaled Talaat; Suliman, Ghada Abudelmomen; Sultan, Tamer Gomaa Hassan

    2017-06-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the prognostic significance of soluble intercellular adhesion molecule 1 (sICAM-1) measurement in plasma for the prediction of outcome of acute lung injury (ALI) in children that may allow early recognition of critical cases. The study was performed as a prospective, controlled cohort study involving 40 children with ALI and 30 healthy children. The plasma level of sICAM-1 was measured at days 1 and 3 of development of ALI for the patient group and measured only once for the control group. C-Reactive protein was measured in both groups on day 1 only. There was significant increase in sICAM-1 in the patient group than in the control group ( P = .001*). The mortality rate reached 55% in children with ALI. The ceased group had significantly higher plasma sICAM-1 levels both at days 1 and 3 than the survived group ( P < .001*), and there was positive correlation between plasma sICAM-1 level and both duration of mechanical ventilation and the death rate, but more significant correlation was observed with plasma sICAM-1 levels at day 3 than day 1. Plasma sICAM-1 level served as a good predictor biomarker for both mechanical ventilation duration and the mortality risk in children with ALI.

  18. New Indicators of the Level of Social Dissatisfaction in the Planning of Social-Economic Development of the Region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michel Yurevich Dolomatov

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available The article is devoted to the urgent problem related to the development of the region, namely, the creation of tools for the assessment of the level of social dissatisfaction in the region. The assessment of the level of social dissatisfaction is one of the most important tasks of state organizations in political and social spheres. The article considers the concept of "social dissatisfaction" and associated terms, it substantiates the author's position on the content of this notion. The authors have investigated the existing national and international approaches to the assessing of social tensions of the population. The system of socio-economic development indicators doesn’t contain indicators allowing to assess the level of social dissatisfaction without the results of public polls. We propose two models in the article. In the first model, the assessment is basedon the single factor (the index of social dissatisfaction based on income differentiation. The second complex model takes into account a number of factors (the index of social dissatisfaction based on complex assessment. For the calculation of the proposed indicators, the authors use the statistical data of the Federal State Statistics Service. The methodological research tools include the mathematical methods of statistical data processing. We have evaluated the methodological tools on the example of the Republic of Ingushetia. The assessment has showed the dynamics of a decline in the level of social-economic dissatisfaction in the region (1995–2011. The models of social dissatisfaction constitute a tool for rapid and up-to-date assessment of socio-economic system sustainability, and of the willingness of the population to participate in protests. The application of the results of this study is the support of decision-making regions and state structures in working out plans of the socio-economic development of the regions.

  19. From which level of competition in clubs are adolescents at greater risk of injury compared with outside-of-clubs athletes? A school-based study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luiggi, Maxime; Rindler, Victoria; Griffet, Jean

    2018-02-01

    Sport practice is a key factor in a person's physical and mental health but, for adolescent athletes, some injuries lead to health problems in the long term. The literature provides multiple factors for understanding injury but does not give information about injury risk related to each level of play in a large sample of multisport athletes. This study investigates this relationship in 14- to 19-year-old adolescents. The survey on adolescents and health was conducted in classrooms of France, from February to March 2015. Only sports players were included in the analyses (n = 986). The levels of play were divided into five categories: outside of a club/no competition, club player/no competition, club player/local level, club player/state level and club player/national and higher level. A three-step binary logistic regression analysis with age, sex, type of sport, weekly hours of exposure, and level of play was used. During the past year, 48.1% of the adolescents were injured. Age and sex were not risk factors. The injury risk associated with the increases in level of play is higher than those related to the hours of exposure per week or the type of sport. In clubs, adolescents who do not compete or play at a local level showed no evidence of greater injury risk whereas state-level and national- and higher-level athletes were at greater risk than outside-of-club players (OR = 2.18, 95%CI = 1.13-3.94 and OR = 3.89, 95%CI = 2.07-7.31, respectively). Adolescents who play sports in clubs are clearly more exposed to injury than those who play outside of a club, mainly from state level. Age and sex are not related to injury. Future epidemiological studies should control adolescents' level of play. Special attention should be accorded to the injury risk of athletes playing at these levels of competition.

  20. Investigations of Tissue-Level Mechanisms of Primary Blast Injury Through Modeling, Simulation, Neuroimaging and Neuropathological Studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-07-10

    2007;25(1):97-98. [19] Stewart C. Blast Injuries. Colorado Springs: USAF Academy Hospital; 2006. 88 p. [20] Cernak I, Wang Z, Jiang J, Bian X, Savic J...Wang Z, Jiang J, Bian X, Savic J. Ultrastructural and Functional Characteristics of Blast Injury- Induced Neurotrauma. Journal of Trauma: Injury

  1. STRUCTURAL EFFECTS AND MUTATIONS CAUSED BY THE ECONOMIC CRISIS ON FURNITURE TRADE AT THE EUROPEAN UNION LEVEL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Radu Marginean

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available he global economic crisis had most negative effects on the entire economic sphere and especially in what the consuming industry is concerned, which may be considered “luxurious”, the way in which we may talk about the furniture industry. Along times of economic crisis at social level, a decrease in financial power at microeconomic, individual level is felt. Under conditions of social decrease in buying capacity, the request for commercial furniture is in rapid fall and thus the industry as such suffers serious structural mutations. Analyzing a series of macroeconomic indices from the European furniture industry led to the result that during the late years there has been a positive trend within the furniture industry in matters of production, however, with concern to trading, the situation is more complicated. There is a behaviour difference in the furniture industry between emergent countries and EU developed states and based on the performed analysis, a SWOT analysis at sectorial level crystallized, in which we propose ways of growth in the European furniture industry.

  2. Exoskeleton Training May Improve Level of Physical Activity After Spinal Cord Injury: A Case Series

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wade, Rodney; Sumrell, Ryan; Villadelgado, Lynette; Khalil, Refka E.; Lavis, Timothy

    2017-01-01

    Objectives: To determine whether the use of a powered exoskeleton can improve parameters of physical activity as determined by walking time, stand up time, and number of steps in persons with spinal cord injury (SCI). Methods: Three men with complete (1 C5 AIS A and 2 T4 AIS A) and one man with incomplete (C5 AIS D) SCI participated in a clinical rehabilitation program. In the training program, the participants walked once weekly using a powered exoskeleton (Ekso) for approximately 1 hour over the course of 10 to 15 weeks. Walking time, stand up time, ratio of walking to stand up time, and number of steps were determined. Oxygen uptake (L/min), energy expenditure, and body composition were measured in one participant after training. Results: Over the course of 10 to 15 weeks, the maximum walking time increased from 12 to 57 minutes and the number of steps increased from 59 to 2,284 steps. At the end of the training, the 4 participants were able to exercise for 26 to 59 minutes. For one participant, oxygen uptake increased from 0.27 L/min during rest to 0.55 L/min during walking. Maximum walking speed was 0.24 m/s, and delta energy expenditure increased by 1.4 kcal/min during walking. Body composition showed a modest decrease in absolute fat mass in one participant. Conclusion: Exoskeleton training may improve parameters of physical activity after SCI by increasing the number of steps and walking time. Other benefits may include increasing energy expenditure and improving the profile of body composition. PMID:29339900

  3. Exoskeleton Training May Improve Level of Physical Activity After Spinal Cord Injury: A Case Series.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gorgey, Ashraf S; Wade, Rodney; Sumrell, Ryan; Villadelgado, Lynette; Khalil, Refka E; Lavis, Timothy

    2017-01-01

    Objectives: To determine whether the use of a powered exoskeleton can improve parameters of physical activity as determined by walking time, stand up time, and number of steps in persons with spinal cord injury (SCI). Methods: Three men with complete (1 C5 AIS A and 2 T4 AIS A) and one man with incomplete (C5 AIS D) SCI participated in a clinical rehabilitation program. In the training program, the participants walked once weekly using a powered exoskeleton (Ekso) for approximately 1 hour over the course of 10 to 15 weeks. Walking time, stand up time, ratio of walking to stand up time, and number of steps were determined. Oxygen uptake (L/min), energy expenditure, and body composition were measured in one participant after training. Results: Over the course of 10 to 15 weeks, the maximum walking time increased from 12 to 57 minutes and the number of steps increased from 59 to 2,284 steps. At the end of the training, the 4 participants were able to exercise for 26 to 59 minutes. For one participant, oxygen uptake increased from 0.27 L/min during rest to 0.55 L/min during walking. Maximum walking speed was 0.24 m/s, and delta energy expenditure increased by 1.4 kcal/min during walking. Body composition showed a modest decrease in absolute fat mass in one participant. Conclusion: Exoskeleton training may improve parameters of physical activity after SCI by increasing the number of steps and walking time. Other benefits may include increasing energy expenditure and improving the profile of body composition.

  4. Consistency and Variation in School-Level Youth Sports Traumatic Brain Injury Policy Content.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coxe, Kathryn; Hamilton, Kelsey; Harvey, Hosea H; Xiang, Joe; Ramirez, Marizen R; Yang, Jingzhen

    2018-03-01

    The purpose of the study was to examine the consistency and variation in content of high school written traumatic brain injury (TBI) policies in relation to the three key tenets of youth sports TBI laws. A content analysis was conducted on written TBI policies retrieved from 71 high schools currently participating in High School Reporting Information Online. Each policy was independently analyzed by two trained coders. The number and percent of the policies reflecting the three key tenets of state youth sports TBI laws were described and compared on policy enforcement (i.e., strictness of language), policy description (i.e., details and definitions of the requirements), and policy implementation steps (i.e., specific steps for implementing the requirements). Direct quotes were identified to support quantitative findings. All 71 high school TBI policies contained at least two of the three main TBI law tenets, where 98.6% (n = 70) included the return to play tenet, 83.1% (n = 59) included the removal from play tenet, and 59.2% (n = 42) specified the distribution of TBI information sheets to student-athletes and their parents. Nearly half of the policies (49.3%, n = 35) required parents' signature while only 39.4% (n = 28) required students' signature on the TBI information sheet. The language exhibited wide variance across the 71 TBI policies regarding policy enforcement, policy description, and policy implementation specifications. All 71 TBI policies covered at least two of the three youth sports TBI law tenets, but with considerable variation. Future research should assess variations by schools within the same state and their impact on TBI rates in school athletics. Copyright © 2017 Society for Adolescent Health and Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. The Feldstein-Horioka Hypothesis in Countries with Varied Levels of Economic Development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Piotr Misztal

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available This article aims to analyse the Feldstein-Horioka hypothesis, which suggests a strong correlation between investments and savings in advanced economies. Additionally, the analysis of the Feldstein- Horioka hypothesis was expanded to include emerging markets and developing economies in order to provide a thorough analysis of this issue.1 The paper utilises a research method based on bibliographic studies in macroeconomics and international finances as well as econometric methods (the vector autoregressive model - VAR. All statistical data used in the paper are taken from the statistical database of the International Monetary Fund (World Economic Outlook Database.

  6. Economic shocks, governance and violence: A subnational level analysis of Africa

    OpenAIRE

    Kibriya, Shahriar; Xu, Zhicheng P.; Zhang, Yu

    2015-01-01

    By using a geo-coded disaggregated dataset in sub-Saharan Africa over the period 1997–2013, we exploit year-to-year rainfall variation as an instrumental variable to estimate the causal effect of economic shocks on civil conflict conditional on governance quality. We confirm earlier findings that adverse rainfall shocks increase the likelihood of conflict in sub-Saharan Africa. We also investigate the role of governance quality on conflict in sub-Saharan Africa. The results underscore that im...

  7. The effect of erythropoietin on calcium levels during hypoxia reoxygenation injury in rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Constantinos Tsompos

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available This experimental study examined the effect of erythropoietin (Epo on rat model and particularly in a hypoxia-reoxygenation protocol. The effect of that molecule was studied biochemically using blood mean calcium levels (Ca++. Forty rats of mean weight 247.7 g were used in the study. Ca++ levels were measured at 60 min (groups A and C and at 120 min (groups B and D of reoxygenation. Erythropoietin was administered only in groups C and D. Epo administration non-significantly decreased the Ca++ levels by 0.56%±1.13% (P=0.5761. Reoxygenation time non-significantly increased the Ca++ levels by 0.65%±1.12% (P=0.5281. However, Epo administration and reoxygenation time together non-significantly decreased the Ca++ levels by 0.34%±0.68% (P=0.6095. Epo administration whether it interacted or not with reoxygenation time had non-significant decreasing short-term effects on calcium levels. Perhaps, a longer study time than 2 h or a higher Epo dose may reveal more significant effects.

  8. Economic analysis of second use electric vehicle batteries for residential energy storage and load-levelling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Heymans, Catherine; Walker, Sean B.; Young, Steven B.; Fowler, Michael

    2014-01-01

    The reuse of Li-ion EV batteries for energy storage systems (ESS) in stationary settings is a promising technology to support improved management of demand and supply of electricity. In this paper, MatLAB simulation of a residential energy profile and regulated cost structure is used to analyze the feasibility of and cost savings from repurposing an EV battery unit for peak-shifting. in situ residential energy storage can contribute to the implementation of a smart grid by supporting the reduction of demand during typical peak use periods. Use of an ESS increases household energy use but potentially improves economic effectiveness and reduces greenhouse gas emissions. The research supports the use of financial incentives for Li-ion battery reuse in ESS, including lower energy rates and reduced auxiliary fees. - Highlights: • EV Li-ion batteries can be reused in stationary energy storage systems (ESS). • A single ESS can shift 2 to 3 h of electricity used in a house. • While energy use increases, potential economic and environmental effectiveness improve. • ESS supports smart grid objectives. • Incentives like reduced fees are needed to encourage implementation of Li-ion battery ESS

  9. Protocol for an economic evaluation alongside University Health Network Whiplash Intervention Trial: Cost-effectiveness of education and activation, a rehabilitation program, and the legislated standard of care for acute whiplash injury in Ontario

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van de Velde, G.; Cote, P.; Bayoumi, A.M.; Cassidy, J.D.; Boyle, E.; Shearer, H.M.; Stupar, M.; Jacobs, C.; Ammendolia, C.; Carette, S.; van Tulder, M.W.

    2011-01-01

    Background: Whiplash injury affects 83% of persons in a traffic collision and leads to whiplash-associated disorders (WAD). A major challenge facing health care decision makers is identifying cost-effective interventions due to lack of economic evidence. Our objective is to compare the

  10. Clinically Relevant Levels of 4-Aminopyridine Strengthen Physiological Responses in Intact Motor Circuits in Rats, Especially After Pyramidal Tract Injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sindhurakar, Anil; Mishra, Asht M; Gupta, Disha; Iaci, Jennifer F; Parry, Tom J; Carmel, Jason B

    2017-04-01

    4-Aminopyridine (4-AP) is a Food and Drug Administration-approved drug to improve motor function in people with multiple sclerosis. Preliminary results suggest the drug may act on intact neural circuits and not just on demyelinated ones. To determine if 4-AP at clinically relevant levels alters the excitability of intact motor circuits. In anesthetized rats, electrodes were placed over motor cortex and the dorsal cervical spinal cord for electrical stimulation, and electromyogram electrodes were inserted into biceps muscle to measure responses. The motor responses to brain and spinal cord stimulation were measured before and for 5 hours after 4-AP administration both in uninjured rats and rats with a cut lesion of the pyramidal tract. Blood was collected at the same time as electrophysiology to determine drug plasma concentration with a goal of 20 to 100 ng/mL. We first determined that a bolus infusion of 0.32 mg/kg 4-AP was optimal: it produced on average 61.5 ± 1.8 ng/mL over the 5 hours after infusion. This dose of 4-AP increased responses to spinal cord stimulation by 1.3-fold in uninjured rats and 3-fold in rats with pyramidal tract lesion. Responses to cortical stimulation also increased by 2-fold in uninjured rats and up to 4-fold in the injured. Clinically relevant levels of 4-AP strongly augment physiological responses in intact circuits, an effect that was more robust after partial injury, demonstrating its broad potential in treating central nervous system injuries.

  11. The NLstart2run study: Economic burden of running-related injuries in novice runners participating in a novice running program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hespanhol Junior, Luiz C; Huisstede, Bionka M A; Smits, Dirk-Wouter; Kluitenberg, Bas; van der Worp, Henk; van Middelkoop, Marienke; Hartgens, Fred; Verhagen, Evert

    2016-10-01

    To investigate the economic burden of running-related injuries (RRI) occurred during the 6-week 'Start-to-Run' program of the Dutch Athletics Federation in 2013. Prospective cohort study. This was a monetary cost analysis using the data prospectively gathered alongside the RRI registration in the NLstart2run study. RRI data were collected weekly. Cost diaries were applied two and six weeks after the RRI registration to collect data regarding healthcare utilisation (direct costs) and absenteeism from paid and unpaid work (indirect costs). RRI was defined as running-related pain that hampered running ability for three consecutive training sessions. From the 1696 participants included in the analysis, 185 reported a total of 272 RRIs. A total of 26.1% of the cost data (71 RRIs reported by 50 participants) were missing. Therefore, a multiple imputation procedure was performed. The economic burden (direct plus indirect costs) of RRIs was estimated at €83.22 (95% CI €50.42-€116.02) per RRI, and €13.35 (95% CI €7.07-€19.63) per participant. The direct cost per RRI was €56.93 (95% CI €42.05-€71.81) and the indirect cost per RRI was €26.29 (95% CI €0.00-€54.79). The indirect cost was higher for sudden onset RRIs than for gradual onset RRIs, with a mean difference of €33.92 (95% CI €17.96-€49.87). Direct costs of RRIs were 2-fold higher than the indirect costs, and sudden onset RRIs presented higher costs than gradual onset RRIs. The results of this study are important to provide information to public health agencies and policymakers about the economic burden of RRIs in novice runners. Copyright © 2015 Sports Medicine Australia. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Economic evaluation of safetyengineered devices and training in reducing needlestick injuries among healthcare workers in South Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P de Jager

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available Background. Healthcare workers (HCWs are at increased risk of contracting various communicable diseases. Needlestick injuries (NSIs are a common mechanism of exposure. Training in basic universal precautions and utilisation of safety-engineered devices (SEDs are interventions known to reduce the risk of NSI.Objectives. To assess the cost-utility of SEDs v. a training programme in universal precautions (TP v. a combination strategy to reduce NSIs among South African HCWs.Methods. A Markov model comparing SEDs v. a TP v. a combination strategy against current practice was developed. A hypothetical cohort of HCWs working in the SA public sector was followed from a payer’s perspective for a period of 45 years, and discounted costs and benefits were assessed. Data were obtained from the National Department of Health, suppliers and published literature. One-way and probabilistic sensitivity analysis was conducted.Results. Over the study time horizon, our model estimated that 2 209, 3 314 and 4 349 needlestick injuries per 1 000 HCWs could be prevented if a TP, SEDs or a combination strategy, respectively, was adopted compared with current practice. All three candidate interventions were cost-effective at a willingness to pay (WTP of one times the gross domestic product per capita (USD6 483.90/quality-adjusted life-year (QUALY gained. SEDs as a stand-alone intervention was dominated by a combination strategy. Compared with current practice, the incremental cost-effectiveness of training was USD32.90/QALY v. USD432.32/QALY for SEDs and USD377.08/QALY for a combination strategy. Results were sensitive to the effectiveness of the interventions. Probabilistic sensitivity analysis showed that at a WTP of USD6 483.90/QALY gained, a combination strategy would be cost-effective 95.4% of the time.Conclusions. A combination strategy in which both SEDs and a TP are adopted is preferred. 

  13. Economic impacts of climate change: Methods of estimating impacts at an aggregate level using Hordaland as an illustration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aaheim, Asbjoern

    2003-01-01

    This report discusses methods for calculating economic impacts of climate change, and uses Hordaland county in Norway as an illustrative example. The calculations are based on estimated climate changes from the RegClim project. This study draws from knowledge of the relationship between economic activity and climate at a disaggregate level and calculates changes in production of and demand for goods and services within aggregate sectors, which are specified in the county budget for Hordaland. Total impacts for the county thus are expressed through known values from the national budget, such as the county's ''national product'', total consumption, and investments. The estimates of impacts of climate changes at a disaggregate level in Hordaland are quantified only to small degree. The calculations made in this report can thus only be considered appropriate for illustrating methods and interpretations. In terms of relative economic significance for the county, however, it is likely that the hydropower sector will be the most affected. Increased precipitation will result in greater production potential, but profitability will largely depend on projected energy prices and investment costs associated with expansion. Agriculture and forestry will increase their production potential, but they are relatively small sectors in the county. Compared with the uncertainty about how climate change will affect production, however, the uncertainty about changes in demand is far greater. The demand for personal transportation and construction in particular can have significant consequences for the county's economy. (author)

  14. Economic and technical advantages of high temperature processes in high level radioactive waste management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jouan, A.; Jacquet-Francillon, N.; Cler, M.

    1991-01-01

    The estimated waste management costs incurred for the three principal waste forms produced by reprocessing spent fuel are compared from a theoretical economic standpoint. The cost of vitrifying concentrated fission product solutions is considered first, together with the estimated additional costs of transportation and final storage in a geological repository. Fuel cladding waste treatments are then examined by comparing the relative costs of cementation, compaction and melting; processes for disposal of incinerable alpha-bearing wastes are also considered. In each case, the processes ensuring the greatest waste volume reduction not only result in the lowest management cost, but are also most effective in ensuring the highest possible containment quality for the final waste package

  15. Economic energy distribution and consumption in a microgrid Part1: Cell level controller

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tahersima, Fatemeh; Andersen, Palle; Madsen, Per Printz

    2013-01-01

    We have investigated energy management of a small scale electrical microgrid comprised of local renewable generation, consumption and storage units. The microgrid has the possibility of connection to the electricity grid as well to compensate for energy deficit. The objective is to fulfill...... microgrid's energy demands from the local electricity producers as much as possible. The other objective is to manage the consumption such that consumption costs are minimum for all households. To fulfill the objectives, as the first step of designing a hierarchical controller, we focused on designing...... an energy and cost minimizing controller for one building. To this aim, a model predictive controller is formulated to schedule the building's energy consumption using potential load flexibility. Simulation results show the economically optimal energy consumption of one building based on the defined load...

  16. Cigarette pack labelling in 12 countries at different levels of economic development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mir, Hassan; Buchanan, Daniel; Gilmore, Anna; McKee, Martin; Yusuf, Salim; Chow, Clara K

    2011-05-01

    With increasing restrictions on cigarette marketing, the cigarette pack itself has become a main means of marketing. We describe a method to examine cigarette labelling and use it to evaluate packs collected from 12 countries at different stages of economic development. Health warnings were present on all 115 packs of cigarettes examined, but were on the front and back panels of only 68 per cent. Promotional labels were widespread, found on packs from all countries and more numerous (although not necessarily larger) than health warning labels in 10 of the 12 countries. Deceptive terms such as 'light' and 'mild' were observed on 42 per cent of all packs examined. The simple method described here can be used to compare cigarette labelling and potentially evaluate and track the implementation of cigarette labelling policy. We found health warning legislation poorly enforced and cigarette packs widely used to promote smoking and deceive smokers about health risks. The findings underline the need for generic (plain) packaging.

  17. Economic and technical advantages of high-temperature processes in high-level radioactive waste management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jouan, A.; Jacquet-Francillon, N.; Cler, M.; Chaudon, L.

    1991-01-01

    The estimated waste management costs incurred for the three principal waste forms produced by reprocessing spent fuel are compared from a theoretical economic standpoint. The cost of vitrifying concentrated fission product solutions is considered first, together with the estimated additional costs of transportation and final storage in a geological repository. Fuel cladding waste treatments are then examined by comparing the relative costs of cementation, compaction and melting; processes for disposal of incinerable alpha-bearing wastes are also considered. In each case, the processes ensuring the greatest waste volume reduction not only result in the lowest management cost, but are also most effective in ensuring the highest possible containment quality for the final waste package

  18. The Effect of Erythropoietin on Testosterone Levels During Ischemia Reperfusion Injury in Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tsompos C.

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Objective: This experimental study examined the effect of erythropoietin (Epo in a rat model and particularly in an adrenal ischemia-reperfusion (IR protocol. The effect of that molecule was studied biochemically using blood mean testosterone levels (T.

  19. Serum level of substance P in patients with lung injuries due to sulfur mustard

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bita Najafian

    2014-01-01

    Conclusion: The SP may have a role in pulmonary complications of mustard gas. The lower level of SP in the moderate to severe patients may be due to corticosteroid consumption in such severe cases. However, further studies are needed to clarify the roles and mechanism of SP in this setting.

  20. A new proxy measure for state-level gun ownership in studies of firearm injury prevention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siegel, Michael; Ross, Craig S; King, Charles

    2014-06-01

    Since many states are considering gun control laws, researchers need reliable data on rates of gun ownership at the state level. Survey measures of gun ownership in all 50 states, however, are only available for 3 years, and no state-level data have been collected since 2004. Consequently, the National Research Council has declared the development of a valid proxy that can be constructed from accessible, annual, state-level data to be a priority. While such a proxy does exist (the proportion of suicides in a state committed using a gun (FS/S), its correlation with state estimates of gun ownership in recent years is only 0.80. Using state-level data for the years 2001, 2002 and 2004, we developed an improved proxy for state-level gun ownership that uses FS/S (firearm suicides divided by all suicides) and also the per capita number of hunting licenses. We validated this measure using data from surveys of gun ownership conducted in 48 states during 1996 and 1999, and in 21 states during 1995-1998. Adding per capita hunting licenses to the proxy increased its correlation with survey-measured gun ownership from 0.80 to 0.95. The correlations of the new proxy with gun ownership in the two validation studies were 0.95 and 0.97. We conclude that the combination of FS/S and per capita hunting licenses improves substantially upon FS/S alone. This new proxy is easily computed from data that are available annually by state and may be useful for investigating the effect of gun prevalence on firearm-related morbidity and mortality. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://group.bmj.com/group/rights-licensing/permissions.

  1. Protocol for an economic evaluation alongside the University Health Network Whiplash Intervention Trial: cost-effectiveness of education and activation, a rehabilitation program, and the legislated standard of care for acute whiplash injury in Ontario

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-01

    Background Whiplash injury affects 83% of persons in a traffic collision and leads to whiplash-associated disorders (WAD). A major challenge facing health care decision makers is identifying cost-effective interventions due to lack of economic evidence. Our objective is to compare the cost-effectiveness of: 1) physician-based education and activation, 2) a rehabilitation program developed by Aviva Canada (a group of property and casualty insurance providers), and 3) the legislated standard of care in the Canadian province of Ontario: the Pre-approved Framework Guideline for Whiplash developed by the Financial Services Commission of Ontario. Methods/Design The economic evaluation will use participant-level data from the University Health Network Whiplash Intervention Trial and will be conducted from the societal perspective over the trial's one-year follow-up. Resource use (costs) will include all health care goods and services, and benefits provided during the trial's 1-year follow-up. The primary health effect will be the quality-adjusted life year. We will identify the most cost-effective intervention using the incremental cost-effectiveness ratio and incremental net-benefit. Confidence ellipses and cost-effectiveness acceptability curves will represent uncertainty around these statistics, respectively. A budget impact analysis will assess the total annual impact of replacing the current legislated standard of care with each of the other interventions. An expected value of perfect information will determine the maximum research expenditure Canadian society should be willing to pay for, and inform priority setting in, research of WAD management. Discussion Results will provide health care decision makers with much needed economic evidence on common interventions for acute whiplash management. Trial Registration http://ClinicalTrials.gov identifier NCT00546806 [Trial registry date: October 18, 2007; Date first patient was randomized: February 27, 2008] PMID

  2. Protocol for an economic evaluation alongside the University Health Network Whiplash Intervention Trial: cost-effectiveness of education and activation, a rehabilitation program, and the legislated standard of care for acute whiplash injury in Ontario

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    van der Velde Gabrielle

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Whiplash injury affects 83% of persons in a traffic collision and leads to whiplash-associated disorders (WAD. A major challenge facing health care decision makers is identifying cost-effective interventions due to lack of economic evidence. Our objective is to compare the cost-effectiveness of: 1 physician-based education and activation, 2 a rehabilitation program developed by Aviva Canada (a group of property and casualty insurance providers, and 3 the legislated standard of care in the Canadian province of Ontario: the Pre-approved Framework Guideline for Whiplash developed by the Financial Services Commission of Ontario. Methods/Design The economic evaluation will use participant-level data from the University Health Network Whiplash Intervention Trial and will be conducted from the societal perspective over the trial's one-year follow-up. Resource use (costs will include all health care goods and services, and benefits provided during the trial's 1-year follow-up. The primary health effect will be the quality-adjusted life year. We will identify the most cost-effective intervention using the incremental cost-effectiveness ratio and incremental net-benefit. Confidence ellipses and cost-effectiveness acceptability curves will represent uncertainty around these statistics, respectively. A budget impact analysis will assess the total annual impact of replacing the current legislated standard of care with each of the other interventions. An expected value of perfect information will determine the maximum research expenditure Canadian society should be willing to pay for, and inform priority setting in, research of WAD management. Discussion Results will provide health care decision makers with much needed economic evidence on common interventions for acute whiplash management. Trial Registration http://ClinicalTrials.gov identifier NCT00546806 [Trial registry date: October 18, 2007; Date first patient was randomized: February

  3. Indicators of Educational Development in Latin America and its Impact on the Economic Levels of the Population

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Muñoz Izquierdo

    2000-11-01

    Full Text Available Based on the information published by the Economic Commission for Latin America (CEPAL, the authors have followed the growth of the region’s educational systems, mainly during the last decades of the 20th century. The patterns of distribution of educational opportunities among the various economic levels and sexes have also been examined. On the other hand, they have analyzed some impact indicators related to the expansion of educational opportunities within the working fields where graduates of those school systems are, and indicators of the probability of those individuals earning higher wages than those considered as the minimum in many countries to outdo poverty. Finally, some obstacles which have hindered the equal distribution of education have been identified, and some political features necessary to overcome them have been sketched.

  4. The importance of counting cows: Social and economic effects of a high-level nuclear waste repository in Texas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fleishman, J.; Brody, J.; Galavotti, C.

    1987-01-01

    Impact assessments that rely on existing records and extrapolation from broad geographic areas provide inadequate information about social and economic conditions important in siting a high-level nuclear waste repository. Texas has used an alternative approach, involving systematic surveys of representative samples of local residents, farm operators and businesses in the proposed site counties and comparison areas. Results show that this technique is useful in describing current economic conditions, including characteristics of key sectors of the economy, changes related to the siting process, and expectations that may influence investment. In addition, the surveys are useful in assessing the degree of consensus in local communities and in identifying possible differential effects of a repository on particular groups. They also provide a baseline for long-term monitoring of repository effects and contribute to their understanding of the underlying processes that shape public response to the nuclear waste program

  5. Evaluating ESWL-induced renal injury based on urinary TNF-α, IL-1α, and IL-6 levels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goktas, Cemal; Coskun, Abdurrahman; Bicik, Zerrin; Horuz, Rahim; Unsal, Ibrahim; Serteser, Mustafa; Albayrak, Selami; Sarıca, Kemal

    2012-10-01

    Extracorporeal shockwave lithotripsy (ESWL) has dramatically changed the treatment of urinary lithiasis and has been the first treatment option for the majority of patients for more than two decades. Despite its significant benefits, it induces acute renal injury that extends from the papilla to the outer cortex. We evaluated the severity of the inflammatory response to ESWL by measuring the urinary excretion of the cytokines TNF-α, IL-1α, and IL-6. The study included 21 selected patients and 14 control subjects. All patients underwent the same ESWL procedure (2,500 shockwaves at 100 shockwaves/min and 0.039 J from the lithotripter). Urine TNF-α, IL-1α, and IL-6 levels were measured using standard ELISA kits. In the study population (patients and controls), we did not detect TNF-α in the urine samples. The levels of both IL-1α (2.5 pg/ml) and IL-6 (3.8 pg/ml) measured before ESWL were not significantly different from the control group (2.5 and 5.2 pg/ml, respectively; p > 0.05). Twenty-four hours after ESWL, in contrast to IL-1α (4 pg/ml), urine IL-6 (19.7 pg/ml) increased significantly (p ESWL, IL-1α increased to 5 pg/ml, while IL-6 (7 pg/ml) decreased to the control level. Urine cytokine levels may be used to evaluate the inflammatory response to ESWL. After ESWL, IL-6 levels increased in the early phase, while IL-1α levels increased later. These two markers may be used to measure the severity of inflammation. In contrast to IL-1α and IL-6, urine TNF-α excretion was not increased by ESWL. We believe that the inflammatory response to ESWL can be detected by the urinary excretion of IL-1α for up to 14 days.

  6. Strategies for Mitigating the Reduction in Economic Value of Variable Generation with Increasing Penetration Levels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mills, Andrew; Wiser, Ryan

    2014-03-03

    In this report, we evaluate individual options that have the potential to stem the decline in the marginal value of variable generation (VG) with increasing penetration levels. We focus only on the effectiveness of mitigation measures for wind and PV.

  7. Technical and economic evaluation of voltage level in transmission network expansion planning using GA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jalilzadeh, S.; Kazemi, A.; Shayeghi, H.; Madavi, M.

    2008-01-01

    Transmission network expansion planning is an important part of power system planning. Its task is to determine an optimal network configuration according to load growth. It determines where, when and how many new transmission lines should be installed. Up to now, various methods have been presented to solve the static transmission network expansion planning (STNEP) problem, but in all of these methods, the STNEP problem has been solved regardless of voltage level of the lines. In this paper, due to different voltage levels in the transmission network, which cause different annual losses, STNEP has been studied considering the voltage level of the transmission lines and the network loss using the genetic algorithm (GA). Finally, the proposed idea has been examined on Garvers 6 bus network. The results show that considering the loss in a network with different voltage levels decreases the operational costs considerably, and the network satisfies the requirement of delivering electric power more safely and reliably to load centers

  8. Assessment of Elementary School Teachers’ Level of Knowledge and Attitude regarding Traumatic Dental Injuries in the United Arab Emirates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manal A. Awad

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. In this cross-sectional study, the level of knowledge and attitude of elementary school teachers regarding traumatic dental injuries (TDI were assessed. Materials and Methods. A questionnaire was distributed to 330 elementary school teachers in 30 randomly selected schools in the Emirates of Sharjah and Dubai. The questionnaire collected information on participants’ demographic characteristics, first aid training, and attitude about emergency management of TDI. Results. 292 teachers (88% completed the questionnaires; of these, 95% were females, and 50% of the participants had first aid training. Knowledge about tooth avulsion was inadequate, and first aid training was not associated with correct responses to management of avulsed teeth (p>0.05. A significantly higher percentage of younger teachers (p<0.05 expressed the need for future education on TDI management. A significantly higher percentage of participants who had an educational position (95% indicated that they did not have enough knowledge regarding TDI compared to physical education teachers (79% and administrators (87% (p<0.05. Conclusions. Elementary school teachers in the UAE have a low level of knowledge regarding the management of dental trauma. Educational programs that address TDI are needed and could improve the elementary school teachers’ level of knowledge in emergency management of TDI.

  9. Immediate pain relief effect of low level laser therapy for sports injuries: Randomized, double-blind placebo clinical trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takenori, A; Ikuhiro, M; Shogo, U; Hiroe, K; Junji, S; Yasutaka, T; Hiroya, K; Miki, N

    2016-12-01

    To determine the immediate pain relief effect of low-level laser therapy on sports injuries in athletes and degree of pain relief by the therapy. Double-blind, randomized, comparative clinical study. Participants were 32 college athletes with motion pain at a defined site. Participants were randomized into two groups in which the tested or placebo laser therapy was administered to determine pain intensity from painful action before and after laser irradiation, using the Modified Numerical Rating Scale. The post-therapeutic Modified Numerical Rating Scale score was subtracted from the pre-therapeutic Modified Numerical Rating Scale score to determine pain intensity difference, and the rate of pain intensity difference to pre-therapeutic Modified Numerical Rating Scale was calculated as pain relief rate. Low-level laser therapy was effective in 75% of the laser group, whereas it was not effective in the placebo group, indicating a significant difference in favor of the laser group (p<0.001). Pain relief rate was significantly higher in the laser group than in the placebo group (36.94% vs. 8.20%, respectively, p<0.001), with the difference in pain relief rate being 28.74%. Low-level laser therapy provided an immediate pain relief effect, reducing pain by 28.74%. It was effective for pain relief in 75% of participants. Copyright © 2016 Sports Medicine Australia. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Attenuated synovial fluid ghrelin levels are linked with cartilage damage, meniscus injury, and clinical symptoms in patients with knee anterior cruciate ligament deficiency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zou, Yu-Cong; Chen, Liang-Hua; Ye, Yong-Liang; Yang, Guang-Gang; Mao, Zheng; Liu, Dan-Dan; Chen, Jun-Qi; Chen, Jing-Jie; Liu, Gang

    2016-12-01

    The meniscus injury and post-traumatic knee osteoarthritis (PTOA) following anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) lesions often cause great burdens to patients. Ghrelin, a recently identified 28-amino-acid peptide, has been shown to inhibit inflammation and perform as a growth factor for chondrocyte. This study was aimed at investigating ghrelin concentration in synovial fluid and its association with the degree of meniscus injury, articular degeneration, and clinical severity in patients suffering from anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) deficiency. 61 ACL deficiency patients admitted to our hospital were drafted in the current study. The Noyes scale and Mankin scores were used to assess articular cartilage damage arthroscopically and histopathologically, respectively. The Lysholm scores and International Knee Documentation Committee (IKDC) subjective scores were utilized to evaluate the clinical severity. The radiological severity of meniscus injury was assessed by MR imaging. Serum and synovial fluid ghrelin levels were determined using enzyme linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). The cartilage degradation markers collagen type II C-telopeptide (CTX-II) and cartilage oligomeric matrix protein (COMP) in addition to inflammatory markers interleukin-6 (IL-6) and tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α) were also examined. Receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve was performed and the area under curve (AUC) was calculated to assess the diagnostic value of ghrelin levels for the prediction of the MRI grading for meniscus injury by comparing with other biomarkers. SF ghrelin levels were positively related to Lysholm and IKDC scores. PTOA patients with grade 3 showed significantly decreased levels of ghrelin in SF compared with those with grade 2. The ghrelin levels in SF were negatively related to MRI signal grades for meniscus injury. SF ghrelin levels were also inversely associated with Noyes scale and Mankin scores, and levels of inflammation markers IL-6, TNF-α, and

  11. Thresholds, injury, and loss relationships for thrips in Phleum pratense (Poales: Poaceae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reisig, Dominic D; Godfrey, Larry D; Marcum, Daniel B

    2009-12-01

    Timothy (Phleum pratense L.) is an important forage crop in many Western U.S. states. Marketing of timothy hay is primarily based on esthetics, and green color is an important attribute. The objective of these studies was to determine a relationship between arthropod populations, yield, and esthetic injury in timothy. Economic injury levels (EILs) and economic thresholds were calculated based on these relationships. Thrips (Thripidae) numbers were manipulated with insecticides in small plot studies in 2006, 2007, and 2008, although tetranychid mite levels were incidentally flared by cyfluthrin in some experiments. Arthropod population densities were determined weekly, and yield and esthetic injury were measured at each harvest. Effects of arthropods on timothy were assessed using multilinear regression. Producers were also surveyed to relate economic loss from leaf color to the injury ratings for use in establishing EILs. Thrips population levels were significantly related to yield loss in only one of nine experiments. Thrips population levels were significantly related to injury once before the first annual harvest and twice before the second. Thrips were the most important pest in these experiments, and they were more often related to esthetic injury rather than yield loss. EILs and economic thresholds for thrips population levels were established using esthetic injury data. These results document the first example of a significant relationship between arthropod pest population levels and economic yield and quality losses in timothy.

  12. Increased Heme Levels in the Heart Lead to Exacerbated Ischemic Injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sawicki, Konrad Teodor; Shang, Meng; Wu, Rongxue; Chang, Hsiang-Chun; Khechaduri, Arineh; Sato, Tatsuya; Kamide, Christine; Liu, Ting; Naga Prasad, Sathyamangla V; Ardehali, Hossein

    2015-07-31

    Heme is an essential iron-containing molecule for cardiovascular physiology, but in excess it may increase oxidative stress. Failing human hearts have increased heme levels, with upregulation of the rate-limiting enzyme in heme synthesis, δ-aminolevulinic acid synthase 2 (ALAS2), which is normally not expressed in cardiomyocytes. We hypothesized that increased heme accumulation (through cardiac overexpression of ALAS2) leads to increased oxidative stress and cell death in the heart. We first showed that ALAS2 and heme levels are increased in the hearts of mice subjected to coronary ligation. To determine the causative role of increased heme in the development of heart failure, we generated transgenic mice with cardiac-specific overexpression of ALAS2. While ALAS2 transgenic mice have normal cardiac function at baseline, their hearts display increased heme content, higher oxidative stress, exacerbated cell death, and worsened cardiac function after coronary ligation compared to nontransgenic littermates. We confirmed in cultured cardiomyoblasts that the increased oxidative stress and cell death observed with ALAS2 overexpression is mediated by increased heme accumulation. Furthermore, knockdown of ALAS2 in cultured cardiomyoblasts exposed to hypoxia reversed the increases in heme content and cell death. Administration of the mitochondrial antioxidant MitoTempo to ALAS2-overexpressing cardiomyoblasts normalized the elevated oxidative stress and cell death levels to baseline, indicating that the effects of increased ALAS2 and heme are through elevated mitochondrial oxidative stress. The clinical relevance of these findings was supported by the finding of increased ALAS2 induction and heme accumulation in failing human hearts from patients with ischemic cardiomyopathy compared to nonischemic cardiomyopathy. Heme accumulation is detrimental to cardiac function under ischemic conditions, and reducing heme in the heart may be a novel approach for protection against the

  13. Changes in the Economic Value of Variable Generation at High Penetration Levels: A Pilot Case Study of California

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mills, Andrew [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Wiser, Ryan [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States)

    2012-05-18

    We estimate the long-run economic value of variable renewable generation with increasing penetration using a unique investment and dispatch model that captures long-run investment decisions while also incorporating detailed operational constraints and hourly time resolution over a full year. High time resolution and the incorporation of operational constraints are important for estimating the economic value of variable generation, as is the use of a modeling framework that accommodates new investment decisions. The model is herein applied with a case study that is loosely based on California in 2030. Increasing amounts of wind, photovoltaics (PV), and concentrating solar power (CSP) with and without thermal energy storage (TES) are added one at a time. The marginal economic value of these renewable energy sources is estimated and then decomposed into capacity value, energy value, day-ahead forecast error cost, and ancillary services. The marginal economic value, as defined here, is primarily based on the combination of avoided capital investment cost and avoided variable fuel and operations and maintenance costs from other power plants in the power system. Though the model only captures a subset of the benefits and costs of renewable energy, it nonetheless provides unique insights into how the value of that subset changes with technology and penetration level. Specifically, in this case study implementation of the model, the marginal economic value of all three solar options is found to exceed the value of a flat-block of power (as well as wind energy) by \\$20--30/MWh at low penetration levels, largely due to the high capacity value of solar at low penetration. Because the value of CSP per unit of energy is found to be high with or without thermal energy storage at low penetration, we find little apparent incremental value to thermal storage at low solar penetration in the present case study analysis. The marginal economic value of PV and CSP without thermal

  14. Optimization of low-level light therapy's illumination parameters for spinal cord injury in a rat model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shuaib, Ali; Bourisly, Ali

    2018-02-01

    Spinal cord injury (SCI) can result in complete or partial loss of sensation and motor function due to interruption along the severed axonal tract(s). SCI can result in tetraplegia or paraplegia, which can have prohibitive lifetime medical costs and result in shorter life expectancy. A promising therapeutic technique that is currently in experimental phase and that has the potential to be used to treat SCI is Low-level light therapy (LLLT). Preclinical studies have shown that LLLT has reparative and regenerative capabilities on transected spinal cords, and that LLLT can enhance axonal sprouting in animal models. However, despite the promising effects of LLLT as a therapy for SCI, it remains difficult to compare published results due to the use of a wide range of illumination parameters (i.e. different wavelengths, fluences, beam types, and beam diameter), and due to the lack of a standardized experimental protocol(s). Before any clinical applications of LLLT for SCI treatment, it is crucial to standardize illumination parameters and efficacy of light delivery. Therefore, in this study we aim to evaluate the light fluence distribution on a 3D voxelated SCI rat model with different illumination parameters (wavelengths: 660, 810, and 980 nm; beam types: Gaussian and Flat; and beam diameters: 0.1, 0.2, and 0.3 cm) for LLLT using Monte Carlo simulation. This study provides an efficient approach to guide researchers in optimizing the illumination parameters for LLLT spinal cord injury in an experimental model and will aid in quantitative and qualitative standardization of LLLT-SCI treatment.

  15. Spinal Cord Injury 101

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... injury? play_arrow How does the spinal cord work? play_arrow Why is the level of a spinal cord injury important? play_arrow What role does “compression” play in a spinal cord injury? play_arrow Why are high-dose steroids often used right after an injury? play_arrow What is meant ...

  16. Spatial and temporal expression levels of specific microRNAs in a spinal cord injury mouse model and their relationship to the duration of compression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ziu, Mateo; Fletcher, Lauren; Savage, Jennifer G; Jimenez, David F; Digicaylioglu, Murat; Bartanusz, Viktor

    2014-02-01

    MicroRNAs, a class of small nonprotein-coding RNAs, are thought to control gene translation into proteins. The latter are the ultimate effectors of the biochemical cascade occurring in any physiological and pathological process. MicroRNAs have been shown to change their expression levels during injury of spinal cord in contusion rodent models. Compression is the most frequent mode of damage of neural elements in spinal cord injury. The cellular and molecular changes occurring in the spinal cord during prolonged compression are not very well elucidated. Understanding the underlying molecular events that occur during sustained compression is paramount in building new therapeutic strategies. The purpose of our study was to probe the relationship between the expression level changes of different miRNAs and the timing of spinal cord decompression in a mouse model. A compression spinal cord injury mouse model was used for the study. A laminectomy was performed in the thoracic spine of C57BL/6 mice. Then, the thecal sac was compressed to create the injury. Decompression was performed early for one group and it was delayed in the second group. The spinal cord at the epicenter of the injury and one level rostral to it were removed at 3, 6, and 24 hours after trauma, and RNA was extracted. Expression levels of six different microRNAs and the relationship to the duration of compression were analyzed. This work was supported in part by the University Research Council Grants Program at the University of Texas Health Science Center San Antonio (Grant 130267). There are no specific conflicts of interest to be disclosed for this work. Expression levels of microRNAs in the prolonged compression of spinal cord model were significantly different compared with the expression levels in the short duration of compression spinal cord injury model. Furthermore, microRNAs show a different expression pattern in different regions of the injured spinal cord. Our findings demonstrate that

  17. Using the Ultimatum Game to Teach Economic Theories of Relationship Maintenance to A-Level Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knight, Simon

    2011-01-01

    When teaching at A-level, educators often present a model of psychology that does not extend beyond the confines of the specification. However, sometimes not only is it possible to provide insight into other areas of psychology, it provides a novel way of understanding a concept included in the specification itself. By extending student's…

  18. Economics model for new low-level radioactive waste disposal sites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1983-12-01

    This report describes LLWECON, an interactive computer mode for evaluating financial factors involved in low-level radioactive waste disposal. The logic by which LLWECON calculates the final generator price (price per cubic foot the disposal site operator charges waste generators) is detailed. Required user input and hypothetical examples, covering sites with different capacities, and both public and private-sector development, are included

  19. The Interdependence between Biodiversity and Socio-Economic Variables on a Local and Regional Level: Evidence for German Counties

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Münch, Angela; Völkl, Wolfgang

    2011-01-01

    This paper explores possible interdependence of biodiversity and several socioeconomic and political factors at the county level. It is aimed at the empirical identification of direct and indirect effects between biodiversity (loss) and their theoretical major impact factors. To date, research...... is related to the fact that cropland farming seems to be less profitable in this low-yield areas. Furthermore, organic farming in this low-yield area tends to be economically attractive for farmers due to political support and low foregone income from conventional farming. However, the indirect impact...

  20. Economic evaluation of Community Level Interventions for Pre-eclampsia (CLIP) in South Asian and African countries: a study protocol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khowaja, Asif R; Mitton, Craig; Bryan, Stirling; Magee, Laura A; Bhutta, Zulfiqar A; von Dadelszen, Peter

    2015-05-26

    Globally, hypertensive disorders of pregnancy, particularly pre-eclampsia and eclampsia, are the leading cause of maternal and neonatal mortality, and impose substantial burdens on the families of pregnant women, their communities, and healthcare systems. The Community Level Interventions for Pre-eclampsia (CLIP) Trial evaluates a package of care applied at both community and primary health centres to reduce maternal and perinatal disabilities and deaths resulting from the failure to identify and manage pre-eclampsia at the community level. Economic evaluation of health interventions can play a pivotal role in priority setting and inform policy decisions for scale-up. At present, there is a paucity of published literature on the methodology of economic evaluation of large, multi-country, community-based interventions in the area of maternal and perinatal health. This study protocol describes the application of methodology for economic evaluation of the CLIP in South Asia and Africa. A mixed-design approach i.e. cost-effectiveness analysis (CEA) and qualitative thematic analysis will be used alongside the trial to prospectively evaluate the economic impact of CLIP from a societal perspective. Data on health resource utilization, costs, and pregnancy outcomes will be collected through structured questionnaires embedded into the pregnancy surveillance, cross-sectional survey and budgetary reviews. Qualitative data will be collected through focus groups (FGs) with pregnant women, household male-decision makers, care providers, and district level health decision makers. The incremental cost-effectiveness ratio will be calculated for healthcare system and societal perspectives, taking into account the country-specific model inputs (costs and outcome) from the CLIP Trial. Emerging themes from FGs will inform the design of the model, and help to interpret findings of the CEA. The World Health Organization (WHO) strongly recommends cost-effective interventions as a key

  1. Impact of the global economic crisis on metal levels in particulate matter (PM) at an urban area in the Cantabria Region (Northern Spain)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arruti, A.; Fernandez-Olmo, I.; Irabien, A.

    2011-01-01

    Air pollution by particulate matter is well linked with anthropogenic activities; the global economic crisis that broke out in the last year may be a proper indicator of this close relationship. Some economic indicators show the regional effects of the crisis on the Cantabria Region. The present work aims to evaluate the impact of the economic crisis on PM10 levels and composition at the major city of the region, Santander. Some metals linked to anthropogenic activities were measured at Santander and studied by Positive Matrix Factorization; this statistical analysis allowed to identify three main factors: urban background, industrial and molybdenum-related factor. The main results show that the temporal trend of the levels of the industrial tracers found in the present study are well agree with the evolution of the studied economic indicators; nevertheless, the urban background tracers and PM10 concentration levels are not well correlated with the studied economic indicators. - Highlights: → The impact of the crisis is higher on the PM-bound metal levels than on the PM levels. → The crisis effects on the trace metal associated to the urban background are negligible. → The temporal trend of the industrial trace metals levels and the studied economic indicators is similar. → The crisis effects on the main industrial tracer levels in PM2.5 and PM10 are similar. - The study presents an evaluation of the economic crisis impact on PM levels and composition at a coastal urban area in the Region of Cantabria (Northern Spain).

  2. Factor structure and item level psychometrics of the Social Problem Solving Inventory-Revised: Short Form in traumatic brain injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Chih-Ying; Waid-Ebbs, Julia; Velozo, Craig A; Heaton, Shelley C

    2016-01-01

    Social problem-solving deficits characterise individuals with traumatic brain injury (TBI), and poor social problem solving interferes with daily functioning and productive lifestyles. Therefore, it is of vital importance to use the appropriate instrument to identify deficits in social problem solving for individuals with TBI. This study investigates factor structure and item-level psychometrics of the Social Problem Solving Inventory-Revised: Short Form (SPSI-R:S), for adults with moderate and severe TBI. Secondary analysis of 90 adults with moderate and severe TBI who completed the SPSI-R:S was performed. An exploratory factor analysis (EFA), principal components analysis (PCA) and Rasch analysis examined the factor structure and item-level psychometrics of the SPSI-R:S. The EFA showed three dominant factors, with positively worded items represented as the most definite factor. The other two factors are negative problem-solving orientation and skills; and negative problem-solving emotion. Rasch analyses confirmed the three factors are each unidimensional constructs. It was concluded that the total score interpretability of the SPSI-R:S may be challenging due to the multidimensional structure of the total measure. Instead, we propose using three separate SPSI-R:S subscores to measure social problem solving for the TBI population.

  3. Factor Structure and Item Level Psychometrics of the Social Problem Solving Inventory Revised-Short Form in Traumatic Brain Injury

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Chih-Ying; Waid-Ebbs, Julia; Velozo, Craig A.; Heaton, Shelley C.

    2016-01-01

    Primary Objective Social problem solving deficits characterize individuals with traumatic brain injury (TBI). Poor social problem solving interferes with daily functioning and productive lifestyles. Therefore, it is of vital importance to use the appropriate instrument to identify deficits in social problem solving for individuals with TBI. This study investigates factor structure and item-level psychometrics of the Social Problem Solving Inventory-Revised Short Form (SPSI-R:S), for adults with moderate and severe TBI. Research Design Secondary analysis of 90 adults with moderate and severe TBI who completed the SPSI-R:S. Methods and Procedures An exploratory factor analysis (EFA), principal components analysis (PCA) and Rasch analysis examined the factor structure and item-level psychometrics of the SPSI-R:S. Main Outcomes and Results The EFA showed three dominant factors, with positively worded items represented as the most definite factor. The other two factors are negative problem solving orientation and skills; and negative problem solving emotion. Rasch analyses confirmed the three factors are each unidimensional constructs. Conclusions The total score interpretability of the SPSI-R:S may be challenging due to the multidimensional structure of the total measure. Instead, we propose using three separate SPSI-R:S subscores to measure social problem solving for the TBI population. PMID:26052731

  4. Level of Satisfaction of Educational Services Consumers. Impact and Consequences for the Responsibility of an Economics Faculty

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gheorghe Săvoiu

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available The aims of this paper are to provide a conceptual delimitation of educational services and their main and secondary components, and to quantify the level of satisfaction of specific consumers in academic organizations specializing in economics, with a view to restructuring their responsibilities. The method of statistical investigation is the thorough investigation including the graduates of bachelor and master courses in the accounting economic field, based on a questionnaire assessing the opinions of 138 graduates from the Faculty of Economics of Pitesti, which covers the full spectrum of 93 distinct variables. The databases were analyzed from a descriptive statistical standpoint with the software package Eviews, focusing on the normality of distributions. The major assumptions concern identifying variables intensely associated with the level of satisfaction of educational services consumers, for the first three and six main service categories, defined by 36 variables marked by respondents, plus another three and respectively six categories in further 15 variables, which define secondary educational services (according to the correlation ratio. Educational organizations belonging to the academic area are naturally concerned with the requirements expressed in the complex concept of satisfaction of those trained through the programs and specializations of a faculty (in this case, an economic faculty, with the aim that the educational services provided in a sustainable manner should cover nearly all their expectations as consumers (students and MA trainees, and also the educational requirements for shaping and training skills that the graduates need in order to succeed in the labour market. The differentiated behaviours of the consumers of educational services can be found at the end of the paper, in a number of econometric models that allow a coherent strategy; they lend a much greater responsibility to the organization doing the job, namely by

  5. Radioactivity levels in the marine environment along the Exclusive Economic Zone (EEZ) of Qatar.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Qaradawi, Ilham; Abdel-Moati, Mohamed; Al-Yafei, Mohsin Al-Ansi; Al-Ansari, Ebrahim; Al-Maslamani, Ibrahim; Holm, Elis; Al-Shaikh, Ismail; Mauring, Alexander; Pinto, Primal V; Abdulmalik, Dana; Amir, Amina; Miller, Mark; Yigiterhan, Oguz; Persson, Bertil

    2015-01-15

    A study on (137)Cs, (40)K, (226)Ra, (228)Ra, and (238)U was carried out along the EEZ of Qatar. Results serve as the first ever baseline data. The level of (137)Cs (mean value 1.6 ± 0.4 Bq m(-3)) in water filters was found to be in the same order of magnitude as reported by others in worldwide marine radioactivity studies. Results are also in agreement with values reported from other Gulf regions. The computed values of sediment-water distribution coefficients Kd, are lower than the values given by IAEA. Measurements were carried out for bottom sediments, biota samples like fish, oyster, sponge, seashell, mangrove, crab, shrimp, starfish, dugong and algae. The 'concentration factors' reported for biota samples are below the levels published by IAEA and cause no significant impact on human health for seafood consumers in Qatar. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Economic impact and effectiveness of radiation protection measures in aviation during a ground level enhancement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matthiä Daniel

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available In addition to the omnipresent irradiation from galactic cosmic rays (GCR and their secondary products, passengers and aircraft crew may be exposed to radiation from solar cosmic rays during ground level enhancements (GLE. In general, lowering the flight altitude and changing the flight route to lower latitudes are procedures applicable to immediately reduce the radiation exposure at aviation altitudes. In practice, however, taking such action necessarily leads to modifications in the flight plan and the consequential, additional fuel consumption constrains the mitigating measures. In this work we investigate in a case study of the ground level event of December 13th 2006 how potential mitigation procedures affect the total radiation exposure during a transatlantic flight from Seattle to Cologne taking into account constraints concerning fuel consumption and range.

  7. Noiseonomics: The relationship between ambient noise levels in the sea and global economic trends

    OpenAIRE

    Frisk, George V.

    2012-01-01

    In recent years, the topic of noise in the sea and its effects on marine mammals has attracted considerable attention from both the scientific community and the general public. Since marine mammals rely heavily on acoustics as a primary means of communicating, navigating, and foraging in the ocean, any change in their acoustic environment may have an impact on their behavior. Specifically, a growing body of literature suggests that low-frequency, ambient noise levels in the open ocean increas...

  8. Physical and economic impacts of sea-level rise and low probability flooding events on coastal communities.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas Prime

    Full Text Available Conventionally flood mapping typically includes only a static water level (e.g. peak of a storm tide in coastal flood inundation events. Additional factors become increasingly important when increased water-level thresholds are met during the combination of a storm tide and increased mean sea level. This research incorporates factors such as wave overtopping and river flow in a range of flood inundation scenarios of future sea-level projections for a UK case study of Fleetwood, northwest England. With increasing mean sea level it is shown that wave overtopping and river forcing have an important bearing on the cost of coastal flood events. The method presented converts inundation maps into monetary cost. This research demonstrates that under scenarios of joint extreme surge-wave-river events the cost of flooding can be increased by up to a factor of 8 compared with an increase in extent of up to a factor of 3 relative to "surge alone" event. This is due to different areas being exposed to different flood hazards and areas with common hazard where flood waters combine non-linearly. This shows that relying simply on flood extent and volume can under-predict the actual economic impact felt by a coastal community. Additionally, the scenario inundation depths have been presented as "brick course" maps, which represent a new way of interpreting flood maps. This is primarily aimed at stakeholders to increase levels of engagement within the coastal community.

  9. Physical and economic impacts of sea-level rise and low probability flooding events on coastal communities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prime, Thomas; Brown, Jennifer M; Plater, Andrew J

    2015-01-01

    Conventionally flood mapping typically includes only a static water level (e.g. peak of a storm tide) in coastal flood inundation events. Additional factors become increasingly important when increased water-level thresholds are met during the combination of a storm tide and increased mean sea level. This research incorporates factors such as wave overtopping and river flow in a range of flood inundation scenarios of future sea-level projections for a UK case study of Fleetwood, northwest England. With increasing mean sea level it is shown that wave overtopping and river forcing have an important bearing on the cost of coastal flood events. The method presented converts inundation maps into monetary cost. This research demonstrates that under scenarios of joint extreme surge-wave-river events the cost of flooding can be increased by up to a factor of 8 compared with an increase in extent of up to a factor of 3 relative to "surge alone" event. This is due to different areas being exposed to different flood hazards and areas with common hazard where flood waters combine non-linearly. This shows that relying simply on flood extent and volume can under-predict the actual economic impact felt by a coastal community. Additionally, the scenario inundation depths have been presented as "brick course" maps, which represent a new way of interpreting flood maps. This is primarily aimed at stakeholders to increase levels of engagement within the coastal community.

  10. 13 CFR 123.301 - When would my business not be eligible to apply for an economic injury disaster loan?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... categories in §§ 123.101 and 123.201, or if your business is: (a) Engaged in lending, multi-level sales... the disaster occurred); (b) A non-profit or charitable concern; (c) A consumer or marketing...

  11. Mitigating the Effects of Xuebijing Injection on Hematopoietic Cell Injury Induced by Total Body Irradiation with γ rays by Decreasing Reactive Oxygen Species Levels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Deguan Li

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Hematopoietic injury is the most common side effect of radiotherapy. However, the methods available for the mitigating of radiation injury remain limited. Xuebijing injection (XBJ is a traditional Chinese medicine used to treat sepsis in the clinic. In this study, we investigated the effects of XBJ on the survival rate in mice with hematopoietic injury induced by γ ray ionizing radiation (IR. Mice were intraperitoneally injected with XBJ daily for seven days after total body irradiation (TBI. Our results showed that XBJ (0.4 mL/kg significantly increased 30-day survival rates in mice exposed to 7.5 Gy TBI. This effect may be attributable to improved preservation of white blood cells (WBCs and hematopoietic cells, given that bone marrow (BM cells from XBJ-treated mice produced more granulocyte-macrophage colony forming units (CFU-GM than that in the 2 Gy/TBI group. XBJ also decreased the levels of reactive oxygen species (ROS by increasing glutathione (GSH and superoxide dismutase (SOD levels in serum and attenuated the increased BM cell apoptosis caused by 2 Gy/TBI. In conclusion, these findings suggest that XBJ enhances the survival rate of irradiated mice and attenuates the effects of radiation on hematopoietic injury by decreasing ROS production in BM cells, indicating that XBJ may be a promising therapeutic candidate for reducing hematopoietic radiation injury.

  12. Early changes of serum insulin-like growth factor-II (IGF-II) levels in patients with acute brain injury

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu Cegang; Zhang Xinlu; Tao Jin; Xu Anding; Xu Shanshui; Huang Zhenpeng

    2003-01-01

    Objective: To investigate the early changes and clinical significance of serum Insulin-like growth factor-II (IGF-II) levels in patients with acute brain injury. Methods: Radioimmunoassay was used for measurement of the serum IGF-II concentration in 30 controls and 29 acute brain injury patients before and after treatment (within 1 day, at 3 and 7 days). Results: The serum IGF-II levels in brain injury patients at 1 day, 3 day 7 days after injury were 0.131 ± 0.047 ng/ml, 0.117 ± 0.046 ng/ml and 0.123 ±0.050 ng/ml respectively and were significantly lower than those in controls 0.44 ± 0.014 ng/ml, p<0.01. Differences among the values of the three days were not significant. Conclusion: IGF-II might play important role in the pathophysiological process of early acute brain injury

  13. The ratio of CRP to prealbumin levels predict mortality in patients with hospital-acquired acute kidney injury

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hao Chuanming

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Animal and human studies suggest that inflammation and malnutrition are common in acute kidney injury (AKI patients. However, only a few studies reported CRP, a marker of inflammation, albumin, prealbumin and cholesterol, markers of nutritional status were associated with the prognosis of AKI patients. No study examined whether the combination of inflammatory and nutritional markers could predict the mortality of AKI patients. Methods 155 patients with hospital-acquired AKI were recruited to this prospective cohort study according to RIFLE (Risk, Injury, Failure, Lost or End Stage Kidney criteria. C-reactive protein (CRP, and the nutritional markers (albumin, prealbumin and cholesterol measured at nephrology consultation were analyzed in relation to all cause mortality of these patients. In addition, CRP and prealbumin were also measured in healthy controls (n = 45, maintenance hemodialysis (n = 70 and peritoneal dialysis patients (n = 50 and then compared with AKI patients. Results Compared with healthy controls and end-stage renal disease patients on maintenance hemodialysis or peritoneal dialysis, patients with AKI had significantly higher levels of CRP/prealbumin (p 28 days. Similarly, the combined factors including the ratio of CRP to albumin (CRP/albumin, CRP/prealbumin and CRP/cholesterol were also significantly higher in the former group (p p = 0.027 while the others (CRP, albumin, prealbumin, cholesterol, CRP/albumin and CRP/cholesterol became non-significantly associated. The hazard ratio was 1.00 (reference, 1.85, 2.25 and 3.89 for CRP/prealbumin increasing according to quartiles (p = 0.01 for the trend. Conclusions Inflammation and malnutrition were common in patients with AKI. Higher level of the ratio of CRP to prealbumin was associated with mortality of AKI patients independent of the severity of illness and it may be a valuable addition to SOFA score to independent of the severity of illness and it may be a

  14. Financial education level of high school students and its economic reflections

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tarcísio Pedro da Silva

    Full Text Available Abstract This research contributes to the understanding of the level of financial education of high school students from public schools, as well as verifying how their financial knowledge has been generated, providing a view of the gaps in financial education with which these students are able to attend undergraduate courses later. The objective of the research was to determine the level of financial education of high school students from public schools, according to individual, demographic and socializing aspects. The research methodology was characterized as descriptive regarding procedures such as survey and the approach of the quantitative nature of the problem. The research population included 4698 high school students from 14 public schools in the city of Blumenau. In the data processing, the Kruskal-Wallis and chi-square tests were used. The results indicate that there is an effective financial education among young high school students, which can be noticed in findings such as: some of the young are not obliged to explain to parents where they are spending their financial resources; students have acquired, largely, their financial knowledge with parents and relatives, and in day-to-day practices, but there is little dialog in the family on financial matters. The financial knowledge coming from the school is low, requiring an improvement in the quality of this knowledge at this stage or in the future, including undergraduate courses. Finally, potential workers may cause social problems through their inability to manage their resources and/or the expenses of their families.

  15. Physical activity levels of economically disadvantaged women living in the Olympic city of Rio de Janeiro.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Sousa-Mast, Fabiana R; Reis, Arianne C; Sperandei, Sandro; Gurgel, Luilma A; Vieira, Marcelo C; Pühse, Uwe

    2016-07-01

    The objective of this study was to analyze the physical activity patterns of women living in a low-income community located in close proximity to the 2016 Rio de Janeiro Olympic Park. Data (N = 140) were collected in June and July 2012 using the International Physical Activity Questionnaire. Findings indicated that the majority (54.8%) of participants reported high levels of physical activity. The domains that contributed the most to this pattern were occupational and household physical activity. Significantly, 88.1% of participants reported low physical activity levels during their leisure-time. In the transport-related domain, participants were relatively more active, but more than half of them (57%) spent less than 600 MET-minutes/week in this domain. The results highlighted the discrepancies between different physical activity domains. In addition, the findings also suggested that low-income women in our study engaged little in physical activity during their leisure time. Therefore, the proposed commitments found in the Rio de Janeiro Candidature File to host the 2016 Olympic Games to increase sport/physical activity participation within low-income communities in Rio de Janeiro need to be implemented effectively if this physical activity behavior during self-directed time is to be changed.

  16. Economics of a small-volume low-level radioactive waste disposal facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1993-04-01

    This report was prepared by the US Department of Energy National Low-Level Waste Management Program to present the results of a life-cycle cost analysis of a low-level radioactive waste disposal facility, including all support facilities, beginning in the preoperational phase and continuing through post-closure care. The disposal technology selected for this report is earth-covered concrete vaults, which use reinforced concrete vaults constructed above grade and an earth cover constructed at the end of the operational period for permanent closure. The report develops a design, cost estimate, and schedule for the base case and eight alternative scenarios involving changes in total disposal capacity, operating life, annual disposal rate, source of financing and long-term interest rates. The purpose of this analysis of alternatives is to determine the sensitivity of cost to changes in key analytical or technical parameters, thereby evaluating the influence of a broad range of conditions. The total estimated cost of each alternative is estimated and a unit disposal charge is developed

  17. Energy consumption and economic growth: Evidence from China at both aggregated and disaggregated levels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yuan Jiahai; Kang Jiangang; Zhao Changhong; Hu Zhaoguang

    2008-01-01

    Using a neo-classical aggregate production model where capital, labor and energy are treated as separate inputs, this paper tests for the existence and direction of causality between output growth and energy use in China at both aggregated total energy and disaggregated levels as coal, oil and electricity consumption. Using the Johansen cointegration technique, the empirical findings indicate that there exists long-run cointegration among output, labor, capital and energy use in China at both aggregated and all three disaggregated levels. Then using a VEC specification, the short-run dynamics of the interested variables are tested, indicating that there exists Granger causality running from electricity and oil consumption to GDP, but does not exist Granger causality running from coal and total energy consumption to GDP. On the other hand, short-run Granger causality exists from GDP to total energy, coal and oil consumption, but does not exist from GDP to electricity consumption. We thus propose policy suggestions to solve the energy and sustainable development dilemma in China as: enhancing energy supply security and guaranteeing energy supply, especially in the short run to provide adequate electric power supply and set up national strategic oil reserve; enhancing energy efficiency to save energy; diversifying energy sources, energetically exploiting renewable energy and drawing out corresponding policies and measures; and finally in the long run, transforming development pattern and cut reliance on resource- and energy-dependent industries

  18. Interest of comparative risk assessment in economic development and proposals on a regional level: a practical example

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bouville, A.; Coulon, R.; Aigueperse, J.

    1983-01-01

    As major human activities develop, those responsible for orienting these activities and making decisions must take more and more account, notably due to pressure from the public, of risks likely to arise, together with other elements of choice such as technical, economic, social and political considerations. It is therefore essential to make an objective assessment of these risks to which individual are exposed naturally or because of their life styles. Because most decisions are made on a regional level and because it is also at this level that can be realistically defined the environmental characteristics, the way of life and the economic and social structure which determine the risks to which the regional population is exposed, it is on this scale that a comparative assessment is of maximum value. This assessment should be as exhaustive as possible and should take into account all the risks whether natural or artificial, and from whatever source (industrial, domestic, medical, etc.). It should take into account successively the exposure to various hazards, and the resulting consequences to health based on the choice of appropriate indicators and on available knowledge of exposure-effects relationships. Subjective aspects of risk perception should also be considered. A study program has been begun covering the region called the ''Grand Delta'' which includes the Rhone valley and its banks to the mediterraneen coast in the South East part of France [fr

  19. Impact of Different Tidal Volume Levels at Low Mechanical Power on Ventilator-Induced Lung Injury in Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lillian Moraes

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Tidal volume (VT has been considered the main determinant of ventilator-induced lung injury (VILI. Recently, experimental studies have suggested that mechanical power transferred from the ventilator to the lungs is the promoter of VILI. We hypothesized that, as long as mechanical power is kept below a safe threshold, high VT should not be injurious. The present study aimed to investigate the impact of different VT levels and respiratory rates (RR on lung function, diffuse alveolar damage (DAD, alveolar ultrastructure, and expression of genes related to inflammation [interleukin (IL-6], alveolar stretch (amphiregulin, epithelial [club cell secretory protein (CC16] and endothelial [intercellular adhesion molecule (ICAM-1] cell injury, and extracellular matrix damage [syndecan-1, decorin, and metalloproteinase (MMP-9] in experimental acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS under low-power mechanical ventilation. Twenty-eight Wistar rats received Escherichia coli lipopolysaccharide intratracheally. After 24 h, 21 animals were randomly assigned to ventilation (2 h with low mechanical power at three different VT levels (n = 7/group: (1 VT = 6 mL/kg and RR adjusted to normocapnia; (2 VT = 13 mL/kg; and 3 VT = 22 mL/kg. In the second and third groups, RR was adjusted to yield low mechanical power comparable to that of the first group. Mechanical power was calculated as [(ΔP,L2/Est,L/2]× RR (ΔP,L = transpulmonary driving pressure, Est,L = static lung elastance. Seven rats were not mechanically ventilated (NV and were used for molecular biology analysis. Mechanical power was comparable among groups, while VT gradually increased. ΔP,L and mechanical energy were higher in VT = 22 mL/kg than VT = 6 mL/kg and VT = 13 mL/kg (p < 0.001 for both. Accordingly, DAD score increased in VT = 22 mL/kg compared to VT = 6 mL/kg and VT = 13 mL/kg [23(18.5–24.75 vs. 16(12–17.75 and 16(13.25–18, p < 0.05, respectively]. VT = 22 mL/kg was associated with higher

  20. Waste isolation in the U.S., technical programs and public education. Volume 2 - low level waste, volume reduction methodologies and economics. Vol. 2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Post, R.G.

    1984-01-01

    This volume presents information regarding low-level waste, volume reduction methodologies and economics. Topics include: public education on nuclear waste; economics of low-level waste management systems; operating experience with advanced volume reduction techniques; solidification of waste; operating experience with advanced volume reduction techniques--incineration; regional plans for the disposal of low-level waste; radwaste system modifications at nuclear power plants; operating experience with advanced volume reduction techniques--operations and on-site storage issues; and economic impact of 10CFR61

  1. Composite Measures of Individual and Area-Level Socio-Economic Status Are Associated with Visual Impairment in Singapore.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Win Wah

    Full Text Available To investigate the independent relationship of individual- and area-level socio-economic status (SES with the presence and severity of visual impairment (VI in an Asian population.Cross-sectional data from 9993 Chinese, Malay and Indian adults aged 40-80 years who participated in the Singapore Epidemiology of eye Diseases (2004-2011 in Singapore. Based on the presenting visual acuity (PVA in the better-seeing eye, VI was categorized into normal vision (logMAR≤0.30, low vision (logMAR>0.30<1.00, and blindness (logMAR≥1.00. Any VI was defined as low vision/blindness in the PVA of better-seeing eye. Individual-level low-SES was defined as a composite of primary-level education, monthly income<2000 SGD and residing in 1 or 2-room public apartment. An area-level SES was assessed using a socio-economic disadvantage index (SEDI, created using 12 variables from the 2010 Singapore census. A high SEDI score indicates a relatively poor SES. Associations between SES measures and presence and severity of VI were examined using multi-level, mixed-effects logistic and multinomial regression models.The age-adjusted prevalence of any VI was 19.62% (low vision = 19%, blindness = 0.62%. Both individual- and area-level SES were positively associated with any VI and low vision after adjusting for confounders. The odds ratio (95% confidence interval of any VI was 2.11(1.88-2.37 for low-SES and 1.07(1.02-1.13 per 1 standard deviation increase in SEDI. When stratified by unilateral/bilateral categories, while low SES showed significant associations with all categories, SEDI showed a significant association with bilateral low vision only. The association between low SES and any VI remained significant among all age, gender and ethnic sub-groups. Although a consistent positive association was observed between area-level SEDI and any VI, the associations were significant among participants aged 40-65 years and male.In this community-based sample of Asian adults, both

  2. Micro-level economic factors and incentives in Children's energy balance related behaviours findings from the ENERGY European cross-section questionnaire survey

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jensen, J.D.; Bere, E.; de Bourdeaudhuij, I.; Jan, N.; Maes, L.; Manios, Y.; Martens, M.K.; Molnar, D.; Moreno, L.A.; Singh, A.S.; te Velde, S.J.; Brug, J.

    2012-01-01

    Background: To date, most research on obesogenic environments facing school children has focused on physical and socio-cultural environments. The role of economic factors has been investigated to a much lesser extent. Our objective was to explore the association of micro-level economic factors and

  3. Qualitative case studies of professional-level workers with traumatic brain injuries: A contextual approach to job accommodation and retention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roessler, Richard T; Rumrill, Phillip D; Rumrill, Stuart P; Minton, Deborah L; Hendricks, Deborah J; Sampson, Elaine; Stauffer, Callista; Scherer, Marcia J; Nardone, Amanda; Leopold, Anne; Jacobs, Karen; Elias, Eileen

    2017-09-14

    Traumatic brain injury (TBI) is a multi-systemic disability that causes a wide range of difficulties with personal and social functioning. Four individuals with TBI participated in an evaluation of barriers to their continued employment following graduation from college. A trained interviewer completed the Work Experience Survey (WES) in teleconsultation sessions with each participant. Researchers applied a qualitative case study research design. Participants reported a wide range of difficulties in performing essential functions of their jobs (3 to 24) that have the potential to significantly affect their productivity. Career mastery problems reflected outcomes associated with TBI such as 'believing that others think I do a good job' and 'having the resources (e.g., knowledge, tools, supplies, and equipment) needed to do the job.' Indicative of their wish to continue their current employment, participants reported high levels of job satisfaction. The WES is a cost-effective needs assessment tool to aid health and rehabilitation professionals in providing on-the-job supports to workers with TBI.

  4. Economical Appraisal of Total Aflatoxin Level in the Poultry Feeds by Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sherazai, S.T.H.; Shar, Z.; Iqbal, M.; Sumbal, G.A.

    2013-01-01

    Single-bounce attenuated total reflectance (SB-ATR) Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy has been used for the quantitative determination of total aflatoxins in the broiler poultry feed. An FTIR calibration spanning the range 1-70 micro g/L aflatoxin standards in (70:30, v/v) methanol-water solvent system based on partial least square (PLS) model, developed by relating mid IR region between 3755-950 cm/ sub -1/. The excellent coefficient of various (using 0.998) was achieved with 1.49 relative mean square error of calibration (RMSEC). Aflatoxins from each of eight poultry feeds was extracted and the determined by the widely used commercially available Enzyme-linked Immunosorbent Assay (ELISA) procedure and the SB-ATR/FTIR method. The SB-ATR/FTIR aflatoxins predictions were related to those determined by the ELISA method by linear regression, producing an R value of 0.989 and a SD of +- 2.80 micro g/L. The result of the study clearly indicated that FT-IR spectroscopy due to its rapidity and simplicity along with data manipulation by advance computer software could be effectively used for routine determination of aflatoxins present in the poultry feeds at very low level. (author)

  5. Alcohol Consumption at Any Level Increases Risk of Injury Caused by Others: Data from the Study on Global AGEing and Adult Health

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas Clausen

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background Alcohol use is a well-known risk factor for injury. However, information is needed about alcohol drinking patterns and the risk of injury among older adults in low- and middle-income countries as this population grows. We aimed to examine the influence of drinking patterns on the burden of injury and investigate factors associated with different types of injury in older populations in six emerging economies. Methods Data from more than 37,0 adults aged 50 years and older were included from the Study on Global AGEing and Adult Health (SAGE Wave 1 conducted in six emerging economies, namely, China, Ghana, India, Mexico, Russia, and South Africa. We investigated past-year reported injuries from falls, traffic accidents, and being hit or stabbed. Alcohol drinking patterns were measured as lifetime abstinence, ever but not past- week use, and gender-specific past-week low-risk and high-risk use. We stratified by gender and used logistic regression models to observe the association between alcohol drinking pattern and risk of injury by controlling for other factors. Results During the year prior to interview, 627 (2.2% subjects reported bodily injury resulting from a car accident, 1,156 (4.2% from a fall, and 339 (.9% from being hit or stabbed during the past year. For women, only being a high-risk drinker increased the risk of being hit or stabbed, whereas for men, all levels of drinking were associated with an increased risk of being hit or stabbed. We observed a higher risk of being hit or stabbed from past-week high-risk drinking among women (odds ratio [OR] = 6.09, P < 0.01 than among men (OR = 3.57, P < 0.01. We observed no association between alcohol drinking pattern and injury due to car accidents for either women or men. Conclusions The risk of experiencing injury due to violence increased with level of alcohol exposure of the victim. The increase in alcohol use in emerging economies calls for further study into the consequences of

  6. Risk factors for type 2 diabetes and cardiovascular disease in Mexican adults from different socio-economic levels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Valencia, M.E.; Ballesteros, M.N.; Ortega, M.I.; Noriega Gonzalez, E.; Gallegos, A.C.; Calderon de la Barca, A.M.

    1999-01-01

    A study on risk factors for type 2 diabetes and cardiovascular disease (CVD) in 250 male and female adult subjects 20 years of age and over, pertaining to different socio-economic levels is being conducted in Hermosillo, Sonora, Mexico. Measurements of weight, height, waist/hip ratio, blood pressure, oral glucose tolerance test, blood levels of total of cholesterol, tryglicerides, LDL and HDL-cholesterol are being obtained. Body composition is being determined by deuterium dilution and infrared spectroscopy, air displacement plethysmography, skinfold thickness and bio-electrical impedance. Physical activity by questionnaire and diet by non-consecutive multiple 24 h recalls (to account for seasonal and inter-individual variability), will provide information on lifestyle and diet. At present, analysis of 141 subjects has been completed. Preliminary results showed high levels of overweight, 55% with BMI>25, and obesity, 17% with BMI>30. Subjects with abnormal glucose levels had significantly higher weight (p<0.008), larger waist/hip ratio (p<0.003), higher % body fat (p<0.01), higher systolic and diastolic blood pressure (p<0.01; p<0.009 respectively) than normal subjects, after adjusting for sex and age. Serum tryglicerides were significantly higher in obese subjects with central adiposity than non-obese subjects. Body composition by deuterium dilution was determined by infrared spectroscopy and by air displacement plethysmography in a preliminary pilot study. Finally, a physical activity questionnaire was tested in two groups of subjects with different lifestyles. (author)

  7. Unit Roots in Economic and Financial Time Series: A Re-Evaluation at the Decision-Based Significance Levels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jae H. Kim

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available This paper re-evaluates key past results of unit root tests, emphasizing that the use of a conventional level of significance is not in general optimal due to the test having low power. The decision-based significance levels for popular unit root tests, chosen using the line of enlightened judgement under a symmetric loss function, are found to be much higher than conventional ones. We also propose simple calibration rules for the decision-based significance levels for a range of unit root tests. At the decision-based significance levels, many time series in Nelson and Plosser’s (1982 (extended data set are judged to be trend-stationary, including real income variables, employment variables and money stock. We also find that nearly all real exchange rates covered in Elliott and Pesavento’s (2006 study are stationary; and that most of the real interest rates covered in Rapach and Weber’s (2004 study are stationary. In addition, using a specific loss function, the U.S. nominal interest rate is found to be stationary under economically sensible values of relative loss and prior belief for the null hypothesis.

  8. Risk factors for type 2 diabetes and cardiovascular disease in Mexican adults from different socio-economic levels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Valencia, M E; Ballesteros, M N; Ortega, M I; Noriega Gonzalez, E; Gallegos, A C; Calderon de la Barca, A.M. [Centro de Investigacion en Alimentacion y Desarrollo, A.C. Carretera a la Victoria, Hermosillo, Sonora (Mexico)

    1999-07-01

    A study on risk factors for type 2 diabetes and cardiovascular disease (CVD) in 250 male and female adult subjects 20 years of age and over, pertaining to different socio-economic levels is being conducted in Hermosillo, Sonora, Mexico. Measurements of weight, height, waist/hip ratio, blood pressure, oral glucose tolerance test, blood levels of total of cholesterol, tryglicerides, LDL and HDL-cholesterol are being obtained. Body composition is being determined by deuterium dilution and infrared spectroscopy, air displacement plethysmography, skinfold thickness and bio-electrical impedance. Physical activity by questionnaire and diet by non-consecutive multiple 24 h recalls (to account for seasonal and inter-individual variability), will provide information on lifestyle and diet. At present, analysis of 141 subjects has been completed. Preliminary results showed high levels of overweight, 55% with BMI>25, and obesity, 17% with BMI>30. Subjects with abnormal glucose levels had significantly higher weight (p<0.008), larger waist/hip ratio (p<0.003), higher % body fat (p<0.01), higher systolic and diastolic blood pressure (p<0.01; p<0.009 respectively) than normal subjects, after adjusting for sex and age. Serum tryglicerides were significantly higher in obese subjects with central adiposity than non-obese subjects. Body composition by deuterium dilution was determined by infrared spectroscopy and by air displacement plethysmography in a preliminary pilot study. Finally, a physical activity questionnaire was tested in two groups of subjects with different lifestyles. (author)

  9. Productive performance and economic analysis of Santa Inês sheep slaughtered at different subcutaneous fat levels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Larissa de Oliveira Queiroz

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to evaluate the productive and economic performance of feedlot-finished Santa Inês lambs slaughtered at three subcutaneous fat levels. Twenty-four uncastrated male lambs with 100 ± 10 days of age and an initial body weight of 22.6 ± 3.9 kg were randomly assigned to three treatments and slaughtered at a subcutaneous fat thickness of 2.0, 3.0 and 4.0 mm. A completely randomized design consisting of three treatments and eight repetitions per treatment was adopted. Productivity parameters included final body weight, dry matter intake, daily and total weight gains, and feed conversion. For the determination of economically viable fat thickness for slaughter, only direct production costs such as lamb purchase costs, feed costs and cost of labor were considered, and revenue, expenses and profit were analyzed. The final body weight and total weight gain differed significantly (P<0.05 between treatments. Lambs slaughtered at a subcutaneous fat thickness of 3.0 and 4.0 mm had a higher final body weight (33.84 ± 1.71 and 34.65 ± 1.79 kg, respectively and total weight gain (9.06 ± 1.04 and 11.82 ± 1.02 kg. However, lambs with 3.0 mm fat thickness exhibited better economic results (profit of US$ 3.10 per kg cold carcass. The slaughter of Santa Inês lambs at 3.0 mm subcutaneous fat thickness is recommended since it provides better productive performance, higher profit per kilogram carcass, and greater profitability.

  10. China Dimensions Data Collection: China County-Level Data from Provincial Economic Yearbooks, Keyed to 1:1M GIS Map

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — China County-Level Data on Provincial Economic Yearbooks, Keyed To 1:1M GIS Map consists of socioeconomic and boundary data for the administrative regions of China...

  11. The Relationship between Emotional Intelligence and Marital Satisfaction: 10-Year Outcome of Partners from Three Different Economic Levels.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zohre Nasiri Zarch

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Emotional communication and economic factors play an important role in having a satisfying relationship and a more successful marriage. In this regard, we investigated the 10-year outcome of partners from three different economic levels regarding the relationship between emotional intelligence (EI and marital satisfaction.The research was designed as a descriptive-correlative survey and data were analyzed using Pearson correlation test and stepwise regression.Participants were 159 couples (N = 318 who were randomly selected through clustered sampling. The questionnaires included: Bar-on Emotional Intelligence (1997 and Enrich Marital satisfaction (1989.The findings revealed that the average values of emotional intelligence (m = 333.1 and marital satisfaction (m = 300.77 were high in the under-rich region (p<0.05. Moreover, there was no significant relationship between interpersonal and marital satisfaction within the under-rich region. On average, emotional intelligence accounted for 40.8% of marital satisfaction within those three regions (p<0.01.The results of the regression analysis showed that general mood is the most effective factor changing marital satisfaction in the three studied regions (R2= 0.34, rich (R2= 0.42 and semi-rich (R2= 0.52 regions (p<0.01. The most influential factor changing marital satisfaction in the under-rich (R2= 0.28 region was found to be stress management (p<0.01.

  12. The Relationship between Emotional Intelligence and Marital Satisfaction: 10-Year Outcome of Partners from Three Different Economic Levels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nasiri Zarch, Zohre; Marashi, Sayed Mahdi; Raji, Hojatollah

    2014-10-01

    Emotional communication and economic factors play an important role in having a satisfying relationship and a more successful marriage. In this regard, we investigated the 10-year outcome of partners from three different economic levels regarding the relationship between emotional intelligence (EI) and marital satisfaction. The research was designed as a descriptive-correlative survey and data were analyzed using Pearson correlation test and stepwise regression. Participants were 159 couples (N = 318) who were randomly selected through clustered sampling. The questionnaires included: Bar-on Emotional Intelligence (1997) and Enrich Marital satisfaction (1989). The findings revealed that the average values of emotional intelligence (m = 333.1) and marital satisfaction (m = 300.77) were high in the under-rich region (pintelligence accounted for 40.8% of marital satisfaction within those three regions (p<0.01). The results of the regression analysis showed that general mood is the most effective factor changing marital satisfaction in the three studied regions (R2= 0.34), rich (R2= 0.42) and semi-rich (R2= 0.52) regions (p<0.01). The most influential factor changing marital satisfaction in the under-rich (R2= 0.28) region was found to be stress management (p<0.01).

  13. Protocol for an economic evaluation alongside the University Health Network Whiplash Intervention Trial: cost-effectiveness of education and activation, a rehabilitation program, and the legislated standard of care for acute whiplash injury in Ontario

    OpenAIRE

    van der Velde Gabrielle; Côté Pierre; Bayoumi Ahmed M; Cassidy J David; Boyle Eleanor; Shearer Heather M; Stupar Maja; Jacobs Craig; Ammendolia Carlo; Carette Simon; van Tulder Maurits

    2011-01-01

    Abstract Background Whiplash injury affects 83% of persons in a traffic collision and leads to whiplash-associated disorders (WAD). A major challenge facing health care decision makers is identifying cost-effective interventions due to lack of economic evidence. Our objective is to compare the cost-effectiveness of: 1) physician-based education and activation, 2) a rehabilitation program developed by Aviva Canada (a group of property and casualty insurance providers), and 3) the legislated st...

  14. Hydrogen and methane generation from large hydraulic plant: Thermo-economic multi-level time-dependent optimization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rivarolo, M.; Magistri, L.; Massardo, A.F.

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • We investigate H 2 and CH 4 production from very large hydraulic plant (14 GW). • We employ only “spilled energy”, not used by hydraulic plant, for H 2 production. • We consider the integration with energy taken from the grid at different prices. • We consider hydrogen conversion in chemical reactors to produce methane. • We find plants optimal size using a time-dependent thermo-economic approach. - Abstract: This paper investigates hydrogen and methane generation from large hydraulic plant, using an original multilevel thermo-economic optimization approach developed by the authors. Hydrogen is produced by water electrolysis employing time-dependent hydraulic energy related to the water which is not normally used by the plant, known as “spilled water electricity”. Both the demand for spilled energy and the electrical grid load vary widely by time of year, therefore a time-dependent hour-by-hour one complete year analysis has been carried out, in order to define the optimal plant size. This time period analysis is necessary to take into account spilled energy and electrical load profiles variability during the year. The hydrogen generation plant is based on 1 MWe water electrolysers fuelled with the “spilled water electricity”, when available; in the remaining periods, in order to assure a regular H 2 production, the energy is taken from the electrical grid, at higher cost. To perform the production plant size optimization, two hierarchical levels have been considered over a one year time period, in order to minimize capital and variable costs. After the optimization of the hydrogen production plant size, a further analysis is carried out, with a view to converting the produced H 2 into methane in a chemical reactor, starting from H 2 and CO 2 which is obtained with CCS plants and/or carried by ships. For this plant, the optimal electrolysers and chemical reactors system size is defined. For both of the two solutions, thermo-economic

  15. Perceived risk, stigma, and potential economic impacts of a high-level nuclear waste repository in Nevada

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Slovic, P.; Layman, M.; Kraus, N.N.; Chalmers, J.; Gesel, G.; Flynn, J.

    1989-07-01

    This paper describes a program of research designed to assess the potential impacts of a high-level nuclear waste repository at Yucca Mountain, Nevada, upon tourism, retirement and job-related migration, and business development in Las Vegas and the state. Adverse economic impacts may be expected to result from two related social processes. One has to do with perceptions of risk and socially amplified reactions to ''unfortunate events'' associated with the repository (major and minor accidents, discoveries of radiation releases, evidence of mismanagement, attempts to sabotage or disrupt the facility, etc.). The second process that may trigger significant adverse impacts is that of stigmatization. The conceptual underpinnings of risk perception, social amplification, and stigmatization are discussed in this paper and empirical data are presented to demonstrate how nuclear images associated with Las Vegas and the State of Nevada might trigger adverse effects on tourism, migration, and business development

  16. Problem of two-level hierarchical minimax program control the final state of regional social and economic system in the presence of risks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shorikov, A. F.

    2015-01-01

    This article discusses a discrete-time dynamical system consisting of a set a controllable objects (region and forming it municipalities). The dynamics each of these is described by the corresponding vector nonlinear discrete-time recurrent vector equations and its control system consist from two levels: basic (control level I) that is dominating and subordinate level (control level II). Both levels have different criterions of functioning and united a priori by determined informational and control connections defined in advance. In this paper we study the problem of optimization of guaranteed result for program control by the final state of regional social and economic system in the presence of risks. For this problem we proposed in this work an economical and mathematical model of two-level hierarchical minimax program control the final state of regional social and economic system in the presence of risks and the general scheme for its solving

  17. Problem of two-level hierarchical minimax program control the final state of regional social and economic system in the presence of risks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shorikov, A. F., E-mail: afshorikov@mail.ru [Ural Federal University, 19 S. Mira, Ekaterinburg, 620002, Russia Institute of Mathematics and Mechanics, Ural Branch of Russian Academy of Sciences, 16 S. Kovalevskaya, Ekaterinburg, 620990 (Russian Federation)

    2015-11-30

    This article discusses a discrete-time dynamical system consisting of a set a controllable objects (region and forming it municipalities). The dynamics each of these is described by the corresponding vector nonlinear discrete-time recurrent vector equations and its control system consist from two levels: basic (control level I) that is dominating and subordinate level (control level II). Both levels have different criterions of functioning and united a priori by determined informational and control connections defined in advance. In this paper we study the problem of optimization of guaranteed result for program control by the final state of regional social and economic system in the presence of risks. For this problem we proposed in this work an economical and mathematical model of two-level hierarchical minimax program control the final state of regional social and economic system in the presence of risks and the general scheme for its solving.

  18. Use of significance thresholds to integrate cumulative effects into project-level socio-economic impact assessment in Canada

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Joseph, Chris; Zeeg, Taylor; Angus, David; Usborne, Anna; Mutrie, Erin

    2017-01-01

    A longstanding critique of project-level environmental assessment is that it is weak at addressing cumulative effects, and because of this many argue that cumulative effects are best managed at a regional scale. However, in the absence of regional management it is important that project-level assessment supports cumulative effects management as best as possible. In this paper we present case study socio-economic impact assessments of liquefied natural gas development on Aboriginal groups on Canada's west coast. The case studies use an analytical structure modified from typical Canadian practice including unambiguous and non-arbitrary significance thresholds grounded in stakeholder values to focus baselines, impact assessment, and significance determination on cumulative effects. This approach is found to be more capable of informing decision-makers on cumulative effects as well as more rigorous and transparent than typical assessments. Much of this approach is not conceptually new, but at least in western Canada such an approach is not typically used or meaningfully implemented by practitioners. As such, the case studies serve to illustrate how practice can bolster project-level assessment. - Highlights: •Typical project assessment is weak with respect to cumulative effects. •Modified analysis structure and thresholds enable a focus on cumulative effects. •Clear, value-based thresholds make analysis rigorous, transparent, and democratic.

  19. The influence of economic development level, household wealth and maternal education on child health in the developing world.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boyle, Michael H; Racine, Yvonne; Georgiades, Katholiki; Snelling, Dana; Hong, Sungjin; Omariba, Walter; Hurley, Patricia; Rao-Melacini, Purnima

    2006-10-01

    This study estimates the relative importance to child health (indicated by weight and height for age) of economic development level [gross domestic product (GDP) converted to international dollars using purchasing power parity (PPP) rates: GDP-PPP], household wealth and maternal education and examines the modifying influence of national contexts on these estimates. It uses information collected from mothers aged 15-49-years participating in Demographic Health Surveys (DHS) conducted in 42 developing countries. In multilevel regression models, the three study variables exhibited strong independent associations with child health: GDP-PPP accounted for the largest amount of unique variation, followed by maternal education and household wealth. There was also substantial overlap (shared variance) between maternal education and the other two study variables. The regressions of child health on household wealth and maternal education exhibited substantial cross-national variation in both strength and form of association. Although higher education levels were associated with disproportionately greater returns to child health, the pattern for household wealth was erratic: in many countries there were diminishing returns to child health at higher levels of household wealth. We conclude that there are inextricable links among different strategies for improving child health and that policy planners, associating benefits with these strategies, must take into account the strong moderating impact of national context.

  20. Early predictors of health-related quality of life outcomes in polytrauma patients with spine injuries: a level 1 trauma center study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tee, J W; Chan, C H P; Gruen, R L; Fitzgerald, M C B; Liew, S M; Cameron, P A; Rosenfeld, J V

    2014-02-01

    Study Design Retrospective review on clinical-quality trauma registry prospective data. Objective To identify early predictors of suboptimal health status in polytrauma patients with spine injuries. Methods A retrospective review on a prospective cohort was performed on spine-injured polytrauma patients with successful discharge from May 2009 to January 2011. The Short Form 12-Questionnaire Health Survey (SF-12) was used in the health status assessment of these patients. Univariate and multivariate logistic regression models were applied to investigate the effects of the Injury Severity Score, age, blood sugar level, vital signs, brain trauma severity, comorbidities, coagulation profile, spine trauma-related neurologic status, and spine injury characteristics of the patients. Results The SF-12 had a 52.3% completion rate from 915 patients. The patients who completed the SF-12 were younger, and there were fewer patients with severe spinal cord injuries (American Spinal Injury Association classifications A, B, and C). Other comparison parameters were satisfactorily matched. Multivariate logistic regression revealed five early predictive factors with statistical significance (p ≤ 0.05). They were (1) tachycardia (odds ratio [OR] = 1.88; confidence interval [CI] = 1.11 to 3.19), (2) hyperglycemia (OR = 2.65; CI = 1.51 to 4.65), (3) multiple chronic comorbidities (OR = 2.98; CI = 1.68 to 5.26), and (4) thoracic spine injuries (OR = 1.54; CI = 1.01 to 2.37). There were no independent early predictive factors identified for suboptimal mental health-related qualify of life outcomes. Conclusion Early independent risk factors predictive of suboptimal physical health status identified in a level 1 trauma center in polytrauma patients with spine injuries were tachycardia, hyperglycemia, multiple chronic medical comorbidities, and thoracic spine injuries. Early spine trauma risk factors were shown not to predict suboptimal mental

  1. Composite Measures of Individual and Area-Level Socio-Economic Status Are Associated with Visual Impairment in Singapore

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wah, Win; Earnest, Arul; Sabanayagam, Charumathi; Cheng, Ching-Yu; Ong, Marcus Eng Hock; Wong, Tien Y.; Lamoureux, Ecosse L.

    2015-01-01

    Purpose To investigate the independent relationship of individual- and area-level socio-economic status (SES) with the presence and severity of visual impairment (VI) in an Asian population. Methods Cross-sectional data from 9993 Chinese, Malay and Indian adults aged 40–80 years who participated in the Singapore Epidemiology of eye Diseases (2004–2011) in Singapore. Based on the presenting visual acuity (PVA) in the better-seeing eye, VI was categorized into normal vision (logMAR≤0.30), low vision (logMAR>0.30Singapore census. A high SEDI score indicates a relatively poor SES. Associations between SES measures and presence and severity of VI were examined using multi-level, mixed-effects logistic and multinomial regression models. Results The age-adjusted prevalence of any VI was 19.62% (low vision = 19%, blindness = 0.62%). Both individual- and area-level SES were positively associated with any VI and low vision after adjusting for confounders. The odds ratio (95% confidence interval) of any VI was 2.11(1.88–2.37) for low-SES and 1.07(1.02–1.13) per 1 standard deviation increase in SEDI. When stratified by unilateral/bilateral categories, while low SES showed significant associations with all categories, SEDI showed a significant association with bilateral low vision only. The association between low SES and any VI remained significant among all age, gender and ethnic sub-groups. Although a consistent positive association was observed between area-level SEDI and any VI, the associations were significant among participants aged 40–65 years and male. Conclusion In this community-based sample of Asian adults, both individual- and area-level SES were independently associated with the presence and severity of VI. PMID:26555141

  2. Cumulative effective radiation dose received by blunt trauma patients arriving to a military level I trauma center from point of injury and interhospital transfers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Arnem, Kerri A; Supinski, David P; Tucker, Jonathan E; Varney, Shawn

    2016-12-01

    Trauma patients sustaining blunt injuries are exposed to multiple radiologic studies. Evidence indicates that the risk of cancer from exposure to ionizing radiation rises in direct proportion to the cumulative effective dose (CED) received. The purpose of this study is to quantify the amount of ionizing radiation accumulated when arriving directly from point of injury to San Antonio Military Medical Center (SAMMC), a level I trauma center, compared with those transferred from other facilities. A retrospective record review was conducted from 1st January 2010 through 31st December 2012. The SAMMC trauma registry, electronic medical records, and the digital radiology imaging system were searched for possible candidates. The medical records were then analyzed for sex, age, mechanism of injury, received directly from point of injury (direct group), transfer from another medical facility (transfer group), computed tomographic scans received, dose-length product, CED of radiation, and injury severity score. A diagnostic imaging physicist then calculated the estimated CED each subject received based on the dose-length product of each computed tomographic scan. A total of 300 patients were analyzed, with 150 patients in the direct group and 150 patients in the transfer group. Both groups were similar in age and sex. Patients in the transfer group received a significantly greater CED of radiation compared with the direct group (mean, 37.6 mSv vs 28 mSv; P=.001). The radiation received in the direct group correlates with a lifetime attributable risk (LAR) of 1 in 357 compared with the transfer group with an increase in LAR to 1 in 266. Patients transferred to our facility received a 34% increase in ionizing radiation compared with patients brought directly from the injury scene. This increased dose of ionizing radiation contributes to the LAR of cancer and needs to be considered before repeating imaging studies. III. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  3. A model for mild traumatic brain injury that induces limited transient memory impairment and increased levels of axon related serum biomarkers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elham eRostami

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Mild traumatic brain injury (mTBI is one of the most common neuronal insults and can lead to long-term disabilities. mTBI occurs when the head is exposed to a rapid acceleration-deceleration movement triggering axonal injuries. Our limited understanding of the underlying pathological changes makes it difficult to predict the outcome of mTBI. In this study we used a scalable rat model for rotational acceleration TBI, previously characterized for the threshold of axonal pathology. We have analyzed whether a TBI just above the defined threshold would induce any detectable behavioral changes and/or changes in serum biomarkers. The effect of injury on sensory motor functions, memory and anxiety were assessed by beam walking, radial arms maze and elevated plus maze at 3 to 7 days following TBI. The only behavioral deficits found were transient impairments in working and reference memory. Blood serum was analyzed at 1, 3 and 14 days after injury for changes in selected protein biomarkers. Serum levels of neurofilament heavy chain (NF-H and Tau, as well as S100B and myelin basic protein (MBP showed significant increases in the injured animals at all time points. No signs of macroscopic injuries such as intracerebral hematomas or contusions were found. Amyloid precursor protein (APP immunostaining indicated axonal injuries at all time points analyzed. In summary, this model mimics some of the key symptoms of mTBI, such as transient memory impairment, which is paralleled by an increase in serum biomarkers. Our findings suggest that serum biomarkers may be used to detect mTBI. The model provides a suitable foundation for further investigation of the underlying pathology of mTBI.

  4. Modulation of O-GlcNAc Levels in the Liver Impacts Acetaminophen-Induced Liver Injury by Affecting Protein Adduct Formation and Glutathione Synthesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGreal, Steven R; Bhushan, Bharat; Walesky, Chad; McGill, Mitchell R; Lebofsky, Margitta; Kandel, Sylvie E; Winefield, Robert D; Jaeschke, Hartmut; Zachara, Natasha E; Zhang, Zhen; Tan, Ee Phie; Slawson, Chad; Apte, Udayan

    2018-04-01

    Overdose of acetaminophen (APAP) results in acute liver failure. We have investigated the role of a posttranslational modification of proteins called O-GlcNAcylation, where the O-GlcNAc transferase (OGT) adds and O-GlcNAcase (OGA) removes a single β-D-N-acetylglucosamine (O-GlcNAc) moiety, in the pathogenesis of APAP-induced liver injury. Hepatocyte-specific OGT knockout mice (OGT KO), which have reduced O-GlcNAcylation, and wild-type (WT) controls were treated with 300 mg/kg APAP and the development of injury was studied over a time course from 0 to 24 h. OGT KO mice developed significantly lower liver injury as compared with WT mice. Hepatic CYP2E1 activity and glutathione (GSH) depletion following APAP treatment were not different between WT and OGT KO mice. However, replenishment of GSH and induction of GSH biosynthesis genes were significantly faster in the OGT KO mice. Next, male C57BL/6 J mice were treated Thiamet-G (TMG), a specific inhibitor of OGA to induce O-GlcNAcylation, 1.5 h after APAP administration and the development of liver injury was studied over a time course of 0-24 h. TMG-treated mice exhibited significantly higher APAP-induced liver injury. Treatment with TMG did not affect hepatic CYP2E1 levels, GSH depletion, APAP-protein adducts, and APAP-induced mitochondrial damage. However, GSH replenishment and GSH biosynthesis genes were lower in TMG-treated mice after APAP overdose. Taken together, these data indicate that induction in cellular O-GlcNAcylation exacerbates APAP-induced liver injury via dysregulation of hepatic GSH replenishment response.

  5. Beneficial effects of cod protein on inflammatory cell accumulation in rat skeletal muscle after injury are driven by its high levels of arginine, glycine, taurine and lysine.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Junio Dort

    Full Text Available We have shown that feeding cod protein, which is rich in anti-inflammatory arginine, glycine, and taurine, may beneficially modulate the inflammatory response during recovery following skeletal muscle injury; however it is unknown if these amino acids are responsible for this effect. This study was designed to assess whether supplementing casein with an amino acid mixture composed of arginine, glycine, taurine and lysine, matching their respective levels in cod protein, may account for the anti-inflammatory effect of cod protein. Male Wistar rats were fed isoenergetic diets containing either casein, cod protein, or casein supplemented with L-arginine (0.45%, glycine (0.43%, L-taurine (0.17% and L-lysine (0.44% (casein+. After 21 days of ad libitum feeding, one tibialis anterior muscle was injured with 200 µl bupivacaine while the saline-injected contra-lateral tibialis anterior was served as sham. Cod protein and casein+ similarly modulated the inflammation as they decreased COX-2 level at day 2 post-injury (cod protein, p=0.014; casein+, p=0.029 and ED1(+ macrophage density at days 2 (cod protein, p=0.012; casein+, p<0.0001, 5 (cod protein, p=0.001; casein+, p<0.0001 and 14 (cod protein, p<0.0001; casein+, p<0.0001 post-injury, and increased ED2(+ macrophage density at days 5 (cod protein, p<0.0001; casein+, p=0.006, 14 (cod protein, p=0.001; casein+, p<0.002 and 28 (cod protein, p<0.009; casein+, p<0.005 post-injury compared with casein. Furthermore, cod protein up-regulated (p=0.037 whereas casein+ tended to up-regulate (p=0.062 myogenin expression at day 5 post-injury compared with casein. In the cod protein-fed group, these changes resulted in greater muscle mass at days 14 (p=0.002, and 28 (p=0.001 post-injury and larger myofiber cross-sectional area at day 28 post-injury compared with casein (p=0.012. No such effects were observed with casein+. These data indicate that anti-inflammatory actions of cod protein, contrary to its effect on

  6. Herd-level risk factors for hock injuries in freestall-housed dairy cows in the northeastern United States and California.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barrientos, A K; Chapinal, N; Weary, D M; Galo, E; von Keyserlingk, M A G

    2013-06-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the associations between management and facility design factors and the prevalence of hock injuries in high-producing dairy cows in 76 freestall herds in the northeastern United States (NE-US; Vermont, New York, Pennsylvania) and California (CA). One group of high-production multiparous cows was monitored on each farm, and data on management, facility and stall design, and the conditions of the hocks were collected. Focal cows [n=38 ± 3 (mean ± standard deviation)] were evaluated for hock injuries using a 3-point scale (where 1=healthy and 3=evidently swollen or severe injury). Measures associated with the proportion (logit-transformed) of cows having injuries (score ≥ 2) or severe injuries (score=3) at the univariable level were submitted to multivariable general linear models. In NE-US, overall hock injuries increased with the percentage of stalls with fecal contamination [odds ratio (OR)=1.26; 95% confidence interval (CI)=1.02-1.54, for a 10% increase], and with the use of sawdust as bedding (OR=3.47; CI=1.14-10.62), and decreased with deep bedding (i.e., at least 10 cm depth of any type of bedding; OR=0.05; CI=0.02-0.14), use of sand as bedding (OR=0.06; CI=0.02-0.15), bedding dry matter (DM) ≥ 83.9% (OR=0.08; CI=0.03-0.20), and access to pasture during the dry period (OR=0.17; CI=0.05-0.53). When these variables were submitted to a multivariable model, the presence of deep bedding was the only factor that remained significant, explaining 54% of the variation in overall injuries. Severe hock injuries increased with the use of automatic scrapers (OR=2.29; CI=1.11-4.71) and the percentage of stalls with fecal contamination (OR=1.14; CI=1.00-1.31, for a 10% increase), and decreased with sand bedding (OR=0.22; CI=0.10-0.49), deep bedding (OR=0.24; CI=0.11-0.52), bedding DM ≥ 83.9% (OR=0.28; CI=0.14-0.58), and access to pasture during the dry period (OR=0.42; CI=0.18-0.97). The final multivariable model, which

  7. An Economic Order Quantity Model with Completely Backordering and Nondecreasing Demand under Two-Level Trade Credit

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zohreh Molamohamadi

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available In the traditional inventory system, it was implicitly assumed that the buyer pays to the seller as soon as he receives the items. In today’s competitive industry, however, the seller usually offers the buyer a delay period to settle the account of the goods. Not only the seller but also the buyer may apply trade credit as a strategic tool to stimulate his customers’ demands. This paper investigates the effects of the latter policy, two-level trade credit, on a retailer’s optimal ordering decisions within the economic order quantity framework and allowable shortages. Unlike most of the previous studies, the demand function of the customers is considered to increase with time. The objective of the retailer’s inventory model is to maximize the profit. The replenishment decisions optimally are obtained using genetic algorithm. Two special cases of the proposed model are discussed and the impacts of parameters on the decision variables are finally investigated. Numerical examples demonstrate the profitability of the developed two-level supply chain with backorder.

  8. Treatment, conditioning and packaging for final disposal of low and intermediate level waste from Cernavoda: a techno-economic assessment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Suryanarayan, S.; Husain, A. [Kinectrics Inc., Toronto, ON (Canada); Fellingham, L.; Nesbitt, V. [Nuvia Ltd., Didcot, Oxfordshire (United Kingdom); Toro, L. [Mate-fin, Bucharest (Romania); Simionov, V.; Dumitrescu, D. [Cernavoda Nuclear Power Plant, Cernavoda (Romania)

    2011-07-01

    National Nuclearelectrica Society (SNN) owns and operates two CANDU-6 plants at Cernavoda in Romania. Two additional units are expected to be built on the site in the future. Low and intermediate level short-lived radioactive wastes from Cernavoda are planned to be disposed off in a near-surface repository to be built at Saligny. The principal waste streams are IX resins, filters, compactable wastes, non-compactables, organic liquids and oil-solid mixtures. Their volumetric generation rates per reactor unit are estimated to be: IX resins (6 m{sup 3}/y), filters (2 m{sup 3}/y), compactables (23 m{sup 3}/y) and non-compactables (15 m{sup 3}/y). A techno-economic assessment of the available options for a facility to treat and condition Cernavoda's wastes for disposal was carried out in 2009 based on projected waste volumes from all four units. A large number of processes were first screened to identify viable options. They were further considered to develop overall processing options for each waste stream. These were then consolidated to obtain options for the entire plant by minimizing the number of unit operations required to process the various waste streams. A total of 9 plant options were developed for which detailed costing was undertaken. Based on a techno-economic assessment, two top ranking plant options were identified. Several scenarios were considered for implementing these options. Amongst them, a contractor run operation of a facility located on the Cernavoda site was considered to be more cost effective than operating the facility using SNN personnel. (author)

  9. Retrospective review of injury severity, interventions and outcomes among helicopter and nonhelicopter transport patients at a Level 1 urban trauma centre.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hannay, R Scott; Wyrzykowski, Amy D; Ball, Chad G; Laupland, Kevin; Feliciano, David V

    2014-02-01

    Air ambulance transport for injured patients is vitally important given increasing patient volumes, the limited number of trauma centres and inadequate subspecialty coverage in nontrauma hospitals. Air ambulance services have been shown to improve patient outcomes compared with ground transport in select circumstances. Our primary goal was to compare injuries, interventions and outcomes in patients transported by helicopter versus nonhelicopter transport. We performed a retrospective 10-year review of 14 440 patients transported to an urban Level 1 trauma centre by helicopter or by other means. We compared injury severity, interventions and mortality between the groups. Patients transported by helicopter had higher median injury severity scores (ISS), regardless of penetrating or blunt injury, and were more likely to have Glasgow Coma Scale scores less than 8, require airway control, receive blood transfusions and require admission to the intensive care unit or operating room than patients transported by other means. Helicopter transport was associated with reduced overall mortality (odds ratio 0.41, 95% confidence interval 0.33-0.39). Patients transported by other methods were more likely to die in the emergency department. The mean ISS, regardless of transport method, rose from 12.3 to 15.1 (p = 0.011) during our study period. Patients transported by helicopter to an urban trauma centre were more severely injured, required more interventions and had improved survival than those arriving by other means of transport.

  10. A fatal and unusual iatrogenic fourth right lumbar artery injury complicating wrong-level hemilaminectomy: a case report and literature review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ventura, Francesco; Barranco, Rosario; Bernabei, Carlo; Castelletti, Lara; Castellan, Lucio

    2017-07-07

    The authors describe an unusual case of a fatal iatrogenic fourth lumbar artery injury during left hemilaminectomy in a 38-year-old woman. At autopsy, gross inspection revealed hemoperitoneum with 1,800 ml of free blood and massive retroperitoneal extravasation. A laceration with irregular and jagged margins was detected on the wall of the fourth right lumbar artery. The autopsy and the post-mortem TC investigations demonstrated that wrong-level hemilaminectomy was performed for the herniated disc.

  11. Agro-Economic Optimization of Fertilizer Level and Rhizobium Strains for Enhanced Grain Yield in Mungbean (Vigna Radiata L.)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mansoor, M.; Elahi, M. E.; Islam, Z.; Ali, A.

    2016-01-01

    To explore the effect of PGPR for improvement in grain yield of mungbean, different levels of fertilizer (00:00, 20:50 and 20:70 kg N:P/sub 2/O/sub 5/ kg ha/sup -1/) were tested on four strains (CB 1015 Australia, Vm-L1, Vm-M1 and Vm-M2) at Agricultural Research Institute, Dera Ismail Khan. A Randomized Complete Block Design with split plot arrangement was used to conduct the experiment by keeping three fertilizer levels in the main plot and Rhizobium strains in sub-plot. The data were recorded for different parameters like number of branches plant/sup -1/, number of clusters plant/sup -1/, number of pods plant/sup -1/., number of grain pod/sup -1/, pod length (cm) and grain yield kg ha/sup -1/. The response of fertilizer levels and inoculation with Rhizobium strains were found significant in most of the parameters under study. The strain Vm-M1 produced the highest number of branches plant/sup -1/(5.42), number of clusters plant/sup -1/(22.92), number of pods plant/sup -1/(77.64), pod length (8.37 cm) when applied in combination of N:P/sub 2/O/sub 5/ at the rate of 20:70 and 20:50 kg ha/sup -1/. Although the grain yield (1421 kg ha/sup -1/) recorded in treatment (20:70 kg N:P/sub 2/O/sub 5/ ha/sup -1/ + Inoculation with strain Vm M1) was highest but economically the treatment (20:50 kg N:P/sub 2/O/sub 5/ ha/sup -1/ + inoculation with strain Vm M1) with net return of Rs. 13618 ha/sup -1/ and BCR of 2.52 was on top. (author)

  12. Bio-economic modelling to assess the impact of water pricing policies at the farm level in the Oum Zessar watershed, southern Tunisia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jeder, H.; Sghaier, M.; Louhchi, P.; Reidsma, P.

    2014-01-01

    For integrated assessment at farm level, the Farm System SIMulator model (FSSIM) was used. FSSIM is a bio-economic model developed for the European context, and was adapted and tested for Tunisian conditions to assess, ex-ante, impacts of water pricing policies at the farm level to the year 2015.

  13. Fresh-frozen plasma resuscitation after traumatic brain injury and shock attenuates extracellular nucleosome levels and deoxyribonuclease 1 depletion

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sillesen, Martin; Jin, Guang; Oklu, Rahmi

    2013-01-01

    Traumatic brain injury and shock are among the leading causes of trauma-related mortality. We have previously shown that fresh-frozen plasma (FFP) resuscitation reduces the size of brain lesion and associated swelling compared with crystalloids. We hypothesized that this effect would be associated...

  14. Alcohol consumption, blood alcohol concentration level and guideline compliance in hospital referred patients with minimal, mild and moderate head injuries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Harr, Marianne Efskind; Heskestad, Ben; Ingebrigtsen, Tor

    2011-01-01

    In 2000 the Scandinavian Neurotrauma Committee published guidelines for safe and cost-effective management of minimal, mild and moderate head injured patients.The aims of this study were to investigate to what extent the head injury population is under the influence of alcohol, and to evaluate...... whether the physicians' compliance to the guidelines is affected when patients are influenced by alcohol....

  15. The relationship of CSF and plasma cytokine levels to cerebral white matter injury in the premature newborn

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ellison, VJ; Mocatta, TJ; Winterbourn, CC; Darlow, BA; Volpe, JJ; Inder, TE

    Ischemia and systemic infection are implicated in the etiology of periventricular white matter injury, a major cause of adverse motor and cognitive outcome in preterm infants. Cytokines are signaling proteins that can be produced as part of the inflammatory response to both ischemia and infection.

  16. Risk factors for type 2 diabetes and cardiovascular disease in Mexican adults from different socio-economic levels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Valencia Juillerat, M.E.; Gallegos, A.C.; Ballesteros, M.N.

    2002-01-01

    Background: Obesity, type 2 diabetes and cardiovascular disease (CVD) are a major concern in many parts of the world. In Northern Mexico, these problems have been reported to be higher the in the rest of the country. Objective: To assess the different risk factors based on body status (body composition, body size, fat distribution) and lifestyle factors (diet and physical activity) for the development of type 2 diabetes and CVD in men and women from different socio-economic levels in north-west Mexico. Methods: Non probabilistic sample selection by invitation was used to recruit subjects, completing quotas by age groups, gender and socio-economic status. The study included 350 men and women, 20-84 years pertaining to low and high income groups from the city of Hermosillo, Sonora, Mexico. All subjects were measured for body weight, height, waist and hip circumferences, skinfolds, bioimpedance analysis (BIA), systolic and diastolic blood pressure SBP, DBP). Body mass index (BMI) and waist to hip ratio were calculated. An oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT) after a 12 hour fast was performed and blood samples were taken for analysis of insulin, leptin, total cholesterol, HDL, LDL-cholesterol and serum triglycerides. In 273 of the 350 subjects physical activity was studied by questionnaire. Activity was calculated as in categories of low, medium and high intensity and expressed as hours/day with respect to occupational and recreational activities. Physical activity level (PAL) was also calculated from the questionnaires. Body composition was investigated in more detail by air displacement plethysmography (densitometry) and by deuterium dilution in 200 subjects. Diet by 24 hour non-consecutive recalls in another sub-group of 135 male and female subjects. Statistical analysis was performed using NCSS statistical software using ANCOVA and regression procedures. Result: High levels of overweight (BMI >25) and obesity BMI>30) were found in this population group with 65 and

  17. A pilot study on temporal changes in IL-1β and TNF-α serum levels after spinal cord injury: the serum level of TNF-α in acute SCI patients as a possible marker for neurological remission.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biglari, B; Swing, T; Child, C; Büchler, A; Westhauser, F; Bruckner, T; Ferbert, T; Jürgen Gerner, H; Moghaddam, A

    2015-07-01

    Serum levels of interleukin-1β (IL-1β) and tumour necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) were measured over a 12-week period in 23 patients with spinal cord injury (SCI) with and without neurological improvement. To determine the course of IL-1β and TNF-α in patients with SCI and observe a possible relationship between improvements in neurological functioning and cytokine levels. All patients were treated at the BG Trauma Centre, Ludwigshafen, Germany. All lab work was done at the University Hospital, Heidelberg. Spinal cord injury was classified according to the American Spinal Injury Association (ASIA) impairment scale (AIS) in 23 patients. TNF-α and IL-1β levels were measured upon arrival at the hospital, after 4 h, 9 h and 12 h, on days 1 and 3 and at the end of weeks 1, 2, 4, 8 and 12. Temporal changes in TNF-α and IL-1β in SCI patients were seen. Patients with AIS improvement (Group 1) had significantly lower TNF-α levels at 9 h compared with patients without AIS improvement (Group 2; PSCI. Our data show differences in measured cytokines over a 12-week period for SCI patients with and without neurological improvement.

  18. Spinal Cord Injury 101

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... the spinal cord work? play_arrow Why is the level of a spinal cord injury important? play_arrow What role does “compression” play in a spinal cord injury? play_arrow Why are high-dose steroids often used right after an injury? play_arrow What is meant ...

  19. Spinal Cord Injury 101

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Cord Injury Allen Heinemann, PhD How Peer Counseling Works Julie Gassaway, MS, RN Pediatric Injuries Pediatric Spinal ... injury? play_arrow How does the spinal cord work? play_arrow Why is the level of a ...

  20. Injury prevention in football

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    other sports,[1,2] and youth football players are no exception to this. ... at risk of sports injury because of high levels of exposure at a time of major physiological change.[4] The ..... As part of injury prevention, adequate injury management and.

  1. Spinal Cord Injury 101

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Abuse and Spinal Cord Injury Allen Heinemann, PhD How Peer Counseling Works Julie Gassaway, MS, RN Pediatric Injuries Pediatric Spinal ... What is a spinal cord injury? play_arrow How does the spinal cord work? play_arrow Why is the level of a ...

  2. Declining trend in the use of repeat computed tomography for trauma patients admitted to a level I trauma center for traffic-related injuries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Psoter, Kevin J., E-mail: kevinp2@u.washington.edu [Department of Epidemiology, University of Washington, Box 357236, Seattle, WA 98195 (United States); Roudsari, Bahman S., E-mail: roudsari@u.washington.edu [Department of Radiology, Comparative Effectiveness, Cost and Outcomes Research Center, University of Washington, 325 Ninth Avenue, Box 359960, Seattle, WA 98104 (United States); Graves, Janessa M., E-mail: janessa@u.washington.edu [Department of Pediatrics, Harborview Injury Prevention and Research Center, University of Washington, 325 Ninth Avenue, Box 359960, Seattle, WA 98104 (United States); Mack, Christopher, E-mail: cdmack@uw.edu [Harborview Injury Prevention and Research Center, University of Washington, 325 Ninth Avenue, Box 359960, Seattle, WA 98104 (United States); Jarvik, Jeffrey G., E-mail: jarvikj@u.washington.edu [Department of Radiology and Department of Neurological Surgery, Comparative Effectiveness, Cost and Outcomes Research Center, University of Washington, 325 Ninth Avenue, Box 359960, Seattle, WA 98104 (United States)

    2013-06-15

    Objective: To evaluate the trend in utilization of repeat (i.e. ≥2) computed tomography (CT) and to compare utilization patterns across body regions for trauma patients admitted to a level I trauma center for traffic-related injuries (TRI). Materials and Methods: We linked the Harborview Medical Center trauma registry (1996–2010) to the billing department data. We extracted the following variables: type and frequency of CTs performed, age, gender, race/ethnicity, insurance status, injury mechanism and severity, length of hospitalization, intensive care unit (ICU) admission and final disposition. TRIs were defined as motor vehicle collisions, motorcycle, bicycle and pedestrian-related injuries. Logistic regression was used to evaluate the association between utilization of different body region repeat (i.e. ≥2) CTs and year of admission, adjusting for patient and injury-related characteristics that could influence utilization patterns. Results: A total of 28,431 patients were admitted for TRIs over the study period and 9499 (33%) received repeat CTs. From 1996 to 2010, the proportion of patients receiving repeat CTs decreased by 33%. Relative to 2000 and adjusting for other covariates, patients with TRIs admitted in 2010 had significantly lower odds of undergoing repeat head (OR = 0.61; 95% CI: 0.49–0.76), pelvis (OR = 0.37; 95% CI: 0.27–0.52), cervical spine (OR = 0.23; 95% CI: 0.12–0.43), and maxillofacial CTs (OR = 0.24; 95% CI: 0.10–0.57). However, they had higher odds of receiving repeat thoracic CTs (OR = 1.86; 95% CI: 1.02–3.38). Conclusion: A significant decrease in the utilization of repeat CTs was observed in trauma patients presenting with traffic-related injuries over a 15-year period.

  3. Economic and environmental impacts from the implementation of an intelligent demand side management system at the European level

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Papagiannis, G.; Dagoumas, A.; Lettas, N.; Dokopoulos, P.

    2008-01-01

    This paper presents the results of an analysis on the economic and environmental impacts of the application of an intelligent demand side management system, called the Energy Consumption Management System (ECMS), in the European countries. The ECMS can be applied for the control of individual, widely distributed electric loads, using the power distribution network as the command communication channel. The system can be applied in public lighting, in the tertiary and residential sectors, as well as in the industry. A top-down analysis investigates the possible penetration levels in each application area. The long-term impacts following the application of system are evaluated using the LEAP2006 platform. The WASP IV model is also used for the optimization of the power generation expansion and the corresponding calibration of LEAP2006. Several operational strategies combining variable market penetration of the ECMS and expected energy savings are examined. Results show that, under a logical market penetration, a reduction of 1-4% in primary energy, of 1.5-5% in CO 2 emissions and a 2-8% saving in investment costs for power generation expansion is to be expected for the EU-15. The results also justify that innovative devices may be attractive to end users and also help in the implementation of global energy-saving policies

  4. [Occupational injury, a public health priority].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benavides, Fernando G; Delclos, Jordi; Benach, Joan; Serra, Consol

    2006-01-01

    The aim of this review is to stimulate new ideas and actions for the prevention of this important public health problem. In 2002 and 2003, respectively, the number of non-fatal occupational injuries was 971,406 and 906,638. Thus, every day in Spain there are more than 2500 non-fatal and between 2 and 3 fatal occupational injuries. Although the profile of the at-risk worker population has changed greatly over the past decade, both quantitatively and qualitatively, the risk of occupational injury still centers on blue collar workers, whether qualified or nonqualified, in the primary and secondary sectors of economic activity. The most common mechanisms of occupational injuries are overexertion for non-fatal injuries and traffic-related for fatal events. The adverse health consequences of new types of employment, which emphasize flexibility and deregulation of the labour market, are exemplified by the association between temporary employment and increased risk of occupational injury. New injury prevention programs have emerged in the last decade, but they appear to have had limited impact. Preventive activities should focus both on working conditions at the company level (micro) as well as on employment and industrial public policies (macro). Greater evaluation is needed of these latter policies.

  5. Clinical significance of changes of serum IL-6 and TNF-α levels in rat models of hypoxic-ischemia brain injury

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Niu Tingxian; Shi Zhiyong; Luo Jianjun

    2009-01-01

    Objective: To explore the clinical significance of changes of serum interleukin-6 (IL-6) and tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α) levels in rat models of hypoxic-ischemia (HI) brain injury. Methods: Seventy five rat HI brain injury nodels were prepared with bilateral occlusion of common carotid artery for 24rs followed 2hrs later by hypoxia (breathing 8% oxygen) for 2hrs. One fifth of the animals were sacrificed at 4h, 8h, 12h, 24h and 48h later respectively, the serum and brain homogenate concentrations of IL-6 and TNF-α were determined with RIA and brain tissues were pathologically examined. Results: The concentrations of IL-6 and TNF-α were dynamically changed within 48h in serum and brain homogenate. Peak values occurred at 24h with serum and at 12h with brain homogenate. Meanwhile, levels of both cytokines were significantly higher in the models than those in controls (P<0.01 or P<0.05). Conclusion: The concentrations of IL-6 and TNF-α were dynamically(sham operation only, 15 animals) changed and might be regarded as the clinical markers of degree of HI brain injury. (authors)

  6. Effect of ambient-level gas-phase peroxides on foliar injury, growth, and net photosynthesis in Japanese radish (Raphanus sativus)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chen Xuan, E-mail: xuan66chen@yahoo.co.j [Chinese Research Academy of Environmental Science, No.8, Dayangfang, Anwai, Chaoyang District, Beijing 100012 (China); Aoki, Masatoshi [Faculty of Agriculture, Tokyo University of Agriculture and Technology, Saiwaicho 3-5-8, Fuchu-shi, Tokyo 183-8509 (Japan); Takami, Akinori [National Institute for Environmental Studies, Onogawa 16-2, Tsukuba-shi, Ibaraki 305-8506 (Japan); Chai Fahe [Chinese Research Academy of Environmental Science, No.8, Dayangfang, Anwai, Chaoyang District, Beijing 100012 (China); Hatakeyama, Shiro [Faculty of Agriculture, Tokyo University of Agriculture and Technology, Saiwaicho 3-5-8, Fuchu-shi, Tokyo 183-8509 (Japan)

    2010-05-15

    To investigate the effects of ambient-level gas-phase peroxides concurrent with O{sub 3} on foliar injury, photosynthesis, and biomass in herbaceous plants, we exposed Japanese radish (Raphanus sativus) to clean air, 50 ppb O{sub 3}, 100 ppb O{sub 3}, and 2-3 ppb peroxides + 50 ppb O{sub 3} in outdoor chambers. Compared with exposure to 100 ppb O{sub 3}, exposure to 2-3 ppb peroxides + 50 ppb O{sub 3} induced greater damage in foliar injury, net photosynthetic rates and biomass; the pattern of foliar injury and the cause of net photosynthetic rate reduction also differed from those occurring with O{sub 3} exposure alone. These results indicate for the first time that sub-ppb peroxides + 50 ppb O{sub 3} can cause more severe damage to plants than 100 ppb O{sub 3}, and that not only O{sub 3}, but also peroxides, could be contributing to the herbaceous plant damage and forest decline observed in Japan's air-polluted urban and remote mountains areas. - Ambient-level gas-phase peroxides coexisted with 50 ppb O{sub 3} may contribute to the herbaceous plants damage and forest decline observed in Japan.

  7. Blunt gastric injuries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oncel, Didem; Malinoski, Darren; Brown, Carlos; Demetriades, Demetrios; Salim, Ali

    2007-09-01

    Gastric rupture after blunt abdominal trauma is a rare injury with few reports in the literature. The purpose of this study was to review our experience with blunt gastric injuries and compare outcomes with small bowel or colon injuries. All patients with hollow viscus perforations after blunt abdominal trauma from 1992 to 2005 at our level I trauma center were reviewed. Of 35,033 blunt trauma admissions, there were 268 (0.7%) patients with a total of 319 perforating hollow viscus injuries, 25 (0.07%) of which were blunt gastric injuries. When compared with the small bowel or colon injuries, the blunt gastric injury group had a higher Injury Severity Score (22 versus 17, P = 0.04), more patients with a chest Abbreviated Injury Score greater than 2 (36% versus 12%, P < 0.01), and a shorter interval from injury to laparotomy (221 versus 366 minutes, P = 0.017). Multivariate analysis identified five independent risk factors for mortality: age older than 55 years, head Abbreviated Injury Score greater than 2, chest Abbreviated Injury Score greater than 2, the presence of hypotension on admission, and Glasgow Coma Scale 8 or less. The results of this study suggest that mortality in patients with blunt hollow viscus injuries can be attributed to concurrent head and chest injuries, but not the specific hollow viscus organ that is injured.

  8. Social and economic characteristics of street youth by gender and level of street involvement in Eldoret, Kenya.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rebecca Sorber

    Full Text Available Street-connected youth are a neglected and vulnerable population, particularly in resource-constrained settings. The development of interventions and supports for this population requires insight into how they live. This study describes the social and economic characteristics of a convenience sample of street youth (SY in Eldoret, Kenya.Participants were eligible if they were aged 12-21, living in Eldoret, spending days only (part-time, or nights and days on the street (full-time and able and willing to consent or assent. Data were collected using a standardized interview conducted in English or Kiswahili. Binary dependent variables were having been arrested and/or jailed, and first priority for spending money (food vs. other. Nominal categorical dependent variables included major source of support, and major reason for being street-involved. Multivariable analysis used logistic regression models to examine the association of gender and level of street-involvement with social and economic factors of interest adjusting for age and length of time on the street. Data were analyzed using SAS 9.3.Of the 200 SY enrolled, 41% were female, mean age of 16.3 years; 71% were on the street full-time, and 29% part-time. Compared with part-time SY, full-time SY were more likely to have been arrested (Adjusted Odds Ratio [AOR]: 2.33, 95% Confidence Interval [95%CI]:1.01-5.35, name food as their first spending priority (AOR: 2.57, 95%CI:1.03-6.45, have left home due to violence (AOR: 5.54, 95%CI: 1.67-18.34, and more likely to report friends on the street as a major source of support (AOR: 3.59, 95% CI: 1.01-12.82. Compared with females, males were more likely to have ever been arrested (AOR: 2.66, 95%CI:1.14-6.18, and to have ever been jailed (AOR: 3.22, 95%CI:1.47-7.02.These results suggest a high degree of heterogeneity and vulnerability among SY in this setting. There is an urgent need for interventions taking into consideration these characteristics.

  9. The Modeling of the Processes of Assessment and Analysis of the Level of Socio-Ecological-Economic Development of a Region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pilko Andriy D.

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available There presented results of the research of existing scientific and methodological, and theoretical approaches to management of the socio-ecological-economic development of a region with subsequent definition of priorities of the regional policy taking into account the concepts of security and development. Based on the study of literature sources and the analysis of the available statistical base, the problem of assessing the level of social, economic, ecological development, the level of sustainable development and the degree of harmonization of sustainable development of territorial systems of a region is formulated, and a possible method of its solution is suggested. The direction and nature of the cause-effect relationships between social tension and the levels of economic, environmental, social development and the level of sustainable development of a region are determined. There proposed a scheme to build models for assessing the effectiveness of levers for managing social, economic and environmental processes at the level of territorial systems in a region, taking into account the level of social tension and indicators of the investment component of development.

  10. Prediction of isometric motor tasks and effort levels based on high-density EMG in patients with incomplete spinal cord injury

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jordanić, Mislav; Rojas-Martínez, Mónica; Mañanas, Miguel Angel; Francesc Alonso, Joan

    2016-08-01

    Objective. The development of modern assistive and rehabilitation devices requires reliable and easy-to-use methods to extract neural information for control of devices. Group-specific pattern recognition identifiers are influenced by inter-subject variability. Based on high-density EMG (HD-EMG) maps, our research group has already shown that inter-subject muscle activation patterns exist in a population of healthy subjects. The aim of this paper is to analyze muscle activation patterns associated with four tasks (flexion/extension of the elbow, and supination/pronation of the forearm) at three different effort levels in a group of patients with incomplete Spinal Cord Injury (iSCI). Approach. Muscle activation patterns were evaluated by the automatic identification of these four isometric tasks along with the identification of levels of voluntary contractions. Two types of classifiers were considered in the identification: linear discriminant analysis and support vector machine. Main results. Results show that performance of classification increases when combining features extracted from intensity and spatial information of HD-EMG maps (accuracy = 97.5%). Moreover, when compared to a population with injuries at different levels, a lower variability between activation maps was obtained within a group of patients with similar injury suggesting stronger task-specific and effort-level-specific co-activation patterns, which enable better prediction results. Significance. Despite the challenge of identifying both the four tasks and the three effort levels in patients with iSCI, promising results were obtained which support the use of HD-EMG features for providing useful information regarding motion and force intention.

  11. Risk factors for type 2 diabetes and cardiovascular disease in Mexican adults from different socio-economic levels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Valencia Juillerat, M E; Gallegos, A C; Ballesteros, M N [Centro de Investigacion en Alimentacion y Desarrollo, Sonora (Mexico); and others

    2002-07-01

    Background: Obesity, type 2 diabetes and cardiovascular disease (CVD) are a major concern in many parts of the world. In Northern Mexico, these problems have been reported to be higher the in the rest of the country. Objective: To assess the different risk factors based on body status (body composition, body size, fat distribution) and lifestyle factors (diet and physical activity) for the development of type 2 diabetes and CVD in men and women from different socio-economic levels in north-west Mexico. Methods: Non probabilistic sample selection by invitation was used to recruit subjects, completing quotas by age groups, gender and socio-economic status. The study included 350 men and women, 20-84 years pertaining to low and high income groups from the city of Hermosillo, Sonora, Mexico. All subjects were measured for body weight, height, waist and hip circumferences, skinfolds, bioimpedance analysis (BIA), systolic and diastolic blood pressure SBP, DBP). Body mass index (BMI) and waist to hip ratio were calculated. An oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT) after a 12 hour fast was performed and blood samples were taken for analysis of insulin, leptin, total cholesterol, HDL, LDL-cholesterol and serum triglycerides. In 273 of the 350 subjects physical activity was studied by questionnaire. Activity was calculated as in categories of low, medium and high intensity and expressed as hours/day with respect to occupational and recreational activities. Physical activity level (PAL) was also calculated from the questionnaires. Body composition was investigated in more detail by air displacement plethysmography (densitometry) and by deuterium dilution in 200 subjects. Diet by 24 hour non-consecutive recalls in another sub-group of 135 male and female subjects. Statistical analysis was performed using NCSS statistical software using ANCOVA and regression procedures. Result: High levels of overweight (BMI >25) and obesity BMI>30) were found in this population group with 65 and

  12. Adolescent and Young Adult Injuries in Developing Economies: A Comparative Analysis from Oman and Kenya.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bachani, Abdulgafoor M; Taber, Niloufer; Mehmood, Amber; Hung, Yuen Wai; Botchey, Isaac; Al-Kashmiri, Ammar; Hyder, Adnan A

    Adolescence is a distinct period of rapid and dramatic biological, cognitive, psychological, and social development. The burden of injuries among young people (aged 10-24) is both substantial and maldistributed across regions and levels of economic development. Our objective was to compare sociodemographic correlates of injury cause, intentionality, and mortality between Kenya and Oman, 2 countries with different levels of economic development and position in the demographic and epidemiologic transitions. Data on 566 patients in Oman and 5859 in Kenya between 10 and 24 years old were extracted from 2 separate multicenter trauma registries. Multivariable log binomial and Poisson regressions were used to evaluate social and demographic factors associated with injury cause, intentionality, and mortality. Literature on adolescent development was used to parameterize variables, and Akaike information criteria were used in the final model selections. The trauma registry data indicated a substantial burden of adolescent and young adult injury in both Oman and Kenya, particularly among males. The data indicated significant differences between countries (P < .001) in age category, gender distributions, level of education, occupation, cause of injury, and place where injury occurred. Consistent with other literature, road traffic injuries emerged as the most common type of injury as well as the most severe and fatal, with interpersonal violence also resulting in severe injury across contexts. Both road traffic injuries and interpersonal violence were more common among older adolescents and young adults. Education and being in school were protective against injury, after controlling for gender, age category, occupation, and country. A rising burden of injuries among young people has been documented in every region of the world, irrespective on income status or level of development. Cost-effective injury control measures targeting this age group exist, including involvement

  13. How sea level rise and storm climate impact the looming morpho-economic bubble in coastal property value.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McNamara, D.; Keeler, A.; Smith, M.; Gopalakrishnan, S.; Murray, A.

    2012-12-01

    In the United States, the coastal region is now the most densely populated zone in the country and as a result has become a significant source of tax revenue and has some of the highest property values in the country. The loss of land at the coastline from erosion and damage to property from storms has always been a source of vulnerability to coastal economies. To manage this vulnerability, humans have long engaged in the act of nourishing the coastline - placing sand, typically from offshore sources, onto the beach to widen the beach and increase the height of dunes. As humans alter natural coastal dynamics by nourishing, the altered natural dynamics then influence future beach management decisions. In this way human-occupied coastlines are a strongly coupled dynamical system and because of this coupling, the act of nourishment has become an intrinsic part of the economic value of a coastline. Predictions of increased rates of sea level rise and changing storminess suggest that coastal vulnerability is likely to increase. The evolving vulnerability of the coast has already caused changes to occur in the way humans manage the coastline. For example, the federal government has recently reduced subsidies to help coastal communities nourish their beaches. With a future of changing environmental forcing from sea level and storms, the prospect of changes in nourishment cost could have profound consequences on coastal value and sustainability. We utilize two modeling approaches to investigate how disappearing nourishment subsidies reduce coastal property value and to explore the potential for a bubble and subsequent crash in coastal property value as subsidies dwindle and vulnerability rises. The first model is an optimal control model that couples a cost benefit analysis to coastline dynamics. In the second model, we couple a numerical coastline model with an agent-based model for real estate markets. Results from both models suggest the total present value of coastal

  14. Micro-level economic factors and incentives in Children’s energy balance related behaviours - findings from the ENERGY European cross-section questionnaire survey

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Jørgen Dejgård; Bere, Elling; De Bourdeaudhuij, Ilse

    2012-01-01

    Background: To date, most research on obesogenic environments facing school children has focused on physical and socio-cultural environments. The role of economic factors has been investigated to a much lesser extent. Our objective was to explore the association of micro-level economic factors...... considerations in decisions regarding children’s sports activities, soft drink consumption, home practices and rules and socio-demographic background variables. Data were analysed using multiple linear regression and discrete-choice (ordered probit) modelling. Results: Economic factors were found...... pocket money, but a majority of parents doid not expect higher soft drink prices to reduce their children’s soft drink consumption. Conclusions: We conclude that economic factors, especially parents’ financial support and amount of pocket money, appear to be of importance for children’s sports...

  15. Prevalence of traumatic dental injuries and associated factors ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Additionally, the relationship between traumatic dental injuries, parents' education level, family income, size of incisal overjet and the presence of anterior open bite were examined. Materials and Methods: Data were collected through oral examinations and structured interviews, and included socio-economic indicators.

  16. A dwelling-level investigation into the physical and socio-economic drivers of domestic energy consumption in England

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wyatt, Peter

    2013-01-01

    The UK Government's Department for Energy and Climate Change has been investigating the feasibility of developing a national energy efficiency data framework covering both domestic and non-domestic buildings. Working closely with the Energy Saving Trust and energy suppliers, the aim is to develop a data framework to monitor changes in energy efficiency, develop and evaluate programmes and improve information available to consumers. Key applications of the framework are to understand trends in built stock energy use, identify drivers and evaluate the success of different policies. For energy suppliers, it could identify what energy uses are growing, in which sectors and why. This would help with market segmentation and the design of products. For building professionals, it could supplement energy audits and modelling of end-use consumption with real data and support the generation of accurate and comprehensive benchmarks. This paper critically examines the results of the first phase of work to construct a national energy efficiency data-framework for the domestic sector focusing on two specific issues: (a) drivers of domestic energy consumption in terms of the physical nature of the dwellings and socio-economic characteristics of occupants and (b) the impact of energy efficiency measures on energy consumption. - Highlights: • We examine the drivers of domestic energy consumption. • We examine the impact of domestic energy efficiency measures on energy use. • Dwelling type and size affect electricity and gas consumption. • Income level, tenure and number of resident adults influence energy use. • Energy efficiency measures lead to significant energy savings for households

  17. Economic Impacts from PM2.5 Pollution-Related Health Effects in China: A Provincial-Level Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xie, Yang; Dai, Hancheng; Dong, Huijuan; Hanaoka, Tatsuya; Masui, Toshihiko

    2016-05-03

    This study evaluates the PM2.5